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Sample records for ni cabbage looper

  1. Plant growth regulator-mediated anti-herbivore responses of cabbage (Brassica oleracea) against cabbage looper Trichoplusia ni Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Ian M; Samara, R; Renaud, J B; Sumarah, M W

    2017-09-01

    Plant elicitors can be biological or chemical-derived stimulators of jasmonic acid (JA) or salicylic acid (SA) pathways shown to prime the defenses in many crops. Examples of chemical elicitors of the JA and SA pathways include methyl-jasmonate and 1,2,3-benzothiadiazole-7-carbothioate (BTH or the commercial plant activator Actigard 50WG, respectively). The use of specific elicitors has been observed to affect the normal interaction between JA and SA pathways causing one to be upregulated and the other to be suppressed, often, but not always, at the expense of the plant's herbivore or pathogen defenses. The objective of this study was to determine whether insects feeding on Brassica crops might be negatively affected by SA inducible defenses combined with an inhibitor of detoxification and anti-oxidant enzymes that regulate the insect response to the plant's defenses. The relative growth rate of cabbage looper Trichoplusia ni Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fed induced cabbage Brassica oleraceae leaves with the inhibitor, quercetin, was significantly less than those fed control cabbage with and without the inhibitor. The reduced growth was related to the reduction of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) by the combination of quercetin and increased levels of indole glucosinolates in the cabbage treated with BTH at 2.6× the recommended application rate. These findings may offer a novel combination of elicitor and synergist that can provide protection from plant disease and herbivores in cabbage and other Brassica crops. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Behavioral and physiological responses of cabbage looper,Trichoplusia ni (Hübner), to steam distillates from resistant versus susceptible soybean plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Z R; Ciepiela, A; Norris, D M

    1987-08-01

    Soybean plant volatiles, extracted as steam distillates, significantly affected the behavior and biology of the cabbage looper,Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Distillates from the susceptible Davis variety attractedT. ni larvae and female adults, whereas those from resistant PI 227687 plants repelled them. When mixed in an artificial diet, steam distillates from PI 227687 plants caused mortality of first-instar larvae. Adults emerging from pupae topically treated with 5 μg of such PI 227687 extractable showed developmental abnormalities. Larval feeding was significantly less on Davis leaves treated with PI 227687 volatiles as compared to solvent (acetone) or such Davis extractables. However, Davis volatiles on PI 227687 leaves did not increase larval feeding. HPLC analyses of steam distillates from susceptible Davis versus resistant PI 227687 indicated differences.

  3. Substantial Mortality of Cabbage Looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) From Predators in Urban Agriculture Is not Influenced by Scale of Production or Variation in Local and Landscape-Level Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, David M; Gharehaghaji, Maryam; Wise, David H

    2017-02-01

    As Midwestern (United States) cities experience population decline, there is growing interest in converting underutilized vacant spaces to agricultural production. Urban agriculture varies in area and scope, yet most growers use similar cultivation practices such as avoiding chemical control of crop pests. For community gardens and farms that sell produce commercially, effective pest suppression by natural enemies is important for both societal, economic, and marketing reasons. To gauge the amount of prey suppression at 28 urban food-production sites, we measured removal of sentinel eggs and larvae of the cabbage looper Trichoplusia ni (Hubner), a caterpillar pest that defoliates Brassica. We investigated how landscape and local factors, such as scale of production, influence cabbage looper mortality caused by predators. Predators removed 50% of eggs and 25% of larvae over a 3-d period. Landscape factors did not predict mortality rates, and the amount of loss and damage to sentinel prey were similar across sites that differed in scale (residential gardens, community gardens, and farms). To confirm that removal of sentinel items was likely caused by natural enemies, we set up a laboratory assay that measured predation of cabbage looper eggs and larvae by several predators occurring in urban gardens. Lady beetles caused the highest mortality rates, suggesting their potential value for biocontrol; spiders and pirate bugs also consumed both eggs and larvae at high rates. Our results suggest that urban growers benefit from high consumption rates of cabbage looper eggs and larvae by arthropod predators. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Genetic and Cytogenetic Basis of Radiation-Induced Sterility in the Adult Male Cabbage Looper Trichoplusia Ni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    North, D. T.; Holt, G. G. [Metabolism and Radiation Research Laboratory, Entomology Research Division, ARS, United States Department of Agriculture, Fargo, ND (United States)

    1968-06-15

    The relationship of egg hatch as a function of radiation dose is of a two-hit nature when irradiated adult males are mated to non-irradiated virgin females. Sterility as a function of dose is usually linear in insects. However, other species of moths respond similarly to irradiation, so it is indicative that the mechanism involved in producing sterility in Lepidoptera is basically different from that in other insects. The significance of the two-hit kinetics is discussed in relation to the chromosome structure and possible mechanisms for the induction of sterility in Lepidoptera. Many workers using Lepidoptera have reported that females mated to irradiated males oviposit substantially fewer eggs than normally. This response has been correlated to a lack of sperm transfer by irradiated males, even though they pass a spermatophore. The phenomenon is dose-dependent. Although Lepidoptera are far more radioresistant than other insect species when measured by the induction of sterility in the male, there appears to be very little difference when longevity is used as the criterion. The radiation dose required to reduce the lifespan of a newly emerged cabbage looper male by 50% was found to be approximately the same as that for the house fly. High doses of radiation have no immediate effect on the mating behaviour of the irradiated male. With a recessive eye-colour mutant as a sperm marker, it was determined in tests utilizing double matings that the second mating is the effective mating. Sperm mixing is not prevalent; rather it appears to be a 'sperm flushing' phenomenon in that sperm from the first mating are displaced by sperm from the second mating. Radiation studies with the cabbage looper have demonstrated that the progeny of a cross where the male parent receives a sub-sterilizing dose of gamma radiation are often semi-sterile when mated to non-irradiated individuals. The amount of inherited sterility is directly dependent on the amount of radiation given the

  5. Metabolism of citral, the major constituent of lemongrass oil, in the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, and effects of enzyme inhibitors on toxicity and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Jun-Hyung; Isman, Murray B

    2016-10-01

    Although screening for new and reliable sources of botanical insecticides remains important, finding ways to improve the efficacy of those already in use through better understanding of their modes-of-action or metabolic pathways, or by improving formulations, deserves greater attention as the latter may present lesser regulation hurdles. Metabolic processing of citral (a combination of the stereoisomers geranial and neral), a main constituent of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil has not been previously examined in insects. To address this, we investigated insecticidal activities of lemongrass oil and citral, as well as the metabolism of citral in larvae of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, in associations with well-known enzyme inhibitors. Among the inhibitors tested, piperonyl butoxide showed the highest increase in toxicity followed by triphenyl phosphate, but no synergistic interaction between the inhibitors was observed. Topical application of citral to fifth instar larvae produced mild reductions in food consumption, and frass analysis after 24h revealed geranic acid (99.7%) and neric acid (98.8%) as major metabolites of citral. Neither citral nor any other metabolites were found following in vivo analysis of larvae after 24h, and no significant effect of enzyme inhibitors was observed on diet consumption or citral metabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Implementing reduced-risk integrated pest management in fresh-market cabbage: influence of sampling parameters, and validation of binomial sequential sampling plans for the cabbage looper (Lepidoptera Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkness, Eric C; Hutchison, W D

    2009-10-01

    Populations of cabbage looper, Trichoplusiani (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), were sampled in experimental plots and commercial fields of cabbage (Brasicca spp.) in Minnesota during 1998-1999 as part of a larger effort to implement an integrated pest management program. Using a resampling approach and the Wald's sequential probability ratio test, sampling plans with different sampling parameters were evaluated using independent presence/absence and enumerative data. Evaluations and comparisons of the different sampling plans were made based on the operating characteristic and average sample number functions generated for each plan and through the use of a decision probability matrix. Values for upper and lower decision boundaries, sequential error rates (alpha, beta), and tally threshold were modified to determine parameter influence on the operating characteristic and average sample number functions. The following parameters resulted in the most desirable operating characteristic and average sample number functions; action threshold of 0.1 proportion of plants infested, tally threshold of 1, alpha = beta = 0.1, upper boundary of 0.15, lower boundary of 0.05, and resampling with replacement. We found that sampling parameters can be modified and evaluated using resampling software to achieve desirable operating characteristic and average sample number functions. Moreover, management of T. ni by using binomial sequential sampling should provide a good balance between cost and reliability by minimizing sample size and maintaining a high level of correct decisions (>95%) to treat or not treat.

  7. Turmeric powder and its derivatives from Curcuma longa rhizomes: Insecticidal effects on cabbage looper and the role of synergists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Tavares, Wagner; Akhtar, Yasmin; Gonçalves, Gabriel Luiz Padoan; Zanuncio, José Cola; Isman, Murray B

    2016-11-02

    Curcuma longa has well-known insecticidal and repellent effects on insect pests, but its impact on Trichoplusia ni is unknown. In this study, the compound ar-turmerone, extracted and purified from C. longa rhizomes, was identified, and its insecticidal effects, along with turmeric powder, curcuminoid pigments and crude essential oil were evaluated against this important agricultural pest. The role of natural (sesamol and piperonal) and synthetic [piperonyl butoxide (PBO)] synergists under laboratory and greenhouse conditions were also evaluated. The concentration of ar-turmerone in C. longa rhizomes harvested was 0.32% (dwt). Turmeric powder and its derivatives caused 10-20% mortality in third instar T. ni at a very low dose (10 μg/larva). Addition of PBO increased toxicity of turmeric powder and its derivatives (90-97% mortality) in most binary combinations (5 μg of turmeric powder or its derivatives +5 μg of PBO), but neither piperonal nor sesamol were active as synergists. The compound ar-turmerone alone and the combination with PBO reduced larval weight on treated Brassica oleracea in the laboratory and in greenhouse experiments, compared with the negative control. The compound ar-turmerone could be used as a low cost botanical insecticide for integrated management of cabbage looper in vegetable production.

  8. Turmeric powder and its derivatives from Curcuma longa rhizomes: Insecticidal effects on cabbage looper and the role of synergists

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Tavares, Wagner; Akhtar, Yasmin; Gonçalves, Gabriel Luiz Padoan; Zanuncio, José Cola; Isman, Murray B.

    2016-01-01

    Curcuma longa has well-known insecticidal and repellent effects on insect pests, but its impact on Trichoplusia ni is unknown. In this study, the compound ar-turmerone, extracted and purified from C. longa rhizomes, was identified, and its insecticidal effects, along with turmeric powder, curcuminoid pigments and crude essential oil were evaluated against this important agricultural pest. The role of natural (sesamol and piperonal) and synthetic [piperonyl butoxide (PBO)] synergists under laboratory and greenhouse conditions were also evaluated. The concentration of ar-turmerone in C. longa rhizomes harvested was 0.32% (dwt). Turmeric powder and its derivatives caused 10–20% mortality in third instar T. ni at a very low dose (10 μg/larva). Addition of PBO increased toxicity of turmeric powder and its derivatives (90–97% mortality) in most binary combinations (5 μg of turmeric powder or its derivatives +5 μg of PBO), but neither piperonal nor sesamol were active as synergists. The compound ar-turmerone alone and the combination with PBO reduced larval weight on treated Brassica oleracea in the laboratory and in greenhouse experiments, compared with the negative control. The compound ar-turmerone could be used as a low cost botanical insecticide for integrated management of cabbage looper in vegetable production. PMID:27804972

  9. Bacterial feeding induces changes in immune-related gene expression and has trans-generational impacts in the cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogel Heiko

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poly- and oligophagous insects are able to feed on various host plants with a wide range of defense strategies. However, diverse food plants are also inhabited by microbiota differing in quality and quantity, posing a potential challenge for immune system mediated homeostasis in the herbivore. Recent studies highlight the complex interactions between environmentally encountered microorganisms and herbivorous insects, pointing to a potential adaptational alteration of the insects' physiology. We performed a differential gene expression analysis in whole larvae and eggs laid by parents grown on different diets to identify potential novel genes related to elevated microbial content in the caterpillars' food. Results We used GeneFishing, a novel differential display method, to study the effects of dietary bacteria on the general gene expression in different life stages and tissues of the cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni. We were able to visualize several hundred transcripts on agarose gels, one fifth of which were differentially expressed between treatments. The largest number of differentially expressed genes was found in defense-related processes (13 and in recognition and metabolism (16. 21 genes were picked out and further tested for differential gene expression by an independent method (qRT-PCR in various tissues of larvae grown on bacterial and bacteria-free diet, and also in adults. We detected a number of genes indicative of an altered physiological status of the insect, depending on the diet, developmental stage and tissue. Conclusion Changes in immune status are accompanied by specific changes in the transcript levels of genes connected to metabolism and homeostasis of the organism. Our findings show that larval feeding on bacteria-rich diet leads to substantial gene expression changes, potentially resulting in a reorganization of the insects' metabolism to maintain organismal homeostasis, not only in the larval but also

  10. Analysis of Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni concentrations in types of cabbage marketed in Hamedan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sobhanardakani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Today, due to the accumulation of heavy metals in vegetables irrigated with wastewater and treated with sewage sludge has become increasing concern in the field of food safety and health of consumers. Therefore this study was conducted for analysis of Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni concentrations of 3 types of cabbage marketed in Hamedan City during 2013. For this purpose after buying 30 samples of each species of cabbage and then acid digestion of the samples according to standard methods, elements (Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni were determined using ICP-OES (Varian, 710-ES, Australia. All statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical package. The results showed that mean concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni in Cabbage samples were 15.53±3.43, 59.33±5.35, 2.22±1.61 and 14.97±2.83 mg/kg, respectively; mean concentrations of these elements in red cabbage samples were 23.03±5.89, 37.53±4.21, 13.33±3.24 and 15.03±3.04 mg/kg, respectively; and mean concentrations of elements in broccoli samples were 8.00±3.63, 45.90±5.86, 8.20±3.39 and 16.93±3.08 mg/kg, respectively. Also comparison of the mean concentrations of evaluated metals in specimens with FAO/WHO permissible limits showed that significant difference (p

  11. Suppression of hop looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) by the fungicide pyraclostrobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, J L; Gent, D H

    2014-04-01

    The hop looper, Hypena humuli Harris, is a reemergent pest of hop that often requires treatment to mitigate crop damage. In 4 yr of field trials, plots treated with fungicides were observed to sustain less hop looper defoliation compared with nontreated plots. Further investigation revealed that abundance of hop looper and associated defoliation were reduced when the fungicide pyraclostrobin was applied in late July to early August. Two other fungicides possessing active ingredients in the same chemical family (quinone outside inhibitor) did not reduce abundance of hop looper or its defoliation. Pyraclostrobin is efficacious against powdery mildew diseases, and the application timing evaluated in these studies corresponds with a period of juvenile susceptibility of hop cones to the disease. Use of fungicides containing pyraclostrobin at this time may have the ancillary benefit of reducing hop looper damage, potentially obviating the need for broad-spectrum insecticides later in the season. Follow-up studies are warranted to determine whether pyraclostrobin may inhibit other lepidopteran species.

  12. Fitness of Bt-resistant cabbage loopers on Bt cotton plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetreau, Guillaume; Wang, Ran; Wang, Ping

    2017-10-01

    Development of resistance to the insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in insects is the major threat to the continued success of transgenic Bt crops in agriculture. The fitness of Bt-resistant insects on Bt and non-Bt plants is a key parameter that determines the development of Bt resistance in insect populations. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of the fitness of Bt-resistant Trichoplusia ni strains on Bt cotton leaves was conducted. The Bt-resistant T. ni strains carried two genetically independent mechanisms of resistance to Bt toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab. The effects of the two resistance mechanisms, individually and in combination, on the fitness of the T. ni strains on conventional non-Bt cotton and on transgenic Bt cotton leaves expressing a single-toxin Cry1Ac (Bollgard I) or two Bt toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab (Bollgard II) were examined. The presence of Bt toxins in plants reduced the fitness of resistant insects, indicated by decreased net reproductive rate (R 0 ) and intrinsic rate of increase (r). The reduction in fitness in resistant T. ni on Bollgard II leaves was greater than that on Bollgard I leaves. A 12.4-day asynchrony of adult emergence between the susceptible T. ni grown on non-Bt cotton leaves and the dual-toxin-resistant T. ni on Bollgard II leaves was observed. Therefore, multitoxin Bt plants not only reduce the probability for T. ni to develop resistance but also strongly reduce the fitness of resistant insects feeding on the plants. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Transcriptome and Metabolome Analyses of Glucosinolates in Two Broccoli Cultivars Following Jasmonate Treatment for the Induction of Glucosinolate Defense to Trichoplusia ni (Hübner).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Kang-Mo; Becker, Talon M; Juvik, John A

    2016-07-15

    Lepidopteran larvae growth is influenced by host plant glucosinolate (GS) concentrations, which are, in turn, influenced by the phytohormone jasmonate (JA). In order to elucidate insect resistance biomarkers to lepidopteran pests, transcriptome and metabolome analyses following JA treatments were conducted with two broccoli cultivars, Green Magic and VI-158, which have differentially induced indole GSs, neoglucobrassicin and glucobrassicin, respectively. To test these two inducible GSs on growth of cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni), eight neonate cabbage looper larvae were placed onto each of three plants per JA treatments (0, 100, 200, 400 µM) three days after treatment. After five days of feeding, weight of larvae and their survival rate was found to decrease with increasing JA concentrations in both broccoli cultivars. JA-inducible GSs were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Neoglucobrassicin in Green Magic and glucobrassicin in VI-158 leaves were increased in a dose-dependent manner. One or both of these glucosinolates and/or their hydrolysis products showed significant inverse correlations with larval weight and survival (five days after treatment) while being positively correlated with the number of days to pupation. This implies that these two JA-inducible glucosinolates can influence the growth and survival of cabbage looper larvae. Transcriptome profiling supported the observed changes in glucosinolate and their hydrolysis product concentrations following JA treatments. Several genes related to GS metabolism differentiate the two broccoli cultivars in their pattern of transcriptional response to JA treatments. Indicative of the corresponding change in indole GS concentrations, transcripts of the transcription factor MYB122, core structure biosynthesis genes (CYP79B2, UGT74B1, SUR1, SOT16, SOT17, and SOT18), an indole glucosinolate side chain modification gene (IGMT1), and several glucosinolate hydrolysis genes (TGG1, TGG2, and ESM1) were

  14. Alterations in premating behavior and pheromone biology of gamma-irradiated Trichoplusia ni (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szentesi, A.; McLaughlin, J.R.; Coffelt, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    Exposure of female cabbage looper pupae, Trichoplusia ni, to gamma irradiation at 0 to 72 hr before eclosion resulted in significantly reduced moving and calling activity of the adults. The effects were dose-related from 10 to 40 kR. Generally, irradiation in a nitrogen atmosphere slightly reduced deleterious effects, but fractionation of the radiation dose did not. Four-day-old irradiated females contained significantly more sex pheromone than untreated females, indicating that loss of pheromone is positively correlated to the amount of calling activity. Males exposed to 20 kR or 40 kR in nitrogen were not affected in their flight response in an olfactometer to a level of synthetic pheromone ca. equal to that released by a calling female or to 0.1 x this level. The response of males exposed to 40 kR in air, however, was significantly decreased at the lower pheromone concentration

  15. Suppression of Plutella xylostella and Trichoplusia ni in cole crops with attracticide formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Elly M; Fadamiro, Henry Y; McLaughlin, John R

    2006-08-01

    The three key lepidopteran pests of cole, Brassica oleracea L., crops in North America are diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae); cabbage looper; Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae); and imported cabbageworm, Pieris rapae (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). Two species-specific pheromone-based experimental attracticide formulations were evaluated against these pests: LastCall DBM for P. xylostella and LastCall CL for T. ni. No LastCall formulation was available against P. rapae. Laboratory toxicity experiments confirmed the effectiveness of each LastCall formulations in killing conspecific males that made contact. In replicated small plots of cabbage and collards in central Alabama, over four growing seasons (fall 2003, spring 2004, fall 2004, and spring 2005), an attracticide treatment receiving the two LastCall formulations, each applied multiple times at the rate of 1,600 droplets per acre, was compared against Bacillus thuringiensis. subspecies kursatki (Bt) spray at action threshold and a negative untreated control. Efficacy was measured by comparing among the three treatments male capture in pheromone-baited traps, larval counts in plots, and crop damage rating at harvest. LastCall provided significant reductions in crop damage comparable to Bt in three of the four seasons. Efficacy of LastCall was dependent upon lepidopteran population densities, which fluctuated from season to season. In general, reduction in crop damage was achieved with LastCall at low-to-moderate population densities of the three species, such as typically occurs in the fall in central Alabama, but not in the spring when high P. rapae population pressure typically occurs in central Alabama. Significant reductions in pheromone trap captures did not occur in LastCall plots, suggesting that elimination of males by the toxicant (permethrin), rather than interruption of sexual communication, was the main mechanism of effect.

  16. Evaluation of struvite obtained from semiconductor wastewater as a fertilizer in cultivating Chinese cabbage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Hong-Duck; Lim, Chae-Sung; Kang, Min-Koo; Lee, Sang-Ill

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Recovered struvite from semiconductor wastewater was evaluated as fertilizer. ► The struvite showed more outstanding fertilizing effects than commercial fertilizers. ► Cu, Cd, As, Pb and Ni were observed at very low level in the vegetable tissue. ► The optimum struvite dosage for the cultivation of Chinese cabbage was 1.6 g struvite/kg soil. - Abstract: The present work evaluated the fertilizing value of struvite deposit recovered from semiconductor wastewater in cultivating Chinese cabbage. The fertilizing effect of struvite deposit was compared with that of commercial fertilizers: complex, organic and compost. Laboratory pot test results clearly showed that the growth of Chinese cabbage was better promoted when the struvite deposit was used than with organic and compost fertilizers even though complex fertilizer was the most effective in growing Chinese cabbage. It was revealed that potassium (K) was a key element in the determination of growth rate of Chinese cabbage. Also, the abundant nutrients such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), K, calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) were observed in the vegetable tissue of struvite pot. Specifically, P was the most-founded component in the vegetable tissue of struvite pot. Meanwhile, the utilization of struvite as a fertilizer led to the lowest accumulation of copper (Cu) and no detection of cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and nickel (Ni) in the Chinese cabbage. It was found that the optimum struvite dosage for the cultivation of Chinese cabbage was 1.6 g struvite/kg soil. Based on these findings, it was concluded that the struvite deposits recovered from semiconductor wastewater were effective as a multi-nutrient fertilizer for Chinese cabbage cultivation.

  17. Synthetic Ni3S2/Ni hybrid architectures as potential contrast agents in MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, J; Chen, K

    2016-01-01

    Traditional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents mainly include superparamagnetic (SPM) iron oxide nanoparticle as T 2 contrast agent for liver and paramagnetic Gd (III)-chelate as T 1 contrast agent for all organs. In this work, weak ferromagnetic kale-like and SPM cabbage-like Ni 3 S 2 @Ni hybrid architectures were synthesized and evaluated as potential T 1 MRI contrast agents. Their relatively small r 2 /r 1 ratios of 2.59 and 2.38, and high r 1 values of 11.27 and 4.89 mmol −1 L s −1 (for the kale-like and cabbage-like Ni 3 S 2 @Ni, respectively) will shed some light on the development of new-type MRI contrast agents. (paper)

  18. Evaluation of pesticide residue dynamics in Chinese cabbage, head cabbage and cauliflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocourek, František; Stará, Jitka; Holý, Kamil; Horská, Tereza; Kocourek, Vladimír; Kováčová, Jana; Kohoutková, Jana; Suchanová, Marie; Hajšlová, Jana

    2017-06-01

    Pesticide residues from the time of application until harvest were analysed for 20, 17 and 18 active insecticidal and fungicidal substances in Chinese cabbage, head cabbage and cauliflower, respectively. In total, 40 mathematical models of residue degradation were developed using a first-order kinetic equation, and from these models it was possible to forecast the action pre-harvest interval for a given action threshold for low-residue production in Brassica vegetables as a percentage of the maximum residue level. Additionally, it was possible to establish an action pre-harvest interval based on an action threshold of 0.01 mg kg ‒1 for the production of Brassica vegetables for baby food. Among the evaluated commodities, the speed of residue degradation was highest in head cabbage, medium in Chinese cabbage and lowest in cauliflower. The half-lives of pesticide in various vegetables were also determined: they ranged from 1.55 to 5.25 days in Chinese cabbage, from 0.47 to 6.54 days in head cabbage and from 1.88 to 7.22 days in cauliflower.

  19. Structure of recombinant human carboxylesterase 1 isolated from whole cabbage looper larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenblatt, Harry M.; Otto, Tamara C.; Kirkpatrick, Melanie G.; Kovaleva, Elena; Brown, Susan; Buchman, George; Cerasoli, Douglas M.; Sussman, Joel L.

    2012-01-01

    Large quantities of recombinant human carboxylesterase 1 have been produced in an economical whole insect larvae system. The crystal structure of this enzyme is essentially identical to that produced by cell culture techniques. The use of whole insect larvae as a source of recombinant proteins offers a more cost-effective method of producing large quantities of human proteins than conventional cell-culture approaches. Human carboxylesterase 1 has been produced in and isolated from whole Trichoplusia ni larvae. The recombinant protein was crystallized and its structure was solved to 2.2 Å resolution. The results indicate that the larvae-produced enzyme is essentially identical to that isolated from cultured Sf21 cells, supporting the use of this expression system to produce recombinant enzymes for crystallization studies

  20. Study of heavy metal in sewage sludge and in Chinese cabbage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was performed to investigate the heavy metal content and availability for crops in sewage sludge and its accumulation in Chinese cabbage grown in sewage sludge amended soil. We determined the total and chemical fraction of As, Cr, Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mg and Mn in sewage sludge and the total content of ...

  1. Tabela de Esperança de Vida de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley em Ovos de Trichoplusia ni Hübner em Diferentes Condicionamentos Térmicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de Carvalho

    2012-11-01

    Table of life Expectancy of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley in Eggs of Trichoplusia ni Hübner Different Thermal Conditioning Abstract. The objective of this work was to study the influence of temperature on demographic parameters of the egg parasitoid, Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae reared on eggs of cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in conditions the laboratory. To this end, we made sky blue cards containing eggs of T. ni that were offered to the parasitism of T. pretiosum for 24 hours at temperatures of 18, 21, 24, 27, 30 and 33 °C. After this period, the parasitoids were removed and kept the cards in the same thermal constraints to the emergence of offspring. From the emergence of offspring, females of T. pretiosum were individually placed in Eppendorf tubes being fed honey and kept at temperatures of origin. The duration of egg-adult period and female longevity were strongly influenced by thermal regime, being opposite to its increase (16.5 to 4.5 days, for the duration of egg-adult period; and 11.9 to 5.5 days, for and female longevity. The percentage of emergence of offspring, number of offspring per egg and sex ratio were not influenced statistically significant. The survival (Lx of T. pretiosum was more influenced at temperatures 27, 30 and 33 ° C. Life expectancy of adults (ex was higher in lower temperatures (18, 21 and 24 ° C, being verified, on average, life expectancy of 32, 28 and 26 days, respectively. Thus it was found that the temperature can be the limiting factor for the development and survival of T. pretiosum in biological control programs of T. ni.

  2. The effects of ultraviolet light on aspects of DNA metabolism in cell lines derived from plodia interpunctella and Trichoplusia ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Styer, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Insect cells are significantly more resistant to the lethal effects of 254 nm ultraviolet light (UV) than mammalian cells. The predominant photoproduct produced by UV is the (5-6) cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimer. There is controversy whether this lesion, or another, the pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone, is responsible for the biological effects of UV. Insect cells contain a photolyase which selectively removes the (5-6), but not the (6-4) lesion, so that the relative roles of these lesions can be studied. Insect cell lines derived from the cabbage looper and the Indian meal moth were exposed to UV and analyzed for their ability to incorporate 3 H-thymidine. After exposure, cells from the Indian meal moth exhibited a rapid and prolonged depression in the rate of thymidine incorporation, whereas cells from the cabbage looper showed only a slight drop in incorporation and a rapid recovery. The extent of depression in thymidine incorporation was not correlated to the amount of cell killing by UV in these cell lines. Blockage of fork progression was correlated to the depression in thymidine incorporation. Photoreactivation did not entirely relieve blockage, depression in thymidine incorporation or cell killing, indicating that although the (5-6) dimer appears to be the major lesion responsible for these effects, other lesions, such as the (6-4) photoproduct, may play a role. In addition, activation of alternative sites of replicon initiation appeared to correlate with the depression in thymidine incorporation and the excision capabilities in these cells. The resistance to UV in these insect cells compared to mammalian cells may be due to their ability to rapidly remove the (5-6) lesion, which is the critical lesion in these insect cells

  3. Effect on growth and nickel content of cabbage plants watered with nickel solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, O B

    1979-01-01

    Chinese cabbage plants were watered with different concentrations of NiCl/sub 2/ solutions and the effect on growth and uptake of nickel in the plants were studied. No toxic effect on plant growth was observed. A higher content of nickel was found in the plants exposed to more concentrated nickel solutions. Nickel contamination and its clinical consequences are discussed. 29 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  4. Recovery of hemlock in Vermont from defoliation by the spring hemlock looper, Lambdina athasaria (Walker)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara S. Burns; Henry, Jr. Trial

    2000-01-01

    Following an outbreak of spring hemlock looper in 1991, ten hemlocks in each of fifteen study plots were monitored annually through 1999. Although some mortality occurred within two years after defoliation, and additional mortality occurred in plots which were subsequently disturbed by logging, most defoliated trees recovered. Twenty-four percent of the trees with 90%...

  5. Determination of Dispersion of Zucchini and Cabbage Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Pogozhyh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Particle size of cabbage and zucchini powders was determined by microscopy. It is shown that under the identical conditions of drying, grinding and other stages of the process, the cabbage powder has a higher content of fine fraction. Promising application of cabbage and zucchini powders in restaurant industry is indicated. Case diagram of the received production use is developed.

  6. Genetic diversity and relationships among cabbage ( Brassica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The integration of our data with historical documents confirmed that traditional cabbage landraces cultivated in North of China were first introduced from Russia. Key words: Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), genetic diversity, cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata), landraces, population structure.

  7. USE OF GROWTH CHAMBERS FOR CABBAGE BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Bondareva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of the growth chambers for cabbage breeding allows the reducing of certain stages of the breeding process and the growing biennial varieties of cabbage in a one-year cycle. In these growth chambers, the nutritional conditions, temperature, and lighting of plants are under control; the open pollination is eliminated.

  8. Sesquiterpene lactones of Vernonia - influence of glaucolide-A on the growth rate and survival of Lepidopterous larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Samuel B; Burnett, William C; Coile, Nancy C; Mabry, Tom J; Betkouski, M F

    1979-01-01

    Sesquiterpene lactone glaucolide-A from Vernonia, incorporated in the rearing diets of five species of Lepidoptera, significantly reduced the rate of growth of larvae of the southern armyworm, Spodoptera eridania; fall armyworm, S. frugiperda; and yellowstriped armyworm, S. ornithogalli. Quantitative feeding tests demonstrated that decreased feeding levels and reduced growth resulted from ingestion of a sesquiterpene lactone. Ingestion of glaucolide-A increased the number of days to pupation in four of the species. In the southern armyworm, it significantly reduced pupal weight. Glaucolide-A decidedly reduced percentage of survival of southern and fall armyworms. Yellow woollybear, Diacrisia virginica, and cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, larvae were essentially uneffected by the ingestion of the sesquiterpene lactone. Sesquiterpene lactones adversely affect growth rate and survival of certain insects that feed upon plants containing them. They apparently function as defensive products, screening out a portion of the potential herbivores.

  9. SO2 : Nutrient or toxin for Chinese cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Liping

    2005-01-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis) is one of the most important high-yield vegetable crops in China, and is often cultivated around big cities. Atmospheric SO2 pollution may affect Chinese cabbage, which is usually produced under intensive farming practice with low-sulfur or even sulfur-free

  10. ARSENIC AND COPPER UPTAKE BY CABBAGES GROWN ON POLLUTED SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thi Kim Phuong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cabbages (Brassica Juncea (L. Czern were grown in pot experiments on typical unpolluted and polluted soils with concentration changing from 20.50 - 50.00 mg As/kg and 156.00 - 413.00 mg Cu/kg dry soil. The results demonstrate the elevation of As and Cu in soil may lead to increased uptake by these cabbages subsequent entry into human food chain. It was found 11.84- 32.12 mg As/kg and 46.86 - 94.47 mg Cu/kg dry leaves. It has tendency increase uptake and accumulation of Cu in cabbage tissue with increasing cultivated time, whereas, it was found accumulation of As in cabbages tissue decreased with time prolonging. The quantity of As and Cu in these cabbages, were significant higher than 0.2 mg As/kg and 5.0 mg Cu/kg fresh vegetable, the permissible limit concentration in fresh vegetable. This indicated that human may As and Cu exposure occur through eating these vegetables.

  11. Influence of supplemental ultraviolet-B radiation on lipid peroxidation of Chinese cabbage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Shaobai; Zhang Jingjuan; Liu Xiaozhong

    1998-01-01

    Chinese cabbage cultivar Aijiaohuang was grown in an indoor experiment treated by 0.0,130 (simulating 20% ozone depletion)kJm~(-2)day~(-1) of ultraviolet-B(UV-B) for 4 and 7 days to study the effect of supplemental UV-B radiation on flavoniods and lipid peroxidation in the leaves of Chinese cabbage. Accumulation of UV-ABSORBING flavonoids in the leaves of Chinese cabbage was induced by UV-B radiation. Enhanced UV-B radiation reduced ascorbic acid content in the leaves of Chinese cabbage. It was also found that 13.0kJm~(2)day~(-1) UV-B inhibited catalase and superoxide dismutase activities and increased malondiadehyde content in the leaves of Chinese cabbage. These effects induced by UV-B radiation was enhanced with the time course of treatment. The results above suggested that supplemental UV-B radiation enhanced lipid peroxidation of Chinese cabbage, and the accumulation of UV-absorbing flavonoid could not alleviate the damage of UV-B radiation

  12. Pathogen-triggered ethylene signaling mediates systemic-induced susceptibility to herbivory in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Simon C; Whiteman, Noah K; Bahrami, Adam K; Wilczek, Amity M; Cui, Jianping; Russell, Jacob A; Cibrian-Jaramillo, Angelica; Butler, Ian A; Rana, Jignasha D; Huang, Guo-Hua; Bush, Jenifer; Ausubel, Frederick M; Pierce, Naomi E

    2013-11-01

    Multicellular eukaryotic organisms are attacked by numerous parasites from diverse phyla, often simultaneously or sequentially. An outstanding question in these interactions is how hosts integrate signals induced by the attack of different parasites. We used a model system comprised of the plant host Arabidopsis thaliana, the hemibiotrophic bacterial phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae, and herbivorous larvae of the moth Trichoplusia ni (cabbage looper) to characterize mechanisms involved in systemic-induced susceptibility (SIS) to T. ni herbivory caused by prior infection by virulent P. syringae. We uncovered a complex multilayered induction mechanism for SIS to herbivory. In this mechanism, antiherbivore defenses that depend on signaling via (1) the jasmonic acid-isoleucine conjugate (JA-Ile) and (2) other octadecanoids are suppressed by microbe-associated molecular pattern-triggered salicylic acid (SA) signaling and infection-triggered ethylene signaling, respectively. SIS to herbivory is, in turn, counteracted by a combination of the bacterial JA-Ile mimic coronatine and type III virulence-associated effectors. Our results show that SIS to herbivory involves more than antagonistic signaling between SA and JA-Ile and provide insight into the unexpectedly complex mechanisms behind a seemingly simple trade-off in plant defense against multiple enemies.

  13. Consumers’ Willingness to Pay for Cabbage with Minimized Pesticide Residues in Southern Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faustin Vidogbéna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cabbage (Brassicaceae is one of the most frequently consumed exotic vegetables in Benin and also the most affected by insects. To meet growing food demand, farmers rely heavily on synthetic pesticides that are harmful for themselves, consumers and the environment. Integrated pest management has been proposed as the means to improve vegetable productivity and quality in many developing countries. One approach is to substitute pesticides with physical barriers to insects, like nets. Here, we assess consumers’ perceptions about cabbage and their purchasing behavior towards cabbage that was produced using these nets in two major cities in Benin. Results indicate that consumers are aware of the health risks associated with intensive use of pesticides but were not able to recognize the quality difference between cabbage produced under nets from those using pesticides. All consumers were willing to pay a price premium for cabbage with minimized pesticides residues compared with conventionally produced cabbage, the average premium being 38%. Women, older, highly educated consumers and those able to distinguish cabbage qualities were willing to pay the most. We suggest that farmers will obtain higher prices if their production of cabbage with preferred characteristics is accompanied by an improved marketing strategy.

  14. Local cabbage ( Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) populations from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In previous experiments, we were able to augment cabbages (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) with two new local open pollinated (OP) populations and one cultivar. The type of use indicated that these are cabbages with thinner and juicier leaves, which predisposes their heads for fine grating and also makes their ...

  15. Decontamination of chlorantraniliprole residues on cabbage and cauliflower through household processing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Abhijit; Mandal, Kousik; Singh, Balwinder

    2012-04-01

    A supervised field trial was conducted to study the residues of chlorantraniliprole on cabbage and cauliflower. Three applications of chlorantraniliprole at 10 days interval were made @ 9.25 and 18.50 g a.i. ha(-1). The samples of marketable size heads and curds of cabbage and cauliflower were collected at 0 and 1 day after the last application. QuEChERS sample preparation was used for the determination of chlorantraniliprole residues on cabbage heads and cauliflower curds. The residues of chlorantraniliprole were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with photo diode array (PDA) detector and confirmed by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). Washing of cabbage and cauliflower with tap water removed about 17%-40% of chlorantraniliprole residues. However, boiling removed 100% of chlorantraniliprole residues on cabbage and cauliflower in both the cases.

  16. Uptake of vapor and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by cabbage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, S.; Jiao, X.C.; Chen, S.H.; Xu, F.L.; Li, Y.J.; Liu, F.Z.

    2006-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in cabbage (aerial part), air (gas and particles) and soil samples collected from two sites in Tianjin, China were measured. Although the levels of PAHs in all samples from the heavily contaminated site B were higher than those from the less contaminated site A, the PAH profiles were similar, suggesting the similarity in source type. PAH concentrations in cabbages were positively correlated to either gas or particle-bound PAHs in air. A multivariate linear regression with cabbage PAH as a function of both gas and particle-bound PAHs in air was established to quantitatively characterize the relationship between them. Inclusion of soil PAH concentrations would not improve the model, indicating that the contribution of soil PAHs to cabbage (aerial part) accumulation was insignificant. - A multivariate linear regression model was developed for predicting vegetable uptake of PAHs based on both gas and particle phases PAH concentrations

  17. Production of yeast biomass using waste Chinese cabbage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min Ho Choi; Yun Hee Park [Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea). Dept. of Molecular Science and Technology

    2003-08-01

    The possibility of using waste Chinese cabbage as a substrate for microbial biomass production was investigated. Cell mass and the protein content of four species of yeast, Candida utilis, Pichia stipitis, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, were determined when cultured in juice extracted from cabbage waste. Compared to YM broth containing the same level of sugar, all the strains except C. utilis showed higher total protein production in cabbage juice medium (CJM). Cell mass production was lower for all four strains in heat-treated CJM than in membrane-filtered medium, and this adverse effect was pronounced when the CJM was autoclaved at 121{sup o}C for 15 min. As a source of inorganic nitrogen, only ammonium sulfate added at a concentration of 0.5 g nitrogen per liter of CJM increased cell growth. Of the seven organic nitrogen sources tested, only corn steep powder was effective in increasing cell mass (by about 11%). As a micronutrient, the addition of 0.5 mM zinc increased cell mass. The results suggest that juice from waste Chinese cabbages can be used to produce microbial biomass protein without substantial modification, after preliminary heat treatment at temperatures below those required for sterilization. (Author)

  18. A survey of cabbage production and constraints in Ghana | Timbilla ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science ... Cabbage production was noted to be increasing; however, pests and diseases were forces to reckon with, particularly in the Greater Accra, Ashanti, and Central Regions. ... Twenty chemical insecticides were used in controlling cabbage pests, most of which were not recommended.

  19. The role of macronutrients in cabbage-head formation, (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Tetsuo; Sonoda, Yoji

    1981-01-01

    Cabbage plants were grown under graded levels of nitrogen supply in nutrient solution (5, 50, 500 ppm N) or graded levels of light intensity (100, 61, 34% of natural light), and the effect of each treatment on the growth and 14 CO 2 and 15 NO 3 -N assimilation of the plants were studied. As the nitrogen supply increased, the plant dry weight increased from 5 to 50 ppm N and decreased at 500 ppm N. Plants grown at 50 ppm N had the highest sugar content and the highest rate of 14 CO 2 assimilation. This was why efficient cabbage-head development occurred at 50 ppm N. As the light intensity decreased, so the plant dry weight and the cabbage-head yield decreased, resulting from a decrease in the sugar content and in the rate of 14 CO 2 assimilation. The 15 NO 3 -N uptake by the plants was smaller at a low light intensity than at a high light intensity, and in the plants at the low light intensity the incorporation of 15 N into the 80% ethanol-insoluble fraction in the cabbage-head was impaired. The later the growth stage, at which 14 CO 2 was assimilated by the plants, the greater was the 14 C-retention percentage at harvest time and the distribution of 14 C into the cabbage-head. The 14 C-retention percentage decreased with increase in the nitrogen supply or decrease in the light intensity. (author)

  20. Self-assembled cabbage-like NaInS2 microstructures with efficient visible light photocatalytic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Yuanhao; Zhai, Xuezhen; Zhang, Yange; Xu, Zhihong; Li, Pinjiang; Zheng, Zhi

    2013-01-01

    Cabbage-like NaInS 2 microstructures have been synthesized by reacting In(NO 3 ) 3 with the alkaline sulfur aqueous solution of NaOH in a simple hydrothermal process without any shape-directing surfactants. The cabbage-like NaInS 2 architectures are monodispersed in large quantities. The cabbage-like morphologies depend strongly on the different ratios of S powder to NaOH, the reaction temperature and reaction time. The possible growth mechanism for the formation of cabbage-like NaInS 2 architectures is discussed. The cabbage-like NaInS 2 architectures exhibit the superiority of photocatalytic performance for the photodegradation of RhB irradiation under visible light irradiation. It is believed that the photocatalytic superiority of the cabbage-like NaInS 2 architectures is mainly due to their special surface areas and inner interconnected structural features. - Graphical abstract: Cabbage-like NaInS 2 microstructures were facilely synthesized via simple hydrothermal reaction. The cabbage-like NaInS 2 architectures exhibit the superiority of photocatalytic performance for the photodegradation of RhB irradiation under visible light irradiation. - Highlights: • Cabbage-like NaInS 2 microstructures were facilely synthesized via a hydrothermal reaction. • Influencing parameters on the NaInS 2 morphologies have been discussed in detail. • The cabbage-like NaInS 2 architectures hold efficient photocatalytic performance. • The photocatalytic superiority is mainly due to their special structural features

  1. Mechanical Stress Results in Immediate Accumulation of Glucosinolates in Fresh-Cut Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Požrl

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The intensity of mechanical stress and the temperature significantly affect the levels of individual and total glucosinolates in shredded white cabbage (cv. Galaxy. Mild processing (shredding to 2 mm thickness at 8°C resulted in the accumulation of glucosinolates (40% increase in comparison with unshredded cabbage, which was already seen 5 min after the mechanical stress. Severe processing (shredding to 0.5 mm thickness at 20°C, however, resulted in an initial 50% decrease in glucosinolates. The glucosinolates accumulated in all of the cabbage samples 30 min from processing, resulting in higher levels than in unshredded cabbage, except for the severe processing at 20°C where the increase was not sufficient to compensate for the initial loss. Glucobrassicin and neoglucobrassicin were the major glucosinolates identified in the cabbage samples. Mechanical stress resulted in an increase in the relative proportion of glucobrassicin and in a decrease in neoglucobrassicin.

  2. Ultrastructural response of cabbage outer leaf mesophyll cells (Brassica oleracea L. to excess of nickel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Molas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the structure and in the ultrastructure of cabbage outer leaf mesophyll cells [Brassica oleracea L.] cv. Sława from Enkhouizen were examined by means of light and electron microscopy. The examined plants were grown on the basic Murashige and Skoog medium with addition of excesive concentrations of nickel (added as NiSO4 x 7H2O,i.e. Ni 5, Ni 10 and Ni 20 mg/dm3. In Ni 5 mg samples mainly adaptation changes to the conditions of stress were observed. These changes were manifested by the increase of cytoplasm content and by cytoplasm vacuolization, by the increase of nucleus and nucleous volume, nucleolus vacuolization, the increase of plasmalemma invaginations and of the amount of rough ER, by the central arrangement of smooth ER and of the thylakoids of chloroplasts; it was also shown by the growth of the number of mitochondria and of peroxisomes in the cell. In Ni 10 mg samples, apart from adaptation changes, such as the increase of the nucleus volume, increase of plasmalemma invaginations, cytoplasm and nucleolus vacuolization, degeneration changes were also observed. They concerned mainly the nucleus (the increasing amount of condensed chromatin, ER (swelling and fragmentation of rER and sER, mitochondrium (swelling and reduction of cristae, Golgi apparatus (disintegration and decay and chloroplasts (changes of shape, swelling and reduction of thylakoids, disappearance of starch and presence of big plastoglobuli. In Ni 20 mg samples cell protoplasts were in different stages of degeneration and the cell organelles that were identifiable, were usually damaged.

  3. A magical biological insecticide extracted from seeds of Millettia pachyarpa to kill cabbage aphids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tianxing; Gong, Mingfu; Guan, Qinlan

    2018-04-01

    Millettia pachycarpa Benth is a perennial climbing shrub belonging to the genus Millettia, as it is widely used in traditional practices like agricultural pesticides, blood tonics, fish poison, and treatments for cancer and infertility. The crude extract of the seeds of M. pachycarpa had insecticidal activity on cabbage aphids. The conventional extract approach with three kinds of organic solvents: methanol, ethanol, and acetone was used for extracting of crude extract of seeds of M. pachycarpa. The leaf immersion method in a petri dish was used to measure contact activity on cabbage aphids. The field measurement method in a cabbage field was used to measure the control effect. The result indicated that the average mortality rate of cabbage aphids reached 91.3 percent under the action of crude extract of the seeds of M. pachycarpa, indicating that contacting activity against cabbage aphid was strong. After the crude extract was sprayed for 2 days, the proofread control effect of 1000 μg / mL ethanol crude extract against cabbage aphid was 85.0 percent. After 7 days of spraying, this number increased to 92.2 percent. The study concluded that crude extract of the seeds of M. pachyarpa extracted with methanol, ethanol, acetone had demonstrable contact activity against cabbage aphid and 1000 μg / mL ethanol crude extract had significant control effect against the larvae of cabbage aphid.

  4. Inactivation of Escherichia coli inoculated onto fresh-cut chopped cabbage using electron-beam processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Elizabeth M; Uribe-Rendon, Roberto M; Lee, Ken

    2011-01-01

    During the past decade there were more than 50 reported outbreaks involving leafy green vegetables contaminated with foodborne pathogens. Leafy greens, including cabbage, are fresh foods rarely heated before consumption, which enables foodborne illness. The need for improved safety of fresh food drives the demand for nonthermal food processes to decrease the risk of pathogens while maintaining fresh quality. This study examines the efficacy of electron-beam (e-beam) irradiation in decreasing indigenous microflora on fresh-cut cabbage and determines the optimal dosage to pasteurize fresh-cut cabbage inoculated with Escherichia coli K-12. Fresh-cut cabbage (100 g) was inoculated with ∼8 log E. coli K-12 and e-beam irradiated at doses of 0, 1.0, 2.3, or 4.0 kGy. At 2.3 kGy there was 7-log reduction of E. coli K-12 in the fresh-cut cabbage. The D(10)-value for E. coli K-12 in fresh-cut cabbage was 0.564 kGy. E-beam irradiation is thus a viable nonthermal treatment that extends the shelf life and increases the safety of fresh cabbage by reducing or eliminating indigenous microflora and unwanted pathogens.

  5. Wasted cabbage (Brassica oleracea silages treated with different levels of ground corn andsilage inoculant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauton Vilela de Rezende

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate the chemical composition, fermentation profile, and aerobic stability of cabbage silages treated with ground corn and inoculant. The evaluated treatments were: addition of 200, 300, 400, 500, and 600 g of ground corn per kilogram of cabbage (fresh matter basis, with or without a bacterial inoculant composed of Lactobacillus plantarumand Pediococcus pentosaceus. As expected, ground corn additions increased the dry matter (DM content of cabbage silage, and high values were observed for the highest level of addition (540 g kg−1. Conversely, the crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and lignin contents decreased with ground corn additions. The in vitro dry matter digestibility coefficients increased slightly with ground corn additions, but all cabbage silages had digestibility higher than 740 g kg−1 of DM. In the fermentation process, the pH values of cabbage silages increased linearly because of the high levels of ground corn addition. Cabbage ensiled with 200 and 300 g kg−1 of ground corn had high ammonia N production and fermentative losses (effluent and gas. Cabbage silage treated with 600 g kg−1 of ground corn had lower maximum pH values during aerobic exposure, but all silages had constant temperature during aerobic exposure. The ensiling of wasted cabbage is possible and we recommend the application of 400 g kg−1ground corn to improve the silage quality, whereas the use of the inoculant is unnecessary.

  6. THE ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF THE INTEGRATED SYSTEM OF PROTECTION OF WHITE CABBAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. U. Misrieva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The climatic conditions of the Derbent district of the Republic of Dagestan are favorable for seed-growing cabbage of white-cabbage and other varieties by a nonstop method. In the complex of measures to increase the efficiency of production of cabbage seeds, pest and disease control  plays an important  role. The article proves the application of a new approach to the protection system of testes of white cabbage. On the basis of long-term phytosanitary   monitoring   and   biocenotic   principles, which  allow differentiating  the use of  protective  equipment in each specific case, an integrated system of protection of testes of cabbage from the main pests in the conditions  of the south of Russia has been developed. New progressive methods in the implementation of basic technological  processes are economically justified.  The introduction of the system ensured a significant increase in the yield of testes of white cabbage and the profitability of  seed production.  For each ruble of  expenses for crop protection, 8.1 rubles of additional income was received. Applied in FIC VNIIR AES testicles of cabbage allowed  to  harvest 190 kg of  additional  yield of  hybrid seeds from each hectare. The amount of realization of the additional harvest was 114,000 rubles. The recoupment of  costs  in  terms  of  the  ruble  costs  is  29.5  rubles. Reducing the  pesticide  load on  agrocenosis, yielded a yield with good quality characteristics. The difference in germination was 5-6% higher when using satellites. The fulfillment of the seeds also depended on the protection system. Thus, the mass of 1000 seeds when using the AES of testes of cabbage in the F1 Hybrid Extra was 4.68 g, while the schedule of treatment was 3.83 g.

  7. Silver nanoparticles: an alternative method for sanitization of minimally processed cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliane Andrade Araújo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The minimal processing of vegetables basically aims to extend food shelf life, which depends on a number of factors, such as sanitization, that is considered a critical step for food microbiological quality. However, the usual antimicrobial agents reduce the microbial population in a maximum of two logarithmic cycles. Therefore, it is necessary to develop alternative sanitizers. This study aimed to increase the innocuity of minimally processed cabbage through sanitization with silver nanoparticles. It was observed that the nanoparticles promoted three logarithmic reductions, i.e. a 99.9 % reduction rate, in the Escherichia coli population inoculated on the cabbage surface. When compared to other antimicrobial agents (sodium dichloroisocyanurate and sodium hypochlorite, the nanoparticles were more efficient in sanitizing minimally processed cabbage, showing a lower count of aerobic mesophils. It was also observed that the cabbage surface presents hydrophobic characteristics, resulting in a higher propension for bacterial adhesion, which was confirmed in the thermodynamic evaluation of favorable adhesion for Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua.

  8. Distributions of alkali metals, alkaline earth metals and halogens in cabbage leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukada, Hirofumi; Takeda, Akira; Hasegawa, Hidenao

    2007-01-01

    The distributions of stable elements in plant components provide useful information for understanding the behavior of radionuclides in plants. An entire cabbage plant sample was collected from an experimental field, and the distributions of alkali metals (K, Rb and Cs), alkaline earth metals (Ca, Sr and Ba) and halogens (Cl and I) were determined for cabbage leaves at different positions. The concentration of Cs in outer (older) cabbage leaves was higher than that in inner (younger) leaves, but the distributions of K and Rb concentrations were relatively similar in cabbage leaves, independent of leaf positions. The concentration of Sr in older cabbage leaves was one order of magnitude higher than that in younger leaves. The distributions of Ca, Ba and Sr concentrations in the plant followed a similar pattern. The concentrations of halogens were also very rich in the outer leaves. The percentage distributions of Cs, Sr, Cl and I in the inedible (extreme outer) leaves were 77, 91, 93 and 96% of the total content in the leaf part, respectively. These results show that the inedible plant components are important for understanding the transfer of the radioactive Cs, Sr Cl and I in soil-plant systems. (author)

  9. Controlled-release of Bacillus thurigiensis formulations encapsulated in light-resistant colloidosomal microcapsules for the management of lepidopteran pests of Brassica crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Oumar; Claverie, Jerome P; Lemoyne, Pierre; Vincent, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis ( B. t. ) based formulations have been widely used to control lepidopteran pests in agriculture and forestry. One of their weaknesses is their short residual activity when sprayed in the field. Using Pickering emulsions, mixtures of spores and crystals from three B. t. serovars were successfully encapsulated in colloïdosomal microparticles (50 μm) using innocuous chemicals (acrylic particles, sunflower oil, iron oxide nanoparticles, ethanol and water). A pH trigger mechanism was incorporated within the particles so that B. t. release occurred only at pH > 8.5 which corresponds to the midgut pH of the target pests. Laboratory assays performed on Trichoplusia ni ( T. ni ) larvae demonstrated that the microencapsulation process did not impair B. t. bioactivity. The best formulations were field-tested on three key lepidopteran pests that attack Brassica crops, i.e., the imported cabbageworm, the cabbage looper and the diamondback moth. After 12 days, the mean number of larvae was significantly lower in microencapsulated formulations than in a commercial B. t. formulation, and the effect of microencapsulated formulations was comparable to a chemical pesticide (lambda-cyhalothrin). Therefore, colloïdosomal microcapsule formulations successfully extend the bioactivity of B. t. for the management of lepidopteran pests of Brassica crops.

  10. Controlled-release of Bacillus thurigiensis formulations encapsulated in light-resistant colloidosomal microcapsules for the management of lepidopteran pests of Brassica crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oumar Bashir

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis (B. t. based formulations have been widely used to control lepidopteran pests in agriculture and forestry. One of their weaknesses is their short residual activity when sprayed in the field. Using Pickering emulsions, mixtures of spores and crystals from three B. t. serovars were successfully encapsulated in colloïdosomal microparticles (50 μm using innocuous chemicals (acrylic particles, sunflower oil, iron oxide nanoparticles, ethanol and water. A pH trigger mechanism was incorporated within the particles so that B. t. release occurred only at pH > 8.5 which corresponds to the midgut pH of the target pests. Laboratory assays performed on Trichoplusia ni (T. ni larvae demonstrated that the microencapsulation process did not impair B. t. bioactivity. The best formulations were field-tested on three key lepidopteran pests that attack Brassica crops, i.e., the imported cabbageworm, the cabbage looper and the diamondback moth. After 12 days, the mean number of larvae was significantly lower in microencapsulated formulations than in a commercial B. t. formulation, and the effect of microencapsulated formulations was comparable to a chemical pesticide (lambda-cyhalothrin. Therefore, colloïdosomal microcapsule formulations successfully extend the bioactivity of B. t. for the management of lepidopteran pests of Brassica crops.

  11. Volatile Organic Compounds Induced by Herbivory of the Soybean Looper Chrysodeixis includens in Transgenic Glyphosate-Resistant Soybean and the Behavioral Effect on the Parasitoid, Meteorus rubens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strapasson, Priscila; Pinto-Zevallos, Delia M; Da Silva Gomes, Sandra M; Zarbin, Paulo H G

    2016-08-01

    Transgenic soybean plants (RR) engineered to express resistance to glyphosate harbor a variant of the enzyme EPSPS (5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase) involved in the shikimic acid pathway, the biosynthetic route of three aromatic amino acids: phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan. The insertion of the variant enzyme CP4 EPSPS confers resistance to glyphosate. During the process of genetic engineering, unintended secondary effects are likely to occur. In the present study, we quantified volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted constitutively or induced in response to herbivory by the soybean looper Chrysodeixis includens in transgenic soybean and its isogenic (untransformed) line. Since herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) are known to play a role in the recruitment of natural enemies, we assessed whether changes in VOC profiles alter the foraging behavior of the generalist endoparasitic larval parasitoid, Meteorus rubens in the transgenic line. Additionally, we assessed whether there was a difference in plant quality by measuring the weight gain of the soybean looper. In response to herbivory, several VOCs were induced in both the conventional and the transgenic line; however, larger quantities of a few compounds were emitted by transgenic plants. Meteorus rubens females were able to discriminate between the odors of undamaged and C. includens-damaged plants in both lines, but preferred the odors emitted by herbivore-damaged transgenic plants over those emitted by herbivore-damaged conventional soybean plants. No differences were observed in the weight gain of the soybean looper. Our results suggest that VOC-mediated tritrophic interactions in this model system are not negatively affected. However, as the preference of the wasps shifted towards damaged transgenic plants, the results also suggest that genetic modification affects that tritrophic interactions in multiple ways in this model system.

  12. Survey of cabbage experimental hybrids (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Červenski Janko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cabbage takes up significant area in vegetable sowing structure, and one of the factors of improving this production is adequate varieties selection. During the breeding process, experimental hybrids are tested in relation to currently grown varieties and hybrids in production. In this paper the characteristics of 18 cabbage genotypes are presented, out of which there are 9 experimental hybrids, 4 varieties and 5 hybrids from broader production. Cabbage genotypes in the trial are of differing length of growing season, as well as differing head weight. Properties variability analysis was performed using PCA method, where two main components were chosen based on screen test, and these were used to define 57.7%. Head weight and head diameter are properties based on which the tested hybrids were graded into quantitatively different groups.

  13. Sulfur dioxide : Relevance of toxic and nutritional effects for Chinese cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Liping; Stulen, Ineke; De Kok, Luit J.

    2006-01-01

    Shoots of Chinese cabbage formed a sink for atmospheric SO2 and there was a linear relation between the rate of uptake and the atmospheric SO2 level (0.03-1.4 mu l l(-1)). Chinese cabbage appeared to be rather susceptible to the toxic effects of SO2. Shoot biomass production was reduced upon

  14. Effects of trophic level and metamorphosis on discrimination of hydrogen isotopes in a plant-herbivore system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jacob M.; Wolf, Nathan; Stricker, Craig A.; Collier, Timothy R.; Martinez del Rio, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The use of stable isotopes in ecological studies requires that we know the magnitude of discrimination factors between consumer and element sources. The causes of variation in discrimination factors for carbon and nitrogen have been relatively well studied. In contrast, the discrimination factors for hydrogen have rarely been measured. We grew cabbage looper caterpillars (Trichoplusia ni) on cabbage (Brassica oleracea) plants irrigated with four treatments of deuterium-enriched water (δD = -131, -88, -48, and -2‰, respectively), allowing some of them to reach adulthood as moths. Tissue δD values of plants, caterpillars, and moths were linearly correlated with the isotopic composition of irrigation water. However, the slope of these relationships was less than 1, and hence, discrimination factors depended on the δD value of irrigation water. We hypothesize that this dependence is an artifact of growing plants in an environment with a common atmospheric δD value. Both caterpillars and moths were significantly enriched in deuterium relative to plants by ~45‰ and 23‰ respectively, but the moths had lower tissue to plant discrimination factors than did the caterpillars. If the trophic enrichment documented here is universal, δD values must be accounted for in geographic assignment studies. The isotopic value of carbon was transferred more or less faithfully across trophic levels, but δ15N values increased from plants to insects and we observed significant non-trophic 15N enrichment in the metamorphosis from larvae to adult.

  15. In-Season Yield Prediction of Cabbage with a Hand-Held Active Canopy Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Rongting; Min, Ju; Wang, Yuan; Cheng, Hu; Zhang, Hailin; Shi, Weiming

    2017-10-08

    Efficient and precise yield prediction is critical to optimize cabbage yields and guide fertilizer application. A two-year field experiment was conducted to establish a yield prediction model for cabbage by using the Greenseeker hand-held optical sensor. Two cabbage cultivars (Jianbao and Pingbao) were used and Jianbao cultivar was grown for 2 consecutive seasons but Pingbao was only grown in the second season. Four chemical nitrogen application rates were implemented: 0, 80, 140, and 200 kg·N·ha -1 . Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was collected 20, 50, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 130, and 140 days after transplanting (DAT). Pearson correlation analysis and regression analysis were performed to identify the relationship between the NDVI measurements and harvested yields of cabbage. NDVI measurements obtained at 110 DAT were significantly correlated to yield and explained 87-89% and 75-82% of the cabbage yield variation of Jianbao cultivar over the two-year experiment and 77-81% of the yield variability of Pingbao cultivar. Adjusting the yield prediction models with CGDD (cumulative growing degree days) could make remarkable improvement to the accuracy of the prediction model and increase the determination coefficient to 0.82, while the modification with DFP (days from transplanting when GDD > 0) values did not. The integrated exponential yield prediction equation was better than linear or quadratic functions and could accurately make in-season estimation of cabbage yields with different cultivars between years.

  16. Dissipation and residue behavior of emamectin benzoate on apple and cabbage field application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Zhao, Pengyue; Zhang, Fengzu; Li, Yanjie; Du, Fengpei; Pan, Canping

    2012-04-01

    A LC-ESI-MS/MS method with QuEChERS for analysis of emamectin benzoate in cabbage, apple and soil was established. At fortification levels of 0.001, 0.01 and 0.1 mg/kg in cabbage, apple and soil, it was shown that recoveries ranged from 75.9 to 97.0 percent with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 4.4-19.0 percent. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.001 mg/kg for cabbage, apple and soil. The dissipation half-lives of emamectin benzoate in cabbage, apple and soil were 1.34-1.72 day, 2.75-3.09 day and 1.89-4.89 day, respectively. The final residues of emamectin benzoate ranged from 0.001 to 0.052 mg/kg in cabbages, 0.003 to 0.090 mg/kg in apples and 0.001 to 0.089 mg/kg in soils, respectively. Therefore, it would be unlikely to cause health problems if emamectin benzoate was applied according to the use pattern suggested by the manufactures on the label. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Growth of Listeria spp. in shredded cabbage is enhanced by a mild heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ells, Timothy C; Truelstrup Hansen, Lisbeth

    2010-03-01

    Mild thermal processing can enhance the shelf life of cut fruits and vegetables by delaying the onset of spoilage and preserving the organoleptic properties of shredded cabbage. However, food safety issues related to this process have not been fully investigated. Therefore, the survival and growth of Listeria spp. on cabbage treated in this manner was examined. Experimentally, 24 strains of Listeria spp. (including L. monocytogenes) were inoculated onto cut and intact cabbage tissues and stored at 5 degrees C. All strains on intact tissues exhibited a moderate decline in numbers (up to 1.0 log CFU/cm(2)) over the 28-day storage period. Conversely, cut tissue supported growth of most strains during the first 7 to 14 days of incubation with maximum increases of 1.2 log CFU/cm(2). Subsequently, the survival or growth on heat-treated (50 degrees C for 3 min) and untreated shredded cabbage of four L. monocytogenes and four nonpathogenic Listeria spp. strains were compared during storage for 21 days at 5 degrees C. Growth on untreated shred for all strains was similar to the results observed on cut tissue with a maximum increase of approximately 1.0 log CFU/g. However, in the heat-treated cabbage shred all strains displayed a rapid increase in growth (up to 2.5 log CFU/g) during the first 7 days of incubation, which may be indicative of the destruction of an endogenous growth-inhibiting compound within the cabbage. In conclusion, this study shows that mild thermal treatments of cut cabbage may promote pathogen growth if other inimical barriers are not implemented downstream of the thermal treatment.

  18. Rapid Communication. Monitoring the occurrence of bacteria in stored cabbage heads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eichmeier Aleš

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-six cabbage heads stored under typical conditions in a storage hall in Moravia, Czech Republic, were tested for the presence of bacteria by the method of isolation from three different parts of the cabbage heads. Isolations were carried out from stalks, inner and superficial leaves. Two samplings were done; in November 2015 and February 2016. Bacterial cultures were sequenced in the part of 16S rRNA region; bacteria were identified according to the sequences obtained. The most prevalent bacteria were of the genus Pseudomonas. Genera: Klebsiella, Erwinia, Pantoea, Bacillus were also identified. The results provided an interesting insight into the bacterial spectrum in stored cabbage heads and their dynamics during storage. The nucleotide sequences which were found were saved in GenBank/NCBI under accession numbers KX160104-KX160145.

  19. Dissipation and residues of emamectin benzoate in cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuaigang; Zhang, Fengzu; Wang, Lei; Pan, Canping

    2012-09-01

    Emamectin benzoate residue dynamics and final residues in supervised field trials at GAP conditions were studied. An HPLC-MS analytical method for the determination of emamectin benzoate in cabbage and soil was developed. The recoveries of emamectin benzoate on cabbage and soil were observed from 71% to 102% at fortification levels of 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg. The reported limit of quantification (LOQ) was found to be 0.01 mg/kg. The dissipation experiments showed the half-lives (T(1/2)) of emamectin benzoate was around 1 days. At pre-harvest intervals (PHI) of 7 and 12 days, emamectin benzoate residue was observed to be below the LOQ.

  20. Domestic cooking methods affect the nutritional quality of red cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Zheng, Yonghua; Yang, Zhenfeng; Cao, Shifeng; Shao, Xingfeng; Wang, Hongfei

    2014-10-15

    The aim of this work is to investigate the effects of domestic cooking methods, including steaming, microwave heating, boiling and stir-frying on the nutritional quality of red cabbage. Compared with fresh-cut red cabbage, all cooking methods were found to cause significant reduction in anthocyanin and total glucosinolates contents. Moreover, steaming resulted in significantly greater retention of vitamin C and DPPH radical-scavenging activity, while stir-frying and boiling, two popular Chinese cooking methods, led to significant losses of total phenolic, vitamin C, DPPH radical-scavenging activity, and total soluble sugar as well as reducing sugars. Normally, red cabbage consumed fresh in salads could maintain the highest nutrition. However, considering the habits of Asian cuisine, it is recommended to use less water and less cooking time, such as steaming based on our present results, so as to retain the optimum benefits of the health-promoting compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Genome-wide analysis of the SBP-box gene family in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hua-Wei; Song, Xiao-Ming; Duan, Wei-Ke; Wang, Yan; Hou, Xi-Lin

    2015-11-01

    The SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN (SBP)-box gene family contains highly conserved plant-specific transcription factors that play an important role in plant development, especially in flowering. Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) is a leafy vegetable grown worldwide and is used as a model crop for research in genome duplication. The present study aimed to characterize the SBP-box transcription factor genes in Chinese cabbage. Twenty-nine SBP-box genes were identified in the Chinese cabbage genome and classified into six groups. We identified 23 orthologous and 5 co-orthologous SBP-box gene pairs between Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis. An interaction network among these genes was constructed. Sixteen SBP-box genes were expressed more abundantly in flowers than in other tissues, suggesting their involvement in flowering. We show that the MiR156/157 family members may regulate the coding regions or 3'-UTR regions of Chinese cabbage SBP-box genes. As SBP-box genes were found to potentially participate in some plant development pathways, quantitative real-time PCR analysis was performed and showed that Chinese cabbage SBP-box genes were also sensitive to the exogenous hormones methyl jasmonic acid and salicylic acid. The SBP-box genes have undergone gene duplication and loss, evolving a more refined regulation for diverse stimulation in plant tissues. Our comprehensive genome-wide analysis provides insights into the SBP-box gene family of Chinese cabbage.

  2. Effect of Banana Stalk Organic Fertilizer on the Growth of Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheli; DING; Lina; HAN; Zhiqiang; JIN; Bizun; WANG; Huicai; ZENG; Wei; ZHENG; Yingdui; HE; Xiaoping; ZANG

    2016-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of waste disposal after banana harvest,we use banana stalk to produce banana stalk organic fertilizer,through a plot experiment. We compare the influence of normal organic fertilizer( Wanlubao) and banana stalk organic fertilizer as base fertilizers on Chinese cabbage growth,and evaluate the economic benefits of banana stalk organic fertilizer. The results show that organic fertilizer has little effect on water content and nutrient content of Chinese cabbage,but has significant effect on plant height and leaf width. Using organic fertilizer can increase the production of Chinese cabbage by 22. 50%- 43. 10%. With 6750 kg / ha normal organic fertilizer,Chinese cabbage gets the highest yield,which reaches 30135 kg / ha,followed by the treatment of 6750 kg / ha stalk organic fertilizer. At farmers’ conventional fertilization level( 4500 kg / ha),stalk organic fertilizer can increase the yield by more than 3. 50% in comparison with the normal organic fertilizer,and the economic benefit increases by 1800 yuan / ha. As a kind of banana waste cycling product,banana stalk organic fertilizer is of low cost and good effect,and can be used instead of normal organic fertilizer.

  3. Thermal degradation of glucosinolates in red cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, K.; Barrett, D.M.; Bosch Suades, C.; Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.

    2006-01-01

    Thermal degradation of individual glucosinolates within the plant matrix was studied. Red cabbage samples were heated at different temperatures for various times. To rule out the influence of enzymatic breakdown and to focus entirely on the thermal degradation of glucosinolates, myrosinase was

  4. Physiological and health quality of commercial lettuce and cabbage seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleyton Teles Contreiras Paiva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Physiological and sanitary seed quality is essential for rapid and uniform crop establishment at field, a factor which contributes to vegetable crop production success. The aim was to evaluate physiological and sanitary quality of lettuce and cabbage seeds coming three lots acquired in trade. Physiological quality was determined by means of germination test and index of speed germination. Health status was assessed through sanity test in Petri dishes containing BDA medium. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replications and the averages of each lot compared among themselves by Tukey test (5%. No statistical analyzes were performed to health test and samples were evaluated for presence of microorganisms on the plates. Aspergillus spp., Rhizopus spp., cocci and bacillus are associated with lettuce seeds, and Aspergillus spp., cocci and bacillus are associated with cabbage seeds, but this association can not interfere with germination performance at laboratory. Information about germination contained in the package do not always coincide with those examined in situ. Lettuce and cabbage seeds are being marketed carrying pathogens.

  5. High Accumulation and Subcellular Distribution of Thallium in Green Cabbage (Brassica Oleracea L. Var. Capitata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Zengping; He, Libin; Xiao, Tangfu; Márton, László

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of thallium (Tl) in brassicaceous crops is widely known, but both the uptake extents of Tl by the individual cultivars of green cabbage and the distribution of Tl in the tissues of green cabbage are not well understood. Five commonly available cultivars of green cabbage grown in the Tl-spiked pot-culture trials were studied for the uptake extent and subcellular distribution of Tl. The results showed that all the trial cultivars mainly concentrated Tl in the leaves (101∼192 mg/kg, DW) rather than in the roots or stems, with no significant differences among cultivars (p = 0.455). Tl accumulation in the leaves revealed obvious subcellular fractionation: cell cytosol and vacuole > cell wall > cell organelles. The majority (∼ 88%) of leaf-Tl was found to be in the fraction of cytosol and vacuole, which also served as the major storage site for other major elements such as Ca and Mg. This specific subcellular fractionation of Tl appeared to enable green cabbage to avoid Tl damage to its vital organelles and to help green cabbage tolerate and detoxify Tl. This study demonstrated that all the five green cabbage cultivars show a good application potential in the phytoremediation of Tl-contaminated soils.

  6. Control Efficacy of Fungicides on Chinese Cabbage Clubroot under Several Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Yong Eom

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available To develop the efficient screening methods for antifungal compound active to Chinese cabbage clubroot caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, the control efficacy of three fungicides fluazinam, ethaboxam, and cyazofamid on the disease was tested under several conditions such as soil types, cultivars of Chinese cabbage, growth stages of the host, and inoculum concentrations. The in vivo antifungal activities of the fungicides on clubroot of two Chinese cabbage cultivars were hardly different. At 7- and 14-day-old seedlings, the fungicides were more effective to control of clubroot than at 21-day-old seedlings. In a commercial horticulture media soil (CNS, disease severity of untreated controls was higher and control activity of the fungicides was less than in a mixture of CNS and upland soil (1:1, v/v. Disease development of the seedlings inoculated with P. brassicae at 1.8×10(7 spores/pot to 1.1×10(9 spores/pot was almost same, but control efficacy of the fungicides was negatively correlated with inoculum dosages. To effectively select in vivo antifungal compound on Chinese cabbage clubroot, 14-day-old seedlings need to be inoculated with P. brassicae by drenching the spore suspension to give 1×10(8 spores/pot 1 day after chemical treatment. To develop clubroot, the inoculated plants are incubated in a growth chamber at 20℃ for 2 days, and then cultivated in a greenhouse (20±5℃ for four weeks.

