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  1. A novel form of the RelA nuclear factor kappaB subunit is induced by and forms a complex with the proto-oncogene c-Myc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Neil R; Webster, Gill A; Gillespie, Peter J; Wilson, Brian J; Crouch, Dorothy H; Perkins, Neil D

    2002-01-01

    Members of both Myc and nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) families of transcription factors are found overexpressed or inappropriately activated in many forms of human cancer. Furthermore, NF-kappaB can induce c-Myc gene expression, suggesting that the activities of these factors are functionally linked. We have discovered that both c-Myc and v-Myc can induce a previously undescribed, truncated form of the RelA(p65) NF-kappaB subunit, RelA(p37). RelA(p37) encodes the N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domain of RelA(p65) and would be expected to function as a trans-dominant negative inhibitor of NF-kappaB. Surprisingly, we found that RelA(p37) no longer binds to kappaB elements. This result is explained, however, by the observation that RelA(p37), but not RelA(p65), forms a high-molecular-mass complex with c-Myc. These results demonstrate a previously unknown functional and physical interaction between RelA and c-Myc with many significant implications for our understanding of the role that both proteins play in the molecular events underlying tumourigenesis. PMID:12027803

  2. Effects of protein-energy malnutrition on NF-kappaB signalling in murine peritoneal macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fock, Ricardo Ambrósio; Rogero, Marcelo Macedo; Vinolo, Marco Aurélio Ramirez; Curi, Rui; Borges, Maria Carolina; Borelli, Primavera

    2010-04-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is an important public health problem affecting millions of people worldwide. PEM decreases resistance to infection, impairing a number of physiological processes. In unstimulated cells, NF-kappaB is kept from binding to its consensus sequence by the inhibitor I kappaB alpha, which retains NF-kappaB in the cytoplasm. Upon various signals, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), I kappaB alpha is rapidly degraded and NF-kappaB is induced to translocate into the nucleus, where it activates expression of various genes that participate in the inflammatory response, including those involved in the synthesis of TNF-alpha. TRAF-6 is a cytoplasmic adapter protein that links the stimulatory signal from Toll like receptor-4 to NF-kappaB. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of malnutrition on induction of TNF-alpha by LPS in murine peritoneal macrophages. We evaluated peritoneal cellularity, the expression of MyD88, TRAF-6, IKK, I kappaB alpha and NF-kappaB, NF-kappaB activation and TNF-alpha mRNA and protein synthesis in macrophages. Two-month-old male BALB/C mice were submitted to PEM with a low-protein diet that contained 2% protein, compared to 12% protein in the control diet. When the experimental group had lost about 20% of the original body weight, it was used in the subsequent experiments. Malnourished animals presented anemia, leucopenia and severe reduction in peritoneal cavity cellularity. TNF-alpha mRNA and protein levels of macrophages stimulated with LPS were significantly lower in malnourished animals. PEM also decreased TRAF-6 expression and NF-kappaB activation after LPS stimulation. These results led us to conclude that PEM changes NF-kB signalling pathway in macrophages to LPS stimulus.

  3. Targeting the NF-κB Pathway as a Combination Therapy for Advanced Thyroid Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Pozdeyev

    Full Text Available NF-κB signaling plays an important role in tumor cell proliferation, cell survival, angiogenesis, invasion, metastasis and drug/radiation resistance. Combination therapy involving NF-κB pathway inhibition is an attractive strategy for the treatment of advanced forms of thyroid cancer. This study was designed to test the efficacy of NF-κB pathway inhibition in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapy, using docetaxel and ionizing radiation in in vitro models of thyroid cancer. We found that while both docetaxel and ionizing radiation activated NF-κB signaling in thyroid cancer cells, there was no synergistic effect on cell proliferation and/or programmed cell death with either genetic (transduction of a dominant negative mutant form of IκBα or pharmacologic (proteasome inhibitor bortezomib and IKKβ inhibitor GO-Y030 inhibition of the NF-κB pathway in thyroid cancer cell lines BCPAP, 8505C, THJ16T and SW1736. Docetaxel plus bortezomib synergistically decreased in vitro invasion of 8505C cells, but not in the other cell lines. Screening of a panel of clinically relevant targeted therapies for synergy with genetic NF-κB inhibition in a proliferation/cytotoxicity assay identified the histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA as a potential candidate. However, the synergistic effect was confirmed only in the BCPAP cells. These results indicate that NF-κB inhibitors are unlikely to be beneficial as combination therapy with taxane cytotoxic chemotherapy, external radiation therapy or radioiodine therapy. There may be unique circumstances where NF-κB inhibitors may be considered in combination with docetaxel to reduce tumor invasion or in combination with HDAC inhibitors to reduce tumor growth, but this does not appear to be a combination therapy that could be broadly applied to patients with advanced thyroid cancer. Further research may identify which subsets of patients/tumors may respond to this therapeutic

  4. Mitochondria mediate tumor necrosis factor-alpha/NF-kappaB signaling in skeletal muscle myotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. P.; Atkins, C. M.; Sweatt, J. D.; Reid, M. B.; Hamilton, S. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is implicated in muscle atrophy and weakness associated with a variety of chronic diseases. Recently, we reported that TNF-alpha directly induces muscle protein degradation in differentiated skeletal muscle myotubes, where it rapidly activates nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB). We also have found that protein loss induced by TNF-alpha is NF-kappaB dependent. In the present study, we analyzed the signaling pathway by which TNF-alpha activates NF-kappaB in myotubes differentiated from C2C12 and rat primary myoblasts. We found that activation of NF-kappaB by TNF-alpha was blocked by rotenone or amytal, inhibitors of complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. On the other hand, antimycin A, an inhibitor of complex III, enhanced TNF-alpha activation of NK-kappaB. These results suggest a key role of mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mediating NF-kappaB activation in muscle. In addition, we found that TNF-alpha stimulated protein kinase C (PKC) activity. However, other signal transduction mediators including ceramide, Ca2+, phospholipase A2 (PLA2), and nitric oxide (NO) do not appear to be involved in the activation of NF-kappaB.

  5. Identification of a novel A20-binding inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappa B activation termed ABIN-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Huffel, S; Delaei, F; Heyninck, K; De Valck, D; Beyaert, R

    2001-08-10

    The nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) plays a central role in the regulation of genes implicated in immune responses, inflammatory processes, and apoptotic cell death. The zinc finger protein A20 is a cellular inhibitor of NF-kappaB activation by various stimuli and plays a critical role in terminating NF-kappaB responses. The underlying mechanism for NF-kappaB inhibition by A20 is still unknown. A20 has been shown to interact with several proteins including tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factors 2 and 6, as well as the inhibitory protein of kappaB kinase (IKK) gamma protein. Here we report the cloning and characterization of ABIN-2, a previously unknown protein that binds to the COOH-terminal zinc finger domain of A20. NF-kappaB activation induced by TNF and interleukin-1 is inhibited by overexpression of ABIN-2. The latter also inhibits NF-kappaB activation induced by overexpression of receptor-interacting protein or TNF receptor-associated factor 2. In contrast, NF-kappaB activation by overexpression of IKKbeta or direct activators of the IKK complex, such as Tax, cannot be inhibited by ABIN-2. These results indicate that ABIN-2 interferes with NF-kappaB activation upstream of the IKK complex and that it might contribute to the NF-kappaB-inhibitory function of A20.

  6. DMPD: Ubiquitin: tool and target for intracellular NF-kappaB inhibitors. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16982211 Ubiquitin: tool and target for intracellular NF-kappaB inhibitors. Wullaer...vg) (.html) (.csml) Show Ubiquitin: tool and target for intracellular NF-kappaB inhibitors. PubmedID 1698221...1 Title Ubiquitin: tool and target for intracellular NF-kappaB inhibitors. Author

  7. Immunodeficiency associated with a nonsense mutation of IKBKB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian; Jakobsen, Marianne A; Larsen, Martin Jakob

    2014-01-01

    We report an infant of consanguineous parents of Turkish decent with a novel immunodeficiency associated with homozygosity for a nonsense mutation of the gene encoding Inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) kinase subunit beta (IKKβ). At five months, she presented with respiratory insufficie......We report an infant of consanguineous parents of Turkish decent with a novel immunodeficiency associated with homozygosity for a nonsense mutation of the gene encoding Inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) kinase subunit beta (IKKβ). At five months, she presented with respiratory...... no explanation before whole exome sequencing revealed a novel mutation abrogating signaling through the canonical NF-κB pathway....

  8. Effects of acteoside on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in acute lung injury via regulation of NF-κB pathway in vivo and in vitro

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    Jing, Wang; Chunhua, Ma, E-mail: machunhuabest@126.com; Shumin, Wang, E-mail: wangshuminch@126.com

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the protective role of acteoside (AC) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI). BalB/c mice intraperitoneally received AC (30, and 60 mg/kg) or dexamethasone (2 mg/kg) 2 h prior to or after intratracheal instillation of LPS. Treatment with AC significantly decreased lung wet-to-dry weight (W/D) ratio and lung myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and ameliorated LPS-induced lung histopathological changes. In addition, AC increased super oxide dismutase (SOD) level and inhibited malondialdehyde (MDA) content, total cell and neutrophil infiltrations, and levels of proinflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in LPS-stimulated mice. Furthermore, we demonstrated that AC inhibited the phosphorylation of IκBα, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65, inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase-α (IKK-α) and inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase-β (IKKβ) in LPS-induced inflammation in A549 cells. Our data suggested that LPS evoked the inflammatory response in lung epithelial cells A549. The experimental results indicated that the protective mechanism of AC might be attributed partly to the inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine production and NF-κB activation. - Highlights: • Acteoside inhibited inflammation in LPS-induced lung injury in mice. • Acteoside inhibited inflammation in lung epithelial cells A549. • Acteoside inhibited NF-kB activation in LPS-induced mice and lung epithelial cells A549.

  9. [NF-κB signaling pathways and the future perspectives of bone disease therapy using selective inhibitors of NF-κB].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimi, Eijiro; Fukushima, Hidefumi

    2016-02-01

    The transcriptional factor nuclear factor κB(NF-κB)regulates the expression of a wide variety of genes that are involved in immune and inflammatory responses, proliferation, and tumorigenesis. NF-κB consists of five members, such as p65(RelA), RelB, c-Rel, p50/p105(NF-κB1), and p52/p100(NF-κB2). There are two distinct NF-κB activation pathways, termed the classical and alternative NF-κB signaling pathways. Since mice lacking both p50 and p52 subunits developed typical osteopetrosis, due to total lack of osteoclasts, NF-κB is also important osteoclast differentiation. A selective NF-κB inhibitor blocked receptor activator of NF-κB ligand(RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. Recent findings have shown that inactivation of NF-κB enhances osteoblast differentiation in vitro and bone formation in vivo. NF-κB is constitutively activated in many cancers including oral squamous cell carcinoma(OSCC), and is involved in the invasive characteristics of OSCC. A selective NF-κB inhibitor also prevented jaw bone destruction by OSCC by reduced osteoclast numbers in animal model. Thus the inhibition of NF-κB might useful for the treatment of bone diseases, such as arthritis, osteoporosis, periodontitis, and bone invasion by OSCC by inhibiting bone resorption and by stimulating bone formation.

  10. Synergistic activation of NF-κB by nontypeable H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae is mediated by CK2, IKKβ-IκBα, and p38 MAPK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kweon, Soo-Mi; Wang, Beinan; Rixter, Davida; Lim, Jae Hyang; Koga, Tomoaki; Ishinaga, Hajime; Chen, L.-F.; Jono, Hirofumi; Xu Haidong; Li, J.-D.

    2006-01-01

    In review of the past studies on NF-κB regulation, most of them have focused on investigating how NF-κB is activated by a single inducer at a time. Given the fact that, in mixed bacterial infections in vivo, multiple inflammation inducers, including both nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and Streptococcus pneumoniae, are present simultaneously, a key issue that has yet to be addressed is whether NTHi and S. pneumoniae simultaneously activate NF-κB and the subsequent inflammatory response in a synergistic manner. Here, we show that NTHi and S. pneumoniae synergistically induce NF-κB-dependent inflammatory response via activation of multiple signaling pathways in vitro and in vivo. The classical IKKβ-IκBα and p38 MAPK pathways are involved in synergistic activation of NF-κB via two distinct mechanisms, p65 nuclear translocation-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Moreover, casein kinase 2 (CK2) is involved in synergistic induction of NF-κB via a mechanism dependent on phosphorylation of p65 at both Ser536 and Ser276 sites. These studies bring new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the NF-κB-dependent inflammatory response in polymicrobial infections and may lead to development of novel therapeutic strategies for modulating inflammation in mixed infections for patients with otitis media and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases

  11. NF1, Sp1 and HSF1 are synergistically involved in sulfide-induced sqr activation in echiuran worm Urechis unicinctus

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    Liu, Xiaolong; Qin, Zhenkui; Li, Xueyu; Ma, Xiaoyu; Gao, Beibei; Zhang, Zhifeng, E-mail: zzfp107@ouc.edu.cn

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Sulfide activates sqr transcription against respiratory toxicity in Urechis unicinctus. • Sulfide increases expressions and activities of NF1, Sp1 and HSF1 in a time-dependent manner. • NF1 and Sp1 participate in both basal and early sulfide-induced sqr transcription. • HSF1 functions more significantly than NF1 and Sp1 in sulfide-induced sqr transcription. • Transcription factors NF1, Sp1 and HSF1 enhance sqr promoter activity synergistically. - Abstract: Background: Sulfide is a well-known environmental toxic substance. Mitochondrial sulfide oxidation is a main mechanism of sulfide detoxification in organisms, and sulfide: quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) is a key enzyme which is involved in transferring electrons from sulfide to ubiquinone and converting sulfide into thiosulfate. Previous studies have revealed the SQR-mediated mitochondrial sulfide oxidation exists in the echiuran worm Urechis unicinctus, and its sqr mRNA level increased significantly when the worm is exposed to sulfide. In this study, we attempt to reveal the synergistic regulation of transcription factors on sulfide-induced sqr transcription in U. unicinctus. Methods: ChIP and EMSA were used to identify the interactions between sqr proximal promoter (from −391 to +194 bp) and transcription factors NF1 (nuclear factor 1) and Sp1 (specificity protein 1). Site-directed mutation and transfection assays further revealed their binding sites and synergistic roles of HSF1, NF1 and Sp1 in the sqr transcription. When U. unicinctus were exposed to 150 μM sulfide, the expression levels and nuclear contents of NF1 and Sp1 were examined by Western blotting, and the binding contents between NF1 or Sp1 and the sqr promoter were also detected by ChIP. Results: Transcription factors NF1 and Sp1 were confirmed to interact with the sqr proximal promoter, and their binding sites were identified in −75 to −69 bp for NF1 and −210 to −201 bp for Sp1. Transfection assays showed mutation

  12. RelA NF-κB subunit activation as a therapeutic target in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Mingzhi; Xu-Monette, Zijun Y; Li, Ling

    2016-01-01

    It has been well established that nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activation is important for tumor cell growth and survival. RelA/p65 and p50 are the most common NF-kB subunits and involved in the classical NF-kB pathway. However, the prognostic and biological significance of RelA/p65 is equivoca...

  13. Phorbol-ester-induced activation of the NF-κB transcription factor involves dissociation of an apparently cytoplasmic NF-κB/inhibitor complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeuerle, P.A.; Lenardo, M.; Pierce, J.W.; Baltimore, D.

    1988-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that inducible transcription of genes is mediated through the induction of the activity of trans-acting protein factors. The NF-κB transcription factor provides a model system to study the posttranslational activation of a phorbol-ester-inducible transcription factor. The finding that NF-κB activity is undectable in subcellular fractions from unstimulated cells suggests that NF-κB exists as an inactive precursor. The authors showed that NF-κB is detectable in two different forms. After selective removal of endogenous NF-κB, they demonstrate the existence of a protein inhibitor in cytosolic fractions of unstimulated cells that is able in vitro to convert NF-κB into an inactive desoxycholate-dependent form. The data are consistent with a molecular mechanism of inducible gene expression by which an apparently cytoplasmic transcription factor-inhibitor complex is dissociated by the action of TPA-activated protein kinase C

  14. HDAC inhibitor L-carnitine and proteasome inhibitor bortezomib synergistically exert anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo.

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    Hongbiao Huang

    Full Text Available Combinations of proteasome inhibitors and histone deacetylases (HDAC inhibitors appear to be the most potent to produce synergistic cytotoxicity in preclinical trials. We have recently confirmed that L-carnitine (LC is an endogenous HDAC inhibitor. In the current study, the anti-tumor effect of LC plus proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (velcade, Vel was investigated both in cultured hepatoma cancer cells and in Balb/c mice bearing HepG2 tumor. Cell death and cell viability were assayed by flow cytometry and MTS, respectively. Gene, mRNA expression and protein levels were detected by gene microarray, quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. The effect of Vel on the acetylation of histone H3 associated with the p21(cip1 gene promoter was examined by using ChIP assay and proteasome peptidase activity was detected by cell-based chymotrypsin-like (CT-like activity assay. Here we report that (i the combination of LC and Vel synergistically induces cytotoxicity in vitro; (ii the combination also synergistically inhibits tumor growth in vivo; (iii two major pathways are involved in the synergistical effects of the combinational treatment: increased p21(cip1 expression and histone acetylation in vitro and in vivo and enhanced Vel-induced proteasome inhibition by LC. The synergistic effect of LC and Vel in cancer therapy should have great potential in the future clinical trials.

  15. JANEX-1, a JAK3 inhibitor, protects pancreatic islets from cytokine toxicity through downregulation of NF-{kappa}B activation and the JAK/STAT pathway

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    Lv, Na; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Song, Mi-Young [Department of Biochemistry, Medical School and Diabetes Research Center, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Ha-Na; Moon, Woo Sung [Department of Pathology, Medical School and Diabetes Research Center, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sung-Joo [Department of Herbology, School of Oriental Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin-Woo [Department of Biochemistry, Medical School and Diabetes Research Center, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Kang-Beom, E-mail: desson@wonkwang.ac.kr [Department of Physiology, School of Oriental Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Byung-Hyun, E-mail: bhpark@chonbuk.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, Medical School and Diabetes Research Center, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-15

    JANEX-1/WHI-P131, a selective Janus kinase 3 (JAK3) inhibitor, has been shown to delay the onset of diabetes in the NOD mouse model. However, the molecular mechanism by which JANEX-1 protects pancreatic {beta}-cells is unknown. In the current study, we investigated the role of JANEX-1 on interleukin (IL)-1{beta} and interferon (IFN)-{gamma}-induced {beta}-cell damage using isolated islets. JANEX-1-pretreated islets showed resistance to cytokine toxicity, namely suppressed nitric oxide (NO) production, reduced inducible form of NO synthase (iNOS) expression, and decreased islet destruction. The molecular mechanism by which JANEX-1 inhibits iNOS expression was mediated through suppression of the nuclear factor {kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) and JAK/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathways. Islets treated with the cytokines downregulated the protein levels of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-1 and SOCS-3, but pretreatment with JANEX-1 attenuated these decreases. Additionally, islets from JAK3{sup -/-} mice were more resistant to cytokine toxicity than islets from control mice. These results demonstrate that JANEX-1 protects {beta}-cells from cytokine toxicity through suppression of the NF-{kappa}B and JAK/STAT pathways and upregulation of SOCS proteins, suggesting that JANEX-1 may be used to preserve functional {beta}-cell mass.

  16. Combinatorial effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and NF-κB inhibitors in ovarian cancer therapy.

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    Luiz F Zerbini

    Full Text Available Several epidemiological studies have correlated the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID with reduced risk of ovarian cancer, the most lethal gynecological cancer, diagnosed usually in late stages of the disease. We have previously established that the pro-apoptotic cytokine melanoma differentiation associated gene-7/Interleukin-24 (mda-7/IL-24 is a crucial mediator of NSAID-induced apoptosis in prostate, breast, renal and stomach cancer cells. In this report we evaluated various structurally different NSAIDs for their efficacies to induce apoptosis and mda-7/IL-24 expression in ovarian cancer cells. While several NSAIDs induced apoptosis, Sulindac Sulfide and Diclofenac most potently induced apoptosis and reduced tumor growth. A combination of these agents results in a synergistic effect. Furthermore, mda-7/IL-24 induction by NSAIDs is essential for programmed cell death, since inhibition of mda-7/IL-24 by small interfering RNA abrogates apoptosis. mda-7/IL-24 activation leads to upregulation of growth arrest and DNA damage inducible (GADD 45 α and γ and JNK activation. The NF-κB family of transcription factors has been implicated in ovarian cancer development. We previously established NF-κB/IκB signaling as an essential step for cell survival in cancer cells and hypothesized that targeting NF-κB could potentiate NSAID-mediated apoptosis induction in ovarian cancer cells. Indeed, combining NSAID treatment with NF-κB inhibitors led to enhanced apoptosis induction. Our results indicate that inhibition of NF-κB in combination with activation of mda-7/IL-24 expression may lead to a new combinatorial therapy for ovarian cancer.

  17. Low-Dose Radiation Promotes Dendritic Cell Migration and IL-12 Production via the ATM/NF-KappaB Pathway.

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    Yu, Nan; Wang, Sinian; Song, Xiujun; Gao, Ling; Li, Wei; Yu, Huijie; Zhou, Chuanchuan; Wang, Zhenxia; Li, Fengsheng; Jiang, Qisheng

    2018-04-01

    For dendritic cells (DCs) to initiate an immune response, their ability to migrate and to produce interleukin-12 (IL-12) is crucial. It has been previously shown that low-dose radiation (LDR) promoted IL-12 production by DCs, resulting in increased DC activity that contributed to LDR hormesis in the immune system. However, the molecular mechanism of LDR-induced IL-12 production, as well as the effect of LDR on DC migration capacity require further elucidation. Using the JAWSII immortalized mouse dendritic cell line, we showed that in vitro X-ray irradiation (0.2 Gy) of DCs significantly increased DC migration and IL-12 production, and upregulated CCR7. The neutralizing antibody against CCR7 has been shown to abolish LDR-enhanced DC migration, demonstrating that CCR7 mediates LDR-promoting DC migration. We identified nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) as the central signaling pathway that mediated LDR-enhanced expression of IL-12 and CCR7 based on findings that 0.2 Gy X-ray irradiation activated NF-κB, showing increased nuclear p65 translocation and NF-κB DNA-binding activity, while an NF-κB inhibitor blocked LDR-enhanced expression of IL-12 and CCR7, as well as DC migration. Finally, we demonstrated that 0.2 Gy X-ray irradiation promoted ATM phosphorylation and reactive oxygen species generation; however, only the ATM inhibitor abolished the LDR-induced NF-κB-mediated expression of IL-12 and CCR7. Altogether, our data show that exposure to LDR resulted in a hormetic effect on DCs regarding CCR7-mediated migration and IL-12 production by activating the ATM/NF-κB pathway.

  18. Synergistic activation of the CMV promoter by NF-κB P50 and PKG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Bin; Weber, Georg F.

    2004-01-01

    Several DNA binding NF-κB subunits are substrates for cGMP-dependent kinase (PKG) and their transactivation from cognate sites is induced by phosphorylation. This includes p50, which does not have a transcriptional activation domain and therefore needs to bind to other proteins to mediate gene expression. Here, we describe the synergistic transactivation by p50 and PKG from the CMV promoter. This is caused not only by phosphorylation of p50, leading to increased DNA binding, but also by PKG-dependent activation of CRE sites in the promoter. One of the CRE sites is located directly adjacent to a NF-κB site and is essential for p50-mediated induction of transcription. According to the binding of CREB to p50 in pull-down assays and according to the inhibition of p50-dependent transactivation by dominant-negative CREB, this reflects the formation of a transcription factor complex containing CREB and p50. The nuclear translocation of NF-κB is insufficient to distinguish among the multitude of promoters that harbor cognate recognition sites. The phosphorylation of multiple transcription factors by an upstream kinase, such as PKG, can lead to the formation of transcription factor complexes and differential transactivation from a subset of NF-κB sites. These interactions may be relevant for the activation of viral gene expression

  19. Synergistic efficacy in human ovarian cancer cells by histone deacetylase inhibitor TSA and proteasome inhibitor PS-341.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yong; Hu, Yi; Wu, Peng; Wang, Beibei; Tian, Yuan; Xia, Xi; Zhang, Qinghua; Chen, Tong; Jiang, Xuefeng; Ma, Quanfu; Xu, Gang; Wang, Shixuan; Zhou, Jianfeng; Ma, Ding; Meng, Li

    2011-05-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors and proteasome inhibitor are all emerging as new classes of anticancer agents. We chose TSA and PS-341 to identify whether they have a synergistic efficacy on human ovarian cancer cells. After incubated with 500 nM TSA or/and 40 nM PS-341, we found that combined groups resulted in a striking increase of apoptosis and G2/M blocking rates, no matter in A2780, cisplatin-sensitive ovarian cancer cell line OV2008 or its resistant variant C13*. This demonstrated that TSA interacted synergistically with PS-341, which raised the possibility that combined the two drugs may represent a novel strategy in ovarian cancer.

  20. Synergistic effect of baicalein, wogonin and oroxylin A mixture: multistep inhibition of the NF-κB signalling pathway contributes to an anti-inflammatory effect of Scutellaria root flavonoids.

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    Shimizu, Tomofumi; Shibuya, Nobuhiko; Narukawa, Yuji; Oshima, Naohiro; Hada, Noriyasu; Kiuchi, Fumiyuki

    2018-01-01

    Scutellaria root, the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, is a crude drug used for inflammatory diseases. In our previous report, the combination of flavonoids contained in Scutellaria root have been found to inhibit PGE 2 production more strongly than individual flavonoids. Here, to investigate the mechanism of the synergistic effect, we examined the effects of an equimolar mixture (F-mix) of baicalein (1), wogonin (2) and oroxylin A (3) on the production of PGE 2 in LPS-treated J774.1 cells. Although 1 and 3 inhibited COX-2 activity, the F-mix showed no synergistic effect on COX-2 inhibition. Therefore, we investigated the steps leading to the activation of COX-2 protein. Compounds 1-3 and F-mix inhibited the expression of COX-2 protein. However, only 2 inhibited the expression of COX-2 mRNA among the flavonoids, and the F-mix showed no synergistic effect. Only 1 inhibited NF-κB translocation into the nucleus, and the F-mix showed no synergistic effect. Although 2 did not affect NF-κB translocation, it strongly inhibited NF-κB-dependent transcriptional activity, and the F-mix inhibited the activity slightly more than 2. Compounds 1-3 also inhibited NO production, and the F-mix showed a synergistic effect. However, the effects of each flavonoid on the expression of iNOS mRNA were not consistent with those on COX-2 mRNA. Because the flavonoids inhibit different steps in the production of PGE 2 and NO, and their mixture did not show apparent synergistic effects in each step, we conclude that the synergistic effect of the flavonoid mixture reflects the total effect of the flavonoids inhibiting different steps in the NF-κB signalling pathway.

  1. Hepatitis C Virus NS3 Mediated Microglial Inflammation via TLR2/TLR6 MyD88/NF-κB Pathway and Toll Like Receptor Ligand Treatment Furnished Immune Tolerance.

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    Ayilam Ramachandran Rajalakshmy

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests the neurotrophic potential of hepatitis C virus (HCV. HCV NS3 protein is one of the potent antigens of this virus mediating inflammatory response in different cell types. Microglia being the immune surveillance cells in the central nervous system (CNS, the inflammatory potential of NS3 on microglia was studied. Role of toll like receptor (TLR ligands Pam2CSK3 and Pam3CSK4 in controlling the NS3 mediated microglial inflammation was studied using microglial cell line CHME3.IL (Interleukin-8, IL-6, TNF-α (Tumor nicrosis factor alpha and IL-1β gene expressions were measured by semi quantitative RT-PCR (reverse transcription-PCR. ELISA was performed to detect IL-8, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-10 secretion. FACS (Flourescent activated cell sorting was performed to quantify TLR1, TLR2, TLR6, MyD88 (Myeloid differntiation factor 88, IkB-α (I kappaB alpha and pNF-κB (phosphorylated nuclear factor kappaB expression. Immunofluorescence staining was performed for MyD88, TLR6 and NF-κB (Nuclear factor kappaB. Student's t-test or One way analysis of variance with Bonferoni post hoc test was performed and p < 0.05 was considered significant.Microglia responded to NS3 by secreting IL-8, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-1β via TLR2 or TLR6 mediated MyD88/NF-κB pathway. Transcription factor NF-κB was involved in activating the cytokine gene expression and the resultant inflammatory response was controlled by NF-κB inhibitor, Ro106-9920, which is known to down regulate pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. Activation of the microglia by TLR agonists Pam3CSK4 and Pam2CSK4 induced immune tolerance against NS3. TLR ligand treatment significantly down regulated pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in the microglia. IL-10 secretion was suggested as the possible mechanism by which TLR agonists induced immune tolerance. NS3 as such was not capable of self-inducing immune tolerance in microglia.In conclusion, NS3 protein was capable of activating

  2. Vorinostat, a HDAC inhibitor, showed anti-osteoarthritic activities through inhibition of iNOS and MMP expression, p38 and ERK phosphorylation and blocking NF-κB nuclear translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Hui-ming; Ding, Qian-hai; Chen, Wei-ping; Luo, Ru-bin

    2013-10-01

    Overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). In present study, we investigated whether vorinostat can inhibit the catabolic effects of IL-1β in vitro, especially the inhibition of MMPs and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) through the attenuation of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways in human chondrocytes. Human OA chondrocytes were either left untreated or treated with various concentrations of vorinostat followed by incubation with IL-1β (5ng/mL). Effects of vorinostat on IL-1β-induced gene and protein expression of iNOS, MMP-1, MMP-13 and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) were verified by quantitative real time-PCR and Western blot analysis. Production of NO, MMP-1, MMP-13 and TIMP-1 released in culture supernatant was estimated using commercially available kits. The roles of NF-κB and MAPK pathways in the regulation of targeted genes and the mechanism involved in vorinostat mediated modulation of these genes were determined by Western blot using specific antibodies. We found that vorinostat down-regulated iNOS, MMP-1 and MMP-13 expression and up-regulated TIMP-1 expression in human OA chondrocytes. In addition, the release of NO, MMP-1 and MMP-13 secreted from IL-1β stimulated chondrocytes was also suppressed by vorinostat. Interestingly, vorinostat selectively inhibited IL-1β-induced p38 and ERK1/2 activation without affecting JNK activation. Furthermore, we observed that vorinostat inhibited NF-κB pathway by suppressing the degradation of I-κBα and attenuating NF-κB p65 translocation to the nucleus. These results suggest that vorinostat may be a promising therapeutic agent for the prevention and treatment of OA. © 2013.

  3. Synergistic effect of oridonin and a PI3K/mTOR inhibitor on the non-germinal center B cell-like subtype of diffuse large B cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Qing

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We demonstrate the synergistic antitumor effect of oridonin and the PI3K/mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 on the non-germinal center B cell-like subtype of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (non-GCB DLBCL both in vitro and in vivo. The underlying mechanism may be multifunctional, involving apoptosis, AKT/mTOR and NF-kB inactivation, and ROS-mediated DNA damage response. Our findings pave the way for a new potential treatment option for non-GCB DLBCL with the combination of oridonin and NVP-BEZ235.

  4. Is NF-kappaB a good target for cancer therapy? Hopes and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baud, Véronique; Karin, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) transcription factors have a key role in many physiological processes such as innate and adaptive immune responses, cell proliferation, cell death, and inflammation. It has become clear that aberrant regulation of NF-kappaB and the signalling pathways that control its activity are involved in cancer development and progression, as well as in resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. This article discusses recent evidence from cancer genetics and cancer genome studies that support the involvement of NF-kappaB in human cancer, particularly in multiple myeloma. The therapeutic potential and benefit of targeting NF-kappaB in cancer, and the possible complications and pitfalls of such an approach, are explored.

  5. Danshen attenuates osteoarthritis-related cartilage degeneration through inhibition of NF-κB signaling pathway in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xilin; Lv, Hang; Li, Xiaodong; Su, Hui; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Yang, Jun

    2017-12-01

    Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) is a traditional Chinese medicine herb that can alleviate the symptoms of osteoarthritis (OA) (Söder et al. 2006) in animals. However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood and require further investigation. In this study, rabbits with experimentally induced OA were given an intra-articular injection of danshen (0.7 mL/day) for 5 weeks. In addition to attenuating the cartilage degeneration of OA in the rabbits, danshen decreased the expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and MMP-13, and increased the expression of their natural inhibitors: tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) and TIMP-2. Apoptosis in osteoarthritic cartilage tissues was attenuated by danshen, accompanied with increased expression of B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and decreased levels of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax). Further, danshen inhibited the nuclear accumulation of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) p65 in osteoarthritic cartilage. The therapeutic effects of danshen in vivo were comparable to that of sodium hyaluronate, which is a drug used clinically for the treatment OA. In vitro, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was used to stimulate apoptosis in primary rabbit chondrocytes. We found that the SNP-induced apoptosis was mitigated by danshen. BAY11-7028, an inhibitor of the NF-κB pathway, augmented danshen's anti-apoptotic effects in cells exposed to SNP. When these results are considered together, they indicate that danshen alleviates the cartilage injury in rabbit OA through inhibition of the NF-κB signaling pathway.

  6. Control of NF-kB activity in human melanoma by bromodomain and extra-terminal protein inhibitor I-BET151.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Stuart J; Mijatov, Branka; Gunatilake, Dilini; Gowrishankar, Kavitha; Tiffen, Jessamy; James, Wilmott; Jin, Lei; Pupo, Gulietta; Cullinane, Carleen; McArthur, Grant A; Tummino, Peter J; Rizos, Helen; Hersey, Peter

    2014-11-01

    The transcription factor NF-kappaB (NF-kB) is a key regulator of cytokine and chemokine production in melanoma and is responsible for symptoms such as anorexia, fatigue, and weight loss. In addition, NF-kB is believed to contribute to progression of the disease by upregulation of cell cycle and anti-apoptotic genes and to contribute to resistance against targeted therapies and immunotherapy. In this study, we have examined the ability of the bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) protein inhibitor I-BET151 to inhibit NF-kB in melanoma cells. We show that I-BET151 is a potent, selective inhibitor of a number of NF-kB target genes involved in induction of inflammation and cell cycle regulation and downregulates production of cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-8. SiRNA studies indicate that BRD2 is the main BET protein involved in regulation of NF-kB and that I-BET151 caused transcriptional downregulation of the NF-kB subunit p105/p50. These results suggest that BET inhibitors may have an important role in treatment of melanoma where activation of NF-kB may have a key pathogenic role. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Synergistic interactions between HDAC and sirtuin inhibitors in human leukemia cells.

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    Michele Cea

    Full Text Available Aberrant histone deacetylase (HDAC activity is frequent in human leukemias. However, while classical, NAD(+-independent HDACs are an established therapeutic target, the relevance of NAD(+-dependent HDACs (sirtuins in leukemia treatment remains unclear. Here, we assessed the antileukemic activity of sirtuin inhibitors and of the NAD(+-lowering drug FK866, alone and in combination with traditional HDAC inhibitors. Primary leukemia cells, leukemia cell lines, healthy leukocytes and hematopoietic progenitors were treated with sirtuin inhibitors (sirtinol, cambinol, EX527 and with FK866, with or without addition of the HDAC inhibitors valproic acid, sodium butyrate, and vorinostat. Cell death was quantified by propidium iodide cell staining and subsequent flow-cytometry. Apoptosis induction was monitored by cell staining with FITC-Annexin-V/propidium iodide or with TMRE followed by flow-cytometric analysis, and by measuring caspase3/7 activity. Intracellular Bax was detected by flow-cytometry and western blotting. Cellular NAD(+ levels were measured by enzymatic cycling assays. Bax was overexpressed by retroviral transduction. Bax and SIRT1 were silenced by RNA-interference. Sirtuin inhibitors and FK866 synergistically enhanced HDAC inhibitor activity in leukemia cells, but not in healthy leukocytes and hematopoietic progenitors. In leukemia cells, HDAC inhibitors were found to induce upregulation of Bax, a pro-apoptotic Bcl2 family-member whose translocation to mitochondria is normally prevented by SIRT1. As a result, leukemia cells become sensitized to sirtuin inhibitor-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, NAD(+-independent HDACs and sirtuins cooperate in leukemia cells to avoid apoptosis. Combining sirtuin with HDAC inhibitors results in synergistic antileukemic activity that could be therapeutically exploited.

  8. The NF-kappa B inhibitor, celastrol, could enhance the anti-cancer effect of gambogic acid on oral squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Di; Chen, Wantao; Xu, Qin; Yan, Ming; Zhang, Ping; Zhou, Xiaojian; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Duan, Wenhu; Zhong, Laiping; Ye, Dongxia

    2009-01-01

    Gambogic acid (GA) is a major active ingredient of gamboge, a widely used traditional Chinese medicine that has been reported to be a potent cytotoxic agent against some malignant tumors. Many studies have shown that the NF-kappa B signaling pathway plays an important role in anti-apoptosis and the drug resistance of tumor cells during chemotherapy. In this study, the effects and mechanisms of GA and the NF-kappa B inhibitor celastrol on oral cancer cells were investigated. Three human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines, Tca8113, TSCC and NT, were treated with GA alone, celastrol alone or GA plus celastrol. Cytotoxicity was assessed by MTT assay. The rate of apoptosis was examined with annexin V/PI staining as well as transmission electronic microscopy in Tca8113 cells. The level of constitutive NF-kappa B activity in oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines was determined by immunofluorescence assays and nuclear extracts and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) in vitro. To further investigate the role of NF-kappa B activity in GA and celastrol treatment in oral squamous cell carcinoma, we used the dominant negative mutant SR-IκBα to inhibit NF-kappa B activity and to observe its influence on the effect of GA. The results showed that GA could inhibit the proliferation and induce the apoptosis of the oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines and that the NF-kappa B pathway was simultaneously activated by GA treatment. The minimal cytotoxic dose of celastrol was able to effectively suppress the GA-induced NF-kappa B pathway activation. Following the combined treatment with GA and the minimal cytotoxic dose of celastrol or the dominant negative mutant SR-IκBα, proliferation was significantly inhibited, and the apoptotic rate of Tca8113 cells was significantly increased. The combination of GA and celastrol has a synergistic antitumor effect. The effect can be primarily attributed to apoptosis induced by a decrease in NF-kappa B pathway activation. The

  9. Synergistic Malaria Parasite Killing by Two Types of Plasmodial Surface Anion Channel Inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Pain

    Full Text Available Malaria parasites increase their host erythrocyte's permeability to a broad range of ions and organic solutes. The plasmodial surface anion channel (PSAC mediates this uptake and is an established drug target. Development of therapies targeting this channel is limited by several problems including interactions between known inhibitors and permeating solutes that lead to incomplete channel block. Here, we designed and executed a high-throughput screen to identify a novel class of PSAC inhibitors that overcome this solute-inhibitor interaction. These new inhibitors differ from existing blockers and have distinct effects on channel-mediated transport, supporting a model of two separate routes for solute permeation though PSAC. Combinations of inhibitors specific for the two routes had strong synergistic action against in vitro parasite propagation, whereas combinations acting on a single route produced only additive effects. The magnitude of synergism depended on external nutrient concentrations, consistent with an essential role of the channel in parasite nutrient acquisition. The identified inhibitors will enable a better understanding of the channel's structure-function and may be starting points for novel combination therapies that produce synergistic parasite killing.

  10. Synergistic Inhibition of Carbon Steel Corrosion by Inhibitor-Blends in Chloride-Containing Simulated Cooling Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaban, Abdul; Felhosi, Ilona [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary); Vastag, Gyongyi [University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad (Serbia)

    2017-06-15

    The objective of this work was to develop efficient synergistic inhibitor combinations comprising sodium nitrite (NaNO{sub 2}) and an inhibitor-blend code named (SN-50), keeping in view of their application in industrial cooling water systems. The electrochemical characteristics of the carbon steel working electrode in simulated cooling water (SCW), without and with the addition of different combinations of the inhibitors, were investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), open circuit potential (OCP). The electrode surface changes were followed by visual characterization methods. It was demonstrated in this study that all the combinations of the inhibitors exhibited synergistic benefit and higher inhibition efficiencies than did either of the individual inhibitors. The addition of SN-50 inhibitor to the SCW shifted the OCP to more anodic values and increased the polarization resistance (R{sub p}) values of carbon steel at all applied concentrations. The higher the applied sodium nitrite concentration (in the protection concentration range), the higher the obtained R{sub p} values and the inhibition efficiency improved by increasing the inhibitor concentration.

  11. Cancer Cell Growth Inhibitory Effect of Bee Venom via Increase of Death Receptor 3 Expression and Inactivation of NF-kappa B in NSCLC Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Eun Choi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Our previous findings have demonstrated that bee venom (BV has anti-cancer activity in several cancer cells. However, the effects of BV on lung cancer cell growth have not been reported. Cell viability was determined with trypan blue uptake, soft agar formation as well as DAPI and TUNEL assay. Cell death related protein expression was determined with Western blotting. An EMSA was used for nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB activity assay. BV (1–5 μg/mL inhibited growth of lung cancer cells by induction of apoptosis in a dose dependent manner in lung cancer cell lines A549 and NCI-H460. Consistent with apoptotic cell death, expression of DR3 and DR6 was significantly increased. However, deletion of DRs by small interfering RNA significantly reversed BV induced cell growth inhibitory effects. Expression of pro-apoptotic proteins (caspase-3 and Bax was concomitantly increased, but the NF-κB activity and expression of Bcl-2 were inhibited. A combination treatment of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, docetaxel and cisplatin, with BV synergistically inhibited both A549 and NCI-H460 lung cancer cell growth with further down regulation of NF-κB activity. These results show that BV induces apoptotic cell death in lung cancer cells through the enhancement of DR3 expression and inhibition of NF-κB pathway.

  12. Prevalence of bortezomib-resistant constitutive NF-kappaB activity in mantle cell lymphoma

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    Kahl Brad S

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib can inhibit activation of the transcription factor NF-κB, a mechanism implicated in its anti-neoplastic effects observed in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL. However, NF-κB can be activated through many distinct mechanisms, including proteasome independent pathways. While MCL cells have been shown to harbor constitutive NF-κB activity, what fraction of this activity in primary MCL samples is sensitive or resistant to inhibition by bortezomib remains unclear. Results Proteasome activity in the EBV-negative MCL cell lines Jeko-1 and Rec-1 is inhibited by greater than 80% after exposure to 20 nM bortezomib for 4 hours. This treatment decreased NF-κB activity in Jeko-1 cells, but failed to do so in Rec-1 cells when assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA. Concurrently, Rec-1 cells were more resistant to the cytotoxic effects of bortezomib than Jeko-1 cells. Consistent with a proteasome inhibitor resistant pathway of activation described in mouse B-lymphoma cells (WEHI231 and a breast carcinoma cell line (MDA-MB-468, the bortezomib-resistant NF-κB activity in Rec-1 cells is inhibited by calcium chelators, calmodulin inhibitors, and perillyl alcohol, a monoterpene capable of blocking L-type calcium channels. Importantly, the combination of perillyl alcohol and bortezomib is synergistic in eliciting Rec-1 cell cytotoxicity. The relevance of these results is illuminated by the additional finding that a considerable fraction of primary MCL samples (8 out of 10 displayed bortezomib-resistant constitutive NF-κB activity. Conclusion Our findings show that bortezomib-resistant NF-κB activity is frequently observed in MCL samples and suggest that this activity may be relevant to MCL biology as well as serve as a potential therapeutic target.

  13. Oleamide suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of iNOS and COX-2 through inhibition of NF-kappaB activation in BV2 murine microglial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Young Taek; Lee, Jung Yeon; Lee, Jinhwa; Lee, Ju Hie; Kim, Ja-Eun; Ha, Joohun; Kang, Insug

    2010-05-03

    Oleamide (cis-9-octadecenamide) is an endogenous sleep-inducing fatty acid amide that accumulates in the cerebrospinal fluid of the sleep-deprived animals. Microglia are the major immune cells involved in neuroinflammation causing brain damage during infection, ischemia, and neurodegenerative disease. In this study, we examined the effects of oleamide on LPS-induced production of proinflammatory mediators and the mechanisms involved in BV2 microglia. Oleamide inhibited LPS-induced production of NO and prostaglandin E2 as well as expression of iNOS and COX-2. We showed that oleamide blocked LPS-induced NF-kappaB activation and phosphorylation of inhibitor kappaB kinase (IKK). We also showed that oleamide inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation of Akt, p38 MAPK, and ERK, activation of PI 3-kinase, and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Finally, we showed that a specific antagonist of the CB2 receptor, AM630, blocked the inhibitory effects of oleamide on LPS-induced production of proinflammatory mediators and activation of NF-kappaB. Taken together, our results suggest that oleamide shows an anti-inflammatory effect through inhibition of NF-kappaB activation in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglia. 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Synergistic suppression of the PI3K inhibitor CAL-101 with bortezomib on mantle cell lymphoma growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, Fu-Lian; Xia, Bing; Li, Su-Xia; Tian, Chen; Yang, Hong-Liang; Li, Qian; Wang, Ya-Fei; Yu, Yong; Zhang, Yi-Zhuo

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects of CAL-101, particularly when combined with bortezomib (BTZ) on mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) cells, and to explore its relative mechanisms. MTT assay was applied to detect the inhibitory effects of different concentrations of CAL-101. MCL cells were divided into four groups: control group, CAL-101 group, BTZ group, and CAL-101/BTZ group. The expression of PI3K-p110σ, AKT, ERK, p-AKT and p-ERK were detected by Western blot. The apoptosis rates of CAL-101 group, BTZ group, and combination group were detected by flow cytometry. The location changes of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) of 4 groups was investigated by NF-κB Kit exploring. Western blot was applied to detect the levels of caspase-3 and the phosphorylation of AKT in different groups. CAL-101 dose- and time-dependently induced reduction in MCL cell viability. CAL-101 combined with BTZ enhanced the reduction in cell viability and apoptosis. Western blot analysis showed that CAL-101 significantly blocked the PI3K/AKT and ERK signaling pathway in MCL cells. The combination therapy contributed to the inactivation of NF-κB and AKT in MCL cell lines. However, cleaved caspase-3 was up-regulated after combined treatment. Our study showed that PI3K/p110σ is a novel therapeutic target in MCL, and the underlying mechanism could be the blocking of the PI3K/AKT and ERK signaling pathways. These findings provided a basis for clinical evaluation of CAL-101 and a rationale for its application in combination therapy, particularly with BTZ

  15. Reduced skeletal muscle inhibitor of kappaB beta content is associated with insulin resistance in subjects with type 2 diabetes: reversal by exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwijitkamol, Apiradee; Christ-Roberts, Christine; Berria, Rachele; Eagan, Phyllis; Pratipanawatr, Thongchai; DeFronzo, Ralph A; Mandarino, Lawrence J; Musi, Nicolas

    2006-03-01

    Skeletal muscle insulin resistance plays a key role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. It recently has been hypothesized that excessive activity of the inhibitor of kappaB (IkappaB)/nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) inflammatory pathway is a mechanism underlying skeletal muscle insulin resistance. However, it is not known whether IkappaB/NFkappaB signaling in muscle from subjects with type 2 diabetes is abnormal. We studied IkappaB/NFkappaB signaling in vastus lateralis muscle from six subjects with type 2 diabetes and eight matched control subjects. Muscle from type 2 diabetic subjects was characterized by a 60% decrease in IkappaB beta protein abundance, an indicator of increased activation of the IkappaB/NFkappaB pathway. IkappaB beta abundance directly correlated with insulin-mediated glucose disposal (Rd) during a hyperinsulinemic (40 mU x m(-2) x min(-1))-euglycemic clamp (r = 0.63, P = 0.01), indicating that increased IkappaB/NFkappaB pathway activity is associated with muscle insulin resistance. We also investigated whether reversal of this abnormality could be a mechanism by which training improves insulin sensitivity. In control subjects, 8 weeks of aerobic exercise training caused a 50% increase in both IkappaB alpha and IkappaB beta protein. In subjects with type 2 diabetes, training increased IkappaB alpha and IkappaB beta protein to levels comparable with that of control subjects, and these increments were accompanied by a 40% decrease in tumor necrosis factor alpha muscle content and a 37% increase in insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. In summary, subjects with type 2 diabetes have reduced IkappaB protein abundance in muscle, suggesting excessive activity of the IkappaB/NFkappaB pathway. Moreover, this abnormality is reversed by exercise training.

  16. Involvement of HDAC1 and the PI3K/PKC signaling pathways in NF-κB activation by the HDAC inhibitor apicidin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Kee; Seo, Dong-Wan; Kang, Dong-Won; Lee, Hoi Young; Han, Jeung-Whan; Kim, Su-Nam

    2006-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are appreciated as one of promising anticancer drugs, but they exert differential responses depending on the cell type. We recently reported the critical role of NF-κB as a modulator in determining cell fate for apoptosis in response to an HDAC inhibitor. In this study, we investigate a possible signaling pathway required for NF-κB activation in response to the HDAC inhibitor apicidin. Treatment of HeLa cells with apicidin leads to an increase in transcriptional activity of NF-κB and the expression of its target genes, IL-8 and TNF-α. TNF-α expression by apicidin is induced at earlier time points than NF-κB activation or IL-8 expression. In addition, our data show that the early expression of TNF-α does not lead to activation of NF-κB, because disruption of TNF-α activity by a neutralizing antibody does not affect nuclear translocation of NF-κB, IκBα degradation or reporter gene activation by apicidin. However, this activation of NF-κB requires the PI3K and PKC signaling pathways, but not ERK or JNK. Furthermore, apicidin activation of NF-κB seems to result from HDAC1 inhibition, as evidenced by the observation that overexpression of HDAC1, but not HDAC2, 3 or 4, dramatically inhibits NF-κB reporter gene activity. Collectively, our results suggest that activation of NF-κB signaling by apicidin requires both the PI3K/PKC signaling pathways and HDAC1, and functions as a critical modulator in determining the cellular effect of apicidin

  17. Magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate blocks fructose-induced hepatic NF-κB/NLRP3 inflammasome activation and lipid metabolism disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao-Juan; Yang, Yan-Zi; Zheng, Yan-Jing; Wang, Shan-Chun; Gu, Hong-Mei; Pan, Ying; Wang, Shui-Juan; Xu, Hong-Jiang; Kong, Ling-Dong

    2017-08-15

    Magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate as a hepatoprotective agent possesses immune modulation and anti-inflammation, and treats liver diseases. But its effects on immunological-inflammatory and metabolic profiles for metabolic syndrome with liver injury and underlying potential mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate alleviated liver inflammation and lipid accumulation in fructose-fed rats with metabolic syndrome. It also suppressed hepatic inflammatory signaling activation by reducing protein levels of phosphorylation of nuclear factor-kappa B p65 (p-NF-κB p65), inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase α/β (p-IKKα/β) and inhibitor of NF-κB α (p-IκBα) as well as nucleotide-binding domain (NOD)-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC) and Caspase-1 in rats, being consistent with its reduction of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and IL-6 levels. Furthermore, magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate modulated lipid metabolism-related genes characterized by up-regulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) and carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 (CPT-1), and down-regulating sensor for fatty acids to control-1 (SREBP-1) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD-1) in the liver of fructose-fed rats, resulting in the reduction of triglyceride and total cholesterol levels. These effective actions were further confirmed in fructose-exposed BRL-3A and HepG2 cells. The molecular mechanisms underpinning these observations suggest that magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate may inhibit NF-κB/NLRP3 inflammasome activation to reduce immunological-inflammatory response, which in turn may prevent liver lipid metabolic disorder and accumulation under high fructose condition. Thus, blockade of NF-κB/NLRP3 inflammasome activation and lipid metabolism disorder by magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate may be the potential therapeutic approach for improving fructose-induced liver injury with

  18. Proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib interacts synergistically with histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat in Jurkat T-leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Minjie; Gao, Lu; Tao, Yi; Hou, Jun; Yang, Guang; Wu, Xiaosong; Xu, Hongwei; Tompkins, Van S; Han, Ying; Wu, Huiqun; Zhan, Fenghuang; Shi, Jumei

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, we investigated the interactions between proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib (CFZ) and histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat in Jurkat T-leukemia cells. Coexposure of cells to minimally lethal concentrations of CFZ with very low concentration of vorinostat resulted in synergistic antiproliferative effects and enhanced apoptosis in Jurkat T-leukemia cells, accompanied with the sharply increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), the striking decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), the increased release of cytochrome c, the enhanced activation of caspase-9 and -3, and the cleavage of PARP. The combined treatment of Jurkat cells pre-treated with ROS scavengers N-acetylcysteine (NAC) significantly blocked the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, suggesting that ROS generation was a former event of the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, NAC also resulted in a marked reduction in apoptotic cells, indicating a critical role for increased ROS generation by combined treatment. In addition, combined treatment arrested the cell cycle in G2-M phase. These results imply that CFZ interacted synergistically with vorinostat in Jurkat T-leukemia cells, which raised the possibility that the combination of carfilzomib with vorinostat may represent a novel strategy in treating T-cell Leukemia. © The Author 2014. Published by ABBS Editorial Office in association with Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  19. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase by kainic acid mediates brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression through a NF-kappaB dependent mechanism in C6 glioma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Hana; Oh, Young Taek; Lee, Jung Yeon; Choi, Ji Hyun; Lee, Ju Hie; Baik, Hyung Hwan; Kim, Sung Soo; Choe, Wonchae; Yoon, Kyung-Sik; Ha, Joohun; Kang, Insug

    2008-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key regulator of energy homeostasis. Kainic acid (KA), a prototype excitotoxin is known to induce brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in brain. In this study, we examined the role of AMPK in KA-induced BDNF expression in C6 glioma cells. We showed that KA and KA receptor agonist induced activation of AMPK and KA-induced AMPK activation was blocked by inhibition of Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK) β. We then showed that inhibition of AMPK by compound C, a selective inhibitor of AMPK, or small interfering RNA of AMPKα1 blocked KA-induced BDNF mRNA and protein expression. Inhibition of AMPK blocked KA-induced phosphorylation of CaMKII and I kappaB kinase (IKK) in C6 cells. Finally, we showed that inhibition of AMPK reduced DNA binding and transcriptional activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) in KA-treated cells. These results suggest that AMPK mediates KA-induced BDNF expression by regulating NF-κB activation

  20. NF-kappaB is involved in SHetA2 circumvention of TNF-alpha resistance, but not induction of intrinsic apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chengedza, Shylet; Benbrook, Doris Mangiaracina

    2010-03-01

    Treatment of cancer with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is hindered by resistance and toxicity. The flexible heteroarotinoid, SHetA2, sensitizes resistant ovarian cancer cells to TNF-alpha-induced extrinsic apoptosis, and also induces intrinsic apoptosis as a single agent. This study tested the hypothesis that nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) is involved in SHetA2-regulated intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis. SHetA2 inhibited basal and TNF-alpha-induced or hydrogen peroxide-induced NF-kappaB activity through counter-regulation of upstream kinase (IkappaB kinase) activity, inhibitor protein (IkappaB-alpha) phosphorylation, and p-65 NF-kappaB subunit nuclear translocation, but independently of reactive oxygen species generation. Ectopic over-expression of p-65, or treatment with TNF-alpha receptor 1 (TNFR1) small interfering RNA or a caspase-8 inhibitor, each attenuated synergistic apoptosis by SHetA2 and TNF-alpha, but did not affect intrinsic apoptosis caused by SHetA2. In conclusion, NF-kappaB repression is involved in SHetA2 circumvention of resistance to TNF-alpha-induced extrinsic apoptosis, but not in SHetA2 induction of intrinsic apoptosis.

  1. NF-kappaB and p53 are the dominant apoptosis-inducing transcription factors elicited by the HIV-1 envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfettini, Jean-Luc; Roumier, Thomas; Castedo, Maria; Larochette, Nathanael; Boya, Patricia; Raynal, Brigitte; Lazar, Vladimir; Ciccosanti, Fabiola; Nardacci, Roberta; Penninger, Josef; Piacentini, Mauro; Kroemer, Guido

    2004-03-01

    The coculture of cells expressing the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein complex (Env) with cells expressing CD4 results into cell fusion, deregulated mitosis, and subsequent cell death. Here, we show that NF-kappaB, p53, and AP1 are activated in Env-elicited apoptosis. The nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) super repressor had an antimitotic and antiapoptotic effect and prevented the Env-elicited phosphorylation of p53 on serine 15 and 46, as well as the activation of AP1. Transfection with dominant-negative p53 abolished apoptosis and AP1 activation. Signs of NF-kappaB and p53 activation were also detected in lymph node biopsies from HIV-1-infected individuals. Microarrays revealed that most (85%) of the transcriptional effects of HIV-1 Env were blocked by the p53 inhibitor pifithrin-alpha. Macroarrays led to the identification of several Env-elicited, p53-dependent proapoptotic transcripts, in particular Puma, a proapoptotic "BH3-only" protein from the Bcl-2 family known to activate Bax/Bak. Down modulation of Puma by antisense oligonucleotides, as well as RNA interference of Bax and Bak, prevented Env-induced apoptosis. HIV-1-infected primary lymphoblasts up-regulated Puma in vitro. Moreover, circulating CD4+ lymphocytes from untreated, HIV-1-infected donors contained enhanced amounts of Puma protein, and these elevated Puma levels dropped upon antiretroviral therapy. Altogether, these data indicate that NF-kappaB and p53 cooperate as the dominant proapoptotic transcription factors participating in HIV-1 infection.

  2. Matrine suppresses airway inflammation by downregulating SOCS3 expression via inhibition of NF-κB signaling in airway epithelial cells and asthmatic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Daqing [Department of Respiration, Xi’an Children’s Hospital, Xi’an 710003 (China); Wang, Jing [Department of Neonatology, Xi’an Children’s Hospital, Xi’an 710003 (China); Yang, Niandi [Outpatient Department, School of Aerospace Engineering, Air Force Engineering University, Xi’an 710038 (China); Ma, Haixin, E-mail: drhaixinma@163.com [Department of Quality Control, Xi’an Children’s Hospital, Xi’an 710003 (China)

    2016-08-12

    Matrine has been demonstrated to attenuate allergic airway inflammation. Elevated suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) was correlated with the severity of asthma. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of matrine on SOCS3 expression in airway inflammation. In this study, we found that matrine significantly inhibited OVA-induced AHR, inflammatory cell infiltration, goblet cell differentiation, and mucous production in a dose-dependent manner in mice. Matrine also abrogated the level of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13, but enhanced interferon (IFN)-γ expression, both in BALF and in lung homogenates. Furthermore, matrine impeded TNF-α-induced the expression of IL-6 and adhesion molecules in airway epithelial cells (BEAS-2B and MLE-12). Additionally, we found that matrine inhibited SOCS3 expression, both in asthmatic mice and TNF-α-stimulated epithelial cells via suppression of the NF-κB signaling pathway by using pcDNA3.1-SOCS3 plasmid, SOCS3 siRNA, or nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) inhibitor PDTC. Conclusions: Matrine suppresses airway inflammation by downregulating SOCS3 expression via inhibition of NF-κB signaling in airway epithelial cells and asthmatic mice. - Highlights: • Matrine attenuates asthmatic symptoms and regulates Th1/Th2 balance in vivo. • Matrine suppresses inflammation responses in vitro. • Matrine decreases SOCS3 expression both in vivo and in vitro. • Matrine inhibits SOCS3 expression by suppressing NF-κB signaling.

  3. The novel NF-κB inhibitor IMD-0354 induces apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanduri, M; Tobin, G; Åleskog, A; Nilsson, K; Rosenquist, R

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is an important regulator of cell survival and has been shown to be constitutively active in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. Recently, a novel NF-κB inhibitor, IMD-0354 (N-(3, 5-bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-5-chloro-2-hydroxy-benzamide), was shown to specifically inhibit the phosphorylation of IκBα by IkB kinases, thus preventing NF-κB release. In this study, we investigated if IMD-0354 can inhibit NF-κB activation and induce apoptosis in CLL cells in vitro. The rate of increase in apoptosis, drug sensitivity and DNA-binding activity of NF-κB were studied using Annexin V stainings, the fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay, respectively. Finally, the impact of IMD-0354 treatment on the expression of a set of apoptosis-related genes was investigated. The results clearly show that IMD-0354 induced apoptosis (mean 26%, range 8–48%) in CLL cells, independent of immunoglobulin heavy variable (IGHV) gene mutational status, and showed a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect. IMD-0354 treatment also significantly lowered the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB in CLL cells. In addition, we identified differences in expression levels of pro- and antiapoptotic genes following IMD-0354 treatment. In summary, our novel findings show that IMD-0354 can induce apoptosis in CLL cells, and thus merits further investigation as an anticancer agent in vivo

  4. The novel NF-κB inhibitor IMD-0354 induces apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanduri, M; Tobin, G; Åleskog, A; Nilsson, K; Rosenquist, R

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is an important regulator of cell survival and has been shown to be constitutively active in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. Recently, a novel NF-κB inhibitor, IMD-0354 (N-(3, 5-bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-5-chloro-2-hydroxy-benzamide), was shown to specifically inhibit the phosphorylation of IκBα by IkB kinases, thus preventing NF-κB release. In this study, we investigated if IMD-0354 can inhibit NF-κB activation and induce apoptosis in CLL cells in vitro. The rate of increase in apoptosis, drug sensitivity and DNA-binding activity of NF-κB were studied using Annexin V stainings, the fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay, respectively. Finally, the impact of IMD-0354 treatment on the expression of a set of apoptosis-related genes was investigated. The results clearly show that IMD-0354 induced apoptosis (mean 26%, range 8–48%) in CLL cells, independent of immunoglobulin heavy variable (IGHV) gene mutational status, and showed a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect. IMD-0354 treatment also significantly lowered the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB in CLL cells. In addition, we identified differences in expression levels of pro- and antiapoptotic genes following IMD-0354 treatment. In summary, our novel findings show that IMD-0354 can induce apoptosis in CLL cells, and thus merits further investigation as an anticancer agent in vivo. PMID:22829125

  5. The novel NF-κB inhibitor IMD-0354 induces apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanduri, M; Tobin, G [Rudbeck Laboratory, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Åleskog, A [Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Nilsson, K; Rosenquist, R [Rudbeck Laboratory, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2011-03-01

    Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is an important regulator of cell survival and has been shown to be constitutively active in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. Recently, a novel NF-κB inhibitor, IMD-0354 (N-(3, 5-bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-5-chloro-2-hydroxy-benzamide), was shown to specifically inhibit the phosphorylation of IκBα by IkB kinases, thus preventing NF-κB release. In this study, we investigated if IMD-0354 can inhibit NF-κB activation and induce apoptosis in CLL cells in vitro. The rate of increase in apoptosis, drug sensitivity and DNA-binding activity of NF-κB were studied using Annexin V stainings, the fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay, respectively. Finally, the impact of IMD-0354 treatment on the expression of a set of apoptosis-related genes was investigated. The results clearly show that IMD-0354 induced apoptosis (mean 26%, range 8–48%) in CLL cells, independent of immunoglobulin heavy variable (IGHV) gene mutational status, and showed a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect. IMD-0354 treatment also significantly lowered the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB in CLL cells. In addition, we identified differences in expression levels of pro- and antiapoptotic genes following IMD-0354 treatment. In summary, our novel findings show that IMD-0354 can induce apoptosis in CLL cells, and thus merits further investigation as an anticancer agent in vivo.

  6. Preparation of radioactively labeled dehydroxy methylepoxy quinomicin, an NF-kB function inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaicharoenpong, Chanya; Umezawa, Kazuo

    2003-10-01

    Dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin (DHMEQ), a synthetic derivative of epoxyquinomicin C, is a potent and specific inhibitor of NF-kB in cultured cells. Tritium-labeled DHMEQ was synthesized by reduction reaction between epoxyquinone 5 and sodium borotritium. Specific radioactivity of the synthesized tritium-labeled DHMEQ was 15.45 mCi/mmol. It should be useful to study the mechanism of action and the stability of DHMEQ in cultured cells

  7. Scandoside Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Effect Via Suppressing NF-κB and MAPK Signaling Pathways in LPS-Induced RAW 264.7 Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyu He

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The iridoids of Hedyotis diffusa Willd play an important role in the anti-inflammatory process, but the specific iridoid with anti-inflammatory effect and its mechanism has not be thoroughly studied. An iridoid compound named scandoside (SCA was isolated from H. diffusa and its anti-inflammatory effect was investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. Its anti-inflammatory mechanism was confirmed by in intro experiments and molecular docking analyses. As results, SCA significantly decreased the productions of nitric oxide (NO, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6 and inhibited the levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, TNF-α and IL-6 messenger RNA (mRNA expression in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. SCA treatment suppressed the phosphorylation of inhibitor of nuclear transcription factor kappa-B alpaha (IκB-α, p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK. The docking data suggested that SCA had great binding abilities to COX-2, iNOS and IκB. Taken together, the results indicated that the anti-inflammatory effect of SCA is due to inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators via suppressing the nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathways, which provided useful information for its application and development.

  8. A new structural class of proteasome inhibitors that prevent NF-kappa B activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, R T; Kerwar, S S; Meyer, S M; Nelson, M G; Schow, S R; Shiffman, D; Wick, M M; Joly, A

    1998-05-01

    The multicatalytic proteinase or proteasome is a highly conserved cellular structure that is responsible for the ATP-dependent proteolysis of many proteins involved in important regulatory cellular processes. We have identified a novel class of inhibitors of the chymotrypsin-like proteolytic activity of the 20S proteasome that exhibit IC50 values ranging from 0.1 to 0.5 microgram/mL (0.1 to 1 microM). In cell proliferation assays, these compounds inhibit growth with an IC50 ranging from 5 to 10 micrograms/mL (10-20 microM). A representative member of this class of inhibitors was tested in other biological assays. CVT-634 (5-methoxy-1-indanone-3-acetyl-leu-D-leu-1-indanylamide) prevented lipopolysaccharide (LPS), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-, and phorbol ester-induced activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) in vitro by preventing signal-induced degradation of I kappa B-alpha. In these studies, the I kappa B-alpha that accumulated was hyperphosphorylated, indicating that CVT-634 did not inhibit I kappa B-alpha kinase, the enzyme responsible for signal-induced phosphorylation of I kappa B-alpha. In vivo studies indicated that CVT-634 prevented LPS-induced TNF synthesis in a murine macrophage cell line. In addition, in mice pretreated with CVT-634 at 25 and 50 mg/kg and subsequently treated with LPS, serum TNF levels were significantly lower (225 +/- 59 and 83 +/- 41 pg/mL, respectively) than in those mice that were treated only with LPS (865 +/- 282 pg/mL). These studies suggest that specific inhibition of the chymotrypsin-like activity of the proteasome is sufficient to prevent signal-induced NF-kappa B activation and that the proteasome is a novel target for the identification of agents that may be useful in the treatment of diseases whose etiology is dependent upon the activation of NF-kappa B.

  9. NIK and IKKbeta interdependence in NF-kappaB signalling--flux analysis of regulation through metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hong-Bum; Evans, Iona; Smallwood, Rod; Holcombe, Mike; Qwarnstrom, Eva E

    2010-02-01

    Activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB is central to control of immune and inflammatory responses. Cytokine induced activation through the classical or canonical pathway relies on degradation of the inhibitor, IkappaBalpha and regulation by the IKKbeta kinase. In addition, the NF-kappaB is activated through the NF-kappaB-inducing kinase, NIK. Analysis of the IKK/NIK inter-relationship and its impact on NF-kappaB control, were analysed by mathematical modelling, using matrix formalism and stoichiometrically balanced reactions. The analysis considered a range of bio-reactions and core metabolites and their role in relation to kinase activation and in control of specific steps of the NF-kappaB pathway. The model predicts a growth-rate and time-dependent transfer of the primary kinase activity from IKKbeta to NIK. In addition, it suggests that NIK/IKKbeta interdependence is controlled by intermediates of phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP) within the glycolysis pathway, and thus, identifies a link between specific metabolic events and kinase activation in inflammatory signal transduction. Subsequent in vitro experiments, carried out to validate the impact of IKK/NIK interdependence, confirmed signal amplification at the level of the NF-kappaB/IkappaBalpha complex control in the presence of both kinases. Further, they demonstrate that the induced potentiation is due to synergistic enhancement of relA-dependent activation. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Plant extracts of spices and coffee synergistically dampen nuclear factor-κB in U937 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolberg, Marit; Paur, Ingvild; Balstad, Trude R; Pedersen, Sigrid; Jacobs, David R; Blomhoff, Rune

    2013-10-01

    A large array of bioactive plant compounds (phytochemicals) has been identified and synergy among these compounds might contribute to the beneficial effects of plant foods. The transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) has been suggested as a target for many phytochemicals. Due to the complexity of mechanisms involved in NF-κB regulation, including numerous feedback loops, and the large number of phytochemicals which regulate NF-κB activity, we hypothesize that synergistic or antagonistic effects are involved. The objectives of our study were to develop a statistical methodology to evaluate the concept of synergy and antagonism and to use this methodology in a monocytic cell line (U937 expressing an NF-κB-luciferase reporter) treated with lipopolysaccharide and phytochemical-rich plant extracts. Both synergistic and antagonistic effects were clearly observed. Observed synergy was most pronounced for the combinations of oregano and coffee, and thyme and oregano. For oregano and coffee the synergistic effect was highest at 5 mg/mL with 13.9% (P oregano the highest synergistic effects was at 3 mg/mL with 13.7% (P phytochemical-rich plants may exert synergistic and antagonistic effects on NF-κB regulation. Such complex mechanistic interactions between phytochemicals are likely to underlie the protective effects of a plant-based diet on life-style related diseases. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Diclofenac inhibits tumor necrosis factor-α-induced nuclear factor-κB activation causing synergistic hepatocyte apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksson, Lisa; Herpers, Bram; Benedetti, Giulia; Matadin, Quraisha; Puigvert, Jordi C; de Bont, Hans; Dragovic, Sanja; Vermeulen, Nico P E; Commandeur, Jan N M; Danen, Erik; de Graauw, Marjo; van de Water, Bob

    2011-06-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is an important clinical problem. It involves crosstalk between drug toxicity and the immune system, but the exact mechanism at the cellular hepatocyte level is not well understood. Here we studied the mechanism of crosstalk in hepatocyte apoptosis caused by diclofenac and the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). HepG2 cells were treated with diclofenac followed by TNF-α challenge and subsequent evaluation of necrosis and apoptosis. Diclofenac caused a mild apoptosis of HepG2 cells, which was strongly potentiated by TNF-α. A focused apoptosis machinery short interference RNA (siRNA) library screen identified that this TNF-α-mediated enhancement involved activation of caspase-3 through a caspase-8/Bid/APAF1 pathway. Diclofenac itself induced sustained activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and inhibition of JNK decreased both diclofenac and diclofenac/TNF-α-induced apoptosis. Live cell imaging of GFPp65/RelA showed that diclofenac dampened the TNF-α-mediated nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) translocation oscillation in association with reduced NF-κB transcriptional activity. This was associated with inhibition by diclofenac of the TNF-α-induced phosphorylation of the inhibitor of NF-κB alpha (IκBα). Finally, inhibition of IκB kinase β (IKKβ) with BMS-345541 as well as stable lentiviral short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-based knockdown of p65/RelA sensitized hepatocytes towards diclofenac/TNF-α-induced cytotoxicity. Together, our data suggest a model whereby diclofenac-mediated stress signaling suppresses TNF-α-induced survival signaling routes and sensitizes cells to apoptosis. Copyright © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  12. Synergistic targeting of malignant pleural mesothelioma cells by MDM2 inhibitors and TRAIL agonists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urso, Loredana; Biasini, Lorena; Zago, Giulia; Calabrese, Fiorella; Conte, Pier Franco; Ciminale, Vincenzo; Pasello, Giulia

    2017-01-01

    Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM) is a chemoresistant tumor characterized by low rate of p53 mutation and upregulation of Murine Double Minute 2 (MDM2), suggesting that it may be effectively targeted using MDM2 inhibitors. In the present study, we investigated the anticancer activity of the MDM2 inhibitors Nutlin 3a (in vitro) and RG7112 (in vivo), as single agents or in combination with rhTRAIL. In vitro studies were performed using MPM cell lines derived from epithelioid (ZL55, M14K), biphasic (MSTO211H) and sarcomatoid (ZL34) MPMs. In vivo studies were conducted on a sarcomatoid MPM mouse model. In all the cell lines tested (with the exception of ZL55, which carries a biallelic loss-of-function mutation of p53), Nutlin 3a enhanced p21, MDM2 and DR5 expression, and decreased survivin expression. These changes were associated to cell cycle arrest but not to a significant induction of apoptosis. A synergistic pro-apoptotic effect was obtained through the association of rhTRAIL in all the cell lines harboring functional p53. This synergistic interaction of MDM2 inhibitor and TRAIL agonist was confirmed using a mouse preclinical model. Our results suggest that the combined targeting of MDM2 and TRAIL might provide a novel therapeutic option for treatment of MPM patients, particularly in the case of sarcomatoid MPM with MDM2 overexpression and functional inactivation of wild-type p53. PMID:28562336

  13. Chalepin: A Compound from Ruta angustifolia L. Pers Exhibits Cell Cycle Arrest at S phase, Suppresses Nuclear Factor-Kappa B (NF-κB) Pathway, Signal Transducer and Activation of Transcription 3 (STAT3) Phosphorylation and Extrinsic Apoptotic Pathway in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Carcinoma (A549).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jaime Stella Moses; Aminudin, Norhaniza; Abd Malek, Sri Nurestri

    2017-10-01

    transducer and activation of transcription 3, and extrinsic apoptotic pathway and also its ability to arrest cell cycle in S phase. This compound was from the leaves of Ruta angustifolia L. Pers. It provides new insight on the ability of this plant in suppressing certain cancers, especially the nonsmall cell lung carcinoma according to this study. Abbreviations used: °C: Degree Celsius, ANOVA: Analysis of variance, ATCC: American Type Culture Collection, BCL-2: B-Cell CLL/Lymphoma 2, Bcl-xL: B-cell lymphoma extra-large, BH3: Bcl-2 homology 3, BID: BH3-interacting domain death agonist, BIR: Baculovirus inhibitor of apoptosis protein repeat, Caspases: Cysteinyl aspartate-specific proteases, CDK: Cyclin-dependent kinase, CO 2 : Carbon dioxide, CST: Cell signaling technologies, DISC: Death-inducing signaling complex, DMSO: Dimethyl sulfoxide, DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid, DR4: Death receptor 4, DR5: Death receptor 5, E1a: Adenovirus early region 1A, ECL: Enhanced chemiluminescence, EDTA: Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, ELISA: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, etc.: Etcetera, FADD: Fas-associated protein with death domain, FBS: Fetal bovine serum, FITC: Fluorescein isothiocyanate, G1: Gap 1, G2: Gap 2, HPLC: High-performance liquid chromatography, HRP: Horseradish peroxidase, IAPs: Inhibitor of apoptosis proteins, IC50: Inhibitory concentration at half maximal inhibitory, IKK-α: Inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase subunit alpha, IKK-β: Inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase subunit beta, IKK-γ: Inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase subunit gamma, IKK: IκB kinase, IkBα: Nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha, m: Meter, M: Mitotic, mm: Millimeter, mRNA: Messenger ribonucleic acid, NaCl: Sodium chloride, NaVO4: Sodium orthovanadate, NEMO: NF-Kappa-B essential modulator, NF-κB: Nuclear factor kappa-light chain-enhancer of activated B cells, NSCLC: Nonsmall cell lung carcinoma, PBS: Phosphate buffered saline, PGE2

  14. Sigma-2 ligands and PARP inhibitors synergistically trigger cell death in breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Elizabeth S.; Mankoff, Julia; Makvandi, Mehran; Chu, Wenhua; Chu, Yunxiang; Mach, Robert H.; Zeng, Chenbo

    2017-01-01

    The sigma-2 receptor is overexpressed in proliferating cells compared to quiescent cells and has been used as a target for imaging solid tumors by positron emission tomography. Recent work has suggested that the sigma-2 receptor may also be an effective therapeutic target for cancer therapy. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is a family of enzymes involved in DNA damage response. In this study, we looked for potential synergy of cytotoxicity between PARP inhibitors and sigma-2 receptor ligands in breast cancer cell lines. We showed that the PARP inhibitor, YUN3-6, sensitized mouse breast cancer cell line, EMT6, to sigma-2 receptor ligand (SV119, WC-26, and RHM-138) induced cell death determined by cell viability assay and colony forming assay. The PARP inhibitor, olaparib, sensitized tumor cells to a different sigma-2 receptor ligand SW43-induced apoptosis and cell death in human triple negative cell line, MDA-MB-231. Olaparib inhibited PARP activity and cell proliferation, and arrested cells in G2/M phase of the cell cycle in MDA-MB-231 cells. Subsequently cells became sensitized to SW43 induced cell death. In conclusion, the combination of sigma-2 receptor ligands and PARP inhibitors appears to hold promise for synergistically triggering cell death in certain types of breast cancer cells and merits further investigation. - Highlights: • PARPi, YUN3-6 and olaparib, and σ2 ligands, SV119 and SW43, were evaluated. • Mouse and human breast cancer cells, EMT6 and MDA-MB-231 respectively, were used. • YUN3-6 and SV119 synergistically triggered cell death in EMT6 cells. • Olaparib and SW43 additively triggered cell death in MDA-MB-231 cells. • Olaparib arrested cells in G2/M in MDA-MB-231 cells.

