Number Sense on the Number Line
Woods, Dawn Marie; Ketterlin Geller, Leanne; Basaraba, Deni
2018-01-01
A strong foundation in early number concepts is critical for students' future success in mathematics. Research suggests that visual representations, like a number line, support students' development of number sense by helping them create a mental representation of the order and magnitude of numbers. In addition, explicitly sequencing instruction…
Number names and number understanding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten
2014-01-01
This paper concerns the results from the first year of a three-year research project involving the relationship between Danish number names and their corresponding digits in the canonical base 10 system. The project aims to develop a system to help the students’ understanding of the base 10 syste...... the Danish number names are more complicated than in other languages. Keywords: A research project in grade 0 and 1th in a Danish school, Base-10 system, two-digit number names, semiotic, cognitive perspectives....
Cosmic numbers the numbers that define our universe
Stein, James D
2011-01-01
Our fascination with numbers begins when we are children and continues throughout our lives. We start counting our fingers and toes and end up balancing checkbooks and calculating risk. So powerful is the appeal of numbers that many people ascribe to them a mystical significance. Other numbers go beyond the supernatural, working to explain our universe and how it behaves. In Cosmic Numbers , mathematics professor James D. Stein traces the discovery, evolution, and interrelationships of the numbers that define our world. Everyone knows about the speed of light and absolute zero, but numbers lik
[Intel random number generator-based true random number generator].
Huang, Feng; Shen, Hong
2004-09-01
To establish a true random number generator on the basis of certain Intel chips. The random numbers were acquired by programming using Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0 via register reading from the random number generator (RNG) unit of an Intel 815 chipset-based computer with Intel Security Driver (ISD). We tested the generator with 500 random numbers in NIST FIPS 140-1 and X(2) R-Squared test, and the result showed that the random number it generated satisfied the demand of independence and uniform distribution. We also compared the random numbers generated by Intel RNG-based true random number generator and those from the random number table statistically, by using the same amount of 7500 random numbers in the same value domain, which showed that the SD, SE and CV of Intel RNG-based random number generator were less than those of the random number table. The result of u test of two CVs revealed no significant difference between the two methods. Intel RNG-based random number generator can produce high-quality random numbers with good independence and uniform distribution, and solves some problems with random number table in acquisition of the random numbers.
The Mental Number Line in Dyscalculia: Impaired Number Sense or Access from Symbolic Numbers?
Lafay, Anne; St-Pierre, Marie-Catherine; Macoir, Joël
2017-01-01
Numbers may be manipulated and represented mentally over a compressible number line oriented from left to right. According to numerous studies, one of the primary reasons for dyscalculia is related to improper understanding of the mental number line. Children with dyscalculia usually show difficulty when they have to place Arabic numbers on a…
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NUMBER NAMES AND NUMBER CONCEPTS
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten
Different countries have different names for numbers. These names are often related in a regular way to the base-10 place value system used for writing numbers as digits. However, in several languages, this regularity breaks down (e.g., between 10 and 20), and there is limited knowledge of how th......, a second, regular set of number names is introduced in primary school. The study’s findings suggest that the regularity of number names influences the development of number concepts and creates a positive impact on the understanding of the base-10 system....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Y. Kang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Recently, many mathematicians have studied different kinds of the Euler, Bernoulli, and Genocchi numbers and polynomials. In this paper, we give another definition of polynomials Ũn(x. We observe an interesting phenomenon of “scattering” of the zeros of the polynomials Ũn(x in complex plane. We find out some identities and properties related to polynomials Ũn(x. Finally, we also derive interesting relations between polynomials Ũn(x, Stirling numbers, central factorial numbers, and Euler numbers.
Straight flavor of Binary Number in Decimal Number System
MD. Abdul Awal Ansary; Sushanta Acharjee
2012-01-01
Different number systems are available on the basis of their base numbers. For instance, decimal number system is of base 10, hexadecimal number system which base is 16 and, Binary number system which base is 2 etc. Some numbers systems are easy to understand by the human being and some are easy to understand by electronics machine for instance digital computers. Computers only can understand data and instructions that are stored in binary form, though we input the data and instruction in dec...
Mendonça, J. Ricardo G.
2012-01-01
We define a new class of numbers based on the first occurrence of certain patterns of zeros and ones in the expansion of irracional numbers in a given basis and call them Sagan numbers, since they were first mentioned, in a special case, by the North-american astronomer Carl E. Sagan in his science-fiction novel "Contact." Sagan numbers hold connections with a wealth of mathematical ideas. We describe some properties of the newly defined numbers and indicate directions for further amusement.
Bernoulli-Carlitz and Cauchy-Carlitz numbers with Stirling-Carlitz numbers
Kaneko, Hajime; Komatsu, Takao
2017-01-01
Recently, the Cauchy-Carlitz number was defined as the counterpart of the Bernoulli-Carlitz number. Both numbers can be expressed explicitly in terms of so-called Stirling-Carlitz numbers. In this paper, we study the second analogue of Stirling-Carlitz numbers and give some general formulae, including Bernoulli and Cauchy numbers in formal power series with complex coefficients, and Bernoulli-Carlitz and Cauchy-Carlitz numbers in function fields. We also give some applications of Hasse-Teichm...
Photon number projection using non-number-resolving detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rohde, Peter P; Webb, James G; Huntington, Elanor H; Ralph, Timothy C
2007-01-01
Number-resolving photo-detection is necessary for many quantum optics experiments, especially in the application of entangled state preparation. Several schemes have been proposed for approximating number-resolving photo-detection using non-number-resolving detectors. Such techniques include multi-port detection and time-division multiplexing. We provide a detailed analysis and comparison of different number-resolving detection schemes, with a view to creating a useful reference for experimentalists. We show that the ideal architecture for projective measurements is a function of the detector's dark count and efficiency parameters. We also describe a process for selecting an appropriate topology given actual experimental component parameters
Barnes, John
2016-01-01
In this intriguing book, John Barnes takes us on a journey through aspects of numbers much as he took us on a geometrical journey in Gems of Geometry. Similarly originating from a series of lectures for adult students at Reading and Oxford University, this book touches a variety of amusing and fascinating topics regarding numbers and their uses both ancient and modern. The author intrigues and challenges his audience with both fundamental number topics such as prime numbers and cryptography, and themes of daily needs and pleasures such as counting one's assets, keeping track of time, and enjoying music. Puzzles and exercises at the end of each lecture offer additional inspiration, and numerous illustrations accompany the reader. Furthermore, a number of appendices provides in-depth insights into diverse topics such as Pascal’s triangle, the Rubik cube, Mersenne’s curious keyboards, and many others. A theme running through is the thought of what is our favourite number. Written in an engaging and witty sty...
Petersen, T Kyle
2015-01-01
This text presents the Eulerian numbers in the context of modern enumerative, algebraic, and geometric combinatorics. The book first studies Eulerian numbers from a purely combinatorial point of view, then embarks on a tour of how these numbers arise in the study of hyperplane arrangements, polytopes, and simplicial complexes. Some topics include a thorough discussion of gamma-nonnegativity and real-rootedness for Eulerian polynomials, as well as the weak order and the shard intersection order of the symmetric group. The book also includes a parallel story of Catalan combinatorics, wherein the Eulerian numbers are replaced with Narayana numbers. Again there is a progression from combinatorics to geometry, including discussion of the associahedron and the lattice of noncrossing partitions. The final chapters discuss how both the Eulerian and Narayana numbers have analogues in any finite Coxeter group, with many of the same enumerative and geometric properties. There are four supplemental chapters throughout, ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Pathinathan
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we define diamond fuzzy number with the help of triangular fuzzy number. We include basic arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction of diamond fuzzy numbers with examples. We define diamond fuzzy matrix with some matrix properties. We have defined Nested diamond fuzzy number and Linked diamond fuzzy number. We have further classified Right Linked Diamond Fuzzy number and Left Linked Diamond Fuzzy number. Finally we have verified the arithmetic operations for the above mentioned types of Diamond Fuzzy Numbers.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Schwarzweller Christoph
2015-02-01
Full Text Available In this article we introduce Proth numbers and prove two theorems on such numbers being prime [3]. We also give revised versions of Pocklington’s theorem and of the Legendre symbol. Finally, we prove Pepin’s theorem and that the fifth Fermat number is not prime.
Rational-number comparison across notation: Fractions, decimals, and whole numbers.
Hurst, Michelle; Cordes, Sara
2016-02-01
Although fractions, decimals, and whole numbers can be used to represent the same rational-number values, it is unclear whether adults conceive of these rational-number magnitudes as lying along the same ordered mental continuum. In the current study, we investigated whether adults' processing of rational-number magnitudes in fraction, decimal, and whole-number notation show systematic ratio-dependent responding characteristic of an integrated mental continuum. Both reaction time (RT) and eye-tracking data from a number-magnitude comparison task revealed ratio-dependent performance when adults compared the relative magnitudes of rational numbers, both within the same notation (e.g., fractions vs. fractions) and across different notations (e.g., fractions vs. decimals), pointing to an integrated mental continuum for rational numbers across notation types. In addition, eye-tracking analyses provided evidence of an implicit whole-number bias when we compared values in fraction notation, and individual differences in this whole-number bias were related to the individual's performance on a fraction arithmetic task. Implications of our results for both cognitive development research and math education are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Koninck, Jean-Marie De
2009-01-01
Who would have thought that listing the positive integers along with their most remarkable properties could end up being such an engaging and stimulating adventure? The author uses this approach to explore elementary and advanced topics in classical number theory. A large variety of numbers are contemplated: Fermat numbers, Mersenne primes, powerful numbers, sublime numbers, Wieferich primes, insolite numbers, Sastry numbers, voracious numbers, to name only a few. The author also presents short proofs of miscellaneous results and constantly challenges the reader with a variety of old and new n
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Admin
Triangular number, figurate num- ber, rangoli, Brahmagupta–Pell equation, Jacobi triple product identity. Figure 1. The first four triangular numbers. Left: Anuradha S Garge completed her PhD from. Pune University in 2008 under the supervision of Prof. S A Katre. Her research interests include K-theory and number theory.
Generalized Bernoulli-Hurwitz numbers and the universal Bernoulli numbers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ônishi, Yoshihiro
2011-01-01
The three fundamental properties of the Bernoulli numbers, namely, the von Staudt-Clausen theorem, von Staudt's second theorem, and Kummer's original congruence, are generalized to new numbers that we call generalized Bernoulli-Hurwitz numbers. These are coefficients in the power series expansion of a higher-genus algebraic function with respect to a suitable variable. Our generalization differs strongly from previous works. Indeed, the order of the power of the modulus prime in our Kummer-type congruences is exactly the same as in the trigonometric function case (namely, Kummer's own congruence for the original Bernoulli numbers), and as in the elliptic function case (namely, H. Lang's extension for the Hurwitz numbers). However, in other past results on higher-genus algebraic functions, the modulus was at most half of its value in these classical cases. This contrast is clarified by investigating the analogue of the three properties above for the universal Bernoulli numbers. Bibliography: 34 titles.
Generalized Bernoulli-Hurwitz numbers and the universal Bernoulli numbers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Onishi, Yoshihiro [Faculty of Education Human Sciences, University of Yamanashi, Takeda, Kofu (Japan)
2011-10-31
The three fundamental properties of the Bernoulli numbers, namely, the von Staudt-Clausen theorem, von Staudt's second theorem, and Kummer's original congruence, are generalized to new numbers that we call generalized Bernoulli-Hurwitz numbers. These are coefficients in the power series expansion of a higher-genus algebraic function with respect to a suitable variable. Our generalization differs strongly from previous works. Indeed, the order of the power of the modulus prime in our Kummer-type congruences is exactly the same as in the trigonometric function case (namely, Kummer's own congruence for the original Bernoulli numbers), and as in the elliptic function case (namely, H. Lang's extension for the Hurwitz numbers). However, in other past results on higher-genus algebraic functions, the modulus was at most half of its value in these classical cases. This contrast is clarified by investigating the analogue of the three properties above for the universal Bernoulli numbers. Bibliography: 34 titles.
Bennett, Ruth, Ed.; And Others
An introduction to the Hupa number system is provided in this workbook, one in a series of numerous materials developed to promote the use of the Hupa language. The book is written in English with Hupa terms used only for the names of numbers. The opening pages present the numbers from 1-10, giving the numeral, the Hupa word, the English word, and…
Approximation of complex algebraic numbers by algebraic numbers of bounded degree
Bugeaud, Yann; Evertse, Jan-Hendrik
2007-01-01
We investigate how well complex algebraic numbers can be approximated by algebraic numbers of degree at most n. We also investigate how well complex algebraic numbers can be approximated by algebraic integers of degree at most n+1. It follows from our investigations that for every positive integer n there are complex algebraic numbers of degree larger than n that are better approximable by algebraic numbers of degree at most n than almost all complex numbers. As it turns out, these numbers ar...
Diamond, Harold G; Cheung, Man Ping
2016-01-01
"Generalized numbers" is a multiplicative structure introduced by A. Beurling to study how independent prime number theory is from the additivity of the natural numbers. The results and techniques of this theory apply to other systems having the character of prime numbers and integers; for example, it is used in the study of the prime number theorem (PNT) for ideals of algebraic number fields. Using both analytic and elementary methods, this book presents many old and new theorems, including several of the authors' results, and many examples of extremal behavior of g-number systems. Also, the authors give detailed accounts of the L^2 PNT theorem of J. P. Kahane and of the example created with H. L. Montgomery, showing that additive structure is needed for proving the Riemann hypothesis. Other interesting topics discussed are propositions "equivalent" to the PNT, the role of multiplicative convolution and Chebyshev's prime number formula for g-numbers, and how Beurling theory provides an interpretation of the ...
Grešak, Rozalija
2015-01-01
The field of real numbers is usually constructed using Dedekind cuts. In these thesis we focus on the construction of the field of real numbers using metric completion of rational numbers using Cauchy sequences. In a similar manner we construct the field of p-adic numbers, describe some of their basic and topological properties. We follow by a construction of complex p-adic numbers and we compare them with the ordinary complex numbers. We conclude the thesis by giving a motivation for the int...
Variational coupling between q-number and c-number dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amaral, C.M. do; Joffily, S.
1984-01-01
The time-dependent quantum variational principle is generalized for the case of hamiltonian operators having real parameters and their time derivates. The obtained variational system is formed by a Schroedinger equation coupled to a Lagrange equation system, where the lagrangian is the average value of the parametrized hamiltonian operator. The consequent dynamics of the variational principle, describes the interaction between a q-number sub-dynamics with a c-number sub-dynamics. In the ((h/2π)) 0 -order W.K.B. approximation, the variational system reduces to a Hamilton-Jacobi-like equation, coupled to a Lagrange equation family. The formal features of the obtained variational system are appropriated for the description of, adiabatics and non-adiabatics, time-dependent q-number c-number interactions. (L.C.) [pt
Ji, Caleb; Khovanova, Tanya; Park, Robin; Song, Angela
2015-01-01
In this paper, we consider a game played on a rectangular $m \\times n$ gridded chocolate bar. Each move, a player breaks the bar along a grid line. Each move after that consists of taking any piece of chocolate and breaking it again along existing grid lines, until just $mn$ individual squares remain. This paper enumerates the number of ways to break an $m \\times n$ bar, which we call chocolate numbers, and introduces four new sequences related to these numbers. Using various techniques, we p...
Richardson, Thomas M.
2014-01-01
We introduce the super Patalan numbers, a generalization of the super Catalan numbers in the sense of Gessel, and prove a number of properties analagous to those of the super Catalan numbers. The super Patalan numbers generalize the super Catalan numbers similarly to how the Patalan numbers generalize the Catalan numbers.
On the relation between grammatical number and cardinal numbers in development.