  7. Effects of salinity and flooding on seedlings of cabbage palm (Sabal palmetto).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, L; Williams, K

    1996-03-01

    Sabal palmetto (Walt.) Lodd. ex Schultes (cabbage palm) dominates the coastal limit of many forests in North Florida and Georgia, United States. Changes in saltwater flooding due to sea level rise have been credicted with pushing the coastal limit of cabbage palms inland, eliminating regeneration before causing death of mature trees. Localized freshwater discharge along the coast causes different forest stands to experience tidal flooding with waters that differ in salinity. To elucidate the effect of such variation on regeneration failure under tidal flooding, we examined relative effects of flooding and salinity on the performance of cabbage palm seedlings. We examined the relationship between seedling establishment and degree of tidal inundation in the field, compared the ability of seedlings to withstand tidal flooding at two coastal sites that differed in tidal water salinity, and investigated the physiological responses of cabbage palm seedlings to salinity and flooding in a factorial greenhouse experiment. Seedling survival was inversely correlated with depth and frequency of tidal flooding. Survival of seedlings at a coastal site flooded by waters low in salinity [c. 3 parts per thousand (ppt)] was greater than that at a site flooded by waters higher in salinity (up to 23 ppt). Greenhouse experiments revealed that leaves of seedlings in pots flushed twice daily with salt solutions of 0 ppt and 8 ppt exhibited little difference in midmorning net CO 2 assimilation rates; those flushed with solutions of 15 ppt and 22 ppt, in contrast, had such low rates that they could not be detected. Net CO 2 assimilation rates also declined with increasing salinity for seedlings in pots that were continuously inundated. Continuous root zone inundation appeared to ameliorate effects of salinity on photosynthesis, presumably due to increased salt concentrations and possibly water deficits in periodically flushed pots. Such problems associated with periodic flushing by salt

  8. Comparison of cauliflower-insect-fungus interactions and pesticides for cabbage root fly control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razinger, Jaka; Žerjav, Metka; Zemljič-Urbančič, Meta; Modic, Špela; Lutz, Matthias; Schroers, Hans-Josef; Grunder, Jürg; Fellous, Simon; Urek, Gregor

    2017-12-01

    Cabbage root fly (Delia radicum L.) control represents a major challenge in brassica production, therefore different management strategies for its control were tested in conventionally managed open field cauliflower production. Strategies included treatments with low-risk methods such as nitrogen lime, the insecticide spinosad and the Beauveria bassiana ATCC 74040-based biopesticide Naturalis. Their effects were compared with treatments based on nonformulated fungal species Metarhizium brunneum, B. bassiana, Clonostachys solani, Trichoderma atroviride, T. koningiopsis, and T. gamsii and commercial insecticides λ-cyhalothrin and thiamethoxam. Spinosad and thiamethoxam were pipetted to individual plants before transplanting; λ-cyhalothrin was sprayed after transplanting; nitrogen lime was applied at first hoeing. Nonformulated fungi were delivered onto cauliflower plantlets' roots as a single pretransplantation inoculation. The cabbage root fly population dynamics exhibited a strong spatiotemporal variation. The lowest number of cabbage root fly pupae recovered from cauliflower roots in the field experiments was recorded in plants treated with spinosad (significant reduction), followed by Naturalis and one of the tested M. brunneum strains (nonsignificant reduction). Significantly more pupae were counted in the nitrogen lime treatment. The field experiments showed that a single drench of cauliflower plantlets with spinosad offered consistent and enduring cabbage root fly control. Naturalis and nonformulated fungal isolates did not decrease cabbage root fly pressure significantly, apparently due to lack of statistical power. The implications of the substantial intra- and inter-annual pest pressure variation and the benefits of using single plant treatments are discussed, and recommendations for improvement of rhizosphere-competence utilizing biological control strategies provided. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  9. Correlations between colonization of onion thrips and leaf reflectance measures across six cabbage varieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    János Bálint

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to reveal if the UV-A, and visible light reflection of leaves of white cabbage varieties is correlated to resistance against onion thrips. The antixenotic resistance (AR against onion thrips and thrips damage differed between varieties Balashi, Bloktor, Riana - considered resistant - and Green Gem, Hurricane, Quisor - considered susceptible. The solar UV-A (340-400 nm and visible (401-650 nm light reflection of white cabbage leaves were recorded. Correlation between AR against onion thrips and reflection of leaves in UV-A and visible range of the studied white cabbage varieties were computed. According to the AR evaluation onion thrips density was always higher on susceptible than on resistant varieties. The UV-A light reflection of head forming leaves and the contrast between head and exterior leaves (H/E was negatively correlated with onion thrips host preference at an early stage of cabbage head formation. The visible light reflection of both head forming and exterior leaves was also negatively correlated with onion thrips host preference. Susceptible varieties had greater damage ratings at harvest than resistant ones and positive correlations were observed between AR and damage. AR against onion thrips may be affected by differences in reflection of cabbage leaves at an early growth stage. It is suggested that more intensive reflection of leaves and/or higher contrast values between the reflectance intensity of head versus outer leaves made the resistant varieties less attractive to onion thrips. Our results reported here provide the first evidence of negative correlation between UV-A and visible reflection of leaves and AR of white cabbage against a dangerous insect pest, opening new perspectives for understanding the role of reflection by plant leaves in pest management.

  10. Identification of Chinese cabbage genotypes with low cadmium accumulation for food safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Weitao; Zhou Qixing; Sun Yuebing; Liu Rui

    2009-01-01

    The pot-culture experiment and field studies were conducted to screen out and identify cadmium (Cd) excluders from 40 Chinese cabbage genotypes for food safety. The results of the pot-culture experiment indicated that the shoot Cd concentrations under three treatments (1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mg Cd kg -1 Soil) varied significantly (p -1 , respectively. The Cd concentrations in 12 cabbage genotypes were lower than 0.50 mg kg -1 . The enrichment factors (EFs) and translocation factors (TFs) in 8 cabbage genotypes were lower than 1.0. The field studies further identified Lvxing 70 as a Cd-excluder genotype (CEG), which is suitable to be planted in low Cd-contaminated soils (Cd concentration should be lower than 1.25 mg kg -1 ) for food safety. - Lvxing 70 was identified as a Cd-excluder genotype (CEG) and suitable to be cultivated in low Cd-contaminated soils for food safety.

  11. Chronic and acute risk assessment of human exposed to novaluron-bifenthrin mixture in cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Kaiwei; Li, Li; Li, Wei; Yuan, Longfei; Liu, Fengmao

    2016-09-01

    Based on the dissipation and residual level in cabbage determined by gas chromatography coupled with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD), chronic and acute risk assessments of the novaluron and bifenthrin were investigated. At different spiked levels, mean recoveries were between 81 and 108 % with relative standard deviations (RSDs) from 1.1 to 6.8 %. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.01 mg kg(-1), and good linearity with correlation coefficient (>0.9997) were obtained. The half-lives of novaluron and bifenthrin in cabbage were in the range of 3.2~10 days. Based on the consumption data in China, the risk quotients (RQs) of novaluron and bifenthrin were all below 100 %. The chronic and acute risk of novaluron in cabbage was relatively low, while bifenthrin exerts higher acute risk to humans than chronic risk. The obtained results indicated that the use of novaluron-bifenthrin mixture does not seem to pose any chronic or acute risk to humans even if cabbages are consumed at high application dosages and short preharvest interval (PHI).

  12. Earliness, leaf surface wax and sugar content predict varietal differences for thrips damage in cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorrips, R.E.; Steenhuis-Broers, M.M.; Tiemens-Hulscher, M.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.

    2010-01-01

    When cabbage is cultivated for storage in the Netherlands, it is usually harvested around mid-October. This type of cabbage crop may be severely damaged by thrips (Thrips tabaci). The thrips population on the plants and the more severe symptoms develop mostly during September and October. Also

  13. Quantification of glucosinolates, anthocyanins, free amino acids, and vitamin C in inbred lines of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Suhyoung; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Lee, Min-Ki; Chun, Jin-Hyuk; Seo, Jeong Min; Lee, Sang-Won; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Kim, Sun-Ju

    2014-02-15

    We profiled and quantified glucosinolates (GSLs), anthocyanins, free amino acids, and vitamin C metabolites in forty-five lines of green and red cabbages. Analysis of these distinct cabbages revealed the presence of 11 GSLs, 13 anthocyanins, 22 free amino acids, and vitamin C. GSL contents were varied amongst the different lines of cabbage. The total GSL content was mean 10.6 μmol/g DW, and sinigrin was the predominant GSL accounted mean 4.0 μmol/g DW (37.7% of the total) followed by glucoraphanin (1.9) and glucobrassicin (2.4). Amongst the 13 anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-(sinapoyl) diglucoside-5-glucoside levels were the highest. The amounts of total free amino acids in green cabbage lines ranged 365.9 mg/100g fresh weight (FW) to 1089.1mg/100g FW. Vitamin C levels were much higher in red cabbage line (129.9 mg/100g FW). Thus, the amounts of GSLs, anthocyanins, free amino acids, and vitamin C varied widely, and the variations in these compounds between the lines of cabbage were significant. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Analytical and Mathematical Determination of Shelf-life of Fresh-cut Red Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulya Şimşek

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Fresh-cut fruits and vegetables have longer shelf lives when appropriate packaging materials having proper permeability properties are used. For this reason eight different packaging materials having different permeability properties were used and it was aimed to determine the appropriate packaging material and analytical and mathematical shelf lives of fresh cut red cabbage. Head space analysis, microbiological and sensorial analysis together with pH, weight loss (% and colour analysis were performed. As a result of the study, it was determined that low density polyethylene (LDPE film having 20 µm of thickness and 12276 cc/m2-day of oxygen permeability was determined as the most suitable packaging material for packaging of fresh-cut red cabbage. Mathematical microbiological shelf life was determined as 12.33 days and both analytical microbiological and sensorial shelf lives were determined as 12 days. It was shown that Gompertz equation can be used in determination of microbiological shelf life of fresh-cut red cabbage since the analytical and mathematical shelf life results fit to each other. Also, the equation that can be used in calculation of shelf life of fresh-cut red cabbage when packaged with AYPE film having 12276 cc/m2-day oxygen permeability was determined as log(Nt/N0 = 6,83 × exp{-exp{[(0,80*e(6,83-t/6,83]+1}}.

  15. In Vitro Assessment of Cadmium Bioavailability in Chinese Cabbage Grown on Different Soils and Its Toxic Effects on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rukhsanda Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The minimum concentration of cadmium (Cd, by Chinese cabbage grown on Cd contaminated soils that can initiate toxicity in human liver cells using in vitro digestion coupled with Caco-2/HL-7702 cell models was studied. Cadmium bioaccessibility in the gastric phase for yellow soil (YS cabbage (40.84% and calcareous soil (CS cabbage (21.54% was significantly higher than small intestinal phase with the corresponding values of 21.2% and 11.11%, respectively. Cadmium bioavailability was higher in YS cabbage (5.27%–14.66% than in CS cabbage (1.12%–9.64%. Cadmium concentrations (>0.74 μg transported from YS and CS cabbage were able to induce oxidative (MDA, H2O2 stress by inhibiting antioxidant (SOD, GPx enzyme activities in human liver cells (HL-7702. Additionally the study revealed that the ingestion of Cd contaminated Chinese cabbage grown in acidic soil (yellow soil weakened the antioxidant defense system under all levels of contamination (2, 6, and 9 mg·kg−1 which ultimately escalated the oxidative stress in liver cells; however, in case of CS cabbage, a marked oxidative stress was observed only at 9 mg kg−1 Cd level of soil. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor Cd concentrations in leafy vegetables grown on acidic soils to minimize human health risk.

  16. In Vitro Assessment of Cadmium Bioavailability in Chinese Cabbage Grown on Different Soils and Its Toxic Effects on Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Muhammad Tariq; He, Zhenli; Sun, Kewang; Xiaoe, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The minimum concentration of cadmium (Cd), by Chinese cabbage grown on Cd contaminated soils that can initiate toxicity in human liver cells using in vitro digestion coupled with Caco-2/HL-7702 cell models was studied. Cadmium bioaccessibility in the gastric phase for yellow soil (YS) cabbage (40.84%) and calcareous soil (CS) cabbage (21.54%) was significantly higher than small intestinal phase with the corresponding values of 21.2% and 11.11%, respectively. Cadmium bioavailability was higher in YS cabbage (5.27%–14.66%) than in CS cabbage (1.12%–9.64%). Cadmium concentrations (>0.74 μg) transported from YS and CS cabbage were able to induce oxidative (MDA, H2O2) stress by inhibiting antioxidant (SOD, GPx) enzyme activities in human liver cells (HL-7702). Additionally the study revealed that the ingestion of Cd contaminated Chinese cabbage grown in acidic soil (yellow soil) weakened the antioxidant defense system under all levels of contamination (2, 6, and 9 mg·kg−1) which ultimately escalated the oxidative stress in liver cells; however, in case of CS cabbage, a marked oxidative stress was observed only at 9 mg kg−1 Cd level of soil. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor Cd concentrations in leafy vegetables grown on acidic soils to minimize human health risk. PMID:26167479

  17. Frequency-domain multiplexing of TES microcalorimeter array with CABBAGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyomoto, N.; Ichitsubo, T.; Mitsuda, K.; Yamasaki, N.Y.; Fujimoto, R.; Oshima, T.; Futamoto, K.; Takei, Y.; Fujimori, T.; Yoshida, K.; Ishisaki, Y.; Morita, U.; Koga, T.; Shinozaki, K.; Sato, K.; Takai, N.; Ohashi, T.; Miyazaki, T.; Nakayama, S.; Tanaka, K.; Morooka, T.; Chinone, K.

    2004-01-01

    Properties of Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) microcalorimeters operated with AC bias are studied utilizing the calorimeter Wheatstone bridge circuit called Calorimeter Bridge Biased by an AC Generator (CABBAGE). The CABBAGE eliminates the AC carrier significantly, thus enables us to study the AC responses of the TES with high sensitivity. We tested two kinds of TES devices operating at 110 and 440 mK, respectively. With the 110 mK device biased with 25 kHz, an energy resolution of 28 eV is obtained for Mn Kα line. On the other hand, we multiplexed the signals from two 440 mK device biased with 50 and 20 kHz, respectively, and obtained 167 and 271 eV energy resolutions. Even at the balance point of the bridge, AC signal did not disappear and odd-order harmonics were observed. They are considered to arise from the current dependence of the TES resistance, which is characterized by β≡d log R/d log I. Numerical solution for the CABBAGE response can reproduce the experimental results well if β=0.24±0.02. Since the harmonics may cause severe problem in the SQUID operation even after attenuated by a band-pass filter, especially at high bias frequency operation such as several hundred kHz, it is important to make β small

  18. Aphrodisiac pheromones from the wings of the Small Cabbage White and Large Cabbage White butterflies, Pieris rapae and Pieris brassicae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yildizhan, S.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Sramkova, A.; Ayasse, M.; Arsene, C.; Broeke, ten C.J.M.; Schulz, S.

    2009-01-01

    The small and large cabbage butterflies, Pieris rapae and P. brassicae, are found worldwide and are of considerable economic importance. The composition of the male scent-producing organs present on the wings was investigated. More than 120 components were identified, but only a small portion proved

  19. Dissipation kinetics of emamectin benzoate and lufenuron residues in cabbage grown under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Bizhang; Zhao, Qing; Hu, Jiye

    2015-12-01

    Residue analysis of emamectin benzoate and lufenuron in cabbage matrices and soil was developed using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method and ultra high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The samples were extracted with 1% acetic acid in acetonitrile (v/v) or 1% acetic acid in acetonitrile/water (5:1, v/v) and cleaned up by dispersive solid-phase extraction. Mean recoveries and relative standard deviations (RSDs) in all samples ranged 87.8-100.0 % and 3.6-12.6% for emamectin benzoate and 87.8-104.8 % and 6.2-11.5% for lufenuron, respectively. The validated method was used to evaluate the dissipation rate of emamectin benzoate and lufenuron in cabbage and soil as well as the residual levels in harvested cabbage and soil at different preharvest intervals (PHI). The half-lives of emamectin benzoate and lufenuron were 1.08-2.70 and 1.74-5.04 days in cabbage, and 1.42-4.01 and 0.94-6.18 days in soil, respectively. The terminal residues were below the China maximum residue limits (MRLs) at 3 days for emamectin benzoate (0.1 mg kg(-1)) and European Union MRLs at 5 days for lufenuron (0.5 mg kg(-1)), which suggested that 5 days could be recommended as the PHI for the commercial formulation of emamectin benzoate and lufenuron application in the Chinese cabbage field.

  20. Bt crops producing Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab and Cry1F do not harm the green lacewing, Chrysoperla rufilabris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Ce Tian

    Full Text Available The biological control function provided by natural enemies is regarded as a protection goal that should not be harmed by the application of any new pest management tool. Plants producing Cry proteins from the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt, have become a major tactic for controlling pest Lepidoptera on cotton and maize and risk assessment studies are needed to ensure they do not harm important natural enemies. However, using Cry protein susceptible hosts as prey often compromises such studies. To avoid this problem we utilized pest Lepidoptera, cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni and fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda, that were resistant to Cry1Ac produced in Bt broccoli (T. ni, Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab produced in Bt cotton (T. ni, and Cry1F produced in Bt maize (S. frugiperda. Larvae of these species were fed Bt plants or non-Bt plants and then exposed to predaceous larvae of the green lacewing Chrysoperla rufilabris. Fitness parameters (larval survival, development time, fecundity and egg hatch of C. rufilabris were assessed over two generations. There were no differences in any of the fitness parameters regardless if C. rufilabris consumed prey (T. ni or S. frugiperda that had consumed Bt or non-Bt plants. Additional studies confirmed that the prey contained bioactive Cry proteins when they were consumed by the predator. These studies confirm that Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab and Cry1F do not pose a hazard to the important predator C. rufilabris. This study also demonstrates the power of using resistant hosts when assessing the risk of genetically modified plants on non-target organisms.

  1. Influence Of Extension Education Workshop On Cabbage Growers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence Of Extension Education Workshop On Cabbage Growers Awareness And Knowledge Of Ipm In Aghtapeh Town, Iran. ... A survey was conducted among 60 farmers in Karaj County that included 30 workshop participants, and 30 randomly selected farmers. The study found that workshop participants had ...

  2. β-Amino-n-butyric Acid Regulates Seedling Growth and Disease Resistance of Kimchi Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong Chae Kim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-protein amino acid, β-amino-n-butyric acid (BABA, has been involved in diverse physiological processes including seedling growth, stress tolerance and disease resistance of many plant species. In the current study, treatment of kimchi cabbage seedlings with BABA significantly reduced primary root elongation and cotyledon development in a dose-dependent manner, which adverse effects were similar to the plant response to exogenous abscisic acid (ABA application. BABA was synergistically contributing ABA-induced growth arrest during the early seedling development. Kimchi cabbage leaves were highly damaged and seedling growth was delayed by foliar spraying with high concentrations of BABA (10 to 20 mM. BABA played roles differentially in in vitro fungal conidial germination, mycelial growth and conidation of necrotroph Alternaria brassicicola causing black spot disease and hemibiotroph Colletotrichum higginsianum causing anthracnose. Pretreatment with BABA conferred induced resistance of the kimchi cabbage against challenges by the two different classes of fungal pathogens in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that BABA is involved in plant development, fungal development as well as induced fungal disease resistance of kimchi cabbage plant.

  3. Extraction of red cabbage anthocyanins: optimization of the operation conditions of the column process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Fonseca Xavier

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to extract anthocyanins from the red cabbage. Batch studies under several extraction conditions indicated that acetic acid in aqueous solution (10% V/V was the best solvent, used in the proportion of 0.25 g of red cabbage mL-1. At this condition, column assays were carried out to evaluate the influence of the ionic force, pH, solvent flow rate, recirculated volume of red cabbage juice and the mass of red cabbage. Results showed that the pH, recirculation and mass of red cabbage had statistically significant effects, where the optimum operation conditions found for the process were pH 2.3, recirculation volume of the solvent 0.83 L and mass of red cabbage 50 g.Desde os primórdios dos tempos as antocianinas são extraídas de vegetais, mas avanços que garantam um processo viável e rentável exigem conhecimento, quantificação e controle das condições de operação. Estudos em batelada sob várias condições de extração indicaram que ácido acético em solução aquosa (10% V/V foi o melhor solvente, quando usado na proporção de 0,25 g de repolho roxo mL-1. Nesta condição de operação foram feitos ensaios em coluna para avaliar a influência da força iônica, pH, taxa de escoamento do solvente, volume recirculado da solução de extração e massa de repolho roxo. Os resultados mostraram que o pH, recirculação e massa de repolho foram estatisticamente significativos, e as condições ótimas de operação encontradas para o processo foram pH 2,3, volume de solvente recirculado de 0,83 L e massa de repolho roxo igual a 50g.

  4. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of Tuscan black cabbage, “tri-coloured” Swiss chard, “bicoloured” spinach and “blu savoy” cabbage and protection of blood lipids from

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    related to a combination of Tuscan black cabbage, “tri-coloured” Swiss chard, “bi-coloured” spinach and “blu savoy” cabbage and protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage. The food that is the subject of the health claim, a combination of Tuscan black cabbage (Brassica Oleracea botrytis L.), “tri......-coloured” Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris ciclaL.), “bi-coloured” spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and “blu savoy” cabbage (Brassica oleracea convar. capitata var. sabauda L.), is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage, may be a beneficial physiological effect......-coloured” Swiss chard, “bi-coloured” spinach and “blu savoy” cabbage and protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage....

  5. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of Tuscan black cabbage, “tri-coloured” Swiss chard, “bicoloured” spinach and “blu savoy” cabbage and maintenance of normal blood LDL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    related to a combination of Tuscan black cabbage, “tri-coloured” Swiss chard, “bi-coloured” spinach and “blu savoy” cabbage and maintenance of normal blood cholesterol concentration. The food that is the subject of the health claim, a combination of Tuscan black cabbage (Brassica Oleracea botrytis L.......), “tri-coloured” Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris ciclaL.), “bi-coloured” spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and “blu savoy” cabbage (Brassica oleracea convar. capitata var. sabauda L.), is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentration, is a beneficial......, “tri-coloured” Swiss chard, “bi-coloured” spinach and “blu savoy” cabbage and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentration....

  6. Preliminary Study of the Characteristics of Several Glossy Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L. Mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Jun

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To determine the characteristics and potential practical applications of glossy cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L. mutants, five different glossy mutants were studied. The amount of epicuticular wax covering the mutant leaves was only approximately 30% that of the wild-type (WT leaves. The wax crystals of WT plants were columnar and linear, while they were granular and rod-shaped in the mutants. Additionally, in WT cabbage, the primary wax components were alkanes, alcohols, fatty acids, ketones, and aldehydes. There was a significant decrease in the abundance of alkanes and ketones in the wax of the mutants. The glossy-green trait of the mutants may be the result of an inhibited alkane-forming pathway. Higher rates of chlorophyll leaching and water loss demonstrate that the mutant leaves were more permeable and sensitive to drought stress than the WT leaves. Growth curve results indicated that the growth rate of mutant-1 and mutant-3 was slower than that of the corresponding WT cabbage, resulting in shorter plants. However, the growth rate of mutant-2 was not influenced by the lack of coating wax. An investigation of the agronomic traits and heterosis of the glossy cabbage mutants indicated that all five mutants had glossy-green leaves, which was a favorable characteristic. The F1 plants derived from crosses involving mutant-2 exhibited obvious heterosis, suggesting the observed glossy-green trait is controlled by a dominant gene. Therefore, mutant-2 may be useful as a source of genetic material for future cabbage breeding experiments.

  7. Matrix Effects on the Stability and Antioxidant Activity of Red Cabbage Anthocyanins under Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsędek, Anna; Koziołkiewicz, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Red cabbage is, among different vegetables, one of the major sources of anthocyanins. In the present study an in vitro digestion method has been used to assay the influence of the physiological conditions in the stomach and small intestine, as well as faecal microflora on anthocyanins stability in red cabbage and anthocyanin-rich extract. The recovery of anthocyanins during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion was strongly influenced by food matrix. The results showed that other constituents present in cabbage enhanced the stability of anthocyanins during the digestion. The amount of anthocyanins (HPLC method) and antioxidant capacity (ABTS and FRAP assays) strongly decreased after pancreatic-bile digestion in both matrices but total phenolics content (Folin-Ciocalteu assay) in these digestions was higher than in initial samples. Incubation with human faecal microflora caused further decline in anthocyanins content. The results obtained suggest that intact anthocyanins in gastric and products of their decomposition in small and large intestine may be mainly responsible for the antioxidant activity and other physiological effects after consumption of red cabbage. PMID:24575407

  8. Matrix Effects on the Stability and Antioxidant Activity of Red Cabbage Anthocyanins under Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Podsędek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Red cabbage is, among different vegetables, one of the major sources of anthocyanins. In the present study an in vitro digestion method has been used to assay the influence of the physiological conditions in the stomach and small intestine, as well as faecal microflora on anthocyanins stability in red cabbage and anthocyanin-rich extract. The recovery of anthocyanins during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion was strongly influenced by food matrix. The results showed that other constituents present in cabbage enhanced the stability of anthocyanins during the digestion. The amount of anthocyanins (HPLC method and antioxidant capacity (ABTS and FRAP assays strongly decreased after pancreatic-bile digestion in both matrices but total phenolics content (Folin-Ciocalteu assay in these digestions was higher than in initial samples. Incubation with human faecal microflora caused further decline in anthocyanins content. The results obtained suggest that intact anthocyanins in gastric and products of their decomposition in small and large intestine may be mainly responsible for the antioxidant activity and other physiological effects after consumption of red cabbage.

  9. Kaempferol tetraglucosides from cabbage leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, J K; Nørbaek, R; Olsen, C E

    1998-12-01

    Four flavonol glycosides were isolated from a leaf extract of cabbage and characterized by chemical and spectroscopic methods including 1H and 13C NMR and negative ion FAB-MS. The common structure of the four compounds was kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-->2)glucopyranoside]-7- O-beta-D-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-->4)glucopyranoside]. This compound was found unmodified or acylated at C-2"' (outer glucose in sophorosyl moiety) with either sinapic acid, ferulic acid or caffeic acid. The possible role of diversity in glycosylation and acylation patterns of flavonol glycosides for plant defences against herbivores is discussed.

  10. Stability of head weight in cabbage accessions (Brassica oleracea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-05

    Oct 5, 2011 ... issue, evaluate accessions in multi-environment trials inclusive of ... better and yield higher across different locations. Stability indices are either based on regression analysis or principal component analysis (Bernardo, 2002). Some of .... RESULTS. Our analysis of variance of the cabbage accessions.

  11. Excellent electrochemical performances of cabbage-like polyaniline fabricated by template synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chenglong; Chen, Shaoyun; Wang, Yuan; Peng, Xianghong; Zhang, Weihong; Chen, Jian

    2016-07-01

    In this article, we explore a novel route to fabricate cabbage-like polyaniline (PANI) by in situ polymerization of aniline using the hydroxylated poly (methyl methacrylate) nanospheres (i.e. PMMAsbnd OHsbnd NS) as a template. A maximum specific capacitance of 584 F/g (the current density is 0.1 A/g) is achieved at 10 mV s-1 as well as a high stability of over 3000 cycles (the decrease in the SC is ∼9.1%), which suggests the potential application of the cabbage-like polyaniline in supercapacitors. The predominant electrochemical performances of the cabbage-like polyaniline can be attributed to their large surface area and larger-scale π-π conjugated system present in the quinoid structure of the PANI molecular chain, which can drastically facilitate electron diffusion and improve the utilization of the electroactive PANI during the charge/discharge processes. Accordingly, the facility of charge transfer can decrease resistance along with the PANI molecular chain to improve the electrochemical stability and achieve high-capacitance response characteristics. The present study introduces a new synthesis method for the development of various morphology of other conducting polymer, which may find potential applications in a variety of high-performance electrochemical devices.

  12. Appropriate NH4+: NO3- ratio improves low light tolerance of mini Chinese cabbage seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Linli; Liao, Weibiao; Dawuda, Mohammed Mujitaba; Yu, Jihua; Lv, Jian

    2017-01-23

    In northwest of China, mini Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis) is highly valued by consumers, and is widely cultivated during winter in solar-greenhouses where low light (LL) fluence (between 85 and 150 μmol m -2 s -1 in day) is a major abiotic stress factor limiting plant growth and crop productivity. The mechanisms with which various NH 4 + : NO 3 - ratios affected growth and photosynthesis of mini Chinese cabbage under normal (200 μmol m -2 s -1 ) and low (100 μmol m -2 s -1 ) light conditions was investigated. The four solutions with different ratios of NH 4 + : NO 3 - applied were 0:100, 10:90, 15:85 and 25:75 with the set up in a glasshouse in hydroponic culture. The most appropriate NH 4 + : NO 3 - ratio that improved the tolerance of mini Chinese cabbage seedlings to LL was found in our current study. Under low light, the application of NH 4 + : NO 3 - (10:90) significantly stimulated growth compared to only NO 3 - by increasing leaf area, canopy spread, biomass accumulation, and net photosynthetic rate. The increase in net photosynthetic rate was associated with an increase in: 1) maximum and effective quantum yield of PSII; 2) activities of Calvin cycle enzymes; and 3) levels of mRNA relative expression of several genes involved in Calvin cycle. In addition, glucose, fructose, sucrose, starch and total carbohydrate, which are the products of CO 2 assimilation, accumulated most in the cabbage leaves that were supplied with NH 4 + : NO 3 - (10:90) under LL condition. Low light reduced the carbohydrate: nitrogen (C: N) ratio while the application of NH 4 + : NO 3 - (10:90) alleviated the negative effect of LL on C: N ratio mainly by increasing total carbohydrate contents. The application of NH 4 + :NO 3 - (10:90) increased rbcL, rbcS, FBA, FBPase and TK expression and/or activities, enhanced photosynthesis, carbohydrate accumulation and improved the tolerance of mini Chinese cabbage seedlings to LL. The results of this study would provide

  13. Local cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) populations from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-15

    Jun 15, 2011 ... kraut is one of the best known traditional foods (Jevšnik et al, 2009). As in other ... harvested, stored in barrels of salt water, and left to ferment. On the ... In order to determine the genetic variability of cabbage grown in Serbia ...

  14. Temperature dependent functional response of Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) to the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moayeri, Hamid R. S.; Madadi, Hossein; Pouraskari, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Diaeretiella rapae MacIntosh (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) is one of the most common and successful parasitoids of the cabbage aphid. The functional response of D. rapae towards cabbage aphids was examined in laboratory studies at three constant temperatures, 17°C, 25°C and 30°C. D. rapae exhibited a...

  15. Resistance of Four Canola Genotypes Against Cabbage Aphid Brevicoryne brassicae (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H. MousaviAnzabi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Canola (Brassica napus L. is one of the prominent oil seed plants in Iran. This plant has good agricultural and food nourishment properties, such as resistant to drought, cold and salinity stresses and low level of cholesterol. Cabbage waxy aphid Brevicorynebrassicae (L. is the most important and cosmopolitan pest of cruciferous crops. This aphid is reduced 9 to 77% grain yields and up to 11% oil content. Developing environmental-friendly methods, such as deploying insect-resistant varieties to pest control was advised by scientists. Resistant varieties decrease production costs and can be integrated with other pest control policies in IPM programs. In a greenhouse experiment plants of cabbage, cauliflower wassusceptible host plant and broccoli, turnip, rapeseed, showed resistance to cabbage aphid. With the aim of identifying the existence of resistance resources, a laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the effects of seven canola genotypes on biological parameters of cabbage aphid. Detected resistant variety could be used as a resistance source. Material and Methods: In order to resistancy evaluation of canola, genotypes contain “RGS”,“Hyola-308”,“Hyola-401” and “Sarigol” to cabbage aphid, two experiments was conducted under field and greenhouse conditions in Kahriz region of West Azerbaijan province in 2010.In this study infestation index and tolerance in Field conditions and antibiosis study in greenhouse conditions was evaluated.To study antibiosis, genotypes were planted in pots with 10 replications based on completely random design and cabbage aphid population intrinsic rate of increase (rm was calculated. As followed: (Lotka 1924: 1= other population parameters computed by Carey (1993 method. Field experiment contains10 replications wereperformed based on complete randomized blocks experimental designs that five of them were under natural infestation and five others, free of infestation (control. To

  16. Antioxidant Activity of Cabbage and/or Carrot Against Oxidative Stress Induced by Gamma Irradiation in Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamza, R.G.; Mahmoud, K.A.

    2011-01-01

    Several studies indicated that diets rich in fruits and vegetables are protective against diseases, and populations that consume such diets have higher plasma antioxidants and exhibit lower risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Vegetable is considered major dietary source of fibers and antioxidants such as polyphenols, flavonoids and carotenoids that can protect against different dietary disorders. The present study was carried out to investigate the potential protective effects of cabbage and/or carrot against oxidative stress induced by gamma irradiation in male albino rats. Chemical composition and phenolic contents in cabbage and carrot were determined. Male albino rats were exposed to 5 Gy (single dose with rate 0.46 Gy/min) of whole body gamma irradiation. Thirty five rats were randomly divided into five groups as follow: group 1: control (rats fed on balanced diet for 6 weeks), group 2: irradiated (rats were exposed to whole gamma irradiation and fed on balanced diet for 6 weeks) and groups 3, 4 and 5: irradiated rats fed on balanced diet and received cabbage 15%, carrot 15% and a combination of cabbage and carrot, respectively. The results obtained revealed that the administration of cabbage and/or carrot diet significantly reduced the changes induced by gamma irradiation in the serum level of glucose and liver function parameters; serum aminotransferases (AST, ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein and albumin. In addition, significant improvements were observed in the serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). Significant enhancement in hepatic antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), was observed. The levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) associated with remarkable decrease in the level of lipid peroxidation (TBARS) were observed. Accordingly, it could be concluded that consumption of cabbage and/or carrot

  17. High tunnels: protection for rather than from insect pests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingwell, Laura L; Thompson, Sarah L; Kaplan, Ian; Foster, Ricky E

    2017-12-01

    High tunnels are a season extension tool creating a hybrid of field and greenhouse growing conditions. High tunnels have recently increased in the USA and thus research on their management is lacking. One purported advantage of these structures is protection from common field pests, but evidence to support this claim is lacking. We compared insect pest populations in high tunnels with field production over two years for three crops: tomato, broccoli and cucumber. Greenhouse pests (e.g. aphids, whiteflies) were more prevalent in high tunnels, compared to field plots. Hornworms (tobacco (Manduca sexta L.) and tomato (M. quinquemaculata Haworth)), a common field pest on tomato, were also more abundant in high tunnels, requiring chemical control while field populations were low. The crucifer caterpillar complex (imported cabbageworm (Pieris rapae L.), diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella L.) and cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni Hübner)) was also more abundant in high tunnels in 2010. Cucumber beetle (striped (Acalymma vittatum F.) and spotted (Diabrotica undecimpunctata Mannerheim)) densities were higher in high tunnels in 2010 and field plots in 2011. The common assumption that high tunnels offer protection from field pests was not supported. Instead, high tunnel growing conditions may facilitate higher pest populations. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Assessment of a cabbage/pak choï crop association to manage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-07-20

    Jul 20, 2005 ... INTRODUCTION. The Brassicaceae has ... diversified culture where the resources are .... cabbage cultures. This tomato .... improve biological control: case study on pea and ... Phloem sap intricacy and interplay with aphid ...

  19. Anthocoris nemorum (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) as predator of cabbage pests - voracity and prey preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Marie-Louise Rugholm; Enkegaard, Annie; Bang, Camilla Nordborg

    2010-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed with adult female Anthocoris nemorum (Linnaeus) (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) at 20°C ± 1°C, L16:D8, 60–70% RH to determine voracity and preference on cabbage aphids (Brevicoryne brassicae L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), diamondback moth larvae (Plutella xylostella L....... The results showed that A. nemorum is a voracious predator of B. brassicae, P. xylostella and F. occidentalis and can therefore be considered as a potential candidate for biological control in cabbage....

  20. Optimisation of irrigation regime for early potatoes, late cauliflower, early cabbage and celery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavadil, J.

    2006-01-01

    The paper deals with optimisation of threshold suction pressure of soil water on light soils for early potatoes, early cabbage, late cauliflower and celery on the basis of results from small-plot field experiments with differentiated irrigation regimes. Threshold suction pressures of soil water were identical for all crops: 15 kPa in treatment I, 30 kPa in treatment II, 60 kPa in treatment III, and 120 kPa in treatment IV. Precipitation, air temperature and relative humidity, global solar radiation, wind speed and direction were measured by an automated meteorological station. Reference and actual evapotranspirations were determined for the experimental crops according to FAO Paper No. 56 and by means of a biological curve (BC) in 2003-2005. To compare these two methods of calculation of actual evapotranspiration the soil moisture balance was found out. The optimum threshold suction pressure was 30 kPa for early potatoes, late cauliflower and cabbage and 15 kPa for celery. The seasonal irrigation depths determined on the basis of soil moisture balance, in which the crop evapotranspiration (ETc) was calculated either according to FAO 56 or by the BC, were substantially different from the really achieved irrigation depths with optimal suction pressure. The really achieved values were near to the depths calculated by the BC for potatoes, while for cauliflower, cabbage and celery they were similar to the depths calculated by the FAO 56 methodology. The theoretical irrigation depths calculated by the BC method sometimes differed substantially from those based on FAO 56. These differences were maximal for cauliflower and celery and minimal for cabbage. They decreased with decreasing irrigation depths. (author)

  1. Degradation dynamics of emamectin benzoate on cabbage under subtropical conditions of Punjab, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurmail; Chahil, G S; Jyot, Gagan; Battu, R S; Singh, Balwinder

    2013-07-01

    Emamectin benzoate (Proclaim 5 SG) was applied to cabbage at 8.5 and 17 g a.i. ha⁻¹, during the head initiation stage. A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analytical method, for the determination of emamectin benzoate in cabbage, was developed. Average recoveries of emamectin benzoate ranged from 92 % to 96 % at different fortification levels (0.05, 0.25 and 0.50 mg kg⁻¹). The initial deposits, 0.11 and 0.21 mg kg⁻¹ of emamectin benzoate at 8.5 and 17 g a.i. ha⁻¹, dissipated below the determination limit of 0.05 mg kg⁻¹ in 3 and 5 days, respectively.

  2. The ability to manipulate plant glucosinolates and nutrients explains the better performance of Bemisia tabaci Middle East-Asia Minor 1 than Mediterranean on cabbage plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hongying; Guo, Litao; Wang, Shaoli; Xie, Wen; Jiao, Xiaoguo; Wu, Qingjun; Zhang, Youjun

    2017-08-01

    The performance of herbivorous insects is greatly affected by host chemical defenses and nutritional quality. Some herbivores have developed the ability to manipulate plant defenses via signaling pathways. It is currently unclear, however, whether a herbivore can benefit by simultaneously reducing plant defenses and enhancing plant nutritional quality. Here, we show that the better performance of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1; formerly the "B" biotype) than Mediterranean (MED; formerly the "Q" biotype) on cabbage is associated with a suppression of glucosinolate (GS) content and an increase in amino acid supply in MEAM1-infested cabbage compared with MED-infested cabbage. MEAM1 had higher survival, higher fecundity, higher intrinsic rate of increase ( r m ), a longer life span, and a shorter developmental time than MED on cabbage plants. Amino acid content was higher in cabbage infested with MEAM1 than MED. Although infestation by either biotype decreased the levels of total GS, aliphatic GS, glucoiberin, sinigrin, glucobrassicin, and 4OH-glucobrassicin, and the expression of related genes in cabbage, MED infestation increased the levels of 4ME-glucobrassicin, neoglucobrassicin, progoitrin, and glucoraphanin. The GS content and expression of GS-related genes were higher in cabbage infested with MED than with MEAM1. Our results suggest that MEAM1 performs better than MED on cabbage by manipulating host defenses and nutritional quality.

  3. Variations in cadmium accumulation among Chinese cabbage cultivars and screening for Cd-safe cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Weitao; Zhou Qixing; An Jing; Sun Yuebing; Liu Rui

    2010-01-01

    Variations in cadmium accumulation and translocation among 40 Chinese cabbage cultivars were studied to identify and screen out Cd-safe cultivars (CSCs), i.e. cultivars with low enough accumulation of Cd in their edible parts even when grown in contaminated soils. It was observed in the pot-culture experiment that there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) in shoot Cd concentrations under three Cd treatments (1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg), with corresponding average values 0.88, 4.45 and 7.76 mg/kg, respectively. Shoot Cd concentrations in 16 cabbage cultivars were lower than 0.50 mg/kg. The translocation factors (TFs) and the extraction factors (EFs) in five cabbage cultivars were lower than 1.0 in the pot-culture experiment. The field-culture experiment further validated that New Beijing 3 and Fengyuanxin 3 could be considered as CSCs. In particular, the two cultivars can be cultivated in low to moderate Cd-contaminated soils (Cd concentration <1.25 mg/kg) to minimize the Cd accumulation in the food.

  4. Allyl isothiocyanate enhances shelf life of minimally processed shredded cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Aparajita; Penna, Suprasanna; Variyar, Prasad S

    2015-09-15

    The effect of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), in combination with low temperature (10°C) storage on post harvest quality of minimally processed shredded cabbage was investigated. An optimum concentration of 0.05μL/mL AITC was found to be effective in maintaining the microbial and sensory quality of the product for a period of 12days. Inhibition of browning was shown to result from a down-regulation (1.4-fold) of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) gene expression and a consequent decrease in PAL enzyme activity and o-quinone content. In the untreated control samples, PAL activity increased following up-regulation in PAL gene expression that could be linearly correlated with enhanced o-quinone formation and browning. The efficacy of AITC in extending the shelf life of minimally processed shredded cabbage and its role in down-regulation of PAL gene expression resulting in browning inhibition in the product is reported here for the first time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Viability of sublethally injured coliform bacteria on fresh-cut cabbage stored in high CO2 atmospheres following rinsing with electrolyzed water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Hidemi; Inoue, Ayano

    2018-02-02

    The extent of sublethally injured coliform bacteria on shredded cabbage, either rinsed or not rinsed with electrolyzed water, was evaluated during storage in air and high CO 2 controlled atmospheres (5%, 10%, and 15%) at 5°C and 10°C using the thin agar layer (TAL) method. Sublethally injured coliform bacteria on nonrinsed shredded cabbage were either absent or they were injured at a 64-65% level when present. Rinsing of shredded cabbage with electrolyzed water containing 25ppm available chlorine reduced the coliform counts by 0.4 to 1.1 log and caused sublethal injury ranging from 42 to 77%. Pantoea ananatis was one of the species injured by chlorine stress. When shredded cabbage, nonrinsed or rinsed with electrolyzed water, was stored in air and high CO 2 atmospheres at 5°C for 7days and 10°C for 5days, coliform counts on TAL plates increased from 3.3-4.5 to 6.5-9.0 log CFU/g during storage, with the increase being greater at 10°C than at 5°C. High CO 2 of 10% and 15% reduced the bacterial growth on shredded cabbage during storage at 5°C. Although injured coliform bacteria were not found on nonrinsed shredded cabbage on the initial day, injured coliforms at a range of 49-84% were detected on samples stored in air and high CO 2 atmospheres at 5°C and 10°C. Injured cells were detected more frequently during storage at both temperatures irrespective of the CO 2 atmosphere when shredded cabbage was rinsed with electrolyzed water. These results indicated that injured coliform bacteria on shredded cabbage, either rinsed or not rinsed with electrolyzed water, exhibited different degrees of injury during storage regardless of the CO 2 atmosphere and temperature tested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Red cabbage yield, heavy metal content, water use and soil chemical characteristics under wastewater irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunc, Talip; Sahin, Ustun

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this 2-year field study was to evaluate the effects of drip irrigation with urban wastewaters reclaimed using primary (filtration) and secondary (filtration and aeration) processes on red cabbage growth and fresh yield, heavy metal content, water use and efficiency and soil chemical properties. Filtered wastewater (WW1), filtered and aerated wastewater (WW2), freshwater and filtered wastewater mix (1:1 by volume) (WW3) and freshwater (FW) were investigated as irrigation water treatments. Crop evapotranspiration decreased significantly, while water use efficiency increased under wastewater treatments compared to FW. WW1 treatment had the lowest value (474.2 mm), while FW treatments had the highest value (556.7 mm). The highest water use efficiency was found in the WW1 treatment as 8.41 kg m(-3), and there was a twofold increase with regard to the FW. Wastewater irrigation increased soil fertility and therefore red cabbage yield. WW2 treatment produced the highest total fresh yield (40.02 Mg ha(-1)). However, wastewater irrigation increased the heavy metal content in crops and soil. Cd content in red cabbage heads was above the safe limit, and WW1 treatment had the highest value (0.168 mg kg(-1)). WW3 treatment among wastewater treatments is less risky in terms of soil and crop heavy metal pollution and faecal coliform contamination. Therefore, WW3 wastewater irrigation for red cabbage could be recommended for higher yield and water efficiency with regard to freshwater irrigation.

  7. Natural regulation of Delia radicum in organic cabbage production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyling, Nicolai Vitt; Navntoft, Søren; Philipsen, Holger Frederik

    2013-01-01

    In a field experiment, we evaluated effects of three different organic white cabbage-cropping systems (O1, O2, O3) on the cabbage root fly, Delia radicum, and its egg predators and pupal parasitoids over 3 years. The three systems all complied with regulations for organic production, but varied...... in external nutrient input and N-recycling, and were compared to a conventionally farmed control. One organic system (O3) included an intercropped strip of green manure between crop rows. Oviposition by D. radicum was generally not reduced in organic cropping systems. However, higher pupae/egg ratios were...... observed in the conventional compared to all organic systems, indicating that immature survival from oviposition to pupation was reduced under all the three organic farming practices. In organic system O2 most small coleopteran predators were recorded, but predation on fly eggs was not significantly higher...

  8. Filmcoating the seed of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. convar. Capitata L.) and cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. Botrytis L.) with imidacloprid and spinosad to control insect pests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ester, A.; Putter, de H.; Bilsen, van J.G.P.M.

    2003-01-01

    Four field experiments were carried out between 1999 and 2001, to assess the protection against cabbage root fly larvae (Delia radicum), flea beetle (Phyllotreta nemorum and P. undulata), cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae) and caterpillars achieved in white cabbage and cauliflower crops by

  9. EFFICIENCY OF COMBINED APPLICATION OF GROWTH REGULATORS «OBEREG» AND «ZAVYAZY» FOR WHITE HEAD CABBAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. L. Alekseeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The comparative analysis of different ways of application of the growth regulators “Obereg” and “Zavyazy” for white head cabbage has been conducted. The most effective was the double spraying by the mixed growth regulators at the stage of 6-8 leaves and the stage of the beginning of the forming of head of cabbage (400 g/ha and 60 ml/ha. The time step between the treatments is 30 days. The treatments have speeded up the stage of the industrial ripeness on 5-6 days as compared to control and have increased yield of cabbage. The increasing of the content of dry  atter up to 1%, sugars up to 0.5%,  nd vitamin C up to 1.9% mg% was recorded. The nitrate content in all variants was in range of the maximum permissible concentration.

  10. Recovery in the soil-plant system of nitrogen from green manure applied on cabbage crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Ednaldo da Silva; Guerra, Jose Guilherme Marinho; Espindola, Jose Antonio Azevedo; Urquiaga, Segundo; Boddey, Robert Michael; Alves, Bruno Jose Rodrigues; Martelleto, Luiz Aurelio Peres

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine, in the soil-plant system, the recovery efficiency of N derived from green manure applied on cabbage (Brassica oleracea) crop. The experiment was divided into two stages: the first one consisted of the straw production of jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis), velvet bean (Mucuna cinereum), and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), in substrate enriched with 15 N. The second stage consisted of the application of 15 N-labeled green manure on the cabbage beds. Treatments consisted of: fresh residues of jack bean; fresh residues of velvet bean; fresh residues of sorghum; mixture of residues of jack bean, velvet bean, and sorghum at 1:1:1; and control without green manure addition. The N recovery in the soil plant system was influenced by the green manure species used, and the recovery efficiency of the N derived from the green manure legumes varied from 9 to 16%. The jack bean treatment shows a greater recovery efficiency of nitrogen and, therefore, the best synchrony of N supply, by straw decomposition, with the cabbage crop demand. (author)

  11. QTL-seq for rapid identification of candidate genes for flowering time in broccoli × cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Jinshuai; Liu, Yumei; Zhang, Lili; Li, Zhansheng; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao

    2018-04-01

    A major QTL controlling early flowering in broccoli × cabbage was identified by marker analysis and next-generation sequencing, corresponding to GRF6 gene conditioning flowering time in Arabidopsis. Flowering is an important agronomic trait for hybrid production in broccoli and cabbage, but the genetic mechanism underlying this process is unknown. In this study, segregation analysis with BC 1 P1, BC 1 P2, F 2 , and F 2:3 populations derived from a cross between two inbred lines "195" (late-flowering) and "93219" (early flowering) suggested that flowering time is a quantitative trait. Next, employing a next-generation sequencing-based whole-genome QTL-seq strategy, we identified a major genomic region harboring a robust flowering time QTL using an F 2 mapping population, designated Ef2.1 on cabbage chromosome 2 for early flowering. Ef2.1 was further validated by indel (insertion or deletion) marker-based classical QTL mapping, explaining 51.5% (LOD = 37.67) and 54.0% (LOD = 40.5) of the phenotypic variation in F 2 and F 2:3 populations, respectively. Combined QTL-seq and classical QTL analysis narrowed down Ef1.1 to a 228-kb genomic region containing 29 genes. A cabbage gene, Bol024659, was identified in this region, which is a homolog of GRF6, a major gene regulating flowering in Arabidopsis, and was designated BolGRF6. qRT-PCR study of the expression level of BolGRF6 revealed significantly higher expression in the early flowering genotypes. Taken together, our results provide support for BolGRF6 as a possible candidate gene for early flowering in the broccoli line 93219. The identified candidate genomic regions and genes may be useful for molecular breeding to improve broccoli and cabbage flowering times.

  12. Rhizosphere-associated Pseudomonas induce systemic resistance to herbivores at the cost of susceptibility to bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Cara H; Wiesmann, Christina L; Shapiro, Lori R; Melnyk, Ryan A; O'Sullivan, Lucy R; Khorasani, Sophie; Xiao, Li; Han, Jiatong; Bush, Jenifer; Carrillo, Juli; Pierce, Naomi E; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2017-10-31

    Plant-associated soil microbes are important mediators of plant defence responses to diverse above-ground pathogen and insect challengers. For example, closely related strains of beneficial rhizosphere Pseudomonas spp. can induce systemic resistance (ISR), systemic susceptibility (ISS) or neither against the bacterial foliar pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pto DC3000). Using a model system composed of root-associated Pseudomonas spp. strains, the foliar pathogen Pto DC3000 and the herbivore Trichoplusia ni (cabbage looper), we found that rhizosphere-associated Pseudomonas spp. that induce either ISS and ISR against Pto DC3000 all increased resistance to herbivory by T. ni. We found that resistance to T. ni and resistance to Pto DC3000 are quantitative metrics of the jasmonic acid (JA)/salicylic acid (SA) trade-off and distinct strains of rhizosphere-associated Pseudomonas spp. have distinct effects on the JA/SA trade-off. Using genetic analysis and transcriptional profiling, we provide evidence that treatment of Arabidopsis with Pseudomonas sp. CH267, which induces ISS against bacterial pathogens, tips the JA/SA trade-off towards JA-dependent defences against herbivores at the cost of a subset of SA-mediated defences against bacterial pathogens. In contrast, treatment of Arabidopsis with the ISR strain Pseudomonas sp. WCS417 disrupts JA/SA antagonism and simultaneously primes plants for both JA- and SA-mediated defences. Our findings show that ISS against the bacterial foliar pathogens triggered by Pseudomonas sp. CH267, which is a seemingly deleterious phenotype, may in fact be an adaptive consequence of increased resistance to herbivory. Our work shows that pleiotropic effects of microbiome modulation of plant defences are important to consider when using microbes to modify plant traits in agriculture. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Onion thrips (Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)) in cabbage on Prince Edward Island: observations on planting date and variety choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, Suzanne; Ryan, Andrew; Adams, Shelley; Driscoll, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    Onion thrips (Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)) can be a pest in organic onion production on Prince Edward Island. This study was to examine the effect of planting time and variety on infestation levels and damage by onion thrips on cabbage (Brassicae oleracea capitala (L.)). A field site was planted with 2 main and 8 lesser varieties of cabbage over 4 planting dates. Some varieties were short season and harvested on July 31 with longer season varieties harvested on September 2. Blue sticky traps were used to capture thrips migrating into the field site from July 22-September 2. Traps were counted weekly and cabbage heads within the field site were visually surveyed for thrips. At harvest, heads were weighed and measured, thrips damage was assessed then the head was dissected and thrips counted on the first four layers of the head. Thrips exhibited a preference for Lennox over Bronco throughout the season although thrips populations were not high enough to effect economic damage in 2014. Planting date influenced cabbage head weight and size with later plantings yielding the largest heads. Use of planting date and variety to avoid thrips populations is discussed.

  14. Dissipation and residue of clothianidin in granules and pesticide fertilizers used in cabbage and soil under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, P W; Wang, S Y; Huang, C L; Fu, J T; Huang, R L; Li, Z H; Zhang, Z X

    2018-01-01

    The single application of 0.5 % clothianidin granules, a novel formulation, was used to control pests in vegetables under a high dose. In this article, residues of clothianidin in cabbage and soil samples under field conditions from Guangzhou, Nanning, and Qianjiang were determined by HPLC. The terminal residues of clothianidin in cabbage were less than the limit of detection (clothianidin residual, clothianidin granules and fertilizers of chicken manure, urea, and organic fertilizer were mixed into different pesticide fertilizers through their normal field using dosage and evaluate residual influence of clothianidin in different formula. After analysis of variance of the effect factors, the effect of different pesticide types on half-life was not significant, but the effect of sample types was significant. Clothianidin granules and pesticide fertilizers could be safely applied in cabbage under a single high-dose administration.

  15. Evaluation of Phytoavailability of Heavy Metals to Chinese Cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.) in Rural Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hseu, Zeng-Yei; Zehetner, Franz

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the extractability of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn by 8 extraction protocols for 22 representative rural soils in Taiwan and correlated the extractable amounts of the metals with their uptake by Chinese cabbage for developing an empirical model to predict metal phytoavailability based on soil properties. Chemical agents in these protocols included dilute acids, neutral salts, and chelating agents, in addition to water and the Rhizon soil solution sampler. The highest concentrations of extractable metals were observed in the HCl extraction and the lowest in the Rhizon sampling method. The linear correlation coefficients between extractable metals in soil pools and metals in shoots were higher than those in roots. Correlations between extractable metal concentrations and soil properties were variable; soil pH, clay content, total metal content, and extractable metal concentration were considered together to simulate their combined effects on crop uptake by an empirical model. This combination improved the correlations to different extents for different extraction methods, particularly for Pb, for which the extractable amounts with any extraction protocol did not correlate with crop uptake by simple correlation analysis. PMID:25295297

  16. Evaluation of Phytoavailability of Heavy Metals to Chinese Cabbage (Brassica chinensis L. in Rural Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Tsung Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the extractability of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn by 8 extraction protocols for 22 representative rural soils in Taiwan and correlated the extractable amounts of the metals with their uptake by Chinese cabbage for developing an empirical model to predict metal phytoavailability based on soil properties. Chemical agents in these protocols included dilute acids, neutral salts, and chelating agents, in addition to water and the Rhizon soil solution sampler. The highest concentrations of extractable metals were observed in the HCl extraction and the lowest in the Rhizon sampling method. The linear correlation coefficients between extractable metals in soil pools and metals in shoots were higher than those in roots. Correlations between extractable metal concentrations and soil properties were variable; soil pH, clay content, total metal content, and extractable metal concentration were considered together to simulate their combined effects on crop uptake by an empirical model. This combination improved the correlations to different extents for different extraction methods, particularly for Pb, for which the extractable amounts with any extraction protocol did not correlate with crop uptake by simple correlation analysis.

  17. Karyotype variation and conservation in morphotypes of non-heading Chinese cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Jin Shuang; Sun, Cheng Zhen; Xiao, Dong; Zhang, Shu Ning; Bonnema, Guusje; Hou, Xi Lin

    2015-01-01

    Non-heading Chinese cabbage encompasses a wide diversity of morphotypes, like the well-known Pak-choi, Wu ta cai, Cai xin, Tai cai, and Fen nei cai. Despite recent developments in re-sequencing which results in the detection of SNPs, insertions, deletions and copy number variants, there has been

  18. Assessment of a cabbage/pak choï crop association to manage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-07-20

    Jul 20, 2005 ... 2013). In Senegal, the statistical data in 2012 showed that the head cabbage ranked 5th position after the onion, the tomato, the industrial tomato, the cherry tomato, and the ..... the world's trees: an identification and information guide. (Cab International). DOI: https://www.cabdirect.org/ cabdirect/abstract/ ...

  19. The dose-dependent influence of zinc and cadmium contamination of soil on their uptake and glucosinolate content in white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata f. alba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusznierewicz, Barbara; Bączek-Kwinta, Renata; Bartoszek, Agnieszka; Piekarska, Anna; Huk, Anna; Manikowska, Anna; Antonkiewicz, Jacek; Namieśnik, Jacek; Konieczka, Piotr

    2012-11-01

    The relationship between the ability to accumulate heavy metals (represented by Cd and Zn) and to synthesize bioactive compounds (represented by glucosinolates [GLS]) was investigated in two cabbage cultivars. Plants were grown in the greenhouse of a phytotron under controlled conditions in soils spiked with two different Zn or Cd concentrations. The measurements of Cd and Zn contents in soil and cabbage (leaf) samples were performed by atomic absorption spectroscopy, whereas GLS levels in cabbage were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The ranges of metal contents in soil were 80 to 450 mg/kg dry weight for Zn and 0.3 to 30 mg/kg dry weight for Cd, whereas the levels of accumulated Zn and Cd in cabbage amounted to 15 to 130 and 0.02 to 3 mg/kg dry weight, respectively. After initial symptoms of toxicity, during a later stage of growth, the plants exhibited very good tolerance to both metals. Enhanced biosynthesis of GLS was observed in a dose-dependent manner following exposure to the heavy metals. The GLS content in Zn-exposed cabbage rose from 3.2 to 12 µmol/g dry weight, and the corresponding values for Cd-treated plants were 3.5 to 10 µmol/g dry weight. Thus, the increased soil contamination by metals caused greater accumulation in cabbage, as well as stimulation of GLS biosynthesis. The results obtained point to the high phytoremediation and biofumigation potential of white cabbage. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  20. Parasitoid Quality of Gronotoma micromorpha Parasitizing Liriomyza huidobrensis on Chinese Cabbage and Soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LA DAHA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A study with the aim to investigate the quality of Gronotoma micromorpha which attack the immature developmental stages of Liriomyza huidobrensis has been carried out. Such variables as body length measured from caput to the tip of abdomen, wing span and the length of tibia of hind leg were measured to represent parasitoid quality. The immature developmental stage period of the parasitoid was also recorded. The result indicated that a better quality Gronotoma was obtained when it was developed in the Liriomyza larvae fed on chinese cabbage with the average of 123.85 μm for body length, 253.45 μm for wing span, and 42.85 μm for the length of hind tibia, respectively. When Gronotoma was developed in the Liriomyza larvae fed on soy bean, its size became smaller with the average of 97.7 μm for body length, 214.3 μm for wing span, and 37.2 μm for the hind tibia. When it is developed in the Liriomyza on chinese cabbage host plant the immature developmental period of Gronotoma is sligthly shorter with the average of 18.4 and 17.3 days for which developed in the larvae and pupa respectively and on soy bean it become longer with the average of 19.2 days for in eggs, 19.9 days for that in the larvae. On chinese cabbage, Liriomyza tend to have bigger size for both flies and pupae.

  1. Insecticides suppress natural enemies and increase pest damage in cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bommarco, Riccardo; Miranda, Freddy; Bylund, Helena; Björkman, Christer

    2011-06-01

    Intensive use of pesticides is common and increasing despite a growing and historically well documented awareness of the costs and hazards. The benefits from pesticides of increased yields from sufficient pest control may be outweighed by developed resistance in pests and killing of beneficial natural enemies. Other negative effects are human health problems and lower prices because of consumers' desire to buy organic products. Few studies have examined these trade-offs in the field. Here, we demonstrate that Nicaraguan cabbage (Brassica spp.) farmers may suffer economically by using insecticides as they get more damage by the main pest diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), at the same time as they spend economic resources on insecticides. Replicated similarly sized cabbage fields cultivated in a standardized manner were either treated with insecticides according common practice or not treated with insecticides over two seasons. Fields treated with insecticides suffered, compared with nontreated fields, equal or, at least in some periods of the seasons, higher diamondback moth pest attacks. These fields also had increased leaf damage on the harvested cabbage heads. Weight and size of the heads were not affected. The farmers received the same price on the local market irrespective of insecticide use. Rates of parasitized diamondback moth were consistently lower in the treated fields. Negative effects of using insecticides against diamondback moth were found for the density of parasitoids and generalist predatory wasps, and tended to affect spiders negatively. The observed increased leaf damages in insecticide-treated fields may be a combined consequence of insecticide resistance in the pest, and of lower predation and parasitization rates from naturally occurring predators that are suppressed by the insecticide applications. The results indicate biological control as a viable and economic alternative pest management strategy

  2. [Phosphorus application effects and input threshold of Chinese cabbage in the oasis irrigation region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Cai Yun; Ma, Zhong Ming

    2018-02-01

    To resolve the problem of higher application and lower use efficiency of phosphorus fertilizer of Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis), the yield, use efficiency of phosphate fertilizer and soil phosphate balance were examined by a located field trial in Zhangye Observation and Experiment Station of the Agro-ecological Environment in oasis irrigation region from 2011 to 2013. The results showed that the yield increased with the increase of phosphorus fertilization rate from 0 to 112.52 kg P·hm -2 , beyond which there would be no further enhancement. The yield was 5489.1 kg·hm -2 at 112.52 kg P·hm -2 treatment. This treatment increased the yield by 13.3%-23.8%, under which the phosphorus use efficiency was 14.2%. Soil Olsen-P and CaCl 2 -P were positively correlated. For 111.1 kg P·hm -2 treatment, the content of soil Olsen-P was 24.22 mg·kg -1 , with no phosphorus leaching and no pollution. At the rate of 60.17 kg P·hm -2 , there was a balance between phosphorus input and output and the phosphate demand of Chinese cabbage being met. In conclusion, the optimal phosphorus threshold was 60.17-112.52 kg·hm -2 for Chinese cabbage, the amount at which could reduce the risk of phosphorus pollution.

  3. Heavy metal contamination of some vegetables on display for sale along busy roads - a case study of the Haatso-Atomic junction road

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appiah, G.K.

    2010-01-01

    Heavy metal contamination of food is a major concern due to the potential health risk involved. This work assessed the heavy metal contamination of lettuce and cabbage on display for sale along some busy roads in Accra using instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry. The background levels of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Cd and Pb in lettuce and cabbage harvested from a vegetable after deliberate exposure along a busy road for three days were also determined. Background levels of elements in the vegetables in mg/kg were, Fe (162.97) > Mn (58.28) > Zn (10.78) > Cu (4.61) > Cr (4.06) > Ni (2.93) for lettuce and Fe (44.91) > Mn (20.95) > Zn (6.69) > Ni (2.59) > Cr (2.32) > Cu (1.16) for cabbage. The levels of all the elements increased in both vegetables after deliberate exposure with the third day recording the highest levels. The total amount of metals deposited on the vegetables after exposure for three days in mg/kg was Fe (22.27), Mn (11.8), Cu (1.68), Zn (3.17), Ni (1.87) and Cr (1.16 for lettuce and Fe (18.76), Mn (12.83), Cu (1.59), Zn (5.58), Ni (2.38) and Cr (1.8) for cabbage. Rates of contamination of the vegetables by metals in mg/kg/day were, Fe (9.09) > Mn (3.93) > Zn (1.06) > Ni (0.62) > Cu (0.56) = Cr (0.56) for lettuce and Fe (6.25) > Mn (4.28) > Zn (1.86) > Ni (0.79) > Cr (0.6) > Cu (0.53) for cabbage. The estimated daily intakes of the elements through consumption of the contaminated vegetables were all below the upper tolerable intake levels of the elements and pose no health risk. (au)

  4. Analysis of efficiency and factors affecting the production of cabbage farming (Brassica oleracea L. in Belung village, Poncokusumo, Malang, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Ningsih

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to analyze the efficiency and the factors that affect the production of cabbage farm in the village of Belung, Poncokusumo, Malang, Indonesia. Samples taken by census the number of respondents 36 farmers. The analysis used is descriptive qualitative and quantitative. Quantitative analysis include analysis of costs, revenues, income, efficiency and Cobb-Douglas. Based on the analysis, known that farmer acceptance is Rp. 43,767,361 and generated revenues of Rp. 30,124,372/ ha. Result relevaled that the Cabbage farm in the village of Belung, Poncokusumo, Malang was highly efficient and profitable with an efficiency of 3.2. Factors that effect significantly on cabbage farming production are labors, lands, pesticides and seeds. Input combinations are already efficient and optimal pesticides and seeds.

  5. Radiation preservation of cut cabbage (Brassica oleracea): a case study in the Greater Accra Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frimpong, K.G.

    2011-01-01

    Low fruit and vegetable intake is estimated to cause about 31% of ischaemic heart disease and 11% of stroke worldwide. It is estimated that up to 2.7 million lives could potentially be saved each year if fresh fruits and vegetables such as cabbage consumption was sufficiently increased. However, fresh or ready-to-eat vegetables have been found to be a potential cause of foodborne diseases due to their association with human pathogens. More so, some of these pathogens are resident in the vegetables. The application of ionizing irradiation has been identified as a promising technology that may be used to control spoilage or pathogenic microorganisms in order to increase shelf life, improve the safety of ready-to-eat fruits and vegetables and as a substitute for the use of chemical sterilants. The main objective of this research was to assess impact of gamma radiation in reducing microbial load on cut cabbage and how it helps to extend shelf life. Standard plate count method was used in the determination of total viable and coliform counts (TVC and TCC). Redox titration with iodine method was used in determining the total ascorbic acid content while antioxidant activity, total flavonoid and phenolic content were determined by DPPH, Folin-Ciocalteu and Aluminium chloride colorimetric method respectively. Nine-point Hedonic scale was also used for the sensory evaluation. The studies revealed that microbial numbers of E.coli, total viable and coliform counts on 'ready-to-eat' cut cabbage in most supermarkets in the Accra metropolitan area were beyond the acceptable national food legislations. Total viable and coliform counts record showed a combination treatment of irradiation doses (1 to 3kGy) and refrigeration temperature (8 ± 2degrees Celcius) reduced microbial growth by 3 to 5 log cycles. Fungal species like Mucor spp, Penicillium digitatum, and Rhizopus spp. Which are spoilage organisms were isolated from all unirradiated control samples but not irradiated (1-3k

  6. Promising new technology for managing diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) in cabbage with pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Everett R

    2002-05-01

    Experiments were conducted in plantings of cabbage in spring 1999 and 2000 to evaluate a novel, new matrix system for delivering sex pheromone to suppress sexual communication by diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.). The liquid, viscous, slow-release formulation contained a combination of diamondback moth pheromone, a blend of Z-11-hexadecenyl acetate, 27%:Z-11-hexadecen-1-ol, 1%:Z-11-tetradecen-1-ol, 9%:Z-11-hexadecenal, 63%, and the insecticide permethrin (0.16% and 6% w/w of total formulated material, respectively). Field trapping experiments showed that the lure-toxicant combination was highly attractive to male moths for at least four weeks using as little as a 0.05 g droplet of formulated material per trap; and the permethrin insecticide had no apparent influence on response of moths to lure baited traps. Small field plots of cabbage were treated with the lure-toxicant-matrix combination using droplets of 0.44 and 0.05 g each applied to cabbage in a grid pattern at densities ranging from 990 to 4396 droplets/ha to evaluate the potential for disrupting sexual communication of diamondback moth. There was no significant difference in the level of suppression of sexual communication of diamondback moth, as measured by captures of males in pheromone-baited traps located in the treated plots, versus moths captured in untreated control plots, among the treatments regardless of droplet size (0.05 or 0.44 g) or number of droplets applied per ha. Plots treated with the smallest droplet size (0.05 g) and with the fewest number of droplets per ha (990) suppressed captures of male diamondback moths > 90% for up to 3 weeks post treatment. Although laboratory assays showed that the lure-toxicant combination was 100% effective at killing the diamondback moth, the mode of action in the field trials was not determined. The results indicate that the liquid, viscous, slow release formulation containing diamondback moth pheromone could be used to effectively suppress sexual

  7. Efficacy of Intercropping as a Management Tool for the Control on Insect Pests of Cabbage in Ghana 1H m 2m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timbilla, JA.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of intercropping cabbage with other vegetables and herbs as a management tool in migitating insect pests problems of cabbage was investigated in the field at Kwadaso, Kumasi during a three season period in the forest region of Ghana. The results showed that Plutella xylostella could be effectively controlled when cabbage is intercropped with onion, spearmint and tomato. However, there is the need to control Hellula undalis in endemie areas with pesticides up to six weeks after transplanting. Both Karate (cyhalothrin and Dipel 2X (the biopesticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. Kurstaki were effective in mitigating the problem of H. undalis in the intercropping experiments and both are recommended.

  8. Comparative analysis of methods for measurements of food intake and utilization using the soybean looper, Pseudoplusia includens and artificial media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, J.R.P.; Kogan, M.; Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station, Urbana; Illinois Univ., Urbana

    1981-01-01

    An analysis of intake and utilization of an artificial medium by larvae of the soybean looper, Pseudoplusia includens Walker, Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, was performed using 4 methods: standard gravimetric, chromic oxide, Calco Oil Red, and 14 C-glucose. Each method was used in conjunction with standard gravimetry. The relative merits of the indirect methods were analyzed in terms of precision and accuracy for ECI and ECD estimation, cost, and overall versatility. Only the gravimetric method combined ca. 80% precision in ECI and ECD estimation with low cost and maximum versatility. Calco Oil Red at 0.1% w/v was detrimental to the larvae. Cr 2 O 3 caused reduced intake but conversion was increased resulting in normal development and growth of larvae. The radioisotopic method had the advantage of providing a direct means of measuring expired CO 2 . The need to operate under a totally enclosed system, however, poses some serious difficulties in the use of radioisotopes. There seems to be little advantage in any of the proposed indirect methods, except if there are unusual difficulties in separating the excreta from the medium. (orig.)

  9. Space mutation in Sulao mustard, Futian-flowering chinese cabbage and Pachi-radish breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yanrong; Cao Jian; Li Guihua; Zhao Xiujuan

    2004-01-01

    Vegetable seeds of Sulao mustard, Futian flowering Chinese cabbage and Pachi-Radish were mutated by boarding on Shenzhou No.4 Spaceship. The results showed that there were no significant differences between SP 1 and control, however, some variability of plants were found in SP 2

  10. Genetic method of combating the cabbage root fly. Part II. Localization of factor determining male sex in the cabbage root fly Delia brassicae bouche

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samoilov, Yu.B.

    1986-01-01

    Cytogenetic analysis was conducted of 15 lines of the cabbage root fly with hereditary semisterility in the form of late embryonic lethals (LEL). In 14 lines (93%), the presence of translocations was noted. A high yield of translocations linked with the male sex was obtained, which was caused by the fact that determination of male sex in this species is apparently associated with the largest chromosome 6, and not with chromosome 1, as was believed previously

  11. Effect of some biorational insecticides on Spodoptera eridania in organic cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michereff-Filho, Miguel; Torres, Jorge B; Andrade, Luzia Nt; Nunes, Maria Urbana C

    2008-07-01

    To reduce pest attack, several biorational products are allowed for use on organic vegetables in Brazil. This study investigated eight biorational products applied singly or in combination against Spodoptera eridania Cramer in field plots of cabbage intercropped with coriander. The treatments were applied once a week over a 5 week period, beginning 34 days after transplanting. The evaluations consisted of counting the larvae of S. eridania on the day before and 7 and 21 days after spraying. The damage to leaves and cabbage head, the commercial weight of head and the percentage of head losses were evaluated. Leaf injury in plots treated with Beauveria bassiana and neem oil (Dalneem) yielded scores of 1.3 and 2.5 (scale ranging from 0 to 4) respectively, in comparison with a score of 3.6 from untreated plots. Head weight losses were 6.1, 5.3 and 4.9% with an aqueous extract of neem leaves, neem oil and B. bassiana respectively, compared with 24.6% lost from untreated plots. Dalneem, B. bassiana and the extract of neem leaves at 20% exhibited the best performance for control of S. eridania.