  15. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta1) promotes IL-2 mRNA expression through the up-regulation of NF-kappaB, AP-1 and NF-AT in EL4 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, S H; Yea, S S; Jeon, Y J; Yang, K H; Kaminski, N E

    1998-12-01

    Transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) has been previously shown to modulate interleukin 2 (IL-2) secretion by activated T-cells. In the present studies, we determined that TGF-beta1 induced IL-2 mRNA expression in the murine T-cell line EL4, in the absence of other stimuli. IL-2 mRNA expression was significantly induced by TGF-beta1 (0.1-1 ng/ml) over a relatively narrow concentration range, which led to the induction of IL-2 secretion. Under identical condition, we examined the effect of TGF-beta1 on the activity of nuclear factor AT (NF-AT), nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB), activator protein-1 (AP-1) and octamer, all of which contribute to the regulation of IL-2 gene expression. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that TGF-beta1 markedly increased NF-AT, NF-kappaB and AP-1 binding to their respective cognate DNA binding sites, whereas octamer binding remained constant, as compared with untreated cells. Employing a reporter gene expression system with p(NF-kappaB)3-CAT, p(NF-AT)3-CAT and p(AP-1)3-CAT, TGF-beta1 treatment of transfected EL4 cells induced a dose-related increase in chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity that correlated well with the DNA binding profile found in the electrophoretic mobility shift assay studies. These results show that TGF-beta1, in the absence of any additional stimuli, up-regulates the activity of key transcription factors involved in IL-2 gene expression, including NF-AT, NF-kappaB and AP-1, to help promote IL-2 mRNA expression by EL4 cells.

  16. Selective histonedeacetylase inhibitor M344 intervenes in HIV-1 latency through increasing histone acetylation and activation of NF-kappaB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Ying

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors present an exciting new approach to activate HIV production from latently infected cells to potentially enhance elimination of these cells and achieve a cure. M344, a novel HDAC inhibitor, shows robust activity in a variety of cancer cells and relatively low toxicity compared to trichostatin A (TSA. However, little is known about the effects and action mechanism of M344 in inducing HIV expression in latently infected cells.Using the Jurkat T cell model of HIV latency, we demonstrate that M344 effectively reactivates HIV-1 gene expression in latently infected cells. Moreover, M344-mediated activation of the latent HIV LTR can be strongly inhibited by a NF-κB inhibitor aspirin. We further show that M344 acts by increasing the acetylation of histone H3 and histone H4 at the nucleosome 1 (nuc-1 site of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR and by inducing NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation and direct RelA DNA binding at the nuc-1 region of the HIV-1 LTR. We also found that M344 synergized with prostratin to activate the HIV-1 LTR promoter in latently infected cells.These results suggest the potential of M344 in anti-latency therapies and an important role for histone modifications and NF-κB transcription factors in regulating HIV-1 LTR gene expression.

  17. Synergistic chondroprotective effects of curcumin and resveratrol in human articular chondrocytes: inhibition of IL-1beta-induced NF-kappaB-mediated inflammation and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csaki, Constanze; Mobasheri, Ali; Shakibaei, Mehdi

    2009-01-01

    Currently available treatments for osteoarthritis (OA) are restricted to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, which exhibit numerous side effects and are only temporarily effective. Thus novel, safe and more efficacious anti-inflammatory agents are needed for OA. Naturally occurring polyphenolic compounds, such as curcumin and resveratrol, are potent agents for modulating inflammation. Both compounds mediate their effects by targeting the NF-kappaB signalling pathway. We have recently demonstrated that in chondrocytes resveratrol modulates the NF-kappaB pathway by inhibiting the proteasome, while curcumin modulates the activation of NF-kappaB by inhibiting upstream kinases (Akt). However, the combinational effects of these compounds in chondrocytes has not been studied and/or compared with their individual effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential synergistic effects of curcumin and resveratrol on IL-1beta-stimulated human chondrocytes in vitro using immunoblotting and electron microscopy. Treatment with curcumin and resveratrol suppressed NF-kappaB-regulated gene products involved in inflammation (cyclooxygenase-2, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3, MMP-9, vascular endothelial growth factor), inhibited apoptosis (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and TNF-alpha receptor-associated factor 1) and prevented activation of caspase-3. IL-1beta-induced NF-kappaB activation was suppressed directly by cocktails of curcumin and resveratrol through inhibition of Ikappakappa and proteasome activation, inhibition of IkappaBalpha phosphorylation and degradation, and inhibition of nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB. The modulatory effects of curcumin and resveratrol on IL-1beta-induced expression of cartilage specific matrix and proinflammatory enzymes were mediated in part by the cartilage-specific transcription factor Sox-9. We propose that combining these natural compounds may be a useful strategy in OA therapy as compared with separate treatment with each individual

  18. USING A DOE AND EIS TO EVALUATE THE SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS OF LOW TOXICITY INHIBITORS FOR MILD STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Bueno

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Inhibitors are widely used to prevent corrosion in cooling-water systems, and their protective performance can be enhanced by combination. The aim of this paper is to identify possible synergistic effects between four low toxicity substances used as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in industrial cooling-water systems. Electrochemical measurements were obtained following a design of experiments (DOE where the independent variables were the inhibitors concentrations and the response variable the charge transfer resistance estimated from impedance diagrams. Potentiodynamic polarization curves show that all of them act as anodic corrosion inhibitors. Among the tested formulations, only the interaction between sodium molybdate and sodium tungstate showed statistically significant effects, indicating that they can perform better when used together. The results of this work show the importance of using a statistical tool when designing inhibitor mixtures.

  19. MCPIP1 contributes to the toxicity of proteasome inhibitor MG-132 in HeLa cells by the inhibition of NF-κB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalniak, Lukasz; Dziendziel, Monika; Jura, Jolanta

    2014-10-01

    Recently, we have shown that the treatment of cells with proteasome inhibitor MG-132 results in the induction of expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 induced protein 1 (MCPIP1). MCPIP1 is a ribonuclease, responsible for the degradation of transcripts encoding certain pro-inflammatory cytokines. The protein is also known as an inhibitor of NF-κB transcription factor. Thanks to its molecular properties, MCPIP1 is considered as a regulator of inflammation, differentiation, and survival. Using siRNA technology, we show here that MCPIP1 expression contributes to the toxic properties of MG-132 in HeLa cells. The inhibition of proteasome by MG-132 and epoxomicin markedly increased MCPIP1 expression. While MG-132 induces HeLa cell death, down-regulation of MCPIP1 expression by siRNA partially protects HeLa cells from MG-132 toxicity and restores Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity, inhibited by MG-132 treatment. Inversely, overexpression of MCPIP1 decreased constitutive activity of NF-κB and limited the survival of HeLa cells, as we have shown in the previous study. Interestingly, although MG-132 decreased the expression of IκBα and increased p65 phosphorylation, the inhibition of constitutive NF-κB activity was observed in MG-132-treated cells. Since the elevated constitutive activity of NF-κB is one of the mechanisms providing increased survival of cancer cells, including HeLa cells, we propose that death-promoting properties of MCPIP1 in MG-132-treated HeLa cells may, at least partially, derive from the negative effect on the constitutive NF-κB activity.

  20. Dietary blue pigments derived from genipin, attenuate inflammation by inhibiting LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 expression via the NF-κB inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang-Song; Xiang, Yaozu; Cui, Yuan-Lu; Lin, Ke-Ming; Zhang, Xin-Fang

    2012-01-01

    The edible blue pigments produced by gardenia fruits have been used as value-added colorants for foods in East Asia for 20 years. However, the biological activity of the blue pigments derived from genipin has not been reported. The anti-inflammatory effect of blue pigments was studied in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage in vitro. The secretions of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) were inhibited in concentration-dependent manner by blue pigments. Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (Real-time RT-PCR) analyses demonstrated that the mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin (IL)-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was inhibited, moreover, ELISA results showed that the productions of IL-6 and TNF-α were inhibited. Cell-based ELISA revealed the COX-2 protein expression was inhibited. The proteome profiler array showed that 12 cytokines and chemokines involved in the inflammatory process were down-regulated by blue pigments. Blue pigments inhibited the nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activation induced by LPS, and this was associated with decreasing the DNA-binding activity of p65 and p50. Furthermore, blue pigments suppressed the degradation of inhibitor of κB (IκB) α, Inhibitor of NF-κB Kinase (IKK) α, IKK-β, and phosphorylation of IκB-α. The anti-inflammatory effect of blue pigments in vivo was studied in carrageenan-induced paw edema and LPS-injecting ICR mice. Finally, blue pigments significantly inhibited paw swelling and reduced plasma TNF-α and IL-6 production in vivo. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory properties of blue pigments might be the results from the inhibition of iNOS, COX-2, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α expression through the down-regulation of NF-κB activation, which will provide strong scientific evidence for the edible blue pigments to be developed as a new health-enhancing nutritional food

  1. Dietary blue pigments derived from genipin, attenuate inflammation by inhibiting LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 expression via the NF-κB inactivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang-Song Wang

    Full Text Available The edible blue pigments produced by gardenia fruits have been used as value-added colorants for foods in East Asia for 20 years. However, the biological activity of the blue pigments derived from genipin has not been reported.The anti-inflammatory effect of blue pigments was studied in lipopolysaccharide (LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage in vitro. The secretions of nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E(2 (PGE(2 were inhibited in concentration-dependent manner by blue pigments. Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (Real-time RT-PCR analyses demonstrated that the mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, interleukin (IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α was inhibited, moreover, ELISA results showed that the productions of IL-6 and TNF-α were inhibited. Cell-based ELISA revealed the COX-2 protein expression was inhibited. The proteome profiler array showed that 12 cytokines and chemokines involved in the inflammatory process were down-regulated by blue pigments. Blue pigments inhibited the nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB activation induced by LPS, and this was associated with decreasing the DNA-binding activity of p65 and p50. Furthermore, blue pigments suppressed the degradation of inhibitor of κB (IκB α, Inhibitor of NF-κB Kinase (IKK α, IKK-β, and phosphorylation of IκB-α. The anti-inflammatory effect of blue pigments in vivo was studied in carrageenan-induced paw edema and LPS-injecting ICR mice. Finally, blue pigments significantly inhibited paw swelling and reduced plasma TNF-α and IL-6 production in vivo.These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory properties of blue pigments might be the results from the inhibition of iNOS, COX-2, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α expression through the down-regulation of NF-κB activation, which will provide strong scientific evidence for the edible blue pigments to be developed as a new health-enhancing nutritional

  2. Synergistic effects between catalase inhibitors and modulators of nitric oxide metabolism on tumor cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheit, Katrin; Bauer, Georg

    2014-10-01

    Inhibitors of catalase (such as ascorbate, methyldopa, salicylic acid and neutralizing antibodies) synergize with modulators of nitric oxide (NO) metabolism (such as arginine, arginase inhibitor, NO synthase-inducing interferons and NO dioxygenase inhibitors) in the singlet oxygen-mediated inactivation of tumor cell protective catalase. This is followed by reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent apoptosis induction. TGF-beta, NADPH oxidase-1, NO synthase, dual oxidase-1 and caspase-9 are characterized as essential catalysts in this process. The FAS receptor and caspase-8 are required for amplification of ROS signaling triggered by individual compounds, but are dispensable when the synergistic effect is established. Our findings explain the antitumor effects of catalase inhibitors and of compounds that target NO metabolism, as well as their synergy. These data may have an impact on epidemiological studies related to secondary plant compounds and open new perspectives for the establishment of novel antitumor drugs and for the improvement of established chemotherapeutics. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  3. Genetic blockade of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor via recombinant adenovirus in lung cancer can be enhanced by the histone deacetylase inhibitor, vorinostat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi-Young; Kim, Dal Rae; Eo, Eun Young; Lim, Hyo Jeong; Park, Jong Sun; Cho, Young-Jae; Yoon, Ho-Il; Lee, Jae Ho; Lee, Choon-Taek

    2013-01-01

    Many approaches have been suggested as anti-tumor therapy for targeting insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R), such as monoclonal antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitor. We introduced recombinant adenoviruses expressing antisense, dominant negative or short hairpin RNA to IGF-1R. Moreover, we demonstrated that histone deacetylase inhibitor (vorinostat) can increase the transduction efficiency of adenoviruses by increasing CAR-induced transduction and by enhancing the transcription of the adenoviral transgene. In the present study, we showed that the combination of ad-sh (short hairpin) IGF-1R with vorinostat leads to a synergistic enhancement of IGF-1R blockade. We measured the change in IGF-1R upon cotreatment with vorinostat and ad-shIGF-1R. Changes in transduction efficiency of ad-shIGF-1R were measured by fluorescent microscopy. Changes in apoptotic proportion and cell survival after the cotreatment were measured by the sub-G1 assay and cell counts. The effect of nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation was also measured by NF-κB p65 activation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Drug interactions were analyzed upon cotreatment with ad-shIGF-1R, vorinostat and cisplatin. Combined treatment of ad-shIGF-1R and vorinostat synergistically suppressed the IGF-1R expression in lung cancer cell lines and also increased the transduction efficiency of ad-shIGF-1R. Ad-shIGF-1R and vorinostat cotreatment increased apoptotic cell death and synergistically suppressed cell growth compared to ad-shIGF-1R or vorinostat treatment alone. Vorinostat suppressed NF-κB activation, which was activated by ad-shIGF-1R. Moreover, triple combination of ad-shIGF-1R, vorinostat and cisplatin demonstrated synergistic cytotoxicity on lung cancer cells. Vorinostat enhanced the blocking capability of ad-shIGF-1R. The combined treatment of vorinostat and ad-sh-IGF-1R appears to have promising potential as a new therapeutic approach for lung cancer. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. HMBA Enhances Prostratin-Induced Activation of Latent HIV-1 via Suppressing the Expression of Negative Feedback Regulator A20/TNFAIP3 in NF-κB Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duchu Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, much emphasis has been put on the transcriptional activation of HIV-1, which is proposed as a promised strategy for eradicating latent HIV-1 provirus. Two drugs, prostratin and hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA, have shown potent effects as inducers for releasing HIV-1 latency when used alone or in combination, although their cellular target(s are currently not well understood, especially under drug combination. Here, we have shown that HMBA and prostratin synergistically release HIV-1 latency via different mechanisms. While prostratin strongly stimulates HMBA-induced HIV-1 transcription via improved P-TEFb activation, HMBA is capable of boosting NF-κB-dependent transcription initiation by suppressing prostratin-induced expression of the deubiquitinase A20, a negative feedback regulator in the NF-κB signaling pathway. In addition, HMBA was able to increase prostratin-induced phosphorylation and degradation of NF-κB inhibitor IκBα, thereby enhancing and prolonging prostratin-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB, a prerequisite for stimulation of transcription initiation. Thus, by blocking the negative feedback circuit, HMBA functions as a signaling enhancer of the NF-κB signaling pathway.

  5. Sensitization of TNF-induced cytotoxicity in lung cancer cells by concurrent suppression of the NF-κB and Akt pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xia; Chen Wenshu; Lin Yong

    2007-01-01

    Blockage of either nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) or Akt sensitizes cancer cells to TNF-induced apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the undetermined effect of concurrent blockage of these two survival pathways on TNF-induced cytotoxicity in lung cancer cells. The results show that Akt contributes to TNF-induced NF-κB activation in lung cancer cells through regulating phosphorylation of the p65/RelA subunit of NF-κB. Although individually blocking IKK or Akt partially suppressed TNF-induced NF-κB activation, concurrent suppression of these pathways completely inhibited TNF-induced NF-κB activation and downstream anti-apoptotic gene expression, and synergistically potentiated TNF-induced cytotoxicity. Moreover, suppression of Akt inhibited the Akt-mediated anti-apoptotic pathway through dephosphorylation of BAD. These results indicate that concurrent suppression of NF-κB and Akt synergistically sensitizes TNF-induced cytotoxicity through blockage of distinct survival pathways downstream of NF-κB and Akt, which may be applied in lung cancer therapy

  6. Curcumin Based Drug Screening for Inhibitors of NF kappa B in a Cell Model of Prostate Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    identify new and structurally diverse chemical analogs of the polyphenolic phytochemical Curcumin from the Indian herb Curcuma longa (family...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-07-1-0081 TITLE: Curcumin Based Drug Screening for... Curcumin Based Drug Screening for Inhibitors of NF kappa B in a Cell Model of Prostate Cancer Progression 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-07-1-0081 5c

  7. Lentiviral-mediated targeted NF-kappaB blockade in dorsal spinal cord glia attenuates sciatic nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Alice; Latrémolière, Alban; Dominguez, Elisa; Mauborgne, Annie; Philippe, Stéphanie; Hamon, Michel; Mallet, Jacques; Benoliel, Jean-Jacques; Pohl, Michel

    2007-04-01

    Neuropathic pain developing after peripheral nerve injury is associated with altered neuronal and glial cell functions in the spinal cord. Activated glia produces algogenic mediators, exacerbating pain. Among the different intracellular pathways possibly involved in the modified glial function, the nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) system is of particular interest, as numerous genes encoding inflammation- and pain-related molecules are controlled by this transcription factor. NF-kappaB is a pleiotropic factor also involved in central nervous system homeostasy. To study its role in chronic pain, it is thus essential to inhibit the NF-kappaB pathway selectively in activated spinal glial cells. Here, we show that when restricted to spinal cord and targeted to glial cells, lentiviral vector-mediated delivery of NF-kappaB super- repressor IkappaBalpha resulted in an inhibition of the NF-kappaB pathway activated in the rat spinal cord after sciatic nerve injury (chronic constriction injury, CCI). Concomitantly, IkappaBalpha overproduction prevented the enhanced expression of interleukin-6 and of inducible nitric oxide synthase associated with chronic constriction injury and resulted in prolonged antihyperalgesic and antiallodynic effects. These data show that targeted blockade of NF-kappaB activity in spinal glia efficiently alleviates pain behavior in CCI rats, demonstrating the active participation of the glial NF-kappaB pathway in the development of neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury.

  8. Regulation of NF-{kappa}B activity in astrocytes: effects of flavonoids at dietary-relevant concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spilsbury, Alison [Reading School of Pharmacy, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6UB (United Kingdom); Vauzour, David; Spencer, Jeremy P.E. [Molecular Nutrition Group, Centre for Integrative Neuroscience and Neurodynamics, School of Chemistry, Food and Pharmacy, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AP (United Kingdom); Rattray, Marcus, E-mail: m.a.n.rattray@reading.ac.uk [Reading School of Pharmacy, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6UB (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We tested the hypothesis that low concentrations of flavonoids inhibit NF-{kappa}B in astrocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Primary cultured astrocytes possess a functional {kappa}B-system, measured using luciferase assays. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Seven flavonoids (100 nM-1 {mu}M) failed to reduce NF-{kappa}B activity in astrocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four flavonoids (100 nM-1 {mu}M) failed to reduce TNFa-stimulated NF-{kappa}B activity in astrocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer (-)-Epicatechin did not regulate nuclear translocation of the NF-{kappa}B subunit, p65. -- Abstract: Neuroinflammation plays an important role in the progression of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Sustained activation of nuclear transcription factor {kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) is thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Flavonoids have been shown to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and we investigated whether flavonoids, at submicromolar concentrations relevant to their bioavailability from the diet, were able to modulate NF-{kappa}B signalling in astrocytes. Using luciferase reporter assays, we found that tumour necrosis factor (TNF{alpha}, 150 ng/ml) increased NF-{kappa}B-mediated transcription in primary cultures of mouse cortical astrocytes, which was abolished on co-transfection of a dominant-negative I{kappa}B{alpha} construct. In addition, TNF{alpha} increased nuclear localisation of p65 as shown by immunocytochemistry. To investigate potential flavonoid modulation of NF-{kappa}B activity, astrocytes were treated with flavonoids from different classes; flavan-3-ols ((-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin), flavones (luteolin and chrysin), a flavonol (kaempferol) or the flavanones (naringenin and hesperetin) at dietary-relevant concentrations (0.1-1 {mu}M) for 18 h. None of the flavonoids modulated constitutive or

  9. MnSOD and catalase transgenes demonstrate that protection of islets from oxidative stress does not alter cytokine toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hainan; Li, Xiaoyan; Epstein, Paul N

    2005-05-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) are proposed mediators of cytokine-induced beta-cell destruction in type 1 diabetes. We produced transgenic mice with increased beta-cell expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and catalase. Expression of these antioxidants increased beta-cell ROS scavenging and improved beta-cell survival after treatment with different sources of ROS. MnSOD or catalase conferred protection against streptozotocin (STZ)-induced beta-cell injury. Coexpression of MnSOD and catalase provided synergistic protection against peroxynitrite and STZ. To determine the potential effect of these antioxidants on cytokine-induced toxicity, we exposed isolated islets to a cytokine mixture, including interleukin-1beta and interferon-gamma. Cytokine toxicity was measured as reduced metabolic activity after 6 days and reduced insulin secretion after 1 day. Cytokines increased ROS production, and both antioxidants were effective in reducing cytokine-induced ROS. However, MnSOD and/or catalase provided no protection against cytokine-induced injury. To understand this, the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) signaling cascade was investigated. Antioxidants reduced NF-kappaB activation by ROS, but none of the antioxidants altered activation by cytokines, as measured by inhibitor of kappaB phosphorylation, NF-kappaB translocation, inducible NO synthase activation, and NO production. Our data agree with previous reports that antioxidants benefit beta-cell survival against ROS damage, but they are not consistent with reports that antioxidants reduce cytokine toxicity. ROS appear to have no role in cytokine toxicity in primary beta-cells.

  10. NF-kappaB signaling: a tale of two pathways in skeletal myogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakkar, Nadine; Guttridge, Denis C

    2010-04-01

    NF-kappaB is a ubiquitiously expressed transcription factor that plays vital roles in innate immunity and other processes involving cellular survival, proliferation, and differentiation. Activation of NF-kappaB is controlled by an IkappaB kinase (IKK) complex that can direct either canonical (classical) NF-kappaB signaling by degrading the IkappaB inhibitor and releasing p65/p50 dimers to the nucleus, or causes p100 processing and nuclear translocation of RelB/p52 via a noncanonical (alternative) pathway. Under physiological conditions, NF-kappaB activity is transiently regulated, whereas constitutive activation of this transcription factor typically in the classical pathway is associated with a multitude of disease conditions, including those related to skeletal muscle. How NF-kappaB functions in muscle diseases is currently under intense investigation. Insight into this role of NF-kappaB may be gained by understanding at a more basic level how this transcription factor contributes to skeletal muscle cell differentiation. Recent data from knockout mice support that the classical NF-kappaB pathway functions as an inhibitor of skeletal myogenesis and muscle regeneration acting through multiple mechanisms. In contrast, alternative NF-kappaB signaling does not appear to be required for myofiber conversion, but instead functions in myotube homeostasis by regulating mitochondrial biogenesis. Additional knowledge of these signaling pathways in skeletal myogenesis should aid in the development of specific inhibitors that may be useful in treatments of muscle disorders.

  11. Polycystin-1 promotes PKCα-mediated NF-κB activation in kidney cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banzi, Manuela; Aguiari, Gianluca; Trimi, Viky; Mangolini, Alessandra; Pinton, Paolo; Witzgall, Ralph; Rizzuto, Rosario; Senno, Laura del

    2006-01-01

    Polycystin-1 (PC1), the PKD1 gene product, is a membrane receptor which regulates many cell functions, including cell proliferation and apoptosis, both typically increased in cyst lining cells in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Here we show that PC1 upregulates the NF-κB signalling pathway in kidney cells to prevent cell death. Human embryonic kidney cell lines (HEK293 CTT ), stably expressing a PC1 cytoplasmic terminal tail (CTT), presented increased NF-κB nuclear levels and NF-κB-mediated luciferase promoter activity. This, consistently, was reduced in HEK293 cells in which the endogenous PC1 was depleted by RNA interference. CTT-dependent NF-κB promoter activation was mediated by PKCα because it was blocked by its specific inhibitor Ro-320432. Furthermore, it was observed that apoptosis, which was increased in PC1-depleted cells, was reduced in HEK293 CTT cells and in porcine kidney LtTA cells expressing a doxycycline-regulated CTT. Staurosporine, a PKC inhibitor, and parthenolide, a NF-κB inhibitor, significantly reduced the CTT-dependent antiapoptotic effect. These data reveal, therefore, a novel pathway by which polycystin-1 activates a PKCα-mediated NF-κB signalling and cell survival

  12. Ascorbic acid and a cytostatic inhibitor of glycolysis synergistically induce apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleha B Vuyyuri

    Full Text Available Ascorbic acid (AA exhibits significant anticancer activity at pharmacologic doses achievable by parenteral administration that have minimal effects on normal cells. Thus, AA has potential uses as a chemotherapeutic agent alone or in combination with other therapeutics that specifically target cancer-cell metabolism. We compared the effects of AA and combinations of AA with the glycolysis inhibitor 3-(3-pyridinyl-1-(4-pyridinyl-2-propen-1-one (3-PO on the viability of three non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC cell lines to the effects on an immortalized lung epithelial cell line. AA concentrations of 0.5 to 5 mM caused a complete loss of viability in all NSCLC lines compared to a <10% loss of viability in the lung epithelial cell line. Combinations of AA and 3-PO synergistically enhanced cell death in all NSCLC cell lines at concentrations well below the IC50 concentrations for each compound alone. A synergistic interaction was not observed in combination treatments of lung epithelial cells and combination treatments that caused a complete loss of viability in NSCLC cells had modest effects on normal lung cell viability and reactive oxygen species (ROS levels. Combination treatments induced dramatically higher ROS levels compared to treatment with AA and 3-PO alone in NSCLC cells and combination-induced cell death was inhibited by addition of catalase to the medium. Analyses of DNA fragmentation, poly (ADP-ribose polymerase cleavage, annexin V-binding, and caspase activity demonstrated that AA-induced cell death is caused via the activation of apoptosis and that the combination treatments caused a synergistic induction of apoptosis. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of AA against NSCLC cells and that combinations of AA with 3-PO synergistically induce apoptosis via a ROS-dependent mechanism. These results support further evaluation of pharmacologic concentrations of AA as an adjuvant treatment for NSCLC and that combination of AA with

  13. Natural proteasome inhibitor celastrol suppresses androgen-independent prostate cancer progression by modulating apoptotic proteins and NF-kappaB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Dai

    Full Text Available Celastrol is a natural proteasome inhibitor that exhibits promising anti-tumor effects in human malignancies, especially the androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC with constitutive NF-κB activation. Celastrol induces apoptosis by means of proteasome inhibition and suppresses prostate tumor growth. However, the detailed mechanism of action remains elusive. In the current study, we aim to test the hypothesis that celastrol suppresses AIPC progression via inhibiting the constitutive NF-κB activity as well as modulating the Bcl-2 family proteins.We examined the efficacy of celastrol both in vitro and in vivo, and evaluated the role of NF-κB in celastrol-mediated AIPC regression. We found that celastrol inhibited cell proliferation in all three AIPC cell lines (PC-3, DU145 and CL1, with IC₅₀ in the range of 1-2 µM. Celastrol also suppressed cell migration and invasion. Celastrol significantly induced apoptosis as evidenced by increased sub-G1 population, caspase activation and PARP cleavage. Moreover, celastrol promoted cleavage of the anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1 and activated the pro-apoptotic protein Noxa. In addition, celastrol rapidly blocked cytosolic IκBα degradation and nuclear translocation of RelA. Likewise, celastrol inhibited the expression of multiple NF-κB target genes that are involved in proliferation, invasion and anti-apoptosis. Celastrol suppressed AIPC tumor progression by inhibiting proliferation, increasing apoptosis and decreasing angiogenesis, in PC-3 xenograft model in nude mouse. Furthermore, increased cellular IκBα and inhibited expression of various NF-κB target genes were observed in tumor tissues.Our data suggest that, via targeting the proteasome, celastrol suppresses proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis by inducing the apoptotic machinery and attenuating constitutive NF-κB activity in AIPC both in vitro and in vivo. Celastrol as an active ingredient of traditional herbal medicine could thus be

  14. Light induces translocation of NF-κB p65 to the mitochondria and suppresses expression of cytochrome c oxidase subunit III (COX III) in the rat retina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomita, Hiroshi, E-mail: htomita@iwate-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Visual Neuroscience, Graduate Course in Biological Sciences, Iwate University Division of Science and Engineering, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka, Iwate 020-8551 (Japan); Soft-Path Engineering Research Center (SPERC), Faculty of Science and Engineering, Iwate University, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Clinical Research, Innovation and Education Center, Tohoku University Hospital, 1-1 Seiryo, Aoba, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8574 (Japan); Tabata, Kitako, E-mail: ktabata@iwate-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Visual Neuroscience, Graduate Course in Biological Sciences, Iwate University Division of Science and Engineering, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka, Iwate 020-8551 (Japan); Takahashi, Maki, E-mail: mqdelta@iwate-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Visual Neuroscience, Graduate Course in Biological Sciences, Iwate University Division of Science and Engineering, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka, Iwate 020-8551 (Japan); Nishiyama, Fumiaki, E-mail: t2114018@iwate-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Visual Neuroscience, Graduate Course in Biological Sciences, Iwate University Division of Science and Engineering, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka, Iwate 020-8551 (Japan); Sugano, Eriko, E-mail: sseriko@iwate-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Visual Neuroscience, Graduate Course in Biological Sciences, Iwate University Division of Science and Engineering, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka, Iwate 020-8551 (Japan); Soft-Path Engineering Research Center (SPERC), Faculty of Science and Engineering, Iwate University, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan)

    2016-05-13

    The transcription factor nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) plays various roles in cell survival, apoptosis, and inflammation. In the rat retina, NF-κB activity increases after exposure to damaging light, resulting in degeneration of photoreceptors. Here, we report that in dark-adapted rats exposed for 6 h to bright white light, the p65 subunit of retinal NF-κB translocates to the mitochondria, an event associated with a decrease in expression of cytochrome c oxidase subunit III (COX III). However, sustained exposure for 12 h depleted p65 from the mitochondria, and enhanced COX III expression. Treatment with the protective antioxidant PBN prior to light exposure prevents p65 depletion in the mitochondria and COX III upregulation during prolonged exposure, and apoptosis in photoreceptor cells. These results indicate that COX III expression is sensitive to the abundance of NF-κB p65 in the mitochondria, which, in turn, is affected by exposure to damaging light. - Highlights: • Damaging light exposure of the retina induces NF-κB p65 mitochondrial translocation. • NF-κB p65 mitochondrial translocation is associated with the decrease of COX III expression. • Prolonged light exposure depletes mitochondrial p65 resulting in the increase in COX III expression. • NF-κB p65 and COX III expression play an important role in the light-induced photoreceptor degeneration.

  15. Light induces translocation of NF-κB p65 to the mitochondria and suppresses expression of cytochrome c oxidase subunit III (COX III) in the rat retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Hiroshi; Tabata, Kitako; Takahashi, Maki; Nishiyama, Fumiaki; Sugano, Eriko

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) plays various roles in cell survival, apoptosis, and inflammation. In the rat retina, NF-κB activity increases after exposure to damaging light, resulting in degeneration of photoreceptors. Here, we report that in dark-adapted rats exposed for 6 h to bright white light, the p65 subunit of retinal NF-κB translocates to the mitochondria, an event associated with a decrease in expression of cytochrome c oxidase subunit III (COX III). However, sustained exposure for 12 h depleted p65 from the mitochondria, and enhanced COX III expression. Treatment with the protective antioxidant PBN prior to light exposure prevents p65 depletion in the mitochondria and COX III upregulation during prolonged exposure, and apoptosis in photoreceptor cells. These results indicate that COX III expression is sensitive to the abundance of NF-κB p65 in the mitochondria, which, in turn, is affected by exposure to damaging light. - Highlights: • Damaging light exposure of the retina induces NF-κB p65 mitochondrial translocation. • NF-κB p65 mitochondrial translocation is associated with the decrease of COX III expression. • Prolonged light exposure depletes mitochondrial p65 resulting in the increase in COX III expression. • NF-κB p65 and COX III expression play an important role in the light-induced photoreceptor degeneration.

  16. OsNF-YC2 and OsNF-YC4 proteins inhibit flowering under long-day conditions in rice

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, SoonKap

    2015-11-05

    OsNF-YC2 and OsNF-YC4 proteins regulate the photoperiodic flowering response through the modulation of three flowering-time genes ( Ehd1, Hd3a , and RFT1 ) in rice. Plant NUCLEAR FACTOR Y (NF-Y) transcription factors control numerous developmental processes by forming heterotrimeric complexes, but little is known about their roles in flowering in rice. In this study, it is shown that some subunits of OsNF-YB and OsNF-YC interact with each other, and among them, OsNF-YC2 and OsNF-YC4 proteins regulate the photoperiodic flowering response of rice. Protein interaction studies showed that the physical interactions occurred between the three OsNF-YC proteins (OsNF-YC2, OsNF-YC4 and OsNF-YC6) and three OsNF-YB proteins (OsNF-YB8, OsNF-YB10 and OsNF-YB11). Repression and overexpression of the OsNF-YC2 and OsNF-YC4 genes revealed that they act as inhibitors of flowering only under long-day (LD) conditions. Overexpression of OsNF-YC6, however, promoted flowering only under LD conditions, suggesting it could function as a flowering promoter. These phenotypes correlated with the changes in the expression of three rice flowering-time genes [Early heading date 1 (Ehd1), Heading date 3a (Hd3a) and RICE FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (RFT1)]. The diurnal and tissue-specific expression patterns of the subsets of OsNF-YB and OsNF-YC genes were similar to those of CCT domain encoding genes such as OsCO3, Heading date 1 (Hd1) and Ghd7. We propose that OsNF-YC2 and OsNF-YC4 proteins regulate the photoperiodic flowering response by interacting directly with OsNF-YB8, OsNF-YB10 or OsNF-YB11 proteins in rice.

  17. IGF-1 and PDGF-bb Suppress IL-1β-Induced Cartilage Degradation through Down-Regulation of NF-κB Signaling: Involvement of Src/PI-3K/AKT Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobasheri, Ali; Buhrmann, Constanze; Aldinger, Constance; Rad, Jafar Soleimani; Shakibaei, Mehdi

    2011-01-01

    Objective Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that plays a key role in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). Growth factors (GFs) capable of antagonizing the catabolic actions of cytokines may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of OA. Herein, we investigated the potential synergistic effects of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-bb) on different mechanisms participating in IL-1β-induced activation of nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB) and apoptosis in chondrocytes. Methods Primary chondrocytes were treated with IL-1β to induce dedifferentiation and co-treated with either IGF-1 or/and PDGF-bb and evaluated by immunoblotting and electron microscopy. Results Pretreatment of chondrocytes with IGF-1 or/and PDGF-bb suppressed IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation via inhibition of IκB-α kinase. Inhibition of IκB-α kinase by GFs led to the suppression of IκB-α phosphorylation and degradation, p65 nuclear translocation and NF-κB-regulated gene products involved in inflammation and cartilage degradation (COX-2, MMPs) and apoptosis (caspase-3). GFs or BMS-345541 (specific inhibitor of the IKK) reversed the IL-1β-induced down-regulation of collagen type II, cartilage specific proteoglycans, β1-integrin, Shc, activated MAPKinase, Sox-9 and up-regulation of active caspase-3. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of IGF-1 or/and PDGF-bb on IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation were sensitive to inhibitors of Src (PP1), PI-3K (wortmannin) and Akt (SH-5), suggesting that the pathway consisting of non-receptor tyrosine kinase (Src), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and protein kinase B must be involved in IL-1β signaling. Conclusion The results presented suggest that IGF-1 and PDGF-bb are potent inhibitors of IL-1β-mediated activation of NF-κB and apoptosis in chondrocytes, may be mediated in part through suppression of Src/PI-3K/AKT pathway, which may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects. PMID

  18. Transcriptional profiles of Rel/NF-κB, inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB), and lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α factor (LITAF) in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and two Vibrio sp.-exposed intertidal copepod, Tigriopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo-Mi; Jeong, Chang-Bum; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2014-02-01

    The immune system and the role of immunity-related genes have rarely been studied in copepods, even though copepods have a primitive immune response system and also have a potential in pathogen transport higher trophic levels. In this study, we firstly cloned and characterized three core immune genes such as nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB), and lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α factor (LITAF) genes in the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus. Several in silico analyses based on conserved domains, motifs, and phylogenetic relationships were supporting their annotations. To investigate the immune-related role of three genes, we exposed lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and two Vibrio sp. to T. japonicus. After exposure of different concentrations of LPS and two Vibrio sp., transcripts of TJ-IκB and TJ-LITAF genes were significantly elevated during the time course in a dose-dependent manner, while TJ-NF-κB transcripts were not significantly changed during exposure. These findings demonstrated that the copepod T. japonicus has a conserved immunity against infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Inhibitory effect of snake venom toxin on NF-κB activity prevents human cervical cancer cell growth via increase of death receptor 3 and 5 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Lim; Park, Mi Hee; Hong, Ji Eun; Kim, Dae Hwan; Kim, Ji Young; Seo, Hyen Ok; Han, Sang-Bae; Yoon, Joo Hee; Lee, Won Hyoung; Song, Ho Sueb; Lee, Ji In; Lee, Ung Soo; Song, Min Jong; Hong, Jin Tae

    2016-02-01

    We previously found that snake venom toxin inhibits nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activity in several cancer cells. NF-κB is implicated in cancer cell growth and chemoresistance. In our present study, we investigated whether snake venom toxin (SVT) inhibits NF-κB, thereby preventing human cervical cancer cell growth (Ca Ski and C33A). SVT (0-12 μg/ml) inhibited the growth of cervical cancer cells by the induction of apoptotic cell death. These inhibitory effects were associated with the inhibition of NF-κB activity. However, SVT dose dependently increased the expression of death receptors (DRs): DR3, DR5 and DR downstream pro-apoptotic proteins. Exploration of NF-κB inhibitor (Phenylarsine oxide, 0.1 μM) synergistically further increased SVT-induced DR3 and DR5 expressions accompanied with further inhibition of cancer cells growth. Moreover, deletion of DR3 and DR5 by small interfering RNA significantly abolished SVT-induced cell growth inhibitory effects, as well as NF-κB inactivation. Using TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand resistance cancer cells (A549 and MCF-7), we also found that SVT enhanced the susceptibility of chemoresistance of these cancer cells through down-regulation of NF-κB, but up-regulation of DR3 and DR5. In vivo study also showed that SVT (0.5 and 1 mg/kg) inhibited tumor growth accompanied with inactivation of NF-κB. Thus, our present study indicates that SVT could be applicable as an anticancer agent for cervical cancer, or as an adjuvant agent for chemoresistant cancer cells.

  20. ERK inhibition enhances TSA-induced gastric cancer cell apoptosis via NF-κB-dependent and Notch-independent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jun; Qian, Cui-Juan; Ye, Bei; Zhang, Xin; Liang, Yong

    2012-09-04

    To analyze the combined impact of the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACI) Trichostatin A (TSA) and the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) inhibitor PD98059 on gastric cancer (GC) cell line SGC7901 growth. SGC7901 cells were treated with TSA, PD98059 or with a TSA-PD98059 combination. Effects of drug treatment on tumor cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle progression, and cell signaling pathways were investigated by MTS assay, flow cytometry, Western blotting, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), and luciferase reporter assay, respectively. PD98059 enhanced TSA-induced cell growth arrest, apoptosis and activation of p21(WAF1/CIP1), but reversed TSA-induced activation of ERK1/2 and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). TSA alone up-regulated Notch1 and Hes1, and down-regulated Notch2, but PD98059 did not affect the trends of Notch1 and Notch2 induced by TSA. Particularly, PD98059 did potentiate the ability of TSA to down-regulate phospho-histone H3 protein, but increased levels of the acetylated forms of histone H3 bound to the p21(WAF1/CIP1) promoter, leading to enhanced expression of p21(WAF1/CIP1) in SGC7901 cells. PD98059 synergistically potentiates TSA-induced GC growth arrest and apoptosis by manipulating NF-κB and p21(WAF1/CIP1) independent of Notch. Therefore, concomitant administration of HDACIs and ERK1/2 inhibitors may be a promising treatment strategy for individuals with GC. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Synergistic effect of p53 on TSA-induced stanniocalcin 1 expression in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells, CNE2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, L Y; Yeung, Bonnie H Y; Wong, Chris K C

    2012-06-01

    Human stanniocalcin 1 (STC1) has recently been identified as a putative protein factor involved in cellular apoptosis. The use of histone deacetylase inhibitor (i.e. trichostatin A (TSA)) and doxorubicin (Dox) is one of the common treatment methods to induce apoptosis in human cancer cells. A study on TSA and Dox-mediated apoptosis may shed light on the regulation and function of STC1 in cancer treatment. In this study, TSA and Dox cotreatment in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells (CNE2) elicited synergistic effects on STC1 gene expression and cellular apoptosis. An activation of p53 (TP53) transcriptional activity in Dox- or Dox+TSA-treated cells was revealed by the increased expression levels of p53 mRNA/protein as well as p53-driven luciferase activities. To elucidate the possible involvement of p53 in STC1 gene transcription, a vector expressing wild-type or dominant negative (DN) p53 was transiently transfected into the cells. Both STC1 promoter luciferase constructs and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays did not support the direct role of p53 in STC1 gene transactivation. However, the synergistic effects of p53 on the induction of NF-κB phosphorylation and the recruitment of acetylated histone H3 in STC1 promoter were observed in TSA-cotreated cells. The overexpression of exogenous STC1 sensitized apoptosis in Dox-treated cells. Taken together, this study provides data to show the cross talk of NF-κB, p53, and histone protein in the regulation of STC1 expression and function.

  2. Anti-neuroinflammatory efficacy of the aldose reductase inhibitor FMHM via phospholipase C/protein kinase C-dependent NF-κB and MAPK pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Ke-Wu [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Li, Jun [Modern Research Center for Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029 (China); Dong, Xin; Wang, Ying-Hong; Ma, Zhi-Zhong; Jiang, Yong; Jin, Hong-Wei [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Tu, Peng-Fei, E-mail: pengfeitu@vip.163.com [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Modern Research Center for Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Aldose reductase (AR) has a key role in several inflammatory diseases: diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, AR inhibition seems to be a useful strategy for anti-inflammation therapy. In the central nervous system (CNS), microglial over-activation is considered to be a central event in neuroinflammation. However, the effects of AR inhibition in CNS inflammation and its underlying mechanism of action remain unknown. In the present study, we found that FMHM (a naturally derived AR inhibitor from the roots of Polygala tricornis Gagnep.) showed potent anti-neuroinflammatory effects in vivo and in vitro by inhibiting microglial activation and expression of inflammatory mediators. Mechanistic studies showed that FMHM suppressed the activity of AR-dependent phospholipase C/protein kinase C signaling, which further resulted in downstream inactivation of the IκB kinase/IκB/nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) inflammatory pathway. Therefore, AR inhibition-dependent NF-κB inactivation negatively regulated the transcription and expression of various inflammatory genes. AR inhibition by FMHM exerted neuroprotective effects in lipopolysaccharide-induced neuron–microglia co-cultures. These findings suggested that AR is a potential target for neuroinflammation inhibition and that FMHM could be an effective agent for treating or preventing neuroinflammatory diseases. - Highlights: • FMHM is a natural-derived aldose reductase (AR) inhibitor. • FMHM inhibits various neuroinflammatory mediator productions in vitro and in vivo. • FMHM inhibits neuroinflammation via aldose reductase/PLC/PKC-dependent NF-κB pathway. • FMHM inhibits neuroinflammation via aldose reductase/PLC/PKC-dependent MAPK pathway. • FMHM protects neurons against inflammatory injury in microglia-neuron co-cultures.

  3. Cross-talk between PKA-Cβ and p65 mediates synergistic induction of PDE4B by roflumilast and NTHi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susuki-Miyata, Seiko; Miyata, Masanori; Lee, Byung-Cheol; Xu, Haidong; Kai, Hirofumi; Yan, Chen; Li, Jian-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Phosphodiesterase 4B (PDE4B) plays a key role in regulating inflammation. Roflumilast, a phosphodiesterase (PDE)4-selective inhibitor, has recently been approved for treating severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with exacerbation. However, there is also clinical evidence suggesting the development of tachyphylaxis or tolerance on repeated dosing of roflumilast and the possible contribution of PDE4B up-regulation, which could be counterproductive for suppressing inflammation. Thus, understanding how PDE4B is up-regulated in the context of the complex pathogenesis and medications of COPD may help improve the efficacy and possibly ameliorate the tolerance of roflumilast. Here we show that roflumilast synergizes with nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), a major bacterial cause of COPD exacerbation, to up-regulate PDE4B2 expression in human airway epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo. Up-regulated PDE4B2 contributes to the induction of certain important chemokines in both enzymatic activity-dependent and activity-independent manners. We also found that protein kinase A catalytic subunit β (PKA-Cβ) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 subunit were required for the synergistic induction of PDE4B2. PKA-Cβ phosphorylates p65 in a cAMP-dependent manner. Moreover, Ser276 of p65 is critical for mediating the PKA-Cβ–induced p65 phosphorylation and the synergistic induction of PDE4B2. Collectively, our data unveil a previously unidentified mechanism underlying synergistic up-regulation of PDE4B2 via a cross-talk between PKA-Cβ and p65 and may help develop new therapeutic strategies to improve the efficacy of PDE4 inhibitor. PMID:25831493

  4. Synergistic antibacterial efficacy of early combination treatment with tobramycin and quorum-sensing inhibitors against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in an intraperitoneal foreign-body infection mouse model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Louise; van Gennip, Maria; Jakobsen, Tim H

    2012-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS)-deficient Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms formed in vitro are more susceptible to tobramycin than QS-proficient P. aeruginosa biofilms, and combination treatment with a QS inhibitor (QSI) and tobramycin shows synergistic effects on the killing of in vitro biofilms. We extended...

  5. NF-κB-IKKβ pathway as a target for drug development: realities, challenges and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Rosana H C N; Fraga, Carlos A M

    2018-02-19

    Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) comprises a family of proteins that act as transcription factors promoting the expression of many genes. Activation of NF-κB biochemical cascades is associated with the regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses and inflammation, among other physiological responses. However, genetic abnormalities and continuous stimulation of the NF-κB-IKKβ pathway are directly related to many types of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, as well as to the genesis and survival of tumor cells. Inhibition of the NF-κB-IKKβ cascade can be considered an attractive therapeutic method for the genesis of new prototypes to combat these chronic multifactorial diseases. This review describes some prototypes and drugs that act to inhibit the NF-κB-IKKβ pathway, highlighting the realities, challenges and perspectives for therapeutic use. Although only proteasome inhibitors, such as bortezomib and carfilzomib, are a reality as therapeutically useful drugs among the known modulators of possible targets in the NF-κB-IKKβ pathway, some other prototypes described as IKKβ inhibitors have entered clinical stages as drug candidates for the control of inflammatory diseases. It is important to note that some classical drugs available on the pharmaceutical market, such as acetylsalicylic acid, were also described more recently as NF-κB pathway modulators as IKKβ inhibitors. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Proteasome inhibitors induce apoptosis and reduce viral replication in primary effusion lymphoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saji, Chiaki [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan); Higashi, Chizuka; Niinaka, Yasufumi [Faculty of Medicine, University of Yamanashi, Chuoh-shi 409-3898 (Japan); Yamada, Koji [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan); Noguchi, Kohji [Faculty of Pharmacy, Keio University, 1-5-30 Shiba-koen, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8512 (Japan); Fujimuro, Masahiro, E-mail: fuji2@mb.kyoto-phu.ac.jp [Department of Cell Biology, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Misasagi-Shichonocho 1, Yamashinaku, Kyoto 607-8412 (Japan)

    2011-12-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Constitutive NF-{kappa}B signaling is essential for the survival and growth of PEL cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NF-{kappa}B signaling is upregulated by the proteasome-dependent degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proteasome inhibitors suppress NF-{kappa}B signaling and induce apoptosis in PEL cells through stabilization of I{kappa}B{alpha}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proteasome inhibitors suppress viral replication in PEL cells during lytic KSHV infection. -- Abstract: Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is an aggressive neoplasm caused by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). This study provides evidence that proteasomal activity is required for both survival of PEL cells stably harboring the KSHV genome and viral replication of KSHV. We evaluated the cytotoxic effects of proteasome inhibitors on PEL cells. The proteasome inhibitors MG132, lactacystin, and proteasome inhibitor I dramatically inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis of PEL cells through the accumulation of p21 and p27. Furthermore, proteasome inhibitors induced the stabilization of NF-{kappa}B inhibitory molecule (I{kappa}B{alpha}) and suppressed the transcriptional activity of NF-{kappa}B in PEL cells. The NF-{kappa}B specific inhibitor BAY11-7082 also induced apoptosis in PEL cells. The constitutive activation of NF-{kappa}B signaling is essential for the survival and growth of B cell lymphoma cells, including PEL cells. NF-{kappa}B signaling is upregulated by proteasome-dependent degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha}. The suppression of NF-{kappa}B signaling by proteasome inhibitors may contribute to the induction of apoptosis in PEL cells. In addition, proteasome activity is required for KSHV replication in KSHV latently infected PEL cells. MG132 reduced the production of progeny virus from PEL cells at low concentrations, which do not affect PEL cell growth. These findings suggest that proteasome

  7. Withaferin A disrupts ubiquitin-based NEMO reorganization induced by canonical NF-κB signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Shawn S. [McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research, Department of Oncology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 6159 Wisconsin Institute for Medical Research, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, WI 53705 (United States); Medical Scientist Training Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, WI 53705 (United States); Cellular and Molecular Biology Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, WI 53705 (United States); Oberley, Christopher [McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research, Department of Oncology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 6159 Wisconsin Institute for Medical Research, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, WI 53705 (United States); Hooper, Christopher P. [McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research, Department of Oncology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 6159 Wisconsin Institute for Medical Research, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, WI 53705 (United States); Cellular and Molecular Biology Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, WI 53705 (United States); Grindle, Kreg [Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, WI 53705 (United States); Wuerzberger-Davis, Shelly [McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research, Department of Oncology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 6159 Wisconsin Institute for Medical Research, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, WI 53705 (United States); Wolff, Jared [Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, WI 53705 (United States); and others

    2015-02-01

    The NF-κB family of transcription factors regulates numerous cellular processes, including cell proliferation and survival responses. The constitutive activation of NF-κB has also emerged as an important oncogenic driver in many malignancies, such as activated B-cell like diffuse large B cell lymphoma, among others. In this study, we investigated the impact and mechanisms of action of Withaferin A, a naturally produced steroidal lactone, against both signal-inducible as well as constitutive NF-κB activities. We found that Withaferin A is a robust inhibitor of canonical and constitutive NF-κB activities, leading to apoptosis of certain lymphoma lines. In the canonical pathway induced by TNF, Withaferin A did not disrupt RIP1 polyubiquitination or NEMO–IKKβ interaction and was a poor direct IKKβ inhibitor, but prevented the formation of TNF-induced NEMO foci which colocalized with TNF ligand. While GFP-NEMO efficiently formed TNF-induced foci, a GFP-NEMO{sup Y308S} mutant that is defective in binding to polyubiquitin chains did not form foci. Our study reveals that Withaferin A is a novel type of IKK inhibitor which acts by disrupting NEMO reorganization into ubiquitin-based signaling structures in vivo. - Highlights: • Withaferin A, a NF-κB inhibitor, disrupts signaling induced NEMO localization, a novel point of inhibition. • NEMO can be localized to distinct signaling foci after treatment with TNF. • ABC-type DLCBL cells can be sensitized to apoptosis after treatment with Withaferin A.

  8. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors suppress Lactobacillus casei cell-wall-induced NF-κB and MAPK activations and cell proliferation through protein kinase A--or exchange protein activated by cAMP-dependent signal pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Takekatsu; Sugimoto, Naotoshi; Ohta, Kunio; Shimizu, Tohru; Ohtani, Kaori; Nakayama, Yuko; Nakamura, Taichi; Hitomi, Yashiaki; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Koizumi, Shoichi; Yachie, Akihiro

    2012-01-01

    Specific strains of Lactobacillus have been found to be beneficial in treating some types of diarrhea and vaginosis. However, a high mortality rate results from underlying immunosuppressive conditions in patients with Lactobacillus casei bacteremia. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is a small second messenger molecule that mediates signal transduction. The onset and progression of inflammatory responses are sensitive to changes in steady-state cAMP levels. L. casei cell wall extract (LCWE) develops arteritis in mice through Toll-like receptor-2 signaling. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether intracellular cAMP affects LCWE-induced pathological signaling. LCWE was shown to induce phosphorylation of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways and cell proliferation in mice fibroblast cells. Theophylline and phosphodiesterase inhibitor increased intracellular cAMP and inhibited LCWE-induced cell proliferation as well as phosphorylation of NF-κB and MAPK. Protein kinase A inhibitor H89 prevented cAMP-induced MAPK inhibition, but not cAMP-induced NF-κB inhibition. An exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac) agonist inhibited NF-κB activation but not MAPK activation. These results indicate that an increase in intracellular cAMP prevents LCWE induction of pathological signaling pathways dependent on PKA and Epac signaling.

  9. Delphinidin, a specific inhibitor of histone acetyltransferase, suppresses inflammatory signaling via prevention of NF-κB acetylation in fibroblast-like synoviocyte MH7A cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Ah-Reum; Yoo, Jung-Yoon; Choi, KyungChul; Lee, Mee-Hee; Lee, Yoo-Hyun; Lee, Jeongmin; Jun, Woojin; Kim, Sunoh; Yoon, Ho-Geun

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Delphinidin is a novel inhibitor of p300/CBP histone acetyltransferase. → Delphinidin prevents the hyperacetylation of p65 by inhibiting the HAT activity of p300/CBP. → Delphinidin efficiently suppresses the expression of inflammatory cytokines in MH7A cells via hypoacetylation of NF-κB. → Delphinidin inhibits cytokine release in the Jurkat T lymphocyte cell line. -- Abstract: Histone acetyltransferase (HAT) inhibitors (HATi) isolated from dietary compounds have been shown to suppress inflammatory signaling, which contributes to rheumatoid arthritis. Here, we identified a novel HATi in Punica granatum L. known as delphinidin (DP). DP did not affect the activity of other epigenetic enzymes (histone deacetylase, histone methyltransferase, or sirtuin1). DP specifically inhibited the HAT activities of p300/CBP. It also inhibited p65 acetylation in MH7A cells, a human rheumatoid arthritis synovial cell line. DP-induced hypoacetylation was accompanied by cytosolic accumulation of p65 and nuclear localization of IKBα. Accordingly, DP treatment inhibited TNFα-stimulated increases in NF-κB function and expression of NF-κB target genes in these cells. Importantly, DP suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in Jurkat T lymphocytes, demonstrating that HATi efficiently suppresses cytokine-mediated immune responses. Together, these results show that the HATi activity of DP counters anti-inflammatory signaling by blocking p65 acetylation and that this compound may be useful in preventing inflammatory arthritis.

  10. Delphinidin, a specific inhibitor of histone acetyltransferase, suppresses inflammatory signaling via prevention of NF-{kappa}B acetylation in fibroblast-like synoviocyte MH7A cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong, Ah-Reum; Yoo, Jung-Yoon; Choi, KyungChul [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Center for Chronic Metabolic Disease Research, College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Mee-Hee [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Center for Chronic Metabolic Disease Research, College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Sciences, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yoo-Hyun [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, The University of Suwon, Kyunggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeongmin [Department of Medical Nutrition, Kyung Hee University, Kyunggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Jun, Woojin [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sunoh, E-mail: sunoh@korea.ac.kr [Jeollanamdo Institute of Natural Resources Research, Jeonnam (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ho-Geun, E-mail: yhgeun@yuhs.ac [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Center for Chronic Metabolic Disease Research, College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Sciences, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} Delphinidin is a novel inhibitor of p300/CBP histone acetyltransferase. {yields} Delphinidin prevents the hyperacetylation of p65 by inhibiting the HAT activity of p300/CBP. {yields} Delphinidin efficiently suppresses the expression of inflammatory cytokines in MH7A cells via hypoacetylation of NF-{kappa}B. {yields} Delphinidin inhibits cytokine release in the Jurkat T lymphocyte cell line. -- Abstract: Histone acetyltransferase (HAT) inhibitors (HATi) isolated from dietary compounds have been shown to suppress inflammatory signaling, which contributes to rheumatoid arthritis. Here, we identified a novel HATi in Punica granatum L. known as delphinidin (DP). DP did not affect the activity of other epigenetic enzymes (histone deacetylase, histone methyltransferase, or sirtuin1). DP specifically inhibited the HAT activities of p300/CBP. It also inhibited p65 acetylation in MH7A cells, a human rheumatoid arthritis synovial cell line. DP-induced hypoacetylation was accompanied by cytosolic accumulation of p65 and nuclear localization of IKB{alpha}. Accordingly, DP treatment inhibited TNF{alpha}-stimulated increases in NF-{kappa}B function and expression of NF-{kappa}B target genes in these cells. Importantly, DP suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in Jurkat T lymphocytes, demonstrating that HATi efficiently suppresses cytokine-mediated immune responses. Together, these results show that the HATi activity of DP counters anti-inflammatory signaling by blocking p65 acetylation and that this compound may be useful in preventing inflammatory arthritis.

  11. Activation of NF-κB in basolateral amygdala is required for memory reconsolidation in auditory fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Jijian; Yang, Jianli; Xue, Lifen; Yang, Chenhao; Luo, Yixiao; Shi, Haishui; Lu, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by acute and chronic changes in the stress response, manifested as conditioned fear memory. Previously formed memories that are susceptible to disruption immediately after retrieval undergo a protein synthesis-dependent process to become persistent, termed reconsolidation, a process that is regulated by many distinct molecular mechanisms that control gene expression. Increasing evidence supports the participation of the transcription factor NF-κB in the different phases of memory. Here, we demonstrate that inhibition of NF-κB in the basolateral amygdala (BLA), but not central nucleus of the amygdala, after memory reactivation impairs the retention of amygdala-dependent auditory fear conditioning (AFC). We used two independent pharmacological strategies to disrupt the reconsolidation of AFC. Bilateral intra-BLA infusion of sulfasalazine, an inhibitor of IκB kinase that activates NF-κB, and bilateral intra-BLA infusion of SN50, a direct inhibitor of the NF-κB DNA-binding complex, immediately after retrieval disrupted the reconsolidation of AFC. We also found that systemic pretreatment with sodium butyrate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor that enhances histone acetylation, in the amygdala rescued the disruption of reconsolidation induced by NF-κB inhibition in the BLA. These findings indicate that NF-κB activity in the BLA is required for memory reconsolidation in AFC, suggesting that NF-κB might be a potential pharmacotherapy target for posttraumatic stress disorder.

  12. Inhibitors of nuclear factor kappa B cause apoptosis in cultured macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Mannick

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The precise role of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF- κB in the regulation of cell survival and cell death is still unresolved and may depend on cell type and position in the cell cycle. The aim of this study was to determine if three pharmacologic inhibitors of NF-κB, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, N-tosyl-L-lysl chloromethyl ketone and calpain I inhibitor, induce apoptosis in a murine macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7 at doses similar to those required for NF-κB inhibition. We found that each of the three inhibitors resulted in a dose- and time-dependent increase in morphologic indices of apoptosis in unstimulated, LPS-stimulated and TNF-stimulated cells. Lethal doses were consistent with those required for NF- κB inhibition. We conclude that nuclear NF-κB activation may represent an important survival mechanism in macrophages.

  13. Discovery of novel benzopyranyl tetracycles that act as inhibitors of osteoclastogenesis induced by receptor activator of NF-κB ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingyan; Kim, Myung Hee; Lee, Sanghee; Bae, Su Jung; Kim, Seong Hwan; Park, Seung Bum

    2010-12-23

    A novel benzopyran-fused molecular framework 7ai was discovered as a specific inhibitor of RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis using a cell-based TRAP activity assay from drug-like small-molecule libraries constructed by diversity-oriented synthesis. Its inhibitory activity was confirmed by in vitro evaluations including specific inhibition of RANKL-induced ERK phosphorylation and NF-κB transcriptional activation. 7ai can serve as a specific small-molecule modulator for mechanistic studies of RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation as well as a potential lead for the development of antiresorptive drugs.

  14. Transcription Factor NF-κB: An Update on Intervention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panday, Arvind; Inda, Maria Eugenia; Bagam, Prathyusha; Sahoo, Malaya K; Osorio, Diana; Batra, Sanjay

    2016-12-01

    The nuclear factor (NF)-κB family of transcription factors are ubiquitous and pleiotropic molecules that regulate the expression of more than 150 genes involved in a broad range of processes including inflammation, immunity, cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. The chronic activation or dysregulation of NF-κB signaling is the central cause of pathogenesis in many disease conditions and, therefore, NF-κB is a major focus of therapeutic intervention. Because of this, understanding the relationship between NF-κB and the induction of various downstream signaling molecules is imperative. In this review, we provide an updated synopsis of the role of NF-κB in DNA repair and in various ailments including cardiovascular diseases, HIV infection, asthma, herpes simplex virus infection, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cancer. Furthermore, we also discuss the specific targets for selective inhibitors and future therapeutic strategies.

  15. Complex formation of p65/RelA with nuclear Akt1 for enhanced transcriptional activation of NF-κB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Osong; Kim, Kyung A; He, Long; Jung, Mira; Jeong, Sook Jung; Ahn, Jong Seog; Kim, Bo Yeon

    2008-01-01

    Akt1 was revealed to interact with Ki-Ras in the cytoplasm of Ki-Ras-transformed human prostate epithelial cells, 267B1/K-ras. Moreover, p65/RelA in the nucleus was found to interact with both Ki-Ras and Akt1, suggesting the nuclear translocation of Akt1:Ki-Ras complex for NF- κB activation. In support of this, compared with wild type Akt1, the dominant negative Akt1 mutant was decreased in its nuclear expression, reducing the Ki-Ras-induced NF-κB transcriptional activation. Moreover, inhibitors of Ras (sulindac sulfide and farnesyltransferase inhibitor I) or PI3K/Akt (wortmannin), reduced the amounts of Akt1 and Ki-Ras in the nucleus as well as partial NF-κB activity. The complete inhibition of Ki-Ras-induced NF-κB activation, however, could only be obtained by combined treatment with wortmannin and proteasome inhibitor-1. Accordingly, clonogenic assay showed Akt1 contribution to IκBα-mediated NF-κB activation for oncogenic cell growth by Ki-Ras. Our data suggest a crucial role of Ki-Ras:Akt1 complex in NF-κB transcriptional activation and enhancement of cell survival

  16. Molecular evidence for the existence of lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha factor (LITAF) and Rel/NF-kB pathways in disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zoysa, Mahanama; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Oh, Chulhong; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jae-Seong; Jung, Sung-Ju; Choi, Cheol Young; Lee, Jehee

    2010-01-01

    The lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha factor (LITAF) and Rel family nuclear factor kappaB (Rel/NF-kB) are two important transcription factors which play major roles in the regulating inflammatory cytokine, apoptosis and immune related genes. Here, we report the discovery of disk abalone LITAF (AbLITAF) and Rel/NF-kB (AbRel/NF-kB) homologues and their immune responses. Full-length cDNA of AbLITAF consists of 441 bp open reading frame (ORF) that translates into putative peptide of 147 aa. Analysis of AbLITAF sequence showed it has characteristic LITAF (Zn(+2)) binding domain with two CXXC motifs. Phylogenetic analysis results further revealed that AbLITAF is a member of LITAF family. AbRel/NF-kB is 584 aa protein that contains several characteristic motifs including Rel homology domain (RHD), Rel protein signature, DNA binding motif, nuclear localization signal (NLS) and transcription factor immunoglobulin - like fold (TIG) similar to their invertebrate and vertebrate counterparts. Tissue specific analysis results showed that both AbLITAF and AbRel/NF-kB mRNA was expressed ubiquitously in all selected tissues in constitutive manner. However, constitutive expression of AbLITAF was higher than AbRel/NF-kB in all tissues except mantle. Upon immune challenge by bacteria (Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahemolyticus and Lysteria monocytogenes) and viral hemoragic septicemia virus (VHSV), AbLITAF showed the significant up-regulation in gills while AbRel/NF-kB transcription was not change significantly. Based on transcriptional response against immune challenge, we could suggest that regulation of TNF-alpha expression may have occurred mainly by LITAF activation rather than NF-kB in disk abalone. The cumulative data from other molluscs and our data with reference to TNF-alpha, LITAF and Rel/NF-kB from disk abalone provide strong evidence that LITAF and NF-kB are independent pathways likely to occur throughout the Phylum mollusca. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Late-phase synthesis of I��B�� insulates the TLR4-activated canonical NF-��B pathway from noncanonical NF-��B signaling in macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterjee, Budhaditya; Banoth, Balaji; Mukherjee, Tapas; Taye, Nandaraj; Vijayaragavan, Bharath; Chattopadhyay, Samit; Gomes, James; Basak, Soumen

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear factor ��B (NF-��B) transcription factors coordinate the inflammatory immune response during microbial infection. Pathogenic substances engage canonical NF-��B signaling through the heterodimer RelA:p50, which is subjected to rapid negative feedback by inhibitor of ��B�� (I��B��). The noncanonical NF-��B pathway is required for the differentiation of immune cells; however, crosstalk between both pathways can occur. Concomitantly activated noncanonical signaling generates p52 from ...

  18. Effect of particle size on hydroxyapatite crystal-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha secretion by macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadra, Imad; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Philippidis, Pandelis; Whelan, Linda C; McCarthy, Geraldine M; Haskard, Dorian O; Landis, R Clive

    2008-01-01

    Macrophages may promote a vicious cycle of inflammation and calcification in the vessel wall by ingesting neointimal calcific deposits (predominantly hydroxyapatite) and secreting tumor necrosis factor (TNF)alpha, itself a vascular calcifying agent. Here we have investigated whether particle size affects the proinflammatory potential of hydroxyapatite crystals in vitro and whether the nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB pathway plays a role in the macrophage TNFalpha response. The particle size and nano-topography of nine different crystal preparations was analyzed by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and gas sorbtion analysis. Macrophage TNFalpha secretion was inversely related to hydroxyapatite particle size (P=0.011, Spearman rank correlation test) and surface pore size (P=0.014). A necessary role for the NF-kappaB pathway was demonstrated by time-dependent I kappaB alpha degradation and sensitivity to inhibitors of I kappaB alpha degradation. To test whether smaller particles were intrinsically more bioactive, their mitogenic activity on fibroblast proliferation was examined. This showed close correlation between TNFalpha secretion and crystal-induced fibroblast proliferation (P=0.007). In conclusion, the ability of hydroxyapatite crystals to stimulate macrophage TNFalpha secretion depends on NF-kappaB activation and is inversely related to particle and pore size, with crystals of 1-2 microm diameter and pore size of 10-50 A the most bioactive. Microscopic calcific deposits in early stages of atherosclerosis may therefore pose a greater inflammatory risk to the plaque than macroscopically or radiologically visible deposits in more advanced lesions.

  19. Activation of NF-κB in basolateral amygdala is required for memory reconsolidation in auditory fear conditioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jijian Si

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is characterized by acute and chronic changes in the stress response, manifested as conditioned fear memory. Previously formed memories that are susceptible to disruption immediately after retrieval undergo a protein synthesis-dependent process to become persistent, termed reconsolidation, a process that is regulated by many distinct molecular mechanisms that control gene expression. Increasing evidence supports the participation of the transcription factor NF-κB in the different phases of memory. Here, we demonstrate that inhibition of NF-κB in the basolateral amygdala (BLA, but not central nucleus of the amygdala, after memory reactivation impairs the retention of amygdala-dependent auditory fear conditioning (AFC. We used two independent pharmacological strategies to disrupt the reconsolidation of AFC. Bilateral intra-BLA infusion of sulfasalazine, an inhibitor of IκB kinase that activates NF-κB, and bilateral intra-BLA infusion of SN50, a direct inhibitor of the NF-κB DNA-binding complex, immediately after retrieval disrupted the reconsolidation of AFC. We also found that systemic pretreatment with sodium butyrate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor that enhances histone acetylation, in the amygdala rescued the disruption of reconsolidation induced by NF-κB inhibition in the BLA. These findings indicate that NF-κB activity in the BLA is required for memory reconsolidation in AFC, suggesting that NF-κB might be a potential pharmacotherapy target for posttraumatic stress disorder.

  20. Low-level laser therapy activates NF-kB via generation of reactive oxygen species in mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron C-H Chen

    Full Text Available Despite over forty years of investigation on low-level light therapy (LLLT, the fundamental mechanisms underlying photobiomodulation at a cellular level remain unclear.In this study, we isolated murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEF from transgenic NF-kB luciferase reporter mice and studied their response to 810 nm laser radiation. Significant activation of NF-kB was observed at fluences higher than 0.003 J/cm(2 and was confirmed by Western blot analysis. NF-kB was activated earlier (1 hour by LLLT compared to conventional lipopolysaccharide treatment. We also observed that LLLT induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS production similar to mitochondrial inhibitors, such as antimycin A, rotenone and paraquat. Furthermore, we observed similar NF-kB activation with these mitochondrial inhibitors. These results, together with inhibition of laser induced NF-kB activation by antioxidants, suggests that ROS play an important role in the laser induced NF-kB signaling pathways. However, LLLT, unlike mitochondrial inhibitors, induced increased cellular ATP levels, which indicates that LLLT also upregulates mitochondrial respiration.We conclude that LLLT not only enhances mitochondrial respiration, but also activates the redox-sensitive NFkB signaling via generation of ROS. Expression of anti-apoptosis and pro-survival genes responsive to NFkB could explain many clinical effects of LLLT.

  1. Akt-dependent NF-κB activation is required for bile acids to rescue colon cancer cells from stress-induced apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shant, Jasleen; Cheng, Kunrong; Marasa, Bernard S.; Wang Jianying; Raufman, Jean-Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Conjugated secondary bile acids promote human colon cancer cell proliferation by activating EGF receptors (EGFR). We hypothesized that bile acid-induced EGFR activation also mediates cell survival by downstream Akt-regulated activation of NF-κB. Deoxycholyltaurine (DCT) treatment attenuated TNF-α-induced colon cancer cell apoptosis, and stimulated rapid and sustained NF-κB nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity (detected by NF-κB binding to an oligonucleotide consensus sequence and by activation of luciferase reporter gene constructs). Both DCT-induced NF-κB nuclear translocation and attenuation of TNF-α-stimulated apoptosis were dependent on EGFR activation. Inhibitors of nuclear translocation, proteosome activity, and IκBα kinase attenuated NF-κB transcriptional activity. Cell transfection with adenoviral vectors encoding a non-degradable IκBα 'super-repressor' blocked the actions of DCT on both NF-κB activation and TNF-α-induced apoptosis. Likewise, transfection with mutant akt and treatment with a chemical inhibitor of Akt attenuated effects of DCT on NF-κB transcriptional activity and TNF-α-induced apoptosis. Chemical inhibitors of Akt and NF-κB activation also attenuated DCT-induced rescue of H508 cells from ultraviolet radiation-induced apoptosis. Collectively, these observations indicate that, downstream of EGFR, bile acid-induced colon cancer cell survival is mediated by Akt-dependent NF-κB activation. These findings provide a mechanism whereby bile acids increase resistance of colon cancer to chemotherapy and radiation

  2. NF-{kappa}B p50 promotes tumor cell invasion through negative regulation of invasion suppressor gene CRMP-1 in human lung adenocarcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming, Gao [Cancer Research Center, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); National Center of Excellence for Clinical Trial and Research, National Taiwan University, Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Institute of Toxicology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yeh, P Y [Cancer Research Center, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, No. 7, Chung-Shan South Road, Taipei 10016, Taiwan (China); Lu, Y -S [Cancer Research Center, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); National Center of Excellence for Clinical Trial and Research, National Taiwan University, Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, No. 7, Chung-Shan South Road, Taipei 10016, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chang, W C [Cancer Research Center, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Kuo, M -L [Institute of Toxicology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cheng, A -L [Cancer Research Center, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); National Center of Excellence for Clinical Trial and Research, National Taiwan University, Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Institute of Toxicology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, No. 7, Chung-Shan South Road, Taipei 10016, Taiwan (China); Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, No. 7, Chung-Shan South Road, Taipei 10016, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: alcheng@ntu.edu.tw

    2008-11-14

    Lung adenocarcinoma Cl1-5 cells were selected from parental Cl1-0 cells based on their high metastatic potential. In a previous study, CRMP-1, an invasion suppressor gene, was shown to be suppressed in Cl1-5 cells. However, the regulation of CRMP-1 expression has not been explored. In this study, we showed nuclear factor-{kappa}B controls CRMP-1 expression. The electromobility shift assay showed that while Cl1-0 cells exhibited low NF-{kappa}B activity in response to TNF-{alpha}, an abundance of basal and TNF-{alpha}-induced NF-{kappa}B-DNA complex was detected in Cl1-5 cells. Supershift-coupled EMSA and Western blotting of nuclear proteins, however, revealed p50 protein, but not classic p65/p50 heterodimer in the complex. ChIP and EMSA demonstrated that p50 binds to a {kappa}B site residing between -1753 and -1743 of the CRMP-1 promoter region. Transfection of antisense p50 gene into Cl1-5 cells increased the CRMP-1 protein level and decreased the invasive activity of Cl1-5 cells.

  3. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate administered during ex-vivo lung perfusion promotes rehabilitation of injured donor rat lungs obtained after prolonged warm ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Francioli

    Full Text Available Damaged lung grafts obtained after circulatory death (DCD lungs and warm ischemia may be at high risk of reperfusion injury after transplantation. Such lungs could be pharmacologically reconditioned using ex-vivo lung perfusion (EVLP. Since acute inflammation related to the activation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB is instrumental in lung reperfusion injury, we hypothesized that DCD lungs might be treated during EVLP by pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC, an inhibitor of NF-κB. Rat lungs exposed to 1h warm ischemia and 2 h cold ischemia were subjected to EVLP during 4h, in absence (CTRL group, N = 6 or in presence of PDTC (2.5g/L, PDTC group, N = 6. Static pulmonary compliance (SPC, peak airway pressure (PAWP, pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR, and oxygenation capacity were determined during EVLP. After EVLP, we measured the weight gain of the heart-lung block (edema, and the concentration of LDH (cell damage, proteins (permeability edema and of the cytokines IL-6, TNF-α and CINC-1 in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL, and we evaluated NF-κB activation by the degree of phosphorylation and degradation of its inhibitor IκBα in lung tissue. In CTRL, we found significant NF-κB activation, lung edema, and a massive release of LDH, proteins and cytokines. SPC significantly decreased, PAWP and PVR increased, while oxygenation tended to decrease. Treatment with PDTC during EVLP inhibited NF-κB activation, did not influence LDH release, but markedly reduced lung edema and protein concentration in BAL, suppressed TNFα and IL-6 release, and abrogated the changes in SPC, PAWP and PVR, with unchanged oxygenation. In conclusion, suppression of innate immune activation during EVLP using the NF-κB inhibitor PDTC promotes significant improvement of damaged rat DCD lungs. Future studies will determine if such rehabilitated lungs are suitable for in vivo transplantation.