Sarnecka, Barbara W
2014-01-01
This mini-review focuses on the question of how the grammatical number system of a child's language may help the child learn the meanings of cardinal number words (e.g., "one" and "two"). Evidence from young children learning English, Russian, Japanese, Mandarin, Slovenian, or Saudi Arabic suggests that trajectories of number-word learning differ for children learning different languages. Children learning English, which distinguishes between singular and plural, seem to learn the meaning of the cardinal number "one" earlier than children learning Japanese or Mandarin, which have very little singular/plural marking. Similarly, children whose languages have a singular/dual/plural system (Slovenian and Saudi Arabic) learn the meaning of "two" earlier than English-speaking children. This relation between grammatical and cardinal number may shed light on how humans acquire cardinal-number concepts. There is an ongoing debate about whether mental symbols for small cardinalities (concepts for "oneness," "twoness," etc.) are innate or learned. Although an effect of grammatical number on number-word learning does not rule out nativist accounts, it seems more consistent with constructivist accounts, which portray the number-learning process as one that requires significant conceptual change.
Andrews, George E
1994-01-01
Although mathematics majors are usually conversant with number theory by the time they have completed a course in abstract algebra, other undergraduates, especially those in education and the liberal arts, often need a more basic introduction to the topic.In this book the author solves the problem of maintaining the interest of students at both levels by offering a combinatorial approach to elementary number theory. In studying number theory from such a perspective, mathematics majors are spared repetition and provided with new insights, while other students benefit from the consequent simpl
Number Worlds: Visual and Experimental Access to Elementary Number Theory Concepts
Sinclair, Nathalie; Zazkis, Rina; Liljedahl, Peter
2004-01-01
Recent research demonstrates that many issues related to the structure of natural numbers and the relationship among numbers are not well grasped by students. In this article, we describe a computer-based learning environment called "Number Worlds" that was designed to support the exploration of elementary number theory concepts by…
Niederreiter, Harald
2015-01-01
This textbook effectively builds a bridge from basic number theory to recent advances in applied number theory. It presents the first unified account of the four major areas of application where number theory plays a fundamental role, namely cryptography, coding theory, quasi-Monte Carlo methods, and pseudorandom number generation, allowing the authors to delineate the manifold links and interrelations between these areas. Number theory, which Carl-Friedrich Gauss famously dubbed the queen of mathematics, has always been considered a very beautiful field of mathematics, producing lovely results and elegant proofs. While only very few real-life applications were known in the past, today number theory can be found in everyday life: in supermarket bar code scanners, in our cars’ GPS systems, in online banking, etc. Starting with a brief introductory course on number theory in Chapter 1, which makes the book more accessible for undergraduates, the authors describe the four main application areas in Chapters...
On the Relation Between Grammatical Number and Cardinal Numbers in Development
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Barbara W Sarnecka
2014-10-01
Full Text Available This mini-review focuses on the question of how the grammatical number system of a child’s language may help the child learn the meanings of cardinal number words (e.g., ‘one’ and ‘two’. Evidence from young children learning English, Russian, Japanese, Mandarin, Slovenian or Saudi Arabic suggests that trajectories of number-word learning differ for children learning different languages. Children learning English, which distinguishes between singular and plural, seem to learn the meaning of the cardinal number ‘one’ earlier than children learning Japanese or Mandarin, which have very little singular/plural marking. Similarly, children whose languages have a singular/dual/plural system (Slovenian and Saudi Arabic learn the meaning of ‘two’ earlier than English-speaking children. This relation between grammatical and cardinal number may shed light on how humans acquire cardinal-number concepts. There is an ongoing debate about whether mental symbols for small cardinalities (concepts for ‘oneness,’ ‘twoness,’ etc. are innate or learned. Although an effect of grammatical number on number-word learning does not rule out nativist accounts, it seems more consistent with constructivist accounts, which portray the number-learning process as one that requires significant conceptual change.
Number words and number symbols a cultural history of numbers
Menninger, Karl
1992-01-01
Classic study discusses number sequence and language and explores written numerals and computations in many cultures. "The historian of mathematics will find much to interest him here both in the contents and viewpoint, while the casual reader is likely to be intrigued by the author's superior narrative ability.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Elvik, Rune; Bjørnskau, Torkel
2017-01-01
Highlights •26 studies of the safety-in-numbers effect are reviewed. •The existence of a safety-in-numbers effect is confirmed. •Results are consistent. •Causes of the safety-in-numbers effect are incompletely known....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Claus Bjørn; Suetens, Sigrid; Tyran, Jean-Robert
numbers based on recent drawings. While most players pick the same set of numbers week after week without regards of numbers drawn or anything else, we find that those who do change, act on average in the way predicted by the law of small numbers as formalized in recent behavioral theory. In particular......We investigate the “law of small numbers” using a unique panel data set on lotto gambling. Because we can track individual players over time, we can measure how they react to outcomes of recent lotto drawings. We can therefore test whether they behave as if they believe they can predict lotto......, on average they move away from numbers that have recently been drawn, as suggested by the “gambler’s fallacy”, and move toward numbers that are on streak, i.e. have been drawn several weeks in a row, consistent with the “hot hand fallacy”....
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Transfinite Numbers. What is Infinity? S M Srivastava. In a series of revolutionary articles written during the last quarter of the nineteenth century, the great Ger- man mathematician Georg Cantor removed the age-old mistrust of infinity and created an exceptionally beau- tiful and useful theory of transfinite numbers. This is.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Torben
2014-01-01
had a marked singular and an unmarked plural. Synchronically, however, the singular is arguably the basic member of the number category as revealed by the use of the two numbers. In addition, some nouns have a collective form, which is grammatically singular. Number also plays a role...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. A. Mollin
1986-01-01
Full Text Available A powerful number is a positive integer n satisfying the property that p2 divides n whenever the prime p divides n; i.e., in the canonical prime decomposition of n, no prime appears with exponent 1. In [1], S.W. Golomb introduced and studied such numbers. In particular, he asked whether (25,27 is the only pair of consecutive odd powerful numbers. This question was settled in [2] by W.A. Sentance who gave necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of such pairs. The first result of this paper is to provide a generalization of Sentance's result by giving necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of pairs of powerful numbers spaced evenly apart. This result leads us naturally to consider integers which are representable as a proper difference of two powerful numbers, i.e. n=p1−p2 where p1 and p2 are powerful numbers with g.c.d. (p1,p2=1. Golomb (op.cit. conjectured that 6 is not a proper difference of two powerful numbers, and that there are infinitely many numbers which cannot be represented as a proper difference of two powerful numbers. The antithesis of this conjecture was proved by W.L. McDaniel [3] who verified that every non-zero integer is in fact a proper difference of two powerful numbers in infinitely many ways. McDaniel's proof is essentially an existence proof. The second result of this paper is a simpler proof of McDaniel's result as well as an effective algorithm (in the proof for explicitly determining infinitely many such representations. However, in both our proof and McDaniel's proof one of the powerful numbers is almost always a perfect square (namely one is always a perfect square when n≢2(mod4. We provide in §2 a proof that all even integers are representable in infinitely many ways as a proper nonsquare difference; i.e., proper difference of two powerful numbers neither of which is a perfect square. This, in conjunction with the odd case in [4], shows that every integer is representable in
Quantum random-number generator based on a photon-number-resolving detector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ren Min; Wu, E; Liang Yan; Jian Yi; Wu Guang; Zeng Heping
2011-01-01
We demonstrated a high-efficiency quantum random number generator which takes inherent advantage of the photon number distribution randomness of a coherent light source. This scheme was realized by comparing the photon flux of consecutive pulses with a photon number resolving detector. The random bit generation rate could reach 2.4 MHz with a system clock of 6.0 MHz, corresponding to a random bit generation efficiency as high as 40%. The random number files passed all the stringent statistical tests.
de Mestre, Neville
2008-01-01
Prime numbers are important as the building blocks for the set of all natural numbers, because prime factorisation is an important and useful property of all natural numbers. Students can discover them by using the method known as the Sieve of Eratosthenes, named after the Greek geographer and astronomer who lived from c. 276-194 BC. Eratosthenes…
The effect of the cranial bone CT numbers on the brain CT numbers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fukuda, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Shotai; Koide, Hiromi; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Okada, Kazunori; Shimote, Koichi; Tsunematsu, Tokugoro (Shimane Medical Univ., Izumo (Japan))
1989-06-01
The effects of the cranial size and the computed tomography (CT) numbers of the cranial bone on that of the brain were studied in 70 subjects, aged from 30 to 94 years. The subjects had no histories of cerebrovascular accidents and showed no abnormalities in the central nervous system upon physical examinations and a CT scan. We measured the average attenuation values (CT numbers) of each elliptical region (165 pixels, 0.39 cm{sup 2}) at the bilateral thalamus and at twelve areas of the deep white matter. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess the effects of age, cranial size, and cranial bone CT numbers on the brain CT numbers. The effect of the cranial bone CT numbers on the brain CT numbers was statistically significant. The brain CT numbers increased with the increase in the cranial bone CT numbers. There was, however, no significant correlation between brain CT numbers and cranial size. In measuring the brain CT numbers, it is desirable that consideration be given to the cranial bone CT numbers. (author).
A new pseudorandom number generator based on a complex number chaotic equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Yang; Tong Xiao-Jun
2012-01-01
In recent years, various chaotic equation based pseudorandom number generators have been proposed. However, the chaotic equations are all defined in the real number field. In this paper, an equation is proposed and proved to be chaotic in the imaginary axis. And a pseudorandom number generator is constructed based on the chaotic equation. The alteration of the definitional domain of the chaotic equation from the real number field to the complex one provides a new approach to the construction of chaotic equations, and a new method to generate pseudorandom number sequences accordingly. Both theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the sequences generated by the proposed pseudorandom number generator possess many good properties
On the number of special numbers
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
without loss of any generality to be the first k primes), then the equation a + b = c has .... This is an elementary exercise in partial summation (see [12]). Thus ... This is easily done by inserting a stronger form of the prime number theorem into the.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Suetens, Sigrid; Galbo-Jørgensen, Claus B.; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl
2016-01-01
We investigate the ‘law of small numbers’ using a data set on lotto gambling that allows us to measure players’ reactions to draws. While most players pick the same set of numbers week after week, we find that those who do change react on average as predicted by the law of small numbers...... as formalized in recent behavioral theory. In particular, players tend to bet less on numbers that have been drawn in the preceding week, as suggested by the ‘gambler’s fallacy’, and bet more on a number if it was frequently drawn in the recent past, consistent with the ‘hot-hand fallacy’....
Spatial displacement of numbers on a vertical number line in spatial neglect
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Urszula eMihulowicz
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Previous studies that investigated the association of numbers and space in humans came to contradictory conclusions about the spatial character of the mental number magnitude representation and about how it may be influenced by unilateral spatial neglect. The present study aimed to disentangle the debated influence of perceptual versus representational aspects via explicit mapping of numbers onto space by applying the number line estimation paradigm with vertical orientation of stimulus lines. Thirty-five acute right-brain damaged stroke patients (6 with neglect were asked to place two-digit numbers on vertically oriented lines with 0 marked at the bottom and 100 at the top. In contrast to the expected, nearly linear mapping in the control patient group, patients with spatial neglect overestimated the position of numbers in the lower middle range. The results corroborate spatial characteristics of the number magnitude representation. In neglect patients, this representation seems to be biased towards the ipsilesional side, independent of the physical orientation of the task stimuli.
New topological structures of Skyrme theory: baryon number and monopole number
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cho, Y.M. [Chinese Academy of Science, Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou (China); Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University, School of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kimm, Kyoungtae [Seoul National University, Faculty of Liberal Education, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, J.H. [Konkuk University, Department of Physics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Zhang, Pengming [Chinese Academy of Science, Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou (China)
2017-02-15
Based on the observation that the skyrmion in Skyrme theory can be viewed as a dressed monopole, we show that the skyrmions have two independent topology, the baryon topology π{sub 3}(S{sup 3}) and the monopole topology π{sub 2}(S{sup 2}). With this we propose to classify the skyrmions by two topological numbers (m, n), the monopole number m and the shell (radial) number n. In this scheme the popular (non spherically symmetric) skyrmions are classified as the (m, 1) skyrmions but the spherically symmetric skyrmions are classified as the (1, n) skyrmions, and the baryon number B is given by B = mn. Moreover, we show that the vacuum of the Skyrme theory has the structure of the vacuum of the Sine-Gordon theory and QCD combined together, which can also be classified by two topological numbers (p, q). This puts the Skyrme theory in a totally new perspective. (orig.)
Path covering number and L(2,1)-labeling number of graphs
Lu, Changhong; Zhou, Qing
2012-01-01
A {\\it path covering} of a graph $G$ is a set of vertex disjoint paths of $G$ containing all the vertices of $G$. The {\\it path covering number} of $G$, denoted by $P(G)$, is the minimum number of paths in a path covering of $G$. An {\\sl $k$-L(2,1)-labeling} of a graph $G$ is a mapping $f$ from $V(G)$ to the set ${0,1,...,k}$ such that $|f(u)-f(v)|\\ge 2$ if $d_G(u,v)=1$ and $|f(u)-f(v)|\\ge 1$ if $d_G(u,v)=2$. The {\\sl L(2,1)-labeling number $\\lambda (G)$} of $G$ is the smallest number $k$ suc...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nelson, R.N. (ed.)
1985-05-01
This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nelson, R.N.
1985-05-01
This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name
Burkhart, Jerry
2009-01-01
Prime numbers are often described as the "building blocks" of natural numbers. This article shows how the author and his students took this idea literally by using prime factorizations to build numbers with blocks. In this activity, students explore many concepts of number theory, including the relationship between greatest common factors and…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Todorov, T.D.
1980-01-01
The set of asymptotic numbers A as a system of generalized numbers including the system of real numbers R, as well as infinitely small (infinitesimals) and infinitely large numbers, is introduced. The detailed algebraic properties of A, which are unusual as compared with the known algebraic structures, are studied. It is proved that the set of asymptotic numbers A cannot be isomorphically embedded as a subspace in any group, ring or field, but some particular subsets of asymptotic numbers are shown to be groups, rings, and fields. The algebraic operation, additive and multiplicative forms, and the algebraic properties are constructed in an appropriate way. It is shown that the asymptotic numbers give rise to a new type of generalized functions quite analogous to the distributions of Schwartz allowing, however, the operation multiplication. A possible application of these functions to quantum theory is discussed
Vazzana, Anthony; Garth, David
2007-01-01
One of the oldest branches of mathematics, number theory is a vast field devoted to studying the properties of whole numbers. Offering a flexible format for a one- or two-semester course, Introduction to Number Theory uses worked examples, numerous exercises, and two popular software packages to describe a diverse array of number theory topics.
Intuitive numbers guide decisions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ellen Peters
2008-12-01
Full Text Available Measuring reaction times to number comparisons is thought to reveal a processing stage in elementary numerical cognition linked to internal, imprecise representations of number magnitudes. These intuitive representations of the mental number line have been demonstrated across species and human development but have been little explored in decision making. This paper develops and tests hypotheses about the influence of such evolutionarily ancient, intuitive numbers on human decisions. We demonstrate that individuals with more precise mental-number-line representations are higher in numeracy (number skills consistent with previous research with children. Individuals with more precise representations (compared to those with less precise representations also were more likely to choose larger, later amounts over smaller, immediate amounts, particularly with a larger proportional difference between the two monetary outcomes. In addition, they were more likely to choose an option with a larger proportional but smaller absolute difference compared to those with less precise representations. These results are consistent with intuitive number representations underlying: a perceived differences between numbers, b the extent to which proportional differences are weighed in decisions, and, ultimately, c the valuation of decision options. Human decision processes involving numbers important to health and financial matters may be rooted in elementary, biological processes shared with other species.
Of colored numbers and numbered colors: interactive processes in grapheme-color synesthesia.