  12. Nutritional value of cabbage and kikuyu grass as food for grass carp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and digestibility coefficients were obtained for the protein, fibre, ash and fat contents of both ... Cabbage is a superior feed compared to grass for raising grass carp and a suitable low-cost alternative ... Materials and Methods ... from jumping out and was fitted with an air lift under- .... In: Aquatic weeds in South East Asia.

  13. Nondestructive Optical Sensing of Flavonols and Chlorophyll in White Head Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata subvar. alba) Grown under Different Nitrogen Regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agati, Giovanni; Tuccio, Lorenza; Kusznierewicz, Barbara; Chmiel, Tomasz; Bartoszek, Agnieszka; Kowalski, Artur; Grzegorzewska, Maria; Kosson, Ryszard; Kaniszewski, Stanislaw

    2016-01-13

    A multiparametric optical sensor was used to nondestructively estimate phytochemical compounds in white cabbage leaves directly in the field. An experimental site of 1980 white cabbages (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata subvar. alba), under different nitrogen (N) treatments, was mapped by measuring leaf transmittance and chlorophyll fluorescence screening in one leaf/cabbage head. The provided indices of flavonols (FLAV) and chlorophyll (CHL) displayed the opposite response to applied N rates, decreasing and increasing, respectively. The combined nitrogen balance index (NBI = CHL/FLAV) calculated was able to discriminate all of the plots under four N regimens (0, 100, 200, and 400 kg/ha) and was correlated with the leaf N content determined destructively. CHL and FLAV were properly calibrated against chlorophyll (R(2) = 0.945) and flavonol (R(2) = 0.932) leaf contents, respectively, by using a homographic fit function. The proposed optical sensing of cabbage crops can be used to estimate the N status of plants and perform precision fertilization to maintain acceptable crop yield levels and, additionally, to rapidly detect health-promoting flavonol antioxidants in Brassica plants.

  14. Chromosome Doubling of Microspore-Derived Plants from Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) and Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Suxia; Su, Yanbin; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao; Sun, Peitian

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome doubling of microspore-derived plants is an important factor in the practical application of microspore culture technology because breeding programs require a large number of genetically stable, homozygous doubled haploid plants with a high level of fertility. In the present paper, 29 populations of microspore-derived plantlets from cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) were used to study the ploidy level and spontaneous chromosome doubling of these populations, the artificial chromosome doubling induced by colchicine, and the influence of tissue culture duration on the chromosomal ploidy of the microspore-derived regenerants. Spontaneous chromosome doubling occurred randomly and was genotype dependent. In the plant populations derived from microspores, there were haploids, diploids, and even a low frequency of polyploids and mixed-ploidy plantlets. The total spontaneous doubling in the 14 cabbage populations ranged from 0 to 76.9%, compared with 52.2 to 100% in the 15 broccoli populations. To improve the rate of chromosome doubling, an efficient and reliable artificial chromosome doubling protocol (i.e., the immersion of haploid plantlet roots in a colchicine solution) was developed for cabbage and broccoli microspore-derived haploids. The optimal chromosome doubling of the haploids was obtained with a solution of 0.2% colchicine for 9-12 h or 0.4% colchicine for 3-9 h for cabbage and 0.05% colchicine for 6-12 h for broccoli. This protocol produced chromosome doubling in over 50% of the haploid genotypes for most of the populations derived from cabbage and broccoli. Notably, after 1 or more years in tissue culture, the chromosomes of the haploids were doubled, and most of the haploids turned into doubled haploid or mixed-ploidy plants. This is the first report indicating that tissue culture duration can change the chromosomal ploidy of microspore-derived regenerants.

  15. Microcolumn-based speciation analysis of thallium in soil and green cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yanlong; Xiao, Tangfu; Sun, Jialong; Yang, Fei; Baveye, Philippe C

    2018-07-15

    Thallium (Tl) is a toxic trace metal, whose geochemical behavior and biological effects are closely controlled by its chemical speciation in the environment. However, little tends to be known about this speciation of Tl in soil and plant systems that directly affect the safety of food supplies. In this context, the objective of the present study was to elaborate an efficient method to separate and detect Tl(I) and Tl(III) species for soil and plant samples. This method involves the selective adsorption of Tl(I) on microcolumns filled with immobilized oxine, in the presence of DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid), followed by DTPA-enhanced ultrasonic and heating-induced extraction, coupled with ICP-MS detection. The method was characterized by a LOD of 0.037 μg/L for Tl(I) and 0.18 μg/L for Tl(III) in 10  mL samples. With this method, a second objective of the research was to assess the speciation of Tl in pot and field soils and in green cabbage crops. Experimental results suggest that DTPA extracted Tl was mainly present as Tl(I) in soils (>95%). Tl in hyperaccumulator plant green cabbage was also mainly present as Tl(I) (>90%). With respect to Tl uptake in plants, this study provides direct evidence that green cabbage mainly takes up Tl(I) from soil, and transports it into the aboveground organs. In soils, Tl(III) is reduced to Tl(I) even at the surface where the chemical environment promotes oxidation. This observation is conducive to understanding the mechanisms of Tl isotope fractionation in the soil-plant system. Based on geochemical fraction studies, the reducible fraction was the main source of Tl getting accumulated by plants. These results indicate that the improved analytical method presented in this study offers an economical, simple, fast, and sensitive approach for the separation of Tl species present in soils at trace levels. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. [Effect of Nano Zeolite on Chemical Fractions of Cd in Soil and Its Uptake by Cabbage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shi-juan; Xu, Wei-hong; Xie, Wen-wen; Chen, Rong; Chen, Yong-qin; Chi, Sun-lin; Chen, Xu- gen; Zhang, Jin-zhong; Xiong, Zhi-ting; Wang, Zheng-yin; Xie, De-ti

    2015-12-01

    Incubation experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of different nano zeolite (NZ) and ordinary zeolite (OZ) levels(0, 5, 10 and 20 g · kg⁻¹) on the change trends in fraction distribution coefficient (FDC) of Cd when exposed to different Cadmium (Cd) levels (1, 5, 10 and 15 mg · kg⁻¹), and pot experiments were carried out to investigate their influence on soil Cd fraction and Cd uptake by cabbage. The results in incubation experiments showed that the application of nano zeolite as well as ordinary zeolite effectively decreased the FDC of exchangeable Cd and increased the FDC of Fe-Mn oxide fraction. The FDC of soil Cd from 0 d to 28 d was deceased at first, then increased and tended to be stable, and finally increased. At the end of incubation, the FDC of soil exchangeable Cd decreased from 72.0%-88.0% to 30.0%-66.4%. Exchangeable fraction Cd was the most dominant Cd fraction in soil during the whole incubation. The results in pot experiment indicated that the application of nano zeolite and ordinary zeolite decreased the concentration and FDC of soil exchangeable Cd, and concurrently the concentration and FDC of Cd in carbonate, Fe-Mn oxide, organic matter and residual fraction were increased. The lowest EX-Cd was observed in the treatment with high dose of nano zeolite (20 g · kg⁻¹). The FDC of exchangeable Cd showed significant negative relationship with the soil pH (P zeolite when exposed to 5 mg · kg⁻¹ 1 and Cd, respectively; FDC of exchangeable Cd decreased by 16.3%-47.7% and 16.2%-46.7%; Cd concentration in each tissues of cabbage decreased by 1.0%-75.0% and 3.8%-53.2%, respectively. Moreover, the reduction effect of nano zeolite on soil and plant Cd was better than that of ordinary zeolite. The growth of cabbage was stimulated by low and medium zeolite doses (≤ 10 g · kg⁻¹), while inhibited by high zeolite doses (20 g · kg⁻¹). Compared to ordinary zeolite, the biomass of Chinese cabbage was significantly increased

  17. Determining inhibition effects of some aromatic compounds on peroxidase enzyme purified from white and red cabbage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Öztekin, Aykut, E-mail: aoztekin@agri.edu.tr [Ataturk University, Science Faculty, Department of Chemistry, 25240-Erzurum (Turkey); Agri Ibrahim Cecen University Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry, 04100-Agri (Turkey); Almaz, Züleyha, E-mail: zturkoglu-2344@hotmail.com [Ataturk University, Science Faculty, Department of Chemistry, 25240-Erzurum (Turkey); Mus Alparslan University Faculty of Sciences, Department of Moleculer Biology, 49250-Mus (Turkey); Özdemir, Hasan, E-mail: hozdemir@atauni.edu.tr [Ataturk University, Science Faculty, Department of Chemistry, 25240-Erzurum (Turkey)

    2016-04-18

    Peroxidases (E.C.1.11.1.7) catalyze the one electron oxidation of wide range of substrates. They are used in synthesis reaction, removal of peroxide from industrial wastes, clinical biochemistry and immunoassays. In this study, the white cabbage (Brassica Oleracea var. capitata f. alba) and red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f. rubra) peroxidase enzymes were purified for investigation of inhibitory effect of some aromatic compounds on these enzymes. IC{sub 50} values and Ki constants were calculated for the molecules of 6-Amino nicotinic hydrazide, 6-Amino-5-bromo nicotinic hydrazide, 2-Amino-5-hydroxy benzohydrazide, 4-Amino-3-hydroxy benzohydrazide on purified enzymes and inhibition type of these molecules were determined. (This research was supported by Ataturk University. Project Number: BAP-2015/98).

  18. Determining inhibition effects of some aromatic compounds on peroxidase enzyme purified from white and red cabbage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztekin, Aykut; Almaz, Züleyha; Özdemir, Hasan

    2016-04-01

    Peroxidases (E.C.1.11.1.7) catalyze the one electron oxidation of wide range of substrates. They are used in synthesis reaction, removal of peroxide from industrial wastes, clinical biochemistry and immunoassays. In this study, the white cabbage (Brassica Oleracea var. capitata f. alba) and red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f. rubra) peroxidase enzymes were purified for investigation of inhibitory effect of some aromatic compounds on these enzymes. IC50 values and Ki constants were calculated for the molecules of 6-Amino nicotinic hydrazide, 6-Amino-5-bromo nicotinic hydrazide, 2-Amino-5-hydroxy benzohydrazide, 4-Amino-3-hydroxy benzohydrazide on purified enzymes and inhibition type of these molecules were determined. (This research was supported by Ataturk University. Project Number: BAP-2015/98).

  19. Determining inhibition effects of some aromatic compounds on peroxidase enzyme purified from white and red cabbage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Öztekin, Aykut; Almaz, Züleyha; Özdemir, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Peroxidases (E.C.1.11.1.7) catalyze the one electron oxidation of wide range of substrates. They are used in synthesis reaction, removal of peroxide from industrial wastes, clinical biochemistry and immunoassays. In this study, the white cabbage (Brassica Oleracea var. capitata f. alba) and red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f. rubra) peroxidase enzymes were purified for investigation of inhibitory effect of some aromatic compounds on these enzymes. IC_5_0 values and Ki constants were calculated for the molecules of 6-Amino nicotinic hydrazide, 6-Amino-5-bromo nicotinic hydrazide, 2-Amino-5-hydroxy benzohydrazide, 4-Amino-3-hydroxy benzohydrazide on purified enzymes and inhibition type of these molecules were determined. (This research was supported by Ataturk University. Project Number: BAP-2015/98).

  20. Effect of the pasteurization process on the contents of ascorbigen, indole-3-carbinol, indole-3-acetonitrile, and 3,3'-diindolylmethane in fermented cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciska, Ewa; Honke, Joanna

    2012-04-11

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of the pasteurization process on the content of ascorbigen, indole-3-carbinol, indole-3-acetonitrile, and 3,3'-diindolylmethane in fermented cabbage. Pasteurization was run at a temperature of 80 °C for 5-30 min. Significant changes were only observed in contents of ascorbigen and 3,3'-diindolylmethane. The total content of the compounds analyzed in cabbage pasteurized for 10-30 min was found to be decreased by ca. 20%, and the losses were due to thermal degradation of the predominating ascorbigen. Pasteurization was found not to exert any considerable effect on contents of indole-3-acetonitrile and indole-3-carbinol in cabbage nor did it affect contents of the compounds analyzed in juice.

  1. Sequential diets, metabolic costs, and growth of Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) feeding upon dill, lima bean, and cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriber, J Mark

    1981-01-01

    This study illustrates the diversity of feeding responses of individually polyphagous southern armyworms, Spodoptera eridania, to plants with differing allelochemics. In spite of the near optimal leaf water and nitrogen contents of the young foliage, it is apparent that vastly different larval growth performance results from dill, lima bean, and cabbage. Cabbage is the poorest food (as measured by larval growth rates and metabolic costs of processing the plant biomass). Unlike the case with certain other plant species or cultivars that are costly to process, with cabbage, S. eridania does not compensate for low efficiencies (E.C.D.'s) with increased consumption rates (R.C.R.'s). Biochemical or physiological reasons for this inability are unknown.A sequence of foods (changed each 18-24 h) apparently did not add sufficient stress upon the MFO system to be detected in the respiratory expenditures of S. eridania larvae, in spite of the fact that dill is known to contain insecticidal and synergistic chemicals (Lichtenstein et al. 1974). The larval growth performances and metabolic expenditures in these sequences were intermediate between the best food (dill) and the worse (cabbage). Significant differences were observed however between the sequential switching sequences, perhaps indicating that particular periods during the instar are especially more sensitive to certain allelochemics. Actual respiratory costs of the lima bean-cabbage-dill (i.e. B-C-D) sequence were 40-50% higher than observed for the other two sequences and more than 50% higher than the theoretical metabolic costs based on the proportions actually eaten and known costs associated with each food.This study and a related one (Scriber 1981a) illustrate how consumption rates, feeding efficiences, and larval growth of Spodoptera eridania are not species, population, or even individual characteristics, (cf. Fox and Morrow 1981), but instead depend largely upon variations in plant allelochemics and plant

  2. Effect of Pseudomonas spp on infection of Peronosporaparasitica (Pers. Fr), the pathogen of downy mildew on Chinese cabbage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiri, N.; Mulawarman; Umayah, A.; Agustin, S. E.; Rahmiyah, M.

    2018-01-01

    This research was conducted to study the effect of the application of Pseudomonasspp on infection of Peronosporaparasitica (Pers. Fr), the pathogen of Downy mildew on Chinese cabbage. The research was conducted in the laboratory and greenhouse Department of Plant Pests and Diseases Faculty of Agriculture Sriwijaya University, Inderalaya, OganIlir South Sumatra Indonesia. The research was conducted in the laboratory and greenhouse Department of Plant Pests and Diseases Faculty of Agriculture Sriwijaya University, Inderalaya, Ogan Ilir South Sumatra Indonesia. The research was conducted using Completely Randomized Design with ten treatments including control. ie: isolate A, Isolate B, isolate C, isolate D, isolate E, isolate F, isolate G, isolate H, isolate I and control. Each treatment consists of four replications. Results of the study showed that the application of Pseudomonas spp. can suppress the infection of P. parasitica on Chinese cabbage. The lowest disease intensity was shown by treatment C (isolate Pseudomonas sp.) which was significantly different from control. The best treatment in suppressing disease severity of downy mildew on chinese cabbage was isolate H which had disease severity of 37.07 percent, which was significantly different from control and other treatment.

  3. Metabolism of the insecticide metofluthrin in cabbage (Brassica oleracea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Daisuke; Fukushima, Masao; Fujisawa, Takuo; Katagi, Toshiyuki

    2012-03-14

    The metabolic fate of metofluthrin [2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-4-(methoxymethyl)benzyl (E,Z)-(1R,3R)-2,2-dimethyl-3-(prop-1-enyl)cyclopropanecarboxylate] separately labeled with (14)C at the carbonyl carbon and the α-position of the 4-methoxymethylbenzyl ring was studied in cabbage ( Brassica oleracea ). An acetonitrile solution of (14)C-metofluthrin at 431 g ai ha(-1) was once applied topically to cabbage leaves at head-forming stage, and the plants were grown for up to 14 days. Each isomer of metofluthrin applied onto the leaf surface rapidly volatilized into the air and was scarcely translocated to the untreated portion. On the leaf surface, metofluthrin was primarily degraded through ozonolysis of the propenyl side chain to produce the secondary ozonide, which further decomposed to the corresponding aldehyde and carboxylic acid derivatives. In the leaf tissues, the 1R-trans-Z isomer was mainly metabolized to its dihydrodiol derivative probably via an epoxy intermediate followed by saccharide conjugation in parallel with the ester cleavage, whereas no specific metabolite was dominant for the 1R-trans-E isomer. Isomerization of metofluthrin at the cyclopropyl ring was negligible for both isomers. In this study, the chemical structure of each secondary ozonide derivative was fully elucidated by the various modes of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy together with cochromatography with the synthetic standard, and their cis/trans configuration was examined by the nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) difference NMR spectrum.

  4. Digestive recovery of sulfur-methyl-L-methionine and its bioaccessibility in Kimchi cabbages using a simulated in vitro digestion model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae-Rim; Cho, Sun-Duk; Lee, Woon Kyu; Kim, Gun-Hee; Shim, Soon-Mi

    2014-01-15

    Sulfur-methyl-L-methionine (SMM) has been known to provide various biological functions such as radical scavenging effect, inhibition of adipocyte differentiation, and prevention of gastric mucosal damage. Kimchi cabbages are known to be a major food source providing SMM but its bioaccessibility has not been studied. The objective of current study was to determine both the digestive stability of SMM and the amount released from Kimchi cabbages under a simulated in vitro digestion model system. The in vitro digestion model system simulating a human gastrointestinal tract was carried out for measuring digestive recovery and bioaccessibility of SMM. SMM was quantified by using high-performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector. Recovery of an SMM standard after digestion was 0.68 and 0.65% for fasted and fed conditions, respectively, indicating that the digestive stability of the SMM standard was not affected by dietary energy or co-ingested food matrix. The SMM standard was also significantly stable in acidic pH (P < 0.05). The bioaccessibility of SMM from Kimchi cabbages was measured under a fasted condition, resulted in 8.83, 14.71 and 10.88%, for salivary, gastric and small intestinal phases, respectively. Results from our study suggest that SMM from Kimchi cabbages, a component of food sources, is more bioavailable than SMM by itself. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Water extracts of cabbage and kale inhibit ex vivo H2O2-induced DNA damage but not rat hepatocarcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Horst

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The chemopreventive potential of water extracts of the Brassica vegetables cabbage and kale was evaluated by administering their aqueous extracts in drinking water ad libitum to Wistar rats submitted to Ito’s hepatocarcinogenesis model (CB group and K group, respectively - 14 rats per group. Animals submitted to this same model and treated with water were used as controls (W group - 15 rats. Treatment with the vegetable extracts did not inhibit (P > 0.05 placental glutathione S-transferase-positive preneoplastic lesions (PNL. The number of apoptotic bodies did not differ (P > 0.05 among the experimental groups. Ex vivo hydrogen peroxide treatment of rat livers resulted in lower (P < 0.05 DNA strand breakage in cabbage- (107.6 ± 7.8 µm and kale- (110.8 ± 10.0 µm treated animals compared with control (120.9 ± 12.7 µm, as evaluated by the single cell gel (comet assay. Treatment with cabbage (2 ± 0.3 µg/g or kale (4 ± 0.2 µg/g resulted in increased (P < 0.05 hepatic lutein concentration compared with control (0.5 ± 0.07 µg/g. Despite the absence of inhibitory effects of cabbage and kale aqueous extracts on PNL, these Brassica vegetables presented protection against DNA damage, an effect possibly related to increased hepatic lutein concentrations. However, it must be pointed out that the cause-effect relationship between lutein levels and protection is hypothetical and remains to be demonstrated.

  6. Shelf life extension of minimally processed ready-to-cook (RTC) cabbage by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Aparajita; Chatterjee, Suchandra; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

    2016-01-01

    Gamma irradiation (0.5-2.5 kGy) in combination with low temperature (4-15 °C) storage was attempted to increase shelf life of ready-to-cook shredded cabbage wrapped in cling films. A maximum extension in shelf life of 8 days, while retaining the microbial and sensory quality, was obtained with an irradiation dose of 2 kGy and storage at 10 °C. Gamma irradiation also inhibited browning of shredded cabbage at their cut edges resulting in enhanced visual appeal. An increase in total antioxidant activity was observed with respect to DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging ability while the nitric oxide radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing property remained unaffected with irradiation. Total phenolic, flavonoid and vitamin C content remained unchanged due to irradiation. No significant migration of additives from cling films into stimulant water was observed up to a radiation dose of 2 kGy thus demonstrating the feasibility of such films for above applications. (author)

  7. Shelf life extension of minimally processed ready-to-cook (RTC) cabbage by gamma irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Aparajita; Chatterjee, Suchandra; Variyar, Prasad S; Sharma, Arun

    2016-01-01

    Gamma irradiation (0.5-2.5 kGy) in combination with low temperature (4-15 °C) storage was attempted to increase shelf life of ready-to-cook shredded cabbage wrapped in cling films. A maximum extension in shelf life of 8 days, while retaining the microbial and sensory quality, was obtained with an irradiation dose of 2 kGy and storage at 10 °C. Gamma irradiation also inhibited browning of shredded cabbage at their cut edges resulting in enhanced visual appeal. An increase in total antioxidant activity was observed with respect to DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging ability while the nitric oxide radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing property remained unaffected with irradiation. Total phenolic, flavonoid and vitamin C content remained unchanged due to irradiation. No significant migration of additives from cling films into stimulant water was observed up to a radiation dose of 2 kGy thus demonstrating the feasibility of such films for above applications.

  8. Development of in-plant reference material for composition of chinese cabbage with certified selenium content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Chupahin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In-plant reference material for composition of Chinese cabbage with certified selenium content was developed for accuracy control of the results of selenium determination and within-laboratory quality control of analytical work in the analysis of food raw material.

  9. Survival of cabbage stem flea beetle larvae, Psylliodes chrysocephala, exposed to low temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Helle; Bligaard, J.; Esbjerg, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The cabbage stem flea beetle, Psylliodes chrysocephala (L.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a major pest of winter oilseed rape. The larvae live throughout winter in leaf petioles and stems. Winter temperatures might play an important role in survival during winter and hence population dynamics, ...

  10. Geographic variation in ultraviolet reflectance of the wings of the female cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Yoshiaki; Ozawa, Gaku; Fukano, Yuya

    2008-11-01

    The British and Japanese subspecies of the cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae , differ in terms of the UV reflectance of their wings ( Obara and Majerus, 2000 ). We studied the biogeographical distribution of the female cabbage butterfly having wings with UV reflectance around the Eurasian continent, and between Britain and Japan. For the study, we collected specimens from various locations. A gradient in the UV reflectance of the wings appears to exist along the west-east axis; reflectance was higher toward the east and reached a peak in butterflies in Japan. The UV-reflecting Japanese subspecies Pieris rapae crucivora was found exclusively along the east coast of the Eurasian continent. This suggests that the Japanese subspecies has evolved from a continental ancestor, with females having UV-absorbing wings. We discuss the results of our study with regard to the evolution and adaptive significance of UV coloration in the Japanese subspecies.

  11. Characterization and Identification of Gamma-Irradiated Kimchi Cabbage and Broccoli by Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy using Different Sample Pre-treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, J.Y.; Ahn, J.J.; Kashif Akram; Kim, G.R.; Kwon, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy of gamma-irradiated fresh broccoli and kimchi cabbage was conducted to identify their irradiation history. Different pretreatments, such as freeze-drying (FD), oven-drying (OD), alcoholic-drying (ALD), and water-washing and alcoholic-drying (WAD) were used to lower the moisture contents of the samples prior to ESR analysis. The non-irradiated samples exhibited a single central signal (g 0 = 2.0007) with clear effect of Mn 2+ , especially in kimchi cabbage. Upon irradiation, there was an increase in the intensity of the central signal, and two side peaks, mutually spaced at 6 mT, were also observed. These side peaks with g 1 (left) = 2.023 and g 2 (right) = 1.985 were attributed to radiation-induced cellulose radicals. Leaf and stem in broccoli, and root and stem in kimchi cabbage provided good ESR signal responses upon irradiation. The signal noise was reduced in case of ALD and WAD pretreatments, particularly due to Mn 2+ signals. The ALD treatment was found most feasible to detect the improved ESR spectra in the irradiated samples. (author)

  12. Validation of reference genes for real-time quantitative PCR normalisation in non-heading Chinese cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, D.; Zhang, N.; Jianjun Zhao, Jianjun; Bonnema, A.B.; Hou, X.L.

    2012-01-01

    Non-heading Chinese cabbage is an important vegetable crop that includes pak choi, caixin and several Japanese vegetables like mizuna, mibuna and komatsuna. Gene expression studies are frequently used to unravel the genetics of complex traits and in such studies the proper selection of reference

  13. Distribution and infestation rate of cyst nematodes (Tylenchida: Heteroderidae) in cabbage growing areas in Samsun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information concerning the occurrence and distribution of cyst nematodes (Heterodera spp.) in Samsun, Turkey is needed to assess their potential to cause economic damage on many crop plants. Surveys on the distribution and infestation rates of cyst nematodes in cabbage fields in Samsun were conducte...

  14. Effects of sewage sludge on the yield of plants in the rotation system of wheat-white head cabbage-tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Arif Özyazıcı

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried to determine the effects of sewage sludge applications on the yield and yield components of plants under crop rotation system. The field experiments were conducted in the Bafra Plain, located in the north region of Turkey. In this research, the “wheat-white head cabbage-tomato” crop rotation systems have been examined and the same crop rotation has been repeated in two separate years and field trials have been established. Seven treatments were compared: a control without application of sludge nor nitrogen fertilization, a treatment without sludge, but nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization, applied at before sowing of wheat and five treatments where, respectively 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 tons sludge ha-1. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with three replications. The results showed that all the yield components of wheat and yield of white head cabbage and tomato increased significantly with increasing rates of sewage sludge as compared to control. As a result, 20 t ha-1 of sewage sludge application could be recommended the suitable dose for the rotation of wheat-white head cabbage-tomato in soil and climatic conditions of Bafra Plain.

  15. Fine Mapping and Transcriptome Analysis Reveal Candidate Genes Associated with Hybrid Lethality in Cabbage (Brassica Oleracea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhiliang; Hu, Yang; Zhang, Xiaoli; Xue, Yuqian; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhang, Yangyong; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Liu, Xing; Liu, Zezhou; Lv, Honghao; Zhuang, Mu

    2017-06-05

    Hybrid lethality is a deleterious phenotype that is vital to species evolution. We previously reported hybrid lethality in cabbage ( Brassica oleracea ) and performed preliminary mapping of related genes. In the present study, the fine mapping of hybrid lethal genes revealed that BoHL1 was located on chromosome C1 between BoHLTO124 and BoHLTO130, with an interval of 101 kb. BoHL2 was confirmed to be between insertion-deletion (InDels) markers HL234 and HL235 on C4, with a marker interval of 70 kb. Twenty-eight and nine annotated genes were found within the two intervals of BoHL1 and BoHL2 , respectively. We also applied RNA-Seq to analyze hybrid lethality in cabbage. In the region of BoHL1 , seven differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and five resistance (R)-related genes (two in common, i.e., Bo1g153320 and Bo1g153380 ) were found, whereas in the region of BoHL2 , two DEGs and four R-related genes (two in common, i.e., Bo4g173780 and Bo4g173810 ) were found. Along with studies in which R genes were frequently involved in hybrid lethality in other plants, these interesting R-DEGs may be good candidates associated with hybrid lethality. We also used SNP/InDel analyses and quantitative real-time PCR to confirm the results. This work provides new insight into the mechanisms of hybrid lethality in cabbage.

  16. Red Cabbage Microgreens Lower Circulating Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL), Liver Cholesterol, and Inflammatory Cytokines in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haiqiu; Jiang, Xiaojing; Xiao, Zhenlei; Yu, Lu; Pham, Quynhchi; Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei; Yokoyama, Wallace; Yu, Liangli Lucy; Luo, Yaguang Sunny; Wang, Thomas T Y

    2016-12-07

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States, and hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor. Population studies, as well as animal and intervention studies, support the consumption of a variety of vegetables as a means to reduce CVD risk through modulation of hypercholesterolemia. Microgreens of a variety of vegetables and herbs have been reported to be more nutrient dense compared to their mature counterparts. However, little is known about the effectiveness of microgreens in affecting lipid and cholesterol levels. The present study used a rodent diet-induced obesity (DIO) model to address this question. C57BL/6NCr mice (n = 60, male, 5 weeks old) were randomly assigned to six feeding groups: (1) low-fat diet; (2) high-fat diet; (3) low-fat diet + 1.09% red cabbage microgreens; (4) low-fat diet + 1.66% mature red cabbage; (5) high-fat diet + 1.09% red cabbage microgreens; (6) high-fat diet + 1.66% mature red cabbage. The animals were on their respective diets for 8 weeks. We found microgreen supplementation attenuated high-fat diet induced weight gain. Moreover, supplementation with microgreens significantly lowered circulating LDL levels in animals fed the high-fat diet and reduced hepatic cholesterol ester, triacylglycerol levels, and expression of inflammatory cytokines in the liver. These data suggest that microgreens can modulate weight gain and cholesterol metabolism and may protect against CVD by preventing hypercholesterolemia.

  17. Intra-specific Differences in Root and Shoot Glucosinolate Profiles among White Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var capitata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabouw, P.; Biere, A.; Putten, van der W.H.; Dam, van N.M.

    2010-01-01

    Shoot glucosinolate profiles of Brassicaceae are known to vary within species, across environmental conditions, and between developmental stages. Here we study whether root profiles follow the intra-specific, environmental, and developmental variation observed for aerial parts in white cabbage

  18. Cooking techniques improve the levels of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity in kale and red cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murador, Daniella Carisa; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; de Rosso, Veridiana Vera

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of different home cooking techniques (boiling, steaming, and stir-frying) in kale and red cabbage, on the levels of bioactive compounds (carotenoids, anthocyanins and phenolic compounds) determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array and mass spectrometry detectors (HPLC-DAD-MS(n)), and on the antioxidant activity evaluated by ABTS, ORAC and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays. The steaming technique resulted in a significant increase in phenolic content in kale (86.1%; pkale, steaming resulted in significant increases in antioxidant activity levels in all of the evaluation methods. In the red cabbage, boiling resulted in a significant increase in antioxidant activity using the ABTS assay but resulted in a significant decrease using the ORAC assay. According to the CAA assay, the stir-fried sample displayed the highest levels of antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Stress-responsive expression patterns and functional characterization of cold shock domain proteins in cabbage (Brassica rapa) under abiotic stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Min Ji; Park, Ye Rin; Park, Su Jung; Kang, Hunseung

    2015-11-01

    Although the functional roles of cold shock domain proteins (CSDPs) have been demonstrated during the growth, development, and stress adaptation of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), rice (Oryza sativa), and wheat (Triticum aestivum), the functions of CSDPs in other plants species, including cabbage (Brassica rapa), are largely unknown. To gain insight into the roles of CSDPs in cabbage under stress conditions, the genes encoding CSDPs in cabbage were isolated, and the functional roles of CSDPs in response to environmental stresses were analyzed. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that the levels of BrCSDP transcripts increased during cold, salt, or drought stress, as well as upon ABA treatment. Among the five BrCSDP genes found in the cabbage genome, one CSDP (BRU12051), named BrCSDP3, was unique in that it is localized to the chloroplast as well as to the nucleus. Ectopic expression of BrCSDP3 in Arabidopsis resulted in accelerated seed germination and better seedling growth compared to the wild-type plants under high salt or dehydration stress conditions, and in response to ABA treatment. BrCSDP3 did not affect the splicing of intron-containing genes and processing of rRNAs in the chloroplast. BrCSDP3 had the ability to complement RNA chaperone-deficient Escherichia coli mutant cells under low temperatures as well as DNA- and RNA-melting abilities, suggesting that it possesses RNA chaperone activity. Taken together, these results suggest that BrCSDP3, harboring RNA chaperone activity, plays a role as a positive regulator in seed germination and seedling growth under stress conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Field Test Of Capability To Prevent Cabbage Clubroot Disease Caused By Plasmodiophora brassicae Of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized By Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Thi Le Ha; Nguyen Tan Man; Nguyen Duy Hang; Le Hai; Tran Thi Tam; Pham Thi Sam; Le Huu Tu; Tran Thu Hong; Tran Thi Thuy; Nguyen Tuong Ly Lan

    2014-01-01

    The effects of four dose rates 0.27; 0.90; 1.80 and 3.60 kGy/h on the solution of silver (Ag + 10 -2 M, PVP 2%, ethylenglycol 6%) irradiated at 25 kGy were investigated. The results showed that as the dose rates increased, the absorption peak shifted to blue wavelengths and also the particles decreased in size. For field test, nano particles were prepared by irradiation of silver solution at 25 kGy with the dose rate of 3.60 kGy/h. The absorption peaks of the synthesized nanoparticles were obtained at wavelengths of 412 nm and the average diameter of particles were 14 nm. Using two concentrations of 15 and 20 ppm, silver nanoparticles had not affected the growth and development of cabbage but showed antifungal activity against Plasmodiophora brassicae cause club root in cabbage. Using nano particles, the clubroot disease index were 9-10% compared to 5% of nebijin (fungicide), and 12% of control. The yield of cabbage were 55 tons/ha, 63 tons/ha and 70 tons/ha for the control, nanosilver group, and nebijin group, respectively. (author)

  1. Cgl2 plays an essential role in cuticular wax biosynthesis in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongming; Tang, Jun; Liu, Zezhou; Dong, Xin; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao; Sun, Peitian; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Ye, Zhibiao; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei

    2017-11-28

    The aerial parts of most land plants are covered with cuticular wax which is important for plants to avoid harmful factors. There is still no cloning study about wax synthesis gene of the alcohol-forming pathway in Brassica species. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that, compared with wild type (WT), wax crystal are severely reduced in both the adaxial and abaxial sides of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) leaves from the LD10GL mutant. Genetic analysis results revealed that the glossy trait of LD10GL is controlled by a single recessive gene, and fine mapping results revealed that the target gene Cgl2 (Cabbage glossy 2) is located within a physical region of 170 kb on chromosome 1. Based on sequence analysis of the genes in the mapped region, the gene designated Bol013612 was speculated to be the candidate gene. Gene Bol013612 is homologous to Arabidopsis CER4, which encodes fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductase. Sequencing identified a single nucleotide substitution at an intron/exon boundary that results in an insertion of six nucleotides in the cDNA of Bol013612 in LD10GL. The phenotypic defect of LD10GL was confirmed by a functional complementation test with Arabidopsis mutant cer4. Our results indicated that wax crystals of cabbage mutant LD10GL are severely reduced and mutation of gene Bol013612 causes a glossy phenotype in the LD10GL mutant.

  2. 'Ogura'-based 'CMS' lines with different nuclear backgrounds of cabbage revealed substantial diversity at morphological and molecular levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkash, Chander; Kumar, Sandeep; Singh, Rajender; Kumar, Ajay; Kumar, Satish; Dey, Shyam Sundar; Bhatia, Reeta; Kumar, Raj

    2018-01-01

    A comprehensive study on characterization and genetic diversity analysis was carried out in 16 'Ogura'-based 'CMS' lines of cabbage using 14 agro-morphological traits and 29 SSR markers. Agro-morphological characterization depicted considerable variations for different horticultural traits studied. The genotype, ZHA-2, performed better for most of the economically important quantitative traits. Further, gross head weight (0.76), head length (0.60) and head width (0.83) revealed significant positive correlation with net head weight. Dendrogram based on 10 quantitative traits exhibited considerable diversity among different CMS lines and principle component analysis (PCA) indicated that net and gross head weight, and head length and width are the main components of divergence between 16 CMS lines of cabbage. In molecular study, a total of 58 alleles were amplified by 29 SSR primers, averaging to 2.0 alleles in each locus. High mean values of Shannon's Information index (0.62), expected (0.45) and observed (0.32) heterozygosity and polymorphic information content (0.35) depicted substantial polymorphism. Dendrogram based on Jaccard's similarity coefficient constructed two major groups and eight sub-groups, which revealed substantial diversity among different CMS lines. In overall, based on agro-morphological and molecular studies genotype RRMA, ZHA-2 and RCA were found most divergent. Hence, they have immense potential in future breeding programs for the high-yielding hybrid development in cabbage.

  3. Report on the intercomparison runs for the determination of trace and minor elements in cabbage material. IAEA-359

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, M.J.; Radecki, Z.; Trinkl, A.; Burns, K.I.

    2000-04-01

    In 1989, the IAEA decided to produce a cabbage plant reference material that could be characterised for certain agrochemical residues. The cabbage plants (Brassica oleracea var. Sabauda) were grown from seed in Seibersdorf, Austria. The plants were treated with ten different agrochemical products during their growing period. Subsequently, it was decided that the material would also be valuable as a reference material for trace element analysis and quality control purposes. The property values for the trace metal content of the cabbage material, designated IAEA 359, were to be ascribed on the basis of information received from international intercomparison exercises. In parallel, it was decided to despatch the material as part of a joint IAEA-NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA) project to certify the trace and minor element contents of a spinach reference material (NIST 1570a), in which it was to serve as a quality control material. A similar rationale was used to justify inclusion of IAEA 359 in a small scale exercise for a preliminary characterisation of another IAEA reference material, IAEA 336 Lichen. Between 1992 and 1993, the material was used in 4 projects (2 large scale and 2 smaller scale) where its trace element contents were determined. This report deals with the statistical evaluation of the pooled analytical data from these exercises

  4. Characterization and Development of EST-SSRs by Deep Transcriptome Sequencing in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Ding

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple sequence repeats (SSRs are among the most important markers for population analysis and have been widely used in plant genetic mapping and molecular breeding. Expressed sequence tag-SSR (EST-SSR markers, located in the coding regions, are potentially more efficient for QTL mapping, gene targeting, and marker-assisted breeding. In this study, we investigated 51,694 nonredundant unigenes, assembled from clean reads from deep transcriptome sequencing with a Solexa/Illumina platform, for identification and development of EST-SSRs in Chinese cabbage. In total, 10,420 EST-SSRs with over 12 bp were identified and characterized, among which 2744 EST-SSRs are new and 2317 are known ones showing polymorphism with previously reported SSRs. A total of 7877 PCR primer pairs for 1561 EST-SSR loci were designed, and primer pairs for twenty-four EST-SSRs were selected for primer evaluation. In nineteen EST-SSR loci (79.2%, amplicons were successfully generated with high quality. Seventeen (89.5% showed polymorphism in twenty-four cultivars of Chinese cabbage. The polymorphic alleles of each polymorphic locus were sequenced, and the results showed that most polymorphisms were due to variations of SSR repeat motifs. The EST-SSRs identified and characterized in this study have important implications for developing new tools for genetics and molecular breeding in Chinese cabbage.

  5. Molecular Characterization of a Leaf Senescence-Related Transcription Factor BrWRKY75 of Chinese Flowering Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Tan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available WRKY is a plant-specific transcription factor (TF involved in the regulation of many biological processes; however, its role in leaf senescence of leafy vegetables remains unknown. In the present work, a WRKY TF, termed BrWRKY75 was isolated from Chinese flowering cabbage [Brassica rapa L. ssp. chinensis (L. Mokino var. utilis Tsen et Lee]. Analysis of deduced amino acid sequence and the phylogenetic tree showed that BrWRKY75 has high homology with WRKY75 from Brassica oleracea and Arabidopsis thaliana, and belongs to the II c sub-group. Sub-cellular localization and transcriptional activity analysis revealed that BrWRKY75 is a nuclear protein with transcriptional repression activity, and was up-regulated during leaf senescence. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay confirmed that BrWRKY75 directly bound to the W-box (TTGAC cis-element. Collectively, these results provide a basis for further investigation of the transcriptional regulation of Chinese flowering cabbage leaf senescence.

  6. Joint effects of cadmium and lead on seedlings of four Chinese cabbage cultivars in northeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Zhiqiang; ZHOU Qixing; LIU Weitao

    2009-01-01

    In northeastern China,large area of vegetable land has been simultaneously polluted by cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb).Joint effects of Cd and Pb on Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis L.) were investigated using the seed germination and sand culture method.Four Chinese cabbage cultivars including Kangbingjinchun (KB),Dongyangchunxia (DY),Qinglvwang (QL) and Qiangshi (QS) from Shenyang in northeastern China were adopted in this study.The results showed that there were positive linear relationships between the inhibitory rate of biomass,root and shoot elongation and the concentrations of Cd and Pb.In particular,root elongation was more sensitive to joint stress of Cd and Pb.The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA),soluble protein (SP) and proline (PRO) changed significantly with increasing exposure concentration of Cd and Pb.The decrement in the activity of antioxidative enzymes,the content of SP and accumulation of MDA were relatively low in KB and QS.PRO played an important role in resisting Cd and Pb stress.

  7. IDENTIFICATION OF LEAD AND CADMIUM LEVELS IN WHITE CABBAGE (Brassica rapa L., SOIL, AND IRRIGATION WATER OF URBAN AGRICULTURAL SITES IN THE PHILIPPINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardiyanto Hardiyanto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Urban agriculture comprises a variety of farming systems, ranging from subsistence to fully commercialized agriculture. Pollution from automobile exhaust, industrial and commercialactivities may affect humans, crops, soil, and water in and around urban agriculture areas. The research aimed to investigate the level and distribution of lead (Pb and cadmium (Cd in white cabbage (Brassica rapa L., soil, and irrigation water taken from urban sites. The research was conducted in Las Piñas and Parañaque, Metro Manila, Philippines. The field area was divided into three sections based on its distance from the main road (0, 25, and 50 m. Irrigation water was taken from canal (Las Piñas and river (Parañaque. Pb and Cd contents of the extract were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Combined analysis over locations was used. The relationship between distance from the main road and metal contents was measured by Pearson’s correlation. Based on combined analyses, highly significant difference over locations was only showed on Cd content in white cabbage. Cd content in white cabbage grown in Parañaque was higher than that cultivated in Las Piñas, while Cd content in the soil between both sites was comparable.The average Pb content (1.09 µg g-1 dry weight was highest in the white cabbage grown right beside the main road. A similar trend was also observed in the soil, with the highest concentration being recorded at 26 µg g-1 dry weight. There was a negative relationship between distance from the main road and Pb and Cd contents in white cabbage and the soil. Level of Pb in water taken from the canal and river was similar (0.12 mg l-1, whereaslevels of Cd were 0.0084 and 0.0095 mg l-1, respectively. In general, the concentrations of Pb and Cd in white cabbage and soil as well as irrigation water were still in the acceptable limits. In terms of environmental hazards and polluted city environment, it seems that

  8. Effects of irradiation on the sensory characteristics of vegetables (celery, lettuces and cabbage)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poblete Escalona, Claudia Alejandra

    1999-01-01

    In the last few years, irradiation has been applied to a growing number of food products in order to increase their conservation process. This technology has to be informed to consumers in order to get their acceptation. The object of this research was to irradiate three kinds of vegetables, Celery, Lettuce and Cabbage with 0.50; 0.75 and 1.00 kGy doses and subject them to a sensorial analysis to measure their acceptability and quality. The parameters considered in the analysis of the products were color, smell, sweetness, sour taste, texture, bitterness, and flavor. As well in quality as in acceptability we used a structured value scale from 1 to 9 points, the results were processed statistically by the analyses of Varianza and Duncan test of multiple range in a level of 5% significance. The analyzed data proved that Cabbage was the most resistant to the irradiation treatment. On the other hand we just observed a significant differences in appearances in Lettuce and in color in Celery, which faded on the sixth day. In general terms we can sustain that products showed good acceptability in our control samples and also in the irradiated ones, until the sixth day after their harvest. (au)

  9. Inhibitory effects of an extract from non-host plants on physiological characteristics of two major cabbage pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastranj, M; Borzoui, E; Bandani, A R; Franco, O L

    2018-06-01

    The diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) and small white cabbage butterfly (Pieris rapae) are the two main serious pests of cruciferous crops (Brassicaceae) that have developed resistance to chemical control methods. In order to avoid such resistance and also the adverse effects of chemical pesticides on the environment, alternative methods have usually been suggested, including the use of plant enzyme inhibitors. Here, the inhibitory effects of proteinaceous inhibitors extracted from wheat, canola, sesame, bean and triticale were evaluated against the digestive α-amylases, larval growth, development and nutritional indecs of the diamondback moth and small white cabbage butterfly. Our results indicated that triticale and wheat extracts inhibited α-amylolytic activity in an alkaline pH, which is in accordance with the moth and butterfly gut α-amylase optimum pH. Dose-dependent inhibition of two crucifer pests by triticale and wheat was observed using spectrophotometry and gel electrophoresis. Implementation of specificity studies showed that wheat and triticale-proteinaceous extract were inactive against Chinese and purple cabbage amylase. Triticale and wheat were resistant against insects' gut proteases. Results of the feeding bioassay indicated that triticale-proteinaceous extract could cause a significant reduction in survival and larval body mass. The results of the nutritional indecs also showed larvae of both species that fed on a Triticale proteinaceous inhibitor-treated diet had the lowest values for the efficiency of conversion of ingested food and relative growth rate. Our observations suggested that triticale shows promise for use in the management of crucifer pests.

  10. Structural features and complement-fixing activity of pectin from three Brassica oleracea varieties: white cabbage, kale, and red kale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsen, Anne Berit; Westereng, Bjørge; Yousif, Osman; Holtekjølen, Ann Katrin; Michaelsen, Terje E; Knutsen, Svein H

    2007-02-01

    Leaves of different cabbage species are used both as food and as wound healing remedies in traditional medicine. This supposed wound healing activity might be connected to presence of immunomodulating water soluble polysaccharides. To study this, three different cabbage varieties, white cabbage (W), kale (K), and red kale (RK), were pretreated with 80% ethanol and then extracted with water at 50 degrees C and 100 degrees C for isolation of polysaccharide-containing fractions. The fractions were analyzed for monosaccharide composition, glycosidic linkages, Mw distribution, protein content, and phenolic compounds and then tested for complement-fixing activity. All fractions contained pectin type polysaccharides with linkages corresponding to homogalacturonan and hairy regions. Those extracted at 50 degrees C contained higher amounts of neutral side chains and were more active in the complement-fixation test than those extracted at 100 degrees C. The fractions can be ranged by decreasing activity: K-50 > RK-50 > W-50 approximately = K-100 > RK100 approximately = W-100. Studies on structure-activity relationships (SAR) employing multivariate statistical analysis strongly suggest that the magnitude of the measured activity is influenced by the content of certain side chains in the polymers. High activity correlates to large neutral side chains with high amounts of (1-->6)- and (1-->3,6)-linked Gal and low amounts of (1-->4)-linked GalA but not on molecular weight distribution of the polymers.

  11. PARTICULARITIES OF WHITE HEAD CABBAGE F1 HYBRID BREEDING FOR PRIDNESTROVIAN MOLDAVIAN REPUBLIC CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Shpak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A model of late maturing F1 hybrid of white head cabbage for long-term storing and suitable for national recipe “golubci” have been developed based on requirements for varieties and F1 hybrids grown in the South in the conditions of drought, high temperatures and low air humidity. Combining ability of seven self-incompatible inbred lines of white head cabbage was studied by the system of full diallel crosses in conditions of Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic. These lines were developed on the base of heat tolerant varieties ‘Biruchekutskaya’, ‘Volna’, ‘Lada’, ‘Moldavanka’ and ‘Kharkovskaya Zimnyaya’ bred in the south. Out of 42 hybrid combinations studied 15 significantly surpassed in productivity the variety ‘Zavadovskaya’ that is traditionally grown by local farmers for pickling and recipe “golubci”. High GCA effects for productivity showed the following breeding lines: Bu1, Ml3 and Kl5. Polygenes, controlling the high yield ability, mainly were dominant and single-directed, however the correlation betweenyield ability and GCA effect was middle, r=0.63±0.35. No correlation was observed inbreeding line between GCA effect and truly heterosis effect in hybrid combinations (r=0.19. Disease resistance analysis revealed lines Bu1 and Kl5 that had shown resistance to Fusarium yellows. Two hybrid combination Kl5xBu1 and Ml3xBu1 were highly tolerant to thrips attacks according to analysis of all promising hybrid combinations, carried out in natural infection background. Weak correlation was observed between the number of damaged leaves in cabbage head and dry matter content, r=0.41±0.21, and also there is no correlation revealed with sugar contents, ascorbic acid and nitrate content. High tolerance of hybrids with participation of line Bu1 explained the partial dominance nature of the trait. Hybrid combinations Kl5xBu1 and Ml3xBu1 called ‘Batal’ and ‘Shedevr’, respectively, included in registry of Moldova and

  12. Roles of xanthophylls and exogenous ABA in protection against NaCl-induced photodamage in rice (Oryza sativa L) and cabbage (Brassica campestris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Su-Qin; Chen, Ming-Wei; Ji, Ben-Hua; Jiao, De-Mao; Liang, Jian-Sheng

    2011-08-01

    Changes in actual efficiency of PS II photochemistry, non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), content of xanthophylls and kinetics of de-epoxidation were studied in ABA-fed and non-ABA-fed leaves of rice and cabbage under NaCl stress. Salt stress induced more progressive decrease in actual efficiency of PS II photochemistry (ФPS II), higher reduction state of PS II, and a small significant increase in NPQ in NaCl-sensitive rice plants as compared with NaCl-tolerant cabbage plants, whereas exogenously supplied ABA alleviated the decrease in actual efficiency of PS II photochemistry (ФPS II), induced a lower reduction state of PS II, and caused higher capacity of NPQ in ABA-fed plants than in non-ABA-fed plants. As a result, there were higher activities of photosynthetic electron transport, higher capacity of energy dissipation, and lower cumulation of excess light in cabbage than in rice plants, and in ABA-fed leaves than in non-ABA-fed leaves. The effect of ABA was more efficient in cabbage than in rice plants. Addition of exogenous ABA resulted in enhancement of the size of the xanthophyll cycle pool, promotion of de-epoxidation of the xanthophyll cycle components, and a rise in the level of NPQ by altering the kinetics of de-epoxidation of the xanthophyll cycle. Protection from photodamage appears to be achieved by coordinated contributions by exogenous ABA and xanthophyll cycle-mediated NPQ. This variety of photoprotective mechanisms may be essential for conferring photodamage tolerance under NaCl stress. © The Author [2011]. Published by Oxford University Press [on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology]. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization of plant-growth promoting diazotrophic bacteria isolated from field grown Chinese cabbage under different fertilization conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Woo-Jong; Poonguzhali, Selvaraj; Madhaiyan, Munusamy; Palaniappan, Pitchai; Siddikee, M A; Sa, Tongmin

    2009-04-01

    Diazotrophic bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of Chinese cabbage were assessed for other plant growth promoting characteristics viz., production of IAA, ethylene, ACC deaminase, phosphate solubilization, and gnotobiotic root elongation. Their effect on inoculation to Chinese cabbage was also observed under growth chamber conditions. A total of 19 strains that showed higher nitrogenase activity identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis were found to be the members of the genera Pseudomonas and Agrobacterium belonging to alpha- and gamma-Proteobacteria groups. These strains were also efficient in producing IAA and ACC deaminase though they produced low levels of ethylene and no phosphate solubilization. In addition, inoculation of selected diazotrophic bacterial strains significantly increased seedling length, dry weight, and total nitrogen when compared to uninoculated control. The colonization of crop plants by diazotrophic bacteria can be affected by many biotic and abiotic factors, and further studies are oriented towards investigating the factors that could influence the establishment of a selected bacterial community.

  14. Analysis of Antifungal Components in the Galls of Melaphis chinensis and Their Effects on Control of Anthracnose Disease of Chinese Cabbage Caused by Colletotrichum higginsianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Chung Kuo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal pathogens caused various diseases which resulted in heavy yield and quality losses on plants of commercial interests such as fruits, vegetables, and flowers. In our preliminary experimental results, the methanol extracts of four species of medicinal plants Melaphis chinensis, Eugenia caryophyllata, Polygonum cuspidatum, and Rheum officinale possessed antifungal activity to causal agent of cabbage anthracnose, Colletotrichum higginsianum. Thus it was conducted to identify and quantify the chemical constituents in these herbs and to assess the antifungal effects of these compounds. Among the tested principles, the indicator compound methyl gallate from M. chinensis was the most effective one against the conidial germination. In addition, it exhibited significant effects of controlling anthracnose disease of Chinese cabbage caused by C. higginsianum PA-01 in growth chamber. These results indicate that M. chinensis may be potential for further development of plant-derived pesticides for control of anthracnose of cabbage and other cruciferous crops.

  15. Phenolic compounds in external leaves of tronchuda cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. costata DC)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreres, F.; Valentão, P.; Llorach, R.; Pinheiro, C.; Cardoso, L.; Pereira, J.A.; Seabra, R.M.; Andrade, P.B.

    2005-01-01

    Glycosylated kaempferol derivatives from the external leaves of tronchuda cabbage ( Brassica oleracea L. var. costataDC) characterized by reversed-phase HPLC-DAD-MS/MS-ESI were kaempferol 3- Osophorotrioside- 7-O-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O- (methoxycaffeoyl/caffeoyl)sophoroside-7- O-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O-sophoroside-7-O-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O-sophorotrioside-7-O-sophoroside, kaempferol 3- O-sophoroside-7- O-sophoroside, kaempferol 3- O-tetraglucoside-7- O-sophoroside, kaempf...

  16. Tri-trophic insecticidal effects of African plants against cabbage pests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blankson W Amoabeng

    Full Text Available Botanical insecticides are increasingly attracting research attention as they offer novel modes of action that may provide effective control of pests that have already developed resistance to conventional insecticides. They potentially offer cost-effective pest control to smallholder farmers in developing countries if highly active extracts can be prepared simply from readily available plants. Field cage and open field experiments were conducted to evaluate the insecticidal potential of nine common Ghanaian plants: goat weed, Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae, Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae, Cinderella weed, Synedrella nodiflora (Asteraceae, chili pepper, Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae, tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum (Solanaceae cassia, Cassia sophera (Leguminosae, physic nut, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae, castor oil plant, Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae and basil, Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae. In field cage experiments, simple detergent and water extracts of all botanical treatments gave control of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae and diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, equivalent to the synthetic insecticide Attack® (emamectin benzoate and superior to water or detergent solution. In open field experiments in the major and minor rainy seasons using a sub-set of plant extracts (A. conyzoides, C. odorata, S. nodiflora, N. tabacum and R. communis, all controlled B. brassicae and P. xylostella more effectively than water control and comparably with or better than Attack®. Botanical and water control treatments were more benign to third trophic level predators than Attack®. Effects cascaded to the first trophic level with all botanical treatments giving cabbage head weights, comparable to Attack® in the minor season. In the major season, R. communis and A conyzoides treatment gave lower head yields than Attack® but the remaining botanicals were equivalent or superior to this synthetic insecticide. Simply-prepared extracts from

  17. Tri-trophic insecticidal effects of African plants against cabbage pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoabeng, Blankson W; Gurr, Geoff M; Gitau, Catherine W; Nicol, Helen I; Munyakazi, Louis; Stevenson, Phil C

    2013-01-01

    Botanical insecticides are increasingly attracting research attention as they offer novel modes of action that may provide effective control of pests that have already developed resistance to conventional insecticides. They potentially offer cost-effective pest control to smallholder farmers in developing countries if highly active extracts can be prepared simply from readily available plants. Field cage and open field experiments were conducted to evaluate the insecticidal potential of nine common Ghanaian plants: goat weed, Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae), Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae), Cinderella weed, Synedrella nodiflora (Asteraceae), chili pepper, Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae), tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum (Solanaceae) cassia, Cassia sophera (Leguminosae), physic nut, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae), castor oil plant, Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) and basil, Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae). In field cage experiments, simple detergent and water extracts of all botanical treatments gave control of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae and diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, equivalent to the synthetic insecticide Attack® (emamectin benzoate) and superior to water or detergent solution. In open field experiments in the major and minor rainy seasons using a sub-set of plant extracts (A. conyzoides, C. odorata, S. nodiflora, N. tabacum and R. communis), all controlled B. brassicae and P. xylostella more effectively than water control and comparably with or better than Attack®. Botanical and water control treatments were more benign to third trophic level predators than Attack®. Effects cascaded to the first trophic level with all botanical treatments giving cabbage head weights, comparable to Attack® in the minor season. In the major season, R. communis and A conyzoides treatment gave lower head yields than Attack® but the remaining botanicals were equivalent or superior to this synthetic insecticide. Simply-prepared extracts from readily

  18. Tri-Trophic Insecticidal Effects of African Plants against Cabbage Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoabeng, Blankson W.; Gurr, Geoff M.; Gitau, Catherine W.; Nicol, Helen I.; Stevenson, Phil C.

    2013-01-01

    Botanical insecticides are increasingly attracting research attention as they offer novel modes of action that may provide effective control of pests that have already developed resistance to conventional insecticides. They potentially offer cost-effective pest control to smallholder farmers in developing countries if highly active extracts can be prepared simply from readily available plants. Field cage and open field experiments were conducted to evaluate the insecticidal potential of nine common Ghanaian plants: goat weed, Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae), Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae), Cinderella weed, Synedrella nodiflora (Asteraceae), chili pepper, Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae), tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum (Solanaceae) cassia, Cassia sophera (Leguminosae), physic nut, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae), castor oil plant, Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) and basil, Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae). In field cage experiments, simple detergent and water extracts of all botanical treatments gave control of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae and diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, equivalent to the synthetic insecticide Attack® (emamectin benzoate) and superior to water or detergent solution. In open field experiments in the major and minor rainy seasons using a sub-set of plant extracts (A. conyzoides, C. odorata, S. nodiflora, N. tabacum and R. communis), all controlled B. brassicae and P. xylostella more effectively than water control and comparably with or better than Attack®. Botanical and water control treatments were more benign to third trophic level predators than Attack®. Effects cascaded to the first trophic level with all botanical treatments giving cabbage head weights, comparable to Attack® in the minor season. In the major season, R. communis and A conyzoides treatment gave lower head yields than Attack® but the remaining botanicals were equivalent or superior to this synthetic insecticide. Simply-prepared extracts from readily

  19. Optimal sample size for predicting viability of cabbage and radish seeds based on near infrared spectra of single seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shetty, Nisha; Min, Tai-Gi; Gislum, René

    2011-01-01

    The effects of the number of seeds in a training sample set on the ability to predict the viability of cabbage or radish seeds are presented and discussed. The supervised classification method extended canonical variates analysis (ECVA) was used to develop a classification model. Calibration sub......-sets of different sizes were chosen randomly with several iterations and using the spectral-based sample selection algorithms DUPLEX and CADEX. An independent test set was used to validate the developed classification models. The results showed that 200 seeds were optimal in a calibration set for both cabbage...... using all 600 seeds in the calibration set. Thus, the number of seeds in the calibration set can be reduced by up to 67% without significant loss of classification accuracy, which will effectively enhance the cost-effectiveness of NIR spectral analysis. Wavelength regions important...

  20. Phytotoxic Effects of Cinnamic Acid on Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh, N. B.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the effects of exogenous application of cinnamic acid (CA on growth and metabolism in growing seedlings of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage in hydroponic culture. CA was added at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mM concentrations. CA has shown inhibitory effects on shoot and root length, fresh and dry weight of seedlings. CA significantly decreased the photosynthetic pigments, nitrate reductase activity and protein content. Graded concentrations of CA increased lipid peroxidation and sugar content. The increasing concentrations of CA significantly increased the antioxidative enzyme activities viz. superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase against the oxidative stress caused by CA.

  1. The effects of selenate and sulphate supply on the accumulation and volatilization of Se by cabbage, kohlrabi and alfalfa plants grown hydroponically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. HAJIBOLAND

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Selenium (Se supplementation at five levels of 0 (control, 5, 10, 15, 20 ìM in plants supplied with one of four concentrations of sulphur (S including 0.05, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mM was investigated in two varieties of Brassica oleracea (cabbage and kohlrabi and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. in a hydroponic experiment. In severely S deficient plants (0.05 mM, Se acted as a toxic element, alfalfa was the most susceptible plant that died at this treatment. However, in plants supplied with near adequate (0.5 mM or adequate (1.0 mM S, Se acted as a growth promoting element. The most pronounced stimulation of growth was observed in cabbage and the lowest in alfalfa. Increasing S concentration in the medium, reduced Se uptake and transport. In contrast, S uptake and transport increased in response to Se addition. Se volatilization was higher in alfalfa than cabbage and kohlrabi when expressed on unit shoot dry weight or leaf area basis, but not when expressed per plant. Results suggested that Se supplementation of plants supplied with adequate S, not only had beneficial effects on plants growth but also can have application in enrichment of livestock fodder and human food.;

  2. Robustness of the bacterial community in the cabbage white butterfly larval midgut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Courtney J; Schloss, Patrick; Ramos, Yolied; Raffa, Kenneth; Handelsman, Jo

    2010-02-01

    Microbial communities typically vary in composition and structure over space and time. Little is known about the inherent characteristics of communities that govern various drivers of these changes, such as random variation, changes in response to perturbation, or susceptibility to invasion. In this study, we use 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences to describe variation among bacterial communities in the midguts of cabbage white butterfly (Pieris rapae) larvae and examine the influence of community structure on susceptibility to invasion. We compared communities in larvae experiencing the same conditions at different times (temporal variation) or fed different diets (perturbation). The most highly represented phylum was Proteobacteria, which was present in all midgut communities. The observed species richness ranged from six to 15, and the most abundant members affiliated with the genera Methylobacteria, Asaia, Acinetobacter, Enterobacter, and Pantoea. Individual larvae subjected to the same conditions at the same time harbored communities that were highly similar in structure and membership, whereas the communities observed within larval populations changed with diet and over time. In addition, structural changes due to perturbation coincided with enhanced susceptibility to invasion by Enterobacter sp. NAB3R and Pantoea stewartii CWB600, suggesting that resistance to invasion is in part governed by community structure. These findings along with the observed conservation of membership at the phylum level, variation in structure and membership at lower taxonomic levels, and its relative simplicity make the cabbage white butterfly larval community an attractive model for studying community dynamics and robustness.

  3. Effect of temperature on reproduction and embryonic development of the cabbage stem flea beetle, Psylliodes chrysocephala L., (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Helle; Sørensen, Helle; Bligaard, J.

    2015-01-01

    The cabbage stem flea beetle, Psylliodes chrysocephala (L.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a major pest of winter oilseed rape. Despite the importance of this pest, detailed information on reproduction to predict risk of crop damage is lacking. This study investigates the effect of temperature...

  4. Development of EST-SSR markers in flowering Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. utilis Tsen et Lee based on de novo transcriptomic assemblies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingfang Chen

    Full Text Available Flowering Chinese cabbage is one of the most important vegetable crops in southern China. Genetic improvement of various agronomic traits in this crop is underway to meet high market demand in the region, but the progress is hampered by limited number of molecular markers available in this crop. This study aimed to develop EST-SSR markers from transcriptome sequences generated by next-generation sequencing. RNA-seq of eight cabbage samples identified 48,975 unigenes. Of these unigenes, 23,267 were annotated in 56 gene ontology (GO categories, 6,033 were mapped to 131 KEGG pathways, and 7,825 were assigned to clusters of orthologous groups (COGs. From the unigenes, 8,165 EST-SSR loci were identified and 98.57% of them were 1-3 nucleotide repeats with 14.32%, 41.08% and 43.17% of mono-, di- and tri-nucleotide repeats, respectively. Fifty-eight types of motifs were identified with A/T, AG/CT, AT/AT, AC/GT, AAG/CTT and AGG/CCT the most abundant. The lengths of repeated nucleotide sequences in all SSR loci ranged from 12 to 60 bp, with most (88.51% under 20 bp. Among 170 primer pairs were randomly selected from a total of 4,912 SSR primers we designed, 48 yielded unambiguously polymorphic bands with high reproducibility. Cluster analysis using 48 SSRs classified 34 flowering Chinese cabbage cultivars into three groups. A large number of EST-SSR markers identified in this study will facilitate marker-assisted selection in the breeding programs of flowering Chinese cabbage.

  5. Development of EST-SSR markers in flowering Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. utilis Tsen et Lee) based on de novo transcriptomic assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingfang; Li, Ronghua; Xia, Yanshi; Bai, Guihua; Guo, Peiguo; Wang, Zhiliang; Zhang, Hua; Siddique, Kadambot H M

    2017-01-01

    Flowering Chinese cabbage is one of the most important vegetable crops in southern China. Genetic improvement of various agronomic traits in this crop is underway to meet high market demand in the region, but the progress is hampered by limited number of molecular markers available in this crop. This study aimed to develop EST-SSR markers from transcriptome sequences generated by next-generation sequencing. RNA-seq of eight cabbage samples identified 48,975 unigenes. Of these unigenes, 23,267 were annotated in 56 gene ontology (GO) categories, 6,033 were mapped to 131 KEGG pathways, and 7,825 were assigned to clusters of orthologous groups (COGs). From the unigenes, 8,165 EST-SSR loci were identified and 98.57% of them were 1-3 nucleotide repeats with 14.32%, 41.08% and 43.17% of mono-, di- and tri-nucleotide repeats, respectively. Fifty-eight types of motifs were identified with A/T, AG/CT, AT/AT, AC/GT, AAG/CTT and AGG/CCT the most abundant. The lengths of repeated nucleotide sequences in all SSR loci ranged from 12 to 60 bp, with most (88.51%) under 20 bp. Among 170 primer pairs were randomly selected from a total of 4,912 SSR primers we designed, 48 yielded unambiguously polymorphic bands with high reproducibility. Cluster analysis using 48 SSRs classified 34 flowering Chinese cabbage cultivars into three groups. A large number of EST-SSR markers identified in this study will facilitate marker-assisted selection in the breeding programs of flowering Chinese cabbage.

  6. Remediation and Safe Production of cd Contaminated Soil Via Multiple Cropping Hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. and Low Accumulation Chinese Cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Mingfen; Wei, Shuhe; Bai, Jiayi; Wang, Siqi; Ji, Dandan

    2015-01-01

    Multiple crop experiment of hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. with low accumulation Chinese cabbage Fenyuanxin 3 were conducted in a cadmium (Cd) contaminated vegetable field. In the first round, the average removal rate of S. nigrum to Cd was about 10% without assisted phytoextraction reagent addition for the top soil (0-20 cm) with Cd concentration at 0.53-0.97 mg kg(-1) after its grew 90 days. As for assisted phytoextraction reagent added plots, efficiency of Cd remediation might reach at 20%. However, in the second round, Cd concentration in Chinese cabbage was edible, even in the plots with assisted phytoextraction reagent added. Thus, multiple cropping hyperaccumulator with low accumulation crop could normally remediate contaminated soil and produce crop (obtain economic benefit) in one year, which may be one practical pathway of phytoremediating heavy metal contaminated soil in the future.

  7. Integrated analysis of transcriptome and proteome changes related to the Ogura cytoplasmic male sterility in cabbage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miaomiao Xing

    Full Text Available Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata, an important vegetable crop in the Brassicaceae family, is economically important worldwide. In the process of hybrid seed production, Ogura cytoplasmic male sterility (OguCMS, controlled by the mitochondrial gene orf138, has been extensively used for cabbage hybrid production with complete and stable male sterility. To identify the critical genes and pathways involved in the sterility and to better understand the underlying molecular mechanisms, the anther of OguCMS line R2P2CMS and the fertile line R2P2 were used for RNA-seq and iTRAQ (Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation proteome analysis. RNA-seq analysis generated 13,037,109 to 13,066,594 SE50-clean reads, from the sterile and fertile lines, which were assembled into 36,890 unigenes. Among them, 1,323 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified, consisting of 307 up- and 1016 down-regulated genes. For ITRAQ analysis, a total of 7,147 unique proteins were identified, and 833 were differentially expressed including 538 up- and 295 down-regulated proteins. These were mainly annotated to the ribosome, spliceosome and mRNA surveillance pathways. Combined transcriptomic and proteomic analyses identified 22 and 70 genes with the same and opposite expression profiles, respectively. Using KEGG analysis of DEGs, gibberellin mediated signaling pathways regulating tapetum programmed cell death and four different pathways involved in sporopollenin synthesis were identified. Secretion and translocation of the sporopollenin precursors were identified, and the key genes participating in these pathways were all significantly down-regulated in R2P2CMS. Light and transmission electron (TE microscopy revealed fat abnormal tapetum rather than vacuolization and degradation at the tetrad and microspore stages of the OguCMS line. This resulted in the failed deposition of sporopollenin on the pollen resulting in sterility. This study provides a

  8. Protective role of cabbage extract versus cadmium-induced oxidative renal and thyroid hormones dysfunctions in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FARAG, M. F. S.; OSMAN, N. N.; DARWISH, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental and industrial pollutant that affects various organs in human and experimental animals. A body of evidence has accumulated implicating the free radical generation with subsequent oxidative stress in the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of Cd damage. Cabbage is economically an important cole crop grown and consumed worldwide. It belongs the Cruciferous vegetables (Brassica), which have been reported to have a wide range of pharmacological properties. Since kidney is the critical target organ of chronic Cd damage, we carried out this study to investigate the effects of cabbage extract (C.E.) on Cd-induced dysfunction in the kidney of rats. The thyroid hormones values were also determined. Male Wistar rats were provided with cadmium chloride (100 mg/ L water) as the only drinking fluid and/or cabbage extract (C.E.) (5 ml/ kg body weight /day) for 4 weeks. Oral administration of Cd significantly induced the renal damage which was evident from the significantly (p < 0.05) increased levels of serum urea, uric acid and creatinine with a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in creatinine clearance. It also significantly declined the levels of urea, uric acid and creatinine in urine. Intoxication of Cd to rats reduced serum triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) concentrations. Reduced glutathione (GSH), and enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were also significantly (p < 0.05) depressed with a concomitant marked enhancement in lipid peroxidation marker (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS). Co-administration of C.E. along with Cd resulted in a reversal of the Cd-induced biochemical variables in kidney accompanied by a significant reduction in lipid peroxidation and a higher levels of renal antioxidant defense system. However, incorporation of C.E. to rats whether applied alone or in combination with Cd did not reveal any change in the thyroid hormones levels, which reflect significant drop in

  9. Studies on germination and vigour of cabbage seeds = [Aspecten van de kieming van zaden van witte kool en savoiekool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liou, T.D.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of commercial storage of cabbage seeds on the germination of seeds and the emergence and growth of seedlings have been studied. Progressive ageing of seeds caused loss of seed vigour which resulted in poor emergence and growth of seedlings and the formation of abnormal

  10. In vivo tracing of organophosphorus pesticides in cabbage (Brassica parachinensis) and aloe (Barbadensis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Junlang; Chen, Guosheng; Zhou, Hong; Xu, Jianqiao; Wang, Fuxin; Zhu, Fang; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2016-01-01

    In vivo solid-phase microextraction (SPME) sampling method coupled with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis was employed to trace the uptake and elimination of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in two kinds of edible plants, cabbage (Brassica parachinensis) and aloe (Barbadensis). The metabolism of fenthion in aloe was also investigated by the liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis (LC–MS/MS) to understand the fate of OPPs in living plants better. Transpiration stream concentration factor (TSCF) and depuration rate constants of the OPPs in living plants were obtained therein. The health risk of the OPPs treated aloe was estimated by the maximum residue limit (MRL) approach, and it revealed that the OPPs were rather safe for their fast degradable property. However, peak concentration of fenthion-sulfoxide was found to exceed the MRL and was higher than that of the parent fenthion, which indicated the potential risk of pesticide metabolites. This study highlighted the application of in vivo SPME for contaminant tracing in different living edible plants. The in vivo tracing method is very convenient and can provide more data to evaluate the risk of different pesticides, which are very important for the safety of agriculture production. - Highlights: • In vivo SPME was employed to sample organophosphorus pesticides in vegetables. • Uptake and elimination of OPPs were traced in cabbage and aloe. • In vivo tracing of fenthion demonstrated its metabolites could be rather dangerous. • The risks of OPPs were assessed based on the in vivo tracing data.

  11. In vivo tracing of organophosphorus pesticides in cabbage (Brassica parachinensis) and aloe (Barbadensis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Junlang; Chen, Guosheng; Zhou, Hong; Xu, Jianqiao; Wang, Fuxin; Zhu, Fang, E-mail: ceszf@mail.sysu.edu.cn; Ouyang, Gangfeng, E-mail: cesoygf@mail.sysu.edu.cn

    2016-04-15

    In vivo solid-phase microextraction (SPME) sampling method coupled with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis was employed to trace the uptake and elimination of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in two kinds of edible plants, cabbage (Brassica parachinensis) and aloe (Barbadensis). The metabolism of fenthion in aloe was also investigated by the liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis (LC–MS/MS) to understand the fate of OPPs in living plants better. Transpiration stream concentration factor (TSCF) and depuration rate constants of the OPPs in living plants were obtained therein. The health risk of the OPPs treated aloe was estimated by the maximum residue limit (MRL) approach, and it revealed that the OPPs were rather safe for their fast degradable property. However, peak concentration of fenthion-sulfoxide was found to exceed the MRL and was higher than that of the parent fenthion, which indicated the potential risk of pesticide metabolites. This study highlighted the application of in vivo SPME for contaminant tracing in different living edible plants. The in vivo tracing method is very convenient and can provide more data to evaluate the risk of different pesticides, which are very important for the safety of agriculture production. - Highlights: • In vivo SPME was employed to sample organophosphorus pesticides in vegetables. • Uptake and elimination of OPPs were traced in cabbage and aloe. • In vivo tracing of fenthion demonstrated its metabolites could be rather dangerous. • The risks of OPPs were assessed based on the in vivo tracing data.

