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Sample records for nhanes iii electronic

  1. The change in weight perception of weight status among the overweight: comparison of NHANES III (1988–1994 and 1999–2004 NHANES

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    Starke-Reed Pamela

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives This study seeks to determine whether perception of weight status among the overweight has changed with the increasing overweight/obesity prevalence. Methods The perception of weight status was compared between overweight participants (BMI between 25.0–29.9 kg/m2 from NHANES III (1988–1994 and overweight participants from NHANES 1999–2004. Perception of weight status was assessed by asking participants to classify their weight as about the right weight, underweight or overweight. Comparisons were made across age groups, genders, race/ethnicities and various income levels. Results Fewer overweight people during the NHANES 1999–2004 survey perceived themselves as overweight when compared to overweight people during the NHANES III survey. The change in distortion between the survey periods was greatest among persons with lower income, males and African-Americans. Conclusion The increase in overweight/obesity between the survey years (NHANES III and NHANES 1999–2004 has been accompanied with fewer overweight people perceiving themselves as overweight.

  2. Trends in income-related inequality in untreated caries among children in the United States: findings from NHANES I, NHANES III, and NHANES 1999-2004.

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    Capurro, Diego Alberto; Iafolla, Timothy; Kingman, Albert; Chattopadhyay, Amit; Garcia, Isabel

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this analysis was to describe income-related inequality in untreated caries among children in the United States over time. The analysis focuses on children ages 2-12 years in three nationally representative U.S. surveys: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1971-1974, NHANES 1988-1994, and NHANES 1999-2004. The outcome of interest is untreated dental caries. Various methods are employed to measure absolute and relative inequality within each survey such as pair-wise comparisons, measures of association (odds ratios), and three summary measures of overall inequality: the slope index of inequality, the relative index of inequality, and the concentration index. Inequality trends are then assessed by comparing these estimates across the three surveys. Inequality was present in each of the three surveys analyzed. Whether measured on an absolute or relative scale, untreated caries disproportionately affected those with lower income. Trend analysis shows that, despite population-wide reductions in untreated caries between NHANES I and NHANES III, overall absolute inequality slightly increased, while overall relative inequality significantly increased. Between NHANES III and NHANES 1999-2004, both absolute and relative inequality tended to decrease; however, these changes were not statistically significant. Socioeconomic inequality in oral health is an important measure of progress in overall population health and a key input to inform health policies. This analysis shows the presence of socioeconomic inequality in oral health in the American child population, as well as changes in its magnitude over time. Further research is needed to determine the factors related to these changes and their relative contribution to inequality trends. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Using DNA fingerprints to infer familial relationships within NHANES III households.

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    Katki, Hormuzd A; Sanders, Christopher L; Graubard, Barry I; Bergen, Andrew W

    2010-06-01

    Developing, targeting, and evaluating genomic strategies for population-based disease prevention require population-based data. In response to this urgent need, genotyping has been conducted within the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination (NHANES III), the nationally-representative household-interview health survey in the U.S. However, before these genetic analyses can occur, family relationships within households must be accurately ascertained. Unfortunately, reported family relationships within NHANES III households based on questionnaire data are incomplete and inconclusive with regards to actual biological relatedness of family members. We inferred family relationships within households using DNA fingerprints (Identifiler(R)) that contain the DNA loci used by law enforcement agencies for forensic identification of individuals. However, performance of these loci for relationship inference is not well understood. We evaluated two competing statistical methods for relationship inference on pairs of household members: an exact likelihood ratio relying on allele frequencies to an Identical By State (IBS) likelihood ratio that only requires matching alleles. We modified these methods to account for genotyping errors and population substructure. The two methods usually agree on the rankings of the most likely relationships. However, the IBS method underestimates the likelihood ratio by not accounting for the informativeness of matching rare alleles. The likelihood ratio is sensitive to estimates of population substructure, and parent-child relationships are sensitive to the specified genotyping error rate. These loci were unable to distinguish second-degree relationships and cousins from being unrelated. The genetic data is also useful for verifying reported relationships and identifying data quality issues. An important by-product is the first explicitly nationally-representative estimates of allele frequencies at these ubiquitous forensic loci.

  4. 75 FR 32191 - National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) DNA Samples: Guidelines for Proposals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ...; (5) to study the relation among diet, nutrition and health; (6) to explore emerging public health... race or ethnic groups (only applicable for a subsample request) or if information about the race or... and Ethnic Minorities in Research In NHANES III, NHANES 1999-2002, and NHANES 2007-2008 race...

  5. Association between periodontitis and mortality in stages 3-5 chronic kidney disease: NHANES III and linked mortality study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Praveen; Dietrich, Thomas; Ferro, Charles J; Cockwell, Paul; Chapple, Iain L C

    2016-02-01

    Periodontitis may add to the systemic inflammatory burden in individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD), thereby contributing to an increased mortality rate. This study aimed to determine the association between periodontitis and mortality rate (all-cause and cardiovascular disease-related) in individuals with stage 3-5 CKD, hitherto referred to as "CKD". Survival analysis was carried out using the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) and linked mortality data. Cox proportional hazards regression was employed to assess the association between periodontitis and mortality, in individuals with CKD. This association was compared with the association between mortality and traditional risk factors in CKD mortality (diabetes, hypertension and smoking). Of the 13,784 participants eligible for analysis in NHANES III, 861 (6%) had CKD. The median follow-up for this cohort was 14.3 years. Adjusting for confounders, the 10-year all-cause mortality rate for individuals with CKD increased from 32% (95% CI: 29-35%) to 41% (36-47%) with the addition of periodontitis. For diabetes, the 10-year all-cause mortality rate increased to 43% (38-49%). There is a strong, association between periodontitis and increased mortality in individuals with CKD. Sources of chronic systemic inflammation (including periodontitis) may be important contributors to mortality in patients with CKD. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. All-Cause Mortality Risk of Metabolically Healthy Obese Individuals in NHANES III

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    C. M. Durward

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mortality risk across metabolic health-by-BMI categories in NHANES-III was examined. Metabolic health was defined as: (1 homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR <2.5; (2 ≤2 Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III metabolic syndrome criteria; (3 combined definition using ≤1 of the following: HOMA-IR ≥1.95 (or diabetes medications, triglycerides ≥1.7 mmol/L, HDL-C <1.04 mmol/L (males or <1.30 mmol/L (females, LDL-C ≥2.6 mmol/L, and total cholesterol ≥5.2 mmol/L (or cholesterol-lowering medications. Hazard ratios (HR for all-cause mortality were estimated with Cox regression models. Nonpregnant women and men were included (n=4373, mean ± SD, age 37.1±10.9 years, BMI 27.3±5.8 kg/m2, 49.4% female. Only 40 of 1160 obese individuals were identified as MHO by all definitions. MHO groups had superior levels of clinical risk factors compared to unhealthy individuals but inferior levels compared to healthy lean groups. There was increased risk of all-cause mortality in metabolically unhealthy obese participants regardless of definition (HOMA-IR HR 2.07 (CI 1.3–3.4, P<0.01; ATP-III HR 1.98 (CI 1.4–2.9, P<0.001; combined definition HR 2.19 (CI 1.3–3.8, P<0.01. MHO participants were not significantly different from healthy lean individuals by any definition. While MHO individuals are not at significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality, their clinical risk profile is worse than that of metabolically healthy lean individuals.

  7. Electronic Health Record Data Versus the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES): A Comparison of Overweight and Obesity Rates.

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    Funk, Luke M; Shan, Ying; Voils, Corrine I; Kloke, John; Hanrahan, Lawrence P

    2017-06-01

    Estimating population-level obesity rates is important for informing policy and targeting treatment. The current gold standard for obesity measurement in the United States-the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)-samples health system-level measurement. To assess the feasibility of using body mass index (BMI) data from the electronic health record (EHR) to assess rates of overweight and obesity and compare these rates to national NHANES estimates. Using outpatient data from 42 clinics, we studied 388,762 patients in a large health system with at least 1 primary care visit in 2011-2012. We compared crude and adjusted overweight and obesity rates by age category and ethnicity (white, black, Hispanic, Other) between EHR and NHANES participants. Adjusted overweight (BMI≥25) and obesity rates were calculated by a 2-step process. Step 1 accounted for missing BMI data using inverse probability weighting, whereas step 2 included a poststratification correction to adjust the EHR population to a nationally representative sample. Adjusted rates of obesity (BMI≥30) for EHR patients were 37.3% [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 37.1-37.5] compared with 35.1% (95% CI, 32.3-38.1) for NHANES patients. Among the 16 different obesity class, ethnicity, and sex strata that were compared between EHR and NHANES patients, 14 (87.5%) contained similar obesity estimates (ie, overlapping 95% CIs). EHRs may be an ideal tool for identifying and targeting patients with obesity for implementation of public health and/or individual level interventions.

  8. Cardiovascular risk factors and cognitive function in adults 30-59 years of age (NHANES III).

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    Pavlik, Valory N; Hyman, David J; Doody, Rachelle

    2005-01-01

    In the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), three measures of cognitive function [Simple Reaction Time Test (SRTT), Symbol Digit Substitution Test (SDST), and Serial Digit Learning Test (SDLT)] were administered to a half-sample of 3,385 adult men and nonpregnant women 30-59 years of age with no history of stroke. We used multiple linear regression analysis to determine whether there was an independent association between performance on each cognitive function measure and defined hypertension (HTN) alone, type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) alone, and coexistent HTN and DM after adjustment for demographic and socioeconomic variables and selected health behaviors. After adjustment for the sociodemographic variables, the combination of HTN + DM, but not HTN alone or DM alone, was significantly associated with worse performance on the SRTT (p = 0.031) and the SDST (p = 0.011). A similar pattern was observed for SDLT performance, but the relationship did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.101). We conclude that HTN in combination with DM is associated with detectable cognitive decrements in persons under age 60.

  9. Association between serum antibodies to periodontal bacteria and rheumatoid factor in NHANES III

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    Goh, Charlene E.; Kopp, Jacob; Papapanou, Panos N.; Molitor, Jerry A.; Demmer, Ryan T.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Alterations in the microbiome, including the periodontal microbiome, may be a risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Most studies that have analyzed this association are relatively small, focus primarily on a single periodontal pathogen (Porphyromonas gingivalis), and are not population-based. We investigated the association between elevated serum IgG antibodies to 19 periodontal species and the prevalence of rheumatoid factor (RF) in a large nationally representative sample of adults. Methods The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey is a cross-sectional sample of the non-institutionalized US population (n=33,994). Our study population included all dentate participants ≥60 years, who did not have RA as defined by a modified version of the American College of Rheumatology 1987 criteria, and had complete data for both serum IgG antibodies against periodontal bacteria and serum RF antibody titer (n=2461). Results Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) (95% CI) summarizing the relationship between the 19 periodontal serum IgGs and RF seropositivity ranged from 0.53 (0.29, 0.97) to 1.27 (0.79, 2.06), and 17 of the 19 observed ORs were periodontal IgGs to be mostly unassociated with RF seropositivity in the nationally representative NHANES III. Elevated antibody levels to P. intermedia and C. ochracea were associated with lower odds of RF seropositivity. PMID:27110949

  10. Fat mass to fat-free mass ratio reference values from NHANES III using bioelectrical impedance analysis.

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    Xiao, J; Purcell, S A; Prado, C M; Gonzalez, M C

    2017-10-06

    Low fat-free mass (FFM) or high fat mass (FM) are abnormal body composition phenotypes associated with morbidity. These conditions in combination lead to worse health outcomes, and can be identified by a high FM/FFM ratio. Here, we developed sex, age, and body mass index (BMI) stratified, population-based FM/FFM reference values using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) measurements. White, non-Hispanic individuals aged 18-90 years old with data for weight, stature and BIA resistance measures from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III were included. Previously validated and sex-specific BIA prediction equations were used to calculate FM and FFM. FM/FFM values were generated at 5th, 50th and 95th percentiles for each sex, age (18-39.9, 40-59.9, 60-69.9 and 70-90 years), and BMI category (underweight, normal weight, overweight, class I/II and class III obesity). A total of 6372 individuals who had estimated FM and FFM values were identified (3366 females, 3006 males). Median values of FM/FFM were 0.24 and 0.40 for young (≤39.9 years) males and females with normal BMI, and 0.34 for males and 0.59 for females who were overweight. For elderly individuals aged >70 years, median FM/FFM for males and females were respectively 0.28 and 0.45 for those with normal BMI, and 0.37 and 0.61 for those in the overweight category. These FM/FFM reference values provide information on body composition characteristics that account for age, sex and BMI, which can be useful to identify individuals at risk for body composition abnormalities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  11. Cryptic relatedness in epidemiologic collections accessed for genetic association studies: experiences from the Epidemiologic Architecture for Genes Linked to Environment (EAGLE) study and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES).

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    Malinowski, Jennifer; Goodloe, Robert; Brown-Gentry, Kristin; Crawford, Dana C

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic collections have been a major resource for genotype-phenotype studies of complex disease given their large sample size, racial/ethnic diversity, and breadth and depth of phenotypes, traits, and exposures. A major disadvantage of these collections is they often survey households and communities without collecting extensive pedigree data. Failure to account for substantial relatedness can lead to inflated estimates and spurious associations. To examine the extent of cryptic relatedness in an epidemiologic collection, we as the Epidemiologic Architecture for Genes Linked to Environment (EAGLE) study accessed the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) linked to DNA samples ("Genetic NHANES") from NHANES III and NHANES 1999-2002. NHANES are population-based cross-sectional surveys conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Genome-wide genetic data is not yet available in NHANES, and current data use agreements prohibit the generation of GWAS-level data in NHANES samples due issues in maintaining confidentiality among other ethical concerns. To date, only hundreds of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in a variety of candidate genes are available for analysis in NHANES. We performed identity-by-descent (IBD) estimates in three self-identified subpopulations of Genetic NHANES (non-Hispanic white, non- Hispanic black, and Mexican American) using PLINK software to identify potential familial relationships from presumed unrelated subjects. We then compared the PLINKidentified relationships to those identified by an alternative method implemented in Kinship-based INference for Genome-wide association studies (KING). Overall, both methods identified familial relationships in NHANES III and NHANES 1999-2002 for all three subpopulations, but little concordance was observed between the two methods due in major part to the limited SNP data available in Genetic NHANES

  12. Transformational III-V Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Nour, Maha A.

    2014-01-01

    Flexible electronics using III-V materials for nano-electronics with high electron mobility and optoelectronics with direct band gap are attractive for many applications. This thesis describes a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS

  13. Transformational III-V Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Nour, Maha A.

    2014-04-01

    Flexible electronics using III-V materials for nano-electronics with high electron mobility and optoelectronics with direct band gap are attractive for many applications. This thesis describes a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible process for transforming traditional III-V materials based electronics into flexible one. The thesis reports releasing 200 nm of Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) from 200 nm GaAs / 300 nm Aluminum Arsenide (AlAs) stack on GaAs substrate using diluted hydrofluoric acid (HF). This process enables releasing a single top layer compared to peeling off all layers with small sizes at the same time. This is done utilizing a network of release holes that contributes to the better transparency (45 % at 724 nm wavelengths) observed. Fabrication of metal oxide semiconductor capacitor (MOSCAPs) on GaAs is followed by releasing it to have devices on flexible 200 nm GaAs. Similarly, flexible GaSb and InP fabrication process is also reported to transform traditional electronics into large-area flexible electronics.

  14. Usual Dietary Intakes: NHANES Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)

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    NCI developed a new instrument called the NHANES Food Frequency Questionnaire (formerly called Food Propensity Questionnaire) and supported its application in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).

  15. Oral health and cognitive function in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III).

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    Stewart, Robert; Sabbah, Wael; Tsakos, Georgios; D'Aiuto, Francesco; Watt, Richard G

    2008-10-01

    To investigate the association between oral health and cognitive function in early-, mid-, and late-adult life. A secondary analysis was carried out of a large, well-characterized community sample (NHANES III). Analyzed variables included three measures of oral health (gingival bleeding, loss of periodontal attachment, loss of teeth) and three measures of cognitive function: the Symbol Digit Substitution Test (SDST), the Serial Digit Learning Test (SDLT) (both in 5138 participants aged 20-59 years), and a Story Recall test (in 1555 participants aged >or=70 years). Other covariates in linear regression models included age, gender, ethnicity, education and poverty, and cardiovascular risk factors. Worse scores on all three measures of oral health status were significantly associated with poorer performance on all three measures of cognitive function after adjustment for age. Education was an important confounding factor. However, after full adjustment for all other covariates, gingival bleeding (%) and loss of periodontal attachment (%) remained associated with relative impairment on SDST score (B coefficients both = 0.003), and gingival bleeding was associated with relative impairment on SDLT (B = 0.017). No effect modification by age was observed. Poor oral health is associated with worse cognitive function throughout adult life. This may, in part, be accounted for by early life education and social status. However, the possibility of direct causal pathways requires further investigation.

  16. Prognostic value of fasting versus nonfasting low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels on long-term mortality: insight from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES-III).

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    Doran, Bethany; Guo, Yu; Xu, Jinfeng; Weintraub, Howard; Mora, Samia; Maron, David J; Bangalore, Sripal

    2014-08-12

    National and international guidelines recommend fasting lipid panel measurement for risk stratification of patients for prevention of cardiovascular events. However, the prognostic value of fasting versus nonfasting low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is uncertain. Patients enrolled in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES-III), a nationally representative cross-sectional survey performed from 1988 to 1994, were stratified on the basis of fasting status (≥8 or fasting and nonfasting cohorts with similar baseline characteristics. The risk of outcomes as a function of LDL-C and fasting status was assessed with the use of receiver operating characteristic curves and bootstrapping methods. The interaction between fasting status and LDL-C was assessed with Cox proportional hazards modeling. Primary outcome was all-cause mortality. Secondary outcome was cardiovascular mortality. One-to-one matching based on propensity score yielded 4299 pairs of fasting and nonfasting individuals. For the primary outcome, fasting LDL-C yielded prognostic value similar to that for nonfasting LDL-C (C statistic=0.59 [95% confidence interval, 0.57-0.61] versus 0.58 [95% confidence interval, 0.56-0.60]; P=0.73), and LDL-C by fasting status interaction term in the Cox proportional hazards model was not significant (Pinteraction=0.11). Similar results were seen for the secondary outcome (fasting versus nonfasting C statistic=0.62 [95% confidence interval, 0.60-0.66] versus 0.62 [95% confidence interval, 0.60-0.66]; P=0.96; Pinteraction=0.34). Nonfasting LDL-C has prognostic value similar to that of fasting LDL-C. National and international agencies should consider reevaluating the recommendation that patients fast before obtaining a lipid panel. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Electronic Biosensors Based on III-Nitride Semiconductors.

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    Kirste, Ronny; Rohrbaugh, Nathaniel; Bryan, Isaac; Bryan, Zachary; Collazo, Ramon; Ivanisevic, Albena

    2015-01-01

    We review recent advances of AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT)-based electronic biosensors. We discuss properties and fabrication of III-nitride-based biosensors. Because of their superior biocompatibility and aqueous stability, GaN-based devices are ready to be implemented as next-generation biosensors. We review surface properties, cleaning, and passivation as well as different pathways toward functionalization, and critically analyze III-nitride-based biosensors demonstrated in the literature, including those detecting DNA, bacteria, cancer antibodies, and toxins. We also discuss the high potential of these biosensors for monitoring living cardiac, fibroblast, and nerve cells. Finally, we report on current developments of covalent chemical functionalization of III-nitride devices. Our review concludes with a short outlook on future challenges and projected implementation directions of GaN-based HEMT biosensors.

  18. Race-ethnic differences in the association of genetic loci with HbA1c levels and mortality in U.S. adults: the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimsby Jonna L

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c levels diagnose diabetes, predict mortality and are associated with ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in white individuals. Genetic associations in other race groups are not known. We tested the hypotheses that there is race-ethnic variation in 1 HbA1c-associated risk allele frequencies (RAFs for SNPs near SPTA1, HFE, ANK1, HK1, ATP11A, FN3K, TMPRSS6, G6PC2, GCK, MTNR1B; 2 association of SNPs with HbA1c and 3 association of SNPs with mortality. Methods We studied 3,041 non-diabetic individuals in the NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. We stratified the analysis by race/ethnicity (NHW: non-Hispanic white; NHB: non-Hispanic black; MA: Mexican American to calculate RAF, calculated a genotype score by adding risk SNPs, and tested associations with SNPs and the genotype score using an additive genetic model, with type 1 error = 0.05. Results RAFs varied widely and at six loci race-ethnic differences in RAF were significant (p ATP11A, the SNP RAF was 54% in NHB, 18% in MA and 14% in NHW (p 1c in NHW (β = 0.012 HbA1c increase per risk allele, p = 0.04 and MA (β = 0.021, p = 0.005 but not NHB (β = 0.007, p = 0.39. The genotype score was not associated with mortality in any group (NHW: OR (per risk allele increase in mortality = 1.07, p = 0.09; NHB: OR = 1.04, p = 0.39; MA: OR = 1.03, p = 0.71. Conclusion At many HbA1c loci in NHANES III there is substantial RAF race-ethnic heterogeneity. The combined impact of common HbA1c-associated variants on HbA1c levels varied by race-ethnicity, but did not influence mortality.

  19. Race-ethnic differences in the association of genetic loci with HbA1c levels and mortality in U.S. adults: the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels diagnose diabetes, predict mortality and are associated with ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in white individuals. Genetic associations in other race groups are not known. We tested the hypotheses that there is race-ethnic variation in 1) HbA1c-associated risk allele frequencies (RAFs) for SNPs near SPTA1, HFE, ANK1, HK1, ATP11A, FN3K, TMPRSS6, G6PC2, GCK, MTNR1B; 2) association of SNPs with HbA1c and 3) association of SNPs with mortality. Methods We studied 3,041 non-diabetic individuals in the NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) III. We stratified the analysis by race/ethnicity (NHW: non-Hispanic white; NHB: non-Hispanic black; MA: Mexican American) to calculate RAF, calculated a genotype score by adding risk SNPs, and tested associations with SNPs and the genotype score using an additive genetic model, with type 1 error = 0.05. Results RAFs varied widely and at six loci race-ethnic differences in RAF were significant (p HbA1c in NHW (β = 0.012 HbA1c increase per risk allele, p = 0.04) and MA (β = 0.021, p = 0.005) but not NHB (β = 0.007, p = 0.39). The genotype score was not associated with mortality in any group (NHW: OR (per risk allele increase in mortality) = 1.07, p = 0.09; NHB: OR = 1.04, p = 0.39; MA: OR = 1.03, p = 0.71). Conclusion At many HbA1c loci in NHANES III there is substantial RAF race-ethnic heterogeneity. The combined impact of common HbA1c-associated variants on HbA1c levels varied by race-ethnicity, but did not influence mortality. PMID:22540250

  20. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)

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    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2000 forward. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a program of studies designed to assess the health and nutritional status of...

  1. Education, income and ethnic differences in cumulative biological risk profiles in a national sample of US adults: NHANES III (1988-1994).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, Teresa; Merkin, Sharon S; Crimmins, Eileen; Koretz, Brandon; Charette, Susan; Karlamangla, Arun

    2008-01-01

    Data from the nationally representative US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III cohort were used to examine the hypothesis that socio-economic status is consistently and negatively associated with levels of biological risk, as measured by nine biological parameters known to predict health risks (diastolic and systolic blood pressure, pulse, HDL and total cholesterol, glycosylated hemoglobin, c-reactive protein, albumin and waist-hip ratio), resulting in greater cumulative burdens of biological risk among those of lower education and/or income. As hypothesized, consistent education and income gradients were seen for biological parameters reflecting cardiovascular, metabolic and inflammatory risk: those with lower education and income exhibiting greater prevalence of high-risk values for each of nine individual biological risk factors. Significant education and income gradients were also seen for summary indices reflecting cumulative burdens of cardiovascular, metabolic and inflammatory risks as well as overall total biological risks. Multivariable cumulative logistic regression models revealed that the education and income effects were each independently and negatively associated with cumulative biological risks, and that these effects remained significant independent of age, gender, ethnicity and lifestyle factors such as smoking and physical activity. There were no significant ethnic differences in the patterns of association between socio-economic status and biological risks, but older age was associated with significantly weaker education and income gradients.

  2. Progress in Group III nitride semiconductor electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Yue; Zhang Jinfeng; Shen Bo; Liu Xinyu

    2012-01-01

    Recently there has been a rapid domestic development in group III nitride semiconductor electronic materials and devices. This paper reviews the important progress in GaN-based wide bandgap microelectronic materials and devices in the Key Program of the National Natural Science Foundation of China, which focuses on the research of the fundamental physical mechanisms of group III nitride semiconductor electronic materials and devices with the aim to enhance the crystal quality and electric performance of GaN-based electronic materials, develop new GaN heterostructures, and eventually achieve high performance GaN microwave power devices. Some remarkable progresses achieved in the program will be introduced, including those in GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) and metal—oxide—semiconductor high electron mobility transistors (MOSHEMTs) with novel high-k gate insulators, and material growth, defect analysis and material properties of InAlN/GaN heterostructures and HEMT fabrication, and quantum transport and spintronic properties of GaN-based heterostructures, and high-electric-field electron transport properties of GaN material and GaN Gunn devices used in terahertz sources. (invited papers)

  3. Variation in plasmonic (electronic) spectral parameters of Pr (III) and Nd (III) with varied concentration of moderators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Shubha, E-mail: shubhamishra03@gmail.com [School of Studies in Physics, Vikram University, Ujjain (M. P.) (India); Limaye, S. N., E-mail: snl222@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemistry, Dr. H.S. Gour University, A Central University, Sagar (M.P.) (India)

    2015-07-31

    It is said that the -4f shells behave as core and are least perturbed by changes around metal ion surrounding. However, there are evidences that-4f shells partially involved in direct moderator interaction. A systematic investigation on the plasmonic (electronic) spectral studies of some Rare Earths[RE(III).Mod] where, RE(III) = Pr(III),Nd(III) and Mod(moderator) = Y(III),La(III),Gd(III) and Lu(III), increased moderator concentration from 0.01 mol dm{sup −3} to 0.025 mol dm{sup −3} keeping the metal ion concentration at 0.01mol dm{sup −3} have been carried out. Variations in oscillator strengths (f), Judd-Ofelt parameters (T{sub λ}),inter-electronic repulsion Racah parameters (δE{sup k}),nephelauxetic ratio (β), radiative parameters (S{sub ED},A{sub T},β{sub R},T{sub R}). The values of oscillator strengths and Judd-Ofelt parameters have been discussed in the light of coordination number of RE(III) metal ions, denticity and basicity of the moderators. The [RE(III).Mod] bonding pattern has been studies in the light of the change in Racah parameters and nephelauxetic ratio.

  4. Cadmium, follicle-stimulating hormone, and effects on bone in women age 42-60 years, NHANES III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, Carolyn M., E-mail: 2crgallagher@optonline.net [PhD Program in Population Health and Clinical Outcomes Research, Stony Brook University, Health Sciences Center L3-R071, Stony Brook, New York 11794-8338 (United States); Department of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, New York (United States); Moonga, Baljit S. [Stony Brook University School of Dental Medicine, New York (United States); Kovach, John S. [Department of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, New York (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Background: Increased body burden of environmental cadmium has been associated with greater risk of decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis in middle-aged and older women, and an inverse relationship has been reported between follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and BMD in middle-aged women; however, the relationships between cadmium and FSH are uncertain, and the associations of each with bone loss have not been analyzed in a single population. Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium (UCd) and FSH levels, and the associations between UCd and FSH with BMD and osteoporosis, in postmenopausal and perimenopausal women aged 42-60 years. Methods: Data were obtained from the Third National Health Examination and Nutrition Survey, 1988-1994 (NHANES III). Outcomes evaluated were serum FSH levels, femoral bone mineral density measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and osteoporosis indicated by femoral BMD cutoffs based on the international standard. Urinary cadmium levels were analyzed for association with these outcomes, and FSH levels analyzed for association with bone effects, using multiple regression. Subset analysis was conducted by a dichotomous measure of body mass index (BMI) to proxy higher and lower adipose-synthesized estrogen effects. Results: UCd was associated with increased serum FSH in perimenopausal women with high BMI (n=642; {beta}=0.45; p{<=}0.05; R{sup 2}=0.35) and low BMI (n=408; {beta}=0.61; p{<=}0.01; R{sup 2}=0.34). Among perimenopausal women with high BMI, BMD was inversely related to UCd ({beta}=-0.04; p{<=}0.05) and FSH ({beta}=-0.03; p{<=}0.05). In postmenopausal women with low BMI, an incremental increase in FSH was associated with 2.78 greater odds for osteoporosis (109 with and 706 without) (OR=2.78; 95% CI=1.43, 5.42; p{<=}0.01). Conclusion: Long-term cadmium exposure at environmental levels is associated with increased serum FSH, and both FSH

  5. Quantum Calculations of Electron Tunneling in Respiratory Complex III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagras, Muhammad A; Hayashi, Tomoyuki; Stuchebrukhov, Alexei A

    2015-11-19

    The most detailed and comprehensive to date study of electron transfer reactions in the respiratory complex III of aerobic cells, also known as bc1 complex, is reported. In the framework of the tunneling current theory, electron tunneling rates and atomistic tunneling pathways between different redox centers were investigated for all electron transfer reactions comprising different stages of the proton-motive Q-cycle. The calculations reveal that complex III is a smart nanomachine, which under certain conditions undergoes conformational changes gating electron transfer, or channeling electrons to specific pathways. One-electron tunneling approximation was adopted in the tunneling calculations, which were performed using hybrid Broken-Symmetry (BS) unrestricted DFT/ZINDO levels of theory. The tunneling orbitals were determined using an exact biorthogonalization scheme that uniquely separates pairs of tunneling orbitals with small overlaps out of the remaining Franck-Condon orbitals with significant overlap. Electron transfer rates in different redox pairs show exponential distance dependence, in agreement with the reported experimental data; some reactions involve coupled proton transfer. Proper treatment of a concerted two-electron bifurcated tunneling reaction at the Q(o) site is given.

  6. Relationship of blood lead levels and blood pressure in NHANES II: additional calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gartside, P.S.

    1988-01-01

    In performing research for associations and relationships among the data thus far published from the NHANES II survey, only the data for the 64 communities involved may be used. The simple omission of a few essential data makes impossible any valid analysis from the data for the 20,325 individual respondents. In this research for associations between blood lead levels and blood pressure in NHANES II, the method of forward stepwise regression was used. This avoids the problem of inflated error rates for blood lead, maximizes the number of data analyzed, and minimizes the number of independent variables entered into the regression model, thus avoiding the pitfalls that previous NHANES II research of blood lead and blood pressure has fallen into when using backward stepwise regression. The results of this research for white male adults, white female adults, and black adults were contradictory and lacked consistency and reliability. In addition, the overall average association between blood lead level and blood pressure was so minute that the only rational conclusion is that there is no evidence for this association to be found in the NHANES II data

  7. Electron transfer. 88. Cobalt(III)-bound phosphite and hypophosphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linn, D.E. Jr.; Gould, E.S.

    1987-01-01

    Phosphite and hypophosphite coordinate to cobalt(III) in (NH 3 ) 5 Co/sup III/ through oxygen, rather than through phosphorus. The resulting complexes undergo electron-transfer reactions with Ru(NH 3 ) 6 2+ much more slowly than with Eu 2+ or V 2+ , indicating that the latter two reactants preferentially utilize ligand bridging. Reductions with Cr 2+ are shown to accompanied by transfer of the phosphorus-containing ligands, and reaction of the protonated phosphito (biphosphito) derivative (pK/sub A/ = 3.06 at 23 0 C) proceeds through a combination of acid-independent and inverse-acid paths, both routes yielding the same phosphito-bound Cr(III) product. The hypophosphito, but not the biphosphito, complex reacts with Ce(IV), producing Co 2+ in an induced electron-transfer process. The yield of Co 2+ falls off progressively as [Ce/sup IV/] is increased, pointing to a sequence in which a Co(III)-bound P(II) radical is formed in initial attack by Ce(IV) but subsequently undergoes partition between competing reaction paths, i.e. internal electron transfer to Co(III) vs external oxidation by a second Ce(IV) center. The hypophosphito complex, but not the biphosphito complex, smoothly decomposes in basic media via an internal redox reaction, yielding Co(II) quantitatively, along with a 1:1 mixture of phosphite, and hypophosphite. This transformation, which fails with mixtures of (NH 3 ) 5 Co(H 2 O) 3+ and H 2 PO 2 - appears to be catalyzed specifically by OH - . Deuterium-labeling experiments disclose a solvent isotope effect. Reaction mechanisms are suggested for all the observed results. 54 references, 5 tables

  8. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2009-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a program of studies designed to assess the health and nutritional status of adults and children in...

  9. Interplanetary Type III Bursts and Electron Density Fluctuations in the Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupar, V.; Maksimovic, M.; Kontar, E. P.; Zaslavsky, A.; Santolik, O.; Soucek, J.; Kruparova, O.; Eastwood, J. P.; Szabo, A.

    2018-04-01

    Type III bursts are generated by fast electron beams originated from magnetic reconnection sites of solar flares. As propagation of radio waves in the interplanetary medium is strongly affected by random electron density fluctuations, type III bursts provide us with a unique diagnostic tool for solar wind remote plasma measurements. Here, we performed a statistical survey of 152 simple and isolated type III bursts observed by the twin-spacecraft Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory mission. We investigated their time–frequency profiles in order to retrieve decay times as a function of frequency. Next, we performed Monte Carlo simulations to study the role of scattering due to random electron density fluctuations on time–frequency profiles of radio emissions generated in the interplanetary medium. For simplification, we assumed the presence of isotropic electron density fluctuations described by a power law with the Kolmogorov spectral index. Decay times obtained from observations and simulations were compared. We found that the characteristic exponential decay profile of type III bursts can be explained by the scattering of the fundamental component between the source and the observer despite restrictive assumptions included in the Monte Carlo simulation algorithm. Our results suggest that relative electron density fluctuations /{n}{{e}} in the solar wind are 0.06–0.07 over wide range of heliospheric distances.

  10. Interpretation of recovery stage III in gold. [Electron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeger, A.; Frank, W. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Metallforschung, Stuttgart (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Physik; Stuttgart Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Theoretische und Angewandte Physik)

    1983-05-01

    The paper compares a recent investigation of Stage-III recovery on electron-irradiated gold by Sonnenberg and Dedek with earlier work on cold-worked or quenched gold. The experimental results of Sonnenberg and Dedek are found to be in excellent agreement with those of Schuele, Seeger, Schumacher, and King, who showed that in Au Stage III is due to the migration of an elementary intrinsic point defect with migration enthalpy Hsup(III) = (0.71 +- 0.02)eV. Since the monovacancy migration enthalpy Hsub(IVsup(M)) = (0.83 +- 0.02)eV obtained by Schuele et al. has been confirmed by other workers and independent techniques, it is concluded that Hsup(III) represents the migration enthalpy of isolated self-interstitials.

  11. Subtle interactions and electron transfer between U{sup III}, Np{sup III}, or Pu{sup III} and uranyl mediated by the oxo group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, Polly L.; Zegke, Markus; Hollis, Emmalina; Pecharman, Anne-Frederique; Love, Jason B. [EaStCHEM School of Chemistry, University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Dutkiewicz, Michal S. [EaStCHEM School of Chemistry, University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom); European Commission, Directorate for Nuclear Safety and Security, Joint Research Centre, Karlsruhe (Germany); Walter, Olaf; Apostolidis, Christos; Magnani, Nicola; Griveau, Jean-Christophe; Colineau, Eric; Caciuffo, Roberto [European Commission, Directorate for Nuclear Safety and Security, Joint Research Centre, Karlsruhe (Germany); Zhang, Xiaobin; Schreckenbach, Georg [Department of Chemistry, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    2016-10-04

    A dramatic difference in the ability of the reducing An{sup III} center in AnCp{sub 3} (An=U, Np, Pu; Cp=C{sub 5}H{sub 5}) to oxo-bind and reduce the uranyl(VI) dication in the complex [(UO{sub 2})(THF)(H{sub 2}L)] (L=''Pacman'' Schiff-base polypyrrolic macrocycle), is found and explained. These are the first selective functionalizations of the uranyl oxo by another actinide cation. At-first contradictory electronic structural data are explained by combining theory and experiment. Complete one-electron transfer from Cp{sub 3}U forms the U{sup IV}-uranyl(V) compound that behaves as a U{sup V}-localized single molecule magnet below 4 K. The extent of reduction by the Cp{sub 3}Np group upon oxo-coordination is much less, with a Np{sup III}-uranyl(VI) dative bond assigned. Solution NMR and NIR spectroscopy suggest Np{sup IV}U{sup V} but single-crystal X-ray diffraction and SQUID magnetometry suggest a Np{sup III}-U{sup VI} assignment. DFT-calculated Hirshfeld charge and spin density analyses suggest half an electron has transferred, and these explain the strongly shifted NMR spectra by spin density contributions at the hydrogen nuclei. The Pu{sup III}-U{sup VI} interaction is too weak to be observed in THF solvent, in agreement with calculated predictions. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Plasma trans-fatty acid concentrations in fasting adults declined from NHANES 1999-2000 to 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesper, Hubert W; Caudill, Samuel P; Kuiper, Heather C; Yang, Quanhe; Ahluwalia, Namanjeet; Lacher, David A; Pirkle, James L

    2017-05-01

    Background: The consumption of trans fatty acids (TFAs) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and reducing their consumption is a major public health objective. Food intake studies have provided estimates for TFA concentrations in the US population; however, there is a need for data on TFA blood concentrations in the population. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine plasma TFA concentrations in a nationally representative group of fasted adults in the US population in NHANES samples from 1999-2000 and 2009-2010. Design: Four major TFAs [palmitelaidic acid (C16:1n-7t), trans vaccenic acid (C18:1n-7t), elaidic acid (C18:1n-9t), and linoelaidic acid (C18:2n-6t,9t)] were measured in plasma in 1613 subjects from NHANES 1999-2000 and 2462 subjects from NHANES 2009-2010 by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Geometric means and distribution percentiles were calculated for each TFA and their sum by age, sex, and race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Mexican American), and covariate-adjusted geometric means were computed by using a model that included these demographic and other dietary factors, as well as survey year and any significant interaction terms. Results: These nationally representative data for the adult US population show that TFA concentrations were 54% lower in NHANES 2009-2010 than in NHANES 1999-2000. Covariate-adjusted geometric means for the sum of the 4 TFAs were 81.4 μmol/L (95% CI: 77.3, 85.6 μmol/L) and 37.8 μmol/L (95% CI: 36.4, 39.4 μmol/L) in NHANES 1999-2000 and 2009-2010, respectively. Even with the large decline in TFA concentrations, differences between demographic subgroups were comparable in the 2 surveys. Conclusion: The results indicate an overall reduction in TFA concentrations in the US population and provide a valuable baseline to evaluate the impact of the recent regulation categorizing TFAs as food additives. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Subtle interactions and electron transfer between UIII, NpIII, or PuIII and uranyl mediated by the oxo group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, Polly L.; Zegke, Markus; Hollis, Emmalina; Pecharman, Anne-Frederique; Love, Jason B.; Dutkiewicz, Michal S.; Walter, Olaf; Apostolidis, Christos; Magnani, Nicola; Griveau, Jean-Christophe; Colineau, Eric; Caciuffo, Roberto; Zhang, Xiaobin; Schreckenbach, Georg

    2016-01-01

    A dramatic difference in the ability of the reducing An III center in AnCp 3 (An=U, Np, Pu; Cp=C 5 H 5 ) to oxo-bind and reduce the uranyl(VI) dication in the complex [(UO 2 )(THF)(H 2 L)] (L=''Pacman'' Schiff-base polypyrrolic macrocycle), is found and explained. These are the first selective functionalizations of the uranyl oxo by another actinide cation. At-first contradictory electronic structural data are explained by combining theory and experiment. Complete one-electron transfer from Cp 3 U forms the U IV -uranyl(V) compound that behaves as a U V -localized single molecule magnet below 4 K. The extent of reduction by the Cp 3 Np group upon oxo-coordination is much less, with a Np III -uranyl(VI) dative bond assigned. Solution NMR and NIR spectroscopy suggest Np IV U V but single-crystal X-ray diffraction and SQUID magnetometry suggest a Np III -U VI assignment. DFT-calculated Hirshfeld charge and spin density analyses suggest half an electron has transferred, and these explain the strongly shifted NMR spectra by spin density contributions at the hydrogen nuclei. The Pu III -U VI interaction is too weak to be observed in THF solvent, in agreement with calculated predictions. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Mechanisms for Electron Transfer Through Pili to Fe(III) Oxide in Geobacter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovley, Derek R. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    2015-03-09

    The purpose of these studies was to aid the Department of Energy in its goal of understanding how microorganisms involved in the bioremediation of metals and radionuclides sustain their activity in the subsurface. This information is required in order to incorporate biological processes into decision making for environmental remediation and long-term stewardship of contaminated sites. The proposed research was designed to elucidate the mechanisms for electron transfer to Fe(III) oxides in Geobacter species because Geobacter species are abundant dissimilatory metal-reducing microorganisms in a diversity of sites in which uranium is undergoing natural attenuation via the reduction of soluble U(VI) to insoluble U(IV) or when this process is artificially stimulated with the addition of organic electron donors. This study investigated the novel, but highly controversial, concept that the final conduit for electron transfer to Fe(III) oxides are electrically conductive pili. The specific objectives were to: 1) further evaluate the conductivity along the pili of Geobacter sulfurreducens and related organisms; 2) determine the mechanisms for pili conductivity; and 3) investigate the role of pili in Fe(III) oxide reduction. The studies demonstrated that the pili of G. sulfurreducens are conductive along their length. Surprisingly, the pili possess a metallic-like conductivity similar to that observed in synthetic organic conducting polymers such as polyaniline. Detailed physical analysis of the pili, as well as studies in which the structure of the pili was genetically modified, demonstrated that the metallic-like conductivity of the pili could be attributed to overlapping pi-pi orbitals of aromatic amino acids. Other potential mechanisms for conductivity, such as electron hopping between cytochromes associated with the pili were definitively ruled out. Pili were also found to be essential for Fe(III) oxide reduction in G. metallireducens. Ecological studies demonstrated

  15. Quantitative comparisons of type III radio burst intensity and fast electron flux at 1 AU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzenreiter, R. J.; Evans, L. G.; Lin, R. P.

    1976-01-01

    We compare the flux of fast solar electrons and the intensity of the type III radio emission generated by these particles at 1 AU. We find that there are two regimes in the generation of type III radiation: one where the radio intensity is linearly proportional to the electron flux, and the second regime, which occurs above a threshold electron flux, where the radio intensity is proportional to the approximately 2.4 power of the electron flux. This threshold appears to reflect a transition to a different emission mechanism.

  16. Phthalates and metabolic syndrome in U.S. Adolescents (NHANES 2003-2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children’s health outcomes may result from interactions among chemical and non-chemical stressors. We use NHANES data to investigate: Association between phthalate metabolite concentrations and MetS in adolescents If associations vary by family income (a non-chemical stressor)

  17. Differences in physical activity prevalence and trends from 3 U.S. surveillance systems: NHIS, NHANES, and BRFSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Susan A; Densmore, Dianna; Fulton, Janet E; Yore, Michelle M; Kohl, Harold W

    2009-01-01

    Three U.S. surveillance systems-National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)--estimate physical activity prevalence. Survey differences were examined qualitatively. Prevalence estimates by sex, age, and race/ethnicity were assessed for comparable survey periods. Trends were examined from NHIS 1998 to 2007, NHANES 1999 to 2006, and BRFSS 2001 to 2007. Age-adjusted prevalence estimates appeared most similar for NHIS 2005 (physically active: 30.2%, inactive: 40.7%) and NHANES 2005 to 2006 (physically active: 33.5%, inactive: 32.4%). In BRFSS 2005, prevalence of being physically active was 48.3% and inactive was 13.9%. Across all systems, men were more likely to be active than women; non-Hispanic whites were most likely to be active; as age increased, overall prevalence of being active decreased. Prevalence of being active exhibited a significant increasing trend only in BRFSS 2001 to 2007 (P < .001), while prevalence of being inactive decreased significantly in NHANES 1999 to 2006 (P < .001) and BRFSS 2001 to 2007 (P < .001). Different ways of assessing physical activity in surveillance systems result in different prevalence estimates. Before comparing estimates from different systems, all aspects of data collection and data analysis should be examined to determine if comparisons are appropriate.

  18. Growth of group III nitride films by pulsed electron beam deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, J.; Sakurada, K.; Shih, F.-Y.; Kobayashi, A.; Fujioka, H.

    2009-01-01

    We have grown group III nitride films on Al 2 O 3 (0 0 0 1), 6H-SiC (0 0 0 1), and ZnO (0001-bar) substrates by pulsed electron beam deposition (PED) for the first time and investigated their characteristics. We found that c-plane AlN and GaN grow epitaxially on these substrates. It has been revealed that the growth of GaN on atomically flat 6H-SiC substrates starts with the three-dimensional mode and eventually changes into the two-dimensional mode. The GaN films exhibited strong near-band-edge emission in their room temperature photoluminescence spectra. We also found that the use of PED allows us to reduce the epitaxial growth temperature for GaN down to 200 deg. C. - Graphical abstract: We have grown group III nitride films by pulsed electron beam deposition (PED) and found that the films of group III nitrides grow epitaxially on 6H-SiC and Al 2 O 3 substrates. We also found that the use of PED allows us to reduce the epitaxial growth temperature for GaN down to 200 deg. C.

  19. Probing the magnetic moments of [Mn{sup III}{sub 6}Cr{sup III}]{sup 3+} single-molecule magnets—A cross comparison of XMCD and spin-resolved electron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmstedt, Andreas, E-mail: helmstedt.andreas@gmail.com [Faculty of Physics, Bielefeld University, Universitätsstr. 25, 33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Dohmeier, Niklas; Müller, Norbert; Gryzia, Aaron; Brechling, Armin; Heinzmann, Ulrich [Faculty of Physics, Bielefeld University, Universitätsstr. 25, 33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Hoeke, Veronika; Krickemeyer, Erich; Glaser, Thorsten [Faculty of Chemistry, Bielefeld University, Universitätsstr. 25, 33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Leicht, Philipp; Fonin, Mikhail [Fachbereich Physik, Universität Konstanz, Universitätsstr. 10, 78457 Konstanz (Germany); Tietze, Thomas [Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems, Heisenbergstr. 3, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Joly, Loïc [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg, UMR 7504, CNRS-Université de Strasbourg, BP 43, 23 rue du Loess, F-67034 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Kuepper, Karsten [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Universität Ulm, 89069 Ulm (Germany)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • [Mn{sup III}{sub 6}Cr{sup III}]{sup 3+} single-molecule magnets are investigated. • XMCD and spin-resolved electron spectroscopy (SPES) results are compared. • A simple sum rule evaluation is performed for comparison. • Differences between SPES and XMCD results are discussed. • Influences of the magnetic field on the Mn L edge absorption are observed. - Abstract: Single-molecule magnets (SMM) of the [Mn{sup III}{sub 6}Cr{sup III}]{sup 3+} structural type prepared on Si and gold-coated glass substrates have been investigated by spin-resolved electron spectroscopy (SPES) and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) at the Mn L{sub 3,2} edge and in addition by XMCD at the Cr L{sub 3,2} edge using synchrotron radiation. Differences between the two methods are discussed. Despite its severe limitations for 3d transition metals, a spin sum rule evaluation is nevertheless performed for the Mn{sup III} centres in the [Mn{sup III}{sub 6}Cr{sup III}]{sup 3+} SMM to provide a simple means of comparing XMCD and spin-resolved electron spectroscopy results.

  20. The association of exposure to hepatitis B and C viruses with lung function and respiratory disease: a population based study from the NHANES III database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Li Yen; Card, Tim; Fogarty, Andrew W; McKeever, Tricia M

    2014-12-01

    Globally, 500 million people are chronically infected with Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV). While these viruses are notorious for their detrimental effect on the liver they are also known to affect multiple organs in the body including the lungs. To investigate if exposure to HBV and HCV is associated with lung function and respiratory diseases. Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) was analysed using multiple linear regressions to investigate the association between exposure to HBV and HCV with the various measures of lung function, while multiple logistic regressions were used to evaluate the association with the respiratory diseases asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Exposure to HCV was significantly associated with an increase in Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 s, FEV1 (Coef: 97.94 ml, 95% CI: 38.87 to 157.01) and Full Vital Capacity, FVC (Coef: 90 ml, 95% CI: 14.50 to 166.24). Individuals who had been exposed to both HBV and HCV also had a significantly higher FEV1 (Coef: 145.82, CI: 60.68 to 230.94) and FVC (Coef: 195.09, CI: 78.91 to 311.26). There was also a significant association between exposure to HBV and asthma (OR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.05 to 1.58). These associations were no longer significant after additionally adjusting for cocaine and marijuana use as well as poverty income ratio. Our research implies that hepatotropic viruses may affect the respiratory system, but more work at a population level is needed to further explore these associations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Diffraction and depths-of-field effects in electron beam imaging at SURF III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arp, U.

    2001-01-01

    Imaging an electron beam with visible light is a common method of diagnostics applied to electron accelerators. It is a straightforward way to deduce the transverse electron distribution as well as its changes over time. The electrons stored in the Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF) III at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) were studied over an extended period of time to characterize the upgraded accelerator. There is good agreement between experimental and theoretical horizontal beam sizes at three different electron energies

  2. Body Size Changes Among National Collegiate Athletic Association New England Division III Football Players, 1956-2014: Comparison With Age-Matched Population Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Kayla R; Harmatz, Jerold S; Zhao, Yanli; Greenblatt, David J

    2016-05-01

    Collegiate football programs encourage athletes to pursue high body weights. To examine position-dependent trends over time in body size characteristics among football players in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III New England Small College Athletic Conference (NESCAC) from 1956 to 2014 and to compare the observed absolute and relative changes with those in age-matched male population controls. Descriptive laboratory study. Medical school affiliated with a NESCAC institution. Football team rosters from the 10-member NESCAC schools, available as public documents, were analyzed along with body size data from general population males aged 20 to 29 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Body weight, height, and calculated body mass index were evaluated using analysis of variance, linear regression, and nonlinear regression to determine the distribution features of size variables and changes associated with time (year), school, and position. Among NESCAC linemen, absolute and relative changes over time in body weight and body mass index exceeded corresponding changes in the NHANES population controls. New England Small College Athletic Conference offensive linemen body weights increased by 37.5% from 1956 to 2014 (192 to 264 lb [86.4 to 118.8 kg]), compared with a 12% increase (164 to 184 lb [73.8 to 82.8 kg]) since 1961 in the NHANES population controls. Body mass index changed in parallel with body weight and exceeded 35 kg/m(2) in more than 30% of contemporary NESCAC offensive linemen. Among skill players in the NESCAC group, time-related changes in body size characteristics generally paralleled those in the NHANES controls. High body weight and body mass indices were evident in offensive linemen, even among those in Division III football programs with no athletic scholarships. These characteristics may be associated with adverse cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes. We need approaches to encourage risk

  3. Molecular and electronic structure of thin films of protoporphyrin(IX)Fe(III)Cl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Shelly R.; White, Henry S.

    1991-11-01

    Electrochemical, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and tunneling spectroscopy studies of the molecular and electronic properties of thin films of protoporphyrin(IX)Fe(III)Cl (abbreviated as PP(IX)Fe(III)Cl) on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) electrodes are reported. PP(IX)Fe(III)Cl films are prepared by two different methods: (1) adsorption, yielding an electrochemically-active film, and (2) irreversible electrooxidative polymerization, yielding an electrochemically-inactive film. STM images, in conjunction with electro-chemical results, indicate that adsorption of PP(IX)Fe(III)Cl from aqueous solutions onto freshly cleaved HOPG results in a film comprised of molecular aggregates. In contrast, films prepared by irreversible electrooxidative polymerization of PP(IX)Fe(III)Cl have a denser, highly structured morphology, including what appear to be small pinholes (approx. 50A diameter) in an otherwise continuous film.

  4. Body Size Changes Among National Collegiate Athletic Association New England Division III Football Players, 1956−2014: Comparison With Age-Matched Population Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Kayla R.; Harmatz, Jerold S.; Zhao, Yanli; Greenblatt, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Context:  Collegiate football programs encourage athletes to pursue high body weights. Objective:  To examine position-dependent trends over time in body size characteristics among football players in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III New England Small College Athletic Conference (NESCAC) from 1956 to 2014 and to compare the observed absolute and relative changes with those in age-matched male population controls. Design:  Descriptive laboratory study. Setting:  Medical school affiliated with a NESCAC institution. Patients or Other Participants:  Football team rosters from the 10-member NESCAC schools, available as public documents, were analyzed along with body size data from general population males aged 20 to 29 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Main Outcome Measure(s):  Body weight, height, and calculated body mass index were evaluated using analysis of variance, linear regression, and nonlinear regression to determine the distribution features of size variables and changes associated with time (year), school, and position. Results:  Among NESCAC linemen, absolute and relative changes over time in body weight and body mass index exceeded corresponding changes in the NHANES population controls. New England Small College Athletic Conference offensive linemen body weights increased by 37.5% from 1956 to 2014 (192 to 264 lb [86.4 to 118.8 kg]), compared with a 12% increase (164 to 184 lb [73.8 to 82.8 kg]) since 1961 in the NHANES population controls. Body mass index changed in parallel with body weight and exceeded 35 kg/m2 in more than 30% of contemporary NESCAC offensive linemen. Among skill players in the NESCAC group, time-related changes in body size characteristics generally paralleled those in the NHANES controls. Conclusions:  High body weight and body mass indices were evident in offensive linemen, even among those in Division III football programs with no athletic

  5. Race-ethnic differences in the association of genetic loci with HbA1c levels and mortality in U.S. adults: the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsby, Jonna L; Porneala, Bianca C; Vassy, Jason L; Yang, Quanhe; Florez, José C; Dupuis, Josée; Liu, Tiebin; Yesupriya, Ajay; Chang, Man-Huei; Ned, Renee M; Dowling, Nicole F; Khoury, Muin J; Meigs, James B

    2012-04-27

    Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels diagnose diabetes, predict mortality and are associated with ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in white individuals. Genetic associations in other race groups are not known. We tested the hypotheses that there is race-ethnic variation in 1) HbA1c-associated risk allele frequencies (RAFs) for SNPs near SPTA1, HFE, ANK1, HK1, ATP11A, FN3K, TMPRSS6, G6PC2, GCK, MTNR1B; 2) association of SNPs with HbA1c and 3) association of SNPs with mortality. We studied 3,041 non-diabetic individuals in the NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) III. We stratified the analysis by race/ethnicity (NHW: non-Hispanic white; NHB: non-Hispanic black; MA: Mexican American) to calculate RAF, calculated a genotype score by adding risk SNPs, and tested associations with SNPs and the genotype score using an additive genetic model, with type 1 error = 0.05. RAFs varied widely and at six loci race-ethnic differences in RAF were significant (p differed by race-ethnicity (NHW: 10.4, NHB: 11.0, MA: 10.7, p race-ethnic heterogeneity. The combined impact of common HbA1c-associated variants on HbA1c levels varied by race-ethnicity, but did not influence mortality.

  6. Sodium intake status in United States and potential reduction modeling: an NHANES 2007-2010 analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sanjiv; Fulgoni, Victor L; Spence, Lisa; Samuel, Priscilla

    2015-11-01

    Limiting dietary sodium intake has been a consistent dietary recommendation. Using NHANES 2007-2010 data, we estimated current sodium intake and modeled the potential impact of a new sodium reduction technology on sodium intake. NHANES 2007-2010 data were used to assess current sodium intake. The National Cancer Institute method was used for usual intake determination. Suggested sodium reductions using SODA-LO (®) Salt Microspheres ranged from 20% to 30% in 953 foods and usual intakes were modeled by using various reduction factors and levels of market penetration. SAS 9.2, SUDAAN 11, and NHANES survey weights were used in all calculations with assessment across gender and age groups. Current (2007-2010) sodium intake (mg/day) exceeds recommendations across all age gender groups and has not changed during the last decade. However, sodium intake measured as a function of food intake (mg/g food) has decreased significantly during the last decade. Two food categories contribute about 2/3rd of total sodium intake: "Grain Products" and "Meat, Poultry, Fish & Mixtures". Sodium reduction, with 100% market penetration of the new technology, was estimated to be 230-300 mg/day or 7-9% of intake depending upon age and gender group. Sodium reduction innovations like SODA-LO (®) Salt Microspheres could contribute to meaningful reductions in sodium intake.

  7. Growth of Thermophilic and Hyperthermophilic Fe(III)-Reducing Microorganisms on a Ferruginous Smectite as the Sole Electron Acceptor▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashefi, Kazem; Shelobolina, Evgenya S.; Elliott, W. Crawford; Lovley, Derek R.

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the structural Fe(III) within phyllosilicate minerals, including smectite and illite, is an important electron acceptor for Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms in sedimentary environments at moderate temperatures. The reduction of structural Fe(III) by thermophiles, however, has not previously been described. A wide range of thermophilic and hyperthermophilic Archaea and Bacteria from marine and freshwater environments that are known to reduce poorly crystalline Fe(III) oxides were tested for their ability to reduce structural (octahedrally coordinated) Fe(III) in smectite (SWa-1) as the sole electron acceptor. Two out of the 10 organisms tested, Geoglobus ahangari and Geothermobacterium ferrireducens, were not able to conserve energy to support growth by reduction of Fe(III) in SWa-1 despite the fact that both organisms were originally isolated with solid-phase Fe(III) as the electron acceptor. The other organisms tested were able to grow on SWa-1 and reduced 6.3 to 15.1% of the Fe(III). This is 20 to 50% less than the reported amounts of Fe(III) reduced in the same smectite (SWa-1) by mesophilic Fe(III) reducers. Two organisms, Geothermobacter ehrlichii and archaeal strain 140, produced copious amounts of an exopolysaccharide material, which may have played an active role in the dissolution of the structural iron in SWa-1 smectite. The reduction of structural Fe(III) in SWa-1 by archaeal strain 140 was studied in detail. Microbial Fe(III) reduction was accompanied by an increase in interlayer and octahedral charges and some incorporation of potassium and magnesium into the smectite structure. However, these changes in the major element chemistry of SWa-1 smectite did not result in the formation of an illite-like structure, as reported for a mesophilic Fe(III) reducer. These results suggest that thermophilic Fe(III)-reducing organisms differ in their ability to reduce and solubilize structural Fe(III) in SWa-1 smectite and that SWa-1

  8. Half-metallicity and electronic structures for carbon-doped group III-nitrides: Calculated with a modified Becke-Johnson potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shuai-wei; Wang, Ri-gao; Xu, Pemg

    2016-09-01

    The electronic structures and magnetism for carbon-doped group III-nitrides are investigated by utilizing the first principle method with the modified Becke-Johnson potential. Calculations show that carbon substituting cations (anions) would induce the group III-nitrides to be paramagnetic metals (half-metallic ferromagnets). Single carbon substituting nitrogen could produce 1.00μB magnetic moment. Electronic structures indicate that the carriers-mediated double-exchange interaction plays a crucial role in forming the ferromagnetism. Based on the mean-field theory, the Curie temperature for carbon-doped group III-nitrides would be above the room temperature. Negative chemical pair interactions imply that carbon dopants tend to form clustering distribution in group III-nitrides. The nitrogen vacancy would make the carbon-doped group III-nitrides lose the half-metallic ferromagnetism.

  9. Intramolecular electron transfer through a bridging carboxylate group coordinated to two cobalt(III)-ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieghardt, K.

    1978-01-01

    Reduction of the binuclear μ-p-nitrobenzoato -di-μ-hydroxo -bis[triammine cobalt(III)] cation with (CH 3 ) 2 COH radicals yields a radical cation with the p-nitrobenzoato radical being coordinated to two cobalt(III) ions at the carboxylic group. The unprotonated form of this species undergoes intramolecular electron transfer producing Co(II) (k = (3.3 +- 0.3). x 10 3 s -1 ). The role of the carboxylate group in the intramolecular electron transfer process is tentatively assessed in terms of an intramolecular outer-sphere reaction because of lack of overlap of the donor orbitals (π) and the acceptor orbital (sigma). The protonated form of the radical cation (pKsub(a) = 2.5) disproportionates via a bimolecular process without production of Co(II). The effect of two coordinated Co(III) ions as compared to only one on the properties of the nitrobenzoate radical anion are discussed. (orig.) 891 HK 892 GM [de

  10. Observation of electron polarization above 80% in photoemission from strained III-V compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garwin, E.L.; Maruyama, T.; Prepost, R.; Zapalac, G.H.

    1992-02-01

    Spin-polarized electron photoemission has been investigated for strained III--V compounds; (1) strained In x Ga 1-x As epitaxially grown on a GaAs substrate, and (2) strained GaAs grown on a GaAs 1-x P x buffer layer. The lattice mismatched heterostructure results in a highly strained epitaxial layer, and electron spin polarization as high as 90% has been observed

  11. Spin Relaxation in III-V Semiconductors in various systems: Contribution of Electron-Electron Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Fatih; Kesserwan, Hasan; Manchon, Aurelien

    2015-03-01

    In spintronics, most of the phenomena that we are interested happen at very fast time scales and are rich in structure in time domain. Our understanding, on the other hand, is mostly based on energy domain calculations. Many of the theoretical tools use approximations and simplifications that can be perceived as oversimplifications. We compare the structure, material, carrier density and temperature dependence of spin relaxation time in n-doped III-V semiconductors using Elliot-Yafet (EY) and D'yakanov-Perel'(DP) with real time analysis using kinetic spin Bloch equations (KSBE). The EY and DP theories fail to capture details as the system investigated is varied. KSBE, on the other hand, incorporates all relaxation sources as well as electron-electron interaction which modifies the spin relaxation time in a non-linear way. Since el-el interaction is very fast (~ fs) and spin-conserving, it is usually ignored in the analysis of spin relaxation. Our results indicate that electron-electron interaction cannot be neglected and its interplay with the other (spin and momentum) relaxation mechanisms (electron-impurity and electron-phonon scattering) dramatically alters the resulting spin dynamics. We use each interaction explicitly to investigate how, in the presence of others, each relaxation source behaves. We use GaAs and GaN for zinc-blend structure, and GaN and AlN for the wurtzite structure.

  12. Interplanetary scattering of fast solar electrons deduced from type III bursts observed at low frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, H.; Lin, R.P.

    1976-01-01

    Observations of low frequency solar type III radio bursts and the associated fast solar electrons show that the total path length travelled by the particles between the Sun and the Earth is significantly greater than the length of the smooth Archimedean spiral trajectory followed by the centroid of the type III exciter (Alvarez et al., 1975). Here it is assumed that the ratio of electron path length and the spiral length increases approximately as rsup(n), where r is heliocentric distance, and then compute the radio bursts arrival time at 1 AU for different values of n. A comparison with the radio observations indicates that the best fit occurs for n=1.5+-1.0. These results are interpreted in terms of the variation of electron scattering with heliocentric distance. (Auth.)

  13. Inflammation gene variants and susceptibility to albuminuria in the U.S. population: analysis in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1991-1994

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Man-huei

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Albuminuria, a common marker of kidney damage, serves as an important predictive factor for the progression of kidney disease and for the development of cardiovascular disease. While the underlying etiology is unclear, chronic, low-grade inflammation is a suspected key factor. Genetic variants within genes involved in inflammatory processes may, therefore, contribute to the development of albuminuria. Methods We evaluated 60 polymorphisms within 27 inflammatory response genes in participants from the second phase (1991-1994 of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, a population-based and nationally representative survey of the United States. Albuminuria was evaluated as logarithm-transformed albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR, as ACR ≥ 30 mg/g, and as ACR above sex-specific thresholds. Multivariable linear regression and haplotype trend analyses were conducted to test for genetic associations in 5321 participants aged 20 years or older. Differences in allele and genotype distributions among non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, and Mexican Americans were tested in additive and codominant genetic models. Results Variants in several genes were found to be marginally associated (uncorrected P value IL1B (rs1143623 among Mexican Americans remained significantly associated with increased odds, while IL1B (rs1143623, CRP (rs1800947 and NOS3 (rs2070744 were significantly associated with ACR ≥ 30 mg/g in this population (additive models, FDR-P TNF rs1800750, which failed the test for Hardy-Weinberg proportions in this population. Haplotypes within MBL2, CRP, ADRB2, IL4R, NOS3, and VDR were significantly associated (FDR-P Conclusions Our findings suggest a small role for genetic variation within inflammation-related genes to the susceptibility to albuminuria. Additional studies are needed to further assess whether genetic variation in these, and untested, inflammation genes alter the

  14. Antimony and sleep-related disorders: NHANES 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scinicariello, Franco; Buser, Melanie C; Feroe, Aliya G; Attanasio, Roberta

    2017-07-01

    Antimony is used as a flame-retardant in textiles and plastics, in semiconductors, pewter, and as pigments in paints, lacquers, glass and pottery. Subacute or chronic antimony poisoning has been reported to cause sleeplessness. The prevalence of short sleep duration (sleep apnea (OSA) affects 12-28 million US adults. Insufficient sleep and OSA have been linked to the development of several chronic conditions including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, obesity and depression, conditions that pose serious public health threats. To investigate whether there is an association between antimony exposure and sleep-related disorders in the US adult population using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2008. We performed multivariate logistic regression to analyze the association of urinary antimony with several sleep disorders, including insufficient sleep and OSA, in adult (ages 20 years and older) participants of NHANES 2005-2008 (n=2654). We found that participants with higher urinary antimony levels had higher odds to experience insufficient sleep (≤6h/night) (OR 1.73; 95%CI; 1.04, 2.91) as well as higher odds to have increased sleep onset latency (>30min/night). Furthermore, we found that higher urinary antimony levels in participants were associated with OSA (OR 1.57; 95%CI; 1.05, 2.34), sleep problems, and day-time sleepiness. In this study, we found that urinary antimony was associated with higher odds to have insufficient sleep and OSA. Because of the public health implications of sleep disorders, further studies, especially a prospective cohort study, are warranted to evaluate the association between antimony exposure and sleep-related disorders. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Nitrato-complexes of Y(III), La(III), Ce(III), Pr(III), Nd(III), Sm(III), Gd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III) and Ho(III) with 2-(2'-pyridyl) benzimidazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, A; Singh, M P; Singh, V K

    1982-05-01

    The nitrato-complexes, (Y(PyBzH)/sub 2/(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/)NO/sub 3/.H/sub 2/O and Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho ; n=1-3, m=0-0.5 ; PyBzh=2-(2 -pyridyl)benzimidazole) are formed on interaction of the ligand with metal nitrates in ethanol. The electrical conductance values (116-129 ohm/sup -1/cm/sup 2/mol/sup -1/) suggest 1:1 electrolyte-nature of the complexes. Magnetic moment values of Ce(2.53 B.M.), Pr(3.62 B.M.), Nd(3.52 B.M.), Sm(1.70 B.M.), Gd(8.06 B.M.), Tb(9.44 B.M.), Dy(10.56 B.M.) and Ho(10.51 B.M.) in the complexes confirm the positive state of the metals. Infrared evidences are obtained for the existance of both coordinated (C/sub 2/v) and uncoordinated (D/sub 3/h) nitrate groups. Electronic absorption spectra of Pr(III)-, Nd(III)-, Sm(III)-, Tb(III)-, Dy(III)- and Ho(III)-complexes have been analysed in the light of LSJ terms.

  16. Nitrato-complexes of Y(III), La(III), Ce(III), Pr(III), Nd(III), Sm(III), Gd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III) and Ho(III) with 2-(2'-pyridyl) benzimidazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, A.; Singh, M.P.; Singh, V.K.

    1982-01-01

    The nitrato-complexes, [Y(PyBzH) 2 (NO 3 ) 2 ]NO 3 .H 2 O and Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho ; n=1-3, m=0-0.5 ; PyBzh=2-(2 -pyridyl)benzimidazole] are formed on interaction of the ligand with metal nitrates in ethanol. The electrical conductance values (116-129 ohm -1 cm 2 mol -1 ) suggest 1:1 electrolyte-nature of the complexes. Magnetic moment values of Ce(2.53 B.M.), Pr(3.62 B.M.), Nd(3.52 B.M.), Sm(1.70 B.M.), Gd(8.06 B.M.), Tb(9.44 B.M.), Dy(10.56 B.M.) and Ho(10.51 B.M.) in the complexes confirm the terpositive state of the metals. Infrared evidences are obtained for the existance of both coordinated (C 2 v) and uncoordinated (D 3 h) nitrate groups. Electronic absorption spectra of Pr(III)-, Nd(III)-, Sm(III)-, Tb(III)-, Dy(III)- and Ho(III)-complexes have been analysed in the light of LSJ terms. (author)

  17. Isothiocyanato complexes of Gd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III) and Ho(III) with 2-(2'-pyridyl)benzimidazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, A; Singh, V K

    1982-01-01

    Six-coordinated complexes of the type (Ln(PyBzH)/sub 2/NCS.H/sub 2/O) (NCS)/sub 2/.nH/sub 2/O/mC/sub 2/H/sub 5/OH (Ln = Gd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III) and Ho(III), n=1-2; m=1) have been prepared from Ln(NCS)/sub 6//sup 3 -/. The room temperature magnetic moment values confirm the terpositive state of the lanthanide ions. Infrared spectra suggest the N-coordination of thiocyanate group. Electronic spectral studies of Tb(III), Dy(III) and Ho(III) complexes have been made in terms of LSJ term energies. 13 refs.

  18. Dual energy X-Ray absorptiometry body composition reference values from NHANES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas L Kelly

    Full Text Available In 2008 the National Center for Health Statistics released a dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA whole body dataset from the NHANES population-based sample acquired with modern fan beam scanners in 15 counties across the United States from 1999 through 2004. The NHANES dataset was partitioned by gender and ethnicity and DXA whole body measures of %fat, fat mass/height(2, lean mass/height(2, appendicular lean mass/height(2, %fat trunk/%fat legs ratio, trunk/limb fat mass ratio of fat, bone mineral content (BMC and bone mineral density (BMD were analyzed to provide reference values for subjects 8 to 85 years old. DXA reference values for adults were normalized to age; reference values for children included total and sub-total whole body results and were normalized to age, height, or lean mass. We developed an obesity classification scheme by using estabbody mass index (BMI classification thresholds and prevalences in young adults to generate matching classification thresholds for Fat Mass Index (FMI; fat mass/height(2. These reference values should be helpful in the evaluation of a variety of adult and childhood abnormalities involving fat, lean, and bone, for establishing entry criteria into clinical trials, and for other medical, research, and epidemiological uses.

  19. Added Sugars Intake of Americans: What We Eat in America, NHANES 2013-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Data Brief compares the intakes of selected Food Patterns food groups by different demographic groups of Americans, ages 2 years and over, grouped based on their added sugars intake status on day 1 of the What We Eat in America, NHANES 2013-2014 dietary data. There were 8,066 persons in the st...