Gebuis, Titia; Nijboer, Tanja C W; van der Smagt, Maarten J
2009-01-01
Grapheme-color synesthetes experience a specific color when they see a grapheme but they do not report to perceive a grapheme when a color is presented. In this study, we investigate whether color can still evoke number-processes even when a vivid number experience is absent. We used color-number and number-color priming, both revealing faster responses in congruent compared to incongruent conditions. Interestingly, the congruency effect was of similar magnitude for both conditions, and a numerical distance effect was present only in the color-number priming task. In addition, a priming task in which synesthetes had to judge the parity of a colored number revealed faster responses in parity congruent than in parity incongruent trials. These combined results demonstrate that synesthesia is indeed bi-directional and of similar strength in both directions. Furthermore, they illustrate the precise nature of these interactions and show that the direction of these interactions is determined by task demands, not by the more vividly experienced aspect of the stimulus.
Alternative analysis: the prime numbers theory and an extension of the real numbers set
Sukhotin A.; Zvyagin M.
2016-01-01
Here we consider the theory of prime numbers at a new methodology. The theory of prime numbers is one of the most ancient mathematical branches. We found an estimate of the all prime numbers sum using the notions of infinite lager numbers and infinitely small numbers, farther we estimated the value of the maximal prime number. We proved that Hardy–Littlewood Hypothesis has the positive decision too. The infinite small numbers define a new methodology of the well–known function o(x) applicatio...
Cohn, Harvey
1980-01-01
""A very stimulating book ... in a class by itself."" - American Mathematical MonthlyAdvanced students, mathematicians and number theorists will welcome this stimulating treatment of advanced number theory, which approaches the complex topic of algebraic number theory from a historical standpoint, taking pains to show the reader how concepts, definitions and theories have evolved during the last two centuries. Moreover, the book abounds with numerical examples and more concrete, specific theorems than are found in most contemporary treatments of the subject.The book is divided into three parts
Weiss, Edwin
1998-01-01
Careful organization and clear, detailed proofs characterize this methodical, self-contained exposition of basic results of classical algebraic number theory from a relatively modem point of view. This volume presents most of the number-theoretic prerequisites for a study of either class field theory (as formulated by Artin and Tate) or the contemporary treatment of analytical questions (as found, for example, in Tate's thesis).Although concerned exclusively with algebraic number fields, this treatment features axiomatic formulations with a considerable range of applications. Modem abstract te
Gallistel, C R
2017-12-01
The representation of discrete and continuous quantities appears to be ancient and pervasive in animal brains. Because numbers are the natural carriers of these representations, we may discover that in brains, it's numbers all the way down.
Small numbers are sensed directly, high numbers constructed from size and density.
Zimmermann, Eckart
2018-04-01
Two theories compete to explain how we estimate the numerosity of visual object sets. The first suggests that the apparent numerosity is derived from an analysis of more low-level features like size and density of the set. The second theory suggests that numbers are sensed directly. Consistent with the latter claim is the existence of neurons in parietal cortex which are specialized for processing the numerosity of elements in the visual scene. However, recent evidence suggests that only low numbers can be sensed directly whereas the perception of high numbers is supported by the analysis of low-level features. Processing of low and high numbers, being located at different levels of the neural hierarchy should involve different receptive field sizes. Here, I tested this idea with visual adaptation. I measured the spatial spread of number adaptation for low and high numerosities. A focused adaptation spread of high numerosities suggested the involvement of early neural levels where receptive fields are comparably small and the broad spread for low numerosities was consistent with processing of number neurons which have larger receptive fields. These results provide evidence for the claim that different mechanism exist generating the perception of visual numerosity. Whereas low numbers are sensed directly as a primary visual attribute, the estimation of high numbers however likely depends on the area size over which the objects are spread. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaneko, K.
1987-01-01
A relationship between the number projection and the shell model methods is investigated in the case of a single-j shell. We can find a one-to-one correspondence between the number projected and the shell model states
Dudley, Underwood
2008-01-01
Ideal for a first course in number theory, this lively, engaging text requires only a familiarity with elementary algebra and the properties of real numbers. Author Underwood Dudley, who has written a series of popular mathematics books, maintains that the best way to learn mathematics is by solving problems. In keeping with this philosophy, the text includes nearly 1,000 exercises and problems-some computational and some classical, many original, and some with complete solutions. The opening chapters offer sound explanations of the basics of elementary number theory and develop the fundamenta
Ore, Oystein
2017-01-01
Number theory is the branch of mathematics concerned with the counting numbers, 1, 2, 3, … and their multiples and factors. Of particular importance are odd and even numbers, squares and cubes, and prime numbers. But in spite of their simplicity, you will meet a multitude of topics in this book: magic squares, cryptarithms, finding the day of the week for a given date, constructing regular polygons, pythagorean triples, and many more. In this revised edition, John Watkins and Robin Wilson have updated the text to bring it in line with contemporary developments. They have added new material on Fermat's Last Theorem, the role of computers in number theory, and the use of number theory in cryptography, and have made numerous minor changes in the presentation and layout of the text and the exercises.
The distribution of prime numbers and associated problems in number theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nair, M.
1991-01-01
Some problems in number theory, namely the gaps between consecutive primes, the distribution of primes in arithmetic progressions, Brun-Titchmarsh theorem, Fermat's last theorem, The Thue equation, the gaps between square-free numbers are discussed
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Theodore M. Porter
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The struggle over cure rate measures in nineteenth-century asylums provides an exemplary instance of how, when used for official assessments of institutions, these numbers become sites of contestation. The evasion of goals and corruption of measures tends to make these numbers “funny” in the sense of becoming dis-honest, while the mismatch between boring, technical appearances and cunning backstage manipulations supplies dark humor. The dangers are evident in recent efforts to decentralize the functions of governments and corporations using incen-tives based on quantified targets.
Number-unconstrained quantum sensing
Mitchell, Morgan W.
2017-12-01
Quantum sensing is commonly described as a constrained optimization problem: maximize the information gained about an unknown quantity using a limited number of particles. Important sensors including gravitational wave interferometers and some atomic sensors do not appear to fit this description, because there is no external constraint on particle number. Here, we develop the theory of particle-number-unconstrained quantum sensing, and describe how optimal particle numbers emerge from the competition of particle-environment and particle-particle interactions. We apply the theory to optical probing of an atomic medium modeled as a resonant, saturable absorber, and observe the emergence of well-defined finite optima without external constraints. The results contradict some expectations from number-constrained quantum sensing and show that probing with squeezed beams can give a large sensitivity advantage over classical strategies when each is optimized for particle number.
Grammatical typology and frequency analysis: number availability and number use
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dunstan Brown
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The Smith-Stark hierarchy, a version of the Animacy Hierarchy, offers a typology of the cross-linguistic availability of number. The hierarchy predicts that the availability of number is not arbitrary. For any language, if the expression of plural is available to a noun, it is available to any noun of a semantic category further to the left of the hierarchy. In this article we move one step further by showing that the structure of the hierarchy can be observed in a statistical model of number use in Russian. We also investigate three co-variates: plural preference, pluralia tantum and irregularity effects; these account for an item's behaviour being different than that solely expected from its animacy position.
Kneusel, Ronald T
2015-01-01
This is a book about numbers and how those numbers are represented in and operated on by computers. It is crucial that developers understand this area because the numerical operations allowed by computers, and the limitations of those operations, especially in the area of floating point math, affect virtually everything people try to do with computers. This book aims to fill this gap by exploring, in sufficient but not overwhelming detail, just what it is that computers do with numbers. Divided into two parts, the first deals with standard representations of integers and floating point numb
Schwartz, Richard Evan
2014-01-01
In the American Mathematical Society's first-ever book for kids (and kids at heart), mathematician and author Richard Evan Schwartz leads math lovers of all ages on an innovative and strikingly illustrated journey through the infinite number system. By means of engaging, imaginative visuals and endearing narration, Schwartz manages the monumental task of presenting the complex concept of Big Numbers in fresh and relatable ways. The book begins with small, easily observable numbers before building up to truly gigantic ones, like a nonillion, a tredecillion, a googol, and even ones too huge for names! Any person, regardless of age, can benefit from reading this book. Readers will find themselves returning to its pages for a very long time, perpetually learning from and growing with the narrative as their knowledge deepens. Really Big Numbers is a wonderful enrichment for any math education program and is enthusiastically recommended to every teacher, parent and grandparent, student, child, or other individual i...
Templates, Numbers & Watercolors.
Clemesha, David J.
1990-01-01
Describes how a second-grade class used large templates to draw and paint five-digit numbers. The lesson integrated artistic knowledge and vocabulary with their mathematics lesson in place value. Students learned how draftspeople use templates, and they studied number paintings by Charles Demuth and Jasper Johns. (KM)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Korsby, Trine Mygind
2017-01-01
Taking a point of departure in negotiations for access to a phone number for a brothel abroad, the article demonstrates how a group of pimps in Eastern Romania attempt to extend their local business into the rest of the EU. The article shows how the phone number works as a micro-infrastructure in......Taking a point of departure in negotiations for access to a phone number for a brothel abroad, the article demonstrates how a group of pimps in Eastern Romania attempt to extend their local business into the rest of the EU. The article shows how the phone number works as a micro...... in turn cultivate and maximize uncertainty about themselves in others. When making the move to go abroad into unknown terrains, accessing the infrastructure generated by the phone number can provide certainty and consolidate one’s position within criminal networks abroad. However, at the same time......, mishandling the phone number can be dangerous and in that sense produce new doubts and uncertainties....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coveyou, R.R.
1974-01-01
The subject of random number generation is currently controversial. Differing opinions on this subject seem to stem from implicit or explicit differences in philosophy; in particular, from differing ideas concerning the role of probability in the real world of physical processes, electronic computers, and Monte Carlo calculations. An attempt is made here to reconcile these views. The role of stochastic ideas in mathematical models is discussed. In illustration of these ideas, a mathematical model of the use of random number generators in Monte Carlo calculations is constructed. This model is used to set up criteria for the comparison and evaluation of random number generators. (U.S.)
On the number of special numbers
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We now apply the theory of the Thue equation to obtain an effective bound on m. Indeed, by Lemma 3.2, we can write m2 = ba3 and m2 − 4 = cd3 with b, c cubefree. By the above, both b, c are bounded since they are cubefree and all their prime factors are less than e63727. Now we have a finite number of. Thue equations:.
Bernoulli numbers and zeta functions
Arakawa, Tsuneo; Kaneko, Masanobu
2014-01-01
Two major subjects are treated in this book. The main one is the theory of Bernoulli numbers and the other is the theory of zeta functions. Historically, Bernoulli numbers were introduced to give formulas for the sums of powers of consecutive integers. The real reason that they are indispensable for number theory, however, lies in the fact that special values of the Riemann zeta function can be written by using Bernoulli numbers. This leads to more advanced topics, a number of which are treated in this book: Historical remarks on Bernoulli numbers and the formula for the sum of powers of consecutive integers; a formula for Bernoulli numbers by Stirling numbers; the Clausen–von Staudt theorem on the denominators of Bernoulli numbers; Kummer's congruence between Bernoulli numbers and a related theory of p-adic measures; the Euler–Maclaurin summation formula; the functional equation of the Riemann zeta function and the Dirichlet L functions, and their special values at suitable integers; various formulas of ...
Murty, M Ram
2014-01-01
This book provides an introduction to the topic of transcendental numbers for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students. The text is constructed to support a full course on the subject, including descriptions of both relevant theorems and their applications. While the first part of the book focuses on introducing key concepts, the second part presents more complex material, including applications of Baker’s theorem, Schanuel’s conjecture, and Schneider’s theorem. These later chapters may be of interest to researchers interested in examining the relationship between transcendence and L-functions. Readers of this text should possess basic knowledge of complex analysis and elementary algebraic number theory.
Symmetry mappings concomitant to particle-number-conservation-baryon-number conservation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davis, W.R.
1977-01-01
Four theorem serve to demonstrate that matter fields in space-time admit certain timelike symmetry mappings concomitant to the familiar notion of particle number conservation, which can be more fundamentally accounted for by a type of projective invariance principle. These particular symmetry mappings include a family of symmetry properties that may be admitted by Riemannian space-times. In their strongest form, the results obtained provide some insight relating to the conservation of baryon number
Godefroy, Gilles
2004-01-01
Numbers are fascinating. The fascination begins in childhood, when we first learn to count. It continues as we learn arithmetic, algebra, geometry, and so on. Eventually, we learn that numbers not only help us to measure the world, but also to understand it and, to some extent, to control it. In The Adventure of Numbers, Gilles Godefroy follows the thread of our expanding understanding of numbers to lead us through the history of mathematics. His goal is to share the joy of discovering and understanding this great adventure of the mind. The development of mathematics has been punctuated by a n
Hirst, Keith
1994-01-01
Number and geometry are the foundations upon which mathematics has been built over some 3000 years. This book is concerned with the logical foundations of number systems from integers to complex numbers. The author has chosen to develop the ideas by illustrating the techniques used throughout mathematics rather than using a self-contained logical treatise. The idea of proof has been emphasised, as has the illustration of concepts from a graphical, numerical and algebraic point of view. Having laid the foundations of the number system, the author has then turned to the analysis of infinite proc
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Konstantinos ePriftis
2012-02-01
Full Text Available Behavioral, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging data support the idea that numbers are represented along a mental number line (MNL, an analogical, visuo-spatial representation of number magnitude. The MNL is left-to-right oriented, with small numbers on the left and larger numbers on the right. Left neglect patients are impaired in processing the left side of the MNL and show a rightward deviation in the mental bisection of numerical intervals. In the present study we investigated the effects of optokinetic stimulation (OKS -a technique inducing spatial attention shifts by means of activation of the optokinetic nystagmus- on mental number interval bisection. One patient with left neglect following right hemisphere stroke (BG and four control patients with right hemisphere damage, but without neglect, performed the mental number interval bisection task in three experimental conditions of OKS: static, leftward, and rightward. In the static condition, BG misbisected to the right of the true midpoint. BG misbisected to the left following leftward OKS, but again to the right of the midpoint following rightward OKS. In contrast, the performance of controls was not significantly affected by the direction of OKS. We argue that shifts of visuospatial attention, induced by OKS, may affect the mental number interval bisection, suggesting the presence of an interaction between the processing of number magnitude and the processing of the perceptual space, in patients with neglect for the mental number space.
Fermion number in supersymmetric models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mainland, G.B.; Tanaka, K.
1975-01-01
The two known methods for introducing a conserved fermion number into supersymmetric models are discussed. While the introduction of a conserved fermion number often requires that the Lagrangian be massless or that bosons carry fermion number, a model is discussed in which masses can be introduced via spontaneous symmetry breaking and fermion number is conserved at all stages without assigning fermion number to bosons. (U.S.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saveliev Peter
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Suppose , are manifolds, are maps. The well-known coincidence problem studies the coincidence set . The number is called the codimension of the problem. More general is the preimage problem. For a map and a submanifold of , it studies the preimage set , and the codimension is . In case of codimension , the classical Nielsen number is a lower estimate of the number of points in changing under homotopies of , and for an arbitrary codimension, of the number of components of . We extend this theory to take into account other topological characteristics of . The goal is to find a "lower estimate" of the bordism group of . The answer is the Nielsen group defined as follows. In the classical definition, the Nielsen equivalence of points of based on paths is replaced with an equivalence of singular submanifolds of based on bordisms. We let , then the Nielsen group of order is the part of preserved under homotopies of . The Nielsen number of order is the rank of this group (then . These numbers are new obstructions to removability of coincidences and preimages. Some examples and computations are provided.