  12. Discrimination of conventional and organic white cabbage from a long-term field trial study using untargeted LC-MS-based metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mie, Axel; Laursen, Kristian Holst; Åberg, K. Magnus

    2014-01-01

    The influence of organic and conventional farming practices on the content of single nutrients in plants is disputed in the scientific literature. Here, large-scale untargeted LC-MS-based metabolomics was used to compare the composition of white cabbage from organic and conventional agriculture, ...

  13. Estabilidade de repolho minimamente processado sob diferentes sistemas de embalagem Storage of minimally processed cabbage in differents packaging systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Madalena Rinaldi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a estabilidade de repolho minimamente processado acondicionado em embalagens de polietileno de baixa densidade com atmosfera modificada ativa e passiva, e em bandejas de poliestireno expandido revestidas com filme de policloreto de vinila. O produto foi armazenado por 16 dias em câmara frigorífica na temperatura de 5 ± 1 °C e 95 ± 5 % de umidade relativa, e em um balcão refrigerado similar aos utilizados em lojas de conveniência, com o intuito de representar os locais de comercialização no varejo, com temperatura média de 2,7 ± 3,3 °C. Analisou-se a concentração de oxigênio e dióxido de carbono no interior das embalagens, e no repolho minimamente processado o incremento no escurecimento, luminosidade, atividade da polifenoloxidase e peroxidase, pH, acidez titulável, sólidos solúveis, perda de massa fresca e teor de ácido ascórbico. A estabilidade do repolho minimamente processado mostrou-se superior na temperatura de 5 °C quando comparada ao armazenamento no balcão refrigerado. A atmosfera modificada ativa não foi efetiva no aumento da vida útil do repolho minimamente processado quando comparada aos outros tratamentos. A embalagem de PEBD foi a mais adequada ao acondicionamento do repolho minimamente processado. No entanto, a embalagem de PVC também apresentou resultados satisfatórios.Stability of fresh-cut cabbage packed in low density polyethylene under active modified atmosphere and in expanded polyestyrene trays wrapped with PVC was evaluated. The fresh-cut product was stored for 16 days in a cold room at 5 ± 1 °C and 95 ± 5% RH and in a refrigerated display case similar to those found in grocery stores. The following variables were analyzed: content of oxygen and carbon dioxide inside the package headspace; browning, luminosity, polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase activities, pH, titratable acidity; soluble solids, fresh mass loss, and ascorbic acid content. The stability of fresh-cut cabbage was higher

  14. Genome-wide identification and comparative expression analysis reveal a rapid expansion and functional divergence of duplicated genes in the WRKY gene family of cabbage, Brassica oleracea var. capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Qiu-Yang; Xia, En-Hua; Liu, Fei-Hu; Gao, Li-Zhi

    2015-02-15

    WRKY transcription factors (TFs), one of the ten largest TF families in higher plants, play important roles in regulating plant development and resistance. To date, little is known about the WRKY TF family in Brassica oleracea. Recently, the completed genome sequence of cabbage (B. oleracea var. capitata) allows us to systematically analyze WRKY genes in this species. A total of 148 WRKY genes were characterized and classified into seven subgroups that belong to three major groups. Phylogenetic and synteny analyses revealed that the repertoire of cabbage WRKY genes was derived from a common ancestor shared with Arabidopsis thaliana. The B. oleracea WRKY genes were found to be preferentially retained after the whole-genome triplication (WGT) event in its recent ancestor, suggesting that the WGT event had largely contributed to a rapid expansion of the WRKY gene family in B. oleracea. The analysis of RNA-Seq data from various tissues (i.e., roots, stems, leaves, buds, flowers and siliques) revealed that most of the identified WRKY genes were positively expressed in cabbage, and a large portion of them exhibited patterns of differential and tissue-specific expression, demonstrating that these gene members might play essential roles in plant developmental processes. Comparative analysis of the expression level among duplicated genes showed that gene expression divergence was evidently presented among cabbage WRKY paralogs, indicating functional divergence of these duplicated WRKY genes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. RAPD analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana transferred with total DNA of cabbage by ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bian Po; Yu Zengliang; Qin Guangyong; Huo Yuping; Wang Yan

    2003-01-01

    Two mutants were found among the Arabidopsis thaliana transferred with total DNA of cabbage. Variation of genome of T6 and its offspring were analyzed by RAPD-PCR with 40 random primers. The result from S168 primer was different from the CK, indicating that variation of genome can be made by total DNA transferring by use of ion beam, and this variation is hereditary. It is found that S 168-1850 is included within the gene of ABC transporter by aligning with genome of Arabidopsis thaliana in TAIT

  16. Modeling and Testing of Growth Status for Chinese Cabbage and White Radish with UAV-Based RGB Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Wook Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional crop-monitoring methods are time-consuming and labor-intensive, necessitating new techniques to provide faster measurements and higher sampling intensity. This study reports on mathematical modeling and testing of growth status for Chinese cabbage and white radish using unmanned aerial vehicle-red, green and blue (UAV-RGB imagery for measurement of their biophysical properties. Chinese cabbage seedlings and white radish seeds were planted at 7–10-day intervals to provide a wide range of growth rates. Remotely sensed digital imagery data were collected for test fields at approximately one-week intervals using a UAV platform equipped with an RGB digital camera flying at 2 m/s at 20 m above ground. Radiometric calibrations for the RGB band sensors were performed on every UAV flight using standard calibration panels to minimize the effect of ever-changing light conditions on the RGB images. Vegetation fractions (VFs of crops in each region of interest from the mosaicked ortho-images were calculated as the ratio of pixels classified as crops segmented using the Otsu threshold method and a vegetation index of excess green (ExG. Plant heights (PHs were estimated using the structure from motion (SfM algorithm to create 3D surface models from crop canopy data. Multiple linear regression equations consisting of three predictor variables (VF, PH, and VF × PH and four different response variables (fresh weight, leaf length, leaf width, and leaf count provided good fits with coefficients of determination (R2 ranging from 0.66 to 0.90. The validation results using a dataset of crop growth obtained in a different year also showed strong linear relationships (R2 > 0.76 between the developed regression models and standard methods, confirming that the models make it possible to use UAV-RGB images for quantifying spatial and temporal variability in biophysical properties of Chinese cabbage and white radish over the growing season.

  17. Transfer and internalisation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in cabbage cultivated on contaminated manure-amended soil under tropical field conditions in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongeng, D; Vasquez, G A; Muyanja, C; Ryckeboer, J; Geeraerd, A H; Springael, D

    2011-01-31

    Surface contamination and internalisation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium in cabbage leaf tissues at harvest (120 days post-transplantation) following amendment of contaminated bovine manure to soil at different times during crop cultivation were investigated under tropical field conditions in the Central Agro-Ecological Zone of Uganda. Fresh bovine manure inoculated with rifampicin-resistant derivatives of non-virulent strains of E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium was incorporated into the soil to achieve inoculum concentrations of 4 and 7 log CFU/g at the point of transplantation, 56 or 105 days post-transplantation of cabbage seedlings. Frequent sampling of the soil enabled the accurate identification of the survival kinetics in soil, which could be described by the Double Weibull model in all but one of the cases. The persistence of 4 log CFU/g E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium in the soil was limited, i.e. only inocula applied 105 days post-transplantation were still present at harvest. Moreover, no internalisation in cabbage leaf tissues was observed. In contrast, at the 7 log CFU/g inoculum level, E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium survived in the soil throughout the cultivation period. All plants (18/18) examined for leaf contamination were positive for E. coli O157:H7 at harvest irrespective of the time of manure application. A similar incidence of leaf contamination was found for S. Typhimurium. On the other hand, only plants (18/18) cultivated on soil amended with contaminated manure at the point of transplantation showed internalised E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium at harvest. These results demonstrate that under tropical field conditions, the risk of surface contamination and internalisation of E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium in cabbage leaf tissues at harvest depend on the inoculum concentration and the time of manure application. Moreover, the internalisation of E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium in cabbage leaf tissues

  18. The Prevention of Tipburn on Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. var. pekinensis (Lour. Olson with Foliar Fertilizers and Biostimulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borkowski Jan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried out in 2008-2010 on Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. var. pekinensis (Lour. Olson. The main problem in cultivation of this vegetable is physiological disorder – tipburn. It is connected with low level of calcium in young leaves and with water deficiency. In 2008, seeds of Chinese cabbage were sown twice, in April and July. In July, the day temperature was high (25-30 °C and relative air humidity was low (35-50%. In these conditions, the young leaves were injured heavily. Rotting was caused by the activity of bacteria Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Jones Hauben et al. However, three times foliar application of 1.5% calcium nitrate or 1.5% Wapnovit significantly reduced the tipburn. Also spraying with 0.03% of Tytanit (containing ions of titanium or with 2.5% of Biochikol 020 PC (containing chitosan gave similar effect. In these conditions, application of 1.5% K-300 (containing potassium oxide and ammonium nitrate exacerbated symptoms of tipburn. Application of Wapnovit or Tytanit reduced instantly rotting of heads contrary to the application of their mixture. In autumn cultivation, when the relative air humidity was 80-100%, spraying with 1.5% solution of K-300 significantly decreased injuries in comparison to control. Application of Wapnovit, K-300, Biochikol, Tytanit or the mixture of Biochikol and calcium nitrate eliminated rotting. In experiments done in the springs of 2009 and 2010, when weather conditions were less favorable for tipburn appearance, a severity of it was lower but application of K-300 increased it appearance. In these experiments, Biochikol and Wapnovit eliminated rotting of heads. The results of three years of study have shown that calcium nitrate, Wapnovit, Tytanit and Biochikol limited occurrence of tipburn and bacterial rotting of Chinese cabbage, but the weather conditions during cultivation had the greatest impact on the severity of tipburn.

  19. Application of drum compost and vermicompost to improve soil health, growth, and yield parameters for tomato and cabbage plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Linee; Nath, Anil; Sutradhar, Sweety; Bhattacharya, Satya Sundar; Kalamdhad, Ajay; Vellingiri, Kowsalya; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2017-09-15

    Utilization of different types of solid wastes through composting is important for environmental sustainability and restoring soil quality. Although drum composting is an efficient technology, the possibility of heavy metal contamination restricts its large-scale use. In this research, a field experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of water hyacinth drum compost (DC) and traditional vermicompost (VC) on soil quality and crop growth in an agro-ecosystem cultivated intensively with tomato and cabbage as test crops. A substantial improvement in soil health was observed with respect to nutrient availability, physical stability, and microbial diversity due to the application of drum compost and traditional vermicompost. Moreover, soil organic carbon was enriched through increased humic and fulvic acid carbon. Interestingly, heavy metal contamination was less significant in vermicompost-treated soils than in those receiving the other treatments. The use of VC and DC in combination with recommended chemical fertilization effectively stimulated crop growth, yield, product quality, and storage longevity for both tomato and cabbage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Prediction model for cabbage stem weevil ceutorhynchus pallidactylus Mrsh. occurrence on winther rape based on an artificial neural network

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klem, Karel; Spitzer, T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 3 (2017), s. 302-308 ISSN 1461-9555 R&D Projects: GA MZe QJ1530373 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Brassica napus L * cabbage stem weevil * Ceutorhynchus pallidactylus * model * neural network * oilseed rape * weather conditions Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 1.726, year: 2016

  1. Nonlinear dynamics of homeothermic temperature control in skunk cabbage, Symplocarpus foetidus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takanori; Ito, Kikukatsu

    2005-11-01

    Certain primitive plants undergo orchestrated temperature control during flowering. Skunk cabbage, Symplocarpus foetidus, has been demonstrated to maintain an internal temperature of around 20 °C even when the ambient temperature drops below freezing. However, it is not clear whether a unique algorithm controls the homeothermic behavior of S. foetidus, or whether such an algorithm might exhibit linear or nonlinear thermoregulatory dynamics. Here we report the underlying dynamics of temperature control in S. foetidus using nonlinear forecasting, attractor and correlation dimension analyses. It was shown that thermoregulation in S. foetidus was governed by low-dimensional chaotic dynamics, the geometry of which showed a strange attractor named the “Zazen attractor.” Our data suggest that the chaotic thermoregulation in S. foetidus is inherent and that it is an adaptive response to the natural environment.

  2. Effects of NAA on the uptake and accumulation of calcium in chinese cabbage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Ying; Cao Jiashu; Jiang Youtiao; Zeng Guangwen

    1998-01-01

    The involvement of plant growth regulator in polar transport of Ca 2+ in Chinese cabbage was studied using hydroponics system with 45 Ca radioisotope. Treatment of NAA either by foliage spray or root-feeding increased the uptake of 45 Ca by root, raising the 45 Ca accumulation in stems, which was remarkably higher than that of control, especially in root-fed plants. NAA treatment also increased the folio uptake of applied 45 Ca and thus the accumulation of 45 Ca in the leaves. This was more significant when NAA was applied to inner leaves. The same results was obtained in the experiment of 45 Ca radioautography with the whole plants

  3. Production of intergeneric allotetraploid between autotetraploid non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino and autotetraploid radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Cheng-Zhen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Intergeneric hybrids between non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino; 2n = 4x = 40 and radish (Raphanus sativus L.; 2n = 4x = 36 were obtained through ovary culture and embryo rescue. Some hybrid embryos (0.11 per ovary were produced, but only 4 of them germinated. As most hybrid embryos failed to develop into plantlets directly, plants were regenerated by inducing shoots on the cultured cotyledon and inducing roots on the root induction medium. All hybrid plants were morphologically uniform. They resembled the non-heading Chinese cabbage in the long-lived habit, the plant status, the vernalization requirement and the petiole color, while the petiole shape, leaf venation pattern and flowers were more similar to those of radish. Upon examination of the flowers, these were found to have normal pistil, but rudimentary anthers with non-functional pollen grains. The somatic chromosome number of F1 plants was 38. Analysis of SSR banding patterns provided additional confirmation of hybridity.

  4. Ogura-CMS in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) causes delayed expression of many nuclear genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiangshu; Kim, Wan Kyu; Lim, Yong-Pyo; Kim, Yeon-Ki; Hur, Yoonkang

    2013-02-01

    We investigated the mechanism regulating cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis using floral bud transcriptome analyses of Ogura-CMS Chinese cabbage and its maintainer line in B. rapa 300-K oligomeric probe (Br300K) microarrays. Ogura-CMS Chinese cabbage produced few and infertile pollen grains on indehiscent anthers. Compared to the maintainer line, CMS plants had shorter filaments and plant growth, and delayed flowering and pollen development. In microarray analysis, 4646 genes showed different expression, depending on floral bud size, between Ogura-CMS and its maintainer line. We found 108 and 62 genes specifically expressed in Ogura-CMS and its maintainer line, respectively. Ogura-CMS line-specific genes included stress-related, redox-related, and B. rapa novel genes. In the maintainer line, genes related to pollen coat and germination were specifically expressed in floral buds longer than 3mm, suggesting insufficient expression of these genes in Ogura-CMS is directly related to dysfunctional pollen. In addition, many nuclear genes associated with auxin response, ATP synthesis, pollen development and stress response had delayed expression in Ogura-CMS plants compared to the maintainer line, which is consistent with the delay in growth and development of Ogura-CMS plants. Delayed expression may reduce pollen grain production and/or cause sterility, implying that mitochondrial, retrograde signaling delays nuclear gene expression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Drosophila melanogaster Meigen: 3. sensibilidade ao carbofuran e biomonitoramento de seus resíduos em repolho Drosophila melanogaster Meigen: 3. susceptibility to carbofuran and biomonitoring of its residues in cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Rodrigues de Almeida

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of Drosophila melanogaster to carbofuran and the use of this organism in biomonitoring residues of the insecticide in cabbage was evaluated. Under the conditions of the bioassay, residues-film bioassay in Petri dish, carbofuran degraded depending on the temperature and time of exposure. Bioassays conducted with D. melanogaster showed that its toxicity increases with temperature (20 to 35 °C. LC50 values, calculated as a function of temperature, ranged from 3.6 to 10.5 mg/g body weight (bw for males and from 2.9 to 8.7 mg/g bw for females. The formulated product Furadan® G was applied on cabbage (Brassica oleracea, var. capitata and the residues of carbofuran were determined by bioassay. The determination limit of the bioassay was 0.1 mg/kg and the method presented reproducibility with coefficient variation of 17 %. The validation of the bioassay by high performance liquid chromatography confirms the viability of the bioassay with D. melanogaster in monitoring the residues of carbofuran in cabbage.

  6. Optimization of Cultivation and Storage Conditions on Red Cabbage Seed Sprouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, K.H.; Jo, D.J.; Park, J.H.; Kwon, J.H.; Kim, G.R.; Lee, G.D.; Kim, J.S.; Kim, Y.R.; Han, B.S.; Yoon, S.R.

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to find the optimal conditions for red cabbage seed sprouts in terms of their physicochemical and sensory qualities by electron-beam irradiation, cultivation and storage using the response surface methodology (RSM). Moisture content (R2 = 0.9638) was affected by irradiation dose and cultivation time. Total phenolics content (R2 = 0.9117) was mainly affected by irradiation dose, but carotenoid content (R2 = 0.8338) was affected in the order of irradiation dose, cultivation time and storage time. Sensory properties were also affected by irradiation dose, and thus scores decreased as irradiation dose increased. The optimum conditions estimated by superimposing total phenolics content and overall acceptance were 2.2-3.8 kGy of the irradiation dose, 3.0-4.0 days of cultivation and 2.0-3.0 days of storage

  7. Enhancement of phenolic and flavonoid compounds in cabbage (Brassica oleraceae following application of commercial seaweed extracts of the brown seaweed, (Ascophyllum nodosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodora Lola-Luz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Brassica crops are rich is phytochemical compounds and frequent consumption of these vegetables has been associated with a lower risk in cancer, heart disease, hypertension and stroke. The effect of three commercial extracts of the brown seaweed, Ascophyllum nodosum, on phytochemical content and yield in cabbage plants was tested under field conditions in two consecutive crops. Total phenolic content was higher in all seaweed treated plants, with the highest increase recorded with AlgaeGreenTM (3.5 l ha-1 with a 2 fold increase relative to the control. The other commercial seaweed extract, XT achieved a lower increases of 1.3 fold (3.5 l ha-1. Similar increases were recorded in total flavonoid content. No statistically significant increases in yield were recorded with any of the seaweed extracts tested. The results suggest that seaweed extracts stimulated an increased accumulation of phytochemicals in cabbage but had no significant effect in yield under these experimental conditions.

  8. UF's Lone Cabbage Oyster Reef Restoration Project: a use case in implementing a data management plan (DMP)

    OpenAIRE

    Aufmuth, Joe

    2018-01-01

    Data management plans are created to satisfy funding agency proposal requirements related to the data life cycle. Once an award is made researchers must implement the plan they described. But how is this best accomplished? The presentation UF’s Lone Cabbage Oyster Reef Restoration Project: a use case in implementing a data management plan (DMP) describes how PI's for this grant funded research project are achieving its data management plan goals using an academic library's consulting team.

  9. BoALMT1, an Al-Induced Malate Transporter in Cabbage, Enhances Aluminum Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Lei; Wu, Xin-Xin; Wang, Jinfang; Qi, Chuandong; Wang, Xiaoyun; Wang, Gongle; Li, Mingyue; Li, Xingsheng; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2018-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) is present in approximately 50% of the arable land worldwide and is regarded as the main limiting factor of crop yield on acidic soil. Al-induced root malate efflux plays an important role in the Al tolerance of plants. Here, the aluminum induced malate transporter BoALMT1 (KF322104) was cloned from cabbage (Brassica oleracea). BoALMT1 showed higher expression in roots than in shoots. The expression of BoALMT1 was specifically induced by Al treatment, but not the trivalent catio...

  10. Screening for Cd-Safe Cultivars of Chinese Cabbage and a Preliminary Study on the Mechanisms of Cd Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjie Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid progress of industrialization, the effects of environmental contamination on plant toxicity, and subsequently on human health, is a growing concern. For example, the heavy metal pollution of soil such as that caused by cadmium (Cd is a serious threat. Therefore, screening for pollution-safe edible plants is an essential approach for growing plants under heavy metal-contaminated soils. In the current study, 35 Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis L. cultivars were selected with the aim of screening for Cd-safe cultivars (CSCs, analyzing their safety, and exploring the mechanism of Cd accumulation. Our field-culture experiments revealed that the Cd content in the edible parts of the cultivars were varied and were determined to possibly be CSCs. Hydroponics experiments were used to simulate six different degrees of soil contamination (high and low Cd concentrations on possible CSCs. The results indicated a significant difference (p < 0.05 in Cd concentration in the cultivars, and verified the safety of these possible CSCs. The analyses of the transport coefficient and expression levels showed that the differences in Cd accumulation among the Chinese cabbage cultivars were related to the expression of genes involved in absorption and transport rather than a root-to-shoot translocation limitation.

  11. Anthocyanin-Rich Extract from Red Chinese Cabbage Alleviates Vascular Inflammation in Endothelial Cells and Apo E−/− Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Kyoung Joo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins, the most prevalent flavonoids in red/purple fruits and vegetables, are known to improve immune responses and reduce chronic disease risks. In this study, the anti-inflammatory activities of an anthocyanin-rich extract from red Chinese cabbage (ArCC were shown based on its inhibitory effects in cultured endothelial cells and hyperlipidemic apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. ArCC treatment suppressed monocyte adhesion to tumor necrosis factor-α-stimulated endothelial cells. This was validated by ArCC’s ability to downregulate the expression and transcription of endothelial adhesion molecules, determined by immunoblot and luciferase promoter assays, respectively. The regulation of adhesion molecules was accompanied by transcriptional inhibition of nuclear factor-κB, which restricted cytoplasmic localization as shown by immunocytochemistry. Administration of ArCC (150 or 300 mg/kg/day inhibited aortic inflammation in hyperlipidemic apolipoprotein E-deficient mice, as shown by in vivo imaging. Immunohistochemistry and plasma analysis showed that the aortas from these mice exhibited markedly lower leukocyte infiltration, reduced plaque formation, and lower concentrations of blood inflammatory cytokines than those observed in the control mice. The results suggest that the consumption of anthocyanin-rich red Chinese cabbage is closely correlated with lowering the risk of vascular inflammatory diseases.

  12. Selenium alleviates chromium toxicity by preventing oxidative stress in cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. Pekinensis) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Xuejiao; Zhao, Xiaohu; Hu, Chengxiao; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Xuan; Wang, Pengcheng; Shi, Hanzhi; Jia, Fen; Qu, Chanjuan

    2015-04-01

    The beneficial role of selenium (Se) in alleviation of chromium (Cr)-induced oxidative stress is well established. However, little is known about the underlying mechanism. The impacts of exogenous Se (0.1mg/L) on Cr(1mg/L)-induced oxidative stress and antioxidant systems in leaves of cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. Pekinensis) were investigated by using cellular and biochemical approaches. The results showed that supplementation of the medium with Se was effective in reducing Cr-induced increased levels of lipid peroxides and superoxide free radicals (O(-)2(·)), as well as increasing activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD). Meanwhile, 1mg/L Cr induced loss of plasma membrane integrity, growth inhibition, as well as ultrastructural changes of leaves were significantly reversed due to Se supplementation in the medium. In addition, Se application significantly altered the subcellular distribution of Cr which transported from mitochondria, nucleus and the cell-wall material to the soluble fraction and chloroplasts. However, Se application did no significant alteration of Cr effects on osmotic adjustment accumulating products. The study suggested that Se is able to protect leaves of cabbage against Cr toxicity by alleviation of Cr induced oxidative stress, and re-distribution of Cr in the subcellular of the leaf. Furthermore, free radicals, lipid peroxides, activity of SOD and POD, and subcellular distribution of Cr can be considered the efficient biomarkers to indicate the efficiency of Se to detoxification Cr. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of aqueous extracts of black alder (Alnus glutinosa (LINNAEUS, 1753 GAERTNER, 1791 and elder (Sambucus nigra LINNAEUS, 1753 on the occurrence of Brevicoryne brassicae LINNAEUS, 1758 (Hemiptera, Aphidoidea, its parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae (M’INTOSH, 1855 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonoidea and predatory Syrphidae on white cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowska Beata

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The insecticidal and antifeedant effects of aqueous extracts from two common plants (black alder Alnus glutinosa and elder Sambucus nigra on the occurrence of Brevicoryne brassicae, its parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae and predatory Syrphidae on white cabbage were investigated in 2008-2009. Both extracts reduced the number of cabbage aphids, although the Sambucus nigra extract proved to have a better effect. Differences were seen both in the numbers of winged aphids settling on plants and in the overall numbers of aphids on plants during the entire season. There were no significant differences in the degree of parasitization by Diaeretiella rapae in the three experimental combinations. Eight species of Syrphidae were found in the Brevicoryne brassicae colonies: Episyrphus balteatus, Sphaerophoria scripta, S. rueppelli, S. menthastri, Eupeodes corollae, Scaeva pyrastri, Scaeva selenitica and Syrphus vitripennis. The dominant species was Episyrphus balteatus. The largest numbers of syrphid larvae and pupae were collected from cabbage aphid colonies on the control plants. Smaller numbers were recorded on the plot where the cabbages were sprayed with the Sambucus nigra extract. The results of this study indicate that botanical insecticides based on S. nigra have the potential to be incorporated into control programmes for the cabbage aphid.

  14. Comparative evaluation of phenoloxidase activity in different larval stages of four lepidopteran pests after exposure to Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadez-Lira, J A; Alcocer-Gonzalez, J M; Damas, G; Nuñez-Mejía, G; Oppert, B; Rodriguez-Padilla, C; Tamez-Guerra, P

    2012-01-01

    Microbial entomopathogen-based bioinsecticides are recognized as alternatives to synthetic pesticides. Insects defend themselves against microbial pathogens by innate mechanisms, including increased phenoloxidase (PO) activity, but its relationship with microbial bioinsecticides efficacy is little known. This study evaluated the differences in PO activity at different developmental stages of the tobacco budworm Heliothis virescens Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Pyralidae), beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Noctuidae), and cabbage looper Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) (Noctuidae). Additionally, 2(nd)- and 4(th)-instars were exposed to the LC(50) value of the commercial Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) spray, Biobit(®). The percentage of insecticidal activity (IA%) on 2(nd)-instar Biobit-exposed larvae was approximately the predicted 50 % mortality for all species except S. exigua. With all 4(th) instar Biobit-exposed larvae, mortality was not significantly different from that of unexposed larvae. Unexposed insects had a significantly higher PO activity in pre-pupae and pupae than early-instar larvae and adults, whereas PO activity was higher in adult females than in males. Correlation analysis between IA% and PO activity revealed significant r-values (p < 0.01) in 2(nd) instar H. virescens (r = 0.979) and P. interpunctella (r = 0.930). Second instar Biobit-exposed P. interpunctella had 10 times more PO activity than unexposed larvae. Similarly, the amount of total protein was lower in 4(th) instar Biobit-exposed H. virescens and higher in S. exigua. Therefore, the results indicated a relationship between Biobit susceptibility and PO activity in some cases. This information may be useful if the Biobit application period is timed for a developmental stage with low PO activity. However, more studies are needed to determine the correlation of each insect with a particular bioinsecticide.

  15. Effect of intercropping of maize, bean, cabbage and toxicants on the population levels of some insect pests and associated predators in sugar beet plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K.M. El-Fakharany

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were carried out at El-Riad district, Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate in two successive growing seasons (2009/10 and 2010/11 to study the effect of intercropping of faba bean, maize and cabbage with sugar beet on the population density of Empoasca spp. (nymphs and adults, Aphis spp. (nymphs and adults, Bemisia tabaci (adults, Pegomyia mixta (eggs and larvae, Cassida vittata (larvae, pupae and adults and predators in sugar beet plantations compared with the non-intercropped plants and the resulting yield. The toxicity of certain compounds: fenitrothion, super misrona, sour orange oil, acidless orange oil, and Bermectine in reducing the population density of P. mixta and C. vittata larvae infesting sugar beet was evaluated. The rate of infestation was higher in the sole sugar beet plants than in those intercropped with faba bean, maize and cabbage plants which caused reduction of sucking pests and P. mixta eggs in the two seasons. The intercropping of faba bean plants led to higher infestation rate of P. mixta larvae in the two seasons and C. vittata (larvae, pupae and adults in the first season. The intercropping with maize led to a higher population density of Chrysoperla carnea, Paederus alfierii and Scymnus spp. in the two seasons. Low population density of true spiders was observed in sole sugar beet (control when compared with faba bean, maize and cabbage plants intercropped in the two seasons. Concerning the obtained root yield, the intercropping with maize and cabbage plants reduced the resultant yield of sugar beet roots in the two seasons. Bermectine and fenitrothion were the most effective toxicants followed by super misrona and then, sour orange that induced the lowest reduction in P. mixta larvae. Also, fenitrothion and Bermectine were the most potent compounds in reducing the population density of C. vittata larvae followed by super misrona and then, plant oil extracts. Concerning the side effects of these compounds on

  16. Recuperação de azoto de origem orgânica e inorgânica pela cultura da couve repolho (Brassica oleracea var. capitata Organic and inorganic nitrogen recovery by white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Brito

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a resposta da couve repolho à aplicação de um fertilizante mineral nas doses de 0, 90 e 180 kg ha-1 de N em combinações com um fertilizante orgânico, resultante da compostagem durante 182 dias da fracção sólida de chorume, nas doses de 0, 20 e 40 t ha-1, através de uma experiência de arranjos sistemáticos com o objectivo de investigar o efeito da utilização deste composto no crescimento e na absorção de N com e sem aplicação do fertilizante mineral azotado. A produção de couve repolho dependeu fortemente da aplicação do adubo mineral azotado e da aplicação do composto quando não se aplicou adubo. O aumento de aplicação de N mineral de 90 para 180 kg ha-1 aumentou a acumulação de N na couve, mas o correspondente aumento de peso não foi significativo. Recomenda-se a aplicação do composto da FSC até doses de 20 t ha-1, particularmente quando não se aplica adubo mineral.The response of white cabbage to increasing rates of a mineral fertilizer (0, 90 and 180 kg ha-1 of mineral nitrogen combined with increasing rates (0, 20 and 40 t ha-1 of an organic fertilizer resulting from the composting process (182 days of the solid fraction of dairy cattle slurry, was assessed throughout a systematically arranged experiment to investigate the effect of this compost on cabbage growth and N uptake, with and without mineral N application. Cabbage yield was strongly related to mineral N application and to compost application in treatments without mineral N fertilizer. The increase on mineral N application from 90 to 180 kg ha-1 increased cabbage N uptake but not significantly cabbage yield. The application of this compost to cabbage crop is recommended up to 20 t ha-1, particularly when mineral N is not applied.

  17. Red Cabbage (Brassica oleracea Ameliorates Diabetic Nephropathy in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazem A. H. Kataya

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The protective action against oxidative stress of red cabbage (Brassica oleracea extract was investigated. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats using streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight. Throughout the experimental period (60 days, diabetic rats exhibited many symptoms including loss of body weight, hyperglycemia, polyuria, polydipsia, renal enlargement and renal dysfunction. Significant increase in malondialdehyde, a lipid peroxidation marker, was observed in diabetic kidney. This was accompanied by a significant increase in reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity and a decrease in catalase activity and in the total antioxidant capacity of the kidneys. Daily oral ingestion (1 g/kg body weight of B. oleracea extract for 60 days reversed the adverse effect of diabetes in rats. B. oleracea extract lowered blood glucose levels and restored renal function and body weight loss. In addition, B. oleracea extract attenuated the adverse effect of diabetes on malondialdehyde, glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity as well as catalase activity and total antioxidant capacity of diabetic kidneys. In conclusion, the antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties of B. oleracea extract may offer a potential therapeutic source for the treatment of diabetes.

  18. Complete genome of Pieris rapae, a resilient alien, a cabbage pest, and a source of anti-cancer proteins [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhui Shen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Small Cabbage White (Pieris rapae is originally a Eurasian butterfly. Being accidentally introduced into North America, Australia, and New Zealand a century or more ago, it spread throughout the continents and rapidly established as one of the most abundant butterfly species. Although it is a serious pest of cabbage and other mustard family plants with its caterpillars reducing crops to stems, it is also a source of pierisin, a protein unique to the Whites that shows cytotoxicity to cancer cells. To better understand the unusual biology of this omnipresent agriculturally and medically important butterfly, we sequenced and annotated the complete genome from USA specimens. At 246 Mbp, it is among the smallest Lepidoptera genomes reported to date. While 1.5% positions in the genome are heterozygous, they are distributed highly non-randomly along the scaffolds, and nearly 20% of longer than 1000 base-pair segments are SNP-free (median length: 38000 bp. Computational simulations of population evolutionary history suggest that American populations started from a very small number of introduced individuals, possibly a single fertilized female, which is in agreement with historical literature. Comparison to other Lepidoptera genomes reveals several unique families of proteins that may contribute to the unusual resilience of Pieris. The nitrile-specifier proteins divert the plant defense chemicals to non-toxic products. The apoptosis-inducing pierisins could offer a defense mechanism against parasitic wasps. While only two pierisins from Pieris rapae were characterized before, the genome sequence revealed eight, offering additional candidates as anti-cancer drugs. The reference genome we obtained lays the foundation for future studies of the Cabbage White and other Pieridae species.

  19. Accumulation of Phenylpropanoids by White, Blue, and Red Light Irradiation and Their Organ-Specific Distribution in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Jeong; Kim, Yeon Bok; Li, Xiaohua; Choi, Su Ryun; Park, Suhyoung; Park, Jong Seok; Lim, Yong Pyo; Park, Sang Un

    2015-08-05

    This study investigated optimum light conditions for enhancing phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and the distribution of phenylpropanoids in organs of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). Blue light caused a high accumulation of most phenolic compounds, including p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol, at 12 days after irradiation (DAI). This increase was coincident with a noticeable increase in expression levels of BrF3H, BrF3'H, BrFLS, and BrDFR. Red light led to the highest ferulic acid content at 12 DAI and to elevated expression of the corresponding genes during the early stages of irradiation. White light induced the highest accumulation of kaempferol and increased expression of BrPAL and BrDFR at 9 DAI. The phenylpropanoid content analysis in different organs revealed organ-specific accumulation of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol. These results demonstrate that blue light is effective at increasing phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in Chinese cabbage, with leaves and flowers representing the most suitable organs for the production of specific phenylpropanoids.

  20. Bridging exchange bias effect in NiO and Ni(core)@NiO(shell) nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinaldi-Montes, Natalia, E-mail: nataliarin@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33007 Oviedo (Spain); Gorria, Pedro [Departamento de Física & IUTA, EPI, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33203 Gijón (Spain); Martínez-Blanco, David [Servicios Científico-Técnicos, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33006 Oviedo (Spain); Fuertes, Antonio B. [Instituto Nacional del Carbón, CSIC, E-33080 Oviedo (Spain); Fernández Barquín, Luis [CITIMAC, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cantabria, E-39005 Santander (Spain); Puente-Orench, Inés [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza and Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Blanco, Jesús A. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33007 Oviedo (Spain)

    2016-02-15

    Among all bi-magnetic core(transition metal)@shell(transition metal oxide) nanoparticles (NPs), Ni@NiO ones show an onset temperature for the exchange bias (EB) effect far below the Néel temperature of bulk antiferromagnetic NiO. In this framework, the role played by the magnetism of NiO at the nanoscale is investigated by comparing the microstructure and magnetic properties of NiO and Ni@NiO NPs. With the aim of bridging the two systems, the diameter of the NiO NPs (~4 nm) is chosen to be comparable to the shell thickness of Ni@NiO ones (~2 nm). The EB effect in Ni@NiO NPs is attributed to the exchange coupling between the core and the shell, with an interfacial exchange energy of ΔE~0.06 erg cm{sup −2}, thus comparable to previous reports on Ni/NiO interfaces both in thin film and NP morphologies. In contrast, the EB detected in NiO NPs is explained in a picture where uncompensated spins located on a magnetically disordered surface shell are exchange coupled to the antiferromagnetic core. In all the studied NPs, the variation of the EB field as a function of temperature is described according to a negative exponential law with a similar decay constant, yielding a vanishing EB effect around T~40–50 K. In addition, the onset temperature for the EB effect in both NiO and Ni@NiO NPs seems to follow a universal dependence with the NiO crystallite size. - Highlights: • Comparison of the exchange bias effect in NiO and Ni(core)@NiO(shell) nanoparticles. • Universal temperature dependence of the exchange bias effect. • Suggested similar physical origin of the effect in both systems. • Size and crystallinity of the NiO shell hold the key for exchange bias properties.

  1. Broiler litter and inorganic nitrogen fertilizers influence on earliness and yield on strawberry and cabbage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chehab, Abed Elghani

    1996-01-01

    Author.Comparison of broiler litter (BL) rates to inorganic nitrogen fertilizers was studied during 1994-1995 as to its effect on earliness and yield of strawberry and cabbage grown on a calcareous soil. Strawberry (Frag aria x ananassa Duch.cv.Oso Grande) was grown using BL at rates which supplied 100 (BL1) or 200 (BL2) Kg N/ha, ammonium nitrate or nitrogen+trace elements applied at 150 Kg N/ha in six equally split applications throughout the growing season. Crop yield was higher (P 0.05) under the litter treated plots especially the BL2 rate. Leaf Fe was comparable among treatments (P>0.05) and no Fe chlorosis symptoms were observed, even though the soil is calcareous. Residual soil nitrate-nitrogen was comparable (P>0.05) among all the treatments with the ammonium nitrate and the BL2 having the highest values, indicating that BL at 200 Kg N/ha apparently released an amount of N equivalent to that from the 150 Kg N/ha of ammonium nitrate. Available soil P (water soluble), although comparable among treatments (P>0.05), was higher under the BL treated plots especially at the 200 Kg N/ha rate reflecting the P content of the manure. It is recommended to apply BL at a rate of 200 Kg N/ha to fertilize strawberry over the use of inorganic N fertilizers at similar rates. O-S-Cross cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. Capitata) was tested using the same rates of BL described previously, ammonium nitrate or nitrogen+trace elements at 125 Kg N/ha split as 25 Kg N/ha early in the season, 50 Kg N/ha just before heading, and 50 Kg N/ha at heading. Total yield and marketable yield were higher under the inorganic treated plots than under BL (P 2 . The higher yields under the inorganic N fertilizer treated plots were also reflected in leaf nitrate-nitrogen. Leaf blade P was comparable (P>0.05) among all treatments indicating a high soil P level at the beginning of all treatments before heading (P>0.05) and at heading, where as at first harvest it was higher (P<0.05) under the nitrogen

  2. Microstructural development in NiAl/Ni-Si-B/Ni transient liquid phase bonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, W.F.; Orel, S.V.

    1996-01-01

    A transmission electron microscopy (TEM) based investigation of microstructural development during transient liquid phase bonding of near-stoichiometric NiAl to commercial purity nickel is presented in this article. The work described employed Ni-4.5 wt pct Si-3.2 wt pct B (BNi-3) melt-spun interlayers. The precipitation of both Ni-Al based phases and borides within the joint and adjacent substrate regions is discussed. The article considers martensite formation (within the NiAl substrate) and the precipitation of L1 2 type phases (both within the joint and at the interface with the NiAl substrate). The relative roles of the two substrate materials (NiAl and Ni) in the isothermal resolidification process are identified. The preferential formation of Ni 3 B boride phases in the Ni substrate near the original location of the Ni substrate-joint interface is discussed and contrasted with the absence of similar events in the NiAl substrate

  3. Internal carbonitriding behavior of Ni-V, Ni-Cr, and Ni-3Nb alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, A.T.; Douglass, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    Ni-2V, Ni-5V, Ni-12V, Ni-10Cr, Ni-20Cr, and Ni-3Nb alloys were carbonitrided in C 3 H 6 and NH 3 gas mixtures (bal H 2 ) over the range 700--1,000 C. Carbonitridation of Ni-12V and Ni-20Cr in C 3 H 6 /NH 3 /H 2 (1.5/1.5/97 v/o) and (1.5/10/88.5 v/o) produced duplex subscales consisting of near-surface nitrides with underlying carbides. Growth of each zone obeyed the parabolic rate law under most conditions. The presence of carbon generally did not effect the depth of the nitride zones compared to nitriding the alloys in NH 3 /H 2 (10/90 v/o). However, at 700 C, the nitride zones were deeper in the carbonitrided Ni-V alloys and Ni-20Cr. The presence of nitrogen generally increased the depth of the carbide zones in Ni-12V and Ni-20Cr compared to carburizing these alloys in C 3 H 6 /H 2 (1.5/98.5 v/o). VN, CrN, and NbN formed in Ni-V, Ni-Cr, and Ni-Nb alloys, respectively, whereas the underlying carbide layers contained V 4 C 3 in Ni-12V, Cr 3 C 2 above a zone of Cr 7 C 3 in Ni-20Cr, and NbC in Ni-3Nb. The solubilities and diffusivities of nitrogen and carbon in nickel were determined. Nitrogen and carbon each exhibited retrograde solubility with temperature in pure Ni in both carbonitriding environments. Nitrogen diffusion in nickel was generally lower in each carbonitriding mixture compared to nitrogen diffusion in a nitriding environment, except at 700 C when nitrogen diffusion was higher. Carbon diffusion in nickel was generally higher in the carbonitriding environments compared to carbon diffusion in a carburizing environment

  4. Monoterpene and herbivore-induced emissions from cabbage plants grown at elevated atmospheric CO 2 concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuorinen, Terhi; Reddy, G. V. P.; Nerg, Anne-Marja; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    The warming of the lower atmosphere due to elevating CO 2 concentration may increase volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from plants. Also, direct effects of elevated CO 2 on plant secondary metabolism are expected to lead to increased VOC emissions due to allocation of excess carbon on secondary metabolites, of which many are volatile. We investigated how growing at doubled ambient CO 2 concentration affects emissions from cabbage plants ( Brassica oleracea subsp. capitata) damaged by either the leaf-chewing larvae of crucifer specialist diamondback moth ( Plutella xylostella L.) or generalist Egyptian cotton leafworm ( Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval)). The emission from cabbage cv. Lennox grown in both CO 2 concentrations, consisted mainly of monoterpenes (sabinene, limonene, α-thujene, 1,8-cineole, β-pinene, myrcene, α-pinene and γ-terpinene). ( Z)-3-Hexenyl acetate, sesquiterpene ( E, E)- α-farnesene and homoterpene ( E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT) were emitted mainly from herbivore-damaged plants. Plants grown at 720 μmol mol -1 of CO 2 had significantly lower total monoterpene emissions per shoot dry weight than plants grown at 360 μmol mol -1 of CO 2, while damage by both herbivores significantly increased the total monoterpene emissions compared to intact plants. ( Z)-3-Hexenyl acetate, ( E, E)- α-farnesene and DMNT emissions per shoot dry weight were not affected by the growth at elevated CO 2. The emission of DMNT was significantly enhanced from plants damaged by the specialist P. xylostella compared to the plants damaged by the generalist S. littoralis. The relative proportions of total monoterpenes and total herbivore-induced compounds of total VOCs did not change due to the growth at elevated CO 2, while insect damage increased significantly the proportion of induced compounds. The results suggest that VOC emissions that are induced by the leaf-chewing herbivores will not be influenced by elevated CO 2 concentration.

  5. Comparison of sexual compatibility in crosses between the southern and northern populations of the cabbage beetle Colaphellus bowringi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xing-Ping; Tu, Xiao-Yun; He, Hai-Min; Chen, Chao; Xue, Fang-Sen

    2014-12-01

    It is widely accepted that the genetic divergence and reproductive incompatibility between closely related species and/or populations is often viewed as an important step toward speciation. In this study, sexual compatibility in crosses between the southern XS population and the northern TA population of the polyandrous cabbage beetle Colaphellus bowringi was investigated by testing their mating preferences, mating latency, copulation duration, and reproductive performances of post-mating. In choice mating experiments, the percentages of matings were significantly higher in intra-population crosses than in inter-population crosses. Both isolation index (I) and index of pair sexual isolation (IPSI ) indicated partial mating incompatibility or assortative mating in crosses between the two different geographical populations. In single pair mating experiments, XS females in inter-population crosses mated significantly later and copulated significantly shorter than those in intra-population crosses. However, TA females in inter-population crosses mated significantly earlier and copulated longer than those in intra-population crosses, suggesting that larger XS males may enhance heterotypic mating. The lifetime fecundity was highest in XS homotypic matings, lowest in TA homotypic matings, and intermediate in heterotypic matings between their parents. The inter-population crosses resulted in significantly lower egg hatching rate and shorter female longevity than intra-population crosses. These results demonstrated that there exist some incompatibilities in premating, postmating-prezygotic, and postzygotic stages between the southern XS population and northern TA population of the cabbage beetle Colaphellus bowringi. © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  6. Viabilidade da consorciação de pimentão com repolho, rúcula, alface e rabanete Feasibility of intercropping pepper with cabbage, rocket, lettuce and radish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bráulio Luciano A Rezende

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido na UNESP, Jaboticabal-SP, de setembro/2003 a janeiro/2004, com objetivo de avaliar a viabilidade da consorciação de pimentão com as culturas de repolho, rúcula, alface e rabanete. O experimento constou de 15 tratamentos, correspondentes a 10 cultivos consorciados (combinações das cinco hortaliças e cinco monocultivos. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com seis repetições. Foram utilizados os híbridos Magali R e Kenzan, respectivamente, para pimentão e repolho; e as cultivares Vera, Cultivada e Crimson Gigante, respectivamente, para alface, rúcula e rabanete. As produtividades de pimentão e repolho em cultivo consorciado não diferiram significativamente das obtidas em monocultivo. Maior massa fresca de parte aérea de plantas de alface (438,86 g/planta foi observada quando a alface foi consorciada com pimentão, diferindo estatisticamente dos demais cultivos que obtiveram em média 323,05 g/planta de alface. Aumento na produtividade de raízes comerciais de rabanete foi observado quando consorciado com pimentão, porém, foi significativamente superior apenas ao cultivo consorciado de pimentão+repolho+rabanete. A massa fresca da parte aérea da rúcula mostrou diferença estatística apenas entre os consórcios de pimentão+rúcula+alface e pimentão+repolho+rúcula. Exceto o consórcio pimentão+repolho que obteve índice de uso eficiente da terra (UET de 1,92; todos os outros consórcios apresentaram UET superior a 2,0, com maior UET (2,64 obtido no consórcio pimentão+alface. A superioridade de 92 a 164% na produção de alimento por área dos consórcios sobre os monocultivos, demonstra a viabilidade dos policultivos e maior eficiência do uso da terra.This work was carried out in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil, from September 2003 to January 2004, to evaluate the feasibility of an intercropping system of pepper with cabbage, rocket, lettuce and radish, in relation

  7. Development of EST-SSR markers in flowering Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. utilis Tsen et Lee) based on de novo transcriptomeic assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowering Chinese cabbage is one of the most important vegetable crops in southern China. Genetic improvement of various agronomic traits in this crop is underway to meet high market demand in the region, but the progress is hampered by limited number of molecular markers available in this crop. Thi...

  8. Complete mitochondrial genome sequences of Brassica rapa (Chinese cabbage and mizuna), and intraspecific differentiation of cytoplasm in B. rapa and Brassica juncea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatono, Saki; Nishimura, Kaori; Murakami, Yoko; Tsujimura, Mai; Yamagishi, Hiroshi

    2017-09-01

    The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome was determined for two cultivars of Brassica rapa . After determining the sequence of a Chinese cabbage variety, 'Oushou hakusai', the sequence of a mizuna variety, 'Chusei shiroguki sensuji kyomizuna', was mapped against the sequence of Chinese cabbage. The precise sequences where the two varieties demonstrated variation were ascertained by direct sequencing. It was found that the mitochondrial genomes of the two varieties are identical over 219,775 bp, with a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) between the genomes. Because B. rapa is the maternal species of an amphidiploid crop species, Brassica juncea , the distribution of the SNP was observed both in B. rapa and B. juncea . While the mizuna type SNP was restricted mainly to cultivars of mizuna (japonica group) in B. rapa , the mizuna type was widely distributed in B. juncea . The finding that the two Brassica species have these SNP types in common suggests that the nucleotide substitution occurred in wild B. rapa before both mitotypes were domesticated. It was further inferred that the interspecific hybridization between B. rapa and B. nigra took place twice and resulted in the two mitotypes of cultivated B. juncea .

  9. The Impact of Biochar Application on Soil Properties and Plant Growth of Pot Grown Lettuce (Lactuca sativa and Cabbage (Brassica chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Haefele

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of rice-husk char (potentially biochar application on the growth of transplanted lettuce (Lactuca sativa and Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis was assessed in a pot experiment over a three crop (lettuce-cabbage-lettuce cycle in Cambodia. The biochar was the by-product of a rice-husk gasification unit and consisted of 28.7% carbon (C by mass. Biochar application rates to potting medium of 25, 50 and 150 g kg−1 were used with and without locally available fertilizers (a mixture of compost, liquid compost and lake sediment. The rice-husk biochar used was slightly alkaline (pH 7.79, increased the pH of the soil, and contained elevated levels of some trace metals and exchangeable cations (K, Ca and Mg in comparison to the soil. The biochar treatments were found to increase the final biomass, root biomass, plant height and number of leaves in all the cropping cycles in comparison to no biochar treatments. The greatest biomass increase due to biochar additions (903% was found in the soils without fertilization, rather than fertilized soils (483% with the same biochar application as in the “without fertilization” case. Over the cropping cycles the impact was reduced; a 363% increase in biomass was observed in the third lettuce cycle.

  10. Quality of white cabbage yield and potential risk of ground water nitrogen pollution, as affected by nitrogen fertilisation and irrigation practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maršić, Nina Kacjan; Sturm, Martina; Zupanc, Vesna; Lojen, Sonja; Pintar, Marina

    2012-01-15

    The effect of different fertilisation (broadcast solid NPK application and fertigation with water-soluble fertiliser) and irrigation practices (sprinkler and drip irrigation) on yield, the nitrate content in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) and the cabbage N uptake was detected, in order to assess the potential risk for N losses, by cultivation on sandy-loam soil. The N rate applied on the plots was 200 kg N ha(-1). The highest yield (93 t ha(-1)) and nitrate content (1256 mg kg(-1) DW) were found with treatments using broadcast fertilisation and sprinkler irrigation. On those plots the negative N balance (-30 kg N ha(-1)) was recorded, which comes mainly from the highest crop N uptake (234 kg N ha(-1)) indicating the lowest potential for N losses. In terms of yield quality and the potential risk for N losses, broadcast fertilisation combined with sprinkler irrigation proved to be the most effective combination among the tested practices under the given experimental conditions. The importance of adequate irrigation is also evident, namely in plots on which 50% drip irrigation was applied, the lowest yield was detected and according to the positive N balance, a higher potential for N losses is expected. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Characterization and classification of one new cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) line based on morphological, cytological and molecular markers in non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Shuangping; Shi, Dianyi; Hu, Zhenhua; Huang, Tao; Li, Jinping; Liu, Liyan; Xia, Chunxiu; Yuan, Zhenzhen; Xu, Yuejin; Fu, Tingdong; Wan, Zhengjie

    2015-09-01

    A new non-heading Chinese cabbage CMS line M119A was characterized and specific molecular markers were developed to classify different CMS types. One new non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.) cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) line M119A was obtained by interspecific crosses between the recently discovered hau CMS line of Brassica juncea and B. rapa. Furthermore, the line was characterized and compared with other five isonuclear-alloplasmic CMS lines. The M119A line produced six stamens without pollen and only two stamen fused together in fewer flowers. Tissue section indicated that anther abortion in M119A may have occurred during differentiation of the archesporial cells without pollen sac. All the six CMS lines were grouped into three types based on the presence of three PCR fragments of 825, 465 and 772 bp amplified with different mitochondrial genes specific primers. The 825-bp fragment was amplified both in 09-10A and H201A using the specific primer pair P-orf224-atp6, and showed 100 % identity with the mitochondrial gene of pol CMS. The 465-bp fragment was amplified in 30A and 105A using the primer pair P-orf138 and shared 100 % identity with the mitochondrial gene of ogu CMS. The 772-bp fragment was amplified in M119A and H203A using the primer pair P-orf288 and showed 100 % identity with the mitochondrial gene of hau CMS. Therefore, these markers could efficiently distinguish different types of isonuclear-alloplasmic CMS lines of non-heading Chinese cabbage, which were useful for improving the efficiency of cross-breeding and heterosis utilization in cruciferous vegetables.

  12. Bioinformatics analysis of the phytoene synthase gene in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Jiang, Min; Xue, Shengling; Zheng, Aihong; Zhang, Fen; Tang, Haoru

    2018-04-01

    Phytoene Synthase (PSY) is an important enzyme in carotenoid biosynthesis. Here, the Brassica oleracea var. capitata PSY (BocPSY) gene sequences were obtained from Brassica database (BRAD), and preformed for bioinformatics analysis. The BocPSY1, BocPSY2 and BocPSY3 genes mapped to chromosomes 2,3 and 9, and contains an open reading frame of 1,248 bp, 1,266 bp and 1,275 bp that encodes a 415, 421, 424 amino acid protein, respectively. Subcellular localization predicted all BocPSY genes were in the chloroplast. The conserved domain of the BocPSY protein is PLN02632. Homology analysis indicates that the levels of identity among BocPSYs were all more than 85%, and the PSY protein is apparently conserved during plant evolution. The findings of the present study provide a molecular basis for the elucidation of PSY gene function in cabbage.

  13. Efeito da embalagem e temperatura de armazenamento em repolho minimamente processado Minimally processed cabbage: effects of packaging and storage temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Madalena Rinaldi

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as alterações no repolho minimamente processado quando armazenado em diferentes embalagens e temperaturas. O processamento mínimo consistiu em seleção, classificação e resfriamento da matéria-prima, seguido do processo de corte em tiras, enxágüe em água tratada para a remoção dos exudados celulares, sanitização em solução com 150mgL-1 de cloro ativo, enxágüe, centrifugação, pesagem, acondicionamento em bandejas de poliestireno expandido, revestidas com filme flexível de policloreto de vinila (PVC, 12µm, e embalagens de tereftalato de polietileno (PET, e armazenamento por 15 dias em temperaturas de 0, 5 e 10ºC. A cada três dias avaliou-se a concentração de O2 e CO2 na atmosfera interna das embal agens, bem como o pH, acidez titulável, sólidos solúveis e vitamina C no repolho minimamente processado. Concluiu-se que o repolho acondicionado na embalagem PVC apresentou menor perda de vitamina C durante os 15 dias de armazenamento nas três temperaturas. Esta embalagem também apresentou maior concentração de CO2 e menor de O2 , porém dentro dos níveis aceitáveis, garantindo assim maior vida útil ao repolho minimamente processado. Observou-se que não houve diferença significativa na vida útil do produto armazenado em temperaturas de 0 e 5ºC, nas duas embalagens avaliadas, porém a 10ºC a mesma reduziu-se significativamente, ao nível de 5% de probabilidade.The objective of this work was to evaluate the changes in the minimally processed cabbage when stored in different packages and temperatures. The minimum process consisted of selection, classification and refrigeration of the raw material, followed by cutting in slices, rinsed with treated tap water for the elimination of cellular exudates, sanitization in solutions with 150mgL-1 of active chlorine, rinsing, centrifugation, weighing, conditioning in polystyrene expanded trays covered with polyvinyl chloride (PVC, 12µm

  14. Avaliação da intenção de compra de couve minimamente processada Consumer intention to purchase for minimally processed cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria I. S. Dantas

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Vários fatores influenciam a percepção do produto pelo consumidor e, conseqüentemente, sua intenção de compra. Dentre tais fatores pode estar a expectativa criada pelas características da embalagem e do rótulo, pois representam o primeiro contato entre o indivíduo e o produto. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o efeito das características da embalagem na intenção de compra de couve minimamente processada, considerando as diferenças individuais dos consumidores para processar as informações. Cinco características da embalagem de couve minimamente processada (informação, tipo de produção, cor, preço e visibilidade do produto foram manipuladas e 12 embalagens criadas seguindo delineamento fatorial incompleto. A intenção de compra para o produto foi avaliada por 144 consumidores baseada apenas na observação das referidas embalagens. Os dados foram analisados utilizando Conjoint e Cluster Analyses. Os resultados apontaram para um segmento único de consumidores, composto por indivíduos com percepção do produto bastante similar quanto à intenção de compra. Dentre as características da embalagem, a informação foi a que obteve maior importância relativa (77%, enfatizando seu papel na intenção de compra para esse grupo de consumidores. Em seguida, o tipo de produção, cor e preço também contribuíram significativamente (pSeveral factors affect the consumer product perception and, consequently, his/her intention to purchase. Among such factors is the expectation which can be created by the food label/packaging, which represents the first contact between the person and the product. This study aimed at investigating the effect of the manipulated package characteristics on the consumer intention to purchase for minimally processed cabbage, taking into account the consumer individual differences. Five minimally processed cabbage package characteristics (information, production type, colour, price and product

  15. Habitat eradication and cropland intensification may reduce parasitoid diversity and natural pest control services in annual crop fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah K. Letourneau

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract California’s central coast differs from many agricultural areas in the U.S., which feature large tracts of monoculture production fields and relatively simple landscapes. Known as the nations salad bowl, and producing up to 90% of U.S. production of lettuces, broccoli and Brussels sprouts, this region is a mosaic of fresh vegetable fields, coastal meadow, chaparral shrubs, riparian and woodland habitat. We tested for relationships between the percent cover of crops, riparian and other natural landscape vegetation and the species richness of parasitic wasps and flies foraging in crops, such as broccoli, kale and cauliflower, and interpreted our results with respect to the decrease in natural habitat and increase in cropland cover prompted by a local microbial contamination event in 2006. Our key results are that: (1 as cropland cover in the landscape increased, fewer species of parasitoids were captured in the crop field, (2 parasitoid richness overall was positively associated with the amount of riparian and other natural vegetation in the surrounding 500m, (3 different groups of parasitoids were associated with unique types of natural vegetation, and (4 parasitism rates of sentinel cabbage aphid and cabbage looper pests were correlated with landscape vegetation features according to which parasitoids caused the mortality. Although individual species of parasitoids may thrive in landscapes that are predominantly short season crops, the robust associations found in this study across specialist and generalist parasitoids and different taxa (tachinid flies, ichneumon wasps, braconid wasps shows that recent food safety practices targeting removal of natural vegetation around vegetable fields in an attempt to eliminate wildlife may harm natural enemy communities and reduce ecosystem services. We argue that enhancing biological diversity is a key goal for transforming agroecosystems for future productivity, sustainability and public health.

  16. Development and mass-rearing of cabbage pests (Plutella maculipennis and crocidolomia binotalis) on semisynthetic diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjarief, Sri Hariani (National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Pasar Djumat Research Centre)

    1983-07-01

    Heavy damage to cabbage plantations in Indonesia as caused by plutella maculipennis and crocidolomia binotalis furnished economic justification of research on the sterile-male approach to eradication of this species. The sterile-male technique requires a mass-production of these insects, therefore studies were initiated on rearing larvae in artificial diets. A series of media based on biochemical and biological ingredients were tested. Larvae of the second instar were kept on artificial medium up to 14 days reaching the fourth instar (prepupae). The observation was carried out on the rates pupation, adult emergence and eggs production, continuous to their progenies. No morphological damaged are found on the diet-reared insects. A complete absence of cholesterol in the diet for crocidolomia binotalis brought on the emergence of non-fecund adults.

  17. Exclusive study of Ni+Ni and Ni+Au central collisions: phase coexistence and spinodal decomposition; Etude exclusive des collisions centrales Ni+Ni et Ni+Au: coexistence de phase et decomposition spinodale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guiot, B

    2002-12-01

    The INDRA multidetector allowed us to study the Ni+Ni collisions at 32A MeV and the Ni+Au collisions at 52,4 MeV. Central collisions leading to 'quasi-fused' systems were isolated using multidimensional analysis techniques: the Discriminant Analysis and the Principal Component Analysis. Comparison with a statistical model shows that the selected events are compatible with thermodynamical equilibrium. The average thermal excitation energy is 5A MeV for both systems. Calculations of heat capacities show that the deexcitation of the hot sources are akin to a liquid-gas phase transition of nuclear matter. Indeed heat capacities exhibit a negative branch as expected for a phase transition of a finite system. The dynamics of this phase transition has been investigated by applying the charge correlation method. An enhanced production of events with equal-sized fragments has been evidenced for Ni+Au at 52A MeV. No signal was found for Ni+Ni at 32A MeV. Finally this method was improved by taking into account the total charge conservation. The signal is seen more clearly for Ni+Au at 52A MeV, but is ambiguous for Ni+Ni at 32A MeV. The path followed in the state diagram, or the involved time scales, seem to be different for these systems. (authors)

  18. Multielement Determination of Major-to Ultratrace Elements in a Cabbage, Spinach, and the Japanese Radish by ICP-AES After Acid Digestion

    OpenAIRE

    畑山, 友紀; 奴田原, 杏奈; 藤井, 和美; 西島, 基弘; ハタヤマ, ユキ; ヌタハラ, アンナ; フジイ, カズミ; ニシジマ, モトヒロ; Yuki, Hatayama; anna, Nutahara; Kazumi, Fujii; Motohiro, Nishijima

    2011-01-01

    A multi-element determination in a cabbage, spinach, and the Japanese radish was carried out by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP). We investigated whether there was a difference in content according to the part of the vegetables. The dried vegetables (0.5g) were digested with nitric acid and with hydrogen peroxide acid in a resolution device As a result, about 9 elements were successfully determined. The values of the coefficient of variance for part interval by ea...

  19. Dynamics of Sr90 and its analogs accumulation by the vegetative parts of cabbage (Brassica oleracea l.) during its ontogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenasheva, M.N.; Timofeev, S.F.

    2003-01-01

    Field experiment demonstrated that the maximal content of Sr90 was observed in assimilative leaves of cabbage while the minimal content of Sr90 was traced in upper leaves. In conductive tissues Sr90 concentration increased insignificantly during the growth season. For assimilative plant parts the discrimination coefficient of Sr90 in relation to calcium was less than 1. It was revealed the positive correlative dependence between the contents of calcium, magnesium, stable strontium and manganese in vegetative tissues on the one hand and accumulation of Sr90 by these tissues on the other hand

  20. Les principaux ravageurs des choux pommés [Brassica oleracea var capitata subs sabouda à Bukavu et ses environs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walangululu, JM.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Major Pests of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata subs sabouda in Bukavu and Around. As stated by farmers growing vegetables and as observed on local markets, cabbage in Bukavu and around is damaged by pests. The present work was intended to identify pests damaging this crop, which is now a cash crop in this region, in order to design control methods. Results revealed that one aphid species (Brevicoryne brassicaej, the common cutworm (Agrotis segetum and some Caterpillar species (Plutella xylostella, Hellula undalis, Spodoptera exempta and Trichoplusia ni are major pests causing a loss of plantlets estimated from 0 to 53.8 %, mainly one month after planting. Damage on the first five leaves of the head of cabbage, estimated from 3.5 to 55.8 % of plants were attributed to sporadic pests as the tobacco cricket (Brachytrupes mem-branaceus, the common cutworm (Agrotis segetum, chickens, some grasshoppers, snails and a tortoise beetle species (Henosepilachna elateris.

  1. The development and mass-rearing of cabbage pests (Plutella maculipennis and crocidolomia binotalis) on semisynthetic diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjarief, Sri Hariani

    1983-01-01

    Heavy damage to cabbage plantations in Indonesia as caused by plutella maculipennis and crocidolomia binotalis furnished economic justification of research on the sterile-male approach to eradication of this species. The sterile-male technique requires a mass-production of these insects, therefore studies were initiated on rearing larvae in artificial diets. A series of media based on biochemical and biological ingridients were tested. Larvae of the second instar were kept on artificial medium up to 14 days reaching the fourth instar (prepupae). The observation was carried out on the rates pupation, adult emergence and eggs production, continuoous to their progenies. No morphological damaged are found on the diet-reared insects. A complete absence of cholesterol in the diet for crocidolomia binotalis brought on the emergence of non-fecund adults. (author)

  2. Allelism analysis of BrRfp locus in different restorer lines and map-based cloning of a fertility restorer gene, BrRfp1, for pol CMS in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huamin; Wu, Junqing; Dai, Zihui; Qin, Meiling; Hao, Lingyu; Ren, Yanjing; Li, Qingfei; Zhang, Lugang

    2017-03-01

    In Chinese cabbage, there are two Rf loci for pol CMS and one of them was mapped to a 12.6-kb region containing a potential candidate gene encoding PPR protein. In Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa), polima cytoplasmic male sterility (pol CMS) is an important CMS type and is widely used for hybrid breeding. By extensive test crossing in Chinese cabbage, four restorer lines (92s105, 01s325, 00s109, and 88s148) for pol CMS were screened. By analyzing the allelism of the four restorer lines, it was found that 92s105, 01s325, and 00s109 had the same "restorers of fertility" (Rf) locus (designated as BrRfp1), but 88s148 had a different Rf locus (designated as BrRfp2). For fine mapping the BrRfp1 locus of 92s105, a BC 1 F 1 population with 487 individuals and a BC 1 F 2 population with 2485 individuals were successively constructed. Using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers developed from Brassica rapa reference genome and InDel markers derived from whole-genome resequencing data of 94c9 and 92s105, BrRfp1 was mapped to a 12.6-kb region containing a potential candidate gene encoding pentatricopeptide repeat-containing protein. Based on the nucleotide polymorphisms of the candidate gene sequence between the restoring and nonrestoring alleles, a co-segregating marker SC718 was developed, which would be helpful for hybrid breeding by marker-assisted screening and for detecting new restorer lines.

  3. Bioinformatics analysis of the ς-carotene desaturase gene in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Zheng, Aihong; Jiang, Min; Xue, Shengling; Zhang, Fen; Tang, Haoru

    2018-04-01

    ς-carotene desaturase (ZDS) is an important enzyme in carotenoid biosynthesis. Here, the Brassica oleracea var. capitata ZDS (BocZDS) gene sequences were obtained from Brassica database (BRAD), and preformed for bioinformatics analysis. The BocZDS gene mapped to Scaffold000363, and contains an open reading frame of 1,686 bp that encodes a 561-amino acid protein with a calculated molecular mass of 62.00 kD and an isoelectric point (pI) of 8.2. Subcellular localization predicted the BocZDS gene was in the chloroplast. The conserved domain of the BocZDS protein is PLN02487, indicating that it belongs the member of zeta-carotene desaturase. Homology analysis indicates that the ZDS protein is apparently conserved during plant evolution and is most closely related to B. oleracea var. oleracea, B. napus, and B. rapa. The findings of the present study provide a molecular basis for the elucidation of ZDS gene function in cabbage.

  4. Exclusive study of Ni+Ni and Ni+Au central collisions: phase coexistence and spinodal decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiot, B.

    2002-12-01

    The INDRA multidetector allowed us to study the Ni+Ni collisions at 32A MeV and the Ni+Au collisions at 52,4 MeV. Central collisions leading to 'quasi-fused' systems were isolated using multidimensional analysis techniques: the Discriminant Analysis and the Principal Component Analysis. Comparison with a statistical model shows that the selected events are compatible with thermodynamical equilibrium. The average thermal excitation energy is 5A MeV for both systems. Calculations of heat capacities show that the deexcitation of the hot sources are akin to a liquid-gas phase transition of nuclear matter. Indeed heat capacities exhibit a negative branch as expected for a phase transition of a finite system. The dynamics of this phase transition has been investigated by applying the charge correlation method. An enhanced production of events with equal-sized fragments has been evidenced for Ni+Au at 52A MeV. No signal was found for Ni+Ni at 32A MeV. Finally this method was improved by taking into account the total charge conservation. The signal is seen more clearly for Ni+Au at 52A MeV, but is ambiguous for Ni+Ni at 32A MeV. The path followed in the state diagram, or the involved time scales, seem to be different for these systems. (authors)

  5. Giant magnetoimpedance effect in sputtered single layered NiFe film and meander NiFe/Cu/NiFe film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, L.; Zhou, Y.; Lei, C.; Zhou, Z.M.; Ding, W.

    2010-01-01

    Giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) effect on NiFe thin film is very promising due to its application in developing the magnetic field sensors with highly sensitivity and low cost. In this paper, the single layered NiFe thin film and NiFe/Cu/NiFe thin film with a meander structure are prepared by the MEMS technology. The influences of sputtering parameters, film structure and conductor layer width on GMI effect in NiFe single layer and meander NiFe/Cu/NiFe film are investigated. Maximum of the GMI ratio in single layer and sandwich film is 5% and 64%, respectively. The results obtained are useful for developing the high-performance magnetic sensors based on NiFe thin film.

  6. Dynamics of Sr 90 and its analogs accumulation by the vegetative parts of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) during its ontogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenasheva, M.N.; Timofeev, S.F.

    2004-01-01

    Field experiment demonstrated that the maximal content of Sr 90 was observed in assimilative leaves of cabbage while the minimal content of Sr 90 was traced in upper leaves. In conductive tissues Sr 90 concentration increased insignificantly during the growth season. For assimilative plant parts the discrimination coefficient of Sr 90 in relation to calcium was less than 1. The authors revealed the positive correlative dependence between the contents of calcium, magnesium, stable strontium and manganese in vegetative tissues on the one hand and accumulation of Sr 90 by these tissues on the other hand. (Authors)

  7. Serotonin-induced mate rejection in the female cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Yoshiaki; Fukano, Yuya; Watanabe, Kenta; Ozawa, Gaku; Sasaki, Ken

    2011-11-01

    Virgin female cabbage butterflies, Pieris rapae crucivora, accept and mate with courting males, whereas mated females reject them and assume the "mate refusal posture". This study tested whether the biogenic amines, serotonin (5HT), dopamine (DA), and octopamine (OA), were responsible for this change in behavior. The results showed that 2-3-day-old virgin females fed with 5HT rejected courting males significantly more frequently compared with controls fed on sucrose. In contrast, the proportions of courting males rejected by virgin females fed with either DA or OA did not differ from sucrose-fed controls. Oral application of each amine resulted in significantly increased levels of the amine applied (or its metabolite) in the brain. The results strongly suggest that 5HT or a 5HT metabolite may be responsible for the post-mating change in behavioral response of 2-3-day-old virgin females to courting males. Similar effects of 5HT treatment were observed in 6-8-day-old virgin females, but in this case the results were only marginally different from the controls, suggesting that the effect may decline with increasing female age.

  8. [The influence of colonizing methylobacteria on morphogenesis and resistance of sugar beet and white cabbage plants to Erwinia carotovora].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigoleva, S V; Zakharchenko, N S; Pigolev, A V; Trotsenko, Iu A; Bur'ianov, Ia I

    2009-01-01

    The influence of colonization of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris var. saccharifera (Alef) Krass) and white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) plants by methylotrophic bacteria Methylovorus mays on the growth, rooting, and plant resistance to phytopathogen bacteria Erwinia carotovora was investigated. The colonization by methylobacteria led to their steady association with the plants which had increased growth speed, root formation and photosynthetic activity. The colonized plants had increased resistance to Erwinia carotovora phytopathogen and were better adapted to greenhouse conditions. The obtained results showed the perspectives for the practical implementation of methylobacteria in the ecologically clean microbiology substances used as the plant growth stimulators and for the plant protection from pathogens.

  9. Morphological control of Ni/NiO core/shell nanoparticles and production of hollow NiO nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, Nitin; Claypoole, Leslie; Bachas, Leonidas G.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical synthesis coupled with a microwave irradiation process allowed for the control of size (6-40 nm), shape, and shell thickness of Ni/NiO core/shell nanoparticles. In this unique synthetic route, the size of Ni nanoparticles (NiNPs) was strongly influenced by the nickel salt-to-stabilizer ratio and the amount of the stabilizer. Interestingly, it was observed that the shape of the nanoparticles was altered by varying the reaction time, where longer reaction times resulted in annealing effects and rupture of the stabilizer micelle leading to distinct shapes of Ni/NiO core/shell nanostructures. Product cooling rate was another important parameter identified in this study that not only affected the shape, but also the crystal structure of the core/shell nanoparticles. In addition, a simple and cost-effective method of microwave irradiation of NiNPs led to the formation of distinctly shaped hollow NiO nanoparticles. These high surface area core/shell nanoparticles with well-controlled morphologies are important and can lead to significant advancement in the design of improved fuel cells, electrochromic display devices, and catalysis systems.