  20. Heptachlor induced mitochondria-mediated cell death via impairing electron transport chain complex III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Seokheon; Kim, Joo Yeon; Hwang, Joohyun; Shin, Ki Soon; Kang, Shin Jung

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Heptachlor inhibited mitochondrial electron transport chain complex III activity. •Heptachlor promoted generation of reactive oxygen species. •Heptachlor induced Bax activation. •Heptachlor induced mitochondria-mediated and caspase-dependent apoptosis. -- Abstract: Environmental toxins like pesticides have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Epidemiological studies suggested that exposures to organochlorine pesticides have an association with an increased PD risk. In the present study, we examined the mechanism of toxicity induced by an organochlorine pesticide heptachlor. In a human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, heptachlor induced both morphological and functional damages in mitochondria. Interestingly, the compound inhibited mitochondrial electron transport chain complex III activity. Rapid generation of reactive oxygen species and the activation of Bax were then detected. Subsequently, mitochondria-mediated, caspase-dependent apoptosis followed. Our results raise a possibility that an organochlorine pesticide heptachlor can act as a neurotoxicant associated with PD

  1. Heptachlor induced mitochondria-mediated cell death via impairing electron transport chain complex III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seokheon; Kim, Joo Yeon; Hwang, Joohyun [Department of Molecular Biology, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Ki Soon [Department of Biology, Department of Life and Nanopharmaceutical Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Shin Jung, E-mail: sjkang@sejong.ac.kr [Department of Molecular Biology, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-09

    Highlights: •Heptachlor inhibited mitochondrial electron transport chain complex III activity. •Heptachlor promoted generation of reactive oxygen species. •Heptachlor induced Bax activation. •Heptachlor induced mitochondria-mediated and caspase-dependent apoptosis. -- Abstract: Environmental toxins like pesticides have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Epidemiological studies suggested that exposures to organochlorine pesticides have an association with an increased PD risk. In the present study, we examined the mechanism of toxicity induced by an organochlorine pesticide heptachlor. In a human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, heptachlor induced both morphological and functional damages in mitochondria. Interestingly, the compound inhibited mitochondrial electron transport chain complex III activity. Rapid generation of reactive oxygen species and the activation of Bax were then detected. Subsequently, mitochondria-mediated, caspase-dependent apoptosis followed. Our results raise a possibility that an organochlorine pesticide heptachlor can act as a neurotoxicant associated with PD.

  2. Deterministic modeling of the exposure of individual participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Stephen A; Armitage, James M; Binnington, Matthew J; Wania, Frank

    2016-09-14

    A population's exposure to persistent organic pollutants, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), is typically assessed through national biomonitoring programs, such as the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). To complement statistical methods, we use a deterministic modeling approach to establish mechanistic links between human contaminant concentrations and factors (e.g. age, diet, lipid mass) deemed responsible for the often considerable variability in these concentrations. Lifetime exposures to four PCB congeners in 6128 participants from NHANES 1999-2004 are simulated using the ACC-Human model supplied with individualized input parameters obtained from NHANES questionnaires (e.g., birth year, sex, body mass index, dietary composition, reproductive behavior). Modeled and measured geometric mean PCB-153 concentrations in NHANES participants of 13.3 and 22.0 ng g -1 lipid, respectively, agree remarkably well, although lower model-measurement agreement for air, water, and food suggests that this is partially due to fortuitous error cancellation. The model also reproduces trends in the measured data with key factors such as age, parity and sex. On an individual level, 62% of all modeled concentrations are within a factor of three of their corresponding measured values (Spearman r s = 0.44). However, the model attributes more of the inter-individual variability to differences in dietary lipid intake than is indicated by the measured data. While the model succeeds in predicting levels and trends on the population level, the accuracy of individual-specific predictions would need to be improved for refined exposure characterization in epidemiological studies.

  3. Emission Spectroscopy as a Probe into Photoinduced Intramolecular Electron Transfer in Polyazine Bridged Ru(II,Rh(III Supramolecular Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen J. Brewer

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Steady-state and time-resolved emission spectroscopy are valuable tools to probe photochemical processes of metal-ligand, coordination complexes. Ru(II polyazine light absorbers are efficient light harvesters absorbing in the UV and visible with emissive 3MLCT excited states known to undergo excited state energy and electron transfer. Changes in emission intensity, energy or band-shape, as well as excited state lifetime, provide insight into excited state dynamics. Photophysical processes such as intramolecular electron transfer between electron donor and electron acceptor sub-units may be investigated using these methods. This review investigates the use of steady-state and time-resolved emission spectroscopy to measure excited state intramolecular electron transfer in polyazine bridged Ru(II,Rh(III supramolecular complexes. Intramolecular electron transfer in these systems provides for conversion of the emissive 3MLCT (metal-to-ligand charge transfer excited state to a non-emissive, but potentially photoreactive, 3MMCT (metal-to-metal charge transfer excited state. The details of the photophysics of Ru(II,Rh(III and Ru(II,Rh(III,Ru(II systems as probed by steady-state and time-resolved emission spectroscopy will be highlighted.

  4. III - V semiconductor structures for biosensor and molecular electronics applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luber, S M

    2007-01-15

    The present work reports on the employment of III-V semiconductor structures to biosensor and molecular electronics applications. In the first part a sensor based on a surface-near two dimensional electron gas for a use in biological environment is studied. Such a two dimensional electron gas inherently forms in a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) grown, doped aluminum gallium arsenide - gallium arsenide (AlGaAs-GaAs) heterostructure. Due to the intrinsic instability of GaAs in aqueous solutions the device is passivated by deposition of a monolayer of 4'-substituted mercaptobiphenyl molecules. The influence of these molecules which bind to the GaAs via a sulfur group is investigated by Kelvin probe measurements in air. They reveal a dependence of GaAs electron affinity on the intrinsic molecular dipole moment of the mercaptobiphenyls. Furthermore, transient surface photovoltage measurements are presented which demonstrate an additional influence of mercaptobiphenyl chemisorption on surface carrier recombination rates. As a next step, the influence of pH-value and salt concentration upon the sensor device is discussed based on the results obtained from sensor conductance measurements in physiological solutions. A dependence of the device surface potential on both parameters due to surface charging is deduced. Model calculations applying Poisson-Boltzmann theory reveal as possible surface charging mechanisms either the adsorption of OH- ions on the surface, or the dissociation of OH groups in surface oxides. A comparison between simulation settings and physical device properties indicate the OH- adsorption as the most probable mechanism. In the second part of the present study the suitability of MBE grown III-V semiconductor structures for molecular electronics applications is examined. In doing so, a method to fabricate nanometer separated, coplanar, metallic electrodes based on the cleavage of a supporting AlGaAs-GaAs heterostructure is presented. This is followed by a

  5. III - V semiconductor structures for biosensor and molecular electronics applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luber, S.M.

    2007-01-15

    The present work reports on the employment of III-V semiconductor structures to biosensor and molecular electronics applications. In the first part a sensor based on a surface-near two dimensional electron gas for a use in biological environment is studied. Such a two dimensional electron gas inherently forms in a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) grown, doped aluminum gallium arsenide - gallium arsenide (AlGaAs-GaAs) heterostructure. Due to the intrinsic instability of GaAs in aqueous solutions the device is passivated by deposition of a monolayer of 4'-substituted mercaptobiphenyl molecules. The influence of these molecules which bind to the GaAs via a sulfur group is investigated by Kelvin probe measurements in air. They reveal a dependence of GaAs electron affinity on the intrinsic molecular dipole moment of the mercaptobiphenyls. Furthermore, transient surface photovoltage measurements are presented which demonstrate an additional influence of mercaptobiphenyl chemisorption on surface carrier recombination rates. As a next step, the influence of pH-value and salt concentration upon the sensor device is discussed based on the results obtained from sensor conductance measurements in physiological solutions. A dependence of the device surface potential on both parameters due to surface charging is deduced. Model calculations applying Poisson-Boltzmann theory reveal as possible surface charging mechanisms either the adsorption of OH- ions on the surface, or the dissociation of OH groups in surface oxides. A comparison between simulation settings and physical device properties indicate the OH- adsorption as the most probable mechanism. In the second part of the present study the suitability of MBE grown III-V semiconductor structures for molecular electronics applications is examined. In doing so, a method to fabricate nanometer separated, coplanar, metallic electrodes based on the cleavage of a supporting AlGaAs-GaAs heterostructure is presented. This is followed

  6. Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances and Indicators of Immune Function in Children Aged 12 – 19 years: NHANES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Cheryl R.; McGovern, Kathleen J.; Pajak, Ashley M.; Maglione, Paul J.; Wolff, Mary S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are immunotoxic in laboratory studies. Humans studies of immune effects are inconsistent. Using the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) we examined PFAS serum concentration and indicators of prevalent immune function among 12 to 19 year old children. Methods In this cross-sectional study we examined PFAS serum concentration in relation to measles, mumps, and rubella antibody concentrations in NHANES 1999 – 2000 and 2003 – 2004 (n=1,191) and to allergic conditions and allergic sensitization in NHANES 2005 – 2006 (n=640). Results In adjusted, survey-weighted models, a doubling of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) concentration among seropositive children was associated with a 13.3% (95% CI −19.9, −6.2) decrease in rubella antibody concentration and a 5.9% decrease in mumps antibody concentration (95% CI −9.9, −1.6). We observed no adverse association between exposure and current allergic conditions, including asthma. Children with higher PFOS concentration were less likely to be sensitized to any allergen (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.58, 0.95). Conclusion Increased exposure to several PFAS was associated with lower levels to mumps and rubella antibody concentrations, especially among seropositive individuals. These lower antibody concentrations may indicate a less robust response to vaccination or greater waning of vaccine-derived immunity over time. PMID:26492286

  7. Complexes of lanthanum(III), cerium(III), samarium(III) and dysprosium(III) with substituted piperidines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manhas, B S; Trikha, A K; Singh, H; Chander, M

    1983-11-01

    Complexes of the general formulae M/sub 2/Cl/sub 6/(L)/sub 3/.C/sub 2/H/sub 5/OH and M/sub 2/(NO/sub 3/)/sub 6/(L)/sub 2/.CH/sub 3/OH have been synthesised by the reactions of chlorides and nitrates of La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Dy(III) with 2-methylpiperidine, 3-methylpiperidine and 4-methylpiperidine. These complexes have been characterised on the basis of their elemental analysis, and IR and electronic reflectance spectra. IR spectral data indicate the presence of coordinated ethanol and methanol molecules and bidentate nitrate groups. Coordination numbers of the metal ions vary from 5 to 8. 19 refs.

  8. Perchlorate exposure and association with iron homeostasis and other biological functions among NHANES 2005-2008 subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchlorate exposure and association with iron homeostasis and other biological functions among NHANES 2005-2008 subjects Schreinemachers DM, Ghio AJ, Cascio WE, Sobus JR. U.S. EPA, RTP, NC, USA Perchlorate (ClO4-), an environmental pollutant, is a known thyroid toxicant and...

  9. Trends of VOC exposures among a nationally representative sample: Analysis of the NHANES 1988 through 2004 data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Feng-Chiao; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Batterman, Stuart

    2011-09-01

    Exposures to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are ubiquitous due to emissions from personal, commercial and industrial products, but quantitative and representative information regarding long term exposure trends is lacking. This study characterizes trends from 1988 to 2004 for the 15 VOCs measured in blood in five cohorts of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a large and representative sample of U.S. adults. Trends were evaluated at various percentiles using linear quantile regression (QR) models, which were adjusted for solvent-related occupations and cotinine levels. Most VOCs showed decreasing trends at all quantiles, e.g., median exposures declined by 2.5 (m,p-xylene) to 6.4 (tetrachloroethene) percent per year over the 15 year period. Trends varied by VOC and quantile, and were grouped into three patterns: similar decreases at all quantiles (including benzene, toluene); most rapid decreases at upper quantiles (ethylbenzene, m,p-xylene, o-xylene, styrene, chloroform, tetrachloroethene); and fastest declines at central quantiles (1,4-dichlorobenzene). These patterns reflect changes in exposure sources, e.g., upper-percentile exposures may result mostly from occupational exposure, while lower percentile exposures arise from general environmental sources. Both VOC emissions aggregated at the national level and VOC concentrations measured in ambient air also have declined substantially over the study period and are supportive of the exposure trends, although the NHANES data suggest the importance of indoor sources and personal activities on VOC exposures. While piecewise QR models suggest that exposures of several VOCs decreased little or any during the 1990's, followed by more rapid decreases from 1999 to 2004, questions are raised concerning the reliability of VOC data in several of the NHANES cohorts and its applicability as an exposure indicator, as demonstrated by the modest correlation between VOC levels in blood and personal air

  10. Nutrient Intakes per 1000 Kilocalories: 2011-2012 What We Eat in America, NHANES Tables 41-44

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Food Surveys Research Group of the Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center has analyzed dietary data from the What We Eat in America (WWEIA), National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2012 and released 4 additional summary data tables for this latest 2-year survey release...

  11. Mechanisms for Fe(III) oxide reduction in sedimentary environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevin, Kelly P.; Lovely, Derek R.

    2002-01-01

    Although it was previously considered that Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms must come into direct contact with Fe(III) oxides in order to reduce them, recent studies have suggested that electron-shuttling compounds and/or Fe(III) chelators, either naturally present or produced by the Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms themselves, may alleviate the need for the Fe(III) reducers to establish direct contact with Fe(III) oxides. Studies with Shewanella alga strain BrY and Fe(III) oxides sequestered within microporous beads demonstrated for the first time that this organism releases a compound(s) that permits electron transfer to Fe(III) oxides which the organism cannot directly contact. Furthermore, as much as 450 w M dissolved Fe(III) was detected in cultures of S. alga growing in Fe(III) oxide medium, suggesting that this organism releases compounds that can solublize Fe(III) from Fe(III) oxide. These results contrast with previous studies, which demonstrated that Geobacter metallireducens does not produce electron-shuttles or Fe(III) chelators. Some freshwater aquatic sediments and groundwaters contained compounds, which could act as electron shuttles by accepting electrons from G. metallireducens and then transferring the electrons to Fe(III). However, other samples lacked significant electron-shuttling capacity. Spectroscopic studies indicated that the electron-shuttling capacity of the waters was not only associated with the presence of humic substances, but water extracts of walnut, oak, and maple leaves contained electron-shuttling compounds did not appear to be humic substances. Porewater from a freshwater aquatic sediment and groundwater from a petroleum-contaminated aquifer contained dissolved Fe(III) (4-16 w M), suggesting that soluble Fe(III) may be available as an electron acceptor in some sedimentary environments. These results demonstrate that in order to accurately model the mechanisms for Fe(III) reduction in sedimentary environments it will be necessary

  12. Characterization of some electronic spectral parameters for doped Nd (III) ion in saturated aqueous solution of some pharmaceutical compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naulakha, Neelam; Soni, K.P.; Bhati, P.R.

    2000-01-01

    The stereo-environment of doped Nd(III) ion in various saturated solutions of some medicinal compounds has been studied for various electronic spectral parameters. The various electronic parameters, viz., Slater Condon (F k ), Lande (ζ 4f ) intensity of hypersensitive band ( 4 G 5/2 ), bonding parameter (b 1/2 ), Judd-Ofelt parameter (Tλ) and Racah parameter (E k ) for Nd(III) ion doped in saturated solution of diphenylhydramine, tripelennamine, chlorophenaramine, promethazine, terfinadine, naproxen, fenoprofen, flurbiprofen, oxaprozine, ketoprofen and ibuprofen have been studied. (author)

  13. Study on Stereochemical Activity of Lone Pair Electrons in Sulfur and Halogen Coordinated Antimony(III) Complexes by 121Sb Moessbauer Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyama, Ryuhichi; Takahashi, Masashi; Takeda, Masuo

    2005-01-01

    We have measured 121 Sb Moessbauer spectra at 20 K for 52 compounds of antimony(III). An Sb(III) atom with the electron configuration [Kr] 4d 10 5s 2 has a lone pair electrons. The stereochemical property of the lone pair has been found to depend very much on the kinds of atoms surrounding the antimony atom and the configurations of the coordinating atoms.

  14. Electronic structure of Co(III) doped bromo-bridged Ni complexes, [Ni1-xCox(chxn)2Br]Br2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jimin; Wu, Hashen; Kawakami, Daisuke; Iguchi, Hiroaki; Takaishi, Shinya; Yamashita, Masahiro; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Hisaaki; Kuroda, Shin-ichi

    2008-03-17

    This article describes the electronic structure of the Co(III) doped Br bridged Ni(III) complexes, [Ni(1-x)Cox(chxn)2Br]Br2 (x = 0.01, 0.02, 0.05, and 0.11) by using a optical spectroscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and electron spin resonance spectroscopy. In the optical reflectivity spectrum, the new band was formed at about 0.5 eV, which is reasonably recognized as the d(z2) band of doped Co(III) ions. In the STM images of [Ni(1-x)Cox(chxn)2Br]Br2, the bright spots attributable to the tunnel current from the Fermi level of the STM tip to the conduction band of the sample were observed. In addition, some brighter spots were also observed. Because the number of the brighter spots is in good agreement with that of doped Co species, the brighter spots can be assigned to doped Co(III) sites. These are reasonably explained by the tunnel current from the Fermi level of the tip to the d(z2) band of Co(III). The Curie spin concentration was gradually increased with increasing Co(III) ions, which is explained by the scissions of the S = 1/2 1D antiferromagnetic chains.

  15. Mtr Extracellular Electron Transfer Pathways in Fe(III)-reducing or Fe(II)-oxidizing Bacteria: A Genomic Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Liang; Rosso, Kevin M.; Zachara, John M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2012-12-01

    Originally discovered in the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 (MR-1), the Mtr (i.e., metal-reducing) pathway exists in all characterized strains of metal-reducing Shewanella. The protein components identified to date for the Mtr pathway of MR-1 include four multi-heme c-type cytochromes (c-Cyts), CymA, MtrA, MtrC and OmcA, and a porin-like, outer membrane protein MtrB. They are strategically positioned along the width of the MR-1 cell envelope to mediate electron transfer from the quinone/quinol pool in the inner-membrane to the Fe(III)-containing minerals external to the bacterial cells. A survey of microbial genomes revealed homologues of the Mtr pathway in other dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacteria, including Aeromonas hydrophila, Ferrimonas balearica and Rhodoferax ferrireducens, and in the Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria Dechloromonas aromatica RCB, Gallionella capsiferriformans ES-2 and Sideroxydans lithotrophicus ES-1. The widespread distribution of Mtr pathways in Fe(III)-reducing or Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria emphasizes the importance of this type of extracellular electron transfer pathway in microbial redox transformation of Fe. Their distribution in these two different functional groups of bacteria also emphasizes the bi-directional nature of electron transfer reactions carried out by the Mtr pathways. The characteristics of the Mtr pathways may be shared by other pathways used by microorganisms for exchanging electrons with their extracellular environments.

  16. Characterization of some Pr(III) complexes in terms of electronic spectral parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhati, P.R.; Soni, K.P.; Joshi, G.K.; Swami, S.N.

    1992-01-01

    Pr(III) complexes from the ligands derived from methyl acetoacetate, ethyl acetoacetate, veratraldehyde, ethyl vanillin and 2,5 dimethoxy benzaldehyde forming Schiff-bases with ortho, meta and para phenylene diamines have been synthesized. The complexes have been characterized in terms of various Slater-Condon Lande and Judd-Ofelt parameters. The various trends in the parametric values have also been described. The involvement of 4f-orbital in the Pr(III) complexes including deviation in the symmetry have been discussed on the basis of electronic spectral parameters. The validity of the theories used has been established while comparing observed and calculated energies and intensities of the various bands in the present complexes on the basis of r.m.s deviation. The trends of the curves observed in the solution spectra have also been discussed. (author). 21 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs

  17. Nuclear Electronics III. Proceedings of the Conference on Nuclear Electronics. V. III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1962-04-15

    Nuclear instruments are used in almost every phase of atomic energy work, from assessing health hazards and prospecting for nuclear materials to plant control and nuclear physics experiments. The demands on nucleonic instrumentation are growing steadily. High-energy particle physics need such instruments for measuring extremely short times; in various research experiments most advanced electronic systems are required; and routine applications of radioisotopes call for more reliable instruments for automated counting facilities. In order to give designers and users of nuclear instrumentation an opportunity to discuss the research results and to exchange information on recent developments and new designs, the International Atomic Energy Agency, in co-operation with the Federal Nuclear Energy Commission of Yugoslavia, organized a Conference on Nuclear Electronics which was held in Belgrade from 15-20 May 1961. It was attended by more than 300 scientists from nearly 30 countries and five international organizations. Over 150 papers were read and discussed. As the field of nuclear electronics has expanded considerably, it was impossible to discuss all aspects of nuclear electronics in one series of meetings. Included in the main topics were radiation detectors, electronic circuitry in conventional and fast-pulse techniques and advanced electronic systems used in nuclear research. The Proceedings presented in these volumes contain the full records of the Conference, including discussions. The present state of technique, together with current trends and developments, are outlined. Of particular value should be the world-wide survey on progress recently made in such fields as those connected with semiconductor detectors, spark counters, luminescence chambers and fast electronic facilities for nuclear physics research. Together with the Proceedings of the Symposium on the same subject held in Paris and also published by the International Atomic Energy Agency, these volumes

  18. The relationship of lung function with ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collaco, Joseph M; Appel, Lawrence J; McGready, John; Cutting, Garry R

    2018-01-01

    Lung function is complex trait with both genetic and environmental factors contributing to variation. It is unknown how geographic factors such as climate affect population respiratory health. To determine whether ambient air temperature is associated with lung function (FEV1) in the general population. Associations between spirometry data from two National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) periods representative of the U.S. non-institutionalized population and mean annual ambient temperature were assessed using survey-weighted multivariate regression. The NHANES III (1988-94) cohort included 14,088 individuals (55.6% female) and the NHANES 2007-12 cohort included 14,036 individuals (52.3% female), with mean ages of 37.4±23.4 and 34.4±21.8 years old and FEV1 percent predicted values of 99.8±15.8% and 99.2±14.5%, respectively. After adjustment for confounders, warmer ambient temperatures were associated with lower lung function in both cohorts (NHANES III p = 0.020; NHANES 2007-2012 p = 0.014). The effect was similar in both cohorts with a 0.71% and 0.59% predicted FEV1 decrease for every 10°F increase in mean temperature in the NHANES III and NHANES 2007-2012 cohorts, respectively. This corresponds to ~2 percent predicted difference in FEV1 between the warmest and coldest regions in the continental United States. In the general U.S. population, residing in regions with warmer ambient air temperatures was associated with lower lung function with an effect size similar to that of traffic pollution. Rising temperatures associated with climate change could have effects on pulmonary function in the general population.

  19. The relationship of lung function with ambient temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M Collaco

    Full Text Available Lung function is complex trait with both genetic and environmental factors contributing to variation. It is unknown how geographic factors such as climate affect population respiratory health.To determine whether ambient air temperature is associated with lung function (FEV1 in the general population.Associations between spirometry data from two National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES periods representative of the U.S. non-institutionalized population and mean annual ambient temperature were assessed using survey-weighted multivariate regression.The NHANES III (1988-94 cohort included 14,088 individuals (55.6% female and the NHANES 2007-12 cohort included 14,036 individuals (52.3% female, with mean ages of 37.4±23.4 and 34.4±21.8 years old and FEV1 percent predicted values of 99.8±15.8% and 99.2±14.5%, respectively.After adjustment for confounders, warmer ambient temperatures were associated with lower lung function in both cohorts (NHANES III p = 0.020; NHANES 2007-2012 p = 0.014. The effect was similar in both cohorts with a 0.71% and 0.59% predicted FEV1 decrease for every 10°F increase in mean temperature in the NHANES III and NHANES 2007-2012 cohorts, respectively. This corresponds to ~2 percent predicted difference in FEV1 between the warmest and coldest regions in the continental United States.In the general U.S. population, residing in regions with warmer ambient air temperatures was associated with lower lung function with an effect size similar to that of traffic pollution. Rising temperatures associated with climate change could have effects on pulmonary function in the general population.

  20. Electronic structure of surface-supported bis(phthalocyaninato) terbium(III) single molecular magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitali, Lucia; Fabris, Stefano; Conte, Adriano Mosca; Brink, Susan; Ruben, Mario; Baroni, Stefano; Kern, Klaus

    2008-10-01

    The electronic structure of isolated bis(phthalocyaninato) terbium(III) molecules, a novel single-molecular-magnet (SMM), supported on the Cu(111) surface has been characterized by density functional theory and scanning tunneling spectroscopy. These studies reveal that the interaction with the metal surface preserves both the molecular structure and the large spin magnetic moment of the metal center. The 4f electron states are not perturbed by the adsorption while a strong molecular/metal interaction can induce the suppression of the minor spin contribution delocalized over the molecular ligands. The calculations show that the inherent spin magnetic moment of the molecule is only weakly affected by the interaction with the surface and suggest that the SMM character might be preserved.

  1. Sodium intake in US ethnic subgroups and potential impact of a new sodium reduction technology: NHANES Dietary Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulgoni, Victor L; Agarwal, Sanjiv; Spence, Lisa; Samuel, Priscilla

    2014-12-18

    Because excessive dietary sodium intake is a major contributor to hypertension, a reduction in dietary sodium has been recommended for the US population. Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010 data, we estimated current sodium intake in US population ethnic subgroups and modeled the potential impact of a new sodium reduction technology on sodium intake. NHANES 2007-2010 data were analyzed using The National Cancer Institute method to estimate usual intake in population subgroups. Potential impact of SODA-LO® Salt Microspheres sodium reduction technology on sodium intake was modeled using suggested sodium reductions of 20-30% in 953 foods and assuming various market penetrations. SAS 9.2, SUDAAN 11, and NHANES survey weights were used in all calculations with assessment across age, gender and ethnic groups. Current sodium intake across all population subgroups exceeds the Dietary Guidelines 2010 recommendations and has not changed during the last decade. However, sodium intake measured as a function of food intake has decreased significantly during the last decade for all ethnicities. "Grain Products" and "Meat, Poultry, Fish, & Mixtures" contribute about 2/3rd of total sodium intake. Sodium reduction, using SODA-LO® Salt Microspheres sodium reduction technology (with 100% market penetration) was estimated to be 185-323 mg/day or 6.3-8.4% of intake depending upon age, gender and ethnic group. Current sodium intake in US ethnic subgroups exceeds the recommendations and sodium reduction technologies could potentially help reduce dietary sodium intake among those groups.

  2. First-principles study of the structural and electronic properties of III-phosphides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Rashid [Centre for High Energy Physics, University of the Punjab, Lahore 54590 (Pakistan)], E-mail: rasofi@hotmail.com; Fazal-e-Aleem [Centre for High Energy Physics, University of the Punjab, Lahore 54590 (Pakistan); Hashemifar, S. Javad; Akbarzadeh, Hadi [Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-05-01

    We use density functional theory and different forms of the exchange-correlation approximation to calculate the structural and electronic properties of tetrahedrally coordinated III-phosphide semiconductors. The computed results for structural properties using generalized gradient approximation (GGA) agree well with the experimental data. For reliable description of energy band gap values, another form of GGA developed by Engel and Vosko has been applied. As anticipated, boron phosphide was found to be the hardest compound due to the strong B-P covalent bonding.

  3. Associations between cadmium exposure and neurocognitive test scores in a cross-sectional study of US adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ciesielski, Timothy; Bellinger, David C.; Schwartz, Joel David; Hauser, Russ B.; Wright, Robert O.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Low-level environmental cadmium exposure and neurotoxicity has not been well studied in adults. Our goal was to evaluate associations between neurocognitive exam scores and a biomarker of cumulative cadmium exposure among adults in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Methods: NHANES III is a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of the U.S. population conducted between 1988 and 1994. We analyzed data from a subset of participants, ag...

  4. Recent changes in pubertal timing in healthy Danish boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K; Aksglæde, Lise; Petersen, Jørgen Holm

    2010-01-01

    In the 1990s, the American population-based study NHANES III renewed the focus on possible secular trends in male puberty. However, no conclusions could be made on pubertal onset due to the lack of compatible data.......In the 1990s, the American population-based study NHANES III renewed the focus on possible secular trends in male puberty. However, no conclusions could be made on pubertal onset due to the lack of compatible data....

  5. Recent changes in pubertal timing in healthy Danish boys: associations with body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Aksglaede, Lise; Petersen, Jørgen Holm

    2010-01-01

    In the 1990s, the American population-based study NHANES III renewed the focus on possible secular trends in male puberty. However, no conclusions could be made on pubertal onset due to the lack of compatible data.......In the 1990s, the American population-based study NHANES III renewed the focus on possible secular trends in male puberty. However, no conclusions could be made on pubertal onset due to the lack of compatible data....

  6. Strong quadrupole interaction in electron paramagnetic resonance. Study of the indium hexacyanide (III) in KCl irradiated with electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vugman, N.V.

    1973-08-01

    The radiation effects in ]Ir III (CN) 6 ] 3- diamagnetic complexe inserted in the KCl lattice and irradiated with electrons of 2MeV by electron spin resonance (ESR) are analysed. Formulas for g and A tensors in the ligand field approximation, are derivated to calculate non coupling electron density in the metal. The X polarization field of inner shells is positive, indicating a 6s function mixture in the non coupling electron molecular orbital. The observed hyperfine structure is assigned to 4 equivalent nitrogen and one non equivalent nitrogen. This hypothesis is verified by experience of isotope substitution with 15 N. The s and p spin density in ligands are calculated and discussed in terms of molecular obitals. The effects of strong quadrupole interaction into the EPR spectra of ]Ir II (CN) 5 ] 3- complex are analysed by MAGNSPEC computer program to diagonalize the Spin Hamiltonian of the system. Empiric rules for EPR espectrum interpretation with strong quadrupole interaction. A review of EPR technique and a review of main concepts of crystal-field and ligand field theories, are also presented. (M.C.K.) [pt

  7. Fine-structure excitation of Fe II and Fe III due to collisions with electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yier; Qi, Yueying; Favreau, Connor; Loch, Stuart; Stancil, P.; Ballance, Connor; McLaughlin, Brendan

    2018-06-01

    Atomic data of iron peak elements are of great importance in astronomical observations. Among all the ionization stages of iron, Fe II and Fe III are of particular importance because of the high cosmic abundance, relatively low ionization potential and complex open d-shell atomic structure. Fe II and Fe III emission are observed from nearly all classes of astronomical objects over a wide spectral range from the infrared to the ultraviolet. To meaningfully interpret these spectra, astronomers have to employ highly complex modeling codes with reliable collision data to simulate the astrophysical observations. The major aim of this work is to provide reliable atomic data for diagnostics. We present new collision strengths and effective collisions for electron impact excitation of Fe II and Fe III for the forbidden transitions among the fine-structure levels of the ground terms. A very fine energy mesh is used for the collision strengths and the effective collision strengths are calculated over a wide range of electron temperatures of astrophysical importance (10-2000 K). The configuration interaction state wave functions are generated with a scaled Thomas-Fermi-Dirac-Amaldi (TFDA) potential, while the R-matrix plus intermediate coupling frame transformation (ICFT), Breit-Pauli R-matrix and Dirac R-matrix packages are used to obtain collision strengths. Influences of the different methods and configuration expansions on the collisional data are discussed. Comparison is made with earlier theoretical work and differences are found to occur at the low temperatures considered here.This work was funded by NASA grant NNX15AE47G.

  8. Preparation and characterisation of mixed ligand complexes of Co(III), Fe(III) and Cr(III) containing phthalimide and phenols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, M.A.J.; Islam, M.S.; Pal, S.C.; Barma, T.K.

    1996-01-01

    Some novel mixed ligand complexes of Co(III), Fe(III) and Cr(III) containing phthalimide as primary and 2-aminophenol and 3-aminophenol as secondary ligands have been synthesized and characterised on the basis of elemental analyses, conductivity and magnetic measurements and infrared and electronic spectral studies. Complexes containing 2-aminophenol are 1:1 electrolyte in N,N dimethylformamide. Spectral studies indicate that all the complexes exhibit octahedral geometry. The complexes have the general composition; K[M(pim)/sub 2/(L)/sub 2/]; where m=Co(III), Fe(III) and Cr(III), pim-anion of phthalimamide and L=anion of 2-aminophenol and 3-aminophenol. (author)

  9. Oxidative Olefination of Anilides with Unactivated Alkenes Catalyzed by an (Electron-Deficient η(5) -Cyclopentadienyl)Rhodium(III) Complex Under Ambient Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahama, Yuji; Shibata, Yu; Tanaka, Ken

    2015-06-15

    The oxidative olefination of sp(2) C-H bonds of anilides with both activated and unactivated alkenes using an (electron-deficient η(5) -cyclopentadienyl)rhodium(III) complex is reported. In contrast to reactions using this electron-deficient rhodium(III) catalyst, [Cp*RhCl2 ]2 showed no activity against olefination with unactivated alkenes. In addition, the deuterium kinetic isotope effect (DKIE) study revealed that the C-H bond cleavage step is thought to be the turnover-limiting step. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Elevated blood lead and cadmium levels associated with chronic infections among non-smokers in a cross-sectional analysis of NHANES data

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Experimental animal studies, in vitro experiments, and clinical assessments have shown that metal toxicity can impair immune responses. We analyzed data from a United States representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to explore associatio...

  11. Synthesis and characterization of La(III), Pr(III), Nd(III), Sm(III), Eu(III), Gd(III), Tb(III) and Dy(III) complexes of 2-acetylfuran-2-thenoylhydrazone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.; Singh, Praveen K.

    1998-01-01

    The reaction of 2-acetylfuran-2-thenoylhydrazone(afth) with Ln(III) trichlorides yields complexes of the type [Ln(afth)Cl 2 (H 2 O)(EtOH)]Cl, [Ln(III) = La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb and Dy]. The complexes have been characterized by molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility and TGA and DTA measurements, magnetic susceptibility and TGA and DTA measurements, FAB mass, infrared, proton NMR, electronic absorption and emission spectra. The terbium complex is found to be monomer from the FAB mass spectrum. The IR and NMR spectra suggest neutral tridentate behaviour of the Schiff base. A coordination number seven is proposed around the metal ions. Emission spectra suggest C 3v , symmetry around the metal ion with capped octahedron geometry for the europium complex. (author)

  12. Predictors of Blood Trihalomethane Concentrations in NHANES 1999–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Radhika; Blount, Benjamin C.; Steenland, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    Background: Trihalomethanes (THMs) are water disinfection by-products that have been associated with bladder cancer and adverse birth outcomes. Four THMs (bromoform, chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane) were measured in blood and tap water of U.S. adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2006. THMs are metabolized to potentially toxic/mutagenic intermediates by cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2D6 and CYP2E1 enzymes. Objectives: We conducted exploratory analyses of blood THMs, including factors affecting CYP2D6 and CYP2E1 activity. Methods: We used weighted multivariable regressions to evaluate associations between blood THMs and water concentrations, survey year, and other factors potentially affecting THM exposure or metabolism (e.g., prescription medications, cruciferous vegetables, diabetes, fasting, pregnancy, swimming). Results: From 1999 to 2006, geometric mean blood and water THM levels dropped in parallel, with decreases of 32%–76% in blood and 38%–52% in water, likely resulting, in part, from the lowering of the total THM drinking water standard in 2002–2004. The strongest predictors of blood THM levels were survey year and water concentration (n = 4,232 total THM; n = 4,080 bromoform; n = 4,582 chloroform; n = 4,374 bromodichloromethane; n = 4,464 dibromochloromethane). We detected statistically significant inverse associations with diabetes and eating cruciferous vegetables in all but the bromoform model. Medications did not consistently predict blood levels. Afternoon/evening blood samples had lower THM concentrations than morning samples. In a subsample (n = 230), air chloroform better predicted blood chloroform than water chloroform, suggesting showering/bathing was a more important source than drinking. Conclusions: We identified several factors associated with blood THMs that may affect their metabolism. The potential health implications require further study. Citation: Riederer AM, Dhingra R

  13. National trends in beverage consumption in children from birth to 5 years: analysis of NHANES across three decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulgoni Victor L

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the epidemic of childhood obesity, it is crucial to assess food and beverage intake trends. Beverages can provide a large number of calories and since consumption patterns seem to develop at a young age we examined beverage consumption trends over three decades. The objective of this study was to assess the beverage (milk, fruit juice, fruit drinks, tea, soy beverages, and soft drinks consumption trends in children Methods Data from individuals ages Results During the NHANES 1976–1980 and 1988–1994 periods, approximately 84–85% of children were consuming milk, whereas only 77% were consuming milk during NHANES 2001–2006. Flavored milk intake was relatively low, but increased to 14% during the last decade (p  Conclusions Given concerns about childhood obesity and the need to meet nutrition requirements, it is prudent that parents, educators and child caretakers replace some of the nutrient poor beverages young children are currently consuming with more nutrient dense sources like low-fat and fat-free milk.

  14. Structural features and electronic properties of group-III-, group-IV-, and group-V-doped Si nanocrystallites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, L E; Degoli, Elena; Cantele, G; Ossicini, Stefano; Ninno, D; Furthmueller, J; Bechstedt, F

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the incorporation of group-III (B and Al), group-IV (C and Ge), and group-V (N and P) impurities in Si nanocrystallites. The structural features and electronic properties of doped Si nanocrystallites, which are faceted or spherical-like, are studied by means of an ab initio pseudopotential method including spin polarization. Jahn-Teller distortions occur in the neighborhood of the impurity sites and the bond lengths show a dependence on size and shape of the nanocrystallites. We find that the acceptor (group-III) and donor (group-V) levels become deep as the nanocrystallites become small. The energy difference between the spin-up and spin-down levels of group-III and group-V impurities decreases as the size of the Si nanocrystallite increases and tends to the value calculated for Si bulk. Doping with carbon introduces an impurity-related level in the energy gap of the Si nanocrystallites

  15. Intake of added sugars is not associated with weight measures in children 6 to 18 years: NHANES 2003–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    The association between intakes of added sugars and weight measures in children continues to be under scrutiny because the evidence is inconclusive. This study examined the association between intake of added sugars and five weight measures using a nationally representative sample of children. NHANE...

  16. Runaway electron damage to the Tore Supra Phase III outboard pump limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygren, R.; Lutz, T.; Walsh, D.; Martin, G.; Chatelier, M.; Loarer, T.; Guilhem, D.

    1996-01-01

    Operation of the Phase III outboard pump limiter (OPL) in Tore Supra in 1994 was terminated prematurely when runaway electrons during the current decay following a disruption pierced leading edge tube on the electron side and caused a water leak. The location, about 20 mm outside the last closed flux surface during normal operation, and the infrared (IR) images of the limiter indicate that the runaways moved in large outward steps, i.e. tens of millimeters, in one toroidal revolution. For plasma (runaway) currents in the range of 155 to 250 kA, the drift orbits open to the outside. Basic trajectory computations suggest that such motion is possible under the conditions present for this experiment. Activation measurements made on sections of the tube to indicate the area of local damage are presented here. An understanding of this event may provide important guidance regarding the potential damage from runaways in future tokamaks

  17. Establishment of design space for high current gain in III-N hot electron transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Geetak; Ahmadi, Elaheh; Suntrup, Donald J., III; Mishra, Umesh K.

    2018-01-01

    This paper establishes the design space of III-N hot electron transistors (HETs) for high current gain by designing and fabricating HETs with scaled base thickness. The device structure consists of GaN-based emitter, base and collector regions where emitter and collector barriers are implemented using AlN and InGaN layers, respectively, as polarization-dipoles. Electrons tunnel through the AlN layer to be injected into the base at a high energy where they travel in a quasi-ballistic manner before being collected. Current gain increases from 1 to 3.5 when base thickness is reduced from 7 to 4 nm. The extracted mean free path (λ mfp) is 5.8 nm at estimated injection energy of 1.5 eV.

  18. Impact of Fe(III) as an effective electron-shuttle mediator for enhanced Cr(VI) reduction in microbial fuel cells: Reduction of diffusional resistances and cathode overpotentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qiang [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Ministry of Education (MOE), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Huang, Liping, E-mail: lipinghuang@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Ministry of Education (MOE), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Pan, Yuzhen [College of Chemistry, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Quan, Xie [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Ministry of Education (MOE), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Li Puma, Gianluca, E-mail: g.lipuma@lboro.ac.uk [Environmental Nanocatalysis & Photoreaction Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-05

    Highlights: • Fe(III) shuttles electrons for enhanced reduction of Cr(VI) in MFCs. • The coulombic efficiency increases by 1.6 fold in the presence of Fe(III). • The reduction of Cr(VI) occurs via an indirect Fe(III) mediation mechanism. • Fe(III) decreases the diffusional resistances and the cathode overpotentials. - Abstract: The role of Fe(III) was investigated as an electron-shuttle mediator to enhance the reduction rate of the toxic heavy metal hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in wastewaters, using microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The direct reduction of chromate (CrO{sub 4}{sup −}) and dichromate (Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}{sup 2−}) anions in MFCs was hampered by the electrical repulsion between the negatively charged cathode and Cr(VI) functional groups. In contrast, in the presence of Fe(III), the conversion of Cr(VI) and the cathodic coulombic efficiency in the MFCs were 65.6% and 81.7%, respectively, 1.6 times and 1.4 folds as those recorded in the absence of Fe(III). Multiple analytical approaches, including linear sweep voltammetry, Tafel plot, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and kinetic calculations demonstrated that the complete reduction of Cr(VI) occurred through an indirect mechanism mediated by Fe(III). The direct reduction of Cr(VI) with cathode electrons in the presence of Fe(III) was insignificant. Fe(III) played a critical role in decreasing both the diffusional resistance of Cr(VI) species and the overpotential for Cr(VI) reduction. This study demonstrated that the reduction of Cr(VI) in MFCs was effective in the presence of Fe(III), providing an alternative and environmentally benign approach for efficient remediation of Cr(VI) contaminated sites with simultaneous production of renewable energy.

  19. Impact of Fe(III) as an effective electron-shuttle mediator for enhanced Cr(VI) reduction in microbial fuel cells: Reduction of diffusional resistances and cathode overpotentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qiang; Huang, Liping; Pan, Yuzhen; Quan, Xie; Li Puma, Gianluca

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Fe(III) shuttles electrons for enhanced reduction of Cr(VI) in MFCs. • The coulombic efficiency increases by 1.6 fold in the presence of Fe(III). • The reduction of Cr(VI) occurs via an indirect Fe(III) mediation mechanism. • Fe(III) decreases the diffusional resistances and the cathode overpotentials. - Abstract: The role of Fe(III) was investigated as an electron-shuttle mediator to enhance the reduction rate of the toxic heavy metal hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in wastewaters, using microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The direct reduction of chromate (CrO_4"−) and dichromate (Cr_2O_7"2"−) anions in MFCs was hampered by the electrical repulsion between the negatively charged cathode and Cr(VI) functional groups. In contrast, in the presence of Fe(III), the conversion of Cr(VI) and the cathodic coulombic efficiency in the MFCs were 65.6% and 81.7%, respectively, 1.6 times and 1.4 folds as those recorded in the absence of Fe(III). Multiple analytical approaches, including linear sweep voltammetry, Tafel plot, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and kinetic calculations demonstrated that the complete reduction of Cr(VI) occurred through an indirect mechanism mediated by Fe(III). The direct reduction of Cr(VI) with cathode electrons in the presence of Fe(III) was insignificant. Fe(III) played a critical role in decreasing both the diffusional resistance of Cr(VI) species and the overpotential for Cr(VI) reduction. This study demonstrated that the reduction of Cr(VI) in MFCs was effective in the presence of Fe(III), providing an alternative and environmentally benign approach for efficient remediation of Cr(VI) contaminated sites with simultaneous production of renewable energy.

  20. Inverse association of marijuana use with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease among adults in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghee Kim

    Full Text Available The impact of marijuana on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is largely unknown. We studied the association between marijuana and NAFLD utilizing cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES from 2005-2014 and NHANES III (1988-1994.Suspected NAFLD was diagnosed if serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT was > 30 IU/L for men and > 19 IU/L for women in the absence of other liver diseases (NHANES 2005-2014. In NHANES III cohort, NAFLD was defined based on ultrasonography.Of the 14,080 (NHANES 2005-2014 and 8,286 (NHANES III participants, prevalence of suspected NAFLD and ultrasonographically-diagnosed NAFLD were inversely associated with marijuana use (p < 0.001. Compared to marijuana-naïve participants, marijuana users were less likely to have suspected NAFLD (odds ratio [OR]: 0.90, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.82-0.99 for past user; OR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.58-0.80 for current user and ultrasonographically-diagnosed NAFLD (OR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.57-0.98 for current user in the age, gender, ethnicity-adjusted model. On multivariate analysis, the ORs for suspected NAFLD comparing current light or heavy users to non-users were 0.76 (95% CI 0.58-0.98 and 0.70 (95% CI 0.56-0.89, respectively (P for trend = 0.001 with similar trends in ultrasonographically-diagnosed NAFLD (OR: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.59-1.00 for current user; OR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.51-0.97 for current light user. In insulin resistance-adjusted model, marijuana use remained an independent predictor of lower risk of suspected NAFLD.In this nationally representative sample, active marijuana use provided a protective effect against NAFLD independent of known metabolic risk factors. The pathophysiology is unclear and warrants further investigation.

  1. Theoretical studies on the electronic structures and spectral properties of a series of bis-cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes using density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Deming [International Joint Research Center for Nanophotonics and Biophotonics, School of Life Science and Technology, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China); Zhang, Gang [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Cai, Hongxing; Zhang, Xihe [International Joint Research Center for Nanophotonics and Biophotonics, School of Science, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China); Zhao, Lihui, E-mail: zhaolihui@yahoo.com [International Joint Research Center for Nanophotonics and Biophotonics, School of Life Science and Technology, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2013-06-15

    We report a quantum-chemistry study of electronic structures and spectral properties of four Ir(III) complexes Ir[2-(2,4-di-X-phenyl)pyridine]{sub 2}(picolinate), where X=–CH{sub 3} (1), –H (2), –CN (3), –NO{sub 2} (4). The absorption and emission spectra were calculated based on the optimized ground state and excited state geometries, respectively, by means of the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). The effect from the electron-withdrawing and electron-donating substituents on charge injection, transport, absorption, and phosphorescent properties has been investigated. The absorption and emission properties can be altered by the different electron-withdrawing and electron-donating groups. Besides, ionization potential (IP), electron affinities (EA) and reorganization energy (λ{sub hole/electron}) were obtained to evaluate the charge transfer and balance properties between hole and electron. The calculated results show that the different substitute groups affect the charge transfer rate and balance. It can be anticipated that the complexes 3 and 4 have good charge transport rates and balance between the hole and electron. -- Highlights: ► Four Ir(III) complexes have been theoretically investigated. ► The different substituents affect the charge transfer rate and balance. ► We design two candidate materials for OLEDs.

  2. Theoretical studies on the electronic structures and spectral properties of a series of bis-cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes using density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Deming; Zhang, Gang; Cai, Hongxing; Zhang, Xihe; Zhao, Lihui

    2013-01-01

    We report a quantum-chemistry study of electronic structures and spectral properties of four Ir(III) complexes Ir[2-(2,4-di-X-phenyl)pyridine] 2 (picolinate), where X=–CH 3 (1), –H (2), –CN (3), –NO 2 (4). The absorption and emission spectra were calculated based on the optimized ground state and excited state geometries, respectively, by means of the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). The effect from the electron-withdrawing and electron-donating substituents on charge injection, transport, absorption, and phosphorescent properties has been investigated. The absorption and emission properties can be altered by the different electron-withdrawing and electron-donating groups. Besides, ionization potential (IP), electron affinities (EA) and reorganization energy (λ hole/electron ) were obtained to evaluate the charge transfer and balance properties between hole and electron. The calculated results show that the different substitute groups affect the charge transfer rate and balance. It can be anticipated that the complexes 3 and 4 have good charge transport rates and balance between the hole and electron. -- Highlights: ► Four Ir(III) complexes have been theoretically investigated. ► The different substituents affect the charge transfer rate and balance. ► We design two candidate materials for OLEDs

  3. Electron transfer capacity dependence of quinone-mediated Fe(III) reduction and current generation by Klebsiella pneumoniae L17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaomin; Liu, Liang; Liu, Tongxu; Yuan, Tian; Zhang, Wei; Li, Fangbai; Zhou, Shungui; Li, Yongtao

    2013-06-01

    Quinone groups in exogenous electron shuttles can accelerate extracellular electron transfer (EET) from bacteria to insoluble terminal electron acceptors, such as Fe(III) oxides and electrodes, which are important in biogeochemical redox processes and microbial electricity generation. However, the relationship between quinone-mediated EET performance and electron-shuttling properties of the quinones remains incompletely characterized. This study investigates the effects of a series of synthetic quinones (SQs) on goethite reduction and current generation by a fermenting bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae L17. In addition, the voltammetric behavior and electron transfer capacities (ETCs) of SQ, including electron accepting (EAC) and donating (EDC) capacities, is also examined using electrochemical methods. The results showed that SQ can significantly increase both the Fe(III) reduction rates and current outputs of L17. Each tested SQ reversibly accepted and donated electrons as indicated by the cyclic voltammograms. The EAC and EDC results showed that Carmine and Alizarin had low relative capacities of electron transfer, whereas 9,10-anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonic acid (AQDS), 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (2-HNQ), and 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (5-HNQ) showed stronger relative ETC, and 9,10-anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid (AQC) and 9,10-anthraquinone-2-sulfonic acid (AQS) had high relative ETC. Enhancement of microbial goethite reduction kinetics and current outputs by SQ had a good linear relationship with their ETC, indicating that the effectiveness of quinone-mediated EET may be strongly dependent on the ETC of the quinones. Therefore, the presence of quinone compounds and fermenting microorganisms may increase the diversity of microbial populations that contribute to element transformation in natural environments. Moreover, ETC determination of different SQ would help to evaluate their performance for microbial EET under anoxic conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier

  4. Kinetics and Mechanism of the Iron(II-Iron(III) Electron-Exchange Reaction in Mixed Solvent Media; Cinetique et Mecanisme de l'Echange d'Electrons entre Fer (II) et Fer (III), dans des Melanges de Solvants; Ikinetika i mekhanizm reaktsii ehlektronnogo obmena zheleza (I) - zheleza (III) v smeshannoj rastvoryayushchej srede; Cinetica y Mecanismo del Intercambio de Electrones Entre Fe{sup II} Y Fe{sup lII} en Mezclas de Disolventes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horne, R. A. [Arthur D. Little, Inc. Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1965-10-15

    The specific reaction rate constants of theFe{sup II}-Fe{sup III} electron-exchange reaction have been measured at various temperatures, acidities, and ionic strengths in water-acetone, water-methanol, and water-ethanol media. The reaction rate markedly diminishes as the water concentration in the last system decreases, approaching zero as the water concentration approaches zero. The activation energy of the exchange is the same in mixed solvent as in aqueous solution. The effective dielectric constant which the reactants ''see'' continues to be that of pure water even in water-ethanol solutions quite dilute in water. Alterations in composition of the solvation sheath of Fe{sup III} in mixed media are reflected in both electron-exchange and spectroscopic measurements. These findings in mixed solvent media support the water-bridging theory of electron exchange. (author) [French] Les constantes de vitesse specifiques de l'echange d'electrons entre Fe{sup II} et Fe{sup III} ont ete mesurees a differentes temperatures et pour differentes acidites et forces ioniques, dans des melanges d'eau et d'acetone, d'eau et de methanol et d'eau et d'ethanol. Dans le dernier systeme, la vitesse d'echange diminue considerablement a mesure que la concentration en eau decroit, et tend vers zero en meme temps que cette concentration. L'energie d'activation de l'echange est la meme dans un melange de solvants et dans une solution aqueuse. La constante dielectrique effective qui intervient entre les corps reagissants reste celle de l'eau pure, meme dans des solutions concentrees d'ethanol dans l'eau. Les changements de composition de la gaine de solvatation de Fe{sup III} dans les melanges se manifestent a la fois dans les mesures de l'echange d'electrons et dans les mesures spectroscopiques. Ces observations viennent confirmer la theorie de l'echange d'electrons fondee sur le pontage par l'eau. (author) [Spanish] El autor ha medido las constantes de velocidad especificas de la reaccion

  5. Elucidating the structural properties that influence the persistence of PCBs in humans using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) dataset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megson, David, E-mail: dpmegson@hotmail.co.uk [Biogeochemistry Research Centre, SoGEES, Plymouth University, Plymouth, Devon PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); O’Sullivan, Gwen [Department of Environmental Science, Mount Royal University, 4825 Mount Royal Gate SW, Calgary, Alberta, T3E 6K6 (Canada); Comber, Sean; Worsfold, Paul J.; Lohan, Maeve C. [Biogeochemistry Research Centre, SoGEES, Plymouth University, Plymouth, Devon PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Edwards, Melanie R.; Shields, Walter J. [Exponent Inc., 15375 Southeast 30th Place, Bellevue, WA 98007 (United States); Sandau, Courtney D. [Chemistry Matters Inc., 2120 1st Avenue NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 0B5 (Canada); Patterson, Donald G. [Exponent Inc., One Capital City Plaza, Suite 1620, 3350 Peachtree Road, Atlanta, GA 30326 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    In human exposure studies involving Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), it is useful to establish when an individual was potentially exposed. Age dating PCB exposure is complex but assessments can be made because different PCB congeners have different residence times in the human body. The less chlorinated congeners generally tend to have shorter residence times because they are biotransformed and eliminated faster than more chlorinated congeners. Therefore, the presence of high proportions of less chlorinated congeners is often indicative of recent exposure. The 2003–04 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) dataset contains results for the concentration of 37 PCBs in a sub-sample of the US population. Multivariate statistical analysis of the NHANES data showed that less chlorinated congeners are not always biotransformed faster than higher chlorinated compounds. For example, PCB 28 (a tri-chlorobiphenyl) appears to be more resistant to biotransformation than PCB 101 and 110 (penta-chlorobiphenyls). Using statistical analysis of the NHANES data in conjunction with previously published studies on PCB persistence in humans, it was possible to identify the structural relationships that determine if a PCB is likely to be from a recent exposure (termed ‘episodic’) or from steady state exposure. Congeners with chlorine atoms in the 2,5- and 2,3,6-positions appear to be more susceptible to biotransformation whereas congeners with chlorine bonds in the 2,3,4- 2,4,5- 3,4,5- and 2,3,4,5-positions appear to be more persistent. This work shows that future investigations to date PCB exposure would benefit from the analysis of a wide range of congeners, including the selection of key congeners based not only on the degree of chlorination but also on the positions of the chlorine atoms on the biphenyl. - Highlights: • NHANES data was used to compare the PCB signature of different aged participants. • PCB residence time may be explained by the number

  6. Elucidating the structural properties that influence the persistence of PCBs in humans using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) dataset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megson, David; O’Sullivan, Gwen; Comber, Sean; Worsfold, Paul J.; Lohan, Maeve C.; Edwards, Melanie R.; Shields, Walter J.; Sandau, Courtney D.; Patterson, Donald G.

    2013-01-01

    In human exposure studies involving Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), it is useful to establish when an individual was potentially exposed. Age dating PCB exposure is complex but assessments can be made because different PCB congeners have different residence times in the human body. The less chlorinated congeners generally tend to have shorter residence times because they are biotransformed and eliminated faster than more chlorinated congeners. Therefore, the presence of high proportions of less chlorinated congeners is often indicative of recent exposure. The 2003–04 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) dataset contains results for the concentration of 37 PCBs in a sub-sample of the US population. Multivariate statistical analysis of the NHANES data showed that less chlorinated congeners are not always biotransformed faster than higher chlorinated compounds. For example, PCB 28 (a tri-chlorobiphenyl) appears to be more resistant to biotransformation than PCB 101 and 110 (penta-chlorobiphenyls). Using statistical analysis of the NHANES data in conjunction with previously published studies on PCB persistence in humans, it was possible to identify the structural relationships that determine if a PCB is likely to be from a recent exposure (termed ‘episodic’) or from steady state exposure. Congeners with chlorine atoms in the 2,5- and 2,3,6-positions appear to be more susceptible to biotransformation whereas congeners with chlorine bonds in the 2,3,4- 2,4,5- 3,4,5- and 2,3,4,5-positions appear to be more persistent. This work shows that future investigations to date PCB exposure would benefit from the analysis of a wide range of congeners, including the selection of key congeners based not only on the degree of chlorination but also on the positions of the chlorine atoms on the biphenyl. - Highlights: • NHANES data was used to compare the PCB signature of different aged participants. • PCB residence time may be explained by the number

  7. Summary of Session III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    This is a summary of the talks presented in Session III ''Simulations of Electron-Cloud Build Up'' of the Mini-Workshop on Electron-Cloud Simulations for Proton and Positron Beams ECLOUD-02, held at CERN, 15-18 April 2002

  8. Charge transport in micas: The kinetics of FeII/III electron transfer in the octahedral sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosso, Kevin M.; Ilton, Eugene S.

    2003-01-01

    The two principal FeII/III electron exchange reactions underlying charge transport in the octahedral sheet of ideal end-member annite were modeled using a combination of ab initio calculations and Marcus electron transfer theory. A small polaron model was applied which yielded electron hopping activation energies that agree well with the limited available experimental data. A small ab initio cluster model successfully reproduced several important structural, energetic, and magnetic characteristics of the M1 and M2 Fe sites in the annite octahedral sheet. The cluster enabled calculation of the internal reorganization energy and electronic coupling matrix elements for the M2-M2 and M1-M2 electron transfer reactions. The M2-M2 electron transfer is symmetric with a predicted forward/reverse electron hopping rate of 106 s-1. The M1-M2 electron transfers are asymmetric due to the higher ionization potential by 0.46 eV of FeII in the M1 site. The electronic coupling matrix elements for these reactions are predicted to be small and of similar magnitude, suggesting the possibility that the coupling is essentially direction independent amongst hopping directions in the octahedral sheet. M1 Fe sites are predicted to be efficient electron traps and charge transport should occur by nearest-neighbor electron hops along the M2 Fe sublattice

  9. Organometallic neptunium(III) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, Michał S; Farnaby, Joy H; Apostolidis, Christos; Colineau, Eric; Walter, Olaf; Magnani, Nicola; Gardiner, Michael G; Love, Jason B; Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas; Caciuffo, Roberto; Arnold, Polly L

    2016-08-01

    Studies of transuranic organometallic complexes provide a particularly valuable insight into covalent contributions to the metal-ligand bonding, in which the subtle differences between the transuranium actinide ions and their lighter lanthanide counterparts are of fundamental importance for the effective remediation of nuclear waste. Unlike the organometallic chemistry of uranium, which has focused strongly on U(III) and has seen some spectacular advances, that of the transuranics is significantly technically more challenging and has remained dormant. In the case of neptunium, it is limited mainly to Np(IV). Here we report the synthesis of three new Np(III) organometallic compounds and the characterization of their molecular and electronic structures. These studies suggest that Np(III) complexes could act as single-molecule magnets, and that the lower oxidation state of Np(II) is chemically accessible. In comparison with lanthanide analogues, significant d- and f-electron contributions to key Np(III) orbitals are observed, which shows that fundamental neptunium organometallic chemistry can provide new insights into the behaviour of f-elements.

  10. Transition and Electron Impact Excitation Collision Rates for O III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayal, S. S.; Zatsarinny, O.

    2017-12-01

    Transition probabilities, electron excitation collision strengths, and rate coefficients for a large number of O III lines over a broad wavelength range, from the infrared to ultraviolet, have been reported. The collision strengths have been calculated in the close-coupling approximation using the B-spline Breit-Pauli R-matrix method. The multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock method in combination with B-spline expansions is employed for an accurate representation of the target wave functions. The close-coupling expansion contains 202 O2+ fine-structure levels of the 2{s}22{p}2,2s2{p}3, 2{p}4,2{s}22p3s,3p,3d, 4s,4p,4d,4f,5s, and 2s2{p}33s,3p,3d configurations. The effective collision strengths are obtained by averaging electron excitation collision strengths over a Maxwellian distribution of velocities at electron temperatures ranging from 100 to 100,000 K. The calculated effective collision strengths have been reported for the 20,302 transitions between all 202 fine-structure levels. There is an overall good agreement with the recent R-matrix calculations by Storey et al. for the transitions between all levels of the ground 2{s}22{p}2 configuration, but significant discrepancies have been found with Palay et al. for transitions to the 2{s}22{p}2 1 S 0 level. Line intensity ratios between the optical lines arising from the 2{s}22{p}2{}3{P}{0,1,2} - 1 D 2 transitions have been compared with other calculations and observations from the photoionized gaseous nebulae, and good agreement is found. The present calculations provide the most complete and accurate data sets, which should allow a more detailed treatment of the available measured spectra from different ground and space observatories.

  11. Associations between yogurt, dairy, calcium, and vitamin D intake and obesity among U.S. children aged 8-18 years: NHANES, 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keast, Debra R; Hill Gallant, Kathleen M; Albertson, Ann M; Gugger, Carolyn K; Holschuh, Norton M

    2015-03-03

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations of yogurt and dairy consumption with energy, macronutrient, calcium, and vitamin D intakes, and associations with indicators of overweight/obesity in U.S. children in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2005-2008). Using 24-hour recall data, children 8-18 years of age were classified to dairy consumption groups of yogurt consumers were those who reported eating yogurt during at least one of two dietary intake interviews. NHANES anthropometric measurements were used, and BMI and BMI-for-age percentiles were calculated. Yogurt and dairy consumption were associated with higher intakes of calcium, vitamin D and protein. Yogurt intake was associated with lower total fat and saturated fat intakes and body fat as measured by subscapular skinfold thickness. This study supports consumption of yogurt and higher amounts of dairy as eating patterns associated with greater intake of specific shortfall nutrients, and lower body fat in U.S. children.

  12. Electron transfer and atom exchange between aqueous Fe(II) and structural Fe(III) in clays. Role in U and Hg(II) transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherer, Michelle [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2016-08-31

    During this project, we investigated Fe electron transfer and atom exchange between aqueous Fe(II) and structural Fe(III) in clay minerals. We used selective chemical extractions, enriched Fe isotope tracer experiments, computational molecular modeling, and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Our findings indicate that structural Fe(III) in clay minerals is reduced by aqueous Fe(II) and that electron transfer occurs when Fe(II) is sorbed to either basal planes and edge OH-groups of clay mineral. Findings from highly enriched isotope experiments suggest that up to 30 % of the Fe atoms in the structure of some clay minerals exhanges with aqueous Fe(II). First principles calculations using a small polaron hopping approach suggest surprisingly fast electron mobility at room temperature in a nontronite clay mineral and are consistent with temperature dependent Mössbauer data Fast electron mobility suggests that electrons may be able to conduct through the mineral fast enough to enable exchange of Fe between the aqueous phase and clay mineral structure. over the time periods we observed. Our findings suggest that Fe in clay minerals is not as stable as previously thought.

  13. Fast solar electrons, interplanetary plasma and km-wave type-III radio bursts observed from the IMP-6 spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, H.; Lin, R.P.

    1975-01-01

    IMP-6 spacecraft observations of low frequency radio emission, fast electrons, and solar wind plasma are used to examine the dynamics of the fast electron streams which generate solar type-III radio bursts. Of twenty solar electron events observed between April 1971 and August 1972, four were found to be amenable to detailed analysis. Observations of the direction of arrival of the radio emission at different frequencies were combined with the solar wind density and velocity measurements at 1 AU to define an Archimedean spiral trajectory for the radio burst exciter. The propagation characteristics of the exciter and of the fast electrons observed at 1 AU were then compared. It is found that: (1) the fast electrons excite the radio emission at the second harmonic; (2) the total distance travelled by the electrons was between 30 and 70% longer than the length of the smooth spiral defined by the radio observations; (3) this additional distance travelled is the result of scattering of the electrons in the interplanetary medium; (4) the observations are consistent with negligible true energy loss by the fast electrons.(Auth.)

  14. Urinary Metabolite Levels of Flame Retardants in Electronic Cigarette Users: A Study Using the Data from NHANES 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Binnian; Goniewicz, Maciej L; O'Connor, Richard J; Travers, Mark J; Hyland, Andrew J

    2018-01-25

    Evaluating the safety of e-cigarettes and making informed judgement about developing potential standards require sufficient scientific evidence. Since e-cigarettes are highly engineered products containing plastic, glass and metal parts, and e-liquids are largely different matrices, many toxic compounds which are not typical hazards for the users of combustible tobacco products (e.g., cigarettes), could exist in e-liquids, and consequently, posing potential health risk to e-cigarette users. We combined the measurements of urinary metabolites of organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) with questionnaire data collected in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) from 2013 to 2014, and we compared adjusted geometric means (GM) for each biomarker in e-cigarette users with levels in non-users and users of various tobacco products using multiple regression analyses to adjust for potential confounders. We found diphenyl phosphate (DPhP), bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCPP), bis(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (BCEP), and dibutyl phosphate (DBUP) were detected in all e-cigarette users. The adjusted GM of BCEP, the metabolite of tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), was 81% higher than nonusers ( p = 0.0124) and significantly higher than those for both cigarette and cigar users ( p users compared to nonusers. As we only identified 14 e-cigarette users in the survey, the findings in this study need to be confirmed in future study at a larger scale. A better examination of the types and levels of FRs and their potential contamination sources in e-cigarettes is also needed.

  15. Characteristics of nonsmoking women in NHANES I and NHANES I epidemiologic follow-up study with exposure to spouses who smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matanoski, G; Kanchanaraksa, S; Lantry, D; Chang, Y

    1995-07-15

    Few studies have examined the relation between passive smoking and dietary intake in a large population. This report examines the nutrition and behavioral characteristics of 3,896 nonsmoking women from the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I) population in relation to exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. The data indicate that nonsmoking women who were exposed to husbands who smoked were more likely to be older, have lower education, live in the city, and have other health behaviors that could increase their risk of lung cancer compared with nonsmoking women with husbands who did not smoke. The nonexposed women were more likely to take vitamin supplements, to not drink alcohol, and to consume higher levels of dietary vitamin A, vitamin C, and calcium. The exposed and nonexposed women showed no difference in the levels of fatty acid intake nor in the levels of several other foods from the food frequency list after correction for age. Many of the differences that the authors observed between the women who were exposed and nonexposed to passive smoking could affect the risk of cancer. Therefore, they recommend that future studies of nonsmokers examine the influence of both passive smoking and diet on the risk of disease rather than examine the influence of a single factor.

  16. Cobalt(III) complex

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    e, 40 µM complex, 10 hrs after dissolution, f, 40 µM complex, after irradiation dose 15 Gy. and H-atoms result in reduction of Co(III) to Co. (II). 6. It is interesting to see in complex containing multiple ligands what is the fate of electron adduct species formed by electron addition. Reduction to. Co(II) and intramolecular transfer ...

  17. Improved Electron Yield and Spin-Polarization from III-V Photocathodes via Bias Enhanced Carrier Drift: Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulhollan, Gregory A.

    2006-01-01

    In this DOE STTR program, Saxet Surface Science, with the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center as partner, designed, built and tested photocathode structures such that optimal drift-enhanced spin-polarization from GaAs based photoemitters was achieved with minimal bias supply requirements. The forward bias surface grid composition was optimized for maximum polarization and yield, together with other construction parameters including doping profile. This program has culminated in a cathode bias structure affording increased electron spin polarization when applied to III-V based photocathodes. The optimized bias structure has been incorporated into a cathode mounting and biasing design for use in a polarized electron gun.

  18. Electronic structure and optical properties of Eu(III) tris-β-diketonate adducts with 1,10-phenanthroline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurygin, A. V.; Korochentsev, V. V.; Cherednichenko, A. I.; Mirochnik, A. G.; Kalinovskaya, I. V.; Vovna, V. I.

    2018-03-01

    Adducts of tris-β-diketonates of the rare earth metal Eu(III) with 1,10-phenanthroline are studied by photoelectron spectroscopy and quantum chemistry methods. The electronic structure, peculiarities of the nature of chemical bonds, and the geometric structure of the adducts are determined. The interpretation of UV photoelectron spectra of vapors and X-ray photoelectron spectra of solid is carried out with the chosen technique. DFT/TDDFT methods make it possible to study the 1,10-phenanthroline molecule influence on the adduct electronic structure and to analyze the electronic effects of substitution of methyl groups by trifluoromethyl groups in the ligands. At transition from the tris-β-diketonate complexes to the adducts, it is observed an increase of the absorption region and a decrease in the energy gap that contributes to the efficiency growth in electronic excitation energy transfer in the ligand-metal. Moreover, phenanthroline displaces water groups, that are luminescence quenchers, from the first coordination sphere, closes coordination in the adduct, and blocks their further attachment. Both factors contribute to an increase in the luminescence intensity.

  19. Type 2 diabetes mellitus unawareness, prevalence, trends and risk factors: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nana; Yang, Xin; Zhu, Xiaolin; Zhao, Bin; Huang, Tianyi

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether the associations with key risk factors in patients with diagnosed and undiagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are different using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999 to 2010. Methods The study analysed the prevalence and association with risk factors of undiagnosed and diagnosed T2DM using a regression model and a multinomial logistic regression model. Data from the NHANES 1999–2010 were used for the analyses. Results The study analysed data from 10 570 individuals. The overall prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed T2DM increased significantly from 1999 to 2010. The prevalence of undiagnosed T2DM was significantly higher in non-Hispanic whites, in individuals educational level had no effect on T2DM diagnosis rates. Though diagnosed T2DM was associated with favourable diet/carbohydrate intake behavioural changes, it had no effect on physical activity levels. Conclusion The overall T2DM prevalence increased between 1999 and 2010, particularly for undiagnosed T2DM in patients that were formerly classified as low risk. PMID:28415936

  20. The Alternative complex III: properties and possible mechanisms for electron transfer and energy conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refojo, Patrícia N; Teixeira, Miguel; Pereira, Manuela M

    2012-10-01

    Alternative complexes III (ACIII) are recently identified membrane-bound enzymes that replace functionally the cytochrome bc(1/)b(6)f complexes. In general, ACIII are composed of four transmembrane proteins and three peripheral subunits that contain iron-sulfur centers and C-type hemes. ACIII are built by a combination of modules present in different enzyme families, namely the complex iron-sulfur molybdenum containing enzymes. In this article a historical perspective on the investigation of ACIII is presented, followed by an overview of the present knowledge on these enzymes. Electron transfer pathways within the protein are discussed taking into account possible different locations (cytoplasmatic or periplasmatic) of the iron-sulfur containing protein and their contribution to energy conservation. In this way several hypotheses for energy conservation modes are raised including linear and bifurcating electron transfer pathways. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 17th European Bioenergetics Conference (EBEC 2012). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Electron liquid in collection description III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arponen, J.; Pajanne, E.

    1978-05-01

    A new, computationally effective, formulation for the problem of a charged impurity in an interacting electron gas is given. The approach is based on the previously introduced formalism in which the collective excitations of the electron system are represented by interacting bosons. This enables one to include in a logical way the most important terms of the electron-electron interaction beyond the rand--om phase approximation (RPA). The numerical application to positron annihilation shows that the added non-RPA terms remove from the annihilation rate lambda and the correlation energy E the divergences, which have troubled the earlier theories. The rate lambda and the energy E are both continuous functions of the electron density and approach their correct limiting values for low densities. The numerical valves of lambda at physical densities correspond closely to the measured positron lifetimes in metals. A very noteworthy characteristic of the present theory is that the sum rule for the displaced charge is fulfilled typically to the accuracy of 1 %. Numerical results are also given for the positron kinetic energy, the various components of the positron correlation energy, the pair-correlation function, the electrostatic potential as well as the positron momentum probability distribution at various electron densities. (author)

  2. Reactor oscillator - I - III, Part III - Electronic device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lolic, B.; Jovanovic, S.