Complex numbers in n dimensions
Olariu, Silviu
2002-01-01
Two distinct systems of hypercomplex numbers in n dimensions are introduced in this book, for which the multiplication is associative and commutative, and which are rich enough in properties such that exponential and trigonometric forms exist and the concepts of analytic n-complex function, contour integration and residue can be defined. The first type of hypercomplex numbers, called polar hypercomplex numbers, is characterized by the presence in an even number of dimensions greater or equal to 4 of two polar axes, and by the presence in an odd number of dimensions of one polar axis. The other type of hypercomplex numbers exists as a distinct entity only when the number of dimensions n of the space is even, and since the position of a point is specified with the aid of n/2-1 planar angles, these numbers have been called planar hypercomplex numbers. The development of the concept of analytic functions of hypercomplex variables was rendered possible by the existence of an exponential form of the n-complex numbe...
Priftis, Konstantinos; Pitteri, Marco; Meneghello, Francesca; Umiltà, Carlo; Zorzi, Marco
2012-01-01
Behavioral, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging data support the idea that numbers are represented along a mental number line (MNL), an analogical, visuospatial representation of number magnitude. The MNL is left-to-right oriented in Western cultures, with small numbers on the left and larger numbers on the right. Left neglect patients are impaired in the mental bisection of numerical intervals, with a bias toward larger numbers that are relatively to the right on the MNL. In the present study we investigated the effects of optokinetic stimulation (OKS) – a technique inducing visuospatial attention shifts by means of activation of the optokinetic nystagmus – on number interval bisection. One patient with left neglect following right-hemisphere stroke (BG) and four control patients with right-hemisphere damage, but without neglect, performed the number interval bisection task in three conditions of OKS: static, leftward, and rightward. In the static condition, BG misbisected to the right of the true midpoint. BG misbisected to the left following leftward OKS, and again to the right of the midpoint following rightward OKS. Moreover, the variability of BG’s performance was smaller following both leftward and rightward OKS, suggesting that the attentional bias induced by OKS reduced the “indifference zone” that is thought to underlie the length effect reported in bisection tasks. We argue that shifts of visuospatial attention, induced by OKS, may affect number interval bisection, thereby revealing an interaction between the processing of the perceptual space and the processing of the number space. PMID:22363280
Compendium of Experimental Cetane Numbers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yanowitz, Janet [Ecoengineering, Sharonville, OH (United States); Ratcliff, Matthew A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McCormick, Robert L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Taylor, J. D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Murphy, M. J. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)
2017-02-22
This report is an updated version of the 2014 Compendium of Experimental Cetane Number Data and presents a compilation of measured cetane numbers for pure chemical compounds. It includes all available single-compound cetane number data found in the scientific literature up until December 2016 as well as a number of previously unpublished values, most measured over the past decade at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This version of the compendium contains cetane values for 496 pure compounds, including 204 hydrocarbons and 292 oxygenates. 176 individual measurements are new to this version of the compendium, all of them collected using ASTM Method D6890, which utilizes an Ignition Quality Tester (IQT) a type of constant-volume combustion chamber. For many compounds, numerous measurements are included, often collected by different researchers using different methods. The text of this document is unchanged from the 2014 version, except for the numbers of compounds in Section 3.1, the Appendices, Table 1. Primary Cetane Number Data Sources and Table 2. Number of Measurements Included in Compendium. Cetane number is a relative ranking of a fuel's autoignition characteristics for use in compression ignition engines. It is based on the amount of time between fuel injection and ignition, also known as ignition delay. The cetane number is typically measured either in a single-cylinder engine or a constant-volume combustion chamber. Values in the previous compendium derived from octane numbers have been removed and replaced with a brief analysis of the correlation between cetane numbers and octane numbers. The discussion on the accuracy and precision of the most commonly used methods for measuring cetane number has been expanded, and the data have been annotated extensively to provide additional information that will help the reader judge the relative reliability of individual results.
Microsoft Support Phone Number +1-877-353-1149(toll-free) Microsoft Helpline Phone Number
Allina willson
2018-01-01
Microsoft Helpline Phone Number Call Now: +1-877-353-1149 for Microsoft support and services. This is Trusted Microsoft Support number provide instant support.if you get any problem while using Microsoft office just relaxed because Microsoft support phone number +1-877-353-1149 is here to provide instant help of microsoft issues. Just dial our Microsoft support phone number +1-877-353-1149 and get instant online support.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Levin, Bruce R; McCall, Ingrid C.; Perrot, Veronique
2017-01-01
We postulate that the inhibition of growth and low rates of mortality of bacteria exposed to ribosome-binding antibiotics deemed bacteriostatic can be attributed almost uniquely to these drugs reducing the number of ribosomes contributing to protein synthesis, i.e., the number of effective......-targeting bacteriostatic antibiotics, the time before these bacteria start to grow again when the drugs are removed, referred to as the post-antibiotic effect (PAE), is markedly greater for constructs with fewer rrn operons than for those with more rrn operons. We interpret the results of these other experiments reported...... here as support for the hypothesis that the reduction in the effective number of ribosomes due to binding to these structures provides a sufficient explanation for the action of bacteriostatic antibiotics that target these structures....
Bell numbers, determinants and series
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In this article, we study Bell numbers and Uppuluri Carpenter numbers. We obtain various expressions and relations between them. These include polynomial recurrences and expressions as determinants of certain matrices of binomial coefficients. Keywords. p-adic series; Bell numbers. 1. Introduction. Bell numbers, Bn [2] ...
Women in numbers Europe II contributions to number theory and arithmetic geometry
Ozman, Ekin; Johnson-Leung, Jennifer; Newton, Rachel
2018-01-01
Inspired by the September 2016 conference of the same name, this second volume highlights recent research in a wide range of topics in contemporary number theory and arithmetic geometry. Research reports from projects started at the conference, expository papers describing ongoing research, and contributed papers from women number theorists outside the conference make up this diverse volume. Topics cover a broad range of topics such as arithmetic dynamics, failure of local-global principles, geometry in positive characteristics, and heights of algebraic integers. The use of tools from algebra, analysis and geometry, as well as computational methods exemplifies the wealth of techniques available to modern researchers in number theory. Exploring connections between different branches of mathematics and combining different points of view, these papers continue the tradition of supporting and highlighting the contributions of women number theorists at a variety of career stages. Perfect for students and researche...
Solomon A. Keelson; Addo J. Odei
2014-01-01
The use of multiple mobile phone numbers in Ghana has become a dominate phenomenon in recent years. The introduction of mobile number portability (MNP) makes it possible for a subscriber to conveniently switch from one mobile network to another without losing his or her number. Because of mobile number portability, we expected that use of multiple numbers would become less attractive. This study examines how mobile number portability has affected the use of multiple phone numbers. We use top,...
Self-correcting random number generator
Humble, Travis S.; Pooser, Raphael C.
2016-09-06
A system and method for generating random numbers. The system may include a random number generator (RNG), such as a quantum random number generator (QRNG) configured to self-correct or adapt in order to substantially achieve randomness from the output of the RNG. By adapting, the RNG may generate a random number that may be considered random regardless of whether the random number itself is tested as such. As an example, the RNG may include components to monitor one or more characteristics of the RNG during operation, and may use the monitored characteristics as a basis for adapting, or self-correcting, to provide a random number according to one or more performance criteria.
2016 Gainesville Number Theory Conference
Garvan, Frank
2017-01-01
Gathered from the 2016 Gainesville Number Theory Conference honoring Krishna Alladi on his 60th birthday, these proceedings present recent research in number theory. Extensive and detailed, this volume features 40 articles by leading researchers on topics in analytic number theory, probabilistic number theory, irrationality and transcendence, Diophantine analysis, partitions, basic hypergeometric series, and modular forms. Readers will also find detailed discussions of several aspects of the path-breaking work of Srinivasa Ramanujan and its influence on current research. Many of the papers were motivated by Alladi's own research on partitions and q-series as well as his earlier work in number theory. Alladi is well known for his contributions in number theory and mathematics. His research interests include combinatorics, discrete mathematics, sieve methods, probabilistic and analytic number theory, Diophantine approximations, partitions and q-series identities. Graduate students and researchers will find th...
Random number generation and creativity.
Bains, William
2008-01-01
A previous paper suggested that humans can generate genuinely random numbers. I tested this hypothesis by repeating the experiment with a larger number of highly numerate subjects, asking them to call out a sequence of digits selected from 0 through 9. The resulting sequences were substantially non-random, with an excess of sequential pairs of numbers and a deficit of repeats of the same number, in line with previous literature. However, the previous literature suggests that humans generate random numbers with substantial conscious effort, and distractions which reduce that effort reduce the randomness of the numbers. I reduced my subjects' concentration by asking them to call out in another language, and with alcohol - neither affected the randomness of their responses. This suggests that the ability to generate random numbers is a 'basic' function of the human mind, even if those numbers are not mathematically 'random'. I hypothesise that there is a 'creativity' mechanism, while not truly random, provides novelty as part of the mind's defence against closed programming loops, and that testing for the effects seen here in people more or less familiar with numbers or with spontaneous creativity could identify more features of this process. It is possible that training to perform better at simple random generation tasks could help to increase creativity, through training people to reduce the conscious mind's suppression of the 'spontaneous', creative response to new questions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johansen, Stein E.
2014-01-01
The paper recapitulates some key elements in previously published results concerning exact and complete reconstitution of the field of natural numbers, both as ordinal and as cardinal numbers, from systematic unfoldment of the Fibonacci algorithm. By this natural numbers emerge as Fibonacci 'atoms' and 'molecules' consistent with the notion of Zeckendorf sums. Here, the sub-set of prime numbers appears not as the primary numbers, but as an epistructure from a deeper Fibonacci constitution, and is thus targeted from a 'positive approach'. In the Fibonacci reconstitution of number theory natural numbers show a double geometrical aspect: partly as extension in space and partly as position in a successive structuring of space. More specifically, the natural numbers are shown to be distributed by a concise 5:3 code structured from the Fibonacci algorithm via Pascal's triangle. The paper discusses possible implications for the more general relation between number theory and geometry, as well as more specifically in relation to hadronic mathematics, initiated by R.M. Santilli, and also briefly to some other recent science linking number theory more directly to geometry and natural systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johansen, Stein E., E-mail: stein.johansen@svt.ntnu.no [Institute for Basic Research, Division of Physics, Palm Harbor, Florida, USA and Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Social Anthropology, Trondheim (Norway)
2014-12-10
The paper recapitulates some key elements in previously published results concerning exact and complete reconstitution of the field of natural numbers, both as ordinal and as cardinal numbers, from systematic unfoldment of the Fibonacci algorithm. By this natural numbers emerge as Fibonacci 'atoms' and 'molecules' consistent with the notion of Zeckendorf sums. Here, the sub-set of prime numbers appears not as the primary numbers, but as an epistructure from a deeper Fibonacci constitution, and is thus targeted from a 'positive approach'. In the Fibonacci reconstitution of number theory natural numbers show a double geometrical aspect: partly as extension in space and partly as position in a successive structuring of space. More specifically, the natural numbers are shown to be distributed by a concise 5:3 code structured from the Fibonacci algorithm via Pascal's triangle. The paper discusses possible implications for the more general relation between number theory and geometry, as well as more specifically in relation to hadronic mathematics, initiated by R.M. Santilli, and also briefly to some other recent science linking number theory more directly to geometry and natural systems.
Neutrino number of the universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kolb, E.W.
1981-01-01
The influence of grand unified theories on the lepton number of the universe is reviewed. A scenario is presented for the generation of a large (>> 1) lepton number and a small (<< 1) baryon number. 15 references
Distribution theory of algebraic numbers
Yang, Chung-Chun
2008-01-01
The book timely surveys new research results and related developments in Diophantine approximation, a division of number theory which deals with the approximation of real numbers by rational numbers. The book is appended with a list of challenging open problems and a comprehensive list of references. From the contents: Field extensions Algebraic numbers Algebraic geometry Height functions The abc-conjecture Roth''s theorem Subspace theorems Vojta''s conjectures L-functions.
Quantum random number generator
Pooser, Raphael C.
2016-05-10
A quantum random number generator (QRNG) and a photon generator for a QRNG are provided. The photon generator may be operated in a spontaneous mode below a lasing threshold to emit photons. Photons emitted from the photon generator may have at least one random characteristic, which may be monitored by the QRNG to generate a random number. In one embodiment, the photon generator may include a photon emitter and an amplifier coupled to the photon emitter. The amplifier may enable the photon generator to be used in the QRNG without introducing significant bias in the random number and may enable multiplexing of multiple random numbers. The amplifier may also desensitize the photon generator to fluctuations in power supplied thereto while operating in the spontaneous mode. In one embodiment, the photon emitter and amplifier may be a tapered diode amplifier.
Professor Stewart's incredible numbers
Stewart, Ian
2015-01-01
Ian Stewart explores the astonishing properties of numbers from 1 to10 to zero and infinity, including one figure that, if you wrote it out, would span the universe. He looks at every kind of number you can think of - real, imaginary, rational, irrational, positive and negative - along with several you might have thought you couldn't think of. He explains the insights of the ancient mathematicians, shows how numbers have evolved through the ages, and reveals the way numerical theory enables everyday life. Under Professor Stewart's guidance you will discover the mathematics of codes,
Sierpinski, Waclaw
1988-01-01
Since the publication of the first edition of this work, considerable progress has been made in many of the questions examined. This edition has been updated and enlarged, and the bibliography has been revised.The variety of topics covered here includes divisibility, diophantine equations, prime numbers (especially Mersenne and Fermat primes), the basic arithmetic functions, congruences, the quadratic reciprocity law, expansion of real numbers into decimal fractions, decomposition of integers into sums of powers, some other problems of the additive theory of numbers and the theory of Gaussian
LeVeque, William J
1996-01-01
This excellent textbook introduces the basics of number theory, incorporating the language of abstract algebra. A knowledge of such algebraic concepts as group, ring, field, and domain is not assumed, however; all terms are defined and examples are given - making the book self-contained in this respect.The author begins with an introductory chapter on number theory and its early history. Subsequent chapters deal with unique factorization and the GCD, quadratic residues, number-theoretic functions and the distribution of primes, sums of squares, quadratic equations and quadratic fields, diopha
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
016-0309-0. Generalized r-Lah numbers. MARK SHATTUCK. Department of ...... of Dowling lattices, Discrete Math. 312. (2012) 2337–2348. [7] Hsu L C and Shiue P J-S, A unified approach to generalized Stirling numbers, Adv. Appl. Math.
The theory of algebraic numbers
Pollard, Harry
1998-01-01
An excellent introduction to the basics of algebraic number theory, this concise, well-written volume examines Gaussian primes; polynomials over a field; algebraic number fields; and algebraic integers and integral bases. After establishing a firm introductory foundation, the text explores the uses of arithmetic in algebraic number fields; the fundamental theorem of ideal theory and its consequences; ideal classes and class numbers; and the Fermat conjecture. 1975 edition. References. List of Symbols. Index.
Innate or Acquired? – Disentangling Number Sense and Early Number Competencies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Julia Siemann
2018-04-01
Full Text Available The clinical profile termed developmental dyscalculia (DD is a fundamental disability affecting children already prior to arithmetic schooling, but the formal diagnosis is often only made during school years. The manifold associated deficits depend on age, education, developmental stage, and task requirements. Despite a large body of studies, the underlying mechanisms remain dubious. Conflicting findings have stimulated opposing theories, each presenting enough empirical support to remain a possible alternative. A so far unresolved question concerns the debate whether a putative innate number sense is required for successful arithmetic achievement as opposed to a pure reliance on domain-general cognitive factors. Here, we outline that the controversy arises due to ambiguous conceptualizations of the number sense. It is common practice to use early number competence as a proxy for innate magnitude processing, even though it requires knowledge of the number system. Therefore, such findings reflect the degree to which quantity is successfully transferred into symbols rather than informing about quantity representation per se. To solve this issue, we propose a three-factor account and incorporate it into the partly overlapping suggestions in the literature regarding the etiology of different DD profiles. The proposed view on DD is especially beneficial because it is applicable to more complex theories identifying a conglomerate of deficits as underlying cause of DD.