  4. Bradykinin B2 receptor expression in the bronchial mucosa of allergic asthmatics: the role of NF-kB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardolo, F L M; Petecchia, L; Sorbello, V; Di Stefano, A; Usai, C; Massaglia, G M; Gnemmi, I; Mognetti, B; Hiemstra, P S; Sterk, P J; Sabatini, F

    2016-03-01

    Bradykinin (BK) mediates acute allergic asthma and airway remodelling. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) is potentially involved in BK B2 receptor (B2R) regulation. In this observational cross-sectional study, B2R and NF-kB expression was evaluated in bronchial biopsies from mild asthmatics (after diluent/allergen challenge) and healthy controls, examining the role of NF-kB in B2R expression in primary human fibroblasts from normal and asthmatic subjects (HNBFb and HABFb). B2R and NF-kB (total and nuclear) expression was analysed by immunohistochemistry in biopsies from 10 mild intermittent asthmatics (48 h after diluent/allergen challenge) and 10 controls undergoing bronchoscopy. B2R co-localization in 5B5(+) and αSMA(+) mesenchymal cells was studied by immunofluorescence/confocal microscopy, and B2R expression in HABFb/HNBFb incubated with interleukin (IL)-4/IL-13 with/without BK, and after NF-kB inhibitor, by Western blotting. Bronchial mucosa B2R and nuclear NF-kB expression was higher in asthmatics after diluent (B2R only) and allergen challenge than in controls (P kB (total and nuclear) increased after allergen compared with after diluent (P kB inhibitor (P kB expression. NF-kB inhibitor blocked IL-4/IL-13-induced increase in B2R expression in cultured fibroblasts, suggesting a role as potential anti-asthma drug. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Non toxic biodegradable cationic gemini surfactants as novel corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in hydrochloric acid medium and synergistic effect of sodium salicylate: Experimental and theoretical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mobin, Mohammad, E-mail: drmmobin@hotmail.com; Aslam, Ruby; Aslam, Jeenat

    2017-04-15

    Two biodegradable, non toxic cationic gemini surfactants having ester linkage in the spacer namely, C{sub m}H{sub 2m+1}(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}N{sup +}(CH{sub 2}COOCH{sub 2}){sub 2}N{sup +}(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}C{sub m}H{sub 2m+1}.2Cl{sup -} (m-E2-m, m = 12, 14), were synthesized and characterized using elemental analysis, FT-IR and {sup 1}H-NMR. The corrosion inhibition performance of synthesized compounds separately and in combination with sodium salicylate (SS), along with the nature and stability of inhibitive film, for mild steel (MS) in 1 M HCl solution at 30–60 °C was evaluated using weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, EIS, UV–visible spectroscopy, FTIR, SEM/EDAX, TGA and quantum chemical calculations. Results of the studies confirm m-E2-m as effective corrosion inhibitor for MS in HCl; the inhibition effect being synergistically strengthened in presence of SS. The synthesized compounds act as mixed type inhibitor and adsorb on MS surface in accordance with Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Experimentally measured inhibition efficiencies are correlated with the molecular parameters obtained using PM6 semi-empirical method. Empirical results are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. - Graphical abstract: (a) Optimized geometry of studied inhibitors by PM6 method with (b) HOMO and (c) LUMO orbital occupation. - Highlights: • Environment friendly gemini surfactants were studied as corrosion inhibitor for MS. • Studied compounds act as good inhibitor for MS corrosion in 1 M HCl at 30–60 °C. • η of inhibitors is synergistically increased in presence of sodium salicylate. • The synthesized cationic gemini surfactants act as mixed-type inhibitor. • Experimentally obtained results are in good agreement with theoretical results.

  6. Rosiglitazone attenuates NF-κB-dependent ICAM-1 and TNF-α production caused by homocysteine via inhibiting ERK1/2/p38MAPK activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Yong-Ping; Liu, Yu-Hui; Chen, Jia; Song, Tao; You, Yu; Tang, Zhen-Yan; Li, Yuan-Jian; Zhang, Guo-Gang

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated an important interaction between nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activation and homocysteine (Hcy)-induced cytokines expression in endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells. However, the underlying mechanism remains illusive. In this study, we investigated the effects of Hcy on NF-κB-mediated sICAM-1, TNF-α production and the possible involvement of ERK 1/2 /p38MAPK pathway. The effects of rosiglitazone intervention were also examined. Our results show that Hcy increased the levels of sICAM-1 and TNF-α in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. This effect was significantly depressed by rosiglitazone and different inhibitors (PDTC, NF-κB inhibitor; PD98059, MEK inhibitor; SB203580, p38MAPK specific inhibitor; and staurosporine, PKC inhibitor). Next, we investigated the effect of Hcy on ERK 1/2 /p38MAPK pathway and NF-κB activity in HUVECs. The results show that Hcy activated both ERK 1/2 /p38MAPK pathway and NF-κB-DNA-binding activity. These effects were markedly inhibited by rosiglitazone as well as other inhibitors (SB203580, PD98059, and PDTC). Further, the pretreatment of staurosporine abrogated ERK 1/2 /p38MAPK phosphorylation, suggesting that Hcy-induced ERK 1/2 /p38MAPK activation is associated with PKC activity. Our results provide evidence that Hcy-induced NF-κB activation was mediated by activation of ERK 1/2 /p38MAPK pathway involving PKC activity. Rosiglitazone reduces the NF-κB-mediated sICAM-1 and TNF-α production induced by Hcy via inhibition of ERK 1/2 /p38MAPK pathway

  7. Characterization of the enhanced apoptotic response to azidothymidine by pharmacological inhibition of NF-kB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteucci, Claudia; Minutolo, Antonella; Marino-Merlo, Francesca; Grelli, Sandro; Frezza, Caterina; Mastino, Antonio; Macchi, Beatrice

    2015-04-15

    The present study addresses the issue of enhanced apoptotic response to AZT following co-treatment with an NF-kB inhibitor. To investigate this issue, different cell lines were assayed for susceptibility to AZT-mediated apoptosis without or with the addition of the NF-kB inhibitor Bay-11-7085. For further investigation, U937 cells were selected as good-responder cells to the combination treatment with 32 or 128 μM AZT, and 1 μM Bay-11-7085. Inhibition of NF-kB activation by Bay-11-7085 in cells treated with AZT was assayed through Western blot analysis of p65 expression and by EMSA. Involvement of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis in mechanisms underlying the improved effect of AZT following Bay-11-7085 co-treatment, was evaluated by assaying the cytochrome c release and the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) status using the JC-1 dye. Moreover, the transcriptional activity of both anti- and pro-apoptotic genes in U937 cells after combination treatment was quantitatively evaluated through real-time PCR. We found that the combined treatment induced high levels of cytochrome c release and of MMP collapse in association with evident changes in the expression of both anti- and pro-apoptotic genes of the Bcl-2 family. Overexpression of Bcl-2 significantly suppressed the sensitization of U937 cells to an enhanced apoptotic response to AZT following co-treatment with the NF-kB inhibitor. The new findings suggest that a combination regimen based on AZT plus an NF-kB inhibitor could represent a new chemotherapeutic tool for retrovirus-related pathologies.

  8. p55PIK regulates alpha-fetoprotein expression through the NF-κB signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Guoguo; Sun, Ge; Cheng, Zhikui; Zhang, Lei; Hu, Kanghong; Xia, Xianmin; Zhou, Yin

    2017-12-15

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is regarded as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker and a potential therapeutic target for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the regulation of AFP expression in HCC remains poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism by which AFP expression is regulated by p55PIK, an isoform of PI3K. Human HCC cell lines (HepG2 and Huh-7) were treated with p55PIK specific competitive inhibitor or shRNA, or p55PIK overexpression vector, in the absence or presence of NF-κB inhibitor PDTC. AFP expression was detected by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting. NF-κB responsive elements in AFP enhancer region were characterized by luciferase reporter assay. p55PIK significantly stimulated the expression of AFP by activating NF-κB signaling pathway in HCC cells. Furthermore, two NF-κB binding sites in AFP enhancer region were identified to be primarily responsible for p55PIK mediated upregulation of AFP expression. p55PIK/NF-κB signaling plays an important role in the upregulation of AFP expression in HCC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Differential effects of NF-kappa B and p38 MAPK inhibitors and combinations thereof on TNF-alpha- and IL-1 beta-induced proinflammatory status of endothelial cells in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuldo, JM; Westra, J; Asgeirsdottir, SA; Kok, RJ; Oosterhuis, K; Rots, MG; Schouten, JP; Limburg, PC; Molema, G

    Differential effects of NF- kappa B and p38 MAPK inhibitors and combinations thereof on TNF-alpha- and IL- 1 beta- induced proinflammatory status of endothelial cells in vitro. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 289: C1229 - C1239, 2005. First published June 22, 2005; doi: 10.1152/ ajpcell. 00620.2004.

  10. Synergistic effect of Ebselen and gamma radiation on breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabet, Noura M; Moustafa, Enas M

    2017-08-01

    To explore the synergistic effect of a seleno-organic compound Ebselen (Ebs) and/or γ-radiation to exert antitumor effects on human breast cancer (MCF-7) cell line in vitro. Ebs cytotoxicity at various concentrations (10, 25, 50 and 75 μg), cell proliferation and clonogenic assay of Ebs and/or γ-radiation (at 1, 3 and 6 Gy), expression of p-IκBα and NF-κB, inflammatory cytokines levels (TNF-α, IL-2, INF-γ, IL-10 and TGF-β), apoptotic factors (Caspase-3, Granzyme-B and TRAIL) and angiogenic factor (VEGF) were investigated. The results showed that the effective dosage of this combination was observed at 25 μg/ml of Ebs with γ-radiation at 6 Gy. Data displayed a significant reduction in NF-κB mRNA along with an elevation in granzyme-B mRNA and TRAIL mRNA expression. Furthermore, protein expression of caspase-3 was elevated, whereas p-IκBα and p-NF-κB(p65) protein expression was reduced significantly. Also, a significant decline in TNF-α, IL-2, INF-γ, TGF-β with a significant increase in IL-10 levels were revealed. Meanwhile, a significant decrease in VEGF level and proliferation capacity were observed. We conclude that a combination of Ebs with radiotherapy has a major antitumor efficiency in inducing apoptosis and inhibiting cancer cell progression, due to the synergistic effect in regulating gene and protein expression, and in a modulating response of pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines.

  11. Inhibition of NF-κB promotes autophagy via JNK signaling pathway in porcine granulosa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Hui; Lin, Lu; Haq, Ihtesham Ul; Zeng, Shen-ming

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) plays an important role in diverse processes, including cell proliferation and differentiation, apoptosis and inflammation. However, the role of NF-κB in porcine follicle development is not clearly elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) increased the level of inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB) protein and promoted the cytoplasmic localization of p65, indicating that FSH inhibits the activation of NF-κB in porcine granulosa cells. Moreover, inhibition of NF-κB by FSH or another specific inhibitor of NF-κB, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), could activate JNK signaling and enhance autophagic activity in porcine granulosa cells. Knockdown of RelA (p65) Subunit of NF-κB by RNA interference abrogated the activation of JNK signaling pathway and the increase of autophagic protein expression by FSH. Meanwhile, the functional significance of FSH or PDTC-mediated autophagy were further investigated. Our results demonstrated that the increased autophagy promoted progesterone secretion in porcine granulosa cells. Blockage of autophagy by chloroquine obviated the FSH or PDTC-induced progesterone production. Taken together, these results indicate that inhibition of NF-κB increased autophagy via JNK signaling, and promote steroidogenesis in porcine granulosa cells. Our results provide new insights into the regulation and function of autophagy in mammalian follicle development. - Highlights: • FSH inhibits the activation of NF-κB in porcine primary granulosa cells. • Inhibition of NF-κB by FSH promotes autophagy via JNK signaling in granulosa cells. • Increased autophagy contributes to progesterone production in granulosa cells. • This is the first report against beclin1 regulation in porcine granulosa cells.

  12. Inhibition of NF-κB promotes autophagy via JNK signaling pathway in porcine granulosa cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Hui; Lin, Lu; Haq, Ihtesham Ul; Zeng, Shen-ming, E-mail: zengshenming@gmail.com

    2016-04-22

    The transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) plays an important role in diverse processes, including cell proliferation and differentiation, apoptosis and inflammation. However, the role of NF-κB in porcine follicle development is not clearly elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) increased the level of inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB) protein and promoted the cytoplasmic localization of p65, indicating that FSH inhibits the activation of NF-κB in porcine granulosa cells. Moreover, inhibition of NF-κB by FSH or another specific inhibitor of NF-κB, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), could activate JNK signaling and enhance autophagic activity in porcine granulosa cells. Knockdown of RelA (p65) Subunit of NF-κB by RNA interference abrogated the activation of JNK signaling pathway and the increase of autophagic protein expression by FSH. Meanwhile, the functional significance of FSH or PDTC-mediated autophagy were further investigated. Our results demonstrated that the increased autophagy promoted progesterone secretion in porcine granulosa cells. Blockage of autophagy by chloroquine obviated the FSH or PDTC-induced progesterone production. Taken together, these results indicate that inhibition of NF-κB increased autophagy via JNK signaling, and promote steroidogenesis in porcine granulosa cells. Our results provide new insights into the regulation and function of autophagy in mammalian follicle development. - Highlights: • FSH inhibits the activation of NF-κB in porcine primary granulosa cells. • Inhibition of NF-κB by FSH promotes autophagy via JNK signaling in granulosa cells. • Increased autophagy contributes to progesterone production in granulosa cells. • This is the first report against beclin1 regulation in porcine granulosa cells.

  13. Synergistic interaction between two linear inhibitors on a single ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ). vanadate (Van) and L-phenylalanine (L-phe) were studied using a modification of the common Yonetani-Theorell procedure proposed for studying synergistic inhibition. The modes of inhibition of ALP by Van and L-phe as analysed using the ...

  14. Inhibition of nuclear factor kappa-B signaling reduces growth in medulloblastoma in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deckard Lindsey A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medulloblastoma is a highly malignant pediatric brain tumor that requires surgery, whole brain and spine irradiation, and intense chemotherapy for treatment. A more sophisticated understanding of the pathophysiology of medulloblastoma is needed to successfully reduce the intensity of treatment and improve outcomes. Nuclear factor kappa-B (NFκB is a signaling pathway that controls transcriptional activation of genes important for tight regulation of many cellular processes and is aberrantly expressed in many types of cancer. Methods To test the importance of NFκB to medulloblastoma cell growth, the effects of multiple drugs that inhibit NFκB, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, diethyldithiocarbamate, sulfasalazine, curcumin and bortezomib, were studied in medulloblastoma cell lines compared to a malignant glioma cell line and normal neurons. Expression of endogenous NFκB was investigated in cultured cells, xenograft flank tumors, and primary human tumor samples. A dominant negative construct for the endogenous inhibitor of NFκB, IκB, was prepared from medulloblastoma cell lines and flank tumors were established to allow specific pathway inhibition. Results We report high constitutive activity of the canonical NFκB pathway, as seen by Western analysis of the NFκB subunit p65, in medulloblastoma tumors compared to normal brain. The p65 subunit of NFκB is extremely highly expressed in xenograft tumors from human medulloblastoma cell lines; though, conversely, the same cells in culture have minimal expression without specific stimulation. We demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of NFκB in cell lines halts proliferation and leads to apoptosis. We show by immunohistochemical stain that phosphorylated p65 is found in the majority of primary tumor cells examined. Finally, expression of a dominant negative form of the endogenous inhibitor of NFκB, dnIκB, resulted in poor xenograft tumor growth, with average tumor volumes

  15. A novel role of sesamol in inhibiting NF-κB-mediated signaling in platelet activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Chao-Chien

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Platelet activation is relevant to a variety of coronary heart diseases. Our previous studies revealed that sesamol possesses potent antiplatelet activity through increasing cyclic AMP formation. Although platelets are anucleated cells, they also express the transcription factor, NF-κB, that may exert non-genomic functions in platelet activation. Therefore, we further investigated the inhibitory roles of sesamol in NF-κB-mediated platelet function. Methods Platelet aggregation, Fura 2-AM fluorescence, and immunoblotting analysis were used in this study. Results NF-κB signaling events, including IKKβ phosphorylation, IκBα degradation, and p65 phosphorylation, were markedly activated by collagen (1 μg/ml in washed human platelets, and these signaling events were attenuated by sesamol (2.5~25 μM. Furthermore, SQ22536 and ODQ, inhibitors of adenylate cyclase and guanylate cyclase, respectively, strongly reversed the sesamol (25 μM-mediated inhibitory effects of IKKβ phosphorylation, IκBα degradation, and p65 phosphorylation stimulated by collagen. The protein kinase A (PKA inhibitor, H89, also reversed sesamol-mediated inhibition of IκBα degradation. Moreover, BAY11-7082, an NF-κB inhibitor, abolished IκBα degradation, phospholipase C (PLCγ2 phosphorylation, protein kinase C (PKC activation, [Ca2+]i mobilization, and platelet aggregation stimulated by collagen. Preincubation of platelets with the inhibitors, SQ22536 and H89, both strongly reversed sesamol-mediated inhibition of platelet aggregation and [Ca2+]i mobilization. Conclusions Sesamol activates cAMP-PKA signaling, followed by inhibition of the NF-κB-PLC-PKC cascade, thereby leading to inhibition of [Ca2+]i mobilization and platelet aggregation. Because platelet activation is not only linked to hemostasis, but also has a relevant role in inflammation and metastasis, our data demonstrating that inhibition of NF-κB interferes with platelet function may

  16. The epigenetic effect of glucosamine and a nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) inhibitor on primary human chondrocytes - Implications for osteoarthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imagawa, Kei, E-mail: k.Imagawa@soton.ac.uk [University of Southampton Medical School, Bone and Joint Research Group, Southampton (United Kingdom); Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Andres, MC de [University of Southampton Medical School, Bone and Joint Research Group, Southampton (United Kingdom); Hashimoto, Ko [Hospital for Special Surgery, NY (United States); Pitt, Dominic [University of Southampton Medical School, Bone and Joint Research Group, Southampton (United Kingdom); Itoi, Eiji [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Goldring, Mary B. [Hospital for Special Surgery, NY (United States); Roach, Helmtrud I.; Oreffo, Richard O.C. [University of Southampton Medical School, Bone and Joint Research Group, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-18

    Research highlights: {yields} Glucosamine and a NF-kB inhibitor reduce inflammation in OA. {yields} Cytokine induced demethylation of CpG site in IL1{beta} promoter prevented by glucosamine. {yields} Glucosamine and NF-kB inhibitor have epigenetic effects on human chondrocytes. -- Abstract: Objective: Idiopathic osteoarthritis is the most common form of osteoarthritis (OA) world-wide and remains the leading cause of disability and the associated socio-economic burden in an increasing aging population. Traditionally, OA has been viewed as a degenerative joint disease characterized by progressive destruction of the articular cartilage and changes in the subchondral bone culminating in joint failure. However, the etiology of OA is multifactorial involving genetic, mechanical and environmental factors. Treatment modalities include analgesia, joint injection with steroids or hyaluronic acid, oral supplements including glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, as well as physiotherapy. Thus, there is significant interest in the discovery of disease modifying agents. One such agent, glucosamine (GlcN) is commonly prescribed even though the therapeutic efficacy and mechanism of action remain controversial. Inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1{beta}, and proteinases such as MMP-13 have been implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of OA together with an associated CpG demethylation in their promoters. We have investigated the potential of GlcN to modulate NF-kB activity and cytokine-induced abnormal gene expression in articular chondrocytes and, critically, whether this is associated with an epigenetic process. Method: Human chondrocytes were isolated from the articular cartilage of femoral heads, obtained with ethical permission, following fractured neck of femur surgery. Chondrocytes were cultured for 5 weeks in six separate groups; (i) control culture, (ii) cultured with a mixture of 2.5 ng/ml IL-1{beta} and 2.5 ng/ml oncostatin M (OSM), (iii) cultured with 2 mM N

  17. The epigenetic effect of glucosamine and a nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) inhibitor on primary human chondrocytes - Implications for osteoarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imagawa, Kei; Andres, MC de; Hashimoto, Ko; Pitt, Dominic; Itoi, Eiji; Goldring, Mary B.; Roach, Helmtrud I.; Oreffo, Richard O.C.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Glucosamine and a NF-kB inhibitor reduce inflammation in OA. → Cytokine induced demethylation of CpG site in IL1β promoter prevented by glucosamine. → Glucosamine and NF-kB inhibitor have epigenetic effects on human chondrocytes. -- Abstract: Objective: Idiopathic osteoarthritis is the most common form of osteoarthritis (OA) world-wide and remains the leading cause of disability and the associated socio-economic burden in an increasing aging population. Traditionally, OA has been viewed as a degenerative joint disease characterized by progressive destruction of the articular cartilage and changes in the subchondral bone culminating in joint failure. However, the etiology of OA is multifactorial involving genetic, mechanical and environmental factors. Treatment modalities include analgesia, joint injection with steroids or hyaluronic acid, oral supplements including glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, as well as physiotherapy. Thus, there is significant interest in the discovery of disease modifying agents. One such agent, glucosamine (GlcN) is commonly prescribed even though the therapeutic efficacy and mechanism of action remain controversial. Inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, and proteinases such as MMP-13 have been implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of OA together with an associated CpG demethylation in their promoters. We have investigated the potential of GlcN to modulate NF-kB activity and cytokine-induced abnormal gene expression in articular chondrocytes and, critically, whether this is associated with an epigenetic process. Method: Human chondrocytes were isolated from the articular cartilage of femoral heads, obtained with ethical permission, following fractured neck of femur surgery. Chondrocytes were cultured for 5 weeks in six separate groups; (i) control culture, (ii) cultured with a mixture of 2.5 ng/ml IL-1β and 2.5 ng/ml oncostatin M (OSM), (iii) cultured with 2 mM N-acetyl GlcN (Sigma

  18. Fisetin inhibits the generation of inflammatory mediators in interleukin-1β-induced human lung epithelial cells by suppressing the NF-κB and ERK1/2 pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hui-Ling; Huang, Wen-Chung; Cheng, Shu-Chen; Liou, Chian-Jiun

    2018-07-01

    Fisetin, a flavone that can be isolated from fruits and vegetables, has anti-tumor and anti-oxidative properties and ameliorates airway hyperresponsiveness in asthmatic mice. This study investigated whether fisetin can suppress the expression of inflammatory mediators and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) in A549 human lung epithelial cells that were stimulated with interleukin-1β (IL-1β) to induce inflammatory responses. A549 cells were treated with fisetin (3-30 μM) and then with IL-1β. Fisetin significantly inhibited COX-2 expression and reduced prostaglandin E 2 production, and it suppressed the levels of IL-8, CCL5, monocyte chemotactic protein 1, tumor necrosis factor α, and IL-6. Fisetin also significantly attenuated the expression of chemokine and inflammatory cytokine genes and decreased the expression of ICAM-1, which mediates THP-1 monocyte adhesion to inflammatory A549 cells. Fisetin decreased the translocation of nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB) subunit p65 into the nucleus and inhibited the phosphorylation of proteins in the ERK1/2 pathway. Co-treatment of IL-1β-stimulated A549 cells with ERK1/2 inhibitors plus fisetin reduced ICAM-1 expression. Furthermore, fisetin significantly increased the effects of the protective antioxidant pathway by promoting the expression of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor-2 and heme oxygenase 1. Taken together, these data suggest that fisetin has anti-inflammatory effects and that it suppresses the expression of chemokines, inflammatory cytokines, and ICAM-1 by suppressing the NF-κB and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in IL-1β-stimulated human lung epithelial A549 cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Radiation-induced gene responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woloschak, G.E.; Paunesku, T.; Shearin-Jones, P.; Oryhon, J.

    1996-01-01

    In the process of identifying genes that are differentially regulated in cells exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UV), we identified a transcript that was repressed following the exposure of cells to a combination of UV and salicylate, a known inhibitor of NF-kappaB. Sequencing this band determined that it has identify to lactate dehydrogenase, and Northern blots confirmed the initial expression pattern. Analysis of the sequence of the LDH 5' region established the presence of NF-kappaB, Sp1, and two Ap-2 elements; two partial AP- 1; one partial RE, and two halves of E-UV elements were also found. Electromobility shift assays were then performed for the AP-1, NF- kappaB, and E-UV elements. These experiments revealed that binding to NF-kappaB was induced by UV but repressed with salicylic acid; UV did not affect AP-1 binding, but salicylic acid inhibited it alone or following UV exposure; and E-UV binding was repressed by UV, and salicylic acid had little effect. Since the binding of no single element correlated with the expression pattern of LDH, it is likely that multiple elements govern UV/salicylate-mediated expression

  20. NF-κB-Activating Complex Engaged in Response to EGFR Oncogene Inhibition Drives Tumor Cell Survival and Residual Disease in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin M. Blakely

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although oncogene-targeted therapy often elicits profound initial tumor responses in patients, responses are generally incomplete because some tumor cells survive initial therapy as residual disease that enables eventual acquired resistance. The mechanisms underlying tumor cell adaptation and survival during initial therapy are incompletely understood. Here, through the study of EGFR mutant lung adenocarcinoma, we show that NF-κB signaling is rapidly engaged upon initial EGFR inhibitor treatment to promote tumor cell survival and residual disease. EGFR oncogene inhibition induced an EGFR-TRAF2-RIP1-IKK complex that stimulated an NF-κB-mediated transcriptional survival program. The direct NF-κB inhibitor PBS-1086 suppressed this adaptive survival program and increased the magnitude and duration of initial EGFR inhibitor response in multiple NSCLC models, including a patient-derived xenograft. These findings unveil NF-κB activation as a critical adaptive survival mechanism engaged by EGFR oncogene inhibition and provide rationale for EGFR and NF-κB co-inhibition to eliminate residual disease and enhance patient responses.

  1. Synergistic interaction between Astragali Radix and Rehmanniae Radix in a Chinese herbal formula to promote diabetic wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Kit-Man; Lai, Kwok-Kin; Liu, Cheuk-Lun; Tam, Jacqueline Chor-Wing; To, Ming-Ho; Kwok, Hin-Fai; Lau, Ching-Po; Ko, Chun-Hay; Leung, Ping-Chung; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Poon, Simon Kar-Sing; Lau, Clara Bik-San

    2012-05-07

    Astragali Radix (AR) and Rehmanniae Radix (RR) are two traditional Chinese medicines widely used in China for treating diabetes mellitus and its complications, such as diabetic foot ulcer. In our previous study, a herbal formula NF3 comprising AR and RR in the ratio of 2:1 was found effective in enhancing diabetic wound healing in rats through the actions of tissue regeneration, angiogenesis promotion and inflammation inhibition. The aims of the present study were to investigate the herb-herb interaction (or the possible synergistic effect) between AR and RR in NF3 to promote diabetic wound healing and to identify the principal herb in the formula by evaluating the potencies of individual AR and RR in different mechanistic studies. A chemically induced diabetic foot ulcer rat model was used to examine the wound healing effect of NF3 and its individual herbs AR and RR. For mechanistic studies, murine macrophage cell (RAW 264.7) inflammation, human fibroblast (Hs27) proliferation and human endothelial cell (HMEC-1) migration assays were adopted to investigate the anti-inflammatory, granulation formation and angiogenesis-promoting activities of the herbal extracts, respectively. In the foot ulcer animal model, neither AR nor RR at clinical relevant dose (0.98g/kg) promoted diabetic wound healing. However, when they were used in combination as NF3, synergistic interaction was demonstrated, of which NF3 could significantly reduce the wound area of rats when compared to water group (phealing as well as the underlying angiogenesis-promoting effects. The results of present study justified the combined usage of AR and RR in the ratio of 2:1 as NF3 to treat diabetic foot ulcer and illustrated that AR is the principal herb in this herbal formula. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Synergistic apoptosis induction in leukemic cells by the phosphatase inhibitor salubrinal and proteasome inhibitors.

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    Hannes C A Drexler

    Full Text Available Cells adapt to endoplasmic reticulum (ER-stress by arresting global protein synthesis while simultaneously activating specific transcription factors and their downstream targets. These processes are mediated in part by the phosphorylation-dependent inactivation of the translation initiation factor eIF2alpha. Following restoration of homeostasis protein synthesis is resumed when the serine/threonine-protein phosphatase PP1 dephosphorylates and reactivates eIF2alpha. Proteasome inhibitors, used to treat multiple myeloma patients evoke ER-stress and apoptosis by blocking the ER-associated degradation of misfolded proteins (ERAD, however, the role of eIF2alpha phosphorylation in leukemic cells under conditions of proteasome inhibitor-mediated ER stress is currently unclear.Bcr-Abl-positive and negative leukemic cell lines were used to investigate the functional implications of PP1-related phosphatase activities on eIF2alpha phosphorylation in proteasome inhibitor-mediated ER stress and apoptosis. Rather unexpectedly, salubrinal, a recently identified PP1 inhibitor capable to protect against ER stress in various model systems, strongly synergized with proteasome inhibitors to augment apoptotic death of different leukemic cell lines. Salubrinal treatment did not affect the phosphorlyation status of eIF2alpha. Furthermore, the proapoptotic effect of salubrinal occurred independently from the chemical nature of the proteasome inhibitor, was recapitulated by a second unrelated phosphatase inhibitor and was unaffected by overexpression of a dominant negative eIF2alpha S51A variant that can not be phosphorylated. Salubrinal further aggravated ER-stress and proteotoxicity inflicted by the proteasome inhibitors on the leukemic cells since characteristic ER stress responses, such as ATF4 and CHOP synthesis, XBP1 splicing, activation of MAP kinases and eventually apoptosis were efficiently abrogated by the translational inhibitor cycloheximide.Although PP1

  3. Adrenergic regulation during acute hepatic infection with Entamoeba histolytica in the hamster: involvement of oxidative stress, Nrf2 and NF-KappaB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldaba-Muruato Liseth Rubi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress and transcriptional pathways of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB are critically involved in the etiopathology of amebic liver abscess (ALA. In this work, we studied the relationship between the adrenergic nervous system and ALA in the hamster. ALA was visible at 12 h of infection. While 6-hydroxidopamine (6-OHDA decreased infection, propranolol (β-adrenergic blocker treatment was associated with less extensive liver damage, and phentolamine treatment (α-adrenergic blocker significantly reduced ALA compared to 6-OHDA and propranolol. Serum enzymatic activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GTP were increased at 12 h post-infection. Chemical denervation and α and β-adrenergic blockers decreased ALT to normal levels, while 6-OHDA and propranolol showed a trend to decrease γ-GTP but phentolamine significantly reduced γ-GTP. Amebic infection increased oxidized glutathione (GSSG and decreased both reduced glutathione (GSH and the GSH/GSSG ratio. Propranolol and 6-OHDA showed a tendency to decrease GSSG. However, GSH, GSSG and GSH/GSSG returned to normal levels with phentolamine. Furthermore, amebic infection increased pNF-κB and interleukin-1β (IL-1β, and showed a tendency to decrease hemoxigenase-1 (HO-1, but not Nrf2. Chemical denervation showed a trend to decrease pNF-κB and IL-1β, and neither Nrf2 nor HO-1 increased significantly. In addition, NF-κB and IL-1β were attenuated by propranolol and phentolamine treatments, although phentolamine showed significant overexpression of Nrf2 and HO-1. This suggests that the adrenergic system may be involved in oxidative stress and in modulation of the Nrf2 and NF-κB pathways during ALA development.

  4. Root Extract of Polygonum cuspidatum Siebold & Zucc. Ameliorates DSS-Induced Ulcerative Colitis by Affecting NF-kappaB Signaling Pathway in a Mouse Model via Synergistic Effects of Polydatin, Resveratrol, and Emodin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baohai Liu

    2018-04-01

    and NF-κB signaling related molecules than any one of the three ingredients with same concentration treatment.Conclusion: Oral administration of PCSE suppressed NF-κB signaling pathway and exerts its anti-colitis effects via synergistic effects of polydatin, resveratrol or emodin.

  5. Regorafenib induces extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis through inhibition of ERK/NF-κB activation in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jai-Jen; Pan, Po-Jung; Hsu, Fei-Ting

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of NF-κB inactivation in regorafenib-induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma SK-HEP-1 cells. SK-HEP-1 cells were treated with different concentrations of the NF-κB inhibitor 4-N-[2-(4-phenoxyphenyl)ethyl]quinazoline-4,6-diamine (QNZ) or regorafenib for different periods. The effects of QNZ and regorafenib on cell viability, expression of NF-κB-modulated anti-apoptotic proteins and apoptotic pathways were analyzed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, western blotting, DNA gel electrophoresis, flow cytometry and NF-κB reporter gene assay. Inhibitors of various kinases including AKT, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), P38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) were used to evaluate the mechanism of regorafenib-induced NF-κB inactivation. The results demonstrated that both QNZ and regorafenib significantly inhibited the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins and triggered extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis. We also demonstrated that regorafenib inhibited NF-κB activation through ERK dephosphorylation. Taken all together, our findings indicate that regorafenib triggers extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis through suppression of ERK/NF-κB activation in SK-HEP-1 cells.

  6. Induction of oncogene addiction shift to NF-κB by camptothecin in solid tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togano, Tomiteru; Sasaki, Masataka; Watanabe, Mariko; Nakashima, Makoto; Tsuruo, Takashi; Umezawa, Kazuo; Higashihara, Masaaki; Watanabe, Toshiki; Horie, Ryouichi

    2009-01-01

    The biological basis of the resistance of solid tumor cells to chemotherapy is not well understood. While addressing this problem, we found that gastric cancer cell line St-4/CPT, lung cancer cell line A549/CPT, and colon cancer cell line HT-29/CPT, all of which are resistant to camptothecin (CPT), showed strong and constitutive nuclear factor (NF)-κB activity driven by IκB kinase compared with their parental cell lines St-4, A549, and HT-29. A new NF-κB inhibitor, dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin (DHMEQ), reduced viability and induced apoptosis in St-4/CPT, A549/CPT, and HT-29/CPT cell lines, while their parental cell lines were resistant to DHMEQ. The results in this study present an example of the shift in signals that support the survival of solid tumor cells to NF-κB during the acquisition of resistance to CPT. The results also indicate that solid tumor cells that become resistant to chemotherapy may be more easily treated by NF-κB inhibitors.

  7. Induction of oncogene addiction shift to NF-{kappa}B by camptothecin in solid tumor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togano, Tomiteru; Sasaki, Masataka; Watanabe, Mariko; Nakashima, Makoto [Department of Hematology, School of Medicine, Kitasato University, 1-15-1 Kitasato, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 228-8555 (Japan); Tsuruo, Takashi [Cancer Chemotherapy Center, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 3-10-6 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Umezawa, Kazuo [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-0061 (Japan); Higashihara, Masaaki [Department of Hematology, School of Medicine, Kitasato University, 1-15-1 Kitasato, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 228-8555 (Japan); Watanabe, Toshiki [Laboratory of Tumor Cell Biology, Department of Medical Genome Sciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Horie, Ryouichi, E-mail: rhorie@med.kitasato-u.ac.jp [Department of Hematology, School of Medicine, Kitasato University, 1-15-1 Kitasato, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 228-8555 (Japan)

    2009-12-04

    The biological basis of the resistance of solid tumor cells to chemotherapy is not well understood. While addressing this problem, we found that gastric cancer cell line St-4/CPT, lung cancer cell line A549/CPT, and colon cancer cell line HT-29/CPT, all of which are resistant to camptothecin (CPT), showed strong and constitutive nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B activity driven by I{kappa}B kinase compared with their parental cell lines St-4, A549, and HT-29. A new NF-{kappa}B inhibitor, dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin (DHMEQ), reduced viability and induced apoptosis in St-4/CPT, A549/CPT, and HT-29/CPT cell lines, while their parental cell lines were resistant to DHMEQ. The results in this study present an example of the shift in signals that support the survival of solid tumor cells to NF-{kappa}B during the acquisition of resistance to CPT. The results also indicate that solid tumor cells that become resistant to chemotherapy may be more easily treated by NF-{kappa}B inhibitors.

  8. Potentiation of in vitro and in vivo antitumor efficacy of doxorubicin by cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor P276-00 in human non-small cell lung cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathos, Maggie J; Khanwalkar, Harshal; Joshi, Kavita; Manohar, Sonal M; Joshi, Kalpana S

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we show that the combination of doxorubicin with the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor P276-00 was synergistic at suboptimal doses in the non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cell lines and induces extensive apoptosis than either drug alone in H-460 human NSCLC cells. Synergistic effects of P276-00 and doxorubicin on growth inhibition was studied using the Propidium Iodide (PI) assay. The doses showing the best synergistic effect was determined and these doses were used for further mechanistic studies such as western blotting, cell cycle analysis and RT-PCR. The in vivo efficacy of the combination was evaluated using the H-460 xenograft model. The combination of 100 nM doxorubicin followed by 1200 nM P276-00 showed synergistic effect in the p53-positive and p53-mutated cell lines H-460 and H23 respectively as compared to the p53-null cell line H1299. Abrogation of doxorubicin-induced G2/M arrest and induction of apoptosis was observed in the combination treatment. This was associated with induction of tumor suppressor protein p53 and reduction of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Furthermore, doxorubicin alone greatly induced COX-2, a NF-κB target and Cdk-1, a target of P276-00, which was downregulated by P276-00 in the combination. Doxorubicin when combined with P276-00 in a sequence-specific manner significantly inhibited tumor growth, compared with either doxorubicin or P276-00 alone in H-460 xenograft model. These findings suggest that this combination may increase the therapeutic index over doxorubicin alone and reduce systemic toxicity of doxorubicin most likely via an inhibition of doxorubicin-induced chemoresistance involving NF-κB signaling and inhibition of Cdk-1 which is involved in cell cycle progression

  9. Novel Mechanism of Attenuation of LPS-Induced NF-κB Activation by the Heat Shock Protein 90 Inhibitor, 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin, in Human Lung Microvascular Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangjam, Gagan S.; Dimitropoulou, Chistiana; Joshi, Atul D.; Barabutis, Nektarios; Shaw, Mary C.; Kovalenkov, Yevgeniy; Wallace, Chistopher M.; Fulton, David J.; Patel, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Heat shock protein (hsp) 90 inhibition attenuates NF-κB activation and blocks inflammation. However, the precise mechanism of NF-κB regulation by hsp90 in the endothelium is not clear. We investigated the mechanisms of hsp90 inhibition by 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) on NF-κB activation by LPS in primary human lung microvascular endothelial cells. Transcriptional activation of NF-κB was measured by luciferase reporter assay, gene expression by real-time RT-PCR, DNA binding of transcription factors by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, protein–protein interaction by coimmunoprecipitation/immunoblotting, histone deacetylase (HDAC)/histone acetyltransferase enzyme activity by fluorometry, and nucleosome eviction by partial microccocal DNase digestion. In human lung microvascular endothelial cells, 17-AAG–induced degradation of IKBα was accomplished regardless of the phosphorylation/ubiquitination state of the protein. Hence, 17-AAG did not block LPS-induced NF-κB nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity. Instead, 17-AAG blocked the recruitment of the coactivator, cAMP response element binding protein binding protein, and prevented the assembly of a transcriptionally competent RNA polymerase II complex at the κB elements of the IKBα (an NF-κB–responsive gene) promoter. The effect of LPS on IKBα mRNA expression was associated with rapid deacetylation of histone-H3(Lys9) and a dramatic down-regulation of core histone H3 binding. Even though treatment with an HDAC inhibitor produced the same effect as hsp90 inhibition, the effect of 17-AAG was independent of HDAC. We conclude that hsp90 inhibition attenuates NF-κB transcriptional activation by preventing coactivator recruitment and nucleosome eviction from the target promoter in human lung endothelial cells. PMID:24303801

  10. Modulation of NF-KB in rescued irradiated cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, R.K.K.; Fung, Y.K.; Han, W.; Li, L.; Chiu, S.K.; Cheng, S.H.; Yu, K.N.

    2015-01-01

    Studies by different groups on the rescue effect, where unirradiated bystander cells mitigated the damages in the irradiated cells, since its discovery by the authors' group in 2011 were first reviewed. The properties of the rescue effect were then examined using a novel experimental set-up to physically separate the rescue signals from the bystander signals. The authors' results showed that the rescue effect was mediated through activation of the nuclear factor-KB (NF-KB) response pathway in the irradiated cells, and that the NF-KB activation inhibitor BAy -1 1-7082 did not affect the activation of this response pathway in the irradiated cells induced by direct irradiation. (authors)

  11. NF-kappa B modulation is involved in celastrol induced human multiple myeloma cell apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiwen Ni

    Full Text Available Celastrol is an active compound extracted from the root bark of the traditional Chinese medicine Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F. To investigate the effect of celastrol on human multiple myeloma cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and explore its molecular mechanism of action. The activity of celastrol on LP-1 cell proliferation was detected by WST-8 assay. The celastrol-induced cell cycle arrest was analyzed by flow cytometry after propidium iodide staining. Nuclear translocation of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB was observed by fluorescence microscope. Celastrol inhibited cell proliferation of LP-1 myeloma cell in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 values of 0.8817 µM, which was mediated through G1 cell cycle arrest and p27 induction. Celastrol induced apoptosis in LP-1 and RPMI 8226 myeloma cells in a time and dose dependent manner, and it involved Caspase-3 activation and NF-κB pathway. Celastrol down-modulated antiapoptotic proteins including Bcl-2 and survivin expression. The expression of NF-κB and IKKa were decreased after celastrol treatment. Celastrol effectively blocked the nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit and induced human multiple myeloma cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by p27 upregulation and NF-kB modulation. It has been demonstrated that the effect of celastrol on NF-kB was HO-1-independent by using zinc protoporphyrin-9 (ZnPPIX, a selective heme oxygenase inhibitor. From the results, it could be inferred that celastrol may be used as a NF-kB inhibitor to inhibit myeloma cell proliferation.

  12. NF-κB signaling is activated and confers resistance to apoptosis in three-dimensionally cultured EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuma, Yuji; Yamazaki, Yukiko; Nakamura, Yoshiyasu; Yoshihara, Mitsuyo; Matsukuma, Shoichi; Koizume, Shiro; Miyagi, Yohei

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► EGFR-mutant cells in 3D culture resist EGFR inhibition compared with suspended cells. ► Degradation of IκB and activation of NF-κB are observed in 3D-cultured cells. ► Inhibiting NF-κB enhances the efficacy of the EGFR inhibitor in 3D-cultured cells. -- Abstract: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutant lung adenocarcinoma cells in suspension undergo apoptosis to a greater extent than adherent cells in a monolayer when EGFR autophosphorylation is inhibited by EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). This suggests that cell adhesion to a culture dish may activate an anti-apoptotic signaling pathway other than the EGFR pathway. Since the microenvironment of cells cultured in a monolayer are substantially different to that of cells existing in three-dimension (3D) in vivo, we assessed whether two EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma cell lines, HCC827 and H1975, were more resistant to EGFR TKI-induced apoptosis when cultured in a 3D extracellular matrix (ECM) as compared with in suspension. The ECM-adherent EGFR-mutant cells in 3D were significantly less sensitive to treatment with WZ4002, an EGFR TKI, than the suspended cells. Further, a marked degradation of IκBα, the inhibitor of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, was observed only in the 3D-cultured cells, leading to an increase in the activation of NF-κB. Moreover, the inhibition of NF-κB with pharmacological inhibitors enhanced EGFR TKI-induced apoptosis in 3D-cultured EGFR-mutant cells. These results suggest that inhibition of NF-κB signaling would render ECM-adherent EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma cells in vivo more susceptible to EGFR TKI-induced cell death.

  13. NF-κB inhibition is involved in tobacco smoke-induced apoptosis in the lungs of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Caiyun; Zhou Yamei; Pinkerton, Kent E.

    2008-01-01

    Apoptosis is a vital mechanism for the regulation of cell turnover and plays a critical role in tissue homeostasis and development of many disease processes. Previous studies have demonstrated the apoptotic effect of tobacco smoke; however, the molecular mechanisms by which tobacco smoke triggers apoptosis remain unclear. In the present study we investigated the effects of tobacco smoke on the induction of apoptosis in the lungs of rats and modulation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in this process. Exposure of rats to 80 mg/m 3 tobacco smoke significantly induced apoptosis in the lungs. Tobacco smoke resulted in inhibition of NF-κB activity, noted by suppression of inhibitor of κB (IκB) kinase (IKK), accumulation of IκBα, decrease of NF-κB DNA binding activity, and downregulation of NF-κB-dependent anti-apoptotic proteins, including Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, and inhibitors of apoptosis. Initiator caspases for the death receptor pathway (caspase 8) and the mitochondrial pathway (caspase 9) as well as effector caspase 3 were activated following tobacco smoke exposure. Tobacco smoke exposure did not alter the levels of p53 and Bax proteins. These findings suggest the role of NF-κB pathway in tobacco smoke-induced apoptosis

  14. The anti-tumor histone deacetylase inhibitor SAHA and the natural flavonoid curcumin exhibit synergistic neuroprotection against amyloid-beta toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Meng

    Full Text Available With the trend of an increasing aged population worldwide, Alzheimer's disease (AD, an age-related neurodegenerative disorder, as one of the major causes of dementia in elderly people is of growing concern. Despite the many hard efforts attempted during the past several decades in trying to elucidate the pathological mechanisms underlying AD and putting forward potential therapeutic strategies, there is still a lack of effective treatments for AD. The efficacy of many potential therapeutic drugs for AD is of main concern in clinical practice. For example, large bodies of evidence show that the anti-tumor histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor, suberoylanilidehydroxamic acid (SAHA, may be of benefit for the treatment of AD; however, its extensive inhibition of HDACs makes it a poor therapeutic. Moreover, the natural flavonoid, curcumin, may also have a potential therapeutic benefit against AD; however, it is plagued by low bioavailability. Therefore, the integrative effects of SAHA and curcumin were investigated as a protection against amyloid-beta neurotoxicity in vitro. We hypothesized that at low doses their synergistic effect would improve therapeutic selectivity, based on experiments that showed that at low concentrations SAHA and curcumin could provide comprehensive protection against Aβ25-35-induced neuronal damage in PC12 cells, strongly implying potent synergism. Furthermore, network analysis suggested that the possible mechanism underlying their synergistic action might be derived from restoration of the damaged functional link between Akt and the CBP/p300 pathway, which plays a crucial role in the pathological development of AD. Thus, our findings provided a feasible avenue for the application of a synergistic drug combination, SAHA and curcumin, in the treatment of AD.

  15. Synergistic interactions between a variety of insecticides and an ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitor fungicide in dietary exposures of bumble bees (Bombus terrestris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimets, Risto; Karise, Reet; Mänd, Marika; Kaart, Tanel; Ponting, Sally; Song, Jimao; Cresswell, James E

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, concern has been raised over honey bee colony losses, and also among wild bees there is evidence for extinctions and range contractions in Europe and North America. Pesticides have been proposed as a potential cause of this decline. Bees are exposed simultaneously to a variety of agrochemicals, which may cause synergistically detrimental impacts, which are incompletely understood. We investigated the toxicity of the fungicide imazalil in mixture with four common insecticides: fipronil (phenylpyrazoid), cypermethrin (pyrethroid), thiamethoxam, and imidacloprid (neonicotinoids). Ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitor (EBI) fungicides like imazalil can inhibit P450 detoxification systems in insects and therefore fungicide - insecticide co-occurrence might produce synergistic toxicity in bees. We assessed the impact of dietary fungicide - insecticide mixtures on the mortality and feeding rates of laboratory bumble bees (Bombus terrestris L.). Regarding mortality, imazalil synergised the toxicity of fipronil, cypermethrin and thiamethoxam, but not imidacloprid. We found no synergistic effects on feeding rates. Our findings suggest that P450-based detoxification processes are differentially important in mitigating the toxicity of certain insecticides, even those of the same chemical class. Our evidence that cocktail effects can arise in bumble bees should extend concern about the potential impacts of agrochemical mixtures to include wild bee species in farmland. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Induction of cyclooxygenase-2 in macrophages by catalase: role of NF-kappaB and PI3K signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Byeong-Churl; Kim, Do-Hyun; Park, Jong-Wook; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Kim, Sang-Pyo; Song, Dae-Kyu; Park, Jong-Gu; Bae, Jae-Hoon; Mun, Kyo-Chul; Baek, Won-Ki; Suh, Min-Ho; Hla, Timothy; Suh, Seong-Il

    2004-04-02

    Induction of COX-2 by catalase in smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, and neuronal cells has been previously reported. However, the mechanism by which catalase up-regulates COX-2 remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of catalase on induction of COX-2 in macrophages. The addition of catalase into Raw 264.7 macrophages induced COX-2 expression that was correlated with increased COX-2 transcription and mRNA stability. Catalase also induced activation of NF-kappaB, PI3K, ERKs, p38s, or JNKs. Catalase-induced COX-2 expression was abrogated by treatment of MG-132 (a NF-kappaB inhibitor) or LY294002 (a PI3K inhibitor), but not by treatment of PD98059 (an ERK inhibitor), SB203580 (a p38 inhibitor), or SP600125 (a JNK inhibitor). Moreover, inhibition of PI3K by LY294002 caused partial decrease of catalase-induced COX-2 transcription and steady-state COX-2 transcript levels, but not COX-2 mRNA stability. Together, these results suggest that catalase induces the expression of COX-2 in Raw 264.7 macrophages, and the induction is related with activation of NF-kappaB transcription factor and PI3K signaling pathway.

  17. Curcumin Modulates the Radiosensitivity of Colorectal Cancer Cells by Suppressing Constitutive and Inducible NF-κB Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandur, Santosh K.; Deorukhkar, Amit; Pandey, Manoj K.; Pabon, Ana Maria B.S.; Shentu, Shujun; Guha, Sushovan; Aggarwal, Bharat B.; Krishnan, Sunil

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation therapy is an integral part of the preoperative treatment of rectal cancers. However, only a minority of patients achieve a complete pathologic response to therapy because of resistance of these tumors to radiation therapy. This resistance may be mediated by constitutively active pro-survival signaling pathways or by inducible/acquired mechanisms in response to radiation therapy. Simultaneous inhibition of these pathways can sensitize these tumors to radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Human colorectal cancer cells were exposed to clinically relevant doses of gamma rays, and the mechanism of their radioresistance was investigated. We characterized the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation as a mechanism of inducible radioresistance in colorectal cancer and used curcumin, the active ingredient in the yellow spice turmeric, to overcome this resistance. Results: Curcumin inhibited the proliferation and the post-irradiation clonogenic survival of multiple colorectal cancer cell lines. Radiation stimulated NF-κB activity in a dose- and time-dependent manner, whereas curcumin suppressed this radiation-induced NF-κB activation via inhibition of radiation-induced phosphorylation and degradation of inhibitor of κB alpha, inhibition of inhibitor of κB kinase activity, and inhibition of Akt phosphorylation. Curcumin also suppressed NF-κB-regulated gene products (Bcl-2, Bcl-x L , inhibitor of apoptosis protein-2, cyclooxygenase-2, and cyclin D1). Conclusions: Our results suggest that transient inducible NF-κB activation provides a prosurvival response to radiation that may account for development of radioresistance. Curcumin blocks this signaling pathway and potentiates the antitumor effects of radiation therapy.

  18. Thrombin-induced, TNFR-dependent miR-181c downregulation promotes MLL1 and NF-κB target gene expression in human microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Min; Chen, Zhiying; Ouyang, Yetong; Zhang, Huiyan; Wan, Zhigang; Wang, Han; Wu, Wei; Yin, Xiaoping

    2017-06-29

    Controlling thrombin-driven microglial activation may serve as a therapeutic target for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Here, we investigated microRNA (miRNA)-based regulation of thrombin-driven microglial activation using an in vitro thrombin toxicity model applied to primary human microglia. A miRNA array identified 22 differential miRNA candidates. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) identified miR-181c as the most significantly downregulated miRNA. TargetScan analysis identified mixed lineage leukemia-1 (MLL1) as a putative gene target for miR-181c. qRT-PCR was applied to assess tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), miR-181c, and MLL1 levels following thrombin or proteinase-activated receptor-4-specific activating peptide (PAR4AP) exposure. Anti-TNF-α antibodies and tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) silencing were employed to test TNF-α/TNFR dependence. A dual-luciferase reporter system and miR-181c mimic transfection assessed whether mir-181c directly binds to and negatively regulates MLL1. Nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB)-dependent luciferase reporter assays and NF-κB target gene expression were assessed in wild-type (MLL1+) and MLL1-silenced cells. Thrombin or PAR4AP-induced miR-181c downregulation (p < 0.05) and MLL1 upregulation (p < 0.05) that were dependent upon TNF-α/TNFR. miR-181c decreased wild-type MLL1 3'-UTR luciferase reporter activity (p < 0.05), and a miR-181c mimic suppressed MLL1 expression (p < 0.05). Thrombin treatment increased, while miR-181c reduced, NF-κB activity and NF-κB target gene expression in both wild-type (MLL1+) and MLL1-silenced cells (p < 0.05). Thrombin-induced, TNF-α/TNFR-dependent miR-181c downregulation promotes MLL1 expression, increases NF-κB activity, and upregulates NF-κB target gene expression. As miR-181c opposes thrombin's stimulation of pro-inflammatory NF-κB activity, miR-181c mimic therapy may show promise in controlling thrombin

  19. Inhibitive and Synergistic Properties of Ethanolic Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was also noted that only KCl was synergistic to the ethanol extract of Anogeissus leiocarpus, while other halides tested were antagonistic. All the data acquired reveal that the ethanolic extract of Anogeissus leiocarpus act as an inhibitor in the acid environment due to the phytochemicals: saponin, tannins, flavonoid, ...

  20. Reduced RAC1 activity inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in neurofibromatosis type 2(NF2)-associated schwannoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Bo; Li, Peng; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Pinan

    2017-12-01

    Objective To study the function and potential mechanism of RAC1 inhibitors in NF2-associated schwannoma. Methods In this study, we the downregulation of RAC1 activity and tumor cell phenotypes by RAC1 inhibitor NSC23766 in vitro. And we further validated the anti-proliferation effect by this RAC1 inhibitor in subcutaneous xenograft tumor model and sciatic nerve model. Results Pharmacological inhibition of RAC1 could significantly inhibit the proliferation of both RT4 cells and human NF2-associated primary schwannoma cells by inducing apoptosis. Pharmacological inhibition of RAC1 effectively reduced Rac1 activity and down-regulated the pathway downstream of Rac. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of RAC1 showed a potential antitumor effect, with low toxicity in vivo. Conclusion RAC1 inhibitors may play a therapeutic role in patients with schwannoma.

  1. DNA-dependent protein kinase participates in the radiation activation of NF-kB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenzweig, Kenneth E.; Youmell, Matthew B.; Price, Brendan D.

    1997-01-01

    The NF-kB transcription factor is maintained in an inactive state by binding to the lkBa inhibitory protein. Activation requires phosphorylation and degradation of lkBa, releasing active NF-kB. NF-kB can be activated by cytokines, antigens, free radicals and X-ray irradiation. The protein kinase responsible for phosphorylation of lkBa in vivo has not been fully characterized. Here, we have examined the role of the DNA-dependent protein kinases (DNA-PK) in the radiation-activation of NF-kB. Wortmannin is an inhibitor of DNA-PK and related kinases. Exposure of SW480 cells to wortmannin inhibited the radioactivation of NF-kB DNA-binding. Analysis of lkBa levels by western blotting indicated that wortmannin blocked the radiation induced degradation of lkBa. In in vitro experiments, purified DNA-PK was able to efficiently phosphorylate lkBa, and this phosphorylation was inhibited by wortmannin. In contrast, the induction of NF-kB activity by TNFa was unaffected by wortmannin. The results suggest that DNA-PK may phosphorylate lkBa following irradiation, leading to degradation of lkBa and the release of active NF-kB. The inability of wortmannin to block TNFa activation of NF-kB indicates there may be more than one pathway for the activation of NF-kB

  2. Spinal NF-κB and chemokine ligand 5 expression during spinal glial cell activation in a neuropathic pain model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Yin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The NF-κB pathway and chemokine (C-C motif ligand 5 (CCL5 are involved in pain modulation; however, the precise mechanisms of their interactions in chronic neuropathic pain have yet to be established. METHODS: The present study examined the roles of spinal NF-κB and CCL5 in a neuropathic pain model after chronic constriction injury (CCI surgery. CCI-induced pain facilitation was evaluated using the Plantar and von Frey tests. The changes in NF-κB and CCL5 expression were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses. RESULTS: Spinal NF-κB and CCL5 expression increased after CCI surgery. Repeated intrathecal infusions of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC, a NF-κB inhibitor decreased CCL5 expression, inhibited the activation of microglia and astrocytes, and attenuated CCI-induced allodynia and hyperalgesia. Intrathecal injection of a CCL5-neutralizing antibody attenuated CCI-induced pain facilitation and also suppressed spinal glial cell activation after CCI surgery. However, the CCL5-neutralizing antibody did not affect NF-κB expression. Furthermore, selective glial inhibitors, minocycline and fluorocitrate, attenuated the hyperalgesia induced by intrathecal CCL5. CONCLUSIONS: The inhibition of spinal CCL5 expression may provide a new method to prevent and treat nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain.

  3. Omentin inhibits TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells via ERK/NF-{kappa}B pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Xia, E-mail: zhongxia1977@126.com [Department of Emergency, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250021 (China); Li, Xiaonan; Liu, Fuli; Tan, Hui [Department of Emergency, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250021 (China); Shang, Deya, E-mail: wenhuashenghuo1@163.com [Department of Emergency, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250021 (China)

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin reduces expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 induced by TNF-{alpha} in HUVECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin inhibits TNF-{alpha}-induced ERK and NF-{kappa}B activation in HUVECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin supreeses TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 via ERK/NF-{kappa}B pathway. -- Abstract: In the present study, we investigated whether omentin affected the expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Our data showed that omentin decreased TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in HUVECs. In addition, omentin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs. Further, we found that omentin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-activated signal pathway of nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) by preventing NF-{kappa}B inhibitory protein (I{kappa}B{alpha}) degradation and NF-{kappa}B/DNA binding activity. Omentin pretreatment significantly inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced ERK activity and ERK phosphorylation in HUVECs. Pretreatment with PD98059 suppressed TNF-{alpha}-induced NF-{kappa}B activity. Omentin, NF-kB inhibitor (BAY11-7082) and ERK inhibitor (PD98059) reduced the up-regulation of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 induced by TNF-{alpha}. These results suggest that omentin may inhibit TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells via blocking ERK/NF-{kappa}B pathway.

  4. Correlation of NF-κB signal pathway with tumor metastasis of human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Ming; Xu, Qin; Zhang, Ping; Zhou, Xiao-jian; Zhang, Zhi-yuan; Chen, Wan-tao

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling constitutes a key event in the multistep process of carcinogenesis, progression and treatment in many cancer types. However, the significance of NF-κB pathway for complex and tissue-specific aspects of head and neck cancer progression, such as invasion and metastasis, is less understood. The expression of NF-κB p65 in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) clinical specimens by immunohistochemistry. The role of NF-κB activity in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma was determined by western blot, reporter assay and EMSA analysis in vitro and metastasis assays in vivo in different metastatic potential tumor cells. Furthermore, the apoptosis rate and expression of metastasis-related protein such as MMP9 and VEGF were examined by Annexin V/PI staining and Western blot, respectively. A higher level of active nuclear-localized NF-κB was observed in the metastatic SCCHN specimens group (p < 0.01). The NF-κB activities of SCCHN cell lines with different metastatic potentials were then determined and in excellent agreement with results found in SCCHN specimens, highly metastatic SCCHN cell lines expressed high level of NF-κB activity. The treatment of highly metastatic SCCHN cells with NF-κB inhibitors reduced the in vitro cell invasion capacity of the cells without affecting the apoptotic rate. Additionally, the NF-κB inhibitors significantly inhibited the experimental lung metastasis of Tb cells and lymph node metastasis of TL cells in nude mice. Furthermore, the expression of metastasis-related proteins, such as matrix metalloproteinase 9 and vascular endothelial growth factor, was inhibited by pyrrolidine dithiocarbonate. This study suggests that NF-κB activity significantly contributes to tumor hematologic and lymphatic metastases and may aid in the development of early detection methods or therapies targeting non-conventional molecular targets

  5. NF-kB as a mediator of brain inflammation in AD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jin Tae

    2017-08-07

    Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia. It is characterized by beta-amyloid peptide fibrils which are extracellular deposition of a specific protein, and is accompanied by extensive neuroinflammation. Various studies show the presence of a number of inflammation markers in the AD brain: elevated inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and an accumulation of activated microglia in the damaged regions. NF-kB is a redox of transcriptional factors, and it is known to be located in the genes involved in amyloidogenesis and inflammation. Epidemiological studies have shown that NF-kB is elevated in the AD patient brain, and long-term use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs suppresses the progression of AD and delays its onset, suggesting that there is a close correlation between NF-kB and AD pathogenesis. This study is (1) to assess the association between NF-kB activity and AD through discussion of a variety of experimental and clinical studies on AD and (2) to review treatment strategies designed to treat or prevent AD with NF-kB inhibitors. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Synergistic Effect of Molybdate and Monoethanolamine on Corrosion Inhibition of Ductile Cast Iron in Tap Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. T.; Kim, Y. S. [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Chang, H. Y.; Lim, B. T.; Park, H. B. [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Company, Gimcheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    A synergistic effect was observed in the combination of nitrite and ethanolamines. Ethanolamine is one of the representative organic corrosion inhibitors and can be categorized as adsorption type. However, nitrosamines can form when amines mix with sodium nitrite. Since nitrosamine is a carcinogen, the co-addition of nitrite and ethanolamine will be not practical, and thus, a non-toxic combination of inhibitors shall be needed. In order to maximize the effect of monoethanolamine, we focused on the addition of molybdate. Molybdate has been used to alternate the addition of chromate, but it showed insufficient oxidizing power relative to corrosion inhibitors. This work evaluated the synergistic effect of the co-addition of molybdate and monoethanolamine, and its corrosion mechanism was elucidated. A high concentration of molybdate or monoethanolamine was needed to inhibit the corrosion of ductile cast iron in tap water, but in the case of the co-addition of molybdate and monoethanolamine, a synergistic effect was observed. This synergistic effect could be attributed to the molybdate that partly oxidizes the metallic surface and the monoethanolamine that is simultaneously adsorbed on the graphite surface. This adsorbed layer then acts as the barrier layer that mitigates galvanic corrosion between the graphite and the matrix.

  7. Restoring conjunctival tolerance by topical nuclear factor-κB inhibitors reduces preservative-facilitated allergic conjunctivitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Mauricio; Sabbione, Florencia; Gabelloni, María Laura; Vanzulli, Silvia; Trevani, Analía Silvina; Giordano, Mirta Nilda; Galletti, Jeremías Gastón

    2014-09-04

    To evaluate the role of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation in eye drop preservative toxicity and the effect of topical NF-κB inhibitors on preservative-facilitated allergic conjunctivitis. Balb/c mice were instilled ovalbumin (OVA) combined with benzalkonium chloride (BAK) and/or NF-κB inhibitors in both eyes. After immunization, T-cell responses and antigen-induced ocular inflammation were evaluated. Nuclear factor-κB activation and associated inflammatory changes also were assessed in murine eyes and in an epithelial cell line after BAK exposure. Benzalkonium chloride promoted allergic inflammation and leukocyte infiltration of the conjunctiva. Topical NF-κB inhibitors blocked the disruptive effect of BAK on conjunctival immunological tolerance and ameliorated subsequent ocular allergic reactions. In line with these findings, BAK induced NF-κB activation and the secretion of IL-6 and granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor in an epithelial cell line and in the conjunctiva of instilled mice. In addition, BAK favored major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II expression in cultured epithelial cells in an NF-κB-dependent fashion after interaction with T cells. Benzalkonium chloride triggers conjunctival epithelial NF-κB activation, which seems to mediate some of its immune side effects, such as proinflammatory cytokine release and increased MHC II expression. Breakdown of conjunctival tolerance by BAK favors allergic inflammation, and this effect can be prevented in mice by topical NF-κB inhibitors. These results suggest a new pharmacological target for preservative toxicity and highlight the importance of conjunctival tolerance in ocular surface homeostasis. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  8. Cdc25A promotes cell survival by stimulating NF-κB activity through IκB-α phosphorylation and destabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Hey-Young; Choi, Jiyeon; Cho, Young-Wook; Kim, Byung-Chul

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We examine the antiapoptotic mechanisms of Cdc25A. ► Smad7 decreases the phosphorylation of IκB-alpha at Ser-32. ► Smad7 positively regulates NF-κB activity through IκB-alpha ubiquitination. -- Abstract: Cell division cycle 25A (Cdc25A), a dual specificity protein phosphatase, exhibits anti-apoptotic activity, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly characterized. Here we report that Cdc25A inhibits cisplatin-induced apoptotic cell death by stimulating nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activity. In HEK-293 cells, Cdc25A decreased protein level of inhibitor subunit kappa B alpha (Iκ-Bα) in association with increased serine 32-phosphorylation, followed by stimulation of transcriptional activity of NF-κB. Inhibition of NF-κB activity by chemical inhibitor or overexpression of Iκ-Bα in Cdc25A-elevated cancer cells resistant to cisplatin improved their sensitivity to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Our data show for the first time that Cdc25A has an important physiological role in NF-κB activity regulation and it may be an important survival mechanism of cancer cells.

  9. Double-edged swords as cancer therapeutics: novel, orally active, small molecules simultaneously inhibit p53-MDM2 interaction and the NF-κB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Chunlin; Miao, Zhenyuan; Wu, Yuelin; Guo, Zizhao; Li, Jin; Yao, Jianzhong; Xing, Chengguo; Sheng, Chunquan; Zhang, Wannian

    2014-02-13

    Simultaneous inactivation of p53 and hyperactivation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is a common occurrence in human cancer. Currently, antitumor agents are being designed to selectively activate p53 or inhibit NF-κB. However, there is no concerted effort yet to deliberately design inhibitors that can simultaneously do both. This paper provided a proof-of-concept study that p53-MDM2 interaction and NF-κB pathway can be simultaneously targeted by a small-molecule inhibitor. A series of pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrazole derivatives were rationally designed and synthesized as the first-in-class inhibitors of p53-MDM2 interaction and NF-κB pathway. Most of the compounds were identified to possess nanomolar p53-MDM2 inhibitory activity. Compounds 5q and 5s suppressed NF-κB activation through inhibition of IκBα phosphorylation and elevation of the cytoplasmic levels of p65 and phosphorylated IKKα/β. Biochemical assay for the kinases also supported the fact that pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrazole compounds directly targeted the NF-κB pathway. In addition, four compounds (5j, 5q, 5s, and 5u) effectively inhibited tumor growth in the A549 xenograft model. Further pharmacokinetic study revealed that compound 5q exhibited excellent oral bioavailability (72.9%).

  10. Unirradiated cells rescue cells exposed to ionizing radiation: Activation of NF-κB pathway in irradiated cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, R.K.K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Han, Wei [Center of Medical Physics and Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Yu, K.N., E-mail: peter.yu@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Rescue effect was observed in both irradiated and HeLa and NIH/3T3 cells. • Novel setup and procedures to separate the rescue signals and the bystander signals. • Confirmed activation of NF-κB pathway in rescue effect using activation inhibitor. • Confirmed activation of NF-κB pathway in rescue effect using anti-NF-κB p65 antibody. - Abstract: We studied the involvement of NF-κB pathway activation in the rescue effect in HeLa and NIH/3T3 cells irradiated by α particles. Firstly, upon irradiation by 5 cGy of α particles, for both cell lines, the numbers of 53BP1 foci/cell at 12 h post-irradiation were significantly smaller when only 2.5% of the cell population was irradiated as compared to 100% irradiation, which demonstrated the rescue effect. Secondly, we studied the effect of NF-κB on the rescue effect through the use of the NF-κB activation inhibitor BAY-11-7082. Novel experimental setup and procedures were designed to prepare the medium (CM) which had conditioned the bystander cells previously partnered with irradiated cells, to ensure physical separation between rescue and bystander signals. BAY-11-7082 itself did not inflict DNA damages in the cells or have effects on activation of the NF-κB response pathway in the irradiated cells through direct irradiation. The rescue effect was induced in both cell lines by the CM, which was abrogated if BAY-11-7082 was added to the CM. Thirdly, we studied the effect of NF-κB on the rescue effect through staining for phosphorylated NF-κB (p-NF-κB) expression using the anti-NF-κB p65 (phospho S536) antibody. When the fraction of irradiated cells dropped from 100% to 2.5%, the p-NF-κB expression in the cell nuclei of irradiated NIH/3T3 cells increased significantly, while that in the cell nuclei of irradiated HeLa cells also increased although not significantly. Moreover, the p-NF-κB expression in the cell nuclei of irradiated HeLa cells and NIH/3T3 cells treated with CM also increased

  11. Synergistic In Vitro Antimalarial Activity of Omeprazole and Quinine

    OpenAIRE

    Skinner-Adams, T.; Davis, T. M. E.

    1999-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the proton pump inhibitor omeprazole has antimalarial activity in vitro. The interactions of omeprazole with commonly used antimalarial drugs were assessed in vitro. Omeprazole and quinine combinations were synergistic; however, chloroquine and omeprazole combinations were antagonistic. Artemisinin drugs had additive antimalarial activities with omeprazole.

  12. Synergistic therapy of enalapril and Cordyceps sinensis in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN) still remains an important factor that affects the long-term survival of renal recipients. The aim of the study was to investigate synergistic effect of enalapril (an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, ACEI) and Cordyceps sinensis (Bailing capsule, fermented agent of C. sinensis) on ...

  13. UPP mediated Diabetic Retinopathy via ROS/PARP and NF-κB inflammatory factor pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, D-W; Zheng, Z; Wang, H; Fan, Y; Chen, F; Sun, Y; Wang, W-J; Sun, T; Xu, X

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of blindness in adults at working age. Human diabetic retinopathy is characterized by the basement membrane thick, pericytes loss, microaneurysms formation, retina neovascularization and vitreous hemorrhage. To investigate whether UPP activated ROS/PARP and NF-κB inflammatory factor pathways in Diabetic Retinopathy, human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) and rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes were used to determine the effect of UPP on ROS generation, cell apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and inflammatory factor protein expression, through flow cytometry assay, immunohistochemistry, Real-time PCR, Western blot analysis and ELISA. The levels of ROS and apoptosis and the expressions of UPP (Ub and E3) and inflammatory factor protein were increased in high glucose-induced HRECs and retina of diabetic rats, while ΔΨm was decreased. The UPP inhibitor and UbshRNA could attenuate these effects through inhibiting the pathway of ROS/PARP and the expression of NF-κB inflammatory factors, and the increased UPP was a result of high glucose-induced increase of ROS generation and NF-κBp65 expression, accompanied with the decrease of ΔΨm. Clinical study showed the overexpression of UPP and detachment of epiretinal membranes in proliferative DR (PDR) patients. It has been indicated that the pathogenic effect of UPP on DR was involved in the increase of ROS generation and NF-κB expression, which associated with the ROS/PARP and NF-κB inflammatory factor pathways. Our study supports a new insight for further application of UPP inhibitor in DR treatment.

  14. Combined effects of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors and vATPase inhibitors in NSCLC cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Hyeon-Ok [KIRAMS Radiation Biobank, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 75 Nowon-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul, 139–706 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung-Eun [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 75 Nowon-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul, 139–706 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang Soon [Department of Microbiological Engineering, Kon-Kuk University, 120 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 143–701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin-Ah; Kim, Jin-Hee; Kim, Ji-Young; Kim, Bora [KIRAMS Radiation Biobank, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 75 Nowon-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul, 139–706 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Yoon Hwan; Hong, Seok-Il; Hong, Young Jun [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 75 Nowon-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul, 139–706 (Korea, Republic of); Park, In-Chul, E-mail: parkic@kirams.re.kr [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 75 Nowon-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul, 139–706 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin Kyung, E-mail: jklee@kirams.re.kr [KIRAMS Radiation Biobank, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 75 Nowon-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul, 139–706 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Laboratory Medicine, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 75 Nowon-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul, 139–706 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Despite excellent initial clinical responses of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), many patients eventually develop resistance. According to a recent report, vacuolar H + ATPase (vATPase) is overexpressed and is associated with chemotherapy drug resistance in NSCLC. We investigated the combined effects of EGFR TKIs and vATPase inhibitors and their underlying mechanisms in the regulation of NSCLC cell death. We found that combined treatment with EGFR TKIs (erlotinib, gefitinib, or lapatinib) and vATPase inhibitors (bafilomycin A1 or concanamycin A) enhanced synergistic cell death compared to treatments with each drug alone. Treatment with bafilomycin A1 or concanamycin A led to the induction of Bnip3 expression in an Hif-1α dependent manner. Knock-down of Hif-1α or Bnip3 by siRNA further enhanced cell death induced by bafilomycin A1, suggesting that Hif-1α/Bnip3 induction promoted resistance to cell death induced by the vATPase inhibitors. EGFR TKIs suppressed Hif-1α and Bnip3 expression induced by the vATPase inhibitors, suggesting that they enhanced the sensitivity of the cells to these inhibitors by decreasing Hif-1α/Bnip3 expression. Taken together, we conclude that EGFR TKIs enhance the sensitivity of NSCLC cells to vATPase inhibitors by decreasing Hif-1α/Bnip3 expression. We suggest that combined treatment with EGFR TKIs and vATPase inhibitors is potentially effective for the treatment of NSCLC. - Highlights: • Co-treatment with EGFR TKIs and vATPase inhibitors induces synergistic cell death • EGFR TKIs enhance cell sensitivity to vATPase inhibitors via Hif-1α downregulation • Co-treatment of these inhibitors is potentially effective for the treatment of NSCLC.

  15. NF-κB is involved in the LPS-mediated proliferation and apoptosis of MAC-T epithelial cells as part of the subacute ruminal acidosis response in cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wen-Jie; Li, He-Ping; Zhu, He-Shui; Sui, Shi-Ping; Chen, Pei-Ge; Deng, Yue; Sui, Tong-Ming; Wang, Yue-Ying

    2016-11-01

    To determine the effect of NF-κB on cell proliferation and apoptosis, we investigate the expression of inflammation and apoptosis-related factors in the bovine mammary epithelial cell line, MAC-T. MAC-T cells were cultured in vitro and MTT and LDH assays used to determine the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on proliferation and cytotoxicity respectively. RT-PCR and western blotting were used to evaluate the effect of LPS and NF-κB inhibition [pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) treatment] on the expression of inflammation and apoptosis-related factors. LPS significantly inhibited MAC-T cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, LPS promoted apoptosis while the NF-кB inhibitor PDTC attenuated this effect. After LPS treatment, the NF-кB signaling pathway was activated, and the expression of inflammation and apoptosis-related factors increased. When PDTC blocked NF-кB signaling, the expression of inflammation and apoptosis-related factors were decreased in MAC-T cells. LPS activates the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway, inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis in MAC-T cells. NF-кB inhibition attenuates MAC-T cell apoptosis and TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway. NF-кB inhibitor alleviating MAC-T cell apoptosis is presumably modulated by NF-кB.

  16. Nuclear factor kB (NF-KB): signalosoma and its importance in cancer and inflammatories diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echeverri, Nancy P; Mockus, Ismena S

    2008-01-01

    The nuclear factor B (NF- B) is a dimer conformed by Rel family. NF- B is found in cytoplasm bound to inhibitor proteins (I B). I B are phosphorylated by different kinases who are part of signalosome as IeB kinases (IKK , IKK and NF- B essential modulator or NEMO), the mitogenic activated protein kinase (MAPK or p38) and NF-eB inducer kinase (NIK). These kinases are activated by different cytokines and ultraviolet light, I B phosphorylated induce their ubiquitination and proteosome degradation subsequently NF- B release and nucleus translocation. Nowadays, the NF- B activation by oxidative stress, genotoxic stress and DNA damage pathways. In contrast with the classical pathway, in this pathway there are a SUMOilation and nuclear translocation of NEMO. In nucleus NEMO interact with ataxia telangiectasia muted which is activated by chromatin changes and DNA damage. The complex ATM/NEMO is later translocated to cytoplasm where IKK is phosphorylated by ATM bringing to ubiquitination and thus NF- B releasing which is translocated to nucleus. NF- B induces survival rising antioxidants enzymes as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione. These enzymes act in the control of oxidative species levels in the cell. NF- B over expression is related with inflammation and cancer. Nowadays, is development a pharmacological search which can act inhibiting NF- B signalosome molecules, not only to inflammatory disease whereas to radiotherapy and chemotherapy cancer resistance.

  17. Combination of gefitinib and DNA methylation inhibitor decitabine exerts synergistic anti-cancer activity in colon cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-feng Lou

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances in the treatment of human colon cancer, the chemotherapy efficacy against colon cancer is still unsatisfactory. In the present study, effects of concomitant inhibition of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and DNA methyltransferase were examined in human colon cancer cells. We demonstrated that decitabine (a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor synergized with gefitinib (an EGFR inhibitor to reduce cell viability and colony formation in SW1116 and LOVO cells. However, the combination of the two compounds displayed minimal toxicity to NCM460 cells, a normal human colon mucosal epithelial cell line. The combination was also more effective at inhibiting the AKT/mTOR/S6 kinase pathway. In addition, the combination of decitabine with gefitinib markedly inhibited colon cancer cell migration. Furthermore, gefitinib synergistically enhanced decitabine-induced cytotoxicity was primarily due to apoptosis as shown by Annexin V labeling that was attenuated by z-VAD-fmk, a pan caspase inhibitor. Concomitantly, cell apoptosis resulting from the co-treatment of gefitinib and decitabine was accompanied by induction of BAX, cleaved caspase 3 and cleaved PARP, along with reduction of Bcl-2 compared to treatment with either drug alone. Interestingly, combined treatment with these two drugs increased the expression of XIAP-associated factor 1 (XAF1 which play an important role in cell apoptosis. Moreover, small interfering RNA (siRNA depletion of XAF1 significantly attenuated colon cancer cells apoptosis induced by the combination of the two drugs. Our findings suggested that gefitinib in combination with decitabine exerted enhanced cell apoptosis in colon cancer cells were involved in mitochondrial-mediated pathway and induction of XAF1 expression. In conclusion, based on the observations from our study, we suggested that the combined administration of these two drugs might be considered as a novel therapeutic regimen for treating colon

  18. New Mechanism on Synergistic Effect of Nitrite and Triethanolamine Addition on the Corrosion of Ductile Cast Iron

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    K. T. Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In general, we compared the different inhibition mechanisms of organic inhibitor with that of anodic inhibitor. When triethanolamine or nitrite was added separately to tap water for inhibiting the corrosion of ductile cast iron, large amounts of inhibitor were needed. This is because the corrosion inhibitors had to overcome the galvanic corrosion that occurs between graphite and matrix. In this work, we investigated the corrosion of ductile cast iron in tap water with/without inhibitors. The corrosion rate was measured using chemical immersion test and electrochemical methods, including anodic polarization test. The inhibited surface was analyzed using EPMA and XPS. Test solutions were analyzed by performing FT-IR measurement. When triethanolamine and nitrite coexisted in tap water, synergistic effect built up, and the inhibition effect was ca. 30 times more effective than witnessed with single addition. This work focused on the synergistic effect brought about by nitrite and triethanolamine and its novel mechanism was also proposed.