    1961-12-01

    This report describes functioning of the reactor oscillator electronic system. Two methods of oscillator operation were discussed. The first method is so called method of amplitude modulation of the reactor power, and the second newer method is phase method. Both methods are planned for the present reactor oscillator

  3. Determinants of physical activity in America: a first characterization of physical activity profile using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Ming-Chih Jeffrey; Jarosz, Renata; Goldin, Michael; Patel, Amy; Smuck, Matthew

    2014-10-01

    To develop and implement methodologies for characterizing accelerometry-derived patterns of physical activity (PA) in the United States in relation to demographics, anthropometrics, behaviors, and comorbidities using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) dataset. Retrospective analysis of nationally representative database. Computer-generated modeling in silico. A total of 6329 adults in the United States from the NHANES 2003-2004 database. To discover subtle multivariate signal in the dynamic and noisy accelerometry data, we developed a novel approach, termed discretized multiple adaptive regression and implemented the algorithm in SAS 9.2 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). Demographic, anthropometric, comorbidity, and behavioral variables. The intensity of PA decreased with both increased age and increased body mass index. Both greater education and greater income correlate with increased activity over short durations and reduced activity intensity over long durations. Numerous predictors demonstrated effects within activity ranges that may be masked by use of the standard activity intensity intervals. These include age, one of the most robust variables, where we discovered decreasing activities inside the moderate activity range. It also includes gender, where women compared with men have increased proportions of active times up to the center of light activity range, and income greater than $45,000, where a complex effect is seen with little correspondence to existing cut-points. The results presented in this study suggest that the method of multiple regression and heat map visualization can generate insights otherwise hidden in large datasets such as NHANES. A review of the provided heat maps reveals the trends discussed previously involving demographic, anthropometric, comorbidity, and behavioral variables. It also demonstrates the power of accelerometry to expose alterations in PA. Ultimately, this study provides a US population-based norm to

  4. Prevalence and associated demographic characteristics of exposure to multiple metals and their species in human populations: The United States NHANES, 2007-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Youn K; Lewin, Michael D; Ruiz, Patricia; Eichner, June E; Mumtaz, Moiz M

    2017-01-01

    Lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and arsenic (As) are among the top 10 pollutants of global health concern. Studies have shown that exposures to these metals produce severe adverse effects. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects, particularly joint toxicities, are poorly understood in humans. The objective of this investigation was to identify and characterize prevalent combinations of these metals and their species in the U.S. NHANES population to provide background data for future studies of potential metal interactions. Exposure was defined as urine or blood levels ≥ medians of the NHANES 2007-2012 participants ≥6 years (n = 7408). Adjusted-odds ratios (adj-OR) and 95% confidence intervals were determined for covariates (age, gender, and race/ethnicity, cotinine and body mass index). Species-specific analysis was also conducted for As and Hg including iAs (urinary arsenous acid and/or arsenic acid), met-iAs (urinary monomethylarsonic acid and/or dimethylarsinic acid), and oHg (blood methyl-mercury and/or ethyl-mercury). For combinations of As and Hg species, age- and gender-specific prevalence was determined among NHANES 2011-2012 participants (n = 2342). Data showed that approximately 49.3% of the population contained a combination of three or more metals. The most prevalent unique specific combinations were Pb/Cd/Hg/As, Pb/Cd/Hg, and Pb/Cd. Age was consistently associated with these combinations: adj-ORs ranged from 10.9 (Pb/Cd) to 11.2 (Pb/Cd/Hg/As). Race/ethnicity was significant for Pb/Cd/Hg/As. Among women of reproductive age, frequency of oHg/iAs/met-iAS and oHg/met-iAs was 22.9 and 40.3%, respectively. These findings may help prioritize efforts to assess joint toxicities and their impact on public health.

  5. Type 2 diabetes mellitus unawareness, prevalence, trends and risk factors: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nana; Yang, Xin; Zhu, Xiaolin; Zhao, Bin; Huang, Tianyi; Ji, Qiuhe

    2017-04-01

    Objectives To determine whether the associations with key risk factors in patients with diagnosed and undiagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are different using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999 to 2010. Methods The study analysed the prevalence and association with risk factors of undiagnosed and diagnosed T2DM using a regression model and a multinomial logistic regression model. Data from the NHANES 1999-2010 were used for the analyses. Results The study analysed data from 10 570 individuals. The overall prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed T2DM increased significantly from 1999 to 2010. The prevalence of undiagnosed T2DM was significantly higher in non-Hispanic whites, in individuals 130-159 mg/dl) or very high (≥220 mg/dl) non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels compared with diagnosed T2DM. Body mass index, low economic status or low educational level had no effect on T2DM diagnosis rates. Though diagnosed T2DM was associated with favourable diet/carbohydrate intake behavioural changes, it had no effect on physical activity levels. Conclusion The overall T2DM prevalence increased between 1999 and 2010, particularly for undiagnosed T2DM in patients that were formerly classified as low risk.

  6. Characteristics and risk factors of rheumatoid arthritis in the United States: an NHANES analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei Xu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background We examined the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES database to determine factors associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA in adults 20 to 55 years of age. Methods NHANES data collected between 2007 and 2014, excluding the 2011–2012 period, were used. Subjects were divided into those with and without RA. Demographic, clinical, and lifestyle factors were compared between the groups. Results After applying inclusion/exclusion criteria, 8,789 persons were included in the study (8,483 without RA, 306 with RA. Multivariable analysis indicated that advanced age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.09, 95% CI [1.07–1.11], P < 0.001, regular smoking (OR = 2.19, 95% CI [1.49–3.21], P < 0.001, diabetes (OR = 2.00, 95% CI [1.35–2.95], P = 0.001, obesity (reference, normal or underweight; OR = 3.31, 95% CI [2.05–5.36], P < 0.001, and osteoporosis (OR = 3.68, 95% CI [1.64–8.22], P = 0.002 were positively associated with RA. Covered by health insurance (OR = 1.81, 95% CI [1.12–2.93], P = 0.016 and living in poverty (OR = 2.96, 95% CI [1.88–4.65], P < 0.001 were also associated with having RA. Mexican American, Hispanic white or other Hispanic ethnicity (reference, non-Hispanic white; OR = 0.54, 95% CI [0.31–0.96], P = 0.036, appropriate sleep duration (about 6–11 h, OR = 0.46, 95% CI [0.32–0.65], P < 0.001, and insufficient vitamin A intake (reference, recommended; OR = 0.70, 95% CI [0.50–0.98], P = 0.036 were negatively associated with RA. Discussion Some factors associated with RA are potentially modifiable.

  7. Reliability and prevalence of physical performance examination assessing mobility and balance in older persons in the US: data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostchega, Y; Harris, T B; Hirsch, R; Parsons, V L; Kington, R; Katzoff, M

    2000-09-01

    This report provides reliability and prevalence estimates by sex, age, and race/ethnicity of an observed physical performance examination (PPE) assessing mobility and balance. The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) 1988-1994. A cross-sectional nationally representative survey. All persons aged 60 and older (n = 5,403) who performed the PPE either in the mobile examination center (MEC) or in the home during NHANES III (conducted 1988-1994). The PPE included timed chair stand, full tandem stand, and timed 8-foot walk. Timed chair stand and 8-foot timed walk were reliable measurements (Intraclass Correlations > 0.5). Women were significantly slower (P physically limited than men.

  8. Food Sources of Energy and Nutrients among Adults in the US: NHANES 2003–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa A. Nicklas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Identification of current food sources of energy and nutrients among US adults is needed to help with public health efforts to implement feasible and appropriate dietary recommendations. To determine the food sources of energy and 26 nutrients consumed by US adults the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 24-h recall (Day 1 dietary intake data from a nationally representative sample of adults 19+ years of age (y (n = 9490 were analyzed. An updated USDA Dietary Source Nutrient Database was developed for NHANES 2003–2006 using current food composition databases. Food grouping included ingredients from disaggregated mixtures. Mean energy and nutrient intakes from food sources were sample-weighted. Percentages of total dietary intake contributed from food sources were ranked. The highest ranked sources of energy and nutrients among adults more than 19 years old were: energy — yeast bread/rolls (7.2% and cake/cookies/quick bread/pastry/pie (7.2%; protein—poultry (14.4% and beef (14.0%; total fat — other fats and oils (9.8%; saturated fatty acids — cheese (16.5% and beef (9.1%; carbohydrate — soft drinks/soda (11.4% and yeast breads/rolls (10.9%; dietary fiber — yeast breads/rolls (10.9% and fruit (10.2%; calcium — milk (22.5% and cheese (21.6%; vitamin D — milk (45.1% and fish/shellfish (14.4%; and potassium — milk (9.6% and coffee/tea/other non-alcoholic beverages (8.4%. Knowledge of primary food sources of energy and nutrients can help health professionals design effective strategies to reduce excess energy consumed by US adults and increase the nutrient adequacy of their diets.

  9. Food Sources of Energy and Nutrients among Adults in the US: NHANES 2003–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Neil, Carol E.; Keast, Debra R.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Nicklas, Theresa A.

    2012-01-01

    Identification of current food sources of energy and nutrients among US adults is needed to help with public health efforts to implement feasible and appropriate dietary recommendations. To determine the food sources of energy and 26 nutrients consumed by US adults the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 24-h recall (Day 1) dietary intake data from a nationally representative sample of adults 19+ years of age (y) (n = 9490) were analyzed. An updated USDA Dietary Source Nutrient Database was developed for NHANES 2003–2006 using current food composition databases. Food grouping included ingredients from disaggregated mixtures. Mean energy and nutrient intakes from food sources were sample-weighted. Percentages of total dietary intake contributed from food sources were ranked. The highest ranked sources of energy and nutrients among adults more than 19 years old were: energy—yeast bread/rolls (7.2%) and cake/cookies/quick bread/pastry/pie (7.2%); protein—poultry (14.4%) and beef (14.0%); total fat—other fats and oils (9.8%); saturated fatty acids—cheese (16.5%) and beef (9.1%); carbohydrate—soft drinks/soda (11.4%) and yeast breads/rolls (10.9%); dietary fiber—yeast breads/rolls (10.9%) and fruit (10.2%); calcium—milk (22.5%) and cheese (21.6%); vitamin D—milk (45.1%) and fish/shellfish (14.4%); and potassium—milk (9.6%) and coffee/tea/other non-alcoholic beverages (8.4%). Knowledge of primary food sources of energy and nutrients can help health professionals design effective strategies to reduce excess energy consumed by US adults and increase the nutrient adequacy of their diets. PMID:23363999

  10. Food sources of energy and nutrients among adults in the US: NHANES 2003–2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Carol E; Keast, Debra R; Fulgoni, Victor L; Nicklas, Theresa A

    2012-12-19

    Identification of current food sources of energy and nutrients among US adults is needed to help with public health efforts to implement feasible and appropriate dietary recommendations. To determine the food sources of energy and 26 nutrients consumed by US adults the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 24-h recall (Day 1) dietary intake data from a nationally representative sample of adults 19+ years of age (y) (n = 9490) were analyzed. An updated USDA Dietary Source Nutrient Database was developed for NHANES 2003-2006 using current food composition databases. Food grouping included ingredients from disaggregated mixtures. Mean energy and nutrient intakes from food sources were sample-weighted. Percentages of total dietary intake contributed from food sources were ranked. The highest ranked sources of energy and nutrients among adults more than 19 years old were: energy - yeast bread/rolls (7.2%) and cake/cookies/quick bread/pastry/pie (7.2%); protein-poultry (14.4%) and beef (14.0%); total fat - other fats and oils (9.8%); saturated fatty acids - cheese (16.5%) and beef (9.1%); carbohydrate - soft drinks/soda (11.4%) and yeast breads/rolls (10.9%); dietary fiber - yeast breads/rolls (10.9%) and fruit (10.2%); calcium - milk (22.5%) and cheese (21.6%); vitamin D - milk (45.1%) and fish/shellfish (14.4%); and potassium - milk (9.6%) and coffee/tea/other non-alcoholic beverages (8.4%). Knowledge of primary food sources of energy and nutrients can help health professionals design effective strategies to reduce excess energy consumed by US adults and increase the nutrient adequacy of their diets.

  11. Associations between Yogurt, Dairy, Calcium, and Vitamin D Intake and Obesity among U.S. Children Aged 8–18 Years: NHANES, 2005–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keast, Debra R.; Hill Gallant, Kathleen M.; Albertson, Ann M.; Gugger, Carolyn K.; Holschuh, Norton M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations of yogurt and dairy consumption with energy, macronutrient, calcium, and vitamin D intakes, and associations with indicators of overweight/obesity in U.S. children in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2005–2008). Using 24-hour recall data, children 8–18 years of age were classified to dairy consumption groups of yogurt consumers were those who reported eating yogurt during at least one of two dietary intake interviews. NHANES anthropometric measurements were used, and BMI and BMI-for-age percentiles were calculated. Yogurt and dairy consumption were associated with higher intakes of calcium, vitamin D and protein. Yogurt intake was associated with lower total fat and saturated fat intakes and body fat as measured by subscapular skinfold thickness. This study supports consumption of yogurt and higher amounts of dairy as eating patterns associated with greater intake of specific shortfall nutrients, and lower body fat in U.S. children. PMID:25742042

  12. Association between probiotic and yogurt consumption and kidney disease: insights from NHANES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoub, Rabi; Kaji, Deepak; Patel, Shanti N; Simoes, Priya K; Busayavalasa, Deepthi; Nadkarni, Girish N; He, John C; Coca, Steven G; Uribarri, Jaime

    2016-01-27

    Data from experimental animals suggest that probiotic supplements may retard CKD progression. However, the relationship between probiotic use, frequent yogurt consumption (as a natural probiotic source), and kidney parameters have not been evaluated in humans. We utilized NHANES data, and analyzed the association of probiotic alone (1999-2012) and yogurt/probiotic (2003-2006) use with albuminuria and eGFR after adjustment for demographic and clinical parameters. Frequent yogurt consumption was defined as thrice or more weekly over the year prior to the interview. Frequent yogurt/probiotic consumers had lower adjusted odds of developing combined outcome (albuminuria and/or eGFR yogurt and/or probiotics use is associated with decreased odds of proteinuric kidney disease. These hypothesis-generating results warrant further translational studies to further delineate the relationship between yogurt/probiotics with kidney dysfunction, as well as microbiome and dysbiosis as potential mediators.

  13. Photoactive Molecular Dyads [Ru(bpy)3-M(ttpy)2] n+ on Gold (M = Co(III), Zn(II)): Characterization, Intrawire Electron Transfer, and Photoelectric Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le-Quang, Long; Farran, Rajaa; Lattach, Youssef; Bonnet, Hugues; Jamet, Hélène; Guérente, Liliane; Maisonhaute, Emmanuel; Chauvin, Jérôme

    2018-04-23

    We propose in this work a stepwise approach to construct photoelectrodes. This takes advantage of the self-assembly interactions between thiol with a gold surface and terpyridine ligands with first-row transition metals. Here, a [Ru(bpy) 3 ] 2+ photosensitive center bearing a free terpyridine group has been used to construct two linear dyads on gold (Au/[Zn II -Ru II ] 4+ and Au/[Co III -Ru II ] 5+ ). The stepwise construction was characterized by electrochemistry, quartz crystal microbalance, and atomic force microscopy imaging. The results show that the dyads behave as rigid layers and are inhomogeneously distributed on the surface. The surface coverages are estimated to be in the order of 10 -11 mol cm -2 . The kinetics of the heterogeneous electron transfer is determined on modified gold ball microelectrodes using Laviron's formula. The oxidation rates of the terminal Ru(II) subunits are estimated to be 700 and 2300 s -1 for Au/[Zn II -Ru II ] 4+ and Au/[Co III -Ru II ] 5+ , respectively. In the latter case, the rate is limited by the kinetics of electron transfer between an intermediate Co(II) center and the gold surface. For Au/[Zn II -Ru II ] 4+ , the Zn-bis-terpyridine center is not involved in the electron-transfer process and the oxidation of the Ru(II) subunit occurs through a superexchange process. In the presence of a tertiary amine in solution, the electrodes at a bias of 0.12 V behave as photoanodes when subjected to visible light irradiation. The magnitude of the photocurrent is around 10 μA cm -2 for Au/[Co III -Ru II ] 5+ and 5 μA cm -2 for Au/[Zn II -Ru II ] 4+ , proving the importance of an electron relay on the photon-to-current conversion. The results suggest an efficient conversion for Au/[Co III -Ru II ] 5+ , since each bound dyad, once excited, injects an electron around 10 times per second.

  14. Blood lead level association with lower body weight in NHANES 1999–2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scinicariello, Franco; Buser, Melanie C.; Mevissen, Meike; Portier, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lead exposure is associated with low birth-weight. The objective of this study is to determine whether lead exposure is associated with lower body weight in children, adolescents and adults. Methods: We analyzed data from NHANES 1999–2006 for participants aged ≥ 3 using multiple logistic and multivariate linear regression. Using age- and sex-standardized BMI Z-scores, overweight and obese children (ages 3–19) were classified by BMI ≥ 85th and ≥ 95th percentiles, respectively. The adult population (age ≥ 20) was classified as overweight and obese with BMI measures of 25–29.9 and ≥ 30, respectively. Blood lead level (BLL) was categorized by weighted quartiles. Results: Multivariate linear regressions revealed a lower BMI Z-score in children and adolescents when the highest lead quartile was compared to the lowest lead quartile (β (SE) = − 0.33 (0.07), p < 0.001), and a decreased BMI in adults (β (SE) = − 2.58 (0.25), p < 0.001). Multiple logistic analyses in children and adolescents found a negative association between BLL and the percentage of obese and overweight with BLL in the highest quartile compared to the lowest quartile (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.30–0.59; and OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.52–0.88, respectively). Adults in the highest lead quartile were less likely to be obese (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.35–0.50) compared to those in the lowest lead quartile. Further analyses with blood lead as restricted cubic splines, confirmed the dose-relationship between blood lead and body weight outcomes. Conclusions: BLLs are associated with lower body mass index and obesity in children, adolescents and adults. - Highlights: • NHANES analysis of BLL and body weight outcomes • Increased BLL associated with decreased body weight in children and adolescent • Increased BLL associated with decreased body weight in adults

  15. Blood lead level association with lower body weight in NHANES 1999–2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scinicariello, Franco, E-mail: fes6@cdc.gov [Division of Toxicology and Human Health Sciences, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Buser, Melanie C. [Division of Toxicology and Human Health Sciences, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Mevissen, Meike [Division of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Portier, Christopher J. [National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH)/ATSDR, CDC, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Background: Lead exposure is associated with low birth-weight. The objective of this study is to determine whether lead exposure is associated with lower body weight in children, adolescents and adults. Methods: We analyzed data from NHANES 1999–2006 for participants aged ≥ 3 using multiple logistic and multivariate linear regression. Using age- and sex-standardized BMI Z-scores, overweight and obese children (ages 3–19) were classified by BMI ≥ 85th and ≥ 95th percentiles, respectively. The adult population (age ≥ 20) was classified as overweight and obese with BMI measures of 25–29.9 and ≥ 30, respectively. Blood lead level (BLL) was categorized by weighted quartiles. Results: Multivariate linear regressions revealed a lower BMI Z-score in children and adolescents when the highest lead quartile was compared to the lowest lead quartile (β (SE) = − 0.33 (0.07), p < 0.001), and a decreased BMI in adults (β (SE) = − 2.58 (0.25), p < 0.001). Multiple logistic analyses in children and adolescents found a negative association between BLL and the percentage of obese and overweight with BLL in the highest quartile compared to the lowest quartile (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.30–0.59; and OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.52–0.88, respectively). Adults in the highest lead quartile were less likely to be obese (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.35–0.50) compared to those in the lowest lead quartile. Further analyses with blood lead as restricted cubic splines, confirmed the dose-relationship between blood lead and body weight outcomes. Conclusions: BLLs are associated with lower body mass index and obesity in children, adolescents and adults. - Highlights: • NHANES analysis of BLL and body weight outcomes • Increased BLL associated with decreased body weight in children and adolescent • Increased BLL associated with decreased body weight in adults.

  16. Organometallic neptunium(III) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, Michał S.; Farnaby, Joy H.; Apostolidis, Christos; Colineau, Eric; Walter, Olaf; Magnani, Nicola; Gardiner, Michael G.; Love, Jason B.; Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas; Caciuffo, Roberto; Arnold, Polly L.

    2016-08-01

    Studies of transuranic organometallic complexes provide a particularly valuable insight into covalent contributions to the metal-ligand bonding, in which the subtle differences between the transuranium actinide ions and their lighter lanthanide counterparts are of fundamental importance for the effective remediation of nuclear waste. Unlike the organometallic chemistry of uranium, which has focused strongly on UIII and has seen some spectacular advances, that of the transuranics is significantly technically more challenging and has remained dormant. In the case of neptunium, it is limited mainly to NpIV. Here we report the synthesis of three new NpIII organometallic compounds and the characterization of their molecular and electronic structures. These studies suggest that NpIII complexes could act as single-molecule magnets, and that the lower oxidation state of NpII is chemically accessible. In comparison with lanthanide analogues, significant d- and f-electron contributions to key NpIII orbitals are observed, which shows that fundamental neptunium organometallic chemistry can provide new insights into the behaviour of f-elements.

  17. Selected programs at the new SURF III electron storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furst, Mitchell L.; Arp, Uwe; Cauchon, Gilles P.; Graves, Rossie M.; Hamilton, Andrew D.; Hughey, Lanny R.; Lucatorto, Thomas B.; Tarrio, Charles

    2000-01-01

    The conversion of the electron storage ring at NIST (the National Institute of Standards and Technology) to SURF III (the Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility) has resulted in a significant improvement to the azimuthal uniformity of the magnetic field as well as the capability for operating at higher beam energies. Measurements of magnetic field strength revealed azimuthal uniformity of better than ±0.05% at field strengths equivalent to operating energies of 52 MeV to 417 MeV. Initial operation is restricted to energies up to 331 MeV due to temporary limitations in the rf transmission system. Even at 331 MeV there is already a significant extension of the usable short wavelength range of the synchrotron radiation as compared to the range available at the 284 MeV operating energy of SURF II. These and other improvements have a major impact on SURF programs including: the Nanodetector, a conversion microscope which is a prototype real-time imaging system for EUV (extreme ultraviolet) lithography; the Spectrometer Calibration Beamline, used for high-accuracy absolute calibration of spectrometers; and the National EUV Reflectometry Facility, used to measure optical constants of thin-film multilayer optics

  18. Cardiovascular Endurance, Body Mass Index, Physical Activity, Screen Time, and Carotenoid Intake of Children: NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan A. Vaccaro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Approximately 17% of children aged 6–11 years were classified as obese in the United States. Obesity adversely affects physical functioning and leads to reduced quality of life. Heart function for overweight and obese children has not been reported. Methods. Data for this study were from NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey (NNYFS conducted in conjunction with the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES in 2012. This study used data from children aged 6–12 (N=732 that had the cardiorespiratory endurance measure, body mass index for age and sex, and dietary data (N=682. Cardiovascular endurance was estimated by heart rate reserve. Results. Compared to the highest percentile of heart rate reserve, those in the first percentile had 3.52 (2.36, 5.24 odds and those in the second percentile had 3.61 (1.84, 7.06 odds of being in the overweight/obese as compared to the under/normal weight category. Considering the highest percentile, boys had a heart rate reserve of 35%, whereas girls had a heart rate reserve of 13% (less than half that of boys. Conclusion. Having an overweight or obese classification for children in this study demonstrated a compromise in cardiovascular endurance. Parental awareness should be raised as to the detrimental consequence of overweight and heart health.

  19. Poor adherence to U.S. dietary guidelines for children and adolescents in the NHANES population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfield, Emilyn C.; Liu, Yan; Davis, Jennifer S.; Chang, Shine; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Poor diet quality in childhood and adolescence is associated with adverse health outcomes throughout life, yet the dietary habits of American children and how they change across childhood and adolescence are unknown. Objectives This study sought to describe diet quality among children and adolescents by assessing adherence to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) and to determine whether any differences in adherence occurred across childhood. Design, Setting, and Participants We employed a cross-sectional design using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Of 9,280 children ages 4-18 who participated in NHANES from 2005-2010, those with insufficient data on dietary recall (n=852) or who were pregnant or lactating during the time of interview (n=38) were excluded from the final study sample (n=8,390). Main Outcome Measures We measured adherence to the DGA using the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-10) and stratified participants into three age groups (4-8, 9-13 and 14-18 years of age). We analyzed each of twelve HEI-10 components, and total HEI-10 score. Results The youngest children had the highest overall diet quality due to significantly greater scores for total fruit, whole fruit, dairy, and whole grains. These children also had the highest scores for sodium, refined grains, and empty calories. Total HEI-10 scores ranged from 43.59 to 52.11 out of 100, much lower than the minimum score of 80 thought to indicate a diet associated with good health. Conclusions Overall, children and adolescents are failing to meet the DGA and may be at an increased risk of chronic diseases throughout life. By analyzing which food groups show differences between age groups, we provide data which may inform the development of dietary interventions to promote specific food groups targeting specific ages, thus improving diet quality among children and adolescents. PMID:26391469

  20. Multi-Institutional Sharing of Electronic Health Record Data to Assess Childhood Obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Charles Bailey

    Full Text Available To evaluate the validity of multi-institutional electronic health record (EHR data sharing for surveillance and study of childhood obesity.We conducted a non-concurrent cohort study of 528,340 children with outpatient visits to six pediatric academic medical centers during 2007-08, with sufficient data in the EHR for body mass index (BMI assessment. EHR data were compared with data from the 2007-08 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES.Among children 2-17 years, BMI was evaluable for 1,398,655 visits (56%. The EHR dataset contained over 6,000 BMI measurements per month of age up to 16 years, yielding precise estimates of BMI. In the EHR dataset, 18% of children were obese versus 18% in NHANES, while 35% were obese or overweight versus 34% in NHANES. BMI for an individual was highly reliable over time (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.90 for obese children and 0.97 for all children. Only 14% of visits with measured obesity (BMI ≥95% had a diagnosis of obesity recorded, and only 20% of children with measured obesity had the diagnosis documented during the study period. Obese children had higher primary care (4.8 versus 4.0 visits, p<0.001 and specialty care (3.7 versus 2.7 visits, p<0.001 utilization than non-obese counterparts, and higher prevalence of diverse co-morbidities. The cohort size in the EHR dataset permitted detection of associations with rare diagnoses. Data sharing did not require investment of extensive institutional resources, yet yielded high data quality.Multi-institutional EHR data sharing is a promising, feasible, and valid approach for population health surveillance. It provides a valuable complement to more resource-intensive national surveys, particularly for iterative surveillance and quality improvement. Low rates of obesity diagnosis present a significant obstacle to surveillance and quality improvement for care of children with obesity.

  1. Heterobimetallic gadolinium(III)-iron(III) complex of DTPA-bis(3-hydroxytyramide)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parac-Vogt, Tatjana N.; Kimpe, Kristof; Binnemans, Koen

    2004-01-01

    A derivative of diethylenetriamine-N,N,N',N'',N''-pentaacetic acid (DTPA), carrying two catechol functional groups has been synthesised by the reaction between DTPA-bis(anhydride) and 3-hydroxytyramine (dopamine). The ligand DTPA-bis(3-hydroxytyramide), [DTPA(HTA) 2 ], is able to form stable heterobimetallic complexes with gadolinium(III) and iron(III) ions. The gadolinium(III) occupies the internal coordination cage of DTPA formed by three nitrogens, two carboxylate and two amide oxygens, while the [Fe(NTA)(H 2 O) 2 ] (nitrilotriacetic acid, NTA) binds to catechol units by the substitution of two water ligands. The formation of polymeric species was avoided by using the tripodal NTA ligand. The heterobimetallic complex was characterised by means of visible absorption spectroscopy, electron spray ionisation-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy

  2. A comprehensive study of g-factors, elastic, structural and electronic properties of III-V semiconductors using hybrid-density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Carlos M. O.; Sabino, Fernando P.; Sipahi, Guilherme M.; Da Silva, Juarez L. F.

    2018-02-01

    Despite the large number of theoretical III-V semiconductor studies reported every year, our atomistic understanding is still limited. The limitations of the theoretical approaches to yield accurate structural and electronic properties on an equal footing, is due to the unphysical self-interaction problem that mainly affects the band gap and spin-orbit splitting (SOC) in semiconductors and, in particular, III-V systems with similar magnitude of the band gap and SOC. In this work, we report a consistent study of the structural and electronic properties of the III-V semiconductors by using the screening hybrid-density functional theory framework, by fitting the α parameters for 12 different III-V compounds, namely, AlN, AlP, AlAs, AlSb, GaN, GaP, GaAs, GaSb, InN, InP, InAs, and InSb, to minimize the deviation between the theoretical and experimental values of the band gap and SOC. Structural relaxation effects were also included. Except for AlP, whose α = 0.127, we obtained α values that ranged from 0.209 to 0.343, which deviate by less than 0.1 from the universal value of 0.25. Our results for the lattice parameter and elastic constants indicate that the fitting of α does not affect those structural parameters when compared with the HSE06 functional, where α = 0.25. Our analysis of the band structure based on the k ṡ p method shows that the effective masses are in agreement with the experimental values, which can be attributed to the simultaneous fitting of the band gap and SOC. Also, we estimate the values of g-factors, extracted directly from the band structure, which are close to experimental results, which indicate that the obtained band structure produced a realistic set of k ṡ p parameters.

  3. Molecular Underpinnings of Fe(III Oxide Reduction by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang eShi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of O2 and other electron acceptors, the Gram-negative bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 can use ferric [Fe(III] (oxy(hydroxide minerals as the terminal electron acceptors for anaerobic respiration. At circumneutral pH and in the absence of strong complexing ligands, Fe(III oxides are relatively insoluble and thus are external to the bacterial cells. S. oneidensis MR-1 has evolved the machinery (i.e., metal-reducing or Mtr pathway for transferring electrons across the entire cell envelope to the surface of extracellular Fe(III oxides. The protein components identified to date for the Mtr pathway include CymA, MtrA, MtrB, MtrC and OmcA. CymA is an inner-membrane tetraheme c-type cytochrome (c-Cyt that is proposed to oxidize the quinol in the inner-membrane and transfers the released electrons to redox proteins in the periplasm. Although the periplasmic proteins receiving electrons from CymA during Fe(III oxidation have not been identified, they are believed to relay the electrons to MtrA. A decaheme c-Cyt, MtrA is thought to be embedded in the trans outer-membrane and porin-like protein MtrB. Together, MtrAB deliver the electrons across the outer-membrane to the MtrC and OmcA on the outmost bacterial surface. Functioning as terminal reductases, the outer membrane and decaheme c-Cyts MtrC and OmcA can bind the surface of Fe(III oxides and transfer electrons directly to these minerals. To increase their reaction rates, MtrC and OmcA can use the flavins secreted by S. oneidensis MR-1 cells as diffusible co-factors for reduction of Fe(III oxides. MtrC and OmcA can also serve as the terminal reductases for soluble forms of Fe(III. Although our understanding of the Mtr pathway is still far from complete, it is the best characterized microbial pathway used for extracellular electron exchange. Characterizations of the Mtr pathway have made significant contributions to the molecular understanding of microbial reduction of Fe(III oxides.

  4. Associations between Yogurt, Dairy, Calcium, and Vitamin D Intake and Obesity among U.S. Children Aged 8–18 Years: NHANES, 2005–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra R. Keast

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate associations of yogurt and dairy consumption with energy, macronutrient, calcium, and vitamin D intakes, and associations with indicators of overweight/obesity in U.S. children in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2005–2008. Using 24-hour recall data, children 8–18 years of age were classified to dairy consumption groups of <1, 1 to <2, or 2+ dairy servings, and yogurt consumers were those who reported eating yogurt during at least one of two dietary intake interviews. NHANES anthropometric measurements were used, and BMI and BMI-for-age percentiles were calculated. Yogurt and dairy consumption were associated with higher intakes of calcium, vitamin D and protein. Yogurt intake was associated with lower total fat and saturated fat intakes and body fat as measured by subscapular skinfold thickness. This study supports consumption of yogurt and higher amounts of dairy as eating patterns associated with greater intake of specific shortfall nutrients, and lower body fat in U.S. children.

  5. Complexes between lanthanide (III) and yttrium (III) picrates and tetra methylene sulfoxide as ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.A.A. da.

    1991-01-01

    The preparation and characterization of addition compounds between lanthanide (III) and yttrium (III) picrates and tetra methylene sulfoxide as ligand were described. The adducts were prepared in the molar relation 1 (salt): 3(ligand) in ethanol. They are microcrystalline with more intense color than those of their respective hydrated salts. At room temperature conditions they are non hygroscopic and do not present perceptible alterations. They became slightly opalescent, when heated between 363 and 423 K. At higher temperatures under several heating ratios, the behavior shown is the same: melting between 439 and 472 K. The characterization of the compounds was made by elemental analysis, electrolytic conductance measurements, X-ray powder patterns, infrared spectroscopy, visible electronic absorption and emission spectra of the neodymium (III) and europium (III), respectively. (author). 116 refs., 17 tabs., 11 figs

  6. Shorter Leukocyte Telomere Length in Relation to Presumed Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Mexican-American Men in NHANES 1999–2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet M. Wojcicki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Leukocyte telomere length is shorter in response to chronic disease processes associated with inflammation such as diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES from 1999 to 2002 was used to explore the relationship between leukocyte telomere length and presumed NAFLD, as indicated by elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels, obesity, or abdominal obesity. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between telomere length and presumed markers of NAFLD adjusting for possible confounders. There was no relationship between elevated ALT levels, abdominal obesity, or obesity and telomere length in adjusted models in NHANES (OR 1.13, 95% CI 0.48–2.65; OR 1.17, 95% CI 0.52–2.62, resp.. Mexican-American men had shorter telomere length in relation to presumed NAFLD (OR 0.07, 95% CI 0.006–0.79 and using different indicators of NAFLD (OR 0.012, 95% CI 0.0006–0.24. Mexican origin with presumed NAFLD had shorter telomere length than men in other population groups. Longitudinal studies are necessary to evaluate the role of telomere length as a potential predictor to assess pathogenesis of NALFD in Mexicans.

  7. Characteristics of an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Plasma Source for the Production of Active Nitrogen Species in III-V Nitride Epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyyappan, Meyya; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    A simple analysis is provided to determine the characteristics of an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma source for the generation of active nitrogen species in the molecular beam epitaxy of III-V nitrides. The effects of reactor geometry, pressure, power, and flow rate on the dissociation efficiency and ion flux are presented. Pulsing the input power is proposed to reduce the ion flux.

  8. Single-layer group IV-V and group V-IV-III-VI semiconductors: Structural stability, electronic structures, optical properties, and photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jia-He; Zhang, Hong; Cheng, Xin-Lu; Miyamoto, Yoshiyuki

    2017-07-01

    Recently, single-layer group III monochalcogenides have attracted both theoretical and experimental interest at their potential applications in photonic devices, electronic devices, and solar energy conversion. Excited by this, we theoretically design two kinds of highly stable single-layer group IV-V (IV =Si ,Ge , and Sn; V =N and P) and group V-IV-III-VI (IV =Si ,Ge , and Sn; V =N and P; III =Al ,Ga , and In; VI =O and S) compounds with the same structures with single-layer group III monochalcogenides via first-principles simulations. By using accurate hybrid functional and quasiparticle methods, we show the single-layer group IV-V and group V-IV-III-VI are indirect bandgap semiconductors with their bandgaps and band edge positions conforming to the criteria of photocatalysts for water splitting. By applying a biaxial strain on single-layer group IV-V, single-layer group IV nitrides show a potential on mechanical sensors due to their bandgaps showing an almost linear response for strain. Furthermore, our calculations show that both single-layer group IV-V and group V-IV-III-VI have absorption from the visible light region to far-ultraviolet region, especially for single-layer SiN-AlO and SnN-InO, which have strong absorption in the visible light region, resulting in excellent potential for solar energy conversion and visible light photocatalytic water splitting. Our research provides valuable insight for finding more potential functional two-dimensional semiconductors applied in optoelectronics, solar energy conversion, and photocatalytic water splitting.

  9. Room-temperature ballistic transport in III-nitride heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matioli, Elison; Palacios, Tomás

    2015-02-11

    Room-temperature (RT) ballistic transport of electrons is experimentally observed and theoretically investigated in III-nitrides. This has been largely investigated at low temperatures in low band gap III-V materials due to their high electron mobilities. However, their application to RT ballistic devices is limited by their low optical phonon energies, close to KT at 300 K. In addition, the short electron mean-free-path at RT requires nanoscale devices for which surface effects are a limitation in these materials. We explore the unique properties of wide band-gap III-nitride semiconductors to demonstrate RT ballistic devices. A theoretical model is proposed to corroborate experimentally their optical phonon energy of 92 meV, which is ∼4× larger than in other III-V semiconductors. This allows RT ballistic devices operating at larger voltages and currents. An additional model is described to determine experimentally a characteristic dimension for ballistic transport of 188 nm. Another remarkable property is their short carrier depletion at device sidewalls, down to 13 nm, which allows top-down nanofabrication of very narrow ballistic devices. These results open a wealth of new systems and basic transport studies possible at RT.

  10. Avocado consumption is associated with better diet quality and nutrient intake, and lower metabolic syndrome risk in US adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulgoni, Victor L; Dreher, Mark; Davenport, Adrienne J

    2013-01-02

    Avocados contain monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) dietary fiber, essential nutrients and phytochemicals. However, no epidemiologic data exist on their effects on diet quality, weight management and other metabolic disease risk factors. The objective of this research was to investigate the relationships between avocado consumption and overall diet quality, energy and nutrient intakes, physiological indicators of health, and risk of metabolic syndrome. Avocado consumption and nutrition data were based on 24-hour dietary recalls collected by trained NHANES interviewers using the USDA Automated Multiple Pass Method (AMPM). Physiological data were collected from physical examinations conducted in NHANES Mobile Examination Centers. Diet quality was calculated using the USDA's Healthy Eating Index-2005. Subjects included 17,567 US adults ≥ 19 years of age (49% female), including 347 avocado consumers (50% female), examined in NHANES 2001-2008. Least square means, standard errors, and ANOVA were determined using appropriate sample weights, with adjustments for age, gender, ethnicity, and other covariates depending on dependent variable of interest. Avocado consumers had significantly higher intakes of vegetables (pavocado consumers. The odds ratio for metabolic syndrome was 50% (95th CI: 0.32-0.72) lower in avocado consumers vs. non-consumers. Avocado consumption is associated with improved overall diet quality, nutrient intake, and reduced risk of metabolic syndrome. Dietitians should be aware of the beneficial associations between avocado intake, diet and health when making dietary recommendations.

  11. Ascorbate Biosynthesis in Mitochondria Is Linked to the Electron Transport Chain between Complexes III and IV1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoli, Carlos G.; Pastori, Gabriela M.; Foyer, Christine H.

    2000-01-01

    Ascorbic acid is synthesized from galactono-γ-lactone (GL) in plant tissues. An improved extraction procedure involving ammonium sulfate precipitation of membrane proteins from crude leaf homogenates yielded a simple, quick method for determining tissue activities of galactono-γ-lactone dehydrogenase (GLDH). Total foliar ascorbate and GLDH activity decreased with leaf age. Subcellular fractionation experiments using marker enzymes demonstrated that 80% of the total GLDH activity was located on the inner mitochondrial membrane, and 20% in the microsomal fraction. Specific antibody raised against potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber GLDH recognized a 56-kD polypeptide in extracts from the mitochondrial membranes but failed to detect the equivalent polypeptide in microsomes. We demonstrate that isolated intact mitochondria synthesize ascorbate in the presence of GL. GL stimulated mitochondrial electron transport rates. The respiration inhibitor antimycin A stimulated ascorbate biosynthesis, while cyanide inhibited both respiration and ascorbate production. GL-dependent oxygen uptake was observed in isolated intact mitochondria. This evidence suggests that GLDH delivers electrons to the mitochondrial electron transport chain between complexes III and IV. PMID:10806250

  12. Intramolecular electron transfer in cyanide bridged adducts comprising Ru(II)/Ru(III) tetracarboxylate and [Mn(I)(CO)(CN)((t)BuNC)(4)] units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhof, Wolfgang; Sterzik, Anke; Krieck, Sven; Schwierz, Markus; Hoffeld, Thomas; Spielberg, Eike T; Plass, Winfried; Patmore, Nathan

    2010-07-21

    Reaction of mixed valence ruthenium tetracarboxylates [Ru(2)(II,III)(R(1)COO)(2)(R(2)COO)(2)Cl] (R(1) = Me, R(2) = 2,4,6-(i)Pr-Ph or R(1) = R(2) = (t)Bu) with two equivalents of the octahedral manganese complex [Mn(I)(CO)(CN)((t)BuNC)(4)] leads to the formation of cyanide bridged heteronuclear coordination compounds of the general formula {[Ru(2)(II,III)(R(1)COO)(2)(R(2)COO)(2)][Mn(I)(CO)(CN)((t)BuNC)(4)](2)}Cl. In solution an intramolecular electron transfer from manganese towards the multiply bonded Ru(2) core occurs that is verified by EPR and IR spectroscopy, magnetic measurements and DFT calculations. Nevertheless, disproportionation of an initially formed {Mn(I)-Ru(2)(II,III)-Mn(I)}(+) adduct into {Mn(II)-Ru(2)(II,III)-Mn(I)}(2+) and {Mn(I)-Ru(2)(II,II)-Mn(I)} species cannot be completely ruled out.

  13. Urinary Metabolite Levels of Flame Retardants in Electronic Cigarette Users: A Study Using the Data from NHANES 2013–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binnian Wei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating the safety of e-cigarettes and making informed judgement about developing potential standards require sufficient scientific evidence. Since e-cigarettes are highly engineered products containing plastic, glass and metal parts, and e-liquids are largely different matrices, many toxic compounds which are not typical hazards for the users of combustible tobacco products (e.g., cigarettes, could exist in e-liquids, and consequently, posing potential health risk to e-cigarette users. We combined the measurements of urinary metabolites of organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs with questionnaire data collected in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES from 2013 to 2014, and we compared adjusted geometric means (GM for each biomarker in e-cigarette users with levels in non-users and users of various tobacco products using multiple regression analyses to adjust for potential confounders. We found diphenyl phosphate (DPhP, bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl phosphate (BDCPP, bis(2-chloroethyl phosphate (BCEP, and dibutyl phosphate (DBUP were detected in all e-cigarette users. The adjusted GM of BCEP, the metabolite of tris(2-chloroethyl phosphate (TCEP, was 81% higher than nonusers (p = 0.0124 and significantly higher than those for both cigarette and cigar users (p < 0.05. The findings in this pilot study suggest that certain OPFRs may present in e-cigarettes as contaminants, and consequently, resulting in higher exposure levels in e-cigarette users compared to nonusers. As we only identified 14 e-cigarette users in the survey, the findings in this study need to be confirmed in future study at a larger scale. A better examination of the types and levels of FRs and their potential contamination sources in e-cigarettes is also needed.

  14. Electron-impact excitation collision strengths and theoretical line intensities for transitions in S III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grieve, M. F. R.; Ramsbottom, C. A.; Hudson, C. E. [Centre for Theoretical Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Keenan, F. P., E-mail: c.ramsbottom@qub.ac.uk [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-01

    We present Maxwellian-averaged effective collision strengths for the electron-impact excitation of S III over a wide range of electron temperatures of astrophysical importance, log T{sub e} (K) = 3.0-6.0. The calculation incorporates 53 fine-structure levels arising from the six configurations—3s {sup 2}3p {sup 2}, 3s3p {sup 3}, 3s {sup 2}3p3d, 3s {sup 2}3p4s, 3s {sup 2}3p4p, and 3s {sup 2}3p4d—giving rise to 1378 individual lines and is undertaken using the recently developed RMATRX II plus FINE95 suite of codes. A detailed comparison is made with a previous R-matrix calculation and significant differences are found for some transitions. The atomic data are subsequently incorporated into the modeling code CLOUDY to generate line intensities for a range of plasma parameters, with emphasis on allowed ultraviolet extreme-ultraviolet emission lines detected from the Io plasma torus. Electron density-sensitive line ratios are calculated with the present atomic data and compared with those from CHIANTI v7.1, as well as with Io plasma torus spectra obtained by Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer and Extreme-Ultraviolet Explorer. The present line intensities are found to agree well with the observational results and provide a noticeable improvement on the values predicted by CHIANTI.

  15. Two-equivalent electrochemical reduction of a cyano-complex [TlIII(CN)2]+ and the novel di-nuclear compound [(CN)5PtII-TlIII]0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolidze, Tina D.; Khoshtariya, Dimitri E.; Behm, Martin; Lindbergh, Goeran; Glaser, Julius

    2005-01-01

    Extending our recent insights in two-electron transfer microscopic mechanisms for a Tl III /Tl I redox system [D.E. Khoshtariya, et al., Inorg. Chem. 41 (2002) 1728], the electrochemical response of glassy carbon electrode in acidified solutions of Tl III (ClO 4 ) 3 containing different concentrations of sodium cyanide has been extensively studied for the first time by use of cyclic voltammetry and the CVSIM curve simulation PC program. The complex [Tl III (CN) 2 ] + has been thoroughly identified electrochemically and shown to display a single well-defined reduction wave (which has no anodic counterpart), ascribed to the two-equivalent process yielding [Tl I (aq)] + . This behavior is similar to that of [Tl III (aq)] 3+ ion in the absence of sodium cyanide, disclosed in the previous work, and is compatible with the quasi-simultaneous yet sequential two-electron transfer pattern (with two reduction waves merged in one), implying the rate-determining first electron transfer step (resulting in the formation of a covalently interacting di-thallium complex as a metastable intermediate), and the fast second electron transfer step. Some preliminary studies of the two-equivalent reduction of directly metal-metal bonded stable compound [(CN) 5 Pt II -Tl III ] 0 has been also performed displaying two reduction waves compatible with a true sequential pattern

  16. Avocado consumption is associated with better diet quality and nutrient intake, and lower metabolic syndrome risk in US adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2001–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulgoni Victor L

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avocados contain monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA dietary fiber, essential nutrients and phytochemicals. However, no epidemiologic data exist on their effects on diet quality, weight management and other metabolic disease risk factors. The objective of this research was to investigate the relationships between avocado consumption and overall diet quality, energy and nutrient intakes, physiological indicators of health, and risk of metabolic syndrome. Methods Avocado consumption and nutrition data were based on 24-hour dietary recalls collected by trained NHANES interviewers using the USDA Automated Multiple Pass Method (AMPM. Physiological data were collected from physical examinations conducted in NHANES Mobile Examination Centers. Diet quality was calculated using the USDA’s Healthy Eating Index-2005. Subjects included 17,567 US adults  ≥ 19 years of age (49% female, including 347 avocado consumers (50% female, examined in NHANES 2001–2008. Least square means, standard errors, and ANOVA were determined using appropriate sample weights, with adjustments for age, gender, ethnicity, and other covariates depending on dependent variable of interest. Results Avocado consumers had significantly higher intakes of vegetables (p  Conclusions Avocado consumption is associated with improved overall diet quality, nutrient intake, and reduced risk of metabolic syndrome. Dietitians should be aware of the beneficial associations between avocado intake, diet and health when making dietary recommendations.

  17. A hydrogen-oxidizing, Fe(III)-reducing microorganism from the Great Bay estuary, New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccavo, F.; Blakemore, R.P.; Lovley, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    A dissimilatory Fe(III)- and Mn(IV)-reducing bacterium was isolated from bottom sediments of the Great Bay estuary, New Hampshire. The isolate was a facultatively anaerobic gram-negative rod which did not appear to fit into any previously described genus. It was temporarily designated strain BrY. BrY grew anaerobically in a defined medium with hydrogen or lactate as the electron donor and Fe(III) as the electron acceptor. BrY required citrate, fumarate, or malate as a carbon source for growth on H2 and Fe(III). With Fe(III) as the sole electron acceptor, BrY metabolized hydrogen to a minimum threshold at least 60-fold lower than the threshold reported for pure cultures of sulfate reducers. This finding supports the hypothesis that when Fe(III) is available, Fe(III) reducers can outcompete sulfate reducers for electron donors. Lactate was incompletely oxidized to acetate and carbon dioxide with Fe(III) as the electron acceptor. Lactate oxidation was also coupled to the reduction of Mn(IV), U(VI), fumarate, thiosulfate, or trimethylamine n-oxide under anaerobic conditions. BrY provides a model for how enzymatic metal reduction by respiratory metal-reducing microorganisms has the potential to contribute to the mobilization of iron and trace metals and to the immobilization of uranium in sediments of Great Bay Estuary.

  18. Atomic data and spectral line intensities for Ne III

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatia, A K; Landi, E

    2003-01-01

    Electron impact collision strengths, energy levels, oscillator strengths and spontaneous radiative decay rates are calculated for Ne III. The configurations used are 2s sup 2 2p sup 4 , 2s2p sup 5 , 2s sup 2 2p sup 3 3s, and 2s sup 2 2p sup 3 3d giving rise to 57 fine-structure levels in intermediate coupling. Collision strengths are calculated at five incident energies, 5, 15, 25, 35, and 45 Ry. Excitation rate coefficients are calculated by assuming a Maxwellian electron velocity distribution at an electron temperature of logT sub e (K)=5.0, corresponding to maximum abundance of Ne III. Using the excitation rate coefficients and the radiative transition rates, statistical equilibrium equations for level populations are solved at electron densities covering the range of 10 sup 8 -10 sup 1 sup 4 cm sup - sup 3. Relative spectral line intensities are calculated. Proton excitation rates between the lowest three levels have been included in the statistical equilibrium equations. The predicted Ne III line intensi...

  19. Geometric and electronic structures of boron(III)-cored dyes tailored by incorporation of heteroatoms into ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lin; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Xinyang; Qiu, Feng; Xue, Minzhao; Tregnago, Giulia; Cacialli, Franco; Osella, Silvio; Beljonne, David; Feng, Xinliang

    2015-03-01

    Complexation of a boron atom with a series of bidentate heterocyclic ligands successfully gives rise to corresponding BF2-chelated heteroarenes, which could be considered as novel boron(III)-cored dyes. These dye molecules exhibit planar structures and expanded π-conjugated backbones due to the locked conformation with a boron center. The geometric and electronic structures of these BF2 complexes can be tailored by embedding heteroatoms in the unique modes to form positional isomer and isoelectronic structures. The structure-property relationship is further elucidated by studying the photophysical properties, electrochemical behavior and quantum-chemical calculations. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Development of a C3-symmetric benzohydroxamate tripod: Trimetallic complexation with Fe(III), Cr(III) and Al(III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baral, Minati; Gupta, Amit; Kanungo, B. K.

    2016-06-01

    The design, synthesis and physicochemical characterization of a C3-symmetry Benzene-1,3,5-tricarbonylhydroxamate tripod, noted here as BTHA, are described. The chelator was built from a benzene as an anchor, symmetrically extended by three hydroxamate as ligating moieties, each bearing O, O donor sites. A combination of absorption spectrophotometry, potentiometry and theoretical investigations are used to explore the complexation behavior of the ligand with some trivalent metal ions: Fe(III), Cr(III), and Al(III). Three protonation constants were calculated for the ligand in a pH range of 2-11 in a highly aqueous medium (9:1 H2O: DMSO). A high rigidity in the molecular structure restricts the formation of 1:1 (M/L) metal encapsulation but shows a high binding efficiency for a 3:1 metal ligand stoichiometry giving formation constant (in β unit) 28.73, 26.13 and 19.69 for [M3L]; Mdbnd Fe(III), Al(III) and Cr(III) respectively, and may be considered as an efficient Fe-carrier. The spectrophotometric study reveals of interesting electronic transitions occurred during the complexation. BTHA exhibits a peak at 238 nm in acidic pH and with the increase of pH, a new peak appeared at 270 nm. A substantial shifting in both of the peaks in presence of the metal ions implicates a s coordination between ligand and metal ions. Moreover, complexation of BTHA with iron shows three distinct colors, violet, reddish orange and yellow in different pH, enables the ligand to be considered for the use as colorimetric sensor.

  1. Reactor oscillator - I - III, Part III - Electronic device; Reaktorski oscilator - I-III, III Deo - Elektronski uredjaj

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lolic, B; Jovanovic, S [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Laboratorija za fiziku reaktora, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1961-12-15

    This report describes functioning of the reactor oscillator electronic system. Two methods of oscillator operation were discussed. The first method is so called method of amplitude modulation of the reactor power, and the second newer method is phase method. Both methods are planned for the present reactor oscillator.

  2. ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    "[to] promote the understanding and, acceptance of and growth in the number of electronic transactions .... Chapter III of the ECT Act is based on the UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic. Commerce ... Communications Technology Law 146. 22.

  3. Zwitterion-functionalized polymer microspheres as a sorbent for solid phase extraction of trace levels of V(V), Cr(III), As(III), Sn(IV), Sb(III) and Hg(II) prior to their determination by ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaoyu; Gong, Dirong; Zhao, Junyi; Ren, Hongyun; Wang, Jiani; Zhang, Xian

    2018-03-19

    This paper describes the preparation of zwitterion-functionalized polymer microspheres (ZPMs) and their application to simultaneous enrichment of V(V), Cr(III), As(III), Sn(IV), Sb(III) and Hg(II) from environmental water samples. The ZPMs were prepared by emulsion copolymerization of ethyl methacrylate, 2-diethylaminoethyl methacrylate and triethylene glycol dimethyl acrylate followed by modification with 1,3-propanesultone. The components were analyzed by elemental analyses as well as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and the structures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The ZPMs were packed into a mini-column for on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) of the above metal ions. Following extraction with 40 mM NH 4 NO 3 and 0.5 M HNO 3 solution, the ions were quantified by ICP-MS. Under the optimized conditions, the enrichment factors (from a 40 mL sample) are up to 60 for the ions V(V), As(III), Sb(III) and Hg(II), and 55 for Cr(III) and Sn(IV). The detection limits are 1.2, 3.4, 1.0, 3.7, 2.1 and 1.6 ng L -1 for V(V), Cr(III), As(III), Sn(IV), Sb(III) and Hg(II), respectively, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) are below 5.2%. The feasibility and accuracy of the method were validated by successfully analyzing six certified reference materials as well as lake, well and river waters. Graphical abstract Zwitterion-functionalized polymer microspheres (ZPMs) were prepared and packed into a mini-column for on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) via pump 1. Then V(V), Cr(III), As(III), Sn(IV), Sb(III) and Hg(II) ions in environmental waters were eluted and submitted to ICP-MS via pump 2.

  4. Electronic spectroscopy and ligand-field analysis of cis-carbonato (rac-5,5,7,12,12,14-hexamethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane) chromium(III) chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong-Ha; Oh, In-Gyung; Linder, Rolf; Schoenherr, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    The absorption spectra of microcrystalline salts of cis-[Cr(cycb)(O 2 CO)] + (cycb=rac-5,5,7,12,12,14-hexamethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane) have been measured between 13,000 and 50,000 cm -1 at temperatures down to 2 K. The vibrational intervals of the electronic ground state were extracted by recording emission and far-IR spectra. The zero-phonon line in the sharp-line absorption spectrum splits into two components by 144 cm -1 . The nine electronic bands due to spin-allowed and spin-forbidden transitions were assigned. Using the observed transitions, a ligand-field analysis has been performed to probe the ligand-field properties of carbonato group in the chromium(III) complex. It is found that the carbonato oxygen has moderately strong σ- and π-donor properties toward chromium(III) ion

  5. Electronic properties of III-nitride semiconductors: A first-principles investigation using the Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Rafael B.; Almeida, J. S. de; Ferreira da Silva, A.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we use density functional theory to investigate the influence of semilocal exchange and correlation effects on the electronic properties of III-nitride semiconductors considering zinc-blende and wurtzite crystal structures. We find that the inclusion of such effects through the use of the Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson potential yields an excellent description of the electronic structures of these materials giving energy band gaps which are systematically larger than the ones obtained with standard functionals such as the generalized gradient approximation. The discrepancy between the experimental and theoretical band gaps is then significantly reduced with semilocal exchange and correlation effects. However, the effective masses are overestimated in the zinc-blende nitrides, but no systematic trend is found in the wurtzite compounds. New results for energy band gaps and effective masses of zinc-blende and wurtzite indium nitrides are presented

  6. Sb(III)-Imprinted Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Sorbent Prepared by Hydrothermal-Assisted Surface Imprinting Technique for Selective Adsorption of Sb(III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Zhao, Yue; Xu, Hong-Bo

    2018-03-01

    Sb(III)-imprinted organic-inorganic hybrid sorbent was prepared by hydrothermal-assisted surface imprinting technique and was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy coupled to an energy dispersive spectrometer and N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms. Hydrothermal-assisted process can improve the selectivity of the Sb(III)-imprinted hybrid sorbent for Sb(III) due to stable control of temperature and pressure. The Sb(III)-imprinted hybrid sorbent IIS indicated higher selectivity for Sb(III), had high static adsorption capacity of 37.3 mg g-1 for Sb(III), displayed stable adsorption capacity in pH range from 4 to 8, reached an rapid adsorption equilibrium within 30 min. According to the correlation coefficient ( r 2 > 0.99), the experimental data fitted better the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir equilibrium isotherm.

  7. Design and Analysis of CMOS-Compatible III-V Compound Electron-Hole Bilayer Tunneling Field-Effect Transistor for Ultra-Low-Power Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Yoon; Seo, Jae Hwa; Yoon, Young Jun; Lee, Ho-Young; Lee, Seong Min; Cho, Seongjae; Kang, In Man

    2015-10-01

    In this work, we design and analyze complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible III-V compound electron-hole bilayer (EHB) tunneling field-effect transistors (TFETs) by using two-dimensional (2D) technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulations. A recently proposed EHB TFET exploits a bias-induced band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) across the electron-hole bilayer by an electric field from the top and bottom gates. This is in contrast to conventional planar p(+)-p(-)-n TFETs, which utilize BTBT across the source-to-channel junction. We applied III-V compound semiconductor materials to the EHB TFETs in order to enhance the current drivability and switching performance. Devices based on various compound semiconductor materials have been designed and analyzed in terms of their primary DC characteristics. In addition, the operational principles were validated by close examination of the electron concentrations and energy-band diagrams under various operation conditions. The simulation results of the optimally designed In0.533Ga0.47As EHB TFET show outstanding performance, with an on-state current (Ion) of 249.5 μA/μm, subthreshold swing (S) of 11.4 mV/dec, and threshold voltage (Vth) of 50 mV at VDS = 0.5 V. Based on the DC-optimized InGaAs EHB TFET, the CMOS inverter circuit was simulated in views of static and dynamic behaviors of the p-channel device with exchanges between top and bottom gates or between source and drain electrodes maintaining the device structure.

  8. Relationships between overweight, obesity and physical fitness of nine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-10-08

    Oct 8, 2009 ... intervention strategies are recommended to improve the quality of life of such childre,n ... a School of Biokinetics, Recreation and Sport Science, North West University, ... Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III.

  9. Dietary avocado oil supplementation attenuates the alterations induced by type I diabetes and oxidative stress in electron transfer at the complex II-complex III segment of the electron transport chain in rat kidney mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Avila, Omar; Sámano-García, Carlos Alberto; Calderón-Cortés, Elizabeth; Pérez-Hernández, Ismael H; Mejía-Zepeda, Ricardo; Rodríguez-Orozco, Alain R; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo; Cortés-Rojo, Christian

    2013-06-01

    Impaired complex III activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in mitochondria have been identified as key events leading to renal damage during diabetes. Due to its high content of oleic acid and antioxidants, we aimed to test whether avocado oil may attenuate the alterations in electron transfer at complex III induced by diabetes by a mechanism related with increased resistance to lipid peroxidation. 90 days of avocado oil administration prevented the impairment in succinate-cytochrome c oxidoreductase activity caused by streptozotocin-induced diabetes in kidney mitochondria. This was associated with a protection against decreased electron transfer through high potential chain in complex III related to cytochromes c + c1 loss. During Fe(2+)-induced oxidative stress, avocado oil improved the activities of complexes II and III and enhanced the protection conferred by a lipophilic antioxidant against damage by Fe(2+). Avocado oil also decreased ROS generation in Fe(2+)-damaged mitochondria. Alterations in the ratio of C20:4/C18:2 fatty acids were observed in mitochondria from diabetic animals that not were corrected by avocado oil treatment, which yielded lower peroxidizability indexes only in diabetic mitochondria although avocado oil caused an augment in the total content of monounsaturated fatty acids. Moreover, a protective effect of avocado oil against lipid peroxidation was observed consistently only in control mitochondria. Since the beneficial effects of avocado oil in diabetic mitochondria were not related to increased resistance to lipid peroxidation, these effects were discussed in terms of the antioxidant activity of both C18:1 and the carotenoids reported to be contained in avocado oil.

  10. Synthesis, characterization, antiplasmodial and antitrypanosomal activity of some metal(III complexes of sulfadiazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. Ajibade

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The Fe(III, Ru(III, Rh(III, and Cr(III complexes of 4-amino-N-(2-pyrimidinylbenzene sulfonamide (sulfadiazine have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, electronic and IR spectroscopy, conductance and room temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements. Sulfadiazine acts as a bidentate ligand through the sulfonamido and the pyrimidinic N-atoms. The compounds are non-electrolytes and the electronic spectra are consistent with the proposed octahedral geometry around the metal ions. The complexes were tested for in vitro activity against cultures of the resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum, tripamastigotes T. b. rhodesiense and amastigotes L. donovani to determine their antiprotozoal activities. The Fe(III complex is more active than the other complexes against the parasitic protozoa.

  11. Position-controlled epitaxial III-V nanowires on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roest, Aarnoud L; Verheijen, Marcel A; Wunnicke, Olaf; Serafin, Stacey; Wondergem, Harry; Bakkers, Erik P A M [Philips Research Laboratories, Professor Holstlaan 4, 5656 AA Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kavli Institute of NanoScience, Delft University of Technology, PO Box 5046, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands)

    2006-06-14

    We show the epitaxial integration of III-V semiconductor nanowires with silicon technology. The wires are grown by the VLS mechanism with laser ablation as well as metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy. The hetero-epitaxial growth of the III-V nanowires on silicon was confirmed with x-ray diffraction pole figures and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. We show preliminary results of two-terminal electrical measurements of III-V nanowires grown on silicon. E-beam lithography was used to predefine the position of the nanowires.

  12. Position-controlled epitaxial III-V nanowires on silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roest, Aarnoud L; Verheijen, Marcel A; Wunnicke, Olaf; Serafin, Stacey; Wondergem, Harry; Bakkers, Erik P A M

    2006-01-01

    We show the epitaxial integration of III-V semiconductor nanowires with silicon technology. The wires are grown by the VLS mechanism with laser ablation as well as metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy. The hetero-epitaxial growth of the III-V nanowires on silicon was confirmed with x-ray diffraction pole figures and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. We show preliminary results of two-terminal electrical measurements of III-V nanowires grown on silicon. E-beam lithography was used to predefine the position of the nanowires

  13. Intake of added sugars and selected nutrients in the United States, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Bernadette P; Olsho, Lauren; Hadden, Louise; Connor, Patty

    2010-03-01

    In the Institute of Medicine (IOM) macronutrient report the Committee recommended a maximal intake of added sugars. The primary objectives of this study were to utilize National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to update the reference table data on intake of added sugars from the IOM report and compute food sources of added sugars. We combined data from NHANES with the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) MyPyramid Equivalents Database (MPED) and calculated individual added sugars intake as percent of total energy then classified individuals into 8 added sugars percent energy categories, calculated usual intake with the National Cancer Institute (NCI) method, and compared intakes to the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). Nutrients at most risk for inadequacy based on the Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) were vitamins E, A, C, and magnesium. Nutrient intake was less with each 5% increase in added sugars intake above 5-10%. Thirteen percent of the population had added sugars intake > 25%. The mean g-eq added sugars intake of 83.1 g-eq/day and added sugars food sources were comparable to the mid-1990s. Higher added sugars intakes were associated with higher proportions of individuals with nutrient intakes below the EAR, but the overall high calorie and the low quality of the U.S. diet remained the predominant issue. With over 80% of the population at risk for select nutrient inadequacy, guidance may need to focus on targeted healthful diet communication to reach the highest risk demographic groups for specific life stage nutrient inadequacies.

  14. Microbiological evidence for Fe(III) reduction on early Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Madeline; Kashefi, Kazem; Blunt-Harris, Elizabeth L.; Lovley, Derek R.

    1998-09-01

    It is generally considered that sulphur reduction was one of the earliest forms of microbial respiration, because the known microorganisms that are most closely related to the last common ancestor of modern life are primarily anaerobic, sulphur-reducing hyperthermophiles. However, geochemical evidence indicates that Fe(III) is more likely than sulphur to have been the first external electron acceptor of global significance in microbial metabolism. Here we show that Archaea and Bacteria that are most closely related to the last common ancestor can reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II) and conserve energy to support growth from this respiration. Surprisingly, even Thermotoga maritima, previously considered to have only a fermentative metabolism, could grow as a respiratory organism when Fe(III) was provided as an electron acceptor. These results provide microbiological evidence that Fe(III) reduction could have been an important process on early Earth and suggest that microorganisms might contribute to Fe(III) reduction in modern hot biospheres. Furthermore, our discovery that hyperthermophiles that had previously been thought to require sulphur for cultivation can instead be grown without the production of toxic and corrosive sulphide, should aid biochemical investigations of these poorly understood organisms.

  15. Electronic construction collaboration system : phase III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    This phase of the electronic collaboration project involved two major efforts: 1) implementation of AEC Sync (formerly known as Attolist), a web-based project management system (WPMS), on the Broadway Viaduct Bridge Project and the Iowa Falls Arch Br...

  16. Improved sensitivity for W-band Gd(III)-Gd(III) and nitroxide-nitroxide DEER measurements with shaped pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrenberg, Thorsten; Rosenski, Yael; Carmieli, Raanan; Zibzener, Koby; Qi, Mian; Frydman, Veronica; Godt, Adelheid; Goldfarb, Daniella; Feintuch, Akiva

    2017-10-01

    Chirp and shaped pulses have been recently shown to be highly advantageous for improving sensitivity in DEER (double electron-electron resonance, also called PELDOR) measurements due to their large excitation bandwidth. The implementation of such pulses for pulse EPR has become feasible due to the availability of arbitrary waveform generators (AWG) with high sampling rates to support pulse shaping for pulses with tens of nanoseconds duration. Here we present a setup for obtaining chirp pulses on our home-built W-band (95 GHz) spectrometer and demonstrate its performance on Gd(III)-Gd(III) and nitroxide-nitroxide DEER measurements. We carried out an extensive optimization procedure on two model systems, Gd(III)-PyMTA-spacer-Gd(III)-PyMTA (Gd-PyMTA ruler; zero-field splitting parameter (ZFS) D ∼ 1150 MHz) as well as nitroxide-spacer-nitroxide (nitroxide ruler) to evaluate the applicability of shaped pulses to Gd(III) complexes and nitroxides, which are two important classes of spin labels used in modern DEER/EPR experiments. We applied our findings to ubiquitin, doubly labeled with Gd-DOTA-monoamide (D ∼ 550 MHz) as a model for a system with a small ZFS. Our experiments were focused on the questions (i) what are the best conditions for positioning of the detection frequency, (ii) which pump pulse parameters (bandwidth, positioning in the spectrum, length) yield the best signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) improvements when compared to classical DEER, and (iii) how do the sample's spectral parameters influence the experiment. For the nitroxide ruler, we report an improvement of up to 1.9 in total SNR, while for the Gd-PyMTA ruler the improvement was 3.1-3.4 and for Gd-DOTA-monoamide labeled ubiquitin it was a factor of 1.8. Whereas for the Gd-PyMTA ruler the two setups pump on maximum and observe on maximum gave about the same improvement, for Gd-DOTA-monoamide a significant difference was found. In general the choice of the best set of parameters depends on the D

  17. Definition of osteoporosis by bone density criteria in men: effect of using female instead of male young reference data depends on skeletal site and densitometer manufacturer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schousboe, John T; Tanner, S Bobo; Leslie, William D

    2014-01-01

    Whether to use young male or young female reference data to calculate bone mineral density (BMD) T-scores in men remains controversial. The third National Health and Nutrition Examination and Survey (NHANES III) data show that the mean and standard deviation of femoral neck and total hip BMD is greater in young men than young women, and therefore differences in T-scores at these sites using NHANES III female vs male norms becomes less as BMD decreases. In contrast, manufacturer-specific reference databases generally assume similar standard deviations of BMD in men and women. Using NHANES III reference data for the femoral neck and total hip, respectively we found that men with T-scores of -2.5 when young male norms are used have T-scores of -2.4 and -2.3 when young female norms are used. Using manufacturer-specific reference data, we found that men with T-scores of -2.5 when young male norms are used at the femoral neck, total hip, lumbar spine, or one-third of the forearm would have T-scores ranging from -2.4 to -0.4 when young female norms are used, depending on skeletal site and densitometer manufacturer. The change of proportions of men diagnosed with osteoporosis when young female norms are used instead of young male reference data differs substantially according to skeletal site and densitometer manufacturer. Copyright © 2014 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Brief communication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-01-17

    Jan 17, 2013 ... health centres and the university hospital. People having ..... Cutler R, Murtaugh MA and Cary JC 2011 Oral clefts and maternal biomarkers of ... Health and. Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). J. Nutr. 133. 2643–2649.

  19. A novel Geobacteraceae-specific outer membrane protein J (OmpJ is essential for electron transport to Fe (III and Mn (IV oxides in Geobacter sulfurreducens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiffer Marianne

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metal reduction is thought to take place at or near the bacterial outer membrane and, thus, outer membrane proteins in the model dissimilatory metal-reducing organism Geobacter sulfurreducens are of interest to understand the mechanisms of Fe(III reduction in the Geobacter species that are the predominant Fe(III reducers in many environments. Previous studies have implicated periplasmic and outer membrane cytochromes in electron transfer to metals. Here we show that the most abundant outer membrane protein of G. sulfurreducens, OmpJ, is not a cytochrome yet it is required for metal respiration. Results When outer membrane proteins of G. sulfurreducens were separated via SDS-PAGE, one protein, designated OmpJ (outer membrane protein J, was particularly abundant. The encoding gene, which was identified from mass spectrometry analysis of peptide fragments, is present in other Geobacteraceae, but not in organisms outside this family. The predicted localization and structure of the OmpJ protein suggested that it was a porin. Deletion of the ompJ gene in G. sulfurreducens produced a strain that grew as well as the wild-type strain with fumarate as the electron acceptor but could not grow with metals, such as soluble or insoluble Fe (III and insoluble Mn (IV oxide, as the electron acceptor. The heme c content in the mutant strain was ca. 50% of the wild-type and there was a widespread loss of multiple cytochromes from soluble and membrane fractions. Transmission electron microscopy analyses of mutant cells revealed an unusually enlarged periplasm, which is likely to trigger extracytoplasmic stress response mechanisms leading to the degradation of periplasmic and/or outer membrane proteins, such as cytochromes, required for metal reduction. Thus, the loss of the capacity for extracellular electron transport in the mutant could be due to the missing c-type cytochromes, or some more direct, but as yet unknown, role of OmpJ in metal

  20. Spectral intensities and bonding parameters for some praseodymium(III) and neodymium(III) complexes with benzimidazoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, P C; Ojha, C K; Mittal, S; Joshi, G K

    1988-09-01

    The electronic spectral intensity parameters (Judd-Ofelt; Tsub(lambda)) calculated from absorption spectral data for the complexes of praseodymium(III) and neodymium(III) nitrates with benzimidazole and 2-methyl-, 2-ethyl- and 2-n-propyl-benzimidazoles are reported. The conductance of these derivatives in dimethylformamide suggests 1:1 electrolytic nature. The infrared spectral data indicate the presence of Csub(2v) as well Dsub(2h)-nitrate ions in the complexes. The correlation of the intensity of hypersensitive transitions with bonding (nephelauxetic ratio and degree of covalency) parameters are also reported. (author). 13 refs., 2 tables.