Innate or Acquired? – Disentangling Number Sense and Early Number Competencies
Siemann, Julia; Petermann, Franz
2018-01-01
The clinical profile termed developmental dyscalculia (DD) is a fundamental disability affecting children already prior to arithmetic schooling, but the formal diagnosis is often only made during school years. The manifold associated deficits depend on age, education, developmental stage, and task requirements. Despite a large body of studies, the underlying mechanisms remain dubious. Conflicting findings have stimulated opposing theories, each presenting enough empirical support to remain a possible alternative. A so far unresolved question concerns the debate whether a putative innate number sense is required for successful arithmetic achievement as opposed to a pure reliance on domain-general cognitive factors. Here, we outline that the controversy arises due to ambiguous conceptualizations of the number sense. It is common practice to use early number competence as a proxy for innate magnitude processing, even though it requires knowledge of the number system. Therefore, such findings reflect the degree to which quantity is successfully transferred into symbols rather than informing about quantity representation per se. To solve this issue, we propose a three-factor account and incorporate it into the partly overlapping suggestions in the literature regarding the etiology of different DD profiles. The proposed view on DD is especially beneficial because it is applicable to more complex theories identifying a conglomerate of deficits as underlying cause of DD. PMID:29725316
Dynamic Virtual Credit Card Numbers
Molloy, Ian; Li, Jiangtao; Li, Ninghui
Theft of stored credit card information is an increasing threat to e-commerce. We propose a dynamic virtual credit card number scheme that reduces the damage caused by stolen credit card numbers. A user can use an existing credit card account to generate multiple virtual credit card numbers that are either usable for a single transaction or are tied with a particular merchant. We call the scheme dynamic because the virtual credit card numbers can be generated without online contact with the credit card issuers. These numbers can be processed without changing any of the infrastructure currently in place; the only changes will be at the end points, namely, the card users and the card issuers. We analyze the security requirements for dynamic virtual credit card numbers, discuss the design space, propose a scheme using HMAC, and prove its security under the assumption the underlying function is a PRF.
From natural numbers to quaternions
Kramer, Jürg
2017-01-01
This textbook offers an invitation to modern algebra through number systems of increasing complexity, beginning with the natural numbers and culminating with Hamilton's quaternions. Along the way, the authors carefully develop the necessary concepts and methods from abstract algebra: monoids, groups, rings, fields, and skew fields. Each chapter ends with an appendix discussing related topics from algebra and number theory, including recent developments reflecting the relevance of the material to current research. The present volume is intended for undergraduate courses in abstract algebra or elementary number theory. The inclusion of exercises with solutions also makes it suitable for self-study and accessible to anyone with an interest in modern algebra and number theory.
Elementary number theory with programming
Lewinter, Marty
2015-01-01
A successful presentation of the fundamental concepts of number theory and computer programming Bridging an existing gap between mathematics and programming, Elementary Number Theory with Programming provides a unique introduction to elementary number theory with fundamental coverage of computer programming. Written by highly-qualified experts in the fields of computer science and mathematics, the book features accessible coverage for readers with various levels of experience and explores number theory in the context of programming without relying on advanced prerequisite knowledge and con
Grijpink, J.H.A.M.
2002-01-01
For the sake of clarity and manageability, this article is in the form of a checklist. It will be published in two parts. The first part in this issue presents some practical and juridical characteristics of personal number systems. But at the end of the day, it is the number strategy that
How to be Brilliant at Numbers
Webber, Beryl
2010-01-01
How to be Brilliant at Numbers will help students to develop an understanding of numbers, place value, fractions and decimals. They will develop the language of number, and of the relationships between numbers. They will also use mathematics to solve problems and will develop mathematical reasoning. Using the worksheets in this book, pupils will learn about: ancient Greek numbers; coins; digits; consecutive numbers; magic ladders; fractions; matching pairs; multiples of 10; rounding; decimal un
Unsolved problems in number theory
Guy, Richard K
1994-01-01
Unsolved Problems in Number Theory contains discussions of hundreds of open questions, organized into 185 different topics. They represent numerous aspects of number theory and are organized into six categories: prime numbers, divisibility, additive number theory, Diophantine equations, sequences of integers, and miscellaneous. To prevent repetition of earlier efforts or duplication of previously known results, an extensive and up-to-date collection of references follows each problem. In the second edition, not only extensive new material has been added, but corrections and additions have been included throughout the book.
Prandtl number of toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.; Fukuyama, A.; Yagi, M.; Azumi, M.
1993-06-01
Theory of the L-mode confinement in toroidal plasmas is developed. The Prandtl number, the ratio between the ion viscosity and the thermal conductivity is obtained for the anomalous transport process which is caused by the self-sustained turbulence in the toroidal plasma. It is found that the Prandtl number is of order unity both for the ballooning mode turbulence in tokamaks and for the interchange mode turbulence in helical system. The influence on the anomalous transport and fluctuation level is evaluated. Hartmann number and magnetic Prandtl number are also discussed. (author)
Quantum random number generator
Soubusta, Jan; Haderka, Ondrej; Hendrych, Martin
2001-03-01
Since reflection or transmission of a quantum particle on a beamsplitter is inherently random quantum process, a device built on this principle does not suffer from drawbacks of neither pseudo-random computer generators or classical noise sources. Nevertheless, a number of physical conditions necessary for high quality random numbers generation must be satisfied. Luckily, in quantum optics realization they can be well controlled. We present an easy random number generator based on the division of weak light pulses on a beamsplitter. The randomness of the generated bit stream is supported by passing the data through series of 15 statistical test. The device generates at a rate of 109.7 kbit/s.
Crossley, John N
1987-01-01
This book presents detailed studies of the development of three kinds of number. In the first part the development of the natural numbers from Stone-Age times right up to the present day is examined not only from the point of view of pure history but also taking into account archaeological, anthropological and linguistic evidence. The dramatic change caused by the introduction of logical theories of number in the 19th century is also treated and this part ends with a non-technical account of the very latest developments in the area of Gödel's theorem. The second part is concerned with the deve
Corry, Leo
2015-01-01
The world around us is saturated with numbers. They are a fundamental pillar of our modern society, and accepted and used with hardly a second thought. But how did this state of affairs come to be? In this book, Leo Corry tells the story behind the idea of number from the early days of the Pythagoreans, up until the turn of the twentieth century. He presents an overview of how numbers were handled and conceived in classical Greek mathematics, in the mathematics of Islam, in European mathematics of the middle ages and the Renaissance, during the scientific revolution, all the way through to the
Earthquake number forecasts testing
Kagan, Yan Y.
2017-10-01
We study the distributions of earthquake numbers in two global earthquake catalogues: Global Centroid-Moment Tensor and Preliminary Determinations of Epicenters. The properties of these distributions are especially required to develop the number test for our forecasts of future seismic activity rate, tested by the Collaboratory for Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP). A common assumption, as used in the CSEP tests, is that the numbers are described by the Poisson distribution. It is clear, however, that the Poisson assumption for the earthquake number distribution is incorrect, especially for the catalogues with a lower magnitude threshold. In contrast to the one-parameter Poisson distribution so widely used to describe earthquake occurrences, the negative-binomial distribution (NBD) has two parameters. The second parameter can be used to characterize the clustering or overdispersion of a process. We also introduce and study a more complex three-parameter beta negative-binomial distribution. We investigate the dependence of parameters for both Poisson and NBD distributions on the catalogue magnitude threshold and on temporal subdivision of catalogue duration. First, we study whether the Poisson law can be statistically rejected for various catalogue subdivisions. We find that for most cases of interest, the Poisson distribution can be shown to be rejected statistically at a high significance level in favour of the NBD. Thereafter, we investigate whether these distributions fit the observed distributions of seismicity. For this purpose, we study upper statistical moments of earthquake numbers (skewness and kurtosis) and compare them to the theoretical values for both distributions. Empirical values for the skewness and the kurtosis increase for the smaller magnitude threshold and increase with even greater intensity for small temporal subdivision of catalogues. The Poisson distribution for large rate values approaches the Gaussian law, therefore its skewness
Pseudo-Random Number Generators
Howell, L. W.; Rheinfurth, M. H.
1984-01-01
Package features comprehensive selection of probabilistic distributions. Monte Carlo simulations resorted to whenever systems studied not amenable to deterministic analyses or when direct experimentation not feasible. Random numbers having certain specified distribution characteristic integral part of simulations. Package consists of collector of "pseudorandom" number generators for use in Monte Carlo simulations.
Random Numbers and Quantum Computers
McCartney, Mark; Glass, David
2002-01-01
The topic of random numbers is investigated in such a way as to illustrate links between mathematics, physics and computer science. First, the generation of random numbers by a classical computer using the linear congruential generator and logistic map is considered. It is noted that these procedures yield only pseudo-random numbers since…
Transitional boundary layer in low-Prandtl-number convection at high Rayleigh number
Schumacher, Joerg; Bandaru, Vinodh; Pandey, Ambrish; Scheel, Janet
2016-11-01
The boundary layer structure of the velocity and temperature fields in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard flows in closed cylindrical cells of unit aspect ratio is revisited from a transitional and turbulent viscous boundary layer perspective. When the Rayleigh number is large enough the boundary layer dynamics at the bottom and top plates can be separated into an impact region of downwelling plumes, an ejection region of upwelling plumes and an interior region (away from side walls) that is dominated by a shear flow of varying orientation. This interior plate region is compared here to classical wall-bounded shear flows. The working fluid is liquid mercury or liquid gallium at a Prandtl number of Pr = 0 . 021 for a range of Rayleigh numbers of 3 ×105 Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.
Iwaniec, Henryk
2004-01-01
Analytic Number Theory distinguishes itself by the variety of tools it uses to establish results, many of which belong to the mainstream of arithmetic. One of the main attractions of analytic number theory is the vast diversity of concepts and methods it includes. The main goal of the book is to show the scope of the theory, both in classical and modern directions, and to exhibit its wealth and prospects, its beautiful theorems and powerful techniques. The book is written with graduate students in mind, and the authors tried to balance between clarity, completeness, and generality. The exercis
Fast integration using quasi-random numbers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bossert, J.; Feindt, M.; Kerzel, U.
2006-01-01
Quasi-random numbers are specially constructed series of numbers optimised to evenly sample a given s-dimensional volume. Using quasi-random numbers in numerical integration converges faster with a higher accuracy compared to the case of pseudo-random numbers. The basic properties of quasi-random numbers are introduced, various generators are discussed and the achieved gain is illustrated by examples
Fast integration using quasi-random numbers
Bossert, J.; Feindt, M.; Kerzel, U.
2006-04-01
Quasi-random numbers are specially constructed series of numbers optimised to evenly sample a given s-dimensional volume. Using quasi-random numbers in numerical integration converges faster with a higher accuracy compared to the case of pseudo-random numbers. The basic properties of quasi-random numbers are introduced, various generators are discussed and the achieved gain is illustrated by examples.
Fibonacci number of the tadpole graph
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joe DeMaio
2014-10-01
Full Text Available In 1982, Prodinger and Tichy defined the Fibonacci number of a graph G to be the number of independent sets of the graph G. They did so since the Fibonacci number of the path graph Pn is the Fibonacci number F(n+2 and the Fibonacci number of the cycle graph Cn is the Lucas number Ln. The tadpole graph Tn,k is the graph created by concatenating Cn and Pk with an edge from any vertex of Cn to a pendant of Pk for integers n=3 and k=0. This paper establishes formulae and identities for the Fibonacci number of the tadpole graph via algebraic and combinatorial methods.
Alizée Dauvergne
2010-01-01
What makes the LHC the biggest particle accelerator in the world? Here are some of the numbers that characterise the LHC, and their equivalents in terms that are easier for us to imagine. Feature Number Equivalent Circumference ~ 27 km Distance covered by beam in 10 hours ~ 10 billion km a round trip to Neptune Number of times a single proton travels around the ring each second 11 245 Speed of protons first entering the LHC 299 732 500 m/s 99.9998 % of the speed of light Speed of protons when they collide 299 789 760 m/s 99.9999991 % of the speed of light Collision temperature ~ 1016 °C ove...
Role of Turbulent Prandtl Number on Heat Flux at Hypersonic Mach Numbers
Xiao, X.; Edwards, J. R.; Hassan, H. A.; Gaffney, R. L., Jr.
2007-01-01
A new turbulence model suited for calculating the turbulent Prandtl number as part of the solution is presented. The model is based on a set of two equations: one governing the variance of the enthalpy and the other governing its dissipation rate. These equations were derived from the exact energy equation and thus take into consideration compressibility and dissipation terms. The model is used to study two cases involving shock wave/boundary layer interaction at Mach 9.22 and Mach 5.0. In general, heat transfer prediction showed great improvement over traditional turbulence models where the turbulent Prandtl number is assumed constant. It is concluded that using a model that calculates the turbulent Prandtl number as part of the solution is the key to bridging the gap between theory and experiment for flows dominated by shock wave/boundary layer interactions.
Salman, M.; Broersma, Haitze J.
2003-01-01
For two given graphs $G$ and $H$, the Ramsey number $R(G,H)$ is the smallest positive integer $p$ such that for every graph $F$ on $p$ vertices the following holds: either $F$ contains $G$ as a subgraph or the complement of $F$ contains $H$ as a subgraph. In this paper, we study the Ramsey numbers
Salman, M.; Broersma, Haitze J.
For two given graphs $F$ and $H$, the Ramsey number $R(F,H)$ is the smallest positive integer $p$ such that for every graph $G$ on $p$ vertices the following holds: either $G$ contains $F$ as a subgraph or the complement of $G$ contains $H$ as a subgraph. In this paper, we study the Ramsey numbers
Salman, M.; Broersma, Haitze J.
2007-01-01
For two given graphs $F$ and $H$, the Ramsey number $R(F,H)$ is the smallest positive integer $p$ such that for every graph $G$ on $p$ vertices the following holds: either $G$ contains $F$ as a subgraph or the complement of $G$ contains $H$ as a subgraph. In this paper, we study the Ramsey numbers
Unbounding the mental number line – New evidence on children’s spatial representation of numbers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tanja eLink
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Number line estimation (i.e., indicating the position of a given number on a physical line is a standard assessment of children’s spatial representation of number magnitude. Importantly, there is an ongoing debate on the question in how far the bounded task version with start and endpoint given (e.g., 0 and 100 might induce specific estimation strategies and thus may not allow for unbiased inferences on the underlying representation. Recently, a new unbounded version of the task was suggested with only the start point and a unit fixed (e.g., the distance from 0 to 1. In adults this task provided a less biased index of the spatial representation of number magnitude. Yet, so far there are no children data available for the unbounded number line estimation task. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional study on primary school children performing both, the bounded and the unbounded version of the task. We observed clear evidence for systematic strategic influences (i.e., the consideration of reference points in the bounded number line estimation task for children older than grade two whereas there were no such indications for the unbounded version for any one of the age groups. In summary, the current data corroborate the unbounded number line estimation task to be a valuable tool for assessing children's spatial representation of number magnitude in a systematic and unbiased manner. Yet, similar results for the bounded and the unbounded version of the task for first- and second-graders may indicate that both versions of the task might assess the same underlying representation for relatively younger children - at least in number ranges familiar to the children assessed. This is of particular importance for inferences about the nature and development of children's magnitude representation.
Generation of Random Numbers and Parallel Random Number Streams for Monte Carlo Simulations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Yu. Barash
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Modern methods and libraries for high quality pseudorandom number generation and for generation of parallel random number streams for Monte Carlo simulations are considered. The probability equidistribution property and the parameters when the property holds at dimensions up to logarithm of mesh size are considered for Multiple Recursive Generators.