  10. Morphological control of Ni/NiO core/shell nanoparticles and production of hollow NiO nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, Nitin [University of Alabama, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Center for Materials for Information Technology (MINT) (United States); Claypoole, Leslie [Fairmont State University (United States); Bachas, Leonidas G., E-mail: bachas@uky.ed [University of Kentucky, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Chemical synthesis coupled with a microwave irradiation process allowed for the control of size (6-40 nm), shape, and shell thickness of Ni/NiO core/shell nanoparticles. In this unique synthetic route, the size of Ni nanoparticles (NiNPs) was strongly influenced by the nickel salt-to-stabilizer ratio and the amount of the stabilizer. Interestingly, it was observed that the shape of the nanoparticles was altered by varying the reaction time, where longer reaction times resulted in annealing effects and rupture of the stabilizer micelle leading to distinct shapes of Ni/NiO core/shell nanostructures. Product cooling rate was another important parameter identified in this study that not only affected the shape, but also the crystal structure of the core/shell nanoparticles. In addition, a simple and cost-effective method of microwave irradiation of NiNPs led to the formation of distinctly shaped hollow NiO nanoparticles. These high surface area core/shell nanoparticles with well-controlled morphologies are important and can lead to significant advancement in the design of improved fuel cells, electrochromic display devices, and catalysis systems.

  11. Synthesis of Ni3Ta, Ni2Ta and NiTa by high-energy ball milling and subsequent heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benites, H.S.N.; Silva, B.P da; Ramos, A.S.; Silva, A.A.A.P.; Coelho, G.C.; Lima, B.B. de

    2014-01-01

    The tantalum has relevance for the development of multicomponent Ni-based superalloys which are hardened by solid solution and precipitation mechanisms. Master alloys are normally used in the production step in order to produce refractory metals and alloys. The present work reports on the synthesis of Ni_3Ta, Ni_2Ta and NiTa by high-energy ball milling and subsequent heat treatment. The elemental Ni-25Ta, Ni-33Ta and Ni-50Ta (at.-%) powder mixtures were ball milled under Ar atmosphere using stainless steel balls and vials, 300 rpm and a ball-to-powder weight ratio of 10:1. Following, the as-milled samples were uniaxially compacted and heat-treated at 1100 deg C for 4h under Ar atmosphere. The characterization of as-milled and heat-treated samples was conducted by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectrometry. A large amount of Ni_3Ta, Ni_2Ta and NiTa was formed in the mechanically alloyed heat-treated Ni-25Ta, Ni-33Ta and Ni-50Ta alloys. (author)

  12. On the nature of Ni···Ni interaction in a model dimeric Ni complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiński, Radosław; Herbaczyńska, Beata; Srebro, Monika; Pietrzykowski, Antoni; Michalak, Artur; Jerzykiewicz, Lucjan B; Woźniak, Krzysztof

    2011-06-07

    A new dinuclear complex (NiC(5)H(4)SiMe(2)CHCH(2))(2) (2) was prepared by reacting nickelocene derivative [(C(5)H(4)SiMe(2)CH=CH(2))(2)Ni] (1) with methyllithium (MeLi). Good quality crystals were subjected to a high-resolution X-ray measurement. Subsequent multipole refinement yielded accurate description of electron density distribution. Detailed inspection of experimental electron density in Ni···Ni contact revealed that the nickel atoms are bonded and significant deformation of the metal valence shell is related to different populations of the d-orbitals. The existence of the Ni···Ni bond path explains the lack of unpaired electrons in the complex due to a possible exchange channel.

  13. Gd-Ni-Si system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodak, O.I.; Shvets, A.F.

    1983-01-01

    By X-ray phase analysis method isothermal cross section of phase diagram of the Gd-Ni-Si system at 870 K is studied. The existence of nine previously known compounds (GdNisub(6.72)Sisub(6.28), GdNi 10 Si 2 , GdNi 5 Si 3 , GdNi 4 Si, GdNi 2 Si 2 , GdNiSi 3 , GdNiSi 2 , Gd 3 Ni 6 Si 2 and GdNiSi) is confirmed and three new compounds (GdNisub(0.2)Sisub(1.8), Gdsub(2)Nisub(1-0.8)Sisub(1-1.2), Gd 5 NiSi 4 ) are found. On the base of Gd 2 Si 3 compound up to 0.15 at. Ni fractions, an interstitial solid solution is formed up to 0.25 at Ni fractions dissolution continues of substitution type. The Gd-Ni-Si system is similar to the Y-Ni-Si system

  14. Desempenho do consórcio entre repolho e rabanete com pré-cultivo de crotalária, sob manejo orgânico Performance of cabbage and radish intercropping under organic management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Luiz de Oliveira

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos dois experimentos no Sistema Integrado de Produção Agroecológica, em Seropédica, (RJ, durante dois anos consecutivos. O objetivo foi avaliar o desempenho do consórcio entre as culturas de repolho e rabanete com pré-cultivo de crotalária, sob manejo orgânico. Usou-se delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com sete repetições, em parcelas subdivididas, representando um fatorial 2 x 3, sendo o primeiro fator o pré-cultivo, com Crotalaria juncea e pousio (vegetação espontânea; e o segundo fator o sistema de cultivo (consórcio entre repolho e rabanete e os respectivos monocultivos. Não houve diferença significativa no tocante à produtividade do repolho ou rabanete, entre C. juncea e pousio, independentemente do tipo de manejo (monocultivos ou consórcio. O desenvolvimento do repolho não foi influenciado pela presença do rabanete, no consórcio entre essas espécies sob cultivo orgânico. O rabanete sob consórcio apresentou redução no diâmetro médio, massa média e produtividade de raízes, sem, contudo, desqualificar o padrão comercial das raízes colhidas. Considerando a média dos dois anos experimentais, o IEA atingiu 1,59, o que indicou a viabilidade do consórcio, otimizando práticas culturais, incluindo adubação, capina e irrigação.Field experiments were carried out during two consecutive years in the Integrated Agroecological Production System, in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, to evaluate the performance of cabbageradish intercropping under organic management on the basis of agronomic traits and Area Equivalency Index (AEI. The contribution of green manure pre-planting to the system also was evaluated. A randomized complete blocks design with seven replicates in a 2x3 split-plot factorial scheme was used. Treatments in the main plots consisted of Crotalaria juncea pre-planting or fallow. Cabbage or radish single crops and the respective intercropping were distributed in the subplots. No

  15. Electronic structure of Ni/sub 3/Al and Ni/sub 3/Ga alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Pong, W F; Chang, Y K; Tsai, M H; Hsieh, H H; Pieh, J Y; Tseng, P K; Lee, J F; Hsu, L S

    1999-01-01

    This work investigates the charge transfer and Al(Ga) p-Ni d hybridization effects in the intermetallic Ni/sub 3/Al(Ni/sub 3/Ga) alloy using the NiL/sub 3.2/- and K-edge and Al(Ga)K X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) measurements. We find that the intensity of white-line features at the NiL/sub 3.2/-edge in the Ni/sub 3/Al(Ni /sub 3/Ga) alloy decreased in comparison with that of pure Ni, which can be attributed to the enhancement of Ni3d states filling and the depletion of the density of Ni 3d unoccupied states in the Ni/sub 3 /Al(Ni/sub 3/Ga) alloy. Two clear features are also observed in the Ni/sub 3/Al(Ni/sub 3/Ga) XANES spectrum at the Al(Ga) K-edge, which can be assigned to the Al(Ga) unoccupied 3p (4p) states and their hybridized states with the Ni 3d/4sp states above the Fermi level in Ni/sub 3/Al(Ni/sub 3/Ga). The threshold at Al K-edge XANES for Ni/sub 3/Al clearly shifts towards higher photon energies relative to that of pure Al, indicating that Al loses charges upon forming Ni/sub 3 /Al. ...

  16. Ni-NiO core-shell inverse opal electrodes for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hun; Kang, Soon Hyung; Zhu, Kai; Kim, Jin Young; Neale, Nathan R; Frank, Arthur J

    2011-05-14

    A general template-assisted electrochemical approach was used to synthesize three-dimensional ordered Ni core-NiO shell inverse opals (IOs) as electrodes for supercapacitors. The Ni-NiO IO electrodes displayed pseudo-capacitor behavior, good rate capability and cycling performance. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  17. Diversity of indigenous endophytic bacteria associated with the roots of Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L.) cultivars and their antagonism towards pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Md Azizul; Yun, Han Dae; Cho, Kye Man

    2016-05-01

    The study aimed to reveal the diversity of endophytic bacteria in the roots of Chinese cabbage (CC) cultivated in two areas in Korea, namely, Seosang-gun (SS) and Haenam-gun (HN), and also in a transgenic plant (TP) from the laboratory. A total of 653 colonies were isolated from the interior of CC roots, comprising 118, 302, and 233 isolates from SS, HN, and TP samples, respectively. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolates belonged to four major phylogenetic groups: high-G+C Gram-positive bacteria (HGC-GPB), low-G+C Gram-positive bacteria (LGC-GPB), Proteobacteria, and Bacteriodetes. The most dominant groups in the roots of the SS, HN, and TP cultivars were LGC-GPB (48.3%), Proteobacteria (50.2%), and HGC-GPB (38.2%), respectively. Importantly, most of the isolates that produced cell-walldegrading enzymes belonged to the genus Bacillus. Bacillus sp. (HNR03, TPR06), Bacillus pumilus (SSR07, HNR11, TPR07), and Bacillus subtilis (TPR03) showed high antagonism against the tested food-borne pathogenic bacteria. In addition, Bacillus sp. (HNR03, TPR06), Bacillus pumilus (SSR07, HNR11, HNR17, TPR11), Microbacterium oxidans (SSR09, TPR04), Bacillus cereus HNR10, Pseudomonas sp. HNR13, and Bacillus subtilis (TPR02, TPR03) showed strong antagonistic activity against the fungi Phythium ultimum, Phytophthora capsici, Fusarium oxysporum, and Rhizoctonia solani. The endophytes isolated from the TP cultivar showed the strongest antagonistic reactions against pathogens. This study is the first report on endophytic bacteria from Chinese cabbage roots.

  18. An Ultrastable and High-Performance Flexible Fiber-Shaped Ni-Zn Battery based on a Ni-NiO Heterostructured Nanosheet Cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yinxiang; Meng, Yue; Lai, Zhengzhe; Zhang, Xiyue; Yu, Minghao; Fang, Pingping; Wu, Mingmei; Tong, Yexiang; Lu, Xihong

    2017-11-01

    Currently, the main bottleneck for the widespread application of Ni-Zn batteries is their poor cycling stability as a result of the irreversibility of the Ni-based cathode and dendrite formation of the Zn anode during the charging-discharging processes. Herein, a highly rechargeable, flexible, fiber-shaped Ni-Zn battery with impressive electrochemical performance is rationally demonstrated by employing Ni-NiO heterostructured nanosheets as the cathode. Benefiting from the improved conductivity and enhanced electroactivity of the Ni-NiO heterojunction nanosheet cathode, the as-fabricated fiber-shaped Ni-NiO//Zn battery displays high capacity and admirable rate capability. More importantly, this Ni-NiO//Zn battery shows unprecedented cyclic durability both in aqueous (96.6% capacity retention after 10 000 cycles) and polymer (almost no capacity attenuation after 10 000 cycles at 22.2 A g -1 ) electrolytes. Moreover, a peak energy density of 6.6 µWh cm -2 , together with a remarkable power density of 20.2 mW cm -2 , is achieved by the flexible quasi-solid-state fiber-shaped Ni-NiO//Zn battery, outperforming most reported fiber-shaped energy-storage devices. Such a novel concept of a fiber-shaped Ni-Zn battery with impressive stability will greatly enrich the flexible energy-storage technologies for future portable/wearable electronic applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Thermal stability and electrical characteristics of NiSi films with electroplated Ni(W) alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin Yuhang; Hu Anmin; Li Ming; Mao Dali

    2011-01-01

    In this study, an electroplating method to deposited Ni, crystalline NiW(c-NiW), amorphous NiW (a-NiW) films on P-type Si(1 0 0) were used to form Ni-silicide (NiSi) films. After annealed at various temperatures, sheet resistance of Ni/Cu, c-NiW/Cu and a-NiW/Cu was measured to observe the performance of those diffusion barrier layers. With W added in the barrier layer, the barrier performance was improved. The results of XRD and resistance measurement of the stacked Si/Ni(W)/Cu films reveal that Cu atom could diffuse through Ni barrier layer at 450 deg. C, could diffuse through c-NiW at 550 deg. C, but could hardly diffuse through a-NiW barrier layer. c-NiW layer has a better barrier performance than Ni layer, meanwhile the resistance is lower than a-NiW layer.

  20. The morphological signs of plants of white cabbage (Brassica oleraceae L. convar. capitata (L. Alef. var. alba DC and their variability depending on type of sort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Я. Жук

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Indicators of the morphological signs of type of sort on white cabbage plants Dutch flat, Belarus, Amager, Langendijker winter and their variability are the presented. It is established low and average factor of a variation at the majority of the morphological signs. Strong high-quality and ecological variability of signs “height external rake” and “its size leafy parts” at type of sort Dutch flat is defined.

  1. First-principles calculations for the elastic properties of Ni-base model superalloys: Ni/Ni3Al multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun-Jiang, Wang; Chong-Yu, Wang

    2009-01-01

    A model system consisting of Ni[001](100)/Ni 3 Al[001](100) multi-layers are studied using the density functional theory in order to explore the elastic properties of single crystal Ni-based superalloys. Simulation results are consistent with the experimental observation that rafted Ni-base superalloys virtually possess a cubic symmetry. The convergence of the elastic properties with respect to the thickness of the multilayers are tested by a series of multilayers from 2γ'+2γ to 10γ'+10γ atomic layers. The elastic properties are found to vary little with the increase of the multilayer's thickness. A Ni/Ni 3 Al multilayer with 10γ'+10γ atomic layers (3.54 nm) can be used to simulate the mechanical properties of Ni-base model superalloys. Our calculated elastic constants, bulk modulus, orientation-dependent shear modulus and Young's modulus, as well as the Zener anisotropy factor are all compatible with the measured results of Ni-base model superalloys R1 and the advanced commercial superalloys TMS-26, CMSX-4 at a low temperature. The mechanical properties as a function of the γ' phase volume fraction are calculated by varying the proportion of the γ and γ' phase in the multilayers. Besides, the mechanical properties of two-phase Ni/Ni 3 Al multilayer can be well predicted by the Voigt–Reuss–Hill rule of mixtures. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  2. Antioxidant potency of white (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) and Chinese (Brassica rapa L. var. pekinensis (Lour.)) cabbage: The influence of development stage, cultivar choice and seed selection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šamec, D.; Piljac-Žegarac, J.; Bogovic, M.; Habjanic, K.; Grúz, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 128, č. 2 (2011), s. 78-83 ISSN 0304-4238 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200380801; GA ČR GA301/08/1649 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Antimicrobial activity * Antioxidant capacity * Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata * rapa L. var. pekinensis Lour * Cabbage Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.527, year: 2011

  3. Influence of ni thickness on oscillation coupling in Cu/Ni multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagorowska, B; Dus-Sitek, M [Institute of Physics, Czestochowa University of Technology, Al. Armii Krajowej 19, 42-200 Czestochowa (Poland)

    2007-08-15

    The results of investigation of magnetic properties of [Cu/Ni]x100 were presented. Samples were deposited by face-to-face sputtering method onto the silicon substrate, the thickness of Cu layer was constant (d{sub Cu} = 2 nm) and the thickness of Ni layer - variable (1 nm {<=} d{sub Ni} {<=} 6 nm). In Cu/Ni multilayers, for the thickness of Ni layer bigger than 2 nm antiferromagnetic coupling (A-F) were observed, for the thickness of Ni smaller than 2 nm A-F coupling is absent.

  4. Influence of ni thickness on oscillation coupling in Cu/Ni multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagorowska, B; Dus-Sitek, M

    2007-01-01

    The results of investigation of magnetic properties of [Cu/Ni]x100 were presented. Samples were deposited by face-to-face sputtering method onto the silicon substrate, the thickness of Cu layer was constant (d Cu = 2 nm) and the thickness of Ni layer - variable (1 nm ≤ d Ni ≤ 6 nm). In Cu/Ni multilayers, for the thickness of Ni layer bigger than 2 nm antiferromagnetic coupling (A-F) were observed, for the thickness of Ni smaller than 2 nm A-F coupling is absent

  5. The miRNAs and their regulatory networks responsible for pollen abortion in Ogura-CMS Chinese cabbage revealed by high-throughput sequencing of miRNAs, degradomes, and transcriptomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaochun; Zhang, Xiaohui; Yao, Qiuju; Yuan, Yuxiang; Li, Xixiang; Wei, Fang; Zhao, Yanyan; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Zhiyong; Jiang, Wusheng; Zhang, Xiaowei

    2015-01-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) is one of the most important vegetables in Asia and is cultivated across the world. Ogura-type cytoplasmic male sterility (Ogura-CMS) has been widely used in the hybrid breeding industry for Chinese cabbage and many other cruciferous vegetables. Although, the cause of Ogura-CMS has been localized to the orf138 locus in the mitochondrial genome, however, the mechanism by which nuclear genes respond to the mutation of the mitochondrial orf138 locus is unclear. In this study, a series of whole genome small RNA, degradome and transcriptome analyses were performed on both Ogura-CMS and its maintainer Chinese cabbage buds using deep sequencing technology. A total of 289 known miRNAs derived from 69 families (including 23 new families first reported in B. rapa) and 426 novel miRNAs were identified. Among these novel miRNAs, both 3-p and 5-p miRNAs were detected on the hairpin arms of 138 precursors. Ten known and 49 novel miRNAs were down-regulated, while one known and 27 novel miRNAs were up-regulated in Ogura-CMS buds compared to the fertile plants. Using degradome analysis, a total of 376 mRNAs were identified as targets of 30 known miRNA families and 100 novel miRNAs. A large fraction of the targets were annotated as reproductive development related. Our transcriptome profiling revealed that the expression of the targets was finely tuned by the miRNAs. Two novel miRNAs were identified that were specifically highly expressed in Ogura-CMS buds and sufficiently suppressed two pollen development essential genes: sucrose transporter SUC1 and H (+) -ATPase 6. These findings provide clues for the contribution of a potential miRNA regulatory network to bud development and pollen engenderation. This study contributes new insights to the communication between the mitochondria and chromosome and takes one step toward filling the gap in the regulatory network from the orf138 locus to pollen abortion in Ogura-CMS plants from a mi

  6. The miRNAs and their regulatory networks responsible for pollen abortion in Ogura-CMS Chinese cabbage revealed by high-throughput sequencing of miRNAs, degradomes and transcriptomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun eWei

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis is one of the most important vegetables in Asia and is cultivated across the world. Ogura-type cytoplasmic male sterility (Ogura-CMS has been widely used in the hybrid breeding industry for Chinese cabbage and many other cruciferous vegetables. Although, the cause of Ogura-CMS has been localized to the orf138 locus in the mitochondrial genome, however, the mechanism by which nuclear genes respond to the mutation of the mitochondrial orf138 locus is unclear. In this study, a series of whole genome small RNA, degradome and transcriptome analyses were performed on both Ogura-CMS and its maintainer Chinese cabbage buds using deep sequencing technology. A total of 289 known miRNAs derived from 69 families (including 23 new families first reported in B. rapa and 426 novel miRNAs were identified. Among these novel miRNAs, both 3-p and 5-p miRNAs were detected on the hairpin arms of 138 precursors. Ten known and 49 novel miRNAs were down-regulated, while one known and 27 novel miRNAs were up-regulated in Ogura-CMS buds compared to the fertile plants. Using degradome analysis, a total of 376 mRNAs were identified as targets of 30 known miRNA families and 100 novel miRNAs. A large fraction of the targets were annotated as reproductive development related. Our transcriptome profiling revealed that the expression of the targets was finely tuned by the miRNAs. Two novel miRNAs were identified that were specifically highly expressed in Ogura-CMS buds and sufficiently suppressed two pollen development essential genes: sucrose transporter SUC1 and H+-ATPase 6. These findings provide clues for the contribution of a potential miRNA regulatory network to bud development and pollen engenderation. This study contributes new insights to the communication between the mitochondria and chromosome and takes one step toward filling the gap in the regulatory network from the orf138 locus to pollen abortion in Ogura-CMS plants

  7. Study of dipole interaction in micron-width NiFe/Cu/NiFe/NiO wire using exchange anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Takashi; Itagaki, Yoshio; Wakaya, Fujio; Gamo, Kenji

    2001-01-01

    The dipole interaction between a NiFe layer pinned by a NiO and a free NiFe layer in a micron-wide NiFe/Cu/NiFe/NiO wire was studied by changing the direction of the exchange bias from the NiO layer. The effect of the dipole interaction when the exchange bias was perpendicular to the wire axis was larger than that when the exchange bias was parallel to the wire axis, and was consistently explained by the stray field caused by the magnetic charges of the pinned layer. It was demonstrated that this method, using exchange anisotropy, is useful for investigating the dipole interaction between ferromagnetic materials separated by a nonmagnetic material in small-scale magnetic multilayers. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  8. Resposta de brócolis, couve-flor e repolho à adubação com boro em solo arenoso Response of boron fertilization on broccoli, cauliflower and cabbage planted in sandy soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Pizetta

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados em condições de campo, em solo arenoso, com baixo teor de boro, os efeitos da adubação com cinco doses de boro (0; 2; 4; 6 e 8 kg ha-1 de B na forma de bórax na produção de brócolis, couve-flor e repolho. O experimento obedeceu a um esquema fatorial com delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com três repetições. As adubações orgânica e química, inclusive o bórax, foram feitas no sulco antes do transplantio das mudas e a colheita foi feita entre 63 e 93 dias após o transplantio. A produtividade de brócolis variou de 16,9 a 20,5 t ha-1; a de couve-flor de 21,6 a 29,6 t ha-1 e a de repolho de 40,5 a 46,4 t ha-1. O aumento observado na produtividade de brócolis e de repolho foi linear e o efeito das doses de boro na produtividade de couve-flor foi quadrático, sendo necessários 5,1 kg ha-1 de B para atingir a produtividade máxima de 30 t ha-1. Brócolis e repolho mostraram-se menos sensíveis do que a couve-flor tanto à deficiência quanto ao excesso de boro. No caso da couve-flor, com a aplicação de 2 kg ha-1 ou de 6 kg ha-1 de B houve significativa perda de qualidade do produto.The effects of boron fertilization on yield of broccoli, cauliflower and cabbage were evaluated through a field experiment carried out on a sandy soil low in available boron. Five boron levels (0; 2; 4; 6; and 8 kg ha-1 B as borax were applied in broccoli, cauliflower and cabbage using a factorial scheme and a randomized block design with three replicates. Organic manure and chemical fertilizers, including borax, were applied in the planting furrow before seedlings transplant and plants were harvested 63 to 93 days after planting date. The yield intervals obtained with broccoli, cauliflower and cabbage varied according to the following intervals: 16.9 to 20.5 t ha-1, 21.6 to 29.6 t ha-1 and 40.5 to 46.3 t ha-1, respectively. The increase in production observed in broccoli and cabbage yield was linear with boron levels and the

  9. Eficácia do indoxacarb para o controle de pragas em hortaliças Efficacy of indoxacarb in the control of vegetable pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Martinelli

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available A eficiência do indoxacarb foi avaliada no controle dos lepidópteros-pragas em hortaliças: Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Yponeumatidae, Trichoplusia ni (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae e Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em três locais diferentes nas culturas do repolho e tomate. Os inseticidas utilizados foram indoxacarb (no tomate de 2,4 a 6,0 g i.a./100 L e no repolho de 18 a 42 g i.a./ha, esfenvalerate (apenas no tomate de 1,75 g i.a./100 L, metomil (no tomate na dose de 21,5 g i.a./100 L e no repolho a 172 g i.a./ha, deltametrina (apenas no repolho na dose de 6 g i.a./ha e triflumuron (apenas no tomate na dose de 15 g i.a./100 L. Adotou-se o delineamento estatístico em blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições em todos os experimentos. Todas as doses avaliadas do produto indoxacarb apresentaram excelente desempenho no controle de P. xylostella e T. ni. Assim, a menor dose avaliada (18 g i.a./ha pode ser recomendada para o controle dessas pragas. Todos os produtos avaliados alcançaram níveis de eficiência maiores que 80% no controle de H. zea na cultura do tomate. Indoxacarb foi tão eficiente quanto o produto padrão adotado (triflumuron. N. elegantalis foi eficientemente controlada pelos inseticidas avaliados após nove aplicações, sendo que indoxacarb pode ser recomendado na menor dose utilizada (2,4 g i.a./100 L.The efficacy of indoxacarb was evaluated for controlling lepidopterous pests on vegetables: Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Yponeumatidae, Trichoplusia ni (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. The experiments were carried out at three different sites on cabbage and tomato crops. The utilized insecticides were indoxacarb (for tomato from 2.4 to 6.0 g a.i./100 L and for cabbage from 18 to 42 g i.a./ha, esfenvalerate (only for tomato at 1.75 g a.i./100 L

  10. Atomistic calculations of hydrogen interactions with Ni3Al grain boundaries and Ni/Ni3Al interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskes, M.I.; Angelo, J.E.; Moody, N.R.

    1995-01-01

    Embedded Atom Method (EAM) potentials have been developed for the Ni/Al/H system. The potentials have been fit to numerous properties of this system. For example, these potentials represent the structural and elastic properties of bulk Ni, Al, Ni 3 Al, and NiAl quite well. In addition the potentials describe the solution and migration behavior of hydrogen in both nickel and aluminum. A number of calculations using these potentials have been performed. It is found that hydrogen strongly prefers sites in Ni 3 Al that are surrounded by 6 Ni atoms. Calculations of the trapping of hydrogen to a number of grain boundaries in Ni 3 Al have been performed as a function of hydrogen chemical potential at room temperature. The failure of these bicrystals under tensile stress has been examined and will be compared to the failure of pure Ni 3 Al boundaries. Boundaries containing a preponderance of nickel are severely weakened by hydrogen. In order to investigate the potential embrittlement of γ/γ' alloys, trapping of hydrogen to a spherical Ni 3 Al precipate in nickel as a function of chemical potential at room temperature has been calculated. It appears that the boundary is not a strong trap for hydrogen, hence embrittlement in these alloys is not primarily due to interactions of hydrogen with the γ/γ interface

  11. Effects of Ni vacancy, Ni antisite, Cr and Pt on the third-order elastic constants and mechanical properties of NiAl

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Shaohua; Wu, Xiaozhi; Wang, Rui; Liu, Qing; Gan, Liyong

    2014-01-01

    Effects of Ni vacancy, Ni antisite in Al sublattice, Cr in Al sublattice, Pt in Ni sublattice on the second-order elastic constants (SOECs) and third-order elastic constants (TOECs) of the B2 NiAl have been investigated using the first-principles methods. Lattice constant and the SOECs of NiAl are in good agreement with the previous results. The brittle/ductile transition map based on Pugh ratio G/B and Cauchy pressure Pc shows that Ni antisite, Cr, Pt and pressure can improve the ductility of NiAl, respectively. Ni vacancy and lower pressure can enhance the Vickers hardness Hv of NiAl. The density of states (DOS) and the charge density difference are also used to analysis the effects of vacancy, Ni antisite, Cr and Pt on the mechanical properties of NiAl, and the results are in consistent with the transition map. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of Ni vacancy, Ni antisite, Cr and Pt on the third-order elastic constants and mechanical properties of NiAl

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Shaohua

    2014-12-01

    Effects of Ni vacancy, Ni antisite in Al sublattice, Cr in Al sublattice, Pt in Ni sublattice on the second-order elastic constants (SOECs) and third-order elastic constants (TOECs) of the B2 NiAl have been investigated using the first-principles methods. Lattice constant and the SOECs of NiAl are in good agreement with the previous results. The brittle/ductile transition map based on Pugh ratio G/B and Cauchy pressure Pc shows that Ni antisite, Cr, Pt and pressure can improve the ductility of NiAl, respectively. Ni vacancy and lower pressure can enhance the Vickers hardness Hv of NiAl. The density of states (DOS) and the charge density difference are also used to analysis the effects of vacancy, Ni antisite, Cr and Pt on the mechanical properties of NiAl, and the results are in consistent with the transition map. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ni Foam-Ni3 S2 @Ni(OH)2 -Graphene Sandwich Structure Electrode Materials: Facile Synthesis and High Supercapacitor Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaobing; Hu, Jiangjiang; Su, Yichang; Hao, Jin; Liu, Fanggang; Han, Shuang; An, Jian; Lian, Jianshe

    2017-03-23

    A novel Ni foam-Ni 3 S 2 @Ni(OH) 2 -graphene sandwich-structured electrode (NF-NN-G) with high areal mass loading (8.33 mg cm -2 ) has been developed by sulfidation and hydrolysis reactions. The conductivity of Ni 3 S 2 and Ni(OH) 2 were both improved. The upper layer of Ni(OH) 2 , covered with a thin graphene film, is formed in situ from the surface of the lower layer of Ni 3 S 2 , whereas the Ni 3 S 2 grown on Ni foam substrate mainly acts as a rough support bridging the Ni(OH) 2 and Ni foam. The graphene stabilized the Ni(OH) 2 and the electrochemical properties were effectively enhanced. The as-synthesized NF-NN-G-5mg electrode shows a high specific capacitance (2258 F g -1 at 1 A g -1 or 18.81 F cm -2 at 8.33 mA cm -2 ) and an outstanding rate property (1010 F g -1 at 20 Ag -1 or 8.413 F cm -2 at 166.6 mA cm -2 ). This result is around double the capacitance achieved in previous research on Ni 3 S 2 @Ni(OH) 2 /3DGN composites (3DGN=three-dimensional graphene network). In addition, the as-fabricated NF-NN-G-5mg composite electrode has an excellent cycle life with no capacitance loss after 3000 cycles, indicating a potential application as an efficient electrode. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Responses of the cabbage seedpod weevil, Ceutorhynchus obstrictus (Marsham) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), to seed treatments of canola (Brassica napus L.) with the neonicotinoid compounds clothianidin and imidacloprid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosdall, Lloyd M

    2009-12-01

    The cabbage seedpod weevil, Ceutorhynchus obstrictus (Marsham), is a major pest in the production of canola (Brassica napus L.) in North America and Europe, and effective population control is often essential for economical crop production. In North America, neonicotinoid insecticides have been used for several years in canola as seed treatments for reducing herbivory by flea beetles. The neonicotinoids clothianidin and imidacloprid were investigated to determine their effects on preimaginal development and on emergence of new-generation adults of C. obstrictus in comparison with effects of lindane, a chlorinated hydrocarbon seed treatment. Mean numbers of second- and third-instar larvae were significantly higher in plants seed-treated with lindane than in plants treated with the neonicotinoid compounds, even though weevil oviposition was similar for all treatments. Emergence of new-generation adults was reduced by 52 and 39% for plants seed-treated with clothianidin and imidacloprid, respectively, compared with emergence from plants treated with lindane. Seed treatment with both clothianidin and imidacloprid produced systemic insecticidal effects on larvae of C. obstrictus, with clothianidin slightly more effective than imidacloprid. Use of clothianidin or imidacloprid as seed treatments can comprise an important component in the integrated management of cabbage seedpod weevil in canola. (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Phylogeography and Ecological Niche Modeling Reveal Reduced Genetic Diversity and Colonization Patterns of Skunk Cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus; Araceae From Glacial Refugia in Eastern North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon-Hee Kim

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Alternating glacial and interglacial periods during the Quaternary have dramatically affected the distribution and population genetic structure of plant and animal species throughout the northern hemisphere. Surprisingly, little is known about the post-glacial recolonization history of wetland herbaceous perennials that are widely distributed in the understory of deciduous or mixed deciduous-evergreen forests in eastern North America. In this study, we investigated infraspecific variation among 32 populations of skunk cabbage, Symplocarpus foetidus, to test the hypothesis that the extant species diversity of skunk cabbage is the result of a post-glacial range expansion from southern refugia during the Quaternary Ice Age. A total of 4041 base pairs (bp of the chloroplast intergenic spacer region (cpDNA was sequenced from 485 individuals sampled from glaciated (18 populations, 275 individuals and unglaciated (14 populations, 210 individuals regions east and west of the Appalachian Mountains. Haplotype number, haplotype diversity, and nucleotide diversity were calculated, and genetic variation within and among populations was assessed by analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA. The geographic pattern of genetic differentiation was further investigated with a spatial analysis of molecular variance (SAMOVA. A total of eight haplotypes and three genetic groups (SAMOVA were recovered and a much higher haplotype number (eight haplotypes and haplotype diversity (0.7425 was observed in unglaciated compared to glaciated populations (five haplotypes, haplotype diversity = 0.6099. All haplotypes found in glaciated regions represented a subset of haplotypes found in unglaciated regions. Haplotypes of S. foetidus likely diverged during the Tertiary (mid-Miocene and late Pliocene, predating the last glacial maximum (LGM. Predictions based on ecological niche modeling (ENM suggested that there was considerably less suitable habitat for skunk cabbage during the LGM

  16. Relation between shape of Ni-particles and Ni migration in Ni-YSZ electrodes – a hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Hauch, Anne; Sun, Xiufu

    2016-01-01

    This is an attempt to explain a phenomenon of total depletion of Ni next to the electrolyte in Ni-YSZ cermet electrodes in solid oxide electrolysis cells during electrolysis at high current density/overpotential. Intuitively, we would think that Ni would always migrate down the steam partial...

  17. Reference material certification of chinese cabbage composition for selenium, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Chupakhin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale. The reference material of composition with the established metrological characteristics including a certified value and an expanded uncertainty is necessary to ensure an effective accuracy and precision control of results of element composition determination in food ingredients and products. This paper represents the development of a reference material of food crop composition for selenium, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content. Methods. To identify the selenium the hybrid atomic absorption method was used, to identify the nitrogen and phosphorus the photometric method was used, to determine the potassium flame-photometric method was used. When determining the metrological characteristics of the reference material the Russian national instructions and recommendations MI 3174-2009 and P 50.2.058-2007 were applied. Results. Based on the research findings the reference material of Chinese cabbage composition with a certified value and an expanded uncertainty was developed: for selenium 0.044 ± 0.017 mg/kg; for nitrogen 4.09 ± 0.27 %; for phosphorus 0.69 ± 0.14 %; for potassium 2.87 ± 0.22 %.

  18. Magnetoresistance of nanogranular Ni/NiO controlled by exchange anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Bianco, L.; Spizzo, F.; Tamisari, M.; Allia, P.

    2013-01-01

    A link between exchange anisotropy and magnetoresistance has been found to occur in a Ni/NiO sample consisting of Ni nanocrystallites (mean size ∼13 nm, Ni content ∼33 vol%) dispersed in a NiO matrix. This material shows metallic-type electric conduction and isotropic spin-dependent magnetoresistance as well as exchange bias effect. The latter is the outcome of an exchange anisotropy arising from the contact interaction between the Ni phase and the NiO matrix. Combined analysis of magnetization M(H) and magnetoresistance MR(H) loops measured in the 5–250 K temperature range after zero-field-cooling (ZFC) and after field-cooling (FC) from 300 K reveals that the magnetoresistance is influenced by exchange anisotropy, which is triggered by the FC process and can be modified in strength by varying the temperature. Compared to the ZFC case, the exchange anisotropy produces a horizontal shift of the FC MR(H) loop along with a reduction of the MR response associated to the reorientation of the Ni moments. A strict connection between magnetoresistance and remanent magnetization of FC loops on one side and the exchange field on the other, ruled by exchange anisotropy, is indicated. - Highlights: • Nanogranular Ni/NiO with giant magnetoresistance (MR) and exchange bias effect. • Exchange anisotropy produces a shift of the field-cooled MR(H) loop and reduces MR. • MR, remanence of field-cooled loops and exchange field are three correlated quantities. • It is possible to control MR of nanogranular systems through the exchange anisotropy

  19. Niños y niñas como cuidadores familiares

    OpenAIRE

    María Rosa Estupiñán Aponte

    2015-01-01

    En el contexto familiar, el cuidado de otra persona por parte de niños y niñas constituye un terreno inexplorado tanto en su significado como en las implicaciones que podrían darse en el proceso. Aunque históricamente se ha asignado el cuidado familiar a las mujeres generando condiciones de inequidad, incrementada con los cambios sociales de los últimos tiempos, es necesario reconocer que en muchos hogares niños y niñas se han visto obligados a desempeñar esta labor sin la preparación ni las ...

  20. Nanoscale structural heterogeneity in Ni-rich half-Heusler TiNiSn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, Jason E.; Pollock, Tresa M.; Chater, Philip A.; Brown, Craig M.; Seshadri, Ram

    2014-01-01

    The structural implications of excess Ni in the TiNiSn half-Heusler compound are examined through a combination of synchrotron x-ray and neutron scattering studies, in conjunction with first principles density functional theory calculations on supercells. Despite the phase diagram suggesting that TiNiSn is a line compound with no solid solution, for small x in TiNi 1+x Sn there is indeed an appearance—from careful analysis of the scattering—of some solubility, with the excess Ni occupying the interstitial tetrahedral site in the half-Heusler structure. The analysis performed here would point to the excess Ni not being statistically distributed, but rather occurring as coherent nanoclusters. First principles calculations of energetics, carried out using supercells, support a scenario of Ni interstitials clustering, rather than a statistical distribution.

  1. Synthesis and electrochemical behavior of nanostructured cauliflower-shape Co-Ni/Co-Ni oxides composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Vinay; Kawaguchi, Toshikazu; Miura, Norio

    2009-01-01

    Nanostructured Co-Ni/Co-Ni oxides were electrochemically deposited onto stainless steel electrode by electrochemical method and characterized for their structural and supercapacitive properties. The SEM images indicated that the obtained Co-Ni/Co-Ni oxides had cauliflower-type nanostructure. The X-ray diffraction pattern showed the formation of Co 3 O 4 , NiO, Co and Ni. The EDX elemental mapping images indicated that Ni, Co and O are distributed uniformly. The deposited Co-Ni/Co-Ni oxides showed good supercapacitive characteristics with a specific capacitance of 331 F/g at 1 mA/cm 2 current density in 1 M KOH electrolyte. A mechanism of the formation of cauliflower-shape Co-Ni/Co-Ni oxides was proposed. A variety of promising applications in the fields such as energy storage devices and sensors can be envisioned from Co-Ni/Co-Ni oxides

  2. Interfacial reaction of Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} intermetallic compound in Ni/SnAg solder/Ni system under thermomigration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yi-Shan; Yang, Chia-Jung; Ouyang, Fan-Yi, E-mail: fyouyang@ess.nthu.edu.tw

    2016-07-25

    The growth of Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} intermetallic compound (IMC) between liquid–solid interface in micro-scale Ni/SnAg/Ni system was investigated under a temperature gradient of 160 °C/cm at 260 °C on a hot plate. In contrast to a symmetrical growth of Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} on both interfaces under isothermally annealed at 260 °C, the interfacial Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} IMC exhibited asymmetric growth under a temperature gradient; the growth of Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} at cold interface was faster than that at hot side because of temperature gradient induced mass migration of Ni atoms from the hot end toward the cold end. It was found that two-stage growth behavior of Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} IMC under a temperature gradient. A growth model was established and growth kinetic analysis suggested that the chemical potential gradient controlled the growth of Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} at stage I (0–120 min) whereas the dynamic equilibrium between chemical potential gradient and temperature gradient forces was attained at the hot end at stage II (120–210 min). When dynamic equilibrium was achieved at 260 °C, the critical length-temperature gradient product at the hot end was experimentally estimated to be 489.18 μm × °C/cm and the moving velocity of Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} interface due to Ni consumption was calculated to be 0.134 μm/h. The molar heat of transport (Q*) of Ni atoms in molten SnAg solder was calculated to be +0.76 kJ/mol. - Highlights: • Interfacial reaction in Ni/SnAg solder/Ni system under thermal gradient. • Growth rate of Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} at cold end is faster than that at hot end. • Critical length-temperature gradient product at hot end is 489.2 μm°C/cm at 260 °C. • Velocity of Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} moving interface is 0.134 μm/h during dynamic equilibrium. • Molar heat of transport (Q*) of Ni in molten SnAg was +0.76 kJ/mol.

  3. The effect of three liquid bio-fertilizers in the production of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. and cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Criollo Escobar Hernando Artemio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In modern agriculture, the use of agrochemicals has grown considerably, increasing production costs and causing serious problems for the environment. The use of bio-fertilizers is a viable alternative to improve the profitability of crops, particularly for agriculture on medium and small-sized farms with intensive production systems, such as vegetables. Given that bio-fertilizers can be produced on the farm and used successfully in crop production, this research focused on the effect of three bio-fertilizers on the production of lettuce and cabbage, biweekly applications were made with liquid fertilizers produced from the manure of cows (BFC, guinea pigs (BFGp and pigs (BFPi and compared to a commercial foliar fertilizer (CFF and a control without an application. We observed the presence of Lactobacillus and Saccharomyces in the BFC and BFGp fertilizers and Bacillus in the BFPi fertilizer. The weight and head diameter and yield of lettuce and cabbage favored the bio-fertilizer applications compared to the control, but no statistical differences were found compared to the commercial foliar fertilizer (CFF. This behavior is attributed not only to the mineral content, but also to the presence of metabolite regulators of plant physiology, produced by the microbial action of the bio-fertilizers.

  4. Formation enthalpy of NiBe and Ni5Be21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, M.I.; Karpova, T.F.; Dalago, N.Yu.

    1981-01-01

    The method of dissolution calorimetry is used to determine standard enthalpies of NiBe and Ni 5 Be 21 formation, which are 84.8+-2.2 and (-669+-37)kJ/mol. The enthalpy values of NiBe and Ni 5 Be 21 at 331 K are shown to coincide (within the limits of errors of these values) with the values at the standard temperature of 298.15 K [ru

  5. Ni4Ti3 precipitate structures in Ni-rich NiTi shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holec, D.; Bojda, O.; Dlouhy, A.

    2008-01-01

    Non-uniform distributions of Ni 4 Ti 3 precipitate crystallographic variants are investigated in a Ni-rich NiTi shape memory alloy after aging, assisted by external stress. A finite-element method model is presented that considers the elastic anisotropy of the B2 parent phase and also mutual misorientations of grains in a polycrystalline sample. On loading by the external stress, the stress is redistributed in the microstructure and the precipitation of some Ni 4 Ti 3 crystallographic variants becomes distinctly favorable in grain boundary regions since these variant configurations minimize the elastic interaction energy. The volume fraction of the affected grain boundary regions is calculated and the numerical results are compared with the data obtained by differential scanning calorimetry and transmission electron microscopy

  6. The Influence of Selected Companion Crops on Diamond Black Moth (Plutella Xylostella): Development and Investation on Cabbage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raini, R.K

    2002-01-01

    Diamond black moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) is the most serious pest of brassica in Kenya. Resistance to chemicals has been reported from various parts of the country. This research investigated brassica and non-brassica crops potential in 'push-pull' strategy toward developing an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program for DBM in Kenya. The study focused on evaluating the potential influence of selected crops on DBM oviposition, development and infestation on cabbage. Results indicate that DBM preferred to oviposition on brassica crops. No significant differences were observed on DBM development on host plants that supported full development. Minimum development was recorded on non-brassica crop Cleome gynandra, L. In field trials, the mustard, cloeme and coriander intercrops recorded significantly low infestation compared to other intercrops and demonstrated qulities which could be utilized in the development of IPM-option for the DBM

  7. Core/shell AgNi/PtAgNi nanoparticles as methanol-tolerant oxygen reduction electrocatalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Dengfeng; Cheng, Daojian

    2015-01-01

    A core/shell AgNi/PtAgNi nanoparticle (NP) was synthesized via a new seed-mediated growth method in organic solvent medium. The as-synthesized AgNi/PtAgNiNP exhibits an AgNi core coated with PtAgNi shell, which was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet–visible absorption spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The AgNi/PtAgNiNPs/C catalyst possesses higher oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity and better durability compared with the commercial Pt/C catalyst. It is found that the ORR polarization curve of the AgNi/PtAgNiNPs/C catalyst shows an onset potential of 0.91 V vs. RHE, which is superior to the commercial Pt/C (0.88 V vs. RHE). In addition, the AgNi/PtAgNiNPs/C catalyst shows much better durability than the commercial Pt/C catalyst. More interestingly, the AgNi/PtAgNiNPs/C catalyst displays much higher methanol tolerance than the commercial Pt/C catalyst in 0.1 M KOH solution in the presence of 0.5 M methanol. Our results show that core/shell AgNi/PtAgNiNPs possess selective activity for ORR even in the presence of methanol, showing potential application as methanol-tolerant cathode catalysts in direct methanol fuel cells.

  8. Effects of Ni particle morphology on cell performance of Na/NiCl2 battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mangi; Ahn, Cheol-Woo; Hahn, Byung-Dong; Jung, Keeyoung; Park, Yoon-Cheol; Cho, Nam-ung; Lee, Heesoo; Choi, Joon-Hwan

    2017-11-01

    Electrochemical reaction of Ni particle, one of active cathode materials in the Na/NiCl2 battery, occurs on the particle surface. The NiCl2 layer formed on the Ni particle surface during charging can disconnect the electron conduction path through Ni particles because the NiCl2 layer has very low conductivity. The morphology and size of Ni particles, therefore, need to be controlled to obtain high charge capacity and excellent cyclic retention. Effects of the Ni particle size on the cell performance were investigated using spherical Ni particles with diameters of 0.5 μm, 6 μm, and 50 μm. The charge capacities of the cells with spherical Ni particles increased when the Ni particle size becomes smaller because of their higher surface area but their charge capacities were significantly decreased with increasing cyclic tests owing to the disconnection of electron conduction path. The inferior cyclic retention of charge capacity was improved using reticular Ni particles which maintained the reliable connection for the electron conduction in the Na/NiCl2 battery. The charge capacity of the cell with the reticular Ni particles was higher than the cell with the small-sized spherical Ni particles approximately by 26% at 30th cycle.

  9. One dimensional motion of interstitial clusters and void growth in Ni and Ni alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshiie, T.; Ishizaki, T.; Xu, Q.; Satoh, Y.; Kiritani, M.

    2002-12-01

    One dimensional (1-D) motion of interstitial clusters is important for the microstructural evolution in metals. In this paper, the effect of 2 at.% alloying with elements Si (volume size factor to Ni: -5.81%), Cu (7.18%), Ge (14.76%) and Sn (74.08%) in Ni on 1-D motion of interstitial clusters and void growth was studied. In neutron irradiated pure Ni, Ni-Cu and Ni-Ge, well developed dislocation networks and voids in the matrix, and no defects near grain boundaries were observed at 573 K to a dose of 0.4 dpa by transmission electron microscopy. No voids were formed and only interstitial type dislocation loops were observed near grain boundaries in Ni-Si and Ni-Sn. The reaction kinetics analysis which included the point defect flow into planar sink revealed the existence of 1-D motion of interstitial clusters in Ni, Ni-Cu and Ni-Ge, and lack of such motion in Ni-Si and Ni-Sn. In Ni-Sn and Ni-Si, the alloying elements will trap interstitial clusters and thereby reduce the cluster mobility, which lead to the reduction in void growth.

  10. Complete genome sequence analysis identifies a new genotype of brassica yellows virus that infects cabbage and radish in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Xiang, Hai-Ying; Zhou, Cui-Ji; Li, Da-Wei; Yu, Jia-Lin; Han, Cheng-Gui

    2014-08-01

    For brassica yellows virus (BrYV), proposed to be a member of a new polerovirus species, two clearly distinct genotypes (BrYV-A and BrYV-B) have been described. In this study, the complete nucleotide sequences of two BrYV isolates from radish and Chinese cabbage were determined. Sequence analysis suggested that these isolates represent a new genotype, referred to here as BrYV-C. The full-length sequences of the two BrYV-C isolates shared 93.4-94.8 % identity with BrYV-A and BrYV-B. Further phylogenetic analysis showed that the BrYV-C isolates formed a subgroup that was distinct from the BrYV-A and BrYV-B isolates based on all of the proteins except P5.

  11. Study of the central collisions in the reactions Ni + Al and Ni + Ni at 28 A.MeV; Etude des collisions centrales dans les reactions Ni + Al et Ni + Ni a 28 A.MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebreton, L.

    1995-12-01

    The work is in characterisation of mechanisms in the energy range of onset of multifragmentation (excitation energy of composed nucleus around 4 - 5 AMeV). This work focused on an experiment performed at the SARA facility, in Grenoble, using the AMPHORA multi detection array. I have been particularly interested in central collisions in the Ni + Al and Ni + Ni systems. The possibility to detect complete events for Ni + Al, and quasi-complete events for the Ni + Ni case, is the reason of this choice. Furthermore Ni + Ni presents the interest of a symmetrical system, for which the excitation energy per nucleon is maximum. The study of these reactions has been focused on the quasi-complete events (events for which at least 80 % of the total charge has been detected). Heavy ions produced in peripheral collisions are very likely emitted along the beam line or stopped in the plastic detectors, energy thresholds are too high for the quasi-target products detection, consequently by requiring complete or quasi-complete measurement of the total charge, we are able to detect mostly central events. The knowledge of informations like charge, energy or detection angles allows to isolate the source(s) and to reconstruct the size and the excitation energy of the source(s). Comparisons with simulations like sequential emission (GEMINI code), very deep inelastic collision or instantaneous emission (Berliner code) allows to characterise the first stage of the collision (binary collisions or central collisions) and the type of deexcitation of the source(s). Some calculations was also performed with the statistical model code MODGAN. Indeed azimuthal correlations seem to be a good tool in getting more information about involved reaction mechanisms. Comparisons with MODGAN provide information about angular momentum of the source and time delay between emissions of the two particles (separation between sequential or instantaneous process). (author). 69 refs.

  12. Ni/boride interfaces and environmental embrittlement in Ni-based superalloys: A first-principles study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanyal, Suchismita; Waghmare, Umesh V.; Hanlon, Timothy; Hall, Ernest L.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fracture strengths of Ni/boride interfaces through first-principles calculations. ► Fracture strengths of Ni/boride interfaces are higher than Ni/Ni 3 Al and NiΣ5 grain boundaries. ► Ni/boride interfaces have higher resistance to O-embrittlement than Ni/Ni 3 Al and NiΣ5 grain boundaries. ► CrMo-borides are more effective than Cr-borides in resisting O-embrittlement. ► Electronegativity differences between alloying elements correlate with fracture strengths. - Abstract: Motivated by the vital role played by boride precipitates in Ni-based superalloys in improving mechanical properties such as creep rupture strength, fatigue crack growth rates and improved resistance towards environmental embrittlement , we estimate fracture strength of Ni/boride interfaces through determination of their work of separation using first-principles simulations. We find that the fracture strength of Ni/boride interfaces is higher than that of other commonly occurring interfaces in Ni-alloys, such as Ni Σ-5 grain boundaries and coherent Ni/Ni 3 Al interfaces, and is less susceptible to oxygen-induced embrittlement. Our calculations show how the presence of Mo in Ni/M 5 B 3 (M = Cr, Mo) interfaces leads to additional reduction in oxygen-induced embrittlement. Through Electron-Localization-Function based analyses, we identify the electronic origins of effects of alloying elements on fracture strengths of these interfaces and observe that chemical interactions stemming from electronegativity differences between different atomic species are responsible for the trends in calculated strengths. Our findings should be useful towards designing Ni-based alloys with higher interfacial strengths and reduced oxygen-induced embrittlement.

  13. Corrosion Resistance Of Electroless Ni-P/Cu/Ni-P Multilayer Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao G.L.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ni-P/Cu/Ni-P multilayer coatings were prepared by deposition of Cu layer between two Ni–P layers. The Cu layer was deposited by metal displacement reaction between Cu2+ and Fe atoms. Corrosion behavior of single-layer Ni-P coatings, double-layer Ni-P/Cu coatings, and three-layer Ni-P/Cu/Ni-P coatings were investigated by electrochemical tests in 3.5% NaCl solution. The three-layer coatings exhibited more positive Ecorr and decreased Icorr compared with conventional single-layer Ni-P coatings, which indicated an improved corrosion resistance. The polarization curves of the three-layer coatings were characterized by two passive regions. The improved corrosion resistance was not only attributed to the function of the blocked pores of Cu. The Cu interlayer also acted as a sacrificial layer instead of a barrier in the coatings, which altered the corrosion mechanism and further improved the corrosion resistance of the coatings.

  14. Exchange bias in finite sized NiO nanoparticles with Ni clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandhi, Ashish Chhaganlal; Lin, Jauyn Grace

    2017-01-01

    Structural and magnetic properties of finite sized NiO nanoparticles are investigated with synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy, magnetometer and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectroscopy. A minor Ni phase is detected with synchrotron XRD, attributed to the oxygen defects in the NiO core. A considerable exchange bias of ~100 Oe is observed at 50 K and it drops abruptly and vanishes above 150 K, in association with the reduction of frozen spins. FMR data indicate a strong interaction between ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) phases below 150 K, consistent with the picture of isolated FM clusters in AFM matrix. - Highlights: • Structural and magnetic properties of finite sized NiO nanoparticles are systematically investigated with several advanced techniques. • A strong interaction between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases is found below 150 K. • Exchange bias field in finite sized NiO nanoparticles is due to anisotropy energy of Ni clusters over riding the domain wall energy of NiO.

  15. Exchange bias in finite sized NiO nanoparticles with Ni clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandhi, Ashish Chhaganlal; Lin, Jauyn Grace, E-mail: jglin@ntu.edu.tw

    2017-02-15

    Structural and magnetic properties of finite sized NiO nanoparticles are investigated with synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy, magnetometer and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectroscopy. A minor Ni phase is detected with synchrotron XRD, attributed to the oxygen defects in the NiO core. A considerable exchange bias of ~100 Oe is observed at 50 K and it drops abruptly and vanishes above 150 K, in association with the reduction of frozen spins. FMR data indicate a strong interaction between ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) phases below 150 K, consistent with the picture of isolated FM clusters in AFM matrix. - Highlights: • Structural and magnetic properties of finite sized NiO nanoparticles are systematically investigated with several advanced techniques. • A strong interaction between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases is found below 150 K. • Exchange bias field in finite sized NiO nanoparticles is due to anisotropy energy of Ni clusters over riding the domain wall energy of NiO.

  16. Enthalpy of mixing of liquid Ni-Zr and Cu-Ni-Zr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witusiewicz, V.T.; Sommer, F.

    2000-01-01

    Since the Al-Cu-Ni-Zr system is a basis for the production of bulk amorphous materials by rapid solidification techniques from the liquid state, it is of great scientific interest to determine the partial and the integral thermodynamic functions of liquid and undercooled liquid alloys. Such data, as was pointed out previously, are important in order to understand their extremely good glass-forming ability in multicomponent metallic systems as well as for processing improvements. In order to measure the thermodynamic properties of the Al-Cu-Ni-Zr quaternary, it is necessary to have reliable thermochemical data for its constituent canaries and ternaries first. In a series of articles, the authors have reported in detail the thermodynamic properties of liquid Al-Cu, Al-Ni, Cu-Ni, Cu-Zr, Al-Zr, Al-Cu-Ni, and Al-Cu-Zr alloys. This article deals with the direct calorimetric measurements of the partial and the integral enthalpies of mixing of liquid Ni-Zr and Cu-Ni-Zr alloys and the heat capacity of liquid Ni 26 Zr 74 . In a subsequent article, the authors will present similar data for the liquid ternary Al-Ni-Zr and for the liquid quaternary Al-Cu-Ni-Zr alloys

  17. Nitriding behavior of Ni and Ni-based binary alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonovic, Matej

    2015-01-15

    Gaseous nitriding is a prominent thermochemical surface treatment process which can improve various properties of metallic materials such as mechanical, tribological and/or corrosion properties. This process is predominantly performed by applying NH{sub 3}+H{sub 2} containing gas atmospheres serving as the nitrogen donating medium at temperatures between 673 K and 873 K (400 C and 600 C). NH{sub 3} decomposes at the surface of the metallic specimen and nitrogen diffuses into the surface adjacent region of the specimen whereas hydrogen remains in the gas atmosphere. One of the most important parameters characterizing a gaseous nitriding process is the so-called nitriding potential (r{sub N}) which determines the chemical potential of nitrogen provided by the gas phase. The nitriding potential is defined as r{sub N} = p{sub NH{sub 3}}/p{sub H{sub 2}{sup 3/2}} where p{sub NH{sub 3}} and p{sub H{sub 2}} are the partial pressures of the NH{sub 3} and H{sub 2} in the nitriding atmosphere. In contrast with nitriding of α-Fe where the nitriding potential is usually in the range between 0.01 and 1 atm{sup -1/2}, nitriding of Ni and Ni-based alloys requires employing nitriding potentials higher than 100 atm{sup -1/2} and even up to ∞ (nitriding in pure NH{sub 3} atmosphere). This behavior is compatible with decreased thermodynamic stability of the 3d-metal nitrides with increasing atomic number. Depending on the nitriding conditions (temperature, nitriding potential and treatment time), different phases are formed at the surface of the Ni-based alloys. By applying very high nitriding potential, formation of hexagonal Ni{sub 3}N at the surface of the specimen (known as external nitriding) leads to the development of a compound layer, which may improve tribological properties. Underneath the Ni{sub 3}N compound layer, two possibilities exist: (i) alloying element precipitation within the nitrided zone (known as internal nitriding) and/or (ii) development of metastable and

  18. Thermodynamic characterization of Ni3TeO6, Ni2Te3O8 and NiTe2O5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawar, Rimpi; Babu, R.; Ananthasivan, K.; Anthonysamy, S.

    2017-09-01

    Measurement of vapour pressure of TeO2(g) over the biphasic mixture Ni3TeO6 (s) + NiO(s) in the temperature range 1143-1272 K was carried out using transpiration-thermogravimetric technique (TTG). Gibbs energy of formation of Ni3TeO6 was obtained from the temperature dependence of vapour pressure of TeO2 (g) generated by the incongruent vapourisation reaction, Ni3TeO6 (s) → NiO(s) + TeO2 (g) + 1/2 O2 in the temperature range 1143-1272 K. An isoperibol type drop calorimeter was used to measure the enthalpy increments of Ni3TeO6, Ni2Te3O8 and NiTe2O5. Thermodynamic functions viz., heat capacity, entropy and Gibbs energy functions of these compounds were derived from the experimentally measured enthalpy increment values. Third-law analysis was carried out to ascertain absence of temperature dependent systematic errors in the measurement of vapour pressure of TeO2 (g). A value of -1265.1 ± 1.5 kJ mol-1 was obtained for Δ Hf,298K o (Ni3TeO6) using third-law analysis.

  19. Ferromagnetic resonance study of sputtered NiFe/V/NiFe heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alayo, W., E-mail: willian.rodriguez@ufpel.edu.br [Departamento de Física – IFM, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, 96010-900 Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Pelegrini, F. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, 74001-970 (Brazil); Baggio-Saitovitch, E. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 22290-180 (Brazil)

    2015-03-01

    The Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19}/V/Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} heterostructures has been produced by magnetron sputtering and analyzed by ferromagnetic resonance. Two systems were investigated: the non symmetrical NiFe(50 Å)/V(t)/NiFe(30 Å) trilayers and the symmetrical NiFe(80 Å)/V(t)/NiFe(80 Å) trilayers, with variable ultrathin V thickness t. Ferromagnetic exchange coupling was evidenced for t below 10 Å by the excitation of the optic mode, in the case of the non symmetrical samples, and by the observation of a single resonance mode for the symmetrical trilayers. For larger V thickness, all samples exhibited two modes, which were attributed to the resonance of the individual NiFe layers with different effective magnetizations. The analysis with the equilibrium and resonance conditions provided the exchange coupling constants and effective magnetizations. - Highlights: • We present a study of symmetrical and non symmetrical NiFe/V/NiFe trilayers deposited on Si single crystals by ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) at room temperature. • For the non symmetrical trilayers, the FMR spectra show the optic and acoustic modes for samples with very thin V layer thicknesses, evidencing ferromagnetic exchange coupling, whereas, for larger V thickness, the spectra exhibited two well resolved modes associated to each independent NiFe layer. For the symmetrical trilayers, strong ferromagnetic exchange coupling is evidenced by the observation of a single resonance mode. • The analysis with the equilibrium condition and dispersion relation provides the exchange coupling constants and effective magnetizations.

  20. Produção da capuchinha em cultivo solteiro e consorciado com os repolhos verde e roxo sob dois arranjos de plantas Yield of nasturtium in monocrop and intercropped with 'green' and 'purple' cabbage under two arrangements of plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Antunes Moraes

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, estudar a produção de flores da capuchinha e das " cabeças" do repolho, cultivadas como culturas solteiras e consorciadas. Foi estudada a capuchinha 'Jewel' (Ca, em cultivo solteiro e consorciado com os repolhos de folhas verdes 'Sooshu' (RV ou roxas 'Red Extra Early' (RR, sob duas (2 ou três (3 fileiras de plantas no canteiro. Os dez tratamentos resultantes (Ca2, Ca3, RV2, RV3, RR2, RR3, Ca2RV3, Ca3RV2, Ca2RR3, Ca3RR2 foram arranjados no delineamento experimental blocos casualizados, com três repetições. As colheitas das flores da capuchinha foram efetuadas entre 30 e 155 dias após o transplante (DAT e as das " cabeças" dos repolhos, entre 102 e 140 DAT. O maior número de flores e a maior massa fresca das flores da capuchinha foi em cultivo solteiro (12.022.220 ha-1 e 8,20 t ha-1, respectivamente. No consórcio, os maiores valores foram com o repolho roxo (7.555.560 ha-1 e 5,04 t ha-1, respectivamente. As produções médias de massas fresca das " cabeças" do repolho com folhas verdes em cultivo solteiro e consorciado foram de 33,78 e 35,76 t ha-1 e do repolho roxo foram de 23,19 e 19,50 t ha-1, respectivamente. O cálculo da razão de área equivalente foi de 1,56 (Ca2RV3, 1,33 (Ca3RV2, 1,30 (Ca2RR3 e 1,45 (Ca3RR2, indicando ser viável cultivar em consórcio. Considerando a renda bruta, pode-se concluir que o consórcio da capuchinha e do repolho foi viável para o produtor de repolho, devendo optar-se pelo arranjo Ca2RV3. O produtor de capuchinha deve optar pelo cultivo solteiro, com duas fileiras no canteiro.This work has as aim to study yield of nasturtium flowers and of cabbage 'heads' that were cultivated as monocrops and intercrops. 'Jewel' nasturtium (Ca was studied in monocrop and intercropped with 'Sooshu' green leaves (RV or 'Red Extra Early' purple leaves (RR cabbages, under two (2 or three (3 rows of plants per plot. The ten resultant treatments (Ca2, Ca3, RV2, RV3, RR2, RR3, Ca2RV3, Ca3RV2

  1. Microporous Ni@NiO nanoparticles prepared by chemically dealloying Al_3Ni_2@Al nanoparticles as a high microwave absorption material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, Yu; Xie, Xiubo; Li, Da; Chou, Wusheng; Liu, Tong

    2017-01-01

    The Al_3Ni_2@Al nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared from Ni_4_5Al_5_5 master alloy by hydrogen plasma-metal reaction method, and were subsequently dealloyed to produce porous Ni@NiO NPs of 36 nm. The pore size ranges from 0.7 to 1.6 nm, leading to large specific surface area of 69.5 m"2/g and big pore volume of 0.507 cc/g. The saturation magnetization (M_S) and coercivity (H_C) of the microporous Ni@NiO NPs are 11.5 emu/g and 5.2 Oe. They exhibit high microwave absorption performance with a minimum reflection coefficient (RC) of −86.9 dB and an absorption bandwidth of 2.6 GHz (RC≤−10 dB) at thickness of 4.5 mm. The enhanced microwave absorption properties are attributed to the synergistic effect of the magnetic Ni core and dielectric NiO shell, and the micropore architecture. The NPs with micropore morphology and core/shell structure open a new way to modify the microwave absorption performance. - Graphical abstract: The microporous Ni/NiO nanoparticles prepared by chemically dealloying Al_3Ni_2@Al NPs exhibit high microwave absorption intensity (−86.9 dB) and wide absorption bandwidth (2.6 GHz for RC≤−10 dB). - Highlights: • Microporous Ni/NiO nanoparticals were prepared by chemically dealloying method. • They possessed micropores of 0.7–1.6 nm with a surface area of 69.5 m"2/g. • They showed high microwave absorption intensity and wide absorption bandwidth. • Microwave absorption mechanism was explained by micropore and core/shell structures.

  2. Phase stability and magnetism in NiPt and NiPd alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paudyal, Durga; Mookerjee, Abhijit

    2004-01-01

    We show that the differences in stability of 3d-5d NiPt and 3d-4d NiPd alloys arise mainly due to relativistic corrections. The magnetic properties of disordered NiPd and NiPt alloys also differ due to these corrections, which lead to increase in the separation between the s-d bands of 5d elements in these alloys. For the magnetic case we also analyse the results in terms of splitting of majority and minority spin d band centres of the 3d elements. We further examine the effect of relativistic corrections to the pair energies and order-disorder transition temperatures in these alloys. The magnetic moments and Curie temperatures have also been studied along with the short range ordering/segregation effects in NiPt/NiPd alloys

  3. Investigation into the MgF2-NiF2, CaF2-NiF2, SrF2-NiF2 systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikrami, D.D.; Petrov, S.V.; Fedorov, P.P.; Ol'khovaya, L.A.; Luginina, A.A.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Fizicheskikh Problem; AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Kristallografii)

    1984-01-01

    Using the methods of differential thermal and X-ray phase analyses the systems MgF 2 -NiF 2 , CaF 2 -NiF 2 , SrF 2 -NiF 2 have been studied. In the system SrF 2 -NiF 2 the only orthorhombic compounds SrNiF 4 (a=14.43; b=3.93; c=5.66 (+-0.01 A)) is formed. SrNiF 4 density constitutes: dsub(X-ray)=4.60+-0.01 g/cm 3 , dsub(exp.)=4.60+-0.03 g/cm 3 . Refraction indices are as follows SrNiF 4 :Ng=1.500; Nsub(m)=1.497; Nsub(p)=1.479. SrNiF 4 magnetic ordering temperature Tsub(N) approximately 100 K

  4. Olfactory responses of Plutella xylostella natural enemies to host pheromone, larval frass, and green leaf cabbage volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, G V P; Holopainen, J K; Guerrero, A

    2002-01-01

    The parasitoids Trichogramma chilonis (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) and Cotesia plutellae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), and the predator Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), are potential biological control agents for the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae). We present studies on the interactions between these bioagents and various host-associated volatiles using a Y olfactometer. T chilonis was attracted to a synthetic pheromone blend (Z11-16:Ald, Z11-16:Ac, and Z11-16:OH in a 1:1:0.01 ratio), to Z11-16:Ac alone, and to a 1:1 blend of Z11-16:Ac and Z11-16:Ald. C. plutellae responded to the blend and to Z11-16:Ac and Z11-16:Ald. Male and female C. carnea responded to the blend and to a 1:1 blend of the major components of the pheromone, although no response was elicited by single compounds. Among the four host larval frass volatiles tested (dipropyl disulfide, dimethyl disulfide, allyl isothiocyanate, and dimethyl trisulfide), only allyl isothiocyanate elicited significant responses in the parasitoids and predator, but C. plutellae and both sexes of C. carnea did respond to all four volatiles. Among the green leaf volatiles of cabbage (Brassica oleracea subsp. capitata), only Z3-6:Ac elicited significant responses from T. chilonis, C. plutellae, and C. carnea, but C. plutellae also responded to E2-6:Ald and Z3-6:OH. When these volatiles were blended with the pheromone, the responses were similar to those elicited by the pheromone alone, except for C. carnea males, which had an increased response. The effect of temperature on the response of the biological agents to a mixture of the pheromone blend and Z3-6:Ac was also studied. T. chilonis was attracted at temperatures of 25-35 degrees C, while C. plutellae and C. carnea responded optimally at 30-35 degrees C and 20-25 degrees C, respectively. These results indicate that the sex pheromone and larval frass volatiles from the diamondback moth, as well as volatile compounds from

  5. Density functional theory study of the interfacial properties of Ni/Ni3Si eutectic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yuhong; Wen, Zhiqin; Hou, Hua; Guo, Wei; Han, Peide

    2014-01-01

    In order to clarify the heterogeneous nucleation potential of α-Ni grains on Ni 3 Si particles in Ni-Ni 3 Si eutectic alloy, the work of adhesion (W ad ), fracture toughness (G), interfacial energy (γ i ), and electronic structure of the index (0 0 1), (1 1 0) and (1 1 1) Ni/Ni 3 Si interfaces with two different cohesive manners are investigated using first-principles method based on density functional theory. Results indicate that the center site stacking sequence (OM) is preferable to continue the natural stacking sequence of bulk Ni and Ni 3 Si. Since OM stacking interfaces have larger W ad , G and γ i than that of the top site stacking (OT) interfaces. The Ni/Ni 3 Si (1 1 0) interface with OM stacking has the best mechanical properties. Therefore, the formation of this interface can improve the stability, ductility and fracture toughness of Ni-Ni 3 Si eutectic alloy. The calculated interfacial energy of Ni/Ni 3 Si (0 0 1), (1 1 0) and (1 1 1) interfaces with OM stacking proves the excellent nucleation potency of Ni 3 Si particles for α-Ni phase from thermodynamic considerations. Besides, the electronic structure and chemical bonding of (1 1 0) interface with OM stacking are also discussed.

  6. Microstructure and tribological properties of NiMo/Mo2Ni3Si intermetallic 'in-situ' composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gui Yongliang; Song Chunyan; Yang Li; Qin Xiaoling

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Wear resistant NiMo/Mo 2 Ni 3 Si intermetallic 'in-situ' composites was fabricated successfully with Mo-Ni-Si powder blends as the starting materials. Microstructure of the NiMo/Mo 2 Ni 3 Si composites consists of Mo 2 Ni 3 Si primary dendrites, binary intermetallic phase NiMo and small amount of Ni/NiMo eutectics structure. The NiMo/Mo 2 Ni 3 Si composites exhibited high hardness and outstanding tribological properties under room-temperature dry-sliding wear test conditions which were attributed to the covalent-dominant strong atomic bonds and excellent combination of strength and ductility and toughness. - Abstract: Wear resistant NiMo/Mo 2 Ni 3 Si intermetallic 'in-situ' composites with a microstructure of ternary metal silicide Mo 2 Ni 3 Si primary dendritic, the long strip-like NiMo intermetallic phase, and a small amount of Ni/NiMo eutectics structure were designed and fabricated using molybdenum, nickel and silicon elemental powders. Friction and wear properties of NiMo/Mo 2 Ni 3 Si composites were evaluated under different contact load at room-temperature dry-sliding wear test conditions. Microstructure, worn surface morphologies and subsurface microstructure were characterized by OM, XRD, SEM and EDS. Results indicate that NiMo/Mo 2 Ni 3 Si composites have low fiction coefficient, excellent wear resistance and sluggish wear-load dependence. The dominant wear mechanisms of NiMo/Mo 2 Ni 3 Si composites are soft abrasion and slightly superficial oxidative wear.

  7. Joining of Ni-TiC FGM and Ni-Al Intermetallics by Centrifugal Combustion Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmi, Tatsuya; Matsuura, Kiyotaka; Iguchi, Manabu; Mizuma, Kiminori

    2008-01-01

    A centrifugal combustion synthesis (CCS) process has been investigated to join a Ni-Al intermetallic compound and a Ni-TiC cermet. The cermet, a tubular graphite mold, and a green compact of reactants consisting of Al, Ni and NiO were set in a centrifugal caster. When the combustion synthesis reaction was induced in the centrifugal force field, a synthesized molten Ni-Al alloy flowed into the graphite mold and joined to the cermet. The soundness of the joint interface depended on the volume percentage of TiC phase in the cermet. A lot of defects were formed near the interface between the Ni-TiC cermet and the cast Ni-Al alloy when the volume percentage of TiC was 50% or higher. For this kind of cermet system, using a functionally graded cermet such as Ni-10 vol.%TiC/Ni-25 vol.%TiC/Ni-50 vol.%TiC overcame this difficulty. The four-point bending strength of the joined specimen consisting of the three-layered FGM cermet and cast Ni-29 mol%Al alloy was 1010 MPa which is close to the result for a Ni-29 mol%Al alloy specimen

  8. CONFIGURATION-INTERACTION IN NI METAL AND NI-ALLOYS AND HIGH-ENERGY SPECTROSCOPY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TANAKA, A; JO, T; SAWATZKY, GA

    We discuss the electronic state of Ni atoms in Ni metal and of Ni impurity in Cu and Au metals from the viewpoint of 3d configuration interaction (CI) using the Anderson impurity model including atomic multiplets. On the basis of the discussion, we give an interpretation for the Ni 2p-core X-ray

  9. Growth of single-crystal W whiskers during humid H2/N2 reduction of Ni, Fe-Ni, and Co-Ni doped tungsten oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shiliang; He Yuehui; Zou Jou; Wang Yong; Huang Han

    2009-01-01

    Numbers of W whiskers were obtained by reducing Ni, Ni-Fe, and Ni-Co doped tungsten oxide in a mixed atmosphere of humid H 2 and N 2 . The phases and morphologies of the reduction products were characterized by XRD and SEM. Intensive TEM and EDS analyses showed that the obtained whiskers were W single crystals which typical have alloyed particles (Ni-W, Fe-Ni, or Co-Ni-W) at the growth tips. The formed W whiskers were presumed to be induced by the alloyed particles. Our experimental results revealed that, during the reduction process of tungsten oxide, the pre-reduced Ni, Fe-Ni, or Co-Ni particles not only served as nucleation aids for the initial growth of W phase from W oxide but also played the roles of catalysts during the reductive decomposition of gaseous WO 2 (OH) 2 .