  1. Physical activity, screen time, and school absenteeism: self-reports from NHANES 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Andrew R; Pritchard, Tony; Melnic, Irina; Zhang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how lifestyle behaviors in the context of physical activity levels and screen time are associated with school absenteeism. We analyzed 2005-2008 NHANES data of proxy interviews for 1048 children aged 6-11 years and in-person self-reports of 1117 adolescents aged 12-18 years. Missing 10% of school days during the past school year was defined as severe school absenteeism (SSA). Watching TV ≥2 hours a day was significantly associated with SSA among both children (OR = 3.51 [1.03-12.0]) and adolescents (OR = 3.96 [1.84-8.52]) compared with their peers watching Absenteeism was not validated with report cards. Unable to account for the absence type or frequency of illness or injury. No psychometric properties provided for subjective measures regarding participants' attitudes and characteristic traits towards physical activity, TV viewing, and school attendance. Excessive TV watching among children and adolescents, and inactivity and high activity levels (≥7 times per week) among children are independently associated with severe school absenteeism.

  2. III-nitrides, 2D transition metal dichalcogenides, and their heterojunctions

    KAUST Repository

    Mishra, Pawan

    2017-01-01

    Group III-nitride materials have attracted great attention for applications in high efficiency electronic and optoelectronics devices such as high electron mobility transistors, light emitting diodes, and laser diodes. On the other hand, group VI

  3. Damping of type III solar radio bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, B.N.

    1982-01-01

    The meter- and decameter-wavelength damping of type III bursts may be attributable to stabilization of the Langmuir-wave instability of the fast-electron streams through excitation of cyclotron-branch plasma waves

  4. Healthy Eating Index-2010 and food groups consumed by US adults who meet or exceed fiber intake recommendations NHANES 2001–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla R. McGill

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The proportion of the US adult population who meet fiber intake recommendations is very low. Information about food groups consumed and diet quality for the adults who consume recommended amounts of fiber are scarce. Objective: To examine food groups consumed and Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2010 scores for US adults meeting the fiber adequate intake (AI based on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES data 2001–2010. Design: A secondary analysis of NHANES data from 2001 to 2010. Participants included adults aged 19 and older (n=24,807 with complete day 1 dietary records. Variables measured were food group sources of fiber and HEI-2010 scores. Sample-weighted data were used to calculate least square means (LSM±standard error of the mean (SEM by fiber intake quartile along with HEI-2010 scores. Significance was set at P<0.05. Results: Major fiber food sources for US adults meeting the AI were grain products, vegetables, legumes, and fruits. The top grain products consumed were grain mixtures, ready-to-eat (RTE cereals, and breads/rolls. The mean HEI-2010 score for adults meeting the AI for fiber was significantly (P<0.001 higher compared with all adult participants. The mean HEI-2010 score increased with increasing fiber intake in both groups. Conclusions: Adults who meet the AI for fiber have a higher quality diet. Fiber may be an important dietary component that predicts diet quality.

  5. Separation of yttrium (III) from lanthanoids (III) by solvent extraction with substituted N-Alkylcarbonyl-N-phenylhydroxylamines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haraguchi, K.; Ogata, T.; Nakagawa, K.; Saitoh, T.; Kamidate, T.; Watanabe, H.

    1996-01-01

    A series of substituted N-alkylcarbonyl-N-phenylhydroxylamines(R-PHAs) were synthesized and utilized for the extraction of yttrium(III) and lanthanoids(III) in order to obtain effective extractants for the separation of yttrium(III) from the lanthanoids(III) and the mutual separation of the lanthanoids(III). The distribution ratio of yttrium(III) and the lanthanoids(III) between the carbon tetrachloride and the aqueous phases was measured as functions of the pH and the extractant concentration at 298 K at an ionic strength of 0.1 (NaNO 3 ). Yttrium(III) and the lanthanoids(III) were extracted with R-PHAs(HL) as self-adducted chelates of the form, ML 3 (HL) x , where 'x' is 1, 2 or 3 depending on the extraction system. The extractability of the metal ions decreased in the order of R-PHA having a primary, a secondary and a tertiary alkyl substituent attached to the carbonyl group because of the steric hindrance of the alkyl group. The separation factors for both Yb/Eu and Yb/Y pairs increased with increasing branching of the alkyl group of R-PHA. The excellent selectivity of R-PHAs having a tertiary alkyl group was attributable to a greater inductive effect of the tertiary alkyl group than those of the primary and secondary alkyl groups. The substituents at the phenyl group of R-PHAs gave no significant effect on the selectivity, while the extractability was enhanced considerably by introduction of electron withdrawing substituents at appropriate positions of the phenyl group of R-PHAs. (authors)

  6. Analytical Electron Diffraction from Iii-V and II-Vi Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellward, Paul

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. This thesis describes the development and evaluation of a number of new TEM-based techniques for the measurement of composition in ternary III-V and II-VI semiconductors. New methods of polarity determination in binary and ternary compounds are also presented. The theory of high energy electron diffraction is outlined, with particular emphasis on zone axis diffraction from well-defined strings. An account of TEM microstructural studies of Cd_{rm x}Hg _{rm 1-x}Te and CdTe epitaxial layers, which provided the impetus for developing the diffraction-based analytical techniques, is given. The wide range of TEM-based compositional determination techniques is described. The use of HOLZ deficiency lines to infer composition from a lattice parameter measurement is evaluated. In the case of Cd_{ rm x}Hg_{rm 1-x}Te, it is found to be inferior to other techniques developed. Studies of dynamical aspects of HOLZ diffraction can yield information about the dispersion surface from which a measure of composition may be obtained. This technique is evaluated for Al_{rm x}Ga_{rm 1-x} As, in which it is found to be of some use, and for Cd_{rm x}Hg _{rm 1-x}Te, in which the large Debye-Waller factor associated with mercury in discovered to render the method of little value. A number of critical voltages may be measured in medium voltage TEMs. The (111) zone axis critical voltage of Cd_{rm x}Hg _{rm 1-x}Te is found to vary significantly with x and forms the basis of an accurate technique for composition measurement in that ternary compound. Other critical voltage phenomena are investigated. In Al _{rm x}Ga_ {rm 1-x}As and other light ternaries, a non-systematic critical voltage is found to vary with x, providing a good indicator of composition. Critical voltage measurements may be made by conventional CBED or by various other techniques, which may also simultaneously yield information on the spatial variation of composition. The

  7. The influence of the electron wave function on the Pt Lsub(I) and Lsub(III) ionization probabilities by 3.6 MeV He impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullrich, J.; Dangendorf, V.; Dexheimer, K.; Do, K.; Kelbch, C.; Kelbch, S.; Schadt, W.; Schmidt-Boecking, H.; Stiebing, K.E.; Roesel, F.; Trautmann, D.

    1986-01-01

    For 3.6 MeV He impact the Lsub(I) and Lsub(III) subshell ionization probabilities of Pt have been measured. Due to relativistic effects in the electron wave functions, the Lsub(I) subshell ionization probability Isub(LI)(b) is strong enhanced at small impact parameters exceeding even Isub(LIII)(b) in nice agreement with the SCA theory. (orig.)

  8. Non-local exchange correlation functionals impact on the structural, electronic and optical properties of III-V arsenides

    KAUST Repository

    Anua, N. Najwa

    2013-08-20

    Exchange correlation (XC) energy functionals play a vital role in the efficiency of density functional theory (DFT) calculations, more soundly in the calculation of fundamental electronic energy bandgap. In the present DFT study of III-arsenides, we investigate the implications of XC-energy functional and corresponding potential on the structural, electronic and optical properties of XAs (X = B, Al, Ga, In). Firstly we report and discuss the optimized structural lattice parameters and the band gap calculations performed within different non-local XC functionals as implemented in the DFT-packages: WIEN2k, CASTEP and SIESTA. These packages are representative of the available code in ab initio studies. We employed the LDA, GGA-PBE, GGA-WC and mBJ-LDA using WIEN2k. In CASTEP, we employed the hybrid functional, sX-LDA. Furthermore LDA, GGA-PBE and meta-GGA were employed using SIESTA code. Our results point to GGA-WC as a more appropriate approximation for the calculations of structural parameters. However our electronic bandstructure calculations at the level of mBJ-LDA potential show considerable improvements over the other XC functionals, even the sX-LDA hybrid functional. We report also the optical properties within mBJ potential, which show a nice agreement with the experimental measurements in addition to other theoretical results. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  9. Recent Fast Food Consumption and Bisphenol A and Phthalates Exposures among the U.S. Population in NHANES, 2003-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zota, Ami R; Phillips, Cassandra A; Mitro, Susanna D

    2016-10-01

    Phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) are widely used industrial chemicals that may adversely impact human health. Human exposure is ubiquitous and can occur through diet, including consumption of processed or packaged food. To examine associations between recent fast food intake and BPA and urinary metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (ΣDEHPm) and diisononyl phthalate (DiNPm) among the U.S. We combined data on 8,877 participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2003-2010). Using 24-hr dietary recall data, we quantified: a) fast food intake [percent of total energy intake (TEI) from fast food]; b) fast food-derived fat intake (percent of TEI from fat in fast food); and c) fast food intake by food group (dairy, eggs, grains, meat, and other). We examined associations between dietary exposures and urinary chemical concentrations using multivariate linear regression. We observed evidence of a positive, dose-response relationship between fast food intake and exposure to phthalates (p-trend fast food) had 23.8% (95% CI: 11.9%, 36.9%) and 39.0% (95% CI: 21.9%, 58.5%) higher levels of ΣDEHPm and DiNPm, respectively, than nonconsumers. Fast food-derived fat intake was also positively associated with ΣDEHPm and DiNPm (p-trend food groups, ΣDEHPm was associated with grain and other intake, and DiNPm was associated with meat and grain intake. Fast food may be a source of exposure to DEHP and DiNP. These results, if confirmed, could inform individual and regulatory exposure reduction strategies. Zota AR, Phillips CA, Mitro SD. 2016. Recent fast food consumption and bisphenol A and phthalates exposures among the U.S. population in NHANES, 2003-2010. Environ Health Perspect 124:1521-1528; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510803.

  10. A theory of solar type III radio bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, M.L.; Smith, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    A theory of type III bursts is reviewed. Energetic electrons propagating through the interplanetary medium are shown to excite the one dimensional oscillating two stream instability (OTSI). The OTSI is in turn stabilized by anomalous resistivity which completes the transfer of long wavelength Langmuir waves to short wavelengths, out of resonance with the electrons. The theory explains the small energy losses suffered by the electrons in propagating to 1 AU, the predominance of second harmonic radiation, and the observed correlation between radio and electron fluxes. (Auth.)

  11. Properties of electronic emissions of semiconductors III-IV in a status of negative electron affinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piaget, Claude

    1977-01-01

    This research thesis reports the use of various properties (electron emission, photo emission, secondary electron emission) to highlight the relationships between various solid properties (optical, electronic, structural properties), surfaces (clean or covered with adsorbates such as caesium and oxygen) and emission properties (quantum efficiency, energy distribution, and so on). The first part addresses applications, performance, physical properties and technological processes, and also problems related to the physics and chemistry of surfaces and adsorption layers. The second part reports a study of the main electron transport properties in emitters displaying a negative electron affinity, for example GaP. Some aspects of electron excitation by ultra-violet radiations and high energy electrons are studied from UV photo-emission properties and secondary electron emission. Then GaAs and similar pseudo-binary compounds are studied

  12. Substrate effects on the formation of flat Ag films on (110) surfaces of III-V compound semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, K.; Zhang, Z.; Ebert, P.; Shih, C.K.

    1999-01-01

    Ag films grown at 135 K on (110) surfaces of III-V compound semiconductors and annealed at room temperature are investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy and low-energy electron diffraction. Ag films on Ga-V semiconductors are well ordered, atomically flat, and exhibit a specific critical thickness, which is a function of the substrate material. Films grown on In-V semiconductors are still rather flat, but significantly more disordered. The (111) oriented Ag films on III-arsenides and III-phosphides exhibit a clear twofold superstructure. Films on III-antimonides exhibit threefold low-energy electron diffraction images. The morphology of the Ag films can be explained on the basis of the electronic growth mechanism. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  13. Rare earth(III) complexes for the development of new magnetic and luminescent probes; Complexes de lanthanides(III) pour le developpement de nouvelles sondes magnetiques et luminescentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonat, A

    2007-10-15

    The simultaneous optimisation of the molecular parameters determining the relaxivity (number of coordinated water molecules, water-exchange, rotation dynamics of the whole complex, electronic relaxation, Gd(III)-proton distance) is essential to prepare efficient contrast agents. The aim of this work is on the one hand to design and study complexes with a high number of bound water molecules and to understand the influence of the coordination sphere on the stability and on the electronic relaxation and on the other hand, to use the ligand as a chromophore for the development of luminescent probes for biomedical imaging. We present the structure, the stability and the relaxivity of Gd(III) complexes of two series of tripodal ligands containing picolinate units based either on the 1,4,7-tri-aza-cyclononane ring or on a tertiary amine. These complexes show high relaxivity in water and in serum and can establish a non covalent interaction with serum albumin. The interpretation of the water proton relaxivity with the help of new relaxometric methods based on an auxiliary probe solute has allowed us to show that both the presence of the picolinate groups and the 1,4,7-tri-aza-cyclononane framework can lead to Gd(III) complexes with favourable electronic relaxation properties. This ligands have also been used for Eu(III) and Tb(III) complexation leading to strong luminescence in visible light. Other complexes derived from 8-hydroxyquinoline unit which display a very high luminescence in infrared are also studied. (author)

  14. Obstruction of photoinduced electron transfer from excited porphyrin to graphene oxide: a fluorescence turn-on sensing platform for iron (III ions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong De Liu

    Full Text Available A comparative research of the assembly of different porphyrin molecules on graphene oxide (GO and reduced graphene oxide (RGO was carried out, respectively. Despite the cationic porphyrin molecules can be assembled onto the surfaces of graphene sheets, including GO and RGO, to form complexes through electrostatic and π-π stacking interactions, the more obvious fluorescence quenching and the larger red-shift of the Soret band of porphyrin molecule in RGO-bound states were observed than those in GO-bound states, due to the difference of molecular flattening in degree. Further, more interesting finding was that the complexes formed between cationic porphyrin and GO, rather than RGO sheets, can facilitate the incorporation of iron (III ions into the porphyrin moieties, due to the presence of the oxygen-contained groups at the basal plane of GO sheets served as auxiliary coordination units, which can high-efficiently obstruct the electron transfer from excited porphyrin to GO sheets and result in the occurrence of fluorescence restoration. Thus, a fluorescence sensing platform has been developed for iron (III ions detection in this contribution by using the porphyrin/GO nanohybrids as an optical probe, and our present one exhibited rapid and sensitive responses and high selectivity toward iron (III ions.

  15. Photoinduced electron transfer between Fe(III) and adenosine triphosphate-BODIPY conjugates: Application to alkaline-phosphatase-linked immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jia-Hui; Yang, Ya-Chun; Shih, Ya-Chen; Hung, Szu-Ying; Lu, Chi-Yu; Tseng, Wei-Lung

    2016-03-15

    Fluorescent boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) analogs are often used as sensors for detecting various species because of their relatively high extinction coefficients, outstanding fluorescence quantum yields, photostability, and pH-independent fluorescence. However, there is little-to-no information in the literature that describes the use of BODIPY analogs for detecting alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and inhibition. This study discovered that the fluorescence of BODIPY-conjugated adenosine triphosphate (BODIPY-ATP) was quenched by Fe(III) ions through photoinduced electron transfer. The ALP-catalyzed hydrolysis of BODIPY-ATP resulted in the formation of BODIPY-adenosine and phosphate ions. The fluorescence of the generated BODIPY-adenosine was insensitive to the change in the concentration of Fe(III) ions. Thus, the Fe(III)-induced fluorescence quenching of BODIPY-ATP can be paired with its ALP-mediated dephosphorylation to design a turn-on fluorescence probe for ALP sensing. A method detection limit at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 for ALP was estimated to be 0.02 units/L (~6 pM; 1 ng/mL). This probe was used for the screening of ALP inhibitors, including Na3VO4, imidazole, and arginine. Because ALP is widely used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, the probe was coupled to an ALP-linked immunosorbent assay for the sensitive and selective detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG). The lowest detectable concentration for IgG in this system was 5 ng/mL. Compared with the use of 3,6-fluorescein diphosphate as a signal reporter in an ALP-linked immunosorbent assay, the proposed system provided comparable sensitivity, large linear range, and high stability over temperature and pH changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of Fe (III)-reducing enrichment culture and isolation of Fe (III)-reducing bacterium Enterobacter sp. L6 from marine sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyan; Wang, Hongyu

    2016-07-01

    To enrich the Fe (III)-reducing bacteria, sludge from marine sediment was inoculated into the medium using Fe (OH)3 as the sole electron acceptor. Efficiency of Fe (III) reduction and composition of Fe (III)-reducing enrichment culture were analyzed. The results indicated that the Fe (III)-reducing enrichment culture with the dominant bacteria relating to Clostridium and Enterobacter sp. had high Fe (III) reduction of (2.73 ± 0.13) mmol/L-Fe (II). A new Fe (III)-reducing bacterium was isolated from the Fe (III)-reducing enrichment culture and identified as Enterobacter sp. L6 by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The Fe (III)-reducing ability of strain L6 under different culture conditions was investigated. The results indicated that strain L6 had high Fe (III)-reducing activity using glucose and pyruvate as carbon sources. Strain L6 could reduce Fe (III) at the range of NaCl concentrations tested and had the highest Fe (III) reduction of (4.63 ± 0.27) mmol/L Fe (II) at the NaCl concentration of 4 g/L. This strain L6 could reduce Fe (III) with unique properties in adaptability to salt variation, which indicated that it can be used as a model organism to study Fe (III)-reducing activity isolated from marine environment. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Absolute cross sections for emission of 284.7-nm (Hg II) and 479.7-nm (Hg III) radiation in electron--mercury-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phaneuf, R.A.; Taylor, P.O.; Dunn, G.H.

    1976-01-01

    Crossed beams of electrons and Hg + ions have been used to measure absolute cross sections for emission of 284.7-nm radiation, resulting from excitation of a predominantly ground-state Hg + target to the 7s 2 S 1 / 2 state. Values range from 3 x 10 -17 cm 2 near threshold, where the cross section is strongly peaked, to 1.3 x 10 -18 cm 2 at 280 eV. Also reported are some measurements of emission of 479.7-nm (Hg III) radiation, resulting from electron impact on both Hg + and Hg ++ targets. Cross sections range from approximately 5 x 10 -19 to 5 x 10 -20 cm 2 , and in the case of electron-Hg ++ collisions, are more than an order of magnitude smaller than predicted by an available semiclassical binary-encounter calculation

  18. Studies of Some Lanthanide(III Nitrate Complexes of Schiff Base Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishor Arora Mukesh Sharma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The studies of 16 new lanthanide(III nitrate complexes of Schiff base ligands are discussed. Schiff bases were obtained by the condensation of 2–methyl–4–N,N–bis–2' –cyanoethyl aminobenzaldehyde with aniline and 3 different substituted anilines. Lanthanide(III nitrates, viz. gadolinium(III nitrate, lanthanum(III nitrate, samarium(III nitrate and cerium(III nitrate were chosen to synthesize new complexes. The complexes were characterized on the basis of physicochemical studies viz. elemental analysis, spectral, viz. IR and electronic spectral and magnetic studies. TGA studies of some of the representative complexes were also done. Some of the representative complexes were also screened for the anti microbial studies.

  19. Heliocentric radial variation of plasma oscillations associated with type III radio bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurnett, D.A.; Anderson, R.R.; Scarf, F.L.; Kurth, W.S.

    1978-01-01

    A survey is presented of all of the electron plasma oscillation events found to date in association with low-frequency type III solar radio bursts using approximately 9 years of observations from the Imp 6 and 8, Helios 1 and 2, and Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft. Plasma oscillation events associated with type III radio bursts show a pronounced increase in both the intensity and the frequency of occurrence with decreasing heliocentric radial distance. This radial dependence explains why intense electron plasma oscillations are seldom observed in association with type III radio bursts at the orbit of the earth. Possible interpretations of the observed radial variation in the plasma oscillation intensity are considered

  20. High-resolution structure of the Shigella type-III secretion needle by solid-state NMR and cryo-electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Jean-Philippe; Habenstein, Birgit; Loquet, Antoine; Kumar Vasa, Suresh; Giller, Karin; Becker, Stefan; Baker, David; Lange, Adam; Sgourakis, Nikolaos G.

    2014-09-01

    We introduce a general hybrid approach for determining the structures of supramolecular assemblies. Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) data define the overall envelope of the assembly and rigid-body orientation of the subunits while solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR) chemical shifts and distance constraints define the local secondary structure, protein fold and inter-subunit interactions. Finally, Rosetta structure calculations provide a general framework to integrate the different sources of structural information. Combining a 7.7-Å cryo-EM density map and 996 ssNMR distance constraints, the structure of the type-III secretion system needle of Shigella flexneri is determined to a precision of 0.4 Å. The calculated structures are cross-validated using an independent data set of 691 ssNMR constraints and scanning transmission electron microscopy measurements. The hybrid model resolves the conformation of the non-conserved N terminus, which occupies a protrusion in the cryo-EM density, and reveals conserved pore residues forming a continuous pattern of electrostatic interactions, thereby suggesting a mechanism for effector protein translocation.

  1. Diet quality on meatless days: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Zach; Karlsen, Micaela; Chui, Kenneth; Jahns, Lisa

    2017-06-01

    To compare diet quality scores between adult non-meat eaters and meat eaters, and to compare the consumption of diet components across quintiles of diet quality. Cross-sectional analysis. The Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) and Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI-2010) were used to assess mean diet quality. Differences in consumption of diet components between quintiles of diet quality were tested using post hoc Wald tests and z tests. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007-2012. The sample consisted of 16810 respondents aged≥18 years, including 280 individuals who reported not consuming meat, poultry, game birds or seafood on two non-consecutive days of dietary recall. Dietary data were obtained from one dietary recall per individual. Non-meat eaters had substantially greater HEI-2010 and AHEI-2010 scores than meat eaters (Pempty calories and unsaturated:saturated fatty acids. Mean consumption across AHEI-2010 quintiles demonstrated different (Pempty calories, and increased consumption of nuts and legumes, PUFA and vegetables, as a way to improve overall dietary quality.

  2. Environmentally-relevant concentrations of Al(III) and Fe(III) cations induce aggregation of free DNA by complexation with phosphate group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chao; Kang, Fuxing; Zhang, Wei; Shou, Weijun; Hu, Xiaojie; Gao, Yanzheng

    2017-10-15

    Environmental persistence of free DNA is influenced by its complexation with other chemical species and its aggregation mechanisms. However, it is not well-known how naturally-abundant metal ions, e.g., Al(III) and Fe(III), influence DNA aggregation. This study investigated aggregation behaviors of model DNA from salmon testes as influenced by metal cations, and elucidated the predominant mechanism responsible for DNA aggregation. Compared to monovalent (K + and Na + ) and divalent (Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ ) cations, Al(III) and Fe(III) species in aqueous solution caused rapid DNA aggregations. The maximal DNA aggregation occurred at 0.05 mmol/L Al(III) or 0.075 mmol/L Fe(III), respectively. A combination of atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that Al(III) and Fe(III) complexed with negatively charged phosphate groups to neutralize DNA charges, resulting in decreased electrostatic repulsion and subsequent DNA aggregation. Zeta potential measurements and molecular computation further support this mechanism. Furthermore, DNA aggregation was enhanced at higher temperature and near neutral pH. Therefore, DNA aggregation is collectively determined by many environmental factors such as ion species, temperature, and solution pH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Physical Activity, BMI, and Blood Pressure in US Youth: NHANES 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, Heather Hayes; Eisenmann, Joey C; Laurson, Kelly R; DuBose, Katrina D; Reeves, Mathew J; Carlson, Joseph J; Pfeiffer, Karin A

    2018-03-15

    The objective of this study was to examine the independent and combined association of physical activity and body mass index (BMI) with blood pressure in youth. Youth aged 8-18 years from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) with BMI, blood pressure, and physical activity (accelerometer) were included in the analyses. A total of 2585 subjects (1303 males; 47% of all 8- to 18-year-olds) met these criteria. Obese youth had a systolic blood pressure that was 8 mm Hg higher than normal weight youth. A significant interaction between BMI and physical activity on blood pressure was found (P < .001), and group differences among the BMI/activity groups showed that the 3 obese groups and the overweight/least active group had significantly higher systolic blood pressure than the normal weight/active group across all analyses. The overweight/least active and normal weight/least active groups had significantly higher diastolic blood pressure than the normal weight/active group as well. This study showed a significant independent and combined association of BMI and physical activity with blood pressure in youth. Interventions need to focus on the reduction of fatness/BMI as a way to reduce the cardiovascular risk in youth.

  4. Self-Reported Versus Accelerometer-Measured Physical Activity and Biomarkers Among NHANES Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Britni R; Moser, Richard P; Dodd, Kevin W; Atienza, Audie A; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Berrigan, David

    2015-05-01

    Discrepancies in self-report and accelerometer-measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) may influence relationships with obesity-related biomarkers in youth. Data came from 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) for 2174 youth ages 12 to 19. Biomarkers were: body mass index (BMI, kg/m2), BMI percentile, height and waist circumference (WC, cm), triceps and subscapular skinfolds (mm), systolic & diastolic blood pressure (BP, mmHg), high-density lipoprotein (HDL, mg/dL), total cholesterol (mg/dL), triglycerides (mg/dL), insulin (μU/ml), C-reactive protein (mg/dL), and glycohemoglobin (%). In separate sex-stratified models, each biomarker was regressed on accelerometer variables [mean MVPA (min/day), nonsedentary counts, and MVPA bouts (mean min/day)] and self-reported MVPA. Covariates were age, race/ethnicity, SES, physical limitations, and asthma. In boys, correlations between self-report and accelerometer MVPA were stronger (boys: r = 0.14-0.21; girls: r = 0.07-0.11; P girls, there were no significant associations between biomarkers and any measures of physical activity. Physical activity measures should be selected based on the outcome of interest and study population; however, associations between PA and these biomarkers appear to be weak regardless of the measure used.

  5. Anodic Stripping Voltammetric Detection of Arsenic(III) at Platinum-Iron(III) Nanoparticle Modified Carbon Nanotube on Glassy Carbon Electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Seung Hyun; Hong, Hun Gi

    2010-01-01

    The electrochemical detection of As(III) was investigated on a platinum-iron(III) nanoparticles modified multiwalled carbon nanotube on glassy carbon electrode(nanoPt-Fe(III)/MWCNT/GCE) in 0.1 M H 2 SO 4 . The nanoPt-Fe(III)/ MWCNT/GCE was prepared via continuous potential cycling in the range from .0.8 to 0.7 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), in 0.1 M KCl solution containing 0.9 mM K 2 PtCl 6 and 0.6 mM FeCl 3 . The Pt nanoparticles and iron oxide were co-electrodeposited into the MWCNT-Nafion composite film on GCE. The resulting electrode was examined by cyclic voltammetry (CV), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). For the detection of As(III), the nanoPt-Fe(III)/MWCNT/GCE showed low detection limit of 10 nM (0.75 ppb) and high sensitivity of 4.76 μAμM -1 , while the World Health Organization's guideline value of arsenic for drinking water is 10 ppb. It is worth to note that the electrode presents no interference from copper ion, which is the most serious interfering species in arsenic detection

  6. The stabilization of the highest oxidation states of transition metals under oxygen pressures: TlNiO sub 3 , a new Ni(III) perovskite - comparison of the electronic properties with those of TNiO sub 3 (T = rare earth and Y)

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, S J; Presniakov, I

    2002-01-01

    The crystal structure and the magnetic properties of TlNiO sub 3 have been characterized and compared with those of TNiO sub 3 (T = rare earth and Y). The electronic structure of Ni(III) has been investigated by Moessbauer spectroscopy. Through these analyses, the effects of the A-site ion on structural distortion, magnetic behaviour and electronic structure of Ni(III) in a perovskite have been discussed.

  7. Hypervalent iodine(III)-mediated cyclopropa(e)nation of alkenes/alkynes under mild conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shaoxia; Li, Mengru; Dong, Zhiyong; Liang, Fushun; Zhang, Jingping

    2014-02-28

    Hypervalent iodine(III)-mediated dioxygenation and diamination of alkenes have been previously developed. In this study, the potential application of hypervalent iodine(III) reagent was successfully extended to the dialkylation and cyclopropa(e)nation of unsaturated alkenes and alkynes. The reactions of alkenes with malononitrile and other active methylene compounds as the carbon nucleophiles give access to multisubstituted cyclopropane derivatives in moderate to excellent yields. Both electron-rich and electron-deficient alkenes are suitable substrates. Alkynes, no matter terminal or internal alkynes, work well, affording the corresponding highly functionalized cyclopropenes efficiently. A plausible mechanism of iodo(III)cyclopropanation, ring opening attack by the carbon-nucleophile, and recyclization was proposed for the cyclopropanation of trans-alkene substrates. The cyclopropenation was thought to proceed via iodo(III)cyclopropanation, ring-opening attack by the carbon-nucleophile, recyclization into a four-membered iodo(III)cyclobutene and final reductive elimination. The protocol might provide a complementary route to cyclopropanation/cyclopropenation.

  8. Cigarette Smoking in Persons Living with Hepatitis C: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ryung S; Weinberger, Andrea H; Chander, Geetanjali; Sulkowski, Mark S; Norton, Brianna; Shuter, Jonathan

    2018-06-01

    Cigarette smoking is common in persons living with hepatitis C (hepatitis C+), but national statistics on this harmful practice are lacking. A better understanding of smoking behaviors in hepatitis C+ individuals may help in the development of targeted treatment strategies. We extracted data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) between 1999 and 2014. Hepatitis C+ were compared with hepatitis C- adults in the entire sample and in the subset of current smokers. Measures included demographics, current smoking, cigarettes/day, nicotine dependence, other tobacco use, substance use, and medical and psychiatric comorbidities. Complete smoking and hepatitis C virus (HCV) data were available for 39,472 (90.1%) of 43,793 adult participants in NHANES during the study years. Hepatitis C+ smoked at almost triple the rate of hepatitis C- adults (62.4% vs 22.9%), with no significant difference between hepatitis C+ men and women (64.5% vs 58.2%). Hepatitis C+ smokers were more likely to smoke daily than hepatitis C- smokers (87.5% vs 80.0%), but had similar levels of nicotine dependence. Hepatitis C+ smokers were more likely to be older (mean age: 47.1 vs 41.5 years), male (69.4% vs 54.4%), Black (21.2% vs 12.1%), less educated (any college: 31.8% vs 42.9%), poor (mean family monthly poverty index: 1.80 vs 2.47), uninsured (43.9% vs 30.4%), use drugs (cocaine: 11.1% vs 3.2%; heroin: 4.0% vs 0.6%), and be depressed (33.2% vs 13.5%). Multivariate analyses revealed significant associations of both hepatitis C infection and cigarette smoking with current depression and hypertension. There is a cigarette smoking epidemic embedded within the hepatitis C epidemic in the United States. The sociodemographic profile of hepatitis C+ smokers suggests that the implementation of effective tobacco treatment will be challenging. Thoughtful treatment strategies that are mindful of the unique characteristics of this group are needed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier

  9. Recent Fast Food Consumption and Bisphenol A and Phthalates Exposures among the U.S. Population in NHANES, 2003–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zota, Ami R.; Phillips, Cassandra A.; Mitro, Susanna D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) are widely used industrial chemicals that may adversely impact human health. Human exposure is ubiquitous and can occur through diet, including consumption of processed or packaged food. Objective: To examine associations between recent fast food intake and BPA and urinary metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (ΣDEHPm) and diisononyl phthalate (DiNPm) among the U.S. population. Methods: We combined data on 8,877 participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2003–2010). Using 24-hr dietary recall data, we quantified: a) fast food intake [percent of total energy intake (TEI) from fast food]; b) fast food-derived fat intake (percent of TEI from fat in fast food); and c) fast food intake by food group (dairy, eggs, grains, meat, and other). We examined associations between dietary exposures and urinary chemical concentrations using multivariate linear regression. Results: We observed evidence of a positive, dose–response relationship between fast food intake and exposure to phthalates (p-trend fast food) had 23.8% (95% CI: 11.9%, 36.9%) and 39.0% (95% CI: 21.9%, 58.5%) higher levels of ΣDEHPm and DiNPm, respectively, than nonconsumers. Fast food-derived fat intake was also positively associated with ΣDEHPm and DiNPm (p-trend food groups, ΣDEHPm was associated with grain and other intake, and DiNPm was associated with meat and grain intake. Conclusion: Fast food may be a source of exposure to DEHP and DiNP. These results, if confirmed, could inform individual and regulatory exposure reduction strategies. Citation: Zota AR, Phillips CA, Mitro SD. 2016. Recent fast food consumption and bisphenol A and phthalates exposures among the U.S. population in NHANES, 2003–2010. Environ Health Perspect 124:1521–1528; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510803 PMID:27072648

  10. Intramolecular deactivation processes of electronically excited Lanthanide(III) complexes with organic acids of low molecular weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burek, Katja; Eidner, Sascha; Kuke, Stefanie; Kumke, Michael U.

    2018-02-01

    The luminescence of Lanthanide(III) complexes with different model ligands was studied under direct as well as sensitized excitation conditions. The research was performed in the context of studies dealing with deep-underground storages for high-level nuclear waste. Here, Lanthanide(III) ions served as natural analogues for Actinide(III) ions and the low-molecular weight organic ligands are present in clay minerals and furthermore, they were employed as proxies for building blocks of humic substances, which are important complexing molecules in the natural environment, e.g., in the far field of a repository site. Time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy was applied for a detailed characterization of Eu(III), Tb(III), Sm(III) and Dy(III) complexes in aqueous solutions. Based on the observed luminescence the ligands were tentatively divided into two groups (A, B). The luminescence of Lanthanide(III) complexes of group A was mainly influenced by an energy transfer to OH-vibrations. Lanthanide(III) complexes of group B showed ligand-related luminescence quenching, which was further investigated. To gain more information on the underlying quenching processes of group A and B ligands, measurements at different temperatures (77 K ≤ T ≤ 353 K) were performed and activation energies were determined based on an Arrhenius analysis. Moreover, the influence of the ionic strength between 0 M ≤ I ≤ 4 M on the Lanthanide(III) luminescence was monitored for different complexes, in order to evaluate the influence of specific conditions encountered in host rocks foreseen as potential repository sites.

  11. Relationship between type III-V radio and hard X-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, R.T.

    1978-01-01

    Type III-V radio bursts are found to be closely associated with impulsive hard X-ray bursts. Probably 0.1% to 1% of the fast electrons in the X-ray source region escape to heights >0.1 solar radii in the corona and excite the type III-V burst. (Auth.)

  12. Detection of the electronic structure of iron-(iii)-oxo oligomers forming in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Robert; Kraffert, Katrin; Kabelitz, Anke; Pohl, Marvin N; Kraehnert, Ralph; Emmerling, Franziska; Winter, Bernd

    2017-12-13

    The nature of the small iron-oxo oligomers in iron-(iii) aqueous solutions has a determining effect on the chemical processes that govern the formation of nanoparticles in aqueous phase. Here we report on a liquid-jet photoelectron-spectroscopy experiment for the investigation of the electronic structure of the occurring iron-oxo oligomers in FeCl 3 aqueous solutions. The only iron species in the as-prepared 0.75 M solution are Fe 3+ monomers. Addition of NaOH initiates Fe 3+ hydrolysis which is followed by the formation of iron-oxo oligomers. At small enough NaOH concentrations, corresponding to approximately [OH]/[Fe] = 0.2-0.25 ratio, the iron oligomers can be stabilized for several hours without engaging in further aggregation. Here, we apply a combination of non-resonant as well as iron 2p and oxygen 1s resonant photoelectron spectroscopy from a liquid microjet to detect the electronic structure of the occurring species. Specifically, the oxygen 1s partial electron yield X-ray absorption (PEY-XA) spectra are found to exhibit a peak well below the onset of liquid water and OH - (aq) absorption. The iron 2p absorption gives rise to signal centered between the main absorption bands typical for aqueous Fe 3+ . Absorption bands in both PEY-XA spectra are found to correlate with an enhanced photoelectron peak near 20 eV binding energy, which demonstrates the sensitivity of resonant photoelectron (RPE) spectroscopy to mixing between iron and ligand orbitals. These various signals from the iron-oxo oligomers exhibit maximum intensity at [OH]/[Fe] = 0.25 ratio. For the same ratio, we observe changes in the pH as well as in complementary Raman spectra, which can be assigned to the transition from monomeric to oligomeric species. At approximately [OH]/[Fe] = 0.3 we begin to observe particles larger than 1 nm in radius, detected by small-angle X-ray scattering.

  13. Anomalous microstructural changes in III-nitrides under ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucheyev, S.O.; Williams, J.S.; Jagadish, C.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Group-III nitrides (GaN, AlGaN, and InGaN) are currently a 'hot topic' in the physics and material research community due to very important technological applications of these materials in (opto)electronics. In the fabrication of III-nitride-based devices, ion bombardment represents a very attractive processing tool. However, ion-beam-produced lattice disorder and its undesirable consequences limit technological applications of ion implantation. Hence, studies of ion-beam-damage processes in Ill-nitrides are not only physically interesting but also technologically important. In this study, wurtzite GaN, AlGaN, and InGaN films exposed to ion bombardment under a wide range of irradiation conditions are studied by a combination of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), cathodoluminescence (CL), and Rutherford backscattering/channeling (RBS/C) spectrometry. Results show that, unlike the situation for mature semiconductors such as Si and GaAs, Ill-nitrides exhibit a range of intriguing behavior involving extreme microstructural changes under ion bombardment. In this presentation, the following aspects are discussed: (i) formation of lattice defects during ion bombardment, (ii) ion-beam-induced phase transformations, (iii) ion-beam-produced stoichiometric imbalance and associated material decomposition, and (iv) an application of charging phenomena during ESEM imaging for studies of electrical isolation in GaN by MeV light ion irradiation. Emphasis is given to the (powerful) application of electron microscopy techniques for the understanding of physical processes occurring in Ill-nitrides under ion bombardment. Copyright (2002) Australian Society for Electron Microscopy Inc

  14. Electronics engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Mazda, F F

    1989-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, Sixth Edition is a five-part book that begins with a synopsis of mathematical and electrical techniques used in the analysis of electronic systems. Part II covers physical phenomena, such as electricity, light, and radiation, often met with in electronic systems. Part III contains chapters on basic electronic components and materials, the building blocks of any electronic design. Part IV highlights electronic circuit design and instrumentation. The last part shows the application areas of electronics such as radar and computers.

  15. Electronic absorption spectral studies of Pr(III) chelates with some amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachhawa, Chanchal; Solanki, Kanika; Bhandari, H. S.

    2018-05-01

    Investigations on Pr(III) systems with 1:1 metal-ligand stoichiometric ratio have been carried out in different solvents. β - Alanine, Taurine and anthranilic acid have been opted as ligands for the investigations. The Study is based on doped crystal phenomenon. The Slater-Condon, spin-orbit, nephelauxetic, bonding, Racah and Judd-Ofelt parameters have been explored during the study. Four bands for Pr(III) have been observed and recorded in the region 350 nm to 900nm. Partial regression method has been used for calculations. Use of computational chemistry has been explored in order to develop better and easier methods of calculations.

  16. Predictors of blood trihalomethane concentrations in NHANES 1999-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riederer, Anne M; Dhingra, Radhika; Blount, Benjamin C; Steenland, Kyle

    2014-07-01

    Trihalomethanes (THMs) are water disinfection by-products that have been associated with bladder cancer and adverse birth outcomes. Four THMs (bromoform, chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane) were measured in blood and tap water of U.S. adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2006. THMs are metabolized to potentially toxic/mutagenic intermediates by cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2D6 and CYP2E1 enzymes. We conducted exploratory analyses of blood THMs, including factors affecting CYP2D6 and CYP2E1 activity. We used weighted multivariable regressions to evaluate associations between blood THMs and water concentrations, survey year, and other factors potentially affecting THM exposure or metabolism (e.g., prescription medications, cruciferous vegetables, diabetes, fasting, pregnancy, swimming). From 1999 to 2006, geometric mean blood and water THM levels dropped in parallel, with decreases of 32%-76% in blood and 38%-52% in water, likely resulting, in part, from the lowering of the total THM drinking water standard in 2002-2004. The strongest predictors of blood THM levels were survey year and water concentration (n = 4,232 total THM; n = 4,080 bromoform; n = 4,582 chloroform; n = 4,374 bromodichloromethane; n = 4,464 dibromochloromethane). We detected statistically significant inverse associations with diabetes and eating cruciferous vegetables in all but the bromoform model. Medications did not consistently predict blood levels. Afternoon/evening blood samples had lower THM concentrations than morning samples. In a subsample (n = 230), air chloroform better predicted blood chloroform than water chloroform, suggesting showering/bathing was a more important source than drinking. We identified several factors associated with blood THMs that may affect their metabolism. The potential health implications require further study.

  17. Nanocrystalline Axially Bridged Iron Phthalocyanine Polymeric Conductor: (μ-Thiocyanato(phthalocyaninatoiron(III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiza Shimizu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Skewered Iron(III phthalocyanine conducting polymer can be constructed with the utilization of axial thiocyanato ligands ((μ-thiocyanato(phthalocyaninatoiron(III; (FeIII(Pc(SCNn thereby creating additional avenues for electron transport through a linear SCN bridge, apart from the intermolecular π-π orbital overlap between the Pc molecules. In this paper, we report on the conversion of bulk FeIII(Pc(SCNn polymeric organic conductor into crystalline nanostructures through horizontal vapor phase growth process. The needle-like nanostructures are deemed to provide more ordered and, thus, more π-π interactive interskewer FeIII(Pc(SCNn polymer orientation, resulting in a twofold increase of its electrical conductivity per materials density unit.

  18. Removal or excitation of a 1s electron in Kr II and Kr III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Lin; Beck, Donald R; O'Malley, Steven M

    2005-01-01

    Relativistic configuration interaction calculations are done for Kr ions Kr II and Kr III. Transition energies and transition probabilities for 122 transitions between Kr II 4p 5 J = 1/2, 3/2→ 1s 4p 6 , 1s 4p 5 np (n = 5-8) J = 1/2, 3/2, 5/2; 437 transitions between Kr III 4p 4 J = 0, 1, 2→ 1s 4p 5 , 1s 4p 4 np (n = 5-8) J = 0, 1, 2, 3 have been calculated. These data have been used by experiment to reproduce the absorption spectrum of Kr II and Kr III and found to be in good agreement with their measurement. Also, the K-edge energy of neutral Kr, Kr II and Kr III has been calculated. The first is within 0.94 eV of an existing experiment, while the last two are calculated for the first time

  19. Particle Aggregation During Fe(III) Bioreduction in Nontronite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaisi, D. P.; Dong, H.; Hi, Z.; Kim, J.

    2005-12-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the rate and mechanism of particle aggregation during bacterial Fe (III) reduction in different size fractions of nontronite and to investigate the role of different factors contributing to particle aggregation. To achieve this goal, microbial Fe(III) reduction experiments were performed with lactate as an electron donor, Fe(III) in nontronite as an electron acceptor, and AQDS as an electron shuttle in bicarbonate buffer using Shewanella putrefaceins CN32. These experiments were performed with and without Na- pyrophosphate as a dispersant in four size fractions of nontronite (0.12-0.22, 0.41-0.69, 0.73-0.96 and 1.42-1.8 mm). The rate of nontronite aggregation during the Fe(III) bioreduction was measured by analyzing particle size distribution using photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) and SEM images analysis. Similarly, the changes in particle morphology during particle aggregation were determined by analyses of SEM images. Changes in particle surface charge were measured with electrophoretic mobility analyzer. The protein and carbohydrate fraction of EPS produced by cells during Fe(III) bioreduction was measured using Bradford and phenol-sulfuric acid extraction method, respectively. In the presence of the dispersant, the extent of Fe(III) bioreduction was 11.5-12.2% within the first 56 hours of the experiment. There was no measurable particle aggregation in control experiments. The PCS measurements showed that the increase in the effective diameter (95% percentile) was by a factor of 3.1 and 1.9 for particle size of 0.12-0.22 mm and 1.42-1.80 mm, respectively. The SEM image analyses also gave the similar magnitude of increase in particle size. In the absence of the dispersant, the extent of Fe(III) bioreduction was 13.4-14.5% in 56 hours of the experiment. The rate of aggregation was higher than that in the presence of the dispersant. The increase in the effective diameter (95% percentile) was by a factor of 13.6 and 4.1 for

  20. Geographical variation in DXA bone mineral density in young European men and women. Results from the Network in Europe on Male Osteoporosis (NEMO) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaptoge, S.; Silva, J.A. da; Brixen, K.

    2008-01-01

    We collected population-based young normal hip and spine BMD data from 17 centres across Europe to assess between centre differences and to compare reference values with the US NHANES-III data. There was strong evidence of between country heterogeneity, but not between centres within countries. Hip...... values specific to an American population can be validly used for T-score calculation in Europeans. METHODS: We collected population based BMD data from 1163 men and 329 women aged 19-29 years from 17 centres across Europe to compare mean and SD values with the NHANES-III study USA results. BMD(g/cm2......, the cross-calibrated BMD values were converted using the ESP equations to Hologic QDR 1000 units. RESULTS: In men, the overall mean(SD) BMD values expressed in Hologic-QDR1000 units of measurement, were: femoral neck 0.912(0.132); trochanter 0.793(0.124); and L2-L4 spine 1.027(0.123). The respective...

  1. Theoretical study on the electronic structures and phosphorescent properties of a series of iridium(III) complexes with the different positional N-substitution in the pyridyl moiety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Deming; Hao, Fengqi [School of Life Science and Technology, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China); Tian, Jian [Clean Energy Technology Laboratory, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China); Pang, Chunying; Li, Jingmei [School of Life Science and Technology, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China); Zhao, Lihui, E-mail: zhaolihui@yahoo.com [School of Life Science and Technology, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China); Zhang, Gang [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China)

    2015-03-15

    The geometry structures, electronic structures, absorption and phosphorescent properties of a series of iridium(III) complexes with the different N-substitution cyclometalating ligand and the same benzyldiphenylphosphine auxiliary ligand have been theoretically investigated by using the density functional theory method. The lowest energy absorption wavelengths are located at 378 nm for A, 430 nm for B, 411 nm for C, 436 nm for D, and 394 nm for E. The introduction of N atom substitution at 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-positions on the pyridyl moiety of complex A leads to an obvious redshifted absorption. The lowest energy emissions for complexes A–E are localized at 450, 409, 438, 483, and 429 nm, respectively, simulated in CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} medium at M052X level. Ionization potential and electron affinity have been calculated to evaluate the injection abilities of holes and electrons into these complexes. For complex C, the calculated results showed that it can possibly possess the larger radiative decay rate (k{sub r}) value than those of other four complexes. It is anticipated that the theoretical studies can provide valuable information for designing new phosphorescent metal complexes of organic light-emitting diodes. - Highlights: • Five Ir(III) complexes have been theoretically investigated. • The effect of N-substitution cyclometalating ligand has been studied. • The complex C possibly possesses the largest radiative decay rate value.

  2. Enhanced Cr(VI) reduction and As(III) oxidation in ice phase: Important role of dissolved organic matter from biochar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Xiaoling [Department of Soil and Water Science, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Ma, Lena Q., E-mail: lqma@ufl.edu [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Jiangsu 210046 (China); Department of Soil and Water Science, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Gress, Julia; Harris, Willie [Department of Soil and Water Science, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Li, Yuncong [Soil and Water Science Department, Tropical Research and Education Center, University of Florida, Homestead, FL 33031-3314 (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Biochar-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) effectively reduced Cr(VI) and oxidized As(III). • Cr(VI) and As(III) could serve as a redox couple. • Cr(VI) and As(III) redox conversion was more effective in the ice phase than aqueous phase. • FTIR and ESR showed that biochar DOM served as both electron donor and acceptor. - Abstract: This study evaluated the impact of DOM from two biochars (sugar beet tailing and Brazilian pepper) on Cr(VI) reduction and As(III) oxidation in both ice and aqueous phases with a soil DOM as control. Increasing DOM concentration from 3 to 300 mg C L{sup −1} enhanced Cr(VI) reduction from 20% to 100% and As(III) oxidation from 6.2% to 25%; however, Cr(VI) reduction decreased from 80–86% to negligible while As(III) oxidation increased from negligible to 18–19% with increasing pH from 2 to 10. Electron spin resonance study suggested semiquinone radicals in DOM were involved in As(III) oxidation while Fourier transform infrared analysis suggested that carboxylic groups in DOM participated in both Cr(VI) reduction and As(III) oxidation. During Cr(VI) reduction, part of DOM (∼10%) was oxidized to CO{sub 2}. The enhanced conversion of Cr(VI) and As(III) in the ice phase was due to the freeze concentration effect with elevated concentrations of electron donors and electron acceptors in the grain boundary. Though DOM enhanced both Cr(VI) reduction and As(III)oxidation, Cr(VI) reduction coupled with As(III) oxidation occurred in absence of DOM. The role of DOM, Cr(VI) and/or As(III) in Cr and As transformation may provide new insights into their speciation and toxicity in cold regions.

  3. Estimating the U.S. prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using pre- and post-bronchodilator spirometry: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background During 2007–2010, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) conducted a spirometry component which obtained pre-bronchodilator pulmonary lung function data on a nationally representative sample of US adults aged 6–79 years and post-bronchodilator pulmonary lung function data for the subset of adults with airflow limitation. The goals of this study were to 1) compute prevalence estimates of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using pre-bronchodilator and post-bronchodilator spirometry measurements and fixed ratio and lower limit of normal (LLN) diagnostic criteria and 2) examine the potential impact of nonresponse on the estimates. Methods This analysis was limited to those aged 40–79 years who were eligible for NHANES pre-bronchodilator spirometry (n=7,104). Examinees with likely airflow limitation were further eligible for post-bronchodilator testing (n=1,110). Persons were classified as having COPD based on FEV1/FVC spirometry but self-reporting both daytime supplemental oxygen therapy plus emphysema and/or current chronic bronchitis were also classified as having COPD. The final analytic samples for pre-bronchodilator and post-bronchodilator analyses were 77.1% (n=5,477) and 50.8% (n=564) of those eligible, respectively. To account for non-response, NHANES examination weights were adjusted to the eligible pre-bronchodilator and post-bronchodilator subpopulations. Results In 2007–2010, using the fixed ratio criterion and pre-bronchodilator test results, COPD prevalence was 20.9% (SE 1.1) among US adults aged 40–79 years. Applying the same criterion to post-bronchodilator test results, prevalence was 14.0% (SE 1.0). Using the LLN criterion and pre-bronchodilator test results, the COPD prevalence was 15.4% (SE 0.8), while applying the same criterion to post-bronchodilator test results, prevalence was 10.2% (SE 0.8). Conclusions The overall COPD prevalence among US adults aged 40–79 years varied from 10.2% to 20

  4. One of the possible mechanisms for the inhibition effect of Tb(III) on peroxidase activity in horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) treated with Tb(III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shaofen; Cao, Rui; Lu, Aihua; Zhou, Qing; Lu, Tianhong; Ding, Xiaolan; Li, Chaojun; Huang, Xiaohua

    2008-05-01

    One of the possible mechanisms for the inhibition effect of Tb(III) on peroxidase activity in horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) treated with Tb(III) was investigated using some biophysical and biochemical methods. Firstly, it was found that a large amount of Tb(III) can be distributed on the cell wall, that some Tb(III) can enter into the horseradish cell, indicating that peroxidase was mainly distributed on cell wall, and thus that Tb(III) would interact with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in the plant. In addition, peroxidase bioactivity was decreased in the presence of Tb(III). Secondly, a new peroxidase-containing Tb(III) complex (Tb-HRP) was obtained from horseradish after treatment with Tb(III); the molecular mass of Tb-HRP is near 44 kDa and the pI is about 8.80. Thirdly, the electrocatalytic activity of Tb-HRP is much lower than that of HRP obtained from horseradish without treatment with Tb(III). The decrease in the activity of Tb-HRP is due to the destruction (unfolding) of the conformation in Tb-HRP. The planarity of the heme active center in the Tb-HRP molecule was increased and the extent of exposure of Fe(III) in heme was decreased, leading to inhibition of the electron transfer. The microstructure change in Tb-HRP might be the result of the inhibition effect of Tb(III) on peroxidase activity in horseradish.

  5. Radioactivity backgrounds in ZEPLIN-III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, H. M.; Akimov, D. Yu.; Barnes, E. J.; Belov, V. A.; Bewick, A.; Burenkov, A. A.; Chepel, V.; Currie, A.; Deviveiros, L.; Edwards, B.; Ghag, C.; Hollingsworth, A.; Horn, M.; Kalmus, G. E.; Kobyakin, A. S.; Kovalenko, A. G.; Lebedenko, V. N.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, M. I.; Lüscher, R.; Majewski, P.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Neves, F.; Paling, S. M.; Pinto da Cunha, J.; Preece, R.; Quenby, J. J.; Reichhart, L.; Scovell, P. R.; Silva, C.; Solovov, V. N.; Smith, N. J. T.; Smith, P. F.; Stekhanov, V. N.; Sumner, T. J.; Thorne, C.; Walker, R. J.

    2012-03-01

    We examine electron and nuclear recoil backgrounds from radioactivity in the ZEPLIN-III dark matter experiment at Boulby. The rate of low-energy electron recoils in the liquid xenon WIMP target is 0.75 ± 0.05 events/kg/day/keV, which represents a 20-fold improvement over the rate observed during the first science run. Energy and spatial distributions agree with those predicted by component-level Monte Carlo simulations propagating the effects of the radiological contamination measured for materials employed in the experiment. Neutron elastic scattering is predicted to yield 3.05 ± 0.5 nuclear recoils with energy 5-50 keV per year, which translates to an expectation of 0.4 events in a 1 yr dataset in anti-coincidence with the veto detector for realistic signal acceptance. Less obvious background sources are discussed, especially in the context of future experiments. These include contamination of scintillation pulses with Cherenkov light from Compton electrons and from β activity internal to photomultipliers, which can increase the size and lower the apparent time constant of the scintillation response. Another challenge is posed by multiple-scatter γ-rays with one or more vertices in regions that yield no ionisation. If the discrimination power achieved in the first run can be replicated, ZEPLIN-III should reach a sensitivity of ˜1 × 10-8pb · yr to the scalar WIMP-nucleon elastic cross-section, as originally conceived.

  6. Complexation of trivalent actinides and lanthanides with hydrophilic N-donor ligands for Am(III)/Cm(III) and An(III)/Ln(III) separation; Komplexierung von trivalenten Actiniden und Lanthaniden mit hydrophilen N-Donorliganden zur Am(III)/Cm(III)- bzw. An(III)/Ln(III)-Trennung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Christoph

    2017-07-24

    The implementation of actinide recycling processes is considered in several countries, aiming at the reduction of long-term radiotoxicity and heat load of used nuclear fuel. This requires the separation of the actinides from the fission and corrosion products. The separation of the trivalent actinides (An(III)) Am(III) and Cm(III), however, is complicated by the presence of the chemically similar fission lanthanides (Ln(III)). Hydrophilic N-donor ligands are employed as An(III) or Am(III) selective complexing agents in solvent extraction to strip An(III) or Am(III) from an organic phase loaded with An(III) and Ln(III). Though they exhibit excellent selectivity, the complexation chemistry of these ligands and the complexes formed during solvent extraction are not sufficiently characterized. In the present thesis the complexation of An(III) and Ln(III) with hydrophilic N-donor ligands is studied by time resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS), UV/Vis, vibronic sideband spectroscopy and solvent extraction. TRLFS studies on the complexation of Cm(III) and Eu(III) with the Am(III) selective complexing agent SO{sub 3}-Ph-BTBP (tetrasodium 3,3{sup '},3'',3{sup '''}-([2,2{sup '}-bipyridine]-6,6{sup '}-diylbis(1,2,4-triazine-3,5,6-triyl)) tetrabenzenesulfonate) revealed the formation of [M(SO{sub 3}-Ph-BTBP){sub n}]{sup (4n-3)-} complexes (M = Cm(III), Eu(III); n = 1, 2). The conditional stability constants were determined in different media yielding two orders of magnitude larger β{sub 2}-values for the Cm(III) complexes, independently from the applied medium. A strong impact of ionic strength on the stability and stoichiometry of the formed complexes was identified, resulting from the stabilization of the pentaanionic [M(SO{sub 3}-Ph-BTBP){sub 2}]{sup 5-} complex with increasing ionic strength. Thermodynamic studies of Cm(III)-SO{sub 3}-Ph-BTBP complexation showed that the proton concentration of the applied medium impacts

  7. Interaction study of amino acids and the peptide aspartame with lanthanide (III) ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carubelli, C.R.

    1990-01-01

    The interactions between the Nd(III) ion with the amino acids L-aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid and L-histidine and the peptide aspartame in aqueous solution were studied. The study was conducted by means of electronic spectroscopy with the Judd-Ofelt formalism for transition intensity parameters calculations. Several coordination compounds involving Nd(III), Eu(III), and Tb(III) and the ligands L-histidine and aspartame were synthesized and characterized in the solid state. Mixed compounds involving Eu(III) and Tb(III) with the same ligands were synthesized and characterized also. The characterization were achieved by chemical analysis, melting points, vibrational spectroscopy (IR) and powder X-ray diffractometry. (author)

  8. Evidence for a peak shift in a humoral response to helminths: age profiles of IgE in the Shuar of Ecuador, the Tsimane of Bolivia, and the U.S. NHANES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron D Blackwell

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The peak shift model predicts that the age-profile of a pathogen's prevalence depends upon its transmission rate, peaking earlier in populations with higher transmission and declining as partial immunity is acquired. Helminth infections are associated with increased immunoglobulin E (IgE, which may convey partial immunity and influence the peak shift. Although studies have noted peak shifts in helminths, corresponding peak shifts in total IgE have not been investigated, nor has the age-patterning been carefully examined across populations. We test for differences in the age-patterning of IgE between two South American forager-horticulturalist populations and the United States: the Tsimane of Bolivia (n=832, the Shuar of Ecuador (n=289, and the U.S. NHANES (n=8,336. We then examine the relationship between total IgE and helminth prevalences in the Tsimane.Total IgE levels were assessed in serum and dried blood spots and age-patterns examined with non-linear regression models. Tsimane had the highest IgE (geometric mean =8,182 IU/ml, followed by Shuar (1,252 IU/ml, and NHANES (52 IU/ml. Consistent with predictions, higher population IgE was associated with steeper increases at early ages and earlier peaks: Tsimane IgE peaked at 7 years, Shuar at 10 years, and NHANES at 17 years. For Tsimane, the age-pattern was compared with fecal helminth prevalences. Overall, 57% had detectable eggs or larva, with hookworm (45.4% and Ascaris lumbricoides (19.9% the most prevalent. The peak in total IgE occurred around the peak in A. lumbricoides, which was associated with higher IgE in children <10, but with lower IgE in adolescents.The age-patterning suggests a peak shift in total IgE similar to that seen in helminth infections, particularly A. lumbricoides. This age-patterning may have implications for understanding the effects of helminths on other health outcomes, such as allergy, growth, and response to childhood vaccination.

  9. Evidence for a peak shift in a humoral response to helminths: age profiles of IgE in the Shuar of Ecuador, the Tsimane of Bolivia, and the U.S. NHANES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Aaron D; Gurven, Michael D; Sugiyama, Lawrence S; Madimenos, Felicia C; Liebert, Melissa A; Martin, Melanie A; Kaplan, Hillard S; Snodgrass, J Josh

    2011-06-01

    The peak shift model predicts that the age-profile of a pathogen's prevalence depends upon its transmission rate, peaking earlier in populations with higher transmission and declining as partial immunity is acquired. Helminth infections are associated with increased immunoglobulin E (IgE), which may convey partial immunity and influence the peak shift. Although studies have noted peak shifts in helminths, corresponding peak shifts in total IgE have not been investigated, nor has the age-patterning been carefully examined across populations. We test for differences in the age-patterning of IgE between two South American forager-horticulturalist populations and the United States: the Tsimane of Bolivia (n=832), the Shuar of Ecuador (n=289), and the U.S. NHANES (n=8,336). We then examine the relationship between total IgE and helminth prevalences in the Tsimane. Total IgE levels were assessed in serum and dried blood spots and age-patterns examined with non-linear regression models. Tsimane had the highest IgE (geometric mean =8,182 IU/ml), followed by Shuar (1,252 IU/ml), and NHANES (52 IU/ml). Consistent with predictions, higher population IgE was associated with steeper increases at early ages and earlier peaks: Tsimane IgE peaked at 7 years, Shuar at 10 years, and NHANES at 17 years. For Tsimane, the age-pattern was compared with fecal helminth prevalences. Overall, 57% had detectable eggs or larva, with hookworm (45.4%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (19.9%) the most prevalent. The peak in total IgE occurred around the peak in A. lumbricoides, which was associated with higher IgE in children <10, but with lower IgE in adolescents. The age-patterning suggests a peak shift in total IgE similar to that seen in helminth infections, particularly A. lumbricoides. This age-patterning may have implications for understanding the effects of helminths on other health outcomes, such as allergy, growth, and response to childhood vaccination.

  10. Construction of the Cleo III drift chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csorna, S.; Marka, S.; Dickson, M.; Dombrowski, S. von; Peterson, D.; Thies, P.; Glenn, S.; Thorndike, E.H.; Kravchenko, I.

    1998-01-01

    The CLEO III group is constructing a new chamber to be installed as part of the staged luminosity upgrade program at the Cornell electron storage ring and compatible with the interaction region optics. Although having less radial extent than the current CLEO II tracking system, CLEO III will have equivalent momentum resolution because of material reduction in the drift chamber inner skin and gas. The thin inner skin requires special attention to the end-plate motion due to wire creep. During stringing, use of a robot will fully automate the wire handling on the upper end. (author)

  11. Away from home meals: associations with biomarkers of chronic disease and dietary intake in American adults, NHANES 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, A K; Whitley, M I; Graubard, B I

    2015-05-01

    Away from home (AFH) meals are known to be energy-dense and of poor diet quality. Both direct and indirect exposure (for example, neighborhood restaurant density) to AFH meals have been implicated as contributors to higher body weight and adverse health outcomes. To examine the association of frequency of eating AFH and fast-food meals with biomarkers of chronic disease and dietary intake. This cross-sectional study used frequency of AFH and fast-food meal and biomarker data from the NHANES 2005-2010. Information on weekly frequency of AFH and fast-food meals was collected via questionnaire during the household interview. The metabolic biomarkers examined included body mass index (BMI), serum cholesterol (total, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)), triglycerides, glycohemoglobin and fasting glucose (n=8314, age⩾20, National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 2007-2010). Biomarkers of dietary exposure included serum concentrations of vitamins A, D, E, C, B-6, B-12, folate and carotenoids (n=4162; 2005-2006). Multiple linear and logistic regression methods adjusted for complex survey methodology and covariates. American adults reported a mean of 3.9 (95% confidence interval 3.7, 4.0) AFH and 1.8 (1.6, 1.9) fast-food meals/week. Over 50% of adults reported ⩾3 AFH and >35% reported ⩾2 fast-food meals/week. The mean BMI of more frequent AFH or fast-food meal reporters was higher (Ptrend⩽0.0004). Serum concentrations of total, LDL and HDL-cholesterol were related inversely with frequency of AFH meals (Pfast-food meals and serum HDL-cholesterol were also related inversely (P=0.0001). Serum concentrations of all examined micronutrients (except vitamin A and lycopene) declined with increasing frequency of AFH meals (Pfast-food meals had higher BMI and lower concentrations of HDL-cholesterol; however, profiles of other biomarkers did not indicate higher metabolic risk. However, the serum concentrations of nutrients with

  12. Superconductivity in the unconventional high pressure phase bismuth-III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semeniuk, Konstantin; Brown, Philip; Vasiljkovic, Aleksandar; Grosche, Malte [University of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    One of the most surprising developments in high pressure research was the realisation that many elements assume very unexpected high pressure structures, described in terms of extremely large or even infinite unit cells. Elemental bismuth, which has been known to undergo a series of pressure induced structural transitions between 25 kbar and 80 kbar, is an interesting example: the intermediate pressure Bi-III phase has a complex 'host-guest' structure consisting of two incommensurate sublattices. Since the unit cell is infinitely large, the description of electronic and lattice excitations is problematic. Apart from its metallic character and the observation of superconductivity at low temperature, little is known about the electronic structure in this phase. We investigate the electrical resistivity within the metallic Bi-III phase under high hydrostatic pressure and in applied magnetic field using a piston cylinder cell. Superconductivity is observed below 7.1 K, and we extract the temperature dependence of the upper critical field, which exceeds 2 T at low temperature. The normal state resistivity exhibits an approximately linear temperature dependence. This could be attributed to strong scattering from low-lying excitations, as caused by an unusually soft phonon spectrum. The results suggest that strong coupling superconductivity arises within the host-guest structure of Bi-III out of an unusual electronic state.

  13. Complexes of 4-chlorophenoxyacetates of Nd(III), Gd(III) and Ho(III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferenc, W.; Bernat, M; Gluchowska, H.W.; Sarzynski, J.

    2010-01-01

    The complexes of 4-chlorophenoxyacetates of Nd(III), Gd(III) and Ho(III) have been synthesized as polycrystalline hydrated solids, and characterized by elemental analysis, spectroscopy, magnetic studies and also by X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric measurements. The analysed complexes have the following colours: violet for Nd(III), white for Gd(III) and cream for Ho(III) compounds. The carboxylate groups bind as bidentate chelating (Ho) or bridging ligands (Nd, Gd). On heating to 1173K in air the complexes decompose in several steps. At first, they dehydrate in one step to form anhydrous salts, that next decompose to the oxides of respective metals. The gaseous products of their thermal decomposition in nitrogen were also determined and the magnetic susceptibilities were measured over the temperature range of 76-303K and the magnetic moments were calculated. The results show that 4-chlorophenoxyacetates of Nd(III), Gd(III) and Ho(III) are high-spin complexes with weak ligand fields. The solubility value in water at 293K for analysed 4-chlorophenoxyacetates is in the order of 10 -4 mol/dm 3 . (author)

  14. Spectral, Electrochemical, Fluorescence, Kinetic and Anti-microbial Studies of Acyclic Schiff-base Gadolinium(III) Complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayaraj, A.; Prabu, R.; Suresh, R.; Narayanan, V.; Sangeetha Kumari, R.; Kaviyarasan, V.

    2012-01-01

    A new series of acyclic mononuclear gadolinium(III) complexes have been prepared by Schiff-base condensation derived from 5-methylsalicylaldehyde, diethylenetriamine, tris(2-aminoethyl) amine, triethylenetetramine, N,N-bis(3-aminopropyl)ethylene diamine, N,N-bis(aminopropyl) piperazine, and gadolinium nitrate. All the complexes were characterized by elemental and spectral analyses. Electronic spectra of the complexes show azomethine (CH=N) within the range of 410-420 nm. The fluorescence efficiency of Gd(III) ion in the cavity was completely quenched by the higher chain length ligands. Electrochemical studies of the complexes show irreversible one electron reduction process around -2.15 to -1.60 V. The reduction potential of gadolinium(III) complexes shifts towards anodic directions respectively upon increasing the chain length. The catalytic activity of the gadolinium(III) complexes on the hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenylphosphate was determined. All gadolinium(III) complexes were screened for antibacterial activity

  15. Spectral, Electrochemical, Fluorescence, Kinetic and Anti-microbial Studies of Acyclic Schiff-base Gadolinium(III) Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayaraj, A.; Prabu, R.; Suresh, R.; Narayanan, V.; Sangeetha Kumari, R.; Kaviyarasan, V. [Univ. of Madras, Madras (India)

    2012-11-15

    A new series of acyclic mononuclear gadolinium(III) complexes have been prepared by Schiff-base condensation derived from 5-methylsalicylaldehyde, diethylenetriamine, tris(2-aminoethyl) amine, triethylenetetramine, N,N-bis(3-aminopropyl)ethylene diamine, N,N-bis(aminopropyl) piperazine, and gadolinium nitrate. All the complexes were characterized by elemental and spectral analyses. Electronic spectra of the complexes show azomethine (CH=N) within the range of 410-420 nm. The fluorescence efficiency of Gd(III) ion in the cavity was completely quenched by the higher chain length ligands. Electrochemical studies of the complexes show irreversible one electron reduction process around -2.15 to -1.60 V. The reduction potential of gadolinium(III) complexes shifts towards anodic directions respectively upon increasing the chain length. The catalytic activity of the gadolinium(III) complexes on the hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenylphosphate was determined. All gadolinium(III) complexes were screened for antibacterial activity.

  16. III-nitrides, 2D transition metal dichalcogenides, and their heterojunctions

    KAUST Repository

    Mishra, Pawan

    2017-04-01

    Group III-nitride materials have attracted great attention for applications in high efficiency electronic and optoelectronics devices such as high electron mobility transistors, light emitting diodes, and laser diodes. On the other hand, group VI transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) in the form of MX2 has recently emerged as a novel atomic layered material system with excellent thermoelectric, electronic and optoelectronic properties. Also, the recent investigations reveal that the dissimilar heterojunctions formed by TMDs and III-nitrides provide the route for novel devices in the area of optoelectronic, electronics, and water splitting applications. In addition, integration of III-nitrides and TMDs will enable high density integrated optoelectronic circuits and the development of hybrid integration technologies. In this work, we have demonstrated kinetically controlled growth processes in plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) for the III-nitrides and their engineered heterostructures. Techniques such as Ga irradiation and nitrogen plasma exposure has been utilized to implement bulk GaN, InGaN and their heterostructures in PAMBE. For the growth of III-nitride based heterostructures, the in-situ surface stoichiometry monitoring (i-SSM) technique was developed and used for implementing stepped and compositionally graded InGaN-based multiple quantum wells (MQWs). Their optical and microstrain analysis in conjunction with theoretical studies confirmed improvement in the radiative recombination rate of the graded-MQWs as compared to that of stepped-MQWs, owing to the reduced strain in graded-MQWs. Our achievement also includes the realization of the p-type MoS2 by engineering pristine MoS2 layers in PAMBE. Mainly, Ga and nitrogen plasma irradiation on the pristine MoS2 in PAMBE has resulted in the realization of the p-type MoS2. Also, GaN epitaxial thin layers were deposited on MoS2/c-sapphire, WSe2/c-sapphire substrates by PAMBE to study the band

  17. The influence of ascorbic acid on the oxygen consumption and the heat production by the cells of wheat seedling roots with their mitochondrial electron transport chain inhibited at complexes I and III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, L.K.; Rakhmatullina, D.F.; Ogorodnikova, T.I.; Alyabyev, A.J.; Minibayeva, F.V.; Loseva, N.L.; Mityashina, S.Y.