Number Meaning and Number Grammar in English and Spanish
Bock, Kathryn; Carreiras, Manuel; Meseguer, Enrique
2012-01-01
Grammatical agreement makes different demands on speakers of different languages. Being widespread in the languages of the world, the features of agreement systems offer valuable tests of how language affects deep-seated domains of human cognition and categorization. Number agreement is one such domain, with intriguing evidence that typological…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim; Jensen, Claus; Katajainen, Jyrki
2010-01-01
We introduce a new number system that supports increments with a constant number of digit changes. We also give a simple method that extends any number system supporting increments to support decrements using the same number of digit changes. In the new number system the weight of the ith digit i...... is 2 i-1, and hence we can implement a priority queue as a forest of heap-ordered complete binary trees. The resulting data structure guarantees O(1) worst-case cost per insert and O(lg n) worst-case cost per delete, where n is the number of elements stored....
BKP and projective Hurwitz numbers
Natanzon, Sergey M.; Orlov, Aleksandr Yu.
2017-06-01
We consider d-fold branched coverings of the projective plane RP^2 and show that the hypergeometric tau function of the BKP hierarchy of Kac and van de Leur is the generating function for weighted sums of the related Hurwitz numbers. In particular, we get the RP^2 analogues of the CP^1 generating functions proposed by Okounkov and by Goulden and Jackson. Other examples are Hurwitz numbers weighted by the Hall-Littlewood and by the Macdonald polynomials. We also consider integrals of tau functions which generate Hurwitz numbers related to base surfaces with arbitrary Euler characteristics sc {e}, in particular projective Hurwitz numbers sc {e}=1.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
One could endlessly churn out congruent numbers following the method in Box 1 without being certain when a given number n (or n x m 2, for some integer m) will ap- pear on the list. Continuing in this way ·would exhaust one's computing resources, not to mention one's patience! Also, this procedure is of no avail if n is not ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
this is a characteristic difference between finite and infinite sets and created an immensely useful branch of mathematics based on this idea which had a great impact on the whole of mathe- matics. For example, the question of what is a number (finite or infinite) is almost a philosophical one. However Cantor's work turned it ...
Defense Horizons. Number 79, April 2015
2015-04-01
law , no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB...79, April 2015 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT...aggression. Even more issues emerged following the downing of Malaysian Airlines Flight 17 over Ukraine in July 2014, and cross-border ar- tillery renewed
Women In Numbers - Europe workshop
Bucur, Alina; Feigon, Brooke; Schneps, Leila
2015-01-01
Covering topics in graph theory, L-functions, p-adic geometry, Galois representations, elliptic fibrations, genus 3 curves and bad reduction, harmonic analysis, symplectic groups and mould combinatorics, this volume presents a collection of papers covering a wide swath of number theory emerging from the third iteration of the international Women in Numbers conference, “Women in Numbers - Europe” (WINE), held on October 14–18, 2013 at the CIRM-Luminy mathematical conference center in France. While containing contributions covering a wide range of cutting-edge topics in number theory, the volume emphasizes those concrete approaches that make it possible for graduate students and postdocs to begin work immediately on research problems even in highly complex subjects.
Digital random-number generator
Brocker, D. H.
1973-01-01
For binary digit array of N bits, use N noise sources to feed N nonlinear operators; each flip-flop in digit array is set by nonlinear operator to reflect whether amplitude of generator which feeds it is above or below mean value of generated noise. Fixed-point uniform distribution random number generation method can also be used to generate random numbers with other than uniform distribution.
Dimensionless numbers in additive manufacturing
Mukherjee, T.; Manvatkar, V.; De, A.; DebRoy, T.
2017-02-01
The effects of many process variables and alloy properties on the structure and properties of additively manufactured parts are examined using four dimensionless numbers. The structure and properties of components made from 316 Stainless steel, Ti-6Al-4V, and Inconel 718 powders for various dimensionless heat inputs, Peclet numbers, Marangoni numbers, and Fourier numbers are studied. Temperature fields, cooling rates, solidification parameters, lack of fusion defects, and thermal strains are examined using a well-tested three-dimensional transient heat transfer and fluid flow model. The results show that lack of fusion defects in the fabricated parts can be minimized by strengthening interlayer bonding using high values of dimensionless heat input. The formation of harmful intermetallics such as laves phases in Inconel 718 can be suppressed using low heat input that results in a small molten pool, a steep temperature gradient, and a fast cooling rate. Improved interlayer bonding can be achieved at high Marangoni numbers, which results in vigorous circulation of liquid metal, larger pool dimensions, and greater depth of penetration. A high Fourier number ensures rapid cooling, low thermal distortion, and a high ratio of temperature gradient to the solidification growth rate with a greater tendency of plane front solidification.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter Saveliev
2005-04-01
Full Text Available Suppose X, Y are manifolds, f,g:XÃ¢Â†Â’Y are maps. The well-known coincidence problem studies the coincidence set C={x:f(x=g(x}. The number m=dimÃ¢Â€Â‰XÃ¢ÂˆÂ’dimÃ¢Â€Â‰Y is called the codimension of the problem. More general is the preimage problem. For a map f:XÃ¢Â†Â’Z and a submanifold Y of Z, it studies the preimage set C={x:f(xÃ¢ÂˆÂˆY}, and the codimension is m=dimÃ¢Â€Â‰X+dimÃ¢Â€Â‰YÃ¢ÂˆÂ’dimÃ¢Â€Â‰Z. In case of codimension 0, the classical Nielsen number N(f,Y is a lower estimate of the number of points in C changing under homotopies of f, and for an arbitrary codimension, of the number of components of C. We extend this theory to take into account other topological characteristics of C. The goal is to find a Ã¢Â€Âœlower estimateÃ¢Â€Â of the bordism group ÃŽÂ©p(C of C. The answer is the Nielsen group Sp(f,Y defined as follows. In the classical definition, the Nielsen equivalence of points of C based on paths is replaced with an equivalence of singular submanifolds of C based on bordisms. We let Sp'(f,Y=ÃŽÂ©p(C/Ã¢ÂˆÂ¼N, then the Nielsen group of order p is the part of Sp'(f,Y preserved under homotopies of f. The Nielsen number Np(F,Y of order p is the rank of this group (then N(f,Y=N0(f,Y. These numbers are new obstructions to removability of coincidences and preimages. Some examples and computations are provided.
An adventurer's guide to number theory
Friedberg, Richard
1995-01-01
In this delightful guide, a noted mathematician and teacher offers a witty, historically oriented introduction to number theory, dealing with properties of numbers and with numbers as abstract concepts. Written for readers with an understanding of arithmetic and beginning algebra, the book presents the classical discoveries of number theory, including the work of Pythagoras, Euclid, Diophantus, Fermat, Euler, Lagrange and Gauss.Unlike many authors, however, Mr. Friedberg encourages students to think about the imaginative, playful qualities of numbers as they consider such subjects as primes
Schmidt number for quantum operations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang Siendong
2006-01-01
To understand how entangled states behave under local quantum operations is an open problem in quantum-information theory. The Jamiolkowski isomorphism provides a natural way to study this problem in terms of quantum states. We introduce the Schmidt number for quantum operations by this duality and clarify how the Schmidt number of a quantum state changes under a local quantum operation. Some characterizations of quantum operations with Schmidt number k are also provided
Certain number-theoretic episodes in algebra
Sivaramakrishnan, R
2006-01-01
Many basic ideas of algebra and number theory intertwine, making it ideal to explore both at the same time. Certain Number-Theoretic Episodes in Algebra focuses on some important aspects of interconnections between number theory and commutative algebra. Using a pedagogical approach, the author presents the conceptual foundations of commutative algebra arising from number theory. Self-contained, the book examines situations where explicit algebraic analogues of theorems of number theory are available. Coverage is divided into four parts, beginning with elements of number theory and algebra such as theorems of Euler, Fermat, and Lagrange, Euclidean domains, and finite groups. In the second part, the book details ordered fields, fields with valuation, and other algebraic structures. This is followed by a review of fundamentals of algebraic number theory in the third part. The final part explores links with ring theory, finite dimensional algebras, and the Goldbach problem.
Two Popular Books for Quantitative Literacy: What the Numbers Say, and The Numbers Game
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robert G. Root
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Niederman, Derrick, and Boyum, David. What the Numbers Say: A Field Guide to Mastering Our Numerical World. (New York: Broadway Books/Random House, 2003. 288 pp. Hardcover, ISBN 978-0-7679-0998-3. Paperback, 978-0-7679-0999-0. Available as an eBook.Blastland, Michael, and Dilnot, Andrew. The Numbers Game: The Commonsense Guide to Understanding Numbers in the News, in Politics and in Life. (New York: Gotham Books/Penguin, 2009. 192 pp. Hardcover, ISBN 978-1-5924-0423-0. Paperback, ISBN 978-1-5924-0485-8. Available as an eBook.Popular books on quantitative literacy need to be easy to read, reasonably comprehensive in scope, and include examples that are thought-provoking and memorable. In contrast to textbooks, popular books can dispense with exercises and structure, and instead offer an informal voice and an inviting style. In this genre John Allen Paulos’ Innumeracy is widely regarded as a classic. However, Paulos' book is out of date, and it takes a whimsical approach to many topics. The goal of this review is to acquaint the reader with two more recent entries into the genre. What the Numbers Say by Derrick Niederman and David Boyum takes an expansive view of quantitative literacy. The Numbers Game by Michael Blastland and Andrew Dilnot, on the other hand, focuses on reasoning surrounding statistics and uncertainty in contemporary society. The Numbers Game is a revised American edition of The Tiger That Isn’t, which grew out of a BBC radio program, More or Less.
Quality pseudo-random number generator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tarasiuk, J.
1996-01-01
The pseudo-random number generator (RNG) was written to match needs of nuclear and high-energy physics computation which in some cases require very long and independent random number sequences. In this random number generator the repetition period is about 10 36 what should be sufficient for all computers in the world. In this article the test results of RNG correlation, speed and identity of computations for PC, Sun4 and VAX computer tests are presented
Ramakrishnan, B
2009-01-01
This collection of articles contains the proceedings of the two international conferences (on Number Theory and Cryptography) held at the Harish - Chandra Research Institute. In recent years the interest in number theory has increased due to its applications in areas like error-correcting codes and cryptography. These proceedings contain papers in various areas of number theory, such as combinatorial, algebraic, analytic and transcendental aspects, arithmetic algebraic geometry, as well as graph theory and cryptography. While some papers do contain new results, several of the papers are expository articles that mention open questions, which will be useful to young researchers.
The european emergency number 112 - the questionnaire
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Krzysztof Goniewicz
2017-07-01
Conclusions. Most of the respondents (92% identify the 112 number as an emergency number that allows them to connect to emergency services from anywhere in the European Union. A significant number of respondents (47% identify the 112 number as an emergency number in Poland. One in three respondents will use the 999 number to contact the emergency services as a witness to an emergency in Poland. Non-medical university students more often (63% will use the 112 emergency number than medical college students (41%. Respondents (98% confirmed the usefulness of a unified emergency number throughout Europe, but decided that they were not sufficiently informed about 112 as the European emergency number.
Vegetable oil and fat viscosity forecast models based on iodine number and saponification number
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toscano, G.; Riva, G.; Foppa Pedretti, E.; Duca, D.
2012-01-01
Vegetable oil and fats can be considered as an important renewable source for the energy production. There are many applications where these biofuels are used directly in engines. However, the use of pure vegetable oils causes some problems as consequence of its chemical and physical characteristic. Viscosity is one of the most important parameters affecting several physical and mechanical processes of the operation of the engine. The determination of this parameter at different tis important to determine the behavior of the vegetable oil and fats. In this work we investigated the effects of two analytical chemical parameters (iodine number and saponification number) and forecasting models have been proposed. -- Highlights: ► Vegetable oil and fat viscosity is predicted by mathematical model based on saponification number and iodine number. ► Unsaturated vegetable oils with small size molecules of fatty acids have a lower viscosity values. ► The models proposed show an average error lower than 12%
Fibonacci and Catalan Numbers An Introduction
Grimaldi, Ralph
2012-01-01
In this one-of-a-kind book, Ralph Grimaldi uses his extensive experience from the classroom and as a leader of mini-courses to present an accessible, single resource on the topics of Fibonacci Numbers and Catalan Numbers . The book first embarks on a complete treatment of Fibonacci numbers. Starting with a historical background on the topic, the author goes on to present the properties of Fibonacci numbers, a slew of introductory-level examples, and in-depth discussion of related topics including compositions and palindromes; tiling and Fibonacci numbers
Advanced number theory with applications
Mollin, Richard A
2009-01-01
Algebraic Number Theory and Quadratic Fields Algebraic Number Fields The Gaussian Field Euclidean Quadratic Fields Applications of Unique Factorization Ideals The Arithmetic of Ideals in Quadratic Fields Dedekind Domains Application to Factoring Binary Quadratic Forms Basics Composition and the Form Class Group Applications via Ambiguity Genus Representation Equivalence Modulo p Diophantine Approximation Algebraic and Transcendental Numbers Transcendence Minkowski's Convex Body Theorem Arithmetic Functions The Euler-Maclaurin Summation Formula Average Orders The Riemann zeta-functionIntroduction to p-Adic AnalysisSolving Modulo pn Introduction to Valuations Non-Archimedean vs. Archimedean Valuations Representation of p-Adic NumbersDirichlet: Characters, Density, and Primes in Progression Dirichlet Characters Dirichlet's L-Function and Theorem Dirichlet DensityApplications to Diophantine Equations Lucas-Lehmer Theory Generalized Ramanujan-Nagell Equations Bachet's Equation The Fermat Equation Catalan and the A...
Essays on the theory of numbers
Dedekind, Richard
1963-01-01
Two classic essays by great German mathematician: one provides an arithmetic, rigorous foundation for the irrational numbers, the other is an attempt to give the logical basis for transfinite numbers and properties of the natural numbers.
A new definition of Bejan number
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Awad Mohamed M.
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A new definition of Bejan number will be generated by replacing the thermal diffusivity with the mass diffusivity. For example, the Schmidt number is the mass transfer analog of the Prandtl number. For the case of Reynolds analogy (Sc = Pr = = 1, both current and new definitions of Bejan number are the same. This new definition is useful and needed for diffusion of mass (mass diffusion.
Random numbers spring from alpha decay
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frigerio, N.A.; Sanathanan, L.P.; Morley, M.; Clark, N.A.; Tyler, S.A.
1980-05-01
Congruential random number generators, which are widely used in Monte Carlo simulations, are deficient in that the number they generate are concentrated in a relatively small number of hyperplanes. While this deficiency may not be a limitation in small Monte Carlo studies involving a few variables, it introduces a significant bias in large simulations requiring high resolution. This bias was recognized and assessed during preparations for an accident analysis study of nuclear power plants. This report describes a random number device based on the radioactive decay of alpha particles from a 235 U source in a high-resolution gas proportional counter. The signals were fed to a 4096-channel analyzer and for each channel the frequency of signals registered in a 20,000-microsecond interval was recorded. The parity bits of these frequency counts (0 for an even count and 1 for an odd count) were then assembled in sequence to form 31-bit binary random numbers and transcribed to a magnetic tape. This cycle was repeated as many times as were necessary to create 3 million random numbers. The frequency distribution of counts from the present device conforms to the Brockwell-Moyal distribution, which takes into account the dead time of the counter (both the dead time and decay constant of the underlying Poisson process were estimated). Analysis of the count data and tests of randomness on a sample set of the 31-bit binary numbers indicate that this random number device is a highly reliable source of truly random numbers. Its use is, therefore, recommended in Monte Carlo simulations for which the congruential pseudorandom number generators are found to be inadequate. 6 figures, 5 tables
Asymptotics of quantum weighted Hurwitz numbers
Harnad, J.; Ortmann, Janosch
2018-06-01
This work concerns both the semiclassical and zero temperature asymptotics of quantum weighted double Hurwitz numbers. The partition function for quantum weighted double Hurwitz numbers can be interpreted in terms of the energy distribution of a quantum Bose gas with vanishing fugacity. We compute the leading semiclassical term of the partition function for three versions of the quantum weighted Hurwitz numbers, as well as lower order semiclassical corrections. The classical limit is shown to reproduce the simple single and double Hurwitz numbers studied by Okounkov and Pandharipande (2000 Math. Res. Lett. 7 447–53, 2000 Lett. Math. Phys. 53 59–74). The KP-Toda τ-function that serves as generating function for the quantum Hurwitz numbers is shown to have the τ-function of Okounkov and Pandharipande (2000 Math. Res. Lett. 7 447–53, 2000 Lett. Math. Phys. 53 59–74) as its leading term in the classical limit, and, with suitable scaling, the same holds for the partition function, the weights and expectations of Hurwitz numbers. We also compute the zero temperature limit of the partition function and quantum weighted Hurwitz numbers. The KP or Toda τ-function serving as generating function for the quantum Hurwitz numbers are shown to give the one for Belyi curves in the zero temperature limit and, with suitable scaling, the same holds true for the partition function, the weights and the expectations of Hurwitz numbers.