  19. Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1: Mechanisms of its synergistic regulation by growth factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Xiaoling [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2010-01-01

    My research is on the synergistic regulation of PAI-1 by EGF and TGF-β. The mechanism of synergistic regulation of PAI-1 by EGF and TGF-β are addressed. Methods are described for effective identification of RNA accessible sites for antisense oligodexoxynucleotides (ODNs) and siRNA. In this study effective AS-ODN sequences for both Lcn2 and Bcl2 were identified by in vitro tiled microarray studies. Our results suggest that hybridization of ODN arrays to a target mRNA under physiological conditions might be used as a rapid and reliable in vitro method to accurately identify targets on mRNA molecules for effective antisense and potential siRNA activity in vivo.

  20. BRAF activated non-coding RNA (BANCR) promoting gastric cancer cells proliferation via regulation of NF-κB1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhi-Xin; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Jiang, Biao; Lu, Xin-Yang; Ning, Xiao-Fei; Yuan, Chuan-Tao; Wang, Ai-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective: Long non-coding RNA, BANCR, has been demonstrated to contribute to the proliferation and migration of tumors. However, its molecular mechanism underlying gastric cancer is still unknown. In present study, we investigated whether BANCR was involved in the development of gastric cancer cells via regulation of NF-κB1. Methods: Human gastric cancer tissues were isolated as well as human gastric cell lines MGC803 and BGC823 were cultured to investigate the role of BANCR in gastric cancer. Results: BANCR expression was significantly up-regulated in gastric tumor tissues and gastric cell lines. Down-regulation of BANCR inhibited gastric cancer cell growth and promoted cell apoptosis, and it also contributed to a significant decrease of NF-κB1 (P50/105) expression and 3′UTR of NF-κB1 activity. Overexpression of NF-κB1 reversed the effect of BANCR on cancer cell growth and apoptosis. MiroRNA-9 (miR-9) targeted NF-κB1, and miR-9 inhibitor also reversed the effects of BANCR on gastric cancer cell growth and apoptosis. Conclusion: BANCR was highly expressed both in gastric tumor tissues and in cancer cells. NF-κB1 and miR-9 were involved in the role of BANCR in gastric cancer cell growth and apoptosis. - Highlights: • BANCR up-regulated in gastric cancer (GC) tissues and cell lines MGC803 and BGC823. • Down-regulation of BANCR inhibited GC cell growth and promoted cell apoptosis. • Down-regulation of BANCR contributed to decreased 3′UTR of NF-κB1 and its expression. • Overexpressed NF-κB1 reversed the effect of BANCR on GC cell growth. • miR-9 inhibitor reversed the effect of BANCR on cancer GC cell growth

  1. Role of monoubiquitylation on the control of IκBα degradation and NF-κB activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Da Silva-Ferrada

    Full Text Available The NF-κB pathway is regulated by multiple post-translational modifications including phosphorylation, ubiquitylation and SUMOylation. Many of these modifications act on the natural inhibitor IκBα modulating its capacity to control signal-mediated NF-κB activity. While the canonical pathway involving the phosphorylation and polyubiquitylation of IκBα has been well characterized, the role of these post-translational modifications in the control of basal NF-κB activity has not been deeply explored. Using the recently developed Tandem-repeated Ubiquitin Binding Entities (also known as ubiquitin traps to capture ubiquitylated proteins, we identified monoubiquitylated forms of IκBα from multiple rat organs and cell types. The identification of these forms was demonstrated through different procedures such as immunoprecipitations with specific ubiquitin antibodies or His6-Ubiquitin pull downs. Monoubiquitylated forms of IκBα are resistant to TNFα-mediated degradation and can be captured using TUBEs, even after proteasome inhibitors treatment. As it occurs for monoSUMOylation, monoubiquitylation is not dependent of the phosphorylation of IκBα on the serines 32/36 and is not optimally degraded after TNFα stimulation. A ubiquitin-IκBα fusion exhibits phosphorylation defects and resistance to TNFα mediated degradation similar to the ones observed for endogenous monoubiquitylated IκBα. The N-terminal attachment of a single ubiquitin moiety on the IκBα fusion results in a deficient binding to the IKKβ kinase and recruitment of the SCF ligase component βTrCP, promoting a negative impact on the NF-κB activity. Altogether, our results suggest the existence of a reservoir of monoubiquitylated IκBα resistant to TNFα-induced proteolysis, which is able to interact and repress DNA binding and NF-κB transcriptional activity. Such pool of IκBα may play an important role in the control of basal and signal-mediated NF-κB activity.

  2. The TRIF-dependent signaling pathway is not required for acute cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, Fang, E-mail: fhua2@emory.edu [Department of Emergency Medicine, Brain Research Laboratory, Emory University School of Medicine, 1365B Clifton Road, Suite 5100, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Wang, Jun; Sayeed, Iqbal; Ishrat, Tauheed; Atif, Fahim; Stein, Donald G. [Department of Emergency Medicine, Brain Research Laboratory, Emory University School of Medicine, 1365B Clifton Road, Suite 5100, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States)

    2009-12-18

    TIR domain-containing adaptor protein (TRIF) is an adaptor protein in Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathways. Activation of TRIF leads to the activation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B). While studies have shown that TLRs are implicated in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and in neuroprotection against ischemia afforded by preconditioning, little is known about TRIF's role in the pathological process following cerebral I/R. The present study investigated the role that TRIF may play in acute cerebral I/R injury. In a mouse model of cerebral I/R induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion, we examined the activation of NF-{kappa}B and IRF3 signaling in ischemic cerebral tissue using ELISA and Western blots. Neurological function and cerebral infarct size were also evaluated 24 h after cerebral I/R. NF-{kappa}B activity and phosphorylation of the inhibitor of kappa B (I{kappa}B{alpha}) increased in ischemic brains, but IRF3, inhibitor of {kappa}B kinase complex-{epsilon} (IKK{epsilon}), and TANK-binding kinase1 (TBK1) were not activated after cerebral I/R in wild-type (WT) mice. Interestingly, TRIF deficit did not inhibit NF-{kappa}B activity or p-I{kappa}B{alpha} induced by cerebral I/R. Moreover, although cerebral I/R induced neurological and functional impairments and brain infarction in WT mice, the deficits were not improved and brain infarct size was not reduced in TRIF knockout mice compared to WT mice. Our results demonstrate that the TRIF-dependent signaling pathway is not required for the activation of NF-{kappa}B signaling and brain injury after acute cerebral I/R.

  3. Diarctigenin, a lignan constituent from Arctium lappa, down-regulated zymosan-induced transcription of inflammatory genes through suppression of DNA binding ability of nuclear factor-kappaB in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung Hak; Hong, Seong Su; Kwon, Soon Woo; Lee, Hwa Young; Sung, Hyeran; Lee, In-Jeong; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Song, Sukgil; Lee, Chong-Kil; Chung, Daehyun; Ahn, Byeongwoo; Nam, Sang-Yoon; Han, Sang-Bae; Kim, Youngsoo

    2008-11-01

    Diarctigenin was previously isolated as an inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) production in macrophages from the seeds of Arctium lappa used as an alternative medicine for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. However, little is known about the molecular basis of these effects. Here, we demonstrated that diarctigenin inhibited the production of NO, prostaglandin E(2), tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6 with IC(50) values of 6 to 12 miciroM in zymosan- or lipopolysaccharide-(LPS) activated macrophages. Diarctigenin attenuated zymosan-induced mRNA synthesis of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and also inhibited promoter activities of iNOS and cytokine genes in the cells. Because nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB plays a pivotal role in inflammatory gene transcription, we next investigated the effect of diarctigenin on NF-kappaB activation. Diarctigenin inhibited the transcriptional activity and DNA binding ability of NF-kappaB in zymosan-activated macrophages but did not affect the degradation and phosphorylation of inhibitory kappaB (IkappaB) proteins. Moreover, diarctigenin suppressed expression vector NF-kappaB p65-elicited NF-kappaB activation and also iNOS promoter activity, indicating that the compound could directly target an NF-kappa-activating signal cascade downstream of IkappaB degradation and inhibit NF-kappaB-regulated iNOS expression. Diarctigenin also inhibited the in vitro DNA binding ability of NF-kappaB but did not affect the nuclear import of NF-kappaB p65 in the cells. Taken together, diarctigenin down-regulated zymosan- or LPS-induced inflammatory gene transcription in macrophages, which was due to direct inhibition of the DNA binding ability of NF-kappaB. Finally, this study provides a pharmacological potential of diarctigenin in the NF-kappaB-associated inflammatory disorders.

  4. Calcineurin inhibitors recruit protein kinases JAK2 and JNK, TLR signaling and the UPR to activate NF-κB-mediated inflammatory responses in kidney tubular cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González-Guerrero, Cristian; Ocaña-Salceda, Carlos; Berzal, Sergio; Carrasco, Susana; Fernández-Fernández, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    The calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) cyclosporine (CsA) and tacrolimus are key drugs in current immunosuppressive regimes for solid organ transplantation. However, they are nephrotoxic and promote death and profibrotic responses in tubular cells. Moreover, renal inflammation is observed in CNI nephrotoxicity but the mechanisms are poorly understood. We have now studied molecular pathways leading to inflammation elicited by the CNIs in cultured and kidney tubular cells. Both CsA and tacrolimus elicited a proinflammatory response in tubular cells as evidenced by a transcriptomics approach. Transcriptomics also suggested several potential pathways leading to expression of proinflammatory genes. Validation and functional studies disclosed that in tubular cells, CNIs activated protein kinases such as the JAK2/STAT3 and TAK1/JNK/AP-1 pathways, TLR4/Myd88/IRAK signaling and the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) to promote NF-κB activation and proinflammatory gene expression. CNIs also activated an Nrf2/HO-1-dependent compensatory response and the Nrf2 activator sulforaphane inhibited JAK2 and JNK activation and inflammation. A murine model of CsA nephrotoxicity corroborated activation of the proinflammatory pathways identified in cell cultures. Human CNIs nephrotoxicity was also associated with NF-κB, STAT3 and IRE1α activation. In conclusion, CNIs recruit several intracellular pathways leading to previously non-described proinflammatory actions in renal tubular cells. Identification of these pathways provides novel clues for therapeutic intervention to limit CNIs nephrotoxicity. - Highlights: • Molecular mechanisms modulating CNI renal inflammation were investigated. • Kinases, immune receptors and ER stress mediate the inflammatory response to CNIs. • Several intracellular pathways activate NF-κB in CNIs-treated tubular cells. • A NF-κB-dependent cytokine profile characterizes CNIs-induced inflammation. • CNI nephrotoxicity was associated to inflammatory

  5. Efficacy of DHMEQ, a NF-κB inhibitor, in islet transplantation: II. Induction DHMEQ treatment ameliorates subsequent alloimmune responses and permits long-term islet allograft acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masaaki; Yamashita, Kenichiro; Kamachi, Hirofumi; Kuraya, Daisuke; Koshizuka, Yasuyuki; Shibasaki, Susumu; Asahi, Yoh; Ono, Hitoshi; Emoto, Shin; Ogura, Masaomi; Yoshida, Tadashi; Ozaki, Michitaka; Umezawa, Kazuo; Matsushita, Michiaki; Todo, Satoru

    2013-09-15

    Long-term graft deterioration remains a major obstacle in the success of pancreatic islet transplantation (PITx). Antigen-independent inflammatory and innate immune responses strengthen subsequent antigen-dependent immunity; further, activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB plays a key role during these responses. In this study, we tested our hypothesis that, by the inhibition of NF-κB activation, the suppression of these early responses after PITx could facilitate graft acceptance. Full major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-mismatched BALB/c (H-2) mice islets were transplanted into streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57BL/6 (B6: H-2) mice. The NF-κB inhibitor dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin (DHMEQ) was administered for either 3 or 14 days after PITx. To some PITx recipients, tacrolimus was also administered. Islet allograft survival, alloimmune responses, and in vitro effects of DHMEQ on dendritic cells (DCs) were assessed. With a vehicle treatment, 600 islet allografts were promptly rejected after PITx. In contrast, 3-day treatment with DHMEQ, followed by 2-week treatment with tacrolimus, allowed permanent acceptance of islet allografts. The endogenous danger-signaling molecule high mobility group complex 1 (HMGB1) was elevated in sera shortly after PITx, whereas DHMEQ administration abolished this elevation. DHMEQ suppressed HMGB1-driven cellular activation and proinflammatory cytokine secretion in mouse bone marrow-derived DCs and significantly reduced the capacity of DCs to prime allogeneic T-cell proliferation in vitro. Finally, the DHMEQ plus tacrolimus regimen reverted the diabetic state with only 300 islet allografts. Inhibition of NF-κB activation by DHMEQ shortly after PITx suppresses HMGB1, which activates DCs and strengthens the magnitude of alloimmune responses; this permits long-term islet allograft acceptance, even in case of fewer islet allografts.

  6. Cdc25A promotes cell survival by stimulating NF-{kappa}B activity through I{kappa}B-{alpha} phosphorylation and destabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Hey-Young; Choi, Jiyeon [Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Kangwon National University, 192-1 Hyoja-2-dong, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Young-Wook [Korea Basic Science Institute, Chuncheon Center, Gangwondaehak-gil 1, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung-Chul, E-mail: bckim@kangwon.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Kangwon National University, 192-1 Hyoja-2-dong, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine the antiapoptotic mechanisms of Cdc25A. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Smad7 decreases the phosphorylation of I{kappa}B-alpha at Ser-32. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Smad7 positively regulates NF-{kappa}B activity through I{kappa}B-alpha ubiquitination. -- Abstract: Cell division cycle 25A (Cdc25A), a dual specificity protein phosphatase, exhibits anti-apoptotic activity, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly characterized. Here we report that Cdc25A inhibits cisplatin-induced apoptotic cell death by stimulating nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) activity. In HEK-293 cells, Cdc25A decreased protein level of inhibitor subunit kappa B alpha (I{kappa}-B{alpha}) in association with increased serine 32-phosphorylation, followed by stimulation of transcriptional activity of NF-{kappa}B. Inhibition of NF-{kappa}B activity by chemical inhibitor or overexpression of I{kappa}-B{alpha} in Cdc25A-elevated cancer cells resistant to cisplatin improved their sensitivity to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Our data show for the first time that Cdc25A has an important physiological role in NF-{kappa}B activity regulation and it may be an important survival mechanism of cancer cells.

  7. Some Phthalocyanine and Naphthalocyanine Derivatives as Corrosion Inhibitors for Aluminium in Acidic Medium: Experimental, Quantum Chemical Calculations, QSAR Studies and Synergistic Effect of Iodide Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masego Dibetsoe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of seven macrocyclic compounds comprising four phthalocyanines (Pcs namely 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octabutoxy-29H,31H-phthalocyanine (Pc1, 2,3,9,10,16,17,23,24-octakis(octyloxy-29H,31H-phthalocyanine (Pc2, 2,9,16,23-tetra-tert-butyl-29H,31H-phthalocyanine (Pc3 and 29H,31H-phthalocyanine (Pc4, and three naphthalocyanines namely 5,9,14,18,23,27,32,36-octabutoxy-2,3-naphthalocyanine (nPc1, 2,11,20,29-tetra-tert-butyl-2,3-naphthalocyanine (nPc2 and 2,3-naphthalocyanine (nP3 were investigated on the corrosion of aluminium (Al in 1 M HCl using a gravimetric method, potentiodynamic polarization technique, quantum chemical calculations and quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR. Synergistic effects of KI on the corrosion inhibition properties of the compounds were also investigated. All the studied compounds showed appreciable inhibition efficiencies, which decrease with increasing temperature from 30 °C to 70 °C. At each concentration of the inhibitor, addition of 0.1% KI increased the inhibition efficiency compared to the absence of KI indicating the occurrence of synergistic interactions between the studied molecules and I− ions. From the potentiodynamic polarization studies, the studied Pcs and nPcs are mixed type corrosion inhibitors both without and with addition of KI. The adsorption of the studied molecules on Al surface obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, while the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters revealed that the adsorption of the studied compounds on Al surface is spontaneous and involves competitive physisorption and chemisorption mechanisms. The experimental results revealed the aggregated interactions between the inhibitor molecules and the results further indicated that the peripheral groups on the compounds affect these interactions. The calculated quantum chemical parameters and the QSAR results revealed the possibility of strong interactions between the studied inhibitors and metal surface. QSAR

  8. Diisononyl phthalate aggravates allergic dermatitis by activation of NF-kB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jun; Song, Jing; Shen, Shiping; Li, Baizhan; Yang, Xu; Chen, Mingqing

    2016-12-20

    Several epidemiological studies have suggested a possible link between exposure to Diisononyl phthalate (DINP) and the development of allergies. These findings remain controversial since there is insufficient scientific evidence to assess the ability of DINP to influence allergic immune responses. In addition, the mechanisms behind DINP-caused allergic diseases have not been fully elucidated. In this study, Balb/c mice were orally exposed to DINP for 3 weeks and were then sensitized with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). We showed that oral exposure to DINP could aggravate allergic-dermatitis-like lesions, indicated by an increase in the number of mast cells, and in increased skin edema in FITC-induced contact hypersensitivity. This deterioration was concomitant with increased total serum immunoglobulin-E and Th2 cytokines. We determined the oxidative damage and the activation of nuclear factor-kb (NF-kB). The data demonstrated that DINP could promote oxidative damage and the activation of NF-kB in the skin. The expression of thymic stromal lymphopoietin and the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcriptions 3, 5 and 6 were enhanced concomitant with exacerbated allergic dermatitis effects and the activation of NF-kB induced by DINP. These effects were alleviated by pyrollidine dithiocarbamate, an inhibitor of NF-kB. The results suggest that oral exposure to DINP aggravated allergic contact dermatitis, which was positively regulated via NF-kB.

  9. Novel 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Induces Anticancer Activity by Targeting NF-κB in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakrabhavi Dhananjaya Mohan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aberrant activation of NF-κB is linked with the progression of human malignancies including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, and blockade of NF-κB signaling could be a potential target in the treatment of several cancers. Therefore, designing of novel small molecule inhibitors that target NF-κB activation is of prime importance in the treatment of several cancers. In the present work, we report the synthesis of series of 1,3,4-oxadiazoles, investigated their anticancer potential against HCC cells, and identified 2-(3-chlorobenzo[b]thiophen-2-yl-5-(3-methoxyphenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole (CMO as the lead compound. Further, we examined the effect of CMO on cell cycle distribution (flow cytometry, apoptosis (annexin V-propidium iodide-FITC staining, and phosphorylation of NF-κB signaling pathway proteins (IκB and p65 in HCC cells. We found that CMO induced antiproliferative effect in dose- and time-dependent manner. Also, CMO significantly increased the percentage of sub-G1 cell population and induced apoptosis. Furthermore, CMO found to decrease the phosphorylation of IκB (Ser 32 in the cytoplasmic extract and p65 (Ser 536 in the nuclear extract of HCC cells. It also abrogated the DNA binding ability and transcriptional activity of NF-κB. CMO induced the cleavage of PARP and caspase-3 in a time-dependent manner. In addition, transfection with p65 small interfering RNA blocks CMO-induced caspase-3/7 activation. Molecular docking analysis revealed that CMO interacts with the hydrophobic region of p65 protein. Thus, we are reporting CMO as an inhibitor of NF-κB signaling pathway.

  10. Prolyl hydroxylase-1 regulates hepatocyte apoptosis in an NF-κB-dependent manner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzpatrick, Susan F.; Fábián, Zsolt; Schaible, Bettina; Lenihan, Colin R.; Schwarzl, Thomas [School of Medicine and Medical Science, The Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 Ireland (Ireland); Rodriguez, Javier [Systems Biology Ireland, University College Dublin, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Zheng, Xingnan; Li, Zongwei [Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Tambuwala, Murtaza M. [School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ulster University, Coleraine, BT52 1SA, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Higgins, Desmond G.; O' Meara, Yvonne [School of Medicine and Medical Science, The Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 Ireland (Ireland); Slattery, Craig [School of Biomolecular and Biomedical Science, The Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 Ireland (Ireland); Manresa, Mario C. [School of Medicine and Medical Science, The Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 Ireland (Ireland); Fraisl, Peter; Bruning, Ulrike [Laboratory of Angiogenesis and Vascular Metabolism, Department of Oncology, University of Leuven, Vesalius Research Center, VIB, B-3000 (Belgium); Baes, Myriam [Laboratory for Cell Metabolism, Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, KU Leuven (Belgium); Carmeliet, Peter; Doherty, Glen [Laboratory of Angiogenesis and Vascular Metabolism, Department of Oncology, University of Leuven, Vesalius Research Center, VIB, B-3000 (Belgium); Kriegsheim, Alex von [Systems Biology Ireland, University College Dublin, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Cummins, Eoin P. [School of Medicine and Medical Science, The Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 Ireland (Ireland); and others

    2016-06-03

    Hepatocyte death is an important contributing factor in a number of diseases of the liver. PHD1 confers hypoxic sensitivity upon transcription factors including the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB). Reduced PHD1 activity is linked to decreased apoptosis. Here, we investigated the underlying mechanism(s) in hepatocytes. Basal NF-κB activity was elevated in PHD1{sup −/−} hepatocytes compared to wild type controls. ChIP-seq analysis confirmed enhanced binding of NF-κB to chromatin in regions proximal to the promoters of genes involved in the regulation of apoptosis. Inhibition of NF-κB (but not knock-out of HIF-1 or HIF-2) reversed the anti-apoptotic effects of pharmacologic hydroxylase inhibition. We hypothesize that PHD1 inhibition leads to altered expression of NF-κB-dependent genes resulting in reduced apoptosis. This study provides new information relating to the possible mechanism of therapeutic action of hydroxylase inhibitors that has been reported in pre-clinical models of intestinal and hepatic disease. -- Highlights: •Genetic ablation of PHD1 upregulates NF-kappaB (NF-κB) in hepatocytes. •Activation of NF-κB leads to differential DNA-binding of p50/p65 and results in differential regulation of apoptotic genes. •We identified proline 191 in the beta subunit of the I-kappaB kinase as a target for PHD1-mediated hydroxylation. •Blockade of prolyl-4-hydroxylases has been found cytoprotective in liver cells.

  11. Interactions among oscillatory pathways in NF-kappa B signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Michael RH

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sustained stimulation with tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha induces substantial oscillations—observed at both the single cell and population levels—in the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B system. Although the mechanism has not yet been elucidated fully, a core system has been identified consisting of a negative feedback loop involving NF-kappa B (RelA:p50 hetero-dimer and its inhibitor I-kappa B-alpha. Many authors have suggested that this core oscillator should couple to other oscillatory pathways. Results First we analyse single-cell data from experiments in which the NF-kappa B system is forced by short trains of strong pulses of TNF-alpha. Power spectra of the ratio of nuclear-to-cytoplasmic concentration of NF-kappa B suggest that the cells' responses are entrained by the pulsing frequency. Using a recent model of the NF-kappa B system due to Caroline Horton, we carried out extensive numerical simulations to analyze the response frequencies induced by trains of pulses of TNF-alpha stimulation having a wide range of frequencies and amplitudes. These studies suggest that for sufficiently weak stimulation, various nonlinear resonances should be observable. To explore further the possibility of probing alternative feedback mechanisms, we also coupled the model to sinusoidal signals with a wide range of strengths and frequencies. Our results show that, at least in simulation, frequencies other than those of the forcing and the main NF-kappa B oscillator can be excited via sub- and superharmonic resonance, producing quasiperiodic and even chaotic dynamics. Conclusions Our numerical results suggest that the entrainment phenomena observed in pulse-stimulated experiments is a consequence of the high intensity of the stimulation. Computational studies based on current models suggest that resonant interactions between periodic pulsatile forcing and the system's natural frequencies may become evident for sufficiently

  12. The crosstalk between α-irradiated Beas-2B cells and its bystander U937 cells through MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Jiamei; Yuan, Dexiao; Xiao, Linlin; Tu, Wenzhi; Dong, Chen; Liu, Weili; Shao, Chunlin, E-mail: clshao@shmu.edu.cn

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • α-irradiated Beas-2B cells induced bystander effects in macrophage U937 cells. • The neighboring macrophages enhanced the damage of α-irradiated Beas-2B cells. • MAPK and NF-κB pathways were activated in U937 cells after cell co-culture. • NF-κB and MAPK pathways participated in the bilateral bystander responses. - Abstract: Although accumulated evidence suggests that α-particle irradiation induced bystander effect may relevant to lung injury and cancer risk assessment, the exact mechanisms are not yet elucidated. In the present study, a cell co-culture system was used to investigate the interaction between α-particle irradiated human bronchial epithelial cells (Beas-2B) and its bystander macrophage U937 cells. It was found that the cell co-culture amplified the detrimental effects of α-irradiation including cell viability decrease and apoptosis promotion on both irradiated cells and bystander cells in a feedback loop which was closely relevant to the activation of MAPK and NF-κB pathways in the bystander U937 cells. When these two pathways in U937 cells were disturbed by special pharmacological inhibitors before cell co-culture, it was found that a NF-κB inhibitor of BAY 11-7082 further enhanced the proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction in bystander U937 cells, but MAPK inhibitors of SP600125 and SB203580 protected cells from viability loss and apoptosis and U0126 presented more beneficial effect on cell protection. For α-irradiated epithelial cells, the activation of NF-κB and MAPK pathways in U937 cells participated in detrimental cellular responses since the above inhibitors could largely attenuate cell viability loss and apoptosis of irradiated cells. Our results demonstrated that there are bilateral bystander responses between irradiated lung epithelial cells and macrophages through MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways, which accounts for the enhancement of α-irradiation induced damage.

  13. The crosstalk between α-irradiated Beas-2B cells and its bystander U937 cells through MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Jiamei; Yuan, Dexiao; Xiao, Linlin; Tu, Wenzhi; Dong, Chen; Liu, Weili; Shao, Chunlin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • α-irradiated Beas-2B cells induced bystander effects in macrophage U937 cells. • The neighboring macrophages enhanced the damage of α-irradiated Beas-2B cells. • MAPK and NF-κB pathways were activated in U937 cells after cell co-culture. • NF-κB and MAPK pathways participated in the bilateral bystander responses. - Abstract: Although accumulated evidence suggests that α-particle irradiation induced bystander effect may relevant to lung injury and cancer risk assessment, the exact mechanisms are not yet elucidated. In the present study, a cell co-culture system was used to investigate the interaction between α-particle irradiated human bronchial epithelial cells (Beas-2B) and its bystander macrophage U937 cells. It was found that the cell co-culture amplified the detrimental effects of α-irradiation including cell viability decrease and apoptosis promotion on both irradiated cells and bystander cells in a feedback loop which was closely relevant to the activation of MAPK and NF-κB pathways in the bystander U937 cells. When these two pathways in U937 cells were disturbed by special pharmacological inhibitors before cell co-culture, it was found that a NF-κB inhibitor of BAY 11-7082 further enhanced the proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction in bystander U937 cells, but MAPK inhibitors of SP600125 and SB203580 protected cells from viability loss and apoptosis and U0126 presented more beneficial effect on cell protection. For α-irradiated epithelial cells, the activation of NF-κB and MAPK pathways in U937 cells participated in detrimental cellular responses since the above inhibitors could largely attenuate cell viability loss and apoptosis of irradiated cells. Our results demonstrated that there are bilateral bystander responses between irradiated lung epithelial cells and macrophages through MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways, which accounts for the enhancement of α-irradiation induced damage.

  14. The Changes in the Expression of NF-KB in a Degenerative Human Intervertebral Disc model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhongyi; Yin, Zhanmin; Liu, Chao; Tian, Jiwei

    2015-05-01

    We aim at determining the changes in the expression of NF-kB signaling pathway in degenerative intervertebral discs. We collected normal and degenerated intervertebral discs tissues. The normal and degenerated cells were cultivated and their histopathology and immunofluoresence studies were used to observe the position of NF-kB p65 in the cell. We also treated the nucleus pulposus cells with inflammatory factors and inhibitors. Western blot was used to analyze the expression of different proteins. Real time fluorescence-based quantitative PCR was used for observation of NF-kB regulation of change in gene expression. Immunofluorescence showed that in the non-degenerative group the p65 was found in the cytoplasm of the nucleus pulposus cell while in the degenerated cell group the p65 protein was found in the nucleus of the cell. The expression of p65 increased with increase in the degree of degenerative change of the nucleus pulposus cell. RT-PCR showed that the expression of matrix metalloproteinases, aggrecanases and IL-6 was higher in the degenerative group. The amount of aggrecan and type II collagen was significantly decreased in the degenerative group. IL-1β was able to upregulate the activation of NF-kB and the expression of MMP-13 and ADAMTS-4 was also significantly increased. The effect of these proteins can be inhibited by the NF-kB inhibitor, BAY11-7082. The activation of the NK-kB signaling pathway in a degenerative intervertebral disc is gradually increased, regulating the over-expression of matrix-degrading enzymes. It plays an important role in the degradation of extracellular matrix.

  15. Ganoderma lucidum ethanol extract inhibits the inflammatory response by suppressing the NF-κB and toll-like receptor pathways in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV2 microglial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyun-Min; Jang, Kyung-Jun; Han, Min Seok; Jeong, Jin-Woo; Kim, Gi Young; Lee, Jai-Heon; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2013-03-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a traditional Oriental medicine that has been widely used as a tonic to promote longevity and health in Korea and other Asian countries. Although a great deal of work has been carried out on the therapeutic potential of this mushroom, the pharmacological mechanisms of its anti-inflammatory actions remain unclear. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of G. lucidum ethanol extract (EGL) on the production of inflammatory mediators and cytokines in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine BV2 microglia. We also investigated the effects of EGL on the LPS-induced activation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) and upregulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88). Elevated levels of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and pro-inflammatory cytokine production were detected in BV2 microglia following LPS stimulation. We identifed that EGL significantly inhibits the excessive production of NO, PGE(2) and pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α in a concentration-dependent manner without causing cytotoxicity. In addition, EGL suppressed NF-κB translocation and transcriptional activity by blocking IκB degradation and inhibiting TLR4 and MyD88 expression in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. Our results indicate that the inhibitory effects of EGL on LPS-stimulated inflammatory responses in BV2 microglia are associated with the suppression of the NF-κB and TLR signaling pathways. Therefore, EGL may be useful in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases by inhibiting inflammatory mediator responses in activated microglia.

  16. Up-regulation of interleukin-4 production via NF-AT/AP-1 activation in T cells by biochanin A, a phytoestrogen and its metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin; Chung, Su Wol; Kim, Seung Hyun; Kim, Tae Sung

    2006-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are naturally occurring compounds derived from plants. Although phytoestrogens exhibit many biological functions including estrogen agonist/antagonist properties, the effect on allergic responses remains unclear. In this study, we investigated whether biochanin A, a phytoestrogen and its metabolites, genistein, p-ethylphenol and phenolic acid, affect production of IL-4, a pro-inflammatory cytokine closely associated with allergic immune responses, in primary CD4 + T cells and EL4 T lymphoma cells. Biochanin A, genistein and p-ethylphenol significantly enhanced IL-4 production from both CD4 + T cells and EL4 cells in a dose-dependent manner, while phenolic acid did not. Biochanin A, genistein and p-ethylphenol also enhanced IL-4 gene promoter activity in EL4 cells transiently transfected with IL-4 promoter constructs, but this effect was impaired in EL4 cells transfected with an IL-4 promoter construct deleted of a P4 site carrying NF-AT and AP-1 binding sites. In addition, biochanin A, genistein and p-ethylphenol increased both NF-AT and AP-1 DNA binding activities, indicating that they might enhance IL-4 production via NF-AT/AP-1 activation. Furthermore, biochanin A, genistein and p-ethylphenol increased p38 MAPK phosphorylation and PKC activity, while they did not affect ERK phosphorylation. The enhanced NF-AT DNA binding activities were suppressed by inhibitors for PI3-K and PKC, but not by p38 MAPK inhibitors. In contrast, the enhanced AP-1 DNA binding activities and p38 MAPK phosphorylation were significantly suppressed by specific inhibitors for PKC and p38 MAPK, but not by PI3-K inhibitors. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that biochanin A, genistein and p-ethylphenol enhance IL-4 production in activated T cells by two independent pathways, PI3-K/PKC/NF-AT and PKC/p38 MAPK/AP-1

  17. RAGE-Specific Inhibitor FPS-ZM1 Attenuates AGEs-Induced Neuroinflammation and Oxidative Stress in Rat Primary Microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chao; Ma, Yingjuan; Zeng, Ziling; Yin, Qingqing; Hong, Yan; Hou, Xunyao; Liu, Xueping

    2017-10-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) enhance microglial activation and intensify the inflammatory response and oxidative stress in the brain. This process may occur due to direct cytotoxicity or interacting with AGEs receptors (RAGE), which are expressed on the surface of microglia. FPS-ZM1 is a high-affinity but nontoxic RAGE-specific inhibitor that has been recently shown to attenuate the Aβ-induced inflammatory response by blocking the ligation of Aβ to RAGE. In this study, we further investigated the effect of FPS-ZM1 on the AGEs/RAGE interaction and downstream elevation of neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in primary microglia cells. The results suggested that FPS-ZM1 significantly suppressed AGEs-induced RAGE overexpression, RAGE-dependent microglial activation, nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappaB p65 (NF-κB p65), and the expression of downstream inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2)/prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)/nitric oxide (NO). Furthermore, FPS-ZM1 attenuated AGEs-stimulated NADPH oxidase (NOX) activation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) expression. Finally, FPS-ZM1 elevated the levels of transcription factors nuclear-factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), as well as decreased antioxidant capacity and increased production of oxidative species. Our results suggest that FPS-ZM1 may be neuroprotective through attenuating microglial activation, oxidative stress and inflammation by blocking RAGE.

  18. Uric Acid Induces Renal Inflammation via Activating Tubular NF-κB Signaling Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Fang, Li; Jiang, Lei; Wen, Ping; Cao, Hongdi; He, Weichun; Dai, Chunsun; Yang, Junwei

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation is a pathologic feature of hyperuricemia in clinical settings. However, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Here, infiltration of T cells and macrophages were significantly increased in hyperuricemia mice kidneys. This infiltration of inflammatory cells was accompanied by an up-regulation of TNF-α, MCP-1 and RANTES expression. Further, infiltration was largely located in tubular interstitial spaces, suggesting a role for tubular cells in hyperuricemia-induced inflammation. In cultured tubular epithelial cells (NRK-52E), uric acid, probably transported via urate transporter, induced TNF-α, MCP-1 and RANTES mRNA as well as RANTES protein expression. Culture media of NRK-52E cells incubated with uric acid showed a chemo-attractive ability to recruit macrophage. Moreover uric acid activated NF-κB signaling. The uric acid-induced up-regulation of RANTES was blocked by SN 50, a specific NF-κB inhibitor. Activation of NF-κB signaling was also observed in tubule of hyperuricemia mice. These results suggest that uric acid induces renal inflammation via activation of NF-κB signaling. PMID:22761883

  19. Thromboxane synthase suppression induces lung cancer cell apoptosis via inhibiting NF-κB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, Kin Chung; Li, Ming-Yue; Leung, Billy C.S.; Hsin, Michael K.Y.; Mok, Tony S.K.; Underwood, Malcolm J.; Chen, George G.

    2010-01-01

    Accumulating evidence shows that the inhibition of thromboxane synthase (TXS) induced apoptosis in cancer cells. TXS inhibitor 1-Benzylimidzole (1-BI) can trigger apoptosis in lung cancer cells but the mechanism is not fully defined. In this study, lung cancer cells were treated with 1-BI. In this study, the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured and NF-κB activity was determined in human lung cancer cells. The roles of ROS and NF-κB in 1-BI-mediated cell death were analyzed. The results showed that 1-BI induced ROS generation but decreased the activity of NF-κB by reducing phosphorylated IκBα (p-IκBα) and inhibiting the translocation of p65 into the nucleus. In contrast to 1-BI, antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) stimulated cell proliferation and significantly protected the cells from 1-BI-mediated cell death by neutralizing ROS. Collectively, apoptosis induced by 1-BI is associated with the over-production of ROS and the reduction of NF-κB. Antioxidants can significantly block the inhibitory effect of 1-BI.

  20. Inhibition of NF-κB by a cell permeable form of IκBα induces apoptosis in eosinophils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujihara, Satoko; Jaffray, Ellis; Farrow, Stuart N.; Rossi, Adriano G.; Haslett, Christopher; Hay, Ronald T.

    2005-01-01

    An 11 amino acid HIV-TAT peptide can deliver target proteins into a variety of cells in a receptor-independent manner. To generate a highly specific inhibitor of the transcription factor NF-κB, we have fused the TAT-peptide to a version of IκBα that is resistant to signal-induced degradation. TAT-IκBα(S32A, S36A) inhibited NF-κB-dependent transcription in HeLa and A549 cells by retaining NF-κB p65 in the cytoplasm. Introduction of TAT-IκBα(S32A, S36A) into human eosinophils inhibited the nuclear translocation of NF-κB and induced apoptosis. Thus, continuous NF-κB-dependent transcription is important for eosinophil survival. While eosinophils are normally refractive to standard methods of gene delivery, the ability of TAT fusion proteins to be taken up by these cells should enable a detailed molecular analysis of survival pathways in these cells

  1. Synergistic in-vitro effects of combining an antiglycolytic, 3-bromopyruvate, and a bromodomain-4 inhibitor on U937 myeloid leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapp, Nicolette; Stander, Xiao X; Stander, Barend A

    2018-06-01

    This project investigated the in-vitro effects of a glycolytic inhibitor, 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrP), in combination with and a new in silico-designed inhibitor of the bromodomain-4 (BRD-4) protein, ITH-47, on the U937 acute myeloid leukemia cell line. 3-BrP is an agent that targets the altered metabolism of cancer cells by interfering with glucose metabolism in the glycolytic pathway. ITH-47 is an acetyl-lysine inhibitor that displaces bromdomain 4 proteins from chromatin by competitively binding to the acetyl-lysine recognition pocket of this bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) BRD protein, thereby preventing transcription of cancer-associated genes and further cell growth. Cell growth studies determined the IC50 after 48 h exposure for 3-BrP and ITH-47 to be 6 and 2 μmol/l, respectively. When combined, 2.4 and 1 μmol/l of 3-BrP and ITH-47, respectively, inhibited 50% of the cell population, yielding a synergistic combination index of 0.9. Subsequent mechanistic studies showed that the IC50 concentrations of ITH-47 and 3-BrP and the combination increased observable apoptotic bodies and cell shrinkage in U937 cells treated for 48 h. Cell cycle analysis showed an increase in the sub-G1 fraction in all treated cells, suggesting that cell death was increased in the treated samples. Annexin-V-FITC apoptosis analysis showed a statistically significant increase in the number of cells in early and late apoptosis, indicating that cell death occurred through apoptosis and not necrosis. Only U937 cells exposed to ITH-47 showed a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential compared with the vehicle control. Reactive oxygen species production was decreased in all treated samples. ITH-47-exposed cells showed a decrease in c-Myc, Bcl-2, and p53 gene expressions. 3-BrP-treated cells showed an increase in c-myc and p53 gene expressions. The combination of ITH-47 and 3-BrP lead to downregulation of c-myc and Bcl-2 genes. ITH-47 exposure conditions yielded a marked decrease

  2. Receptor Tyrosine Kinases as Targets for Treatment of Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors in NF 1 Patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mautner, Victor-Felix

    2007-01-01

    .... The only available but unsatisfying therapy is surgical tumor resection. The purpose of this study is the preclinical testing of multiple available tyrosine kinase inhibitors for NF1-associated MPNST using in vitro and in vivo systems...

  3. BET Bromodomain Inhibition Synergizes with PARP Inhibitor in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Karakashev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available PARP inhibition is known to be an effective clinical strategy in BRCA mutant cancers, but PARP inhibition has not been applied to BRCA-proficient tumors. Here, we show the synergy of BET bromodomain inhibition with PARP inhibition in BRCA-proficient ovarian cancers due to mitotic catastrophe. Treatment of BRCA-proficient ovarian cancer cells with the BET inhibitor JQ1 downregulated the G2-M cell-cycle checkpoint regulator WEE1 and the DNA-damage response factor TOPBP1. Combining PARP inhibitor Olaparib with the BET inhibitor, we observed a synergistic increase in DNA damage and checkpoint defects, which allowed cells to enter mitosis despite the accumulation of DNA damage, ultimately causing mitotic catastrophe. Moreover, JQ1 and Olaparib showed synergistic suppression of growth of BRCA-proficient cancer in vivo in a xenograft ovarian cancer mouse model. Our findings indicate that a combination of BET inhibitor and PARP inhibitor represents a potential therapeutic strategy for BRCA-proficient cancers.

  4. A polymeric nanoparticle formulation of curcumin in combination with sorafenib synergistically inhibits tumor growth and metastasis in an orthotopic model of human hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Bo [Department of Liver Surgery, Liver Cancer Institute, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Cancer Invasion, Ministry of Education, Shanghai, 200032 (China); Sun, Ding [Department of Liver Surgery, Liver Cancer Institute, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Cancer Invasion, Ministry of Education, Shanghai, 200032 (China); Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, 215004 (China); Sun, Chao; Sun, Yun-Fan; Sun, Hai-Xiang [Department of Liver Surgery, Liver Cancer Institute, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Cancer Invasion, Ministry of Education, Shanghai, 200032 (China); Zhu, Qing-Feng [The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Division of Gastrointestinal and Liver Pathology, Baltimore, MD, 21205 (United States); Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032 (China); Yang, Xin-Rong [Department of Liver Surgery, Liver Cancer Institute, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Cancer Invasion, Ministry of Education, Shanghai, 200032 (China); Gao, Ya-Bo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032 (China); Tang, Wei-Guo [Department of Liver Surgery, Liver Cancer Institute, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Cancer Invasion, Ministry of Education, Shanghai, 200032 (China); Fan, Jia [Department of Liver Surgery, Liver Cancer Institute, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Cancer Invasion, Ministry of Education, Shanghai, 200032 (China); Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032 (China); Maitra, Anirban [The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, Departments of Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 21205 (United States); and others

    2015-12-25

    Curcumin, a yellow polyphenol extracted from the rhizome of turmeric root (Curcuma longa) has potent anti-cancer properties in many types of tumors with ability to reverse multidrug resistance of cancer cells. However, widespread clinical application of this agent in cancer and other diseases has been limited due to its poor aqueous solubility. The recent findings of polymeric nanoparticle formulation of curcumin (NFC) have shown the potential for circumventing the problem of poor solubility, however evidences for NFC's anti-cancer and reverse multidrug resistance properties are lacking. Here we provide models of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common form of primary liver cancer, in vitro and in vivo to evaluate the efficacy of NFC alone and in combination with sorafenib, a kinase inhibitor approved for treatment of HCC. Results showed that NFC not only inhibited the proliferation and invasion of HCC cell lines in vitro, but also drastically suppressed primary tumor growth and lung metastases in vivo. Moreover, in combination with sorafenib, NFC induced HCC cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Mechanistically, NFC and sorafenib synergistically down-regulated the expression of MMP9 via NF-κB/p65 signaling pathway. Furthermore, the combination therapy significantly decreased the population of CD133-positive HCC cells, which have been reported as cancer initiating cells in HCC. Taken together, NanoCurcumin provides an opportunity to expand the clinical repertoire of this agent. Additional studies utilizing a combination of NanoCurcumin and sorafenib in HCC are needed for further clinical development. - Highlights: • Polymeric nanoparticle formulation of curcumin not only inhibited the proliferation and invasion of HCC cell lines in vitro, but also drastically suppressed primary tumor growth and lung metastases in vivo. • In combination with sorafenib, NanoCurcumin induced HCC cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. • NanoCurcumin and

  5. A polymeric nanoparticle formulation of curcumin in combination with sorafenib synergistically inhibits tumor growth and metastasis in an orthotopic model of human hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Bo; Sun, Ding; Sun, Chao; Sun, Yun-Fan; Sun, Hai-Xiang; Zhu, Qing-Feng; Yang, Xin-Rong; Gao, Ya-Bo; Tang, Wei-Guo; Fan, Jia; Maitra, Anirban

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin, a yellow polyphenol extracted from the rhizome of turmeric root (Curcuma longa) has potent anti-cancer properties in many types of tumors with ability to reverse multidrug resistance of cancer cells. However, widespread clinical application of this agent in cancer and other diseases has been limited due to its poor aqueous solubility. The recent findings of polymeric nanoparticle formulation of curcumin (NFC) have shown the potential for circumventing the problem of poor solubility, however evidences for NFC's anti-cancer and reverse multidrug resistance properties are lacking. Here we provide models of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common form of primary liver cancer, in vitro and in vivo to evaluate the efficacy of NFC alone and in combination with sorafenib, a kinase inhibitor approved for treatment of HCC. Results showed that NFC not only inhibited the proliferation and invasion of HCC cell lines in vitro, but also drastically suppressed primary tumor growth and lung metastases in vivo. Moreover, in combination with sorafenib, NFC induced HCC cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Mechanistically, NFC and sorafenib synergistically down-regulated the expression of MMP9 via NF-κB/p65 signaling pathway. Furthermore, the combination therapy significantly decreased the population of CD133-positive HCC cells, which have been reported as cancer initiating cells in HCC. Taken together, NanoCurcumin provides an opportunity to expand the clinical repertoire of this agent. Additional studies utilizing a combination of NanoCurcumin and sorafenib in HCC are needed for further clinical development. - Highlights: • Polymeric nanoparticle formulation of curcumin not only inhibited the proliferation and invasion of HCC cell lines in vitro, but also drastically suppressed primary tumor growth and lung metastases in vivo. • In combination with sorafenib, NanoCurcumin induced HCC cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. • NanoCurcumin and

  6. Piperlongumine selectively suppresses ABC-DLBCL through inhibition of NF-κB p65 subunit nuclear import

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Mingshan [Blood Diseases Institute, Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Bone Marrow Stem Cell, Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China); Department of Hematology, Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China); Shen, Yangling; Xu, Xiaoyu [Blood Diseases Institute, Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Bone Marrow Stem Cell, Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China); Yao, Yao; Fu, Chunling [Blood Diseases Institute, Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Bone Marrow Stem Cell, Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China); Department of Hematology, Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China); Yan, Zhiling [Department of Hematology, Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China); Wu, Qingyun [Blood Diseases Institute, Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Bone Marrow Stem Cell, Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China); Department of Hematology, Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China); Cao, Jiang; Sang, Wei [Department of Hematology, Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China); Zeng, Lingyu [Blood Diseases Institute, Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Bone Marrow Stem Cell, Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China); Department of Hematology, Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China); Li, Zhenyu [Department of Hematology, Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China); Liu, Xuejiao, E-mail: liuxuejiao0923@126.com [Insititute of Nervous System Diseases, Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China); and others

    2015-07-10

    Constitutive NF-κB activation is required for survival of activated B cell-like subtype of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (ABC-DLBCL). However, current NF-κB targeting strategies lack cancer cell specificity. Here, we identified a novel inhibitor, piperlongumine, features direct binding to NF-κB p65 subunit and suppression of p65 nuclear import. This was accompanied by NF-κB reporter activity suppression and NF-κB target gene downregulation. Moreover, mutation of Cys{sup 38} to Ser in p65 abolished this effect of piperlongumine on inhibition of p65 nuclear import. Furthermore, we show that piperlongumine selectively inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of ABC-DLBCL cells. Most notably, it has been reported that piperlongumine did not affect normal cells even at high doses and was nontoxic to animals. Hence, our current study provides new insight into piperlongumine's mechanism of action and novel approach to ABC-DLBCL target therapy. - Highlights: • Current NF-κB targeting strategies lack cancer cell specificity. • Piperlongumine inhibits NF-κB p65 subunit nuclear import via directly binding to p65. • Piperlongumine selectively inhibits proliferation of ABC-DLBCL cells. • This study provides a novel approach to ABC-DLBCL target therapy.

  7. Piperlongumine selectively suppresses ABC-DLBCL through inhibition of NF-κB p65 subunit nuclear import

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Mingshan; Shen, Yangling; Xu, Xiaoyu; Yao, Yao; Fu, Chunling; Yan, Zhiling; Wu, Qingyun; Cao, Jiang; Sang, Wei; Zeng, Lingyu; Li, Zhenyu; Liu, Xuejiao

    2015-01-01

    Constitutive NF-κB activation is required for survival of activated B cell-like subtype of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (ABC-DLBCL). However, current NF-κB targeting strategies lack cancer cell specificity. Here, we identified a novel inhibitor, piperlongumine, features direct binding to NF-κB p65 subunit and suppression of p65 nuclear import. This was accompanied by NF-κB reporter activity suppression and NF-κB target gene downregulation. Moreover, mutation of Cys 38 to Ser in p65 abolished this effect of piperlongumine on inhibition of p65 nuclear import. Furthermore, we show that piperlongumine selectively inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of ABC-DLBCL cells. Most notably, it has been reported that piperlongumine did not affect normal cells even at high doses and was nontoxic to animals. Hence, our current study provides new insight into piperlongumine's mechanism of action and novel approach to ABC-DLBCL target therapy. - Highlights: • Current NF-κB targeting strategies lack cancer cell specificity. • Piperlongumine inhibits NF-κB p65 subunit nuclear import via directly binding to p65. • Piperlongumine selectively inhibits proliferation of ABC-DLBCL cells. • This study provides a novel approach to ABC-DLBCL target therapy

  8. Inhibition of NF-κB in Tumor Cells Exacerbates Immune Cell Activation Following Photodynamic Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekgaarden, Mans; Kos, Milan; Jurg, Freek A.; van Beek, Adriaan A.; van Gulik, Thomas M.; Heger, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Although photodynamic therapy (PDT) yields very good outcomes in numerous types of superficial solid cancers, some tumors respond suboptimally to PDT. Novel treatment strategies are therefore needed to enhance the efficacy in these therapy-resistant tumors. One of these strategies is to combine PDT with inhibitors of PDT-induced survival pathways. In this respect, the transcription factor nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) has been identified as a potential pharmacological target, albeit inhibition of NF-κB may concurrently dampen the subsequent anti-tumor immune response required for complete tumor eradication and abscopal effects. In contrast to these postulations, this study demonstrated that siRNA knockdown of NF-κB in murine breast carcinoma (EMT-6) cells increased survival signaling in these cells and exacerbated the inflammatory response in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages. These results suggest a pro-death and immunosuppressive role of NF-κB in PDT-treated cells that concurs with a hyperstimulated immune response in innate immune cells. PMID:26307977

  9. Gnotobiotic IL-10; NF-kappaB mice develop rapid and severe colitis following Campylobacter jejuni infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Lippert

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Limited information is available on the molecular mechanisms associated with Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni induced food-borne diarrheal illnesses. In this study, we investigated the function of TLR/NF-kappaB signaling in C. jejuni induced pathogenesis using gnotobiotic IL-10(-/-; NF-kappaB(EGFP mice. In vitro analysis showed that C. jejuni induced IkappaB phosphorylation, followed by enhanced NF-kappaB transcriptional activity and increased IL-6, MIP-2alpha and NOD2 mRNA accumulation in infected-mouse colonic epithelial cells CMT93. Importantly, these events were blocked by molecular delivery of an IkappaB inhibitor (Ad5IkappaBAA. NF-kappaB signalling was also important for C.jejuni-induced cytokine gene expression in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Importantly, C. jejuni associated IL-10(-/-; NF-kappaB(EGFP mice developed mild (day 5 and severe (day 14 ulcerating colonic inflammation and bloody diarrhea as assessed by colonoscopy and histological analysis. Macroscopic analysis showed elevated EGFP expression indicating NF-kappaB activation throughout the colon of C. jejuni associated IL-10(-/-; NF-kappaB(EGFP mice, while fluorescence microscopy revealed EGFP positive cells to be exclusively located in lamina propria mononuclear cells. Pharmacological NF-kappaB inhibition using Bay 11-7085 did not ameliorate C. jejuni induced colonic inflammation. Our findings indicate that C. jejuni induces rapid and severe intestinal inflammation in a susceptible host that correlates with enhanced NF-kappaB activity from lamina propria immune cells.

  10. Oridonin stabilizes retinoic acid receptor alpha through ROS-activated NF-κB signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yang; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Nan; Yu, Qing; Xu, Wen-Bin; Yu, Wen-Jun; Chen, Guo-Qiang; Wu, Ying-Li; Yan, Hua

    2015-04-10

    Retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARα) plays an essential role in the regulation of many biological processes, such as hematopoietic cell differentiation, while abnormal RARα function contributes to the pathogenesis of certain diseases including cancers, especially acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Recently, oridonin, a natural diterpenoid isolated from Rabdosia rubescens, was demonstrated to regulate RARα by increasing its protein level. However, the underlying molecular mechanism for this action has not been fully elucidated. In the APL cell line, NB4, the effect of oridonin on RARα protein was analyzed by western blot and real-time quantitative RT-PCR analyses. Flow cytometry was performed to detect intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The association between nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling and the effect of oridonin was assessed using specific inhibitors, shRNA gene knockdown, and immunofluorescence assays. In addition, primary leukemia cells were treated with oridonin and analyzed by western blot in this study. RARα possesses transcriptional activity in the presence of its ligand, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). Oridonin remarkably stabilized the RARα protein, which retained transcriptional activity. Oridonin also moderately increased intracellular ROS levels, while pretreatment with the ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), dramatically abrogated RARα stabilization by oridonin. More intriguingly, direct exposure to low concentrations of H2O2 also increased RARα protein but not mRNA levels, suggesting a role for ROS in oridonin stabilization of RARα protein. Further investigations showed that NAC antagonized oridonin-induced activation of NF-κB signaling, while the NF-κB signaling inhibitor, Bay 11-7082, effectively blocked the oridonin increase in RARα protein levels. In line with this, over-expression of IκΒα (A32/36), a super-repressor form of IκΒα, or NF-κB-p65 knockdown inhibited oridonin or H2O2-induced

  11. Gastroesophageal reflux activates the NF-κB pathway and impairs esophageal barrier function in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yu; Chen, Hao; Hu, Yuhui; Djukic, Zorka; Tevebaugh, Whitney; Shaheen, Nicholas J.; Orlando, Roy C.; Hu, Jianguo

    2013-01-01

    The barrier function of the esophageal epithelium is a major defense against gastroesophageal reflux disease. Previous studies have shown that reflux damage is reflected in a decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance associated with tight junction alterations in the esophageal epithelium. To develop novel therapies, it is critical to understand the molecular mechanisms whereby contact with a refluxate impairs esophageal barrier function. In this study, surgical models of duodenal and mixed reflux were developed in mice. Mouse esophageal epithelium was analyzed by gene microarray. Gene set enrichment analysis showed upregulation of inflammation-related gene sets and the NF-κB pathway due to reflux. Significance analysis of microarrays revealed upregulation of NF-κB target genes. Overexpression of NF-κB subunits (p50 and p65) and NF-κB target genes (matrix metalloproteinases-3 and -9, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8) confirmed activation of the NF-κB pathway in the esophageal epithelium. In addition, real-time PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemical staining also showed downregulation and mislocalization of claudins-1 and -4. In a second animal experiment, treatment with an NF-κB inhibitor, BAY 11-7085 (20 mg·kg−1·day−1 ip for 10 days), counteracted the effects of duodenal and mixed reflux on epithelial resistance and NF-κB-regulated cytokines. We conclude that gastroesophageal reflux activates the NF-κB pathway and impairs esophageal barrier function in mice and that targeting the NF-κB pathway may strengthen esophageal barrier function against reflux. PMID:23639809

  12. 2,2',4,4'-Tetrachlorobiphenyl upregulates cyclooxygenase-2 in HL-60 cells via p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and NF-κB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezdecny, Steven A.; Karmaus, Peer; Roth, Robert A.; Ganey, Patricia E.

    2007-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous, persistent environmental contaminants that affect a number of cellular systems, including neutrophils. Among the effects caused by the noncoplanar PCB 2,2',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (2244-TCB) in granulocytic HL-60 cells are increases in superoxide anion production, activation of phospholipase A 2 with subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA) and upregulation of the inflammatory gene cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). The objective of this study was to determine the signal transduction pathways involved in the upregulation of COX-2 by 2244-TCB. Treatment of HL-60 cells with 2244-TCB led to increased expression of COX-2 mRNA. This increase was prevented by the transcriptional inhibitor actinomycin D in cells pretreated with 2244-TCB for 10 min. The increase in COX-2 mRNA was associated with release of 3 H-AA, phosphorylation of p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, increased levels of nuclear NF-κB and increased superoxide anion production. Bromoenol lactone, an inhibitor of the calcium-independent phospholipase A 2 , reduced 3 H-AA release but had no effect on COX-2 mRNA, protein or activity. Pretreatment with SB-202190 or SB-203580, inhibitors of the p38 MAP kinase pathway, prevented the 2244-TCB-mediated induction of COX-2 and phosphorylation of p38 and ERK MAP kinases. These inhibitors did not alter 3 H-AA release. Treatment with PD 98059 or U 0126, inhibitors of the MAP/ERK (MEK) pathway, prevented the 2244-TCB-mediated activation of ERK but had no effect on COX-2 induction or p38 phosphorylation. 2244-TCB treatment did not affect c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation. 2244-TCB exposure increased the amount of nuclear NF-κB. This increase was prevented by pretreatment with p38 MAP kinase inhibitors, but not by pretreatment with MEK inhibitors. Pretreatment with inhibitors of NF-κB prevented the 2244-TCB-mediated induction of COX-2 mRNA. 2244-TCB

  13. Binimetinib inhibits MEK and is effective against neuroblastoma tumor cells with low NF1 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodfield, Sarah E.; Zhang, Linna; Scorsone, Kathleen A.; Liu, Yin; Zage, Peter E.

    2016-01-01

    Novel therapies are needed for children with high-risk and relapsed neuroblastoma. We hypothesized that MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK) inhibition with the novel MEK1/2 inhibitor binimetinib would be effective in neuroblastoma preclinical models. Levels of total and phosphorylated MEK and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) were examined in primary neuroblastoma tumor samples and in neuroblastoma cell lines by Western blot. A panel of established neuroblastoma tumor cell lines was treated with increasing concentrations of binimetinib, and their viability was determined using MTT assays. Western blot analyses were performed to examine changes in total and phosphorylated MEK and ERK and to measure apoptosis in neuroblastoma tumor cells after binimetinib treatment. NF1 protein levels in neuroblastoma cell lines were determined using Western blot assays. Gene expression of NF1 and MEK1 was examined in relationship to neuroblastoma patient outcomes. Both primary neuroblastoma tumor samples and cell lines showed detectable levels of total and phosphorylated MEK and ERK. IC 50 values for cells sensitive to binimetinib ranged from 8 nM to 1.16 μM, while resistant cells did not demonstrate any significant reduction in cell viability with doses exceeding 15 μM. Sensitive cells showed higher endogenous expression of phosphorylated MEK and ERK. Gene expression of NF1, but not MEK1, correlated with patient outcomes in neuroblastoma, and NF1 protein expression also correlated with responses to binimetinib. Neuroblastoma tumor cells show a range of sensitivities to the novel MEK inhibitor binimetinib. In response to binimetinib, sensitive cells demonstrated complete loss of phosphorylated ERK, while resistant cells demonstrated either incomplete loss of ERK phosphorylation or minimal effects on MEK phosphorylation, suggesting alternative mechanisms of resistance. NF1 protein expression correlated with responses to binimetinib, supporting the use of NF1 as a biomarker to identify

  14. Synergistic interaction between a PDE5 inhibitor (sildenafil) and a new adenosine A2A receptor agonist (LASSBio-1359) improves pulmonary hypertension in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Allan K; Carvalho, Fábio I; Silva, Ananssa M; Martinez, Sabrina T; Calasans-Maia, Jorge A; Fraga, Carlos M; Barreiro, Eliezer J; Zapata-Sudo, Gisele; Sudo, Roberto T

    2018-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is characterized by enhanced pulmonary vascular resistance, which causes right ventricle (RV) pressure overload and results in right sided heart failure and death. This work investigated the effectiveness of a combined therapy with PDE5 inhibitor (PDE5i) and a new adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) agonist in mitigating monocrotaline (MCT) induced PH in rats. An in vitro isobolographic analysis was performed to identify possible synergistic relaxation effect between sildenafil and LASSBio 1359 in rat pulmonary arteries (PAs). In the in vivo experiments, PH was induced in male Wistar rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg MCT. Rats were divided into the following groups: control (saline injection only), MCT + vehicle, MCT + sildenafil, MCT + LASSBio 1359 and MCT + combination of sildenafil and LASSBio 1359. Fourteen days after the MCT injection, rats were treated daily with oral administration of the regimen therapies or vehicle for 14 days. Cardiopulmonary system function and structure were evaluated by echocardiography. RV systolic pressure and PA endothelial function were measured. Isobolographic analysis showed a synergistic interaction between sildenafil and LASSBio 1359 in rat PAs. Combined therapy with sildenafil and LASSBio 1359 but not monotreatment with low dosages of either sildenafil or LASSBio 1359 ameliorated all of PH related abnormalities in cardiopulmonary function and structure in MCT challenged rats. The combination of sildenafil and LASSBio 1359 has a synergistic interaction, suggesting that combined use of these pharmacological targets may be an alternative to improve quality of life and outcomes for PH patients.

  15. Ectoderm-targeted overexpression of the glucocorticoid receptor induces hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascallana, Jose Luis; Bravo, Ana; Donet, Eva; Leis, Hugo; Lara, Maria Fernanda; Paramio, Jesús M; Jorcano, José L; Pérez, Paloma

    2005-06-01

    Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia is a human syndrome defined by maldevelopment of one or more ectodermal-derived tissues, including the epidermis and cutaneous appendices, teeth, and exocrine glands. The molecular bases of this pathology converge in a dysfunction of the transcription factor nuclear factor of the kappa-enhancer in B cells (NF-kappaB), which is essential to epithelial homeostasis and development. A number of mouse models bearing disruptions in NF-kappaB signaling have been reported to manifest defects in ectodermal derivatives. In ectoderm-targeted transgenic mice overexpressing the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) [keratin 5 (K5)-GR mice], the NF-kappaB activity is greatly decreased due to functional antagonism between GR and NF-kappaB. Here, we report that K5-GR mice exhibit multiple epithelial defects in hair follicle, tooth, and palate development. Additionally, these mice lack Meibomian glands and display underdeveloped sweat and preputial glands. These phenotypic features appear to be mediated specifically by ligand-activated GR because the synthetic analog dexamethasone induced similar defects in epithelial morphogenesis, including odontogenesis, in wild-type mice. We have focused on tooth development in K5-GR mice and found that an inhibitor of steroid synthesis partially reversed the abnormal phenotype. Immunostaining revealed reduced expression of the inhibitor of kappaB kinase subunits, IKKalpha and IKKgamma, and diminished p65 protein levels in K5-GR embryonic tooth, resulting in a significantly reduced kappaB-binding activity. Remarkably, altered NF-kappaB activity elicited by GR overexpression correlated with a dramatic decrease in the protein levels of DeltaNp63 in tooth epithelia without affecting Akt, BMP4, or Foxo3a. Given that many of the 170 clinically distinct ectodermal dysplasia syndromes still remain without cognate genes, deciphering the molecular mechanisms of this mouse model with epithelial NF-kappaB and p63 dysfunction may

  16. Identifying Neurofibromin Specific Regulatory Nodes for Therapeutic Targeting in NF1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    suggestions for reducing this burden to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports (0704...imatinib, an approved BCR-ABL inhibitor. Given the robustness of these results, we believe K562 is an ideal cancer cell line system to interrogate ...fusion gene partner NOL4L greatly increased viability in the NF1 knockout cells, suggesting that these genes normally suppress growth through

  17. Geranylgeranylacetone ameliorates lung ischemia/reperfusion injury by HSP70 and thioredoxin redox system: NF-kB pathway involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Weijun; Li, Manhui; Li, Jianxiong; Li, Chengwei; Xu, Xin; Gu, Weiqing

    2015-06-01

    Geranylgeranylacetone (GGA) has been clinically used as an anti-ulcer drug. In the present study, we explored the protective effects of GGA on lung ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) and the underlying mechanism. The results demonstrated that GGA ameliorated the lung biochemical and histological alterations induced by IRI, which was reversed by HSP70 inhibition. To further explore the mechanism of GGA action, we focused on NF-kB and thioredoxin (Trx) redox system. It was shown that GGA induced the HSP70 and Trx-1 expression, NF-kB nuclear translocation and activated thioredoxin reductase (TrxR). The Trx-1 expression and TrxR activity was suppressed by HSP70 and NF-kB inhibition, while the nuclear NF-kB p65 expression was suppressed by HSP70 inhibitor. These results indicated that GGA may protect rat lung against IRI by HSP70 and Trx redox system, in which NF-kB pathway may be involved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Spontaneous NF-κB activation by autocrine TNFα signaling: a computational analysis.

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    Jakub Pękalski

    Full Text Available NF-κB is a key transcription factor that regulates innate immune response. Its activity is tightly controlled by numerous feedback loops, including two negative loops mediated by NF-κB inducible inhibitors, IκBα and A20, which assure oscillatory responses, and by positive feedback loops arising due to the paracrine and autocrine regulation via TNFα, IL-1 and other cytokines. We study the NF-κB system of interlinked negative and positive feedback loops, combining bifurcation analysis of the deterministic approximation with stochastic numerical modeling. Positive feedback assures the existence of limit cycle oscillations in unstimulated wild-type cells and introduces bistability in A20-deficient cells. We demonstrated that cells of significant autocrine potential, i.e., cells characterized by high secretion of TNFα and its receptor TNFR1, may exhibit sustained cytoplasmic-nuclear NF-κB oscillations which start spontaneously due to stochastic fluctuations. In A20-deficient cells even a small TNFα expression rate qualitatively influences system kinetics, leading to long-lasting NF-κB activation in response to a short-pulsed TNFα stimulation. As a consequence, cells with impaired A20 expression or increased TNFα secretion rate are expected to have elevated NF-κB activity even in the absence of stimulation. This may lead to chronic inflammation and promote cancer due to the persistent activation of antiapoptotic genes induced by NF-κB. There is growing evidence that A20 mutations correlate with several types of lymphomas and elevated TNFα secretion is characteristic of many cancers. Interestingly, A20 loss or dysfunction also leaves the organism vulnerable to septic shock and massive apoptosis triggered by the uncontrolled TNFα secretion, which at high levels overcomes the antiapoptotic action of NF-κB. It is thus tempting to speculate that some cancers of deregulated NF-κB signaling may be prone to the pathogen-induced apoptosis.

  19. Synergistic immunosuppressive effects of the mTOR inhibitor sirolimus and the phytochemical curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deters, M; Hütten, H; Kaever, V

    2013-01-15

    The immunosuppressant sirolimus and curcumin, the main principle of the turmeric spice, have shown antiproliferative effects on many human and not-human cell lines. Whereas the antiproliferative effect of sirolimus is mainly mediated by inhibition of mTOR, curcumin is described to affect many molecular targets which makes it unpredictable to appraise if the effects of these both substances on cell proliferation and especially on immunosuppression are additive or synergistic. To answer this question we investigated the interaction of both these substances on OKT3-induced human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation. OKT3-induced human PBMC proliferation was determined by measuring (3)H-thymidine incorporation. Influence of curcumin on interleukin-2 (IL-2) release and IκB-phosphorylation in PBMC was determined by ELISA and western blot, respectively. Curcumin-induced apoptosis and necrosis was analyzed by FACS analysis. Whereas curcumin completely inhibited OKT3-induced PBMC proliferation in a dose-dependent manner with an IC(50) of 2.8 μM, sirolimus could reduce PBMC proliferation dose-dependently only to a minimum of 28% at a concentration of 5 ng/ml (IC(50) 1.1 ng/ml). When curcumin was combined at concentrations of 1.25-2.5 μM with sirolimus at concentrations from 0.63 to 1.25 ng/ml the effects were synergistic. Combination of curcumin (1.25-2.5 μM) with sirolimus (5 ng/ml) showed additive effects. The effects after combination of curcumin at 5 μM with each sirolimus concentration and sirolimus at 10 ng/ml with each curcumin concentration were presumably antagonistic. We conclude that the immunosuppressive effects of curcumin and sirolimus in low concentrations are synergistic in OKT3-activated PBMC. Whether curcumin and sirolimus have also synergistic antiproliferative effects in tumor cells has to be shown in further experiments including animal models. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Curcumin Enhances Cytotoxic Effects of Bortezomib in Human Multiple Myeloma H929 Cells: Potential Roles of NF-κB/JNK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Xian Bai

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Combined curcumin and PS-341 treatment has been reported to enhance cytotoxicity and minimize adverse effects through ERK and p38MAPK mechanisms in human multiple myeloma cells. However, whether JNK plays similar role in this process remains unclear. In the present study, we found combined treatment altered NF-κB p65 expressions and distributions in multiple myeloma H929 cells. Western blot analysis showed combined treatment inactivated NF-κB while activated JNK signaling. Pre-treatment with JNK inhibitor SP600125 could attenuate NF-κB inactivation and restored H929 cells’ survival. These results suggested that curcumin might enhance the cytotoxicity of PS-341 by interacting with NF-κB, at least in part, through JNK mechanism.

  1. Reduced resting potentials in dystrophic (mdx) muscle fibers are secondary to NF-κB-dependent negative modulation of ouabain sensitive Na+-K+ pump activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, M T; Cottey, E; Cottey, A; Stefanski, C; Carlson, C G

    2011-04-15

    To examine potential mechanisms for the reduced resting membrane potentials (RPs) of mature dystrophic (mdx) muscle fibers, the Na(+)-K(+) pump inhibitor ouabain was added to freshly isolated nondystrophic and mdx fibers. Ouabain produced a 71% smaller depolarization in mdx fibers than in nondystrophic fibers, increased the [Na(+)](i) in nondystrophic fibers by 40%, but had no significant effect on the [Na(+)](i) of mdx fibers, which was approximately double that observed in untreated nondystrophic fibers. Western blots indicated no difference in total and phosphorylated Na(+)-K(+) ATPase catalytic α1 subunit between nondystrophic and mdx muscle. Examination of the effects of the NF-κB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) indicated that direct application of the drug slowly hyperpolarized mdx fibers (7 mV in 90 min) but had no effect on nondystrophic fibers. Pretreatment with ouabain abolished this hyperpolarization, and pretreatment with PDTC restored ouabain-induced depolarization and reduced [Na(+)](i). Administration of an NF-κB inhibitor that utilizes a different mechanism for reducing nuclear NF-κB activation, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), also hyperpolarized mdx fibers. These results suggest that in situ Na(+)-K(+) pump activity is depressed in mature dystrophic fibers by NF-κB dependent modulators, and that this reduced pump activity contributes to the weakness characteristic of dystrophic muscle. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of returning NF concentrate on the MBR-NF process treating antibiotic production wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Cheng, Yutao; Wang, Jianxing; Zhang, Junya; Liu, Jibao; Yu, Dawei; Li, Mingyue; Wei, Yuansong

    2016-07-01

    The optimization of the nanofiltration (NF) concentrate backflow ratio (R cb) and the influence of the NF concentrate on the performance of membrane bioreactor-nanofiltration (MBR-NF) process treating antibiotic production wastewater were investigated on a laboratory scale. The R cb was optimized at 60 % based on the removal rates of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and NH4 (+)-N by MBR. Data analyses indicated that salinity brought by NF concentrate is the major driver leading to the decrease of sludge activity, especially at a high R cb. EPS analysis showed that electric conductivity (EC), proteins in soluble microbial products (SMP), and SMP brought by NF concentrate are the dominant factors causing the severe membrane fouling in MBR. Furthermore, undegradable substances including fulvic acid-like and humic acid-like compounds accumulated in NF concentrate showed significant influence on fouling of NF. MBR could well degrade small MW compounds in NF concentrate, which confirmed the enhancement of organic removal efficiency by recycling the NF concentrate to MBR. The MBR-NF process showed a relatively stable performance at the R cb of 60 % (volume reduction factor (VRF) = 5), and the NF permeate could satisfy the water quality standard for fermentation process with a water recovery rate of 90.9 %.

  3. NF-κB inhibitors that prevent foam cell formation and atherosclerotic plaque accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, Jesse D; Elias, Michael G; Dellinger, Anthony L; Kepley, Christopher L

    2017-08-01

    The transformation of monocyte-derived macrophages into lipid-laden foam cells is one inflammatory process underlying atherosclerotic disease. Previous studies have demonstrated that fullerene derivatives (FDs) have inflammation-blunting properties. Thus, it was hypothesized that FD could inhibit the transformation process underlying foam cell formation. Fullerene derivatives inhibited the phorbol myristic acid/oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced differentiation of macrophages into foam cells as determined by lipid staining and morphology.Lipoprotein-induced generation of TNF-α, C5a-induced MC activation, ICAM-1 driven adhesion, and CD36 expression were significantly inhibited in FD treated cells compared to non-treated cells. Inhibition appeared to be mediated through the NF-κB pathway as FD reduced expression of NF-κB and atherosclerosis-associated genes. Compared to controls, FD dramatically inhibited plaque formation in arteries of apolipoprotein E null mice. Thus, FD may be an unrecognized therapy to prevent atherosclerotic lesions via inhibition of foam cell formation and MC stabilization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1 tax requires CADM1/TSLC1 for inactivation of the NF-κB inhibitor A20 and constitutive NF-κB signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeshree Pujari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Persistent activation of NF-κB by the Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1 oncoprotein, Tax, is vital for the development and pathogenesis of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP. K63-linked polyubiquitinated Tax activates the IKK complex in the plasma membrane-associated lipid raft microdomain. Tax also interacts with TAX1BP1 to inactivate the NF-κB negative regulatory ubiquitin-editing A20 enzyme complex. However, the molecular mechanisms of Tax-mediated IKK activation and A20 protein complex inactivation are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrated that membrane associated CADM1 (Cell adhesion molecule1 recruits Ubc13 to Tax, causing K63-linked polyubiquitination of Tax, and IKK complex activation in the membrane lipid raft. The c-terminal cytoplasmic tail containing PDZ binding motif of CADM1 is critical for Tax to maintain persistent NF-κB activation. Finally, Tax failed to inactivate the NF-κB negative regulator ubiquitin-editing enzyme A20 complex, and activate the IKK complex in the lipid raft in absence of CADM1. Our results thus indicate that CADM1 functions as a critical scaffold molecule for Tax and Ubc13 to form a cellular complex with NEMO, TAX1BP1 and NRP, to activate the IKK complex in the plasma membrane-associated lipid rafts, to inactivate NF-κB negative regulators, and maintain persistent NF-κB activation in HTLV-1 infected cells.

  5. The crosstalk between α-irradiated Beas-2B cells and its bystander U937 cells through MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jiamei; Yuan, Dexiao; Xiao, Linlin; Tu, Wenzhi; Dong, Chen; Liu, Weili; Shao, Chunlin

    2016-01-01

    Although accumulated evidence suggests that α-particle irradiation induced bystander effect may relevant to lung injury and cancer risk assessment, the exact mechanisms are not yet elucidated. In the present study, a cell co-culture system was used to investigate the interaction between α-particle irradiated human bronchial epithelial cells (Beas-2B) and its bystander macrophage U937 cells. It was found that the cell co-culture amplified the detrimental effects of α-irradiation including cell viability decrease and apoptosis promotion on both irradiated cells and bystander cells in a feedback loop which was closely relevant to the activation of MAPK and NF-κB pathways in the bystander U937 cells. When these two pathways in U937 cells were disturbed by special pharmacological inhibitors before cell co-culture, it was found that a NF-κB inhibitor of BAY 11-7082 further enhanced the proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction in bystander U937 cells, but MAPK inhibitors of SP600125 and SB203580 protected cells from viability loss and apoptosis and U0126 presented more beneficial effect on cell protection. For α-irradiated epithelial cells, the activation of NF-κB and MAPK pathways in U937 cells participated in detrimental cellular responses since the above inhibitors could largely attenuate cell viability loss and apoptosis of irradiated cells. Our results demonstrated that there are bilateral bystander responses between irradiated lung epithelial cells and macrophages through MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways, which accounts for the enhancement of α-irradiation induced damage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Memory extinction entails the inhibition of the transcription factor NF-kappaB.