    2007-01-01

    The influence of exogenous ascorbic acid (AsA) on oxidative phosphorylation was studied using wheat seedling roots. Treatment of them with AsA stimulated the rates of oxygen consumption and the heat production and caused a decrease of the respiratory coefficient. The increase in respiration was prevented by inhibitors of ascorbate oxidase, diethyldithiocarbamate (DEDTC), and of cytochrome oxidase, cyanide (KCN). Exogenous AsA sharply stimulated the rate of oxygen consumption of roots when complexes I and III of the mitochondrial electron transport chain were inhibited by rotenone and antimycin A, respectively, while the rates of heat production did not change significantly. It is concluded that AsA is a potent energy substrate, which can be used in conditions of failing I and III complexes in the mitochondrial electron transport chain

  18. Structural Properties of the Cr(III)-Fe(III) (Oxy)Hydroxide Compositional Series: Insights for a Nanomaterial 'Solid Solution'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Y.; Zhang, L.; Michel, F.M.; Harrington, R.; Parise, J.B.; Reeder, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Chromium(III) (oxy)hydroxide and mixed Cr(III)-Fe(III) (oxy)hydroxides are environmentally important compounds for controlling chromium speciation and bioaccessibility in soils and aquatic systems and are also industrially important as precursors for materials and catalyst synthesis. However, direct characterization of the atomic arrangements of these materials is complicated because of their amorphous X-ray properties. This study involves synthesis of the complete Cr(III)-Fe(III) (oxy)hydroxide compositional series, and the use of complementary thermal, microscopic, spectroscopic, and scattering techniques for the evaluation of their structural properties. Thermal analysis results show that the Cr end member has a higher hydration state than the Fe end member, likely associated with the difference in water exchange rates in the first hydration spheres of Cr(III) and Fe(III). Three stages of weight loss are observed and are likely related to the loss of surface/structural water and hydroxyl groups. As compared to the Cr end member, the intermediate composition sample shows lower dehydration temperatures and a higher exothermic transition temperature. XANES analysis shows Cr(III) and Fe(III) to be the dominant oxidation states. XANES spectra also show progressive changes in the local structure around Cr and Fe atoms over the series. Pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of synchrotron X-ray total scattering data shows that the Fe end member is nanocrystalline ferrihydrite with an intermediate-range order and average coherent domain size of ∼27 (angstrom). The Cr end member, with a coherent domain size of ∼10 (angstrom), has only short-range order. The PDFs show progressive structural changes across the compositional series. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) results also show the loss of structural order with increasing Cr content. These observations provide strong structural evidence of chemical substitution and progressive structural

  19. Two Dimensional Effective Electron Mass at the Fermi Level in Quantum Wells of III-V, Ternary and Quaternary Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, S; Chatterjee, B; Debbarma, S; Ghatak, K P

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we study the influence of strong electric field on the two dimensional (2D)effective electron mass (EEM) at the Fermi level in quantum wells of III-V, ternary and quaternary semiconductors within the framework of k x p formalism by formulating a new 2D electron energy spectrum. It appears taking quantum wells of InSb, InAs, Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te and In(1-x)Ga(x)As(1-y)P(y) lattice matched to InP as examples that the EEM increases with decreasing film thickness, increasing electric field and increases with increasing surface electron concentration exhibiting spikey oscillations because of the crossing over of the Fermi level by the quantized level in quantum wells and the quantized oscillation occurs when the Fermi energy touches the sub-band energy. The electric field makes the mass quantum number dependent and the oscillatory mass introduces quantum number dependent mass anisotropy in addition to energy. The EEM increases with decreasing alloy composition where the variations are totally band structure dependent. Under certain limiting conditions all the results for all the cases get simplified into the well-known parabolic energy bands and thus confirming the compatibility test. The content of this paper finds three applications in the fields of nano-science and technology.

  20. Cr-doped III-V nitrides: Potential candidates for spintronics

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Bin

    2011-02-19

    Studies of Cr-doped III-V nitrides, dilute magnetic alloys in the zincblende crystal structure, are presented. The objective of the work is to investigate half-metallicity in Al 0.75Cr 0.25N, Ga 0.75Cr 0.25N, and In 0.75Cr 0.25N for their possible application in spin-based electronic devices. The calculated spin-polarized band structures, electronic properties, and magnetic properties of these compounds reveal that Al 0.75Cr 0.25N and Ga 0.75Cr 0.25N are half-metallic dilute magnetic semiconductors while In 0.75Cr 0.25N is metallic in nature. The present theoretical predictions provide evidence that some Cr-doped III-V nitrides can be used in spintronics devices. © 2011 TMS.

  1. Cr-doped III-V nitrides: Potential candidates for spintronics

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Bin; Arif, Suneela K.; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Maqbool, Muhammad; Ahmad, Roshan; Goumri-Said, Souraya; Prisbrey, Keith A.

    2011-01-01

    Studies of Cr-doped III-V nitrides, dilute magnetic alloys in the zincblende crystal structure, are presented. The objective of the work is to investigate half-metallicity in Al 0.75Cr 0.25N, Ga 0.75Cr 0.25N, and In 0.75Cr 0.25N for their possible application in spin-based electronic devices. The calculated spin-polarized band structures, electronic properties, and magnetic properties of these compounds reveal that Al 0.75Cr 0.25N and Ga 0.75Cr 0.25N are half-metallic dilute magnetic semiconductors while In 0.75Cr 0.25N is metallic in nature. The present theoretical predictions provide evidence that some Cr-doped III-V nitrides can be used in spintronics devices. © 2011 TMS.

  2. Kinetics of microbial Fe(III) oxyhydroxidereduction: The role of mineral properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonneville, Steeve

    2005-01-01

    In many soils, sediments and groundwaters, ferric iron is a major potential electron acceptor for the oxidation of organic matter. In contrast to other terminal electron acceptors (e.g. nitrate or sulfate), the concentration of Fe3+(aq), is limited by the low solubility of Fe(III) oxyhydroxides

  3. Electrical properties of dislocations in III-Nitrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcoli, D.; Minj, A.; Pandey, S.; Cavallini, A. [Physics and Astronomy Dept. University of Bologna, Italy viale C Berti Pichat 6/II, Bologna (Italy)

    2014-02-21

    Research on GaN, AlN, InN (III-N) and their alloys is achieving new heights due their high potential applications in photonics and electronics. III-N semiconductors are mostly grown epitaxially on sapphire, and due to the large lattice mismatch and the differences in the thermal expansion coefficients, the structures usually contain many threading dislocations (TDs). While their structural properties have been widely investigated, their electrical characteristics and their role in the transport properties of the devices are still debated. In the present contribution we will show conductive AFM studies of TDs in GaN and Al/In GaN ternary alloys to evidence the role of strain, different surface polarity and composition on their electrical properties. Local I-V curves measured at TDs allowed us to clarify their role in the macroscopic electrical properties (leakage current, mobilities) of III-N based devices. Samples obtained by different growers (AIXTRON, III-V Lab) were studied. The comparison between the results obtained in the different alloys allowed us to understand the role of In and Al on the TDs electrical properties.

  4. Electrical properties of dislocations in III-Nitrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcoli, D.; Minj, A.; Pandey, S.; Cavallini, A.

    2014-02-01

    Research on GaN, AlN, InN (III-N) and their alloys is achieving new heights due their high potential applications in photonics and electronics. III-N semiconductors are mostly grown epitaxially on sapphire, and due to the large lattice mismatch and the differences in the thermal expansion coefficients, the structures usually contain many threading dislocations (TDs). While their structural properties have been widely investigated, their electrical characteristics and their role in the transport properties of the devices are still debated. In the present contribution we will show conductive AFM studies of TDs in GaN and Al/In GaN ternary alloys to evidence the role of strain, different surface polarity and composition on their electrical properties. Local I-V curves measured at TDs allowed us to clarify their role in the macroscopic electrical properties (leakage current, mobilities) of III-N based devices. Samples obtained by different growers (AIXTRON, III-V Lab) were studied. The comparison between the results obtained in the different alloys allowed us to understand the role of In and Al on the TDs electrical properties.

  5. Emission properties of Sm(III) complex having ten-coordination structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Yasuchika; Tsuruoka, Shin-ichi; Yoshida, Takahiko; Kawai, Hideki; Kawai, Tsuyoshi

    2008-01-01

    Sammarium(III) complex having ten-coordination structure, bis-(1,10-phenanthroline)tris-(hexafluoroacetylacetonato)samarium(III) (Sm(hfa) 3 (phen) 2 ) was prepared by chelation of tris-(hexafluoroacetylacetonato) samarium(III) (Sm(hfa) 3 (H 2 O) 2 ) with 1,10-phenantroline (phen). The characteristic ten-coordination structure of Sm(hfa) 3 (phen) 2 was determined by 1 H NMR and elemental analyses. Strong deep-red emission (λ max =643 nm) and narrow emission band (FWHM=5 nm) of Sm(hfa) 3 (phen) 2 originated from electronic allowed transition from characteristics ten coordinate structure. The emission quantum yields Sm(hfa) 3 (phen) 2 excited at absorption bands of ligands and Sm(III) ion were found to be 0.36 and 1.4%, respectively

  6. Synthesis and spectral properties of Chromium(III) complex of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSCH) with chromium(III) chloride. The complex was characterized by molar conductance, magnetic moment, infrared, far-infrared and electronic spectra and elemental analysis. The ligand exists in keto tantomeric form and it coordinates through ...

  7. Direct current-induced electrogenerated chemiluminescence of hydrated and chelated Tb(III) at aluminum cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakansson, M.; Jiang, Q.; Spehar, A.-M.; Suomi, J.; Kotiranta, M.; Kulmala, S.

    2005-01-01

    Cathodic DC polarization of oxide-covered aluminum produces electrogenerated chemiluminescence from hydrated and chelated Tb(III) ions in aqueous electrolyte solutions. At the moment of cathodic voltage onset, a strong cathodic flash is observed, which is attributed to a tunnel emission of hot electrons into the aqueous electrolyte solution and the successive chemical reactions with the luminophores. However, within a few milliseconds the insulating oxide film is damaged and finally dissolved due to (i) indiffusion of protons or alkali metal ions into the thin oxide film, (ii) subsequent hydrogen evolution at the aluminum/oxide interface and (iii) alkalization of the electrode surface induced by hydrogen evolution reaction. When the alkalization of the electrode surface has proceeded sufficiently, chemiluminescence is generated with increasing intensity. Aluminum metal, short-lived Al(II), Al(I) or atomic hydrogen and its conjugated base form, hydrated electron, can act as highly reducing species in addition to the less energetic heterogeneously transferred electrons from the aluminum electrode. Tb(III) added as a hydrated ion in the solution probably luminesces in the form of Tb(OH) 3 or Tb(OH) 4 - by direct redox reactions of the central ion whereas multidentate aromatic ligand chelated Tb(III) probably luminesces by ligand sensitized chemiluminescence mechanism in which ligand is first excited by one-electron redox reactions, which is followed by intramolecular energy transfer to the central ion which finally emits light

  8. Methods for enhancing P-type doping in III-V semiconductor films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Stringfellow, Gerald; Zhu, Junyi

    2017-08-01

    Methods of doping a semiconductor film are provided. The methods comprise epitaxially growing the III-V semiconductor film in the presence of a dopant, a surfactant capable of acting as an electron reservoir, and hydrogen, under conditions that promote the formation of a III-V semiconductor film doped with the p-type dopant. In some embodiments of the methods, the epitaxial growth of the doped III-V semiconductor film is initiated at a first hydrogen partial pressure which is increased to a second hydrogen partial pressure during the epitaxial growth process.

  9. Enrichment of Geobacter species in response to stimulation of Fe(III) reduction in sandy aquifer sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoeyenbos-West, O.L.; Nevin, K.P.; Anderson, R.T.; Lovely, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    Engineered stimulation of Fe(III) has been proposed as a strategy to enhance the immobilization of radioactive and toxic metals in metal-contaminated subsurface environments. Therefore, laboratory and field studies were conducted to determine which microbial populations would respond to stimulation of Fe(III) reduction in the sediments of sandy aquifers. In laboratory studies, the addition of either various organic electron donors or electron shuttle compounds stimulated Fe(III) reduction and resulted in Geobacter sequences becoming important constituents of the Bacterial 16S rDNA sequences that could be detected with PCR amplification and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Quantification of Geobacteraceae sequences with a PCR most-probable-number technique indicated that the extent to which numbers of Geobacter increased was related to the degree of stimulation of Fe(III) reduction. Geothrix species were also enriched in some instances, but were orders of magnitude less numerous than Geobacter species. Shewanella species were not detected, even when organic compounds known to be electron donors for Shewanella species were used to stimulate Fe(III) reduction in the sediments. Geobacter species were also enriched in two field experiments in which Fe(III) reduction was stimulated with the addition of benzoate or aromatic hydrocarbons. The apparent growth of Geobacter species concurrent with increased Fe(III) reduction suggests that Geobacter species were responsible for much of the Fe(III) reduction in all of the stimulation approaches evaluated in three geographically distinct aquifers. Therefore, strategies for subsurface remediation that involve enhancing the activity of indigenous Fe(III)-reducing populations in aquifers should consider the physiological properties of Geobacter species in their treatment design.

  10. Rare earth(III) complexes for the development of new magnetic and luminescent probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonat, A.

    2007-10-01

    The simultaneous optimisation of the molecular parameters determining the relaxivity (number of coordinated water molecules, water-exchange, rotation dynamics of the whole complex, electronic relaxation, Gd(III)-proton distance) is essential to prepare efficient contrast agents. The aim of this work is on the one hand to design and study complexes with a high number of bound water molecules and to understand the influence of the coordination sphere on the stability and on the electronic relaxation and on the other hand, to use the ligand as a chromophore for the development of luminescent probes for biomedical imaging. We present the structure, the stability and the relaxivity of Gd(III) complexes of two series of tripodal ligands containing picolinate units based either on the 1,4,7-tri-aza-cyclononane ring or on a tertiary amine. These complexes show high relaxivity in water and in serum and can establish a non covalent interaction with serum albumin. The interpretation of the water proton relaxivity with the help of new relaxometric methods based on an auxiliary probe solute has allowed us to show that both the presence of the picolinate groups and the 1,4,7-tri-aza-cyclononane framework can lead to Gd(III) complexes with favourable electronic relaxation properties. This ligands have also been used for Eu(III) and Tb(III) complexation leading to strong luminescence in visible light. Other complexes derived from 8-hydroxyquinoline unit which display a very high luminescence in infrared are also studied. (author)

  11. Synthesis, structure, luminescent, and magnetic properties of carbonato-bridged Zn(II)2Ln(III)2 complexes [(μ4-CO3)2{Zn(II)L(n)Ln(III)(NO3)}2] (Ln(III) = Gd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III); L(1) = N,N'-bis(3-methoxy-2-oxybenzylidene)-1,3-propanediaminato, L(2) = N,N'-bis(3-ethoxy-2-oxybenzylidene)-1,3-propanediaminato).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehama, Kiyomi; Ohmichi, Yusuke; Sakamoto, Soichiro; Fujinami, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Naohide; Mochida, Naotaka; Ishida, Takayuki; Sunatsuki, Yukinari; Tsuchimoto, Masanobu; Re, Nazzareno

    2013-11-04

    Carbonato-bridged Zn(II)2Ln(III)2 complexes [(μ4-CO3)2{Zn(II)L(n)Ln(III)(NO3)}2]·solvent were synthesized through atmospheric CO2 fixation reaction of [Zn(II)L(n)(H2O)2]·xH2O, Ln(III)(NO3)3·6H2O, and triethylamine, where Ln(III) = Gd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III); L(1) = N,N'-bis(3-methoxy-2-oxybenzylidene)-1,3-propanediaminato, L(2) = N,N'-bis(3-ethoxy-2-oxybenzylidene)-1,3-propanediaminato. Each Zn(II)2Ln(III)2 structure possessing an inversion center can be described as two di-μ-phenoxo-bridged {Zn(II)L(n)Ln(III)(NO3)} binuclear units bridged by two carbonato CO3(2-) ions. The Zn(II) ion has square pyramidal coordination geometry with N2O2 donor atoms of L(n) and one oxygen atom of a bridging carbonato ion at the axial site. Ln(III) ion is coordinated by nine oxygen atoms consisting of four from the deprotonated Schiff-base L(n), two from a chelating nitrate, and three from two carbonate groups. The temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibilities in the range 1.9-300 K, field-dependent magnetization from 0 to 5 T at 1.9 K, and alternating current magnetic susceptibilities under the direct current bias fields of 0 and 1000 Oe were measured. The magnetic properties of the Zn(II)2Ln(III)2 complexes are analyzed on the basis of the dicarbonato-bridged binuclear Ln(III)-Ln(III) structure, as the Zn(II) ion with d(10) electronic configuration is diamagnetic. ZnGd1 (L(1)) and ZnGd2 (L(2)) show a ferromagnetic Gd(III)-Gd(III) interaction with J(Gd-Gd) = +0.042 and +0.028 cm(-1), respectively, on the basis of the Hamiltonian H = -2J(Gd-Gd)ŜGd1·ŜGd2. The magnetic data of the Zn(II)2Ln(III)2 complexes (Ln(III) = Tb(III), Dy(III)) were analyzed by a spin Hamiltonian including the crystal field effect on the Ln(III) ions and the Ln(III)-Ln(III) magnetic interaction. The Stark splitting of the ground state was so evaluated, and the energy pattern indicates a strong easy axis (Ising type) anisotropy. Luminescence spectra of Zn(II)2Tb(III)2 complexes were observed, while those

  12. Metabolic response of Geobacter sulfurreducens towards electron donor/acceptor variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovley Derek R

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geobacter sulfurreducens is capable of coupling the complete oxidation of organic compounds to iron reduction. The metabolic response of G. sulfurreducens towards variations in electron donors (acetate, hydrogen and acceptors (Fe(III, fumarate was investigated via 13C-based metabolic flux analysis. We examined the 13C-labeling patterns of proteinogenic amino acids obtained from G. sulfurreducens cultured with 13C-acetate. Results Using 13C-based metabolic flux analysis, we observed that donor and acceptor variations gave rise to differences in gluconeogenetic initiation, tricarboxylic acid cycle activity, and amino acid biosynthesis pathways. Culturing G. sulfurreducens cells with Fe(III as the electron acceptor and acetate as the electron donor resulted in pyruvate as the primary carbon source for gluconeogenesis. When fumarate was provided as the electron acceptor and acetate as the electron donor, the flux analysis suggested that fumarate served as both an electron acceptor and, in conjunction with acetate, a carbon source. Growth on fumarate and acetate resulted in the initiation of gluconeogenesis by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and a slightly elevated flux through the oxidative tricarboxylic acid cycle as compared to growth with Fe(III as the electron acceptor. In addition, the direction of net flux between acetyl-CoA and pyruvate was reversed during growth on fumarate relative to Fe(III, while growth in the presence of Fe(III and acetate which provided hydrogen as an electron donor, resulted in decreased flux through the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Conclusions We gained detailed insight into the metabolism of G. sulfurreducens cells under various electron donor/acceptor conditions using 13C-based metabolic flux analysis. Our results can be used for the development of G. sulfurreducens as a chassis for a variety of applications including bioremediation and renewable biofuel production.

  13. Sensing of phosphates by using luminescent Eu(III) and Tb(III) complexes: application to the microalgal cell Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadella, Sandeep; Sahoo, Jashobanta; Subramanian, Palani S; Sahu, Abhishek; Mishra, Sandhya; Albrecht, Markus

    2014-05-12

    Phenanthroline-based chiral ligands L(1) and L(2) as well as the corresponding Eu(III) and Tb(III) complexes were synthesized and characterized. The coordination compounds show red and green emission, which was explored for the sensing of a series of anions such as F(-), Cl(-), Br(-), I(-), NO3(-), NO2(-), HPO4(2-), HSO4(-), CH3COO(-), and HCO3(-). Among the anions, HPO4(2-) exhibited a strong response in the emission property of both europium(III) and terbium(III) complexes. The complexes showed interactions with the nucleoside phosphates adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and adenosine monophosphate (AMP). Owing to this recognition, these complexes have been applied as staining agents in the microalgal cell Chlorella vulgaris. The stained microalgal cells were monitored through fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Initially, the complexes bind to the outer cell wall and then enter the cell wall through holes in which they probably bind to phospholipids. This leads to a quenching of the luminescence properties. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Formation constants of Sm(III), Dy(III), Gd(III), Pr(III) and Nd(III) complexes of tridentate schiff base, 2-[(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl-methylene) amino] phenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omprakash, K.L.; Chandra Pal, A.V.; Reddy, M.L.N.

    1982-01-01

    A new tridentate schiff base, 2- (1H-benzimidazol-2-yl-methylene)amino phenol derived from benzimididazole-2-carbo-xaldehyde and 2-aminophenol has been synthesised and characterised by spectral and analytical data. Proton-ligand formation constants of the schiff base and metal-ligand formation constants of its complexes with Sm(III), Dy(III), Gd(III), Nd(III) and Pr(III) have been determined potentiometrically in 50% (v/v) aqueous dioxane at an ionic strength of 0.1M (NaClO 4 ) and at 25deg C using the Irving-Rossotti titration technique. The order of stability constants (logβ 2 ) is found to be Sm(III)>Dy(III)>Gd(III)>Pr(III)>Nd(III). (author)

  15. Formation constants of Sm(III), Dy(III), Gd(III), Pr(III) and Nd(III) complexes of tridentate schiff base, 2-((1H-benzimidazol-2-yl-methylene) amino) phenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omprakash, K L; Chandra Pal, A V; Reddy, M L.N. [Osmania Univ., Hyderabad (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    1982-03-01

    A new tridentate schiff base, 2- (1H-benzimidazol-2-yl-methylene)amino phenol derived from benzimididazole-2-carbo-xaldehyde and 2-aminophenol has been synthesised and characterised by spectral and analytical data. Proton-ligand formation constants of the schiff base and metal-ligand formation constants of its complexes with Sm(III), Dy(III), Gd(III), Nd(III) and Pr(III) have been determined potentiometrically in 50% (v/v) aqueous dioxane at an ionic strength of 0.1M (NaClO/sub 4/) and at 25deg C using the Irving-Rossotti titration technique. The order of stability constants (log..beta../sub 2/) is found to be Sm(III)>Dy(III)>Gd(III)>Pr(III)>Nd(III).

  16. Spectrophotometric and pH-Metric Studies of Ce(III, Dy(III, Gd(III,Yb(III and Pr(III Metal Complexes with Rifampicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Sonar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The metal-ligand and proton-ligand stability constant of Ce(III, Dy(III, Gd(III,Yb(III and Pr(III metals with substituted heterocyclic drug (Rifampicin were determined at various ionic strength by pH metric titration. NaClO4 was used to maintain ionic strength of solution. The results obtained were extrapolated to the zero ionic strength using an equation with one individual parameter. The thermodynamic stability constant of the complexes were also calculated. The formation of complexes has been studied by Job’s method. The results obtained were of stability constants by pH metric method is confirmed by Job’s method.

  17. Depression among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus, US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiting; Lopez, Janice M S; Bolge, Susan C; Zhu, Vivienne J; Stang, Paul E

    2016-04-05

    Depression in people with diabetes can result in increased risk for diabetes-related complications. The prevalence of depression has been estimated to be 17.6 % in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), based on studies published between 1980 and 2005. There is a lack of more recent estimates of depression prevalence among the US general T2DM population. The present study used the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2012 data to provide an updated, population-based estimate for the prevalence of depression in people with T2DM. NHANES is a cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of the civilian, non-institutionalized US population. Starting from 2005, the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was included to measure signs and symptoms of depression. We defined PHQ-9 total scores ≥ 10 as clinically relevant depression (CRD), and ≥ 15 as clinically significant depression (CSD). Self-reported current antidepressant use was also combined to estimate overall burden of depression. Predictors of CRD and CSD were investigated using survey logistic regression models. A total of 2182 participants with T2DM were identified. The overall prevalence of CRD and CSD among people with T2DM is 10.6 % (95 % confidence interval (CI) 8.9-12.2 %), and 4.2 % (95 % CI 3.4-5.1 %), respectively. The combined burden of depressive symptoms and antidepressants may be as high as 25.4 % (95 % CI 23.0-27.9 %). Significant predictors of CRD include age (younger than 65), sex (women), income (lower than 130 % of poverty level), education (below college), smoking (current or former smoker), body mass index (≥30 kg/m(2)), sleep problems, hospitalization in the past year, and total cholesterol (≥200 mg/dl). Significant predictors of CSD also include physical activity (below guideline) and cardiovascular diseases. The prevalence of CRD and CSD among people with T2DM in the US may be lower than in earlier studies, however, the burden of

  18. Dissimilatory Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovley, D R

    1991-06-01

    The oxidation of organic matter coupled to the reduction of Fe(III) or Mn(IV) is one of the most important biogeochemical reactions in aquatic sediments, soils, and groundwater. This process, which may have been the first globally significant mechanism for the oxidation of organic matter to carbon dioxide, plays an important role in the oxidation of natural and contaminant organic compounds in a variety of environments and contributes to other phenomena of widespread significance such as the release of metals and nutrients into water supplies, the magnetization of sediments, and the corrosion of metal. Until recently, much of the Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction in sedimentary environments was considered to be the result of nonenzymatic processes. However, microorganisms which can effectively couple the oxidation of organic compounds to the reduction of Fe(III) or Mn(IV) have recently been discovered. With Fe(III) or Mn(IV) as the sole electron acceptor, these organisms can completely oxidize fatty acids, hydrogen, or a variety of monoaromatic compounds. This metabolism provides energy to support growth. Sugars and amino acids can be completely oxidized by the cooperative activity of fermentative microorganisms and hydrogen- and fatty-acid-oxidizing Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reducers. This provides a microbial mechanism for the oxidation of the complex assemblage of sedimentary organic matter in Fe(III)- or Mn(IV)-reducing environments. The available evidence indicates that this enzymatic reduction of Fe(III) or Mn(IV) accounts for most of the oxidation of organic matter coupled to reduction of Fe(III) and Mn(IV) in sedimentary environments. Little is known about the diversity and ecology of the microorganisms responsible for Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction, and only preliminary studies have been conducted on the physiology and biochemistry of this process.

  19. Reduction reactions of water soluble cyano-cobalt(III)-porphyrins: Metal versus ligand centered processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosseri, S.; Neta, P.; Harriman, A.; Hambright, P.

    1990-01-01

    Reduction reactions of dicyano-cobalt(III)-porphyrins [potential in vivo cyanide scavenger drugs] were studied by radiolytic and electrochemical methods using the water soluble tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin (TPPS) and tetrakis(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphyrin (TMPyP). For [(CN)2CoIIITPPS]-, reduction occurs stepwise to the CoII, CoI, and finally to the phlorin anion. This behavior is similar to that of the cobalt porphyrins in the absence of cyanide, except that the cyanide ligand shifts the reduction potentials to much more negative values. On the other hand, under radiolytic conditions, [(CN)2CoIIITMPyP]- is reduced on the porphyrin macrocycle by one electron to give the CoIII pi-radical anion, which disproportionates into the initial complex and the two-electron ring reduced CoIII phlorin. The radical anion is also formed by intramolecular electron transfer subsequent to the reaction of CoIITMPyP and cyanide. The results are compared with the chemistry of Vitamin B-12

  20. Electron uptake and delivery sites on plastocyanin in its reactions with the photosynthetic electron transport system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, O; Shahak, Y; Pecht, I

    1982-01-01

    French bean plastocyanin is stoichiometrically and specifically labeled upon reduction by Cr(II)aq ions, yielding a substitution-inert (Cr(III) adduct at the protein surface. The effect of the modification on the activity of plastocyanin in electron transfer between photosystems II and I has been...... and Cr-labeled plastocyanin were indistinguishable, the rates of photooxidation of the modified protein were markedly attenuated relative to those of the native one. This difference in reactivity clearly reflects the perturbation of the electron transfer pathway to P700. These findings, in conjunction...... with the structure of plastocyanin and the locus of CR(III) binding on its surface, lead to the following interpretation: (a) There are most probably two physiologically significant, electron transfer sites on plastocyanin. (b) The site involved in the electron transfer to P700 is most likely in the region...

  1. Titanium gettering in Doublet III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Grassie, J.S.; Callis, R.; Campbell, G.

    1980-08-01

    The application of mild titanium gettering in the Doublet III tokamak has led to a significant improvement in the obtainable operating regimes and discharge parameters for all of the many plasma cross-sectional shapes studied. With gettering, low-Z impurities and radiated power are greatly reduced. The maximum line averaged electron density has increased 50% (anti n/sub e max/ approx. 1 x 10 20 /m 3 ), corresponding to a Murakami coefficient of nearly 6

  2. Removal of Chromium (III from Water by Using Modified and Nonmodified Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muataz Ali Atieh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the environmental application of modified and nonmodified carbon nanotubes through the experiment removal of chromium trivalent (III from water. The aim was to find the optimal condition of the chromium (III removal from water under different treatment conditions of pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time and agitation speed. Multi wall carbon nanotubes (MW-CNTs were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The diameter of the carbon nanotubes produced varied from 20–40 nm with average diameter of 24 nm and 10 micrometer in length. Adsorption isotherms were used to model the adsorption behavior and to calculate the adsorption capacity of the absorbents. The results showed that, 18% of chromium (III removal was achieved using modified carbon nanotubes (M-CNTs at pH 7, 150 rpm, and 2 hours for a dosage of 150 mg of CNTs. The removal of Cr (III is mainly attributed to the affinity of chromium (III to the physical and chemical properties of the CNTs. The adsorption isotherms plots were well fitted with experimental data.

  3. Electron-Atom Collisions in Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2013-01-01

    Electron-atom collisions in gases are an aspect of atomic physics. Three experiments in this field employing a thyratron are described: (i) the Ramsauer-Townsend effect, (ii) the excitation and ionization potentials of xenon and (iii) the ion-electron recombination after interrupting the electric discharge.

  4. Stopping Power for Degenerate Electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singleton, Jr., Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-16

    This is a first attempt at calculating the BPS stopping power with electron degeneracy corrections. Section I establishes some notation and basic facts. Section II outlines the basics of the calculation, and in Section III contains some brief notes on how to proceed with the details of the calculation. The remaining work for the calculation starts with Section III.

  5. Statistical optimization of synthesis procedure and characterization of europium (III) molybdate nano-plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourmortazavi, Seied Mahdi [Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Faculty of Material and Manufacturing Technologies, P. O. Box 16765-3454, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahimi-Nasrabadi, Mehdi [Imam Hossein University, Nano Science Center, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fazli, Yousef [Islamic Azad University, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Arak Branch, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammad-Zadeh, Mohammad [Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Sabzevar (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Europium (III) molybdate nano-plates were synthesized in this work via chemical precipitation route involving adding of europium (III) ion solution to the aqueous solution of molybdate reagent. Effects of some reaction variables such as concentrations of europium and molybdate ions, flow rate of europium reagent, and reactor temperature on the diameter of the synthesized europium (III) molybdate nano-plates were experimentally investigated by orthogonal array design. The results showed that the size of europium (III) molybdate nano-plates can be optimized by adjusting the concentrations of europium (III) and molybdate ions, as well as the reactional temperature. Europium (III) molybdate nano-plates prepared under the optimum conditions were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. (orig.)

  6. Inner-sphere and outer-sphere complexes of yttrium(III), lanthanum (III), neodymium(III), terbium(III) and thulium(III) with halide ions in N,N-dimethylformamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Ryouta; Ishiguro, Shin-ichi

    1991-01-01

    The formation of chloro, bromo and iodo complexes of yttrium(III), and bromo and iodo complexes of lanthanum(III), neodymium(III), terbium(III) and thulium(III) has been studied by precise titration calorimetry in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) at 25 o C. The formation of [YCl] 2+ , [YCl 2 ] + , [YCl 3 ] and [YCl 4 ] - , and [MBr] 2+ and [MBr 2 ] + (M = Y, La, Nd, Tb, Tm) was revealed, and their formation constants, enthalpies and entropies were determined. It is found that the formation enthalpies change in the sequence ΔH o (Cl) > ΔH o (l), which is unusual for hard metal (III) ions. This implies that, unlike the chloride ion, the bromide ion forms outer-sphere complexes with the lanthanide(III) and yttrium(III) ions in DMF. Evidence for either an inner- or outer-sphere complex was obtained from 89 Y NMR spectra for Y(ClO 4 ) 3 , YCl 3 and YBr 3 DMF solutions at room temperature. (author)

  7. Novel Luminescent Probe Based on a Terbium(III) Complex for Hemoglobin Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegorova, A. V.; Leonenko, I. I.; Aleksandrova, D. I.; Scrypynets, Yu. V.; Antonovich, V. P.; Ukrainets, I. V.

    2014-09-01

    We have studied the spectral luminescent properties of Tb(III) and Eu(III) complexes with a number of novel derivatives of oxoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid amides (L1-L5 ). We have observed quenching of the luminescence of 1:1 Tb(III)-L1-5 complexes by hemoglobin (Hb), which is explained by resonance energy transfer of electronic excitation from the donor (Tb(III)-L1-5 ) to the acceptor (Hb). Using the novel luminescent probe Tb(III)-L1, we have developed a method for determining Hb in human blood. The calibration Stern-Volmer plot is linear in the Hb concentration range 0.6-36.0 μg/mL, detection limit 0.2 μg/mL (3·10-9 mol/L).

  8. Distribution and Translocation of 141Ce (III) in Horseradish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoshan; Zhou, Qing; Lu, Tianhong; Fang, Min; Huang, Xiaohua

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Rare earth elements (REEs) are used in agriculture and a large amount of them contaminate the environment and enter foods. The distribution and translocation of 141Ce (III) in horseradish was investigated in order to help understand the biochemical behaviour and toxic mechanism of REEs in plants. Method The distribution and translocation of 141Ce (III) in horseradish were investigated using autoradiography, liquid scintillation counting (LSC) and electron microscopic autoradiography (EMARG) techniques. The contents of 141Ce (III) and nutrient elements were analysed using an inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES). Results The results from autoradiography and LSC indicated that 141Ce (III) could be absorbed by horseradish and transferred from the leaf to the leaf-stalk and then to the root. The content of 141Ce (III) in different parts of horseradish was as follows: root > leaf-stalk > leaf. The uptake rates of 141Ce (III) in horseradish changed with the different organs and time. The content of 141Ce (III) in developing leaves was greater than that in mature leaves. The results from EMARG indicated that 141Ce (III) could penetrate through the cell membrane and enter the mesophyll cells, being present in both extra- and intra-cellular deposits. The contents of macronutrients in horseradish were decreased by 141Ce (III) treatment. Conclusions 141Ce (III) can be absorbed and transferred between organs of horseradish with time, and the distribution was found to be different at different growth stages. 141Ce (III) can enter the mesophyll cells via apoplast and symplast channels or via plasmodesmata. 141Ce (III) can disturb the metabolism of macronutrients in horseradish. PMID:17921527

  9. Calculating a Continuous Metabolic Syndrome Score Using Nationally Representative Reference Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guseman, Emily Hill; Eisenmann, Joey C; Laurson, Kelly R; Cook, Stephen R; Stratbucker, William

    2018-02-26

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in youth varies on the basis of the classification system used, prompting implementation of continuous scores; however, the use of these scores is limited to the sample from which they were derived. We sought to describe the derivation of the continuous metabolic syndrome score using nationally representative reference values in a sample of obese adolescents and a national sample obtained from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2012. Clinical data were collected from 50 adolescents seeking obesity treatment at a stage 3 weight management center. A second analysis relied on data from adolescents included in NHANES 2011-2012, performed for illustrative purposes. The continuous metabolic syndrome score was calculated by regressing individual values onto nationally representative age- and sex-specific standards (NHANES III). Resultant z scores were summed to create a total score. The final sample included 42 obese adolescents (15 male and 35 female subjects; mean age, 14.8 ± 1.9 years) and an additional 445 participants from NHANES 2011-2012. Among the clinical sample, the mean continuous metabolic syndrome score was 4.16 ± 4.30, while the NHANES sample mean was quite a bit lower, at -0.24 ± 2.8. We provide a method to calculate the continuous metabolic syndrome by comparing individual risk factor values to age- and sex-specific percentiles from a nationally representative sample. Copyright © 2018 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Increasing Plant Based Foods or Dairy Foods Differentially Affects Nutrient Intakes: Dietary Scenarios Using NHANES 2007–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Cifelli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Diets rich in plant foods and lower in animal-based products have garnered increased attention among researchers, dietitians and health professionals in recent years for their potential to, not only improve health, but also to lessen the environmental impact. However, the potential effects of increasing plant-based foods at the expense of animal-based foods on macro- and micronutrient nutrient adequacy in the U.S. diet is unknown. In addition, dairy foods are consistently under consumed, thus the impact of increased dairy on nutrient adequacy is important to measure. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to use national survey data to model three different dietary scenarios to assess the effects of increasing plant-based foods or dairy foods on macronutrient intake and nutrient adequacy. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2007–2010 for persons two years and older (n = 17,387 were used in all the analyses. Comparisons were made of usual intake of macronutrients and shortfall nutrients of three dietary scenarios that increased intakes by 100%: (i plant-based foods; (ii protein-rich plant-based foods (i.e., legumes, nuts, seeds, soy; and (iii milk, cheese and yogurt. Scenarios (i and (ii had commensurate reductions in animal product intake. In both children (2–18 years and adults (≥19 years, the percent not meeting the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR decreased for vitamin C, magnesium, vitamin E, folate and iron when plant-based foods were increased. However the percent not meeting the EAR increased for calcium, protein, vitamin A, and vitamin D in this scenario. Doubling protein-rich plant-based foods had no effect on nutrient intake because they were consumed in very low quantities in the baseline diet. The dairy model reduced the percent not meeting the EAR for calcium, vitamin A, vitamin D, magnesium, and protein, while sodium and saturated fat levels increased. Our modeling shows that

  11. Impact of food choice on sodium intake patterns from multiple NHANES surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zefeng; Gao, Zhifeng; McFadden, Brandon

    2017-02-01

    To examine how the food consumption from various food groups would impact American adults' sodium intake and whether this impact structurally changes over time, data were obtained from six-cycle National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2010. Foods were categorized by the first two digits of the USDA food code. Regression models were employed to investigate the associations between the consumption of each food group and sodium intake, and whether there were changes in the associations in consecutive six cycles. Results show that the calorie consumption of oils, beverages and water, fruit juices, fruits, lamb, fruit products, and sugars and sweets had no significant impact on individuals' sodium intake, while calorie consumption of tomatoes, fish, dark-green vegetables, and crackers contributes the most to sodium intake. The contribution to sodium intake of most food groups does not change significantly over time, with the exception of salad dressing whose contribution to sodium intake increased in four consecutive years when compared to that of 1999-2000. The sodium amount contributed by one calorie consumption (sodium density) of most food was above the daily recommendation level, 1.2 mg per calorie per day. Lowering individuals' sodium intake involves either guiding individuals to consume more fruit related products or decreasing the amount of sodium in most food groups at the production or food preparation stages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Microbiological oxidation of antimony(III) with oxygen or nitrate by bacteria isolated from contaminated mine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Lee R.; Kulp, Thomas R.; Wiatrowski, Heather A.; Miller, Laurence G.; Oremland, Ronald S.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial oxidation of arsenite [As(III)] is a well-studied and important biogeochemical pathway that directly influences the mobility and toxicity of arsenic in the environment. In contrast, little is known about microbiological oxidation of the chemically similar anion antimonite [Sb(III)]. In this study, two bacterial strains, designated IDSBO-1 and IDSBO-4, which grow on tartrate compounds and oxidize Sb(III) using either oxygen or nitrate, respectively, as a terminal electron acceptor, were isolated from contaminated mine sediments. Both isolates belonged to the Comamonadaceae family and were 99% similar to previously described species. We identify these novel strains as Hydrogenophagataeniospiralis strain IDSBO-1 and Variovorax paradoxus strain IDSBO-4. Both strains possess a gene with homology to the aioA gene, which encodes an As(III)-oxidase, and both oxidize As(III) aerobically, but only IDSBO-4 oxidized Sb(III) in the presence of air, while strain IDSBO-1 could achieve this via nitrate respiration. Our results suggest that expression of aioA is not induced by Sb(III) but may be involved in Sb(III) oxidation along with an Sb(III)-specific pathway. Phylogenetic analysis of proteins encoded by the aioA genes revealed a close sequence similarity (90%) among the two isolates and other known As(III)-oxidizing bacteria, particularly Acidovorax sp. strain NO1. Both isolates were capable of chemolithoautotrophic growth using As(III) as a primary electron donor, and strain IDSBO-4 exhibited incorporation of radiolabeled [14C]bicarbonate while oxidizing Sb(III) from Sb(III)-tartrate, suggesting possible Sb(III)-dependent autotrophy. Enrichment cultures produced the Sb(V) oxide mineral mopungite and lesser amounts of Sb(III)-bearing senarmontite as precipitates.

  13. Children's environmental chemical exposures in the USA, NHANES 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendryx, Michael; Luo, Juhua

    2018-02-01

    Children are vulnerable to environmental chemical exposures, but little is known about the extent of multiple chemical exposures among children. We analyzed biomonitoring data from five cycles (2003-2012) of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to describe multiple chemical exposures in US children, examine levels of chemical concentrations present over time, and examine differences in chemical exposures by selected demographic groups. We analyzed data for 36 chemical analytes across five chemical classes in a sample of 4299 children aged 6-18. Classes included metals, pesticides, phthalates, phenols, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. We calculated the number and percent of chemicals detected and tested for secular trends over time in chemical concentrations. We compared log concentrations among groups defined by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and poverty using multiple linear regression models and report adjusted geometric means. Among a smaller subgroup of 733 children with data across chemical classes, we calculated the linear correlations within and between classes and conducted a principal component analysis. The percentage of children with detectable concentrations of an individual chemical ranged from 26 to 100%; the average was 93%, and 29 of 36 were detected in more than 90% of children. Concentrations of most tested chemicals were either unchanged or declined from earlier to more recent years. Many differences in concentrations were present by age, sex, poverty, and race/ethnicity categories. Within and between class correlations were all significant and positive, and the principal component analysis suggested a one factor solution, indicating that children exposed to higher levels of one chemical were exposed to higher levels of other chemicals. In conclusion, children in the USA are exposed to multiple simultaneous chemicals at uneven risk across socioeconomic and demographic groups. Further efforts to understand the effects of

  14. Propagation of Energetic Electrons from the Corona into Interplanetary Space and Type III Radio Emission. Planetary Radio Emissions| PLANETARY RADIO EMISSIONS VII 7|

    OpenAIRE

    Vocks, C.; Breitling, F.; Mann, G.

    2011-01-01

    During solar flares a large amount of electrons with energies greater than 20 keV is generated with a production rate of typically 1036 s-1. A part of them is able to propagate along open magnetic field lines through the corona into interplanetary space. During their travel they emit radio radiation which is observed as type III radio bursts in the frequency range from 100 MHz down to 10 kHz by the WAVES radio spectrometer aboard the spacecraft WIND, for instance. From the drift rates of thes...

  15. Effect of changing from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey III spirometry reference range to that of the Global Lung Initiative 2012 at Gold Coast Hospital and Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embling, Laura A K; Zagami, Debbie; Sriram, Krishna Bajee; Gordon, Robert J; Sivakumaran, Pathmanathan

    2016-12-01

    The categorisation of lung disease into obstructive ventilatory defect (OVD) and tendency to a restrictive ventilatory defect (TRVD) patterns using spirometry is used to guide both prognostication and treatment. The effectiveness of categorisation depends upon having reference ranges that accurately represent the population they describe. The Global Lung Initiative 2012 (GLI 2012) has spirometry reference ranges drawn from the largest sample size to date. This study aimed to determine whether using spirometry reference ranges from the new GLI 2012 dataset, compared to the previously used National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey III (NHANES III) dataset, resulted in a change in diagnosis between OVD, TRVD and normal ventilatory pattern (NVP). Spirometry data were collected from 301 patients, aged 18-80 years, undergoing investigation at the Gold Coast Hospital and Health Service (GCHHS) throughout February and March 2014. OVD was defined as a forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ) divided by forced vital capacity (FVC) less than lower limit of normal (LLN). TRVD was defined as FEV 1 /FVC ≥ LLN, FEV 1 reference range resulted in a change in diagnosis of lung disease in 5.9% of the individuals included in this study. This variance in diagnosis when changing reference ranges should be taken into account by clinicians as it may affect patient management.

  16. Electron microscopy of surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venables, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Electron beam techniques used to study clean surfaces and surface processes on a microscopic scale are reviewed. Recent experimental examples and possible future developments are discussed. Special emphasis is given to (i) transmission diffraction and microscopy techniques, including atomic imaging; (ii) Auger microscopy on bulk and thin film samples; (iii) secondary electron microscopy, especially low energy secondaries for work-function imaging and photoelectron imaging; and (iv) reflection electron microscopy and diffraction. (orig.)

  17. Kinetics of microbial Fe(III) oxyhydroxide reduction : The role of mineral properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonneville, S.C.

    2005-01-01

    In many soils, sediments and groundwaters, ferric iron is a major potential electron acceptor for the oxidation of organic matter. In contrast to other terminal electron acceptors (e.g. nitrate or sulfate), the concentration of Fe3+(aq), is limited by the low solubility of Fe(III) oxyhydroxides

  18. Coronal Magnetic Field Lines and Electrons Associated with Type III

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Coronal Magnetic Field Lines and Electrons Associated with Type III–V Radio Bursts in a Solar Flare ... velocities of the electron streams associated with the above two types of bursts indicate ... Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | News ...

  19. Replacing American Breakfast Foods with Ready-To-Eat (RTE) Cereals Increases Consumption of Key Food Groups and Nutrients among US Children and Adults: Results of an NHANES Modeling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Colin D; Drewnowski, Adam

    2017-09-13

    Replacing the typical American breakfast with ready-to-eat cereals (RTECs) may improve diet quality. Our goal was to assess the impact of RTECs on diet quality measures for different age groups, using substitution modeling. Dietary intakes came from the 2007-2010 National Health and Examination Surveys (NHANES; n = 18,112). All breakfast foods, excluding beverages, were replaced on a per calorie basis, with frequency-weighted and age/race specific RTECs. Model 1 replaced foods with RTECs alone; Model 2 replaced foods with RTECs and milk. Diet quality measures were based on desirable food groups and nutrients, Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010 scores, and estimated diet costs. Model 1 diets were significantly higher in whole grains (+84.6%), fiber (+14.3%), vitamin D (+14.0%), iron (+54.5%) and folic acid (+104.6%), as compared to observed diets. Model 2 diets were additionally higher in dairy (+15.8%), calcium (+11.3%) and potassium (+3.95%). In Model 1, added sugar increased (+5.0%), but solid fats declined (-10.9%). Energy from solid fats and added sugars declined (-3.2%) in both models. Model 2 offered higher diet quality (57.1 vs. 54.6, p -value < 0.01) at a lower cost ($6.70 vs. $6.92; p < 0.01), compared to observed diets. Substitution modeling of NHANES data can assess the nutritional and economic impact of dietary guidance.

  20. Irradiation test of FPGA for BES III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yixin; Liang Hao; Xue Jundong; Liu Baoying; Liu Qiang; Yu Xiaoqi; Zhou Yongzhao; Hou Long

    2005-01-01

    The irradiation effect of FPGA, applied in Front-end Electronics for experiments of High-Energy Physics, is a serious problem. The performance of FPGA, used in the front-end card of Muon Counters of BES III project, needs to be evaluated under irradiation. SEUs on Altera ACEX 1K FPGA, observed in the experiment under the irradiation of γ ray, 14 and 2.5 MeV neutrons, was investigated. The authors calculated involved cross-section and provided reasonable analysis and evaluation for the result of the experiment. The conclusion about feasibility of applying ACEX 1K FPGA in the front-end card of the readout system of Muon Counters for BES III was given. (authors)

  1. Exploring the Photoreduction of Au(III) Complexes in the Gas-Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcum, Jesse C.; Kaufman, Sydney H.; Weber, J. Mathias

    2010-06-01

    We have used photodissociation spectroscopy to probe the electronic structure and photoreduction of Au(III) in gas-phase complexes containing Cl- and OH-. The gas-phase electronic spectrum of [AuCl_4]- closely resembles the aqueous solution spectrum, showing a lack of strong solvatochromic shifts. Substitution of Cl- ligands with OH- results in a strong blue shift, in agreement with ligand-field theory. Upon excitation, [AuCl_4]- can dissociate by loss of either one or two neutral Cl atoms, resulting in the reduction of gold from Au(III) to Au(II) and Au(I) respectively. The hydroxide substituted complex, [AuCl_2(OH)_2]-, demonstrates similar behavior but the only observable fragment channel is the loss of two neutral OH ligands, leading only to Au(I).

  2. Silicon-Based Integration of Groups III, IV, V Chemical Vapor Depositions in High-Quality Photodiodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sammak, A.

    2012-01-01

    Heterogeneous integration of III-V semiconductors with silicon (Si) technology is an interesting approach to utilize the advantages of both high-speed photonic and electronic properties. The work presented in this thesis is initiated by this major goal of merging III-V semiconductor technology with

  3. Group-III nitride based high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) with barrier/spacer layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarkar, Prashant; Smorchkova, Ioulia P.; Keller, Stacia; Mishra, Umesh; Walukiewicz, Wladyslaw; Wu, Yifeng

    2005-02-01

    A Group III nitride based high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) is disclosed that provides improved high frequency performance. One embodiment of the HEMT comprises a GaN buffer layer, with an Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N (y=1 or y 1) layer on the GaN buffer layer. An Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N (0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5) barrier layer on to the Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer, opposite the GaN buffer layer, Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer having a higher Al concentration than that of the Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N barrier layer. A preferred Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer has y=1 or y.about.1 and a preferred Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N barrier layer has 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5. A 2DEG forms at the interface between the GaN buffer layer and the Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer. Respective source, drain and gate contacts are formed on the Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N barrier layer. The HEMT can also comprising a substrate adjacent to the buffer layer, opposite the Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer and a nucleation layer between the Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N buffer layer and the substrate.

  4. Solvent extraction of anionic chelate complexes of lanthanum(III), europium(III), lutetium(III), scandium(III), and indium(III) with 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone as ion-pairs with tetrabutylammonium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noro, Junji; Sekine, Tatsuya.

    1992-01-01

    The solvent extraction of lanthanum(III), europium(III), lutetium(III), scandium(III), and indium(III) in 0.1 mol dm -3 sodium nitrate solutions with 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (Htta) in the absence and presence of tetrabutylammonium ions (tba + ) into carbon tetrachloride was measured. The extraction of lanthanum(III), europium(III), and lutetium(III) was greatly enhanced by the addition of tba + ; this could be explained in terms of the extraction of a ternary complex, M(tta) 4 - tba + . However, the extractions of scandium(III) and indium(III) were nearly the same when tba + was added. The data were treated on the basis of the formation equilibrium of the ternary complex from the neutral chelate, M(tta) 3 , with the extracted ion-pairs of the reagents, tta - tba + , in the organic phase. It was concluded that the degree of association of M(tta) 3 with the ion-pair, tta - tba + , is greater in the order La(tta) 3 ≅ Eu(tta) 3 > Lu(tta) 3 , or that the stability of the ternary complex in the organic phase is higher in the order La(tta) 4 - tba + ≅ Eu(tta) 4 - tba + > Lu(tta) 4 - tba + . This is similar to those of adduct metal chelates of Htta with tributylphosphate (TBP) in synergistic extraction systems. (author)

  5. Vegetables and Mixed Dishes Are Top Contributors to Phylloquinone Intake in US Adults: Data from the 2011-2012 NHANES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshman, Stephanie G; Finnan, Emily G; Barger, Kathryn J; Bailey, Regan L; Haytowitz, David B; Gilhooly, Cheryl H; Booth, Sarah L

    2017-07-01

    Background: Phylloquinone is the most abundant form of vitamin K in US diets. Green vegetables are considered the predominant dietary source of phylloquinone. As our food supply diversifies and expands, the food groups that contribute to phylloquinone intake are also changing, which may change absolute intakes. Thus, it is important to identify the contributors to dietary vitamin K estimates to guide recommendations on intakes and food sources. Objective: The purpose of this study was to estimate 1 ) the amount of phylloquinone consumed in the diet of US adults, 2 ) to estimate the contribution of different food groups to phylloquinone intake in individuals with a high or low vegetable intake (≥2 or vegetables/d), and 3 ) to characterize the contribution of different mixed dishes to phylloquinone intake. Methods: Usual phylloquinone intake was determined from NHANES 2011-2012 (≥20 y old; 2092 men and 2214 women) and the National Cancer Institute Method by utilizing a complex, stratified, multistage probability-cluster sampling design. Results: On average, 43.0% of men and 62.5% of women met the adequate intake (120 and 90 μg/d, respectively) for phylloquinone, with the lowest self-reported intakes noted among men, especially in the older age groups (51-70 and ≥71 y). Vegetables were the highest contributor to phylloquinone intake, contributing 60.0% in the high-vegetable-intake group and 36.1% in the low-vegetable-intake group. Mixed dishes were the second-highest contributor to phylloquinone intake, contributing 16.0% in the high-vegetable-intake group and 28.0% in the low-vegetable-intake group. Conclusion: Self-reported phylloquinone intakes from updated food composition data applied to NHANES 2011-2012 reveal that fewer men than women are meeting the current adequate intake. Application of current food composition data confirms that vegetables continue to be the primary dietary source of phylloquinone in the US diet. However, mixed dishes and convenience

  6. Forecasting patient outcomes in the management of hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brier, K L; Tornow, J J; Ries, A J; Weber, M P; Downs, J R

    1999-03-22

    To forecast adult patient outcomes in the management of hyperlipidemia using adult National Health and Examination Survey III (NHANES III) population statistics and National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) guidelines for goals of therapy. Review of the hyperlipidemia drug therapy English-language medical literature with emphasis on randomized controlled trials of more than 6 weeks' duration published in the last 7 years, product package inserts, US Food and Drug Administration submission information, and NHANES III population statistics. Data were extracted from studies of lipid-lowering therapy to modify low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels for primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. The data that were evaluated included sample size, study design, therapeutic intervention, length of study, percentage change in LDL levels, and patient demographics. Cumulative frequency curves of the LDL distribution among the US adult population were constructed. The mean efficacy of drug therapy from qualified studies was used to extrapolate the percentage of the population expected to respond to the intervention and to forecast the patient outcome. A useful tool for clinicians was constructed to approximate the percentage of patients, based on risk stratification, who would reach NCEP target goal after a given pharmacotherapeutic intervention to decrease LDL levels.

  7. Charm physics at BES III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yifang

    2011-01-01

    Since the discovery of J/Ψ and the τ lepton in 70's, the study of τ-charm physics became very active: several dedicated e + e - colliders were built and tremendous progress were obtained. In this paper, the main reasoning,the content and the characteristics of the τ-charm physics study are discussed, together with the scientific motivations and the latest results of the recently completed upgrade of the Beijing Electron-Positron Collider (BEPC II) and the new Beijing Spectrometer (BES III). (authors)

  8. Strong and anisotropic superexchange in the single-molecule magnet (SMM) [MnIII(6)OsIII]3+: promoting SMM behavior through 3d-5d transition metal substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeke, Veronika; Stammler, Anja; Bögge, Hartmut; Schnack, Jürgen; Glaser, Thorsten

    2014-01-06

    The reaction of the in situ generated trinuclear triplesalen complex [(talent-Bu2)MnIII3(solv)n]3+ with (Ph4P)3[OsIII(CN)6] and NaClO4·H2O affords [MnIII6OsIII](ClO4)3 (= [{(talent-Bu2)MnIII3}2{OsIII(CN)6}](ClO4)3) in the presence of the oxidizing agent [(tacn)2NiIII](ClO4)3 (tacn =1,4,7-triazacyclononane), while the reaction of [(talent-Bu2)MnIII3(solv)n]3+ with K4[OsII(CN)6] and NaClO4·H2O yields [MnIII6OsII](ClO4)2 under an argon atmosphere. The molecular structure of [MnIII6OsIII]3+ as determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction is closely related to the already published [MnIII6Mc]3+ complexes (Mc = CrIII, FeIII, CoIII, MnIII). The half-wave potential of the OsIII/OsII couple is E1/2 = 0.07 V vs Fc+/Fc. The FT-IR and electronic absorption spectra of [MnIII6OsII]2+ and [MnIII6OsIII]3+ exhibit distinct features of dicationic and tricationic [MnIII6Mc]n+ complexes, respectively. The dc magnetic data (μeff vs T, M vs B, and VTVH) of [MnIII6OsII]2+ are successfully simulated by a full-matrix diagonalization of a spin-Hamiltonian including isotropic exchange, zero-field splitting with full consideration of the relative orientation of the D-tensors, and Zeeman interaction, indicating antiferromagnetic MnIII–MnIII interactions within the trinuclear triplesalen subunits (JMn–Mn(1) = −(0.53 ± 0.01) cm–1, Ĥex = −2∑iSMM [MnIII6OsIII]3+ compared to the 3d analogue [MnIII6FeIII]3+ due to the stronger and anisotropic Mc–MnIII exchange interaction.

  9. Magnetooptical investigations on ferromagnetic III-V-semiconductors; Magnetooptische Untersuchungen an ferromagnetischen III-V-Halbleitern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, Andreas

    2009-07-23

    Magnetooptical Kerr effect (MOKE) and Magnetic Circular Dichroism (MCD) have been used to investigate magnetic as well as bandstructure properties of diluted magnetic III-V-semiconductors containing Mn. In these ferromagnetic systems it has been found that the strength of the observed effects depends linearly on the magnetization of the samples with no influence of the external magnetic field. The magnetooptical effects allowed the recording of hysteresis loops of GaMnAs, GaMnSb, InMnAs and InMnSb samples for different temperatures and in the case of GaMnAs also for different alignments of the external magnetic field with respect to the easy axis of magnetization. The Stoner-Wohlfahrt-Model has been used to describe the resulting shapes of the loops yielding the magnetic anisotropy parameters of the samples. For magnetically saturated samples, spectra of MOKE and MCD have been recorded. Contrary to pure III-V-semiconductors, which exhibit lots of sharp resonances due to interband transitions between Landau levels, III-Mn-V-semi-conductors how only very few (or just one) considerably broad resonance(s). Their spectral position(s) do(es) neither depend upon the magnetic field as it would be the case for pure III-V-semiconductors nor the magnetization. Only the amplitude increases linearly with the magnetization. Utilizing a kp-theory it has been possible to describe the observed dependencies. Valence- and conduction-band are split into Landau levels by the external magnetic field and, in addition to the Zeeman-effect, the spin-levels are split by the exchange interaction between the localized electrons of the Mn ions and the free carriers which is proportional to the magnetization of the samples. This splitting is much bigger than the Landau level splitting. Due to an inhomogeneous distribution of the Mn ions and due to the high carrier density the Landau levels are strongly broadened and their structure is not observable. Owing to the high carrier-concentration in

  10. Antimony-121 Moessbauer spectra of antimony(III) compounds with a stereochemically active lone pair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Masuo; Takahashi, Masashi; Ohyama, Ryuhichi

    1986-01-01

    The Sb-121 Moessbauer parameters at 20 K for 23 antimony(III) compounds were obtained and the data are discussed in terms of known crystal structures. The isomer shifts and quadrupole coupling constants depend strongly on the type of configuration around the Sb(III) atoms with stereochemically active lone pair electrons. (Auth.)

  11. Cathodic electrogenerated chemiluminescence of aromatic Tb(III) chelates at polystyrene-graphite composite electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, Kalle; Grönroos, Päivi; Tuomi, Sami; Kulmala, Sakari

    2017-01-01

    Tb(III) chelates exhibit intense hot electron-induced electrogenerated chemiluminescence during cathodic polarization of metal/polystyrene-graphite (M/PG) electrodes in fully aqueous solutions. The M/PG working electrode provides a sensitive means for the determination of aromatic Tb(III) chelates at nanomolar concentration levels with a linear log-log calibration curve spanning more than five orders of magnitude. The charge transport and other properties of these novel electrodes were studied by electrochemiluminescence measurements and cyclic voltammetry. The present composite electrodes can by utilized both under pulse polarization and DC polarization unlike oxide-coated metal electrodes which do not tolerate cathodic DC polarization. The present cost-effective electrodes could be utilized e.g. in immunoassays where polystyrene is extensively used as a solid phase for various bioaffinity assays by using electrochemiluminescent Tb(III) chelates or e.g. Ru(bpy) 3 2+ as labels. - Highlights: • Generation of hydrated electrons at Polystyrene-graphite electrodes. • The insulating polystyrene layer on the outer electrode surface seems necessary. • Hydrated electrons are able to produce chemiluminescence. • Strongest signal and lowest std. dev. achieved at same graphite weight fraction.

  12. III-nitride integration on ferroelectric materials of lithium niobate by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namkoong, Gon; Lee, Kyoung-Keun; Madison, Shannon M.; Henderson, Walter; Ralph, Stephen E.; Doolittle, W. Alan

    2005-01-01

    Integration of III-nitride electrical devices on the ferroelectric material lithium niobate (LiNbO 3 ) has been demonstrated. As a ferroelectric material, lithium niobate has a polarization which may provide excellent control of the polarity of III-nitrides. However, while high temperature, 1000 deg. C, thermal treatments produce atomically smooth surfaces, improving adhesion of GaN epitaxial layers on lithium niobate, repolarization of the substrate in local domains occurs. These effects result in multi domains of mixed polarization in LiNbO 3 , producing inversion domains in subsequent GaN epilayers. However, it is found that AlN buffer layers suppress inversion domains of III-nitrides. Therefore, two-dimensional electron gases in AlGaN/GaN heterojunction structures are obtained. Herein, the demonstration of the monolithic integration of high power devices with ferroelectric materials presents possibilities to control LiNbO 3 modulators on compact optoelectronic/electronic chips

  13. Defects and oxidation of group-III monochalcogenide monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yu; Zhou, Si; Bai, Yizhen; Zhao, Jijun

    2017-09-01

    Among various two-dimensional (2D) materials, monolayer group-III monochalcogenides (GaS, GaSe, InS, and InSe) stand out owing to their potential applications in microelectronics and optoelectronics. Devices made of these novel 2D materials are sensitive to environmental gases, especially O2 molecules. To address this critical issue, here we systematically investigate the oxidization behaviors of perfect and defective group-III monochalcogenide monolayers by first-principles calculations. The perfect monolayers show superior oxidation resistance with large barriers of 3.02-3.20 eV for the dissociation and chemisorption of O2 molecules. In contrast, the defective monolayers with single chalcogen vacancy are vulnerable to O2, showing small barriers of only 0.26-0.36 eV for the chemisorption of an O2 molecule. Interestingly, filling an O2 molecule to the chalcogen vacancy of group-III monochalcogenide monolayers could preserve the electronic band structure of the perfect system—the bandgaps are almost intact and the carrier effective masses are only moderately disturbed. On the other hand, the defective monolayers with single vacancies of group-III atoms carry local magnetic moments of 1-2 μB. These results help experimental design and synthesis of group-III monochalcogenides based 2D devices with high performance and stability.

  14. Sparkle/PM3 for the modeling of europium(III), gadolinium(III), and terbium(III) complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freire, Ricardo O.; Rocha, Gerd B.; Simas, Alfredo M.

    2009-01-01

    The Sparkle/PM3 model is extended to europium(III), gadolinium(III), and terbium(III) complexes. The validation procedure was carried out using only high quality crystallographic structures, for a total of ninety-six Eu(III) complexes, seventy Gd(III) complexes, and forty-two Tb(III) complexes. The Sparkle/PM3 unsigned mean error, for all interatomic distances between the trivalent lanthanide ion and the ligand atoms of the first sphere of coordination, is: 0.080 A for Eu(III); 0.063 A for Gd(III); and 0.070 A for Tb(III). These figures are similar to the Sparkle/AM1 ones of 0.082 A, 0.061 A, and 0.068 A respectively, indicating they are all comparable parameterizations. Moreover, their accuracy is similar to what can be obtained by present-day ab initio effective core potential full geometry optimization calculations on such lanthanide complexes. Finally, we report a preliminary attempt to show that Sparkle/PM3 geometry predictions are reliable. For one of the Eu(III) complexes, BAFZEO, we created hundreds of different input geometries by randomly varying the distances and angles of the ligands to the central Eu(III) ion, which were all subsequently fully optimized. A significant trend was unveiled, indicating that more accurate local minima geometries cluster at lower total energies, thus reinforcing the validity of sparkle model calculations. (author)

  15. Active Lifestyles are Associated with Favorable Anthropometric Measures for US Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tande, Desiree L.; Magel, Rhonda C.; Strand, Bradford N.; Terbizan, Donna J.

    2009-01-01

    The third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) data was used to describe relationships between activity intensity and frequency and obesity for US adult men (n = 7428) and non-pregnant women (n = 8140). Compared with active men and women, inactive and partially active men and women are at increased risk of obesity (OR =…

  16. An analytic current-voltage model for quasi-ballistic III-nitride high electron mobility transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kexin; Rakheja, Shaloo

    2018-05-01

    We present an analytic model to describe the DC current-voltage (I-V) relationship in scaled III-nitride high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) in which transport within the channel is quasi-ballistic in nature. Following Landauer's transport theory and charge calculation based on two-dimensional electrostatics that incorporates negative momenta states from the drain terminal, an analytic expression for current as a function of terminal voltages is developed. The model interprets the non-linearity of access regions in non-self-aligned HEMTs. Effects of Joule heating with temperature-dependent thermal conductivity are incorporated in the model in a self-consistent manner. With a total of 26 input parameters, the analytic model offers reduced empiricism compared to existing GaN HEMT models. To verify the model, experimental I-V data of InAlN/GaN with InGaN back-barrier HEMTs with channel lengths of 42 and 105 nm are considered. Additionally, the model is validated against numerical I-V data obtained from DC hydrodynamic simulations of an unintentionally doped AlGaN-on-GaN HEMT with 50-nm gate length. The model is also verified against pulsed I-V measurements of a 150-nm T-gate GaN HEMT. Excellent agreement between the model and experimental and numerical results for output current, transconductance, and output conductance is demonstrated over a broad range of bias and temperature conditions.

  17. Interpretation of the [ClIII] Lines in Gaseous Nebulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller, L H; Czyzak, S J; Walker, M F; Krueger, T K

    1970-05-01

    The intensity ratio of the green lambdalambda5517 and 5537 lines of [ClIII] serves as an indicatrix of the electron density in many gaseous nebulae whose spectra can be observed with an image converter. Quantitative interpretation of the line ratio requires accurate values of the collisional strengths and transition probabilities. With improved values of these parameters we have revised electron densities for a number of nebulae; the results seem to be in good accord with those derived from other criteria.

  18. Kinetics and mechanism of the reactions of hexaaqua rhodium (III ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    oxidation states ranging from +1 to +6. Interest on ... reactivity, anti tumour activity, electronic structure, and catalytic functions of its complexes with poten- tial industrial ... aminecobalt (III) complexes in which it is S-bonded to the metal centre.8 ...

  19. Uranium (III)-Plutonium (III) co-precipitation in molten chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigier, Jean-François; Laplace, Annabelle; Renard, Catherine; Miguirditchian, Manuel; Abraham, Francis

    2018-02-01

    Co-management of the actinides in an integrated closed fuel cycle by a pyrochemical process is studied at the laboratory scale in France in the CEA-ATALANTE facility. In this context the co-precipitation of U(III) and Pu(III) by wet argon sparging in LiCl-CaCl2 (30-70 mol%) molten salt at 705 °C is studied. Pu(III) is prepared in situ in the molten salt by carbochlorination of PuO2 and U(III) is then introduced as UCl3 after chlorine purge by argon to avoid any oxidation of uranium up to U(VI) by Cl2. The oxide conversion yield through wet argon sparging is quantitative. However, the preferential oxidation of U(III) in comparison to Pu(III) is responsible for a successive conversion of the two actinides, giving a mixture of UO2 and PuO2 oxides. Surprisingly, the conversion of sole Pu(III) in the same conditions leads to a mixture of PuO2 and PuOCl, characteristic of a partial oxidation of Pu(III) to Pu(IV). This is in contrast with coconversion of U(III)-Pu(III) mixtures but in agreement with the conversion of Ce(III).

  20. Suspended HfO2 photonic crystal slab on III-nitride/Si platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yongjin; Feng, Jiao; Cao, Ziping; Zhu, Hongbo

    2014-01-01

    We present here the fabrication of suspended hafnium oxide (HfO 2 ) photonic crystal slab on a III-nitride/Si platform. The calculations are performed to model the suspended HfO 2 photonic crystal slab. Aluminum nitride (AlN) film is employed as the sacrificial layer to form air gap. Photonic crystal patterns are defined by electron beam lithography and transferred into HfO 2 film, and suspended HfO 2 photonic crystal slab is achieved on a III-nitride/Si platform through wet-etching of AlN layer in the alkaline solution. The method is promising for the fabrication of suspended HfO 2 nanostructures incorporating into a III-nitride/Si platform, or acting as the template for epitaxial growth of III-nitride materials. (orig.)

  1. Cerium(III) molybdate nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterization and radionuclides adsorption studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousefi, Taher, E-mail: Taher_yosefy@yahoo.com [NFCRS, Nuclear Science and Technology Institute, Kargher Ave, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tarbiat Moallem University, Mofatteh Ave, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khanchi, Ali Reza; Ahmadi, Seyed Javad [NFCRS, Nuclear Science and Technology Institute, Kargher Ave, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rofouei, Mohamad Kazem [Tarbiat Moallem University, Mofatteh Ave, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yavari, Ramin; Davarkhah, Reza; Myanji, Behzad [NFCRS, Nuclear Science and Technology Institute, Kargher Ave, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new inorganic nanoparticles with average size about 40 nm were synthesized by chemical method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The morphology studies reveal existing nanowires among dense nanoparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigation shows it has high stability in rough media and high affinity for Cs(I), U(VI), and Th(IV). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It was used for adsorption of radionuclides and removal of {sup 134}Cs from real sample. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These findings are important for evaluating human and environmental risk assessment. - Abstract: Cerium(III) molybdate nanostructure with average size about 40 nm was prepared by adding cerium(III) chloride and ammonium molybdate solutions under varying conditions. The product was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Brunauere Emmette Teller (BET) techniques. Ion exchange capacity of the sample for potassium ion and distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) for 23 metal ions were determined, the K{sub d} values for Tl(I), Pb(II), Th(IV), U(VI), and Cs(I) ions were found to be sufficiently high for their removal from various effluents. The adsorption behavior of the sample towards Cs(I){sub 134} species were studied. Finally, the binary separation of Dy(III)-U(VI), Sm(III)-Th(IV) and Cs(I)-Rb(I) and removal of Cs(I){sub 134} from the real sample were successfully achieved.