Libertus, Melissa E; Odic, Darko; Feigenson, Lisa; Halberda, Justin
2016-10-01
Children can represent number in at least two ways: by using their non-verbal, intuitive approximate number system (ANS) and by using words and symbols to count and represent numbers exactly. Furthermore, by the time they are 5years old, children can map between the ANS and number words, as evidenced by their ability to verbally estimate numbers of items without counting. How does the quality of the mapping between approximate and exact numbers relate to children's math abilities? The role of the ANS-number word mapping in math competence remains controversial for at least two reasons. First, previous work has not examined the relation between verbal estimation and distinct subtypes of math abilities. Second, previous work has not addressed how distinct components of verbal estimation-mapping accuracy and variability-might each relate to math performance. Here, we addressed these gaps by measuring individual differences in ANS precision, verbal number estimation, and formal and informal math abilities in 5- to 7-year-old children. We found that verbal estimation variability, but not estimation accuracy, predicted formal math abilities, even when controlling for age, expressive vocabulary, and ANS precision, and that it mediated the link between ANS precision and overall math ability. These findings suggest that variability in the ANS-number word mapping may be especially important for formal math abilities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Van Hoof, Jo; Verschaffel, Lieven; Ghesquière, Pol; Van Dooren, Wim
2017-12-01
Previous research indicated that in several cases learners' errors on rational number tasks can be attributed to learners' tendency to (wrongly) apply natural number properties. There exists a large body of literature both on learners' struggle with understanding the rational number system and on the role of the natural number bias in this struggle. However, little is known about this phenomenon in learners with dyscalculia. We investigated the rational number understanding of learners with dyscalculia and compared it with the rational number understanding of learners without dyscalculia. Three groups of learners were included: sixth graders with dyscalculia, a chronological age match group, and an ability match group. The results showed that the rational number understanding of learners with dyscalculia is significantly lower than that of typically developing peers, but not significantly different from younger learners, even after statistically controlling for mathematics achievement. Next to a delay in their mathematics achievement, learners with dyscalculia seem to have an extra delay in their rational number understanding, compared with peers. This is especially the case in those rational number tasks where one has to inhibit natural number knowledge to come to the right answer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hyperreal Numbers for Infinite Divergent Series
Bartlett, Jonathan
2018-01-01
Treating divergent series properly has been an ongoing issue in mathematics. However, many of the problems in divergent series stem from the fact that divergent series were discovered prior to having a number system which could handle them. The infinities that resulted from divergent series led to contradictions within the real number system, but these contradictions are largely alleviated with the hyperreal number system. Hyperreal numbers provide a framework for dealing with divergent serie...
Lepton number violation in theories with a large number of standard model copies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kovalenko, Sergey; Schmidt, Ivan; Paes, Heinrich
2011-01-01
We examine lepton number violation (LNV) in theories with a saturated black hole bound on a large number of species. Such theories have been advocated recently as a possible solution to the hierarchy problem and an explanation of the smallness of neutrino masses. On the other hand, the violation of the lepton number can be a potential phenomenological problem of this N-copy extension of the standard model as due to the low quantum gravity scale black holes may induce TeV scale LNV operators generating unacceptably large rates of LNV processes. We show, however, that this issue can be avoided by introducing a spontaneously broken U 1(B-L) . Then, due to the existence of a specific compensation mechanism between contributions of different Majorana neutrino states, LNV processes in the standard model copy become extremely suppressed with rates far beyond experimental reach.
The MIXMAX random number generator
Savvidy, Konstantin G.
2015-11-01
In this paper, we study the randomness properties of unimodular matrix random number generators. Under well-known conditions, these discrete-time dynamical systems have the highly desirable K-mixing properties which guarantee high quality random numbers. It is found that some widely used random number generators have poor Kolmogorov entropy and consequently fail in empirical tests of randomness. These tests show that the lowest acceptable value of the Kolmogorov entropy is around 50. Next, we provide a solution to the problem of determining the maximal period of unimodular matrix generators of pseudo-random numbers. We formulate the necessary and sufficient condition to attain the maximum period and present a family of specific generators in the MIXMAX family with superior performance and excellent statistical properties. Finally, we construct three efficient algorithms for operations with the MIXMAX matrix which is a multi-dimensional generalization of the famous cat-map. First, allowing to compute the multiplication by the MIXMAX matrix with O(N) operations. Second, to recursively compute its characteristic polynomial with O(N2) operations, and third, to apply skips of large number of steps S to the sequence in O(N2 log(S)) operations.
Combinatorial Interpretation of General Eulerian Numbers
Tingyao Xiong; Jonathan I. Hall; Hung-Ping Tsao
2014-01-01
Since 1950s, mathematicians have successfully interpreted the traditional Eulerian numbers and $q-$Eulerian numbers combinatorially. In this paper, the authors give a combinatorial interpretation to the general Eulerian numbers defined on general arithmetic progressions { a, a+d, a+2d,...}.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Caroline eHornung
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Early number competence, grounded in number-specific and domain-general cognitive abilities, is theorized to lay the foundation for later math achievement. Few longitudinal studies have tested a comprehensive model for early math development. Using structural equation modeling and mediation analyses, the present work examined the influence of kindergarteners’ nonverbal number sense and domain-general abilities i.e., working memory, fluid intelligence, and receptive vocabulary and their early number competence (i.e., symbolic number skills on first grade math achievement (arithmetic, shape and space skills, and number line estimation assessed one year later. Latent regression models revealed that nonverbal number sense and working memory are central building blocks for developing early number competence in kindergarten and that early number competence is key for first grade math achievement. After controlling for early number competence, fluid intelligence significantly predicted arithmetic and number line estimation while receptive vocabulary significantly predicted shape and space skills. In sum we suggest that early math achievement draws on different constellations of number-specific and domain-general mechanisms.
Low energy fermion number violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peccei, R.D.
1989-01-01
After a brief aside on charge quantization in the standard electroweak theory, I concentrate on various aspects of anomaly induced fermion number violation in the standard model. A critical analysis of the role of sphalerons for the universe's baryon asymmetry is presented and the importance of calculating directly fermion number violating Green's functions is stressed. A physical interpretation of the recent observation of Ringwald, that coherent effects in the electroweak theory lead to catastrophic fermion number violation at 100 TeV, is discussed. Possible quantum effects which might spoil this semi-classical picture are examined
Continental anthropogenic primary particle number emissions
Paasonen, Pauli; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Klimont, Zbigniew; Visschedijk, Antoon; Denier van der Gon, Hugo A. C.; Amann, Markus
2016-06-01
Atmospheric aerosol particle number concentrations impact our climate and health in ways different from those of aerosol mass concentrations. However, the global, current and future anthropogenic particle number emissions and their size distributions are so far poorly known. In this article, we present the implementation of particle number emission factors and the related size distributions in the GAINS (Greenhouse Gas-Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies) model. This implementation allows for global estimates of particle number emissions under different future scenarios, consistent with emissions of other pollutants and greenhouse gases. In addition to determining the general particulate number emissions, we also describe a method to estimate the number size distributions of the emitted black carbon particles. The first results show that the sources dominating the particle number emissions are different to those dominating the mass emissions. The major global number source is road traffic, followed by residential combustion of biofuels and coal (especially in China, India and Africa), coke production (Russia and China), and industrial combustion and processes. The size distributions of emitted particles differ across the world, depending on the main sources: in regions dominated by traffic and industry, the number size distribution of emissions peaks in diameters range from 20 to 50 nm, whereas in regions with intensive biofuel combustion and/or agricultural waste burning, the emissions of particles with diameters around 100 nm are dominant. In the baseline (current legislation) scenario, the particle number emissions in Europe, Northern and Southern Americas, Australia, and China decrease until 2030, whereas especially for India, a strong increase is estimated. The results of this study provide input for modelling of the future changes in aerosol-cloud interactions as well as particle number related adverse health effects, e.g. in response to tightening
Continental anthropogenic primary particle number emissions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Paasonen
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosol particle number concentrations impact our climate and health in ways different from those of aerosol mass concentrations. However, the global, current and future anthropogenic particle number emissions and their size distributions are so far poorly known. In this article, we present the implementation of particle number emission factors and the related size distributions in the GAINS (Greenhouse Gas–Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies model. This implementation allows for global estimates of particle number emissions under different future scenarios, consistent with emissions of other pollutants and greenhouse gases. In addition to determining the general particulate number emissions, we also describe a method to estimate the number size distributions of the emitted black carbon particles. The first results show that the sources dominating the particle number emissions are different to those dominating the mass emissions. The major global number source is road traffic, followed by residential combustion of biofuels and coal (especially in China, India and Africa, coke production (Russia and China, and industrial combustion and processes. The size distributions of emitted particles differ across the world, depending on the main sources: in regions dominated by traffic and industry, the number size distribution of emissions peaks in diameters range from 20 to 50 nm, whereas in regions with intensive biofuel combustion and/or agricultural waste burning, the emissions of particles with diameters around 100 nm are dominant. In the baseline (current legislation scenario, the particle number emissions in Europe, Northern and Southern Americas, Australia, and China decrease until 2030, whereas especially for India, a strong increase is estimated. The results of this study provide input for modelling of the future changes in aerosol–cloud interactions as well as particle number related adverse health effects, e.g. in response
Negative numbers and antimatter particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsan, Ung Chan
2012-01-01
Dirac's equation states that an electron implies the existence of an antielectron with the same mass (more generally same arithmetic properties) and opposite charge (more generally opposite algebraic properties). Subsequent observation of antielectron validated this concept. This statement can be extended to all matter particles; observation of antiproton, antineutron, antideuton … is in complete agreement with this view. Recently antihypertriton was observed and 38 atoms of antihydrogen were trapped. This opens the path for use in precise testing of nature's fundamental symmetries. The symmetric properties of a matter particle and its mirror antimatter particle seem to be well established. Interactions operate on matter particles and antimatter particles as well. Conservation of matter parallels addition operating on positive and negative numbers. Without antimatter particles, interactions of the Standard Model (electromagnetism, strong interaction and weak interaction) cannot have the structure of group. Antimatter particles are characterized by negative baryonic number A or/and negative leptonic number L. Materialization and annihilation obey conservation of A and L (associated to all known interactions), explaining why from pure energy (A = 0, L = 0) one can only obtain a pair of matter particle antimatter particle — electron antielectron, proton and antiproton — via materialization where the mass of a pair of particle antiparticle gives back to pure energy with annihilation. These two mechanisms cannot change the difference in the number of matter particles and antimatter particles. Thus from pure energy only a perfectly symmetric (in number) universe could be generated as proposed by Dirac but observation showed that our universe is not symmetric, it is a matter universe which is nevertheless neutral. Fall of reflection symmetries shattered the prejudice that there is no way to define in an absolute way right and left or matter and antimatter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maeda, Hiroko; Kawai, Takeshi; Kanasaki, Yoshiki; Akagi, Hiroaki
1981-01-01
This report is studied on CT number and CT images of the eight cases with fatty liver. Five of these cases showed the reversal of densities of the liver and vessels. In these cases, the diagnoses of the fatty liver were easible. In other cases, the diagnoses were possible only by comparison of the CT number of the liver and spleen because the CT number of normal liver were higher than those of the spleen. In the results which we examined the correlation of the CT number and specific gravities of the blood, normal saline, distilled water, mayonnaise, eatable iol, ethyl alcohol and lard, we observed the linear relationship between CT number and specific gravities. And so, we think that the diagnosis of the fatty liver and the degree of fatty infiltration can be guessed by the CT number of the liver and spleen. (author)
Relativistic theory of tidal Love numbers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Binnington, Taylor; Poisson, Eric
2009-01-01
In Newtonian gravitational theory, a tidal Love number relates the mass multipole moment created by tidal forces on a spherical body to the applied tidal field. The Love number is dimensionless, and it encodes information about the body's internal structure. We present a relativistic theory of Love numbers, which applies to compact bodies with strong internal gravities; the theory extends and completes a recent work by Flanagan and Hinderer, which revealed that the tidal Love number of a neutron star can be measured by Earth-based gravitational-wave detectors. We consider a spherical body deformed by an external tidal field, and provide precise and meaningful definitions for electric-type and magnetic-type Love numbers; and these are computed for polytropic equations of state. The theory applies to black holes as well, and we find that the relativistic Love numbers of a nonrotating black hole are all zero.
Samuel, Pierre
2008-01-01
Algebraic number theory introduces students not only to new algebraic notions but also to related concepts: groups, rings, fields, ideals, quotient rings and quotient fields, homomorphisms and isomorphisms, modules, and vector spaces. Author Pierre Samuel notes that students benefit from their studies of algebraic number theory by encountering many concepts fundamental to other branches of mathematics - algebraic geometry, in particular.This book assumes a knowledge of basic algebra but supplements its teachings with brief, clear explanations of integrality, algebraic extensions of fields, Gal
CONFUSION WITH TELEPHONE NUMBERS
Telecom Service
2002-01-01
he area code is now required for all telephone calls within Switzerland. Unfortunately this is causing some confusion. CERN has received complaints that incoming calls intended for CERN mobile phones are being directed to private subscribers. This is caused by mistakenly dialing the WRONG code (e.g. 022) in front of the mobile number. In order to avoid these problems, please inform your correspondents that the correct numbers are: 079 201 XXXX from Switzerland; 0041 79 201 XXXX from other countries. Telecom Service
On the nullity number of graphs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mustapha Aouchiche
2017-10-01
Full Text Available The paper discusses bounds on the nullity number of graphs. It is proved in [B. Cheng and B. Liu, On the nullity of graphs. Electron. J. Linear Algebra 16 (2007 60--67] that $\\eta \\le n - D$, where $\\eta$, n and D denote the nullity number, the order and the diameter of a connected graph, respectively. We first give a necessary condition on the extremal graphs corresponding to that bound, and then we strengthen the bound itself using the maximum clique number. In addition, we prove bounds on the nullity using the number of pendant neighbors in a graph. One of those bounds is an improvement of a known bound involving the domination number.
14821AT LANCE, Missile Number 2419, Round Number 349APT, 12 May 1980.
1980-05-01
WSTRUCTIONUREPOT DCUMNTAIONPAG EPORE COMPLEMON PORN REPORT NUMBER 2GOTACCESSION NO S. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER TDR 1148 __7 0_____T___ ~. *.~----...,S. TYPE OF...Data at 0815 MDT ---------- 4 4. White Sands Desert Site (WSD) Significant Level Data at 0815 MDT ------------------------------------ 5 5. WSD Upper...humidity, dew point (0 C), density (gm/n,3), Wind direction and speed, and cloud cover were made at the LC-39 Met Site at T-0 minutes. (2) Monitor of
From Natural Numbers to Numbers and Curves in Nature - II
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
line grows from C towards both left and right. Suppose ... Let there be n steps of growth to the left, and n-l to the right. Then n .... right-hand spirals is 8 and that of left-hand .... [4] I Stewart, Nature's Numbers - Discovering Order and Pattern in the.