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    Emiliano Merlo

    Full Text Available In contextual memories, an association between a positive or negative reinforcement and the contextual cues where the reinforcement occurs is formed. The re-exposure to the context without reinforcement can lead to memory extinction or reconsolidation, depending on the number of events or duration of a single event of context re-exposure. Extinction involves the temporary waning of the previously acquired conditioned response. The molecular processes underlying extinction and the mechanisms which determine if memory will reconsolidate or extinguish after retrieval are not well characterized, particularly the role of transcription factors and gene expression. Here we studied the participation of a transcription factor, NF-kappaB, in memory extinction. In the crab context-signal memory, the activation of NF-kappaB plays a critical role in consolidation and reconsolidation, memory processes that are well characterized in this model. The administration of a NF-kappaB inhibitor, sulfasalazine prior to extinction session impeded spontaneous recovery. Moreover, reinstatement experiments showed that the original memory was not affected and that NF-kappaB inhibition by sulfasalazine impaired spontaneous recovery strengthening the ongoing memory extinction process. Interestingly, in animals with fully consolidated memory, a brief re-exposure to the training context induced neuronal NF-kappaB activation and reconsolidation, while prolonged re-exposure induced NF-kappaB inhibition and memory extinction. These data constitutes a novel insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in the switch between memory reconsolidation and extinction. Moreover, we propose the inhibition of NF-kappaB as the engaged mechanism underlying extinction, supporting a novel approach for the pharmacological enhancement of this memory process. The accurate description of the molecular mechanisms that support memory extinction is potentially useful for developing new strategies

  7. Soyasaponins can blunt inflammation by inhibiting the reactive oxygen species-mediated activation of PI3K/Akt/NF-kB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Longying; Chen, Jiading; Sun, Suxia; Mao, Limei; Chu, Xinwei; Deng, Hong; Cai, Junwei; Li, Xuefeng; Liu, Zhenqi; Cao, Wenhong

    2014-01-01

    We and others have recently shown that soyasaponins abundant in soybeans can decrease inflammation by suppressing the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB)-mediated inflammation. However, the exact molecular mechanisms by which soyasaponins inhibit the NF-kB pathway have not been established. In this study in macrophages, soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) inhibited the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced release of inflammatory marker prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) to a similar extent as the NF-kB inhibitor (BAY117082). Soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) also suppressed the LPS-induced expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), another inflammatory marker, in a dose-dependent manner by inhibiting NF-kB activation. In defining the associated mechanisms, we found that soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) blunted the LPS-induced IKKα/β phosphorylation, IkB phosphorylation and degradation, and NF-kB p65 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. In studying the upstream targets of soyasaponins on the NF-kB pathway, we found that soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) suppressed the LPS-induced activation of PI3K/Akt similarly as the PI3K inhibitor LY294002, which alone blocked the LPS-induced activation of NF-kB. Additionally, soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) reduced the LPS-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to the same extent as the anti-oxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine, which alone inhibited the LPS-induced phosphorylation of Akt, IKKα/β, IkBα, and p65, transactivity of NF-kB, PGE2 production, and malondialdehyde production. Finally, our results show that soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) elevated SOD activity and the GSH/GSSG ratio. Together, these results show that soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) can blunt inflammation by inhibiting the ROS-mediated activation of the PI3K/Akt/NF-kB pathway.

  8. NF-κB Signaling Regulates Epstein–Barr Virus BamHI-Q-Driven EBNA1 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob J. A. Verhoeven

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Epstein–Barr virus (EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1 is one of the few viral proteins expressed by EBV in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC, most likely because of its essential role in maintaining the viral genome in EBV-infected cells. In NPC, EBNA1 expression is driven by the BamHI-Q promoter (Qp, which is regulated by both cellular and viral factors. We previously determined that the expression of another group of EBV transcripts, BamHI-A rightward transcripts (BARTs, is associated with constitutively activated nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB signaling in NPC cells. Here, we show that, like the EBV BART promoter, the EBV Qp also responds to NF-κB signaling. NF-κB p65, but not p50, can activate Qp in vitro, and NF-κB signaling regulates Qp-EBNA1 expression in NPC cells, as well as in other EBV-infected epithelial cells. The introduction of mutations in the putative NF-κB site reduced Qp activation by the NF-κB p65 subunit. Binding of p65 to Qp was shown by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP analysis, while electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs demonstrated that p50 can also bind to Qp. Inhibition of NF-κB signaling by the IκB kinase inhibitor PS-1145 resulted in the downregulation of Qp-EBNA1 expression in C666-1 NPC cells. Since EBNA1 has been reported to block p65 activation by inhibiting IKKα/β through an unknown mechanism, we suggest that, in NPC, NF-κB signaling and EBNA1 may form a regulatory loop which supports EBV latent gene expression, while also limiting NF-κB activity. These findings emphasize the role of NF-κB signaling in the regulation of EBV latency in EBV-associated tumors.

  9. When ubiquitin meets NF-κB: a trove for anti-cancer drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhao-Hui; Shi, Yuling

    2013-01-01

    During the last two decades, the studies on ubiquitination in regulating transcription factor NF-κB activation have elucidated the expanding role of ubiquitination in modulating cellular events by non-proteolytic mechanisms, as well as by proteasomal degradation. The significance of ubiquitination has also been recognized in regulating gene transcription, epigenetic modifications, kinase activation, DNA repair and subcellular translocation. This progress has been translated into novel strategies for developing anti-cancer therapeutics, exemplified by the success of the first FDA-approved proteasome inhibitor drug Bortezomib. Here we discuss the current understanding of the ubiquitin-proteasome system and how it is involved in regulating NF-κB signaling pathways in response to a variety of stimuli. We also focus on the recent progress of anti-cancer drug development targeting various steps of ubiquitination process, and the potential of these drugs in cancer treatment as related to their impact on NF-κB activation.

  10. The glutathione synthesis inhibitor buthionine sulfoximine synergistically enhanced melphalan activity against preclinical models of multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagde, A; Singh, H; Kang, M H; Reynolds, C P

    2014-01-01

    Melphalan (L-PAM) has been an integral part of multiple myeloma (MM) treatment as a conditioning regimen before stem cell transplant (SCT). After initial response, most treated patients experience relapse with an aggressive phenotype. Increased glutathione (GSH) in MM may mediate resistance to L-PAM. We demonstrated that the GSH synthesis inhibitor buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) synergistically enhanced L-PAM activity (inducing 2–4 logs of cell kill) against nine MM cell lines (also in the presence of marrow stroma or cytokines) and in seven primary MM samples (combination indices <1.0). In MM cell lines, BSO significantly (P<0.05) depleted GSH, increased L-PAM-induced single-strand DNA breaks, mitochondrial depolarization, caspase cleavage and apoptosis. L-PAM depleted GSH, but GSH rapidly recovered in a L-PAM-resistant MM cell line unless also treated with BSO. Treatment with N-acetylcysteine antagonized BSO+L-PAM cytotoxicity without increasing GSH. In human MM xenografted into beige-nude-xid mice, BSO significantly depleted MM intracellular GSH and significantly increased apoptosis compared with L-PAM alone. BSO+L-PAM achieved complete responses (CRs) in three MM xenograft models including maintained CRs >100 days, and significantly increased the median event-free survival relative to L-PAM alone. Combining BSO with L-PAM warrants clinical testing in advanced MM

  11. First Study of Poly(3-Methylene-2-Pyrrolidone) as a Kinetic Hydrate Inhibitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Eirin; Heyns, Ingrid Marié; von Solms, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Formation of gas hydrates is a problem in the petroleum industry where the gas hydrates can cause blockage of the flowlines. Kinetic hydrate inhibitors (KHIs) are water-soluble polymers, sometimes used in combination synergistically or with non-polymeric synergists, that are used to prevent gas h...... are preferable in KHI polymers as long as they are water-soluble at hydrate-forming temperatures.......Formation of gas hydrates is a problem in the petroleum industry where the gas hydrates can cause blockage of the flowlines. Kinetic hydrate inhibitors (KHIs) are water-soluble polymers, sometimes used in combination synergistically or with non-polymeric synergists, that are used to prevent gas...... hydrate blockages. They have been used in the field successfully since 1995. In this paper, we present the first KHI results for the polymer, poly(3-methylene-2-pyrrolidone) (P(3M2P)), which is structurally similar to poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP), one of the first KHIs to be discovered. 3M2P polymers...

  12. TRIM29 Overexpression Promotes Proliferation and Survival of Bladder Cancer Cells through NF-κB Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shu-Tao; Liu, Sheng-Ye; Wu, Bin

    2016-10-01

    TRIM29 overexpression has been reported in several human malignancies and showed correlation with cancer cell malignancy. The aim of the current study is to examine its clinical significance and biological roles in human bladder cancer tissues and cell lines. A total of 102 cases of bladder cancer tissues were examined for TRIM29 expression by immunohistochemistry. siRNA and plasmid transfection were performed in 5637 and BIU-87 cell lines. Cell Counting Kit-8, flow cytometry, western blot, and real-time polymerase chain reaction were performed to examine its biological roles and mechanism in bladder cancer cells. We found that TRIM29 overexpression showed correlation with invading depth (p=0.0087). Knockdown of TRIM29 expression in bladder cancer cell line 5637 inhibited cell growth rate and cell cycle transition while its overexpression in BIU-87 cells accelerated cell proliferation and cell cycle progression. TRIM29 overexpression also inhibited cell apoptosis induced by cisplatin. In addition, we demonstrated that TRIM29 depletion decreased while its overexpression led to upregulated expression of cyclin D1, cyclin E, and Bcl-2. We also showed that TRIM29 knockdown inhibited protein kinase C (PKC) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling while its overexpression stimulated the PKC and NF-κB pathways. BAY 11-7082 (NF-κB inhibitor) partly attenuated the effect of TRIM29 on expression of cyclin and Bcl-2. Treatment with PKC inhibitor staurosporine resulted in ameliorated TRIM29 induced activation of NF-κB. The current study demonstrated that TRIM29 upregulates cyclin and Bcl family proteins level to facilitate malignant cell growth and inhibit drug-induced apoptosis in bladder cancer, possibly through PKC-NF-κB signaling pathways.

  13. Epipolythiodiketopiperazines from the Marine Derived Fungus Dichotomomyces cejpii with NF-κB Inhibitory Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Harms

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Ascomycota Dichotomomyces cejpii was isolated from the marine sponge Callyspongia cf. C. flammea. A new gliotoxin derivative, 6-acetylmonodethiogliotoxin (1 was obtained from fungal extracts. Compounds 2 and 3, methylthio-gliotoxin derivatives were formerly only known as semi-synthetic compounds and are here described as natural products. Additionally the polyketide heveadride (4 was isolated. Compounds 1, 2 and 4 dose-dependently down-regulated TNFα-induced NF-κB activity in human chronic myeloid leukemia cells with IC50s of 38.5 ± 1.2 µM, 65.7 ± 2.0 µM and 82.7 ± 11.3 µM, respectively. The molecular mechanism was studied with the most potent compound 1 and results indicate downstream inhibitory effects targeting binding of NF-κB to DNA. Compound 1 thus demonstrates potential of epimonothiodiketopiperazine-derived compounds for the development of NF-κB inhibitors.

  14. Hapalindole H Induces Apoptosis as an Inhibitor of NF-ĸB and Affects the Intrinsic Mitochondrial Pathway in PC-3 Androgen-insensitive Prostate Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña, Ulyana Muñoz; Mo, Shunyan; Zi, Jiachen; Orjala, Jimmy; DE Blanco, Esperanza J Carcache

    2018-06-01

    Prostate cancer presents the highest incidence rates among all cancers in men. Hapalindole H (Hap H), isolated from Fischerella muscicola (UTEX strain number LB1829) as part of our natural product anticancer drug discovery program, was found to be significantly active against prostate cancer cells. In this study, Hap H was tested for nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-ĸB) inhibition and selective cytotoxic activity against different cancer cell lines. The apoptotic effect was assessed on PC-3 prostate cancer cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis. The underlying mechanism that induced apoptosis was studied and the effect of Hap H on mitochondria was evaluated and characterized using western blot and flow cytometric analysis. Hap H was identified as a potent NF-ĸB inhibitor (0.76 μM) with selective cytotoxicity against the PC-3 prostate cancer cell line (0.02 μM). The apoptotic effect was studied on PC-3 cells. The results showed that treatment of PC-3 cells with Hap H reduced the formation of NAD(P)H, suggesting that the function of the outer mitochondrial membrane was negatively affected. Thus, the mitochondrial transmembrane potential was assessed in Hap H treated cells. The results showed that the outer mitochondrial membrane was disrupted as an increased amount of JC-1 monomers were detected in treated cells (78.3%) when compared to untreated cells (10.1%), also suggesting that a large number of treated cells went into an apoptotic state. Hap H was found to have potent NF-ĸB p65-inhibitory activity and induced apoptosis through the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway in hormone-independent PC-3 prostate cancer cells. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  15. Molecular Determinants of Hormone-Refractory Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Suzuki Y, Honda G, et al. Large-scale identification and characterization of human genes that activate NF- kappaB and MAPK signaling pathways. Oncogene...2003 May 22;22(21):3307-18. Mendiratta P, et al. Genomic strategy for targeting therapy in castration-resistant prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2009 Apr

  16. Inhibition of NF-κB activity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy by modulating cytokines and attenuating oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Xiao-Jing [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi' an 710061 (China); Zhang, Dong-Mei [Department of Physiology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Jia, Lin-Lin; Qi, Jie; Song, Xin-Ai; Tan, Hong [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi' an 710061 (China); Cui, Wei [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi' an 710061 (China); Chen, Wensheng [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Zhu, Guo-Qing [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease and Molecular Intervention, Department of Physiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Qin, Da-Nian, E-mail: dnqin@stu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041 (China); Kang, Yu-Ming, E-mail: ykang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi' an 710061 (China)

    2015-05-01

    We hypothesized that chronic inhibition of NF-κB activity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) delays the progression of hypertension and attenuates cardiac hypertrophy by up-regulating anti-inflammatory cytokines, reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs), attenuating nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 and NAD(P)H oxidase in the PVN of young spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Young normotensive Wistar–Kyoto (WKY) and SHR rats received bilateral PVN infusions with NF–κB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) or vehicle for 4 weeks. SHR rats had higher mean arterial pressure and cardiac hypertrophy as indicated by increased whole heart weight/body weight ratio, whole heart weight/tibia length ratio, left ventricular weight/tibia length ratio, cardiomyocyte diameters of the left cardiac ventricle, and mRNA expressions of cardiac atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and beta-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC). These SHR rats had higher PVN levels of proinflammatory cytokines (PICs), reactive oxygen species (ROS), the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), NAD(P)H oxidase activity, mRNA expression of NOX-2 and NOX-4, and lower PVN IL-10, and higher plasma levels of PICs and NE, and lower plasma IL-10. PVN infusion of NF-κB inhibitor PDTC attenuated all these changes. These findings suggest that NF-κB activation in the PVN increases sympathoexcitation and hypertensive response, which are associated with the increases of PICs and oxidative stress in the PVN; PVN inhibition of NF-κB activity attenuates PICs and oxidative stress in the PVN, thereby attenuates hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. - Highlights: • Spontaneously hypertensive rats exhibit neurohormonal excitation in the PVN. • PVN inhibition of NF-κB attenuates hypertension-induced cardiac hypertrophy. • PVN inhibition of NF-κB attenuates hypertension-induced neurohormonal excitation. • PVN inhibition of NF-κB attenuates hypertension-induced imbalance of cytokines

  17. Asthmatic airway smooth muscle CXCL10 production: mitogen-activated protein kinase JNK involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrashdan, Yazan A.; Alkhouri, Hatem; Chen, Emily; Lalor, Daniel J.; Poniris, Maree; Henness, Sheridan; Brightling, Christopher E.; Burgess, Janette K.; Armour, Carol L.; Ammit, Alaina J.

    2012-01-01

    CXCL10 (IP10) is involved in mast cell migration to airway smooth muscle (ASM) bundles in asthma. We aimed to investigate the role of cytokine-induced MAPK activation in CXCL10 production by ASM cells from people with and without asthma. Confluent growth-arrested ASM cells were treated with inhibitors of the MAPKs ERK, p38, and JNK and transcription factor NF-κB, or vehicle, and stimulated with IL-1β, TNF-α, or IFN-γ, alone or combined (cytomix). CXCL10 mRNA and protein, JNK, NF-κB p65 phosphorylation, and Iκ-Bα protein degradation were assessed using real-time PCR, ELISA, and immunoblotting, respectively. Cytomix, IL-1β, and TNF-α induced CXCL10 mRNA expression more rapidly in asthmatic than nonasthmatic ASM cells. IL-1β and/or TNF-α combined with IFN-γ synergistically increased asthmatic ASM cell CXCL10 release. Inhibitor effects were similar in asthmatic and nonasthmatic cells, but cytomix-induced release was least affected, with only JNK and NF-κB inhibitors halving it. Notably, JNK phosphorylation was markedly less in asthmatic compared with nonasthmatic cells. However, in both, the JNK inhibitor SP600125 reduced JNK phosphorylation and CXCL10 mRNA levels but did not affect CXCL10 mRNA stability or Iκ-Bα degradation. Together, the JNK and NF-κB inhibitors completely inhibited their CXCL10 release. We concluded that, in asthmatic compared with nonasthmatic ASM cells, JNK activation was reduced and CXCL10 gene expression was more rapid following cytomix stimulation. However, in both, JNK activation did not regulate early events leading to NF-κB activation. Thus JNK and NF-κB provide independent therapeutic targets for limiting CXCL10 production and mast cell migration to the ASM in asthma. PMID:22387292

  18. Canonical and Non-Canonical NF-κB Signaling Promotes Breast Cancer Tumor-Initiating Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendellen, Megan F.; Bradford, Jennifer W.; Lawrence, Cortney L.; Clark, Kelly S.; Baldwin, Albert S.

    2014-01-01

    Tumor-initiating cells (TICs) are a sub-population of cells that exhibit a robust ability to self-renew and contribute to the formation of primary tumors, the relapse of previously treated tumors, and the development of metastases. TICs have been identified in various tumors, including those of the breast, and are particularly enriched in the basal-like and claudin-low subtypes of breast cancer. The signaling pathways that contribute to the function and maintenance of TICs are under intense study. We explored the potential involvement of the NF-κB family of transcription factors in TICs in cell lines that are representative of basal-like and claudin-low breast cancer. NF-κB was found to be activated in breast cancer cells that form tumorspheres efficiently. Moreover, both canonical and non-canonical NF-κB signaling is required for these cells to self-renew in vitro and to form xenograft tumors efficiently in vivo using limiting dilutions of cells. Consistent with this, canonical and non-canonical NF-κB signaling is activated in TICs isolated from breast cancer cell lines. Experimental results indicate that NF-κB promotes the function of TICs by stimulating epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and by upregulating the expression of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6. The results suggest the use of NF-κB inhibitors for clinical therapy of certain breast cancers. PMID:23474754

  19. Redox-Regulated Pathway of Tyrosine Phosphorylation Underlies NF-κB Induction by an Atypical Pathway Independent of the 26S Proteasome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Sarah; Ponnappan, Subramaniam; Ponnappan, Usha

    2015-01-01

    Alternative redox stimuli such as pervanadate or hypoxia/reoxygenation, induce transcription factor NF-κB by phospho-tyrosine-dependent and proteasome-independent mechanisms. While considerable attention has been paid to the absence of proteasomal regulation of tyrosine phosphorylated IκBα, there is a paucity of information regarding proteasomal regulation of signaling events distinct from tyrosine phosphorylation of IκBα. To delineate roles for the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in the phospho-tyrosine dependent mechanism of NF-κB induction, we employed the proteasome inhibitor, Aclacinomycin, and the phosphotyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, pervanadate (PV). Results from these studies demonstrate that phospho-IκBα (Tyr-42) is not subject to proteasomal degradation in a murine stromal epithelial cell line, confirming results previously reported. Correspondingly, proteasome inhibition had no discernable effect on the key signaling intermediaries, Src and ERK1/2, involved in the phospho-tyrosine mechanisms regulating PV-mediated activation of NF-κB. Consistent with previous reports, a significant redox imbalance leading to the activation of tyrosine kinases, as occurs with pervanadate, is required for the induction of NF-κB. Strikingly, our studies demonstrate that proteasome inhibition can potentiate oxidative stress associated with PV-stimulation without impacting kinase activation, however, other cellular implications for this increase in intracellular oxidation remain to be fully delineated. PMID:25671697

  20. Interferon-γ and NF-κB mediate nitric oxide production by mesenchymal stromal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, I.; Ozaki, K.; Sato, K.; Meguro, A.; Tatara, R.; Hatanaka, K.; Nagai, T.; Muroi, K.; Ozawa, K.

    2007-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been shown to have an immunosuppressive effect. Previously, we demonstrated that nitric oxide (NO) is one of the immunomodulatory mediators of MSCs. We herein show that primary mouse bone marrow MSCs and three cell lines that mimic MSCs suppress both differentiation and proliferation in Th1 condition, whereas the suppression in Th2 condition is mild. NO production is inversely correlated with T cell proliferation in Th1 and Th2 conditions. NO is highly induced in Th1 and minimally induced in Th2. Moreover, an inhibitor of NO synthase restores both proliferation and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production in Th1 condition. Furthermore, an anti-IFN-γ antibody strongly inhibits NO production and an inhibitor of NF-κB reduces the level of induction of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in MSCs. Taken together, our results suggest that NO plays a significant role in the modification of Th1 and Th2 differentiation by MSCs, and that both IFN-γ and NF-κB are critical for NO production by MSCs

  1. Th17-type cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-α synergistically activate STAT3 and NF-kB to promote colorectal cancer cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Simone, V; Franzè, E; Ronchetti, G; Colantoni, A; Fantini, M C; Di Fusco, D; Sica, G S; Sileri, P; MacDonald, T T; Pallone, F; Monteleone, G; Stolfi, C

    2015-07-01

    Colorectal cancers (CRCs) often show a dense infiltrate of cytokine-producing immune/inflammatory cells. The exact contribution of each immune cell subset and cytokine in the activation of the intracellular pathways sustaining CRC cell growth is not understood. Herein, we isolate tumor-infiltrating leukocytes (TILs) and lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMCs) from the tumor area and the macroscopically unaffected, adjacent, colonic mucosa of patients who underwent resection for sporadic CRC and show that the culture supernatants of TILs, but not of LPMCs, potently enhance the growth of human CRC cell lines through the activation of the oncogenic transcription factors signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB). Characterization of immune cell complexity of TILs and LPMCs reveals no differences in the percentages of T cells, natural killer T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, macrophages and B cells. However, T cells from TILs show a functional switch compared with those from LPMCs to produce large amounts of T helper type 17 (Th17)-related cytokines (that is, interleukin-17A (IL-17A), IL-17F, IL-21 and IL-22), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and IL-6. Individual neutralization of IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22, TNF-α or IL-6 does not change TIL-derived supernatant-driven STAT3 and NF-kB activation, as well as their proproliferative effect in CRC cells. In contrast, simultaneous neutralization of both IL-17A and TNF-α, which abrogates NF-kB signaling, and IL-22 and IL-6, which abrogates STAT3 signaling, reduces the mitogenic effect of supernatants in CRC cells. IL-17A, IL-21, IL-22, TNF-α and IL-6 are also produced in excess in the early colonic lesions in a mouse model of sporadic CRC, associated with enhanced STAT3/NF-kB activation. Mice therapeutically given BP-1-102, an orally bioavailable compound targeting STAT3/NF-kB activation and cross-talk, exhibit reduced colon tumorigenesis and diminished expression of

  2. Investigations on GSK-3β/NF-kB signaling in stress and stress adaptive behavior in electric foot shock subjected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, Anjana; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh

    2016-04-01

    The present study was designed to explore the role of GSK-3β and NF-kB signaling in electric foot shock-induced stress and stress adaptation. Mice were subjected to foot shocks of 0.5mA intensity and 1s duration of 1h to produce acute stress. Animals were exposed to the same stressor for 5 days to induce stress adaptation. The behavioral alterations were assessed using the actophotometer, hole board, open field and social interaction tests. The serum corticosterone levels were assessed as a marker of the HPA axis. The levels of total GSK-3β, p-GSK-3β-S9 and p-NF-kB were determined in the hippocampus, frontal cortex and amygdala. Acute electric foot shock stress produced behavioral and biochemical changes; decreased the levels of p-GSK-3β-S9, produced no change in total GSK-3β levels and increased p-NF-kB levels in the brain. However, repeated exposure of foot shock stress restored the behavioral and biochemical changes along with normalization of p-GSK-3β-S9 and p-NF-kB levels. Administration of AR-A01, a selective GSK-3β inhibitor, or diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DDTC), a selective NF-kB inhibitor, diminished acute stress-induced behavioral and biochemical changes. Furthermore, AR-A014418 normalized acute stress-induced alterations in p-GSK-3β-S9 and p-NF-kB levels, however, DDTC selectively restored NF-kB levels without any change in p-GSK-3β-S9 levels. It probably suggests that NF-kB is a downstream mediator of the GSK-3 signaling cascade. It may conclude that acute stress associated decrease in p-GSK-3β-S9 and increase in p-NF-kB levels in the brain contribute in the development of behavioral and biochemical alterations and normalization of GSK-3β/NF-kB signaling may contribute in stress adaptive behavior in response to repeated electric foot shock-subjected mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Interleukin 6 promotes endometrial cancer growth through an autocrine feedback loop involving ERK–NF-κB signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Che, Qi; Liu, Bin-Ya; Wang, Fang-Yuan; He, Yin-Yan; Lu, Wen; Liao, Yun [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shanghai First People’s Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Gu, Wei, E-mail: krisgu70@163.com [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Wan, Xiao-Ping, E-mail: wanxp@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shanghai First Maternity and Infant Hospital Affiliated to Tong Ji University, Shanghai (China)

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • IL-6 could promote endometrial cancer cells proliferation. • IL-6 promotes its own production through an autocrine feedback loop. • ERK and NF-κB pathway inhibitors inhibit IL-6 production and tumor growth. • IL-6 secretion relies on the activation of ERK–NF-κB pathway axis. • An orthotopic nude endometrial carcinoma model confirms the effect of IL-6. - Abstract: Interleukin (IL)-6 as an inflammation factor, has been proved to promote cancer proliferation in several human cancers. However, its role in endometrial cancer has not been studied clearly. Previously, we demonstrated that IL-6 promoted endometrial cancer progression through local estrogen biosynthesis. In this study, we proved that IL-6 could directly stimulate endometrial cancer cells proliferation and an autocrine feedback loop increased its production even after the withdrawal of IL-6 from the medium. Next, we analyzed the mechanism underlying IL-6 production in the feedback loop and found that its production and IL-6-stimulated cell proliferation were effectively blocked by pharmacologic inhibitors of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and extra-cellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Importantly, activation of ERK was upstream of the NF-κB pathways, revealing the hierarchy of this event. Finally, we used an orthotopic nude endometrial carcinoma model to confirm the effects of IL-6 on the tumor progression. Taken together, these data indicate that IL-6 promotes endometrial carcinoma growth through an expanded autocrine regulatory loop and implicate the ERK–NF-κB pathway as a critical mediator of IL-6 production, implying IL-6 to be an important therapeutic target in endometrial carcinoma.

  4. Generation and quenching of NF(a) and NF(b) molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setser, D.W.; Cha, H.; Quinones, E.; Du, K.

    1987-01-01

    The Ar( 3 Po,2) + NF 2 and 2F + HN 3 reactions have been developed as sources of NF(b 1 Σ + ) and NF(a 1 Δ) molecules, respectively, in a flow reactor. The decay kinetics for these molecules in the presence of added reagent can be studied using standard flow reactor techniques. Room temperature quenching rate constants for both molecules are reported for several reagents and compared to results for the isoelectronic O 2 (a) and O 2 (b) molecules

  5. Histamine Induces Bovine Rumen Epithelial Cell Inflammatory Response via NF-κB Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Sun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA is a common disease in high-producing lactating cows. Rumenitis is the initial insult of SARA and is associated with the high concentrations of histamine produced in the rumen of dairy cows during SARA. However, the exact mechanism remains unclear. The objective of the current study is to investigate whether histamine induces inflammation of rumen epithelial cells and the underlying mechanism of this process. Methods: Bovine rumen epithelial cells were cultured and treated with different concentrations of histamine and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC, an NF-κB inhibitor cultured in different pH medium (pH 7.2 or 5.5. qRT-PCR, Western-blotting, ELISA and immunocytofluorescence were used to evaluate whether histamine activated the NF-κB pathway and inflammatory cytokines. Results: The results showed that histamine significantly increased the activity of IKK β and the phosphorylation levels of IκB α, as well as upregulated the mRNA and protein expression levels of NF-κB p65 in the rumen epithelial cells cultured in neutral (pH=7.2 and acidic (pH=5.5 medium. Furthermore, histamine treatment also significantly increased the transcriptional activity of NF-κB p65. High expression and transcriptional activity of NF-κB p65 significantly increased the mRNA expressions and concentrations of inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin 6 (IL-6 and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β, thereby inducing the inflammatory response in bovine rumen epithelial cells. However, inhibition of NF-κB p65 by PDTC significantly decreased the expressions and concentrations of the inflammatory cytokines induced by histamine in the rumen epithelial cells cultured in the neutral and acidic medium. Conclusion: The present data indicate that histamine induces the inflammatory response of bovine rumen epithelial cells through the NF-κB pathway.

  6. Oral administration of an HSP90 inhibitor, 17-DMAG, intervenes tumor-cell infiltration into multiple organs and improves survival period for ATL model mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikebe, E; Kawaguchi, A; Tezuka, K; Taguchi, S; Hirose, S; Matsumoto, T; Mitsui, T; Senba, K; Nishizono, A; Hori, M; Hasegawa, H; Yamada, Y; Ueno, T; Tanaka, Y; Sawa, H; Hall, W; Minami, Y; Jeang, K T; Ogata, M; Morishita, K; Hasegawa, H; Fujisawa, J; Iha, H

    2013-01-01

    In the peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) from the carriers of the human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) or the patients with adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB)-mediated antiapoptotic signals are constitutively activated primarily by the HTLV-1-encoded oncoprotein Tax. Tax interacts with the I κB kinase regulatory subunit NEMO (NF-κB essential modulator) to activate NF-κB, and this interaction is maintained in part by a molecular chaperone, heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90), and its co-chaperone cell division cycle 37 (CDC37). The antibiotic geldanamycin (GA) inhibits HSP90's ATP binding for its proper interaction with client proteins. Administration of a novel water-soluble and less toxic GA derivative, 17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin hydrochloride (17-DMAG), to Tax-expressing ATL-transformed cell lines, C8166 and MT4, induced significant degradation of Tax. 17-DMAG also facilitated growth arrest and cellular apoptosis to C8166 and MT4 and other ATL cell lines, although this treatment has no apparent effects on normal PBLs. 17-DMAG also downregulated Tax-mediated intracellular signals including the activation of NF-κB, activator protein 1 or HTLV-1 long terminal repeat in Tax-transfected HEK293 cells. Oral administration of 17-DMAG to ATL model mice xenografted with lymphomatous transgenic Lck-Tax (Lck proximal promoter-driven Tax transgene) cells or HTLV-1-producing tumor cells dramatically attenuated aggressive infiltration into multiple organs, inhibited de novo viral production and improved survival period. These observations identified 17-DMAG as a promising candidate for the prevention of ATL progression

  7. Endocytosis-independent function of clathrin heavy chain in the control of basal NF-κB activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Lyang Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB is a transcription factor that regulates the transcription of genes involved in a variety of biological processes, including innate and adaptive immunity, stress responses and cell proliferation. Constitutive or excessive NF-κB activity has been associated with inflammatory disorders and higher risk of cancer. In contrast to the mechanisms controlling inducible activation, the regulation of basal NF-κB activation is not well understood. Here we test whether clathrin heavy chain (CHC contributes to the regulation of basal NF-κB activity in epithelial cells. METHODOLOGY: Using RNA interference to reduce endogenous CHC expression, we found that CHC is required to prevent constitutive activation of NF-κB and gene expression. Immunofluorescence staining showed constitutive nuclear localization of the NF-κB subunit p65 in absence of stimulation after CHC knockdown. Elevated basal p65 nuclear localization is caused by constitutive phosphorylation and degradation of inhibitor of NF-κB alpha (IκBα through an IκB kinase α (IKKα-dependent mechanism. The role of CHC in NF-κB signaling is functionally relevant as constitutive expression of the proinflammatory chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8, whose expression is regulated by NF-κB, was found after CHC knockdown. Disruption of clathrin-mediated endocytosis by chemical inhibition or depletion of the μ2-subunit of the endocytosis adaptor protein AP-2, and knockdown of clathrin light chain a (CHLa, failed to induce constitutive NF-κB activation and IL-8 expression, showing that CHC acts on NF-κB independently of endocytosis and CLCa. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that CHC functions as a built-in molecular brake that ensures a tight control of basal NF-κB activation and gene expression in unstimulated cells. Furthermore, our data suggest a potential link between a defect in CHC expression and chronic inflammation disorder and cancer.

  8. Involvement of nuclear factor {kappa}B in platelet CD40 signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hachem, Ahmed [Laboratory of Thrombosis and Hemostasis, Montreal Heart Institute, 5000 Belanger, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H1T 1C8 (Canada); Yacoub, Daniel [Laboratory of Thrombosis and Hemostasis, Montreal Heart Institute, 5000 Belanger, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H1T 1C8 (Canada); Centre Hospitalier Universite de Montreal, 264 boul. Rene-Levesque est, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H2X 1P1 (Canada); Zaid, Younes [Laboratory of Thrombosis and Hemostasis, Montreal Heart Institute, 5000 Belanger, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H1T 1C8 (Canada); Mourad, Walid [Universite de Montreal, Department of Medicine, 2900 boul. Edouard-Montpetit, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3T 1J4 (Canada); Centre Hospitalier Universite de Montreal, 264 boul. Rene-Levesque est, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H2X 1P1 (Canada); Merhi, Yahye, E-mail: yahye.merhi@icm-mhi.org [Laboratory of Thrombosis and Hemostasis, Montreal Heart Institute, 5000 Belanger, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H1T 1C8 (Canada); Universite de Montreal, Department of Medicine, 2900 boul. Edouard-Montpetit, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3T 1J4 (Canada)

    2012-08-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer sCD40L induces TRAF2 association to CD40 and NF-{kappa}B activation in platelets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer I{kappa}B{alpha} phosphorylation downstream of CD40L/CD40 signaling is independent of p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer I{kappa}B{alpha} is required for sCD40L-induced platelet activation and potentiation of aggregation. -- Abstract: CD40 ligand (CD40L) is a thrombo-inflammatory molecule that predicts cardiovascular events. Platelets constitute the major source of soluble CD40L (sCD40L), which has been shown to potentiate platelet activation and aggregation, in a CD40-dependent manner, via p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Rac1 signaling. In many cells, the CD40L/CD40 dyad also induces activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B). Given that platelets contain NF-{kappa}B, we hypothesized that it may be involved in platelet CD40 signaling and function. In human platelets, sCD40L induces association of CD40 with its adaptor protein the tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor 2 and triggers phosphorylation of I{kappa}B{alpha}, which are abolished by CD40L blockade. Inhibition of I{kappa}B{alpha} phosphorylation reverses sCD40L-induced I{kappa}B{alpha} phosphorylation without affecting p38 MAPK phosphorylation. On the other hand, inhibition of p38 MAPK phosphorylation has no effect on I{kappa}B{alpha} phosphorylation, indicating a divergence in the signaling pathway originating from CD40 upon its ligation. In functional studies, inhibition of I{kappa}B{alpha} phosphorylation reverses sCD40L-induced platelet activation and potentiation of platelet aggregation in response to a sub-threshold concentration of collagen. This study demonstrates that the sCD40L/CD40 axis triggers NF-{kappa}B activation in platelets. This signaling pathway plays a critical role in platelet activation and aggregation upon sCD40L stimulation and may represent an important target against thrombo

  9. Analysis and Quantitation of NF-[kappa]B Nuclear Translocation in Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-[alpha]) Activated Vascular Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuseler, John W.; Merrill, Dana M.; Rogers, Jennifer A.; Grisham, Matthew B.; Wolf, Robert E.

    2006-07-01

    Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-[kappa]B) is a heterodimeric transcription factor typically composed of p50 and p65 subunits and is a pleiotropic regulator of various inflammatory and immune responses. In quiescent cells, p50/p65 dimers are sequestered in the cytoplasm bound to its inhibitors, the I-[kappa]Bs, which prevent entry into the nucleus. Following cellular stimulation, the I-[kappa]Bs are rapidly degraded, activating NF-[kappa]B. The active form of NF-[kappa]B rapidly translocates into the nucleus, binding to consensus sequences in the promoter/enhancer region of various genes, promoting their transcription. In human vascular endothelial cells activated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha, the activation and translocation of NF-[kappa]B is rapid, reaching maximal nuclear localization by 30 min. In this study, the appearance of NF-[kappa]B (p65 subunit, p65-NF-[kappa]B) in the nucleus visualized by immunofluorescence and quantified by morphometric image analysis (integrated optical density, IOD) is compared to the appearance of activated p65-NF-[kappa]B protein in the nucleus determined biochemically. The appearance of p65-NF-[kappa]B in the nucleus measured by fluorescence image analysis and biochemically express a linear correlation (R2 = 0.9477). These data suggest that localization and relative protein concentrations of NF-[kappa]B can be reliably determined from IOD measurements of the immunofluorescent labeled protein.

  10. Regulatory Role of GSK-3β on NF-κB, Nitric Oxide, and TNF-α in Group A Streptococcal Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Tzu Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Group A streptococcus (GAS imposes a great burden on humans. Efforts to minimize the associated morbidity and mortality represent a critical issue. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β is known to regulate inflammatory response in infectious diseases. However, the regulation of GSK-3β in GAS infection is still unknown. The present study investigates the interaction between GSK-3β, NF-κB, and possible related inflammatory mediators in vitro and in a mouse model. The results revealed that GAS could activate NF-κB, followed by an increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and NO production in a murine macrophage cell line. Activation of GSK-3β occurred after GAS infection, and inhibition of GSK-3β reduced iNOS expression and NO production. Furthermore, GSK-3β inhibitors reduced NF-κB activation and subsequent TNF-α production, which indicates that GSK-3β acts upstream of NF-κB in GAS-infected macrophages. Similar to the in vitro findings, administration of GSK-3β inhibitor in an air pouch GAS infection mouse model significantly reduced the level of serum TNF-α and improved the survival rate. The inhibition of GSK-3β to moderate the inflammatory effect might be an alternative therapeutic strategy against GAS infection.

  11. Synergistic action between inhibition of P2Y12/P2Y1 and P2Y12/thrombin in ADP- and thrombin-induced human platelet activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylander, Sven; Mattsson, Christer; Ramström, Sofia; Lindahl, Tomas L

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate if there is a synergistic effect of a combination of P2Y12 and P2Y1 inhibition and P2Y12 and thrombin inhibition, on ADP- and thrombin-induced platelet activation, respectively. The rationale being that these combinations will cause a concurrent inhibition of both Gαq and Gαi signalling.Blood from healthy volunteers was preincubated with AR-C69931MX, a reversible P2Y12 antagonist; MRS2179, a reversible P2Y1 antagonist; or melagatran, a direct reversible thrombin inhibitor; alone or in various combinations prior to activation with ADP or thrombin. Platelet function in whole blood was assessed by flow cytometry using the antibody PAC-1 to estimate the expression of active αIIbβ3 (the fibrinogen receptor GPIIb/IIIa). A synergistic effect was evaluated by comparing the concentrations in the different combinations with those of corresponding equipotent concentrations of each single inhibitor alone. The equipotent single concentrations were experimentally obtained from concentration response curves performed in parallel.A synergistic effect regarding inhibition of ADP-induced platelet activation (10 μM) was obtained with different combinations of AR-C69931MX and MRS2179.Inhibition of thrombin-induced platelet activation (2 nM) with combinations of AR-C69931MX and the thrombin inhibitor melagatran did also result in a strong synergistic effect.To our knowledge, this is the first time that data supporting a synergistic effect has been published for the inhibitor combinations described.Whether this synergistic effect in vitro also results in an improved antithrombotic effect in vivo with or without an increased risk of bleeding remains to be studied in well-conducted clinical studies. PMID:15265806

  12. Trichomonas vaginalis Induces SiHa Cell Apoptosis by NF-κB Inactivation via Reactive Oxygen Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Juan-Hua; Kang, Byung-Hun; Yang, Jung-Bo; Rhee, Yun-Ee; Noh, Heung-Tae; Choi, In-Wook; Cha, Guang-Ho; Yuk, Jae-Min

    2017-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis induces apoptosis in host cells through various mechanisms; however, little is known about the relationship between apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and NF-κB signaling pathways in the cervical mucosal epithelium. Here, we evaluated apoptotic events, ROS production, and NF-κB activity in T. vaginalis-treated cervical mucosal epithelial SiHa cells, with or without specific inhibitors, using fluorescence microscopy, DNA fragmentation assays, subcellular fractionation, western blotting, and luciferase reporter assay. SiHa cells treated with live T. vaginalis at a multiplicity of infection of 5 (MOI 5) for 4 h produced intracellular and mitochondrial ROS in a parasite-load-dependent manner. Incubation with T. vaginalis caused DNA fragmentation, cleavage of caspase 3 and PARP, and release of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm. T. vaginalis-treated SiHa cells showed transient early NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation, which dramatically dropped at 4 h after treatment. Suppression of NF-κB activity was dependent on parasite burden. However, treatment with the ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-C-cysteine (NAC), reversed the effect of T. vaginalis on apoptosis and NF-κB inactivation in SiHa cells. Taken together, T. vaginalis induces apoptosis in human cervical mucosal epithelial cells by parasite-dose-dependent ROS production through an NF-κB-regulated, mitochondria-mediated pathway. PMID:29410962

  13. Trichomonas vaginalis Induces SiHa Cell Apoptosis by NF-κB Inactivation via Reactive Oxygen Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-Hua Quan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis induces apoptosis in host cells through various mechanisms; however, little is known about the relationship between apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS, and NF-κB signaling pathways in the cervical mucosal epithelium. Here, we evaluated apoptotic events, ROS production, and NF-κB activity in T. vaginalis-treated cervical mucosal epithelial SiHa cells, with or without specific inhibitors, using fluorescence microscopy, DNA fragmentation assays, subcellular fractionation, western blotting, and luciferase reporter assay. SiHa cells treated with live T. vaginalis at a multiplicity of infection of 5 (MOI 5 for 4 h produced intracellular and mitochondrial ROS in a parasite-load-dependent manner. Incubation with T. vaginalis caused DNA fragmentation, cleavage of caspase 3 and PARP, and release of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm. T. vaginalis-treated SiHa cells showed transient early NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation, which dramatically dropped at 4 h after treatment. Suppression of NF-κB activity was dependent on parasite burden. However, treatment with the ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-C-cysteine (NAC, reversed the effect of T. vaginalis on apoptosis and NF-κB inactivation in SiHa cells. Taken together, T. vaginalis induces apoptosis in human cervical mucosal epithelial cells by parasite-dose-dependent ROS production through an NF-κB-regulated, mitochondria-mediated pathway.

  14. Role and molecular mechanism of HO-1-mediated NF-κB modulation in fibrosis progression of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAN Yuemin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the potential effects and molecular mechanisms of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1-mediated modulation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB, and its downstream activation of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1 and platelet derived growth factor (PDGF, in fibrosis progression of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH using the methionine and choline deficient (MCD mouse model of NASH. Methods Forty C57BL/6J male mice (18-20 g were randomly divided into four groups (n=10 each: NASH model group, administered the MCD diet; HO-1 agonist group, administered the MCD diet with intraperitoneal (ip injections of hemin (30 μmol/kg every other day; HO-1 inhibitor group, administered the MCD diet with ip injections of zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP-IX; 20 μmol/kg every other day; and control group, administered a methionine and choline sufficient (MCS diet, without agonist nor inhibitor injections. After eight weeks, the mice were sacrificed and resected liver tissues used to assess successful model establishment by histological analysis (hematoxylin-eosin and Masson staining and the differential mRNA expression of HO-1, NF-κB, ICAM-1, and PDGF by real-time quantitative PCR (GAPDH normalized and protein expression of HO-1 and PDGF by western blotting ( β-actin normalized. Significance of an intergroup difference was assessed by single-factor analysis of variance test, and the Student-Newman-Keuls test was used for pairwise comparisons. ResultsThe NASH model group showed the appropriate histologic features of hepatic steatosis, necroinflammation and fibrogenesis, while the control group showed normal lobular architecture. In addition, the NASH model group showed significantly higher expression of HO-1, NF-κB, ICAM-1 and PDGF mRNA (all P<0.05, and concomitant increases in HO-1 and PDGF protein. The group treated with HO-1 agonist showed significant down-regulation of the NASH-induced NF-κB, ICAM-1 and PDGF expressions, while the opposite

  15. Functional conservation of rice OsNF-YB/YC and Arabidopsis AtNF-YB/YC proteins in the regulation of flowering time

    KAUST Repository

    Hwang, Yoon-Hyung; Kim, SoonKap; Lee, Keh Chien; Chung, Young Soo; Lee, Jeong Hwan; Kim, Jeong-Kook

    2016-01-01

    Plant NUCLEAR FACTOR Y (NF-Y) transcription factors play important roles in plant development and abiotic stress. In Arabidopsis thaliana, two NF-YB (AtNF-YB2 and AtNF-YB3) and five NF-YC (AtNF-YC1, AtNF-YC2, AtNF-YC3, AtNF-YC4, and AtNF-YC9) genes regulate photoperiodic flowering by interacting with other AtNF-Y subunit proteins. Three rice NF-YB (OsNF-YB8, OsNF-YB10, and OsNF-YB11) and five rice OsNF-YC (OsNF-YC1, OsNF-YC2, OsNF-YC4, OsNF-YC6, and OsNF-YC7) genes are clustered with two AtNF-YB and five AtNF-YC genes, respectively. To investigate the functional conservation of these NF-YB and NF-YC genes in rice and Arabidopsis, we analyzed the flowering phenotypes of transgenic plants overexpressing the respective OsNF-YB and OsNF-YC genes in Arabidopsis mutants. Overexpression of OsNF-YB8/10/11 and OsNF-YC2 complemented the late flowering phenotype of Arabidopsis nf-yb2 nf-yb3 and nf-yc3 nf-yc4 nf-yc9 mutants, respectively. The rescued phenotype of 35S::OsNF-YC2 nf-yc3 nf-yc4 nf-yc9 plants was attributed to the upregulation of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1). In vitro and in planta protein–protein analyses revealed that OsNF-YB8/10/11 and OsNF-YC1/2/4/6/7 interact with AtNF-YC3/4/9 and AtNF-YB2/3, respectively. Our data indicate that some OsNF-YB and OsNF-YC genes are functional equivalents of AtNF-YB2/3 and AtNF-YC3/4/9 genes, respectively, and suggest functional conservation of Arabidopsis and rice NF-Y genes in the control of flowering time.

  16. Functional conservation of rice OsNF-YB/YC and Arabidopsis AtNF-YB/YC proteins in the regulation of flowering time

    KAUST Repository

    Hwang, Yoon-Hyung

    2016-01-11

    Plant NUCLEAR FACTOR Y (NF-Y) transcription factors play important roles in plant development and abiotic stress. In Arabidopsis thaliana, two NF-YB (AtNF-YB2 and AtNF-YB3) and five NF-YC (AtNF-YC1, AtNF-YC2, AtNF-YC3, AtNF-YC4, and AtNF-YC9) genes regulate photoperiodic flowering by interacting with other AtNF-Y subunit proteins. Three rice NF-YB (OsNF-YB8, OsNF-YB10, and OsNF-YB11) and five rice OsNF-YC (OsNF-YC1, OsNF-YC2, OsNF-YC4, OsNF-YC6, and OsNF-YC7) genes are clustered with two AtNF-YB and five AtNF-YC genes, respectively. To investigate the functional conservation of these NF-YB and NF-YC genes in rice and Arabidopsis, we analyzed the flowering phenotypes of transgenic plants overexpressing the respective OsNF-YB and OsNF-YC genes in Arabidopsis mutants. Overexpression of OsNF-YB8/10/11 and OsNF-YC2 complemented the late flowering phenotype of Arabidopsis nf-yb2 nf-yb3 and nf-yc3 nf-yc4 nf-yc9 mutants, respectively. The rescued phenotype of 35S::OsNF-YC2 nf-yc3 nf-yc4 nf-yc9 plants was attributed to the upregulation of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1). In vitro and in planta protein–protein analyses revealed that OsNF-YB8/10/11 and OsNF-YC1/2/4/6/7 interact with AtNF-YC3/4/9 and AtNF-YB2/3, respectively. Our data indicate that some OsNF-YB and OsNF-YC genes are functional equivalents of AtNF-YB2/3 and AtNF-YC3/4/9 genes, respectively, and suggest functional conservation of Arabidopsis and rice NF-Y genes in the control of flowering time.

  17. NF-κB and androgen receptor variant expression correlate with human BPH progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, David C; Strand, Douglas W; Love, Harold L; Franco, Omar E; Jang, Alex; Grabowska, Magdalena M; Miller, Nicole L; Hameed, Omar; Clark, Peter E; Fowke, Jay H; Matusik, Robert J; Jin, Ren J; Hayward, Simon W

    2016-04-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common, chronic progressive disease. Inflammation is associated with prostatic enlargement and resistance to 5α-reductase inhibitor (5ARI) therapy. Activation of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway is linked to both inflammation and ligand-independent prostate cancer progression. NF-κB activation and androgen receptor variant (AR-V) expression were quantified in transition zone tissue samples from patients with a wide range of AUASS from incidental BPH in patients treated for low grade, localized peripheral zone prostate cancer to advanced disease requiring surgical intervention. To further investigate these pathways, human prostatic stromal and epithelial cell lines were transduced with constitutively active or kinase dead forms of IKK2 to regulate canonical NF-κB activity. The effects on AR full length (AR-FL) and androgen-independent AR-V expression as well as cellular growth and differentiation were assessed. Canonical NF-κB signaling was found to be upregulated in late versus early stage BPH, and to be strongly associated with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Elevated expression of AR-variant 7 (AR-V7), but not other AR variants, was found in advanced BPH samples. Expression of AR-V7 significantly correlated with the patient AUASS and TRUS volume. Forced activation of canonical NF-κB in human prostatic epithelial and stromal cells resulted in elevated expression of both AR-FL and AR-V7, with concomitant ligand-independent activation of AR reporters. Activation of NF-κB and over expression of AR-V7 in human prostatic epithelial cells maintained cell viability in the face of 5ARI treatment. Activation of NF-κB and AR-V7 in the prostate is associated with increased disease severity. AR-V7 expression is inducible in human prostate cells by forced activation of NF-κB resulting in resistance to 5ARI treatment, suggesting a potential mechanism by which patients may become resistant to 5ARI therapy.

  18. The Arabidopsis NF-YA3 and NF-YA8 genes are functionally redundant and are required in early embryogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Fornari

    Full Text Available Nuclear factor Y (NF-Y is a trimeric transcription factor composed of three distinct subunits called NF-YA, NF-YB and NF-YC. In Arabidopsis thaliana, NF-Y subunits are known to play roles in many processes, such as gametogenesis, embryogenesis, seed development, drought resistance, ABA signaling, flowering time, primary root elongation, Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER stress response and blue light responses. Here, we report that the closely related NF-YA3 and NF-YA8 genes control early embryogenesis. Detailed GUS and in situ analyses showed that NF-YA3 and NF-YA8 are expressed in vegetative and reproductive tissues with the highest expression being during embryo development from the globular to the torpedo embryo stage. Plants from the nf-ya3 and nf-ya8 single mutants do not display any obvious phenotypic alteration, whereas nf-ya3 nf-ya8 double mutants are embryo lethal. Morphological analyses showed that the nf-ya3 nf-ya8 embryos fail to undergo to the heart stage and develop into abnormal globular embryos with both proembryo and suspensor characterized by a disordered cell cluster with an irregular shape, suggesting defects in embryo development. The suppression of both NF-YA3 and NF-YA8 gene expression by RNAi experiments resulted in defective embryos that phenocopied the nf-ya3 nf-ya8 double mutants, whereas complementation experiments partially rescued the abnormal globular nf-ya3 nf-ya8 embryos, confirming that NF-YA3 and NF-YA8 are required in early embryogenesis. Finally, the lack of GFP expression of the auxin responsive DR5rev::GFP marker line in double mutant embryos suggested that mutations in both NF-YA3 and NF-YA8 affect auxin response in early developing embryos. Our findings indicate that NF-YA3 and NF-YA8 are functionally redundant genes required in early embryogenesis of Arabidopsis thaliana.

  19. Pim-2 activates API-5 to inhibit the apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells through NF-kappaB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ke; Zhang, Wei; Shi, Yujun; Gong, Jianping

    2010-06-01

    Pim-2 is proved to be relevant to the tumorigenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the mechanism is unclear. We studied the relationship among Pim-2, NF-kappaB and API-5. In our experiment, expression level of the three factors and phosphorylation level of API-5, as well as NF-kappaB activity, were detected in HCC tissues and the nontumorous controls. Then Pim-2 gene was transfected into nontumorous liver cells L02, and Pim-2 SiRNA was transfected into hepatoblastoma cell line HepG2. Parthenolide was added as NF-kappaB inhibitor. The same detections as above were repeated in the cells, along with the apoptosis analysis. We found the levels of Pim-2, NF-kappaB and API-5, as well as NF-kappaB activity, were significantly higher in HCC tissues. Pim-2 level was increased in L02 cells after the transfection of Pim-2 gene, but decreased in HepG2 cells after the transfection of Pim-2 SiRNA. The levels of NF-kappaB and API-5, as well as NF-kappaB activity and API-5 phosphorylation level, were in accordance with Pim-2 level, but could be reversed by Parthenolide. Cell apoptosis rates were negatively correlated with API-5 phosphorylation level. Therefore, we infer that Pim-2 could activate API-5 to inhibit the apoptosis of liver cells, and NF-kappaB is the key regulator.

  20. Inhibitors of pan PI3K signaling synergize with BRAF or MEK inhibitors to prevent BRAF-mutant melanoma cell growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie eSweetlove

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BRAF and MEK inhibitors have improved outcomes for patients with BRAF-mutant melanoma, but their efficacy is limited by both intrinsic and acquired resistance. Activation of the PI3K pathway can mediate resistance to these agents, providing a strong rationale for combination therapy in melanoma. Here, a panel of 9 low passage human metastatic melanoma cell lines with BRAF mutations were tested in cell proliferation and protein expression assays for sensitivity to inhibitors of MEK (selumetinib and BRAF (vemurafenib as single agents and in combination with inhibitors of pan-PI3K (ZSTK474, pan-PI3K/mTOR (BEZ235, individual PI3K isoforms (p110α, A66; p110β, TGX-221; p110γ, AS-252424; p110δ, idelalisib, or mTORC1/2 (KU-0063794. Selumetinib and vemurafenib potently inhibited cell proliferation in all cell lines, especially in those that expressed low levels of pAKT. ZSTK474 and BEZ235 also inhibited cell proliferation in all cell lines and enhanced the antitumor activity of selumetinib and vemurafenib in the majority of lines by either interacting synergistically or additively to increase potency or by inducing cytotoxicity by significantly increasing the magnitude of cell growth inhibition. Furthermore, ZSTK474 or BEZ235 combined with selumetinib to produce robust inhibition of pERK, pAKT and pS6 expression and synergistic inhibition of NZM20 tumor growth. The inhibitors of individual PI3K isoforms or mTORC1/2 were less effective at inhibiting cell proliferation either as single agents or in combination with selumetinib or vemurafenib, although KU-0063794 synergistically interacted with vemurafenib and increased the magnitude of cell growth inhibition with selumetinib or vemurafenib in certain cell lines. Overall, these results suggest that the sensitivity of BRAF-mutant melanoma cells to BRAF or MEK inhibitors is at least partly mediated by activation of the PI3K pathway and can be enhanced by combined inhibition of the BRAF/MEK and PI3K

  1. Increased Levels of NF-kB-Dependent Markers in Cancer-Associated Deep Venous Thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaponte, Grazia; Signorelli, Salvatore S; Bevelacqua, Valentina; Polesel, Jerry; Taborelli, Martina; Guarneri, Claudio; Fenga, Concettina; Umezawa, Kazou; Libra, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Several studies highlight the role of inflammatory markers in thrombosis as well as in cancer. However, their combined role in cancer-associated deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and the molecular mechanisms, involved in its pathophysiology, needs further investigations. In the present study, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1 (IL-1β), matrix metalloproteases-9 (MMP-9), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), tissue factor (TF), fibrinogen and soluble P-selectin, were analyzed in plasma and in monocyte samples from 385 cancer patients, of whom 64 were concomitantly affected by DVT (+). All these markers were higher in cancer patients DVT+ than in those DVT-. Accordingly, significantly higher NF-kB activity was observed in cancer patients DVT+ than DVT-. Significant correlation between data obtained in plasma and monocyte samples was observed. NF-kB inhibition was associated with decreased levels of all molecules in both cancer DVT+ and DVT-. To further demonstrate the involvement of NF-kB activation by the above mentioned molecules, we treated monocyte derived from healthy donors with a pool of sera from cancer patients with and without DVT. These set of experiments further suggest the significant role played by some molecules, regulated by NF-kB, and detected in cancer patients with DVT. Our data support the notion that NF-kB may be considered as a therapeutic target for cancer patients, especially those complicated by DVT. Treatment with NF-kB inhibitors may represent a possible strategy to prevent or reduce the risk of DVT in cancer patients.

  2. Vitamin E γ-Tocotrienol Inhibits Cytokine-Stimulated NF-κB Activation by Induction of Anti-Inflammatory A20 via Stress Adaptive Response Due to Modulation of Sphingolipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Park, Na-Young; Jang, Yumi; Ma, Averil; Jiang, Qing

    2015-07-01

    NF-κB plays a central role in pathogenesis of inflammation and cancer. Many phytochemicals, including γ-tocotrienol (γTE), a natural form of vitamin E, have been shown to inhibit NF-κB activation, but the underlying mechanism has not been identified. In this study, we show that γTE inhibited cytokine-triggered activation of NF-κB and its upstream regulator TGF-β-activated kinase-1 in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages and primary bone marrow-derived macrophages. In these cells, γTE induced upregulation of A20, an inhibitor of NF-κB. Knockout of A20 partially diminished γTE's anti-NF-κB effect, but γTE increased another NF-κB inhibitor, Cezanne, in A20(-/-) cells. In search of the reason for A20 upregulation, we found that γTE treatment increased phosphorylation of translation initiation factor 2, IκBα, and JNK, indicating induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analyses revealed that γTE modulated sphingolipids, including enhancement of intracellular dihydroceramides, sphingoid bases in de novo synthesis of the sphingolipid pathway. Chemical inhibition of de novo sphingolipid synthesis partially reversed γTE's induction of A20 and the anti-NF-κB effect. The importance of dihydroceramide increase is further supported by the observation that C8-dihydroceramide mimicked γTE in upregulating A20, enhancing endoplasmic reticulum stress, and attenuating TNF-triggered NF-κB activation. Our study identifies a novel anti-NF-κB mechanism where A20 is induced by stress-induced adaptive response as a result of modulation of sphingolipids, and it demonstrates an immunomodulatory role of dihydrocermides. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  3. Effect of 3-aminobenzamide, PARP inhibitor, on matrix metalloproteinase-9 level in plasma and brain of ischemic stroke model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Seong-Ho; Chang, Dae-Il; Kim, Hee-Tae; Kim, Juhan; Kim, Myung-Ho; Kim, Kyung Suk; Bae, Inhee; Kim, Haekwon; Kim, Dong Won; Kim, Seung Hyun

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the effect of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor on the levels of plasma and brain matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and the expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) during experimental focal cerebral ischemia. The 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB), a PARP inhibitor, and saline were administered to 80 Sprague-Dawley rats [3-AB group; 5 rats for plasma sampling, 35 for brain sampling, and 40 for TTC staining] and to 85 rats (10, 35, and 40, respectively), respectively, 10 min before the occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery (MCAo) for 2 h. Infarct volume was measured by TTC staining, the serial levels of plasma and brain MMP-9 were measured by zymography just before and 2, 4, 8, 24, 48, and 72 h after MCAo, brain NF-κB activity was determined by Western blotting, and neutrophil infiltration was evaluated by assessing myeloperoxidase activity. Compared with control group, the levels of plasma and brain MMP-9, brain NF-κB, and MPO activities were significantly reduced in 3-AB group at each time point (p < 0.05). Plasma MMP-9 increased maximally at 4 h and then decreased rapidly, brain MMP-9 increased maximally at 24 h and persisted until 72 h, and NF-κB increased maximally at 24 h and then decreased slowly in both groups. Therefore, the PARP inhibitor reduces the expression of MMP-9 and NF-κB and the infiltration of neutrophils in ischemic stroke

  4. Reconstitution of the NF1 GAP-related domain in NF1-deficient human Schwann cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Stacey L.; Deadwyler, Gail D.; Tang, Jun; Stubbs, Evan B.; Muir, David; Hiatt, Kelly K.; Clapp, D. Wade; De Vries, George H.

    2006-01-01

    Schwann cells derived from peripheral nerve sheath tumors from individuals with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) are deficient for the protein neurofibromin, which contains a GAP-related domain (NF1-GRD). Neurofibromin-deficient Schwann cells have increased Ras activation, increased proliferation in response to certain growth stimuli, increased angiogenic potential, and altered cell morphology. This study examined whether expression of functional NF1-GRD can reverse the transformed phenotype of neurofibromin-deficient Schwann cells from both benign and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. We reconstituted the NF1-GRD using retroviral transduction and examined the effects on cell morphology, growth potential, and angiogenic potential. NF1-GRD reconstitution resulted in morphologic changes, a 16-33% reduction in Ras activation, and a 53% decrease in proliferation in neurofibromin-deficient Schwann cells. However, NF1-GRD reconstitution was not sufficient to decrease the in vitro angiogenic potential of the cells. This study demonstrates that reconstitution of the NF1-GRD can at least partially reverse the transformation of human NF1 tumor-derived Schwann cells

  5. Combination therapy for hepatitis C virus with heat-shock protein 90 inhibitor 17-AAG and proteasome inhibitor MG132.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujino, Saneyuki; Yamaguchi, Saori; Shimotohno, Kunitada; Takaku, Hiroshi

    2010-03-09

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease. Here, we report a new and effective strategy for inhibiting HCV replication using an inhibitor of heat-shock protein 90, 17-AAG (17-allylamino-17demethoxygeldanamycin), and a proteasome inhibitor, MG132. To explore the virological basis of combination therapy, we analysed the effects of 17-AAG and MG132, singly and in combination on HCV replication in an HCV replicon cell system. In HCV replicon cells, HCV RNA replication was suppressed by 17-AAG in a dose-dependent manner. As shown in the present study, the 50% inhibitory concentration values were 0.82 nM for 17-AAG and 0.21 nM for MG132. Low concentrations of MG132 had strong synergistic inhibitory effects with low toxicity on HCV replicon cells. The results of this study suggest that the different effects and synergistic actions of 17-AAG and MG132 could provide a new therapeutic approach to HCV infection.

  6. Curcumin enhances the radiosensitivity of renal cancer cells by suppressing NF-κB signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Wang, Ziming; Chong, Tie; Yang, Jie; Li, Hongliang; Chen, Haiwen

    2017-10-01

    The radiation resistance of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remains the primary obstacle to improve patient survival. This study aimed to investigate the effects of curcumin on the radiosensitivity of RCC cells. Human RCC cell (ACHN) was exposed to irradiation (IR) and/or curcumin treatment. Cell viability, DNA repair, cell cycle, and apoptosis, were evaluated by MTT, immunofluoresence staining and flow cytometry. Moreover, ACHN cells were xenografted into nude mice and subjected to IR and/or curcumin treatment. The expression of NF-κB signaling related proteins in ACHN cells and xenografts was detected by western blot analysis. The results showed that curcumin significantly increased radiosensitivity of ACHN cells by inhibiting the cell proliferation and DNA damage repair, causing cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase, inducing apoptosis in vitro, and suppressing the growth of xenografts in vivo. In addition, curcumin enhanced radiosensitivity was through markedly inhibiting IR-induced NF-κB signaling by modulating the related protein expressions including NF-κBP65, I-κB, VEGF, COX2, and Bcl-2 in ACHN cells, which was further strengthened by NF-κB inhibitor PDTC treatment. Thus, curcumin may confer radiosensitivity on RCC via inhibition of NF-κB activation and its downstream regulars, suggesting the potential application of curcumin as an adjuvant in radiotherapy of RCC. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  7. Synergistic inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation, tube formation, and sprouting by cyclosporin A and itraconazole.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A Nacev

    Full Text Available Pathological angiogenesis contributes to a number of diseases including cancer and macular degeneration. Although angiogenesis inhibitors are available in the clinic, their efficacy against most cancers is modest due in part to the existence of alternative and compensatory signaling pathways. Given that angiogenesis is dependent on multiple growth factors and a broad signaling network in vivo, we sought to explore the potential of multidrug cocktails for angiogenesis inhibition. We have screened 741 clinical drug combinations for the synergistic inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation. We focused specifically on existing clinical drugs since the re-purposing of clinical drugs allows for a more rapid and cost effective transition to clinical studies when compared to new drug entities. Our screen identified cyclosporin A (CsA, an immunosuppressant, and itraconazole, an antifungal drug, as a synergistic pair of inhibitors of endothelial cell proliferation. In combination, the IC(50 dose of each drug is reduced by 3 to 9 fold. We also tested the ability of the combination to inhibit endothelial cell tube formation and sprouting, which are dependent on two essential processes in angiogenesis, endothelial cell migration and differentiation. We found that CsA and itraconazole synergistically inhibit tube network size and sprout formation. Lastly, we tested the combination on human foreskin fibroblast viability as well as Jurkat T cell and HeLa cell proliferation, and found that endothelial cells are selectively targeted. Thus, it is possible to combine existing clinical drugs to synergistically inhibit in vitro models of angiogenesis. This strategy may be useful in pursuing the next generation of antiangiogenesis therapy.

  8. Synergistic inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation, tube formation, and sprouting by cyclosporin A and itraconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacev, Benjamin A; Liu, Jun O

    2011-01-01

    Pathological angiogenesis contributes to a number of diseases including cancer and macular degeneration. Although angiogenesis inhibitors are available in the clinic, their efficacy against most cancers is modest due in part to the existence of alternative and compensatory signaling pathways. Given that angiogenesis is dependent on multiple growth factors and a broad signaling network in vivo, we sought to explore the potential of multidrug cocktails for angiogenesis inhibition. We have screened 741 clinical drug combinations for the synergistic inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation. We focused specifically on existing clinical drugs since the re-purposing of clinical drugs allows for a more rapid and cost effective transition to clinical studies when compared to new drug entities. Our screen identified cyclosporin A (CsA), an immunosuppressant, and itraconazole, an antifungal drug, as a synergistic pair of inhibitors of endothelial cell proliferation. In combination, the IC(50) dose of each drug is reduced by 3 to 9 fold. We also tested the ability of the combination to inhibit endothelial cell tube formation and sprouting, which are dependent on two essential processes in angiogenesis, endothelial cell migration and differentiation. We found that CsA and itraconazole synergistically inhibit tube network size and sprout formation. Lastly, we tested the combination on human foreskin fibroblast viability as well as Jurkat T cell and HeLa cell proliferation, and found that endothelial cells are selectively targeted. Thus, it is possible to combine existing clinical drugs to synergistically inhibit in vitro models of angiogenesis. This strategy may be useful in pursuing the next generation of antiangiogenesis therapy.

  9. Taurine prevents arsenic-induced cardiac oxidative stress and apoptotic damage: Role of NF-κB, p38 and JNK MAPK pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Jyotirmoy; Das, Joydeep; Manna, Prasenjit; Sil, Parames C.

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac dysfunction is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide due to its complex pathogenesis. However, little is known about the mechanism of arsenic-induced cardiac abnormalities and the use of antioxidants as the possible protective agents in this pathophysiology. Conditionally essential amino acid, taurine, accounts for 25% to 50% of the amino acid pool in myocardium and possesses antioxidant properties. The present study has, therefore, been carried out to investigate the underlying mechanism of the beneficial role of taurine in arsenic-induced cardiac oxidative damage and cell death. Arsenic reduced cardiomyocyte viability, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and intracellular calcium overload, and induced apoptotic cell death by mitochondrial dependent caspase-3 activation and poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage. These changes due to arsenic exposure were found to be associated with increased IKK and NF-κB (p65) phosphorylation. Pre-exposure of myocytes to an IKK inhibitor (PS-1145) prevented As-induced caspase-3 and PARP cleavage. Arsenic also markedly increased the activity of p38 and JNK MAPKs, but not ERK to that extent. Pre-treatment with SP600125 (JNK inhibitor) and SB203580 (p38 MAPK inhibitor) attenuated NF-κB and IKK phosphorylation indicating that p38 and JNK MAPKs are mainly involved in arsenic-induced NF-κB activation. Taurine treatment suppressed these apoptotic actions, suggesting that its protective role in arsenic-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis is mediated by attenuation of p38 and JNK MAPK signaling pathways. Similarly, arsenic intoxication altered a number of biomarkers related to cardiac oxidative stress and other apoptotic indices in vivo and taurine supplementation could reduce it. Results suggest that taurine prevented arsenic-induced myocardial pathophysiology, attenuated NF-κB activation via IKK, p38 and JNK MAPK signaling pathways and could possibly provide a protection against As

  10. Synergistic Effect and Molecular Mechanism of Homoharringtonine and Bortezomib on SKM-1 Cell Apoptosis.

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    Jing Zhang

    Full Text Available Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS are clonal marrow stem-cell disorders with a high risk of progression to acute myeloid leukemia (AML. Treatment options are limited and targeted therapies are not available for MDS. In the present study, we investigated the cytotoxicity and the molecular mechanism of Homoharringtonine (HHT and Bortezomib towards high-risk MDS cell line SKM-1 in vitro and the role of miR-3151 was first evaluated in SKM-1 cells.SKM-1 cells were treated with different concentrations of HHT or Bortezomib, and cell viability was analyzed with CCK-8 assay. The influence on cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution and the percentage of apoptosis cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. Calcusyn software was used to calculate combination index (CI values. Western blot was used to analysis phosphorylation of Akt and nuclear NF-κB protein expression in SKM-1 cells. Mature miR-3151 level and p53 protein level were detected after HHT or Bortezomib treatment. The cell proliferation and p53 protein level were reassessed in SKM-1 cells infected with lentivirus to overexpress miR-3151.Simultaneous exposure to HHT and Bortezomib (10.4:1 resulted in a significant reduction of cell proliferation in SKM-1 cells (P < 0.05. Cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 and G2/M phase was observed (P < 0.05. HHT and Bortezomib synergistically induced cell apoptosis by regulating members of caspase 9, caspase 3 and Bcl-2 family (P < 0.01. The mechanisms of the synergy involved Akt and NF-κB signaling pathway inhibition, downregulation of mature miR-3151 and increment of downstream p53 protein level. Overexpression of miR-3151 promoted cell proliferation and inhibited p53 protein expression in SKM-1 (P < 0.01.HHT and Bortezomib synergistically inhibit SKM-1 cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in vitro. Inhibition of Akt and NF-κB pathway signaling contribute to molecular mechanism of HHT and Bortezomib. miR-3151 abundance is implicated in SKM-1 cell viability, cell

  11. Molecular regulation of MICA expression after HDAC inhibitor treatment of cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helle

    and NKG2D-ligands are upregulated on the surface of abnormal cells. We have previously shown that cancer cells can be stimulated to express the NKG2D-ligands MICA/B after exposure to HDAC-inhibitors (HDAC-i), an occurrence that is not observed in healthy cells. Here we characterize the molecular signal...... pathways that lead to MICA expression after HDAC-inhibitor treatment of cancer cells. Chelating Calcium with Bapta-AM or EGTA potently inhibited HDAC-inhibitor and CMV mediated MICA/B expression. It was further observed that ER Calcium stores were depleted after HDAC-inhibitor treatment. NF-kB activity can...

  12. Collagen gel protects L929 cells from TNFα-induced death by activating NF-κB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Ju; Li, Meng-Qi; Liu, Wei-Wei; Hayashi, Toshihiko; Fujisaki, Hitomi; Hattori, Shunji; Tashiro, Shin-Ichi; Onodera, Satoshi; Ikejima, Takashi

    2017-09-01

    Type I collagen is one of the most abundant components of extracellular matrix. We previously illustrated that murine fibrosarcoma L929 cells grew well on type I collagen gel and escaped from TNFα-induced cell death. In this study, we investigated the mechanism underlying the protective effect of collagen gel. We used western blot, confocal microscopy, MTT assay and flow cytometry by introducing fluorescence staining to determine the expression levels of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), inhibitory ratio and autophagy. L929 cells on collagen gel showed higher expression of NF-κB in the nucleus. Inhibition of NF-κB with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate hydrochloride (PDTC) or knockdown by NF-κB-siRNA canceled the protective effect of collagen gel on L929 cells from TNFα-induced death, suggesting for the role of NF-κB in the protection from cell death. We found a new aspect of the effect of PDTC on L929 cells cultured on collagen gel. PDTC alone without TNFα induced apoptosis in the L929 cells cultured on collagen gel but not the cells on plastic dish. The apoptosis induction of the L929 cells cultured on collagen gel with PDTC was repressed by inhibiting autophagy with chloroquine, an autophagy inhibitor, suggesting that autophagy contributes to the death induced by the treatment with PDTC. Possible underlying mechanism of this finding is discussed. NF-κB played an important role in protecting the L929 cells cultured on collagen gel from TNFα-induced death.

  13. NF-κB Protects NKT Cells from Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor 1-induced Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amrendra; Gordy, Laura E; Bezbradica, Jelena S; Stanic, Aleksandar K; Hill, Timothy M; Boothby, Mark R; Van Kaer, Luc; Joyce, Sebastian

    2017-11-15

    Semi-invariant natural killer T (NKT) cells are innate-like lymphocytes with immunoregulatory properties. NKT cell survival during development requires signal processing by activated RelA/NF-κB. Nonetheless, the upstream signal(s) integrated by NF-κB in developing NKT cells remains incompletely defined. We show that the introgression of Bcl-x L -coding Bcl2l1 transgene into NF-κB signalling-deficient IκBΔN transgenic mouse rescues NKT cell development and differentiation in this mouse model. We reasoned that NF-κB activation was protecting developing NKT cells from death signals emanating either from high affinity agonist recognition by the T cell receptor (TCR) or from a death receptor, such as tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) or Fas. Surprisingly, the single and combined deficiency in PKC-θ or CARMA-1-the two signal transducers at the NKT TCR proximal signalling node-only partially recapitulated the NKT cell deficiency observed in IκBΔN tg mouse. Accordingly, introgression of the Bcl2l1 transgene into PKC-θ null mouse failed to rescue NKT cell development. Instead, TNFR1-deficiency, but not the Fas-deficiency, rescued NKT cell development in IκBΔN tg mice. Consistent with this finding, treatment of thymocytes with an antagonist of the inhibitor of κB kinase -which blocks downstream NF-κB activation- sensitized NKT cells to TNF-α-induced cell death in vitro. Hence, we conclude that signal integration by NF-κB protects developing NKT cells from death signals emanating from TNFR1, but not from the NKT TCR or Fas.