  2. Uranium(III)-carbon multiple bonding supported by arene δ-bonding in mixed-valence hexauranium nanometre-scale rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooles, Ashley J; Mills, David P; Tuna, Floriana; McInnes, Eric J L; Law, Gareth T W; Fuller, Adam J; Kremer, Felipe; Ridgway, Mark; Lewis, William; Gagliardi, Laura; Vlaisavljevich, Bess; Liddle, Stephen T

    2018-05-29

    Despite the fact that non-aqueous uranium chemistry is over 60 years old, most polarised-covalent uranium-element multiple bonds involve formal uranium oxidation states IV, V, and VI. The paucity of uranium(III) congeners is because, in common with metal-ligand multiple bonding generally, such linkages involve strongly donating, charge-loaded ligands that bind best to electron-poor metals and inherently promote disproportionation of uranium(III). Here, we report the synthesis of hexauranium-methanediide nanometre-scale rings. Combined experimental and computational studies suggest overall the presence of formal uranium(III) and (IV) ions, though electron delocalisation in this Kramers system cannot be definitively ruled out, and the resulting polarised-covalent U = C bonds are supported by iodide and δ-bonded arene bridges. The arenes provide reservoirs that accommodate charge, thus avoiding inter-electronic repulsion that would destabilise these low oxidation state metal-ligand multiple bonds. Using arenes as electronic buffers could constitute a general synthetic strategy by which to stabilise otherwise inherently unstable metal-ligand linkages.

  3. Microbial reduction of Fe(III) and turnover of acetate in Hawaiian soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küsel, Kirsten; Wagner, Christine; Trinkwalter, Tanja; Gössner, Anita S; Bäumler, Rupert; Drake, Harold L

    2002-04-01

    Soils contain anoxic microzones, and acetate is an intermediate during the turnover of soil organic carbon. Due to negligible methanogenic activities in well-drained soils, acetate accumulates under experimentally imposed short-term anoxic conditions. In contrast to forest, agricultural, and prairie soils, grassland soils from Hawaii rapidly consumed rather than formed acetate when incubated under anoxic conditions. Thus, alternative electron acceptors that might be linked to the anaerobic oxidation of soil organic carbon in Hawaiian soils were assessed. Under anoxic conditions, high amounts of Fe(II) were formed by Hawaiian soils as soon as soils were depleted of nitrate. Rates of Fe(II) formation for different soils ranged from 0.01 to 0.31 micromol (g dry weight soil)(-1) h(-1), but were not positively correlated to increasing amounts of poorly crystallized iron oxides. In general, sulfate-reducing and methanogenic activities were negligible. Supplemental acetate was rapidly oxidized to CO2 via the sequential reduction of nitrate and Fe(III) in grassland soil (obtained near Kaena State Park). Supplemental H2 stimulated the formation of Fe(II), but H2-utilizing acetogens appeared to also be involved in the consumption of H2. Approximately 270 micromol Fe(III) (g dry weight soil)(-1) was available for Fe(III)-reducing bacteria, and acetate became a stable end product when Fe(III) was depleted in long-term incubations. Most-probable-number estimates of H2- and acetate-utilizing Fe(III) reducers and of H2-utilizing acetogens were similar. These results indicate that (i) the microbial reduction of Fe(III) is an important electron-accepting process for the anaerobic oxidation of organic matter in Fe(III)-rich Hawaiian soils of volcanic origin, and (ii) acetate, formed by the combined activity of fermentative and acetogenic bacteria, is an important trophic link in anoxic microsites of these soils.

  4. Synthesis, spectral characterization and in vitro antifungal activity of Lanthanum(III) and Praseodymium(III) complexes with Schiff bases derived from 5-substituted-4-amino-5-hydrazino-1,2,4-triazoles and isatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Shweta; Tripathi, Priti; Pandey, Om P.; Sengupta, Soumitra K.

    2013-01-01

    The new lanthanum(III) and praseodymium(III) complexes of the general formula (LnCl(L)(H 2 O) 2 ) (Ln = La III or Pr III ; H 2 L = Schiff bases derived from 3-substituted-4-amino-5-hydrazino-1,2,4-triazoles and isatin) have been prepared. The complexes have been characterized by elemental analyses, molecular weight by FAB-mass, thermogravimetry, electrical conductance, magnetic moment and spectral (electronic, infrared, far-infrared, 1 H NMR and 13 C NMR) data. The ligands and all prepared complexes were assayed for antifungal (Aspergillus niger and Helminthosporium oryzae) activities. The activities have been correlated with the structures of the complexes. (author)

  5. Type III-L Solar Radio Bursts and Solar Energetic Particle Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffin, R. T.; White, S. M.; Ray, P. S.; Kaiser, M. L.

    2015-09-01

    A radio-selected sample of fast drift radio bursts with complex structure occurring after the impulsive phase of the associated flare (“Type III-L bursts”) is identified by inspection of radio dynamic spectra from 1 to 180 MHz for over 300 large flares in 2001. An operational definition that takes into account previous work on these radio bursts starting from samples of solar energetic particle (SEP) events is applied to the data, and 66 Type III-L bursts are found in the sample. In order to determine whether the presence of these radio bursts can be used to predict the occurrence of SEP events, we also develop a catalog of all SEP proton events in 2001 using data from the ERNE detector on the SOHO satellite. 68 SEP events are found, for 48 of which we can identify a solar source and hence look for associated Type III-L emission. We confirm previous work that found that most (76% in our sample) of the solar sources of SEP events exhibit radio emission of this type. However, the correlation in the opposite direction is not as strong: starting from a radio-selected sample of Type III-L events, around 64% of the bursts that occur at longitudes magnetically well-connected to the Earth, and hence favorable for detection of SEPs, are associated with SEP events. The degree of association increases when the events have durations over 10 minutes at 1 MHz, but in general Type III-L bursts do not perform any better than Type II bursts in our sample as predictors of SEP events. A comparison of Type III-L timing with the arrival of near-relativistic electrons at the ACE spacecraft is not inconsistent with a common source for the accelerated electrons in both phenomena.

  6. Type III-L Solar Radio Bursts and Solar Energetic Particle Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffin, R T; White, S M; Ray, P S; Kaiser, M L

    2015-01-01

    A radio-selected sample of fast drift radio bursts with complex structure occurring after the impulsive phase of the associated flare (“Type III-L bursts”) is identified by inspection of radio dynamic spectra from 1 to 180 MHz for over 300 large flares in 2001. An operational definition that takes into account previous work on these radio bursts starting from samples of solar energetic particle (SEP) events is applied to the data, and 66 Type III-L bursts are found in the sample. In order to determine whether the presence of these radio bursts can be used to predict the occurrence of SEP events, we also develop a catalog of all SEP proton events in 2001 using data from the ERNE detector on the SOHO satellite. 68 SEP events are found, for 48 of which we can identify a solar source and hence look for associated Type III-L emission. We confirm previous work that found that most (76% in our sample) of the solar sources of SEP events exhibit radio emission of this type. However, the correlation in the opposite direction is not as strong: starting from a radio-selected sample of Type III-L events, around 64% of the bursts that occur at longitudes magnetically well-connected to the Earth, and hence favorable for detection of SEPs, are associated with SEP events. The degree of association increases when the events have durations over 10 minutes at 1 MHz, but in general Type III-L bursts do not perform any better than Type II bursts in our sample as predictors of SEP events. A comparison of Type III-L timing with the arrival of near-relativistic electrons at the ACE spacecraft is not inconsistent with a common source for the accelerated electrons in both phenomena. (paper)

  7. Synthesis of Ruthenium(III Phthalocyanine with Di-axial Bromo Ligands - A Promising Molecular Conductor with Giant Negative Magnetoresistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A.V. Gamboa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The electron transport of Phthalocyanines (Pc with central metal and di-axial ligands (such as FeIII(PcL2; where L = CN, Cl, Br originates from its intermolecular Pc π-π orbital overlap while its giant negative magnetoresistance (GNMR arises from its intramolecular Pc-π(HOMO and Fe-d (s=1/2 interaction. However, the π-d interaction tends to localize itinerant electrons resulting in the decrease in the conductivity of the FeIII(PcL2 series compared to the non-magnetic CoIII(PcL2 where π-d interaction is absent. More so, the axial ligand field energy of the FeIII(PcL2 system is found to have the ability to proportionally modulate the π-d interaction. In reference thereof, theoretical calculations point that isostructural RuIII(PcBr2 would provide the best balance of π-d orbital energy interplay. That is, RuIII(PcBr2 is expected to be a molecule with high electrical conductivity and GNMR which would make it an ideal magnetic molecular conductor. This paper reports on the synthesis of RuIII(PcBr2.

  8. Stimulation of auroral kilometric radiation by type III solar radio bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvert, W.

    1981-01-01

    It has been found that the onset of auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) frequently coincides with the arrival of type III solar radio bursts. Although the AKR onsets are usually abrupt and appear to be spontaneous, they sometimes develop from a discrete frequency near the leading edge of a type III burst or sometimes occur at progressively lower frequencies following that edge. From this, and the absence of the related solar electrons in specific cases, it was concluded that the incoming type III waves were sometimes responsible for stimulating auroral kilometric radiation. It was estimated that intense, isolated type III bursts were capable of stimulating AKR roughly one third of the time, and that at least ten percent of the observed AKR onsets could be attributed to these and weaker bursts, including some barely detectable by the ISEE plasma wave receivers

  9. α-, β-, and δ-Hydrogen Abstraction in the Thermolysis of Paramagnetic Vanadium(III) Dialkyl Complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessen, Bart; Buijink, Jan-Karel F.; Meetsma, Auke; Teuben, Jan H.; Helgesson, Göran; Håkansson, Mikael; Jagner, Susan; Spek, Anthony L.

    1993-01-01

    Electron deficient paramagnetic vanadium(III) diakyls CpV(CH2CMe2R)2(PMe3) (14 electron, R = Me (2), Ph (3)) and CpV[CH(SiMe3)2]2 (12 electron, 4) have been synthesized. At ambient temperature 2 decomposes through α-hydrogen abstraction to produce, in the presence of dmpe

  10. (NH4)[V1-xIIIVxIV(AsO4)F1-xOx]: A new mixed valence vanadium(III,IV) fluoro-arsenate with ferromagnetic interactions and electronic conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berrocal, Teresa; Mesa, Jose L.; Pizarro, Jose L.; Bazan, Begona; Ruiz de Larramendi, Idoia; Arriortua, Maria I.; Rojo, Teofilo

    2009-01-01

    A new mixed valence vanadium(III,IV) fluoro-arsenate compound, with formula (NH 4 )[V 1-x III V x IV (AsO 4 )F 1-x O x ] and KTP structure-type, has been synthesized by mild hydrothermal techniques. The crystal structure has been solved from single crystal X-ray diffraction data in the Pna2 1 orthorhombic space group. The unit-cell parameters are a=13.196(2) A, b=6.628(1) A and c=10.7379(7) A with Z=8. The final R factors were R1=0.0438 and wR2=0.0943 [all data]. The crystal structure consists of a three-dimensional framework formed by (V III,IV O 4 F 2 ) octahedra and (AsO 4 ) 3- tetrahedra arsenate oxoanions. The vanadium(III,IV) cations, from the (V III,IV O 4 F 2 ) octahedra, are linked through the fluorine atoms giving rise to zigzag chains. The ammonium cations are located in the cavities of the structure compensating the anionic charge of the [V 1-x III V x IV (AsO 4 )F 1-x O x ] - inorganic skeleton. The thermal stability limit of the phase is 345 deg. C, around to this temperature the ammonium cation and fluoride anion are lost. The IR spectrum shows the characteristic bands of the (NH 4 ) + and (AsO 4 ) 3- ions. Magnetic measurements indicate the existence of weak ferromagnetic interactions. Electronic conductivity, via a hopping mechanism, occurs with an activation energy of 0.66 eV. - Graphical abstract: Polyhedral view of the crystal structure of (NH 4 )[V III 1-x V IV x (AsO 4 )F 1-x O x

  11. Replacing American Breakfast Foods with Ready-To-Eat (RTE) Cereals Increases Consumption of Key Food Groups and Nutrients among US Children and Adults: Results of an NHANES Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Colin D.; Drewnowski, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Replacing the typical American breakfast with ready-to-eat cereals (RTECs) may improve diet quality. Our goal was to assess the impact of RTECs on diet quality measures for different age groups, using substitution modeling. Dietary intakes came from the 2007–2010 National Health and Examination Surveys (NHANES; n = 18,112). All breakfast foods, excluding beverages, were replaced on a per calorie basis, with frequency-weighted and age/race specific RTECs. Model 1 replaced foods with RTECs alone; Model 2 replaced foods with RTECs and milk. Diet quality measures were based on desirable food groups and nutrients, Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010 scores, and estimated diet costs. Model 1 diets were significantly higher in whole grains (+84.6%), fiber (+14.3%), vitamin D (+14.0%), iron (+54.5%) and folic acid (+104.6%), as compared to observed diets. Model 2 diets were additionally higher in dairy (+15.8%), calcium (+11.3%) and potassium (+3.95%). In Model 1, added sugar increased (+5.0%), but solid fats declined (−10.9%). Energy from solid fats and added sugars declined (−3.2%) in both models. Model 2 offered higher diet quality (57.1 vs. 54.6, p-value < 0.01) at a lower cost ($6.70 vs. $6.92; p < 0.01), compared to observed diets. Substitution modeling of NHANES data can assess the nutritional and economic impact of dietary guidance. PMID:28902145

  12. Emittance growth and tune spectra at PETRA III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanzenberg, R.

    2011-08-01

    At DESY the PETRA ring has been converted into a synchrotron radiation facility, called PETRA III. 20 damping wigglers have been installed to achieve an emittance of 1 nm. The commissioning with beam started in April 2009 and user runs have been started in 2010. The design current is 100 mA and the bunch to bunch distance is 8 ns for one particular filling pattern with 960 bunches. At a current of about 50 mA a strong vertical emittance increase has been observed. During machine studies it was found that the emittance increase depends strongly on the bunch filling pattern. For the user operation a filling scheme has been found which mitigates the increase of the vertical emittance. In August 2010 PETRA III has been operated without damping wigglers for one week. The vertical emittance growth was not significantly smaller without wigglers. Furthermore tune spectra at PETRA III show characteristic lines which have been observed at other storage rings in the connection with electron clouds. Measurements at PETRA III are presented for different bunch filling patterns and with and without wiggler magnets. (orig.)

  13. Radiological Safety Aspects of the operation of the Electron Linear Accelerator Linac CIRCE III 10 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naceur, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    This document is a report about safety and security for the electron accelerator Linac-CIRCE III of the National Center for Nuclear Sciences and Technologies of Tunis. The paper aims to introduce the standards of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to the installation in question. Overall, it draws its profit from the official security reports of the IAEA. First, we study the anatomy of the accelerator by breaking it down into various compartments and examining the case of leaks that may arise. This part introduces the particularity of this installation and allows us to meet and provide procedures for some typical scenarios of mechanical malfunction. Second, we recall and adapt some theoretical concepts related to the quantification of the radioactivity, the thickness of the armoring, the utilization factor, and the quality factor. Thus, we become able to list of types of these radiations, dangers, risks and their sources. We also examine the phenomenon of compartments activation, toxic gases production (including ozone), the process of elimination, the danger associated with X-rays generated by high voltage system and the risk of electrocution. In light of this study, we handle mathematically the question of the armoring and the concept of radiation protection. Therefore, we present a practical methodology to implement a monitoring system and a technicality in the interpretation of the measurements. Finally, we discuss the practical aspect by introducing security governance to CIRCE III, and establishing a program of general, radiological and specific security. Then, we evaluate the areas of typical security, and present a comparative radiological study between the results obtained by the IAEA standards and those by the German DIN 6847 standard for direct Bremsstrahlung radiation and scattered radiation.

  14. Cleavage mechanoluminescence in elemental and III-V semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, B.P.; Patel, R.P.; Gour, Anubha S.; Chandra, V.K.; Gupta, R.K.

    2003-01-01

    The present paper reports the theory of mechanoluminescence (ML) produced during cleavage of elemental and III-V semiconductors. It seems that the formation of crack-induced localized states is responsible for the ML excitation produced during the cleavage of elemental and III-V semiconductors. According to this mechanism, as the atoms are drawn away from each other in an advancing crack tip, the decreasing wave function overlap across the crack may result in localized states which is associated with increasing electron energy. If the energy of these localized states approach that of the conduction band, transition to the conduction band via tunnelling would be possible, creating minority carriers, and consequently the electron-hole recombination may give rise to mechanoluminescence. When an elemental or III-V semiconductor is cleaved, initially the ML intensity increases with time, attains a peak value I m at the time t m corresponding to completion of the cleavage of the semiconductor, and then it decreases following power law decay. Expressions are derived for the ML intensity I m corresponding to the peak of the ML intensity versus time curve and for the total ML intensity I T . It is shown that both I m and I T should increase directly with the area of the newly created surfaces of the crystals. From the measurements of the ML intensity, the velocity of crack propagation in material can be determined by using the relation v=H/t m

  15. Systematic theoretical investigation of the zero-field splitting in Gd(III) complexes: Wave function and density functional approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Shehryar, E-mail: sherkhan@fysik.su.se; Odelius, Michael, E-mail: odelius@fysik.su.se [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Kubica-Misztal, Aleksandra [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, ul. Reymonta 4, PL-30-059 Krakow (Poland); Kruk, Danuta [Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Sloneczna 54, Olsztyn PL-10710 (Poland); Kowalewski, Jozef [Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-01-21

    The zero-field splitting (ZFS) of the electronic ground state in paramagnetic ions is a sensitive probe of the variations in the electronic and molecular structure with an impact on fields ranging from fundamental physical chemistry to medical applications. A detailed analysis of the ZFS in a series of symmetric Gd(III) complexes is presented in order to establish the applicability and accuracy of computational methods using multiconfigurational complete-active-space self-consistent field wave functions and of density functional theory calculations. The various computational schemes are then applied to larger complexes Gd(III)DOTA(H{sub 2}O){sup −}, Gd(III)DTPA(H{sub 2}O){sup 2−}, and Gd(III)(H{sub 2}O){sub 8}{sup 3+} in order to analyze how the theoretical results compare to experimentally derived parameters. In contrast to approximations based on density functional theory, the multiconfigurational methods produce results for the ZFS of Gd(III) complexes on the correct order of magnitude.

  16. Iron(III) diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid complex on polyallylamine functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes: immobilization, direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hailing; Cui, Yanyun; Li, Pan; Zhou, Yiming; Zhu, Xiaoshu; Tang, Yawen; Chen, Yu; Lu, Tianhong

    2013-05-07

    A nonenzymatic iron(III) diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Fe(III)-DETPA) complex based amperometric sensor for the analytical determination of hydrogen peroxide was developed. By combining the electrostatic interaction between the Fe(III)-DETPA complex and polyallylamine (PAH) functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as well as the ionotropic crosslinking interaction between PAH and ethylenediamine-tetramethylene phosphonic acid (EDTMP), the electroactive Fe(III)-DETPA complex was successfully incorporated within the MWCNT matrix, and firmly immobilized on the Au substrate electrode. The fabricated electrochemical sensor was characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electrochemical methods. The influences of solution pH and ionic strength on the electrochemical sensor were investigated. The prepared electrochemical sensor had a fast response to hydrogen peroxide (<3 s) and an excellent linear range of concentration from 1.25 × 10(-8) to 4.75 × 10(-3) M with a detection limit of 6.3 × 10(-9) M under the optimum conditions.

  17. Oxidation of Cr(III)-Fe(III) Mixed-phase Hydroxides by Chlorine: Implications on the Control of Hexavalent Chromium in Drinking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebeir, Michelle; Liu, Haizhou

    2018-05-17

    The occurrence of chromium (Cr) as an inorganic contaminant in drinking water is widely reported. One source of Cr is its accumulation in iron-containing corrosion scales of drinking water distribution systems as Cr(III)-Fe(III) hydroxide, i.e., FexCr(1-x)(OH)3(s), where x represents the Fe(III) molar content and typically varies between 0.25 and 0.75. This study investigated the kinetics of inadvertent hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) formation via the oxidation of FexCr(1-x)(OH)3(s) by chlorine as a residual disinfectant in drinking water, and examined the impacts of Fe(III) content and drinking water chemical parameters including pH, bromide and bicarbonate on the rate of Cr(VI) formation. Data showed that an increase in Fe(III) molar content resulted in a significant decrease in the stoichiometric Cr(VI) yield and the rate of Cr(VI) formation, mainly due to chlorine decay induced by Fe(III) surface sites. An increase in bicarbonate enhanced the rate of Cr(VI) formation, likely due to the formation of Fe(III)-carbonato surface complexes that slowed down the scavenging reaction with chlorine. The presence of bromide significantly accelerated the oxidation of FexCr(1-x)(OH)3(s) by chlorine, resulting from the catalytic effect of bromide acting as an electron shuttle. A higher solution pH between 6 and 8.5 slowed down the oxidation of Cr(III) by chlorine. These findings suggested that the oxidative conversion of chromium-containing iron corrosion products in drinking water distribution systems can lead to the occurrence of Cr(VI) at the tap, and the abundance of iron, and a careful control of pH, bicarbonate and bromide levels can assist the control of Cr(VI) formation.

  18. The [Fe(III)[Fe(III)(L1)2]3] star-type single-molecule magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saalfrank, Rolf W; Scheurer, Andreas; Bernt, Ingo; Heinemann, Frank W; Postnikov, Andrei V; Schünemann, Volker; Trautwein, Alfred X; Alam, Mohammad S; Rupp, Holger; Müller, Paul

    2006-06-21

    Star-shaped complex [Fe(III)[Fe(III)(L1)2]3] (3) was synthesized starting from N-methyldiethanolamine H2L1 (1) and ferric chloride in the presence of sodium hydride. For 3, two different high-spin iron(III) ion sites were confirmed by Mössbauer spectroscopy at 77 K. Single-crystal X-ray structure determination revealed that 3 crystallizes with four molecules of chloroform, but, with only three molecules of dichloromethane. The unit cell of 3.4CHCl3 contains the enantiomers (delta)-[(S,S)(R,R)(R,R)] and (lambda)-[(R,R)(S,S)(S,S)], whereas in case of 3.3CH2Cl2 four independent molecules, forming pairs of the enantiomers [lambda-(R,R)(R,R)(R,R)]-3 and [lambda-(S,S)(S,S)(S,S)]-3, were observed in the unit cell. According to SQUID measurements, the antiferromagnetic intramolecular coupling of the iron(III) ions in 3 results in a S = 10/2 ground state multiplet. The anisotropy is of the easy-axis type. EPR measurements enabled an accurate determination of the ligand-field splitting parameters. The ferric star 3 is a single-molecule magnet (SMM) and shows hysteretic magnetization characteristics below a blocking temperature of about 1.2 K. However, weak intermolecular couplings, mediated in a chainlike fashion via solvent molecules, have a strong influence on the magnetic properties. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) were used to determine the structural and electronic properties of star-type tetranuclear iron(III) complex 3. The molecules were deposited onto highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). Small, regular molecule clusters, two-dimensional monolayers as well as separated single molecules were observed. In our STS measurements we found a rather large contrast at the expected locations of the metal centers of the molecules. This direct addressing of the metal centers was confirmed by DFT calculations.

  19. Electron collisions with Fe-peak elements: Forbidden transitions between the low lying valence states 3d6, 3d54s, and 3d54p of Fe III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, B.M.; Scott, M.P.; Sunderland, A.G.; Noble, C.J.; Burke, V.M.; Ramsbottom, C.A.; Reid, R.H.G.; Hibbert, A.; Bell, K.L.; Burke, P.G.

    2007-01-01

    Effective collision strengths are presented for the Fe-peak element Fe III at electron temperatures (T e in degrees Kelvin) in the range 2 x 10 3 to 1 x 10 6 . Forbidden transitions results are given between the 3d 6 , 3d 5 4s, and the 3d 5 4p manifolds applicable to the modeling of laboratory and astrophysical plasmas

  20. Theoretical Stark broadening parameters for spectral lines arising from the 2p5ns, 2p5np and 2p5nd electronic configurations of Mg III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón, C.; Moreno-Díaz, C.; Alonso-Medina, A.

    2013-10-01

    In the present work we report theoretical Stark widths and shifts calculated using the Griem semi-empirical approach, corresponding to 237 spectral lines of Mg III. Data are presented for an electron density of 1017 cm-3 and temperatures T = 0.5-10.0 (104K). The matrix elements used in these calculations have been determined from 23 configurations of Mg III: 2s22p6, 2s22p53p, 2s22p54p, 2s22p54f and 2s22p55f for even parity and 2s22p5ns (n = 3-6), 2s22p5nd (n = 3-9), 2s22p55g and 2s2p6np (n = 3-8) for odd parity. For the intermediate coupling (IC) calculations, we use the standard method of least-squares fitting from experimental energy levels by means of the Cowan computer code. Also, in order to test the matrix elements used in our calculations, we present calculated values of 70 transition probabilities of Mg III spectral lines and 14 calculated values of radiative lifetimes of Mg III levels. There is good agreement between our calculations and experimental radiative lifetimes. Spectral lines of Mg III are relevant in astrophysics and also play an important role in the spectral analysis of laboratory plasma. Theoretical trends of the Stark broadening parameter versus the temperature for relevant lines are presented. No values of Stark parameters can be found in the bibliography.

  1. As(III) oxidation by MnO{sub 2} coated PEEK-WC nanostructured capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Criscuoli, Alessandra, E-mail: a.criscuoli@itm.cnr.it [Institute on Membrane Technology, ITM-CNR, Via P. Bucci Cubo 17/C, 87030 Rende (CS) (Italy); Majumdar, Swachchha [Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196, Raja S. C. Mullick Rd., 700032 Kolkata (India); Figoli, Alberto, E-mail: a.figoli@itm.cnr.it [Institute on Membrane Technology, ITM-CNR, Via P. Bucci Cubo 17/C, 87030 Rende (CS) (Italy); Sahoo, Ganesh C. [Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196, Raja S. C. Mullick Rd., 700032 Kolkata (India); Bafaro, Patrizia [Institute on Membrane Technology, ITM-CNR, Via P. Bucci Cubo 17/C, 87030 Rende (CS) (Italy); Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci Cubo 42/A, 87030 Rende (CS) (Italy); Bandyopadhyay, Sibdas [Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196, Raja S. C. Mullick Rd., 700032 Kolkata (India); Drioli, Enrico [Institute on Membrane Technology, ITM-CNR, Via P. Bucci Cubo 17/C, 87030 Rende (CS) (Italy); Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci Cubo 42/A, 87030 Rende (CS) (Italy)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Successful preparation of PEEK-WC nanostructured capsules coated by MnO{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Preliminary tests of As(III) oxidation carried out in batch. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Complete oxidation obtained for feed concentrations of 0.1 and 0.3 ppm. - Abstract: PEEK-WC nanostructured capsules were prepared by the phase inversion technique and used as support for the coating of a manganese dioxide layer. The coating was done by a chemical treatment of the capsules followed by a thermal one. The presence of the MnO{sub 2} layer was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), back scattering electron (BSE), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The produced capsules were, then, tested for As(III) oxidation in batch. The experiments consisted in treating 165 ml of As(III) solution with 1 g of coated capsules at fixed temperature (15 Degree-Sign C) and pH (5.7-5.8). In particular, the efficiency of the system was investigated for different As(III) concentrations (0.1, 0.3, 0.7 and 1 ppm). For feeds at lower As(III) content (0.1-0.3 ppm), tests lasted for 8 h, while prolonged runs (up to 48 h) were carried out on more concentrated solutions (0.7 and 1 ppm). The produced capsules were able to oxidize As(III) into As(V) leading to complete conversion after 3 and 4 h for feed concentrations of 0.1 and 0.3 ppm, respectively.

  2. New Tunneling Features in Polar III-Nitride Resonant Tunneling Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimy Encomendero

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available For the past two decades, repeatable resonant tunneling transport of electrons in III-nitride double barrier heterostructures has remained elusive at room temperature. In this work we theoretically and experimentally study III-nitride double-barrier resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs, the quantum transport characteristics of which exhibit new features that are unexplainable using existing semiconductor theory. The repeatable and robust resonant transport in our devices enables us to track the origin of these features to the broken inversion symmetry in the uniaxial crystal structure, which generates built-in spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization fields. Resonant tunneling transport enabled by the ground state as well as by the first excited state is demonstrated for the first time over a wide temperature window in planar III-nitride RTDs. An analytical transport model for polar resonant tunneling heterostructures is introduced for the first time, showing a good quantitative agreement with experimental data. From this model we realize that tunneling transport is an extremely sensitive measure of the built-in polarization fields. Since such electric fields play a crucial role in the design of electronic and photonic devices, but are difficult to measure, our work provides a completely new method to accurately determine their magnitude for the entire class of polar heterostructures.

  3. III-nitrides on oxygen- and zinc-face ZnO substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namkoong, Gon; Burnham, Shawn; Lee, Kyoung-Keun; Trybus, Elaissa; Doolittle, W. Alan; Losurdo, Maria; Capezzuto, Pio; Bruno, Giovanni; Nemeth, Bill; Nause, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    The characteristics of III-nitrides grown on zinc- and oxygen-face ZnO by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy were investigated. The reflection high-energy electron diffraction pattern indicates formation of a cubic phase at the interface between III-nitride and both Zn- and O-face ZnO. The polarity indicates that Zn-face ZnO leads to a single polarity, while O-face ZnO forms mixed polarity of III-nitrides. Furthermore, by using a vicinal ZnO substrate, the terrace-step growth of GaN was realized with a reduction by two orders of magnitude in the dislocation-related etch pit density to ∼10 8 cm -2 , while a dislocation density of ∼10 10 cm -2 was obtained on the on-axis ZnO substrates

  4. N-butylamine functionalized graphene oxide for detection of iron(III) by photoluminescence quenching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Javad; Manteghian, Mehrdad; Badiei, Alireza; Ueda, Hiroshi; Javanbakht, Mehran

    2016-02-01

    An N-butylamine functionalized graphene oxide nanolayer was synthesized and characterized by ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Detection of iron(III) based on photoluminescence spectroscopy was investigated. The N-butylamine functionalized graphene oxide was shown to specifically interact with iron (III), compared with other cationic trace elements including potassium (I), sodium (I), calcium (II), chromium (III), zinc (II), cobalt (II), copper (II), magnesium (II), manganese (II), and molybdenum (VI). The quenching effect of iron (III) on the luminescence emission of N-butylamine functionalized graphene oxide layer was used to detect iron (III). The limit of detection (2.8 × 10(-6)  M) and limit of quantitation (2.9 × 10(-5)  M) were obtained under optimal conditions. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Cacotheline as an oxidimetric reagent. Determination of Sn(II), Cu(I), Ti(III), Fe(II), V(II) and V(III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemani Murty, K.; Yedluri Rao, P.; Geddada Chalam, K.

    1982-01-01

    Sn(II), Ti(III), Cu(I),Fe(II), V(III) and V(II) can be titrated potentiometrically with cacotheline in 1-4 M hydrochloric acid, 0.5-2 M hydrochloric acid, 0.5-1.5 M sulphuric acid in presence of 4 ml of 10% EDTA solution in a total volume of 50 ml, 9-10 M phosphoric acid, 4-8 M acetic acid and 3-8 M acetic acid respectively. Cacotheline can be used for the assay of tin plate and solder. The cacotheline undergoes a 2-electron reduction reaction. A cacotheline solution (0.005 M) in 0.02 M hydrochloric acid is fairly stable for several months. The conditional redox potentials of cacotheline have been determined in sulphuric, phosphoric and acetic acid medium. (Author)

  6. Fe(II)/Fe(III)-Catalyzed Intramolecular Didehydro-Diels-Alder Reaction of Styrene-ynes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Hyeon Jin; Seong, Eun Young; Ahn, Kwang-Hyun; Kang, Eun Joo

    2018-02-02

    The intramolecular didehydro-Diels-Alder reaction of styrene-ynes was catalyzed by Fe(II) and Fe(III) to produce various naphthalene derivatives under microwave heating conditions. Mechanistic calculations found that the Fe(II) catalyst activates the styrenyl diene in an inverse-electron-demand Diels-Alder reaction, and the consecutive dehydrogenation reaction can be promoted by either Fe(II)-catalyzed direct dehydrogenation or an Fe(III)-catalyzed rearomatization/dehydrogenation pathway.

  7. Cross-Sectional Associations of Serum Perfluoroalkyl Acids and Thyroid Hormones in U.S. Adults: Variation According to TPOAb and Iodine Status (NHANES 2007–2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Glenys M.; Rauch, Stephen A.; Marie, Nathalie Ste; Mattman, Andre; Lanphear, Bruce P.; Venners, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFASs) are suspected thyroid toxicants, but results from epidemiological studies are inconsistent. Objectives: We examined associations between serum PFASs and thyroid hormones (THs) in a representative, cross-sectional sample of U.S. adults. We hypothesized that people with high thyroid peroxidase antibodies and low iodine would be more susceptible to PFAS-induced thyroid disruption. Methods: Our sample included 1,525 adults (≥ 18 years) from the 2007–2008 NHANES study with available serum PFASs and THs. We examined associations between four serum PFASs [perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)], and serum THs [free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), fT3/fT4, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), total T3 (TT3), and total T4 (TT4)] using multivariable linear regression. We stratified subjects into four groups by two indicators of thyroid “stress”: thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb ≥ 9 IU/mL) and iodine status (PFAS–TH associations were not modified by high TPOAb or low iodine alone. However, PFHxS and PFOS were negatively associated (p PFAS-associated thyroid disruption in a subset of U.S. adults with high TPOAb (a marker of autoimmune hypothyroidism) and low iodine status, who may represent a vulnerable subgroup. However, the small sample size, cross-sectional design, and possibility of reverse causation are limitations of this work. Citation: Webster GM, Rauch SA, Ste Marie N, Mattman A, Lanphear BP, Venners SA. 2016. Cross-sectional associations of serum perfluoroalkyl acids and thyroid hormones in U.S. adults: variation according to TPOAb and iodine status (NHANES 2007–2008). Environ Health Perspect 124:935–942; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409589 PMID:26517287

  8. Decimetric type III radio bursts and associated hard X-ray spikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, B. R.; Benz, A. O.; Ranieri, M.; Simnett, G. M.

    1984-01-01

    For a relatively weak solar flare on August 6, 1981, at 10:32 UT, a detailed comparison is made between hard X-ray spikes and decimetric type III radio bursts. The hard X-ray observations are made at energies above 30 keV, and the radio data are obtained in the frequency range from 100 to 1000 MHz. The time resolution for all the data sets is approximately 0.1 s or better. The dynamic radio spectrum exhibits many fast drift type III radio bursts with both normal and reverse slope, whereas the X-ray time profile contains many well resolved short spikes with durations less than or equal to 1 s. Some of the X-ray spikes are seen to be associated in time with reverse-slope bursts, indicating either that the electron beams producing the radio burst contain two or three orders of magnitude more fast electrons than has previously been assumed or that the electron beams can induce the acceleration of additional electrons or occur in coincidence with this acceleration. A case is presented in which a normal slope radio burst at approximately 600 MHz occurs in coincidence with the peak of an X-ray spike to within 0.1 s.

  9. Thermodecomposition of lanthanides (III) and ytrium (III) glucoheptonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giolito, J.

    1987-01-01

    The lanthanides (III) and yttrium (III) glucoheptonates as well the D-glucoheptono 1-4 lactone were studied using common analytical methods, elemental microanalysis of carbon and hydrogen, thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. These compounds were prepared from the reaction between the lanthanides (III) and yttrium (III) hydroxides and glucoheptonic acid aqueous solution obtained by means of the delta lactone hydrolysis of this acid. After stoichiometric reaction the compounds were precipitated by the addition of absolute ethanol, washed with the same solvent and dried in desiccator. Thermogravimetric the (TG) curves of the lanthanides glucoheptonates of the ceric group present thermal profiles with enough differences permitting an easy caracterization of each compound and the yttrium (III) glucoheptonate TG curve showed a great similarity with the erbium (III) compound TG curve. The differential scanning calometry (DSC) curves showed endothermic and exothermic peaks by their shape, height and position (temperature) permit an easy and rapid identification of each compound specially if DSC and TG curves were examined simultaneously. (author) [pt

  10. The Moessbauer effect in Fe(III) HEDTA, Fe(III) EDTA, and Fe(III) CDTA compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado, F.R.

    1989-01-01

    The dependence of Moessbauer spectra with pH value of Fe(III)HEDTA and Fe(III)CDTA compounds is studied. Informations on formation processes of LFe-O-FeL (L=ligand) type dimers by the relation of titration curves of Fe(III)EDTA, Fe(III)HEDTA and Fe(III)CDTA compounds with the series of Moessbauer spectra, are obtained. Some informations on Fe-O-Fe bond structure are also obtained. Comparing the titration curves with the series of Moessbauer spectra, it is concluded that the dimerization process begins when a specie of the form FeXOH α (X = EDTA, HEDTA, CDTA; α = -1, -2) arises. (M.C.K.) [pt

  11. Solar Flares, Type III Radio Bursts, Coronal Mass Ejections, and Energetic Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cane, Hilary V.; Erickson, W. C.; Prestage, N. P.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this correlative study between greater than 20 MeV solar proton events, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), flares, and radio bursts it is found that essentially all of the proton events are preceded by groups of type III bursts and all are preceded by CMEs. These type III bursts (that are a flare phenomenon) usually are long-lasting, intense bursts seen in the low-frequency observations made from space. They are caused by streams of electrons traveling from close to the solar surface out to 1 AU. In most events the type III emissions extend into, or originate at, the time when type II and type IV bursts are reported (some 5 to 10 minutes after the start of the associated soft X-ray flare) and have starting frequencies in the 500 to approximately 100 MHz range that often get lower as a function of time. These later type III emissions are often not reported by ground-based observers, probably because of undue attention to type II bursts. It is suggested to call them type III-1. Type III-1 bursts have previously been called shock accelerated (SA) events, but an examination of radio dynamic spectra over an extended frequency range shows that the type III-1 bursts usually start at frequencies above any type II burst that may be present. The bursts sometimes continue beyond the time when type II emission is seen and, furthermore, sometimes occur in the absence of any type II emission. Thus the causative electrons are unlikely to be shock accelerated and probably originate in the reconnection regions below fast CMEs. A search did not find any type III-1 bursts that were not associated with CMEs. The existence of low-frequency type III bursts proves that open field lines extend from within 0.5 radius of the Sun into the interplanetary medium (the bursts start above 100 MHz, and such emission originates within 0.5 solar radius of the solar surface). Thus it is not valid to assume that only closed field lines exist in the flaring regions associated with CMEs and some

  12. Luminescence and circularly polarized luminescence of macrocyclic Eu(III) and Tb(III) complexes embedded in xerogel and sol-gel SiO2 glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, M.; Rau, D.; Kai, T.

    2002-01-01

    Luminescence, time-resolved luminescence, circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) and decay profiles of Ln(III)(15-crownether-5) (Ln=Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb) and Tb(III)-(R),(S)-cyclen derivative complexes doped in xerogel and sol-gel silica glasses are measured at temperatures down to 10 K to characterize luminescence properties and the electronic structure in the excited states. Luminescence spectral profiles and calculation of crystal field parameters (B 0 (2) ,B 2 (2) ) in the 5 D 0 → 7 F J (J=1,2) transition give evidence of the fact that the pentagonal and planar structure of Eu(III) (15-crownether-5) does hold in xerogel and sol-gel glasses prepared at temperatures below 100 deg. C. As annealing temperatures are increased from 80 deg. C to 750 deg. C, Eu(III) complexes in sol-gel glasses are found to decompose gradually to SiO 2 :Eu 3+ . Tb(III)-(R) and (S)-cyclen derivative complexes in xerogel reveal at room temperature and 10 K sharp CPL spectra with luminescence dissymmetry factors g lum =-0.1 and 0.1, respectively. These complexes doped in sol-gel glasses represent luminescence characteristics of rare earth ions encapsulated in the nano-porous host

  13. Oxidative dehydrogenation of the 2-aminomethylpyridine (EDTA) ruthenium (III) complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toma, H.E.; Tsurumaki, M.

    1990-01-01

    The oxidative dehydrogenation of the 2-aminomethylpyridine (ampy) ligand coordinated to the (EDTA)RU(III) complex was investigated based on cyclic voltammetry, spectoelectrochemistry and stopped-flow kinetic measurements in aqueous solution. The reaction mechanism is consistent with the deprotonation of the ampy ligand (pk a =7.48), followed by a reversible one-electron transfer step. The intermediate species generated at this step undergoes a metal-induced electron transfer process, with k=227 s -1 , converting into the corresponding 2-iminomethylpyridine complex. (author) [pt

  14. Strain-effect transistors: Theoretical study on the effects of external strain on III-nitride high-electron-mobility transistors on flexible substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shervin, Shahab; Asadirad, Mojtaba [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204-4006 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States); Kim, Seung-Hwan; Ravipati, Srikanth; Lee, Keon-Hwa [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204-4006 (United States); Bulashevich, Kirill [STR Group, Inc., Engels av. 27, P.O. Box 89, 194156, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Ryou, Jae-Hyun, E-mail: jryou@uh.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204-4006 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States); Texas Center for Superconductivity at the University of Houston (TcSUH), University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States)

    2015-11-09

    This paper presents strain-effect transistors (SETs) based on flexible III-nitride high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) through theoretical calculations. We show that the electronic band structures of InAlGaN/GaN thin-film heterostructures on flexible substrates can be modified by external bending with a high degree of freedom using polarization properties of the polar semiconductor materials. Transfer characteristics of the HEMT devices, including threshold voltage and transconductance, are controlled by varied external strain. Equilibrium 2-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) is enhanced with applied tensile strain by bending the flexible structure with the concave-side down (bend-down condition). 2DEG density is reduced and eventually depleted with increasing compressive strain in bend-up conditions. The operation mode of different HEMT structures changes from depletion- to enchantment-mode or vice versa depending on the type and magnitude of external strain. The results suggest that the operation modes and transfer characteristics of HEMTs can be engineered with an optimum external bending strain applied in the device structure, which is expected to be beneficial for both radio frequency and switching applications. In addition, we show that drain currents of transistors based on flexible InAlGaN/GaN can be modulated only by external strain without applying electric field in the gate. The channel conductivity modulation that is obtained by only external strain proposes an extended functional device, gate-free SETs, which can be used in electro-mechanical applications.

  15. Rethinking anaerobic As(III) oxidation in filters: Effect of indigenous nitrate respirers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jinli; Du, Jingjing; Tian, Haixia; Chan, Tingshan; Jing, Chuanyong

    2018-04-01

    Microorganisms play a key role in the redox transformation of arsenic (As) in aquifers. In this study, the impact of indigenous bacteria, especially the prevailing nitrate respirers, on arsenite (As(III)) oxidation was explored during groundwater filtration using granular TiO 2 and subsequent spent TiO 2 anaerobic landfill. X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy analysis showed As(III) oxidation (46% in 10 days) in the presence of nitrate in the simulated anaerobic landfills. Meanwhile, iron (Fe) species on the spent TiO 2 were dominated by amorphous ferric arsenate, ferrihydrite and goethite. The Fe phase showed no change during the anaerobic landfill incubation. Batch incubation experiments implied that the indigenous bacteria completely oxidized As(III) to arsenate (As(V)) in 10 days using nitrate as the terminal electron acceptor under anaerobic conditions. The bacterial community analysis indicated that various kinds of microbial species exist in groundwater matrix. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum, with Hydrogenophaga (34%), Limnohabitans (16%), and Simplicispira (7%) as the major bacterial genera. The nitrate respirers especially from the Hydrogenophaga genus anaerobically oxidized As(III) using nitrate as an electron acceptor instead of oxygen. Our study implied that microbes can facilitate the groundwater As oxidation using nitrate on the adsorptive media. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Selective Oxidation of Glycerol with 3% H2O2 Catalyzed by LDH-Hosted Cr(III Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongde Wu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of layered double hydroxides (LDHs –hosted sulphonato-salen Cr(III complexes were prepared and characterized by various physico-chemical measurements, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscope (TEM, scanning electron microscope (SEM and elemental analysis. Additionally, their catalytic performances were investigated in the selective oxidation of glycerol (GLY using 3% H2O2 as an oxidant. It was found that all the LDH-hosted Cr(III complexes exhibited significantly enhanced catalytic performance compared to the homogeneous Cr(III complex. Additionally, it was worth mentioning that the metal composition of LDH plates played an important role in the catalytic performances of LDH-hosted Cr(III complex catalysts. Under the optimal reaction conditions, the highest GLY conversion reached 85.5% with 59.3% of the selectivity to 1,3-dihydroxyacetone (DHA. In addition, the catalytic activity remained after being recycled five times.

  17. Syringe injectable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    Seamless and minimally-invasive three-dimensional (3D) interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating syringe injection and subsequent unfolding of submicrometer-thick, centimeter-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 micrometers. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with > 90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with 3D structures, including (i) monitoring of internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (ii) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (iii) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, delivery of large volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics. PMID:26053995

  18. Electron scattering by native defects in III-V nitrides and their alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, L.; Walukiewicz, W.

    1996-03-01

    We have calculated the electron mobilities in GaN and InN taking into consideration scattering by short range potentials, in addition to all standard scattering mechanisms. These potentials are produced by the native defects which are responsible for the high electron concentrations in nominally undoped nitrides. Comparison of the calculated mobilities with experimental data shows that scattering by short range potentials is the dominant mechanism limiting the electron mobilities in unintentionally doped nitrides with large electron concentrations. In the case of Al x Ga 1-x N alloys, the reduction in the electron concentration due to the upward shift of the conduction band relative to the native defect level can account for the experimentally measured mobilities. Resonant scattering is shown to be important when the defect and Fermi levels are close in energy

  19. Sorption of trace amounts of gallium (III) on iron (III) oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Music, S.; Gessner, M.; Wolf, R.H.H.

    1979-01-01

    The sorption of trace amounts of gallium(III) on iron(III) oxide has been studied as a function of pH. Optimum conditions have been found for the preconcentration of traces of gallium(III) by iron(III) oxide. The influence of surface active substances and of complexing agents on the sorption of trace amounts of gallium(III) on iron(III) oxide has been also studied. (orig.) [de

  20. Sorption of trace amounts of gallium (III) on iron (III) oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Music, S; Gessner, M; Wolf, R H.H. [Institut Rudjer Boskovic, Zagreb (Yugoslavia)

    1979-01-01

    The sorption of trace amounts of gallium(III) on iron(III) oxide has been studied as a function of pH. Optimum conditions have been found for the preconcentration of traces of gallium(III) by iron(III) oxide. The influence of surface active substances and of complexing agents on the sorption of trace amounts of gallium(III) on iron(III) oxide has been also studied.

  1. WISC-III e WAIS-III na avaliação da inteligência de cegos WISC-III/WAIS-III en ciegos WISC-III and WAIS-III in intellectual assessment of blind people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth do Nascimento

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Diante da escassez de pesquisas nacionais e de testes psicológicos destinados a avaliar pessoas cegas, desenvolveu-se um estudo psicométrico com as escalas verbais dos testes WISC-III e WAIS-III. Após as adaptações de alguns estímulos e das instruções, os testes foram aplicados em crianças (N = 120 e adultos (N = 52 residentes em Belo Horizonte. Os resultados indicaram que as escalas verbais modificadas apresentam uma boa consistência interna (alfa> 0,80. Além disso, a investigação da validade fatorial identifica a presença clara de apenas um componente. Este componente explica 81% e 64% para o WISC-III e WAIS-III, respectivamente. Conclui-se que as adaptações a que se procedeu não afetaram a estrutura fatorial das escalas. Deste modo, os profissionais poderão utilizar as escalas modificadas para avaliar a inteligência de pessoas cegas.Frente a la escasez de investigaciones nacionales asi como la ausencia de tests psicológicos que evaluen personas ciegas, se ha desarrollado un estudio psicometrico com la escalas verbales del WISC-III y WAIS-III. Posteriormente a las adaptaciones de algunos estímulos y de las instrucciones, las escalas fueron aplicadas a una muestra de niños (n=120 y de adultos (n=52 residentes en la ciudad de Belo Horizonte-Brasil. Los resultados indican que las escalas verbales modificadas presentan una alta fiabilidad (alpha >0,80 asi como la presencia clara de un unico componente responsable por 81% y 64% de la variancia del WIC-III e WAIS-III respectivamente. Se ha concluido que las modificaciones efectuadas no han comprometido la estructura factorial de las escalas verbales. Por tanto, los profesionales psicólogos pueden utilizar las escalas modificadas para la evaluación de la inteligencia de personas portadoras de ceguera.Owing to the almost lack of a national research on psychological testing for the evaluation of blind people, a psychometric study has been developed with the WISC-III and WAIS-III

  2. Deactivation of group III acceptors in silicon during keV electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sah, C.; Sun, J.Y.; Tzou, J.J.; Pan, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental results on p-Si metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors (MOSC's) are presented which demonstrate the electrical deactivation of the acceptor dopant impurity during 8-keV electron irradiation not only in boron but also aluminum and indium-doped silicon. The deactivation rates of the acceptors during the 8-keV electron irradiation are nearly independent of the acceptor impurity type. The final density of the remaining active acceptor approaches nonzero values N/sub infinity/, with N/sub infinity/(B) Al--H>In-H. These deactivation results are consistent with our hydrogen bond model. The thermal annealing or regeneration rate of the deactivated acceptors in the MOSC's irradiated by 8-keV electron is much smaller than that in the MOSC's that have undergone avalanche electron injection, indicating that the keV electron irradiation gives rise to stronger hydrogen-acceptor bond

  3. Redox behavior of Ce(IV)/Ce(III) in the presence of nitrilotriacetic acid: a surrogate study for An(IV)/An(III) redox behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Y.; Nankawa, T.; Ohnuki, T.; Francis, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Using cyclic voltammetry, we investigated the redox behavior of Ce(IV)/Ce(III), which is a surrogate for An(IV)/An(III) (An = actinides), in a solution of nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) at 25 C. The cyclic voltammogram of Ce in a 0.1 M NTA solution at pH 6 showed a reversible one-electron redox reaction for Ce(IV)/Ce(III) at 0.51 V vs. Ag/AgCl. This redox potential was much lower than that obtained in 1 M nitric acid, indicating that Ce(IV) was preferentially stabilized by complexation with NTA. The redox potential in the NTA solution was independent of the Ce concentration from 2 to 20 mM, NTA concentration from 5 to 200 mM and pH between 3 and 7. These results indicated that no polymerization and no additional coordination of NTA and OH to the Ce(III)-NTA complex took place during the redox reaction. As the speciation calculation of Ce(III) in the NTA solution showed that the predominant species was Ce III (nta) 2 3 (H 3 nta = NTA), the redox reaction of the Ce-NTA complex was expressed by the following: Ce IV (nta) 2 2- + e - ↔ Ce III (nta) 2 3 . The logarithm of the stability constant of Ce IV (nta) 2 2- was calculated to be 38.6 ± 0.8 for I = 0 from the redox potential shift of Ce(IV)/Ce(III) in the NTA solution. The value was in good accordance with the stability constant of the Np IV (nta) 2 2- complex, demonstrating that the aqueous coordination chemistry of Ce(IV) with NTA is quite similar to that of An(IV). These results strongly suggest that a negative shift of the Pu(IV)/Pu(III) redox potential in the NTA solution should make Pu(IV) more stable than Pu(III) even in a reducing environment. (orig.)

  4. Physical activity and telomere length in U.S. men and women: An NHANES investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Larry A

    2017-07-01

    The principal objective was to determine the extent to which physical activity (PA) accounts for differences in leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in a large random sample of U.S. adults. Another purpose was to assess the extent to which multiple demographic and lifestyle covariates affect the relationship between PA and LTL. A total of 5823 adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2002) were studied cross-sectionally. Employing the quantitative polymerase chain reaction method, LTL was compared to standard reference DNA. PA was indexed using MET-minutes using self-reported frequency, intensity, and duration of participation in 62 physical activities. Covariates were controlled statistically. Telomeres were 15.6 base pairs shorter for each year of chronological age (F=723.2, Pactivity and those in the Sedentary, Low, and Moderate groups were 140, 137, and 111, respectively. Adults with High activity were estimated to have a biologic aging advantage of 9years (140 base pairs÷15.6) over Sedentary adults. The difference in cell aging between those with High and Low activity was also significant, 8.8years, as was the difference between those with High and Moderate PA (7.1years). Overall, PA was significantly and meaningfully associated with telomere length in U.S. men and women. Evidently, adults who participate in high levels of PA tend to have longer telomeres, accounting for years of reduced cellular aging compared to their more sedentary counterparts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Anti-Legionella dumoffii Activity of Galleria mellonella Defensin and Apolipophorin III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Cytryńska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The gram-negative bacterium Legionella dumoffii is, beside Legionella pneumophila, an etiological agent of Legionnaires’ disease, an atypical form of pneumonia. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of Galleria mellonella defense polypeptides against L. dumoffii. The extract of immune hemolymph, containing a mixture of defense peptides and proteins, exhibited a dose-dependent bactericidal effect on L. dumoffii. The bacterium appeared sensitive to a main component of the hemolymph extract, apolipophorin III, as well as to a defense peptide, Galleria defensin, used at the concentrations 0.4 mg/mL and 40 μg/mL, respectively. L. dumoffii cells cultured in the presence of choline were more susceptible to both defense factors analyzed. A transmission electron microscopy study of bacterial cells demonstrated that Galleria defensin and apolipophorin III induced irreversible cell wall damage and strong intracellular alterations, i.e., increased vacuolization, cytoplasm condensation and the appearance of electron-white spaces in electron micrographs. Our findings suggest that insects, such as G. mellonella, with their great diversity of antimicrobial factors, can serve as a rich source of compounds for the testing of Legionella susceptibility to defense-related peptides and proteins.

  6. Experimental transition probabilities for several spectral lines arising from the 5d10 6s{8s, 7p, 5f, 5g} electronic configurations of Pb III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso-Medina, A.

    2010-01-01

    Transition probabilities for 30 spectral lines, arising from the 5d 10 6s{8s, 7p, 5f, 5g} electronic configurations of Pb III (20 measured for the first time), have been experimentally determined from measurements of emission line intensities in a plasma lead induced by ablation with a Nd:YAG laser. The line intensities were obtained with the target placed in molecular argon at 6 Torr, recorded at a 400 ns delay from the laser pulse, which provides appropriate measurement conditions, and analysed between 200 and 700 nm. They are measured when the plasma reaches local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). The plasma under study had an electron temperature (T) of 21,400 K and an electron number density (N e ) of 7x10 16 cm -3 . The influence of self-absorption has been estimated for every line, and plasma homogeneity has been checked. The values obtained were compared with previous experimental values and theoretical estimates where possible.

  7. Effects of oxygen plasma treatment on domestic aramid fiber III reinforced bismaleimide composite interfacial properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chen; Wang, Jing; Chen, Ping; Feng, Jiayue; Cui, Jinyuan; Yang, Faze

    2017-12-01

    Domestic Aramid Fiber III (DAF III) was modified by oxygen plasma treatment. The fiber surface characteristics was observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy. The results showed that oxygen plasma treatment changed surface morphologies. The effects of oxygen plasma treatment on DAF III reinforced bismaleimides (BMI) composite bending and interfacial properties were investigated, respectively. The ILSS value increased from 49.3 MPa to 56.0 MPa (by 13.5%) after oxygen plasma treatment. The bending strength changed a little. Furthermore, the composite rupture mode changed from interfacial rupture to fiber or resin bulk rupture.

  8. Extraction and separation studies of Ga(III, In(III and Tl(III using the neutral organophosphorous extractant, Cyanex-923

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. DHADKE

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The neutral extractant, Cyanes-923 has been used for the extraction and separation of gallium(III, indium(III and thallium(III from acidic solution. These metal ions were found to be quantitatively extracted with Cyanex-923 in toluene in the pH range 4.5–5.5, 5.0–6.5 and 1.5–3.0, respectively, and from the organic phase they can be stripped with 2.0 mol dm-3 HNO3, 3.0 mol dm-3 HNO3 and 3.0 mol dm-3 HCl, respectively. The effect of pH equilibration period, diluents, diverse ions and stripping agents on the extraction of Ga(III, In(III and Tl(III has been studied. The stroichiometry of the extracted species of these metal ions was determined on the basis of the slope analysis method. The reaction proceed by solvation and the probable extracted species found were [MCl3. 3Cyanex-923] [where M = Ga(III or In(III ] and [HTlCl4. 3Cyanex-923]. Based on these results a sequential procedure for the separation of Ga(III, In(III and Tl(III from each other was developed.

  9. Association of high blood pressure with renal insufficiency: role of albuminuria, from NHANES, 1999-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ping; Zhu, Xiangzhu; Li, Haiming; Shrubsole, Martha J; Shi, Haiming; Zhang, Ming-zhi; Harris, Raymond C; Hao, Chuan-Ming; Dai, Qi

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between hypertension and kidney disease is complicated. Clinical trials found intense blood pressure control was not associated with alterations in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in all patients but did slow the rate of GFR decline among those with a higher baseline proteinuria. However, the underlying mechanism has been unclear. We tested the hypothesis that the association between high blood pressure and renal function is modified by albuminuria status by conducting analyses in a cross-sectional study with 12,440 adult participants without known kidney diseases, diabetes or cardiovascular diseases, participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2006. 1226 out of 12440 were found to have unknown high blood pressure and 4494 were found to have reduced renal function. Overall, a moderate association was found between high blood pressure and renal function insufficiency in all participants analyzed. However, among participants with albuminuria, the prevalence of moderate-severe renal insufficiency substantially and progressively increased from normal subjects to prehypertensive and undiagnosed hypertensive subjects (1.43%, 3.44%, 10.96%, respectively, P for trendhigh blood pressure and reduced renal function could be dependent upon the albuminuria status. This finding may provide a possible explanation for results observed in clinical trials of intensive blood pressure control. Further studies are warranted to confirm our findings.

  10. Inductive voltage adder (IVA) for submillimeter radius electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazarakis, M.G.; Poukey, J.W.; Maenchen, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    The authors have already demonstrated the utility of inductive voltage adder accelerators for production of small-size electron beams. In this approach, the inductive voltage adder drives a magnetically immersed foilless diode to produce high-energy (10--20 MeV), high-brightness pencil electron beams. This concept was first demonstrated with the successful experiments which converted the linear induction accelerator RADLAC II into an IVA fitted with a small 1-cm radius cathode magnetically immersed foilless diode (RADLAC II/SMILE). They present here first validations of extending this idea to mm-scale electron beams using the SABRE and HERMES-III inductive voltage adders as test beds. The SABRE experiments are already completed and have produced 30-kA, 9-MeV electron beams with envelope diameter of 1.5-mm FWHM. The HERMES-III experiments are currently underway

  11. Siloxides as supporting ligands in uranium(III)-mediated small-molecule activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mougel, Victor; Camp, Clement; Pecaut, Jacques; Mazzanti, Marinella [CEA-Grenoble (France). Lab. de Reconnaissance Ionique et Chimie de Coordination; Coperet, Christophe [ETH Zuerich (Switzerland). Lab. of Inorganic Chemistry; Maron, Laurent; Kefalidis, Christos E. [Toulouse Univ. (France). LPCNO, CNRS et INSA, UPS

    2012-12-03

    Siloxides support the reduction of small molecules with uranium complexes. The treatment of [U{N(SiMe_3)_2}{sub 3}] with HOSi(OtBu){sub 3} (3 equiv.) yielded a novel homoleptic uranium(III) siloxide complex 1, which acted as a two-electron reducing agent toward CS{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}. Uranium(III) siloxide complex 1 also reduced toluene to afford a diuranium inverted-sandwich complex. [German] Siloxide unterstuetzen die Reduktion kleiner Molekuele durch Uran-Komplexe. Die Behandlung von [U{N(SiMe_3)_2}{sub 3}] mit HOSi(OtBu){sub 3} (3 Aequiv.) liefert den neuartigen homoleptischen Uran(III)-Siloxid-Komplex 1, der als Zwei-Elektronen-Reduktionsmittel fuer CS{sub 2} und CO{sub 2} (siehe Schema) wirkt. Komplex 1 reduziert ausserdem Toluol und bildet einen invertierten Diuran-Sandwichkomplex.

  12. Potentiometric studies on some ternary complexes of Nd(III), Sm(III), Gd(III) and Ho(III) with cyclohexanediaminetetraacetic acid as primary ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marathe, D.G.; Munshi, K.N.

    1983-01-01

    The formation constants of the ternary complexes of neodymium(III), samarium(III), gadlonium(III) and holmium(III) with cyclohexanediaminetetraacetic acid (CyDTA) as primary ligand and dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN), dihydroxynaphthalene-6-sulphonic acid (DHNSA) and cateechol-3,5-disulphonic acid (CDSA) as secondary ligands have been investigated by potentiometric titration technique. The secondary ligands have been investigated by potentiometric titration technique. The values of formation constants of 1:1:1 ternary chelates are reported at three different temperatures, and at a fixed ionic strength, μ = 0.1 M (NaClO 4 ). (author)

  13. Solvent effects on extraction of aluminum(III), gallium(III), and indium(III), with decanoic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Hiromichi; Hayashi, Hisao; Fujii, Yukio; Mizuta, Masateru

    1986-01-01

    Extraction of aluminum(III) and indium(III) with decanoic acid in 1-octanol was carried out at 25 deg C and at an aqueous ionic strength of 0.1 mol dm -3 (NaClO 4 ). Monomeric and tetrameric aluminum(III) decanoates and monomeric indium(III) decanoate are responsible for the extraction. From a comparison of the present results with those obtained from the previous works, the polymerization of the extracted species was found to be more extensive in benzene than in 1-octanol, and the metal decanoates were highly polymerized in the following order in both solvents: Al > Ga > In. (author)

  14. Ru(III) catalyzed permanganate oxidation of aniline at environmentally relevant pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Hui; Guan, Xiaohong

    2014-07-01

    Ru(III) was employed as catalyst for aniline oxidation by permanganate at environmentally relevant pH for the first time. Ru(III) could significantly improve the oxidation rate of aniline by 5-24 times with its concentration increasing from 2.5 to 15 μmol/L. The reaction of Ru(III) catalyzed permanganate oxidation of aniline was first-order with respect to aniline, permanganate and Ru(III), respectively. Thus the oxidation kinetics can be described by a third-order rate law. Aniline degradation by Ru(III) catalyzed permanganate oxidation was markedly influenced by pH, and the second-order rate constant (ktapp) decreased from 643.20 to 2.67 (mol/L)⁻¹sec⁻¹ with increasing pH from 4.0 to 9.0, which was possibly due to the decrease of permanganate oxidation potential with increasing pH. In both the uncatalytic and catalytic permanganate oxidation, six byproducts of aniline were identified in UPLC-MS/MS analysis. Ru(III), as an electron shuttle, was oxidized by permanganate to Ru(VI) and Ru(VII), which acted the co-oxidants for decomposition of aniline. Although Ru(III) could catalyze permanganate oxidation of aniline effectively, dosing homogeneous Ru(III) into water would lead to a second pollution. Therefore, efforts would be made to investigate the catalytic performance of supported Ru(III) toward permanganate oxidation in our future study. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Hot electron-induced time-resolved electrogenerated chemiluminescence of a europium(III) label in fully aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Q.; Hakansson, M.; Spehar, A.-M.; Ahonen, J.; Ala-Kleme, T.; Kulmala, S.

    2006-01-01

    Time-resolved electrogenerated chemiluminescence of multidentate phenolic Eu(III) chelates were studied in aqueous solution. 2,6-bis[N,N-bis(carboxymethyl)-aminomethyl]-4-benzoylphenol forms a photoluminescent and electrochemiluminescent Eu(III) chelate, whereas 2,6-bis[N,N-bis(carboxymethyl)-aminomethyl]-4-methyl phenol-chelated Eu(III) turned out to be not luminescent at all. The importance of the redox properties of both the ground and the excited states of the ligands and the central ion is shown. The former chelate shows relatively weak ECL at an oxide-covered aluminum electrode but the ECL intensity can be strongly enhanced by the addition of peroxodisulfate ions. In the presence of 1 mM peroxodisulfate ions the ECL lifetime of this chelate is 0.94 ms, thus easily allowing time-resolved detection of the chelate. This chelate can be conjugated to antibodies by thioureido linkage and used as an electrochemiluminescent label in immunoassays as a marker which displays long-lived luminescence in the red end of the optical spectrum. The present ECL is mainly based on the ligand sensitized redox excitation of the chelate by analogous pathways to those known from the studies of aromatic Tb(III) chelates but the energy transfer from the emission centers of the aluminum oxide film can also have minor contribution to the excitation of the label

  16. Synthesis and characterization of tris[butyl-(1-methyl-3-phenyl-propyl)-dithiocarbamato]-cobalt(III) seskvitoluene

    OpenAIRE

    TIBOR SABO; ISMET M. HODZIC; SRECKO R. TRIFUNOVIC; VESNA M. DJINOVIC; GORAN N. KALUDJEROVIC

    2002-01-01

    A new bidentate ligand butyl-(1-methyl-3-phenyl-propyl)-dithiocarbamate (bmFpdtc) was prepared, as the sodium salt. In the reaction of hexaaminecobalt(III) chloride with NabmFpdtc, the corresponding tris[butyl-(1-methyl-3-phenyl-propyl)-dithiocarbamato]cobalt(III), [Co(bmFpdtc)3] complex was prepared. The complex was characterized by elemental analysis, infrared, electronic absorption, 1H and 13C-NMR spectroscopy.

  17. Leisure-time physical activity patterns by weight control status: 1999-2002 NHANES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Judy; Yore, Michelle M; Kohl, Harold W

    2007-05-01

    Regular physical activity reduces the risk of hypertension, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, and some cancers. Physical activity is associated inversely with overweight and obesity prevalence, thus potentially assisting in weight control efforts. The purpose of this paper is to examine the variability of physical activity levels and their patterns by self-reported weight control status in a nationally representative sample. Four years of data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to examine leisure-time physical activity patterns (regular, irregular, inactive) and the prevalence of weight control practices (trying to lose, trying to maintain, not trying to lose or maintain) among U.S. adults (N = 9496). The prevalence of regular physical activity was 32.6% among people trying to lose weight, 37.9% among people trying to maintain weight, and 21.8% among those not trying to lose or maintain weight. Those trying to lose weight were almost three times as likely to be regularly active (vs inactive), and those trying to maintain weight were over three times more likely to be regularly active (vs inactive) than those not trying to lose or maintain weight. The most commonly reported activities among those trying to lose weight were walking (38.3%), yard work (14.5%), biking (12.5%), and running (11.6%). Despite the importance of physical activity, fewer than half the people trying to lose or maintain weight were regularly active during leisure-time. People trying to lose or maintain weight had a higher likelihood of being regularly active than those not trying to lose or maintain weight. Walking was the most common type of physical activity among all weight control groups. Health promotion efforts should promote increased levels of physical activity among all adults.

  18. Quantitative comparisons of type 3 radio burst intensity and fast electron flux at 1 AU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzenreiter, R.J.; Evans, L.G.; Lin, R.P.

    1975-09-01

    The flux of fast solar electrons and the intensity of the type-III radio emission generated by these particles were compared at one AU. Two regimes were found in the generation of type-III radiation: one, where the radio intensity is linearly proportional to the electron flux, and another, which occurs above a threshold electron flux, where the radio intensity is approximately proportional to the 2.4 power of the electron flux. This threshold appears to reflect a transition to a different emission mechanism

  19. Complexes of molybdenum(III) with 2-(2'-pyridyl)benzimidazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, S.P.; Prasad, K.M.

    1979-01-01

    Molybdenum(III) forms with 2-(2'-pyridyl) benzimidazole(LH) the trischelated complexes, [Mo(LH) 3 ]X 3 as well as the cationic-anionic complexes, [Mo(LH) 3 X 2 ] + [Mo(LH)X 4 ] - (X=Cl - ,Br - or NCS - ), depending on pH. These complexes have been synthesised and characterised from elemental analyses, i.r. and electronic spectra, magnetic moments and molar conductance. (auth.)

  20. Pop, heavy metal and the blues: secondary analysis of persistent organic pollutants (POP), heavy metals and depressive symptoms in the NHANES National Epidemiological Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Michael; Williams, Lana J; Andreazza, Ana C; Pasco, Julie A; Dodd, Seetal; Jacka, Felice N; Moylan, Steven; Reiner, Eric J; Magalhaes, Pedro V S

    2014-07-18

    Persistent environmental pollutants, including heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs), have a ubiquitous presence. Many of these pollutants affect neurobiological processes, either accidentally or by design. The aim of this study was to explore the associations between assayed measures of POPs and heavy metals and depressive symptoms. We hypothesised that higher levels of pollutants and metals would be associated with depressive symptoms. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). A total of 15 140 eligible people were included across the three examined waves of NHANES. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the nine-item version of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), using a cut-off point of 9/10 as likely depression cases. Organic pollutants and heavy metals, including cadmium, lead and mercury, as well as polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs), pesticides, phenols and phthalates, were measured in blood or urine. Higher cadmium was positively associated with depression (adjusted Prevalence Ratios (PR)=1.48, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.90). Higher levels of mercury were negatively associated with depression (adjusted PR=0.62, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.78), and mercury was associated with increased fish consumption (n=5500, r=0.366, p<0.001). In addition, several PFCs (perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorohexane sulfonic acid, perfluorodecanoic acid and perfluorononanoic acid) were negatively associated with the prevalence of depression. Cadmium was associated with an increased likelihood of depression. Contrary to hypotheses, many of persistent environmental pollutants were not associated or negatively associated with depression. While the inverse association between mercury and depressive symptoms may be explained by a protective role for fish consumption, the negative associations with other pollutants remains unclear. This exploratory study suggests the need for further investigation of the role of various agents and classes of agents in the

  1. Electron-beam-induced reactivation of Si dopants in hydrogenated two-dimensional AlGaAs heterostructures: a possible new route for III-V nanostructure fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurowski, Ludovic; Bernard, Dorothee; Constant, Eugene; Decoster, Didier

    2004-01-01

    Hydrogen incorporation in n-type Si-doped GaAs epilayers is a well-known process which leads to the neutralization of the active Si impurities with the formation of SiH complexes. Recently, we have shown that SiH complex dissociation and, consequently, Si-dopant reactivation could occur when the epilayers are exposed to an electron beam. Two epilayers have been studied: the first is a 0.35 μm thick hydrogenated Si-doped GaAs epilayer and the second is Si planar-doped AlGaAs/GaAs/InGaAs heterostructures. Firstly, Hall effect measurements have been carried out on the epilayers exposed, after RF hydrogen plasma exposition, to increasing electron doses with different injection energies. For the 2D heterostructures, we have observed that the free carrier density N s does not vary significantly for weak electron densities. This reactivation presents a threshold value, contrary to the 0.35 μm epilayer in which N s varies quite linearly. It will be shown that such phenomena might be attributed to the filling of surface states as the dopants are progressively reactivated. Then, using a high spatial resolution electron beam lithography system, nanometric conductive patterns have been fabricated starting from hydrogenated epilayers. Electric measurements have been performed and the results obtained show that about 15 nm spatial resolution could be expected. In conclusion, taking into account this spatial resolution, the high spatial contrast of conductivity which could be expected due to the existence of an electron dose threshold, and the high mobility of the AlGaAs/GaAs/InGaAs heterostructure, the effects described in this paper could open a new way for the fabrication of III-V 1D or 2D mesoscopic structures for electronic or optoelectronic applications

  2. 2,2',-bipyridine and 1,10-phenanthroline complexes of lanthanide(III) trifluoroacetates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, S.N.; Singh, M.