  10. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal in the Recirculating Aquaculture System with Water Treatment Tank containing Baked Clay Beads and Chinese Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aeknarin Thanakitpairin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to describe the nitrogen and phosphorus removal in Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS by crop plants biomass production. The 3 experiment systems consisted of 1 treatment (fish tank + baked clay beads + Chinese cabbage and 2 controls as control-1 (fish tank only and control-2 (fish tank + baked clay beads, were performed. With all experimental RAS, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus was cultured at 2 kg/m3 density. The baked clay beads (8-16 mm in diameter were filled as a layer of 10 cm in the water treatment tank of control-2. While in the treatment tank, Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis was planted at 334 plants/m2 in baked clay beads layer. During 35 days of experiment, the average fish wet-weight in control-1, control-2 and treatment systems increased from 16.31±1.49, 15.18±1.28 and 11.31±1.49 g to 29.43±7.06, 28.65±3.12 and 27.20±6.56 g, respectively. It was found that the growth rate of 0.45±0.15 g-wet weight/day in a treatment tank was higher than in those 2 controls, which were rather similar at 0.37±0.16 and 0.38±0.05 g-wet weight/day, respectively. The fish survival rate of all experimental units was 100%. The average Chinese cabbage wet-weight in treatment system increased from 0.15±0.02 g to 1.00±0.38 g. For water quality, all parameters were within the acceptable range for aquaculture. The assimilation inorganic nitrogen in a treatment tank showed a slower rate and lower nitrite accumulation relative to those in control tanks. The nitrogen and phosphorus balance analysis illustrated that most of the nitrogen and phosphorus input in all systems was from feed (82-87% and 21-87% while at the final day of experiments, nitrogen and phosphorus in tilapia culture revealed at 15-19% and 4-13%. The accumulation of nitrogen and phosphorus in the water, up to 56% and 70%, was found in control-1 while water in the tank with baked clay beads had substantial lower nitrogen and phosphorus concentration. The

  11. Preparation of one-step NiO/Ni-CGO composites using factorial design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, A.J.M. de; Sousa, A R.O. de; Camposa, L.F.A.; Macedo, D.A.; Loureiro, F. J.A.; Fagg, D.P.

    2016-01-01

    This work deals with the synthesis, processing and characterization of NiO/Ni- CGO composite materials as potential solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anodes. The particulate materials were obtained by a one-step synthesis method and characterized by thermal analysis (prior to calcination) and X-ray diffraction (calcined powder). The ceramic processing of samples containing from 30 to 70 wt.% NiO was carried out by factorial design. Besides the NiO content controlled during the chemical synthesis, the impacts of the pore-former content (citric acid, used in proportions of 0, 7.5 and 15 wt.%) and the sintering temperature (1300, 1350 and 1400 °C) were also investigated. The open porosity of NiO-CGO composites and reduced Ni-CGO cermets was modeled as a function of factors (NiO content, citric acid content and sintering temperature) and interaction of factors. (author)

  12. Use of phytic acid and hyper-salting to eliminate Escherichia coli O157:H7 from napa cabbage for kimchi production in a commercial plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam Hee; Jang, Seong Ho; Kim, Soon Han; Lee, Hee Jung; Kim, Younghoon; Ryu, Jee Hoon; Rhee, Min Suk

    2015-12-02

    The aim of this study was to develop a new salting method using natural phytic acid (PA) to ensure the microbiological safety and quality of salted napa cabbage used for kimchi production. The production of salted napa cabbage involves several stages: trimming, hyper-salting (20% NaCl) for up to 1h, salting (10% NaCl for 10-18 h), three sequential washes in water (30s for each), and draining (2 h). Two separate experiments were performed: one to determine the appropriate treatment conditions and a second to validate applicability under commercial conditions. In Experiment I, the effects of hyper-salting with PA on Escherichia coli O157:H7 numbers were tested in the laboratory. The following variables were monitored: 1) PA concentration (1, 2, 3%, w/w); 2) the ratio of the sample weight to the total volume of the solution (1:1.5, 1:3, or 1:6); 3) the hyper-salting time (30 or 60 min); and 4) the salting time (2, 5, or 8 h). A procedure that achieved a >5-log reduction in the E. coli O157:H7 population was then tested in an actual kimchi processing plant (Experiment II). The results from Experiment I showed that bactericidal efficacy increased as all the measured variables increased (psalting with 2% PA at a sample-to-water ratio (w/v) of 1:3 and 1:6 for 60 min resulted in a >5-log CFU/g reduction in the E. coli O157:H7 population. Further salting for 5h completely eliminated (salting with PA 2% at a sample-to-water ratio of 1:3 for 60 min, followed by salting for 5h, was tested under large-scale production conditions. The results revealed that the initial aerobic plate counts (APC), total coliform counts (TC), and fecal coliform counts (FC) were 6.6, 3.4, and 2.8-log CFU/g, respectively. The selected protocol reduced these values by 3.7-, >2.4-, and >1.8-log CFU/g, respectively. The 5h salting step maintained the TC and FC at salted napa cabbages were within the ranges required for kimchi production (pH 5.1-5.3 and 1.5-2.0%, respectively). These results suggest that

  13. Impact of copper toxicity on stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sajid; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Shahzad, Ahmad Naeem; Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Anees, Moazzam; Haider, Muhammad Saleem; Fatima, Ammara

    2015-01-01

    Arable soils are frequently subjected to contamination with copper as the consequence of imbalanced fertilization with manure and organic fertilizers and/or extensive use of copper-containing fungicides. In the present study, the exposure of stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) to elevated Cu(2+) levels resulted in leaf chlorosis and lesser biomass yield at ≥2 µ M. Root nitrate content was not statistically affected by Cu(2+) levels, although it was substantially decreased at ≥5 µ M Cu(2+) in the shoot. The decrease in nitrate contents can be related to lower nitrate uptake rates because of growth inhibition by Cu-toxicity. Shoot sulfate content increased strongly at ≥2 µ M Cu(2+) indicating an increase in demand for sulfur under Cu stress. Furthermore, at ≥2 µM concentration, concentration of water-soluble non-protein thiol increased markedly in the roots and to a smaller level in the shoot. When exposed to elevated concentrations of Cu(2+) the improved sulfate and water-soluble non-protein thiols need further studies for the evaluation of their direct relation with the synthesis of metal-chelating compounds (i.e., phytochelatins).

  14. Impact of copper toxicity on stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata in hydroponics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid Ali

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Arable soils are frequently subjected to contamination with copper as the consequence of imbalanced fertilization with manure and organic fertilizers and/or extensive use of copper-containing fungicides. In the present study, the exposure of stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata to elevated Cu2+ levels resulted in leaf chlorosis and lesser biomass yield at ≥2 µ M. Root nitrate content was not statistically affected by Cu2+ levels, although it was substantially decreased at ≥5 µ M Cu2+ in the shoot. The decrease in nitrate contents can be related to lower nitrate uptake rates because of growth inhibition by Cu-toxicity. Shoot sulfate content increased strongly at ≥2 µ M Cu2+ indicating an increase in demand for sulfur under Cu stress. Furthermore, at ≥2 µM concentration, concentration of water-soluble non-protein thiol increased markedly in the roots and to a smaller level in the shoot. When exposed to elevated concentrations of Cu2+ the improved sulfate and water-soluble non-protein thiols need further studies for the evaluation of their direct relation with the synthesis of metal-chelating compounds (i.e., phytochelatins.

  15. Synthesis of a novel Au nanoparticles decorated Ni-MOF/Ni/NiO nanocomposite and electrocatalytic performance for the detection of glucose in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingyuan; Xu, Qin; Shu, Yun; Hu, Xiaoya

    2018-07-01

    A nonenzymatic glucose electrochemical sensor was constructed based on Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) decorated Ni metal-organic-framework (MOF)/Ni/NiO nanocomposite. Ni-MOF/Ni/NiO nanocomposite was synthesized by one-step calcination of Ni-MOF. Then AuNPs were loaded onto the Ni-based nanocomposites' surface through electrostatic adsorption. Through characterization by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution TEM (HRTEM) and energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS) mapping, it is found that the AuNPs were well distributed on the surface of Ni-based nanocomposite. Cyclic voltammetric (CV) study showed the electrocatalytic activity of Au-Ni nanocomposite was highly improved after loading AuNPs onto it. Amperometric study demonstrated that the Au-Ni nanocomposites modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) exhibited a high sensitivity of 2133.5 mA M -1 cm -2 and a wide linear range (0.4-900 μM) toward the oxidation of glucose with a detection limit as low as 0.1 μM. Moreover, the reproducibility, selectivity and stability of the sensor all exhibited outstanding performance. We applied the as-fabricated high performance sensor to measure the glucose levels in human serum and obtained satisfactory results. It is believed that AuNPs decorated Ni MOF/Ni/NiO nanocomposite provides a new platform for developing highly performance electrochemical sensors in practical applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Electroplating condition for Ni nanocrystalline on metal (Ni and Cu) plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Keun Yung; Uhm, Young Rang; Son, Kwang Jae; Shim, Young Ho; Choi, Sun Ju [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Ni 63, a beta radiation source, is prepared by the electrical deposition of radioactive Ni 63 ions on a thin non radioactive nickel foil or Cu plate. Given a half life of 100 years, a nuclear battery will still produce half of its initial starting power after 100 years. A speck of a radioisotope like nickel 63, for example, contains enough energy to power a nano nuclear battery for decades, and to do so safely. Ni 63 plating is similar to other electroplating processes that employ soluble metal anodes. It requires the passage of a direct current between two electrodes that are immersed in a conductive, aqueous solution of nickel salts. The charged Ni ions are formed by sulfate, sulfamate, chloride, and a Watts bath. However, the charged Ni 63 ions are formed by dissolving metal Ni 63. To established the coating condition of Ni 63, non radioactive metal Ni particles are dissolved an acid solution and electroplated on a Ni sheet. The nickel plating process is used extensively for decorative, engineering and electro forming purposes because the appearance and other properties of electrodeposited nickel can be varied over a wide range by controlling the composition and operating parameters of the plating solution. A continuous increase in the grain size versus current density has also been recognized in the direct current electrodeposition of nickel coating. On the other hand, A runa et al. reported that the current density has no significant effect on the grain size of nickel electro deposits. A review of the literature shows that saccharin has often been added to a nickel plating bath since the 1980s to improve the ductility and brightness, and in later periods as a grain refiner agent. In the present paper, not only the preparation of a Ni plating solution prepared by dissolving metal particles, but also an optimization of the deposition conditions, such as the current density, saccharin concentration in the bath, and different metal substrates were investigated

  17. Electroplating condition for Ni nanocrystalline on metal (Ni and Cu) plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Keun Yung; Uhm, Young Rang; Son, Kwang Jae; Shim, Young Ho; Choi, Sun Ju

    2012-01-01

    Ni 63, a beta radiation source, is prepared by the electrical deposition of radioactive Ni 63 ions on a thin non radioactive nickel foil or Cu plate. Given a half life of 100 years, a nuclear battery will still produce half of its initial starting power after 100 years. A speck of a radioisotope like nickel 63, for example, contains enough energy to power a nano nuclear battery for decades, and to do so safely. Ni 63 plating is similar to other electroplating processes that employ soluble metal anodes. It requires the passage of a direct current between two electrodes that are immersed in a conductive, aqueous solution of nickel salts. The charged Ni ions are formed by sulfate, sulfamate, chloride, and a Watts bath. However, the charged Ni 63 ions are formed by dissolving metal Ni 63. To established the coating condition of Ni 63, non radioactive metal Ni particles are dissolved an acid solution and electroplated on a Ni sheet. The nickel plating process is used extensively for decorative, engineering and electro forming purposes because the appearance and other properties of electrodeposited nickel can be varied over a wide range by controlling the composition and operating parameters of the plating solution. A continuous increase in the grain size versus current density has also been recognized in the direct current electrodeposition of nickel coating. On the other hand, A runa et al. reported that the current density has no significant effect on the grain size of nickel electro deposits. A review of the literature shows that saccharin has often been added to a nickel plating bath since the 1980s to improve the ductility and brightness, and in later periods as a grain refiner agent. In the present paper, not only the preparation of a Ni plating solution prepared by dissolving metal particles, but also an optimization of the deposition conditions, such as the current density, saccharin concentration in the bath, and different metal substrates were investigated

  18. CLASSICAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY: First-principles calculations for the elastic properties of Ni-base model superalloys: Ni/Ni3Al multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun-Jiang; Wang, Chong-Yu

    2009-10-01

    A model system consisting of Ni[001](100)/Ni3Al[001](100) multi-layers are studied using the density functional theory in order to explore the elastic properties of single crystal Ni-based superalloys. Simulation results are consistent with the experimental observation that rafted Ni-base superalloys virtually possess a cubic symmetry. The convergence of the elastic properties with respect to the thickness of the multilayers are tested by a series of multilayers from 2γ'+2γ to 10γ'+10γ atomic layers. The elastic properties are found to vary little with the increase of the multilayer's thickness. A Ni/Ni3Al multilayer with 10γ'+10γ atomic layers (3.54 nm) can be used to simulate the mechanical properties of Ni-base model superalloys. Our calculated elastic constants, bulk modulus, orientation-dependent shear modulus and Young's modulus, as well as the Zener anisotropy factor are all compatible with the measured results of Ni-base model superalloys R1 and the advanced commercial superalloys TMS-26, CMSX-4 at a low temperature. The mechanical properties as a function of the γ' phase volume fraction are calculated by varying the proportion of the γ and γ' phase in the multilayers. Besides, the mechanical properties of two-phase Ni/Ni3Al multilayer can be well predicted by the Voigt-Reuss-Hill rule of mixtures.

  19. Fabrication of Natural Sensitizer Extracted from Mixture of Purple Cabbage, Roselle, Wormwood and Seaweed with High Conversion Efficiency for DSSC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ho; Lai, Xuan-Rong

    2016-02-01

    This study aims to deal with the influence of different solvent in extraction of natural sensitizer and different thickness of photoelectrode thin film on the photoelectric conversion efficiency and the electron transport properties for the prepared dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The natural dyes of anthocyanin and chlorophyll dyes are extracted from mixture of purple cabbage and roselle and mixture of wormwood and seaweed, respectively. The experimental results show the cocktail dye extracted with ethanol and rotating speed of spin coating at 1000 rpm can achieve the greatest photoelectric conversion efficiency up to 1.85%. Electrochemical impedance result shows that the effective diffusion coefficient for the prepared DSSC with the thickness of photoelectrode thin film at 21 microm are 5.23 x 10(-4) cm2/s.

  20. Synthesis of Ni core NiO shell nanostructure and magnetic investigation for shell thickness determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arabi, H.; Bruck, E.; Tichelaar, F.D.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Nickel oxide has received a considerable amount of attention in recent years for its catalytic, electronic and magnetic properties. Ni nanoparticles with an average size of 8 nm were prepared by dc - arc discharge in argon atmosphere. A current of 130 A and 300 milli bar pressure of argon have been applied. The produced Ni nanoparticles were annealed for oxidizing in air at 350 for six hours to produce antiferromagnetic NiO particles. The structure of Ni and NiO nanoparticles and size estimation of them studied by means of X-ray diffraction. The size and morphology of the particles were also characterized by high resolution transmission microscopy (TEM). The Ni core NiO shell structure, resulting from the oxidation process, were studied by magnetic properties measurements. A quantum design squid magnetometer, model MPMS5S was used for measuring saturation magnetization of both nanoparticles of Ni with and without NiO layer. By knowing the density of Ni and NiO, we were able to deduce the thickness of the Ni core and NiO outer layer. They are around 3 and 5 nanometers respectively. (authors)

  1. Electroless Ni-P/Ni-B duplex coatings: preparation and evaluation of microhardness, wear and corrosion resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, T.S.N. Sankara; Krishnaveni, K.; Seshadri, S.K.

    2003-01-01

    The present work deals with the formation of Ni-P/Ni-B duplex coatings by electroless plating process and evaluation of their hardness, wear resistance and corrosion resistance. The Ni-P/Ni-B duplex coatings were prepared using dual baths (acidic hypophosphite- and alkaline borohydride-reduced electroless nickel baths) with both Ni-P and Ni-B as inner layers and with varying single layer thickness. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to assess the duplex interface. The microhardness, wear resistance and corrosion resistance of electroless nickel duplex coatings were compared with electroless Ni-P and Ni-B coatings of similar thickness. The study reveals that the Ni-P and Ni-B coatings are amorphous in their as-plated condition and upon heat-treatment at 450 deg. C for 1 h, both Ni-P and Ni-B coatings crystallize and produce nickel, nickel phosphide and nickel borides in the respective coatings. All the three phases are formed when Ni-P/Ni-B and Ni-B/Ni-P duplex coatings are heat-treated at 450 deg. C for 1 h. The duplex coatings are uniform and the compatibility between the layers is good. The microhardness, wear resistance and corrosion resistance of the duplex coating is higher than Ni-P and Ni-B coatings of similar thickness. Among the two types of duplex coatings studied, hardness and wear resistance is higher for coatings having Ni-B coating as the outer layer whereas better corrosion resistance is offered by coatings having Ni-P coating as the outer layer

  2. Electrochemical Behaviour of Ni and Ni-PVC Electrodes for the Electroxidation of Ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Syafiq Hamdan; Norazzizi Nordin; Siti Fathrita Mohd Amir; Riyanto; Mohamed Rozali Othman

    2011-01-01

    In this study, two nickel based electrodes were prepared; nickel foil and nickel-polyvinylchloride (Ni-PVC), in order to study their electrochemical behavior using cyclic voltammetry, CV and chronocoulometry, CC. Ni electrode was prepared from Ni metal foil while Ni-PVC electrode was prepared by mixing a weighed portion of Ni powder and PVC in THF solvent, swirled until the suspension was homogeneous and drying the suspension in an oven at 50 degree Celsius for 3 h. The dry sample was then placed in a 1 cm diameter stainless steel mould and pressed at 10 ton/ cm 2 . From CV data, Ni-PVC electrode showed a better electrochemical behavior compared to Ni metal foil electrode. The use of Ni-PVC electrode at higher concentration of supporting electrolyte (1.0 M KOH) was better than at lower concentration of the same supporting electrolyte in electroxidation of ethanol. In addition to acetic acid, the oxidation of ethanol also produced ethyl acetate and acetaldehyde. (author)

  3. Nonenzymatic Glucose Sensor Based on In Situ Reduction of Ni/NiO-Graphene Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ni/NiO nanoflower modified reduced graphene oxide (rGO nanocomposite (Ni/NiO-rGO was introduced to screen printed electrode (SPE for the construction of a nonenzymatic electrochemical glucose biosensor. The Ni/NiO-rGO nanocomposite was synthesized by an in situ reduction process. Graphene oxide (GO hybrid Nafion sheets first chemical adsorbed Ni ions and assembled on the SPE. Subsequently, GO and Ni ions were reduced by hydrazine hydrate. The electrochemical properties of such a Ni/NiO-rGO modified SPE were carefully investigated. It showed a high activity for electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose in alkaline medium. The proposed nonenzymatic sensor can be utilized for quantification of glucose with a wide linear range from 29.9 μM to 6.44 mM (R = 0.9937 with a low detection limit of 1.8 μM (S/N = 3 and a high sensitivity of 1997 μA/mM∙cm−2. It also exhibited good reproducibility as well as high selectivity.

  4. Structural and magnetic properties of Ni-Zn and Ni-Zn-Co ferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knyazev, A.V., E-mail: knyazevav@gmail.com [N.I. Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod, Gagarin Prospekt 23/2, 603950 Nizhni Novgorod (Russian Federation); Zakharchuk, I.; Lähderanta, E. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, P.O. Box 20, FI-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); Baidakov, K.V.; Knyazeva, S.S. [N.I. Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod, Gagarin Prospekt 23/2, 603950 Nizhni Novgorod (Russian Federation); Ladenkov, I.V. [Joint-stock Company “Research and Production Company “Salut”, Nizhni Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • Ni-Zn and Ni-Zn-Co ferrite powders were prepared by the solid-state reaction at 1073 K. • The room temperature saturation magnetizations are 59.7 emu/g for Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and 57.1 emu/g for Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.3}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. • The coercivity of the samples is found to be much larger than that of bulk ferrites and increases with Co introduction. • The temperature dependences of magnetization exhibit large spin frustration and spin-glass-like behavior. - Abstract: Ni-Zn and Ni-Zn-Co ferrite powders with nominal compositions Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.3}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} were prepared by the solid-state reaction synthesis with periodic regrinding during the calcination at 1073 K. The structure of Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.3}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was refined assuming space group F d-3m. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the average sizes of the crystalline ferrite particles are 130–630 nm for Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and 140–350 nm for Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.3}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The room temperature saturation magnetizations are 59.7 emu/g for Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and 57.1 emu/g for Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.3}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The coercivity of the samples is found to be much larger than that of bulk ferrites and increases with Co introduction. The Curie temperature tends to increase upon Zn substitution by Co, as well. The temperature dependences of magnetization measured using zero-field cooled and field cooled protocols exhibit large spin frustration and spin-glass-like behavior.

  5. Polymer stabilized Ni-Ag and Ni-Fe alloy nanoclusters: Structural and magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabir, L.; Mandal, A.R. [Department of Physics, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan-731 235 (India); Mandal, S.K., E-mail: sk_mandal@hotmail.co [Department of Physics, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan-731 235 (India)

    2010-04-15

    We report here the structural and magnetic behaviors of nickel-silver (Ni-Ag) and nickel-iron (Ni-Fe) nanoclusters stabilized with polymer (polypyrrole). High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) indicates Ni-Ag nanoclusters to stabilize in core-shell configuration while that of Ni-Fe nanoclusters in a mixed type of geometry. Structural characterizations by X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveal the possibility of alloying in such bimetallic nanoclusters to some extent even at temperatures much lower than that of bulk alloying. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra clearly reveal two different absorption behaviors: one is ascribed to non-isolated Ni{sup 2+} clusters surrounded by either silver or iron giving rise to a broad signal, other (very narrow signal) being due to the isolated superparamagnetic Ni{sup 2+} clusters or bimetallic alloy nanoclusters. Results obtained for Ni-Ag and Ni-Fe nanoclusters have been further compared with the behavior exhibited by pure Ni nanoclusters in polypyrrole host. Temperature dependent studies (at 300 and 77 K) of EPR parameters, e.g. linewidth, g-value, line shape and signal intensity indicating the significant influence of surrounding paramagnetic silver or ferromagnetic iron within polymer host on the EPR spectra have been presented.

  6. Polymer stabilized Ni-Ag and Ni-Fe alloy nanoclusters: Structural and magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, L.; Mandal, A. R.; Mandal, S. K.

    2010-04-01

    We report here the structural and magnetic behaviors of nickel-silver (Ni-Ag) and nickel-iron (Ni-Fe) nanoclusters stabilized with polymer (polypyrrole). High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) indicates Ni-Ag nanoclusters to stabilize in core-shell configuration while that of Ni-Fe nanoclusters in a mixed type of geometry. Structural characterizations by X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveal the possibility of alloying in such bimetallic nanoclusters to some extent even at temperatures much lower than that of bulk alloying. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra clearly reveal two different absorption behaviors: one is ascribed to non-isolated Ni 2+ clusters surrounded by either silver or iron giving rise to a broad signal, other (very narrow signal) being due to the isolated superparamagnetic Ni 2+ clusters or bimetallic alloy nanoclusters. Results obtained for Ni-Ag and Ni-Fe nanoclusters have been further compared with the behavior exhibited by pure Ni nanoclusters in polypyrrole host. Temperature dependent studies (at 300 and 77 K) of EPR parameters, e.g. linewidth, g-value, line shape and signal intensity indicating the significant influence of surrounding paramagnetic silver or ferromagnetic iron within polymer host on the EPR spectra have been presented.

  7. Polymer stabilized Ni-Ag and Ni-Fe alloy nanoclusters: Structural and magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, L.; Mandal, A.R.; Mandal, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    We report here the structural and magnetic behaviors of nickel-silver (Ni-Ag) and nickel-iron (Ni-Fe) nanoclusters stabilized with polymer (polypyrrole). High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) indicates Ni-Ag nanoclusters to stabilize in core-shell configuration while that of Ni-Fe nanoclusters in a mixed type of geometry. Structural characterizations by X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveal the possibility of alloying in such bimetallic nanoclusters to some extent even at temperatures much lower than that of bulk alloying. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra clearly reveal two different absorption behaviors: one is ascribed to non-isolated Ni 2+ clusters surrounded by either silver or iron giving rise to a broad signal, other (very narrow signal) being due to the isolated superparamagnetic Ni 2+ clusters or bimetallic alloy nanoclusters. Results obtained for Ni-Ag and Ni-Fe nanoclusters have been further compared with the behavior exhibited by pure Ni nanoclusters in polypyrrole host. Temperature dependent studies (at 300 and 77 K) of EPR parameters, e.g. linewidth, g-value, line shape and signal intensity indicating the significant influence of surrounding paramagnetic silver or ferromagnetic iron within polymer host on the EPR spectra have been presented.

  8. Elementary martensitic transformation processes in Ni-rich NiTi single crystals with Ni4Ti3 precipitates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michutta, J.; Somsen, Ch.; Yawny, A.; Dlouhy, A.; Eggeler, G.

    2006-01-01

    The present study shows that multiple-step martensitic transformations can be observed in aged Ni-rich NiTi single crystals. Ageing of solution-annealed and water-quenched Ni-rich NiTi single crystals results in a homogeneous precipitation of coherent Ni 4 Ti 3 particles. When the interparticle spacing reaches a critical value (order of magnitude: 200 nm), three distinct transformation processes are observed on cooling from the high-temperature phase using differential scanning calorimetry and in situ transmission electron microscopy. The transformation sequence begins with the formation of R-phase starting from all precipitate/matrix interfaces (first step). The transformation continues with the formation of B19' and its subsequent growth along all precipitate/matrix interfaces (second step). Finally, the matrix in between the precipitates transforms to B19' (third step). Elementary transformation mechanisms which account for two- and three-step transformations in a system with small-scale microstructural heterogeneities were identified

  9. Low-field spin dynamics of Cr7Ni and Cr7Ni-Cu -Cr 7Ni molecular rings as detected by μ SR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, S.; Arosio, P.; Bordonali, L.; Adelnia, F.; Mariani, M.; Garlatti, E.; Baines, C.; Amato, A.; Sabareesh, K. P. V.; Timco, G.; Winpenny, R. E. P.; Blundell, S. J.; Lascialfari, A.

    2017-11-01

    Muon spin rotation measurements were used to investigate the spin dynamics of heterometallic Cr7Ni and Cr7Ni -Cu-Cr7Ni molecular clusters. In Cr7Ni the magnetic ions are arranged in a quasiplanar ring and interact via an antiferromagnetic exchange coupling constant J , while Cr7Ni -Cu-Cr7Ni is composed of two Cr7Ni linked by a bridging moiety containing one Cu ion, that induces an inter-ring ferromagnetic interaction J'≪J . The longitudinal muon relaxation rate λ collected at low magnetic fields μ0H BPP)-like heuristic fitting model that takes into account of a distribution of electronic spin characteristic times for T >5 K, while the shoulder presented by Cr7Ni can be reproduced by a BPP function that incorporates a single electronic characteristic time theoretically predicted to dominate for T <5 K. The flattening of λ (T ) in Cr7Ni -Cu-Cr7Ni occurring at very low temperature can be tentatively attributed to field-dependent quantum effects and/or to an inelastic term in the spectral density of the electronic spin fluctuations.

  10. Reactive Ni/Ti nanolaminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, D. P.; Bai, M. M.; Rodriguez, M. A.; McDonald, J. P.; Jones, E. Jr.; Brewer, L.; Moore, J. J.

    2009-01-01

    Nickel/titanium nanolaminates fabricated by sputter deposition exhibited rapid, high-temperature synthesis. When heated locally, self-sustained reactions were produced in freestanding Ni/Ti multilayer foils characterized by average propagation speeds between ∼0.1 and 1.4 m/s. The speed of a propagating reaction front was affected by total foil thickness and bilayer thickness (layer periodicity). In contrast to previous work with compacted Ni-Ti powders, no preheating of Ni/Ti foils was required to maintain self-propagating reactions. High-temperature synthesis was also stimulated by rapid global heating demonstrating low ignition temperatures (T ig )∼300-400 deg. C for nanolaminates. Ignition temperature was influenced by bilayer thickness with more coarse laminate designs exhibiting increased T ig . Foils reacted in a vacuum apparatus developed either as single-phase B2 cubic NiTi (austenite) or as a mixed-phase structure that was composed of monoclinic B19 ' NiTi (martensite), hexagonal NiTi 2 , and B2 NiTi. Single-phase, cubic B2 NiTi generally formed when the initial bilayer thickness was made small.

  11. Electronic structure of Ni-- and Ni2--ethylene cluster complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basch, H.; Newton, M.D.; Moskowitz, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    The electronic structure of metal cluster--ethylene complexes has been investigated by carrying out ab initio bonding pair-correlated, self-consistent field, and configuration interaction (CI) calculations on the NiC 2 H 4 and Ni 2 C 2 H 4 species. The π-NiC 2 H 4 and π-Ni 2 C 2 H 4 cluster complexes are found to be bound, the former only with CI, while disigma-Ni 2 C 2 H 4 has only a repulsive Ni 2 --C 2 H 4 ground state potential curve. The bonding in the π-type cluster complexes can be described as follows: The metal atom configuration is 3d 9 4s 1 with the 4s hybridized (by the metal 4p) away from the ethylene molecule, thereby allowing the π orbital to form a dative sigma bond with the metal atom. The bonding interaction is promoted by the presence of a second nickel atom behind the first one, leading to a 4s orbital electron deficiency of the bonded nickel atom and thus making this nickel atom a better electron acceptor. Back donation from the occupied metal 3d into the ethylene π* molecular orbital also takes place to some extent, and thus both features of the classical Dewar--Chatt--Duncanson model are observed. The π-Ni 2 C 2 H 4 species is analyzed in terms of the addition of a bare nickel atom to a π-NiC 2 H 4 cluster complex, with concomitant stabilization of the orbitals of the bonded nickel atom. A study of the excited electronic states of π-NiC 2 H 4 shows that low-lying 4s→π* and 3d→π* (M→L) charge transfer transitions are predicted. The former is not observed experimentally, probably due to the diffuse nature of the 4s orbital. The relationship between small cluster--ethylene complex systems and ethylene chemisorption on a nickel metal surface is discussed

  12. Effects of Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} and (Cu,Ni){sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic layers on cross-interaction between Pd and Ni in solder joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Yong-Ho [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Division of Advanced Circuit Interconnect, Samsung Electro-Mechanics Co., Ltd., Suwon 443-743 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Bo-Mook [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Research and Development, KPM TECH, Ansan 425-090 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Young-Sik [Division of Advanced Circuit Interconnect, Samsung Electro-Mechanics Co., Ltd., Suwon 443-743 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jaeho [Department of Advanced Metal and Materials Engineering, Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung 210-702 (Korea, Republic of); Huh, Joo-Youl, E-mail: jyhuh@korea.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-05

    Highlights: •Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} acts as a source of Ni atoms, leading to a strong cross-interaction with Pd. •(Cu,Ni){sub 6}Sn{sub 5} is an effective Ni diffusion barrier, inhibiting Pd resettlement. •Dissolution kinetics of (Pd,Ni)Sn{sub 4} was interpreted based on the Sn–Ni–Pd isotherm. •Cu addition to solder alleviates the (Pd,Ni)Sn{sub 4}-related risk of reliability deterioration. -- Abstract: We examined the effects of layers of intermetallic compound (IMC) Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} and (Cu,Ni){sub 6}Sn{sub 5} formed at the solder/Ni interface, on the cross-interactions between Pd and Ni during solid-state aging and reflow soldering. Two types of diffusion couples, Pd/Sn/Ni and Pd/Sn–Cu/Ni, were aged at 150 °C to study the solid-state interactions. In contrast to the Pd/Sn/Ni couples in which a Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} layer formed at the Ni interface, the Pd/Sn–Cu/Ni couple where a (Cu,Ni){sub 6}Sn{sub 5} layer formed at the Ni interface exhibited no significant interaction between Pd and Ni. The (Cu,Ni){sub 6}Sn{sub 5} layer acted as an effective barrier against Ni diffusion and thus inhibited the resettlement of (Pd,Ni)Sn{sub 4} onto the Ni interface. For the interaction during reflow, Sn–3.5Ag and Sn–3.0Ag–0.5Cu solder balls were isothermally reflowed on an electroless Ni(P)/electroless Pd/immersion Au (ENEPIG) surface finish at 250 °C, and the dissolution kinetics of the (Pd,Ni)Sn{sub 4} particles converted from the 0.2-μm-thick Pd-finish layer were examined. The spalled (Pd,Ni)Sn{sub 4} particles very quickly dissolved into the molten solder when the IMC layer formed on the Ni substrate was (Cu,Ni){sub 6}Sn{sub 5} rather than Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4}. The dependence of the dissolution kinetics of the spalled (Pd,Ni)Sn{sub 4} particles on the IMC layers was rationalized on the basis of a Sn–Ni–Pd isotherm at 250 °C. The present study suggests that the formation of a dense (Cu,Ni){sub 6}Sn{sub 5} layer at the solder/Ni interface can effectively

  13. Heavy metals bioconcentration from soil to vegetables and appraisal of health risk in Koka and Wonji farms, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliku, Temesgen; Leta, Seyoum

    2017-04-01

    Heavy metal accumulation in agricultural crops has grown a major concern globally as a result of a significant health impact on human. The quantification of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cr, Zn, Cu, and Ni) in the soil and vegetables at two sites (Koka and Wonji Gefersa) was done using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in vegetable fields' soil samples obtained from Koka were higher for Pb, Cr, Zn, Cu, and Ni. The overall results of soil samples ranged 0.52-0.93, 13.6-27.3, 10.0-21.8, 44.4-88.5, 11.9-30.3, and 14.7-34.5 mg kg -1 for Cd, Pb, Cr, Zn, Cu, and Ni, respectively. The concentrations of heavy metals were maximum for Cd (0.41 ± 0.03 mg kg -1 ), Pb (0.54 ± 0.11 mg kg -1 ), Zn (14.4 ± 0.72 mg kg -1 ), Cu (2.84 ± 0.27 mg kg -1 ), and Ni (1.09 ± 0.11 mg kg -1 ) in Cabbage and for Cr (2.63 ± 0.11 mg kg -1 ) in green pepper. The result indicated that Cd has high transfer factor value and Pb was the lowest. The transfer pattern for heavy metals in different vegetables showed a trend in the order: Cd > Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Pb. Among different vegetables, cabbage showed the highest value of metal pollution index and bean had the lowest value. Hazard index of all the vegetables was less than unity; thus, the consumption of these vegetables is unlikely to pose health risks to the target population.

  14. Ultrathin NiO/NiFe2O4 Nanoplates Decorated Graphene Nanosheets with Enhanced Lithium Storage Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Dejian; Yue, Wenbo; Fan, Xialu; Tang, Kun; Yang, Xiaojing

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ultrathin NiO/NiFe 2 O 4 nanoplates derived from NiFe layered double hydroxides are fabricated on the graphene. • NiO/NiFe 2 O 4 nanoplates on the graphene show superior electrochemical performance compared to pure NiO/NiFe 2 O 4 aggregates. • The effects of the content and the particle size/component of NiO/NiFe 2 O 4 on the electrochemical performances are studied. • Graphene-encapsulated NiO/NiFe 2 O 4 is prepared and shows slightly decreased performance compared to graphene-based composite. - Abstract: As anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, bicomponent metal oxide composites show high reversible capacities; but the morphology and particle size of the composites are hardly controllable, which may reduce their electrochemical properties. In this work, ultrathin NiO/NiFe 2 O 4 nanoplates with a diameter of 5 ∼ 7 nm and a thickness of ∼2 nm are controllably fabricated on the graphene derived from NiFe layered double hydroxides (NiFe-LDHs), and exhibit superior electrochemical performance compared to pure NiO/NiFe 2 O 4 aggregates without graphene. The nanosized NiO and NiFe 2 O 4 plates are separated from each other and the graphene substrate can prevent the aggregation of NiO/NiFe 2 O 4 as well as enhance the electronic conductivity of the composite, which is beneficial to improving the electrochemical performance. Moreover, the effects of the content and the particle size/component of NiO/NiFe 2 O 4 on the electrochemical performances are also studied in order to achieve optimal performance. Ultrathin NiO/NiFe 2 O 4 nanoplates are further encapsulated by graphene nanosheets and show slightly decreased performance compared to those supported by graphene nanosheets. The different electrochemical behaviors of graphene-containing composites may be attributed to the different interactions between graphene nanosheets and NiO/NiFe 2 O 4 nanoplates.

  15. Properties of mechanically alloyed Mg-Ni-Ti ternary hydrogen storage alloys for Ni-MH batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Stéphane; Roué, Lionel; Huot, Jacques; Schulz, Robert; Aymard, Luc; Tarascon, Jean-Marie

    MgNiTi x, Mg 1- xTi xNi and MgNi 1- xTi x (with x varying from 0 to 0.5) alloys have been prepared by high energy ball milling and tested as hydrogen storage electrodes. The initial discharge capacities of the Mg-Ni-Ti ternary alloys are inferior to the MgNi electrode capacity. However, an exception is observed with MgNi 0.95Ti 0.05, which has an initial discharge capacity of 575 mAh/g compared to 522 mAh/g for the MgNi electrode. The Mg-Ni-Ti ternary alloys show improved cycle life compared to Mg-Ni binary alloys with the same Mg/Ni atomic ratio. The best cycle life is observed with Mg 0.5Ti 0.5Ni electrode which retains 75% of initial capacity after 10 cycles in comparison to 39% for MgNi electrodes, in addition to improved high-rate dischargeability (HRD). According to the XPS analysis, the cycle life improvement of the Mg 0.5Ti 0.5Ni electrode can be related to the formation of TiO 2 which limits Mg(OH) 2 formation. The anodic polarization curve of Mg 0.5Ti 0.5Ni electrode shows that the current related to the active/passive transition is much less important and that the passive region is more extended than for the MgNi electrode but the corrosion of the electrode is still significant. This suggests that the cycle life improvement would be also associated with a decrease of the particle pulverization upon cycling.

  16. Ni-P/Zn-Ni compositionally modulated multilayer coatings - Part 2: Corrosion and protection mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadormanesh, Behrouz; Ghorbani, Mohammad

    2018-06-01

    The Ni-P/Zn-Ni compositionally modulated multilayer coatings CMMCs were electrodeposited from a single bath by switching the deposition current density. The corrosion resistance of the deposits was studied and compared with that of monolayers of Ni-P and Zn-Ni alloys via Tafel polarization, EIS and salt spray tests. Characterization of corrosion products by means of EDS and XRD revealed more details from the corrosion mechanism of the monolayers and multilayers. The corrosion current density of Ni-P/Zn-Ni CMMCs were around one tenth of Zn-Ni monolayer. The CMMC with incomplete layers performed lower polarization resistance and higher corrosion current density compared to the CMMC with complete layers. The electrical circuit that was proposed for modeling the corrosion process based on the EIS spectrum, proved that layering reduces the porosity and consequently improves the barrier properties. Although, layering of Zn-Ni layers with Ni-P deposits increased the time to red rust in salt spray test, the time for white rust formation decreased. The corrosion mechanism of both Zn-Ni and Ni-P (containing small amount of Zn) was preferential dissolution of Zn and the corrosion products were comprised of mainly Zn hydroxychloride and Zn hydroxycarbonate. Also, Ni and P did not take part in the corrosion products. Based on the electrochemical character of the layers and the morphology of the corroded surface, the corrosion mechanism of multilayers was discussed.

  17. NiCo2S4 nanosheet-decorated 3D, porous Ni film@Ni wire electrode materials for all solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanakumar, Balasubramaniam; Jayaseelan, Santhana Sivabalan; Seo, Min-Kang; Kim, Hak-Yong; Kim, Byoung-Suhk

    2017-12-07

    Wire type supercapacitors with high energy and power densities have generated considerable interest in wearable applications. Herein, we report a novel NiCo 2 S 4 -decorated 3D, porous Ni film@Ni wire electrode for high performance supercapacitor application. In this work, a facile method is introduced to fabricate a 3D, porous Ni film deposited on a Ni wire as a flexible electrode, followed by decoration with NiCo 2 S 4 as an electroactive material. The fabricated NiCo 2 S 4 -decorated 3D, porous Ni film@Ni wire electrode displays a superior performance with an areal and volumetric capacitance of 1.228 F cm -2 and 199.74 F cm -3 , respectively, at a current density of 0.2 mA cm -1 with a maximum volumetric energy and power density (E V : 6.935 mW h cm -3 ; P V : 1.019 W cm -3 ). Finally, the solid state asymmetric wire type supercapacitor is fabricated using the fabricated NiCo 2 S 4 -decorated 3D, porous Ni film@Ni wire as a positive electrode and N-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-rGO) as a negative electrode and this exhibits good areal and volumetric capacitances of C A : 0.12 F cm -2 and C V : 19.57 F cm -2 with a higher rate capability (92%). This asymmetric wire type supercapacitor demonstrates a low leakage current and self-discharge with a maximum volumetric energy (E V : 5.33 mW h cm -3 ) and power (P V : 855.69 mW cm -3 ) density.

  18. The acceleration intermediate phase (NiS and Ni3S2) evolution by nanocrystallization in Li/NiS2 thermal batteries with high specific capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chuanyu; Zhou, Lingping; Fu, Licai; Zhu, Jiajun; Li, Deyi; Yang, Wulin

    2017-06-01

    The intermediate phase of NiS2 is thought to be a bottleneck currently to improve the overall performance of Li/NiS2 thermal batteries because of its low conductivity and close formation enthalpy between NiS2 and the intermediate phase (NiS, Ni3S2, etc). For improving the discharge performances of Li/NiS2 thermal batteries, the nano NiS2 with an average size of 85 ± 5 nm is designated as a cathode material. The electrochemical measurements show that the specific capacity of nano NiS2 cathode is higher than micro NiS2. The nano NiS2 cathode exhibits excellent electrochemical performances with high specific capacities of 794 and 654 mAh g-1 at current density of 0.1 and 0.5 A cm-2 under a cut-off voltage of 0.5 V, respectively. These results show that the rapid intermediate phase evolution from the nanocrystallization can obviously enhance use efficiency of NiS2 and improve discharge performances of thermal batteries.

  19. Valence electronic structure of Ni in Ni Si alloys from relative K X-ray intensity studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalayci, Y.; Aydinuraz, A.; Tugluoglu, B.; Mutlu, R. H.

    2007-02-01

    The Kβ-to-Kα X-ray intensity ratio of Ni in Ni 3Si, Ni 2Si and NiSi has been determined by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique. It is found that the intensity ratio of Ni decreases from pure Ni to Ni 2Si and then increases from Ni 2Si to NiSi, in good agreement with the electronic structure calculations cited in the literature. We have also performed band structure calculations for pure Ni in various atomic configurations by means of linear muffin-tin orbital method and used this data with the normalized theoretical intensity ratios cited in the literature to estimate the 3d-occupation numbers of Ni in Ni-Si alloys. It is emphasized that investigation of alloying effect in terms of X-ray intensity ratios should be carried out for the stoichiometric alloys in order to make reliable and quantitative comparisons between theory and experiment in transition metal alloys.

  20. Heavy metal environmental impact. Nickel (Ni); Impatto ambientale da metalli pesanti. Il Nichel (Ni)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bressa, G. [Padua Univ. Padua (Italy). Dipt. di Farmacologia, Lab. di Tossicologia

    2001-02-01

    Nickel (Ni) is a heavy metal in over 3.000 different alloys used to produce kitchen utensils, batteries, coins, etc.. Human extractive and industrial activities are therefore a cause for environmental dispersion of this metal into the biosphere. This shows how in urban areas car traffic and house-heating are the main sources of nickel pollution. Nickel is relatively non-toxic, such as iron, cobalt, copper and zinc; nevertheless prolonged inhalation of dust containing such compounds as Ni O or NiCl{sub 2} concurs in the outbreak of respiratory pathologies. The carcinogenic effect of such compounds as Ni S, Ni O and Ni(CO){sub 4} has been confirmed by experiments on laboratory animals. Ni potentially toxic concentrations, and as a consequence of potential environmental impact, are to be mainly found in populated areas where the main sources are represented by industries and landfills. [Italian] Il nichel (Ni) e' un metallo presente in oltre 3.000 differenti leghe che vengono utilizzate per la produzione di utensili da cucina, batterie, monete, ecc.. Le attivita' estrattive ed industriali dell'uomo sono quindi causa di una dispersione del metallo nella biosfera. Sono stati riscontrati elevati tassi di Ni nell'atmosfera di aree urbane. Cio' sta a dimostrare che nelle aree urbane il traffico automobilistico e il riscaldamento domestico sono le fonti principali di inquinamento da tale metallo. Il nichel e' relativamente atossico, analogamente a ferro, cobalto, rame e zinco, tuttavia l'inalazione protratta di polveri contenenti composti come il NiO o il NiCl{sub 2} contribuisce al manifestarsi di patologie dell'apparato respiratorio. E' stato confermato sperimentalmente su animali da laboratorio l'effetto cancerogeno di alcuni composti quali NiS, NiO e Ni(CO){sub 4}. Concentrazioni potenzialmente tossiche di Ni, e quindi di probabile impatto ambientale, sono maggiormente da ricercare nelle zone antropizzate dove le fonti

  1. Positron annihilation studies in CeNiIn and LaNiIn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, R.; Giri, S.; Sen, M.; Nambissan, P.M.G.; Ghoshray, K.; Ghoshray, A.; Sen, P.

    1997-01-01

    Doppler broadened positron annihilation spectral lineshape (DBPAS) and positron lifetime measurements in the temperature range 18-280 K have been performed in CeNiIn and LaNiIn systems. The nature of the temperature variations of the lifetime in both systems is almost similar in the whole temperature range studied, whereas the nature of the temperature variation of the S parameter in CeNiIn is similar to that in LaNiIn except in the temperature region 18-40 K. For the former system there is a dip around 20 K in the S parameter versus temperature curve. The lifetime versus T curve in both systems could be explained by the thermal expansion of the lattice. The S parameter versus T curve in LaNiIn could also be attributed to the thermal expansion of the lattice, whereas in CeNiIn the above mentioned dip seems an extra feature of the thermal expansion of the lattice. To understand this low temperature behaviour other results on the same system have been discussed. (orig.)

  2. Interacción familiar y desarrollo emocional en niños y niñas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Cecilia Henao López

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En la presente investigación se tuvo como objetivo principal abordar los estilos de interacción de padres y madres de niños y niñas preescolares y su relación con el desarrollo emocional de sus hijos e hijas (235 niños y 169 niñas entre cinco y seis años de edad. Las dimensiones que se consideraron para evaluar el nivel emocional de los niños y niñas fueron: autorregulación, comprensión emocional, y empatía. Como primer aspecto describimos los tipos de interacción con sus hijos e hijas y el desarrollo emocional de los niños y niñas evaluados. Un segundo aspecto que se abordó, es el de explorar las asociaciones entre el estilo de interacción familiar y el desarrollo emocional infantil. El instrumento utilizado dirigido a los padres y madres fue la Escala de Identificación de Prácticas Educativas Familiares (PEF, versión española realizada por Alonso y Román; a los niños y niñas les aplicamos la evaluación del desempeño emocional (EDEI, que se construye como parte de esta investigación. Se trabajó con una muestra de 404 niños y niñas, y sus respectivos padres y madres. Los resultados obtenidos en esta investigación resaltan el estilo equilibrado como generador de conductas adecuadas y adaptativas en el niño o niña, al igual que rescata este estilo como el que más posibilita el nivel de comprensión emocional en los niños y niñas de nuestro estudio.

  3. High-frequency permeability of electroplated CoNiFe and CoNiFe-C alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhen, Fernando M.F.; McCloskey, Paul; O'Donnell, Terence; Roy, Saibal

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated CoNiFe and CoNiFe-C electrodeposited by pulse reverse plating (PRP) and direct current (DC) techniques. CoNiFe(PRP) films with composition Co 59.4 Fe 27.7 Ni 12.8 show coercivity of 95 A m -1 (1.2 Oe) and magnetization saturation flux (μ 0 M s ) of 1.8 T. Resistivity of CoNiFe (PRP) is about 24 μΩ cm and permeability remains almost constant μ r ' ∼475 up to 30 MHz with a quality factor (Q) larger than 10. Additionally, the permeability spectra analysis shows that CoNiFe exhibits a classical eddy current loss at zero bias field and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) when biased with 0.05 T. Furthermore, a crossover between eddy current and FMR loss is observed for CoNiFe-PRP when baised with 0.05 T. DC and PRP plated CoNiFe-C, which have resistivity and permeability of 85, 38 μΩ cm, μ r '=165 and 35 with Q>10 up to 320 MHz, respectively, showed only ferromagnetic resonance losses. The ferromagnetic resonance peaks in CoNiFe and CoNiFe-C are broad and resembles a Gaussian distribution of FMR frequencies. The incorporation of C to CoNiFe reduces eddy current loss, but also reduces the FMR frequency

  4. Water dissociation on Ni(100) and Ni(111): Effect of surface temperature on reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seenivasan, H.; Tiwari, Ashwani K.

    2013-01-01

    Water adsorption and dissociation on Ni(100) and Ni(111) surfaces are studied using density functional theory calculations. Water adsorbs on top site on both the surfaces, while H and OH adsorb on four fold hollow and three fold hollow (fcc) sites on Ni(100) and Ni(111), respectively. Transition states (TS) on both surfaces are identified using climbing image-nudged elastic band method. It is found that the barrier to dissociation on Ni(100) surface is slightly lower than that on Ni(111) surface. Dissociation on both the surfaces is exothermic, while the exothermicity on Ni(100) is large. To study the effect of lattice motion on the energy barrier, TS calculations are performed for various values of Q (lattice atom coordinate along the surface normal) and the change in the barrier height and position is determined. Calculations show that the energy barrier to reaction decreases with increasing Q and increases with decreasing Q on both the surfaces. Dissociation probability values at different surface temperatures are computed using semi-classical approximation. Results show that the influence of surface temperature on dissociation probability on the Ni(100) is significantly larger compared to that of Ni(111). Moreover, on Ni(100), a dramatic shift in energy barrier to lower incident energy values is observed with increasing surface temperature, while the shift is smaller in the case of Ni(111)

  5. Adubação verde na produção orgânica de alface americana e repolho The use of green manure in crisphead lettuce and cabbage production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastácia Fontanétti

    2006-06-01

    fertilization of vegetables is the use of green manure. The objective of this work was to evaluate three green manure species, used to complement the fertilization with organic compost, in relation to the nutrient contents in their biomass, and to productivity and agronomic traits of crisphead lettuce and cabbage. The experiment was carried out at the Olericulture Sector of the Federal University of Lavras (UFLA, in Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, from December 2001 to August 2002, in a soil classified as Udox. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design in a factorial scheme (4x2 with three repetitions. The first factor was constituted by the green manure species: black-velvet bean (Stizolobium aterrimum, jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis, and sunnhep (Crotalaria juncea, plus a control treatment (weed and mineral fertilizers; and the second factor was constituted by the vegetable crops: crisphead lettuce and cabbage. Among the tested green manure species, sunnhep presented the best potential for extraction of N, P, K, Mg, B, Mn and Zn. In addition, sunnhep was more efficient than jack bean or black velvet bean in increasing the commercial weight of cabbage head. In relation to productivity, as for lettuce, green manuring plus organic compost did not differ from the control; while for the cabbage, these treatments had a performance statistically inferior. The use of green manure plus organic compost allowed to obtain commercial crisphead lettuce and cabbage heads with satisfactory weight for the market.

  6. Microporous Ni@NiO nanoparticles prepared by chemically dealloying Al{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}@Al nanoparticles as a high microwave absorption material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Yu; Xie, Xiubo; Li, Da [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, No.37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Chou, Wusheng [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Liu, Tong, E-mail: tongliu@buaa.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, No.37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2017-03-15

    The Al{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}@Al nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared from Ni{sub 45}Al{sub 55} master alloy by hydrogen plasma-metal reaction method, and were subsequently dealloyed to produce porous Ni@NiO NPs of 36 nm. The pore size ranges from 0.7 to 1.6 nm, leading to large specific surface area of 69.5 m{sup 2}/g and big pore volume of 0.507 cc/g. The saturation magnetization (M{sub S}) and coercivity (H{sub C}) of the microporous Ni@NiO NPs are 11.5 emu/g and 5.2 Oe. They exhibit high microwave absorption performance with a minimum reflection coefficient (RC) of −86.9 dB and an absorption bandwidth of 2.6 GHz (RC≤−10 dB) at thickness of 4.5 mm. The enhanced microwave absorption properties are attributed to the synergistic effect of the magnetic Ni core and dielectric NiO shell, and the micropore architecture. The NPs with micropore morphology and core/shell structure open a new way to modify the microwave absorption performance. - Graphical abstract: The microporous Ni/NiO nanoparticles prepared by chemically dealloying Al{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}@Al NPs exhibit high microwave absorption intensity (−86.9 dB) and wide absorption bandwidth (2.6 GHz for RC≤−10 dB). - Highlights: • Microporous Ni/NiO nanoparticals were prepared by chemically dealloying method. • They possessed micropores of 0.7–1.6 nm with a surface area of 69.5 m{sup 2}/g. • They showed high microwave absorption intensity and wide absorption bandwidth. • Microwave absorption mechanism was explained by micropore and core/shell structures.

  7. Thermal capture cross section for 58Ni (n,γ)59 Ni reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbonari, A.W.; Pecequilo, B.R.S.

    1989-01-01

    The 58 Ni total thermal capture cross section was determined by suming the partial cross sections calculated for the primary transitions of the reaction 58 Ni (n,γ) 59 Ni. The primary transitions energies and intensities were determined from the 58 Ni thermal neutrons prompt gamma capture gamma rays spectrum in the 3.7 to 9.3 MeV region. The obtained value for the total cross section was 4.52 + 0.10b. (author) [pt

  8. Niños y niñas como cuidadores familiares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rosa Estupiñán Aponte

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En el contexto familiar, el cuidado de otra persona por parte de niños y niñas constituye un terreno inexplorado tanto en su significado como en las implicaciones que podrían darse en el proceso. Aunque históricamente se ha asignado el cuidado familiar a las mujeres generando condiciones de inequidad, incrementada con los cambios sociales de los últimos tiempos, es necesario reconocer que en muchos hogares niños y niñas se han visto obligados a desempeñar esta labor sin la preparación ni las destrezas necesarias. Desde una perspectiva de género, el artículo busca evidenciar esta situación mediante la revisión de los abordajes que sobre el tema se han hecho en países de Europa y Norteamérica, así como el análisis de información obtenida a partir de las Encuestas de Hogares y Uso del Tiempo (EUT en algunos países de Latinoamérica. Se establece la forma como las problemáticas sociales inciden en las dinámicas, tipo de tareas y responsabilidades que deben asumir niños y niñas en los hogares, mostrando delgados límites entre la colaboración al interior de las familias, la transmisión cultural de roles y funciones y las actividades que podrían incidir negativamente en su crecimiento y el ejercicio de sus derechos.

  9. Iodine capture by Hofmann-type clathrate Ni(II)(pz)[Ni(II)(CN)_4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massasso, Giovanni; Long, Jerome; Haines, Julien; Devautour-Vinot, Sabine; Maurin, Guillaume; Larionova, Joulia; Guerin, Christian; Guari, Yannick; Grandjean, Agnes; Onida, Barbara; Donnadieu, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The thermally stable Hofmann-type clathrate framework Ni(II)(pz)[Ni(II)(CN)_4] (pz = pyrazine) was investigated for the efficient and reversible sorption of iodine (I_2) in the gaseous phase and in solution with a maximum adsorption capacity of 1 mol of I_2 per 1 mol of Ni(II)pz)[Ni(II)(CN)_4] in solution. (authors)

  10. Electrochemical properties of the ball-milled LaMg10NiMn alloy with Ni powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yi; Wang Xin; Gao Xueping; Shen Panwen

    2008-01-01

    The electrochemical characteristics of the ball-milled LaMg 10 NiMn alloys with Ni powders were investigated. It was found that the ball-milled LaMg 10 NiMn + 150 wt.% Ni composite exhibited higher first discharge capacity and better cycle performance. By means of the analysis of electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS), it was shown that the existence of manganese in LaMg 10 NiMn alloy increased the electrocatalytic activity due to its catalytic effect, and destabilized metal hydrides, and so reduced the hydrogen diffusion resistance. These contributed to the higher discharge capacity of the ball-milled LaMg 10 NiMn-Ni composite. According to the analytical results of X-ray diffraction (XRD), EIS and steady-state polarization (SSP) experiments, the inhibition of metal corrosion is not the main reason for the better cycle performance. The main reason is that the electrochemical reaction resistance of the ball-milled LaMg 10 NiMn-Ni composite is always lower than that of the ball-milled LaMg 10 Ni 2 -Ni composite because the former one contains manganese, which is a catalyst for the electrode reaction

  11. Development of the dentistry alloy Ni-Cr-Nb; Desenvolvimento de ligas odontologicas Ni-Cr-Nb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, M.A.; Ramos, A.S.; Hashimoto, T.M., E-mail: mari_sou@hotmail.co [UNESP/FEG, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia. Dept. de Materiais e Tecnologia

    2010-07-01

    This work reports on the structural characterization of Ni-Cr-Mo and Ni-Cr-Nb alloys produced by arc melting. Samples were characterized by means of optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and EDS analysis. Results indicated that the arc melting process was efficient to produce homogeneous structures in Ni-Cr-Mo and Ni-Cr-Nb alloys. The nickel dissolved large amounts of Cr, Mo and Nb, which was detected by EDS analysis and X-ray diffraction. The alloy containing molybdenum indicated the presence of structure based on Ni{sub SS}, while that the alloys containing niobium presented primary grains of Ni{sub SS} and precipitates formed by the simultaneous transformation of the Ni and Ni{sub 3}Nb phases. (author)

  12. Enhanced Electrocatalytic Activity for Water Splitting on NiO/Ni/Carbon Fiber Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruoyu Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale growth of low-cost, efficient, and durable non-noble metal-based electrocatalysts for water splitting is crucial for future renewable energy systems. Atomic layer deposition (ALD provides a promising route for depositing uniform thin coatings of electrocatalysts, which are useful in many technologies, including the splitting of water. In this communication, we report the growth of a NiO/Ni catalyst directly on carbon fiber paper by atomic layer deposition and report subsequent reduction and oxidation annealing treatments. The 10–20 nm NiO/Ni nanoparticle catalysts can reach a current density of 10 mA·cm−2 at an overpotential of 189 mV for hydrogen evolution reactions and 257 mV for oxygen evolution reactions with high stability. We further successfully achieved a water splitting current density of 10 mA·cm−2 at 1.78 V using a typical NiO/Ni coated carbon fiber paper two-electrode setup. The results suggest that nanoparticulate NiO/Ni is an active, stable, and noble-metal-free electrocatalyst, which facilitates a method for future water splitting applications.

  13. Determination of diacylhydrazines-type insect growth regulator JS-118 residues in cabbage and soil by high performance liquid chromatography with DAD detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J-Y; Deng, Z-B; Qin, D-M

    2009-12-01

    JS-118 is a diacylhydrazines-type insect growth regulator used extensively in China now. An analytical method for residues determination of JS-118 in cabbage and soil samples by high performance liquid chromatography with DAD detection was established and optimized. Primary secondary amine solid phase extraction cartridge was used for sample preparation. Mean recoveries for the analyte ranged from 96.6% to 107.0% with CV value less than 4.7%. The limit of quantification is 0.01 mg/kg. Direct confirmation of JS-118 residues in samples was realized by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The proposed method is simple, rapid and reliable to perform and could be utilized for monitoring of pesticides residues.

  14. Microstructure and mechanical properties of sputter deposited Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayer films at elevated temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chao [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, Shanghai 200240 (China); Feng, Kai, E-mail: fengkai@sjtu.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, Shanghai 200240 (China); Li, Zhuguo, E-mail: lizg@sjtu.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, Shanghai 200240 (China); Lu, Fenggui; Huang, Jian; Wu, Yixiong [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayers are prepared by magnetron sputtering. • Both grain size and phase constitution of annealed Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayers are dependent on individual layer thickness. • The hardness of annealed Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayers varies with individual layer thickness and annealing temperature. • 40 nm Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayer exhibits excellent hardness at elevated temperature. - Abstract: Nano-structured Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayer was prepared by magnetron sputtering, with individual layer thicknesses h varying from 10 to 160 nm. The microstructure and hardness of Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayer were investigated by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and nanoindentation. The results show that the hardness increases with decreasing h for as-deposited and 500 °C annealed multilayers. When annealed at 700 °C, the hardness approach a peak value at h = 40 nm with followed by softening at smaller h. The influence of individual layer thickness, grain size as well as formation of ordered Ni{sub 3}Al on strengthening mechanisms of Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayers at elevated temperature are discussed.

  15. Calculation of Gibbs energy of Zr-Al-Ni, Zr-Al-Cu, Al-Ni-Cu and Zr-Al-Ni-Cu liquid alloys based on quasiregular solution model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H.Q.; Yang, Y.S.; Tong, W.H.; Wang, Z.Y.

    2007-01-01

    With the effects of electronic structure and atomic size being introduced, the mixing enthalpy as well as the Gibbs energy of the ternary Zr-Al-Cu, Ni-Al-Cu, Zr-Ni-Al and quaternary Zr-Al-Ni-Cu systems are calculated based on quasiregular solution model. The computed results agree well with the experimental data. The sequence of Gibbs energies of different systems is: G Zr-Al-Ni-Cu Zr-Al-Ni Zr-Al-Cu Cu-Al-Ni . To Zr-Al-Cu, Ni-Al-Cu and Zr-Ni-Al, the lowest Gibbs energy locates in the composition range of X Zr 0.39-0.61, X Al = 0.38-0.61; X Ni = 0.39-0.61, X Al = 0.38-0.60 and X Zr = 0.32-0.67, X Al = 0.32-0.66, respectively. And to the Zr-Ni-Al-Cu system with 66.67% Zr, the lowest Gibbs energy is obtained in the region of X Al = 0.63-0.80, X Ni = 0.14-0.24

  16. Length-dependent corrosion behavior, Ni2+ release, cytocompatibility, and antibacterial ability of Ni-Ti-O nanopores anodically grown on biomedical NiTi alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Ruiqiang; Liu, Yanlian; Bai, Long; Zhang, Xiangyu; Huang, Xiaobo; Jia, Husheng; Tang, Bin

    2018-08-01

    In the present work, nickel-titanium-oxygen nanopores with different length (0.55-114 μm) were anodically grown on nearly equiatomic nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloy. Length-dependent corrosion behavior, nickel ion (Ni 2+ ) release, cytocompatibility, and antibacterial ability were investigated by electrochemical, analytical chemistry, and biological methods. The results show constructing nanoporous structure on the NiTi alloy improve its corrosion resistance. However, the anodized samples release more Ni 2+ than that of the bare NiTi alloy, suggesting chemical dissolution of the nanopores rather than electrochemical corrosion governs the Ni 2+ release. In addition, the Ni 2+ release amount increases with nanopore length. The anodized samples show good cytocompatibility when the nanopore length is covers the one (1-11 μm) that the nanopores showing favorable antibacterial ability. Consequently, the nanopores with length in the range of 1-11 μm are promising as coatings of biomedical NiTi alloy for anti-infection, drug delivery, and other desirable applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Structural Investigation of Fe-Ni-S and Fe-Ni-Si Melts by High-temperature Fluorescence XAFS Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manghnani, Murli H.; Balogh, John; Hong Xinguo; Newville, Matthew; Amulele, G.

    2007-01-01

    Iron-nickel (Fe-Ni) alloy is regarded as the most abundant constituent of Earth's core, with an amount of 5.5 wt% Ni in the core based on geochemical and cosmochemical models. The structural role of nickel in liquid Fe-Ni alloys with light elements such as S or Si is poorly understood, largely because of the experimental difficulties of high-temperature melts. Recently, we have succeeded in acquiring Ni K-edge fluorescence x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectra of Fe-Ni-S and Fe-Ni-Si melts and alloys. Different structural environment of Ni atoms in Fe-Ni-S and Fe-Ni-Si melts is observed, supporting the effect of light elements in Fe-Ni melts

  18. Structure of Ni-rich Ni--Cr--B--Si coating alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knotek, O.; Lugscheider, E.; Reimann, H.

    1975-01-01

    The structures of quaternary, nickel-rich Ni--Cr--B--Si alloys were analyzed at a constant boron content of 10 at. percent and a temperature of 850 0 C. The composition range for silicide formation was determined. In these quaternary alloys, known binary nickel silicides, nickel and chromium borides, and the ternary silico-boride Ni 6 Si 2 B were confirmed. A new composition for the W 5 Si 3 -type phase in the Ni--B--Si system was proposed. (U.S.)

  19. On the Ni-Ion release rate from surfaces of binary NiTi shape memory alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ševčíková, Jana; Bártková, Denisa; Goldbergová, Monika; Kuběnová, Monika; Čermák, Jiří; Frenzel, Jan; Weiser, Adam; Dlouhý, Antonín

    2018-01-01

    The study is focused on Ni-ion release rates from NiTi surfaces exposed in the cell culture media and human vascular endothelial cell (HUVEC) culture environments. The NiTi surface layers situated in the depth of 70 μm below a NiTi oxide scale are affected by interactions between the NiTi alloys and the bio-environments. The finding was proved with use of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and electron microscopy experiments. As the exclusive factor controlling the Ni-ion release rates was not only thicknesses of the oxide scale, but also the passivation depth, which was two-fold larger. Our experimental data strongly suggested that some other factors, in addition to the Ni concentration in the oxide scale, admittedly hydrogen soaking deep below the oxide scale, must be taken into account in order to rationalize the concentrations of Ni-ions released into the bio-environments. The suggested role of hydrogen as the surface passivation agent is also in line with the fact that the Ni-ion release rates considerably decrease in NiTi samples that were annealed in controlled hydrogen atmospheres prior to bio-environmental exposures.

  20. Three-dimensional electrode of Ni/Co layered double hydroxides@NiCo2S4@graphene@Ni foam for supercapacitors with outstanding electrochemical performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Yan; Ruiyi, Li; Lin, Zhou; Chenyang, Ma; Zaijun, Li

    2015-01-01

    We reported a new strategy for fabricating three-dimensiona electrode of Ni/Co layered double hydroxide@NiCo 2 S 4 @graphene@Ni foam for supercapacitors. The resulting 3D electrode offers a jungle-like architecture. The unique structure creates ultra fast electron transfer and electrolyte transport as well as the maximum utilization rate of the space and the surface. The electrode exhibits a prominent advantage of high specific capacitance, high-current capacitive behaviour and cycle stability. - Highlights: • The study developed a new strategy for fabricating 3D electrode of Ni/Co-LDH@NiCo 2 S 4 @G. • The as-prepared 3D electrode offers a jungle-like architecture. • The unique structure creates an efficient conduction network and high mass loading. • The electrode achieves significantly synergetic effect among different materials. • The electrode exhibits an excellent electrochemical performance for supercapacitors. - ABSTRACT: Great challenge for the fabrication of free-standing three-dimensional electrode still remains to simultaneously achieve high specific capacitance, rate performance and cycle stability. The paper reprted a new three-dimensional (3D) electrode of Ni/Co layered double hydroxide@NiCo 2 S 4 @graphene@Ni foam (Ni/Co-LDH@NiCo 2 S 4 @G) for supercapacitors. The as-prepared 3D electrode offers an unique architecture, which create an efficient conduction network and maximum utilization of space and interface. The graphene acts as well-knit and conductive skin coated on the skeleton of Ni foam for growing NiCo 2 S 4 . The conductive NiCo 2 S 4 array serves as bridge between Ni/Co-LDH and graphene, leading to ultrafast electron transfer and electrolyte transport. A slew of splits and holes existing in the NiCo 2 S 4 array play one role as the ion-reservoir to contain host of electrolyte ions. To evaluate the feasibility of 3D electrode’s application in supercapacitors, the electrochemical performance was investigated by using the three

  1. Mechanisms for regulating oxygen toxicity in phytophagous insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, S; Pardini, R S

    1990-01-01

    The antioxidant enzymatic defense of insects for the regulation of oxygen toxicity was investigated. Insect species examined were lepidopterous larvae of the cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni), southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania), and black swallowtail (Papilio polyxenes). These phytophagous species are subject to both endogenous and exogenous sources of oxidative stress from toxic oxygen radicals, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipid peroxides (LOOH). In general, the constitutive levels of the enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione transferase (GT), and its peroxidase activity (GTpx), and glutathione reductase (GR), correlate well with natural feeding habits of these insects and their relative susceptibility to prooxidant plant allelochemicals, quercetin (a flavonoid), and xanthotoxin (a photoactive furanocoumarin). Induction of SOD activity which rapidly destroys superoxide radicals, appears to be the main response to dietary prooxidant exposure. A unique observation includes high constitutive activity of CAT and a broader subcellular distribution in all three insects than observed in most mammalian species. These attributes of CAT appear to be important in the prevention of excessive accumulation of cytotoxic H2O2. Unlike mammalian species, insects possess very low levels of a GPOX-like activity toward H2O2. Irrefutable proof that this activity is due to a selenium-dependent GPOX found in mammals, is lacking at this time. However, the activity of selenium-independent GTpx is unusually high in insects, suggesting that GTpx and not GPOX plays a prominent role in scavenging deleterious LOOHs. The GSSG generated from the GPOX and GTpx reactions may be reduced to GSH by GR activity. A key role of SOD in protecting insects from prooxidant toxicity was evident when its inhibition resulted in enhanced toxicity towards prooxidants. The role of antioxidant compounds in protecting these insects from toxic forms of oxygen has not been explored in

  2. Electrochemical preparation and characteristics of Ni-Co-LaNi5 composite coatings as electrode materials for hydrogen evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Gang; Li Ning; Dai Changsong; Zhou Derui

    2004-01-01

    Electrocatalytic activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction on Ni-Co-LaNi 5 composite electrodes prepared by electrochemical codeposition technique was evaluated. The relationship between the current density for hydrogen evolution reaction and the amount of LaNi 5 particles in Ni-Co baths is like the well-known 'volcano plot'. The Surface morphology and microstructure of Ni-Co-LaNi 5 coatings were determined by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The kinetic parameters were determined from electrochemical steady-state Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technology in 1 M NaOH solution. The values obtained for the apparent energies of activation are 32.48, 46.29 and 57.03 kJ mol -1 for the Ni-Co-LaNi 5 , Ni-Co and Ni electrodes, respectively. The hydrogen evolution reaction on Ni-Co-LaNi 5 proceeds via Volmer-Tafel reaction route with the mixed rate determining characteristics. The composite coating Ni-Co-LaNi 5 is catalytically more active than Ni and Ni-Co electrodes due to the increase in its real surface areas and the decrease in the apparent free energy of activation caused by the electrocatalytic synergistic effect of the Ni-Co alloys and the hydrogen storage intermetallic particles on the electrode surface

  3. Exchange bias variations of the seed and top NiFe layers in NiFe/FeMn/NiFe trilayer as a function of seed layer thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankaranarayanan, V.K.; Yoon, S.M.; Kim, C.G.; Kim, C.O.