  14. Cooperation of IRAK1/4 inhibitor and ABT-737 in nanoparticles for synergistic therapy of T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu X

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoyan Wu,1 Lin Wang,1 Yining Qiu,1 Bingyu Zhang,1 Zhenhua Hu,2 Runming Jin1 1Department of Pediatrics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 2Department of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China Abstract: T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL is caused by clonal expansion of variant T cell progenitors and is considered as a high risk leukemia. Contemporary single chemotherapy has a limited effect due to dynamic and versatile properties of T-ALL. Here IRAK1/4 inhibitor and ABT-737 were co-encapsulated into polyethylene glycol modified poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles (IRAK/ABT-NP to enhance synergistic therapy of T-ALL. The formulation was optimized to achieve high drug loading using Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology. The optimal parameter comprised 2.98% polymer in acetonitrile, a ratio of oil phase to water phase of 1:8.33, and 2.12% emulsifier concentration. High drug loading and uniform spherical shape was achieved. In vitro release study showed sustained release of IRAK1/4 inhibitor for 72 hours as well as sustained release of ABT-737 for more than 120 hours. Uptake efficiency of IRAK/ABT-NP and induced apoptotic T-ALL fraction by IRAK/ABT-NP were much higher than the IRAK1/4 and ABT-737 combined solution. IC50 of IRAK/ABT-NP was two-fold lower than free drug combination in Jurkat cells. Additionally, we conducted in vivo experiments in which IRAK/ABT-NP exhibited greater cytotoxicity toward T-ALL cells, the capacity to significantly restore white blood cell number in peripheral blood, and improved survival time of T-ALL mouse model compared to the IRAK1/4 and ABT-737 combined solution. Keywords: T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, IRAK1/4 inhibitor, ABT-737, Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology, PEG-PLGA

  15. Lipocalin 2 Suppresses Ocular Inflammation by Inhibiting the Activation of NF-κβ Pathway in Endotoxin-Induced Uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyi Tang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Lipocalin 2 (LCN2, an important mediator of a variety of cellular processes, is involved in regulating the inflammatory response, but its roles in different inflammatory diseases are controversial. Because the role of LCN2 in ocular inflammation has been unclear until now, we explored the function of LCN2 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced ocular inflammation in vivo and in vitro. Methods: Endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats by the intravitreal injection of LPS. The expression and location of LCN2 in the retina were detected with western blotting and immunohistochemistry, respectively. We determined the clinical scores for anterior inflammation, quantified the infiltrated inflammatory cells, and measured the pro-inflammatory factors to determine the anti-inflammatory effects of LCN2 in EIU eyes. Cultured primary rat Müller cells were stimulated with LPS and the expression and secretion of LCN2 were measured with real-time PCR, western blotting, and an ELISA. After Müller cells were cotreated with LPS and LCN2 or PBS, the expression and secretion of TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1 were examined with realtime PCR, western blotting, and ELISAs. Western blotting and immunofluorescence were used to detect the phosphorylation and cellular distribution of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB subunit p65. Results: In EIU, the expression of LCN2 was significantly upregulated in the retina, especially in the outer nuclear layer (mainly composed of Müller cells. LPS stimulation of cultured Müller cells also markedly elevated LCN2 expression. Intravitreal injection of LCN2 significantly reduced the clinical scores, inflammatory infiltration, and protein leakage in EIU, which correlated with the reduced levels of proinflammatory factors in the aqueous humor and retina. LCN2 treatment also reduced the expression and secretion of TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1 in LPS-stimulated Müller cells. LCN2 inhibited the inflammatory

  16. Convergent Akt activation drives acquired EGFR inhibitor resistance in lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Kirstine; Bertran-Alamillo, Jordi; Molina, Miguel Angel

    2017-01-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer patients with activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations typically benefit from EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment. However, virtually all patients succumb to acquired EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance that occurs via diverse mechanisms....... The diversity and unpredictability of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance mechanisms presents a challenge for developing new treatments to overcome EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance. Here, we show that Akt activation is a convergent feature of acquired EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance......, across a spectrum of diverse, established upstream resistance mechanisms. Combined treatment with an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor and Akt inhibitor causes apoptosis and synergistic growth inhibition in multiple EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor-resistant non-small-cell lung cancer models. Moreover...

  17. Nf1 Loss and Ras Hyperactivation in Oligodendrocytes Induce NOS-Driven Defects in Myelin and Vasculature

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    Debra A. Mayes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1 and Costello syndrome Rasopathy have behavioral deficits. In NF1 patients, these may correlate with white matter enlargement and aberrant myelin. To model these features, we induced Nf1 loss or HRas hyperactivation in mouse oligodendrocytes. Enlarged brain white matter tracts correlated with myelin decompaction, downregulation of claudin-11, and mislocalization of connexin-32. Surprisingly, non-cell-autonomous defects in perivascular astrocytes and the blood-brain barrier (BBB developed, implicating a soluble mediator. Nitric oxide (NO can disrupt tight junctions and gap junctions, and NO and NO synthases (NOS1–NOS3 were upregulated in mutant white matter. Treating mice with the NOS inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester or the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine corrected cellular phenotypes. CNP-HRasG12V mice also displayed locomotor hyperactivity, which could be rescued by antioxidant treatment. We conclude that Nf1/Ras regulates oligodendrocyte NOS and that dysregulated NO signaling in oligodendrocytes can alter the surrounding vasculature. The data suggest that antioxidants may improve some behavioral deficits in Rasopathy patients.

  18. Histamine Induces Bovine Rumen Epithelial Cell Inflammatory Response via NF-κB Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xudong; Yuan, Xue; Chen, Liang; Wang, Tingting; Wang, Zhe; Sun, Guoquan; Li, Xiaobing; Li, Xinwei; Liu, Guowen

    2017-01-01

    Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is a common disease in high-producing lactating cows. Rumenitis is the initial insult of SARA and is associated with the high concentrations of histamine produced in the rumen of dairy cows during SARA. However, the exact mechanism remains unclear. The objective of the current study is to investigate whether histamine induces inflammation of rumen epithelial cells and the underlying mechanism of this process. Bovine rumen epithelial cells were cultured and treated with different concentrations of histamine and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC, an NF-κB inhibitor) cultured in different pH medium (pH 7.2 or 5.5). qRT-PCR, Western-blotting, ELISA and immunocytofluorescence were used to evaluate whether histamine activated the NF-κB pathway and inflammatory cytokines. The results showed that histamine significantly increased the activity of IKK β and the phosphorylation levels of IκB α, as well as upregulated the mRNA and protein expression levels of NF-κB p65 in the rumen epithelial cells cultured in neutral (pH=7.2) and acidic (pH=5.5) medium. Furthermore, histamine treatment also significantly increased the transcriptional activity of NF-κB p65. High expression and transcriptional activity of NF-κB p65 significantly increased the mRNA expressions and concentrations of inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), thereby inducing the inflammatory response in bovine rumen epithelial cells. However, inhibition of NF-κB p65 by PDTC significantly decreased the expressions and concentrations of the inflammatory cytokines induced by histamine in the rumen epithelial cells cultured in the neutral and acidic medium. The present data indicate that histamine induces the inflammatory response of bovine rumen epithelial cells through the NF-κB pathway. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Synergistic Effect of L-Methionine and KI on Copper Corrosion Inhibition in HNO3 (1M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amel SEDIK

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available L-Methionine (L-Met efficiency as a non-toxic corrosion inhibitor for copper in 1M HNO3 has been studied by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and potentiodynamic polarization. Copper corrosion rate significant decrease was observed in the presence of L-Met at 10-4M. The Obtained Results from potentiodynamic polarization and impedance measurements are in good agreement. L-Methionine adsorption on copper surface follows Langmuir isotherm. L-Met free energy adsorption on copper (-30 KJ mol-1 reveals an inhibition strong physical adsorption on copper surface. In order to evaluate the L-Met effect, L-Met and iodide ion’synergistic effect was used to prevent copper corrosion in nitric acid. It was found that inhibitor efficiency (IE reached 98.27 % in 1M solution containing 10-4M L-Met and 10- 3 M KI. The synergistic effect was attributed to iodide ions adsorption on copper surface, which facilitated the L-Met adsorption and an inhibitive film formation.

  20. EBV induces persistent NF-κB activation and contributes to survival of EBV-positive neoplastic T- or NK-cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honami Takada

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV has been detected in several T- and NK-cell neoplasms such as extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma nasal type, aggressive NK-cell leukemia, EBV-positive peripheral T-cell lymphoma, systemic EBV-positive T-cell lymphoma of childhood, and chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV. However, how this virus contributes to lymphomagenesis in T or NK cells remains largely unknown. Here, we examined NF-κB activation in EBV-positive T or NK cell lines, SNT8, SNT15, SNT16, SNK6, and primary EBV-positive and clonally proliferating T/NK cells obtained from the peripheral blood of patients with CAEBV. Western blotting, electrophoretic mobility shift assays, and immunofluorescent staining revealed persistent NF-κB activation in EBV-infected cell lines and primary cells from patients. Furthermore, we investigated the role of EBV in infected T cells. We performed an in vitro infection assay using MOLT4 cells infected with EBV. The infection directly induced NF-κB activation, promoted survival, and inhibited etoposide-induced apoptosis in MOLT4 cells. The luciferase assay suggested that LMP1 mediated NF-κB activation in MOLT4 cells. IMD-0354, a specific inhibitor of NF-κB that suppresses NF-κB activation in cell lines, inhibited cell survival and induced apoptosis. These results indicate that EBV induces NF-κB-mediated survival signals in T and NK cells, and therefore, may contribute to the lymphomagenesis of these cells.

  1. High glucose induces activation of NF-κB inflammatory signaling through IκBα sumoylation in rat mesangial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Wei; Xu, Ling; Zhou, Xueqin; Gao, Chenlin; Yang, Maojun; Chen, Guo; Zhu, Jianhua; Jiang, Lan; Gan, Huakui; Gou, Fang; Feng, Hong; Peng, Juan; Xu, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The expression of SUMO1, SUMO2/3 under high glucose was obviously enhanced. •High glucose induced degradation of IκBα and activation of NF-κB pathway. •Sumoylation of IκBα in high glucose were significantly decreased. •The proteasome inhibitor MG132 could partially revert the degradation of IκBα. -- Abstract: The posttranslational modification of proteins by small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMOs) has emerged as an important regulatory mechanism for the alteration of protein activity, stability, and cellular localization. The latest research demonstrates that sumoylation is extensively involved in the regulation of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway, which plays a critical role in the regulation of inflammation and contributes to fibrosis in diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, the role of sumoylation in the regulation of NF-κB signaling in DN is still unclear. In the present study, we cultured rat glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs) stimulated by high glucose and divided GMCs into six groups: normal glucose group (5.6 mmol/L), high glucose groups (10, 20, and 30 mmol/L), mannitol group (i.e., osmotic control group), and MG132 intervention group (30 mmol/L glucose with MG132, a proteasome inhibitor). The expression of SUMO1, SUMO2/3, IκBα, NF-κBp65, and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) was measured by Western blot, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and indirect immunofluorescence laser scanning confocal microscopy. The interaction between SUMO1, SUMO2/3, and IκBα was observed by co-immunoprecipitation. The results showed that the expression of SUMO1 and SUMO2/3 was dose- and time-dependently enhanced by high glucose (p < 0.05). However, the expression of IκBα sumoylation in high glucose was significantly decreased compared with the normal glucose group (p < 0.05). The expression of IκBα was dose- and time-dependently decreased, and NF-κBp65 and MCP-1 were increased under high glucose conditions, which

  2. Stimulation of interleukin-13 expression by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 oncoprotein Tax via a dually active promoter element responsive to NF-kappaB and NFAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbermann, Katrin; Schneider, Grit; Grassmann, Ralph

    2008-11-01

    The human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax oncoprotein transforms human lymphocytes and is critical for the pathogenesis of HTLV-1-induced adult T-cell leukaemia. In HTLV-transformed cells, Tax upregulates interleukin (IL)-13, a cytokine with proliferative and anti-apoptotic functions that is linked to leukaemogenesis. Tax-stimulated IL-13 is thought to result in autocrine stimulation of HTLV-infected cells and thus may be relevant to their growth. The causal transactivation of the IL-13 promoter by Tax is predominantly dependent on a nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT)-binding P element. Here, it was shown that the isolated IL-13 Tax-responsive element (IL13TaxRE) was sufficient to mediate IL-13 transactivation by Tax and NFAT1. However, cyclosporin A, a specific NFAT inhibitor, revealed that Tax transactivation of IL13TaxRE or wild-type IL-13 promoter was independent of NFAT and that NFAT did not contribute to IL-13 upregulation in HTLV-transformed cells. By contrast, Tax stimulation was repressible by an efficient nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB inhibitor (IkBaDN), indicating the requirement for NF-kappaB. The capacity of NF-kappaB to stimulate IL13TaxRE was demonstrated by a strong response to NF-kappaB in reporter assays and by direct binding of NF-kappaB to IL13TaxRE. Thus, IL13TaxRE in the IL-13 promoter represents a dually active promoter element responsive to NF-kappaB and NFAT. Together, these results indicate that Tax causes IL-13 upregulation in HTLV-1-infected cells via NF-kappaB.

  3. Fisetin inhibits TNF-α/NF-κB-induced IL-8 expression by targeting PKCδ in human airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seoghyun; Ro, Hyunju; In, Hyun Ju; Choi, Ji-Hee; Kim, Mun-Ock; Lee, Jinhyuk; Hong, Sung-Tae; Lee, Su Ui

    2018-08-01

    Fisetin (3,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone), a natural flavonoid, is a therapeutic agent for respiratory inflammatory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, detailed molecular mechanisms regarding the target protein of fisetin remain unknown. Fisetin significantly reduces tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-induced interleukin (IL)-8 levels by inhibiting both nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) transcriptional activity and the phosphorylation of its upstream effectors. We show that fisetin prevents interactions between protein kinase C (PKC)δ and TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2), thereby inhibiting the inhibitor of kappa B kinase (IKK)/NF-κB downstream signalling cascade. Furthermore, we found that fisetin directly binds to PKCδ in vitro. Our findings provide evidence that fisetin inhibits the TNF-α-activated IKK/NF-κB cascade by targeting PKCδ, thereby mediating inflammatory diseases such as COPD. These data suggest that fisetin is a good therapeutic drug for the treatment of inflammatory lung diseases, such as COPD, by inhibiting the TNF-α/NF-κB signalling pathway. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Combination Therapy with c-Met and Src Inhibitors Induces Caspase-Dependent Apoptosis of Merlin-Deficient Schwann Cells and Suppresses Growth of Schwannoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuse, Marisa A; Plati, Stephani Klingeman; Burns, Sarah S; Dinh, Christine T; Bracho, Olena; Yan, Denise; Mittal, Rahul; Shen, Rulong; Soulakova, Julia N; Copik, Alicja J; Liu, Xue Zhong; Telischi, Fred F; Chang, Long-Sheng; Franco, Maria Clara; Fernandez-Valle, Cristina

    2017-11-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is a nervous system tumor disorder caused by inactivation of the merlin tumor suppressor encoded by the NF2 gene. Bilateral vestibular schwannomas are a diagnostic hallmark of NF2. Mainstream treatment options for NF2-associated tumors have been limited to surgery and radiotherapy; however, off-label uses of targeted molecular therapies are becoming increasingly common. Here, we investigated drugs targeting two kinases activated in NF2-associated schwannomas, c-Met and Src. We demonstrated that merlin-deficient mouse Schwann cells (MD-MSC) treated with the c-Met inhibitor, cabozantinib, or the Src kinase inhibitors, dasatinib and saracatinib, underwent a G 1 cell-cycle arrest. However, when MD-MSCs were treated with a combination of cabozantinib and saracatinib, they exhibited caspase-dependent apoptosis. The combination therapy also significantly reduced growth of MD-MSCs in an orthotopic allograft mouse model by greater than 80% of vehicle. Moreover, human vestibular schwannoma cells with NF2 mutations had a 40% decrease in cell viability when treated with cabozantinib and saracatinib together compared with the vehicle control. This study demonstrates that simultaneous inhibition of c-Met and Src signaling in MD-MSCs triggers apoptosis and reveals vulnerable pathways that could be exploited to develop NF2 therapies. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(11); 2387-98. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. Bacterial endotoxin enhances colorectal cancer cell adhesion and invasion through TLR-4 and NF-kappaB-dependent activation of the urokinase plasminogen activator system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Killeen, S D

    2009-05-19

    Perioperative exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is associated with accelerated metastatic colorectal tumour growth. LPS directly affects cells through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) and the transcription factor NF-kappaB. The urokinase plasminogen activator (u-PA) system is intimately implicated in tumour cell extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions fundamental to tumour progression. Thus we sought to determine if LPS directly induces accelerated tumour cell ECM adhesion and invasion through activation of the u-PA system and to elucidate the cellular pathways involved. Human colorectal tumour cell lines were stimulated with LPS. u-PA concentration, u-PA activity, active u-PA, surface urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (u-PAR) and TLR-4 expression were assessed by ELISA, colorimetric assay, western blot analysis and flow cytometry respectively. In vitro tumour cell vitronectin adhesion and ECM invasion were analysed by vitronectin adhesion assay and ECM invasion chambers. u-PA and u-PAR function was inhibited with anti u-PA antibodies or the selective u-PA inhibitors amiloride or WXC-340, TLR-4 by TLR-4-blocking antibodies and NF-kappaB by the selective NF-kappaB inhibitor SN-50. LPS upregulates u-PA and u-PAR in a dose-dependent manner, enhancing in vitro tumour cell vitronectin adhesion and ECM invasion by >40% (P<0.01). These effects were ameliorated by u-PA and u-PAR inhibition. LPS activates NF-kappaB through TLR-4. TLR-4 and NF-kappaB inhibition ameliorated LPS-enhanced u-PA and u-PAR expression, tumour cell vitronectin adhesion and ECM invasion. LPS promotes tumour cell ECM adhesion and invasion through activation of the u-PA system in a TLR-4- and NF-kappaB-dependent manner.

  6. MicroRNA-129-5p inhibits the development of autoimmune encephalomyelitis-related epilepsy by targeting HMGB1 through the TLR4/NF-kB signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ai-Hua; Wu, Ya-Ting; Wang, Yu-Ping

    2017-06-01

    The study aimed to explore the effects of microRNA-129-5p (miR-129-5p) on the development of autoimmune encephalomyelitis (AE)-related epilepsy by targeting HMGB1 through the TLR4/NF-kB signaling pathway in a rat model. AE-related epilepsy models were established. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into control, model, miR-129-5p mimics, miR-129-5p inhibitor, HMGB1 shRNA, TLR4/NF-kB (TLR4/NF-kB signaling pathway was inhibited) and miR-129-5p mimics+HMGB1 shRNA groups respectively. Latency to a first epilepsy seizure attack was recorded. Neuronal injuries in the hippocampus regions were detected using HE, Nissl and FJB staining methods 24h following model establishment. Microglial cells were detected by OX-42 immunohistochemistry. Expressions of miR-129-5p, HMGB1 and TLR4/NF-kB signaling pathway-related proteins were detected by qRT-PCR. Protein expressions of HMGB1 and TLR4/NF-kB signaling pathway-related proteins were detected by Western blotting. Dual luciferase reporter gene assay showed that miR-129-5p was negatively targeting HMGB1. Neurons of hippocampal tissues in rats were heavily injured by an injection of lithium chloride. Compared with the model and control groups, neuronal injury of the hippocampus and AE-related epilepsy decreased and microglial cells increased in the miR-129-5p mimics, HMGB1 shRNA and TLR4/NF-kB groups; however, in the miR-129-5p inhibitor group, miR-129-5p expression decreased, HMGB1 expression increased, TLR4/NF-kB signaling pathway was activated, latency to a first epilepsy seizure attack was shortened, and neuronal injury increased. This study provides evidence that miR-129-5p inhibits the development of AE-related epilepsy by suppressing HMGB1 expression and inhibiting TLR4/NF-kB signaling pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Immunomodulatory effect of tea saponin in immune T-cells and T-lymphoma cells via regulation of Th1, Th2 immune response and MAPK/ERK2 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Jyoti; Chaudhary, Narendra; Seo, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Min-Yong; Shin, Tai-Sun; Kim, Jong-Deog

    2014-06-01

    The anti-cancer activity of saponins and phenolic compounds present in green tea was previously reported. However, the immunomodulatory and adjuvanticity activity of tea saponin has never been studied. In this study, we investigated the immunomodulatory effect of tea saponin in T-lymphocytes and EL4 cells via regulation of cytokine response and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathway. Quantitative analysis of mRNA expression level of cytokines were performed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction following stimulation with tea saponin, ovalbumin (OVA) alone or tea saponin in combination with OVA. Tea saponin inhibited the proliferation of EL4 cells measured in a dose-dependent manner. No cytotoxicity effect of tea saponin was detected in T-lymphocytes; rather, tea saponin enhanced the proliferation of T-lymphocytes. Tea saponin with OVA increased the expression of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-2, IL-12, interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and decreased the expression level of IL-10 and IL-8 in T-lymphocytes. Furthermore, tea saponin, in the presence of OVA, downregulated the MAPK signaling pathway via inhibition of IL-4, IL-8 and nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) in EL4 cells. Th1 cytokines enhancer and Th2 cytokines and NF-κB inhibitor, tea saponin can markedly inhibit the proliferation and invasiveness of T-lymphoma (EL4) cells, possibly due to TNF-α- and NF-κB-mediated regulation of MAPK signaling pathway.

  8. [ABIN1 is not involved in imatinib upregulating A20 to inhibit the activation of NF-κB pathway in Jurkat T cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Wang, Senlin; Lin, Chen; Chen, Shaohua; Zhao, Xiaoling; Li, Yangqiu

    2017-05-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of imatinib (IM) on the expressions of A20-binding inhibitor of NF-κB1 (ABIN1) and A20 in Jurkat T cells. Methods Jurkat T cells were treated with 25, 50 and 100 nmol/L IM for 24 hours. The mRNA and protein levels of ABIN1, A20 and NF-κB were detected by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting. Results IM significantly inhibited both mRNA and protein levels of ABIN1 and NF-κB, but raised the mRNA and protein levels of A20; while phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate/ionomycin increased the expression levels of ABIN1 and A20 mRNA and protein. Conclusion IM could upregulate A20 protein to inhibit the activation of NF-κB pathway in Jurkat T cells, which was independent of the ABIN1 protein.

  9. Synergistic Protective Effects of Mitochondrial Division Inhibitor 1 and Mitochondria-Targeted Small Peptide SS31 in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, P Hemachandra; Manczak, Maria; Yin, XiangLing; Reddy, Arubala P

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine the synergistic protective effects of mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SS31 and mitochondria division inhibitor 1 (Mdivi1) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using biochemical methods, we assessed mitochondrial function by measuring the levels of hydrogen peroxide, lipid peroxidation, cytochrome c oxidase activity, mitochondrial ATP, and GTPase Drp1 enzymatic activity in mutant AβPP cells. Using biochemical methods, we also measured cell survival and apoptotic cell death. Amyloid-β (Aβ) levels were measured using sandwich ELISA, and using real-time quantitative RT-PCR, we assessed mtDNA (mtDNA) copy number in relation to nuclear DNA (nDNA) in all groups of cells. We found significantly reduced levels of Aβ40 and Aβ42 in mutant AβPP cells treated with SS31, Mdivi1, and SS31+Mdivi1, and the reduction of Aβ42 levels were much higher in SS31+Mdivi1 treated cells than individual treatments of SS31 and Mdivi1. The levels of mtDNA copy number and cell survival were significantly increased in SS31, Mdivi1, and SS31+Mdivi1 treated mutant AβPP cells; however, the increased levels of mtDNA copy number and cell survival were much higher in SS31+Mdivi1 treated cells than individual treatments of SS31 and Mdivi1. Mitochondrial dysfunction is significantly reduced in SS31, Mdivi1, and SS31+Mdivi1 treated mutant AβPP cells; however, the reduction is much higher in cells treated with both SS31+Mdvi1. Similarly, GTPase Drp1 activity is reduced in all treatments, but reduced much higher in SS31+Mdivi1 treated cells. These observations strongly suggest that combined treatment of SS31+Mdivi1 is effective than individual treatments of SS31 and Mdivi1. Therefore, we propose that combined treatment of SS31+Mdivi1 is a better therapeutic strategy for AD. Ours is the first study to investigate combined treatment of mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SS31 and mitochondrial division inhibitor 1 in AD neurons.

  10. FK506 Binding Protein Mediates Glioma Cell Growth and Sensitivity to Rapamycin Treatment by Regulating NF-κB Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jiang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5 belongs to a family of immunophilins named for their ability to bind immunosuppressive drugs, also known as peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases, and also with chaperones to help protein folding. Using glioma cDNA microarray analysis, we found that FKBP5 was overexpressed in glioma tumors. This finding was further validated by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. The roles of FKBP5 in glioma cells were then examined. We found that cell growth was suppressed after FKBP5 expression was inhibited by short interfering RNA transfection and enhanced by FKBP5 overexpression. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB and DNA binding was enhanced by FKBP5 overexpression. The expression level of I-kappa B alpha and phosphorylated NF-κB was regulated by the expression of FKBP5. These data suggest that FKBP5 is involved in NF-κB pathway activation in glioma cells. In addition, FKBP5 overexpression in rapamycin-sensitive U87 cells blocked the cells' response to rapamycin treatment, whereas rapamycin-resistant glioma cells, both PTEN-positive and -negative, were synergistically sensitive to rapamycin after FKBP5 was knocked down, suggesting that the FKBP5 regulates glioma cell response to rapamycin treatment. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that FKBP5 plays an important role in glioma growth and chemoresistance through regulating signal transduction of the NF-κB pathway.

  11. Activation of NF-κB is involved in 6-hydroxydopamine-but not MPP+-induced dopaminergic neuronal cell death: its potential role as a survival determinant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seong H.; Choi, Won-Seok; Yoon, So-Young; Ahn, Young Soo; Oh, Young J.

    2004-01-01

    The nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) family plays an important role in the control of the apoptotic response. Its activation has been demonstrated in both neurons and glial cells in many neurological disorders. In the present study, we specifically examined whether and to what extent NF-κB activation is involved in culture models of Parkinson's disease following exposure of MN9D dopaminergic neuronal cells to 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP + ). Both analysis by immunocytochemistry and of immunoblots revealed that NF-κB-p65 was translocated into the nuclei following 6-OHDA but not MPP + -treatment. A time-dependent activation of NF-κB induced by 6-OHDA but not MPP + was also demonstrated by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. A competition assay indicated that not only NF-κB-p65 but also -p50 is involved in 6-OHDA-induced NF-κB activity. Co-treatment with an antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, blocked 6-OHDA-induced activation of NF-κB signaling. In the presence of an NF-κB inhibitor, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), 6-OHDA-induced cell death was accelerated while PDTC did not affect MPP + -induced cell death. Our data may point to a drug-specific activation of NF-κB as a survival determinant for dopaminergic neurons

  12. A Novel EphA2 Inhibitor Exerts Beneficial Effects in PI-IBS in Vivo and in Vitro Models via Nrf2 and NF-κB Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zeng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Though the detailed pathological mechanism of post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS remains unclear, accumulating evidence indicates that oxidative stress and inflammation are implicated in the process of PI-IBS. Oxidative stress and inflammation are regulated by Nrf2 and NF-κB signaling pathways, respectively. EphA2, a member of Eph receptor family, promotes oxidative stress and inflammatory responses via regulation of Nrf2 and NF-κB signaling pathways in various types of human diseases. Understanding the mechanisms by which EphA2 regulate oxidative stress and inflammation in PI-IBS is important for the development of new strategies to treat PI-IBS. However, the effects of ALW-II-41-27, a novel EphA2 inhibitor on PI-IBS and the underlying molecular mechanisms have never been studied. In the present study, we showed that ALW-II-41-27 decreased gastrointestinal motility and abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR scores, markedly reduced the levels of oxidative stress markers [4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE, protein carbonyl, and 8-hydroxy-2-de-axyguanine (8-OHdG] and proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17, and ICAM-1, and remarkably increased the level of anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10 in serum and colon of Trichinella spiralis-infected mice. Moreover, ALW-II-41-27 was effective in suppressing oxidative stress and inflammation in LPS-treated NCM460 colonic cells. Treatment of ALW-II-41-27 reversed the activation of NF-κB and inactivation of Nrf2 in LPS-treated NCM460 cells. Importantly, these protective effects of ALW-II-41-27 were partially inhibited by EphA2 KO and abolished by EphA2 overexpression. In conclusion, EphA2 may represent a promising therapeutic target for patients with PI-IBS and ALW-II-41-27 might function as a novel therapeutic agent for PI-IBS.

  13. Adsorption and Corrosion Inhibition Studies of Some Selected Dyes as Corrosion Inhibitors for Mild Steel in Acidic Medium: Gravimetric, Electrochemical, Quantum Chemical Studies and Synergistic Effect with Iodide Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thabo Peme

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion inhibition properties of some organic dyes, namely Sunset Yellow (SS, Amaranth (AM, Allura Red (AR, Tartrazine (TZ and Fast Green (FG, for mild steel corrosion in 0.5 M HCl solution, were investigated using gravimetric, potentiodynamic polarization techniques and quantum chemical calculations. The results showed that the studied dyes are good corrosion inhibitors with enhanced inhibition efficiencies. The inhibition efficiency of all the studied dyes increases with increase in concentration, and decreases with increase in temperature. The results showed that the inhibition efficiency of the dyes increases in the presence of KI due to synergistic interactions of the dye molecules with iodide (I− ions. Potentiodynamic polarization results revealed that the studied dyes are mixed-type inhibitors both in the absence and presence of KI. The adsorption of the studied dyes on mild steel surface, with and without KI, obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm and involves physical adsorption mechanism. Quantum chemical calculations revealed that the most likely sites in the dye molecules for interactions with mild steel are the S, O, and N heteroatoms.

  14. Adsorption and Corrosion Inhibition Studies of Some Selected Dyes as Corrosion Inhibitors for Mild Steel in Acidic Medium: Gravimetric, Electrochemical, Quantum Chemical Studies and Synergistic Effect with Iodide Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peme, Thabo; Olasunkanmi, Lukman O; Bahadur, Indra; Adekunle, Abolanle S; Kabanda, Mwadham M; Ebenso, Eno E

    2015-09-02

    The corrosion inhibition properties of some organic dyes, namely Sunset Yellow (SS), Amaranth (AM), Allura Red (AR), Tartrazine (TZ) and Fast Green (FG), for mild steel corrosion in 0.5 M HCl solution, were investigated using gravimetric, potentiodynamic polarization techniques and quantum chemical calculations. The results showed that the studied dyes are good corrosion inhibitors with enhanced inhibition efficiencies. The inhibition efficiency of all the studied dyes increases with increase in concentration, and decreases with increase in temperature. The results showed that the inhibition efficiency of the dyes increases in the presence of KI due to synergistic interactions of the dye molecules with iodide (I(-)) ions. Potentiodynamic polarization results revealed that the studied dyes are mixed-type inhibitors both in the absence and presence of KI. The adsorption of the studied dyes on mild steel surface, with and without KI, obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm and involves physical adsorption mechanism. Quantum chemical calculations revealed that the most likely sites in the dye molecules for interactions with mild steel are the S, O, and N heteroatoms.

  15. HBV X Protein induces overexpression of HERV-W env through NF-κB in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cong; Liu, Lijuan; Wang, Xiuling; Liu, Youyi; Wang, Miao; Zhu, Fan

    2017-12-01

    Human endogenous retrovirus W family (HERV-W) envelope (env) at chromosome 7 is highly expressed in the placenta and possesses fusogenic activity in trophoblast development. HERV-W env has been found to be overexpressed in some cancers and immune diseases. Viral transactivators can induce the overexpression of HERV-W env in human cell lines. Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) is believed to be a multifunctional oncogenic protein. Here, we reported that HBx could increase the promoter activity of HERV-W env and upregulate the mRNA levels of non-spliced and spliced HERV-W env and also its protein in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Interestingly, we found that the inhibition of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) using shRNA targeting NF-κB/p65 or PDTC (an inhibitor of NF-κB) could attenuate the upregulation of HERV-W env induced by HBx. These suggested that HBx might upregulate the expression of HERV-W env through NF-κB in HepG2 cells. This study might provide a new insight in HBV-associated liver diseases including HCC.

  16. Synergistic activity of vorinostat combined with gefitinib but not with sorafenib in mutant KRAS human non-small cell lung cancers and hepatocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeannot, Victor; Busser, Benoit; Vanwonterghem, Laetitia; Michallet, Sophie; Ferroudj, Sana; Cokol, Murat; Coll, Jean-Luc; Ozturk, Mehmet; Hurbin, Amandine

    2016-01-01

    Development of drug resistance limits the efficacy of targeted therapies. Alternative approaches using different combinations of therapeutic agents to inhibit several pathways could be a more effective strategy for treating cancer. The effects of the approved epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (gefitinib) or a multi-targeted kinase inhibitor (sorafenib) in combination with a histone deacetylase inhibitor (vorinostat) on cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution, apoptosis, and signaling pathway activation in human lung adenocarcinoma and hepatocarcinoma cells with wild-type EGFR and mutant KRAS were investigated. The effects of the synergistic drug combinations were also studied in human lung adenocarcinoma and hepatocarcinoma cells in vivo. The combination of gefitinib and vorinostat synergistically reduced cell growth and strongly induced apoptosis through inhibition of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor/protein kinase B (IGF-1R/AKT)-dependent signaling pathway. Moreover, the gefitinib and vorinostat combination strongly inhibited tumor growth in mice with lung adenocarcinoma or hepatocarcinoma tumor xenografts. In contrast, the combination of sorafenib and vorinostat did not inhibit cell proliferation compared to a single treatment and induced G 2 /M cell cycle arrest without apoptosis. The sorafenib and vorinostat combination sustained the IGF-1R-, AKT-, and mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent signaling pathways. These results showed that there was synergistic cytotoxicity when vorinostat was combined with gefitinib for both lung adenocarcinoma and hepatocarcinoma with mutant KRAS in vitro and in vivo but that the combination of vorinostat with sorafenib did not show any benefit. These findings highlight the important role of the IGF-1R/AKT pathway in the resistance to targeted therapies and support the use of histone deacetylase inhibitors in combination with EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors, especially for

  17. Morusin induces apoptosis and suppresses NF-κB activity in human colorectal cancer HT-29 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.-C.; Won, S.-J.; Chao, C.-L.; Wu, F.-L.; Liu, H.-S.; Ling Pin; Lin, C.-N.; Su, C.-L.

    2008-01-01

    Morusin is a pure compound isolated from root bark of Morusaustralis (Moraceae). In this study, we demonstrated that morusin significantly inhibited the growth and clonogenicity of human colorectal cancer HT-29 cells. Apoptosis induced by morusin was characterized by accumulation of cells at the sub-G 1 phase, fragmentation of DNA, and condensation of chromatin. Morusin also inhibited the phosphorylation of IKK-α, IKK-β and IκB-α, increased expression of IκB-α, and suppressed nuclear translocation of NF-κB and its DNA binding activity. Dephosphorylation of NF-κB upstream regulators PI3K, Akt and PDK1 was also displayed. In addition, activation of caspase-8, change of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c and Smac/DIABLO, and activation of caspase-9 and -3 were observed at the early time point. Downregulation in the expression of Ku70 and XIAP was exhibited afterward. Caspase-8 or wide-ranging caspase inhibitor suppressed morusin-induced apoptosis. Therefore, the antitumor mechanism of morusin in HT-29 cells may be via activation of caspases and inhibition of NF-κB

  18. A Smac-mimetic sensitizes prostate cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis via modulating both IAPs and NF-kappaB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Yao; Liu, Meilan; Tang, Wenhua; Li, Yongming; Lian, Jiqin; Lawrence, Theodore S; Xu, Liang

    2009-01-01

    Although tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising agent for human cancer therapy, prostate cancer still remains resistant to TRAIL. Both X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) and nuclear factor-kappaB function as key negative regulators of TRAIL signaling. In this study, we evaluated the effect of SH122, a small molecule mimetic of the second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (Smac), on TRAIL-induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. The potential of Smac-mimetics to bind XIAP or cIAP-1 was examined by pull-down assay. Cytotoxicity of TRAIL and/or Smac-mimetics was determined by a standard cell growth assay. Silencing of XIAP or cIAP-1 was achieved by transient transfection of short hairpin RNA. Apoptosis was detected by Annexin V-PI staining followed by flow cytometry and by Western Blot analysis of caspases, PARP and Bid. NF-kappaB activation was determined by subcellular fractionation, real time RT-PCR and reporter assay. SH122, but not its inactive analog, binds to XIAP and cIAP-1. SH122 significantly sensitized prostate cancer cells to TRAIL-mediated cell death. Moreover, SH122 enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis via both the death receptor and the mitochondrial pathway. Knockdown of both XIAP and cIAP-1 sensitized cellular response to TRAIL. XIAP-knockdown attenuated sensitivity of SH122 to TRAIL-induced cytotoxicity, confirming that XIAP is an important target for IAP-inhibitor-mediated TRAIL sensitization. SH122 also suppressed TRAIL-induced NF-kappaB activation by preventing cytosolic IkappaB-alpha degradation and RelA nuclear translocation, as well as by suppressing NF-kappaB target gene expression. These results demonstrate that SH122 sensitizes human prostate cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by mimicking Smac and blocking both IAPs and NF-kappaB. Modulating IAPs may represent a promising approach to overcoming TRAIL-resistance in human prostate cancer with constitutively active NF-kappaB signaling

  19. Exercise Training Mitigates Water Pipe Smoke Exposure-Induced Pulmonary Impairment via Inhibiting NF-κB and Activating Nrf2 Signalling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderrahim Nemmar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Water pipe smoking is a tobacco smoking method commonly used in Eastern countries and is gaining popularity in Europe and North America, in particular among adolescents and young adults. Several clinical and experimental studies have reported that exposure to water pipe smoke (WPS induces lung inflammation and impairment of pulmonary function. However, the mechanisms of such effects are not understood, as are data on the possible palliative effect of exercise training. The present study evaluated the effects of regular aerobic exercise training (treadmill: 5 days/week, 40 min/day on subchronic exposure to WPS (30 minutes/day, 5 days/week for 2 months. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to air or WPS with or without exercise training. Airway resistance measured using forced oscillation technique was significantly and dose-dependently increased in the WPS-exposed group when compared with the air-exposed one. Exercise training significantly prevented the effect of WPS on airway resistance. Histologically, the lungs of WPS-exposed mice had focal moderate interstitial inflammatory cell infiltration consisting of neutrophil polymorphs, plasma cells, and lymphocytes. There was a mild increase in intra-alveolar macrophages and a focal damage to alveolar septae in some foci. Exercise training significantly alleviated these effects and also decreased the WPS-induced increase of tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 6 concentrations and attenuated the increase of 8-isoprostane in lung homogenates. Likewise, the lung DNA damage induced by WPS was significantly inhibited by exercise training. Moreover, exercise training inhibited nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB expression induced by WPS and increased that of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2. Our findings suggest that exercise training significantly mitigated WPS-induced increase in airway resistance, inflammation, oxidative stress, and DNA damage via mechanisms that include inhibiting NF-κB and

  20. Rosiglitazone inhibits chlorpyrifos-induced apoptosis via modulation of the oxidative stress and inflammatory response in SH-SY5Y cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Eun [Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hanyang Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Hyeon; Jang, Sea Jeong [Hanyang Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Graduate School of Biomedical Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Hyun Chul, E-mail: hckoh@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hanyang Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Graduate School of Biomedical Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    Oxidative stress can lead to expression of inflammatory transcription factors, which are important regulatory elements in the induction of inflammatory responses. One of the transcription factors, nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB) plays a significant role in the inflammation regulatory process. Inflammatory cell death has been implicated in neuronal cell death in some neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying apoptosis initiated by chlorpyrifos (CPF)-mediated oxidative stress. Based on the cytotoxic mechanism of CPF, we examined the neuroprotective effects of rosiglitazone (RGZ), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) agonist, against CPF-induced neuronal cell death. The treatment of SH-SY5Y cells with CPF induced oxidative stress. In addition, CPF activated the p38, JNK and ERK mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and induced increases in the inflammatory genes such as COX-2 and TNF-α. CPF also induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB and inhibitors of NF-κB abolished the CPF-induced COX-2 expression. Pretreatment with RGZ significantly reduced ROS generation and enhanced HO-1 expression in CPF-exposed cells. RGZ blocked the activation of both p38 and JNK signaling, while ERK activation was strengthened. RGZ also attenuated CPF-induced cell death through the reduction of NF-κB-mediated proinflammatory factors. Results from this study suggest that RGZ may exert an anti-apoptotic effect against CPF-induced cytotoxicity by attenuation of oxidative stress as well as inhibition of the inflammatory cascade via inactivation of signaling by p38 and JNK, and NF-κB. - Highlights: • CPF induces apoptotic cell death in SH-SY5Y cells • ROS involved in CPF-mediated apoptotic cell death • Inflammation involved in CPF-mediated apoptotic cell death • Rosiglitazone modulates ROS and inflammatory response in CPF-treated cells.

  1. RAC1b overexpression stimulates proliferation and NF-kB-mediated anti-apoptotic signaling in thyroid cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Márcia; Matos, Paulo; Pereira, Teresa; Cabrera, Rafael; Cardoso, Bruno A; Bugalho, Maria João; Silva, Ana Luísa

    2017-01-01

    Overexpression of tumor-associated RAC1b has been recently highlighted as one of the most promising targets for therapeutic intervention in colon, breast, lung and pancreatic cancer. RAC1b is a hyperactive variant of the small GTPase RAC1 and has been recently shown to be overexpressed in a subset of papillary thyroid carcinomas associated with unfavorable outcome. Using the K1 PTC derived cell line as an in vitro model, we observed that both RAC1 and RAC1b were able to induce a significant increase on NF-kB and cyclin D1 reporter activity. A clear p65 nuclear localization was found in cells transfected with RAC1b-WT, confirming NF-kB canonical pathway activation. Consistently, we observed a RAC1b-mediated decrease in IκBα (NF-kB inhibitor) protein levels. Moreover, we show that RAC1b overexpression stimulates G1/S progression and protects thyroid cells against induced apoptosis, the latter through a process involving the NF-kB pathway. Present data support previous findings suggesting an important role for RAC1b in the development of follicular cell-derived thyroid malignancies and point out NF-kB activation as one of the molecular mechanisms associated with the pro-tumorigenic advantage of RAC1b overexpression in thyroid carcinomas.

  2. Enhancement of inflammatory protein expression and nuclear factor Κb (NF-Κb) activity by trichostatin A (TSA) in OP9 preadipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Taiki; Kotake, Daisuke; Hiratsuka, Masahiro; Hirasawa, Noriyasu

    2013-01-01

    The production of inflammatory proteins such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) by preadipocytes and mature adipocytes is closely associated with the impairment of systemic glucose homeostasis. However, precisely how the production is regulated and the roles of histone deacetylases (HDACs) remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to establish whether HDAC inhibitors affect the expression of inflammatory proteins in pre/mature adipocytes, and, if so, to determine the mechanism involved. Trichostatin A (TSA), an HDAC inhibitor, enhanced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of IL-6 in OP9 preadipocytes but not the mature adipocytes. Moreover, TSA also enhanced palmitic acid-induced IL-6 production and the expression of inflammatory genes induced by LPS in preadipocytes. Although TSA did not affect TLR4 mRNA expression or the activation of MAPKs, a reporter gene assay revealed that the LPS-induced increase in nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activity was enhanced by TSA. Moreover, TSA increased the level of NF-κB p65 acetylation at lysine 310 and duration of its translocation into the nucleus, which leads to enhancement of NF-κB activity and subsequently expression of inflammatory genes. These findings shed new light on the regulatory roles of HDACs in preadipocytes in the production of inflammatory proteins.

  3. Downregulation of NF-ΚB1 enhances the radiosensitivity of renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikegami, Amanda; Silva, Luiz Felipe Teixeira da; Bellini, Maria Helena

    2017-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) accounts for ∼80% of all renal cell carcinomas (RCC) and has the Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene mutated. The lack of VHL protein leads to a constitutionally active Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF) pathway that confers both chemoresistance and radioresistance for renal tumor. HIF pathway is known to interact with the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB). Increased NF-κB activity is associated with the development and progression of RCC (IKEGAMI A, TEIXEIRA LF. BRAGA MS et al. The American Society for Cell Biology 2016; 26: 3948-3955). Objective: Evaluate the synergistic effect of NF-kB1 knockdown and ionizing radiation in murine renal adenocarcinoma cell line. Methods: The murine renal adenocarcinoma cell line (Renca cells) (ATCC, USA) was cultured in RPMI 1640 supplemented with 10% FBS and penicillin/streptomycin. Lentiviral shRNA vector was used to knockdown of NF-KB1 gene in Renca cells, as described previously (1). In the clonogenic cell survival assay, the cells were irradiated by 60 Co source in the range from 0 to 10 Gy, using the GammaCell 220 – Irradiation Unit of Canadian-Atomic Energy Commision Ltd. (CTR-IPEN). After 10-14 days of culture, cell colonies were fixed and stained with formaldehyde 4% and rhodamine B 2% and counted. To assess cell viability, tetrazolium [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5- (3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-MTS] was performed within 24 hours after irradiation at a dose of 10Gy. The survival variables α e β were fitted according to the linear quadratic equation (SF=exp[-αD-βD2]); SF=survival fraction, D=dose of irradiation and P value was determined by F test. Multiple comparisons were assessed by One-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni´s tests with GraphPad Prism version 6.0 software. P< 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Data are shown as the mean ± SD. Results: The Renca-shRNA-NF-kB1 cells were found to be

  4. Downregulation of NF-ΚB1 enhances the radiosensitivity of renal cell carcinoma

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    Ikegami, Amanda; Silva, Luiz Felipe Teixeira da; Bellini, Maria Helena [Instituto De Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Full text: Introduction: Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) accounts for ∼80% of all renal cell carcinomas (RCC) and has the Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene mutated. The lack of VHL protein leads to a constitutionally active Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF) pathway that confers both chemoresistance and radioresistance for renal tumor. HIF pathway is known to interact with the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB). Increased NF-κB activity is associated with the development and progression of RCC (IKEGAMI A, TEIXEIRA LF. BRAGA MS et al. The American Society for Cell Biology 2016; 26: 3948-3955). Objective: Evaluate the synergistic effect of NF-kB1 knockdown and ionizing radiation in murine renal adenocarcinoma cell line. Methods: The murine renal adenocarcinoma cell line (Renca cells) (ATCC, USA) was cultured in RPMI 1640 supplemented with 10% FBS and penicillin/streptomycin. Lentiviral shRNA vector was used to knockdown of NF-KB1 gene in Renca cells, as described previously (1). In the clonogenic cell survival assay, the cells were irradiated by {sup 60}Co source in the range from 0 to 10 Gy, using the GammaCell 220 – Irradiation Unit of Canadian-Atomic Energy Commision Ltd. (CTR-IPEN). After 10-14 days of culture, cell colonies were fixed and stained with formaldehyde 4% and rhodamine B 2% and counted. To assess cell viability, tetrazolium [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5- (3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-MTS] was performed within 24 hours after irradiation at a dose of 10Gy. The survival variables α e β were fitted according to the linear quadratic equation (SF=exp[-αD-βD2]); SF=survival fraction, D=dose of irradiation and P value was determined by F test. Multiple comparisons were assessed by One-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni´s tests with GraphPad Prism version 6.0 software. P< 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Data are shown as the mean ± SD. Results: The Renca-shRNA-NF-kB1 cells were found

  5. Sustained NF-κB activation and inhibition in β-cells have minimal effects on function and islet transplant outcomes.

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    Aileen J F King

    Full Text Available The activation of the transcription factor NF-κB leads to changes in expression of many genes in pancreatic β-cells. However, the role of NF-κB activation in islet transplantation has not been fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the state of NF-κB activation would influence the outcome of islet transplantation. Transgenic mice expressing a dominant active IKKβ (constitutively active or a non-degradable form of IκBα (constitutive inhibition under control of the rat insulin promoter were generated. Islets from these mice were transplanted into streptozotocin diabetic mice in suboptimal numbers. Further, the effects of salicylate (an inhibitor of NF-κB treatment of normal islets prior to transplantation, and the effects of salicylate administration to mice prior to and after islet implantation were evaluated. Transplantation outcomes were not affected using islets expressing a non-degradable form of IκBα when compared to wild type controls. However, the transplantation outcomes using islets isolated from mice expressing a constitutively active mutant of NF-κB were marginally worse, although no aberrations of islet function in vitro could be detected. Salicylate treatment of normal islets or mice had no effect on transplantation outcome. The current study draws attention to the complexities of NF-κB in pancreatic beta cells by suggesting that they can adapt with normal or near normal function to both chronic activation and inhibition of this important transcription factor.

  6. Dual Targeting of PDGFRα and FGFR1 Displays Synergistic Efficacy in Malignant Rhabdoid Tumors

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    Jocelyn P. Wong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Subunits of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex are mutated in a significant proportion of human cancers. Malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRTs are lethal pediatric cancers characterized by a deficiency in the SWI/SNF subunit SMARCB1. Here, we employ an integrated molecular profiling and chemical biology approach to demonstrate that the receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs PDGFRα and FGFR1 are coactivated in MRT cells and that dual blockade of these receptors has synergistic efficacy. Inhibitor combinations targeting both receptors and the dual inhibitor ponatinib suppress the AKT and ERK1/2 pathways leading to apoptosis. MRT cells that have acquired resistance to the PDGFRα inhibitor pazopanib are susceptible to FGFR inhibitors. We show that PDGFRα levels are regulated by SMARCB1 expression, and assessment of clinical specimens documents the expression of both PDGFRα and FGFR1 in rhabdoid tumor patients. Our findings support a therapeutic approach in cancers with SWI/SNF deficiencies by exploiting RTK coactivation dependencies.

  7. Intranuclear interactomic inhibition of NF-κB suppresses LPS-induced severe sepsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung-Dong; Cheon, So Yeong; Park, Tae-Yoon; Shin, Bo-Young; Oh, Hyunju; Ghosh, Sankar; Koo, Bon-Nyeo; Lee, Sang-Kyou

    2015-01-01

    Suppression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation, which is best known as a major regulator of innate and adaptive immune responses, is a potent strategy for the treatment of endotoxic sepsis. To inhibit NF-κB functions, we designed the intra-nuclear transducible form of transcription modulation domain (TMD) of RelA (p65), called nt-p65-TMD, which can be delivered effectively into the nucleus without influencing the cell viability, and work as interactomic inhibitors via disruption of the endogenous p65-mediated transcription complex. nt-p65-TMD effectively inhibited the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-1β, or IL-6 from BV2 microglia cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). nt-p65-TMD did not inhibit tyrosine phosphorylation of signaling mediators such as ZAP-70, p38, JNK, or ERK involved in T cell activation, but was capable of suppressing the transcriptional activity of NF-κB without the functional effect on that of NFAT upon T-cell receptor (TCR) stimulation. The transduced nt-p65-TMD in T cell did not affect the expression of CD69, however significantly inhibited the secretion of T cell-specific cytokines such as IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-17A, or IL-10. Systemic administration of nt-p65-TMD showed a significant therapeutic effect on LPS-induced sepsis model by inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion. Therefore, nt-p65-TMD can be a novel therapeutics for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including sepsis, where a transcription factor has a key role in pathogenesis, and further allows us to discover new functions of p65 under normal physiological condition without genetic alteration. - Highlights: • The nt-p65-TMD is intra-nuclear interactomic inhibitor of endogenous p65. • The nt-p65-TMD effectively inhibited the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. • The excellent therapeutic potential of nt-p65-TMD was confirmed in sepsis model

  8. Intranuclear interactomic inhibition of NF-κB suppresses LPS-induced severe sepsis

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    Park, Sung-Dong [Translational Research Center for Protein Function Control, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Cheon, So Yeong [Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Anesthesia and Pain Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Tae-Yoon; Shin, Bo-Young [Translational Research Center for Protein Function Control, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Hyunju; Ghosh, Sankar [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Koo, Bon-Nyeo, E-mail: koobn@yuhs.ac [Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Anesthesia and Pain Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-Kyou, E-mail: sjrlee@yonsei.ac.kr [Translational Research Center for Protein Function Control, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-28

    Suppression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation, which is best known as a major regulator of innate and adaptive immune responses, is a potent strategy for the treatment of endotoxic sepsis. To inhibit NF-κB functions, we designed the intra-nuclear transducible form of transcription modulation domain (TMD) of RelA (p65), called nt-p65-TMD, which can be delivered effectively into the nucleus without influencing the cell viability, and work as interactomic inhibitors via disruption of the endogenous p65-mediated transcription complex. nt-p65-TMD effectively inhibited the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-1β, or IL-6 from BV2 microglia cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). nt-p65-TMD did not inhibit tyrosine phosphorylation of signaling mediators such as ZAP-70, p38, JNK, or ERK involved in T cell activation, but was capable of suppressing the transcriptional activity of NF-κB without the functional effect on that of NFAT upon T-cell receptor (TCR) stimulation. The transduced nt-p65-TMD in T cell did not affect the expression of CD69, however significantly inhibited the secretion of T cell-specific cytokines such as IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-17A, or IL-10. Systemic administration of nt-p65-TMD showed a significant therapeutic effect on LPS-induced sepsis model by inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion. Therefore, nt-p65-TMD can be a novel therapeutics for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including sepsis, where a transcription factor has a key role in pathogenesis, and further allows us to discover new functions of p65 under normal physiological condition without genetic alteration. - Highlights: • The nt-p65-TMD is intra-nuclear interactomic inhibitor of endogenous p65. • The nt-p65-TMD effectively inhibited the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. • The excellent therapeutic potential of nt-p65-TMD was confirmed in sepsis model.

  9. Calcitonin protects chondrocytes from lipopolysaccharide-induced apoptosis and inflammatory response through MAPK/Wnt/NF-κB pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lai-Bo; Man, Zhen-Tao; Li, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xian-Quan; Sun, Shui

    2017-07-01

    Calcitonin (CT) is an anti-absorbent, which has long been used for treatment of osteoporosis. However, little information is available about the effects of CT on osteoarthritis (OA). This study was mainly aimed to explore the effects of CT on the treatment of OA, as well as the underlying mechanisms. Chondrocytes were isolated from immature mice and then were incubated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), CT, small interfering (si) RNA against bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2, and/or the inhibitors of MAPK/Wnt/NF-κB pathway. Thereafter, cell viability, apoptosis, nitric oxide (NO) and inflammatory factors productions, and expression levels of cartilage synthesis protein key factors, cartilage-derived morphogenetic protein (CDMP) 1, SRY (sex-determining region Y)-box 9 protein (SOX9), and MAPK/Wnt/NF-κB pathways key factors were determined. CT significantly reversed LPS-induced cell viability decrease, apoptosis increase, the inflammatory factors and NO secretion, the abnormally expression of cartilage synthesis proteins and the activation of MAPK/Wnt/NF-κB pathways (Ppathways statistically further increased the levels of CDMP1 and SOX9 (Ppathways, and could partially abolish CT-modulated the expression changes in CDMP1 and SOX9, and MAPK/Wnt/NF-κB pathways key factors (Ppathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The C-terminal domains of NF-H and NF-M subunits maintain axonal neurofilament content by blocking turnover of the stationary neurofilament network.

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    Mala V Rao

    Full Text Available Newly synthesized neurofilaments or protofilaments are incorporated into a highly stable stationary cytoskeleton network as they are transported along axons. Although the heavily phosphorylated carboxyl-terminal tail domains of the heavy and medium neurofilament (NF subunits have been proposed to contribute to this process and particularly to stability of this structure, their function is still obscure. Here we show in NF-H/M tail deletion [NF-(H/M(tailΔ] mice that the deletion of both of these domains selectively lowers NF levels 3-6 fold along optic axons without altering either rates of subunit synthesis or the rate of slow axonal transport of NF. Pulse labeling studies carried out over 90 days revealed a significantly faster rate of disappearance of NF from the stationary NF network of optic axons in NF-(H/M(tailΔ mice. Faster NF disappearance was accompanied by elevated levels of NF-L proteolytic fragments in NF-(H/M(tailΔ axons. We conclude that NF-H and NF-M C-terminal domains do not normally regulate NF transport rates as previously proposed, but instead increase the proteolytic resistance of NF, thereby stabilizing the stationary neurofilament cytoskeleton along axons.

  11. Praziquantel synergistically enhances paclitaxel efficacy to inhibit cancer cell growth.

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    Zhen Hua Wu

    Full Text Available The major challenges we are facing in cancer therapy with paclitaxel (PTX are the drug resistance and severe side effects. Massive efforts have been made to overcome these clinical challenges by combining PTX with other drugs. In this study, we reported the first preclinical data that praziquantel (PZQ, an anti-parasite agent, could greatly enhance the anticancer efficacy of PTX in various cancer cell lines, including PTX-resistant cell lines. Based on the combination index value, we demonstrated that PZQ synergistically enhanced PTX-induced cell growth inhibition. The co-treatment of PZQ and PTX also induced significant mitotic arrest and activated the apoptotic cascade. Moreover, PZQ combined with PTX resulted in a more pronounced inhibition of tumor growth compared with either drug alone in a mouse xenograft model. We tried to investigate the possible mechanisms of this synergistic efficacy induced by PZQ and PTX, and we found that the co-treatment of the two drugs could markedly decrease expression of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP, an anti-apoptotic protein. Our data further demonstrated that down-regulation of XIAP was required for the synergistic interaction between PZQ and PTX. Together, this study suggested that the combination of PZQ and PTX may represent a novel and effective anticancer strategy for optimizing PTX therapy.

  12. NIK is required for NF-κB-mediated induction of BAG3 upon inhibition of constitutive protein degradation pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapino, F; Abhari, B A; Jung, M; Fulda, S

    2015-03-12

    Recently, we reported that induction of the co-chaperone Bcl-2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) is critical for recovery of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) cells after proteotoxic stress upon inhibition of the two constitutive protein degradation pathways, that is, the ubiquitin-proteasome system by Bortezomib and the aggresome-autophagy system by histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) inhibitor ST80. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms mediating BAG3 induction under these conditions. Here, we identify nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB)-inducing kinase (NIK) as a key mediator of ST80/Bortezomib-stimulated NF-κB activation and transcriptional upregulation of BAG3. ST80/Bortezomib cotreatment upregulates mRNA and protein expression of NIK, which is accompanied by an initial increase in histone H3 acetylation. Importantly, NIK silencing by siRNA abolishes NF-κB activation and BAG3 induction by ST80/Bortezomib. Furthermore, ST80/Bortezomib cotreatment stimulates NF-κB transcriptional activity and upregulates NF-κB target genes. Genetic inhibition of NF-κB by overexpression of dominant-negative IκBα superrepressor (IκBα-SR) or by knockdown of p65 blocks the ST80/Bortezomib-stimulated upregulation of BAG3 mRNA and protein expression. Interestingly, inhibition of lysosomal activity by Bafilomycin A1 inhibits ST80/Bortezomib-stimulated IκBα degradation, NF-κB activation and BAG3 upregulation, indicating that IκBα is degraded via the lysosome in the presence of Bortezomib. Thus, by demonstrating a critical role of NIK in mediating NF-κB activation and BAG3 induction upon ST80/Bortezomib cotreatment, our study provides novel insights into mechanisms of resistance to proteotoxic stress in RMS.

  13. Targeted Disruption of NF1 in Osteocytes Increases FGF23 and Osteoid With Osteomalacia-like Bone Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Nobuhiro; Yamaguchi, Ryosuke; Aruwajoye, Olumide; Kim, Audrey J; Kuroyanagi, Gen; Phipps, Matthew; Adapala, Naga Suresh; Feng, Jian Q; Kim, Harry Kw

    2017-08-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1, OMIM 162200), caused by NF1 gene mutations, exhibits multi-system abnormalities, including skeletal deformities in humans. Osteocytes play critical roles in controlling bone modeling and remodeling. However, the role of neurofibromin, the protein product of the NF1 gene, in osteocytes is largely unknown. This study investigated the role of neurofibromin in osteocytes by disrupting Nf1 under the Dmp1-promoter. The conditional knockout (Nf1 cKO) mice displayed serum profile of a metabolic bone disorder with an osteomalacia-like bone phenotype. Serum FGF23 levels were 4 times increased in cKO mice compared with age-matched controls. In addition, calcium-phosphorus metabolism was significantly altered (calcium reduced; phosphorus reduced; parathyroid hormone [PTH] increased; 1,25(OH) 2 D decreased). Bone histomorphometry showed dramatically increased osteoid parameters, including osteoid volume, surface, and thickness. Dynamic bone histomorphometry revealed reduced bone formation rate and mineral apposition rate in the cKO mice. TRAP staining showed a reduced osteoclast number. Micro-CT demonstrated thinner and porous cortical bones in the cKO mice, in which osteocyte dendrites were disorganized as assessed by electron microscopy. Interestingly, the cKO mice exhibited spontaneous fractures in long bones, as found in NF1 patients. Mechanical testing of femora revealed significantly reduced maximum force and stiffness. Immunohistochemistry showed significantly increased FGF23 protein in the cKO bones. Moreover, primary osteocytes from cKO femora showed about eightfold increase in FGF23 mRNA levels compared with control cells. The upregulation of FGF23 was specifically and significantly inhibited by PI3K inhibitor Ly294002, indicating upregulation of FGF23 through PI3K in Nf1-deficient osteocytes. Taken together, these results indicate that Nf1 deficiency in osteocytes dramatically increases FGF23 production and causes a mineralization

  14. The NAMPT inhibitor FK866 reverts the damage in spinal cord injury

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    Esposito Emanuela

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emerging data implicate nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase (NAMPT in the pathogenesis of cancer and inflammation. NAMPT inhibitors have proven beneficial in inflammatory animal models of arthritis and endotoxic shock as well as in autoimmune encephalitis. Given the role of inflammatory responses in spinal cord injury (SCI, the effect of NAMPT inhibitors was examined in this setting. Methods We investigated the effects of the NAMPT inhibitor FK866 in an experimental compression model of SCI. Results Twenty-four hr following induction of SCI, a significant functional deficit accompanied widespread edema, demyelination, neuron loss and a substantial increase in TNF-α, IL-1β, PAR, NAMPT, Bax, MPO activity, NF-κB activation, astrogliosis and microglial activation was observed. Meanwhile, the expression of neurotrophins BDNF, GDNF, NT3 and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 decreased significantly. Treatment with FK866 (10 mg/kg, the best known and characterized NAMPT inhibitor, at 1 h and 6 h after SCI rescued motor function, preserved perilesional gray and white matter, restored anti-apoptotic and neurotrophic factors, prevented the activation of neutrophils, microglia and astrocytes and inhibited the elevation of NAMPT, PAR, TNF-α, IL-1β, Bax expression and NF-κB activity. We show for the first time that FK866, a specific inhibitor of NAMPT, administered after SCI, is capable of reducing the secondary inflammatory injury and partly reduce permanent damage. We also show that NAMPT protein levels are increased upon SCI in the perilesional area which can be corrected by administration of FK866. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the inflammatory component associated to SCI is the primary target of these inhibitors.

  15. Effusanin E suppresses nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell growth by inhibiting NF-κB and COX-2 signaling.

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    Mingzhu Zhuang

    Full Text Available Rabdosia serra is well known for its antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities, but no information has been available for the active compounds derived from this plant in inhibiting human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC cell growth. In this study, we isolated and purified a natural diterpenoid from Rabdosia serra and identified its chemical structure as effusanin E and elucidated its underlying mechanism of action in inhibiting NPC cell growth. Effusanin E significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in NPC cells. Effusanin E also induced the cleavage of PARP, caspase-3 and -9 proteins and inhibited the nuclear translocation of p65 NF-κB proteins. Moreover, effusanin E abrogated the binding of NF-κB to the COX-2 promoter, thereby inhibiting the expression and promoter activity of COX-2. Pretreatment with a COX-2 or NF-κB-selective inhibitor (celecoxib or ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate had an additive effect on the effusanin E-mediated inhibition of proliferation, while pretreatment with an activator of NF-κB/COX-2 (lipopolysaccharides abrogated the effusanin E-mediated inhibition of proliferation. Effusanin E also significantly suppressed tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model without obvious toxicity, furthermore, the expression of p50 NF-κB and COX-2 were down-regulated in the tumors of nude mice. These data suggest that effusanin E suppresses p50/p65 proteins to down-regulate COX-2 expression, thereby inhibiting NPC cell growth. Our findings provide new insights into exploring effusanin E as a potential therapeutic compound for the treatment of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  16. Allium cepa L. and Quercetin Inhibit RANKL/Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS-Induced Osteoclastogenesis by Downregulating NF-κB Signaling Pathway

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    Tatiane Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We evaluated the in vitro modulatory effects of Allium cepa L. extract (AcE and quercetin (Qt on osteoclastogenesis under inflammatory conditions (LPS-induced. Methods. RAW 264.7 cells were differentiated with 30 ng/mL of RANKL, costimulated with PgLPS (1 µg/mL, and treated with AcE (50–1000 µg/mL or Qt (1.25, 2.5, or 5 µM. Cell viability was determined by alamarBlue and protein assays. Nuclei morphology was analysed by DAPI staining. TRAP assays were performed as follows: p-nitrophenyl phosphate was used to determine the acid phosphatase activity of the osteoclasts and TRAP staining was used to evaluate the number and size of TRAP-positive multinucleated osteoclast cells. Von Kossa staining was used to measure osteoclast resorptive activity. Cytokine levels were measured on osteoclast precursor cell culture supernatants. Using western blot analysis, p-IκBα and IκBα degradation, inhibitor of NF-kappaB, were evaluated. Results. Both AcE and Qt did not affect cell viability and significantly reduced osteoclastogenesis compared to control. We observed lower production of IL-6 and IL-1α and an increased production of IL-3 and IL-4. AcE and Qt downregulated NF-κB pathway. Conclusion. AcE and Qt may be inhibitors of osteoclastogenesis under inflammatory conditions (LPS-induced via attenuation of RANKL/PgLPS-induced NF-κB activation.

  17. Diclofenac enhances proinflammatory cytokine-induced nitric oxide production through NF-κB signaling in cultured astrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakita, Hiroki; Aoyama, Mineyoshi; Hussein, Mohamed Hamed; Kato, Shin; Suzuki, Satoshi; Ito, Tetsuya; Togari, Hajime; Asai, Kiyofumi

    2009-01-01

    Recently, the number of reports of encephalitis/encephalopathy associated with influenza virus has increased. In addition, the use of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, diclofenac sodium (DCF), is associated with a significant increase in the mortality rate of influenza-associated encephalopathy. Activated astrocytes are a source of nitric oxide (NO), which is largely produced by inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in response to proinflammatory cytokines. Therefore, we investigated whether DCF enhances nitric oxide production in astrocytes stimulated with proinflammatory cytokines. We stimulated cultured rat astrocytes with three cytokines, interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ, and then treated the astrocytes with DCF or acetaminophen (N-acetyl-p-aminophenol: APAP). iNOS and NO production in astrocyte cultures were induced by proinflammatory cytokines. The addition of DCF augmented NO production, but the addition of APAP did not. NF-κB inhibitors SN50 and MG132 inhibited iNOS gene expression in cytokine-stimulated astrocytes with or without DCF. Similarly, NF-κB p65 Stealth small interfering RNA suppressed iNOS gene expression in cytokine-stimulated astrocytes with or without DCF. LDH activity and DAPI staining showed that DCF induces cell damage in cytokine-stimulated astrocytes. An iNOS inhibitor, L-NMMA, inhibited the cytokine- and DCF-induced cell damage. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that iNOS and NO are induced in astrocyte cultures by proinflammatory cytokines. Addition of DCF further augments NO production. This effect is mediated via NF-κB signaling and leads to cell damage. The enhancement of DCF on NO production may explain the significant increase in the mortality rate of influenza-associated encephalopathy in patients treated with DCF.

  18. The NF-κB p65 and p50 homodimer cooperate with IRF8 to activate iNOS transcription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Priscilla S.; Sharman, Sarah K.; Lu, Chunwan; Yang, Dafeng; Paschall, Amy V.; Tulachan, Sidhartha S.; Liu, Kebin

    2015-01-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) metabolizes L-arginine to produce nitric oxide (NO) which was originally identified in myeloid cells as a host defense mechanism against pathogens. Recent studies, however, have revealed that iNOS is often induced in tumor cells and myeloid cells in the tumor microenvironment. Compelling experimental data have shown that iNOS promotes tumor development in certain cellular context and suppresses tumor development in other cellular conditions. The molecular mechanisms underlying these contrasting functions of iNOS is unknown. Because iNOS is often induced by inflammatory signals, it is therefore likely that these contrasting functions of iNOS could be controlled by the inflammatory signaling pathways, which remains to be determined. iNOS is expressed in colon carcinoma and myeloid cells in the tumor microenvironment. Colon carcinoma and myeloid cell lines were used to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying iNOS expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assay were used to determine the IFNγ-activated pSTAT1 and NF-κB association with the chromatin DNA of the nos2 promoter. We show here that iNOS is dramatically up-regulated in inflammed human colon tissues and in human colon carcinoma as compared to normal colon tissue. iNOS is expressed in either the colon carcinoma cells or immune cells within the tumor microenvironment. On the molecular level, the proinflammatory IFNγ and NF-κB signals induce iNOS expression in human colon cancer cells. We further demonstrate that NF-κB directly binds to the NOS2 promoter to regulate iNOS expression. Although neither the IFNγ signaling pathway nor the NF-κB signaling pathway alone is sufficient to induce iNOS expression in myeloid cells, IFNγ and NF-κB synergistically induce iNOS expression in myeloid cells. Furthermore, we determine that IFNγ up-regulates IRF8 expression to augment NF-κB induction of iNOS expression. More interestingly, we

  19. Combination of Tramadol with Minocycline Exerted Synergistic Effects on a Rat Model of Nerve Injury-Induced Neuropathic Pain

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    Xiao-Peng Mei

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuropathic pain is a refractory clinical problem. Certain drugs, such as tramadol, proved useful for the treatment of neuropathic pain by inhibiting the activity of nociceptive neurons. Moreover, studies indicated that suppression or modulation of glial activation could prevent or reverse neuropathic pain, for example with the microglia inhibitor minocycline. However, few present clinical therapeutics focused on both neuronal and glial participation when treating neuropathic pain. Therefore, the present study hypothesized that combination of tramadol with minocycline as neuronal and glial activation inhibitor may exert some synergistic effects on spinal nerve ligation (SNL-induced neuropathic pain. Intrathecal tramadol or minocycline relieved SNL-induced mechanical allodynia in a dose-dependent manner. SNL-induced spinal dorsal horn Fos or OX42 expression was downregulated by intrathecal tramadol or minocycline. Combination of tramadol with minocycline exerted powerful and synergistic effects on SNL-induced neuropathic pain also in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the drug combination enhanced the suppression effects on SNL-induced spinal dorsal horn Fos and OX42 expression, compared to either drug administered alone. These results indicated that combination of tramadol with minocycline could exert synergistic effects on peripheral nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain; thus, a new strategy for treating neuropathic pain by breaking the interaction between neurons and glia bilaterally was also proposed.

  20. The Regulation of NF-κB Subunits by Phosphorylation

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    Frank Christian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The NF-κB transcription factor is the master regulator of the inflammatory response and is essential for the homeostasis of the immune system. NF-κB regulates the transcription of genes that control inflammation, immune cell development, cell cycle, proliferation, and cell death. The fundamental role that NF-κB plays in key physiological processes makes it an important factor in determining health and disease. The importance of NF-κB in tissue homeostasis and immunity has frustrated therapeutic approaches aimed at inhibiting NF-κB activation. However, significant research efforts have revealed the crucial contribution of NF-κB phosphorylation to controlling NF-κB directed transactivation. Importantly, NF-κB phosphorylation controls transcription in a gene-specific manner, offering new opportunities to selectively target NF-κB for therapeutic benefit. This review will focus on the phosphorylation of the NF-κB subunits and the impact on NF-κB function.

  1. The Alternative NF-κB Pathway in Regulatory T Cell Homeostasis and Suppressive Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinberg-Bleyer, Yenkel; Caron, Rachel; Seeley, John J; De Silva, Nilushi S; Schindler, Christian W; Hayden, Matthew S; Klein, Ulf; Ghosh, Sankar

    2018-04-01

    CD4 + Foxp3 + regulatory T cells (Tregs) are essential regulators of immune responses. Perturbation of Treg homeostasis or function can lead to uncontrolled inflammation and autoimmunity. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in Treg biology remains an active area of investigation. It has been shown previously that the NF-κB family of transcription factors, in particular, the canonical pathway subunits, c-Rel and p65, are crucial for the development, maintenance, and function of Tregs. However, the role of the alternative NF-κB pathway components, p100 and RelB, in Treg biology remains unclear. In this article, we show that conditional deletion of the p100 gene, nfkb2 , in Tregs, resulted in massive inflammation because of impaired suppressive function of nfkb2 -deficient Tregs. Surprisingly, mice lacking RelB in Tregs did not exhibit the same phenotype. Instead, deletion of both relb and nfkb2 rescued the inflammatory phenotype, demonstrating an essential role for p100 as an inhibitor of RelB in Tregs. Our data therefore illustrate a new role for the alternative NF-κB signaling pathway in Tregs that has implications for the understanding of molecular pathways driving tolerance and immunity. Copyright © 2018 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  2. The Proteasome Inhibitor Bortezomib Sensitizes AML with Myelomonocytic Differentiation to TRAIL Mediated Apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijk, Marianne van; Murphy, Eoin [Apoptosis Research Center, National University of Ireland, University Road, Galway (Ireland); School of Natural Sciences, National University of Ireland, University Road, Galway (Ireland); Morrell, Ruth [Apoptosis Research Center, National University of Ireland, University Road, Galway (Ireland); School of Natural Sciences, National University of Ireland, University Road, Galway (Ireland); School of Medicine, National University of Ireland, University Road, Galway (Ireland); Knapper, Steven [Department of Haematology, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Heath Park, CF14 4XN Cardiff (United Kingdom); O' Dwyer, Michael [Apoptosis Research Center, National University of Ireland, University Road, Galway (Ireland); School of Medicine, National University of Ireland, University Road, Galway (Ireland); Samali, Afshin; Szegezdi, Eva, E-mail: eva.szegezdi@nuigalway.ie [Apoptosis Research Center, National University of Ireland, University Road, Galway (Ireland); School of Natural Sciences, National University of Ireland, University Road, Galway (Ireland)

    2011-03-15

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an aggressive stem cell malignancy that is difficult to treat. There are limitations to the current treatment regimes especially after disease relapse, and therefore new therapeutic agents are urgently required which can overcome drug resistance whilst avoiding unnecessary toxicity. Among newer targeted agents, both tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and proteasome inhibitors show particular promise. In this report we show that a combination of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib and TRAIL is effective against AML cell lines, in particular, AML cell lines displaying myelomonocytic/monocytic phenotype (M4/M5 AML based on FAB classification), which account for 20-30% of AML cases. We show that the underlying mechanism of sensitization is at least in part due to bortezomib mediated downregulation of c-FLIP and XIAP, which is likely to be regulated by NF-κB. Blockage of NF-κB activation with BMS-345541 equally sensitized myelomonocytic AML cell lines and primary AML blasts to TRAIL.

  3. Styrene induces an inflammatory response in human lung epithelial cells via oxidative stress and NF-κB activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeder-Stolinski, Carmen; Fischaeder, Gundula; Oostingh, Gertie Janneke; Feltens, Ralph; Kohse, Franziska; Bergen, Martin von; Moerbt, Nora; Eder, Klaus; Duschl, Albert; Lehmann, Irina

    2008-01-01

    Styrene is a volatile organic compound (VOC) that is widely used as a solvent in many industrial settings. Chronic exposure to styrene can result in irritation of the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract. Contact of styrene with epithelial cells stimulates the expression of a variety of inflammatory mediators, including the chemotactic cytokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). To characterise the underlying mechanisms of the induction of inflammatory signals by styrene, we investigated the influence of this compound on the induction of oxidative stress and the activation of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signalling pathway in human lung epithelial cells (A549). The results demonstrate that styrene-induced MCP-1 expression, as well as the expression of the oxidative stress marker glutathione S-transferase (GST), is associated with a concentration dependent pattern of NF-κB activity. An inhibitor of NF-κB, IKK-NBD, and the anti-inflammatory antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) were both effective in suppressing styrene-induced MCP-1 secretion. In addition, NAC was capable of inhibiting the upregulation of GST expression. Our findings suggest that the activation of the NF-κB signalling pathway by styrene is mediated via a redox-sensitive mechanism

  4. Signal Transduction Pathways (MAPKs, NF-κB, and C/EBP) Regulating COX-2 Expression in Nasal Fibroblasts from Asthma Patients with Aspirin Intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Garcia, Francesc Josep; Mullol, Joaquim; Perez-Gonzalez, Maria; Pujols, Laura; Alobid, Isam

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent studies have revealed that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression is down-regulated in aspirin-induced asthma (AIA). Various signal pathways (MAPKs, NF-κB and C/EBP) are involved in COX-2 regulation. Objective To investigate the regulation of COX-2 expression through MAP-kinase pathway activation and nuclear factor translocation in aspirin-induced asthma (AIA). Methods Fibroblasts were isolated from specimens of nasal mucosa (NM, N = 5) and nasal polyps (NP, N = 5). After IL-1β (1 ng/ml) incubation, COX-2 and phosphorylated forms of ERK, JNK and p38 MAPK were measured by Western blot. MAPK’s role in IL-1β-induced COX-2 expression was assessed by treating cells with ERK (PD98059), JNK (SP600125) and p38 MAPK (SB203580) inhibitors (0.1–10 µM) prior to IL-1β exposure. NF-κB and C/EBP nuclear translocation was measured by Western blot and TransAM® after IL-1β (10 ng/ml) exposure. Results No differences were observed in the MAPK phosphorylation time-course between NM and NP-AIA fibroblasts. The p38 MAPK inhibitor at 10 µM significantly reduced IL-1β-induced COX-2 expression in NM fibroblasts (85%). In NP-AIA fibroblasts the COX-2 inhibition (65%) at 1 and 10 µM was not statistically significant compared to non-treated cells. ERK and JNK inhibitors had no significant effect in either the NM or NP-AIA cultures. The effect of IL-1β on NF-κB and C/EBP subunits’ nuclear translocation was similar between NM and NP-AIA fibroblasts. Conclusions These results suggest that p38 MAPK is the only MAPK involved in IL-1β-induced COX-2 expression. NM and NP-AIA fibroblasts have similar MAPK phosphorylation dynamics and nuclear factor translocation (NF-κB and C/EBP). COX-2 downregulation observed in AIA patients appears not to be caused by differences in MAPK dynamics or transcription factor translocation. PMID:23240010

  5. Synergistic cooperation between methamphetamine and HIV-1 gsp120 through the P13K/Akt pathway induces IL-6 but not IL-8 expression in astrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Shah

    Full Text Available HIV-1 envelope protein gp120 has been extensively studied for neurotoxic effects that have been attributed to the increased expression of various proinflammatory cytokines in the CNS. Recently we have shown that methamphetamine (MA also increases expression of proinflammatory cytokines in astrocytes. However, combined effect of gp120 and MA is not known. The present study was undertaken to determine cumulative effect and the mechanism(s/pathways involved in the functional interaction between gp120 and MA in SVGA astrocytes. Our results clearly suggest that gp120 and MA affect IL-6 but not IL-8 in a synergistic manner and this synergy was mediated by PI3K/Akt and NF-κB pathways. Inhibition of either of these pathways could abrogate the increased expression of IL-6 due to MA or gp120 alone, as well as the increased expression of IL-6 when the astrocytes were treated with both gp120 and MA. These results were confirmed by both, using chemical inhibitors/siRNA as well as western blotting. This study therefore provides novel information regarding the interaction between MA and gp120 in terms of the expression of IL-6 and the mechanisms underlying potential synergy between MA and gp120 in astrocytes.