    1983-01-01

    The syntheses and characterization of lanthanide(III) triflloroacetate complexes with 2,2'-bipyridine and 1,10-phenanthroline are reported. Lanthanide(III) trifluoroacetates yield compounds of the type Ln(CF 3 COO) 3 .bipy or phen with 2,2'-bipyridine and 1,10-phenanthroline. Their properties and structures have been studied using chemical analyses. electronic and infrared spectra. Thermal analysis of a few complexes have also been done. The infrared data show that the trifluoroacetate group acts as a bidentate ligand making the coordination number of lanthanide eight. (author)

  3. Synthesis and oxidation of CpIrIII compounds: functionalization of a Cp methyl group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park-Gehrke, Lisa S; Freudenthal, John; Kaminsky, Werner; Dipasquale, Antonio G; Mayer, James M

    2009-03-21

    [CpIrCl(2)](2) () and new CpIr(III)(L-L)X complexes (L-L = N-O or C-N chelating ligands; X = Cl, I, Me) have been prepared and their reactivity with two-electron chemical oxidants explored. Reaction of with PhI(OAc)(2) in wet solvents yields a new chloro-bridged dimer in which each of the Cp ligands has been singly acetoxylated to form [Cp(OAc)Ir(III)Cl(2)](2) () (Cp(OAc) = eta(5)-C(5)Me(4)CH(2)OAc). Complex and related carboxy- and alkoxy-functionalized Cp(OR) complexes can also be prepared from plus (PhIO)(n) and ROH. [Cp(OAc)Ir(III)Cl(2)](2) () and the methoxy analogue [Cp(OMe)Ir(III)Cl(2)](2) () have been structurally characterized. Treatment of [CpIrCl(2)](2) () with 2-phenylpyridine yields CpIr(III)(ppy)Cl () (ppy = cyclometallated 2-phenylpyridyl) which is readily converted to its iodide and methyl analogues CpIr(III)(ppy)I and CpIr(III)(ppy)Me (). CpIr(III) complexes were also prepared with N-O chelating ligands derived from anthranilic acid (2-aminobenzoic acid) and alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (H(2)NCMe(2)COOH), ligands chosen to be relatively oxidation resistant. These complexes and were reacted with potential two-electron oxidants including PhI(OAc)(2), hexachlorocyclohexadienone (C(6)Cl(6)O), N-fluoro-2,4,6-trimethylpyridinium (Me(3)pyF(+)), [Me(3)O]BF(4) and MeOTf (OTf = triflate, CF(3)SO(3)). Iridium(V) complexes were not observed or implicated in these reactions, despite the similarity of the potential products to known CpIr(V) species. The carbon electrophiles [Me(3)O]BF(4) and MeOTf appear to react preferentially at the N-O ligands, to give methyl esters in some cases. Overall, the results indicate that Cp is not inert under oxidizing conditions and is therefore not a good supporting ligand for oxidizing organometallic complexes.

  4. Fe electron transfer and atom exchange in goethite: influence of Al-substitution and anion sorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latta, Drew E; Bachman, Jonathan E; Scherer, Michelle M

    2012-10-02

    The reaction of Fe(II) with Fe(III) oxides and hydroxides is complex and includes sorption of Fe(II) to the oxide, electron transfer between sorbed Fe(II) and structural Fe(III), reductive dissolution coupled to Fe atom exchange, and, in some cases mineral phase transformation. Much of the work investigating electron transfer and atom exchange between aqueous Fe(II) and Fe(III) oxides has been done under relatively simple aqueous conditions in organic buffers to control pH and background electrolytes to control ionic strength. Here, we investigate whether electron transfer is influenced by cation substitution of Al(III) in goethite and the presence of anions such as phosphate, carbonate, silicate, and natural organic matter. Results from (57)Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy indicate that both Al-substitution (up to 9%) and the presence of common anions (PO(4)(3-), CO(3)(2-), SiO(4)(4-), and humic acid) does not inhibit electron transfer between aqueous Fe(II) and Fe(III) in goethite under the conditions we studied. In contrast, sorption of a long-chain phospholipid completely shuts down electron transfer. Using an enriched isotope tracer method, we found that Al-substitution in goethite (10%), does, however, significantly decrease the extent of atom exchange between Fe(II) and goethite (from 43 to 12%) over a month's time. Phosphate, somewhat surprisingly, appears to have little effect on the rate and extent of atom exchange between aqueous Fe(II) and goethite. Our results show that electron transfer between aqueous Fe(II) and solid Fe(III) in goethite can occur under wide range of geochemical conditions, but that the extent of redox-driven Fe atom exchange may be dependent on the presence of substituting cations such as Al.

  5. Study of the Emission Characteristics of Single-Walled CNT and Carbon Nano-Fiber Pyrograf III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Marwan S.; Al-Akhras, M.-Ali H.; Daradkeh, Samer

    2018-02-01

    Field emission microscopy measurements from Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs) and Carbon Nano-Fibers Pyrograf III PR-1 (CNF) were performed. Details of the materials employed in the experiments are as follows: (a) Carbon Nano-Fibers Pyrograf III PR-1 (CNF), having an average fiber diameter that is ranging between (100-200) nm with a length of (30-100) μm. (b) Single walled Carbon Nanotubes were produced by high-pressure CO over Fe particle (HiPCO: High-Pressure Carbon Monoxide process), having an average diameter ranging between (1-4) nm with a length of (1-3) μm. The experiments were performed under vacuum pressure value of (10-7 mbar). The research work reported here includes the field electron emission current-voltage (I-V) characteristics and presented as Fowler-Nordheim (FN) plots and the spatial emission current distributions (electron emission images) obtained and analyzed in terms of electron source features. For both the SWCNT and the CNF a single spot pattern for the electron spatial; distributions were observed.

  6. Reduction of Fe(III), Cr(VI), U(VI), and Tc(VII) by Deinococcus radiodurans R1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredrickson, J.K.; Kostandarithes, H.M.; Li, S.W.; Plymake, A.E.; Daly, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Deinococcus radiodurans is an exceptionally radiation-resistant microorganism capable of surviving acute exposures to ionizing radiation doses of 15,000 Gy and previously described as having a strictly aerobic respiratory metabolism. Under strict anaerobic conditions, D. radiodurans R1 reduced Fe(III)-nitrilotriacetic acid coupled to the oxidation of lactate to CO 2 and acetate but was unable to link this process to growth. D. radiodurans reduced the humic acid analog anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) to its dihydroquinone form, AH 2 DS, which subsequently transferred electrons to the Fe(III) oxides hydrous ferric oxide and goethite via a previously described electron shuttle mechanism. D. radiodurans reduced the solid-phase Fe(III) oxides in the presence of either 0.1 mM AQDS or leonardite humic acids (2 mg ml -1 ) but not in their absence. D. radiodurans also reduced U(VI) and Tc(VII) in the presence of AQDS. In contrast, Cr(VI) was directly reduced in anaerobic cultures with lactate although the rate of reduction was higher in the presence of AQDS. The results are the first evidence that D. radiodurans can reduce Fe(III) coupled to the oxidation of lactate or other organic compounds. Also, D. radiodurans, in combination with humic acids or synthetic electron shuttle agents, can reduce U and Tc and thus has potential applications for remediation of metal- and radionuclide-contaminated sites where ionizing radiation or other DNA-damaging agents may restrict the activity of more sensitive organisms

  7. Advances in electronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kasper, Erich; Grimmeiss, Hermann G

    2008-01-01

    This special-topic volume, Advances in Electronic Materials, covers various fields of materials research such as silicon, silicon-germanium hetero-structures, high-k materials, III-V semiconductor alloys and organic materials, as well as nano-structures for spintronics and photovoltaics. It begins with a brief summary of the formative years of microelectronics; now the keystone of information technology. The latter remains one of the most important global technologies, and is an extremely complex subject-area. Although electronic materials are primarily associated with computers, the internet

  8. Incremental binding free energies of aluminum (III) vs. magnesium (II) complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercero, Jose M.; Mujika, Jon I.; Matxain, Jon M.; Lopez, Xabier; Ugalde, Jesus M.

    2003-01-01

    A sequential ligand addition to the aluminum (III) cation has been studied using the B3LYP functional and a combined all-electron/pseudopotentials basis set. The aluminum complexes are compared with analogous magnesium (II) complexes. Different thermodynamical data, such as incremental binding energies, enthalpies, entropies and free energies, are presented for these addition reactions. While the magnesium (II) cation can only accommodate three negatively charged ligands, aluminum (III) accommodates four even after including bulk solvent effects. The main differences between both cations complexing with the neutral ligands, is that aluminum (III) is not able to form complexes with methanol until the number of methanol ligands is equal to 3. Magnesium (II) prefers to bind methanol and formamide when the number of ligands is small, while aluminum prefers formamide. For the largest complexes both cations prefer to bind water

  9. Association of Perfluoroalkyl Substances, Bone Mineral Density, and Osteoporosis in the U.S. Population in NHANES 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Naila; Chen, Aimin; Lee, Miryoung; Czerwinski, Stefan A; Ebert, James R; DeWitt, Jamie C; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2016-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), are detectable in the serum of 95% of the U.S. Considering the role of PFASs as endocrine disruptors, we examined their relationships with bone health. The association between serum PFAS concentration and bone mineral density at total femur (TFBMD), femoral neck (FNBMD), lumbar spine (LSBMD), and physician-diagnosed osteoporosis was assessed in 1,914 participants using data from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2009-2010. The mean age of the participants was 43 years. Men had higher serum PFAS concentrations than women (p PFAS concentrations were associated with lower bone mineral density, which varied according to the specific PFAS and bone site assessed. Most associations were limited to women. Osteoporosis in women was also associated with PFAS exposure, based on a small number of cases. Khalil N, Chen A, Lee M, Czerwinski SA, Ebert JR, DeWitt JC, Kannan K. 2016. Association of perfluoroalkyl substances, bone mineral density, and osteoporosis in the U.S. population in NHANES 2009-2010. Environ Health Perspect 124:81-87; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307909.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of tris[butyl-(1-methyl-3-phenyl-propyl-dithiocarbamato]-cobalt(III seskvitoluene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TIBOR SABO

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available A new bidentate ligand butyl-(1-methyl-3-phenyl-propyl-dithiocarbamate (bmFpdtc was prepared, as the sodium salt. In the reaction of hexaaminecobalt(III chloride with NabmFpdtc, the corresponding tris[butyl-(1-methyl-3-phenyl-propyl-dithiocarbamato]cobalt(III, [Co(bmFpdtc3] complex was prepared. The complex was characterized by elemental analysis, infrared, electronic absorption, 1H and 13C-NMR spectroscopy.

  11. Iron(III) protoporphyrin IX-single-wall carbon nanotubes modified electrodes for hydrogen peroxide and nitrite detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turdean, Graziella L.; Popescu, Ionel Catalin; Curulli, Antonella; Palleschi, Giuseppe

    2006-01-01

    Iron(III) protoporphyrin IX (Fe(III)P), adsorbed either on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) or on hydroxyl-functionalized SWCNT (SWCNT-OH), was incorporated within a Nafion matrix immobilized on the surface of a graphite electrode. From cyclic voltammetric measurements, performed under different experimental conditions (pH and potential scan rate), it was established that the Fe(III)P/Fe(II)P redox couple involves 1e - /1H + . The heterogeneous electron transfer process occurred faster when Fe(III)P was adsorbed on SWCNT-OH (∼11 s -1 ) than on SWCNT (∼4.9 s -1 ). Both the SWCNT-Fe(III)P- and SWCNT-OH-Fe(III)P-modified graphite electrodes exhibit electrocatalytic activity for H 2 O 2 and nitrite reduction. The modified electrodes sensitivities were found varying in the following sequences: S SWCNT-OH-Fe(III)P = 2.45 mA/M ∼ S SWCNT-Fe(III)P = 2.95 mA/M > S Fe(III)P = 1.34 mA/M for H 2 O 2 , and S SWCNT-Fe(III)P = 3.54 mA/M > S Fe(III)P 1.44 mA/M > S SWCNT-OH-Fe(III)P = 0.81 mA/M for NO 2 -

  12. Spectroscopic and biological approach in the characterization of a novel 14-membered [N4] macrocyclic ligand and its Palladium(II), Platinum(II), Ruthenium(III) and Iridium(III) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Soni; Kumar, Sumit; Chandra, Sulekh

    2014-01-01

    A novel, tetradentate nitrogen donor [N4] macrocyclic ligand, i.e. 3,5,14,16-tetramethyl-2,6,13,17-tetraazatricyclo[12,0,07-12] cosa-1(22),2,5,7,9,11,13,16,18,20-decaene(L), has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, IR, Mass, and 1H NMR spectral studies. Complexes of Pd(II), Pt(II), Ru(III) and Ir(III) have been prepared and characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductance measurements, magnetic susceptibility measurements, IR, Mass, electronic spectral and thermal studies. On the basis of molar conductance the complexes may be formulated as [PdL]Cl2, [PtL]Cl2, [Ru(L)Cl2]Cl and [Ir(L)Cl2]Cl. The complexes are insoluble in most common solvents, including water, ethanol, carbon tetrachloride and acetonitrile, but soluble in DMF/DMSO. The value of magnetic moment indicates that all the complexes are diamagnetic except Ru(III) complex which shows magnetic moment corresponding to one unpaired electron. The magnetic moment of Ru(III) complex is 1.73 B.M. at room temperature. The antimicrobial activities of ligand and its complexes have been screened in vitro, as growth inhibiting agents. The antifungal and antibacterial screening were carried out using Food Poison and Disc Diffusion Method against plant pathogenic fungi and bacteria Alternaria porri, Fusarium oxysporum, Xanthomonas compestris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa respectively. The compounds were dissolved in DMSO to get the required solutions. The required medium used for these activities was PDA and nutrient agar.

  13. Spectroscopic and biological approach in the characterization of a novel 14-membered [N4] macrocyclic ligand and its palladium(II), platinum(II), ruthenium(III) and iridium(III) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Soni; Kumar, Sumit; Chandra, Sulekh

    2014-01-24

    A novel, tetradentate nitrogen donor [N4] macrocyclic ligand, i.e. 3,5,14,16-tetramethyl-2,6,13,17-tetraazatricyclo[12,0,0(7-12)] cosa-1(22),2,5,7,9,11,13,16,18,20-decaene(L), has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, IR, Mass, and (1)H NMR spectral studies. Complexes of Pd(II), Pt(II), Ru(III) and Ir(III) have been prepared and characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductance measurements, magnetic susceptibility measurements, IR, Mass, electronic spectral and thermal studies. On the basis of molar conductance the complexes may be formulated as [PdL]Cl2, [PtL]Cl2, [Ru(L)Cl2]Cl and [Ir(L)Cl2]Cl. The complexes are insoluble in most common solvents, including water, ethanol, carbon tetrachloride and acetonitrile, but soluble in DMF/DMSO. The value of magnetic moment indicates that all the complexes are diamagnetic except Ru(III) complex which shows magnetic moment corresponding to one unpaired electron. The magnetic moment of Ru(III) complex is 1.73 B.M. at room temperature. The antimicrobial activities of ligand and its complexes have been screened in vitro, as growth inhibiting agents. The antifungal and antibacterial screening were carried out using Food Poison and Disc Diffusion Method against plant pathogenic fungi and bacteria Alternaria porri, Fusarium oxysporum, Xanthomonas compestris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa respectively. The compounds were dissolved in DMSO to get the required solutions. The required medium used for these activities was PDA and nutrient agar. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Nickel(I) and nickel(III) complexes of substituted tetraaza macrocycles formed by pulse radiolysis and electrochemistry of nickel(II) precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhardt, P.V.; Lawrance, G.A.; Sangster, D.F.

    1988-01-01

    The square-planar nickel(II) complexes of the ligands 8-methyl-8-nitro-1,3,6,10,13,15-hexaazatricyclo[13.1.1.1/sup 13,15/]octadecane, 8-amino-8-methyl-1,3,6,10,13,15-hexaazatricyclo[13.1.1.1/sup 13,15/]octadecane, 3,7-bis(2-aminoethyl)-1,3,5,7-tetraazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane, and 9-methyl-9-nitro-1,4,7,11-tetraazacyclotridecane (I-IV) react rapidly with hydroxyl radicals and aquated electrons (e/sub aq/). The initial transient products of these reactions decay via first-order kinetics within a few milliseconds in neutral aqueous solution at 22/degrees/C in all cases. Electronic spectra and decay rate constants, as well as formation rate constants, are reported for all transients. Reaction of the nitro-substituted complexes with e/sub aq/ led to electron addition to the nitro group rather than to the metal center; otherwise, a Ni/sup I/ transient is observed. Following reaction with OH, the product of the initial decay remains a Ni/sup III/ species. This is more long-lived, and stabilization of Ni/sup III/ by axial coordination of the pendant amine in II is indicated. No notable stabilization of Ni/sup I/ or Ni/sup III/ from the presence of the bicyclic azamethylene football in I-III occurs. Cyclic voltammetry in acetonitrile identified both one-electron oxidation and one-electron reduction processes for the nickel(II) complexes, as well as nitro group reduction, where this group was pendant to the macrocycle. 34 references, 3 figures, 3 tables

  15. Relativistic nonlinear waves of cyclotron in electron and electron-ion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, R.

    1981-12-01

    Dispersion relations for electron-cyclotron and ion-cyclotron waves are examined in two models of plasmas, the first propagating in fluent electronic plasmas (''streaming'') as well as in fluent electron-ionic plasmas, and the last in fluent electron-ionic plasmas. The identification of the propagation modes is realized with the aid of a special technique of polinomial expantion of the dispersion relation in the limit of large frequencies and short wavelenghts. The analisys so developed on these dispersion relations for fluent plasmas show that: (i) the wave amplitudes are frequency dependent; (ii) the ''resonances'' frequencies of the respective estationary plasmas must be re-examined with the relations between wave amplitudes and the propagation frequencies near these frequencies; (iii) the electric field amplitudes for the non-linear waves of electron-cyclotron and ion-cyclotron go to zero in the limits of the respective cyclotron frequencies in both fluent plasma models. (M.W.O.) [pt

  16. Long-Range Intramolecular Electronic Communication in a Trinuclear Ruthenium Tropolonate Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Jun; Kuwahara, Kyohei; Suzuki, Kota; Yuge, Hidetaka

    2017-02-20

    Dinuclear and trinuclear ruthenium complexes, [Ru(trop) 2 (C 2 trop)Ru(dppe)Cp] [2b; trop = tropolonato, C 2 trop = ethynyltropolonato, dppe = 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane] and [Ru(trop){(C 2 trop)Ru(dppe)Cp} 2 ] (3), were synthesized, and their electronic and electrochemical properties were investigated in comparison with our previously reported complex [Ru(acac) 2 (C 2 trop)Ru(dppe)Cp] (2a). The electron-donating Ru II (dppe)Cp unit and electron-accepting Ru III O 6 unit are connected by C 2 trop in these complexes. 2a incorporates acetylacetonate as an ancillary ligand, while 2b and 3 incorporate tropolonate as an ancillary ligand. Every complex, 2a, 2b, and 3, exhibits similar UV-vis-near-IR (NIR) absorption spectra, demonstrating the lack of explicit intramolecular electronic communication between the units at least in the neutral state. The weak NIR absorption in 2a further diminished upon electrochemical oxidation, indicating almost no electronic communication between the units. In contrast, 2b and 3 exhibit broad NIR absorptions upon oxidation. Additionally, 3 exhibits four stepwise redox couples in the electrochemical study, which are formally attributed to [Ru II (trop) 3 ] - /[Ru III (trop) 3 ], two [Ru II (dppe)Cp]/[Ru III (dppe)Cp] + , and [Ru III (trop) 3 ]/[Ru IV (trop) 3 ] + couples. Clear separation of the redox couples attributed to the two terminal [Ru(dppe)Cp] units demonstrates the thermodynamic stability of the intermediate oxidation states with respect to disproportionation. Further electrochemical studies using an electrolyte including perfluorinated weakly coordinating anions and density functional theory/time-dependent density functional theory calculations confirmed the effect of ancillary ligands, acetylacetonate and tropolonate. In the case of 2a, electronic delocalization over the whole complex, especially over the [Ru(acac) 2 (trop)] unit, appears to be small. In contrast, the electronic communication between [Ru(dppe)Cp] and [Ru

  17. Uniform electron gases. III. Low-density gases on three-dimensional spheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agboola, Davids; Knol, Anneke L.; Gill, Peter M. W., E-mail: peter.gill@anu.edu.au; Loos, Pierre-François, E-mail: pf.loos@anu.edu.au [Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia)

    2015-08-28

    By combining variational Monte Carlo (VMC) and complete-basis-set limit Hartree-Fock (HF) calculations, we have obtained near-exact correlation energies for low-density same-spin electrons on a three-dimensional sphere (3-sphere), i.e., the surface of a four-dimensional ball. In the VMC calculations, we compare the efficacies of two types of one-electron basis functions for these strongly correlated systems and analyze the energy convergence with respect to the quality of the Jastrow factor. The HF calculations employ spherical Gaussian functions (SGFs) which are the curved-space analogs of Cartesian Gaussian functions. At low densities, the electrons become relatively localized into Wigner crystals, and the natural SGF centers are found by solving the Thomson problem (i.e., the minimum-energy arrangement of n point charges) on the 3-sphere for various values of n. We have found 11 special values of n whose Thomson sites are equivalent. Three of these are the vertices of four-dimensional Platonic solids — the hyper-tetrahedron (n = 5), the hyper-octahedron (n = 8), and the 24-cell (n = 24) — and a fourth is a highly symmetric structure (n = 13) which has not previously been reported. By calculating the harmonic frequencies of the electrons around their equilibrium positions, we also find the first-order vibrational corrections to the Thomson energy.

  18. The Relationship between Sleep Disorders and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: Results from the NHANES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantus, Richard J; Packiam, Vignesh T; Wang, Chi H; Erickson, Bradley A; Helfand, Brian T

    2018-07-01

    It is well established that sleep disorders are associated with the nocturia prevalence in men. While previous literature supports that patients with sleep disorders are at increased risk for nocturia, the risk of daytime lower urinary tract symptoms has not been well established. We examined the NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) database between 2006 and 2008. Men older than 40 years who completed the sleep, prostate and kidney questionnaires were included in study. The presence of lower urinary tract symptoms was defined as 2 or more symptoms, including hesitancy, incomplete emptying and/or nocturia. Multivariable models using logistic regression were constructed to compare groups of men with and without a sleep disorder. Of the 3,071 men who completed all survey questions 270 (8.8%) reported a sleep disorder. Men with a sleep disorder had a significantly higher body mass index (30.8 vs 27.4 kg/m 2 ), a greater likelihood of reporting diabetes (20.3% vs 10.2%) and more comorbidities (72.6% vs 45.2%, all p urinary tract symptoms (OR 1.12) and daytime lower urinary tract symptoms (OR 1.27, all p urinary tract symptoms independent of body mass index, diabetes and an increased number of comorbidities. Based on the current data clinicians should consider assessing lower urinary tract symptoms in men with a sleep disorder since intervention could improve lower urinary tract symptoms and sleep disorders as well as daytime urinary symptoms. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of chromium(III), manganese(II), iron(III), cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), cadmium(II) and dioxouranium(VI) complexes of 4(2-pyridyl)-1-(2,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde)-3-thiosemicarbazone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu El-Reash, G.M.; Ibrahim, M.M.; Kenawy; El-Ayaan, Usama; Khattab, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    A few complexes of Cr(III), Mn(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and dioxouranium(VI) with 4(2-pyridyl)-1-(2,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde)-3-thiosemicarbazone have been synthesised and characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, IR, electronic NMR, and magnetic moment data. An octahedral structure is proposed for the Cr(III), Fe(III), Co(II) and Ni(H 3 PBT) 2 Cl 2 .2H 2 O complexes; a tetrahedral structure for the Mn(II) and Ni 2 (PBT)OAc.H 2 0 complexes and a square planar structure for the Cu(II) complexes. The antimicrobial and antifungal activities of H 3 PBT and of its metal(II) complexes are investigated. The results reveal that H 3 PBT exhibits greater antimicrobial activities than its complexes. (author). 34 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Power systems for the Doublet III 2-MW ECH system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remsen, D.B. Jr.

    1981-10-01

    A system providing 5 second pulses at 60 GHz from ten 200 kW gyrotrons is being prepared for electron cyclotron heating experiments on Doublet III. The power supply for the gyrotron system is a power supply currently under construction by Universal Voltronics Corporation for the Doublet III neutral beam power supply, and is to have the option of reverse polarity (negative) to fill the needs of the system of ten gyrotons operating in parallel. The output of this power supply is 80 kV at 100A for 5 second pulses with good regulation. The output pulse rise and fall times and fault protection response time are all compatible with the gyrotron requirements

  1. Electron scattering from atoms in the presence of a laser field. III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittleman, M.H.

    1977-01-01

    The development of the theory of the effect of a laser on electron-atom scattering is continued by the derivation of explicit relations between the observed electron-atom scattering cross sections in the presence of a laser and exact electron-atom scattering cross sections with no laser present. No approximation concerning the scattering interaction is made. The only approximations concerning the laser are that (1) the laser-atom interaction energy is small compared to atomic energies, (2) the Rabi frequency times the collision time is small, and (3) the laser intensity in appropriate units is small

  2. Mobility in n-doped wurtzite III-Nitrides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.G. Rodrigues

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of the mobility of n-doped wurtzite III-Nitrides is reported. We have determined the nonequilibrium thermodynamic state of the III-Nitrides systems driven far away from equilibrium by a strong electric field in the steady state, which follows after a very fast transient. The dependence of the mobility (which depends on the nonequilibrium thermodynamic state of the sample on the electric field strength is derived, which decreases with the strength of electric field. We analyzed the contributions to the mobility arising out of the different channels of electron scattering, namely, the polar optic, deformation, piezoelectric, interactions with the phonons, and with impurities. The case of n-InN, n-GaN, and n-AlN have been analyzed: as expected the main contribution comes from the polar-optic interactions in these strongly polar semiconductors. The other interactions are in decreasing order, the deformation acoustic, the piezoelectric, and the one due to impurities.

  3. Blood folate concentrations among women of childbearing age by race/ethnicity and acculturation, NHANES 2001-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetta, Claire M; Hamner, Heather C

    2016-01-01

    Hispanic women have higher rates of neural tube defects and report lower total folic acid intakes than non-Hispanic white (NHW) women. Total folic acid intake, which is associated with neural tube defect risk reduction, has been found to vary by acculturation factors (i.e. language preference, country of origin, or time spent in the United States) among Hispanic women. It is unknown whether this same association is present for blood folate status. The objective of this research was to assess the differences in serum and red blood cell (RBC) folate concentrations between NHW women and Mexican American (MA) women and among MA women by acculturation factors. Cross-sectional data from the 2001-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to investigate how blood folate concentrations differ among NHW or MA women of childbearing age. The impact of folic acid supplement use on blood folate concentrations was also examined. MA women with lower acculturation factors had lower serum and RBC folate concentrations compared with NHW women and to their more acculturated MA counterparts. Consuming a folic acid supplement can minimize these disparities, but MA women, especially lower acculturated MA women, were less likely to report using supplements. Public health efforts to increase blood folate concentrations among MA women should consider acculturation factors when identifying appropriate interventions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, N.W.; Marwick, A.D.; Roberto, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    This report contains research programs discussed at the materials research society symposia on ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials. Major topics include: shallow implantation and solid-phase epitaxy; damage effects; focused ion beams; MeV implantation; high-dose implantation; implantation in III-V materials and multilayers; and implantation in electronic materials. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases

  5. DFT/TDDFT investigation on the electronic structures and photophysical properties of phosphorescent iridium(III) complexes with 2-(pyridin-2-yl)-benzo[d]imidazole ligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shang, Xiaohong, E-mail: shangxiaohong58@aliyun.com [College of Chemistry and Life Science, Changchun University of Technology, Changchun 130012 (China); Han, Deming [School of Life Science and Technology, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China); Li, Dongfeng [College of Chemistry and Life Science, Changchun University of Technology, Changchun 130012 (China); Zhang, Gang [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China)

    2014-03-15

    We have reported a theoretical analysis of a series of heteroleptic iridium(III) complexes (mpmi){sub 2}Ir(pybi) [mpmi=1-(4-tolyl)-3-methyl-imidazole, pybi=2-(pyridin-2-yl)-benzo[d]imidazole] (1a), (fpmi){sub 2}Ir(pybi) [fpmi=1-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-3-methyl-imidazole] (1b), (tfpmi){sub 2}Ir(pybi) [tfpmi=1-methyl-3-(4-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-imidazole] (1c), (pypmi){sub 2}Ir(pybi) [pypmi=3-(3-methyl-imidazol)-pyrazole] (2a), (phpymi){sub 2}Ir(pybi) [phpymi=3-(3-methyl-imidazol)-5-phenyl-pyrazole] (2b), and (inpymi){sub 2}Ir(pybi) [inpymi=3-(3-methyl-imidazol)-indeno[1,2-c]pyrazole] (2c) by using the density functional theory (DFT) method to investigate their electronic structures and photophysical properties and obtain further insights into the phosphorescent efficiency mechanism. By changing cyclometalated ligands, the conjugation length, and substituents of the cyclometalated ligands, one can tune the emission color from green (λ{sub em}=520 nm) to orange (λ{sub em}=592 nm). Complexes 1a, 1b, 2a, and 2b have the almost identical emission wavelength about 550 nm, while 592 nm for 1c and 520 nm for 2c are red shifted and blue shifted, respectively, relative to 1a. The calculated results indicate that, for 1b and 1c, the substituents of −F and −CF{sub 3} at the phenyl moiety cause a poor hole-injection ability compared with that of 1a. For all these complexes studied, the hole-transporting performances are better than the electron-transporting ones. The difference between reorganization energies for hole transport (λ{sub ih}) and reorganization energies for electron transport (λ{sub ie}) for complex 1c are relatively smaller, indicating that the hole and electron transfer balance could be achieved more easily in the emitting layer. The alteration of cyclometalated ligands with different conjugation lengths and substituents has an impact on the optoelectronic properties of these complexes. It is believed that the larger metal to ligand charge transfer (MLCT

  6. Reactivity III: An Advanced Course in Integrated Organic, Inorganic, and Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Chris P.; Graham, Kate J.; Jakubowski, Henry V.

    2017-01-01

    Reactivity III is a new course that presents chemical reactions from the domains of organic, inorganic, and biochemistry that are not readily categorized by electrophile-nucleophile interactions. Many of these reactions involve the transfer of a single electron, in either an intermolecular fashion in the case of oxidation/reduction reactions or an…

  7. Silicon photonics III systems and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lockwood, David

    2016-01-01

    This book is volume III of a series of books on silicon photonics. It reports on the development of fully integrated systems where many different photonics component are integrated together to build complex circuits. This is the demonstration of the fully potentiality of silicon photonics. It contains a number of chapters written by engineers and scientists of the main companies, research centers and universities active in the field. It can be of use for all those persons interested to know the potentialities and the recent applications of silicon photonics both in microelectronics, telecommunication and consumer electronics market.

  8. Clarifying the supercomplex: the higher-order organization of the mitochondrial electron transport chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letts, James A; Sazanov, Leonid A

    2017-10-05

    The oxidative phosphorylation electron transport chain (OXPHOS-ETC) of the inner mitochondrial membrane is composed of five large protein complexes, named CI-CV. These complexes convert energy from the food we eat into ATP, a small molecule used to power a multitude of essential reactions throughout the cell. OXPHOS-ETC complexes are organized into supercomplexes (SCs) of defined stoichiometry: CI forms a supercomplex with CIII 2 and CIV (SC I+III 2 +IV, known as the respirasome), as well as with CIII 2 alone (SC I+III 2 ). CIII 2 forms a supercomplex with CIV (SC III 2 +IV) and CV forms dimers (CV 2 ). Recent cryo-EM studies have revealed the structures of SC I+III 2 +IV and SC I+III 2 . Furthermore, recent work has shed light on the assembly and function of the SCs. Here we review and compare these recent studies and discuss how they have advanced our understanding of mitochondrial electron transport.

  9. Stark shift measurements of Xe II and Xe III spectral lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirisan, M; Pelaez, R J; Djurovic, S; Aparicio, J A; Mar, S

    2007-01-01

    Stark shift measurements of singly and doubly ionized Xe spectral lines are presented in this paper. Shifts of 110 Xe II lines and 42 Xe III lines are reported, including a significant number of new results. A low-pressure-pulsed arc with 95% of He and 5% of Xe was used as a plasma source. All measurements were performed under the following plasma conditions: electron density (0.2-1.4) x 10 23 m -3 and electron temperature 18 000-23 000 K. The measured Stark shifts are compared with other experimental and theoretical data

  10. Intramolecular interactions in a new tris-dithizonatocobalt(III) complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eschwege, Karel G. von; As, Lydia van; Joubert, Chris C.; Swarts, Jannie C.; Aquino, Manuel A.S.; Cameron, T. Stanley

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Electrochemically Co(HDz) 3 (5), show three main ligand-based redox processes, two reductions and one oxidation. Ligand oxidations can be resolved into three components highlighting effective intramolecular interactions between molecular fragments; a spectroelectrochemical study of (5) highlighted spectroscopic changes during the six observed redox steps. - Highlights: • Comparative CV's of dithizone (1), PhHg(HDz) and new Co(HDz) 3 (5), is discussed. • One oxidation and two reductions per ligand and a Co III/II couple for (5) are observed. • Mono- and tris-coordinated PhHg(HDz) and (5) have stable metal thioether bonds. • Crystal structure details explain good resolution between ligand redox processes. • Spectro-electrochemistry of (5) highlights spectroscopic properties of redox products. - Abstract: The reactions between dithizone (H 2 Dz (1)) or potassium dithizonate (KHDz (3)), and [Co(H 2 O) 6 ] 2+ (6), in acetone or methanol to liberate tris-dithizonatocobalt(III), Co(HDz) 3 (5), are described. The structure of (5) was confirmed by single crystal X-ray analyses and shows bidentate coordination to Co III via S and N donor atoms for all three HDz − ligands. A comparative voltammetric and spectro-electrochemical study revealed that (1) can be oxidised in two one-electron transfer steps, to generate a disulphide first and then HDz + . In contrast, upon complexation with cobalt, the free mercaptan group of (1) becomes a stable “metal thioether”, Co-S-C, which effectively prevents disulphide formation in all three ligands of (5) upon electrochemical oxidation. As a result, each ligand of Co(HDz) 3 shows just one oxidation process. Intramolecular communication between ligands is evident because the three separate ligand-based oxidations are well resolved. Two irreversible ligand reduction steps, each consisting of three unresolved components related to each of the three ligands, were also observed. The Co II /Co III couple

  11. GaN Based Electronics And Their Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Fan

    2002-03-01

    The Group III-nitrides were initially researched for their promise to fill the void for a blue solid state light emitter. Electronic devices from III-nitrides have been a more recent phenomenon. The thermal conductivity of GaN is three times that of GaAs. For high power or high temperature applications, good thermal conductivity is imperative for heat removal or sustained operation at elevated temperatures. The development of III-N and other wide bandgap technologies for high temperature applications will likely take place at the expense of competing technologies, such as silicon-on-insulator (SOI), at moderate temperatures. At higher temperatures (>300°C), novel devices and components will become possible. The automotive industry will likely be one of the largest markets for such high temperature electronics. One of the most noteworthy advantages for III-N materials over other wide bandgap semiconductors is the availability of AlGaN/GaN and InGaN/GaN heterostructures. A 2-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) has been shown to exist at the AlGaN/GaN interface, and heterostructure field effect transistors (HFETs) from these materials can exhibit 2DEG mobilities approaching 2000 cm2 / V?s at 300K. Power handling capabilities of 12 W/mm appear feasible, and extraordinary large signal performance has already been demonstrated, with a current state-of-the-art of >10W/mm at X-band. In this talk, high speed and high temperature AlGaN/GaN HEMTs as well as MOSHEMTs, high breakdown voltage GaN (>6KV) and AlGaN (9.7 KV) Schottky diodes, and their applications will be presented.

  12. Association of urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations with body mass index and waist circumference: a cross-sectional study of NHANES data, 1999–2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singer Martha

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although diet and activity are key factors in the obesity epidemic, laboratory studies suggest that endocrine disrupting chemicals may also affect obesity. Methods We analyzed associations between six phthalate metabolites measured in urine and body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES participants aged 6–80. We included 4369 participants from NHANES 1999–2002, with data on mono-ethyl (MEP, mono-2-ethylhexyl (MEHP, mono-n-butyl (MBP, and mono-benzyl (MBzP phthalate; 2286 also had data on mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl (MEHHP and mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl (MEOHP phthalate (2001–2002. Using multiple regression, we computed mean BMI and WC within phthalate quartiles in eight age/gender specific models. Results The most consistent associations were in males aged 20–59; BMI and WC increased across quartiles of MBzP (adjusted mean BMI = 26.7, 27.2, 28.4, 29.0, p-trend = 0.0002, and positive associations were also found for MEOHP, MEHHP, MEP, and MBP. In females, BMI and WC increased with MEP quartile in adolescent girls (adjusted mean BMI = 22.9, 23.8, 24.1, 24.7, p-trend = 0.03, and a similar but less strong pattern was seen in 20–59 year olds. In contrast, MEHP was inversely related to BMI in adolescent girls (adjusted mean BMI = 25.4, 23.8, 23.4, 22.9, p-trend = 0.02 and females aged 20–59 (adjusted mean BMI = 29.9, 29.9, 27.9, 27.6, p-trend = 0.02. There were no important associations among children, but several inverse associations among 60–80 year olds. Conclusion This exploratory, cross-sectional analysis revealed a number of interesting associations with different phthalate metabolites and obesity outcomes, including notable differences by gender and age subgroups. Effects of endocrine disruptors, such as phthalates, may depend upon endogenous hormone levels, which vary dramatically by age and gender. Individual phthalates also have different

  13. Production of fine structures in type III solar radio bursts due to turbulent density profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loi, Shyeh Tjing; Cairns, Iver H.; Li, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic reconnection events in the corona release energetic electron beams along open field lines, and the beams generate radio emission at multiples of the electron plasma frequency f p to produce type III solar radio bursts. Type III bursts often exhibit irregularities in the form of flux modulations with frequency and/or local temporal advances and delays, and a type IIIb burst represents the extreme case where a type III burst is fragmented into a chain of narrowband features called striae. Remote and in situ spacecraft measurements have shown that density turbulence is ubiquitous in the corona and solar wind, and often exhibits a Kolmogorov power spectrum. In this work, we numerically investigate the effects of one-dimensional macroscopic density turbulence (along the beam direction) on the behavior of type III bursts, and find that this turbulence produces stria-like fine structures in the dynamic spectra of both f p and 2 f p radiation. Spectral and temporal fine structures in the predicted type III emission are produced by variations in the scattering path lengths and group speeds of radio emission, and in the locations and sizes of emitting volumes. Moderate turbulence levels yield flux enhancements with much broader half-power bandwidths in f p than 2 f p emission, possibly explaining the often observed type IIIb-III harmonic pairs as being where intensifications in 2 f p radiation are not resolved observationally. Larger turbulence levels producing trough-peak regions in the plasma density profile may lead to broader, resolvable intensifications in 2 f p radiation, which may account for the type IIIb-IIIb pairs that are sometimes observed.

  14. Quantum Computational Studies of Electron Transfer in Respiratory Complex III and its Application for Designing New Mitocan Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagras, Muhammad Ahmed

    Electron transfer occurs in many biological systems which are imperative to sustain life; oxidative phosphorylation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and photophosphorylation in photosynthetic and plant cells are well-balanced and complementary processes. Investigating electron transfer in those natural systems provides detailed knowledge of the atomistic events that lead eventually to production of ATP, or harvesting light energy. Ubiquinol:cytochrome c oxidoreductase complex (also known as bc 1 complex, or respiratory complex III) is a middle player in the electron transport proton pumping orchestra, located in the inner-mitochondrial membrane in eukaryotes or plasma membrane in prokaryotes, which converts the free energy of redox reactions to electrochemical proton gradient across the membrane, following the fundamental chemiosmotic principle discovered by Peter Mitchell 1. In humans, the malfunctioned bc1 complex plays a major role in many neurodegenerative diseases, stress-induced aging, and cancer development, because it produces most of the reactive oxygen species, which are also involved in cellular signaling 2. The mitochondrial bc1 complex has an intertwined dimeric structure comprised of 11 subunits in each monomer, but only three of them have catalytic function, and those are the only domains found in bacterial bc1 complex. The core subunits include: Rieske domain, which incorporates iron-sulfur cluster [2Fe-2S]; trans-membrane cytochrome b domain, incorporating low-potential heme group (heme b L) and high-potential heme group (heme b H); and cytochrome c1 domain, containing heme c1 group and two separate binding sites, Qo (or QP) site where the hydrophobic electron carrier ubihydroquinol QH2 is oxidized, and Qi (or QN) site where ubiquinone molecule Q is reduced 3. Electrons and protons in the bc1 complex flow according to the proton-motive Q-cycle proposed by Mitchell, which includes a unique electron flow bifurcation at the Qo site. At this site, one

  15. Polarized proton target-III. Operations manual, revision B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.; Moretti, A.; Onesto, F.; Rynes, P.

    1978-01-01

    The manual presented contains certain standard operating procedures for the vacuum, cryogenic, and electronic systems of PPT-III. In total, these systems comprise the following major divisions: (1) the target cryostat; (2) the 4 He pumping system; (3) the 3 He pumping system; (4) the remote monitors and controls; (5) the microwave system; (6) the magnet and power supply; (7) the computerized polarization monitor; (8) the 4 He liquefier and gas recovery system; and (9) miscellaneous auxiliary equipment

  16. Ca2+ and Mg2+-enhanced reduction of arsenazo III to its anion free radical metabolite and generation of superoxide anion by an outer mitochondrial membrane azoreductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, S N; Mason, R P; Docampo, R

    1984-12-10

    At the concentrations usually employed as a Ca2+ indicator, arsenazo III underwent a one-electron reduction by rat liver mitochondria to produce an azo anion radical as demonstrated by electron-spin resonance spectroscopy. Either NADH or NADPH could serve as a source of reducing equivalents for the production of this free radical by intact rat liver mitochondria. Under aerobic conditions, addition of arsenazo III to rat liver mitochondria produced an increase in electron flow from NAD(P)H to molecular oxygen, generating superoxide anion. NAD(P)H generated from endogenous mitochondrial NAD(P)+ by intramitochondrial reactions could not be used for the NAD(P)H azoreductase reaction unless the mitochondria were solubilized by detergent or anaerobiosis. In addition, NAD(P)H azoreductase activity was higher in the crude outer mitochondrial membrane fraction than in mitoplasts and intact mitochondria. The steady-state concentration of the azo anion radical and the arsenazo III-stimulated cyanide-insensitive oxygen consumption were enhanced by calcium and magnesium, suggesting that, in addition to an enhanced azo anion radical-stabilization by complexation with the metal ions, enhanced reduction of arsenazo III also occurred. Accordingly, addition of cations to crude outer mitochondrial membrane preparations increased arsenazo III-stimulated cyanide-insensitive O2 consumption, H2O2 formation, and NAD(P)H oxidation. Antipyrylazo III was much less effective than arsenazo III in increasing superoxide anion formation by rat liver mitochondria and gave a much weaker electron spin resonance spectrum of an azo anion radical. These results provide direct evidence of an azoreductase activity associated with the outer mitochondrial membrane and of a stimulation of arsenazo III reduction by cations.

  17. Electron cyclotron harmonic wave acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimabadi, H.; Menyuk, C. R.; Sprangle, P.; Vlahos, L.

    1987-01-01

    A nonlinear analysis of particle acceleration in a finite bandwidth, obliquely propagating electromagnetic cyclotron wave is presented. It has been suggested by Sprangle and Vlahos in 1983 that the narrow bandwidth cyclotron radiation emitted by the unstable electron distribution inside a flaring solar loop can accelerate electrons outside the loop by the interaction of a monochromatic wave propagating along the ambient magnetic field with the ambient electrons. It is shown here that electrons gyrating and streaming along a uniform, static magnetic field can be accelerated by interacting with the fundamental or second harmonic of a monochromatic, obliquely propagating cyclotron wave. It is also shown that the acceleration is virtually unchanged when a wave with finite bandwidth is considered. This acceleration mechanism can explain the observed high-energy electrons in type III bursts.

  18. Electron cyclotron harmonic wave acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimabadi, H.; Menyuk, C.R.; Sprangle, P.; Vlahos, L.; Salonika Univ., Greece)

    1987-01-01

    A nonlinear analysis of particle acceleration in a finite bandwidth, obliquely propagating electromagnetic cyclotron wave is presented. It has been suggested by Sprangle and Vlahos in 1983 that the narrow bandwidth cyclotron radiation emitted by the unstable electron distribution inside a flaring solar loop can accelerate electrons outside the loop by the interaction of a monochromatic wave propagating along the ambient magnetic field with the ambient electrons. It is shown here that electrons gyrating and streaming along a uniform, static magnetic field can be accelerated by interacting with the fundamental or second harmonic of a monochromatic, obliquely propagating cyclotron wave. It is also shown that the acceleration is virtually unchanged when a wave with finite bandwidth is considered. This acceleration mechanism can explain the observed high-energy electrons in type III bursts. 31 references

  19. Thermodynamic data for predicting concentrations of Pu(III), Am(III), and Cm(III) in geologic environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rai, Dhanpat; Rao, Linfeng; Weger, H.T.; Felmy, A.R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, WA (United States); Choppin, G.R. [Florida State University, Florida (United States); Yui, Mikazu [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai Works, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-01-01

    This report provides thermodynamic data for predicting concentrations of Pu(III), Am(III), and Cm(III) in geologic environments, and contributes to an integration of the JNC chemical thermodynamic database, JNC-TDB (previously PNC-TDB), for the performance analysis of geological isolation system for high-level radioactive wastes. Thermodynamic data for the formation of complexes or compounds with hydroxide, chloride, fluoride, carbonate, nitrate, sulfate and phosphate are discussed in this report. Where data for specific actinide(III) species are lacking, the data were selected based on chemical analogy to other trivalent actinides. In this study, the Pitzer ion-interaction model is mainly used to extrapolate thermodynamic constants to zero ionic strength at 25degC. (author)

  20. Luminescence study on solvation of americium(III), curium(III) and several lanthanide(III) ions in nonaqueous and binary mixed solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, T.; Nagaishi, R.; Kato, Y.; Yoshida, Z.

    2001-01-01

    The luminescence lifetimes of An(III) and Ln(III) ions [An=Am and Cm; Ln=Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb and Dy] were measured in dimethyl sulfoxide(DMSO), N,N-dimethylformamide(DMF), methanol(MeOH), water and their perdeuterated solvents. Nonradiative decay rates of the ions were in the order of H 2 O > MeOH > DMF > DMSO, indicating that O-H vibration is more effective quencher than C-H, C=O, and S=O vibrations in the solvent molecules. Maximal lifetime ratios τ D /τ H were observed for Eu(III) in H 2 O, for Sm(III) in MeOH and DMF, and for Sm(III) and Dy(III) in DMSO. The solvent composition in the first coordination sphere of Cm(III) and Ln(III) in binary mixed solvents was also studied by measuring the luminescence lifetime. Cm(III) and Ln(III) were preferentially solvated by DMSO in DMSO-H 2 O, by DMF in DMF-H 2 O, and by H 2 O in MeOH-H 2 O over the whole range of the solvent composition. The order of the preferential solvation, i.e., DMSO > DMF > H 2 O > MeOH, correlates with the relative basicity of these solvents. The Gibbs free energy of transfer of ions from water to nonaqueous solvents was further estimated from the degree of the preferential solvation. (orig.)

  1. Spectroelectrochemical insights into structural and redox properties of immobilized endonuclease III and its catalytically inactive mutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Elin; Rollo, Filipe; Silveira, Célia M.; Sezer, Murat; Hildebrandt, Peter; Todorovic, Smilja

    2018-01-01

    Endonuclease III is a Fe-S containing bifunctional DNA glycosylase which is involved in the repair of oxidation damaged DNA. Here we employ surface enhanced IR spectroelectrochemistry and electrochemistry to study the enzyme from the highly radiation- and desiccation-resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans (DrEndoIII2). The experiments are designed to shed more light onto specific parameters that are currently proposed to govern damage search and recognition by endonucleases III. We demonstrate that electrostatic interactions required for the redox activation of DrEndoIII2 may result in high electric fields that alter its structural and thermodynamic properties. Analysis of inactive DrEndoIII2 (K132A/D150A double mutant) interacting with undamaged DNA, and the active enzyme interacting with damaged DNA also indicate that the electron transfer is modulated by subtle differences in the protein-DNA complex.

  2. Electron densities in planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanghellini, L.; Kaler, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    Electron densities for 146 planetary nebulae have been obtained for analyzing a large sample of forbidden lines by interpolating theoretical curves obtained from solutions of the five-level atoms using up-to-date collision strengths and transition probabilities. Electron temperatures were derived from forbidden N II and/or forbidden O III lines or were estimated from the He II 4686 A line strengths. The forbidden O II densities are generally lower than those from forbidden Cl III by an average factor of 0.65. For data sets in which forbidden O II and forbidden S II were observed in common, the forbidden O II values drop to 0.84 that of the forbidden S II, implying that the outermost parts of the nebulae might have elevated densities. The forbidden Cl II and forbidden Ar IV densities show the best correlation, especially where they have been obtained from common data sets. The data give results within 30 percent of one another, assuming homogeneous nebulae. 106 refs

  3. Luminescence studies of Sm(III) and Cm(III) complexes in NaSCN/DHDECMP extraction systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, D Y; Kimura, T

    1999-01-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) studies of Sm(III) and Cm(III) complexes in the NaSCN/DHDECMP solvent extraction system were carried out. Luminescence lifetimes were measured to determine the number of water molecules coordinated to Sm(III), Tb(III), Dy(III), and Cm(III) in the sodium thiocyanate solution and in the DHDECMP phase. The hydration number of Sm(III), Tb(III), Dy(III), and Cm(III) in the sodium thiocyanate solution decreased linearly with increasing sodium thiocyanate concentration. The hydration numbers of Sm(III), Dy(III), and Cm(III) in the DHDECMP phase decreased with increasing sodium thiocyanate concentration. The water molecules in the inner coordination sphere of Sm(III) and Dy(III) extracted into the DHDECMP were not completely removed at low sodium thiocyanate concentration but decreased with increasing sodium thiocyanate concentration. However, in the case of Cm(III) extracted into the DHDECMP phase from the sodium thiocyanate solution, there was no water in the inner coordination sphe...

  4. Light induced electron transfer reactions of metal complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutin, N.; Creutz, C.

    1980-01-01

    Properties of the excited states of tris(2,2'-bipyridine) and tris(1,10-phenanthroline) complexes of chromium(III), iron(II), ruthenium(II), osmium(II), rhodium(III), and iridium(III) are described. The electron transfer reactions of the ground and excited states are discussed and interpreted in terms of the driving force for the reaction and the distortions of the excited states relative to the corresponding ground states. General considerations relevant to the conversion of light into chemical energy are presented and progress in the use of polypyridine complexes to effect the light decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen is reviewed

  5. Mn(II,III) oxidation and MnO2 mineralization by an expressed bacterial multicopper oxidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Cristina N.; Soldatova, Alexandra V.; Lee, Sung-Woo; Spiro, Thomas G.; Tebo, Bradley M.

    2013-01-01

    Reactive Mn(IV) oxide minerals are ubiquitous in the environment and control the bioavailability and distribution of many toxic and essential elements and organic compounds. Their formation is thought to be dependent on microbial enzymes, because spontaneous Mn(II) to Mn(IV) oxidation is slow. Several species of marine Bacillus spores oxidize Mn(II) on their exosporium, the outermost layer of the spore, encrusting them with Mn(IV) oxides. Molecular studies have identified the mnx (Mn oxidation) genes, including mnxG, encoding a putative multicopper oxidase (MCO), as responsible for this two-electron oxidation, a surprising finding because MCOs only catalyze single-electron transfer reactions. Characterization of the enzymatic mechanism has been hindered by the lack of purified protein. By purifying active protein from the mnxDEFG expression construct, we found that the resulting enzyme is a blue (absorption maximum 590 nm) complex containing MnxE, MnxF, and MnxG proteins. Further, by analyzing the Mn(II)- and (III)-oxidizing activity in the presence of a Mn(III) chelator, pyrophosphate, we found that the complex facilitates both electron transfers from Mn(II) to Mn(III) and from Mn(III) to Mn(IV). X-ray absorption spectroscopy of the Mn mineral product confirmed its similarity to Mn(IV) oxides generated by whole spores. Our results demonstrate that Mn oxidation from soluble Mn(II) to Mn(IV) oxides is a two-step reaction catalyzed by an MCO-containing complex. With the purification of active Mn oxidase, we will be able to uncover its mechanism, broadening our understanding of Mn mineral formation and the bioinorganic capabilities of MCOs. PMID:23818588

  6. III-nitride semiconductors and their modern devices

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book is dedicated to GaN and its alloys AlGaInN (III-V nitrides), semiconductors with intrinsic properties well suited for visible and UV light emission and electronic devices working at high temperature, high frequency, and harsh environments. There has been a rapid growth in the industrial activity relating to GaN, with GaN now ranking at the second position (after Si) among all semiconductors. This is mainly thanks to LEDs, but also to the emergence of lasers and high power and high frequency electronics. GaN-related research activities are also diversifying, ranging from advanced optical sources and single electron devices to physical, chemical, and biological sensors, optical detectors, and energy converters. All recent developments of nitrides and of their technology are gathered here in a single volume, with chapters written by world leaders in the field. This third book of the series edited by B. Gil is complementary to the preceding two, and is expected to offer a modern vision of nitrides and...

  7. Photocytotoxicity and DNA photocleavage activity of La(III) and Gd(III) complexes of phenanthroline bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Akhtar; Saha, Sounik; Chakravarty, Akhil R.; Majumdar, Ritankar; Dighe, Rajan R.

    2011-01-01

    Lanthanide(III) complexes (La(B)(acac) 3 ) (1-3) and (Gd(B)(acac) 3 ) (4-6), where B is a N,N-donor phenanthroline base, viz., 1,10-phenanthroline (phen in 1, 4), dipyrido(3,2-d:2',3'-f)quinoxaline (dpq in 2, 5) and dipyrido(3,2-a:2',3'-c)phena-zine (dppz in 3, 6), have been prepared and characterized. The Gd(III) complexes 4 - 6 are structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray crystallography. The complexes display GdO 6 N 2 coordination with the ligands showing bidentate chelating mode of bonding. The complexes are non-electrolytic in aqueous DMF and exhibit ligand-centered absorption bands in the UV region. The dppz complexes show a band at 380 nm in DMF. The La(III) complexes are diamagnetic. The Gd(III) complexes are paramagnetic with magnetic moment that corresponds to seven unpaired electrons. The complexes are avid binders to calf thymus DNA giving K b values in the range of 4.7 x 10 4 - 6.1 x 10 5 M -1 with a relative binding order: 3, 6 (dppz) > 2, 5 (dpq) > 1, 4 (phen). The binding data suggest DNA surface and/or groove binding nature of the complexes. The dpq and dppz complexes efficiently cleave SC DNA to its nicked circular form in UV-A light of 365 nm via formation of both singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ) and hydroxyl radical (HO · ) species. The dppz complexes 3 and 6 exhibit significant PDT effect in HeLa cervical cancer cells giving respective IC 50 value of 460(±50) and 530(±30) nM in UV-A light of 365 nm, and are essentially non-toxic in dark with an IC 50 value of >100 μM. The dppz ligand alone is cytotoxic in dark and UV-A light. A significant decrease in the dark toxicity of the dppz base is observed on binding to the Ln(Ill) ion while retaining its photocytotoxicity. (author)

  8. Pulse-radiolytic investigation of the reduction of titanium(III) ions in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micic, O.I.; Nenadovic, M.T.

    1979-01-01

    The absorption spectrum and decay kinetics of intermediates formed by the reaction of titanium(III) ions with H atoms, hydrated electrons, and carboxyl radicals have been studied in aqueous solution using the pulse-radiolysis technique. The product of the reaction with H atoms in acid solution is a Ti 3+ -H hydride intermediate which decomposes by a first-order process with a half-life of ca. 3 s. Titanium(II) is formed by reaction with hydrated electrons and CO 2 H radicals. The absorption spectrum of titanium(II) and the kinetics of its reactions are reported and discussed. The formation of molecular hydrogen by reaction of Ti 2+ with water is suppressed by the other solutes in the solutions. Titanium(III) reacts with CO 2 H, CH 2 CO 2 H, and CH(CO 2 H) 2 radicals to give titanium-radical complexes. (author)

  9. Association of Eu(III) and Cm(III) with Bacillus subtilis and Halobacterium salinarum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Takuo; Kimura, Takaumi; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Yoshida, Zenko

    2002-01-01

    Adsorption behavior of Eu(III) and Cm(III) by Bacillus subtilis and Halobacterium salinarum was investigated. Both microorganisms showed almost identical pH dependence on the distribution ratio (K d ) of the metals examined, i.e., K d of Eu(III) and Cm(III) increased with an increase of pH. The coordination state of Eu(III) adsorbed on the microorganisms was studied by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). The coordination states of Eu(III) adsorbed on the B. subtilis and H. salinarum was of different characteristics. H. salinarum exhibited more outer-spherical interaction with Eu(III) than B. subtilis. (author)

  10. Efficient removal of trace antimony(III) through adsorption by hematite modified magnetic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Chao; Ma, Zhiyao; Tong, Meiping

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Sb(III) adsorption capacity of MNP@hematite was twice that of commercial Fe 3 O 4 . • pH, ionic strength, coexisting anions and NOM did not inhibit Sb(III) removal. • MNP@hematite could remove trace Sb(III) and As(III) from water simultaneously. • Efficient removal of Sb(III) from real tap water was achieved. • MNP@hematite could be easily recycled with a magnet and could be used repeatedly. - Abstract: Hematite coated magnetic nanoparticle (MNP@hematite) was fabricated through heterogeneous nucleation technique and used to remove trace Sb(III) from water. Powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and alternating gradient magnetometry were utilized to characterize the prepared adsorbent. TEM image showed that MNP@hematite particles were spherical with size of 10–30 nm. With saturation magnetization of 27.0 emu/g, MNP@hematite particles could be easily separated from water with a simple magnetic process in short time (5 min). At initial concentration of 110 μg/L, Sb(III) was rapidly decreased to below 5 μg/L by MNP@hematite in 10 min. Sb(III) adsorption capacity of MNP@hematite was 36.7 mg/g, which was almost twice that of commercial Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles. The removal of trace Sb(III) was not obviously affected by solution pH (over a wide range from 3 to 11), ionic strength (up to 100 mM), coexisting anions (chloride, nitrate, sulfate, carbonate, silicate, and phosphate, up to 10 mM) and natural organic matters (humic acid and alginate, up to 8 mg/L as TOC). Moreover, MNP@hematite particles were able to remove Sb(III) and As(III) simultaneously. Trace Sb(III) could also be effectively removed from real tap water by MNP@hematite. The magnetic adsorbent could be recycled and used repeatedly

  11. Efficient removal of trace antimony(III) through adsorption by hematite modified magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan, Chao; Ma, Zhiyao; Tong, Meiping, E-mail: tongmeiping@pku.edu.cn

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Sb(III) adsorption capacity of MNP@hematite was twice that of commercial Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. • pH, ionic strength, coexisting anions and NOM did not inhibit Sb(III) removal. • MNP@hematite could remove trace Sb(III) and As(III) from water simultaneously. • Efficient removal of Sb(III) from real tap water was achieved. • MNP@hematite could be easily recycled with a magnet and could be used repeatedly. - Abstract: Hematite coated magnetic nanoparticle (MNP@hematite) was fabricated through heterogeneous nucleation technique and used to remove trace Sb(III) from water. Powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and alternating gradient magnetometry were utilized to characterize the prepared adsorbent. TEM image showed that MNP@hematite particles were spherical with size of 10–30 nm. With saturation magnetization of 27.0 emu/g, MNP@hematite particles could be easily separated from water with a simple magnetic process in short time (5 min). At initial concentration of 110 μg/L, Sb(III) was rapidly decreased to below 5 μg/L by MNP@hematite in 10 min. Sb(III) adsorption capacity of MNP@hematite was 36.7 mg/g, which was almost twice that of commercial Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. The removal of trace Sb(III) was not obviously affected by solution pH (over a wide range from 3 to 11), ionic strength (up to 100 mM), coexisting anions (chloride, nitrate, sulfate, carbonate, silicate, and phosphate, up to 10 mM) and natural organic matters (humic acid and alginate, up to 8 mg/L as TOC). Moreover, MNP@hematite particles were able to remove Sb(III) and As(III) simultaneously. Trace Sb(III) could also be effectively removed from real tap water by MNP@hematite. The magnetic adsorbent could be recycled and used repeatedly.

  12. Assessing Physical Activity and its Relationship to Cardiovascular Risk Factors: NHANES 2003-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Guichan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Levels of physical activity (PA in the general population are difficult to characterize. Historically measurement has been based on self-report, which can be subject to bias. PA monitor use has created opportunities to improve surveillance and analytic research on activity and health. The aims of the current study were to investigate the associations between objectively measured PA and cardiovascular disease risk factors and obesity. Methods Data on PA from accelerometers, demographics, blood pressure, plasma glucose and lipids, self-reported hypertension and diabetes were obtained for adults, ages 20-65, in the NHANES surveys, 2003-2006. Outcomes were assessed as levels of moderate and vigorous activity, percentage of participants meeting recommended guidelines, and the correlations between activity and cardiovascular risk factors. Accelerometry data were available on 3,370 adults. Based on standard algorithms, activity levels were extremely low in all age-gender-race/ethnic groups, with an average of only 1 bout of vigorous activity lasting longer than 1 minute/day. Results Men spent 35 minutes in moderate activity/day, women 21 minutes; >75% of this activity was accumulated in 1-minute bouts. Levels of activity declined sharply after age 50 in all groups. Negative associations were observed between minutes of combined moderate and vigorous activity and systolic blood pressure, blood glucose, diabetes, hypertension, body mass index and obesity, and a positive association was seen with HDL-cholesterol (all P ≤ 0.03, suggesting valid rank ordering of participants by activity level. Conclusion The magnitude of the gap between self-report and accelerometry activity must be a result of either a vast social acceptability bias in reporting or inaccurate measurement with accelerometry. Therefore, due to the low validity of self reported PA data for epidemiologic research, it is pertinent to encourage the use of valid, objective

  13. Microbial dissimilatory iron(III) reduction: Studies on the mechanism and on processes of environmental relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Jahn, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Many microbes are able to respire aerobically oxygen or anaerobically other electron acceptors for example sulphate, nitrate, manganese(IV) or Fe(III). As iron minerals are widespread in nature, dissimilatory iron(III) reduction by different microorganisms is a very important process of anaerobic respiration. The general goal of this work was to improve the knowledge of processes, in which iron-reducing microbes are said to play an important role. For this purpose, in one part the focus wa...

  14. Free-electron lasers 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroff, Y.

    1989-01-01

    This book presents papers on free-electron laser technology. The authors cover technological developments on existing FELs, new FEL research, and the use of FELs in experimental investigations. Among the studies reported are lasing in the visible and UV on the Novosibirsk VEPP-3 storage ring, description of Japanese FEL research, and Mark III FEL, and the Paladin results

  15. Sorption of small amounts of europium(III) on iron(III) hydroxide and oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Music, S.; Gessner, M.; Wolf, R.H.H.

    1979-01-01

    The sorption of small amounts of europium(III) on iron(III) hydroxide and oxide has been studied as a function of pH. The mechanism of sorption is discussed. Optimum conditions have been found for the preconcentration of small or trace amounts of europium(III) by iron(III) hydroxide and oxide. The influence of complexing agents (EDTA, oxalate, tartrate and 5-sulfosalicylic acid) on the sorption of small amounts of europium(III) on iron(III) oxide has also been studied. (author)

  16. Correlated Electrons in Reduced Dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonesteel, Nicholas E [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2015-01-31

    This report summarizes the work accomplished under the support of US DOE grant # DE-FG02-97ER45639, "Correlated Electrons in Reduced Dimensions." The underlying hypothesis of the research supported by this grant has been that studying the unique behavior of correlated electrons in reduced dimensions can lead to new ways of understanding how matter can order and how it can potentially be used. The systems under study have included i) fractional quantum Hall matter, which is realized when electrons are confined to two-dimensions and placed in a strong magnetic field at low temperature, ii) one-dimensional chains of spins and exotic quasiparticle excitations of topologically ordered matter, and iii) electrons confined in effectively ``zero-dimensional" semiconductor quantum dots.

  17. Variation in LPA is associated with Lp(a levels in three populations from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logan Dumitrescu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of lipoprotein(a [Lp(a] levels can differ dramatically across diverse racial/ethnic populations. The extent to which genetic variation in LPA can explain these differences is not fully understood. To explore this, 19 LPA tagSNPs were genotyped in 7,159 participants from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III. NHANES III is a diverse population-based survey with DNA samples linked to hundreds of quantitative traits, including serum Lp(a. Tests of association between LPA variants and transformed Lp(a levels were performed across the three different NHANES subpopulations (non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, and Mexican Americans. At a significance threshold of p<0.0001, 15 of the 19 SNPs tested were strongly associated with Lp(a levels in at least one subpopulation, six in at least two subpopulations, and none in all three subpopulations. In non-Hispanic whites, three variants were associated with Lp(a levels, including previously known rs6919246 (p = 1.18 × 10(-30. Additionally, 12 and 6 variants had significant associations in non-Hispanic blacks and Mexican Americans, respectively. The additive effects of these associated alleles explained up to 11% of the variance observed for Lp(a levels in the different racial/ethnic populations. The findings reported here replicate previous candidate gene and genome-wide association studies for Lp(a levels in European-descent populations and extend these findings to other populations. While we demonstrate that LPA is an important contributor to Lp(a levels regardless of race/ethnicity, the lack of generalization of associations across all subpopulations suggests that specific LPA variants may be contributing to the observed Lp(a between-population variance.

  18. Inactivation of Laccase by the Attack of As (III) Reaction in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jinyuan; Lu, Kun; Dong, Shipeng; Huang, Qingguo; Mao, Liang

    2018-03-06

    Laccase is a multicopper oxidase containing four coppers as reaction sites, including one type 1, one type 2, and two type 3. We here provide the first experimental data showing that As (III) can be effectively removed from water and transformed to As (V) through reactions mediated by laccase with the presence of oxygen. To this end, the As (III) removal, As (V) yields, total protein, active laccase, and copper concentrations in the aqueous phase were determined, respectively. Additionally, electron paramagnetic resonance spectra and UV-vis spectra were applied to probe possible structural changes of the laccase during the reaction. The data offer the first evidence that laccase can be inactivated by As (III) attack thus leading to the release of type 2 copper. The released copper has no reactivity with the As (III). These findings provide new ideas into a significant pathway likely to master the environmental transformation of arsenite, and advance the understanding of laccase inactivation mechanisms, thus providing a foundation for optimization of enzyme-based processes and potential development for removal and remediation of arsenite contamination in the environment.

  19. Carbon-Based Oxamate Cobalt(III) Complexes as Bioenzyme Mimics for Contaminant Elimination in High Backgrounds of Complicated Constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Zheng, Yun; Jiang, Xuemei; Zhang, Ran; Pei, Kemei; Chen, Wenxing

    2017-10-12

    Complex wastewater with massive components is now a serious environmental issue facing humanity. Selective removal of low-concentration contaminants in mixed constituents holds great promise for increasing water supplies. Bioenzymes like horseradish peroxidase exhibit oxidizing power and selectivity. Here, we manufactured its mimic through immobilizing non-heme oxamate anionic cobalt(III) complex ([Co III (opba)] - , opba = o-phenylenebis(oxamate)) onto pyridine (Py) modified multiwalled carbon nanotubes ([Co III (opba)] - -Py-MWCNTs, MWCNTs = multiwalled carbon nanotubes), where MWCNTs captured substrates and Py functioned as the fifth ligand. We chose typical azo dye (C.I. Acid Red 1) and antibiotic (ciprofloxacin) as model substrates. Without •OH, this catalyst could detoxify target micropollutants efficiently at pH from 8 to 11. It also remained efficient in repetitive tests, and the final products were non-poisonous OH-containing acids. Combined with radical scavenger tests and electron paramagnetic resonance result, we speculated that high-valent cobalt-oxo active species and oxygen atom transfer reaction dominated in the reaction pathway. According to density functional theory calculations, the electron spin density distribution order showed that electron-withdrawing ligand was beneficial for inward pulling the excess electron and lowering the corresponding energy levels, achieving an electrophilic-attack enhancement of the catalyst. With target removal property and recyclability, this catalyst is prospective in water detoxication.

  20. Biomonitoring chromium III or VI soluble pollution by moss chlorophyll fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang-Er; Mao, Hao-Tian; Ma, Jie; Wu, Nan; Zhang, Chao-Ming; Su, Yan-Qiu; Zhang, Zhong-Wei; Yuan, Ming; Zhang, Huai-Yu; Zeng, Xian-Yin; Yuan, Shu

    2018-03-01

    We systematically compared the impacts of four Cr salts (chromic chloride, chromic nitrate, potassium chromate and potassium bichromate) on physiological parameters and chlorophyll fluorescence in indigenous moss Taxiphyllum taxirameum. Among the four Cr salts, K 2 Cr 2 O 7 treatment resulted in the most significant decrease in photosynthetic efficiency and antioxidant enzymes, increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), and obvious cell death. Different form the higher plants, although hexavalent Cr(VI) salt treatments resulted in higher accumulation levels of Cr and were more toxic than Cr(III) salts, Cr(III) also induced significant changes in moss physiological parameters and chlorophyll fluorescence. Our results showed that Cr(III) and Cr(VI) could be monitored distinguishably according to the non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) fluorescence of sporadic purple and sporadic lavender images respectively. Then, the valence states and concentrations of Cr contaminations could be evaluated according to the image of maximum efficiency of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm) and the quantum yield of PSII electron transport (ΦPSII). Therefore, this study provides new ideas of moss's sensibility to Cr(III) and a new method to monitor Chromium contaminations rapidly and non-invasively in water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The electronic structure of adducts derived from tris(cyclopentadienyl)-lanthanide(III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amberger, H.D.; Edelstein, N.M.

    1985-01-01

    On the basis of magneto-optical and optical data of adducts derived from tris (eta/sup 5/-cyclopentadienyl)-lanthanide(III) (Ln = Pr, Nd, Er) the underlying crystal field (CF) splitting patterns could be derived. Fitting the parameters of an empirical Hamiltonian to these CF splitting patterns, the CF eigenvalues and CF eigenfunctions were obtained. By means of these data the experimental temperature dependence of the paramagnetic susceptibility could be reproduced by choosing orbital reduction factors between 0.950 and 0.975, respectively. The contact contribution of the /sup 1/H-NMR shifts of the cyclopentadienide protons of Cp/sub 3/Pr . CNC/sub 6/H/sub 11/ could be simulated by adopting a hyperfine coupling parameter A/sub F/ = vertical bar 0.236 vertical bar MHz

  2. Structural, magnetic and electronic properties of rare earth ternary oxides Li Ln(II) 2 Ln(III)O4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malki, M.