    2005-01-01

    Development of exchange bias at the seed and top NiFe layers in the NiFe (t nm)/FeMn(10 nm)/NiFe(5 nm) trilayer structure is investigated as a function of seed layer thickness, in the range of 2-20 nm. The seed NiFe layer shows maximum exchange bias at 4 nm seed layer thickness. The bias shows inverse thickness dependence with increasing thickness. The top NiFe layer on the other hand shows only half the bias of the seed layer which is retained even after the sharp fall in seed layer bias. The much smaller bias for the top NiFe layer is related to the difference in crystalline texture and spin orientations at the top FeMn/NiFe interface, in comparison to the bottom NiFe/FeMn interface which grows on a saturated NiFe layer with (1 1 1) orientation

  4. Combining Ru, Ni and Ni(OH){sub 2} active sites for improving catalytic performance in benzene hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Lihua, E-mail: lihuazhu@stu.xmu.edu.cn [School of Metallurgy and Chemical Engineering, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Ganzhou 341000, Jiang Xi (China); Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, National Engineering Laboratory for Green Productions of Alcohols-Ethers-Esters, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Sun, Hanlei; Zheng, Jinbao [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, National Engineering Laboratory for Green Productions of Alcohols-Ethers-Esters, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Yu, Changlin, E-mail: yuchanglinjx@163.com [School of Metallurgy and Chemical Engineering, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Ganzhou 341000, Jiang Xi (China); Zhang, Nuowei [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, National Engineering Laboratory for Green Productions of Alcohols-Ethers-Esters, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Shu, Qing [School of Metallurgy and Chemical Engineering, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Ganzhou 341000, Jiang Xi (China); Chen, Bing H., E-mail: chenbh@xmu.edu.cn [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, National Engineering Laboratory for Green Productions of Alcohols-Ethers-Esters, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2017-05-01

    In this study, the Ru{sub 0.04}Ni{sub 0.96}/C(T) catalysts were successfully prepared by the simple methods of hydrazine-reduction and galvanic replacement, where 0.04/0.96 and T represented the Ru/Ni atomic ratio and reducing temperature of the catalyst in N{sub 2}+10%H{sub 2}, respectively. The nanostructures of the Ru{sub 0.04}Ni{sub 0.96} nanoparticles in the Ru{sub 0.04}Ni{sub 0.96}/C(T) catalysts were controlled by modulating their annealing temperature in N{sub 2}+10%H{sub 2} and characterized by an array of techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (STEM-EDS) mapping and high-sensitivity low-energy ion scattering (HS-LEIS). The Ru{sub 0.04}Ni{sub 0.96}/C(30) catalyst, which was composed of Ru clusters or single atoms supported on Ni/Ni(OH){sub 2} nanoparticles, exhibited much better catalytic performance for benzene hydrogenation than the Ru{sub 0.04}Ni{sub 0.96}/C(T) catalysts reduced at above 30 °C, such as Ru{sub 0.04}Ni{sub 0.96}/C(160) with the nanostructure of partial Ru{sub 0.04}Ni{sub 0.9} alloy and Ru{sub 0.04}Ni{sub 0.96}/C(280) with the nanostructure of complete Ru{sub 0.04}Ni{sub 0.9} alloy. The reason was that the synergistic effect of multiple active sites – Ru, Ni and Ni(OH){sub 2} sites was present in the Ru{sub 0.04}Ni{sub 0.96}/C(30) catalyst, where hydrogen was preferentially activated at Ru sites, benzene was probably activated at Ni(OH){sub 2} surface and Ni acted as a “bridge” for transferring activated H{sup ∗} species to activated benzene by hydrogen spillover effect, hydrogenating and forming product – cyclohexane. This study also provided a typical example to illustrate that the synergy effect of multiple active sites can largely improve the catalytic hydrogenation performance. - Highlights: • The Ru

  5. H-Phase Precipitation and Martensitic Transformation in Ni-rich Ni-Ti-Hf and Ni-Ti-Zr High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evirgen, A.; Pons, J.; Karaman, I.; Santamarta, R.; Noebe, R. D.

    2018-03-01

    The distributions of H-phase precipitates in Ni50.3Ti29.7Hf20 and Ni50.3Ti29.7Zr20 alloys formed by aging treatments at 500 and 550 °C or slow furnace cooling and their effects on the thermal martensitic transformation have been investigated by TEM and calorimetry. The comparative study clearly reveals faster precipitate-coarsening kinetics in the NiTiZr alloy than in NiTiHf. For precipitates of a similar size of 10-20 nm in both alloys, the martensite plates in Ni50.3Ti29.7Zr20 have larger widths and span a higher number of precipitates compared with the Ni50.3Ti29.7Hf20 alloy. However, for large H-phase particles with hundreds of nm in length, no significant differences in the martensitic microstructures of both alloy systems have been observed. The martensitic transformation temperatures of Ni50.3Ti29.7Hf20 are 80-90 °C higher than those of Ni50.3Ti29.7Zr20 in the precipitate-free state and in the presence of large particles of hundreds on nm in length, but this difference is reduced to only 10-20 °C in samples with small H-phase precipitates. The changes in the transformation temperatures are consistent with the differences in the precipitate distributions between the two alloy systems observed by TEM.

  6. Leaf and root glucosinolate profiles of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) as a systemic response to methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Yun-xiang; Ge, Jia-li; Huang, Ling-hui; Gao, Fei; Lv, Xi-shan; Zheng, Wei-wei; Hong, Seung-beom; Zhu, Zhu-jun

    2015-08-01

    Glucosinolates (GSs) are an important group of defensive phytochemicals mainly found in Brassicaceae. Plant hormones jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) are major regulators of plant response to pathogen attack. However, there is little information about the interactive effect of both elicitors on inducing GS biosynthesis in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). In this study, we applied different concentrations of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and/or SA onto the leaf and root of Chinese cabbage to investigate the time-course interactive profiles of GSs. Regardless of the site of the elicitation and the concentrations of the elicitors, the roots accumulated much more GSs and were more sensitive and more rapidly responsive to the elicitors than leaves. Irrespective of the elicitation site, MeJA had a greater inducing and longer lasting effect on GS accumulation than SA. All three components of indole GS (IGS) were detected along with aliphatic and aromatic GSs. However, IGS was a major component of total GSs that accumulated rapidly in both root and leaf tissues in response to MeJA and SA elicitation. Neoglucobrassicin (neoGBC) did not respond to SA but to MeJA in leaf tissue, while it responded to both SA and MeJA in root tissue. Conversion of glucobrassicin (GBC) to neoGBC occurred at a steady rate over 3 d of elicitation. Increased accumulation of 4-methoxy glucobrassicin (4-MGBC) occurred only in the root irrespective of the type of elicitors and the site of elicitation. Thus, accumulation of IGS is a major metabolic hallmark of SA- and MeJA-mediated systemic response systems. SA exerted an antagonistic effect on the MeJA-induced root GSs irrespective of the site of elicitation. However, SA showed synergistic and antagonistic effects on the MeJA-induced leaf GSs when roots and leaves are elicitated for 3 d, respectively.

  7. Comparative transcript profiling of fertile and sterile flower buds from multiple-allele-inherited male sterility in Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xue; Liu, Zhiyong; Ji, Ruiqin; Feng, Hui

    2017-10-01

    We studied the underlying causes of multiple-allele-inherited male sterility in Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis) by identifying differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to pollen sterility between fertile and sterile flower buds. In this work, we verified the stages of sterility microscopically and then performed transcriptome analysis of mRNA isolated from fertile and sterile buds using Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform sequencing. Approximately 80% of ~229 million high-quality paired-end reads were uniquely mapped to the reference genome. In sterile buds, 699 genes were significantly up-regulated and 4096 genes were down-regulated. Among the DEGs, 28 pollen cell wall-related genes, 54 transcription factor genes, 45 phytohormone-related genes, 20 anther and pollen-related genes, 212 specifically expressed transcripts, and 417 DEGs located on linkage group A07 were identified. Six transcription factor genes BrAMS, BrMS1, BrbHLH089, BrbHLH091, BrAtMYB103, and BrANAC025 were identified as putative sterility-related genes. The weak auxin signal that is regulated by BrABP1 may be one of the key factors causing pollen sterility observed here. Moreover, several significantly enriched GO terms such as "cell wall organization or biogenesis" (GO:0071554), "intrinsic to membrane" (GO:0031224), "integral to membrane" (GO:0016021), "hydrolase activity, acting on ester bonds" (GO:0016788), and one significantly enriched pathway "starch and sucrose metabolism" (ath00500) were identified in this work. qRT-PCR, PCR, and in situ hybridization experiments validated our RNA-seq transcriptome analysis as accurate and reliable. This study will lay the foundation for elucidating the molecular mechanism(s) that underly sterility and provide valuable information for studying multiple-allele-inherited male sterility in the Chinese cabbage line 'AB01'.

  8. Microstructural investigations of Ni and Ni2Al3 coatings exposed in biomass power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, D. L.; Dahl, K. V.; Christiansen, T. L.

    2018-01-01

    The present work investigates the corrosion resistance of Ni and Ni2Al3 coated austenitic stainless steel (TP347H) tubes, which were exposed in a biomass-fired boiler with an outlet steam temperature of 540 °C for 6757 h. The Ni2Al3 coating was produced by electroplating Ni followed by low...... temperature pack cementation. After exposure, microstructural investigations were performed by light optical and electron microscopy (SEM-EDS). Electroplated Ni coatings were not protective in straw firing power plants and exhibited similar corrosion morphology as uncoated tubes. For Ni2Al3 coatings...

  9. Cabbage compression early breast care on breast engorgement in primiparous women after cesarean birth: a controlled clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, A-Reum; Song, Ji-Ah; Hur, Myung-Haeng; Lee, Mi-Kyoung; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects of cabbage compression early breast care (CCEBC) and early breast care (EBC) on breast pain, breast hardness with general nursing breast care (GNBC) in primiparous women after cesarean birth. Sixty participants were divided to three groups including CCEBC, EBC and GNBC. Each group was treated with its intervention respectively more than 10 minutes before breast feeding from day two to day four after delivery. The primary outcomes were breast pain and breast hardness. Both CCEBC and EBC showed significantly lower pain level than GNBC at day 4 after delivery. There are significant differences of breast hardness among three groups. CCEBC group showed significantly lower breast hardness compared with EBC and GNBC. Neither core body temperature nor breast skin temperature was significantly different among the three groups. In conclusion, CCEBC may effective in relieving breast pain and breast hardness compared with EBC alone and GNBC in primiparous women after a cesarean birth. PMID:26885074

  10. NiCo-lead zirconium titanate-NiCo trilayered magnetoelectric composites prepared by electroless deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, M. H.; Wang, Y. G.; Bi, K.; Fan, H. P.; Zhao, Z. S.

    2015-01-01

    The NiCo layers with various Ni/Co atomic ratio have been successfully electroless deposited on PZT layers by varying the bath composition. As the cobalt atomic ratio in the deposited layer increases from 17.2 to 54.8 wt%, the magnetostrictive coefficient decreases. The magnetoelectric effect depends strongly on the magnetostrictive properties of magnetostrictive phase. The magnetoelectric coefficient of NiCo/PZT/NiCo trilayers increases with Ni/Co atomic ratio of the deposited NiCo layers increasing from 45:55 to 83:17. A maximum ME voltage coefficient of α E,31 = 2.8 V ⋅ cm −1 ⋅ Oe −1 is obtained at a frequency of about 88 kHz, which makes these trilayers suitable for applications in actuators, transducers and sensors

  11. Qualidade de palmito pupunha minimamente processado: aplicação de antioxidantes Quality of fresh cut pupunha palm cabbage: application of antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Carvalho Botelho

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, a avaliação de antioxidantes na prevenção do escurecimento e na manutenção da qualidade de palmito pupunha minimamente processado armazenado a 5º C (± 1º C e 90% ± 5% UR. Os palmitos foram adquiridos no município de Coqueiral (MG, lavados em água corrente e detergente neutro, sanificados com hipoclorito de sódio 200 mg L-1 por 15 min, processados em rodelas de 1 cm de espessura, sanificados com hipoclorito de sódio 100 mg L-1 por 10 min e submetidos aos seguintes tratamentos: controle, cisteína 0,5%, ácido cítrico 0,5% e cisteína 0,5% + ácido cítrico 0,5%. Posteriormente, foram acondicionados em embalagens rígidas de polipropileno, armazenados por 12 dias a 5º C (± 1º C e 90% ± 5% UR. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente causalizado em fatorial 4x7 (4 tratamentos e 7 tempos de armazenamento com 3 repetições. O palmito sem tratamento apresentou vida útil de oito dias. O tratamento com cisteína 0,5% foi o que melhor manteve a qualidade de palmito pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Kunth minimamente processado, caracterizando um produto com menores valores e menos oscilações de a* e b*, manutenção da firmeza e da acidez titulável ao longo do armazenamento, redução da atividade da peroxidase e manutenção da qualidade do produto durante o período avaliado.The objective of this work was to evaluate the role antioxidants in preventing both browning and quality maintenance of fresh cut pupunha palm cabbage stored at 5º C (± 1º C and 90% ± 5% RH. The pupunha palm cabbages were purchased in the town of Coqueiral (MG, washed in running water and neutral detergent, sanitized with 200 mg L-1 sodium hypochlorite for 15 min, processed into 1cm-thick rings, sanitized with 100 mg L-1 sodium hypochlorite for 10 min and submitted to the following treatments: control, 0.5% cysteine, 0.5% citric acid and 0.5% cysteine + 0.5% citric acid. Afterwards, they were packed into stiff polypropylene

  12. PRECIPITATION HARDENING IN B2-ORDERED NiAl BY Ni2AlTiCOMPOUND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.H. Tian; K. Ohishi; M. Nemoto

    2001-01-01

    Microstructural variations and correlated hardness changes in B2-ordered NiAl containing fine precipitation of Ni2AlTi have been investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and hardness tests. The amount of age hardening is not large as compared to the large microstructural variations during aging. TEM observations have revealed that the L21-type Ni2AlTi precipitates keep a lattice coherency with the NiAl matrix at the beginning of aging. By longer periods of aging Ni2AlTi precipitates lose their coherency and change their morphology to the globular ones surrounded by misfit dislocations. The temperature dependence of the yield strength of precipitate-containing B2-ordered NiAl was investigated by compression tests over the temperature range of 873-1273K. The fine precipitation of Ni2AlTi was found to enhance greatly the yield strength and the high-temperature strength is comparison with that of superalloy Mar-M200.``

  13. Controlled growth of Ni/NiO core–shell nanoparticles: Structure, morphology and tuning of magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D’Addato, S., E-mail: sergio.daddato@unimore.it [CNR-NANO, S3, via G. Campi 213/a, Modena (Italy); Dipartimento FIM, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via G. Campi 213/a, Modena (Italy); Spadaro, M.C. [CNR-NANO, S3, via G. Campi 213/a, Modena (Italy); Dipartimento FIM, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via G. Campi 213/a, Modena (Italy); Luches, P. [CNR-NANO, S3, via G. Campi 213/a, Modena (Italy); Grillo, V. [CNR-NANO, S3, via G. Campi 213/a, Modena (Italy); CNR-IMEM, Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, 43100 Parma (Italy); Frabboni, S.; Valeri, S. [CNR-NANO, S3, via G. Campi 213/a, Modena (Italy); Dipartimento FIM, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via G. Campi 213/a, Modena (Italy); Ferretti, A.M.; Capetti, E.; Ponti, A. [CNR-ISTM, Laboratorio di Nanotecnologie, via G. Fantoli 16/15, 20138 Milano (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    We performed a detailed study of Ni/NiO core–shell nanoparticles (NP) obtained with a gas aggregation source. The NP oxide shells were produced by oxidizing the NP with different procedures: deposition in oxygen atmosphere, post-annealing in air, sequential deposition of (a) first NiO layer, (b) Ni NP and (c) third NiO Layer. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy from Ni 2p core-level gave information about the chemical state of Ni in the core and in the oxide shell, while scanning electron microscopy was used for investigation of the NP morphology. High quality scanning transmission electron microscopy in high angle annular dark field mode data demonstrated core–shell structure also for NiO/Ni NP/NiO samples. Field-cooled/zero-field-cooled magnetization curves and field-cooled isothermal hysteresis cycles at T = 5 K were recorded by a SQUID magnetometer. In this way, the relation between magnetic properties and oxide shell structure was assessed, showing the role played by the control of the formation of oxide on the exchange bias and interparticle magnetic interaction.

  14. Controlled growth of Ni/NiO core–shell nanoparticles: Structure, morphology and tuning of magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Addato, S.; Spadaro, M.C.; Luches, P.; Grillo, V.; Frabboni, S.; Valeri, S.; Ferretti, A.M.; Capetti, E.; Ponti, A.

    2014-01-01

    We performed a detailed study of Ni/NiO core–shell nanoparticles (NP) obtained with a gas aggregation source. The NP oxide shells were produced by oxidizing the NP with different procedures: deposition in oxygen atmosphere, post-annealing in air, sequential deposition of (a) first NiO layer, (b) Ni NP and (c) third NiO Layer. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy from Ni 2p core-level gave information about the chemical state of Ni in the core and in the oxide shell, while scanning electron microscopy was used for investigation of the NP morphology. High quality scanning transmission electron microscopy in high angle annular dark field mode data demonstrated core–shell structure also for NiO/Ni NP/NiO samples. Field-cooled/zero-field-cooled magnetization curves and field-cooled isothermal hysteresis cycles at T = 5 K were recorded by a SQUID magnetometer. In this way, the relation between magnetic properties and oxide shell structure was assessed, showing the role played by the control of the formation of oxide on the exchange bias and interparticle magnetic interaction.

  15. Novas linhagens de repôlho e couve-flor para o Estado de São Paulo Improved cabbage and cauliflower types for São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leocádio de Souza Camargo

    1956-01-01

    ça, e a colheita dura cêrca de 60 dias. Iniciou-se o melhoramento da couve-flor "Campinas" em 1944, de material adquirido em casa comercial de São Paulo, com o nome "Quatro Estações". Após alguns anos de trabalho, criaram-se na E. E. Central em Campinas e na E. E. de Monte Alegre do Sul, linhagens muito boas. A variedade "Campinas" (I.A.C. n.° 1587 é de média precocidade, tendo produzido em 1950 e 1951, em campo de cooperação, respectivamente 398 e 1244 kg de sementes, ou uma média de 30 g por planta, ou sejam, 60 g por m², Para produção de sementes a melhor época de semeadura é fevereiro. As cabeças formam-se em junho e desde 120 dias após, as sementes são colhidas, durando a colheita 16 dias em média.Investigations on the cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L. and cauliflower (B. oleracea var. cauliflora, Gars, D.C. plants at the Instituto Agronômico and its various experiment stations were intensified since 1941. From 1944 on, a great deal of attention has been given to the variety problem, to improvement of local and imported types, and to their seed production. Seventy four varieties of cabbage and 59 varieties of cauliflower have been tested. The majority of these grew well in the cool season, when the average monthly temperature was around 22.5°C during the vegetative period and about 16.6°C at the time when heads were formed. In order to supply the local markets with cabbage and cauliflower during the warmer months, attention was turned to types that were capable of making satisfactory growth and forming heads during those months of the year when temperature was high. The local variety of cabbage named "Louco" (I.A.C. N.° 758, as well as the cauliflower Early Benares from India, could be cultivated in summer and fall in most mparts of São Paulo. Satisfactory growth of these types was obtained at average monthly temperatures from 20.4 to 22.6°C, and good heading when the average monthly was from 18 to 22.2°C. Improvement of the

  16. The large magnetoelectric effect in Ni-lead zirconium titanate-Ni trilayers derived by electroless deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, K; Wang, Y G; Wu, W; Pan, D A

    2010-01-01

    Magnetoelectric (ME) Ni-lead zirconium titanate-Ni trilayers with neither electrodes nor bonding layers have been derived by electroless deposition. The structure and magnetic properties of the electroless deposited Ni layers with different pH values are characterized by x-ray diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometer. The influence of the bias magnetic field and the magnetic field frequency (f) on ME coupling is discussed. It is seen that α E,31 depends strongly on H dc and f. The value of the ME coefficient increases as the thickness of the Ni layer and the pH of the bath increase. A maximum of the ME voltage coefficient α E,31 = 5.77 V cm -1 Oe -1 at resonance frequency with a deposited Ni layer thickness t Ni = 302 μm is obtained. The large ME coefficient makes these Ni-PZT-Ni trilayers suitable for applications in sensors, actuators and transducers. (fast track communication)

  17. Electrochemical Properties of Hydrogen-Storage Alloys ZrMn{sub 2}Ni{sub x} and ZrMnNi{sub 1+x} for Ni-MH Secondary Battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hye Ryoung [Faculty of Applied Chemistry, Chonnam National University, Kwangju (Korea); Kwon, Ik Hyun [Automobile High-Technology Research Institute, Division of Advanced Materials Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    In order to improve the performance of AB{sub 2}-type hydrogen-storage alloys for Ni-MH secondary battery, AB{sub 2}-type alloys, ZrMn{sub 2}Ni{sub x}(x=0.0, 0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and 1.2) and ZrMnNi{sub 1+x}(x=0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4) were prepared as the Zr-Mn-Ni three component alloys. The hydrogen-storage and the electrochemical properties were investigated. The C14 Laves phase formed in all alloys of ZrMn{sub 2}Ni{sub x}(x=0.0 {approx} 1.2). The equilibrium plateau pressure of the alloy, ZrMn{sub 2}Ni{sub 0.6}-H{sub 2} system, was about 0.5 atm at 30 degree C. Among these alloys, ZrMn{sub 2}Ni{sub 0.6} was the easiest to activate, and it had the largest discharge capacity as well as the best cycling performance. The C14 Laves phase also formed in all alloys of ZrMnNi{sub 1+x}(x=0.0 {approx} 0.4). The equilibrium plateau pressure of the alloy, ZrMnNi{sub 1.0}-H{sub 2} system, was about 0.45 atm at 30 degree C. Among these alloys, ZrMnNi{sub 1.0} was the easiest to activate, taking only 3 charge-discharge cycles, and it had the largest discharge capacity of 42 mAh/g. Among these alloys, ZrMn{sub 2}Ni{sub x}(x=0.0 {approx} 1.2) and ZrMnNi{sub 1+x}(x=0.0 {approx} 0.4), ZrMnNi{sub 1.0} had the largest discharge capacity (maximum value of 42 mAh/g), and it showed the fastest activation and good cycling performance. 23 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Cavitation resistance of surface composition "Steel-Ni-TiNi-TiNiZr-cBNCo", formed by High-Velocity Oxygen-Fuel spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blednova, Zh. M.; Dmitrenko, D. V.; Balaev, E. U. O.

    2018-01-01

    The object of the study is a multilayered surface composition "Steel - a Multicomponent material with Shape Memory Effect - a wear-resistant layer" under conditions of cavitation effects in sea water. Multicomponent TiNi-based coatings with addition of alloying elements such as Zr in an amount up to 10% mass, allow to create a composite material with a gradient of properties at the interface of layers, which gives new properties to coatings and improves their performance significantly. The use of materials with shape memory effect (SME) as surface layers or in the composition of surface layered compositions allows to provide an effective reaction of materials to the influence of external factors and adaptation to external influences. The surface composite layer cBN-10%Co has high hardness and strength, which ensures its resistance to shock cyclic influences of collapsing caverns. The increased roughness of the surface of a solid surface composite in the form of strong columnar structures ensures the crushing of vacuum voids, redistributing their effect on the entire surface, and not concentrating them in certain zones. In addition, the gradient structure of the multilayer composite coating TiNi-Ti33Ni49Zr18-cBN-10%Co Co makes it possible to create conditions for the relaxation of stresses created by the variable impact load of cavitation caverns and the manifestation of compensating internal forces due to thermo-elastic martensitic transformations of SME materials. The cavitation resistance of the coating TiNi-Ti33Ni49Zr18-cBN-10%Co according to the criterion of mass wear is 15-20 times higher than that of the base material without coating and 10-12 times higher than that of the TiNi-TiNiZr coating. The proposed architecture of the multifunctional gradient composition, "steel-Ni-TiNi- Ti33Ni49Zr18-cBN-10%Co", each layer of which has its functional purpose, allows to increase the service life of parts operating under conditions of cavitation-fatigue loading in

  19. Decay of 57Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Scardino, A.M. dos.

    1987-01-01

    The decay of 57 Ni to 57 Co was studied by gamma ray spectroscopy using both singles and coincidence spectra. The sources were obtained with the 58 Ni (Y,n) 57 Ni reaction. Natural metallic nickel was irradiated in the bremsstrahluhng beam of the linear accelerator of the Instituto de Fisica da Universidade de Sao Paulo with 30 MeV electrons. The singles espectra were taken with 104 cc HPGe detector and the coincidences espectra with 27 and 53cc Ge(Li) and 104 cc. HPGe detectors. The energies of transitions that follow the 57 Ni decay were measured using 56 Co as standard (which was obtained by (Y,np) reaction in 58 Ni) and taking into account the cascade cross-over relations. (author) [pt

  20. Development of small-scale electroplating system for Ni-63 electroplating onto Ni foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Joo; Choi, Sang Mu; Son, Kwang Jae; Hong, Jintae

    2016-01-01

    Betavoltaic battery is a device that converts the decay energy of beta-emitting radioisotopes into electric energy. Ni-63 is pure betaemitter with a low energy spectrum and significantly long half-life of 100.1 years and thus is widely used as the power source of betavoltaic battery. There are several methods for the formation of a Ni deposit onto a semiconductor such as electroplating, electroless plating, and chemical vapor deposition. In this study, small-scale radioisotope electroplating system was designed and fabricated to perform electroplating with a small amount of plating buffer and minimum exposure of radioactive materials. These procedures and the manufactured electroplating device can be applied to radioactive Ni-63 electroplating for the fabrication of a betavoltaic battery. In this study, an electroplating system for small-scale Ni electroplating was designed and manufactured. The process for the fabrication of a Ni-63 foil as the energy source of a betavoltaic battery was developed using the minimum concentration of Ni. These procedures and the manufactured electroplating device can be applied to radioactive Ni-63 electroplating for the fabrication of a betavoltaic battery

  1. Development of small-scale electroplating system for Ni-63 electroplating onto Ni foil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Joo; Choi, Sang Mu; Son, Kwang Jae; Hong, Jintae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Betavoltaic battery is a device that converts the decay energy of beta-emitting radioisotopes into electric energy. Ni-63 is pure betaemitter with a low energy spectrum and significantly long half-life of 100.1 years and thus is widely used as the power source of betavoltaic battery. There are several methods for the formation of a Ni deposit onto a semiconductor such as electroplating, electroless plating, and chemical vapor deposition. In this study, small-scale radioisotope electroplating system was designed and fabricated to perform electroplating with a small amount of plating buffer and minimum exposure of radioactive materials. These procedures and the manufactured electroplating device can be applied to radioactive Ni-63 electroplating for the fabrication of a betavoltaic battery. In this study, an electroplating system for small-scale Ni electroplating was designed and manufactured. The process for the fabrication of a Ni-63 foil as the energy source of a betavoltaic battery was developed using the minimum concentration of Ni. These procedures and the manufactured electroplating device can be applied to radioactive Ni-63 electroplating for the fabrication of a betavoltaic battery.

  2. Layering and temperature-dependent magnetization and anisotropy of naturally produced Ni/NiO multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pappas, S. D.; Trachylis, D.; Velgakis, M. J. [Laboratory of High-Tech Materials, School of Engineering, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Kapaklis, V.; Joensson, P. E.; Papaioannou, E. Th. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Delimitis, A. [Chemical Process Engineering Research Institute (CPERI), Centre for Research and Technology Hellas (CERTH), 57001 Thermi, Thessaloniki (Greece); Poulopoulos, P. [Laboratory of High-Tech Materials, School of Engineering, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Arnimallee 14, D-14195 Berlin-Dahlem (Germany); Materials Science Department, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Fumagalli, P. [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Arnimallee 14, D-14195 Berlin-Dahlem (Germany); Politis, C. [Laboratory of High-Tech Materials, School of Engineering, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas 76019 (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Ni/NiO multilayers were grown by magnetron sputtering at room temperature, with the aid of the natural oxidation procedure. That is, at the end of the deposition of each single Ni layer, air is let to flow into the vacuum chamber through a leak valve. Then, a very thin NiO layer ({approx}1.2 nm) is formed. Simulated x-ray reflectivity patterns reveal that layering is excellent for individual Ni-layer thickness larger than 2.5 nm, which is attributed to the intercalation of amorphous NiO between the polycrystalline Ni layers. The magnetization of the films, measured at temperatures 5-300 K, has almost bulk-like value, whereas the films exhibit a trend to perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) with an unusual significant positive interface anisotropy contribution, which presents a weak temperature dependence. The power-law behavior of the multilayers indicates a non-negligible contribution of higher order anisotropies in the uniaxial anisotropy. Bloch-law fittings for the temperature dependence of the magnetization in the spin-wave regime show that the magnetization in the multilayers decreases faster as a function of temperature than the one of bulk Ni. Finally, when the individual Ni-layer thickness decreases below 2 nm, the multilayer stacking vanishes, resulting in a dramatic decrease of the interface magnetic anisotropy and consequently in a decrease of the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

  3. Ni4Ti3 precipitate structures in Ni-rich NiTi shape memory alloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holec, David; Bojda, Ondřej; Dlouhý, Antonín

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 481, Sp. Iss. (2008), s. 462-465 ISSN 0921-5093. [ESOMAT 2006. Bochum, 10.09.2006-15.09.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/05/0918 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : NiTi shape memory alloys * Ni4Ti3 precipitates * Multi-step martensitic transformations Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.806, year: 2008

  4. Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting Properties of Ti-Ni-Si-O Nanostructures on Ti-Ni-Si Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ti-Ni-Si-O nanostructures were successfully prepared on Ti-1Ni-5Si alloy foils via electrochemical anodization in ethylene glycol/glycerol solutions containing a small amount of water. The Ti-Ni-Si-O nanostructures were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and diffuse reflectance absorption spectra. Furthermore, the photoelectrochemical water splitting properties of the Ti-Ni-Si-O nanostructure films were investigated. It was found that, after anodization, three different kinds of Ti-Ni-Si-O nanostructures formed in the α-Ti phase region, Ti2Ni phase region, and Ti5Si3 phase region of the alloy surface. Both the anatase and rutile phases of Ti-Ni-Si-O oxide appeared after annealing at 500 °C for 2 h. The photocurrent density obtained from the Ti-Ni-Si-O nanostructure photoanodes was 0.45 mA/cm2 at 0 V (vs. Ag/AgCl in 1 M KOH solution. The above findings make it feasible to further explore excellent photoelectrochemical properties of the nanostructure-modified surface of Ti-Ni-Si ternary alloys.

  5. Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting Properties of Ti-Ni-Si-O Nanostructures on Ti-Ni-Si Alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Ding, Dongyan; Dong, Zhenbiao; Ning, Congqin

    2017-10-31

    Ti-Ni-Si-O nanostructures were successfully prepared on Ti-1Ni-5Si alloy foils via electrochemical anodization in ethylene glycol/glycerol solutions containing a small amount of water. The Ti-Ni-Si-O nanostructures were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and diffuse reflectance absorption spectra. Furthermore, the photoelectrochemical water splitting properties of the Ti-Ni-Si-O nanostructure films were investigated. It was found that, after anodization, three different kinds of Ti-Ni-Si-O nanostructures formed in the α-Ti phase region, Ti₂Ni phase region, and Ti₅Si₃ phase region of the alloy surface. Both the anatase and rutile phases of Ti-Ni-Si-O oxide appeared after annealing at 500 °C for 2 h. The photocurrent density obtained from the Ti-Ni-Si-O nanostructure photoanodes was 0.45 mA/cm² at 0 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) in 1 M KOH solution. The above findings make it feasible to further explore excellent photoelectrochemical properties of the nanostructure-modified surface of Ti-Ni-Si ternary alloys.

  6. Nanostructure analysis of friction welded Pd-Ni-P/Pd-Cu-Ni-P metallic glass interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkubo, T.; Shoji, S.; Kawamura, Y.; Hono, K.

    2005-01-01

    Friction welded Pd 40 Ni 40 P 20 /Pd 40 Cu 30 Ni 10 P 20 metallic glass interface has been characterized by energy filtering transmission electron microscopy. The interface is fully amorphous with a gradual compositional change of Cu and Ni in the range of 30 nm. By annealing above T g , the interdiffusion of Cu and Ni progressed in the supercooled liquid region, and the crystallization occurred from the Pd 40 Ni 40 P 20 glass

  7. Ni3d-Gd4f correlation effects on the magnetic behaviour of GdNi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulose, P L [Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Bombay (India); Patil, Sujata [Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Bombay (India); Mallik, R [Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Bombay (India); Sampathkumaran, E V [Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Bombay (India); Nagarajan, V [Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Bombay (India)

    1996-07-01

    The results of magnetization and heat-capacity measurements on the alloys, Gd{sub 1-x}Y{sub x}Ni (x=0.0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 0.9) are reported. The data suggest that there is a Gd induced magnetic moment on Ni, which may in turn enhance Gd-Gd exchange interaction strength in GdNi. The induced moment (on Ni) apparently exhibits itinerant ferromagnetism in the magnetically ordered state of GdNi. (orig.).

  8. Ni-Ni ion pair excitation transfer in D sub(3h) symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrile, M.C.

    1990-01-01

    The mechanisms contributing to excitation transfer are examined for Ni-Ni ion pairs in order to explain the delocalized character of electronic excitations observed in CsNiF sub(3). Using both first-and second-order perturbation theory and from symmetry arguments, the kind of interactions giving matrix elements between states connecting different sites for the position of the excitation are discussed. (author)

  9. Study of the magnetic anisotropy in Ni/Cu and Ni/glass thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherif, S.-M.; Layadi, A.; Ben Youssef, J.; Nacereddine, C.; Roussigne, Y.

    2007-01-01

    The magnetic properties of evaporated Ni/Cu and Ni/glass thin films have been investigated by means of the vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), the Brillouin light scattering (BLS) and magnetic force microscopy (MFM). The Ni thickness, t, ranges from 31 to 165 nm. The second- and fourth-order magnetic anisotropy constants, K 1 and K 2 , have been included; for the Ni/Cu series, K 1 was found to decrease from 1.0x10 6 to 0.18x10 6 erg/cm 3 as t increases from 31 to 165 nm, while K 2 increased from 0.24x10 6 to 0.8x10 6 erg/cm 3 . Over all the thickness range, the magnetization easy axis is in plane. For thinner films, there is a good agreement between anisotropy constant values inferred from VSM and BLS. Stripe domains were observed for t≥165 nm in Ni/glass and t≥90 nm in Ni/Cu

  10. Continuum mechanics simulations of NiO/Ni-YSZ composites during reduction and re-oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihlatie, Mikko; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Kaiser, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    for the dimensional change arises from the volumetric change related to the phase change NiO ↔ Ni. The measurable change in bulk length is given by the ceramic YSZ backbone as a response to the stress created by the chemical strain. The different subprocesses described in the model for YSZ were elastic and anelastic...... expansion, diffusional creep, grain boundary sliding (GBS) and microcracking due to excessive stress. In the Ni/NiO phase, nonelastic strains in terms of diffusional and power law creep were implemented, and additionally for NiO deformation due to microcracking and/or pseudoplasticity. Semi...

  11. NiCo-lead zirconium titanate-NiCo trilayered magnetoelectric composites prepared by electroless deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, M. H.; Wang, Y. G.; Bi, K., E-mail: bike@bupt.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications and School of Science, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Fan, H. P. [School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Qingdao Technological University Qindao College, Qingdao 266106 (China); Zhao, Z. S. [Shandong Engineering Consulting Institute, Jinan 250013 (China)

    2015-04-15

    The NiCo layers with various Ni/Co atomic ratio have been successfully electroless deposited on PZT layers by varying the bath composition. As the cobalt atomic ratio in the deposited layer increases from 17.2 to 54.8 wt%, the magnetostrictive coefficient decreases. The magnetoelectric effect depends strongly on the magnetostrictive properties of magnetostrictive phase. The magnetoelectric coefficient of NiCo/PZT/NiCo trilayers increases with Ni/Co atomic ratio of the deposited NiCo layers increasing from 45:55 to 83:17. A maximum ME voltage coefficient of α{sub E,31} = 2.8 V ⋅ cm{sup −1} ⋅ Oe{sup −1} is obtained at a frequency of about 88 kHz, which makes these trilayers suitable for applications in actuators, transducers and sensors.

  12. Microstructural evolution of Ni40Zr60 alloy during early stage of mechanical alloying of intermetallic compounds NiZr2 and Ni11Zr9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Peeyew; Koch, C.C.

    1994-01-01

    The microstructural change of Ni 40 Zr 60 alloy during mechanical alloying of mixtures of the intermetallic compounds NiZr 2 and Ni 11 Zr 9 has been studied by transmission electron microscopy. A specific ''cauliflower'' phase was formed during early stage of mechanical alloying process. It is suggested that the solid state reaction between intermetallic compounds NiZr 2 and Ni 11 Zr 9 is not the only origin for the formation of the ''cauliflower'' phase. ((orig.))

  13. Impact of Interstitial Ni on the Thermoelectric Properties of the Half-Heusler TiNiSn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia A. Barczak

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available TiNiSn is an intensively studied half-Heusler alloy that shows great potential for waste heat recovery. Here, we report on the structures and thermoelectric properties of a series of metal-rich TiNi1+ySn compositions prepared via solid-state reactions and hot pressing. A general relation between the amount of interstitial Ni and lattice parameter is determined from neutron powder diffraction. High-resolution synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction reveals the occurrence of strain broadening upon hot pressing, which is attributed to the metastable arrangement of interstitial Ni. Hall measurements confirm that interstitial Ni causes weak n-type doping and a reduction in carrier mobility, which limits the power factor to 2.5–3 mW m−1 K−2 for these samples. The thermal conductivity was modelled within the Callaway approximation and is quantitively linked to the amount of interstitial Ni, resulting in a predicted value of 12.7 W m−1 K−1 at 323 K for stoichiometric TiNiSn. Interstitial Ni leads to a reduction of the thermal band gap and moves the peak ZT = 0.4 to lower temperatures, thus offering the possibility to engineer a broad ZT plateau. This work adds further insight into the impact of small amounts of interstitial Ni on the thermal and electrical transport of TiNiSn.

  14. Synthesis of microporous Ni/NiO nanoparticles with enhanced microwave absorption properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Tong; Pang, Yu; Xie, Xiubo; Qi, Wen; Wu, Ying; Kobayashi, Satoru; Zheng, Jie; Li, Xingguo

    2016-01-01

    The fabrication of microporous metal materials with many potential applications is challenging due to their high chemical activities and the difficulty in controlling the pore size. By adjusting the reaction condition and the composition of the Ni–Al nanoparticle precursor, we have successfully produced the microporous Ni nanoparticles (NPs) of 22 nm by chemical dealloying method. During the passivation process, the microporous Ni NPs covered with NiO shell are generated as the result of surface oxidation. The micropores range from 0.6 to 1.2 nm in diameter with a large surface area of 68.9 m"2/g. Due to the elimination of Al atoms during dealloying process, the crystalline size of the microporous Ni NPs is sharply decreased to 2–5 nm. The specific architecture offers the microporous Ni/NiO NPs a small microwave reflection coefficient (RC) and a wide absorption bandwidth (RC ≤ −10 dB) of −49.1 dB and 5.8 GHz, much better than the nonporous counterpart of −24.1 dB and 3.7 GHz. The enhanced microwave absorption performance has been interpreted in terms of the micropore structure, core/shell structure and nanostructure effects. - Highlights: • Microporous Ni/NiO nanoparticles are prepared by chemical dealloying method. • They possess micropores of 0.6–1.2 nm with a surface area of 68.9 m"2/g. • They show minimum microwave reflection coefficient of −49.1 dB and bandwidth of 5.8 GHz. • Microwave absorption mechanism is explained by micropore and core/shell structures.

  15. Synthesis of microporous Ni/NiO nanoparticles with enhanced microwave absorption properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tong, E-mail: tongliu@buaa.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, No.37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing, 100191 (China); Pang, Yu; Xie, Xiubo [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, No.37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing, 100191 (China); Qi, Wen; Wu, Ying [China Iron & Steel Research Institute Group, Advanced Technology & Materials Co., Ltd, No.76 Xueyuannanlu, Haidian District, Beijing, 100081 (China); Kobayashi, Satoru [Faculty of Engineering, Iwate University, Ueda, Morioka, 020-8551 (Japan); Zheng, Jie; Li, Xingguo [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), The State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Materials Chemistry and Applications, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, 100871 (China)

    2016-05-15

    The fabrication of microporous metal materials with many potential applications is challenging due to their high chemical activities and the difficulty in controlling the pore size. By adjusting the reaction condition and the composition of the Ni–Al nanoparticle precursor, we have successfully produced the microporous Ni nanoparticles (NPs) of 22 nm by chemical dealloying method. During the passivation process, the microporous Ni NPs covered with NiO shell are generated as the result of surface oxidation. The micropores range from 0.6 to 1.2 nm in diameter with a large surface area of 68.9 m{sup 2}/g. Due to the elimination of Al atoms during dealloying process, the crystalline size of the microporous Ni NPs is sharply decreased to 2–5 nm. The specific architecture offers the microporous Ni/NiO NPs a small microwave reflection coefficient (RC) and a wide absorption bandwidth (RC ≤ −10 dB) of −49.1 dB and 5.8 GHz, much better than the nonporous counterpart of −24.1 dB and 3.7 GHz. The enhanced microwave absorption performance has been interpreted in terms of the micropore structure, core/shell structure and nanostructure effects. - Highlights: • Microporous Ni/NiO nanoparticles are prepared by chemical dealloying method. • They possess micropores of 0.6–1.2 nm with a surface area of 68.9 m{sup 2}/g. • They show minimum microwave reflection coefficient of −49.1 dB and bandwidth of 5.8 GHz. • Microwave absorption mechanism is explained by micropore and core/shell structures.

  16. Effect of Ni content on the morphological evolution of Ni-YSZ solid oxide fuel cell electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen-Wiegart, Yu-chen Karen; Kennouche, David; Scott Cronin, J.; Barnett, Scott A.; Wang, Jun

    2016-02-01

    The coarsening of Ni in Ni-yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) anodes is a potential cause of long term solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) performance degradation. The specifics of the Ni-YSZ structure—including Ni/YSZ ratio, porosity, and particle size distributions—are normally selected to minimize anode polarization resistance, but they also impact long-term stability. A better understanding of how these factors influence long-term stability is important for designing more durable anodes. The effect of structural details, e.g., Ni-YSZ ratio, on Ni coarsening has not been quantified. Furthermore, prior measurements have been done by comparing evolved structures with control samples, such that sample-to-sample variations introduce errors. Here, we report a four dimensional (three spatial dimensions and time) study of Ni coarsening in Ni-YSZ anode functional layers with different Ni/YSZ ratios, using synchrotron x-ray nano-tomography. The continuous structural evolution was observed and analyzed at sub-100 nm resolution. It is shown quantitatively that increasing the Ni/YSZ ratio increases the Ni coarsening rate. This is due to both increased pore volume and a decrease in the YSZ volume fraction, such that there is more free volume and a less obtrusive YSZ network, both of which allow greater Ni coarsening. The results are shown to be in good agreement with a power-law coarsening model. The finding is critical for informing the design of SOFC electrode microstructures that limit coarsening and performance degradation.

  17. Effects of Bond Coating on NiCrBSi-Mo Composite Functional Coating Properties in Plasma Spraying NiCrBSi-Mo/Ni Coating

    OpenAIRE

    DU Ji-yu; LI Fang-yi; LU Hai-yang; SHANG Jian-tong; LI Zhen

    2017-01-01

    Nickel-based bond coating and composite functional coating were sprayed on leaf blade steel material FV520B successively by using air plasma spraying system. NiCrBSi-Mo powder deposition rate, coating porosity, bonding strength and surface hardness were tested. The results indicate that, for the NiCrBSi-Mo/Ni coating, bond coating with 180-220μm thickness can improve NiCrBSi-Mo powder deposition rate while the surface coating with lower porosity, higher bonding strength and high hardness is p...

  18. A Study on Production of Carbon Nanotubes by CH4 Decomposition over LaNiO3, La4Ni3O10, La3Ni2O7 and La2NiO4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) of narrow size distribution can be abundantly produced in the catalytic decomposition of CH4 over pre-reduced LaNiO3, La4Ni3O10, La3Ni2O7 and La2NiO4.The CNTs obtained were characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM).Thermal oxidation of CNTs in air was monitored thermogravimetrically (TG). The resultsrevealed that a lower La/Ni ratio of the catalysts would lead to a wider diameter distribution and a higher degree of graphitic nature.

  19. Effect of Ni Core Structure on the Electrocatalytic Activity of Pt-Ni/C in Methanol Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Linkov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Methanol oxidation catalysts comprising an outer Pt-shell with an inner Ni-core supported on carbon, (Pt-Ni/C, were prepared with either crystalline or amorphous Ni core structures. Structural comparisons of the two forms of catalyst were made using transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and methanol oxidation activity compared using CV and chronoamperometry (CA. While both the amorphous Ni core and crystalline Ni core structures were covered by similar Pt shell thickness and structure, the Pt-Ni(amorphous/C catalyst had higher methanol oxidation activity. The amorphous Ni core thus offers improved Pt usage efficiency in direct methanol fuel cells.

  20. Hard X-ray MCD in GdNi/sub 5/ and TbNi/sub 5/ single crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Galera, R M

    1999-01-01

    XMCD experiments have been performed at the R L/sub 2,3/ and Ni K- edges on magnetically saturated single crystals of GdNi/sub 5/ and Tb Ni/sub 5/ ferromagnetic compounds. The spectra present huge and well structured dichroic $9 signals at both the R L/sub 2,3/ and the Ni K- edges. Structures from the quadrupolar (2p to 4f) transitions are clearly observed at the R L/sub 2,3/-edges. Though Ni is not magnetic, large intensities, up to 0.4, are measured at the $9 Ni K- edge. The Ni K-edge XMCD shows a three-peak structure which intensities dependent on the rare earth. (7 refs).

  1. Lamellar-crossing-structured Ni(OH){sub 2}/CNTs/Ni(OH){sub 2} nanocomposite for electrochemical supercapacitor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Qingnan [Department of Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wen, Ming, E-mail: m_wen@tongji.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Shanghai Key Lab of Chemical Assessment and Sustainability, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Chen, Shipei [Department of Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wu, Qingsheng [Department of Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Shanghai Key Lab of Chemical Assessment and Sustainability, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Ni(OH){sub 2}/CNTs/Ni(OH){sub 2} lamellar-crossing-nanostructure with a single lamellar spacing of ∼5 nm was effectively constructed through two-phase-interface reaction process followed by the CNTs crossed among the lamellar-nanostructured Ni(OH){sub 2}. The resultant nanocomposite can offer large active surface areas and short diffusion paths for electrons and ions, and is investigated as a potential pseudocapacitor electrode material for electrochemical energy storage applications. Electrochemical data demonstrate that the as-prepared nanocomposite exhibits a high specific capacitance of ∼1600 F g{sup −1} at the scan rate of 1 mV s{sup −1} in 6 M KOH solution at normal pressure and temperature, which is great higher than Ni(OH){sub 2} (∼1200 F g{sup −1}). Furthermore, Ni(OH){sub 2}/CNTs/Ni(OH){sub 2} nanocomposite shows a higher energy density (∼125 Wh kg{sup −1}, 2 A g{sup −1}) and has a slightly decrease of 5% in specific capacitance after 1000 continuous charge/discharge cycles. - Graphical abstract: As-constructed Ni(OH){sub 2}/CNTs/Ni(OH){sub 2} lamellar-crossing-nanostructure exhibits remarkable enhancement in electrochemical stability and high specific capacity of ∼1600 F g{sup −1} at a scan rate of 1 mV s{sup −1}, suggesting promising potential for supercapacitor applications. - Highlights: • New designed lamellar-crossing-structured Ni(OH){sub 2}/CNTs/Ni(OH){sub 2} nanocomposites have been firstly reported in this work. • Ni(OH){sub 2}/CNTs/Ni(OH){sub 2} lamellar-crossing-nanostructures show firm nanostructure and excellent electrochemical stability. • Ni(OH){sub 2}/CNTs/Ni(OH){sub 2} nanocomposites exhibit excellent specific capacitance. • Ni(OH){sub 2}/CNTs/Ni(OH){sub 2} nanocomposites have the potential application in electrochemical energy storage applications.

  2. Comparative study of NiW, NiMo and MoW prepared by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, G.; Sagarzazu, A.; Villalba, R.; Ochoa, J.

    2007-01-01

    The present work concern the amorphisation process induced by mechanical alloying in the NiW, NiMo and MoW systems. The alloys chosen combine a group of transition elements varying from very similar atomic radius and electronic valences (MoW) to different ones (NiW and NiMo). The three systems achieved an amorphous state after 50 h of milling. The mechanism of amorphisation proposed for NiW and NiMo was the combined effect of an excess concentration of the solute atoms entering into the structure of one of the elements and a critical concentration of defects. Continuous formation of an amorphous phase at the interface of the crystalline phase was observed during the process. MoW seems to amorphize by continuous reduction of grain size down to a critical value where the amorphisation takes place

  3. Fe-solubility of Ni7S6 and Ni9S8: Thermodynamic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldner, P.

    2011-01-01

    Experimental data on phase equilibria have been used for thermodynamic analysis of the iron solubility of the nickel sulfides Ni 7 S 6 and Ni 9 S 8 . For both compounds, a two-sublattice approach within the framework of the compound energy formalism has been applied to perform Gibbs free energy modelling at 0.1 MPa total pressure consistently embedded in recent thermodynamic assessment studies of other iron-nickel-sulfides. The predicted maxima of iron solubility around 3 at% of Ni 7 S 6 and 5.5 at% of Ni 9 S 8 are confirmed by experimental data. The calculations of complex ternary phase relations with Fe-bearing Ni 7 S 6 and Ni 9 S 8 gain further improvement. The first internally consistent description of all thermodynamically stable phases known in the literature for the iron-nickel-sulfur system is completed.

  4. Flexible bottom-emitting white organic light-emitting diodes with semitransparent Ni/Ag/Ni anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Ja-Ryong; Lee, Seok Jae; Lee, Ho Won; Lee, Dong Hyung; Yang, Hyung Jin; Kim, Woo Young; Kim, Young Kwan

    2013-05-06

    We fabricated a flexible bottom-emitting white organic light-emitting diode (BEWOLED) with a structure of PET/Ni/Ag/Ni (3/6/3 nm)/ NPB (50 nm)/mCP (10 nm)/7% FIrpic:mCP (10 nm)/3% Ir(pq)(2) acac:TPBi (5 nm)/7% FIrpic:TPBi (5 nm)/TPBi (10 nm)/Liq (2 nm)/ Al (100 nm). To improve the performance of the BEWOLED, a multilayered metal stack anode of Ni/Ag/Ni treated with oxygen plasma for 60 sec was introduced into the OLED devices. The Ni/Ag/Ni anode effectively enhanced the probability of hole-electron recombination due to an efficient hole injection into and charge balance in an emitting layer. By comparing with a reference WOLED using ITO on glass, it is verified that the flexible BEWOLED showed a similar or better electroluminescence (EL) performance.

  5. Corrosive sliding wear behavior of laser clad Mo2Ni3Si/NiSi intermetallic coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, X.D.; Wang, H.M.

    2005-01-01

    Many ternary metal silicides such as W 2 Ni 3 Si, Ti 2 Ni 3 Si and Mo 2 Ni 3 Si with the topologically closed-packed (TCP) hP12 MgZn 2 type Laves phase crystal structure are expected to have outstanding wear and corrosion resistance due to their inherent high hardness and sluggish temperature dependence and strong atomic bonds. In this paper, Mo 2 Ni 3 Si/NiSi intermetallic coating was fabricated on substrate of an austenitic stainless steel AISI321 by laser cladding using Ni-Mo-Si elemental alloy powders. Microstructure of the coating was characterized by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS). Wear resistance of the coating is evaluated under corrosive sliding wear test condition. Influence of corrosion solutions on the wear resistance of the coating was studied and the wear mechanism was discussed based on observations of worn surface morphology. Results showed that the laser clad Mo 2 Ni 3 Si/NiSi composite coating have a fine microstructure of Mo 2 Ni 3 Si primary dendrites and the interdendritic Mo 2 Ni 3 Si/NiSi eutectics. The coating has excellent corrosive wear resistance compared with austenitic stainless steel AISI321 under acid, alkaline and saline corrosive environments

  6. Modeling and simulation of NiO dissolution and Ni deposition in molten carbonate fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Suk Woo; Choi, Hyung-Joon; Lim, Tae Hoon [Korea Institute of Science & Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Dissolution of NiO cathode into the electrolyte matrix is an important phenomena limiting the lifetime of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC). The dissolved nickel diffuses into the matrix and is reduced by dissolved hydrogen leading to the formation of metallic nickel films in the pores of the matrix. The growth of Ni films in the electrolyte matrix during the continuous cell operation results eventually in shorting between cathode and anode. Various mathematical and empirical models have been developed to describe the NiO dissolution and Ni deposition processes, and these models have some success in estimating the lifetime of MCFC by correlating the amount of Ni deposited in the matrix with shorting time. Since the exact mechanism of Ni deposition was not well understood, deposition reaction was assumed to be very fast in most of the models and the Ni deposition region was limited around a point in the matrix. In fact, formation of Ni films takes place in a rather broad region in the matrix, the location and thickness of the film depending on operating conditions as well as matrix properties. In this study, we assumed simple reaction kinetics for Ni deposition and developed a mathematical model to get the distribution of nickel in the matrix.

  7. Reduction mechanism of Ni2+ into Ni nanoparticles prepared from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. March 2009 physics pp. 577–586. Reduction mechanism of Ni2+ into Ni ..... and at high field, no domain wall is available and hence, the system becomes a .... [23] J Ding, T Tsuzuki, P G McCormick and R Street, J. Phys. D: Appl.

  8. Nickel distribution and isotopic fractionation in a Brazilian lateritic regolith: Coupling Ni isotopes and Ni K-edge XANES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratié, G.; Garnier, J.; Calmels, D.; Vantelon, D.; Guimarães, E.; Monvoisin, G.; Nouet, J.; Ponzevera, E.; Quantin, C.

    2018-06-01

    Ultramafic (UM) rocks are known to be nickel (Ni) rich and to weather quickly, which makes them a good candidate to look at the Ni isotope systematics during weathering processes at the Earth's surface. The present study aims at identifying the Ni solid speciation and discussing the weathering processes that produce Ni isotope fractionation in two deep laterite profiles under tropical conditions (Barro Alto, Goiás State, Brazil). While phyllosilicates and to a lower extent goethite are the main Ni-bearing phases in the saprolitic part of the profile, iron (Fe) oxides dominate the Ni budget in the lateritic unit. Nickel isotopic composition (δ60Ni values) has been measured in each unit of the regolith, i.e., rock, saprock, saprolite and laterite (n = 52). δ60Ni varies widely within the two laterite profiles, from -0.10 ± 0.05‰ to 1.43 ± 0.05‰, showing that significant Ni isotope fractionation occurs during the weathering of UM rocks. Overall, our results show that during weathering, the solid phase is depleted in heavy Ni isotopes due to the preferential sorption and incorporation of light Ni isotopes into Fe oxides; the same mechanisms likely apply to the incorporation of Ni into phyllosilicates (type 2:1). However, an isotopically heavy Ni pool is observed in the solid phase at the bottom of the saprolitic unit. This feature can be explained by two hypotheses that are not mutually exclusive: (i) a depletion in light Ni isotopes during the first stage of weathering due to the preferential dissolution of light Ni-containing minerals, and (ii) the sorption or incorporation of isotopically heavy Ni carried by percolating waters (groundwater samples have δ60Ni of 2.20 and 2.27‰), that were enriched in heavy Ni isotopes due to successive weathering processes in the overlying soil and laterite units.

  9. Probing the semi-magicity of $^{68}$Ni via the $^{3}$H($^{66}$Ni,$^{68}$Ni)p two-neutron transfer reaction in inverse kinematics

    CERN Multimedia

    Reiter, P; Blazhev, A A; Kruecken, R; Franchoo, S; Mertzimekis, T; Darby, I G; Van de walle, J; Raabe, R; Elseviers, J; Gernhaeuser, R A; Sorlin, O H; Georgiev, G P; Bree, N C F; Habs, D; Chapman, R; Gaudefroy, L; Diriken, J V J; Jenkins, D G; Kroell, T; Axiotis, M; Huyse, M L; Patronis, N

    We propose to perform the two-neutron transfer reaction $^{3}$H($^{66}$Ni, $^{68}$Ni)$p$ using the ISOLDE radioactive ion beam at 2.7 $A$ MeV and the MINIBALL + T-REX setup to characterize the 0$^{+}$ and 2$^{+}$ states in $^{68}$Ni.

  10. Sputtering Yields of Si and Ni from the Ni1-xSix System Studied by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Chol; Yamaguchi, Satoru; Kataoka, Yoshihide; Iwami, Motohiro; Hiraki, Akio; Satou, Mamoru; Fujimoto, Fuminori

    1982-01-01

    Sputtering yields of Si and Ni from thin layer films of Ni-Si compounds (Ni1-xSix), including the pure materials (Ni and Si), caused by 5 keV Ar+ ion bombardment were investigated using backscattering spectrometry. The sputtering yield for Si from Ni1-xSix increased with increasing Si concentration. However, there is an abrupt decrease in the yield for Si concentrations above NiSi2 to pure Si. This is in clear contrast to the sputtering yield of Ni from Ni1-xSix which increased with increasing Ni concentration monotonously. These results are discussed on the basis of both the difference in the atomic density and the electronic state of the alloy.

  11. Commercial versus synthesized polymers for soil erosion control and growth of Chinese cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Soo; Chang, Scott X; Chang, Yoon-Young; Ok, Yong Sik

    2013-01-01

    Soil erosion leads to environmental degradation and reduces soil productivity. The use of anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) and synthesized biopolymer (BP) using lignin, corn starch, acrylamide, and acrylic acid were tested to evaluate soil erosion, water quality, and growth of Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L.). Each treatment of PAM and BP was applied at 200 kg ha(-1) to loamy sand soil and subjected to a slope of 36% with a 20 mm h(-1) simulated rainfall. Application of BP decreased soil pH compared to the untreated check (CK); however, the soil pH was not altered with PAM. The decrease in pH might most likely be due to availability of anionic sites to be protonated on soils having pH >6 and soil buffering capacity. Both PAM and BP applications may not induce eutrophication with stable levels of total contents of N and P. With PAM and BP, the average values of suspended soil (SS) and turbidity were reduced by up to 96.0 and 99.9%, respectively, compared to CK. Reduction of SS can be attributed to increasing soil stability and shear strength by clay flocculation. There was no toxicity effects resulting from germination tests and the dry weight was increased by 17.7% (vs. CK) when PAM and BP were applied. These results are attributed to increases in water retention and plant-available water. The use of polymeric soil amendments is an environmentally friendly way to mitigate soil erosion and nonpoint source pollution.

  12. Effect of Ni4Ti3 precipitation on martensitic transformation in Ti-Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, N.; Shen, C.; Wagner, M.F.-X.; Eggeler, G.; Mills, M.J.; Wang, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Precipitation of Ni 4 Ti 3 plays a critical role in determining the martensitic transformation path and temperature in Ni-Ti shape memory alloys. In this study, the equilibrium shape of a coherent Ni 4 Ti 3 precipitate and the concentration and stress fields around it are determined quantitatively using the phase field method. Most recent experimental data on lattice parameters, elastic constants, precipitate-matrix orientation relationship and thermodynamic database are used as model inputs. The effects of the concentration and stress fields on subsequent martensitic transformations are analyzed through interaction energy between a nucleating martensitic particle and the existing microstructure. Results indicate that R-phase formation prior to B19' phase could be attributed to both direct elastic interaction and stress-induced spatial variation in concentration near Ni 4 Ti 3 precipitates. The preferred nucleation sites for the R-phase are close to the broad side of the lenticular-shaped Ni 4 Ti 3 precipitates, where tension normal to the habit plane is highest, and Ni concentration is lowest.

  13. Study of the magnetic anisotropy in Ni/Cu and Ni/glass thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherif, S.-M. [Laboratoire PMTM, Institut Galilee, Univeriste Paris 13, Villetaneuse, 93340 (France); Layadi, A. [Departement de Physique, Universite Ferhat Abbas, Setif 19000 (Algeria)]. E-mail: a_layadi@yahoo.fr; Ben Youssef, J. [Laboratoire de Magnetisme de Bretagne, U.B.O., Brest 29238 (France); Nacereddine, C. [Departement de Physique, Universite Ferhat Abbas, Setif 19000 (Algeria); Roussigne, Y. [Laboratoire PMTM, Institut Galilee, Univeriste Paris 13, Villetaneuse, 93340 (France)

    2007-01-01

    The magnetic properties of evaporated Ni/Cu and Ni/glass thin films have been investigated by means of the vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), the Brillouin light scattering (BLS) and magnetic force microscopy (MFM). The Ni thickness, t, ranges from 31 to 165 nm. The second- and fourth-order magnetic anisotropy constants, K {sub 1} and K {sub 2}, have been included; for the Ni/Cu series, K {sub 1} was found to decrease from 1.0x10{sup 6} to 0.18x10{sup 6} erg/cm{sup 3} as t increases from 31 to 165 nm, while K {sub 2} increased from 0.24x10{sup 6} to 0.8x10{sup 6} erg/cm{sup 3}. Over all the thickness range, the magnetization easy axis is in plane. For thinner films, there is a good agreement between anisotropy constant values inferred from VSM and BLS. Stripe domains were observed for t{>=}165 nm in Ni/glass and t{>=}90 nm in Ni/Cu.

  14. Electrochemical preparation and characteristics of Ni-Co-LaNi{sub 5} composite coatings as electrode materials for hydrogen evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Gang; Li Ning; Dai Changsong; Zhou Derui

    2004-02-15

    Electrocatalytic activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction on Ni-Co-LaNi{sub 5} composite electrodes prepared by electrochemical codeposition technique was evaluated. The relationship between the current density for hydrogen evolution reaction and the amount of LaNi{sub 5} particles in Ni-Co baths is like the well-known 'volcano plot'. The Surface morphology and microstructure of Ni-Co-LaNi{sub 5} coatings were determined by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The kinetic parameters were determined from electrochemical steady-state Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technology in 1 M NaOH solution. The values obtained for the apparent energies of activation are 32.48, 46.29 and 57.03 kJ mol{sup -1} for the Ni-Co-LaNi{sub 5}, Ni-Co and Ni electrodes, respectively. The hydrogen evolution reaction on Ni-Co-LaNi{sub 5} proceeds via Volmer-Tafel reaction route with the mixed rate determining characteristics. The composite coating Ni-Co-LaNi{sub 5} is catalytically more active than Ni and Ni-Co electrodes due to the increase in its real surface areas and the decrease in the apparent free energy of activation caused by the electrocatalytic synergistic effect of the Ni-Co alloys and the hydrogen storage intermetallic particles on the electrode surface.

  15. Compositional and structural characterisation of Ni-phyllosilicates in hydrous silicate type Ni-laterite deposits

    OpenAIRE

    Villanova de Benavent, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Ni-bearing Mg-phyllosilicates (commonly known as garnierites) are significant ore minerals in many Ni-laterite deposits worldwide. However, the characterisation of these mineral phases is complex, as well as their classification and nomenclature, due to their fine-grained nature, low crystallinity and frequent occurrence as mixtures. The aim of this study is to shed some light to the nature of the Ni-bearing Mg-phyllosilicates occurring at the Falcondo Ni-laterite. In this deposit, these ...

  16. Influence of Ni Solute segregation on the intrinsic growth stresses in Cu(Ni) thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaub, T.M.; Felfer, P.; Cairney, J.M.; Thompson, G.B.

    2016-01-01

    Using intrinsic solute segregation in alloys, the compressive stress in a series of Cu(Ni) thin films has been studied. The highest compressive stress was noted in the 5 at.% Ni alloy, with increasing Ni concentration resulting in a subsequent reduction of stress. Atom probe tomography quantified Ni's Gibbsian interfacial excess in the grain boundaries and confirmed that once grain boundary saturation is achieved, the compressive stress was reduced. This letter provides experimental support in elucidating how interfacial segregation of excess adatoms contributes to the post-coalescence compressive stress generation mechanism in thin films. - Graphical abstract: Cu(Ni) film stress relationship with Ni additions. Atom probe characterization confirms solute enrichment in the boundaries, which was linked to stress response.

  17. A Study of the Efficacy of Various Nutrient Sources on the Growth and Yield of Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moch. Dawam Maghfoer

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Research evaluated various nitrogen sources, and a supplementary foliar fertilizer or biochar on cabbage. It was conducted from July to October 2014 in Poncokusumo, Malang ca. 600 meters above sea level. The experiment used a randomized block design with four replications. The treatments were fertilized with different concentrations of urea, goat manure and selected substances i.e. 100% N urea (controls; 75% N urea + 25% N goat manure; 50% N urea + 50% N goat manure; 75% N urea + 25% N goat manure + foliar fertilizer (6-30-30, 50% N urea + 50% N goat manure + foliar fertilizer (6-30-30; 75% N urea + 25% N manure + biochar; and 50% N urea + 50% N goat manure + biochar. The dose of N fertilizer used was 69 kg ha-1. The results showed that a higher yield was recorded in the application of 75% N urea + 25% N goat manure and 50% N urea + 50% N manure with an addition of foliar fertilizer that was not significant with the application of 75% N urea + 25% N goat manure with the addition of biochar, resulting in a marketable yield of 68.84, 66.5 and 64.75 t ha-1, respectively.

  18. Phase Equilibria of the Sn-Ni-Si Ternary System and Interfacial Reactions in Sn-(Cu)/Ni-Si Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Gu; Chen, Chih-chi

    2015-07-01

    Interfacial reactions in Sn/Ni-4.5 wt.%Si and Sn-Cu/Ni-4.5 wt.%Si couples at 250°C, and Sn-Ni-Si ternary phase equilibria at 250°C were investigated in this study. Ni-Si alloys, which are nonmagnetic, can be regarded as a diffusion barrier layer material in flip chip packaging. Solder/Ni-4.5 wt.%Si interfacial reactions are crucial to the reliability of soldered joints. Phase equilibria information is essential for development of solder/Ni-Si materials. No ternary compound is present in the Sn-Ni-Si ternary system at 250°C. Extended solubility of Si in the phases Ni3Sn2 and Ni3Sn is 3.8 and 6.1 at.%, respectively. As more Si dissolves in these phases their lattice constants decrease. No noticeable ternary solubility is observed for the other intermetallics. Interfacial reactions in solder/Ni-4.5 wt.%Si are similar to those for solder/Ni. Si does not alter the reaction phases. No Si solubility in the reaction phases was detected, although rates of growth of the reaction phases were reduced. Because the alloy Ni-4.5 wt.%Si reacts more slowly with solders than pure Ni, the Ni-4.5 wt.%Si alloy could be a potential new diffusion barrier layer material for flip chip packaging.

  19. Exchange bias coupling in NiO/Ni bilayer tubular nanostructures synthetized by electrodeposition and thermal oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, T., E-mail: work_tian@scu.edu.cn [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Zhang, Z.W.; Xu, Y.H. [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Liu, Y. [Analytical & Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Li, W.J. [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Nie, Y.; Zhang, X. [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Xiang, G., E-mail: gxiang@scu.edu.cn [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we reported the synthesis of NiO/Ni bilayer nanotubes by electrodeposition and thermal oxidation using anodic aluminum oxide templates. The morphology, structure, chemical composition and magnetic properties, especially magnetic exchange bias induced by subsequent magnetic field cooling, in this one-dimensional antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic hybrid system were investigated. It was found that the effect of the annealing temperature, which mainly dominated the thickness of the NiO layer, and the annealing time, which mainly dominated the grain size of the NiO, on the exchange bias field showed competitive relationship. The optimized exchange bias field was achieved by the combination of the shorter annealing time and higher annealing temperature. - Highlights: • NiO-Ni bilayer tubular nanotubes were fabricated by electrodeposition and thermal oxidation. • The exchange bias effect in NiO-Ni nanotubes was induced by magnetic field cooling. • The competitive effect of annealing temperature and annealing time on the exchange bias coupling was analyzed.

  20. Effects of phase transformation and interdiffusion on the exchange bias of NiFe/NiMn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Chih-Huang; Lien, W. C.; Chen, F. R.; Kai, J. J.; Mao, S.

    2001-01-01

    The correlation between the exchange field of NiFe/NiMn and the phase transformation of NiMn was investigated. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) dark-field images, contributed by the order phase of NiMn, were used to identify the location and volume fraction of the order phase. TEM selected area diffraction patterns showed the (110) superlattice diffraction rings of NiMn, verifying the existence of the order phase in the annealed samples. The order volume fraction can be calculated by the dark field image contributed by the (110) diffraction. The exchange field increased almost linearly with increasing order volume fraction. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy attached to TEM indicated that Mn diffused into NiFe for annealing at 280 degreeC, leading to a larger coercivity and small coercivity squareness. Part of the NiMn still maintains the paramagnetic phase even after annealing at 280 degreeC. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  1. Radioactive 63Ni in biological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasprzak, K.S.; Sunderman, F.W. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Applications of 63 Ni in biological research are reviewed, with emphasis upon recent investigations of nickel metabolism and toxicology in experimental animals. The radiochemistry of 63 Ni is summarized, including consideration of the preparation of certain 63 Ni compounds (e.g. 63 Ni(CO) 4 and 63 Ni 3 S 2 ) that are of current interest in toxicology, teratology and cancer research. Practical guidance is given regarding the detection and determination of 63 Ni in biological materials by autoradiography and liquid scintillation spectrometry. (author)

  2. Effect of Ni content on the morphological evolution of Ni-YSZ solid oxide fuel cell electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen-Wiegart, Yu-chen Karen; Kennouche, David; Scott Cronin, J.; Barnett, Scott A.; Wang, Jun

    2016-02-22

    The coarsening of Ni in Ni–yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) anodes is a potential cause of long term solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) performance degradation. The specifics of the Ni-YSZ structure—including Ni/YSZ ratio, porosity, and particle size distributions—are normally selected to minimize anode polarization resistance, but they also impact long-term stability. A better understanding of how these factors influence long-term stability is important for designing more durable anodes. The effect of structural details, e.g., Ni-YSZ ratio, on Ni coarsening has not been quantified. Furthermore, prior measurements have been done by comparing evolved structures with control samples, such that sample-to-sample variations introduce errors. Here, we report a four dimensional (three spatial dimensions and time) study of Ni coarsening in Ni-YSZ anode functional layers with different Ni/YSZ ratios, using synchrotron x-ray nano-tomography. The continuous structural evolution was observed and analyzed at sub-100 nm resolution. It is shown quantitatively that increasing the Ni/YSZ ratio increases the Ni coarsening rate. This is due to both increased pore volume and a decrease in the YSZ volume fraction, such that there is more free volume and a less obtrusive YSZ network, both of which allow greater Ni coarsening. The results are shown to be in good agreement with a power-law coarsening model. The finding is critical for informing the design of SOFC electrode microstructures that limit coarsening and performance degradation.

  3. Neutron enrichment at midrapidity in 58Ni + 58Ni at 52 MeV/u

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theriault, D.; Vallee, A.; Gingras, L.; Larochelle, Y.; Roy, R.; April, A.; Beaulieu, L.; Grenier, F.; Lemieux, F.; Moisan, J.; Samri, M.; Saint-Pierre, C.; Turbide, S.; Yennello, S.J.; Martin, E.; Winchester, E.

    2003-01-01

    By combining data from a charged particle 58 Ni + 58 Ni experiment at 52 MeV/u with an 36 Ar + 58 Ni experiment at 50 MeV/u for which free neutrons have been detected, an increase in the neutron to proton ratio of the whole nuclear material at midrapidity has been experimentally observed in the reaction 58 Ni + 58 Ni at 52 MeV/u. The neutron to proton ratio is measured above the initial neutron to proton ratio of the system. Neutron to proton ratio of the quasi-projectile emission is analysed for the same reactions and is seen to decrease below the ratio of the initial system. (authors)

  4. Microbiological analysis and evaluation of Good Manufacturing Practices during the processing of raw white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata f. alba served in a self-service restaurant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhonathan Campos do Couto Beltrão

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The consumption of meals outside the home has become an increasingly common practice in the life of the Brazilian population and of everyone. Objective: The aim of this work was to evaluate the microbiological quality of raw white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata f. alba, served in an institutional self-service restaurant, in the different stages of processing (reception, sanitation, slicing, cooling and distribution. In addition, Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP were evaluated through a checklist. Method: Total coliform, Escherichia coli and total aerobic bacteria were counted and Salmonella spp. was searched. Results: A sample collected at the reception stage showed Salmonella spp. Sanitization eliminated Salmonella spp. and reduced total coliforms and E. coli to undetectable numbers. The environment, the equipment and the manipulation strongly influenced the microbiological quality of food. Samples collected on day 4, after slicing, showed 3.2 log CFU of E. coli per g and at distribution 4.1 log CFU/g, which indicates unsatisfactory hygienic conditions. The restaurant had 55.75% compliance with GMP items, being classified as regular (Group 2, in accordance with RDC n° 275/2002. Conclusions: The non-conformities (37.00% observed in the exposure to prepared food consumption may be influencing the microbiological quality of raw white cabbage salad served. In this way we highlight the importance of the application of GMP in the production process to obtain a safe food and the compliance with the four POP required by RDC n° 216/2004.

  5. XRD studies on solid state amorphisation in electroless Ni/P and Ni/B deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampath Kumar, P.; Kesavan Nair, P.