  6. Salubrinal Suppresses IL-17-Induced Upregulation of MMP-13 and Extracellular Matrix Degradation Through the NF-kB Pathway in Human Nucleus Pulposus Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhixiao; Nie, Lin; Zhao, Yunpeng; Zhang, Yuanqiang; Liu, Yi; Li, Jingkun; Cheng, Lei

    2016-12-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13) plays an important role in the process of pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). This study examined the effect of IL-17 on the regulation of MMP-13 and the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the intervertebral disc (IVD). We then examined whether salubrinal, a known inhibitor of eIF2α dephosphorylation, inhibited the IL-17-induced changes mentioned above. Furthermore, we demonstrated a potential therapeutic role for salubrinal in alleviating the chronic inflammatory-dependent degenerative state commonly observed in IDD. After inflammatory distress with IL-17, RT-PCR and western blot were employed to investigate the expression of MMP-13, collagen type II (COL2A1), collagen type I (COL1A1), and aggrecan (ACAN) in nucleus pulpous (NP) tissue. Activation of the NF-kB pathway was measured by western blot and immunocytochemistry following IL-17 treatment. We also examine the level of eIF2α phosphorylation after IL-17 treatment with or without salubrinal. Then, we investigated interactions of the NF-kB pathway to eIF2α phosphorylation. Moreover, we employed salubrinal and a specific inhibitor of NF-kB (BAY11-7082) to evaluate their effects on IL-17-driven regulation of MMP-13 and the ECM, as well as on the activation of NF-kB. The results showed that IL-17 increased the production of MMP-13 and decreased expression of COL2A1 and ACAN via the NF-kB pathway. Either IL-17 or salubrinal increased the level of eIF2α phosphorylation, but the effects of BAY11-7082 on the level of p-eIF2α were not detectable. BAY11-7082 and salubrinal significantly suppressed IL-17-driven intervertebral disc degeneration. Furthermore, salubrinal produced stronger effects than BAY11-7082. These results imply the potential involvement of IL-17 in IDD through activation of NF-kB signaling, which successively upregulated the expression of MMP-13 and led to the degradation of the ECM. Furthermore, salubrinal can inhibit this

  7. Synergistic effects of rmhTRAIL and 17-AAG on the proliferation and apoptosis of multiple myeloma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Li, Yun; Sun, Wei; Liu, Jing; Chen, Wenming

    2018-03-22

    This study aimed to investigate synergistic effects of recombinant mutant human tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (rmhTRAIL) and heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibitor (geldanamycin derivative 17 -allylamino- 17-demethoxy -geldanamycin, 17-AAG) on the proliferation and apoptosis of multiple myeloma (MM) cells. MTT assays evaluated inhibitory effects of rmhTRAIL and 17-AAG in different concentrations and treatment durations on the proliferation of RPMI8226 and U266 cells. The half maximal inhibitory concentration was calculated using OriginPro7.5. Synergistic effects of rmhTRAIL and 17-AAG on apoptosis of MM cells were detected using flow cytometry at 24 and 48 h post-treatment. To evaluate synergistic effects of rmhTRAIL and 17-AAG, the Q-value was calculated using King's formula. rmhTRAIL exhibited significant inhibitory effects on the proliferation of RPMI8226 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner (>50%), whereas U266 cells were not sensitive to rmhTRAIL (80%). Significant synergistic effects of rmhTRAIL and 17-AAG on the proliferation of RPMI8226 cells were revealed (Q-value > 1.15), whereas synergistic effects were not evident on the proliferation of U266 cells (Q-value effects on apoptosis of RPMI8226 and U266 cells (Q-value > 1.15). The combined application of rmhTRAIL and 17-AAG revealed favorable synergistic effects in the treatment of MM.

  8. Synergism between demethylation inhibitor fungicides or gibberellin inhibitor plant growth regulators and bifenthrin in a pyrethroid-resistant population of Listronotus maculicollis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramoutar, D; Cowles, R S; Requintina, E; Alm, S R

    2010-10-01

    In 2007-2008, the "annual bluegrass weevil," Listronotus maculicollis Kirby (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a serious pest of Poa annua L. (Poales: Poaceae) on U.S. golf courses, was shown to be resistant to two pyrethroids, bifenthrin and lambda-cyhalothrin. In 2008, we showed that bifenthrin resistance was principally mediated by oxidase detoxification (cytochrome P450 [P450]). P450s can be inhibited by demethylation inhibitor fungicides and gibberellin inhibitor plant growth regulators, both of which are commonly used on golf courses. We tested these compounds for synergistic activity with bifenthin against a pyrethroid-resistant population of L. maculicollis. The LD50 value for bifenthrin was significantly reduced from 87 ng per insect (without synergists) to 9.6-40 ng per insect after exposure to the fungicides fenarimol, fenpropimorph, prochloraz, propiconazole, and pyrifenox and the plant growth regulators flurprimidol, paclobutrazol, and trinexapac-ethyl. Simulated field exposure with formulated products registered for use on turf revealed enhanced mortality when adult weevils were exposed to bifenthrin (25% mortality, presented alone) combined with field dosages of propiconizole, fenarimol, flurprimidol, or trinexapac-ethyl (range, 49-70% mortality).

  9. Genistein inhibited ammonia induced astrocyte swelling by inhibiting NF-κB activation-mediated nitric oxide formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Hongliang; Jia, Guizhi; Wang, Wei; Liang, Chunguang; Han, Siyu; Chu, Minghui; Mei, Xifan

    2017-06-01

    Our previous study has indicated the involvement of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation in ammonia-induced astrocyte swelling, which represents a major pathogenesis of brain edema in hepatic encephalopathy. In this study, we examined the effect of genistein, a naturally occurred broad-spectrum protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitor, on ammonia-induced cell swelling. We found that genistein pretreatment significantly prevented ammonia-induced astrocyte swelling. Mechanistically, ammonia triggered EGFR/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) association and subsequent ERK phosphorylation were alleviated by genistein pretreatment. Moreover, ammonia-induced NF-κB nuclear location, iNOS expression, and consequent NO production were all prevented by AG1478 and genistein pretreatment. This study suggested that genistein could alleviate ammonia-induced astrocyte swelling, which may be, at least partly, related to its PTK-inhibiting activity and repression of NF-κB mediated iNOS-derived NO accumulation.

  10. Curcumin effectively inhibits oncogenic NF-kB signaling and restrains stemness features in liver cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marquardt, Jens U; Gomez-Quiroz, Luis; Arreguin Camacho, Lucrecia O

    2015-01-01

    -kB inhibition in liver cancer achieved by the IKK inhibitor curcumin, RNAi and specific peptide SN50. The effects on CSCs were assessed by analysis of Side Population (SP), sphere formation and tumorigenicity. Molecular changes were determined by RT-qPCR, global gene expression microarray, EMSA, and Western...... blotting. RESULTS: HCC cell lines exposed to curcumin exhibited differential responses to curcumin and were classified as sensitive and resistant. In sensitive lines, curcumin-mediated induction of cell death was directly related to the extent of NF-kB inhibition. The treatment also led to a selective CSC......-depletion as evidenced by a reduced SP size, decreased sphere formation, down-regulation of CSC markers and suppressed tumorigenicity. Similarly, NF-kB inhibition by SN50 and siRNA against p65 suppressed tumor cell growth. In contrast, curcumin-resistant cells displayed a paradoxical increase in proliferation...

  11. Protection by the gross saponins of Tribulus terrestris against cerebral ischemic injury in rats involves the NF-κB pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    En-ping Jiang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether the gross saponins of Tribulus terrestris (GSTT, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, have neuroprotective effects on rats subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO, through nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB pathway and inflammatory mediators. Cerebral ischemia was produced by MCAO in either untreated (control or GSTT-pretreated rats, and the animals were examined for infarct volume, cerebral edema, neuro-behavioral abnormality and pathological changes. Meanwhile, the expression of NF-κB protein in brain tissue was analyzed on Western blots and the serum levels of TNF-α and IL-1 were determined by ELISA. The experimental results demonstrated that, compared with the control MCAO group, GSTT-pretreated MCAO group had significantly reduced infarct volume, brain edema and neuro-behavioral abnormality, and lesser degree of pathologic changes in the brain, as well as had lower levels of serum TNF-α and IL-1β, and higher levels of brain NF-κB (P<0.05. Furthermore, treatment with an NF-κB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC abolished the protective effects of GSTT against MCAO-induced cerebral ischemic injury. These results indicated that GSTT's ability to protect against cerebral ischemic injury was mediated through the NF-κB signaling pathway, and that GSTT may act through inhibition of the production of inflammatory mediators.

  12. Inhibition of IKK/NF-κB Signaling Enhances Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells from Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Peng; Zhou, Chenchen; Alvarez, Ruth; Hong, Christine; Wang, Cun-Yu

    2016-04-12

    Embryonic stem cell-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs; also known as mesenchymal stem cells) represent a promising source for bone regenerative medicine. Despite remarkable advances in stem cell biology, the molecular mechanism regulating differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into MSCs remains poorly understood. Here, we report that inhibition of IκB kinase (IKK)/nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling enhances differentiation of hESCs into MSCs by expediting the loss of pluripotent markers and increasing the expression of MSC surface markers. In addition, a significantly higher quantity of MSCs was produced from hESCs with IKK/NF-κB suppression. These isolated MSCs displayed evident multipotency with capacity to terminally differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes in vitro and to form bone in vivo. Collectively, our data provide important insights into the role of NF-κB in mesenchymal lineage specification during hESC differentiation, suggesting that IKK inhibitors could be utilized as an adjuvant in generating MSCs for cell-mediated therapies. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Deleterious effect of salusin-β in paraventricular nucleus on sympathetic activity and blood pressure via NF-κB signaling in a rat model of obesity hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaodong; Wang, Yanchun; Ren, Kuang

    2015-08-01

    The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) has been shown to play a critical role in regulating blood pressure and sympathetic activity in obesity hypertension (OH). Salusin-β is a bioactive peptide with potential roles in mediating cardiovascular activity. The study was designed to test the hypothesis that salusin-β in the PVN can modulate sympathetic activity and blood pressure in OH. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used to induce OH by a 12-week feeding of a high-fat diet (42% kcal as fat). Microinjection of salusin-β into the PVN increased the renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) in a dose-dependent manner, whereas salusin-β antibody elicited significant decreases in RSNA, MAP and HR, and abolished the effects of salusin-β only in the OH rats. As expected, the OH rats had a higher norepinephrine level, which was further increased by salusin-β. Furthermore, salusin-β in the PVN accelerated the nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-KB) and the degradation of IKB-α (an endogenous inhibitor of NF-KB). Pretreatment with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (an exogenous inhibitor of NF-KB) decreased RSNA, MAP and HR, and abolished the effects of salusin-β in the PVN in the OH rats. We concluded that salusin-β in the PVN markedly increased sympathetic outflow and blood pressure in diet-induced OH rats via NF-κB signaling.

  14. Lycopene acts through inhibition of IκB kinase to suppress NF-κB signaling in human prostate and breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assar, Emelia A; Vidalle, Magdalena Castellano; Chopra, Mridula; Hafizi, Sassan

    2016-07-01

    We studied the effect of the potent dietary antioxidant lycopene on multiple points along the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway in prostate and breast cancer cells. Lycopene significantly inhibited prostate and breast cancer cell growth at physiologically relevant concentrations of ≥1.25 μM. Similar concentrations also caused a 30-40 % reduction in inhibitor of kappa B (IκB) phosphorylation in the cells, as determined by western blotting. Furthermore, the same degree of inhibition by lycopene was observed for NF-κB transcriptional activity, as determined by reporter gene assay. Concomitant with this, immunofluorescence staining of lycopene-treated cells showed a significant suppression (≥25 %) of TNF-induced NF-κB p65 subunit nuclear translocation. Further probing of lycopene's effects on upstream elements of the NF-κB pathway showed a 25 % inhibition of both activity of recombinant IκB kinase β (IKKβ) kinase in a cell-free in vitro assay, as well as activity of IKKβ immunoprecipitated from MDA-MB-231 cells treated with lycopene. In conclusion, the anticancer properties of lycopene may occur through inhibition of the NF-κB signaling pathway, beginning at the early stage of cytoplasmic IKK kinase activity, which then leads to reduced NF-κB-responsive gene regulation. Furthermore, these effects in cancer cells were observed at concentrations of lycopene that are relevant and achievable in vivo.

  15. Autophagy attenuates the catabolic effect during inflammatory conditions in nucleus pulposus cells, as sustained by NF-κB and JNK inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    XU, KANG; CHEN, WEIJIAN; WANG, XIAOFEI; PENG, YAN; LIANG, ANJING; HUANG, DONGSHENG; LI, CHUNHAI; YE, WEI

    2015-01-01

    Proteoglycan degradation contributing to the pathogenesis of intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is induced by inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Cell autophagy exists in degenerative diseases, including osteoarthritis and inter-vertebral disc degeneration. However, the autophagy induced by TNF-α and IL-1β and the corresponding molecular mechanism appear to be cell-type dependent. The effect and mechanism of autophagy regulated by TNF-α and IL-1β in IVDs remains unclear. Additionally, the impact of autophagy on the catabolic effect in inflammatory conditions also remains elusive. In the present study, autophagy activator and inhibitor were used to demonstrate the impact of autophagy on the catabolic effect induced by TNF-α. A critical role of autophagy was identified in rat nucleus pulposus (NP) cells: Inhibition of autophagy suppresses, while activation of autophagy enhances, the catabolic effect of cytokines. Subsequently, the autophagy-related gene expression in rat NP cells following TNF-α and IL-1β treatment was observed using immunofluorescence, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis; however, no association was present. In addition, nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinases and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors and TNF-α were used to determine the molecular mechanism of autophagy during the inflammatory conditions, and only the NF-κB and JNK inhibitor were found to enhance the autophagy of rat NP cells. Finally, IKKβ knockdown was used to further confirm the effect of the NF-κB signal on human NP cells autophagy, and the data showed that IKKβ knockdown upregulated the autophagy of NP cells during inflammatory conditions. PMID:26165348

  16. The Novel IκB Kinase β Inhibitor, IMD-0560, Has Potent Therapeutic Efficacy in Ovarian Cancer Xenograft Model Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Ikuko; Hashimoto, Kae; Sawada, Kenjiro; Kinose, Yasuto; Nakamura, Koji; Toda, Aska; Nakatsuka, Erika; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Mabuchi, Seiji; Fujikawa, Tomoyuki; Itai, Akiko; Kimura, Tadashi

    2016-05-01

    Aberrant activation of nuclear factor-kappa β (NF-κB) signaling has been correlated with poor outcome among patients with ovarian cancer. Although the therapeutic potential of NF-κB pathway disruption in cancers has been extensively studied, most classical NF-κB inhibitors are poorly selective, exhibit off-target effects, and have failed to be applied in clinical use. IMD-0560, N-[2,5-bis (trifluoromethyl) phenyl]-5-bromo-2-hydroxybenzamide, is a novel low-molecular-weight compound that selectively inhibits the IκB kinase complex and works as an inhibitor of NF-κB signaling. The aim of this study was to assess the therapeutic potential of IMD-0560 against ovarian cancer in vitro and in vivo. NF-κB activity (phosphorylation) was determined in 9 ovarian cancer cell lines and the inhibitory effect of IMD-0560 on NF-κB activation was analyzed by Western blotting. Cell viability, cell cycle, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, and angiogenesis were assessed in vitro to evaluate the effect of IMD-0560 on ovarian cancer cells. In vivo efficacy of IMD-0560 was also investigated using an ovarian cancer xenograft mouse model. The NF-κB signaling pathway was constitutively activated in 8 of 9 ovarian cancer cell lines. IMD-0560 inhibited NF-κB activation and suppressed ovarian cancer cell proliferation by inducing G1 phase arrest. IMD-0560 decreased VEGF secretion from cancer cells and inhibited the tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. IMD-0560 significantly inhibited peritoneal metastasis and prolonged the survival in an ovarian cancer xenograft mice model. Immunohistochemical staining of excised tumors revealed that IMD-0560 suppressed VEGF expression, tumor angiogenesis, and cancer cell proliferation. IMD-0560 showed promising therapeutic efficacy against ovarian cancer xenograft mice by inducing cell cycle arrest and suppressing VEGF production from cancer cells. IMD-0560 may be a potential future option in regimens for the

  17. Cell wall mannoprotein of Candida albicans induces cell cycle alternation and inhibits apoptosis of HaCaT cells via NF-κB signal pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yang; Jiang, Hang-Hang; Zhang, Yu-Jing; Hao, Xing-Jia; Sun, Yu-Zhe; Qi, Rui-Qun; Chen, Hong-Duo; Gao, Xing-Hua

    2017-10-01

    Candida albicans (C. albicans) is a commensal organism in human and a well-known dimorphic opportunistic pathogenic fungus. Though plenty of researches on the pathogenesis of C. albicans have been performed, the mechanism is not fully understood. The cell wall components of C. albicans have been documented to play important roles in its pathogenic processes. To further study the infectious mechanism of C. albicans, we investigated the potential functional role of its cell wall mannoprotein in cell cycle and apoptosis of HaCaT cells. We found that mannoprotein could promote the transition of cell cycle from G1/G0 to S phase, in which Cyclin D1, CDK4 and p-Rb, the major regulators of the cell cycle progression, showed significant upregulation, and CDKN1A (cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21)) showed significant downregulation. Mannoprotein also could inhibit apoptosis of HaCaT cells, which was well associated with increased expression of BCL2 (Bcl-2). Moreover, mannoprotein could increase the phosphorylation levels of RELA (p65) and NFKBIA (IκBα), as the key factors of NF-κB signal pathway in HaCaT cells, suggesting the activation of NF-κB signal pathway. Additionally, a NF-κB specific inhibitor, PDTC, could rescue the effect of mannoprotein on cell cycle and apoptosis of HaCaT cells, which suggested that mannoprotein could activate NF-κB signal pathway to mediate cell cycle alternation and inhibit apoptosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Local and Systemic IKKε and NF-κB Signaling Associated with Sjögren’s Syndrome Immunopathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiqian Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The activated NF-κB signaling pathway plays an important role in pathogenesis of primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS. The inhibitor of κB (IκB kinase (IKK family such as IKKα, IKKβ, IKKγ, and IKKε, is required for this signaling. Our aim was to investigate the role of IKKα/β/γ/ε in patients with untreated pSS. In minor salivary glands from pSS patients, phosphorylated IKKε (pIKKε, pIκBα, and pNF-κB p65 (p-p65 were highly expressed in ductal epithelium and infiltrating mononuclear cells by immunohistochemistry, compared to healthy individuals. pIKKα/β and pIKKγ were both negative. And pIKKε positively related to expression of p-p65. Furthermore, pIKKε and p-p65 expression significantly correlated with biopsy focus score and overall disease activity. Meanwhile, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from pSS patients, pIKKε, total IKKε, pIKKα/β, and p-p65 were significantly increased by western blot, compared to healthy controls. However, there was no difference in IKKγ and IκBα between pSS patients and healthy individuals. These results demonstrated an abnormality of IKKε, IκBα, and NF-κB in pSS, suggesting a potential target of treatment for pSS based on the downregulation of IKKε expression and deregulation of NF-κB pathway.

  19. The garlic NF-YC gene, AsNF-YC8, positively regulates non-ionic hyperosmotic stress tolerance in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiudong; Lian, Haifeng; Liu, Xingchen; Zhou, Shumei; Liu, Shiqi

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) and stress tolerance in garlic, we cloned a NF-Y family gene AsNF-YC8 from garlic, which was largely upregulated at dehydrate stage. Expression pattern analyses in garlic revealed that AsNF-YC8 is induced through abscisic acid (ABA) and abiotic stresses, such as NaCl and PEG. Compared with wild-type plants, the overexpressing-AsNF-YC8 transgenic tobacco plants showed higher seed germination rates, longer root length and better plant growth under salt and drought stresses. Under drought stress, the transgenic plants maintained higher relative water content (RWC), net photosynthesis, lower levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), and less ion leakage (IL) than wild-type control plants. These results indicate the high tolerance of the transgenic plants to drought stress compared to the WT. The transgenic tobacco lines accumulated less reactive oxygen species (ROS) and exhibited higher antioxidative enzyme activities compared with wild-type (WT) plants under drought stress, which suggested that the overexpression of AsNF-YC8 improves the antioxidant defense system by regulating the activities of these antioxidant enzymes, which in turn protect transgenic lines against drought stress. These results suggest that AsNF-YC8 plays an important role in tolerance to drought and salt stresses.

  20. Src-family-tyrosine kinase Lyn is critical for TLR2-mediated NF-κB activation through the PI 3-kinase signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toubiana, Julie; Rossi, Anne-Lise; Belaidouni, Nadia; Grimaldi, David; Pene, Frederic; Chafey, Philippe; Comba, Béatrice; Camoin, Luc; Bismuth, Georges; Claessens, Yann-Erick; Mira, Jean-Paul; Chiche, Jean-Daniel

    2015-10-01

    TLR2 has a prominent role in host defense against a wide variety of pathogens. Stimulation of TLR2 triggers MyD88-dependent signaling to induce NF-κB translocation, and activates a Rac1-PI 3-kinase dependent pathway that leads to transactivation of NF-κB through phosphorylation of the P65 NF-κB subunit. This transactivation pathway involves tyrosine phosphorylations. The role of the tyrosine kinases in TLR signaling is controversial, with discrepancies between studies using only chemical inhibitors and knockout mice. Here, we show the involvement of the tyrosine-kinase Lyn in TLR2-dependent activation of NF-κB in human cellular models, by using complementary inhibition strategies. Stimulation of TLR2 induces the formation of an activation cluster involving TLR2, CD14, PI 3-kinase and Lyn, and leads to the activation of AKT. Lyn-dependent phosphorylation of the p110 catalytic subunit of PI 3-kinase is essential to the control of PI 3-kinase biological activity upstream of AKT and thereby to the transactivation of NF-κB. Thus, Lyn kinase activity is crucial in TLR2-mediated activation of the innate immune response in human mononuclear cells. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Respiratory syncytial virus and TNFalpha induction of chemokine gene expression involves differential activation of Rel A and NF-kappaB1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roebuck Kenneth A

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV infection of airway epithelial cells stimulates the expression and secretion of a variety of cytokines including the chemotactic cytokines interleukin-8 (IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, and RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted. Chemokines are important chemoattractants for the recruitment of distinct sets of leukocytes to airway sites of inflammation. Results We have shown previously that chemokine expression is regulated in airway epithelial cells (A549 in a stimulus-specific manner in part through the redox-responsive transcription factors AP-1 and NF-κB. In this study, we examined the NF-κB-mediated effects of RSV and the proinflammatory cytokine TNFα on the induction of IL-8, MCP-1 and RANTES chemokine gene expression in A549 epithelial cells. The results demonstrate that RSV induces chemokine expression with distinct kinetics that is associated with a specific pattern of NF-κB binding activity. This distinction was further demonstrated by the differential effects of the NF-κB inhibitors dexamethasone (DEX and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC. NAC preferentially inhibited RSV induced chemokine expression, whereas DEX preferentially inhibited TNFα induced chemokine expression. DNA binding studies using NF-κB subunit specific binding ELISA demonstrated that RSV and TNFα induced different NF-κB binding complexes containing Rel A (p65 and NF-κB1 (p50. Both TNFα and RSV strongly induced Rel A the activation subunit of NF-κB, whereas only TNFα was able to substantially induce the p50 subunit. Consistent with the expression studies, RSV but not TNFα induction of Rel A and p50 were markedly inhibited by NAC, providing a mechanism by which TNFα and RSV can differentially activate chemokine gene expression via NF-κB. Conclusions These data suggest that RSV induction of chemokine gene expression, in contrast to TNFα, involves redox

  2. NF1 Neuronal Genotype Phenotype Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    interesting results from the Drosophila functional assays, at present we have decided to focus our attention on selected NF1 patient missense mutations...complexity of NF1 disease phenotypes in different tissues, age and sex dependency of symptoms, impact of environmental factors and genetic heterogeneity...suggesting the role of modifier genes [12]. This work aims to shed light on this issue by studying the functional consequences of selected NF1

  3. Blocking NF-κB: an inflammatory issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Arshad; Fazal, Fabeha

    2011-11-01

    The nuclear factor (NF)-κB is considered the master regulator of inflammatory responses. Studies in mouse models have established this transcription factor as an important mediator of many inflammatory disease states, including pulmonary diseases such as acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Endothelial cells provide the first barrier for leukocytes migrating to the inflamed sites and hence offer an attractive cellular context for targeting NF-κB for treatment of these diseases. However, recent studies showing that NF-κB also plays an important role in resolution phase of inflammation and in tissue repair and homeostasis have challenged the view of therapeutic inhibition of NF-κB. This article reviews the regulation of NF-κB in the context of endothelial cell signaling and provides a perspective on why "dampening" rather than "abolishing" NF-κB activation may be a safe and effective treatment strategy for inflammation-associated pulmonary and other inflammatory diseases.

  4. Moving Synergistically Acting Drug Combinations to the Clinic by Comparing Sequential versus Simultaneous Drug Administrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinavahi, Saketh S; Noory, Mohammad A; Gowda, Raghavendra; Drabick, Joseph J; Berg, Arthur; Neves, Rogerio I; Robertson, Gavin P

    2018-03-01

    Drug combinations acting synergistically to kill cancer cells have become increasingly important in melanoma as an approach to manage the recurrent resistant disease. Protein kinase B (AKT) is a major target in this disease but its inhibitors are not effective clinically, which is a major concern. Targeting AKT in combination with WEE1 (mitotic inhibitor kinase) seems to have potential to make AKT-based therapeutics effective clinically. Since agents targeting AKT and WEE1 have been tested individually in the clinic, the quickest way to move the drug combination to patients would be to combine these agents sequentially, enabling the use of existing phase I clinical trial toxicity data. Therefore, a rapid preclinical approach is needed to evaluate whether simultaneous or sequential drug treatment has maximal therapeutic efficacy, which is based on a mechanistic rationale. To develop this approach, melanoma cell lines were treated with AKT inhibitor AZD5363 [4-amino- N -[(1 S )-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-hydroxypropyl]-1-(7 H -pyrrolo[2,3- d ]pyrimidin-4-yl)piperidine-4-carboxamide] and WEE1 inhibitor AZD1775 [2-allyl-1-(6-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)pyridin-2-yl)-6-((4-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)phenyl)amino)-1 H -pyrazolo[3,4- d ]pyrimidin-3(2 H )-one] using simultaneous and sequential dosing schedules. Simultaneous treatment synergistically reduced melanoma cell survival and tumor growth. In contrast, sequential treatment was antagonistic and had a minimal tumor inhibitory effect compared with individual agents. Mechanistically, simultaneous targeting of AKT and WEE1 enhanced deregulation of the cell cycle and DNA damage repair pathways by modulating transcription factors p53 and forkhead box M1, which was not observed with sequential treatment. Thus, this study identifies a rapid approach to assess the drug combinations with a mechanistic basis for selection, which suggests that combining AKT and WEE1 inhibitors is needed for maximal efficacy. Copyright © 2018 by The American

  5. Ponatinib promotes a G1 cell-cycle arrest of merlin/NF2-deficient human schwann cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrilli, Alejandra M; Garcia, Jeanine; Bott, Marga; Klingeman Plati, Stephani; Dinh, Christine T; Bracho, Olena R; Yan, Denise; Zou, Bing; Mittal, Rahul; Telischi, Fred F; Liu, Xue-Zhong; Chang, Long-Sheng; Welling, D Bradley; Copik, Alicja J; Fernández-Valle, Cristina

    2017-05-09

    Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is a genetic syndrome that predisposes individuals to multiple benign tumors of the central and peripheral nervous systems, including vestibular schwannomas. Currently, there are no FDA approved drug therapies for NF2. Loss of function of merlin encoded by the NF2 tumor suppressor gene leads to activation of multiple mitogenic signaling cascades, including platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) and SRC in Schwann cells. The goal of this study was to determine whether ponatinib, an FDA-approved ABL/SRC inhibitor, reduced proliferation and/or survival of merlin-deficient human Schwann cells (HSC). Merlin-deficient HSC had higher levels of phosphorylated PDGFRα/β, and SRC than merlin-expressing HSC. A similar phosphorylation pattern was observed in phospho-protein arrays of human vestibular schwannoma samples compared to normal HSC. Ponatinib reduced merlin-deficient HSC viability in a dose-dependent manner by decreasing phosphorylation of PDGFRα/β, AKT, p70S6K, MEK1/2, ERK1/2 and STAT3. These changes were associated with decreased cyclin D1 and increased p27Kip1levels, leading to a G1 cell-cycle arrest as assessed by Western blotting and flow cytometry. Ponatinib did not modulate ABL, SRC, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), or paxillin phosphorylation levels. These results suggest that ponatinib is a potential therapeutic agent for NF2-associated schwannomas and warrants further in vivo investigation.

  6. Synergistic effects of retinoic acid and tamoxifen on human breast cancer cells: Proteomic characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ying; He Qingyu; Chen Hongming; Chiu Jenfu

    2007-01-01

    The anti-estrogen tamoxifen and vitamin A-related compound, all-trans retinoic acid (RA), in combination act synergistically to inhibit the growth of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. In the present study, we applied two-dimensional gel electrophoresis based proteomic approach to globally analyze this synergistic effect of RA and tamoxifen. Proteomic study revealed that multiple clusters of proteins were involved in RA and tamoxifen-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, including post-transcriptional and splicing factors, proteins related to cellular proliferation or differentiation, and proteins related to energy production and internal degradation systems. The negative growth factor-transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) was secreted by RA and/or tamoxifen treatment and was studies as a potential mediator of the synergistic effects of RA and tamoxifen in apoptosis. By comparing protein alterations in treatments of RA and tamoxifen alone or in combination to those of TGFβ treatment, or co-treatment with TGFβ inhibitor SB 431542, proteomic results showed that a number of proteins were involved in TGFβ signaling pathway. These results provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of RA and tamoxifen-induced TGFβ signaling pathway in breast cancer cells

  7. Cytokine regulation of pro- and anti-apoptotic genes in rat hepatocytes: NF-kappaB-regulated inhibitor of apoptosis protein 2 (cIAP2) prevents apoptosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoemaker, Marieke H.; Ros, Jenny E.; Homan, Manon; Trautwein, Christian; Liston, Peter; Poelstra, Klaas; van Goor, Harry; Jansen, Peter L. M.; Moshage, Han

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: In acute liver failure, hepatocytes are exposed to various cytokines that activate both cell survival and apoptotic pathways. NF-kappaB is a central transcription factor in these responses. Recent studies indicate that blocking NF-kappaB causes apoptosis, indicating the existence of

  8. Tramadol and propentofylline coadministration exerted synergistic effects on rat spinal nerve ligation-induced neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Wu, Dan; Xie, Cheng; Wang, Huan; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Rui; Xu, Li-Xian; Mei, Xiao-Peng

    2013-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is an intractable clinical problem. Drug treatments such as tramadol have been reported to effectively decrease neuropathic pain by inhibiting the activity of nociceptive neurons. It has also been reported that modulating glial activation could also prevent or reverse neuropathic pain via the administration of a glial modulator or inhibitor, such as propentofylline. Thus far, there has been no clinical strategy incorporating both neuronal and glial participation for treating neuropathic pain. Therefore, the present research study was designed to assess whether coadministration of tramadol and propentofylline, as neuronal and glial activation inhibitors, respectively, would exert a synergistic effect on the reduction of rat spinal nerve ligation (SNL)-induced neuropathic pain. Rats underwent SNL surgery to induce neuropathic pain. Pain behavioral tests were conducted to ascertain the effect of drugs on SNL-induced mechanical allodynia with von-Frey hairs. Proinflammatory factor interleukin-1β (IL-1β) expression was also detected by Real-time RT-PCR. Intrathecal tramadol and propentofylline administered alone relieved SNL-induced mechanical allodynia in a dose-dependent manner. Tramadol and propentofylline coadministration exerted a more potent effect in a synergistic and dose dependent manner than the intrathecal administration of either drug alone. Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated IL-1β up-expression in the ipsilateral spinal dorsal horn after the lesion, which was significantly decreased by tramadol and propentofylline coadministration. Inhibiting proinflammatory factor IL-1β contributed to the synergistic effects of tramadol and propentofylline coadministration on rat peripheral nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain. Thus, our study provided a rationale for utilizing a novel strategy for treating neuropathic pain by blocking the proinflammatory factor related pathways in the central nervous system.

  9. Palmitic Acid Induces Osteoblastic Differentiation in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells through ACSL3 and NF-κB, Novel Targets of Eicosapentaenoic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Aiko; Matsui, Hiroki; Ohta, Masahiko; Sambuichi, Keisuke; Kawano, Hiroyuki; Notsu, Tatsuto; Imada, Kazunori; Yokoyama, Tomoyuki; Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2013-01-01

    Free fatty acids (FFAs), elevated in metabolic syndrome and diabetes, play a crucial role in the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) counteracts many aspects of FFA-induced vascular pathology. Although vascular calcification is invariably associated with atherosclerosis, the mechanisms involved are not completely elucidated. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that EPA prevents the osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) induced by palmitic acid (PA), the most abundant long-chain saturated fatty acid in plasma. PA increased and EPA abolished the expression of the genes for bone-related proteins, including bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2, Msx2 and osteopontin in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC). Among the long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL) subfamily, ACSL3 expression was predominant in HASMC, and PA robustly increased and EPA efficiently inhibited ACSL3 expression. Importantly, PA-induced osteoblastic differentiation was mediated, at least in part, by ACSL3 activation because acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) inhibitor or siRNA targeted to ACSL3 completely prevented the PA induction of both BMP-2 and Msx2. Conversely, adenovirus-mediated ACSL3 overexpression enhanced PA-induced BMP-2 and Msx2 expression. In addition, EPA, ACSL3 siRNA and ACS inhibitor attenuated calcium deposition and caspase activation induced by PA. Notably, PA induced activation of NF-κB, and NF-κB inhibitor prevented PA-induction of osteoblastic gene expression and calcium deposition. Immunohistochemistry revealed the prominent expression of ACSL3 in VSMC and macrophages in human non-calcifying and calcifying atherosclerotic plaques from the carotid arteries. These results identify ACSL3 and NF-κB as mediators of PA-induced osteoblastic differentiation and calcium deposition in VSMC and suggest that EPA prevents vascular calcification by inhibiting such a new molecular pathway elicited

  10. Hyperammonemia in cirrhosis induces transcriptional regulation of myostatin by an NF-κB–mediated mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jia; Thapaliya, Samjhana; Runkana, Ashok; Yang, Yu; Tsien, Cynthia; Mohan, Maradumane L.; Narayanan, Arvind; Eghtesad, Bijan; Mozdziak, Paul E.; McDonald, Christine; Stark, George R.; Welle, Stephen; Naga Prasad, Sathyamangla V.; Dasarathy, Srinivasan

    2013-01-01

    Loss of muscle mass, or sarcopenia, is nearly universal in cirrhosis and adversely affects patient outcome. The underlying cross-talk between the liver and skeletal muscle mediating sarcopenia is not well understood. Hyperammonemia is a consistent abnormality in cirrhosis due to impaired hepatic detoxification to urea. We observed elevated levels of ammonia in both plasma samples and skeletal muscle biopsies from cirrhotic patients compared with healthy controls. Furthermore, skeletal muscle from cirrhotics had increased expression of myostatin, a known inhibitor of skeletal muscle accretion and growth. In vivo studies in mice showed that hyperammonemia reduced muscle mass and strength and increased myostatin expression in wild-type compared with postdevelopmental myostatin knockout mice. We postulated that hyperammonemia is an underlying link between hepatic dysfunction in cirrhosis and skeletal muscle loss. Therefore, murine C2C12 myotubes were treated with ammonium acetate resulting in intracellular concentrations similar to those in cirrhotic muscle. In this system, we demonstrate that hyperammonemia stimulated myostatin expression in a NF-κB–dependent manner. This finding was also observed in primary murine muscle cell cultures. Hyperammonemia triggered activation of IκB kinase, NF-κB nuclear translocation, binding of the NF-κB p65 subunit to specific sites within the myostatin promoter, and stimulation of myostatin gene transcription. Pharmacologic inhibition or gene silencing of NF-κB abolished myostatin up-regulation under conditions of hyperammonemia. Our work provides unique insights into hyperammonemia-induced myostatin expression and suggests a mechanism by which sarcopenia develops in cirrhotic patients. PMID:24145431

  11. Combination of Proteasomal Inhibitors Lactacystin and MG132 Induced Synergistic Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B. Shirley

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The proteasome inhibitor Velcade (bortezomib/PS-341 has been shown to block the targeted proteolytic degradation of short-lived proteins that are involved in cell maintenance, growth, division, and death, advocating the use of proteasomal inhibitors as therapeutic agents. Although many studies focused on the use of one proteasomal inhibitor for therapy, we hypothesized that the combination of proteasome inhibitors Lactacystin (AG Scientific, Inc., San Diego, CA and MG132 (Biomol International, Plymouth Meeting, PA may be more effective in inducing apoptosis. Additionally, this regimen would enable the use of sublethal doses of individual drugs, thus reducing adverse effects. Results indicate a significant increase in apoptosis when LNCaP prostate cancer cells were treated with increasing levels of Lactacystin, MG132, or a combination of sublethal doses of these two inhibitors. Furthermore, induction in apoptosis coincided with a significant loss of IKKα, IKKβ, and IKKγ proteins and NFκB activity. In addition to describing effective therapeutic agents, we provide a model system to facilitate the investigation of the mechanism of action of these drugs and their effects on the IKK-NFκB axis.

  12. Selective elimination of neuroblastoma cells by synergistic effect of Akt kinase inhibitor and tetrathiomolybdate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navrátilová, Jarmila; Karasová, Martina; Kohutková Lánová, Martina; Jiráková, Ludmila; Budková, Zuzana; Pacherník, Jiří; Šmarda, Jan; Beneš, Petr

    2017-09-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumour of infancy. Pathological activation of glucose consumption, glycolysis and glycolysis-activating Akt kinase occur frequently in neuroblastoma cells, and these changes correlate with poor prognosis of patients. Therefore, several inhibitors of glucose utilization and the Akt kinase activity are in preclinical trials as potential anti-cancer drugs. However, metabolic plasticity of cancer cells might undermine efficacy of this approach. In this work, we identified oxidative phosphorylation as compensatory mechanism preserving viability of neuroblastoma cells with inhibited glucose uptake/Akt kinase. It was oxidative phosphorylation that maintained intracellular level of ATP and proliferative capacity of these cells. The oxidative phosphorylation inhibitors (rotenone, tetrathiomolybdate) synergized with inhibitor of the Akt kinase/glucose uptake in down-regulation of both viability of neuroblastoma cells and clonogenic potential of cells forming neuroblastoma spheroids. Interestingly, tetrathiomolybdate acted as highly specific inhibitor of oxygen consumption and activator of lactate production in neuroblastoma cells, but not in normal fibroblasts and neuronal cells. Moreover, the reducing effect of tetrathiomolybdate on cell viability and the level of ATP in the cells with inhibited Akt kinase/glucose uptake was also selective for neuroblastoma cells. Therefore, efficient elimination of neuroblastoma cells requires inhibition of both glucose uptake/Akt kinase and oxidative phosphorylation activities. The use of tetrathiomolybdate as a mitochondrial inhibitor contributes to selectivity of this combined treatment, preferentially targeting neuroblastoma cells. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  13. Molecular mechanisms for synergistic effect of proteasome inhibitors with platinum-based therapy in solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Angel; Wang, Tzu-Hao

    2016-02-01

    The successful development of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib as an anticancer drug has improved survival in patients with multiple myeloma. With the emergence of the newly US Food and Drug Administration-approved proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib, ongoing trials are investigating this compound and other proteasome inhibitors either alone or in combination with other chemotherapy drugs. However, in solid tumors, the efficacy of proteasome inhibitors has not lived up to expectations. Results regarding the potential clinical efficacy of bortezomib combined with other agents in the treatment of solid tumors are eagerly awaited. Recent identification of the molecular mechanisms (involving apoptosis and autophagy) by which bortezomib and cisplatin can overcome chemotherapy resistance and sensitize tumor cells to anticancer therapy can provide insights into the development of novel therapeutic strategies for patients with solid malignancies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Effects of vitamin E on the NF-κB pathway in rats treated with the peroxisome proliferator, ciprofibrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calfee-Mason, Karen G.; Spear, Brett T.; Glauert, Howard P.

    2004-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferators (PPs) are a diverse group of nongenotoxic compounds, which induce hepatic tumors in rodents. The mechanisms leading to hepatic tumors have not been elucidated, but oxidative stress may play a role in the process. Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that peroxisome proliferators activate the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and that this activation is mediated at least in part by oxidative stress. We therefore hypothesized that increased dietary vitamin E would decrease NF-κB DNA binding in rodents treated with ciprofibrate (CIP). In this study, 36 male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a purified diet containing varying levels of vitamin E (10, 50, 250 ppm α-tocopherol acetate). After 28 days on the purified diet, seven animals per vitamin E group received 0.01% CIP in the diet for 10 days. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) showed that CIP treatment increased DNA binding of NF-κB. Increased dietary α-tocopherol acetate inhibited CIP-induced NF-κB DNA binding. Because NF-κB translocates to the nucleus upon the phosphorylation and degradation of inhibitor of IκB, we also used Western blots to measure cytosolic protein levels of IκBα and IκBβ, and the IκB kinases, IKKα and IKKβ. IκBα protein levels were decreased in all three CIP-treated groups, with the 10 ppm vitamin E diet also decreasing IκBα levels in control rats. No difference in IκBβ protein levels was observed among any of the groups. The CIP-treated rats generally had lower protein levels of IKKα and IKKβ. This study supports our working hypothesis that an increased antioxidant environment can inhibit CIP-mediated NF-κB induction

  15. Regulation of IFN regulatory factor 4 expression in human T cell leukemia virus-I-transformed T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sonia; Grandvaux, Nathalie; Mamane, Yael; Genin, Pierre; Azimi, Nazli; Waldmann, Thomas; Hiscott, John

    2002-09-15

    IFN regulatory factor (IRF)-4 is a lymphoid/myeloid-restricted member of the IRF transcription factor family that plays an essential role in the homeostasis and function of mature lymphocytes. IRF-4 expression is tightly regulated in resting primary T cells and is transiently induced at the mRNA and protein levels after activation by Ag-mimetic stimuli such as TCR cross-linking or treatment with phorbol ester and calcium ionophore (PMA/ionomycin). However, IRF-4 is constitutively upregulated in human T cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) infected T cells as a direct gene target for the HTLV-I Tax oncoprotein. In this study we demonstrate that chronic IRF-4 expression in HTLV-I-infected T lymphocytes is associated with a leukemic phenotype, and we examine the mechanisms by which continuous production of IRF-4 is achieved in HTLV-I-transformed T cells. IRF-4 expression in HTLV-1-infected cells is driven through activation of the NF-kappaB and NF-AT pathways, resulting in the binding of p50, p65, and c-Rel to the kappaB1 element and p50, c-Rel, and NF-ATp to the CD28RE element within the -617 to -209 region of the IRF-4 promoter. Furthermore, mutation of either the kappaB1 or CD28RE sites blocks Tax-mediated transactivation of the human IRF-4 promoter in T cells. These experiments constitute the first detailed analysis of human IRF-4 transcriptional regulation within the context of HTLV-I infection and transformation of CD4(+) T lymphocytes.

  16. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase up-regulates LPS-induced NF-κB activation in the development of lung injury and RAW 264.7 macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee J.; Lee, Hui S.; Chong, Young H.; Kang, Jihee Lee

    2006-01-01

    Clarification of the key regulatory steps that lead to nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) under cellular and pathological conditions is very important. The action of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) on the upstream of NF-κB activation remains controversial. To examine this issue using an in vivo lung injury model, SB203580, a p38 MAPK inhibitor was given intraorally 1 h prior to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment (intratracheally). The mice were sacrificed 4 h after LPS treatment. SB203580 substantially suppressed LPS-induced rises in p38 MAPK phosphorylation, neutrophil recruitment, total protein content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and apoptosis of bronchoalveolar cells. Furthermore, SB203580 blocked LPS-induced NF-κB activation in lung tissue through down-regulation of serine phosphorylation, degradation of IκB-α, and consequent translocation of the p65 subunit of NF-κB to the nucleus. It is likely that, in cultured RAW 264.7 macrophages, SB203580 also blocked LPS-induced NF-κB activation in a dose-dependent manner. SB203580 inhibited LPS-induced serine phosphorylation, degradation of IκB-α, and tyrosine phosphorylation of p65 NF-κB. These data indicate that p38 MAPK acts upstream of LPS-induced NF-κB activation by modulating the phosphorylation of IκB-α and p65 NF-κB during acute lung injury. Because LPS-stimulated macrophages may contribute to inflammatory lung injury, the inhibition of the p38 MAPK-mediated intracellular signaling pathway leading to NF-κB activation represents a target for the attenuation of lung inflammation and parenchymal damage

  17. IFN-γ regulates human dental pulp stem cells behavior via NF-κB and MAPK signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xinyao; Jiang, Wenkai; Luo, Zhirong; Qu, Tiejun; Wang, Zhihua; Liu, Ningning; Zhang, Yaqing; Cooper, Paul R.; He, Wenxi

    2017-01-01

    During caries, dental pulp expresses a range of pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to the infectious challenge. Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) is a dimerized soluble cytokine, which is critical for immune responses. Previous study has demonstrated that IFN-γ at relative high concentration (100 ng/mL) treatment improved the impaired dentinogenic and immunosuppressive regulatory functions of disease-derived dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). However, little is known about the regulatory effects of IFN-γ at relative low concentration on healthy DPSC behavior (including proliferation, migration, and multiple-potential differentiation). Here we demonstrate that IFN-γ at relatively low concentrations (0.5 ng/mL) promoted the proliferation and migration of DPSCs, but abrogated odonto/osteogenic differentiation. Additionally, we identified that NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways are both involved in the process of IFN-γ-regulated odonto/osteogenic differentiation of DPSCs. DPSCs treated with IFN-γ and supplemented with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC, an NF-κB inhibitor) or SB203580 (a MAPK inhibitor) showed significantly improved potential for odonto/osteogenic differentiation of DPSCs both in vivo and in vitro. These data provide important insight into the regulatory effects of IFN-γ on the biological behavior of DPSCs and indicate a promising therapeutic strategy for dentin/pulp tissue engineering in future endodontic treatment. PMID:28098169

  18. IFN-γ regulates human dental pulp stem cells behavior via NF-κB and MAPK signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xinyao; Jiang, Wenkai; Luo, Zhirong; Qu, Tiejun; Wang, Zhihua; Liu, Ningning; Zhang, Yaqing; Cooper, Paul R; He, Wenxi

    2017-01-18

    During caries, dental pulp expresses a range of pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to the infectious challenge. Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) is a dimerized soluble cytokine, which is critical for immune responses. Previous study has demonstrated that IFN-γ at relative high concentration (100 ng/mL) treatment improved the impaired dentinogenic and immunosuppressive regulatory functions of disease-derived dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). However, little is known about the regulatory effects of IFN-γ at relative low concentration on healthy DPSC behavior (including proliferation, migration, and multiple-potential differentiation). Here we demonstrate that IFN-γ at relatively low concentrations (0.5 ng/mL) promoted the proliferation and migration of DPSCs, but abrogated odonto/osteogenic differentiation. Additionally, we identified that NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways are both involved in the process of IFN-γ-regulated odonto/osteogenic differentiation of DPSCs. DPSCs treated with IFN-γ and supplemented with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC, an NF-κB inhibitor) or SB203580 (a MAPK inhibitor) showed significantly improved potential for odonto/osteogenic differentiation of DPSCs both in vivo and in vitro. These data provide important insight into the regulatory effects of IFN-γ on the biological behavior of DPSCs and indicate a promising therapeutic strategy for dentin/pulp tissue engineering in future endodontic treatment.

  19. Rational combination treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors and immunomodulatory drugs in multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hideshima, T; Cottini, F; Ohguchi, H; Jakubikova, J; Gorgun, G; Mimura, N; Tai, Y-T; Munshi, N C; Richardson, P G; Anderson, K C

    2015-01-01

    Immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) thalidomide, lenalidomide (Len) and pomalidomide trigger anti-tumor activities in multiple myeloma (MM) by targetting cereblon and thereby impacting IZF1/3, c-Myc and IRF4. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) also downregulate c-Myc. We therefore determined whether IMiDs with HDACi trigger significant MM cell growth inhibition by inhibiting or downregulating c-Myc. Combination treatment of Len with non-selective HDACi suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid or class-I HDAC-selective inhibitor MS275 induces synergic cytotoxicity, associated with downregulation of c-Myc. Unexpectedly, we observed that decreased levels of cereblon (CRBN), a primary target protein of IMiDs, was triggered by these agents. Indeed, sequential treatment of MM cells with MS275 followed by Len shows less efficacy than simultaneous treatment with this combination. Importantly ACY1215, an HDAC6 inhibitor with minimal effects on class-I HDACs, together with Len induces synergistic MM cytotoxicity without alteration of CRBN expression. Our results showed that only modest class-I HDAC inhibition is able to induce synergistic MM cytotoxicity in combination with Len. These studies may provide the framework for utilizing HDACi in combination with Len to both avoid CRBN downregulation and enhance anti-MM activities

  20. Rational combination treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors and immunomodulatory drugs in multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hideshima, T; Cottini, F; Ohguchi, H; Jakubikova, J; Gorgun, G; Mimura, N; Tai, Y-T; Munshi, N C; Richardson, P G; Anderson, K C

    2015-05-15

    Immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) thalidomide, lenalidomide (Len) and pomalidomide trigger anti-tumor activities in multiple myeloma (MM) by targetting cereblon and thereby impacting IZF1/3, c-Myc and IRF4. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) also downregulate c-Myc. We therefore determined whether IMiDs with HDACi trigger significant MM cell growth inhibition by inhibiting or downregulating c-Myc. Combination treatment of Len with non-selective HDACi suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid or class-I HDAC-selective inhibitor MS275 induces synergic cytotoxicity, associated with downregulation of c-Myc. Unexpectedly, we observed that decreased levels of cereblon (CRBN), a primary target protein of IMiDs, was triggered by these agents. Indeed, sequential treatment of MM cells with MS275 followed by Len shows less efficacy than simultaneous treatment with this combination. Importantly ACY1215, an HDAC6 inhibitor with minimal effects on class-I HDACs, together with Len induces synergistic MM cytotoxicity without alteration of CRBN expression. Our results showed that only modest class-I HDAC inhibition is able to induce synergistic MM cytotoxicity in combination with Len. These studies may provide the framework for utilizing HDACi in combination with Len to both avoid CRBN downregulation and enhance anti-MM activities.

  1. Central inhibition of IKKβ/NF-κB signaling attenuates high-fat diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzler, Jonas; Ganjam, Goutham K; Pretz, Dominik; Oelkrug, Rebecca; Koch, Christiane E; Legler, Karen; Stöhr, Sigrid; Culmsee, Carsten; Williams, Lynda M; Tups, Alexander

    2015-06-01

    Metabolic inflammation in the central nervous system might be causative for the development of overnutrition-induced metabolic syndrome and related disorders, such as obesity, leptin and insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. Here we investigated whether nutritive and genetic inhibition of the central IκB kinase β (IKKβ)/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway in diet-induced obese (DIO) and leptin-deficient mice improves these metabolic impairments. A known prominent inhibitor of IKKβ/NF-κB signaling is the dietary flavonoid butein. We initially determined that oral, intraperitoneal, and intracerebroventricular administration of this flavonoid improved glucose tolerance and hypothalamic insulin signaling. The dose-dependent glucose-lowering capacity was profound regardless of whether obesity was caused by leptin deficiency or high-fat diet (HFD). To confirm the apparent central role of IKKβ/NF-κB signaling in the control of glucose and energy homeostasis, we genetically inhibited this pathway in neurons of the arcuate nucleus, one key center for control of energy homeostasis, via specific adeno-associated virus serotype 2-mediated overexpression of IκBα, which inhibits NF-κB nuclear translocation. This treatment attenuated HFD-induced body weight gain, body fat mass accumulation, increased energy expenditure, and reduced arcuate suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 expression, indicative for enhanced leptin signaling. These results reinforce a specific role of central proinflammatory IKKβ/NF-κB signaling in the development and potential treatment of DIO-induced comorbidities. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  2. Concurrent Autophagy Inhibition Overcomes the Resistance of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Human Bladder Cancer Cells.

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    Kang, Minyong; Lee, Kyoung-Hwa; Lee, Hye Sun; Jeong, Chang Wook; Kwak, Cheol; Kim, Hyeon Hoe; Ku, Ja Hyeon

    2017-02-04

    Despite the potential therapeutic efficacy of epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors in the treatment of advanced stage bladder cancer, there currently is no clear evidence to support this hypothesis. In this study, we investigate whether the concurrent treatment of autophagy-blocking agents with EGFR inhibitors exerts synergistic anti-cancer effects in T24 and J82 human bladder cancer cells. Lapatinib and gefitinib were used as EGFR inhibitors, and bafilomycin A1 (BFA1), chloroquine (CQ) and 3-methyladenine (3-MA) were used as the pharmacologic inhibitors of autophagy activities. To assess the proliferative and self-renewal capabilities, the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and a clonogenic assay were performed, respectively. To examine apoptotic cell death, flow cytometry using annexin-V/propidium iodide (PI) was used. To measure the autophagy activities, the expression levels of LC3I and II was determined by Western blot analysis. To validate the synergistic effects of autophagy inhibition with EGFR inhibitors, we specifically blocked key autophagy regulatory gene ATG12 by transfection of small interference RNA and examined the phenotypic changes. Of note, lapatinib and gefitinib triggered autophagy activities in T24 and J82 human bladder cancer cells, as indicated by upregulation of LC3II. More importantly, inhibiting autophagy activities with pharmacologic inhibitors (BFA1, CQ or 3-MA) remarkably reduced the cell viabilities and clonal proliferation of T24 and J82 cells, compared to those treated with either of the agents alone. We also obtained similar results of the enhanced anti-cancer effects of EGFR inhibitors by suppressing the expression of ATG12. Notably, the apoptotic assay showed that synergistic anti-cancer effects were induced via the increase of apoptotic cell death. In summary, concomitant inhibition of autophagy activities potentiated the anti-cancer effects of EGFR inhibitors in human bladder cancer cells, indicating a novel

  3. Concurrent Autophagy Inhibition Overcomes the Resistance of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Human Bladder Cancer Cells

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    Minyong Kang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite the potential therapeutic efficacy of epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR inhibitors in the treatment of advanced stage bladder cancer, there currently is no clear evidence to support this hypothesis. In this study, we investigate whether the concurrent treatment of autophagy-blocking agents with EGFR inhibitors exerts synergistic anti-cancer effects in T24 and J82 human bladder cancer cells. Lapatinib and gefitinib were used as EGFR inhibitors, and bafilomycin A1 (BFA1, chloroquine (CQ and 3-methyladenine (3-MA were used as the pharmacologic inhibitors of autophagy activities. To assess the proliferative and self-renewal capabilities, the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8 assay and a clonogenic assay were performed, respectively. To examine apoptotic cell death, flow cytometry using annexin-V/propidium iodide (PI was used. To measure the autophagy activities, the expression levels of LC3I and II was determined by Western blot analysis. To validate the synergistic effects of autophagy inhibition with EGFR inhibitors, we specifically blocked key autophagy regulatory gene ATG12 by transfection of small interference RNA and examined the phenotypic changes. Of note, lapatinib and gefitinib triggered autophagy activities in T24 and J82 human bladder cancer cells, as indicated by upregulation of LC3II. More importantly, inhibiting autophagy activities with pharmacologic inhibitors (BFA1, CQ or 3-MA remarkably reduced the cell viabilities and clonal proliferation of T24 and J82 cells, compared to those treated with either of the agents alone. We also obtained similar results of the enhanced anti-cancer effects of EGFR inhibitors by suppressing the expression of ATG12. Notably, the apoptotic assay showed that synergistic anti-cancer effects were induced via the increase of apoptotic cell death. In summary, concomitant inhibition of autophagy activities potentiated the anti-cancer effects of EGFR inhibitors in human bladder cancer cells, indicating

  4. Cardiac-specific overexpression of catalase prevents diabetes-induced pathological changes by inhibiting NF-κB signaling activation in the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Weitao; Ruan, Dandan; Xuan, Yuanhu; Niu, Chao; Tao, Youli; Wang, Yang; Zhan, Kungao; Cai, Lu; Jin, Litai; Tan, Yi

    2015-12-01

    Catalase is an antioxidant enzyme that specifically catabolizes hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Overexpression of catalase via a heart-specific promoter (CAT-TG) was reported to reduce diabetes-induced accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and further prevent diabetes-induced pathological abnormalities, including cardiac structural derangement and left ventricular abnormity in mice. However, the mechanism by which catalase overexpression protects heart function remains unclear. This study found that activation of a ROS-dependent NF-κB signaling pathway was downregulated in hearts of diabetic mice overexpressing catalase. In addition, catalase overexpression inhibited the significant increase in nitration levels of key enzymes involved in energy metabolism, including α-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase E1 component (α-KGD) and ATP synthase α and β subunits (ATP-α and ATP-β). To assess the effects of the NF-κB pathway activation on heart function, Bay11-7082, an inhibitor of the NF-κB signaling pathway, was injected into diabetic mice, protecting mice against the development of cardiac damage and increased nitrative modifications of key enzymes involved in energy metabolism. In conclusion, these findings demonstrated that catalase protects mouse hearts against diabetic cardiomyopathy, partially by suppressing NF-κB-dependent inflammatory responses and associated protein nitration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. ING1 and 5-azacytidine act synergistically to block breast cancer cell growth.

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    Satbir Thakur

    Full Text Available Inhibitor of Growth (ING proteins are epigenetic "readers" that recognize trimethylated lysine 4 of histone H3 (H3K4Me3 and target histone acetyl transferase (HAT and histone deacetylase (HDAC complexes to chromatin.Here we asked whether dysregulating two epigenetic pathways with chemical inhibitors showed synergistic effects on breast cancer cell line killing. We also tested whether ING1 could synergize better with chemotherapeutics that target the same epigenetic mechanism such as the HDAC inhibitor LBH589 (Panobinostat or a different epigenetic mechanism such as 5-azacytidine (5azaC, which inhibits DNA methyl transferases. Simultaneous treatment of breast cancer cell lines with LBH589 and 5azaC did not show significant synergy in killing cells. However, combination treatment of ING1 with either LBH589 or 5azaC did show synergy. The combination of ING1b with 5azaC, which targets two distinct epigenetic mechanisms, was more effective at lower doses and enhanced apoptosis as determined by Annexin V staining and cleavage of caspase 3 and poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP. ING1b plus 5azaC also acted synergistically to increase γH2AX staining indicating significant levels of DNA damage were induced. Adenoviral delivery of ING1b with 5azaC also inhibited cancer cell growth in a murine xenograft model and led to tumor regression when viral concentration was optimized in vivo.These data show that targeting distinct epigenetic pathways can be more effective in blocking cancer cell line growth than targeting the same pathway with multiple agents, and that using viral delivery of epigenetic regulators can be more effective in synergizing with a chemical agent than using two chemotherapeutic agents. This study also indicates that the ING1 epigenetic regulator may have additional activities in the cell when expressed at high levels.

  6. Anti-inflammatory activity of Odina wodier Roxb, an Indian folk remedy, through inhibition of toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, Durbadal; Mukherjee, Hemanta; Mondal, Supriya; Jena, Aditya; Dwivedi, Ved Prakash; Mondal, Keshab C; Malhotra, Bharti; Samanta, Amalesh; Chattopadhyay, Debprasad

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is part of self-limiting non-specific immune response, which occurs during bodily injury. In some disorders the inflammatory process becomes continuous, leading to the development of chronic inflammatory diseases including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer etc. Several Indian tribes used the bark of Odina wodier (OWB) for treating inflammatory disorders. Thus, we have evaluated the immunotherapeutic potential of OWB methanol extract and its major constituent chlorogenic acid (CA), using three popular in vivo antiinflammatory models: Carrageenan- and Dextran-induced paw edema, Cotton pellet granuloma, and Acetic acid-induced vascular permeability. To elucidate the possible anti-inflammatory mechanism of action we determine the level of major inflammatory mediators (NO, iNOS, COX-2-dependent prostaglandin E2 or PGE2), and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12). Further, we determine the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), nuclear factor kappa-B cells (NF-κB), and NF-kB inhibitor alpha (IK-Bα) by protein and mRNA expression, and Western blot analysis in drug treated LPS-induced murine macrophage model. Moreover, we determined the acute and sub-acute toxicity of OWB extract in BALB/c mice. Our study demonstrated a significant anti-inflammatory activity of OWB extract and CA along with the inhibition of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12 expressions. Further, the expression of TLR4, NF-κBp65, MyD88, iNOS and COX-2 molecules were reduced in drug-treated groups, but not in the LPS-stimulated untreated or control groups, Thus, our results collectively indicated that the OWB extract and CA can efficiently inhibit inflammation through the down regulation of TLR4/MyD88/NF-kB signaling pathway.

  7. Anti-inflammatory activity of Odina wodier Roxb, an Indian folk remedy, through inhibition of toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durbadal Ojha

    Full Text Available Inflammation is part of self-limiting non-specific immune response, which occurs during bodily injury. In some disorders the inflammatory process becomes continuous, leading to the development of chronic inflammatory diseases including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer etc. Several Indian tribes used the bark of Odina wodier (OWB for treating inflammatory disorders. Thus, we have evaluated the immunotherapeutic potential of OWB methanol extract and its major constituent chlorogenic acid (CA, using three popular in vivo antiinflammatory models: Carrageenan- and Dextran-induced paw edema, Cotton pellet granuloma, and Acetic acid-induced vascular permeability. To elucidate the possible anti-inflammatory mechanism of action we determine the level of major inflammatory mediators (NO, iNOS, COX-2-dependent prostaglandin E2 or PGE2, and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12. Further, we determine the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4, Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88, c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK, nuclear factor kappa-B cells (NF-κB, and NF-kB inhibitor alpha (IK-Bα by protein and mRNA expression, and Western blot analysis in drug treated LPS-induced murine macrophage model. Moreover, we determined the acute and sub-acute toxicity of OWB extract in BALB/c mice. Our study demonstrated a significant anti-inflammatory activity of OWB extract and CA along with the inhibition of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12 expressions. Further, the expression of TLR4, NF-κBp65, MyD88, iNOS and COX-2 molecules were reduced in drug-treated groups, but not in the LPS-stimulated untreated or control groups, Thus, our results collectively indicated that the OWB extract and CA can efficiently inhibit inflammation through the down regulation of TLR4/MyD88/NF-kB signaling pathway.

  8. DESAIN DAN SINTESIS SENYAWA ACES (ANALOG CURCUMIN SERIES DENGAN METODE SOLID PHASE REACTION SEBAGAI SENYAWA ANTIKANKER POTEN DENGAN MEKANISME MENGHAMBAT PROTEIN NF-kB

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    Monica Sabrina Widiapranolo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Analog of curcumin in forms of enone and dienone aromatic is known for their activity as an NF-κB inhibitor. In this study, will be synthesize 2-(4'-N, N-dimethylamino benzilidine cyclohexane-1,3-dione as an analog that predicted has an activity as an NF-κB inhibitor. This research was conducted based on the crossed aldol condensation reaction by reacting 3 mmole pN,N-dimethylamino benzaldehide and 6 mmole cyclohexane-1,3-dione with hydrochloric acid as the catalyst using solid phase reaction method. Based on computational analysis, 2-(4'-N,Ndimethylamino benzilidine cyclohexane-1,3-dione showed a better interaction with NF-κB protein with PLANTSPLP score was -69,7895. The outcome of the reaction was yellow colored powder, no odor and soluble in hydrochloric acid 3N. The yield value was 78.8%. Liquid chromatography showed 100% purity. The melting point range was 237.5-240.3°C. The results of structure elucidation by 1H-NMR, infrared and mass spectroscopy tests indicated the compound was 2-(4-(dimetilaminobenzilidena-4-(3-oksosiklohex-1-enil sikloheksana-1,3-dion. Key words: 2-(4'-N, N-dimethylamino benzilidine cyclohexane-1,3-dione, crossed aldol condensation, solid phase reaction.

  9. GS143, an IκB ubiquitination inhibitor, inhibits allergic airway inflammation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Koichi; Wakashin, Hidefumi; Oki, Mie; Kagami, Shin-ichiro; Suto, Akira; Ikeda, Kei; Watanabe, Norihiko; Iwamoto, Itsuo; Furuichi, Yasuhiro; Nakajima, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    Asthma is characterized by airway inflammation with intense eosinophil infiltration and mucus hyper-production, in which antigen-specific Th2 cells play critical roles. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway has been demonstrated to be essential for the production of Th2 cytokines and chemokines in the airways in murine asthma models. In the present study, we examined the effect of GS143, a novel small-molecule inhibitor of IκB ubiquitination, on antigen-induced airway inflammation and Th2 cytokine production in mice. Intranasal administration of GS143 prior to antigen challenge suppressed antigen-induced NF-κB activation in the lung of sensitized mice. Intranasal administration of GS143 also inhibited antigen-induced eosinophil and lymphocyte recruitment into the airways as well as the expression of Th2 cytokines and eotaxin in the airways. Moreover, GS143 inhibited antigen-induced differentiation of Th2 cells but not of Th1 cells in vitro. Taken together, these results suggest that IκB ubiquitination inhibitor may have therapeutic potential against asthma

  10. Characterization of NF-κB Reporter U937 Cells and Their Application for the Detection of Inflammatory Immune-Complexes.

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    Csilla Kecse-Nagy

    Full Text Available Our study tested the hypothesis that immunoglobulins differ in their ability to activate the nuclear factor-κB pathway mediated cellular responses. These responses are modulated by several properties of the immune complex, including the ratio of antibody isotypes binding to antigen. Immunoassays allow the measurement of antigen specific antibodies belonging to distinct immunoglobulin classes and subclasses but not the net biological effect of the combination of these antibodies. We set out to develop a biosensor that is suitable for the detection and characterization of antigen specific serum antibodies. We genetically modified the monocytoid U937 cell line carrying Fc receptors with a plasmid encoding NF-κB promoter-driven GFP. This clone, U937-NF-κB, was characterized with respect to FcR expression and response to solid-phase immunoglobulins. Human IgG3, IgG4 and IgG1 induced GFP production in a time- and dose-dependent manner, in this order of efficacy, while IgG2 triggered no activation at the concentrations tested. IgA elicited no response alone but showed significant synergism with IgG3 and IgG4. We confirmed the importance of activation via FcγRI by direct stimulation with monoclonal antibody and by competition assays. We used citrullinated peptides and serum from rheumatoid arthritis patients to generate immune complexes and to study the activation of U937-NF-κB, observing again a synergistic effect between IgG and IgA. Our results show that immunoglobulins have distinct pro-inflammatory potential, and that U937-NF-κB is suitable for the estimation of biological effects of immune-complexes, offering insight into monocyte activation and pathogenesis of antibody mediated diseases.

  11. Proteasome inhibitors block DNA repair and radiosensitize non-small cell lung cancer.

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    Kyle R Cron

    Full Text Available Despite optimal radiation therapy (RT, chemotherapy and/or surgery, a majority of patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC fail treatment. To identify novel gene targets for improved tumor control, we performed whole genome RNAi screens to identify knockdowns that most reproducibly increase NSCLC cytotoxicity. These screens identified several proteasome subunits among top hits, including the topmost hit PSMA1, a component of the core 20 S proteasome. Radiation and proteasome inhibition showed synergistic effects. Proteasome inhibition resulted in an 80-90% decrease in homologous recombination (HR, a 50% decrease in expression of NF-κB-inducible HR genes BRCA1 and FANCD2, and a reduction of BRCA1, FANCD2 and RAD51 ionizing radiation-induced foci. IκBα RNAi knockdown rescued NSCLC radioresistance. Irradiation of mice with NCI-H460 xenografts after inducible PSMA1 shRNA knockdown markedly increased murine survival compared to either treatment alone. Proteasome inhibition is a promising strategy for NSCLC radiosensitization via inhibition of NF-κB-mediated expression of Fanconi Anemia/HR DNA repair genes.

  12. CREB, NF-Y and MEIS1 conserved binding sites are essential to balance Myostatin promoter/enhancer activity during early myogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grade, Carla Vermeulen Carvalho; Mantovani, Carolina Stefano; Fontoura, Marina Alves; Yusuf, Faisal; Brand-Saberi, Beate; Alvares, Lúcia Elvira

    2017-10-01

    Myostatin (MSTN) is a strong inhibitor of skeletal muscle growth in human and other vertebrates. Its transcription is controlled by a proximal promoter/enhancer (Mstn P/E) containing a TATA box besides CREB, NF-Y, MEIS1 and FXR transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs), which are conserved throughout evolution. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of these TFBSs on Mstn P/E activity and evaluate the potential of their putative ligands as Mstn trans regulators. Mstn P/E mutant constructs were used to establish the role of conserved TFBSs using dual-luciferase assays. Expression analyses were performed by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization in C2C12 myoblasts and E10.5 mouse embryos, respectively. Our results revealed that CREB, NF-Y and MEIS1 sites are required to balance Mstn P/E activity, keeping Mstn transcription within basal levels during myoblast proliferation. Furthermore, our data showed that NF-Y site is essential, although not sufficient, to mediate Mstn P/E transcriptional activity. In turn, CREB and MEIS1 binding sites seem to depend on the presence of NF-Y site to induce Mstn P/E. FXR appears not to confer any effect on Mstn P/E activity, except in the absence of all other conserved TFBS. Accordingly, expression studies pointed to CREB, NF-Y and MEIS1 but not to FXR factors as possible regulators of Mstn transcription in the myogenic context. Altogether, our findings indicated that CREB, NF-Y and MEIS1 conserved sites are essential to control basal Mstn transcription during early myogenesis, possibly by interacting with these or other related factors.

  13. Combining the pan-aurora kinase inhibitor AMG 900 with histone deacetylase inhibitors enhances antitumor activity in prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paller, Channing J; Wissing, Michel D; Mendonca, Janet; Sharma, Anup; Kim, Eugene; Kim, Hea-Soo; Kortenhorst, Madeleine S Q; Gerber, Stephanie; Rosen, Marc; Shaikh, Faraz; Zahurak, Marianna L; Rudek, Michelle A; Hammers, Hans; Rudin, Charles M; Carducci, Michael A; Kachhap, Sushant K

    2014-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) are being tested in clinical trials for the treatment of solid tumors. While most studies have focused on the reexpression of silenced tumor suppressor genes, a number of genes/pathways are downregulated by HDACIs. This provides opportunities for combination therapy: agents that further disable these pathways through inhibition of residual gene function are speculated to enhance cell death in combination with HDACIs. A previous study from our group indicated that mitotic checkpoint kinases such as PLK1 and Aurora A are downregulated by HDACIs. We used in vitro and in vivo xenograft models of prostate cancer (PCA) to test whether combination of HDACIs with the pan-aurora kinase inhibitor AMG 900 can synergistically or additively kill PCA cells. AMG 900 and HDACIs synergistically decreased cell proliferation activity and clonogenic survival in DU-145, LNCaP, and PC3 PCA cell lines compared to single-agent treatment. Cellular senescence, polyploidy, and apoptosis was significantly increased in all cell lines after combination treatment. In vivo xenograft studies indicated decreased tumor growth and decreased aurora B kinase activity in mice treated with low-dose AMG 900 and vorinostat compared to either agent alone. Pharmacodynamics was assessed by scoring for phosphorylated histone H3 through immunofluorescence. Our results indicate that combination treatment with low doses of AMG 900 and HDACIs could be a promising therapy for future clinical trials against PCA

  14. Valsartan ameliorates KIR2.1 in rats with myocardial infarction via the NF-κB-miR-16 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinran; Hu, Hesheng; Wang, Ye; Xue, Mei; Li, Xiaolu; Cheng, Wenjuan; Xuan, Yongli; Yin, Jie; Yang, Na; Yan, Suhua

    2016-09-30

    MicroRNAs have an important role in regulating arrhythmogenesis. MicroRNA-16 (miR-16) is predicted to target KCNJ2. The regulation of miR-16 is primarily due to NF-κB. Whether valsartan could downregulate miR-16 via the inhibition of NF-κB after MI and whether miR-16 targets KCNJ2 remain unclear. MI rats received valsartan or saline for 7days. The protein levels of NF-κB p65, inhibitor κBα (IκBα), and Kir2.1 were detected by Western blot analysis. The mRNA levels of Kir2.1 and miR-16 were examined by quantitative real-time PCR. Whole cell patch-clamp techniques were applied to record IK1. MiR-16 expression was higher in the infarct border, and was accompanied by a depressed IK1/KIR2.1 level. Additionally, miR-16 overexpression suppressed KCNJ2/KIR2.1 expression. In contrast, miR-16 inhibition or binding-site mutation enhanced KCNJ2/KIR2.1 expression, establishing KCNJ2 as a miR-16 target. In the MI rats, compared to saline treatment, valsartan reduced NF-κB p65 and miR-16 expression and increased IκBα and Kir2.1 expression. In vitro, angiotensin II increased miR-16 expression and valsartan inhibited it. Overexpressing miR-16 in cells treated with valsartan abrogated its beneficial effect on KCNJ2/Kir2.1. NF-κB activation directly upregulates miR-16 expression. miR-16 controls KCNJ2 expression, and valsartan ameliorates Kir2.1 after MI partly depending on the NF-κB-miR-16 pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. BTK inhibitor ibrutinib is cytotoxic to myeloma and potently enhances bortezomib and lenalidomide activities through NF-κB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushworth, Stuart A; Bowles, Kristian M; Barrera, Lawrence N; Murray, Megan Y; Zaitseva, Lyubov; MacEwan, David J

    2013-01-01

    Ibrutinib (previously known as PCI-32765) has recently shown encouraging clinical activity in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) effecting cell death through inhibition of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK). In this study we report for the first time that ibrutinib is cytotoxic to malignant plasma cells from patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and furthermore that treatment with ibrutinib significantly augments the cytotoxic activity of bortezomib and lenalidomide chemotherapies. We describe that the cytotoxicity of ibrutinib in MM is mediated via an inhibitory effect on the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway. Specifically, ibrutinib blocks the phosphorylation of serine-536 of the p65 subunit of NF-κB, preventing its nuclear translocation, resulting in down-regulation of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-xL, FLIP(L) and survivin and culminating in caspase-mediated apoptosis within the malignant plasma cells. Taken together these data provide a platform for clinical trials of ibrutinib in myeloma and a rationale for its use in combination therapy, particularly with bortezomib. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Nicotine promotes cervical carcinoma cell line HeLa migration and invasion by activating PI3k/Akt/NF-κB pathway in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengze; Gu, Weiting; Zhang, Yunpeng; Ji, Yawen; Wen, Yong; Xu, Xin

    2017-07-05

    Cigarette smoking is one of highly risk factors of cervical cancer. Recently nicotine has been reported to increase proliferation and invasion in some smoking related cancers, like non-small cell lung cancer and esophageal squamous cell cancer. However, the effects and mechanisms of nicotine stimulation on cervical cancer cells are not clear. Here, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of nicotine stimulation on HeLa cells in vitro. In our study, we found that nicotine could accelerate HeLa cells migration and invasion, activate PI3K/Akt and NF-κB pathways and increase the expression of Vimentin in vitro. Moreover, we demonstrated that the specific PI3K inhibitor LY294002 could reverse nicotine-induced cell migration and invasion, NF-κB activation and up-regulation of Vimentin. Inhibition of NF-κB by Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) also antagonized nicotine-induced cell migration, invasion and up-regulation of Vimentin. Simply put, these findings suggest that nicotine promotes cervical carcinoma cell line HeLa migration and invasion by activating PI3k/Akt/NF-κB pathway in vitro. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Resveratrol Prevention of Diabetic Nephropathy Is Associated with the Suppression of Renal Inflammation and Mesangial Cell Proliferation: Possible Roles of Akt/NF-κB Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was to investigate the protection of resveratrol (RSV in diabetes associated with kidney inflammation and cell proliferation. Rat mesangial cell and streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes mouse model were used. In vitro, RSV attenuated high glucose-induced plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1 expression and mesangial cell proliferation, as well as Akt and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB activation. The similar results were recaptured in the experiment with Akt inhibitors. In vivo, mice were divided into three groups: control group, diabetes mellitus (DM group, and RSV-treated DM group. Compared with control group, the kidney weight to body weight ratio and albumin to creatinine ratio were increased in DM group, but not in RSV-treated DM group. Furthermore, the increased expression of PAI-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in diabetic renal cortex were also reduced by RSV administration. Besides, the kidney p-Akt/Akt ratio and NF-κB were significantly increased in DM group; however, these changes were reversed in RSV-treated DM group. Additionally, immunohistochemistry results indicated that RSV treatment reduced the density of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cells significantly in glomeruli of diabetic mice. These results suggest that RSV prevents diabetes-induced renal inflammation and mesangial cell proliferation possibly through Akt/NF-κB pathway inhibition.