    1987-06-01

    Properties of a new class of rare earth ternary oxides Li Ln(II) 2 Ln(III)O 4 where Ln(II) is a divalent metal (Sr, Eu) and Ln(III) a trivalent rare earth (Eu, Gd, Dy, Er and Y). These orthorhombic compounds (type Li Eu 3 O 4 ) allow the study of many magnetic phenomena and their evolution in function of the nature of Ln(II) and Ln(III): diamagnetic ions Sr 2+ , Y 3+ ; isotrope magnetic ions: Eu 2+ , Gd 3+ and anisotrope magnetic ions Dy 3+ , Er 3+ . Magnetic and electric properties are obtained by classical techniques and from hyperfine interaction by Moessbauer spectroscopy. The possibility to use several Moessbauer resonance (nuclei Eu 151, Gd 155, Dy 161 and Er 166) completes informations obtained by the macroscopic study [fr

  3. Complexes of molybdenum(III) with 2-(2'-pyridyl)benzimidazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, S P [Patna Univ. (India). Dept. of Chemistry; Prasad, K M [H.D. Jain Coll., Arrah (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    1979-07-01

    Molybdenum(III) forms with 2-(2'-pyridyl) benzimidazole(LH) the trischelated complexes, (Mo(LH)/sub 3/)X/sub 3/ as well as the cationic-anionic complexes, (Mo(LH)/sub 3/X/sub 2/)/sup +/ (Mo(LH)X/sub 4/)/sup -/(X=Cl/sup -/,Br/sup -/ or NCS/sup -/), depending on pH. These complexes have been synthesised and characterised from elemental analyses, i.r. and electronic spectra, magnetic moments and molar conductance.

  4. Tobacco Product Use Patterns, and Nicotine and Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamine Exposure: NHANES 1999-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kelvin; Sabado, Melanie; El-Toukhy, Sherine; Vogtmann, Emily; Freedman, Neal D; Hatsukami, Dorothy

    2017-10-01

    Background: Few studies have examined differences in product consumption patterns and nicotine and tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA) exposure between single versus dual- and poly-tobacco users. We applied the Tobacco Product Use Patterns (T-PUPs) model to fill this gap in the literature. Methods: Data from adults (age ≥18 years) who used any tobacco products during the 5 days prior to participating in the 1999-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were analyzed. Participants were classified into seven T-PUPs: (1) cigarettes only, (2) noncigarette combustibles only, (3) noncombustibles only, (4) dual noncigarette combustibles and noncombustibles, (5) dual cigarettes and noncombustibles, (6) dual cigarettes and noncigarette combustibles, and (7) poly-tobacco use. Weighted regression models were used to compare product consumption, serum cotinine, and urinary total 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (i.e., NNAL) levels between single-, dual-, and poly-tobacco T-PUPs. Results: Dual- and poly-tobacco T-PUPs were associated with lower product consumption compared with single-product T-PUPs only in some cases (e.g., dual cigarette and noncombustible users smoked cigarettes on 0.6 fewer days in the past 5 days compared with cigarette-only users; P product T-PUPs. Conclusions: Product consumption, and nicotine and TSNAs exposure of dual- and poly-tobacco product category users somewhat differ from those of single-product category users as defined by the T-TUPs model. Impact: Higher levels of cotinine and NNAL among dual- and poly-tobacco T-TUPs users compared with the single-product T-TUPs users may indicate health concerns. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(10); 1525-30. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. An Examination of the Association of Selected Toxic Metals with Total and Central Obesity Indices: NHANES 99-02

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas M. Ruden

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available It is conceivable that toxic metals contribute to obesity by influencing various aspects of metabolism, such as by substituting for essential micronutrients and vital metals, or by inducing oxidative stress. Deficiency of the essential metal zinc decreases adiposity in humans and rodent models, whereas deficiencies of chromium, copper, iron, and magnesium increases adiposity. This study utilized the NHANES 99-02 data to explore the association between waist circumference and body mass index with the body burdens of selected toxic metals (barium, cadmium, cobalt, cesium, molybdenum, lead, antimony, thallium, and tungsten. Some of the associations were significant direct relationships (barium and thallium, and some of the associations were significant inverse relationships (cadmium, cobalt, cesium, and lead. Molybdenum, antimony, and tungsten had mostly insignificant associations with waist circumference and body mass index. This is novel result for most of the toxic metals studied, and a surprising result for lead because high stored lead levels have been shown to correlate with higher rates of diabetes, and obesity may be a key risk factor for developing diabetes. These associations suggest the possibility that environmental exposure to metals may contribute to variations in human weight gain/loss. Future research, such as prospective studies rather than the cross-sectional studies presented here, is warranted to confirm these findings.

  6. An examination of the association of selected toxic metals with total and central obesity indices: NHANES 99-02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Miguel A; Elobeid, Mai; Ruden, Douglas M; Allison, David B

    2010-09-01

    It is conceivable that toxic metals contribute to obesity by influencing various aspects of metabolism, such as by substituting for essential micronutrients and vital metals, or by inducing oxidative stress. Deficiency of the essential metal zinc decreases adiposity in humans and rodent models, whereas deficiencies of chromium, copper, iron, and magnesium increases adiposity. This study utilized the NHANES 99-02 data to explore the association between waist circumference and body mass index with the body burdens of selected toxic metals (barium, cadmium, cobalt, cesium, molybdenum, lead, antimony, thallium, and tungsten). Some of the associations were significant direct relationships (barium and thallium), and some of the associations were significant inverse relationships (cadmium, cobalt, cesium, and lead). Molybdenum, antimony, and tungsten had mostly insignificant associations with waist circumference and body mass index. This is novel result for most of the toxic metals studied, and a surprising result for lead because high stored lead levels have been shown to correlate with higher rates of diabetes, and obesity may be a key risk factor for developing diabetes. These associations suggest the possibility that environmental exposure to metals may contribute to variations in human weight gain/loss. Future research, such as prospective studies rather than the cross-sectional studies presented here, is warranted to confirm these findings.

  7. Association of individual and community factors with C-reactive protein and 25-hydroxyvitamin D: Evidence from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwen Chai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Many individual and community/neighborhood factors may contribute to inflammation and vitamin D deficiency leading to the development of chronic diseases. This study examined the associations of serum C-reactive protein (CRP and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] levels with individual and community/neighborhood (tract-level or county-level factors using a nationally representative sample from 2001–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES. Data from the 2001–2006 waves of the continuous NHANES was merged with the 2000 census and other neighborhood data sources constructed using geographic information system. Associations between multilevel factors and biomarker levels were assessed using multilevel random-intercept regression models. 6643 participants aged 19–65 (3402 men and 3241 women were included in the analysis. Family income-to-needs ratio was inversely associated with CRP (P=0.002 and positively associated with 25(OHD levels (P=0.0003. County crime rates were positively associated with CRP (P=0.007 and inversely associated with 25(OHD levels (P=0.0002. The associations with income-to-needs ratio were significant in men [CRP, P=0.005; 25(OHD, P=0.005] but not in women. For county crime rates, the association was only significant in women for CRP (P=0.004 and was significant in both men (P=0.01 and women (P=0.001 for 25(OHD. Additionally, overall CRP was positively associated with age (P<0.0001, female sex (P<0.0001, Hispanic race/ethnicity (P=0.0001, current smokers (P<0.0001, body mass index (BMI, P<0.0001, and participants who were US-born (P=0.02. Non-Hispanic black (P<0.0001 and Hispanic race/ethnicity (P<0.0001, current smoker (P=0.047, and higher BMI (P<0.0001 were associated with lower serum 25(OHD levels. No significant associations were observed between other community/neighborhood variables and serum CRP and 25(OHD levels. The current results suggest that family income-to-needs ratio and county crime rate may

  8. 2D lateral heterostructures of group-III monochalcogenide: Potential photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kai; Guo, Yu; Han, Nannan; Jiang, Xue; Zhang, Junfeng; Ahuja, Rajeev; Su, Yan; Zhao, Jijun

    2018-04-01

    Solar photovoltaics provides a practical and sustainable solution to the increasing global energy demand. Using first-principles calculations, we investigate the energetics and electronic properties of two-dimensional lateral heterostructures by group-III monochalcogenides and explore their potential applications in photovoltaics. The band structures and formation energies from supercell calculations demonstrate that these heterostructures retain semiconducting behavior and might be synthesized in laboratory using the chemical vapor deposition technique. According to the computed band offsets, most of the heterojunctions belong to type II band alignment, which can prevent the recombination of electron-hole pairs. Besides, the electronic properties of these lateral heterostructures can be effectively tailored by the number of layers, leading to a high theoretical power conversion efficiency over 20%.

  9. Effects upon metabolic pathways and energy production by Sb(III and As(III/Sb(III-oxidase gene aioA in Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxin Li

    Full Text Available Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4 is a heterotrophic arsenite [As(III]/antimonite [Sb(III]-oxidizing strain. The As(III oxidase AioAB is responsible for As(III oxidation in the periplasm and it is also involved in Sb(III oxidation in Agrobacterium tumefaciens 5A. In addition, Sb(III oxidase AnoA and cellular H2O2 are also responsible for Sb(III oxidation in strain GW4. However, the deletion of aioA increased the Sb(III oxidation efficiency in strain GW4. In the present study, we found that the cell mobility to Sb(III, ATP and NADH contents and heat release were also increased by Sb(III and more significantly in the aioA mutant. Proteomics and transcriptional analyses showed that proteins/genes involved in Sb(III oxidation and resistance, stress responses, carbon metabolism, cell mobility, phosphonate and phosphinate metabolism, and amino acid and nucleotide metabolism were induced by Sb(III and were more significantly induced in the aioA mutant. The results suggested that Sb(III oxidation may produce energy. In addition, without periplasmic AioAB, more Sb(III would enter bacterial cells, however, the cytoplasmic AnoA and the oxidative stress response proteins were significantly up-regulated, which may contribute to the increased Sb(III oxidation efficiency. Moreover, the carbon metabolism was also activated to generate more energy against Sb(III stress. The generated energy may be used in Sb transportation, DNA repair, amino acid synthesis, and cell mobility, and may be released in the form of heat.

  10. Mixed ligand complexes of some of the rare earths. La(III)-, Pr(III)- or Nd-(III)-CDTA-Hydroxy Acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rana, H S; Tandon, J P [Rajasthan Univ., Jaipur (India). Chemical Labs.

    1975-11-01

    Biligand complexes of the 1:1 Ln(III)-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-tetraacetic acid (CDTA) chelate with hydroxy acids (where hydroxy acids = salicylic acid (SA); Sulphosalicylic acid (SSA) and 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulphonic acid (HQSA)) have been investigated by potentiometric titration. Their formation constants have been calculated (..mu..=0.1M-KNO/sub 3/; and t=30+-1 deg C) as 4.60 +-0.03, 5.46+-0.03, 5.87+-0.05; 3.12+-0.04, 3.95+-0.05, 4.42+-0.07; 2.73+-0.06, 3.45+-0.05 and 3.90+-0.08 for Ln(III)-CDTA-SA,-SSA, and -HQSA respectively (where Ln=La, Pr or Nd). The value of log Ksub(MAB) follows the order: La(III)).

  11. Digital acquisition and processing of electron micrographs using a scanning transmission electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, A.; Christen, F.; Michel, B.

    1981-01-01

    A digital acquisition system that collects multichannel information from a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) and its application are described. The hardware comprises (i) single electron counting detectors, (ii) a digital scan generator, (iii) a digital multi-channel on-line processor, (iv) an interface to a minicomputer, and (v) a display system. Experimental results characterizing these components are presented, and their performance is discussed. The software includes assembler coded programs for dynamic file maintenance and fast acquisition of image data, a display driver, and FORTRAN coded application programs. The usefulness of digitized STEM is illustrated by a variety of biological applications. (orig.)

  12. Coronal Magnetic Field Lines and Electrons Associated with Type III ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P. Kishore

    2017-06-19

    Jun 19, 2017 ... of the electron streams that generate type V bursts, spread in the velocity spectrum, and the curvature of the magnetic field lines along which they travel. Keywords. Sun—corona—magnetic field—flares—radio bursts—polarization. 1. Introduction. Type V bursts are relatively unusual solar radio tran- sients.

  13. Abdominal Obesity, Race and Chronic Kidney Disease in Young Adults: Results from NHANES 1999-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarathy, Harini; Henriquez, Gabriela; Abramowitz, Matthew K; Kramer, Holly; Rosas, Sylvia E; Johns, Tanya; Kumar, Juhi; Skversky, Amy; Kaskel, Frederick; Melamed, Michal L

    2016-01-01

    Kidney dysfunction in obesity may be independent of and may precede the development of hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus. We aimed to examine if abdominal obesity is associated with early markers of CKD in a young healthy population and whether these associations differ by race and/or ethnicity. We analyzed data from the NHANES 1999-2010 for 6918 young adults ages 20-40 years. Abdominal obesity was defined by gender criteria of waist circumference. CKD markers included estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria ≥30 mg/g. Race stratified analyses were done overall and in subgroups with normal blood pressures, normoglycemia and normal insulin sensitivity. Awareness of CKD was assessed in participants with albuminuria. Abdominal obesity was present in over one-third of all young adults and was more prevalent among non-Hispanic blacks (45.4%) versus Mexican-Americans (40.6%) or non-Hispanic whites (37.4%) (P-value = 0.004). Mexican-American young adults with abdominal obesity had a higher odds of albuminuria even among those with normal blood pressure, normal glucose, and normal insulin sensitivity [adjusted odds ratio 4.5; 95% confidence interval (1.6-12.2), p = 0.004]. Less than 5% of young adults with albuminuria of all races and ethnicities had been told they had kidney disease. Abdominal obesity in young adults, especially in Mexican-Americans, is independently associated with albuminuria even with normal blood pressures, normoglycemia and normal insulin levels. Greater awareness of CKD is needed to protect this young population from long-standing exposure to abdominal obesity and early progressive renal disease.

  14. Abdominal Obesity, Race and Chronic Kidney Disease in Young Adults: Results from NHANES 1999-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harini Sarathy

    Full Text Available Kidney dysfunction in obesity may be independent of and may precede the development of hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus. We aimed to examine if abdominal obesity is associated with early markers of CKD in a young healthy population and whether these associations differ by race and/or ethnicity.We analyzed data from the NHANES 1999-2010 for 6918 young adults ages 20-40 years. Abdominal obesity was defined by gender criteria of waist circumference. CKD markers included estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria ≥30 mg/g. Race stratified analyses were done overall and in subgroups with normal blood pressures, normoglycemia and normal insulin sensitivity. Awareness of CKD was assessed in participants with albuminuria.Abdominal obesity was present in over one-third of all young adults and was more prevalent among non-Hispanic blacks (45.4% versus Mexican-Americans (40.6% or non-Hispanic whites (37.4% (P-value = 0.004. Mexican-American young adults with abdominal obesity had a higher odds of albuminuria even among those with normal blood pressure, normal glucose, and normal insulin sensitivity [adjusted odds ratio 4.5; 95% confidence interval (1.6-12.2, p = 0.004]. Less than 5% of young adults with albuminuria of all races and ethnicities had been told they had kidney disease.Abdominal obesity in young adults, especially in Mexican-Americans, is independently associated with albuminuria even with normal blood pressures, normoglycemia and normal insulin levels. Greater awareness of CKD is needed to protect this young population from long-standing exposure to abdominal obesity and early progressive renal disease.

  15. Transport of surface-modified iron nanoparticle in porous media and application to arsenic(III) remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanel, Sushil Raj; Nepal, Dhriti; Manning, Bruce; Choi, Heechul

    2007-01-01

    The surface-modified iron nanoparticles (S-INP) were synthesized, characterized and tested for the remediation of arsenite (As(III)), a well known toxic groundwater contaminant of concern. The S-INP material was fully dispersed in the aqueous phase with a particle size distribution of 2-10 nm estimated from high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that an Fe(III) oxide surface film was present on S-INP in addition to the bulk zero-valent Fe 0 oxidation state. Transport of S-INP through porous media packed in 10 cm length column showed particle breakthroughs of 22.1, 47.4 and 60 pore volumes in glass beads, unbaked sand, and baked sand, respectively. Un-modified INP was immobile and aggregated on porous media surfaces in the column inlet area. Results using S-INP pretreated 10 cm sand-packed columns containing ∼2 g of S-INP showed that 100 % of As(III) was removed from influent solutions (flow rate 1.8 mL min -1 ) containing 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 mg L -1 As(III) for 9, 7 and 4 days providing 23.3, 20.7 and 10.4 L of arsenic free water, respectively. In addition, it was found that 100% of As(III) in 0.5 mg/L solution (flow rate 1.8 mL min -1 ) was removed by S-INP pretreated 50 cm sand packed column containing 12 g of S-INP for more than 2.5 months providing 194.4 L of arsenic free water. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) showed S-INP had transformed to elongated, rod-like shaped corrosion product particles after reaction with As(III) in the presence of sand. These results suggest that S-INP has great potential to be used as a mobile, injectable reactive material for in-situ sandy groundwater aquifer treatment of As(III)

  16. Center for electron nanoscopy, DTU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsewell, Andy; Somers, Marcel A. J.; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2006-01-01

    front is in the field of scanning electron microscopy, SEM, which has already seen major advances due to field emission electron guns, FEG: I) Adding a focussed ion beam, so that specimen surface layers can be removed by controlled sputtering, a dual-beam FEGSEM FIB allows reconstruction...... image reconstruction from multiple images acquired through 70o tilts, TEM tomography can map nanostructures in 3D; III) Observation of TEM specimens in an environmental cell, at temperature and in a controlled gaseous environment, can provide in-situ observations of gas-solid interactions. The second...

  17. Enhancement of the fluorescence of the samarium (III) complex by gadolinium (III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun-Xiang, C.; Zhang-Hua, L.

    1988-01-01

    The increase in sensitivity and selectivity of reactions in which colored species are formed by the addition of different metal ions is an area of research that has recently been developed. This phenomenon, which is sometimes called cocolaration effect, has been explained by the formation of mixed metal complex. The authors found an analogous phenomenon of reactions forming fluorescent complexes. The complexes of Sm(III)-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA)-phenanthroline (Phen)-Triton-X-100 (TX-100) and Gd(III) (or La(III), Lu(III) and Y(III))-TTA-Phen-TX-100 had practically no fluorescence separately. Instead, a fluorescence-enhancement phenomenon caused by adding Gd or La, Lu and Y ions to the system was observed for the first time. The intensity of the enhanced fluorescence of Sm(III) complex was increased in the following order: La< Y< Lu< Gd. By analogy with cocoloration effect, the authors call this new fluorescence-enhancement phenomenon the co-fluorescence effect. The object of this work was to study the enhancement effect of Gd(III) on the fluorescence of the Sm(III)-TTA-Phen-TX-100 system. The recommended fluorimetric method has been applied to the determination of trace amounts of samarium in ytterbium oxide with satisfactory results. A general reaction mechanism for the system studied was proposed

  18. Preparation and use of Cu nanoclusters as fluorescent probes to determine Au(III) ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jinshui, E-mail: jsliu@sina.com; Wang, Bin; Xu, Meijiao; Wang, Lizhen; Zhou, Zihan

    2017-05-15

    Polyethyleneimine-capped Cu nanoclusters (PEI-CuNCs) with a mean diameter of 2.5 nm and that emitted blue light at 485 nm were synthesized. The fluorescence of PEI-CuNCs was strongly quenched when Au(III) ions were present. Because of this specific response, a PEI-CuNC-based fluorescent turn-off sensor was developed. Under optimum conditions, a good linear relationship (R{sup 2}=0.993) was found between the relative fluorescence intensity (F{sub 0}/F) and the Au(III) ion concentration between 0.5 and 15 µM. The detection limit for Au(III) ions was 0.06 µM. The quenching mechanism was assessed by performing X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra studies. The fluorescence quenching was ascribed to photo-induced electron transfer from the PEI-CuNCs to the AuCl{sub 4}{sup −} occur. Using The method described is a new way of quantifying Au(III) ions.

  19. Improved electron transport layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention provides: a method of preparing a coating ink for forming a zinc oxide electron transport layer, comprising mixing zinc acetate and a wetting agent in water or methanol; a coating ink comprising zinc acetate and a wetting agent in aqueous solution or methanolic solution......; a method of preparing a zinc oxide electron transporting layer, which method comprises: i) coating a substrate with the coating ink of the present invention to form a film; ii) drying the film; and iii) heating the dry film to convert the zinc acetate substantially to ZnO; a method of preparing an organic...... photovoltaic device or an organic LED having a zinc oxide electron transport layer, the method comprising, in this order: a) providing a substrate bearing a first electrode layer; b) forming an electron transport layer according to the following method: i) coating a coating ink comprising an ink according...

  20. Optical-phonon-induced frictional drag in coupled two-dimensional electron gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang

    1998-01-01

    The role of optical phonons in frictional drag between two adjacent but electrically isolated two-dimensional electron gases is investigated. Since the optical phonons in III-V materials have a considerably larger coupling to electrons than acoustic phonons (which are the dominant drag mechanism ...

  1. Synthesis and characterization of meridional isomer of uns-cis-(ethylenediamine-N-N'-di-3-propionato-(S-norleucinatocobalt(III semihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRECKO R. TRIFUNOVIC

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The meridional geometrical isomer of uns-cis-(ethylenediamine-N-N'-di-3-propionato(S-norleucinatocobalt(III complex has been prepared by the reaction of sodium uns-cis-(ethylenediamine-N-N'-di-3-propionato(carbonatocobaltate(III with S-norleucine at 75°C. The complex was isolated choromatographically and characterized by elemental analyses, electron absorption and infrared spectroscopy.

  2. Ultrafast electron and energy transfer in dye-sensitized iron oxide and oxyhydroxide nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, Benjamin; Katz, Jordan E.; Huse, Nils

    2013-01-01

    photo-initiated interfacial electron transfer. This approach enables time-resolved study of the fate and mobility of electrons within the solid phase. However, complete analysis of the ultrafast processes following dye photoexcitation of the sensitized iron(iii) oxide nanoparticles has not been reported....... We addressed this topic by performing femtosecond transient absorption (TA) measurements of aqueous suspensions of uncoated and DCF-sensitized iron oxide and oxyhydroxide nanoparticles, and an aqueous iron(iii)–dye complex. Following light absorption, excited state relaxation times of the dye of 115...... a four-state model of the dye-sensitized system, finding electron and energy transfer to occur on the same ultrafast timescale. The interfacial electron transfer rates for iron oxides are very close to those previously reported for DCF-sensitized titanium dioxide (for which dye–oxide energy transfer...

  3. The CLEO-III Trigger: Decision and gating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergfeld, T.J.; Gollin, G.D.; Haney, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The CLEO-III Trigger provides a trigger decision every 42ns, with a latency of approximately 2.5μs. This paper describes the free-running, pipelined trigger decision logic, the throttling mechanism whereby the data acquisition system can modulate the trigger rate to maximize throughput without buffer overrun, and the subsequent signal distribution mechanism for delivering the trigger decision to the front-end electronics. This paper also describes the multilevel simulation methods employed to allow detailed low-level models of trigger components to be co-simulated with more abstract system models, thus allowing full system modeling without incurring prohibitive computational overheads

  4. Metallothionein (MT)-III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrasco, J; Giralt, M; Molinero, A

    1999-01-01

    Metallothionein-III is a low molecular weight, heavy-metal binding protein expressed mainly in the central nervous system. First identified as a growth inhibitory factor (GIF) of rat cortical neurons in vitro, it has subsequently been shown to be a member of the metallothionein (MT) gene family...... injected rats. The specificity of the antibody was also demonstrated in immunocytochemical studies by the elimination of the immunostaining by preincubation of the antibody with brain (but not liver) extracts, and by the results obtained in MT-III null mice. The antibody was used to characterize...... the putative differences between the rat brain MT isoforms, namely MT-I+II and MT-III, in the freeze lesion model of brain damage, and for developing an ELISA for MT-III suitable for brain samples. In the normal rat brain, MT-III was mostly present primarily in astrocytes. However, lectin staining indicated...

  5. NMR and TRLFS studies of Ln(iii) and An(iii) C5-BPP complexes† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: LIFDI-MS spectra and additional NMR spectra. See DOI: 10.1039/c4sc03103b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beele, Björn B.; Geist, Andreas; Müllich, Udo; Kaden, Peter; Panak, Petra J.

    2015-01-01

    C5-BPP is a highly efficient N-donor ligand for the separation of trivalent actinides, An(iii), from trivalent lanthanides, Ln(iii). The molecular origin of the selectivity of C5-BPP and many other N-donor ligands of the BTP-type is still not entirely understood. We present here the first NMR studies on C5-BPP Ln(iii) and An(iii) complexes. C5-BPP is synthesized with 10% 15N labeling and characterized by NMR and LIFDI-MS methods. 15N NMR spectroscopy gives a detailed insight into the bonding of C5-BPP with lanthanides and Am(iii) as a representative for trivalent actinide cations, revealing significant differences in 15N chemical shift for coordinating nitrogen atoms compared to Ln(iii) complexes. The temperature dependence of NMR chemical shifts observed for the Am(iii) complex indicates a weak paramagnetism. This as well as the observed large chemical shift for coordinating nitrogen atoms show that metal–ligand bonding in Am(C5-BPP)3 has a larger share of covalence than in lanthanide complexes, confirming earlier studies. The Am(C5-BPP)3 NMR sample is furthermore spiked with Cm(iii) and characterized by time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS), yielding important information on the speciation of trace amounts of minor complex species. PMID:29560242

  6. Wolte 5. low temperature electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balestra, F.; Dieudonne, F.; Jomaah, J.

    2002-01-01

    This book present the latest research and development results in advanced materials, technologies, devices, circuits and systems for low temperature electronics. The main themes of the papers are ranging from physics and fundamental aspects, modeling and simulation, to device and circuit design. The topics include advanced process and characterization, novel devices and cryogenic instrumentation. The papers are divided into nine sections, reflecting the main research efforts in different areas: i) deep submicron silicon MOSFETs, ii) alternative MOSFETs (SOI, innovating device architectures), iii) III-V devices, iv) other semiconductor devices (Ge devices, p-n junctions, IR sensors, semiconductor microcrystals), v) emerging devices and phenomena (nano Si-based devices, conduction and fluctuations mechanisms), vi) superconducting materials, vii) superconducting detectors, viii) superconducting devices and circuits (RSFQ, SIS mixers, metal-superconducting-semiconductor structures), ix) low temperature electronics for space applications. Six invited papers presented by internationally recognized authors, and 39 contributed papers are presented. The invited papers provide an excellent overview of today's status and progress, as well as tomorrow's challenges and trends in this important discipline for many cryogenic applications. (authors)

  7. Nonlinear generation of the fundamental radiation of interplanetary type III radio bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chian, A.C.L.; Alves, M.V.

    1988-01-01

    A new generation mechanism of interplanetary type III radio bursts at the fundamental electron plasma frequency is discussed. It is shown that the electromagnetic oscillating two-stream instability, driven by two oppositely propagating Langmuir waves, can account for the experimental observations. In particular, the major difficulties encountered by the previously considered electromagnetic decay instability are removed. 19 references

  8. Computing distance distributions from dipolar evolution data with overtones: RIDME spectroscopy with Gd(iii)-based spin labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Katharina; Mertens, Valerie; Qi, Mian; Nalepa, Anna I; Godt, Adelheid; Savitsky, Anton; Jeschke, Gunnar; Yulikov, Maxim

    2017-07-21

    Extraction of distance distributions between high-spin paramagnetic centers from relaxation induced dipolar modulation enhancement (RIDME) data is affected by the presence of overtones of dipolar frequencies. As previously proposed, we account for these overtones by using a modified kernel function in Tikhonov regularization analysis. This paper analyzes the performance of such an approach on a series of model compounds with the Gd(iii)-PyMTA complex serving as paramagnetic high-spin label. We describe the calibration of the overtone coefficients for the RIDME kernel, demonstrate the accuracy of distance distributions obtained with this approach, and show that for our series of Gd-rulers RIDME technique provides more accurate distance distributions than Gd(iii)-Gd(iii) double electron-electron resonance (DEER). The analysis of RIDME data including harmonic overtones can be performed using the MATLAB-based program OvertoneAnalysis, which is available as open-source software from the web page of ETH Zurich. This approach opens a perspective for the routine use of the RIDME technique with high-spin labels in structural biology and structural studies of other soft matter.

  9. Sorption behavior of europium(III) and curium(III) on the cell surfaces of microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, T.; Kimura, T.; Ohnuki, T.; Yoshida, Z.; Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.J.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the association of europium(III) and curium(III) with the microorganisms Chlorella vulgaris, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Halomonas sp., Halobacterium salinarum, and Halobacterium halobium. We determined the kinetics and distribution coefficients (K d ) for Eu(III) and Cm(III) sorption at pH 3-5 by batch experiments, and evaluated the number of water molecules in the inner-sphere (N H 2 O ) and the degree of strength of ligand field (R E/M ) for Eu(III) by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). Exudates from C. vulgaris, Halomonas sp., and H. halobium had an affinity for Eu(III) and Cm(III). The log K d of Eu(III) and Cm(III) showed that their sorption was not fully due to the exchange with three protons on the functional groups on cell surfaces. The halophilic microorganisms (Halomonas sp., Halobacterium salinarum, H. halobium) showed almost no pH dependence in log K d , indicating that an exchange with Na + on the functional groups was involved in their sorption. The ΔN H 2 O (= 9 - N H 2 O ) for Eu(III) on C. vulgaris was 1-3, while that for the other microorganisms was over 3, demonstrating that the coordination of Eu(III) with C. vulgaris was predominantly an outer-spherical process. The R E/M for Eu(III) on halophilic microorganisms was 2.5-5, while that for non-halophilic ones was 1-2.5. This finding suggests that the coordination environment of Eu(III) on the halophilic microorganisms is more complicated than that on the other three non-halophilic ones. (orig.)

  10. Sorption behavior of europium(III) and curium(III) on the cell surfaces of microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozaki, T.; Kimura, T.; Ohnuki, T.; Yoshida, Z. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaraki (Japan); Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.J. [Environmental Sciences Dept., Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    2004-07-01

    We investigated the association of europium(III) and curium(III) with the microorganisms Chlorella vulgaris, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Halomonas sp., Halobacterium salinarum, and Halobacterium halobium. We determined the kinetics and distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) for Eu(III) and Cm(III) sorption at pH 3-5 by batch experiments, and evaluated the number of water molecules in the inner-sphere (N{sub H{sub 2}O}) and the degree of strength of ligand field (R{sub E/M}) for Eu(III) by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). Exudates from C. vulgaris, Halomonas sp., and H. halobium had an affinity for Eu(III) and Cm(III). The log K{sub d} of Eu(III) and Cm(III) showed that their sorption was not fully due to the exchange with three protons on the functional groups on cell surfaces. The halophilic microorganisms (Halomonas sp., Halobacterium salinarum, H. halobium) showed almost no pH dependence in log K{sub d}, indicating that an exchange with Na{sup +} on the functional groups was involved in their sorption. The {delta}N{sub H{sub 2}O} (= 9 - N{sub H{sub 2}O}) for Eu(III) on C. vulgaris was 1-3, while that for the other microorganisms was over 3, demonstrating that the coordination of Eu(III) with C. vulgaris was predominantly an outer-spherical process. The R{sub E/M} for Eu(III) on halophilic microorganisms was 2.5-5, while that for non-halophilic ones was 1-2.5. This finding suggests that the coordination environment of Eu(III) on the halophilic microorganisms is more complicated than that on the other three non-halophilic ones. (orig.)

  11. Intake of Key Chronic Disease–Related Nutrients among Baby Boomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Dana E.; Xiang, Jun; Brown, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The dietary habits of baby boomers (people born between 1946 and 1964) undoubtedly will have a substantial impact on their future health; however, dietary information regarding the intake of key chronic disease–related nutrients is lacking for this generation. The objective of this study was to compare the dietary intake of key chronic disease–related nutrients of the baby boomer generation with the previous generation of middle-aged adults. Methods National cross-sectional study comparison analyzing data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) including NHANES III (1988–1994) and the NHANES for 2007–2010, focused on adult respondents ages 46 to 64 years who were not institutionalized at the time of each survey. The two cohorts were compared with regard to dietary intake of key nutritional components. The main outcome measures were intake of total calories, sodium, cholesterol, fat, fruits, vegetables, vitamin C, water, and fiber. Results The baby boomers’ average daily intake of nutrients exceeded that of the previous generation of middle-aged adults for total calories (2118/1999), total fat (82/76 g), sodium (3513/3291 mg), and cholesterol (294/262 g; all P generation (P baby boomers compared with the previous generation of middle-aged adults. These findings are indicative of a diet that may contribute to increased rates of chronic disease among individuals in this age group. PMID:24945165

  12. Intake of key chronic disease-related nutrients among baby boomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Dana E; Xiang, Jun; Brown, Alexander

    2014-06-01

    The dietary habits of baby boomers (people born between 1946 and 1964) undoubtedly will have a substantial impact on their future health; however, dietary information regarding the intake of key chronic disease-related nutrients is lacking for this generation. The objective of this study was to compare the dietary intake of key chronic disease-related nutrients of the baby boomer generation with the previous generation of middle-aged adults. National cross-sectional study comparison analyzing data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) including NHANES III (1988-1994) and the NHANES for 2007-2010, focused on adult respondents ages 46 to 64 years who were not institutionalized at the time of each survey. The two cohorts were compared with regard to dietary intake of key nutritional components. The main outcome measures were intake of total calories, sodium, cholesterol, fat, fruits, vegetables, vitamin C, water, and fiber. The baby boomers' average daily intake of nutrients exceeded that of the previous generation of middle-aged adults for total calories (2118/1999), total fat (82/76 g), sodium (3513/3291 mg), and cholesterol (294/262 g; all P generation (P baby boomers compared with the previous generation of middle-aged adults. These findings are indicative of a diet that may contribute to increased rates of chronic disease among individuals in this age group.

  13. Vitamin D measurement standardization: The way out of the chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkley, N; Dawson-Hughes, B; Durazo-Arvizu, R; Thamm, M; Tian, L; Merkel, J M; Jones, J C; Carter, G D; Sempos, C T

    2017-10-01

    Substantial variability is associated with laboratory measurement of serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. The resulting chaos impedes development of consensus 25(OH)D values to define stages of vitamin D status. As resolving this situation requires standardized measurement of 25(OH)D, the Vitamin D Standardization Program (VDSP) developed methodology to standardize 25(OH)D measurement to the gold standard reference measurement procedures of NIST, Ghent University and CDC. Importantly, VDSP developed protocols for standardizing 25(OH)D values from prior research based on availability of stored serum samples. The effect of such retrospective standardization on prevalence of "low" vitamin D status in national studies reported here for The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988-1994) and the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KIGGS, 2003-2006) was such that in NHANES III 25(OH)D values were lower than original values while higher in KIGGS. In NHANES III the percentage with values below 30, 50 and 75 nmol/L increased from 4% to 6%, 22% to 31% and 55% to 71%, respectively. Whereas in KIGGS after standardization the percentage below 30, 50, and 70 nmol/L decreased from 28% to 13%, 64% to 47% and 87% to 85% respectively. Moreover, in a hypothetical example, depending on whether the 25(OH)D assay was positively or negatively biased by 12%, the 25(OH)D concentration which maximally suppressed PTH could vary from 20 to 35ng/mL. These examples underscore the challenges (perhaps impossibility) of developing vitamin D guidelines using unstandardized 25(OH)D data. Retrospective 25(OH)D standardization can be applied to old studies where stored serum samples exist. As a way forward, we suggest an international effort to identify key prior studies with stored samples for re-analysis and standardization initially to define the 25(OH)D level associated with vitamin D deficiency (rickets

  14. Electronic monitoring and voice prompts improve hand hygiene and decrease nosocomial infections in an intermediate care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swoboda, Sandra M; Earsing, Karen; Strauss, Kevin; Lane, Stephen; Lipsett, Pamela A

    2004-02-01

    To determine whether electronic monitoring of hand hygiene and voice prompts can improve hand hygiene and decrease nosocomial infection rates in a surgical intermediate care unit. Three-phase quasi-experimental design. Phase I was electronic monitoring and direct observation; phase II was electronic monitoring and computerized voice prompts for failure to perform hand hygiene on room exit; and phase III was electronic monitoring only. Nine-room, 14-bed intermediate care unit in a university, tertiary-care institution. All patient rooms, utility room, and staff lavatory were monitored electronically. All healthcare personnel including physicians, nurses, nursing support personnel, ancillary staff, all visitors and family members, and any other personnel interacting with patients on the intermediate care unit. All patients with an intermediate care unit length of stay >48 hrs were followed for nosocomial infection. Electronic monitoring during all phases, computerized voice prompts during phase II only. We evaluated a total of 283,488 electronically monitored entries into a patient room with 251,526 exits for 420 days (10,080 hrs and 3,549 patient days). Compared with phase I, hand hygiene compliance in patient rooms improved 37% during phase II (odds ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.83) and 41% in phase III (odds ratio, 1.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.84). When adjusting for patient admissions during each phase, point estimates of nosocomial infections decreased by 22% during phase II and 48% during phase III; when adjusting for patient days, the number of infections decreased by 10% during phase II and 40% during phase III. Although the overall rate of nosocomial infections significantly decreased when combining phases II and III, the association between nosocomial infection and individual phase was not significant. Electronic monitoring provided effective ongoing feedback about hand hygiene compliance. During both the voice prompt phase and post

  15. Ferrous-activated persulfate oxidation of arsenic(III) and diuron in aquatic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Lei; Zheng, Wei; Ji, Yuefei; Zhang, Jinfeng; Zeng, Chao; Zhang, Ya; Wang, Qi; Yang, Xi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Effective oxidation of As(III)/diuron is achieved by Fe(II)-activated persulfate. • Hydroxyl and sulfate radical play important roles in As(III) and diuron oxidation. • CA and Na 2 S 2 O 3 are efficient and environmental friendly chelating agents. • DFT calculation is found to be useful for degradation products prediction. -- Abstract: In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) can be an effective technology for the remediation of soil and groundwater polluted by organic and inorganic contaminants. This study investigated the oxidation of arsenic(III) (As(III)) and diuron using ferrous activated persulfate-based ISCO. The results indicated that Fe(II)/persulfate oxidation could be an effective method to oxidize As(III) and diuron. Effects of pH, S 2 O 8 2− and Fe(II) amounts on the destruction of As(III) and diuron were examined in batch experiments. Acidic conditions favored the removal of As(III) and diuron. Four chelating agents, citric acid (CA), Na 2 S 2 O 3 , diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) and ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid disodium (EDTA-Na 2 ) were used in attempt to maintain the quantity of ferrous ion in solution. In our experiments, CA and Na 2 S 2 O 3 were found to be more effective than DTPA and EDTA-Na 2 . Our results also revealed a widely practical prospect of inorganic chelating agent Na 2 S 2 O 3 . Hydroxyl and sulfate radical were determined to play key roles in the oxidation process by using ethanol and tertiary butanol as molecular probes. Oxidation of As(III) yielded As(V) via the electron-transfer reaction. In the oxidation process of diuron, a stepwise nucleophilic substitution of chlorine by hydroxyl and a stepwise oxidation process of the methyl on the dimethylurea group by hydroxyl and sulfate radical were proposed

  16. Structure and stability of hexa-aqua V(III) cations in vanadium redox flow battery electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, M; Li, Liyu; Nie, Zimin; Yang, Zhenguo; Hu, JianZhi

    2012-08-07

    The vanadium(III) cation structure in mixed acid based electrolyte solution from vanadium redox flow batteries is studied by (17)O and (35/37)Cl nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, electronic spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) based computational modelling. Both computational and experimental results reveal that the V(III) species can complex with counter anions (sulfate/chlorine) depending on the composition of its solvation sphere. By analyzing the powder precipitate it was found that the formation of sulfate complexed V(III) species is the crucial process in the precipitation reaction. The precipitation occurs through nucleation of neutral species formed through deprotonation and ion-pair formation process. However, the powder precipitate shows a multiphase nature which warrants multiple reaction pathways for precipitation reaction.

  17. On the structure and spin states of Fe(III)-EDDHA complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gallego, Mar; Fernández, Israel; Pellico, Daniel; Gutiérrez, Angel; Sierra, Miguel A; Lucena, Juan J

    2006-07-10

    DFT methods are suitable for predicting both the geometries and spin states of EDDHA-Fe(III) complexes. Thus, extensive DFT computational studies have shown that the racemic-Fe(III) EDDHA complex is more stable than the meso isomer, regardless of the spin state of the central iron atom. A comparison of the energy values obtained for the complexes under study has also shown that high-spin (S = 5/2) complexes are more stable than low-spin (S = 1/2) ones. These computational results matched the experimental results of the magnetic susceptibility values of both isomers. In both cases, their behavior has been fitted as being due to isolated high-spin Fe(III) in a distorted octahedral environment. The study of the correlation diagram also confirms the high-spin iron in complex 2b. The geometry optimization of these complexes performed with the standard 3-21G* basis set for hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen and the Hay-Wadt small-core effective core potential (ECP) including a double-xi valence basis set for iron, followed by single-point energy refinement with the 6-31G* basis set, is suitable for predicting both the geometries and the spin-states of EDDHA-Fe(III) complexes. The presence of a high-spin iron in Fe(III)-EDDHA complexes could be the key to understanding their lack of reactivity in electron-transfer processes, either chemically or electrochemically induced, and their resistance to photodegradation.

  18. Simultaneous Fe(III) reduction and ammonia oxidation process in Anammox sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Huang, Yong; Liu, Heng-Wei; Wu, Chuan; Bi, Wei; Yuan, Yi; Liu, Xin

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, there have been a number of reports on the phenomenon in which ferric iron (Fe(III)) is reduced to ferrous iron [Fe(II)] in anaerobic environments, accompanied by simultaneous oxidation of ammonia to NO 2 - , NO 3 - , or N 2. However, studies on the relevant reaction characteristics and mechanisms are rare. Recently, in research on the effect of Fe(III) on the activity of Anammox sludge, excess ammonia oxidization has also been found. Hence, in the present study, Fe(III) was used to serve as the electron acceptor instead of NO 2 - , and the feasibility and characteristics of Anammox coupled to Fe(III) reduction (termed Feammox) were investigated. After 160days of cultivation, the conversion rate of ammonia in the reactor was above 80%, accompanied by the production of a large amount of NO 3 - and a small amount of NO 2 - . The total nitrogen removal rate was up to 71.8%. Furthermore, quantities of Fe(II) were detected in the sludge fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and denaturated gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses further revealed that in the sludge, some Anammox bacteria were retained, and some microbes were enriched during the acclimatization process. We thus deduced that in Anammox sludge, Fe(III) reduction takes place together with ammonia oxidation to NO 2 - and NO 3 - along with the Anammox process. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Acrolein Exposure in U.S. Tobacco Smokers and Non-Tobacco Users: NHANES 2005-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwis, K Udeni; deCastro, B Rey; Morrow, John C; Blount, Benjamin C

    2015-12-01

    Acrolein is a highly reactive α,β unsaturated aldehyde and respiratory irritant. Acrolein is formed during combustion (e.g., burning tobacco or biomass), during high-temperature cooking of foods, and in vivo as a product of oxidative stress and polyamine metabolism. No biomonitoring reference data have been reported to characterize acrolein exposure for the U.S. Our goals were to a) evaluate two acrolein metabolites in urine--N-acetyl-S-(3-hydroxypropyl)-L-cysteine (3HPMA) and N-acetyl-S-(2-carboxyethyl)-L-cysteine (CEMA)--as biomarkers of exposure to acrolein for the U.S. population by age, sex, race, and smoking status; and b) assess tobacco smoke as a predictor of acrolein exposure. We analyzed urine from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2005-2006) participants ≥ 12 years old (n = 2,866) for 3HPMA and CEMA using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-MSMS). Sample-weighted linear regression models stratified for non-tobacco users versus tobacco smokers (as defined by serum cotinine and self-report) characterized the association of urinary 3HPMA and CEMA with tobacco smoke exposure, adjusting for urinary creatinine, sex, age, and race/ethnicity. 3HPMA and CEMA levels were higher among tobacco smokers (cigarettes, cigars, and pipe users) than among non-tobacco users. The median 3HPMA levels for tobacco smokers and non-tobacco users were 1,089 and 219 μg/g creatinine, respectively. Similarly, median CEMA levels were 203 μg/g creatinine for tobacco smokers and 78.8 μg/g creatinine for non-tobacco users. Regression analysis showed that serum cotinine was a significant positive predictor (p acrolein exposure in the U.S. population.

  20. Characterization of electron-deficient chemical bonding of diborane with attosecond electron wavepacket dynamics and laser response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonehara, Takehiro; Takatsuka, Kazuo

    2009-01-01

    We report a theoretical study of non-adiabatic electrons-nuclei coupled dynamics of diborane H 2 BH 2 BH 2 under several types of short pulse lasers. This molecule is known to have particularly interesting geometrical and electronic structures, which originate from the electron-deficient chemical bondings. We revisit the chemical bonding of diborane from the view point of electron wavepacket dynamics coupled with nuclear motions, and attempt to probe the characteristics of it by examining its response to intense laser fields. We study in the following three aspects, (i) bond formation of diborane by collision between two monoboranes, (ii) attosecond electron wavepacket dynamics in the ground state and first excited state by circularly polarized laser pulse, and (iii) induced fragmentation back to monoborane molecules by linearly polarized laser. The wave lengths of two types of laser field employed are 200 nm (in UV range) and 800 nm (in IR range), and we track the dynamics from hundreds of attoseconds up to few tens of femtoseconds. To this end, we apply the ab initio semiclassical Ehrenfest theory, into which the classical vector potential of a laser field is introduced. Basic features of the non-adiabatic response of electrons to the laser fields is elucidated in this scheme. To analyze the electronic wavepackets thus obtained, we figure out bond order density that is a spatial distribution of the bond order and bond order flux density arising only from the bonding regions, and so on. Main findings in this work are: (i) dimerization of monoboranes to diborane is so efficient that even intense laser is hard to prevent it; (ii) collective motions of electron flux emerge in the central BHHB bonding area in response to the circularly polarized laser fields; (iii) laser polarization with the direction of central two BH bonding vector is efficient for the cleavage of BH 3 -BH 3 ; and (iv) nuclear derivative coupling plays a critical role in the field induced

  1. Transuranium perrhenates: Np(IV), Pu(IV) and (III), Am (III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestre, Jean-Paul; Freundlich, William; Pages, Monique

    1977-01-01

    Synthesis in aqueous solution and by solid state reactions, crystallographical characterization and study of the stability of some transuranium perrhenates: Asup(n+)(ReO 4 - )sub(n) (A=Np(IV), Pu(IV), Pu(III), Am(III) [fr

  2. Does Erythropoietin Cause Hemoglobin Variability- Is It ‘Normal’?

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Ashwani K; David, Waseem

    2014-01-01

    Hemoglobin variability (Hb-var) in patients with chronic kidney disease has been stipulated to be a result of exogenous treatment with erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESA) and has been related to mortality in dialysis patients. We hypothesized the existence of Hb-var independent of ESA administration and compared it to that in healthy adults using data from the Scripps-Kaiser and NHANES III databases. We studied the Hb-var in 1571 peritoneal dialysis patients which included 116 patients no...

  3. Aspartame intake is associated with greater glucose intolerance in individuals with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuk, Jennifer L; Brown, Ruth E

    2016-07-01

    This study examined whether sucrose, fructose, aspartame, and saccharin influences the association between obesity and glucose tolerance in 2856 adults from the NHANES III survey. Aspartame intake significantly influenced the association between body mass index (BMI) and glucose tolerance (interaction: P = 0.004), wherein only those reporting aspartame intake had a steeper positive association between BMI and glucose tolerance than those reporting no aspartame intake. Therefore, consumption of aspartame is associated with greater obesity-related impairments in glucose tolerance.

  4. Subclinical thyroid disorders and cognitive performance among adolescents in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Jim L; Tudiver Fred; Flowers Joanne W; Wu Tiejian; Punyasavatsut Natavut

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Thyroid hormone plays a crucial role in the growth and function of the central nervous system. The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships between the status of subclinical thyroid conditions and cognition among adolescents in the United States. Methods Study sample included 1,327 adolescents 13 to 16 years old who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Serum thyroxine (T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH...

  5. Social and Behavioral Risk Marker Clustering Associated with Biological Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Disease: NHANES 2001–2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J. Everage

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Social and behavioral risk markers (e.g., physical activity, diet, smoking, and socioeconomic position cluster; however, little is known whether clustering is associated with coronary heart disease (CHD risk. Objectives were to determine if sociobehavioral clustering is associated with biological CHD risk factors (total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, and diabetes and whether associations are independent of individual clustering components. Methods. Participants included 4,305 males and 4,673 females aged ≥20 years from NHANES 2001–2004. Sociobehavioral Risk Marker Index (SRI included a summary score of physical activity, fruit/vegetable consumption, smoking, and educational attainment. Regression analyses evaluated associations of SRI with aforementioned biological CHD risk factors. Receiver operator curve analyses assessed independent predictive ability of SRI. Results. Healthful clustering (SRI = 0 was associated with improved biological CHD risk factor levels in 5 of 6 risk factors in females and 2 of 6 risk factors in males. Adding SRI to models containing age, race, and individual SRI components did not improve C-statistics. Conclusions. Findings suggest that healthful sociobehavioral risk marker clustering is associated with favorable CHD risk factor levels, particularly in females. These findings should inform social ecological interventions that consider health impacts of addressing social and behavioral risk factors.

  6. Design of readout electronics for BES III online dose rate monitoring and protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shiming; Gong Guanghua; Shao Beibei; Li Jin

    2006-01-01

    To protect the beam pipe of BES III, Si PIN diodes will be used as detectors to monitor the dose rate level near the IP area. Analog to digital conversion is selected to read out the current signals of Si PIN diodes. Several low current amplifying and measuring methods are compared, mainly describing the theory of operation, software and hardware design and performance of the A/D conversion circuit. (authors)

  7. Immediate remediation of heavy metal (Cr(VI)) contaminated soil by high energy electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Guilong; Cai, Dongqing; Wu, Zhengyan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An immediate remediation method for Cr(VI) contaminated soil (CCS) was developed. • High energy electron beam (HEEB) irradiation could reduce Cr(VI) in CCS to Cr(III). • This effect was attributed to electrons, hydrated electrons, and reductive radicals. • This remediation method was effective, environmentally friendly, and low-cost. - Abstract: This work developed an immediate and high-performance remediation method for Cr(VI) contaminated soil (CCS) using high energy electron beam (HEEB) irradiation. The result indicated that, compared with γ-ray irradiation, HEEB irradiation displayed a significant reduction efficiency on Cr(VI) in CCS to Cr(III) with substantially lower toxicity, which was mainly attributed to the reduction effects of electrons, hydrated electrons, and reductive radicals generated in the irradiation process of HEEB. This work could provide a one-step and effective method for the remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil (HMCS)

  8. Immediate remediation of heavy metal (Cr(VI)) contaminated soil by high energy electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Guilong [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei 230031 (China); Bioenergy Forest Research Center of State Forestry Administration, Hefei 230031 (China); Cai, Dongqing, E-mail: dqcai@ipp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei 230031 (China); Bioenergy Forest Research Center of State Forestry Administration, Hefei 230031 (China); Wu, Zhengyan, E-mail: zywu@ipp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei 230031 (China); Bioenergy Forest Research Center of State Forestry Administration, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2015-03-21

    Highlights: • An immediate remediation method for Cr(VI) contaminated soil (CCS) was developed. • High energy electron beam (HEEB) irradiation could reduce Cr(VI) in CCS to Cr(III). • This effect was attributed to electrons, hydrated electrons, and reductive radicals. • This remediation method was effective, environmentally friendly, and low-cost. - Abstract: This work developed an immediate and high-performance remediation method for Cr(VI) contaminated soil (CCS) using high energy electron beam (HEEB) irradiation. The result indicated that, compared with γ-ray irradiation, HEEB irradiation displayed a significant reduction efficiency on Cr(VI) in CCS to Cr(III) with substantially lower toxicity, which was mainly attributed to the reduction effects of electrons, hydrated electrons, and reductive radicals generated in the irradiation process of HEEB. This work could provide a one-step and effective method for the remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil (HMCS)

  9. Role of Caffeine Intake on Erectile Dysfunction in US Men: Results from NHANES 2001-2004.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S Lopez

    Full Text Available Caffeine is consumed by more than 85% of adults and little is known about its role on erectile dysfunction (ED in population-based studies. We investigated the association of caffeine intake and caffeinated beverages with ED, and whether these associations vary among comorbidities for ED.Data were analyzed for 3724 men (≥20 years old who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES. ED was assessed by a single question during a self-paced, computer-assisted self-interview. We analyzed 24-h dietary recall data to estimate caffeine intake (mg/day. Multivariable logistic regression analyses using appropriate sampling weights were conducted.We found that men in the 3rd (85-170 mg/day and 4th (171-303 mg/day quintiles of caffeine intake were less likely to report ED compared to men in the lowest 1st quintile (0-7 mg/day [OR: 0.58; 95% CI, 0.37-0.89; and OR: 0.61; 95% CI, 0.38-0.97, respectively], but no evidence for a trend. Similarly, among overweight/obese and hypertensive men, there was an inverse association between higher quintiles of caffeine intake and ED compared to men in the lowest 1st quintile, P≤0.05 for each quintile. However, only among men without diabetes we found a similar inverse association (Ptrend = 0.01.Caffeine intake reduced the odds of prevalent ED, especially an intake equivalent to approximately 2-3 daily cups of coffee (170-375 mg/day. This reduction was also observed among overweight/obese and hypertensive, but not among diabetic men. Yet, these associations are warranted to be investigated in prospective studies.

  10. Body mass index, sexual behaviour, and sexually transmitted infections : an analysis using the NHANES 1999–2000 data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernsen Roos MD

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Factors determining human sexual behaviour are not completely understood, but are important in the context of sexually transmitted disease epidemiology and prevention. Being obese is commonly associated with a reduced physical attractiveness but the associations between body mass index, sexual behaviour and the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections has never been studied. Methods The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES files of 1999–2000 were used. Linear regression was used to relate the reported number of sex partners in the last year and lifetime to Body Mass Index (BMI. Logistic regression was used to relate Herpes Simplex Virus type II (HSV-2 antibodies to BMI and other variables. Results Data on 979 men and 1250 women were available for analysis. Obese (mean number of partners for men:1.12, women: 0.93 and overweight (mean for men: 1.38, women: 1.03 individuals reported fewer partners than individuals of normal BMI (mean for men:2.00, women: 1.15 in the last year (p Conclusion Obese and overweight individuals, especially men, self report fewer sex partners than individuals of normal weight, but surprisingly this is not reflected in their risk of HSV-2 infection. HSV-2 antibodies provide information not contained in self-reported number of partners and may better estimate sexual risk than self-reported behaviour.

  11. Ferrous-activated persulfate oxidation of arsenic(III) and diuron in aquatic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei; Zheng, Wei; Ji, Yuefei; Zhang, Jinfeng; Zeng, Chao; Zhang, Ya; Wang, Qi; Yang, Xi

    2013-12-15

    In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) can be an effective technology for the remediation of soil and groundwater polluted by organic and inorganic contaminants. This study investigated the oxidation of arsenic(III) (As(III)) and diuron using ferrous activated persulfate-based ISCO. The results indicated that Fe(II)/persulfate oxidation could be an effective method to oxidize As(III) and diuron. Effects of pH, S2O8(2-) and Fe(II) amounts on the destruction of As(III) and diuron were examined in batch experiments. Acidic conditions favored the removal of As(III) and diuron. Four chelating agents, citric acid (CA), Na2S2O3, diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) and ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid disodium (EDTA-Na2) were used in attempt to maintain the quantity of ferrous ion in solution. In our experiments, CA and Na2S2O3 were found to be more effective than DTPA and EDTA-Na2. Our results also revealed a widely practical prospect of inorganic chelating agent Na2S2O3. Hydroxyl and sulfate radical were determined to play key roles in the oxidation process by using ethanol and tertiary butanol as molecular probes. Oxidation of As(III) yielded As(V) via the electron-transfer reaction. In the oxidation process of diuron, a stepwise nucleophilic substitution of chlorine by hydroxyl and a stepwise oxidation process of the methyl on the dimethylurea group by hydroxyl and sulfate radical were proposed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Nebular and auroral emission lines of [Cl III] in the optical spectra of planetary nebulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, F P; Aller, L H; Ramsbottom, C A; Bell, K L; Crawford, F L; Hyung, S

    2000-04-25

    Electron impact excitation rates in Cl III, recently determined with the R-matrix code, are used to calculate electron temperature (T(e)) and density (N(e)) emission line ratios involving both the nebular (5517.7, 5537.9 A) and auroral (8433.9, 8480.9, 8500.0 A) transitions. A comparison of these results with observational data for a sample of planetary nebulae, obtained with the Hamilton Echelle Spectrograph on the 3-m Shane Telescope, reveals that the R(1) = I(5518 A)/I(5538 A) intensity ratio provides estimates of N(e) in excellent agreement with the values derived from other line ratios in the echelle spectra. This agreement indicates that R(1) is a reliable density diagnostic for planetary nebulae, and it also provides observational support for the accuracy of the atomic data adopted in the line ratio calculations. However the [Cl iii] 8433.9 A line is found to be frequently blended with a weak telluric emission feature, although in those instances when the [Cl iii] intensity may be reliably measured, it provides accurate determinations of T(e) when ratioed against the sum of the 5518 and 5538 A line fluxes. Similarly, the 8500.0 A line, previously believed to be free of contamination by the Earth's atmosphere, is also shown to be generally blended with a weak telluric emission feature. The [Cl iii] transition at 8480.9 A is found to be blended with the He i 8480.7 A line, except in planetary nebulae that show a relatively weak He i spectrum, where it also provides reliable estimates of T(e) when ratioed against the nebular lines. Finally, the diagnostic potential of the near-UV [Cl iii] lines at 3344 and 3354 A is briefly discussed.

  13. Positron lifetime studies of electron irradiated copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadnagy, T.D.

    1976-01-01

    Single-crystal copper was irradiated with 4.5-MeV electrons producing simple Frenkel defects as well as a significant concentration of divacancies. Mean positron lifetime characteristics, which are sensitive to the presence of vacancies and multivacancies in copper, was monitored after isochronal anneals between 80 and 800 0 K to determine the relative change of characteristic mean lifetimes and their associated intensities. Also a study of the dependence of the mean positron lifetime on the total electron fluence was made and compared with existing theories relating these lifetimes to vacancy or multivacancy concentrations. Numerical data from curve fitting procedures using a conventional trapping model for defect-induced changes in positron lifetimes indicate that upon irradiation with 4.5-MeV electrons at 80 0 K, about 8 percent of the defects produced are divacancy units. Divacancy units appear to be several times more effective in trapping positrons than are monovacancies. Further, the experimental data suggest that the stage III annealing processes in electron-irradiated copper most probably involve the motion and removal of both monovacancies and divacancies. A conglomerate (multivacancy) unit appears to exist as a stable entity even after annealing procedures are carried out at temperatures slightly above the stage III region. Such a stable unit could serve as a nucleation center for the appearance of voids

  14. Exposure to hazardous workplace noise and use of hearing protection devices among US workers--NHANES, 1999-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Sangwoo; Davis, Rickie R; Calvert, Geoffrey M

    2009-05-01

    To estimate the prevalence of workplace noise exposure and use of hearing protection devices (HPDs) at noisy work, NIOSH analyzed 1999-2004 data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). A total of 9,275 currently employed workers aged > or =16 years were included in the weighted analysis. Hazardous workplace noise exposure was defined as self-reported exposure to noise at their current job that was so loud that the respondent had to speak in a raised voice to be heard. Industry and occupation were determined based on the respondent's current place and type of work. Twenty-two million US workers (17%) reported exposure to hazardous workplace noise. The weighted prevalence of workplace noise exposure was highest for mining (76%, SE = 7.0) followed by lumber/wood product manufacturing (55%, SE = 2.5). High-risk occupations included repair and maintenance, motor vehicle operators, and construction trades. Overall, 34% of the estimated 22 million US workers reporting hazardous workplace exposure reported non-use of HPDs. The proportion of noise-exposed workers who reported non-use of HPDs was highest for healthcare and social services (73.7%, SE = 8.1), followed by educational services (55.5%). Hearing loss prevention and intervention programs should be targeted at those industries and occupations identified to have a high prevalence of workplace noise exposure and those industries with the highest proportion of noise-exposed workers who reported non-use of HPDs. Published 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Joint Exposure to Chemical and Nonchemical Neurodevelopmental Stressors in U.S. Women of Reproductive Age in NHANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda M. Evans

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb and methyl mercury (MeHg are well established neurodevelopmental toxicants (NDTs, but joint exposure to chemical and nonchemical (e.g., maternal stress stressors has rarely been considered. We characterized exposure to Pb, MeHg and a measure of physiological dysregulation associated with chronic stress and examined race/ethnicity as a predictor of joint NDT exposure. Using data from the 2003−2004 NHANES, potential chronic stress exposure was estimated using allostatic load (AL, a quantitative measure of physiological dysregulation. A Hazard Index was calculated for joint exposure to Pb and MeHg (HINDT. Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between an indicator of elevated joint NDT exposures (HINDT > 1 and race/ethnicity. The multivariate model was stratified by AL groups to examine effect measure modification. African American (adjusted odds ratio [OR] [95% confidence interval] = 2.2 [1.4, 3.3] and Mexican American (1.4 [0.7, 2.6] women were more likely to have an HINDT > 1 compared to Caucasian women. Chronic stress was identified as an effect measure modifier with the largest ORs among women with high AL scores (African Americans = 4.3 [2.0, 9.5]; Mexican Americans = 4.2 [1.3, 14.1]. Chronic stress was found to modify the association between elevated joint NDT exposure and race/ethnicity, highlighting the importance of evaluating chemical and nonchemical stressor exposures leading to a common endpoint.

  16. Accurate simulation of geometry, singlet-singlet and triplet-singlet excitation of cyclometalated iridium(III) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Bai, Fu-Quan; Xia, Bao-Hui; Zhang, Hong-Xing; Cui, Tian

    2014-03-01

    In the current contribution, we present a critical study of the theoretical protocol used for the determination of the electronic spectra properties of luminescent cyclometalated iridium(III) complex, [Ir(III)(ppy)₂H₂dcbpy]⁺ (where, ppy = 2-phenylpyridine, H₂dcbpy = 2,2'-bipyridine-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid), considered as a representative example of the various problems related to the prediction of electronic spectra of transition metal complex. The choice of the exchange-correlation functional is crucial for the validity of the conclusions that would be drawn from the numerical results. The influence of the exchange-correlation on geometry parameter and absorption/emission band, the role of solvent effects on time-dependent density function theory (TD-DFT) calculations, as well as the importance of the chosen proper procedure to optimize triplet excited geometry, have been thus examined in detail. From the obtained results, some general conclusions and guidelines are presented: i) PBE0 functional is the most accurate in prediction of ground state geometry; ii) the well-established B3LYP, B3P86, PBE0, and X3LYP have similar accuracy in calculation of absorption spectrum; and iii) the hybrid approach TD-DFT//CIS gives out excellent agreement in the evaluation of triplet excitation energy.

  17. Extracellular Electron Uptake: Among Autotrophs and Mediated by Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Angenent, Largus T.; Zhang, Tian

    2017-01-01

    Autotrophic microbes can acquire electrons from solid donors such as steel, other microbial cells, or electrodes. Based on this feature, bioprocesses are being developed for the microbial electrosynthesis (MES) of useful products from the greenhouse gas CO2. Extracellular electron-transfer mechan......Autotrophic microbes can acquire electrons from solid donors such as steel, other microbial cells, or electrodes. Based on this feature, bioprocesses are being developed for the microbial electrosynthesis (MES) of useful products from the greenhouse gas CO2. Extracellular electron......; or (iii) mediator-generating enzymes detached from cells. This review explores the interactions of autotrophs with solid electron donors and their importance in nature and for biosustainable technologies....

  18. Reactive Oxygen Species Production by Forward and Reverse Electron Fluxes in the Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selivanov, Vitaly A.; Votyakova, Tatyana V.; Pivtoraiko, Violetta N.; Zeak, Jennifer; Sukhomlin, Tatiana; Trucco, Massimo; Roca, Josep; Cascante, Marta

    2011-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in the mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) are primary signals that modulate cellular adaptation to environment, and are also destructive factors that damage cells under the conditions of hypoxia/reoxygenation relevant for various systemic diseases or transplantation. The important role of ROS in cell survival requires detailed investigation of mechanism and determinants of ROS production. To perform such an investigation we extended our rule-based model of complex III in order to account for electron transport in the whole RC coupled to proton translocation, transmembrane electrochemical potential generation, TCA cycle reactions, and substrate transport to mitochondria. It fits respiratory electron fluxes measured in rat brain mitochondria fueled by succinate or pyruvate and malate, and the dynamics of NAD+ reduction by reverse electron transport from succinate through complex I. The fitting of measured characteristics gave an insight into the mechanism of underlying processes governing the formation of free radicals that can transfer an unpaired electron to oxygen-producing superoxide and thus can initiate the generation of ROS. Our analysis revealed an association of ROS production with levels of specific radicals of individual electron transporters and their combinations in species of complexes I and III. It was found that the phenomenon of bistability, revealed previously as a property of complex III, remains valid for the whole RC. The conditions for switching to a state with a high content of free radicals in complex III were predicted based on theoretical analysis and were confirmed experimentally. These findings provide a new insight into the mechanisms of ROS production in RC. PMID:21483483

  19. Human erythrocytes and neuroblastoma cells are affected in vitro by Au(III) ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwalsky, Mario; Gonzalez, Raquel; Villena, Fernando; Aguilar, Luis F.; Sotomayor, Carlos P.; Bolognin, Silvia; Zatta, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Gold compounds are well known for their neurological and nephrotoxic implications. However, haematological toxicity is one of the most serious toxic and less studied effects. The lack of information on these aspects of Au(III) prompted us to study the structural effects induced on cell membranes, particularly that of human erythrocytes. AuCl 3 was incubated with intact erythrocytes, isolated unsealed human erythrocyte membranes (IUM) and molecular models of the erythrocyte membrane. The latter consisted of multibilayers of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine and dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamine, phospholipids classes located in the outer and inner monolayers of the human erythrocyte membrane, respectively. This report presents evidence that Au(III) interacts with red cell membranes as follows: (a) in scanning electron microscopy studies on human erythrocytes it was observed that Au(III) induced shape changes at a concentration as low as 0.01 μM; (b) in isolated unsealed human erythrocyte membranes Au(III) induced a decrease in the molecular dynamics and/or water content at the glycerol backbone level of the lipid bilayer polar groups in a 5-50 μM concentration range, and (c) X-ray diffraction studies showed that Au(III) in the 10 μm-1 mM range induced increasing structural perturbation only to dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine bilayers. Additional experiments were performed in human neuroblastoma cells SH-SY5Y. A statistically significant decrease of cell viability was observed with Au(III) ranging from 0.1 μM to 100 μM.

  20. Buffaetal2013

    OpenAIRE

    Buffa, Roberto; Cabras, Stefano; Marini, Elisabetta; Rinaldi, Andrea; Saragat, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    The database comprises the data of a cross-sectional sample of 1590 adult individuals (836 men and 754 women, 21-49 years old) derived from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2004 (NHANES: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/**nhanes/nhanes2003-2004/**nhanes03_04.htm)

  1. The outer membrane protein Omp35 affects the reduction of Fe(III, nitrate, and fumarate by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myers Charles R

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 uses several electron acceptors to support anaerobic respiration including insoluble species such as iron(III and manganese(IV oxides, and soluble species such as nitrate, fumarate, dimethylsulfoxide and many others. MR-1 has complex branched electron transport chains that include components in the cytoplasmic membrane, periplasm, and outer membrane (OM. Previous studies have implicated a role for anaerobically upregulated OM electron transport components in the use of insoluble electron acceptors, and have suggested that other OM components may also contribute to insoluble electron acceptor use. In this study, the role for an anaerobically upregulated 35-kDa OM protein (Omp35 in the use of anaerobic electron acceptors was explored. Results Omp35 was purified from the OM of anaerobically grown cells, the gene encoding Omp35 was identified, and an omp35 null mutant (OMP35-1 was isolated and characterized. Although OMP35-1 grew on all electron acceptors tested, a significant lag was seen when grown on fumarate, nitrate, and Fe(III. Complementation studies confirmed that the phenotype of OMP35-1 was due to the loss of Omp35. Despite its requirement for wild-type rates of electron acceptor use, analysis of Omp35 protein and predicted sequence did not identify any electron transport moieties or predicted motifs. OMP35-1 had normal levels and distribution of known electron transport components including quinones, cytochromes, and fumarate reductase. Omp35 is related to putative porins from MR-1 and S. frigidimarina as well as to the PorA porin from Neisseria meningitidis. Subcellular fraction analysis confirmed that Omp35 is an OM protein. The seven-fold anaerobic upregulation of Omp35 is mediated post-transcriptionally. Conclusion Omp35 is a putative porin in the OM of MR-1 that is markedly upregulated anaerobically by a post-transcriptional mechanism. Omp35 is required for normal rates of growth on Fe(III

  2. Molecular Electronics of Self-Assembled Monolayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xintai

    This thesis deals withmolecular electronic investigations on self-assembledmonolayers. The thesis is divided into seven chapters, as outlined below.Chapter 1 is a general introduction of the history of molecular electronics and its current state.Chapter 2 is separated into three parts. Part I...... providesa brief introduction toself-assembledmonolayers(SAMs), includingits structure, formation, and its role in molecular electronic investigations. Part II is an introduction of different molecular functions, which are interesting for designing real devices. Part III is an introduction of a novel carbon...... material: graphene, and how such material can be incorporated intothe field of molecular electronics.Chapter 3 is a brief introduction of important instruments used in this thesis.Chapter 4, 5 and 6 describe the major experimental work in this thesis. Chapter 4 introduces two novel anchoring...

  3. Occupational health surveillance: Pulmonary function testing in emergency responders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D McCluskey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Emergency responders may be exposed to a variety of fumes, gases, and particulates during the course of their job that can affect pulmonary function (PF and require the use of respiratory protection. This investigation used occupational health monitoring examination data to characterize PF in a population currently employed as emergency responders. PF tests for workers who required health examinations to ensure fitness for continued respirator use were compared to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III Raw Spirometry database to determine if decreased PF was associated with employment as an emergency responder. The results of this research indicated that the emergency responders experienced a modest, but statistically significant, increase in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC mean values over the NHANES III population in both total and stratified analyses, including stratification by age, gender, height, and smoking history. Results are likely due to a combination of effectively controlled exposures in the workplace, and the healthy worker effect among long-term workers. PF testing required by the Occupational and Safety Health Administration (OSHA has substantial utility for conducting occupational surveillance at the population level. In this investigation, we were able to quickly evaluate if abnormal PF existed in an industrial sector known to have exposures that, when uncontrolled, can lead to PF impairment.

  4. Replacing American snacks with tree nuts increases consumption of key nutrients among US children and adults: results of an NHANES modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Colin D; Drewnowski, Adam

    2017-03-07

    Replacing typical American snacks with tree nuts may be an effective way to improve diet quality and compliance with the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGAs). To assess and quantify the impact of replacing typical snacks with composite tree nuts or almonds on diet metrics, including empty calories (i.e., added sugars and solid fats), individual fatty acids, macronutrients, nutrients of public health concern, including sodium, fiber and potassium, and summary measures of diet quality. Food pattern modeling was implemented in the nationally representative 2009-2012 National Health and Examination Survey (NHANES) in a population of 17,444 children and adults. All between-meal snacks, excluding beverages, were replaced on a per calorie basis with a weighted tree nut composite, reflecting consumption patterns in the population. Model 1 replaced all snacks with tree nuts, while Model 2 exempted wh