    1996-01-01

    The decomposition of electroless Ni-P and Ni-B deposits on annealing at various temperature is studied using x-ray diffraction techniques employing profile deconvolution and line profile analysis. It appears that solid state amorphisation takes place in the Ni-B deposits in a narrow temperature range just prior to the onset of crystallization of amorphous phase. In the case of Ni-P deposits no evidence for solid state amorphisation could be obtained. Thermodynamic and kinetic considerations also support such a conclusion

  6. Electrochemically induced transformation of NiS nanoparticles into Ni(OH)2 in KOH aqueous solution toward electrochemical capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Linrui; Yuan Changzhou; Li Diankai; Yang Long; Shen Laifa; Zhang Fang; Zhang Xiaogang

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → NiS is synthesized by means of the H 2 O/CS 2 interface under hydrothermal treatment. → NiS itself owns poor electrochemical capacitance in 2 M KOH solution. → NiS is electrochemically induced and transformed into electroactive Ni(OH) 2 . → Ni(OH) 2 is responsible for good energy storage of the NiS in the KOH solution. → The new formed Ni(OH) 2 delivers large energy density at high rates. - Abstract: Nickel sulfide nanoparticles (NPs) are first synthesized by virtue of a unique H 2 O/CS 2 interface under mild hydrothermal treatment. Electrochemical data reveals that the as-synthesized NiS NPs themselves own poor supercapacitive behavior at initial cyclic voltammetry (CV) cycles in 2 M KOH solution, while a specific capacitance of 893 F g -1 can be surprisingly obtained at a current density of 5 A g -1 just after continuous 320 CV cycles. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared techniques demonstrate that what is really responsible for the good electrochemical capacitance in the KOH aqueous solution is the new electrochemically formed Ni(OH) 2 phase, rather than NiS NPs themselves. The Ni(OH) 2 is slowly formed during the continuous CV cycling process, in which the electrochemically induced phase transformation from NiS to Ni(OH) 2 phase takes place. Furthermore, the new Ni(OH) 2 phase demonstrates the great ability of delivering large specific capacitance at high rates.

  7. Effect of amorphous Mg50Ni50 on hydriding and dehydriding behavior of Mg2Ni alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman, D.; Ordonez, S.; Fernandez, J.F.; Sanchez, C.; Serafini, D.; Rojas, P.A.; Aguilar, C.; Tapia, P.

    2011-01-01

    Composite Mg 2 Ni (25 wt.%) amorphous Mg 50 Ni 50 was prepared by mechanical milling starting with nanocrystalline Mg 2 Ni and amorphous Mg 50 Ni 50 powders, by using a SPEX 8000 D mill. The morphological and microstructural characterization of the powders was performed via scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The hydriding characterization of the composite was performed via a solid gas reaction method in a Sievert's-type apparatus at 363 K under an initial hydrogen pressure of 2 MPa. The dehydriding behavior was studied by differential thermogravimetry. On the basis of the results, it is possible to conclude that amorphous Mg 50 Ni 50 improved the hydriding and dehydriding kinetics of Mg 2 Ni alloy upon cycling. A tentative rationalization of experimental observations is proposed. - Research Highlights: → First study of the hydriding behavior of composite Mg 2 Ni (25 wt.%) amorphous Mg 50 Ni 50 . → Microstructural characterization of composite material using XRD and SEM was obtained. → An improved effect of Mg 50 Ni 50 on the Mg 2 Ni hydriding behavior was verified. → The apparent activation energy for the hydrogen desorption of composite was obtained.

  8. Microstructure and electrochemical characterization of laser melt-deposited Ti2Ni3Si/NiTi intermetallic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Lixin; Wang Huaming

    2008-01-01

    Corrosion and wear resistant Ti 2 Ni 3 Si/NiTi intermetallic alloys with Ti 2 Ni 3 Si as the reinforcing phase and the ductile NiTi as the toughening phase were designed and fabricated by the laser melt-deposition manufacturing process. Electrochemical behavior of the alloys was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization testing and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in an NaOH solution. The results showed that the alloys have outstanding corrosion resistance due to the formation of a protective passive surface film of Ni(OH) 2 as well as the high chemical stability and strong inter-atomic bonds inherent to Ti 2 Ni 3 Si and NiTi intermetallics. The Ti 2 Ni 3 Si content has a significant influence on the microstructure of the alloys but only a slight effect on electrochemical corrosion properties

  9. Preharvest internalization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 into lettuce leaves, as affected by insect and physical damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Marilyn C; Liao, Jean; Payton, Alison S; Riley, David G; Webb, Cathy C; Davey, Lindsey E; Kimbrel, Sophia; Ma, Li; Zhang, Guodong; Flitcroft, Ian; Doyle, Michael P; Beuchat, Larry R

    2010-10-01

    Environmental pests may serve as reservoirs and vectors of zoonotic pathogens to leafy greens; however, it is unknown whether insect pests feeding on plant tissues could redistribute these pathogens present on the surface of leaves to internal sites. This study sought to differentiate the degree of tissue internalization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 when applied at different populations on the surface of lettuce and spinach leaves, and to ascertain whether lettuce-infesting insects or physical injury could influence the fate of either surface or internalized populations of this enteric pathogen. No internalization of E. coli O157:H7 occurred when lettuce leaves were inoculated with 4.4 log CFU per leaf, but it did occur when inoculated with 6.4 log CFU per leaf. Internalization was statistically greater when spinach leaves were inoculated on the abaxial (underside) than when inoculated on the adaxial (topside) side, and when the enteric pathogen was spread after surface inoculation. Brief exposure (∼18 h) of lettuce leaves to insects (5 cabbage loopers, 10 thrips, or 10 aphids) prior to inoculation with E. coli O157:H7 resulted in significantly reduced internalized populations of the pathogen within these leaves after approximately 2 weeks, as compared with leaves not exposed to insects. Surface-contaminated leaves physically injured through file abrasions also had significantly reduced populations of both total and internalized E. coli O157:H7 as compared with nonabraded leaves 2 weeks after pathogen exposure.

  10. Precipitation of Ni4Ti3-variants in a polycrystalline Ni-rich NiTi shape memory alloy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bojda, Ondřej; Eggeler, G.; Dlouhý, Antonín

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2005), s. 99-104 ISSN 1359-6462 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/05/0918 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : NiTi shape memory alloys * Ni4Ti3 precipitation * Transmission electron microscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.228, year: 2005

  11. Rapid synthesis of binary α-NiS–β-NiS by microwave autoclave for rechargeable lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idris, Nurul Hayati; Rahman, Md Mokhlesur; Chou, Shu-Lei; Wang Jiazhao; Wexler, David; Liu, Hua-Kun

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► NiS has been synthesized by a rapid, one-pot, hydrothermal microwave autoclave method. ► The α-NiS–β-NiS sample synthesized at 160 °C yielded good electrochemical performance in terms of high reversible capacity (320 mAh g −1 at 0.1C up to 100 cycles). ► At high rates, the sample operated at a good fraction of its capacity. - Abstract: To reduce the reaction time, electrical energy consumption, and cost, binary α-NiS–β-NiS has been synthesized by a rapid, one-pot, hydrothermal autoclave microwave method within 15 min at temperatures of 160–180 °C. The microstructure and morphology of the α-NiS–β-NiS products were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). At 140 °C, pure hexagonal NiAs-type α-NiS phase was identified from the XRD patterns. With increasing reaction temperature (160–180 °C), the XRD evidence indicates that an increasing fraction of rhombohedral millerite-like β-NiS is formed as a secondary phase. The α-NiS–β-NiS sample synthesized at 160 °C yielded good electrochemical performance in term of high reversible capacity (320 mAh g −1 at 0.1C up to 100 cycles). Even at high rates, the sample operated at a good fraction of its capacity. The likely contributing factor to the superior electrochemical performance of the α-NiS–β-NiS sample could be related to the improved morphology. TEM imaging confirmed that needle-like protrusions connect the clusters of α-NiS particles, and the individual protrusions indicated a very high surface area including folded sheet morphology, which helps to dissipate the surface accumulation of Li + ions and facilitate rapid mobility. These factors help to enhance the amount of lithium intercalated within the material.

  12. Effect of amount of glycine as fuel in obtaining nanocomposite Ni/NiO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoes, A.N.; Simoes, V.N.; Neiva, L.S.; Quirino, M.R.; Vieira, D.A.; Gama, L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes to investigate the effect of the amount of glycine in obtaining nanocomposite Ni/NiO synthesized by combustion reaction technique. The amount of glycine used was calculated on the stoichiometric composition of 50% and 100%. Characterizations by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption by the BET method and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were performed with powder of Ni/NiO result. The analysis of X-ray diffraction showed the presence of crystalline NiO phase in the presence of nickel as a secondary phase, whose amount increased with the amount of glycine. Increasing the concentration of glycine also caused an increase in surface area, which ranged from 1.1 to 1.4 m 2 /g. The micrographs revealed the formation of soft agglomerates with porous appearance and easy dispersions. It can be concluded that the synthesis is effective to obtain nanosized powders. (author)

  13. Effect of solute atoms on swelling in Ni alloys and pure Ni under He + ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakai, E.; Ezawa, T.; Imamura, J.; Takenaka, T.; Tanabe, T.; Oshima, R.

    2002-12-01

    The effects of solute atoms on microstructural evolutions have been investigated using Ni alloys under 25 keV He + irradiation at 500 °C. The specimens used were pure Ni, Ni-Si, Ni-Co, Ni-Cu, Ni-Mn and Ni-Pd alloys with different volume size factors. The high number densities of dislocation loops about 1.5×10 22 m -3 were formed in the specimens irradiated to 1×10 19 ions/m 2, and they were approximately equivalent, except for Ni-Si. The mean size of loops tended to increase with the volume size factor of solute atoms. In a dose of 4×10 20 ions/m 2, the swelling was changed from 0.2% to 4.5%, depending on the volume size factors. The number densities of bubbles tended to increase with the absolute values of the volume size factor, and the swelling increased with the volume size factors. This suggests that the mobility of helium and vacancy atoms may be influenced by the interaction of solute atoms with them.

  14. Effect of NiO inserted layer on spin-Hall magnetoresistance in Pt/NiO/YIG heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang, T.; Zhan, Q. F.; Yang, H. L.; Zuo, Z. H.; Xie, Y. L.; Liu, L. P.; Zhang, S. L.; Zhang, Y.; Li, H. H.; Wang, B. M.; Li, Run-Wei; Wu, Y. H.; Zhang, S.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate spin-current transport with an antiferromagnetic insulator NiO thin layer by means of the spin-Hall magnetoresistance (SMR) over a wide range of temperature in Pt/NiO/Y_3Fe_5O_1_2 (Pt/NiO/YIG) heterostructures. The SMR signal is comparable to that without the NiO layer as long as the temperature is near or above the blocking temperature of the NiO, indicating that the magnetic fluctuation of the insulating NiO is essential for transmitting the spin current from the Pt to YIG layer. On the other hand, the SMR signal becomes negligibly small at low temperature, and both conventional anisotropic magnetoresistance and the anomalous Hall resistance are extremely small at any temperature, implying that the insertion of the NiO has completely suppressed the Pt magnetization induced by the YIG magnetic proximity effect (MPE). The dual roles of the thin NiO layer are, to suppress the magnetic interaction or MPE between Pt and YIG, and to maintain efficient spin current transmission at high temperature.

  15. Chemical vapor deposition of NiSi using Ni(PF3)4 and Si3H8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, M.; Muramoto, I.; Machida, H.; Imai, S.; Ogura, A.; Ohshita, Y.

    2007-01-01

    NiSi x films were deposited using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with a Ni(PF 3 ) 4 and Si 3 H 8 /H 2 gas system. The step coverage quality of deposited NiSi x was investigated using a horizontal type of hot-wall low pressure CVD reactor, which maintained a constant temperature throughout the deposition area. The step coverage quality improved as a function of the position of the gas flow direction, where PF 3 gas from decomposition of Ni(PF 3 ) 4 increased. By injecting PF 3 gas into the Ni(PF 3 ) 4 and Si 3 H 8 /H 2 gas system, the step coverage quality markedly improved. This improvement in step coverage quality naturally occurred when PF 3 gas was present, indicating a strong relationship. The Si/Ni deposit ratio at 250 deg. C is larger than at 180 deg. C. It caused a decreasing relative deposition rate of Ni to Si. PF 3 molecules appear to be adsorbed on the surface of the deposited film and interfere with faster deposition of active Ni deposition species

  16. Tracer diffusion of 60Co and 63Ni in amorphous NiZr alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, K.; Averback, R.S.; Hahn, H.; Rothman, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    Tracer diffusion of 60 Co and 63 Ni in equiatomic amorphous NiZr alloy in the temperature range between 486 and 641 0 K can be described by: D/sub Co/sup */ = 3.7 x 10 -7 exp[-(135 +- 14) kJ mole -1 /RT] m 2 /sec and D/sub Ni//sup */ = 1.7 x 10 -7 exp[-(140 +- 9) kJ mole -1 /RT] m 2 /sec. The values of D/sub Ni//sup */ are in reasonable agreement with those measured by the Rutherford backscattering technique. The measured diffusivities were independent of time, indicating that no relaxation took place during diffusion. 27 refs., 2 tabs

  17. Electroplated Ni on the PN Junction Semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Joo; Uhm, Young Rang; Son, Kwang Jae; Kim, Jong Bum; Choi, Sang Moo; Park, Jong Han; Hong, Jintae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Nickel (Ni) electroplating was implemented by using a metal Ni powder in order to establish a Ni-63 plating condition on the PN junction semiconductor needed for production of betavoltaic battery. PN junction semiconductors with a Ni seed layer of 500 and 1000 A were coated with Ni at current density from 10 to 50 mA cm{sup 2}. The surface roughness and average grain size of Ni deposits were investigated by XRD and SEM techniques. The roughness of Ni deposit was increased as the current density was increased, and decreased as the thickness of Ni seed layer was increased.

  18. Electroplated Ni on the PN Junction Semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Joo; Uhm, Young Rang; Son, Kwang Jae; Kim, Jong Bum; Choi, Sang Moo; Park, Jong Han; Hong, Jintae

    2015-01-01

    Nickel (Ni) electroplating was implemented by using a metal Ni powder in order to establish a Ni-63 plating condition on the PN junction semiconductor needed for production of betavoltaic battery. PN junction semiconductors with a Ni seed layer of 500 and 1000 A were coated with Ni at current density from 10 to 50 mA cm 2 . The surface roughness and average grain size of Ni deposits were investigated by XRD and SEM techniques. The roughness of Ni deposit was increased as the current density was increased, and decreased as the thickness of Ni seed layer was increased

  19. Characterization and electrochemical properties of Ni(Si)/Ni5Si2 multiphase coatings prepared by HVOF spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdian, M. M.; Raeissi, K.; Salehi, M.

    2012-11-01

    Ni(Si)/Ni5Si2 powders were produced by mechanical alloying (MA) of Ni-25 at.% Si powder mixture. Then, the as-milled powders were sprayed onto copper substrate using high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) process. The phase composition and microstructure of the coatings were examined by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. Polarization tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were also employed to study corrosion performance of the coatings in 3.5% NaCl solution. The results showed that although single phase Ni3Si was formed during annealing of Ni(Si)/Ni5Si2 powders, but, only Ni(Si) and Ni5Si2 are present in HVOF coatings and no new phase has been formed during spraying. The coatings had microhardness up to 746 HV0.05. Further investigations showed the corrosion performance of multiphase coatings in 3.5% NaCl solution was better than that of copper substrate. The phase transitions during MA, HVOF and annealing processes were discussed in association with Ni-Si phase diagram and nature of each process.

  20. Amorphous NiFe-OH/NiFeP Electrocatalyst Fabricated at Low Temperature for Water Oxidation Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Hanfeng

    2017-04-11

    Water splitting driven by electricity or sunlight is one of the most promising ways to address the global terawatt energy needs of future societies; however, its large-scale application is limited by the sluggish kinetics of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). NiFe-based compounds, mainly oxides and hydroxides, are well-known OER catalysts and have been intensively studied; however, the utilization of the synergistic effect between two different NiFe-based materials to further boost the OER performance has not been achieved to date. Here, we report the rapid conversion of NiFe double hydroxide into metallic NiFeP using PH3 plasma treatment and further construction of amorphous NiFe hydroxide/NiFeP/Ni foam as efficient and stable oxygen-evolving anodes. The strong electronic interactions between NiFe hydroxide and NiFeP significantly lower the adsorption energy of H2O on the hybrid and thus lead to enhanced OER performance. As a result, the hybrid catalyst can deliver a geometrical current density of 300 mA cm–2 at an extremely low overpotential (258 mV, after ohmic-drop correction), along with a small Tafel slope of 39 mV decade–1 and outstanding long-term durability in alkaline media.

  1. Qualidade de couve-chinesa minimamente processada e tratada com diferentes produtos Quality of Chinese cabbage minimally processed and treated with different products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Marta Evangelista

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade de couve-chinesa minimamente processada e tratada com cloreto de cálcio (CaCl2, ácido ascórbico (vitamina C, ácido etileno-diamino-tetracético (EDTA e mantida sob refrigeração. Foram realizados os seguintes tratamentos: T1: testemunha (imersão em água contendo 50 mg L-1 clorin/5 minutos; T2: imersão em solução contendo CaCl2 a 1%/5 minutos; T3: imersão em solução contendo CaCl2 a 2%/5 minutos; T4: imersão em solução contendo vitamina C a 1%/5 minutos; T5: imersão em solução contendo Vitamina C a 2%/5 minutos; T6: imersão em solução contendo EDTA a 1%/5 minutos; e T7: imersão em solução contendo EDTA a 2%/5 minutos. Após a realização dos tratamentos a couve-chinesa foi centrifugada, embalada em bandejas de polietileno expandido, recoberta com policloreto de vinila (PVC e armazenada em temperatura de 5 ± 1 °C e umidade relativa (UR de 90 ± 2% por 8 dias. As análises físico-químicas, químicas e sensoriais foram realizadas de dois em dois dias. A presença de Salmonella foi verificada somente após a realização dos tratamentos. A partir dos resultados obtidos procedeu-se à análise de variância (ANAVA e aplicou-se o teste de Tukey considerando-se um nível de significância p The present research aimed at evaluating the quality of minimally processed Chinese cabbage treated with calcium chloride (CaCl2, ascorbic acid (vitamin C, and ethylene-diamine-tetracetic acid (EDTA and kept under refrigeration. Treatments were as follows: T1: control (immersion in water containing 50 mg L-1 Clorin/5 minutes; T2: immersion in 1% CaCl2 solution/5 minutes; T3: immersion in 2% aCl2 solution/5 minutes; T4: immersion in 1% vitamin C solution/5 minutes; T5: immersion in 2% vitamin C solution/5 minutes, T6: immersion in 1% EDTA solution/5 minutes; and T7: immersion in 2% EDTA solution/5 minutes. After the treatments, the Chinese cabbage was centrifuged, wrapped with polyvinyl

  2. One-step facile synthesis of Ni2P/C as cathode material for Ni/Zn aqueous secondary battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, JiLan; Chen, ChangGuo

    2018-01-01

    Nickel phosphides/carbon(Ni2P/C) composites have been successfully synthesized via a simple one-pot hydrothermal method using glucose as carbon source for the first time. By contrast, the pure Ni2P was prepared under the same conditions without glucose. The results show that glucose not only provide the carbon source, but also prevent the aggregation of Ni2P particles. The as-obtained Ni2P/C composites and pure Ni2P were used as cathode material for alkaline Ni/Zn battery. Owing to unique Ni2P/C composites and loose, Ultra thin flower-like shape the synthesized Ni2P/C material delivers high capacity of 176 mAh g-1 at 1 A g-1 and 82 mAh g-1 at 5 A g-1 current density in Ni2P/C-Zn battery. Moreover, it shows a good cycling life that capacity fading only about 6.2% after 1500 cycles. All of these indicate that the prepared Ni2P/C composites may be a new promising cathode material for Ni-Zn rechargeable battery.

  3. Solution growth of NiO nanosheets supported on Ni foam as high-performance electrodes for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hailong; Zhang, Deyang; Xu, Jinyou; Lu, Yang; Liu, Yunxin; Qiu, Kangwen; Zhang, Yihe; Luo, Yongsong

    2014-08-01

    Well-aligned nickel oxide (NiO) nanosheets with the thickness of a few nanometers supported on a flexible substrate (Ni foam) have been fabricated by a hydrothermal approach together with a post-annealing treatment. The three-dimensional NiO nanosheets were further used as electrode materials to fabricate supercapacitors, with high specific capacitance of 943.5, 791.2, 613.5, 480, and 457.5 F g-1 at current densities of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 A g-1, respectively. The NiO nanosheets combined well with the substrate. When the electrode material was bended, it can still retain 91.1% of the initial capacitance after 1,200 charging/discharging cycles. Compared with Co3O4 and NiO nanostructures, the specific capacitance of NiO nanosheets is much better. These characteristics suggest that NiO nanosheet electrodes are promising for energy storage application with high power demands.

  4. Solution growth of NiO nanosheets supported on Ni foam as high-performance electrodes for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hailong; Zhang, Deyang; Xu, Jinyou; Lu, Yang; Liu, Yunxin; Qiu, Kangwen; Zhang, Yihe; Luo, Yongsong

    2014-01-01

    Well-aligned nickel oxide (NiO) nanosheets with the thickness of a few nanometers supported on a flexible substrate (Ni foam) have been fabricated by a hydrothermal approach together with a post-annealing treatment. The three-dimensional NiO nanosheets were further used as electrode materials to fabricate supercapacitors, with high specific capacitance of 943.5, 791.2, 613.5, 480, and 457.5 F g(-1) at current densities of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 A g(-1), respectively. The NiO nanosheets combined well with the substrate. When the electrode material was bended, it can still retain 91.1% of the initial capacitance after 1,200 charging/discharging cycles. Compared with Co3O4 and NiO nanostructures, the specific capacitance of NiO nanosheets is much better. These characteristics suggest that NiO nanosheet electrodes are promising for energy storage application with high power demands.

  5. Microstructural characterisation of Ni75Al25 and Ni31.5Al68.5 powder particles produced by gas atomisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Escorial, A.; Lieblich, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlight: ► Successful production of gas atomised Ni75Al25 and Ni31.5Al68.5 powder particles. ► Characterization of the as-solidified microstructure of 75 Al 25 and Ni 31.5 Al 68.5 at.% powder particles below 100 μm in size have been studied. The gas atomised Ni 75 Al 25 powder particles are mainly spherical. The solidification of this alloy is very fast, and its microstructure consists of a dendrite and lamellar structure of partially ordered γ-(Ni), γ′-Ni 3 Al L1 2 phase, and β-NiAl phase. The order increases with the powder particle size. The gas atomised Ni 31.5 Al 68.5 powder particles are also spherical in shape. The microstructure consists of Ni 2 Al 3 dendrites with interdendritic peritectic NiAl 3 and eutectic NiAl 3 + α-Al. The amount of the Ni 2 Al 3 increases as the cooling rate increases. NiAl phase is absent in the gas atomised Ni 31.5 Al 68.5 powder

  6. Low-field spin dynamics of Cr7Ni and Cr7Ni-Cu-Cr7Ni molecular rings as detected by μsR

    OpenAIRE

    Sanna, S.; Arosio, P.; Bordonali, L.; Adelnia, F.; Mariani, M.; Garlatti, E.; Baines, C.; Amato, A.; Sabareesh, K. P.V.; Timco, G.; Winpenny, R. E.P.; Blundell, S. J.; Lascialfari, A.

    2017-01-01

    Muon spin rotation measurements were used to investigate the spin dynamics of heterometallic Cr7Ni and Cr7Ni-Cu-Cr7Ni molecular clusters. In Cr7Ni the magnetic ions are arranged in a quasiplanar ring and interact via an antiferromagnetic exchange coupling constant J, while Cr7Ni-Cu-Cr7Ni is composed of two Cr7Ni linked by a bridging moiety containing one Cu ion, that induces an inter-ring ferromagnetic interaction J ≪ J. The longitudinal muon relaxation rate λ collected at low magnetic fields...

  7. The study of quasi-projectiles produced in Ni+Ni and Ni+Au collisions: excitation energy and spin; Etude des quasi-projectiles produits dans les collisions Ni+Ni et Ni+Au: energie d'excitation et spin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buta, A

    2003-02-01

    During the collision between the projectile and the target nuclei in the intermediate energy regime (E < 100 MeV/nucleon) two excited nuclei are mainly observed in the exit channel, the quasi projectile (QP) and the quasi target. They disintegrate by particle emission. However, this binary picture is perturbed by the emission of particles and light fragments with velocities intermediate between the projectile velocity and the target one, all along the interaction (midrapidity component). This work aim to determine the excitation energy and the intrinsic angular momentum (or spin) of quasi-projectiles produced in the Ni+Ni and Ni+Au collisions at 52 and 90 MeV/nucleon. The excitation energy is deduced from the kinematical characteristics of particles emitted by the quasi-projectile. They have to be separated from midrapidity particles. Three different scenarios have been used for this purpose. The spin of the quasi-projectile has been extracted from the experimental data by mean of proton and alpha particles multiplicities emitted by the QP in the Ni+Au at 52 MeV/nucleon reaction. The results have been compared to the predictions of a theoretical model based on nucleon transfers. Their evolution is qualitatively reproduced as a function of the violence of the collision. (author)

  8. Enhanced optical and electrical properties of Ni inserted ITO/Ni/AZO tri-layer structure for photoelectric applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, M. Melvin David; Kim, Hyunki [Department of Electrical Engineering, Incheon National University, Incheon 406772 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yun Chang [Measurement and Analysis Division, National Nanofab Center (NNFC), Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Joondong, E-mail: joonkim@incheon.ac.kr [Department of Electrical Engineering, Incheon National University, Incheon 406772 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Ni-embedding transparent conductor effectively reduces the resistivity. • Ni insertion improves the carrier mobility and collection efficiencies. • ITO/Ni/AZO is effective to improve photo-responses compared to ITO/AZO. - Abstract: A thin Ni layer of 5 nm thickness was deposited in between indium-tin-oxide (ITO) and aluminum-doped-zinc oxide (AZO) layers of 50 nm thickness each. The Ni inserting tri-layer structure (ITO/Ni/AZO) showed lower resistivity of 5.51 × 10{sup −4} Ωcm which is nearly 20 times lesser than 97.9 × 10{sup −4} Ωcm of bilayer structure (ITO/AZO). A thin Ni layer in between ITO and AZO enhanced the carrier concentration, mobility and photoresponse behaviors so that figure of merit (FOM) value of ITO/Ni/AZO device was greater than that of ITO/AZO device. ITO/Ni/AZO structure showed improved quantum efficiencies over a broad range of wavelengths (∼350–950 nm) compared to that of ITO/AZO bilayer structure, resulting in enhanced photoresponses. These results show that the optical, electrical and photoresponse properties of ITO/AZO structure could be enhanced by inserting Ni layer of 5 nm thickness in between ITO and AZO layers.

  9. Heterobimetallic [NiFe] Complexes Containing Mixed CO/CN- Ligands: Analogs of the Active Site of the [NiFe] Hydrogenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotto, Carlo U; Sodipo, Charlene L; Jones, Graham J; Tidey, Jeremiah P; Blake, Alexander J; Lewis, William; Davies, E Stephen; McMaster, Jonathan; Schröder, Martin

    2018-03-05

    The development of synthetic analogs of the active sites of [NiFe] hydrogenases remains challenging, and, in spite of the number of complexes featuring a [NiFe] center, those featuring CO and CN - ligands at the Fe center are under-represented. We report herein the synthesis of three bimetallic [NiFe] complexes [Ni( N 2 S 2 )Fe(CO) 2 (CN) 2 ], [Ni( S 4 )Fe(CO) 2 (CN) 2 ], and [Ni( N 2 S 3 )Fe(CO) 2 (CN) 2 ] that each contain a Ni center that bridges through two thiolato S donors to a {Fe(CO) 2 (CN) 2 } unit. X-ray crystallographic studies on [Ni( N 2 S 3 )Fe(CO) 2 (CN) 2 ], supported by DFT calculations, are consistent with a solid-state structure containing distinct molecules in the singlet ( S = 0) and triplet ( S = 1) states. Each cluster exhibits irreversible reduction processes between -1.45 and -1.67 V vs Fc + /Fc and [Ni( N 2 S 3 )Fe(CO) 2 (CN) 2 ] possesses a reversible oxidation process at 0.17 V vs Fc + /Fc. Spectroelectrochemical infrared (IR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies, supported by density functional theory (DFT) calculations, are consistent with a Ni III Fe II formulation for [Ni( N 2 S 3 )Fe(CO) 2 (CN) 2 ] + . The singly occupied molecular orbital (SOMO) in [Ni( N 2 S 3 )Fe(CO) 2 (CN) 2 ] + is based on Ni 3d z 2 and 3p S with the S contributions deriving principally from the apical S-donor. The nature of the SOMO corresponds to that proposed for the Ni-C state of the [NiFe] hydrogenases for which a Ni III Fe II formulation has also been proposed. A comparison of the experimental structures, and the electrochemical and spectroscopic properties of [Ni( N 2 S 3 )Fe(CO) 2 (CN) 2 ] and its [Ni( N 2 S 3 )] precursor, together with calculations on the oxidized [Ni( N 2 S 3 )Fe(CO) 2 (CN) 2 ] + and [Ni( N 2 S 3 )] + forms suggests that the binding of the {Fe(CO)(CN) 2 } unit to the {Ni(CysS) 4 } center at the active site of the [NiFe] hydrogenases suppresses thiolate-based oxidative chemistry involving the bridging thiolate S donors

  10. Structure-activity relations for Ni-containing zeolites during NO reduction. II. Role of the chemical state of Ni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosqueda Jimenez, B.I.; Jentys, A.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Lercher, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of the metal in Ni-containing zeolites used as catalysts for the reduction of NO with propane and propene was studied. In the fresh catalysts, Ni is located in ion exchange positions for Ni/MOR, Ni/ZSM-5, and Ni/MCM-22. The formation of carbonaceous deposits, the removal of Al from

  11. Performance of the PdNi and PdNiSe as cathodes in PEM fuel cells; Desempeno de PdNi y PdNiSe como catodos en celdas de combustible tipo PEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, A.; Ramos-Sanchez, G.; Vazquez, G.; Solorza-Feria, O. [Centro de Investigaciones y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: gramos@cinvestav.mx

    2009-09-15

    The search for new materials capable of catalyzing oxygen reactions in low temperature fuel cells continues to be one of the key issues in the development of a hydrogen economy. Electrochemical and physical characterization studies have demonstrated that the PdNi and PdNiSe catalysts have adequate properties for use as cathodes in fuel cells. Nevertheless, the performance of the materials in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells depends not only on the catalytic properties but also on the adequate preparation of the electrocatalyst membrane interface (EMI). This work presents the results of the search for optimal conditions to prepare the EMIs with PdNi and PdNiSe cathodes. There are many variables for handling the preparation of the interfaces, nevertheless our search focuses on two: catalyst ratio/Vulcan Carbon® and the catalyst amount. Interfaces were prepared with an active area of 5 cm{sup 2} with PdNi and PdNiSe cathodes and carbon fabric anode with Pt E-tek®. These interfaces were tested with an ElectroChem model under different gas pressure and temperature conditions. The optimization method was carried out using a simplex method with the variables mentioned above and power density per unit mass and catalyst area as response variables. [Spanish] La busqueda de nuevos materiales capaces de catalizar la Reaccion de Oxigeno (RRO) en celdas de combustible de baja temperatura, sigue siendo uno de los temas clave para el desarrollo de una Economia del Hidrogeno. Estudios electroquimicos y de caracterizacion fisica han demostrado que los catalizadores PdNi y PdNiSe, tienen las propiedades adecuadas para poder ser utilizados como catodos en celdas de combustible; sin embargo el desempeno de los materiales en celdas de combustible de membrana de intercambio protonico (PEM), no solo depende de las propiedades del catalizador, sino tambien de la preparacion adecuada del Ensamble Membrana Electrocatalizador (EME). En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de la

  12. Participar como niña o niño en el mundo social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Paulina Díaz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo presento la participación como resultado de un trabajo investigativo realizado durante el año 2007, con niños y niñas escolarizados habitantes de la ciudad de Medellín, Colombia, cuyo objetivo fue analizar las representaciones sociales que ellos y ellas comparten sobre el ejercicio ciudadano. El análisis de la información tiene como ejes fundamentales, la salud colectiva, la sociología de la infancia y la participación en la niñez, en una aproximación que se realiza desde un enfoque cualitativo y etnográfico. En los hallazgos, sobresale cómo las niñas y niños se muestran preparados para ejercer su derecho a la participación como aspecto de sus vidas que se haría posible dentro del marco normativo existente, pero que aún no es asumido en prácticas sociales que los incluyan.

  13. Participar como niña o niño en el mundo social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Paulina Díaz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo presento la participación como resultado de un trabajo investigativo realizado durante el año 2007, con niños y niñas escolarizados habitantes de la ciudad de Medellín, Colombia, cuyo objetivo fue analizar las representaciones sociales que ellos y ellas comparten sobre el ejercicio ciudadano. El análisis de la información tiene como ejes fundamentales, la salud colectiva, la sociología de la infancia y la participación en la niñez, en una aproximación que se realiza desde un enfoque cualitativo y etnográfico. En los hallazgos, sobresale cómo las niñas y niños se muestran preparados para ejercer su derecho a la participación como aspecto de sus vidas que se haría posible dentro del marco normativo existente, pero que aún no es asumido en prácticas sociales que los incluyan.

  14. Fe-Ni-bearing serpentines from the saprolite horizon of Caribbean Ni-laterite deposits: new insights from thermodynamic calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanova-de-Benavent, Cristina; Domènech, Cristina; Tauler, Esperança; Galí, Salvador; Tassara, Santiago; Proenza, Joaquín A.

    2017-10-01

    Fe-Ni-bearing serpentine from the saprolite horizon is the main Ni ores in hydrous silicate-type Ni laterites and formed by chemical weathering of partially serpentinized ultramafic rocks under tropical conditions. During lateritization, Mg, Si, and Ni are leached from the surface and transported downwards. Fe2+ is oxidized to Fe3+ and fixed as insoluble Fe-oxyhydroxides (mostly goethite) that incorporate Ni. This Ni is later leached from goethite and incorporated in secondary serpentine and garnierite. As a result, a serpentine-dominated saprolite horizon forms over the ultramafic protolith, overlapped by a Fe-oxyhydroxide-dominated limonite horizon. The serpentine from the protolith (serpentine I) is of hydrothermal origin and yields similar Ni (0.10-0.62 wt.% NiO) and lower Fe (mostly 1.37-5.81 wt.% FeO) concentrations than the primary olivine. In contrast, Fe-Ni-bearing serpentine from the saprolite (serpentine II) shows significantly higher and variable Fe and Ni contents, typically ranging from 2.23 to 15.59 wt.% Fe2O3 and from 1.30 to 7.67 wt.% NiO, suggesting that serpentine get enriched in Fe and Ni under supergene conditions. This study presents detailed mineralogical, textural, and chemical data on this serpentine II, as well as new insights by thermodynamic calculations assuming ideal solution between Fe-, Ni- and Mg-pure serpentines. The aim is to assess if at atmospheric pressure and temperature Fe-Ni-bearing serpentine can be formed by precipitation. Results indicate that the formation of serpentine II under atmospheric pressure and temperature is thermodynamically supported, and pH, Eh, and the equilibrium constant of the reaction are the parameters that affect the results more significantly.

  15. OpenNI cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Falahati, Soroush

    2013-01-01

    This is a Cookbook with plenty of practical recipes enriched with explained code and relevant screenshots to ease your learning curve. If you are a beginner or a professional in NIUI and want to write serious applications or games, then this book is for you. Even OpenNI 1 and OpenNI 1.x programmers who want to move to new versions of OpenNI can use this book as a starting point. This book uses C++ as the primary language but there are some examples in C# and Java too, so you need to have about a basic working knowledge of C or C++ for most cases.

  16. Electrical Conductivity of Ni-YSZ Anode for SOFCs According to the Ni Powder Size Variations in Core-shell Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Young Jin; Jung, Sung-Hun; An, Yong-Tae; Choi, Byung-Hyun; Ji, Mi-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Ni-YSZ (Y_2O_3-stabilized ZrO_2) core-shell structures were prepared by a high-speed mixing method, starting from Ni particles of three different average sizes of 0.2, 0.4, and 1.8 μm. The Ni-YSZ core-shell structures prepared using Ni particles of size 0.2, 0.4, and 1.8 μm exhibited dense core, porous core, and random-morphology core, respectively. Subsequently, nano structured cermet anodes were fabricated using the prepared Ni-YSZ core-shell powders. During the formation of cermet, the heat treatment of Ni-YSZ core-shell powder results in the eruption of Ni core out of the YSZ shell layers, thereby facilitating the formation of nano structured Ni-YSZ cermet. Systematic studies indicated that the morphology and electrical conductivity of the prepared Ni-YSZ core-shell powders and the cermet anode varied, depending on the initial particle size of the Ni particles. Of the different samples prepared in this study, the Ni-YSZ cermet prepared using Ni particles of size 0.4 μm showed the highest electrical conductivity at 750 ℃.

  17. Electrical Conductivity of Ni-YSZ Anode for SOFCs According to the Ni Powder Size Variations in Core-shell Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Young Jin; Jung, Sung-Hun; An, Yong-Tae; Choi, Byung-Hyun; Ji, Mi-Jung [Korea Institute of Ceramic Engineering and Technology (KICET), Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Ni-YSZ (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized ZrO{sub 2}) core-shell structures were prepared by a high-speed mixing method, starting from Ni particles of three different average sizes of 0.2, 0.4, and 1.8 μm. The Ni-YSZ core-shell structures prepared using Ni particles of size 0.2, 0.4, and 1.8 μm exhibited dense core, porous core, and random-morphology core, respectively. Subsequently, nano structured cermet anodes were fabricated using the prepared Ni-YSZ core-shell powders. During the formation of cermet, the heat treatment of Ni-YSZ core-shell powder results in the eruption of Ni core out of the YSZ shell layers, thereby facilitating the formation of nano structured Ni-YSZ cermet. Systematic studies indicated that the morphology and electrical conductivity of the prepared Ni-YSZ core-shell powders and the cermet anode varied, depending on the initial particle size of the Ni particles. Of the different samples prepared in this study, the Ni-YSZ cermet prepared using Ni particles of size 0.4 μm showed the highest electrical conductivity at 750 ℃.

  18. Ni adsorption and Ni-Al LDH precipitation in a sandy aquifer: An experimental and mechanistic modeling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regelink, I.C.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Mining activities and industries have created nickel (Ni) contaminations in many parts of the world. The objective of this study is to increase our understanding of Ni adsorption and Nickel-Aluminium Layered Double Hydroxide (Ni-Al LDH) precipitation to reduce Ni mobility in a sandy soil aquifer. At

  19. Hydrogen absorption kinetics and structural properties of Mg85Ni10Ca5 and Mg90Ni10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Masakazu; Saito, Katsushi; Towata, Shin-ichi

    2005-01-01

    Mg 85 Ni 10 Ca 5 and Mg 90 Ni 10 were prepared by melting mixtures of the elements in mild steel crucibles and pouring them into copper molds. Hydrogen absorption kinetics and structural properties of the alloys were characterized by the volumetric method using a Sievert's apparatus, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The crystallite size of Mg in Mg 85 Ni 10 Ca 5 , which is evaluated by XRD peak broadening, is about 50% smaller than that in Mg 90 Ni 10 . In addition, the nanometer-scale structure composed of Mg, Mg 2 Ni, Mg 2 Ca was observed in Mg 85 Ni 10 Ca 5 . Mg 85 Ni 10 Ca 5 shows better hydrogen absorption kinetics than Mg 90 Ni 10 in the temperature range of room temperature to 573 K. The better absorption kinetics of Mg 85 Ni 10 Ca 5 is mainly attributed to the nanometer-scale structure

  20. Soft magnetic properties of hybrid ferromagnetic films with CoFe, NiFe, and NiFeCuMo layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jong-Gu [Eastern-western Biomedical Engineering, Sangji University, Wonju 220-702 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Do-Guwn [Dept. of Oriental Biomedical Engineering, Sangji University, Wonju 220-702 (Korea, Republic of); Rhee, Jang-Roh [Dept. of Physics, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-Suk, E-mail: sslee@sangji.ac.kr [Dept. of Oriental Biomedical Engineering, Sangji University, Wonju 220-702 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-30

    Two-layered ferromagnetic alloy films (NiFe and CoFe) with intermediate NiFeCuMo soft magnetic layers of different thicknesses were investigated to understand the relationship between coercivity and magnetization process by taking into account the strength of hard-axis saturation field. The thickness dependence of H{sub EC} (easy-axis coercivity), H{sub HS} (hard-axis saturation field), and {chi} (susceptibility) of the NiFeCuMo thin films in glass/Ta(5 nm)/[CoFe or NiFe(5 nm-t/2)]/NiFeCuMo(t = 0, 4, 6, 8, 10 nm)/[CoFe or NiFe(5 nm-t/2)]/Ta(5 nm) films prepared using the ion beam deposition method was determined. The magnetic properties (H{sub EC}, H{sub HS}, and {chi}) of the ferromagnetic CoFe, NiFe three-layers with an intermediate NiFeCuMo super-soft magnetic layer were strongly dependent on the thickness of the NiFeCuMo layer.

  1. Effects of Ni content on nanocrystalline Fe–Co–Ni ternary alloys synthesized by a chemical reduction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chokprasombat, Komkrich, E-mail: komkrich28@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Thaksin University, Phatthalung 93210 Thailand (Thailand); Pinitsoontorn, Supree [Integrated Nanotechnology Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 Thailand (Thailand); Maensiri, Santi [School of Physics, Institute of Science, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 Thailand (Thailand)

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic properties of Fe–Co–Ni ternary alloys could be altered by changing of the particle size, elemental compositions, and crystalline structures. In this work, Fe{sub 50}Co{sub 50−x}Ni{sub x} nanoparticles (x=10, 20, 40, and 50) were prepared by the novel chemical reduction process. Hydrazine monohydrate was used as a reducing agent under the concentrated basic condition with the presence of poly(vinylpyrrolidone). We found that the nanoparticles were composed of Fe, Co and Ni with compositions according to the molar ratio of the metal sources. Interestingly, the particles were well-crystalline at the as-prepared state without post-annealing at high temperature. Increasing Ni content resulted in phase transformation from body centered cubic (bcc) to face centered cubic (fcc). For the fcc phase, the average particle size decreased when increased the Ni content; the Fe{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} nanoparticles had the smallest average size with the narrowest size distribution. In additions, the particles exhibited ferromagnetic properties at room temperature with the coercivities higher than 300 Oe, and the saturation magnetiation decreased with increasing Ni content. These results suggest that the structural and magnetic properties of Fe–Co–Ni alloys could be adjusted by varying the Ni content. - Highlights: • We prepared nanocrystalline Fe–Co–Ni alloys by a novel chemical reduction process. • Elemental compositions could be well controlled by the molar ratio of metal sources. • Particle size and magnetic properties clearly depended on the Ni contents. • Fe{sub 50}Co{sub 10}Ni{sub 40} exhibited high saturation magnetization of 126.3 emu/g.

  2. Coarsening of Ni-Ge solid-solution precipitates in 'inverse' Ni{sub 3}Ge alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardell, Alan J., E-mail: alan.ardell@gmail.com [National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, VA 22230 (United States); Ma Yong [Aquatic Sensor Network Technology LLC, Storrs, CT 06268 (United States)

    2012-07-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report microstructural evolution of disordered Ni-Ge precipitates in Ni{sub 3}Ge alloys. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coarsening kinetics and particle size distributions are presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Data are analyzed quantitatively using the MSLW theory, but agreement is only fair. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The shapes of large precipitates are unusual, with discus or boomerang cross-sections. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results are compared with morphology, kinetics of Ni-Al in inverse Ni{sub 3}Al alloys. - Abstract: The morphological evolution and coarsening kinetics of Ni-Ge solid solution precipitates from supersaturated solutions of hypostoichiometric Ni{sub 3}Ge were investigated in alloys containing from 22.48 to 23.50 at.% Ge at 600, 650 and 700 Degree-Sign C. The particles evolve from spheres to cuboids, though the flat portions of the interfaces are small. At larger sizes the precipitates coalesce into discus shapes, and are sometimes boomerang-shaped in cross section after intersection. The rate constant for coarsening increases strongly with equilibrium volume fraction, much more so than predicted by current theories; this is very different from the coarsening behavior of Ni{sub 3}Ge precipitates in normal Ni-Ge alloys and of Ni-Al precipitates in inverse Ni{sub 3}Al alloys. The activation energy for coarsening, 275.86 {+-} 24.17 kJ/mol, is somewhat larger than the result from conventional diffusion experiments, though within the limits of experimental error. Quantitative agreement between theory and experiment, estimated using available data on tracer diffusion coefficients in Ni{sub 3}Ge, is fair, the calculated rate constants exceeding measured ones by a factor of about 15. The particle size distributions are not in very good agreement with the predictions of any theory. These results are discussed in the context of recent theories and observations.

  3. Electrochemical kinetic performances of electroplating Co–Ni on La–Mg–Ni-based hydrogen storage alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yuan; Tao, Yang; Ke, Dandan; Ma, Yufei [Hebei Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Han, Shumin, E-mail: hanshm@ysu.edu.cn [Hebei Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The Co–Ni composite coating was prepared by electroplating. • The alloy treated at 10 mA/cm{sup 2} has superior kinetic performances. • The Co–Ni layer accelerates the charge transfer rate on the surface of the alloy. - Abstract: Electroplating Co–Ni treatment was applied to the surface of the La{sub 0.75}Mg{sub 0.25}Ni{sub 3.48} alloy electrodes in order to improve the electrochemical and kinetic performances. The Scanning electron microscope-Energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction results showed that the electrodes were plated with a homogeneous Co–Ni alloy film. The alloy coating significantly improved the high rate dischargeability of the alloy electrode, and the HRD value increased to 57.5% at discharge current density 1875 mA/g after the Co–Ni-coating. The exchange current density I{sub 0}, the limiting current density I{sub L} and the oxidation peak current also increased for the coated alloy. The improvement of overall electrode performances was attributed to an enhancement in electro-catalytic activity and conductivity at the alloy surface, owing to the precipitation of the Co–Ni layer.

  4. Resonant Ni and Fe KLL Auger spectra photoexcited from NiFe alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koever, L.; Cserny, I.; Berenyi, Z.; Egri, S.; Novak, M.

    2005-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. KLL Auger spectra of 3d transition metal atoms in solid environment, measured using high energy resolution, give an insight into the details of the local electronic structure surrounding the particular atoms emitting the signal Auger electrons. Fine tuning the energy of the exciting monochromatic photons across the K-absorption edge, features characteristic to resonant phenomena can be identified in the spectra. The shapes of the resonantly photoexcited KLL Auger spectra induced from 3d transition metals and alloys are well interpreted by the single step model of the Auger process, based on the resonant scattering theory. The peak shapes are strongly influenced by the 4p partial density of unoccupied electronic states around the excited atom. High energy resolution studies of KLL Auger spectra of 3d transition metals using laboratory X-ray sources, however, request very demanding experiments and yield spectra of limited statistical quality making the evaluation of the fine details in the spectra difficult. The Tunable High Energy XPS (THE- XPS) instrument at BW2 offers optimum photon x and energy resolution for spectroscopy of deep core Auger transitions. For the present measurements high purity polycrystalline Ni and Fe sheets as well as NiFe alloy samples of different compositions (Ni 80 Fe 20 , Ni 50 Fe 50 , Ni 20 Fe 80 ) were used. The surfaces of the samples were cleaned by in-situ argon ion sputtering. The measurements of the Ni and Fe KL 23 L 23 Auger spectra of the metal and alloy samples were performed with the THE-XPS instrument using high electron energy resolution (0.2 eV). In Fig.1, the measured Fe KL 23 L 23 spectrum, photoexcited at the Fe K absorption edge from Fe metal, is compared with the respective spectrum excited from a Ni 50 Fe 50 alloy. A significant broadening of the 1 D 2 peak and an enhancement of the spectral intensity at the low energy loss part of this peak observed in the alloy sample, while the

  5. The fabrication of foam-like 3D mesoporous NiO-Ni as anode for high performance Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Peng; Zhang, Xin; Wei, Jumeng; Pan, Jiaqi; Sheng, Yingzhou; Feng, Boxue

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Foam-like 3 dimensional (3D) mesoporous NiO on 3D micro-porous Ni was fabricated. - Highlights: • We prepare NiO-Ni foam composite via hydrothermal etching and subsequent annealing. • The NiO exhibits novel foam-like 3D mesoporous architecture. • The NiO-Ni anode shows good cycle stability. - Abstract: Foam-like three dimensional mesoporous NiO on Ni foam was fabricated via facile hydrothermal etching and subsequent annealing treatment. The porous NiO consists of a large number of nanosheets with mean thickness about 50 nm, among which a large number of mesoscopic pores with size ranges from 100 nm to 1 μm distribute. The electrochemical performance of the as-prepared NiO-Ni as anode for lithium ion battery was studied by conventional charge/discharge test, which shows excellent cycle stability and rate capability. It exhibits initial discharge and charge capacities of 979 and 707 mA h g −1 at a charge/discharge rate of 0.7 C, which maintain of 747 and 738 mA h g −1 after 100 cycles. Even after 60 cycles at various rates from 0.06 to 14 C, the 10th discharge and charge capacities of the NiO-Ni electrode can revert to 699 and 683 mA h g −1 when lowering the charge/discharge rate to 0.06 C

  6. Radiation damage buildup and dislocation evolution in Ni and equiatomic multicomponent Ni-based alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levo, E. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 43, FIN-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland); Granberg, F., E-mail: fredric.granberg@helsinki.fi [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 43, FIN-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland); Fridlund, C.; Nordlund, K. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 43, FIN-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland); Djurabekova, F. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 43, FIN-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland); Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 43, FIN-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2017-07-15

    Single-phase multicomponent alloys of equal atomic concentrations (“equiatomic”) have proven to exhibit promising mechanical and corrosion resistance properties, that are sought after in materials intended for use in hazardous environments like next-generation nuclear reactors. In this article, we investigate the damage production and dislocation mobility by simulating irradiation of elemental Ni and the alloys NiCo, NiCoCr, NiCoFe and NiFe, to assess the effect of elemental composition. We compare the defect production and the evolution of dislocation networks in the simulation cells of two different sizes, for all five studied materials. We find that the trends in defect evolution are in good agreement between the different cell sizes. The damage is generally reduced with increased alloy complexity, and the dislocation evolution is specific to each material, depending on its complexity. We show that increasing complexity of the alloys does not always lead to decreased susceptibility to damage accumulation under irradiation. We show that, for instance, the NiCo alloy behaves very similarly to Ni, while presence of Fe or Cr in the alloy even as a third component reduces the saturated level of damage substantially. Moreover, we linked the defect evolution with the dislocation transformations in the alloys. Sudden drops in defect number and large defect fluctuations from the continuous irradiation can be explained from the dislocation activity.

  7. Corrosion behaviour of electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni-W and Ni-Fe-W alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriraman, K.R.; Ganesh Sundara Raman, S.; Seshadri, S.K.

    2007-01-01

    The present work deals with evaluation of corrosion behaviour of electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni-W and Ni-Fe-W alloys. Corrosion behaviour of the coatings deposited on steel substrates was studied using polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques in 3.5% NaCl solution while their passivation behaviour was studied in 1N sulphuric acid solution. The corrosion resistance of Ni-W alloys increased with tungsten content up to 7.54 at.% and then decreased. In case of Ni-Fe-W alloys it increased with tungsten content up to 9.20 at.% and then decreased. The ternary alloy coatings exhibited poor corrosion resistance compared to binary alloy coatings due to preferential dissolution of iron from the matrix. Regardless of composition all the alloys exhibited passivation behaviour over a wide range of potentials due to the formation of tungsten rich film on the surface

  8. Low energy structure of even-even Ni isotopes close to 78Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr; Mazzocchi, C.; Grzywacz, Robert Kazimierz; Batchelder, J.C.; Bingham, Carrol R.; Fong, D.; Hamilton, J.H.; Hwang, J.K.; Karny, M.; Krolas, W.; Liddick, S.N.; Lisetskiy, A. F.; Morton, N.H.; Mantica, P.F.; Mueller, W.F.; Steiner, M.; Stolz, A.; Winger, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The structure of magic neutron-rich nickel isotopes produced in the fragmentation of a 140 A MeV 86 Kr beam was investigated. For the first time four gamma transitions were assigned to the decay of the I π =8 + , T 1/2 = 590 +180 -110 isomer, thus establishing the 0 + -2 + -4 + -6 + -8 + ground-state band in 76 Ni. The previously unknown 2 + and 4 + levels belonging to the ground-state band in 74 Ni were identified in the β decay of 74 Co (T 1/2 =30(3) ms). The decay properties of 72 Co → 72 Ni were verified and confirmed on the basis of γ-γ coincidence data. The relevance of the measured level properties for the magicity of 78 Ni is analyzed with the help of advanced shell-model predictions

  9. Competencia social y status sociométrico escolar en niños y niñas con TDAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiana Russo, Argentina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available (analítico: Objetivo: Establecer relaciones entre la autopercepción de la competencia social en niños y niñas con TDAH y el status sociométrico escolar. Alcance: Los resultados obtenidos permitirán elaborar estrategias de intervención psicológica como también diseñar abordajes educativos en el aula que fortalezcan la interacción social de estos niños y niñas. Metodología: Estudio descriptivo correlacional con un diseño ex post facto retrospectivo (Montero & León, 2007. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 157 niños y niñas con edades comprendidas entre 8 y 12 años. Conformamos dos grupos, clínico (n=5 y control (n=152, pareados por edad. Administramos el cuestionario Messy (Matson, Rotatori & Helsel, 1983 y el Test sociométrico (Moreno, 1962. Resultados: Los niños y niñas con TDAH son menos asertivos que los niños y niñas del grupo control. La mayoría presenta una posición aislada con respecto a su grupo de pares. Conclusiones: Estos niños y niñas presentan dificultad para establecer relaciones vinculares con sus compañeros y compañeras. No obstante, la autopercepción de sus competencias sociales no coincide en todos los casos con su status sociométrico escolar.

  10. One-pot fabrication of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles on α-Ni(OH)2 nanosheet for enhanced water oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Yan, Junqing; Wu, Huan; Zhang, Yunxia; Liu, Shengzhong (Frank)

    2016-08-01

    Water splitting has been intensively investigated as a promising solution to resolve the future environmental and energy crises. The oxygen evolution reaction (OER) of the photo- and electric field-induced water splitting limits the development of other reactions, including hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Fe, Ni and NiFe (hydro) oxide-based catalysts are generally acknowledged among the best candidates of OER catalysts for water splitting. Herein, we developed a one-pot simple hydrothermal process to assemble NiFe2O4 nanoparticles onto the α-Ni(OH)2 nanosheets. The first formed NiFe2O4 under high temperature and pressure environment induces and assists the α-Ni(OH)2 formation without any further additives, because the distance between the neighboring Ni atoms in the cubic NiFe2O4 is similar to that in the α-Ni(OH)2 {003} facets. We have synthesized a series of NiFe2O4/α-Ni(OH)2 compounds and find that the overpotential decreases with the increase of Ni(OH)2 content while the OER kinetics stays unchanged, suggesting that Ni(OH)2 plays a major role in overpotential while NiFe2O4 mainly affects the OER kinetics. The obtained NiFe2O4/α-Ni(OH)2 compounds is also found to be a promising co-catalyst for the photocatalytic water oxidation. In fact, it is even more active than the noble PtOx with acceptable stability for the oxygen generation.

  11. Bonding Strength of Ni/Ni3Al Interface with Different Lattice Misfit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping PENG; Caixing ZHENG; Shaochang HAN; Zhaohui JIN; Rui YANG; Zhuangqi HU

    2003-01-01

    The interfacial binding covalent bond density (CBD) and the local environmental total bond order (LTBO) of the Ni/Ni3Alinterface with different lattice misfits (δ) were calculated by using first-principles discrete variation Xα method. It was foundthat

  12. Synergetic interface between NiO/Ni3S2 nanosheets and carbon nanofiber as binder-free anode for highly reversible lithium storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jialin; Ma, Chao; Yang, Yinbo; Ding, Jingjing; Ji, Hongmei; Shi, Shaojun; Yang, Gang

    2018-05-01

    A novel heterostructure of NiO/Ni3S2 nanoflake is synthesized and composited with carbon nanofibers (CNF) membrane. NiO/Ni3S2 nanoflakes are homogeneously dispersed in CNF network, herein, NiO/Ni3S2 like leaf and CNF like branch. Carbon nanofibers network efficiently prevents the pulverization and buffers the volume changes of NiO/Ni3S2, meanwhile, NiO/Ni3S2 nanoflakes through the conductive channels of carbon nanofibers own improved Li+ diffusion ability and structural stability. The capacity of NiO/Ni3S2/CNF reaches to 519.2 mA g-1 after 200 cycles at the current density of 0.5 A g-1 while NiO/Ni3S2 fades to 71 mAh g-1 after 40 cycles. Owing to the synergetic structure, the resultant binder-free electrode NiO/Ni3S2/carbon nanofibers shows an excellent reversible lithium storage capability.

  13. Influência da embalagem de polietileno de baixa densidade e da temperatura na conservação do repolho minimamente processado Effects of low density polyethylene packaging and temperature in the conservation of fresh-cut cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria M. Rinaldi

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, foi estudado o efeito da embalagem de polietileno de baixa densidade e da temperatura de armazenagem na conservação de repolho minimamente processado. Os repolhos, previamente resfriados à temperatura de 10 ºC, foram submetidos à seleção, lavagem, corte em quatro partes com a retirada do talo central, sanitização, corte em tiras, enxágüe, centrifugação, pesagem e acondicionamento em embalagens plásticas de polietileno de baixa densidade (70 µm e armazenados em câmaras frias nas temperaturas de 1 e 10 ºC por 20 dias. Avaliaram-se dióxido de carbono, oxigênio e etileno na atmosfera interna da embalagem, bem como pH, acidez titulável, sólidos solúveis totais, vitamina C, perda de massa fresca e relação sólidos solúveis totais/acidez no repolho minimamente processado. O delineamento estatístico utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições. Os parâmetros de análise, com exceção da vitamina C, perda de massa fresca e etileno, apresentaram variação significativa entre as temperaturas e dias de armazenamento. O repolho armazenado na temperatura de 1 ºC apresentou vida de prateleira ao redor de 15 dias, significativamente maior que a 10 ºC. Nesta última, no 8º dia de armazenamento, o produto encontrava-se totalmente deteriorado, sem condições de comercialização e consumo.This research studied the effect of low density polyethylene packaging and storage temperature on the preservation of fresh-cut (minimally processed cabbage. The cabbages, previously cooled to a temperature of 10 ºC, were selected, washed, cut in four parts (with the central stalk removed, sanitized, cut in strips, rinsed, put in the centrifuge, weighed and stored in plastic packaging of low density polyethylene (70 µm, and then stored in cold chambers at temperatures of 1 and 10 ºC for 20 days. The following aspects were evaluated: carbon dioxide, oxygen and ethylene in the internal atmosphere of the package

  14. NiTiCu/AlN/NiTiCu shape memory thin film heterostructures for vibration damping in MEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Navjot; Kaur, Davinder, E-mail: dkaurfph@iitr.ernet.in

    2014-03-25

    Highlights: • Fabrication of NiTiCu/AlN/NiTiCu heterostructure using dc/rf magnetron sputtering. • Exhibits highest hardness (38 GPa) and elastic modulus (187 GPa). • Enhanced dissipation of mechanical energy (E{sub d} = 5.7 N J). • High damping capacity (0.052) and figure of merit (∼0.62). • Can be applied for vibration damping in MEMS. -- Abstract: Shape memory alloy (NiTiCu) thin films coupled with piezoelectric AlN layer produce an intelligent material for vibration damping. In the present study pure NiTiCu, NiTiCu/AlN and NiTiCu/AlN/NiTiCu heterostructures have been deposited on Si substrate using magnetron sputtering technique. By the use of the interfaces and shape memory effect provided by NiTiCu layers, the damping capacity can be increased along with increase in stiffness and mechanical hardness. The heterostructures were characterized in terms of structural, electrical, morphological and mechanical properties by X-ray diffraction (XRD), four probe resistivity method, atomic force microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and nanoindentation. The NiTiCu/AlN/NiTiCu heterostructure exhibit enhanced mechanical and damping properties as compared to NiTiCu/AlN and pure NiTiCu. This enhancement in hardness and damping of the heterostructure could be attributed to the shape memory effect of NiTiCu, intrinsic piezoelectricity of AlN and increased number of interfaces in heterostructure that help in dissipation of mechanical vibrations. The findings of this work provide additional impetus for the application of these heterostructures in emerging fields of nanotechnology and microelectro mechanical (MEMS) devices.

  15. NiTiCu/AlN/NiTiCu shape memory thin film heterostructures for vibration damping in MEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Navjot; Kaur, Davinder

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Fabrication of NiTiCu/AlN/NiTiCu heterostructure using dc/rf magnetron sputtering. • Exhibits highest hardness (38 GPa) and elastic modulus (187 GPa). • Enhanced dissipation of mechanical energy (E d = 5.7 N J). • High damping capacity (0.052) and figure of merit (∼0.62). • Can be applied for vibration damping in MEMS. -- Abstract: Shape memory alloy (NiTiCu) thin films coupled with piezoelectric AlN layer produce an intelligent material for vibration damping. In the present study pure NiTiCu, NiTiCu/AlN and NiTiCu/AlN/NiTiCu heterostructures have been deposited on Si substrate using magnetron sputtering technique. By the use of the interfaces and shape memory effect provided by NiTiCu layers, the damping capacity can be increased along with increase in stiffness and mechanical hardness. The heterostructures were characterized in terms of structural, electrical, morphological and mechanical properties by X-ray diffraction (XRD), four probe resistivity method, atomic force microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and nanoindentation. The NiTiCu/AlN/NiTiCu heterostructure exhibit enhanced mechanical and damping properties as compared to NiTiCu/AlN and pure NiTiCu. This enhancement in hardness and damping of the heterostructure could be attributed to the shape memory effect of NiTiCu, intrinsic piezoelectricity of AlN and increased number of interfaces in heterostructure that help in dissipation of mechanical vibrations. The findings of this work provide additional impetus for the application of these heterostructures in emerging fields of nanotechnology and microelectro mechanical (MEMS) devices

  16. The role of Ni in sulfided carbon-supported Ni-Mo hydrodesulfurization catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwens, S.M.A.M.; Barthe-Zahir, N.; Beer, de V.H.J.; Prins, R.

    1991-01-01

    The thiophene hydrodesulfurization activities of Ni and Ni---Mo sulfide catalysts supported on activated carbon were measured at atmospheric pressure and the catalyst structures were studied by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, dynamic oxygen chemisorption, and chemical sulfur analysis. The

  17. Controlled synthesis of mesoporous β-Ni(OH)2 and NiO nanospheres with enhanced electrochemical performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, Shengtao; Wang, Qian; Ma, Zichuan; Wu, Yinsu; Gao, Yuanzhe

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Uniform mesoporous β-Ni(OH) 2 and NiO nanospheres with hierarchical structures were synthesized by a simple complexation–precipitation method. ► Both ammonia and citrate played an important role for the formation of mesoporous nanospheres. ► β-Ni(OH) 2 and NiO nanospheres showed excellent capacitive properties due to their mesoporous structures and larger surface areas. -- Abstract: Uniform mesoporous β-Ni(OH) 2 and NiO nanospheres with hierarchical structures were synthesized by a facile complexation–precipitation method. The effects of ammonia and citrate on the structure and morphology of the products were thoroughly investigated by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption–desorption measurements. The results indicated that ammonia played an important role for the formation of flowerlike spheres assembled from nanosheets. The addition of citrate could remarkably reduce the particle sizes and increase the specific surface areas of flowerlike spheres. A possible formation mechanism based on the experimental results was proposed to understand their growing procedures. β-Ni(OH) 2 and NiO nanospheres prepared with the addition of citrate showed excellent capacitive properties due to their mesoporous structures and large surface areas, suggesting the importance of controlled synthesis of hierarchical nanostructures for their applications.

  18. Improvement of thermoelectric properties for half-Heusler TiNiSn by interstitial Ni defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazama, Hirofumi; Matsubara, Masato; Asahi, Ryoji; Takeuchi, Tsunehiro

    2011-01-01

    We have synthesized off-stoichiometric Ti-Ni-Sn half-Heusler thermoelectrics in order to investigate the relation between randomly distributed defects and thermoelectric properties. A small change in the composition of Ti-Ni-Sn causes a remarkable change in the thermal conductivity. An excess content of Ni realizes a low thermal conductivity of 2.93 W/mK at room temperature while keeping a high power factor. The low thermal conductivity originates in the defects generated by an excess content of Ni. To investigate the detailed defect structure, we have performed first-principles calculations and compared with x ray photoemission spectroscopy measurement. Based on these analyses, we conclude that the excess Ni atoms randomly occupy the vacant sites in the half-Heusler structure, which play as phonon scattering centers, resulting in significant improvement of the figure of merit without any substitutions of expensive heavy elements, such as Zr and Hf.

  19. Preparation of one-step NiO/Ni-CGO composites using factorial design; Efeitos do processamento e do teor de formador de poros na microestrutura de cermets Ni-CGO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, A.J.M. de; Sousa, A R.O. de; Camposa, L.F.A.; Macedo, D.A. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Loureiro, F. J.A.; Fagg, D.P., E-mail: allanjp1993@hotmail.com [Universidade de Aveiro (Portugal)

    2016-07-01

    This work deals with the synthesis, processing and characterization of NiO/Ni- CGO composite materials as potential solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anodes. The particulate materials were obtained by a one-step synthesis method and characterized by thermal analysis (prior to calcination) and X-ray diffraction (calcined powder). The ceramic processing of samples containing from 30 to 70 wt.% NiO was carried out by factorial design. Besides the NiO content controlled during the chemical synthesis, the impacts of the pore-former content (citric acid, used in proportions of 0, 7.5 and 15 wt.%) and the sintering temperature (1300, 1350 and 1400 °C) were also investigated. The open porosity of NiO-CGO composites and reduced Ni-CGO cermets was modeled as a function of factors (NiO content, citric acid content and sintering temperature) and interaction of factors. (author)

  20. Probing the semi-magicity of $^{68}$Ni via the $^{66}$Ni(t,p)$^{68}$Ni two-neutron transfer reaction in inverse kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2079390; Van Duppen, Piet

    The region around the nucleus $^{68}$Ni, with a shell closure for its protons at Z=28 and a harmonic oscillator shell gap for its neutrons at N=40, has drawn considerable interest over the past decades. $^{68}$Ni has properties that are typical for a doubly-magic nucleus, such as a high excitation energy and low B($E2:2^{+} \\rightarrow 0^{+}$) transition probability for the first excited 2$^{+}$ level and a 0$^{+}$ level as the first excited state. However, it has been suggested that the magic properties of $^{68}$Ni arise due to the fact that the N=40 separates the negative parity $pf$-shell from the positive parity 1$g_{9/2}$ orbital, and indeed, recent mass measurements have not revealed a clear N = 40 energy gap. Despite all additional information that was acquired over the last decade the specific role of the N=40 is not yet understood and a new experimental approach to study $^{68}$Ni was proposed. Namely, a two-neutron transfer reaction on $^{66}$Ni to characterize and disentangle the structure of the ...

  1. Determination of standard Ghibbs free energy of formation of NiW sub 2 B sub 2 and activity of Ni-W binary system by EMF measurement. Kidenryokuho ni yoru NiW sub 2 B sub 2 no hyojun seisei Gibbs jiyu energy to Ni-W 2 seibunkei no katsuryo no sokutei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayama, Koichiro; Hashimoto, Yasuhiko; Suzuki, Kenji; Matsuo, Hideki (Himeji Inst. of Tech., Hyogo (Japan) Fukushin Electric Co., Ltd., Hyogo (Japan))

    1989-12-25

    NiW {sub 2} B {sub 2} (M phase), existing in trinary Ni-W-B system, was measured in standard Gibbs free energy (GF) of formation in the temperature range from 1273K to 1423K by an electromotive force method (EMF) with use of solid oxide electrolyte. First, oxide phase in equilibrium with three-phase M-W-Ni solid solution region was confirmed to be B {sub 2} O {sub 3}. Binary Ni-W system solid solution in equilibrium with M phase and W phase is constant in composition with Ni-16.4mo1%W in the above temperature range. WO {sub 2} and WO {sub 2.72} were actually measured in GF. As Ni-W solid solution is in equilibrium with WO {sub 2} and WO {sub 2.72}, binary Ni-W system was measured in activity by the EMF, and Ni-16.4mo1%W solid solution was calculated in GF of mixing by use of the above measured GF of WO {sub 2} and WO {sub 2.72}. Finally with use of sample in M-W-Ni solid solution region, M phase was calculated in GF by the EMF. The result of those calculations were expressed with experimental formulas. 19 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Ni3Si2 nanowires grown in situ on Ni foam for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yizhe; Li, Zhihui; Li, Beibei; Zhang, Jinying; Niu, Chunming

    2016-07-01

    Ni3Si2 nanowires and nanoawls have grown in situ on the surface of Ni foams by a controlled low pressure chemical vapor deposition process. Structural characterization shows that the individual Ni3Si2 nanowire is single crystal covered with a thin layer (1-2 nm) of SiO2 with a diameter of ∼20-30 nm and length of ten's micrometers. Individual nanoawl with a circular cone shape is polycrystalline. Both Ni3Si2 nanowire and nanoawl samples are evaluated as potential electrode materials for supercapacitors. The nanowire electrode delivers a very high specific capacitance and excellent rate capability. A specific capacitance of 760 F g-1 is measured at current density of 0.5 A g-1, which decreases to 518 F g-1 when the current density increases to 10 A g-1. The capacitance is dominated by pseudocapacitance with a mechanism similar to that of NiO or Ni(OH)2 widely studied in the literature. An asymmetric supercapacitor fabricated by pairing Ni3Si2 nanowire electrode with an activated carbon electrode exhibits energy densities of 17.5 Wh kg-1 and 8.8 Wh kg-1 at power densites of 301 W kg-1 and 3000 W kg-1.

  3. Fluorescence x-ray absorption fine structure studies of Fe-Ni-S and Fe-Ni-Si melts to 1600 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manghnani, M. H.; Hong, X.; Balogh, J.; Amulele, G.; Sekar, M.; Newville, M.

    2008-04-01

    We report NiK -edge fluorescence x-ray absorption fine structure spectra (XAFS) for Fe0.75Ni0.05S0.20 and Fe0.75Ni0.05Si0.20 ternary alloys from room temperature up to 1600 K. A high-temperature furnace designed for these studies incorporates two x-ray transparent windows and enables both a vertical orientation of the molten sample and a wide opening angle, so that XAFS can be measured in the fluorescence mode with a detector at 90° with respect to the incident x-ray beam. An analysis of the Ni XAFS data for these two alloys indicates different local structural environments for Ni in Fe0.75Ni0.05S0.20 and Fe0.75Ni0.05Si0.20 melts, with more Ni-Si coordination than Ni-S coordination persisting from room temperature through melting. These results suggest that light elements such as S and Si may impact the structural and chemical properties of Fe-Ni alloys with a composition similar to the earth’s core.

  4. BoALMT1, an Al-Induced Malate Transporter in Cabbage, Enhances Aluminum Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al is present in approximately 50% of the arable land worldwide and is regarded as the main limiting factor of crop yield on acidic soil. Al-induced root malate efflux plays an important role in the Al tolerance of plants. Here, the aluminum induced malate transporter BoALMT1 (KF322104 was cloned from cabbage (Brassica oleracea. BoALMT1 showed higher expression in roots than in shoots. The expression of BoALMT1 was specifically induced by Al treatment, but not the trivalent cations lanthanum (La, cadmium (Cd, zinc (Zn, or copper (Cu. Subcellular localization studies were performed in onion epidermal cells and revealed that BoALMT1 was localized at the plasma membrane. Scanning Ion-selective Electrode Technique was used to analyze H+ flux. Xenopus oocytes and Arabidopsis thaliana expressing BoALMT1 excreted more H+ under Al treatment. Overexpressing BoALMT1 in transgenic Arabidopsis resulted in enhanced Al tolerance and increased malate secretion. The results suggested that BoALMT1 functions as an Al-resistant gene and encodes a malate transporter. Expressing BoALMT1 in Xenopus oocytes or A. thaliana indicated that BoALMT1 could increase malate secretion and H+ efflux to resist Al tolerance.

  5. Nipah Virus (NiV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Nipah Virus (NiV) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Nipah virus (NiV) is a member of the family Paramyxoviridae , ...

  6. Thermal stability of electrodeposited Ni and Ni-Co layers; an EBSD-study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anette Alsted; Gholinia, A.; Trimby, P.W.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of heat treatment on the microstructure and the microtexture of electrodeposited Ni and Ni-Co layers was investigated with Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) with high resolution. Samples were annealed for 1 hour at 523 K and 673 K, the temperature region wherein...