  18. Feasibility of testing DNA repair inhibitors for mutagenicity by a simple method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sideropoulos, A.S.; Specht, S.M.; Jones, M.T.

    1980-01-01

    A simple screening methodology for the determination of mutagenicity of DNA repair inhibitors has been tested in this laboratory. Radiation-resistant E. coli B/r and WP2 hcr + and hcr - are suitable strains for mutagenicity testing. In these strains irradiated with 40-60 ergs/mm 2 , chemicals which interfere with repair of ultraviolet-induced pre-mutational lesions can be shown to enhance significantly the frequency of mutations to streptomycin resistance. This phenomenon is termed 'mutational synergism' [18,20]. We have attempted to apply the procedure for securing data for 'mutational synergism' between ultraviolet (UV) radiation and a number of antimalarial drugs including quinine hydrochloride (50 μg/ml), quinine hydrobromide (50 μg/ml), primaquine diphosphate (50 μg/ml), chloroquine (50 μg/ml), quinine (50 μg/ml) and quinacrine dihydrochloride (25 μg/ml). All drugs tested give synergistic effects with UV light. The synergistic activity ranges from 3- to 35-fold. Quinine and quinacrine dihydrochloride have been found to be much more efficient enhancers of the mutagenic effect of UV than caffeine. In general, we have found that the expression of synergistic action occurs at a concentration well below the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) with the drugs tested. The implication of these observations in the establishment of a screening method for the evaluation of the mutagenicity of DNA repair inhibitors is discussed. (orig.)

  19. Feasibility of testing DNA repair inhibitors for mutagenicity by a simple method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sideropoulos, A.S.; Specht, S.M.; Jones, M.T.

    1980-01-01

    A simple screening methodology for the determination of mutagenictity of DNA repair inhibitors has been tested in this laboratory. Radiation-resistant E. coli B/r and WP2 hcr + and hcr - are suitable strains for mutagenicity testing. In these strains irradiated with 40-60 ergs/mm 2 , chemicals which interfere with repair of ultraviolet-induced pre-mutational lesions can be shown to enhance significantly the frequency of mutations to streptomycin resistance. This phenomenon is termed mutational synergism. We have attempted to apply the procedure for securing data for mutational synergism between ultraviolet (UV) radiation and a number of antimalarial drugs including quinine hydrochloride (50 μg/ml), quinine hydrobromide (50 μg/ml), primaquine diphosphate (50 μg/ml), chloroquine (50μg/ml) and quinacrine dihydrochloride (25 μg/ml). All drugs tested give synergistic effets with UV light. The synergistic activity ranges from 3- to 35-fold. Quinine and quinacrine dihydrochloride have been found to be much more efficient enhancers of the mutagenic effect of UV than caffeine. In general, we have found that the expression of synergistic action occurs at a concentration well below the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) with the drugs tested. The implication of these observations in the establishment of a screening method for the evaluation of the mutagenicity of DNA repair inhibitors is discussed. (orig.)

  20. Feasibility of testing DNA repair inhibitors for mutagenicity by a simple method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sideropoulos, A S; Specht, S M; Jones, M T [Duquesne Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    1980-04-01

    A simple screening methodology for the determination of mutagenictity of DNA repair inhibitors has been tested in this laboratory. Radiation-resistant E. coli B/r and WP2 hcr/sup +/ and hcr/sup -/ are suitable strains for mutagenicity testing. In these strains irradiated with 40-60 ergs/mm/sup 2/, chemicals which interfere with repair of ultraviolet-induced pre-mutational lesions can be shown to enhance significantly the frequency of mutations to streptomycin resistance. This phenomenon is termed mutational synergism. We have attempted to apply the procedure for securing data for mutational synergism between ultraviolet (uv) radiation and a number of antimalarial drugs including quinine hydrochloride (50 ..mu..g/ml), quinine hydrobromide (50 ..mu..g/ml), primaquine diphosphate (50 ..mu..g/ml), chloroquine (50..mu..g/ml) and quinacrine dihydrochloride (25 ..mu..g/ml). All drugs tested give synergistic effects with uv light. The synergistic activity ranges from 3- to 35-fold. Quinine and quinacrine dihydrochloride have been found to be much more efficient enhancers of the mutagenic effect of uv than caffeine. In general, we have found that the expression of synergistic action occurs at a concentration well below the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) with the drugs tested. The implication of these observations in the establishment of a screening method for the evaluation of the mutagenicity of DNA repair inhibitors is discussed.

  1. Feasibility of testing DNA repair inhibitors for mutagenicity by a simple method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sideropoulos, A S; Specht, S M; Jones, M T [Duquesne Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    1980-04-01

    A simple screening methodology for the determination of mutagenicity of DNA repair inhibitors has been tested in this laboratory. Radiation-resistant E. coli B/r and WP2 hcr/sup +/ and hcr/sup -/ are suitable strains for mutagenicity testing. In these strains irradiated with 40-60 ergs/mm/sup 2/, chemicals which interfere with repair of ultraviolet-induced pre-mutational lesions can be shown to enhance significantly the frequency of mutations to streptomycin resistance. This phenomenon is termed 'mutational synergism' (18,20). We have attempted to apply the procedure for securing data for 'mutational synergism' between ultraviolet (UV) radiation and a number of antimalarial drugs including quinine hydrochloride (50 ..mu..g/ml), quinine hydrobromide (50 ..mu..g/ml), primaquine diphosphate (50 ..mu..g/ml), chloroquine (50 ..mu..g/ml), quinine (50 ..mu..g/ml) and quinacrine dihydrochloride (25 ..mu..g/ml). All drugs tested give synergistic effects with UV light. The synergistic activity ranges from 3- to 35-fold. Quinine and quinacrine dihydrochloride have been found to be much more efficient enhancers of the mutagenic effect of UV than caffeine. In general, we have found that the expression of synergistic action occurs at a concentration well below the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) with the drugs tested. The implication of these observations in the establishment of a screening method for the evaluation of the mutagenicity of DNA repair inhibitors is discussed.

  2. Lymphotoxin-α3 mediates monocyte-endothelial interaction by TNFR I/NF-κB signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suna, Shinichiro; Sakata, Yasuhiko; Shimizu, Masahiko; Nakatani, Daisaku; Usami, Masaya; Matsumoto, Sen; Mizuno, Hiroya; Ozaki, Kouichi; Takashima, Seiji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Hori, Masatsugu; Sato, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    We recently reported that the single nucleotide polymorphisms of the lymphotoxin-(LT)α gene, a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family, are closely related to acute myocardial infarction; however, the precise mechanism of LTα signaling in atherogenesis remains unclear. We investigated the role of LTα3, a secreted homotrimer of LTα, in monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion using cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). We found that LTα3 induced cell adhesion molecules and activated NF-κB p50 and p65. LTα3 also induced phosphorylation of Akt, phosphorylation and degradation of IκB, nuclear translocation of p65, and increased adhesion of THP1 monocytes to HUVEC. These effects were mediated by TNF receptor (TNFR) I and attenuated by the phosphatidylinositol triphosphate-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors LY294002 and Wortmannin. Thus, LTα3 mediates the monocyte-endothelial interaction via the classical NF-κB pathway following TNFR I/PI3K activation, indicating it may play a role in the development of coronary artery disease.

  3. Dissociation of NF3 in shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breshears, W.D.; Bird, P.F.

    1978-01-01

    The thermal dissociation rate of NF 3 in mixtures of 5% and 10%NF 3 in Ar has been measured behind incident shock waves over the temperature range 1330-2000 K. Dissociation rates were determined from postshock density gradients measured by laser beam deflection. The second order rate coefficient determined for NF 3 -Ar collisions is k/sub d/=2.31 x 10 15 exp(-20500/T) cm 3 mole sec

  4. Experimental study on 1,25(OH)2 D3 amelioration of oral lichen planus through regulating NF-κB signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, J; Li, R; Yu, F; Yang, F; Wang, J; Chen, Q; Wang, X; Zhao, B; Zhang, F

    2017-09-01

    To explore the protective function of vitamin D (VD)/vitamin D receptor (VDR) on the development of oral lichen planus (OLP) and elaborate the underling mechanism of it. H&E staining, myeloid peroxidase (MPO) assays, quantitative PCR (qPCR), Western blotting, and Elisa were used to test the human biopsies and serum. QPCR, Western blotting, Elisa, and siRNA transfection were also performed in LPS-induced keratinocytes to observe the functions of vitamin D and VDR. The lack of VDR in the diseased biopsies from OLP patients was associated with activated helper T-cell type 1 (Th1)-driven inflammatory response. Importantly, the status of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D of OLP patients was reduced consistently. In a cultured cell model, 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 could downregulate excessive production of pro-inflammatory factors induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in keratinocyte HaCat cells. Mechanistically, even though LPS-induced cytokines in keratinocytes were inhibited both by nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) inhibitor and by activator protein 1 (AP-1) inhibitor, VDR-dependent 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 blocked the activation of phosphorylated-NF-κB p65 rather than c-Jun/c-Fos in the presence of LPS stimulation. These results suggest that 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 plays an anti-inflammatory role in OLP by mediating NF-κB signaling pathway but not AP-1 signaling pathway with a VDR-dependent manner, predicting vitamin D supplement may be a potential strategy for the OLP management. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. CARMA3 is overexpressed in colon cancer and regulates NF-κB activity and cyclin D1 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao, Zhifeng; Zhao, Tingting; Wang, Zhenning; Xu, Yingying; Song, Yongxi; Wu, Jianhua; Xu, Huimian

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► CARMA3 expression is elevated in colon cancers. ► CARMA3 promotes proliferation and cell cycle progression in colon cancer cells. ► CARMA3 upregulates cyclinD1 through NF-κB activation. -- Abstract: CARMA3 was recently reported to be overexpressed in cancers and associated with the malignant behavior of cancer cells. However, the expression of CARMA3 and its biological roles in colon cancer have not been reported. In the present study, we analyzed the expression pattern of CARMA3 in colon cancer tissues and found that CARMA3 was overexpressed in 30.8% of colon cancer specimens. There was a significant association between CARMA3 overexpression and TNM stage (p = 0.0383), lymph node metastasis (p = 0.0091) and Ki67 proliferation index (p = 0.0035). Furthermore, knockdown of CARMA3 expression in HT29 and HCT116 cells with high endogenous expression decreased cell proliferation and cell cycle progression while overexpression of CARMA3 in LoVo cell line promoted cell proliferation and facilitated cell cycle transition. Further analysis showed that CARMA3 knockdown downregulated and its overexpression upregulated cyclin D1 expression and phospho-Rb levels. In addition, we found that CARMA3 depletion inhibited p-IκB levels and NF-κB activity and its overexpression increased p-IκB expression and NF-κB activity. NF-κB inhibitor BAY 11-7082 reversed the role of CARMA3 on cyclin D1 upregulation. In conclusion, our study found that CARMA3 is overexpressed in colon cancers and contributes to malignant cell growth by facilitating cell cycle progression through NF-κB mediated upregulation of cyclin D1.

  6. Downregulation of miR-199b promotes the acute spinal cord injury through IKKβ-NF-κB signaling pathway activating microglial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Heng-Jun [Department of Neurosurgery, the First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University, 79 Qingchun Road, Hangzhou 310003, Zhejiang (China); Wang, Li-Qing [Department of Anesthesia, the First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003 (China); Xu, Qing-Sheng; Fan, Zuo-Xu; Zhu, Yu; Jiang, Hao; Zheng, Xiu-Jue; Ma, Yue-Hui [Department of Neurosurgery, the First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University, 79 Qingchun Road, Hangzhou 310003, Zhejiang (China); Zhan, Ren-Ya, E-mail: zhanry148@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, the First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University, 79 Qingchun Road, Hangzhou 310003, Zhejiang (China)

    2016-11-15

    Inflammatory response played an important role in the progression of spinal cord injury (SCI). Several miRNAs were associated with the pathology of SCI. However, the molecular mechanism of miRNA involving in inflammatory response in acute SCI (ASCI) was poorly understood. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into 2 groups: control group (n=6) and acute SCI (ASCI) group (n=6). The expression of miR-199b and IκB kinase β-nuclear factor-kappa B (IKKβ-NF-κB) signaling pathway were evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) in rats with ASCI and in primary microglia activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We found that downregulation of miR-199b and activation of IKKβ/NF-κB were observed in rats after ASCI and in activated microglia. miR-199b negatively regulated IKKβ by targeting its 3′- untranslated regions (UTR) through using luciferase reporter assay. Overexpression of miR-199b reversed the up-regulation of IKKβ, p-p65, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in LPS-treated BV2 cells assessed by western blotting analysis. In addition, BMS-345541 reversed the up-regulation effects of miR-199b inhibitor on the expression of TNF-α and IL-1β. In the SCI rats, overexpression of miR-199b attenuated ASCI and decreased the expression of IKKβ-NF-κB signaling pathway and TNF-α and IL-1β. These results indicated that miR-199b attenuated ASCI at least partly through IKKβ-NF-κB signaling pathway and affecting the function of microglia. Our findings suggest that miR-199b may be employed as therapeutic for spinal cord injury. - Highlights: • Downregulation of miR-199b and activation of IKKβ/NF-κB were observed in rat after SCI. • miR-199b negatively regulated IKKβ by targeting its 3′-UTR. • miR-199b overexpression reversed the increasing IKKβ, p-p65, TNF-α and IL-1β in LPS-treated BV2. • BMS-345541 reversed the up-regulation of TNF-α and IL-1β induced by miR-199b inhibitor. • Overexpression of miR-199b

  7. MicroRNA let-7 modulates the immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection via control of A20, an inhibitor of the NF-κB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish; Sahu, Sanjaya Kumar; Kumar, Ranjeet; Subuddhi, Arijita; Maji, Ranjan Kumar; Jana, Kuladip; Gupta, Pushpa; Raffetseder, Johanna; Lerm, Maria; Ghosh, Zhumur; van Loo, Geert; Beyaert, Rudi; Gupta, Umesh D; Kundu, Manikuntala; Basu, Joyoti

    2015-03-11

    The outcome of the interaction between Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and a macrophage depends on the interplay between host defense and bacterial immune subversion mechanisms. MicroRNAs critically regulate several host defense mechanisms, but their role in the Mtb-macrophage interplay remains unclear. MicroRNA profiling of Mtb-infected macrophages revealed the downregulation of miR-let-7f in a manner dependent on the Mtb secreted effector ESAT-6. We establish that let-7f targets A20, a feedback inhibitor of the NF-κB pathway. Expression of let-7f decreases and A20 increases with progression of Mtb infection in mice. Mtb survival is attenuated in A20-deficient macrophages, and the production of TNF, IL-1β, and nitrite, which are mediators of immunity to Mtb, is correspondingly increased. Further, let-7f overexpression diminishes Mtb survival and augments the production of cytokines including TNF and IL-1β. These results uncover a role for let-7f and its target A20 in regulating immune responses to Mtb and controlling bacterial burden. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Depletion of the cellular levels of Bag-1 proteins attenuates phorbol ester-induced downregulation of IκBα and nuclear accumulation of NF-κB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, Jana V.; Volz, Yvonne; Berger, Caroline; Schneider, Sandra; Cato, Andrew C.B.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: →Bag-1 depletion only marginally affects the action of the glucocorticoid receptor but strongly regulates the activity of NF-κB. →Bag-1 depletion attenuates phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα and nuclear accumulation of NF-κB p65 and p50. →Bag-1 interacts with IκBα and partially restores IκBα and NF-κB activation in Bag-1 depleted cells. -- Abstract: Bag-1 consists in humans of four isoforms generated from the same RNA by alternative translation. Overexpression of single Bag-1 isoforms has identified Bag-1 as a negative regulator of action of many proteins including the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Here we have analysed the ability of Bag-1 to regulate the transrepression function of the GR. Silencing Bag-1 expression only marginally affects the transrepression action of the GR but decreased the action of the transcription factor NF-κB. Furthermore phosphorylation and degradation of the inhibitor protein IκBα and nuclear accumulation of p65 and p50 NF-κB proteins in response to phorbol ester was attenuated following Bag-1 depletion in HeLa cells. Reconstitution of Bag-1 in depleted cells partially restored IκBα and NF-κB activation. Knock-down of Bag-1 expression also did not significantly alter GR-mediated transactivation but affected the basal transcription of some of the target genes. Thus Bag-1 proteins function as regulators of the action of selective transcription factors.

  9. AOPPs Induce MCP-1 Expression by Increasing ROS-Mediated Activation of the NF-κB Pathway in Rat Mesangial Cells: Inhibition by Sesquiterpene Lactones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Cheng Wang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 plays an important role in extracellular matrix accumulation through macrophage recruitment and activation in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy. Therefore, this study examined whether advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs are involved in nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB activation and MCP-1 mRNA and protein expression in mesangial cells (MCs and evaluated the effects of derivatives of sesquiterpene lactones (SLs on AOPP-induced renal damage. Methods: MCP-1 mRNA and protein expression in MCs were determined by quantitative real-time PCR and ELISA, respectively. The level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS was determined by flow cytometry. The protein expression of tubulin, P47, NF-κB p65, phospho-NF-κB p65, IκB, phospho-IκB, IKKß and phospho-IKKß was evaluated by Western blot. Results: AOPPs caused oxidative stress in MCs and activated the NF-κB pathway by inducing IκBa phosphorylation and degradation. Inhibition of ROS by SOD (ROS inhibitor blocked the AOPP-mediated NF-κB pathway. Moreover, the inhibition of AOPP-induced overproduction of MCP-1 mRNA and protein was associated with inhibition of IκBa degradation by SLs. Conclusion: AOPPs induce MCP-1 expression by activating the ROS/NF-κB pathway and can be inhibited by SLs. These findings may provide a novel approach to treat inflammatory and immune renal diseases, including diabetic nephropathy.

  10. A metal-based inhibitor of NEDD8-activating enzyme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Jing Zhong

    Full Text Available A cyclometallated rhodium(III complex [Rh(ppy(2(dppz](+ (1 (where ppy=2-phenylpyridine and dppz=dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine dipyridophenazine has been prepared and identified as an inhibitor of NEDD8-activating enzyme (NAE. The complex inhibited NAE activity in cell-free and cell-based assays, and suppressed the CRL-regulated substrate degradation and NF-κB activation in human cancer cells with potency comparable to known NAE inhibitor MLN4924. Molecular modeling analysis suggested that the overall binding mode of 1 within the binding pocket of the APPBP1/UBA3 heterodimer resembled that for MLN4924. Complex 1 is the first metal complex reported to suppress the NEDDylation pathway via inhibition of the NEDD8-activating enzyme.

  11. Structural insight into exosite binding and discovery of novel exosite inhibitors of botulinum neurotoxin serotype A through in silico screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xin; Legler, Patricia M.; Southall, Noel; Maloney, David J.; Simeonov, Anton; Jadhav, Ajit

    2014-07-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A) is the most lethal toxin among the Tier 1 Select Agents. Development of potent and selective small molecule inhibitors against BoNT/A zinc metalloprotease remains a challenging problem due to its exceptionally large substrate binding surface and conformational plasticity. The exosites of the catalytic domain of BoNT/A are intriguing alternative sites for small molecule intervention, but their suitability for inhibitor design remains largely unexplored. In this study, we employed two recently identified exosite inhibitors, D-chicoric acid and lomofungin, to probe the structural features of the exosites and molecular mechanisms of synergistic inhibition. The results showed that D-chicoric acid favors binding at the α-exosite, whereas lomofungin preferentially binds at the β-exosite by mimicking the substrate β-sheet binding interaction. Molecular dynamics simulations and binding interaction analysis of the exosite inhibitors with BoNT/A revealed key elements and hotspots that likely contribute to the inhibitor binding and synergistic inhibition. Finally, we performed database virtual screening for novel inhibitors of BoNT/A targeting the exosites. Hits C1 and C2 showed non-competitive inhibition and likely target the α- and β-exosites, respectively. The identified exosite inhibitors may provide novel candidates for structure-based development of therapeutics against BoNT/A intoxication.

  12. BAG3 protects against hyperthermic stress by modulating NF-κB and ERK activities in human retinoblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunoki, Tatsuya; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Hayashi, Atsushi; Kondo, Takashi

    2015-03-01

    BCL2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3), a co-chaperone of HSP70, is a cytoprotective and anti-apoptotic protein that acts against various stresses, including heat stress. Here, we examined the effect of BAG3 on the sensitivity of human retinoblastoma cells to hyperthermia (HT). We examined the effects of BAG3 knockdown on the sensitivity of Y79 and WERI-Rb-1cells to HT (44 °C, 1 h) by evaluating apoptosis and cell proliferation using western blotting, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), flow cytometry, and a WST-8 assay kit. Furthermore, we examined the effects of activating nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) using western blotting and real time qPCR. HT induced considerable apoptosis along with the activation of caspase-3 and chromatin condensation. The sensitivity of Y79 and WERI-Rb-1 cells to HT was significantly enhanced by BAG3 knockdown. Compared to HT alone, the combination of BAG3 knockdown and HT reduced phosphorylation of the inhibitors of kappa B α (IκBα) and p65, a subunit of NF-κB, and degraded IκB kinase γ (IKKγ) during the recovery period after HT. Furthermore, BAG3 knockdown increased the HT-induced phosphorylation of ERK after HT treatment, and the ERK inhibitor U0126 significantly improved the viability of the cells treated with a combination of BAG3 knockdown and HT. The silencing of BAG3 seems to enhance the effects of HT, at least in part, by maintaining HT-induced inactivity of NF-κB and the phosphorylation of ERK. These findings indicate that BAG3 may be a potential molecular target for modifying the outcomes of HT in retinoblastoma.

  13. Insect P450 inhibitors and insecticides: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyereisen, René

    2015-06-01

    P450 enzymes are encoded by a large number of genes in insects, often over a hundred. They play important roles in insecticide metabolism and resistance, and growing numbers of P450 enzymes are now known to catalyse important physiological reactions, such as hormone metabolism or cuticular hydrocarbon synthesis. Ways to inhibit P450 enzymes specifically or less specifically are well understood, as P450 inhibitors are found as drugs, as fungicides, as plant growth regulators and as insecticide synergists. Yet there are no P450 inhibitors as insecticides on the market. As new modes of action are constantly needed to support insecticide resistance management, P450 inhibitors should be considered because of their high potential for insect selectivity, their well-known mechanisms of action and the increasing ease of rational design and testing. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Anti-cancer effect of bee venom in prostate cancer cells through activation of caspase pathway via inactivation of NF-κB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi Hee; Choi, Myoung Suk; Kwak, Dong Hoon; Oh, Ki-Wan; Yoon, Do Young; Han, Sang Bae; Song, Ho Sueb; Song, Min Jong; Hong, Jin Tae

    2011-06-01

    Bee venom has been used as a traditional medicine to treat arthritis, rheumatism, back pain, cancerous tumors, and skin diseases. However, the effects of bee venom on the prostate cancer and their action mechanisms have not been reported yet. To determine the effect of bee venom and its major component, melittin on the prostate cancer cells, apoptosis is analyzed by tunnel assay and apoptotic gene expression. For xenograft studies, bee venom was administrated intraperitoneally twice per week for 4 weeks, and the tumor growth was measured and the tumor were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. To investigate whether bee venom and melittin can inactivate nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), we assessed NF-κB activity in vitro and in vivo. Bee venom (1-10 µg/ml) and melittin (0.5-2.5 µg/ml) inhibited cancer cell growth through induction of apoptotic cell death in LNCaP, DU145, and PC-3 human prostate cancer cells. These effects were mediated by the suppression of constitutively activated NF-κB. Bee venom and melittin decreased anti-apoptotic proteins but induced pro-apoptotic proteins. However, pan caspase inhibitor abolished bee venom and melittin-induced apoptotic cell death and NF-κB inactivation. Bee venom (3-6 mg/kg) administration to nude mice implanted with PC-3 cells resulted in inhibition of tumor growth and activity of NF-κB accompanied with apoptotic cell death. Therefore, these results indicated that bee venom and melittin could inhibit prostate cancer in in vitro and in vivo, and these effects may be related to NF-κB/caspase signal mediated induction of apoptotic cell death. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Haloperidol Abrogates Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Expression by Inhibition of NF-κB Activation in Stimulated Human Monocytic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueh-Lun Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Much evidence has indicated that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs participate in the progression of neuroinflammatory disorders. The present study was undertaken to investigate the inhibitory effect and mechanism of the antipsychotic haloperidol on MMP activation in the stimulated THP-1 monocytic cells. Haloperidol exerted a strong inhibition on tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- α-induced MMP-9 gelatinolysis of THP-1 cells. A concentration-dependent inhibitory effect of haloperidol was observed in TNF-α-induced protein and mRNA expression of MMP-9. On the other hand, haloperidol slightly affected cell viability and tissue inhibition of metalloproteinase-1 levels. It significantly inhibited the degradation of inhibitor-κB-α (IκBα in activated cells. Moreover, it suppressed activated nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB detected by a mobility shift assay, NF-κB reporter gene, and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses. Consistent with NF-κB inhibition, haloperidol exerted a strong inhibition of lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced MMP-9 gelatinolysis but not of transforming growth factor-β1-induced MMP-2. In in vivo studies, administration of haloperidol significantly attenuated LPS-induced intracerebral MMP-9 activation of the brain homogenate and the in situ in C57BL/6 mice. In conclusion, the selective anti-MMP-9 activation of haloperidol could possibly involve the inhibition of the NF-κB signal pathway. Hence, it was found that haloperidol treatment may represent a bystander of anti-MMP actions for its conventional psychotherapy.

  16. Sumoylation of IkB attenuates NF-kB-induced nitrosative stress at rostral ventrolateral medulla and cardiovascular depression in experimental brain death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ching-Yi; Li, Faith C H; Wu, Carol H Y; Chang, Alice Y W; Chan, Samuel H H

    2016-09-22

    Small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) is a group of proteins that participates in post-translational modifications. One known SUMO target is the transcription factor nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) that plays a pivotal role in many disease processes; sumoylation inactivates NF-kB by conjugation with inhibitors of NF-kB (IkB). Our laboratory demonstrated previously that transcriptional upregulation of nitric oxide synthase II (NOS II) by NF-kB, leading to nitrosative stress by the formation of peroxynitrite in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), underpins the defunct brain stem cardiovascular regulation that precedes brain death. Based on an experimental endotoxemia model, this study evaluated the hypothesis that sumoylation plays a pro-life role in brain death by interacting with the NF-kB/NOS II/peroxynitrite signaling pathway in the RVLM. In Sprague-Dawley rats, intravenous administration of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 10 mg kg -1 ) elicited an augmentation of SUMO-1 and ubiquitin-conjugase 9 (Ubc9) mRNA or protein levels, alongside SUMO-1-conjugated proteins in the RVLM. Immunoneutralization of SUMO-1 or Ubc9 in the RVLM significantly potentiated the already diminished sumoylation of IkBα and intensified NF-kB activation and NOS II/peroxynitrite expression in this brain stem substrate, together with exacerbated fatality, cardiovascular depression and reduction of an experimental index of a life-and-death signal detected from arterial pressure that disappears in comatose patients signifying failure of brain stem cardiovascular regulation before brain death. We conclude that sumoylation of IkB in the RVLM ameliorates the defunct brain stem cardiovascular regulation that underpins brain death in our experimental endotoxemia modal by reducing nitrosative stress via inhibition of IkB degradation that diminishes the induction of the NF-kB/NOS II/peroxynitrite signaling cascade.

  17. The truncate mutation of Notch2 enhances cell proliferation through activating the NF-κB signal pathway in the diffuse large B-cell lymphomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxia Zhang

    Full Text Available The Notch2 is a critical membrane receptor for B-cell functions, and also displays various biological roles in lymphoma pathogenesis. In this article, we reported that 3 of 69 (4.3% diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs exhibited a truncate NOTCH2 mutation at the nucleotide 7605 (G/A in the cDNA sequence, which led to partial deletion of the C-terminal of PEST (proline-, glutamic acid-, serine- and threonine-rich domain. The truncate Notch2 activated both the Notch2 and the NF-κB signals and promoted the proliferation of B-cell lymphoma cell lines, including DLBCL and Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines. Moreover, the ectopic proliferation was completely inhibited by ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (PDTC, an NF-κB inhibitor. Simultaneously, PDTC also reduced the expression level of Notch2. Based on these results, we conclude that the Notch2 receptor with PEST domain truncation enhances cell proliferation which may be associated with the activation of the Notch2 and the NF-κB signaling. Our results are expected to provide a possible target for new DLBCL therapies by suppressing the Notch2 and the NF-κB signaling.

  18. In vitro synergistic antibacterial activity of the essential oil from Zingiber cassumunar Roxb against extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonyanugomol, Wongwarut; Kraisriwattana, Kairin; Rukseree, Kamolchanok; Boonsam, Kraisorn; Narachai, Panchaporn

    In this study, we determined the antibacterial and synergistic activities of the essential oil from Zingiber cassumunar against the extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Acinetobacter baumannii strains. The antibacterial and synergistic properties of the essential oil from Z. cassumunar were examined by agar disc diffusion tests. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were evaluated by broth microdilution using the resazurin assay. The in vitro time-kill antibacterial kinetics was analyzed using the plate count technique. We found that the essential oil from Z. cassumunar had antibacterial activity against A. baumannii, with MIC and MBC ranging from 7.00 to 9.24mg/ml. The essential oil could completely inhibit A. baumannii at 1h, and coccoid-shaped bacteria were found after treatment. In addition, the essential oil had a synergistic effect when combined with antibiotics, e.g., aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, and folate pathway inhibitors. Thus, the essential oil from Z. cassumunar has strong antibacterial and synergistic activities against XDR A. baumannii, which may provide the basis for the development of a new therapy against drug-resistant bacteria. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. 20-Hydroxycholecalciferol, product of vitamin D3 hydroxylation by P450scc, decreases NF-kappaB activity by increasing IkappaB alpha levels in human keratinocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Janjetovic

    Full Text Available The side chain of vitamin D3 is hydroxylated in a sequential manner by cytochrome P450scc (CYP11A1 to form 20-hydroxycholecalciferol, which can induce growth arrest and differentiation of both primary and immortalized epidermal keratinocytes. Since nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, we examined the capability of 20-hydroxycholecalciferol to modulate the activity of NF-kappaB, using 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (calcitriol as a positive control. 20-hydroxycholecalciferol inhibits the activation of NFkappaB DNA binding activity as well as NF-kappaB-driven reporter gene activity in keratinocytes. Also, 20-hydroxycholecalciferol induced significant increases in the mRNA and protein levels of the NF-kappaB inhibitor protein, IkappaB alpha, in a time dependent manner, while no changes in total NF-kappaB-p65 mRNA or protein levels were observed. Another measure of NF-kappaB activity, p65 translocation from the cytoplasm into the nucleus was also inhibited in extracts of 20-hydroxycholecalciferol treated keratinocytes. Increased IkappaB alpha was concomitantly observed in cytosolic extracts of 20-hydroxycholecalciferol treated keratinocytes, as determined by immunoblotting and immunofluorescent staining. In keratinocytes lacking vitamin D receptor (VDR, 20-hydroxycholecalciferol did not affect IkappaB alpha mRNA levels, indicating that it requires VDR for its action on NF-kappaB activity. Comparison of the effects of calcitrol, hormonally active form of vitamin D3, with 20-hydrocholecalciferol show that both agents have a similar potency in inhibiting NF-kappaB. Since NF-kappaB is a major transcription factor for the induction of inflammatory mediators, our findings indicate that 20-hydroxycholecalciferol may be an effective therapeutic agent for inflammatory and hyperproliferative skin diseases.

  20. Curcumin alleviates macrophage activation and lung inflammation induced by influenza virus infection through inhibiting the NF-κB signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yiming; Liu, Ling

    2017-09-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAV) result in severe public health problems with worldwide each year. Overresponse of immune system to IAV infection leads to complications, and ultimately causing morbidity and mortality. Curcumin has been reported to have anti-inflammatory ability. However, its molecular mechanism in immune responses remains unclear. We detected the pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cell (NF-κB)-related protein expression in human macrophages or mice infected by IAV with or without curcumin treatment. We found that the IAV infection caused a dramatic enhancement of pro-inflammatory cytokine productions of human macrophages and mice immune cells. However, curcumin treatment after IAV infection downregulated these cytokines production in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the NF-κB has been activated in human macrophages after IAV infection, while administration of curcumin inhibited NF-κB signaling pathway via promoting the expression of nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha (IκBα), and inhibiting the translocation of p65 from cytoplasm to nucleus. In summary, IAV infection could result in the inflammatory responses of immune cells, especially macrophages. Curcumin has the therapeutic potentials to relieve these inflammatory responses through inhibiting the NF-κB signaling pathway. © 2017 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Introducing spatial information into predictive NF-kappaB modelling--an agent-based approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Pogson

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Nature is governed by local interactions among lower-level sub-units, whether at the cell, organ, organism, or colony level. Adaptive system behaviour emerges via these interactions, which integrate the activity of the sub-units. To understand the system level it is necessary to understand the underlying local interactions. Successful models of local interactions at different levels of biological organisation, including epithelial tissue and ant colonies, have demonstrated the benefits of such 'agent-based' modelling. Here we present an agent-based approach to modelling a crucial biological system--the intracellular NF-kappaB signalling pathway. The pathway is vital to immune response regulation, and is fundamental to basic survival in a range of species. Alterations in pathway regulation underlie a variety of diseases, including atherosclerosis and arthritis. Our modelling of individual molecules, receptors and genes provides a more comprehensive outline of regulatory network mechanisms than previously possible with equation-based approaches. The method also permits consideration of structural parameters in pathway regulation; here we predict that inhibition of NF-kappaB is directly affected by actin filaments of the cytoskeleton sequestering excess inhibitors, therefore regulating steady-state and feedback behaviour.

  2. Antifeedant activity of Jatropha gossypifolia and Melia azedarach senescent leaf extracts on Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and their potential use as synergists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullangpoti, Vasakorn; Wajnberg, Eric; Audant, Pascaline; Feyereisen, René

    2012-09-01

    To reduce rates of synthetic insecticide applications, natural product alternatives and synergists are needed. A study has been made of the toxicity of ethanolic senescent leaf extracts (SLEs) of Jatropha gossypifolia and Melia azedarach on larvae of the noctuid pest Spodoptera frugiperda. Their effects as syngergists and inhibitors of several enzyme activities are also reported. When added to the diet, M. azedarach SLE showed lower toxicity than J. gossypifolia SLE. However, after 2 weeks on the diet, the M. azedarach SLE proved to be lethal to 100% of the larval population. Artificial diets with both SLEs have an antifeedant effect on armyworm larvae. Acute toxicity after topical application in a dipping assay was relatively low for both J. gossypifolia and M. azedarach SLEs (LC(50) of 2.6 and 1.4 g L(-1), respectively, after 24 h). However, mixtures of the SLEs of M. azedarach and J. gossypifolia had a strong synergistic effect with cypermethrin. Synergism was higher with the J. gossypifolia SLE, perhaps because it contains several natural products with a methylenedioxyphenyl moiety. Both extracts inhibited P450, general esterase and acetylcholinesterase activities in vitro and in vivo. Both J. gossypifolia and M. azedarach SLEs are antifeedants to armyworm larvae when present in the food, and also have a synergistic effect with cypermethrin in topical assays. Although the synergistic effect is less than with piperonyl butoxide, both SLEs have some inhibitor activity against detoxification enzymes and acetylcholinesterase. Thus J. gossypifolia and M. azedarach SLEs may be considered as ecofriendly approaches for the control of S. frugiperda in order to reduce cypermethrin usage. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Identification and characterization of NF-YB family genes in tung tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Susu; Wang, Yangdong; Yin, Hengfu; Guo, Haobo; Gao, Ming; Zhu, Huiping; Chen, Yicun

    2015-12-01

    The NF-YB transcription factor gene family encodes a subunit of the CCAAT box-binding factor (CBF), a highly conserved trimeric activator that strongly binds to the CCAAT box promoter element. Studies on model plants have shown that NF-YB proteins participate in important developmental and physiological processes, but little is known about NF-YB proteins in trees. Here, we identified seven NF-YB transcription factor-encoding genes in Vernicia fordii, an important oilseed tree in China. A phylogenetic analysis separated the genes into two groups; non-LEC1 type (VfNF-YB1, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13) and LEC1-type (VfNF-YB 14). A gene structure analysis showed that VfNF-YB 5 has three introns and the other genes have no introns. The seven VfNF-YB sequences contain highly conserved domains, a disordered region at the N terminus, and two long helix structures at the C terminus. Phylogenetic analyses showed that VfNF-YB family genes are highly homologous to GmNF-YB genes, and many of them are closely related to functionally characterized NF-YBs. In expression analyses of various tissues (root, stem, leaf, and kernel) and the root during pathogen infection, VfNF-YB1, 5, and 11 were dominantly expressed in kernels, and VfNF-YB7 and 9 were expressed only in the root. Different VfNF-YB family genes showed different responses to pathogen infection, suggesting that they play different roles in the pathogen response. Together, these findings represent the first extensive evaluation of the NF-YB family in tung tree and provide a foundation for dissecting the functions of VfNF-YB genes in seed development, stress adaption, fatty acid synthesis, and pathogen response.

  4. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 induces biphasic NF-κB responses during HL-60 leukemia cells differentiation through protein induction and PI3K/Akt-dependent phosphorylation/degradation of IκB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tse, A.K.-W.; Wan, C.-K.; Shen, X.-L.; Zhu, G.-Y.; Cheung, H.-Y.; Yang, M.; Fong, W.-F.

    2007-01-01

    1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D 3 (VD 3 ) induces differentiation in a number of leukemia cell lines and under various conditions is able to either stimulate or inhibit nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activity. Here we report a time-dependent biphasic regulation of NF-κB in VD 3 -treated HL-60 leukemia cells. After VD 3 treatment there was an early ∼ 4 h suppression and a late 8-72 h prolonged reactivation of NF-κB. The reactivation of NF-κB was concomitant with increased IKK activities, IKK-mediated IκBα phosphorylation, p65 phosphorylation at residues S276 and S536, p65 nuclear translocation and p65 recruitment to the NF-κB/vitamin D responsive element promoters. In parallel with NF-κB stimulation, there was an up-regulation of NF-κB controlled inflammatory and anti-apoptotic genes such as TNFα, IL-1β and Bcl-xL. VD 3 -triggered reactivation of NF-κB was associated with PI3K/Akt phosphorylation. PI3K/Akt antagonists suppressed VD 3 -stimulated IκBα phosphorylation as well as NF-κB-controlled gene expression. The early ∼ 4 h VD 3 -mediated NF-κB suppression coincided with a prolonged increase of IκBα protein which require de novo protein synthesis, lasted for as least 72 h and was insensitive to MAPK, IKK or PI3K/Akt inhibitors. Our data suggest a novel biphasic regulation of NF-κB in VD 3 -treated leukemia cells and our results may have provided the first molecular explanation for the contradictory observations reported on VD 3 -mediated immune-regulation

  5. Amelioration of Mitochondrial Dysfunction-Induced Insulin Resistance in Differentiated 3T3-L1 Adipocytes via Inhibition of NF-κB Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Hafizi Abu Bakar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests that activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB signaling pathways is among the inflammatory mechanism involved in the development of insulin resistance and chronic low-grade inflammation in adipose tissues derived from obese animal and human subjects. Nevertheless, little is known about the roles of NF-κB pathways in regulating mitochondrial function of the adipose tissues. In the present study, we sought to investigate the direct effects of celastrol (potent NF-κB inhibitor upon mitochondrial dysfunction-induced insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Celastrol ameliorates mitochondrial dysfunction by altering mitochondrial fusion and fission in adipocytes. The levels of oxidative DNA damage, protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation were down-regulated. Further, the morphology and quantification of intracellular lipid droplets revealed the decrease of intracellular lipid accumulation with reduced lipolysis. Moreover, massive production of the pro-inflammatory mediators tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-1β (IL-1β were markedly depleted. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake activity was restored with the enhancement of insulin signaling pathways. This study signified that the treatments modulated towards knockdown of NF-κB transcription factor may counteract these metabolic insults exacerbated in our model of synergy between mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation. These results demonstrate for the first time that NF-κB inhibition modulates mitochondrial dysfunction induced insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

  6. NF-kappaB in Lung Tumorigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Zhenjian; Tchou-Wong, Kam-Meng; Rom, William N.

    2011-01-01

    The development of lung cancer in humans can be divided into three steps initiation, promotion and progression. This process is driven by alterations in related signal transduction pathways. These pathways signal the aberrant activation of NF-kappaB, a transcription factor that regulates the expression of genes important for lung tumorigenesis. Our current knowledge about the role of the NF-kappaB signaling pathway in the development of lung cancer has been bolstered by animal models demonstrating the connection between K-ras and tobacco induced lung transformation with NF-kappaB. Activation of downstream genes leads to cell proliferation, inhibition of apoptosis, angiogenesis, inflammation, invasion, and metastasis

  7. NF-kappaB in Lung Tumorigenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Zhenjian [Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, 462 First Avenue, NBV 7N24, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Tchou-Wong, Kam-Meng; Rom, William N., E-mail: william.rom@nyumc.org [Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, 462 First Avenue, NBV 7N24, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, 57 Old Forge Road, Tuxedo, NY 10987 (United States)

    2011-12-14

    The development of lung cancer in humans can be divided into three steps initiation, promotion and progression. This process is driven by alterations in related signal transduction pathways. These pathways signal the aberrant activation of NF-kappaB, a transcription factor that regulates the expression of genes important for lung tumorigenesis. Our current knowledge about the role of the NF-kappaB signaling pathway in the development of lung cancer has been bolstered by animal models demonstrating the connection between K-ras and tobacco induced lung transformation with NF-kappaB. Activation of downstream genes leads to cell proliferation, inhibition of apoptosis, angiogenesis, inflammation, invasion, and metastasis.

  8. NF-kappaB: Two Sides of the Same Coin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Bruno R B; Silva, Rafael C M C; Ferreira, Gerson M; Abdelhay, Eliana

    2018-01-09

    Nuclear Factor-kappa B (NF-κB) is a transcription factor family that regulates a large number of genes that are involved in important physiological processes, including survival, inflammation, and immune responses. More recently, constitutive expression of NF-κB has been associated with several types of cancer. In addition, microorganisms, such as viruses and bacteria, cooperate in the activation of NF-κB in tumors, confirming the multifactorial role of this transcription factor as a cancer driver. Recent reports have shown that the NF-κB signaling pathway should receive attention for the development of therapies. In addition to the direct effects of NF-κB in cancer cells, it might also impact immune cells that can both promote or prevent tumor development. Currently, with the rise of cancer immunotherapy, the link among immune cells, inflammation, and cancer is a major focus, and NF-κB could be an important regulator for the success of these therapies. This review discusses the contrasting roles of NF-κB as a regulator of pro- and antitumor processes and its potential as a therapeutic target.

  9. Mangiferin, a novel nuclear factor kappa B-inducing kinase inhibitor, suppresses metastasis and tumor growth in a mouse metastatic melanoma model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Tomoya; Tsubaki, Masanobu; Sakamoto, Kotaro; Ichimura, Eri; Enomoto, Aya; Suzuki, Yuri [Division of Pharmacotherapy, Kinki University School of Pharmacy, Kowakae, Higashi-, Osaka (Japan); Itoh, Tatsuki [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Kinki University School of Agriculture, Nara, Nara (Japan); Imano, Motohiro [Department of Surgery, Kinki University School of Medicine, Osakasayama, Osaka (Japan); Tanabe, Genzoh; Muraoka, Osamu [Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Kinki University, Kowakae, Higashi-, Osaka (Japan); Matsuda, Hideaki [Department of Natural Drugs Resources, Kinki University School of Pharmacy, Kowakae, Higashi-, Osaka (Japan); Satou, Takao [Department of Pathology, Kinki University School of Medicine, Osakasayama, Osaka (Japan); Nishida, Shozo, E-mail: nishida@phar.kindai.ac.jp [Division of Pharmacotherapy, Kinki University School of Pharmacy, Kowakae, Higashi-, Osaka (Japan)

    2016-09-01

    Advanced metastatic melanoma, one of the most aggressive malignancies, is currently without reliable therapy. Therefore, new therapies are urgently needed. Mangiferin is a naturally occurring glucosylxanthone and exerts many beneficial biological activities. However, the effect of mangiferin on metastasis and tumor growth of metastatic melanoma remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the effect of mangiferin on metastasis and tumor growth in a mouse metastatic melanoma model. We found that mangiferin inhibited spontaneous metastasis and tumor growth. Furthermore, mangiferin suppressed the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and expression of phosphorylated NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK), inhibitor of kappa B kinase (IKK), and inhibitor of kappa B (IκB) and increases the expression of IκB protein in vivo. In addition, we found that mangiferin inhibited the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and very late antigens (VLAs) in vivo. Mangiferin treatment also increased the expression of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved Poly ADP ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1), p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), p53, and phosphorylated p53 proteins, and decreased the expression of Survivin and Bcl-associated X (Bcl-xL) proteins in vivo. These results indicate that mangiferin selectivity suppresses the NF-κB pathway via inhibition of NIK activation, thereby inhibiting metastasis and tumor growth. Importantly, the number of reported NIK selective inhibitors is limited. Taken together, our data suggest that mangiferin may be a potential therapeutic agent with a new mechanism of targeting NIK for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. - Highlights: • Mangiferin prolongs survival in mice by inhibiting metastasis and tumor growth • Mangiferin selectivity suppresses the NF-κB pathway via inhibition of NIK activation • Mangiferin regulates the expression of MMPs, VLAs, and apoptosis regulatory proteins.

  10. ROS and NF-κB are involved in upregulation of IL-8 in A549 cells exposed to multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Shefang; Wu Yihui; Hou Zhenqing; Zhang Qiqing

    2009-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have potential applications in biosensors, tissue engineering, and biomedical devices because of their unique physico-chemical, electronic and mechanical properties. However, there is limited literature data available concerning the biological properties and toxicity of CNTs. This study aimed to assess the toxicity exhibited by multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs) and to elucidate possible molecular mechanisms underlying the biological effects of MWCNTs in A549 cells. Exposing A549 cells to MWCNTs led to cell death, changes in cell size and complexity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, interleukin-8 (IL-8) gene expression and nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation. Treatment of A549 cells with antioxidants prior to adding MWCNTs decreased ROS production and abrogated expression of IL-8 mRNA. Pretreatment of A549 cells with NF-κB inhibitors suppressed MWCNTs-induced IL-8 mRNA expression. These results indicate that MWCNTs are able to induce expression of IL-8 in A549 cells, at least in part, mediated by oxidative stress and NF-κB activation.

  11. Interaction in endothelium of non-muscular myosin light-chain kinase and the NF-κB pathway is critical to lipopolysaccharide-induced vascular hyporeactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recoquillon, Sylvain; Carusio, Nunzia; Lagrue-Lakhal, Anne-Hélène; Tual-Chalot, Simon; Filippelli, Amelia; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson; Martinez, M Carmen

    2015-10-01

    During sepsis, endothelial barrier dysfunction contributes to cardiovascular failure, mainly through the release of oxidative metabolites by penetrant leukocytes. We reported the non-muscular isoform of myosin light chain kinase (nmMLCK) playing a pivotal role in endotoxin shock injury associated with oxidative and nitrative stresses, and vascular hyporeactivity. The present study was aimed at understanding the molecular mechanism of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced vascular alterations as well as studying a probable functional association of nmMLCK with nuclear factor κ-light-chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB). Aortic rings from mice were exposed in vitro to LPS and, then, vascular reactivity was measured. Human aortic endothelial cells (HAoECs) were incubated with LPS, and interaction of nmMLCK with NF-κB was analysed. We provide evidence that nmMLCK deletion prevents vascular hyporeactivity induced by in vitro LPS treatment but not endothelial dysfunction in the aorta. Deletion of nmMLCK inhibits LPS-induced NF-κB activation and increases nitric oxide (NO) release via induction of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) within the vascular wall. Also, removal of endothelium prevented both NF-κB and iNOS expression in aortic rings. Among the proinflammatory factors released by LPS-treated endothelial cells, interleukin-6 accounts for the induction of iNOS on smooth muscle cells in response to LPS. Of particular interest is the demonstration that, in HAoECs, LPS-induced NF-κB activation occurs via increased MLCK activity sensitive to the MLCK inhibitor, ML-7, and physical interactions between nmMLCK and NF-κB. We report for the first time on NF-κB as a novel partner of nmMLCK within endothelial cells. The present study demonstrates a pivotal role of nmMLCK in vascular inflammatory pathologies. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  12. Fluocinolone acetonide partially restores the mineralization of LPS-stimulated dental pulp cells through inhibition of NF-κB pathway and activation of AP-1 pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongning; Jiang, Ting; Wang, Xinzhi; Wang, Yixiang

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Fluocinolone acetonide (FA) is commonly used as a steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. We recently found that in dental pulp cells (DPCs) FA has osteo-/odonto-inductive as well as anti-inflammatory effects. However, the mechanism by which FA induces these effects in DPCs is poorly understood. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The effect of FA on the mineralization of DPCs during inflammatory conditions and the underlying mechanism were investigated by real-time PCR, Western blot, EMSA, histochemical staining, immunostaining and pathway blockade assays. KEY RESULTS FA significantly inhibited the inflammatory response in LPS-treated DPCs not only by down-regulating the expression of pro–inflammation-related genes, but also by up-regulating the expression of the anti-inflammatory gene PPAR-γ and mineralization-related genes. Moreover, histochemical staining and immunostaining showed that FA could partially restore the expressions of alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin and dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) and mineralization in LPS-stimulated DPCs. Real-time PCR and Western blot analysis revealed that FA up-regulated DSPP and runt-related transcription factor 2 expression by inhibiting the expression of phosphorylated-NF-κB P65 and activating activator protein-1 (AP-1) (p-c-Jun and Fra-1). These results were further confirmed through EMSA, by detection of NF-κB DNA-binding activity and pathway blockade assays using a NF-κB pathway inhibitor, AP-1 pathway inhibitor and glucocorticoid receptor antagonist. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Inflammation induced by LPS suppresses the mineralization process in DPCs. FA partially restored this osteo-/odonto-genesis process in LPS-treated DPCs and had an anti-inflammatory effect through inhibition of the NF-κB pathway and activation of the AP-1 pathway. Hence, FA is a potential new treatment for inflammation-associated bone/teeth diseases. PMID:24024985

  13. Gadd153 and NF-κB crosstalk regulates 27-hydroxycholesterol-induced increase in BACE1 and β-amyloid production in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurdeep Marwarha

    Full Text Available β-amyloid (Aβ peptide, accumulation of which is a culprit for Alzheimer's disease (AD, is derived from the initial cleavage of amyloid precursor protein by the aspartyl protease BACE1. Identification of cellular mechanisms that regulate BACE1 production is of high relevance to the search for potential disease-modifying therapies that inhibit BACE1 to reduce Aβ accumulation and AD progression. In the present study, we show that the cholesterol oxidation product 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OHC increases BACE1 and Aβ levels in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. This increase in BACE1 involves a crosstalk between the two transcription factors NF-κB and the endoplasmic reticulum stress marker, the growth arrest and DNA damage induced gene-153 (gadd153, also called CHOP. We specifically show that 27-OHC induces a substantial increase in NF-κB binding to the BACE1 promoter and subsequent increase in BACE1 transcription and Aβ production. The NF-κB inhibitor, sc514, significantly attenuated the 27-OHC-induced increase in NF-κB-mediated BACE1 expression and Aβ genesis. We further show that the 27-OHC-induced NF-κB activation and increased NF-κB-mediated BACE1 expression is contingent on the increased activation of gadd153. Silencing gadd153 expression with siRNA alleviated the 27-OHC-induced increase in NF-κB activation, NF-κB binding to the BACE1 promoter, and subsequent increase in BACE1 transcription and Aβ production. We also show that increased levels of BACE1 in the triple transgenic mouse model for AD is preceded by gadd153 and NF-κB activation. In summary, our study demonstrates that gadd153 and NF-κB work in concert to regulate BACE1 expression. Agents that inhibit gadd153 activation and subsequent interaction with NF-κB might be promising targets to reduce BACE1 and Aβ overproduction and may ultimately serve as disease-modifying treatments for AD.

  14. Homeostatic regulatory role of Pokemon in NF-κB signaling: stimulating both p65 and IκBα expression in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan-Nan; Sun, Qin-Sheng; Chen, Zhe; Liu, Feng; Jiang, Yu-Yang

    2013-01-01

    NF-κB consists of p50, p65 (RelA), p52, c-Rel, and RelB, and among them p65 is a representative protein to investigate the regulation and function of this signaling. NF-κB integrates inflammation and carcinogenesis and regulates the expression of a variety of genes in response to immunity, inflammation, and apoptosis. IκBα acts as an inhibitor of NF-κB through forming an inactive NF-κB/IκBα complex. Pokemon is a ubiquitous transcription factor involved in different signaling pathways, playing a pivotal role in cell proliferation, anti-apoptosis, embryonic development, and maintenance. In this study, we found that p65 and IκBα are both novel regulatory targets of Pokemon. Ectopic expression of Pokemon in immortalized liver cells HL7702 enhanced p65 and IκBα expression, whereas silencing of Pokemon in hepatocellular carcinoma cells QGY7703 reduced cellular p65 levels. ChIP assay and targeted mutagenesis revealed that Pokemon directly binds to the element of -434 to -430 bp in p65 promoter and of -453 to -448 bp in IκBα promoter and stimulates luciferase reporter gene expression. Co-transfection of Pokemon with p65 or IκBα promoter-reporter notably enhanced their promoter activity. These data suggest that Pokemon activates the expression of both p65 and IκBα by sequence-specific binding to their promoters and plays a dual role in regulating NF-κB signaling.

  15. Benazepril inhibited the NF-κB and TGF-β networking on LV hypertrophy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shi-Hai; Zhao, Ning-Wei; Zhu, Xuan-Xuan; Wang, Qiong; Wang, Hai-Dan; Fu, Rui; Sun, Yuan; Li, Qi-Yi

    2013-05-01

    Benazepril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, has been used to treat hypertension, congestive heart failure, and chronic renal failure. However, its biological activity and mechanism of action in inflammation are not fully identified. The present study was designed to determine the in vivo anti-inflammatory effects of benazepril on LV hypertrophy in rats. LV hypertrophy was produced in rats by abdominal aortic coarctation. They were then divided into the following groups: sham operation; LV hypertrophy; LV hypertrophy+benazepril (1mg/kg in a gavage, once a day for 4 weeks). Both morphological assays (hemodynamic and hemorheological measurement; LV hypertrophy assessment), and molecular assays (protein levels of Collagen type I/III, TNF-α and VCAM-1; TGF-β gene expression; NF-κB or Smad activation; intracellular ROS production) were performed. The following effects were observed in rats treated with benazepril: (1) marked improvements in hemodynamic and hemorheological parameters; (2) significant reductions in LV hypertrophy, dilatation and fibrosis; (3) significantly attenuated protein levels of Collagen type I/III, TGF-β, TNF-α and VCAM-1, NF-κB or Smad activation, as well as intracellular ROS production. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory properties of benazepril may be ascribed to their down-regulation of both NF-κB and TGF-β signaling pathways by acting on the intracellular ROS production in rats with LV hypertrophy, thus supporting the use of benazepril as an anti-inflammatory agent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. IAPs: from caspase inhibitors to modulators of NF-kappaB, inflammation and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyrd-Hansen, Mads; Meier, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    . The development of such inhibitors has radically changed our knowledge of the signalling processes that are regulated by IAPs. Recent studies indicate that IAPs not only regulate caspases and apoptosis, but also modulate inflammatory signalling and immunity, mitogenic kinase signalling, proliferation and mitosis...

  17. Exposure to 4-tert-octylphenol, an environmentally persistent alkylphenol, enhances interleukin-4 production in T cells via NF-AT activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mi H.; Kim, Eugene; Kim, Tae S.

    2004-01-01

    4-tert-Octylphenol (OP) is a representative endocrine disruptor that may have adverse effects on human health. The influence of this compound on allergic immune responses remains unclear. In this study, we have examined the effects of OP on production of interleukin-4 (IL-4), a pro-inflammatory cytokine closely associated with allergic immune responses. OP significantly enhanced IL-4 production in antigen-primed T cells in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with OP in vivo resulted in significant increase of IL-4 production in T cells and of IgE levels in sera of antigen-primed mice. Furthermore, OP enhanced the activation of IL-4 gene promoter in EL4 T cells transiently transfected with IL-4 promoter/reporter constructs, and the enhancing effect mapped to a region in the IL-4 promoter containing binding sites for nuclear factor of activated T cell (NF-AT). Activation of T cells by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) resulted in markedly enhanced binding activities to the NF-AT site, which significantly increased upon addition of OP, indicating that the transcription factor NF-AT was involved in the enhancing effect of OP on IL-4 production. The enhancement of IL-4 production by OP was blocked by FK506, a calcineurin inhibitor, but not by the estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist ICI 182 780. FK506 inhibited the NF-AT-DNA binding activity and IL-4 gene promoter activity enhanced by OP in a dose-dependent manner. These findings demonstrate that OP enhances IL-4 production in T cells via the stimulation of calcineurin-dependent NF-AT activation

  18. κ-Carrageenan Enhances Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Interleukin-8 Secretion by Stimulating the Bcl10-NF-κB Pathway in HT-29 Cells and Aggravates C. freundii-Induced Inflammation in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The dietary usage of carrageenan as common food additive has increased observably over the last 50 years. But there is substantial controversy about its safety. Methods. We investigated whether the κ-carrageenan could enhance lipopolysaccharide-induced IL-8 expression by studying its actions on the TLR4-NF-κB pathway. The aggravating effect of κ-carrageenan on Citrobacter freundii DBS100-induced intestinal inflammation was also investigated in a mouse model. Results. Our data show that κ-carrageenan pretreatment promoted LPS-induced IL-8 expression in HT-29 cells. Although CD14, MD-2, and TLR4 were upregulated, the binding of LPS was not enhanced. However, the pathway of Bcl10-NF-κB was triggered. Interestingly, κ-carrageenan competitively blocked the binding of FITC-LPS. Furthermore, pretreatment with κ-carrageenan for one week previous to gavage with C. freundii DBS100 markedly aggravated weight loss, mortality, and colonic damage. The secretion of cytokines was unbalanced and the ratio of Tregs was decreased significantly. In addition, κ-carrageenan, together with C. freundii DBS100, enhanced the transcription and secretion of TLR4 and NF-κB. Conclusions. κ-Carrageenan can synergistically activate LPS-induced inflammatory through the Bcl10-NF-κB pathway, as indicated by its aggravation of C. freundii DBS100-induced colitis in mice. General Significance. Our results suggest that κ-carrageenan serves as a potential inflammatory agent that magnifies existing intestinal inflammation.

  19. Temperature-dependent interaction potential between NF3 molecules and thermophysical properties of gaseous NF3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damyanova, M; Balabanova, E; Hohm, U

    2014-01-01

    A temperature-dependent effective intermolecular interaction potential is applied to describe the interaction between two nitrogen fluoride (NF 3 ) molecules in gas phase. To this end, a spherically-symmetric (n-6) Lennard-Jones temperature-dependent potential (LJTDP) is used. The (n-6) LJTDP takes into account the influence of vibrational excitation of the molecules on the potential parameters, namely, the equilibrium distance r m and the potential well depth ε. The potential parameters at T = 0 K were obtained from the very small amount of existing thermophysical equilibrium and transport properties of low-density NF 3 gas. Fitting formulae are tabulated for a fast and reliable prediction of the thermophysical properties and potential parameters in the temperature range between 200 K and 1200 K. A comparison is also presented between our estimates for some thermophysical properties of the NF 3 gas with the available experimental and calculated data.

  20. The ROS/NF-κB/NR4A2 pathway is involved in H2O2 induced apoptosis of resident cardiac stem cells via autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xingxing; Li, Wenjing; Liu, Honghong; Yin, Deling; Zhao, Jing

    2017-09-29

    Cardiac stem cells (CSCs)-based therapy provides a promising avenue for the management of ischemic heart diseases. However, engrafted CSCs are subjected to acute cell apoptosis in the ischemic microenvironment. Here, stem cell antigen 1 positive (Sca-1 + ) CSCs proved to own therapy potential were cultured and treated with H 2 O 2 to mimic the ischemia situation. As autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine (3MA), inhibited H 2 O 2 -induced CSCs apoptosis, thus we demonstrated that H 2 O 2 induced autophagy-dependent apoptosis in CSCs, and continued to find key proteins responsible for the crosstalk between autophagy and apoptosis. Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 4 Group A Member 2 (NR4A2), increased upon cardiomyocyte injury with unknown functions in CSCs, was increased by H 2 O 2 . NR4A2 siRNA attenuated H 2 O 2 induced autophagy and apoptosis in CSCs, which suggested an important role of NR4A2 in CSCs survival in ischemia conditions. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and NF-κB (P65) subunit were both increased by H 2 O 2 . Either the ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) or NF-κB signaling inhibitor, bay11-7082 could attenuate H 2 O 2 -induced autophagy and apoptosis in CSCs, which suggested they were involved in this process. Furthermore, NAC inhibited NF-κB activities, while bay11-7082 inhibited NR4A2 expression, which revealed a ROS/NF-κB/NR4A2 pathway responsible for H 2 O 2 -induced autophagy and apoptosis in CSCs. Our study supports a new clue enhancing the survival rate of CSCs in the infarcted myocardium for cell therapy in ischemic cardiomyopathy.

  1. Liver-X-receptor activator prevents homocysteine-induced production of IgG antibodies from murine B lymphocytes via the ROS-NF-κB pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Lina; Zhang, Zhenmin; Li Wenjing; Dai Jing; Guan Youfei; Wang Xian

    2007-01-01

    Our previous study showed that homosysteine (Hcy) promotes proliferation of mouse splenic B lymphocytes. In this study, we investigated whether Hcy could stimulate the production of IgG antibodies. Hcy significantly increased the production of IgG antibodies from resting B lymphocytes. B lymphocytes from ApoE-knockout mice with hyperhomocysteinemia showed elevated IgG secretion at either the basal Hcy level or in response to lipopolysaccharide. Hcy promoted reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, and free radical scavengers, MnTMPyP decreased Hcy-induced IgG secretion. The inhibitor of NF-κB (MG132) also significantly reduced Hcy-induced IgG secretion. Furthermore, Hcy-induced formation of ROS, activation of NF-κB, and secretion of IgG could be inhibited by the liver-X-receptor (LXR) agonist TO 901317. Thus, our data provide strong evidence that HHcy induces IgG production from murine splenic B lymphocytes both in vitro and in vivo. The mechanism might be through the ROS-NF-κB pathway and can be attenuated by the activation of LXR

  2. Curcumin modulates cellular AP-1, NF-kB, and HPV16 E6 proteins in oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Alok; Kumar, Rakesh; Tyagi, Abhishek; Kohaar, Indu; Hedau, Suresh; Bharti, Alok C; Sarker, Subhodeep; Dey, Dipankar; Saluja, Daman; Das, Bhudev

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of the natural antioxidant curcumin on the HPV16-positive oral carcinoma cell line 93VU147T and demonstrated that curcumin is not only a potent inhibitor for the activity of host nuclear transcription factors AP-1 and NF-kB but it also selectively suppresses transcription of the HPV16/E6 oncogene during the carcinogenic process in oral cancer cells. This study suggests a therapeutic potential of curcumin for high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV)-infected oral cancers.

  3. Synergistically killing activity of aspirin and histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) on hepatocellular cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaofei; Zhu, Yanshuang [Department of Infectious Diseases, Yiwu Central Hospita, 519 Nan men Street, Yiwu, Jinhua, Zhejing 322000 (China); He, Huabin [Department of Orthopedics, Yiwu Central Hospita, 519 Nan men Street, Yiwu, Jinhua, Zhejing 322000 (China); Lou, Lianqing; Ye, Weiwei; Chen, Yongxin [Department of Infectious Diseases, Yiwu Central Hospita, 519 Nan men Street, Yiwu, Jinhua, Zhejing 322000 (China); Wang, Jinghe, E-mail: Xiaofeili2000@163.com [Department of Infectious Diseases, Yiwu Central Hospita, 519 Nan men Street, Yiwu, Jinhua, Zhejing 322000 (China)

    2013-06-28

    Highlights: •Novel combination therapy using aspirin and valproic acid (VPA). •Combination of aspirin and VPA elicits synergistic cytotoxic effects. •Combination of aspirin and VPA significantly reduces the drug dosage required alone. •Combination of aspirin and VPA significantly inhibit tumor growth. •Lower dose of aspirin in combination therapy will minimize side effects of aspirin. -- Abstract: Aspirin and valproic acid (VPA) have been extensively studied for inducing various malignancies growth inhibition respectively, despite their severe side effects. Here, we developed a novel combination by aspirin and VPA on hepatocellular cancer cells (HCCs). The viability of HCC lines were analyzed by MTT assay, apoptotic analysis of HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cell was performed. Real time-PCR and Western blotting were performed to determine the expression of apoptosis related genes and proteins such as Survivin, Bcl-2/Bax, Cyclin D1 and p15. Moreover, orthotopic xenograft tumors were challenged in nude mice to establish murine model, and then therapeutic effect was analyzed after drug combination therapy. The viability of HCC lines’ significantly decreased after drug combination treatment, and cancer cell apoptosis in combination group increasingly induced compared with single drug use. Therapeutic effect was significantly enhanced by combination therapy in tumor volume and tumor weight decrease. From the data shown here, aspirin and VPA combination have a synergistic killing effect on hepatocellular cancers cells proliferation and apoptosis.

  4. Synergistically killing activity of aspirin and histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) on hepatocellular cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaofei; Zhu, Yanshuang; He, Huabin; Lou, Lianqing; Ye, Weiwei; Chen, Yongxin; Wang, Jinghe

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Novel combination therapy using aspirin and valproic acid (VPA). •Combination of aspirin and VPA elicits synergistic cytotoxic effects. •Combination of aspirin and VPA significantly reduces the drug dosage required alone. •Combination of aspirin and VPA significantly inhibit tumor growth. •Lower dose of aspirin in combination therapy will minimize side effects of aspirin. -- Abstract: Aspirin and valproic acid (VPA) have been extensively studied for inducing various malignancies growth inhibition respectively, despite their severe side effects. Here, we developed a novel combination by aspirin and VPA on hepatocellular cancer cells (HCCs). The viability of HCC lines were analyzed by MTT assay, apoptotic analysis of HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cell was performed. Real time-PCR and Western blotting were performed to determine the expression of apoptosis related genes and proteins such as Survivin, Bcl-2/Bax, Cyclin D1 and p15. Moreover, orthotopic xenograft tumors were challenged in nude mice to establish murine model, and then therapeutic effect was analyzed after drug combination therapy. The viability of HCC lines’ significantly decreased after drug combination treatment, and cancer cell apoptosis in combination group increasingly induced compared with single drug use. Therapeutic effect was significantly enhanced by combination therapy in tumor volume and tumor weight decrease. From the data shown here, aspirin and VPA combination have a synergistic killing effect on hepatocellular cancers cells proliferation and apoptosis

  5. Radioprotective role of H2S/CSE pathway in Chang liver cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Yan; Ye Shuang; Yuan Dexiao; Zhang Jianghong; Bai Yang; Shao Chunlin

    2012-01-01

    Radiation-induced liver cell damage may be life-threatening. Here, we investigated whether hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S)/cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) pathway could serve the protective role toward radiation in normal human liver cells. Our data showed that pretreatment of cells with H 2 S donor, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) significantly attenuated radiation induced micronuclei formation and improved cell viability. However, the use of DL-propargylglycine (PPG), a potent inhibitor of CSE, markedly enhanced the cell-killing effect induced by radiation. Exposure of cells to 2 Gy γ-radiation led to significant increases of the endogenous H 2 S content. The mRNA and protein expressions of CSE also increased after radiation in a time-dependent manner, while the expression of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), another endogenous H 2 S synthetase, did not change significantly. Notably, radiation induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was significantly reversed by the pretreatment of NaHS, while blockage of CSE activity resulted in an enhanced ROS production in irradiated cells. Moreover, NaHS markedly suppressed radiation-induced phosphorylation of P53, decrease of Bcl-2/Bax, and activity of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB). In conclusion, our finding demonstrates that H 2 S/CSE pathway plays a radioprotection role by inhibiting radiation-induced ROS production, P53 phosphorylation, NF-κB activation and decrease of Bcl-2/Bax, indicating that modulation of H 2 S may be a novel protection strategy for liver radiation injury in radiotherapy.

  6. Lasiodin inhibits proliferation of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells by simultaneous modulation of the Apaf-1/caspase, AKT/MAPK and COX-2/NF-κB signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianzhu Lin

    Full Text Available Rabdosia serra has been widely used for the treatment of the various human diseases. However, the antiproliferative effects and underlying mechanisms of the compounds in this herb remain largely unknown. In this study, an antiproliferative compound against human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC cells from Rabdosia serra was purified and identified as lasiodin (a diterpenoid. The treatment with lasiodin inhibited cell viability and migration. Lasiodin also mediated the cell morphology change and induced apoptosis in NPC cells. The treatment with lasiodin induced the Apaf-1 expression, triggered the cytochrome-C release, and stimulated the PARP, caspase-3 and caspase-9 cleavages, thereby activating the apoptotic pathways. The treatment with lasiodin also significantly inhibited the phosphorylations of the AKT, ERK1/2, p38 and JNK proteins. The pretreatment with the AKT or MAPK-selective inhibitors considerably blocked the lasiodin-mediated inhibition of cell proliferation. Moreover, the treatment with lasiodin inhibited the COX-2 expression, abrogated NF-κB binding to the COX-2 promoter, and promoted the NF-κB translocation from cell nuclei to cytosol. The pretreatment with a COX-2-selective inhibitor abrogated the lasiodin-induced inhibition of cell proliferation. These results indicated that lasiodin simultaneously activated the Apaf-1/caspase-dependent apoptotic pathways and suppressed the AKT/MAPK and COX-2/NF-κB signaling pathways. This study also suggested that lasiodin could be a promising natural compound for the prevention and treatment of NPC.

  7. Blockage of NOX2/MAPK/NF-κB Pathway Protects Photoreceptors against Glucose Deprivation-Induced Cell Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Fan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute energy failure is one of the critical factors contributing to the pathogenic mechanisms of retinal ischemia. Our previous study demonstrated that glucose deprivation can lead to a caspase-dependent cell death of photoreceptors. The aim of this study was to decipher the upstream signal pathway in glucose deprivation- (GD- induced cell death. We mimicked acute energy failure by using glucose deprivation in photoreceptor cells (661W cells. GD-induced oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring ROS with the DCFH-DA assay and HO-1 expression by Western blot analysis. The activation of NOX2/MAPK/NF-κB signal was assessed by Western blot and immunohistochemical assays. The roles of these signals in GD-induced cell death were measured by using their specific inhibitors. Inhibition of Rac-1 and NOX2 suppressed GD-induced oxidative stress and protected photoreceptors against GD-induced cell death. NOX2 was an upstream signal in the caspase-dependent cell death cascade, yet the downstream MAPK pathways were activated and blocking MAPK signals rescued 661W cells from GD-induced death. In addition, GD caused the activation of NF-κB signal and inhibiting NF-κB significantly protected 661W cells. These observations may provide insights for treating retinal ischemic diseases and protecting retinal neurons from ischemia-induced cell death.

  8. Bcl-XL represents a druggable molecular vulnerability during aurora B inhibitor-mediated polyploidization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, O Jameel; Lin, Xiaoyu; Li, Leiming; Huang, Xiaoli; Li, Junling; Anderson, Mark G; Tang, Hua; Rodriguez, Luis E; Warder, Scott E; McLoughlin, Shaun; Chen, Jun; Palma, Joann; Glaser, Keith B; Donawho, Cherrie K; Fesik, Stephen W; Shen, Yu

    2010-07-13

    Aurora kinase B inhibitors induce apoptosis secondary to polyploidization and have entered clinical trials as an emerging class of neocytotoxic chemotherapeutics. We demonstrate here that polyploidization neutralizes Mcl-1 function, rendering cancer cells exquisitely dependent on Bcl-XL/-2. This "addiction" can be exploited therapeutically by combining aurora kinase inhibitors and the orally bioavailable BH3 mimetic, ABT-263, which inhibits Bcl-XL, Bcl-2, and Bcl-w. The combination of ABT-263 with aurora B inhibitors produces a synergistic loss of viability in a range of cell lines of divergent tumor origin and exhibits more sustained tumor growth inhibition in vivo compared with aurora B inhibitor monotherapy. These data demonstrate that Bcl-XL/-2 is necessary to support viability during polyploidization in a variety of tumor models and represents a druggable molecular vulnerability with potential therapeutic utility.

  9. Determining lower threshold concentrations for synergistic effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergager, Maj-Britt Andersen; Dalhoff, Kristoffer; Kretschmann, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    which proven synergists cease to act as synergists towards the aquatic crustacean Daphnia magna. To do this, we compared several approaches and test-setups to evaluate which approach gives the most conservative estimate for the lower threshold for synergy for three known azole synergists. We focus...... on synergistic interactions between the pyrethroid insecticide, alpha-cypermethrin, and one of the three azole fungicides prochloraz, propiconazole or epoxiconazole measured on Daphnia magna immobilization. Three different experimental setups were applied: A standard 48h acute toxicity test, an adapted 48h test...... of immobile organisms increased more than two-fold above what was predicted by independent action (vertical assessment). All three tests confirmed the hypothesis of the existence of a lower azole threshold concentration below which no synergistic interaction was observed. The lower threshold concentration...

  10. Molecular mechanisms of resistance to Rituximab and pharmacologic strategies for its circumvention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, Claudia; Schuler, Martin

    2009-06-01

    The introduction of Rituximab has greatly improved therapeutic options for patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL). However, a substantial fraction of patients with aggressive B-NHL fails first-line therapy, and most patients with relapsing indolent B-NHL eventually acquire Rituximab resistance. Molecular understanding of the underlying mechanisms facilitates the development of pharmacologic strategies to overcome resistance. Rituximab exerts its activity on CD20-expressing B-cells by indirect and direct effector mechanisms. Indirect mechanisms are complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). Direct activities, such as growth inhibition, induction of apoptosis and chemosensitisation, have been reported, but are less defined. Moreover, the relative contribution of CDC, ADCC and direct mechanisms to the activity of Rituximab in vivo is unclear. Down-regulation of CD20 and expression of complement inhibitors have been described as escape mechanisms in B-NHL. Recent reports suggest that deregulated phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, mitogen-activated kinases (MAPK) and nuclear-factor kappaB (NF-kappaB), as well as up-regulation of anti-apoptotic proteins may determine the efficacy of Rituximab to kill B-NHL cells in vitro and in vivo. The latter signalling pathways are attractive targets for pharmacologic modulation of resistance to Rituximab. With the advent of new inhibitors and antibodies, rationally designed clinical trials addressing Rituximab resistance are feasible.

  11. The role of NF-κB signaling pathway in polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate induced inflammatory response in mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ha Ryong; Shin, Da Young; Chung, Kyu Hyuck

    2015-03-04

    Polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG) phosphate is a competitive disinfectant with strong antibacterial activity. However, epidemiologists revealed that inhaled PHMG-phosphate may increase the risk of pulmonary fibrosis associated with inflammation, resulting in the deaths of many people, including infants and pregnant women. In addition, in vitro and in vivo studies reported the inf