Additive theory of prime numbers
Hua, L K
2009-01-01
Loo-Keng Hua was a master mathematician, best known for his work using analytic methods in number theory. In particular, Hua is remembered for his contributions to Waring's Problem and his estimates of trigonometric sums. Additive Theory of Prime Numbers is an exposition of the classic methods as well as Hua's own techniques, many of which have now also become classic. An essential starting point is Vinogradov's mean-value theorem for trigonometric sums, which Hua usefully rephrases and improves. Hua states a generalized version of the Waring-Goldbach problem and gives asymptotic formulas for the number of solutions in Waring's Problem when the monomial x^k is replaced by an arbitrary polynomial of degree k. The book is an excellent entry point for readers interested in additive number theory. It will also be of value to those interested in the development of the now classic methods of the subject.
49 CFR 230.47 - Boiler number.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boiler number. 230.47 Section 230.47..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.47 Boiler number. (a) Generally. The builder's number of the boiler, if known, shall...
Muroi, Kazuo
2014-01-01
In the middle of the third millennium BC the Sumerians must have noticed that the reciprocal of the number 7,in contrast to the numbers 1,2,3,4,5,and 6,could not be expressed by a finite sexagesimal fraction but it recurred every three places.Since the number 7 is the first natural number that has such a property, it was of particular interest to them and became the representative of their number mysticism.
International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)
Operating a Demographic Surveillance System (DSS) like this one requires a blend of high-tech number-crunching ability and .... views follow a standardized format that takes several ... general levels of health and to the use of health services.
CONFUSION WITH TELEPHONE NUMBERS
Telecom Service
2002-01-01
The area code is now required for all telephone calls within Switzerland. Unfortunately this is causing some confusion. CERN has received complaints that incoming calls intended for CERN mobile phones are being directed to private subscribers. This is caused by mistakenly dialing the WRONG code (e.g. 022) in front of the mobile number. In order to avoid these problems, please inform your correspondents that the correct numbers are: 079 201 XXXX from Switzerland; 0041 79 201 XXXX from other countries. Telecom Service
Number to finger mapping is topological.
Plaisier, M.A.; Smeets, J.B.J.
2011-01-01
It has been shown that humans associate fingers with numbers because finger counting strategies interact with numerical judgements. At the same time, there is evidence that there is a relation between number magnitude and space as small to large numbers seem to be represented from left to right. In
Ramsey numbers and adiabatic quantum computing.
Gaitan, Frank; Clark, Lane
2012-01-06
The graph-theoretic Ramsey numbers are notoriously difficult to calculate. In fact, for the two-color Ramsey numbers R(m,n) with m, n≥3, only nine are currently known. We present a quantum algorithm for the computation of the Ramsey numbers R(m,n). We show how the computation of R(m,n) can be mapped to a combinatorial optimization problem whose solution can be found using adiabatic quantum evolution. We numerically simulate this adiabatic quantum algorithm and show that it correctly determines the Ramsey numbers R(3,3) and R(2,s) for 5≤s≤7. We then discuss the algorithm's experimental implementation, and close by showing that Ramsey number computation belongs to the quantum complexity class quantum Merlin Arthur.
46 CFR Sec. 2 - Voyage numbers.
2010-10-01
... voyage No. 1 having the prefixed designation NSA and followed by the General Agents' abbreviated designation and voyage number, as NSA-1/ABC-1. (b) The continuity of NSA voyage numbers shall not change with... General Agent shall affix his abbreviated designation and initial voyage numbers, as NSA-13/XYZ-1. ...
Classical theory of algebraic numbers
Ribenboim, Paulo
2001-01-01
Gauss created the theory of binary quadratic forms in "Disquisitiones Arithmeticae" and Kummer invented ideals and the theory of cyclotomic fields in his attempt to prove Fermat's Last Theorem These were the starting points for the theory of algebraic numbers, developed in the classical papers of Dedekind, Dirichlet, Eisenstein, Hermite and many others This theory, enriched with more recent contributions, is of basic importance in the study of diophantine equations and arithmetic algebraic geometry, including methods in cryptography This book has a clear and thorough exposition of the classical theory of algebraic numbers, and contains a large number of exercises as well as worked out numerical examples The Introduction is a recapitulation of results about principal ideal domains, unique factorization domains and commutative fields Part One is devoted to residue classes and quadratic residues In Part Two one finds the study of algebraic integers, ideals, units, class numbers, the theory of decomposition, iner...
An introduction to Catalan numbers
Roman, Steven
2015-01-01
This textbook provides an introduction to the Catalan numbers and their remarkable properties, along with their various applications in combinatorics. Intended to be accessible to students new to the subject, the book begins with more elementary topics before progressing to more mathematically sophisticated topics. Each chapter focuses on a specific combinatorial object counted by these numbers, including paths, trees, tilings of a staircase, null sums in Zn+1, interval structures, partitions, permutations, semiorders, and more. Exercises are included at the end of book, along with hints and solutions, to help students obtain a better grasp of the material. The text is ideal for undergraduate students studying combinatorics, but will also appeal to anyone with a mathematical background who has an interest in learning about the Catalan numbers. “Roman does an admirable job of providing an introduction to Catalan numbers of a different nature from the previous ones. He has made an excellent choice o...
Thermal convection for large Prandtl numbers
Grossmann, Siegfried; Lohse, Detlef
2001-01-01
The Rayleigh-Bénard theory by Grossmann and Lohse [J. Fluid Mech. 407, 27 (2000)] is extended towards very large Prandtl numbers Pr. The Nusselt number Nu is found here to be independent of Pr. However, for fixed Rayleigh numbers Ra a maximum in the Nu(Pr) dependence is predicted. We moreover offer
Gunderson, Elizabeth A; Levine, Susan C
2011-09-01
Before they enter preschool, children vary greatly in their numerical and mathematical knowledge, and this knowledge predicts their achievement throughout elementary school (e.g. Duncan et al., 2007; Ginsburg & Russell, 1981). Therefore, it is critical that we look to the home environment for parental inputs that may lead to these early variations. Recent work has shown that the amount of number talk that parents engage in with their children is robustly related to a critical aspect of mathematical development - cardinal-number knowledge (e.g. knowing that the word 'three' refers to sets of three entities; Levine, Suriyakham, Rowe, Huttenlocher & Gunderson, 2010). The present study characterizes the different types of number talk that parents produce and investigates which types are most predictive of children's later cardinal-number knowledge. We find that parents' number talk involving counting or labeling sets of present, visible objects is related to children's later cardinal-number knowledge, whereas other types of parent number talk are not. In addition, number talk that refers to large sets of present objects (i.e. sets of size 4 to 10 that fall outside children's ability to track individual objects) is more robustly predictive of children's later cardinal-number knowledge than talk about smaller sets. The relation between parents' number talk about large sets of present objects and children's cardinal-number knowledge remains significant even when controlling for factors such as parents' socioeconomic status and other measures of parents' number and non-number talk. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
The prime numbers and their distribution
Tenenbaum, Gerald
2000-01-01
One notable new direction this century in the study of primes has been the influx of ideas from probability. The goal of this book is to provide insights into the prime numbers and to describe how a sequence so tautly determined can incorporate such a striking amount of randomness. The book opens with some classic topics of number theory. It ends with a discussion of some of the outstanding conjectures in number theory. In between are an excellent chapter on the stochastic properties of primes and a walk through an elementary proof of the Prime Number Theorem. This book is suitable for anyone who has had a little number theory and some advanced calculus involving estimates. Its engaging style and invigorating point of view will make refreshing reading for advanced undergraduates through research mathematicians.
Gallistel, C R
2017-02-19
After listing functional constraints on what numbers in the brain must do, I sketch the two's complement fixed-point representation of numbers because it has stood the test of time and because it illustrates the non-obvious ways in which an effective coding scheme may operate. I briefly consider its neurobiological implementation. It is easier to imagine its implementation at the cell-intrinsic molecular level, with thermodynamically stable, volumetrically minimal polynucleotides encoding the remembered numbers, than at the circuit level, with plastic synapses encoding them.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'The origins of numerical abilities'. © 2017 The Author(s).
Fundamental number theory with applications
Mollin, Richard A
2008-01-01
An update of the most accessible introductory number theory text available, Fundamental Number Theory with Applications, Second Edition presents a mathematically rigorous yet easy-to-follow treatment of the fundamentals and applications of the subject. The substantial amount of reorganizing makes this edition clearer and more elementary in its coverage. New to the Second Edition Removal of all advanced material to be even more accessible in scope New fundamental material, including partition theory, generating functions, and combinatorial number theory Expa
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oli Brown
2008-10-01
Full Text Available Estimates of the potential number of ‘climate changemigrants’ vary hugely. In order to persuade policymakers ofthe need to act and to provide a sound basis for appropriateresponses, there is an urgent need for better analysis, betterdata and better predictions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1994-01-01
The key numbers of energy give statistical data related to production, consumption, and to foreign trade of each energy in the World and in France. A chapter is dedicated to environment and brings quantitative elements on pollutant emissions connected to energy uses
Three Identities of the Catalan-Qi Numbers
Mansour Mahmoud; Feng Qi
2016-01-01
In the paper, the authors find three new identities of the Catalan-Qi numbers and provide alternative proofs of two identities of the Catalan numbers. The three identities of the Catalan-Qi numbers generalize three identities of the Catalan numbers.
Investigating the Randomness of Numbers
Pendleton, Kenn L.
2009-01-01
The use of random numbers is pervasive in today's world. Random numbers have practical applications in such far-flung arenas as computer simulations, cryptography, gambling, the legal system, statistical sampling, and even the war on terrorism. Evaluating the randomness of extremely large samples is a complex, intricate process. However, the…
Ore, Oystein
1988-01-01
A prominent mathematician presents the principal ideas and methods of number theory within a historical and cultural framework. Oystein Ore's fascinating, accessible treatment requires only a basic knowledge of algebra. Topics include prime numbers, the Aliquot parts, linear indeterminate problems, congruences, Euler's theorem, classical construction problems, and many other subjects.
Savaaksrat Kisitchisit (Numbers 1-10).
Pulu, Tupou L.; And Others
This first grade workbook is designed for children in bilingual Inupiat-English programs in the Alaskan villages of Ambler, Kiana, Kobuk, Noorvik, Selawik, and Shungnak. Each page has a particular number, a corresponding picture with an appropriate caption, and lines for the child to use in writing the number. (CFM)
20 CFR 404.1220 - Identification numbers.
2010-04-01
.... The special number will also be assigned to an interstate instrumentality if pre-1987 coverage is obtained and SSA will send a Form SSA-214-CD to the interstate instrumentality to notify it of the number.... SSA will send the State a Form SSA-214-CD, “Notice of Identifying Number,” to inform the State of the...
Three Identities of the Catalan-Qi Numbers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mansour Mahmoud
2016-05-01
Full Text Available In the paper, the authors find three new identities of the Catalan-Qi numbers and provide alternative proofs of two identities of the Catalan numbers. The three identities of the Catalan-Qi numbers generalize three identities of the Catalan numbers.
Role of Turbulent Prandtl Number on Heat Flux at Hypersonic Mach Number
Xiao, X.; Edwards, J. R.; Hassan, H. A.
2004-01-01
Present simulation of turbulent flows involving shock wave/boundary layer interaction invariably overestimates heat flux by almost a factor of two. One possible reason for such a performance is a result of the fact that the turbulence models employed make use of Morkovin's hypothesis. This hypothesis is valid for non-hypersonic Mach numbers and moderate rates of heat transfer. At hypersonic Mach numbers, high rates of heat transfer exist in regions where shock wave/boundary layer interactions are important. As a result, one should not expect traditional turbulence models to yield accurate results. The goal of this investigation is to explore the role of a variable Prandtl number formulation in predicting heat flux in flows dominated by strong shock wave/boundary layer interactions. The intended applications involve external flows in the absence of combustion such as those encountered in supersonic inlets. This can be achieved by adding equations for the temperature variance and its dissipation rate. Such equations can be derived from the exact Navier-Stokes equations. Traditionally, modeled equations are based on the low speed energy equation where the pressure gradient term and the term responsible for energy dissipation are ignored. It is clear that such assumptions are not valid for hypersonic flows. The approach used here is based on the procedure used in deriving the k-zeta model, in which the exact equations that governed k, the variance of velocity, and zeta, the variance of vorticity, were derived and modeled. For the variable turbulent Prandtl number, the exact equations that govern the temperature variance and its dissipation rate are derived and modeled term by term. The resulting set of equations are free of damping and wall functions and are coordinate-system independent. Moreover, modeled correlations are tensorially consistent and invariant under Galilean transformation. The final set of equations will be given in the paper.
Asymptotic numbers, asymptotic functions and distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Todorov, T.D.
1979-07-01
The asymptotic functions are a new type of generalized functions. But they are not functionals on some space of test-functions as the distributions of Schwartz. They are mappings of the set denoted by A into A, where A is the set of the asymptotic numbers introduced by Christov. On its part A is a totally-ordered set of generalized numbers including the system of real numbers R as well as infinitesimals and infinitely large numbers. Every two asymptotic functions can be multiplied. On the other hand, the distributions have realizations as asymptotic functions in a certain sense. (author)
Fractions, Number Lines, Third Graders
Cramer, Kathleen; Ahrendt, Sue; Monson, Debra; Wyberg, Terry; Colum, Karen
2017-01-01
The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) (CCSSI 2010) outlines ambitious goals for fraction learning, starting in third grade, that include the use of the number line model. Understanding and constructing fractions on a number line are particularly complex tasks. The current work of the authors centers on ways to successfully…
Limits on hypothesizing new quantum numbers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goldstein, G.R.; Moravcsik, M.J.
1986-01-01
According to a recent theorem, for a general quantum-mechanical system undergoing a process, one can tell from measurements on this system whether or not it is characterized by a quantum number, the existence of which is unknown to the observer, even though the detecting equipment used by the observer is unable to distinguish among the various possible values of the ''secret'' quantum number and hence always averages over them. The present paper deals with situations in which this averaging is avoided and hence the ''secret'' quantum number remains ''secret.'' This occurs when a new quantum number is hypothesized in such a way that all the past measurements pertain to the system with one and the same value of the ''secret'' quantum number, or when the new quantum number is related to the old ones by a specific dynamical model providing a one-to-one correspondence. In the first of these cases, however, the one and the same state of the ''secret'' quantum number needs to be a nondegenerate one. If it is degenerate, the theorem can again be applied. This last feature provides a tool for experimentally testing symmetry breaking and the reestablishment of symmetries in asymptotic regions. The situation is illustrated on historical examples like isospin and strangeness, as well as on some contemporary schemes involving spaces of higher dimensionality
Libertus, Melissa E.; Odic, Darko; Feigenson, Lisa; Halberda, Justin
2016-01-01
Children can represent number in at least two ways: by using their non-verbal, intuitive Approximate Number System (ANS), and by using words and symbols to count and represent numbers exactly. Further, by the time they are five years old, children can map between the ANS and number words, as evidenced by their ability to verbally estimate numbers of items without counting. How does the quality of the mapping between approximate and exact numbers relate to children’s math abilities? The role of the ANS-number word mapping in math competence remains controversial for at least two reasons. First, previous work has not examined the relation between verbal estimation and distinct subtypes of math abilities. Second, previous work has not addressed how distinct components of verbal estimation – mapping accuracy and variability – might each relate to math performance. Here, we address these gaps by measuring individual differences in ANS precision, verbal number estimation, and formal and informal math abilities in 5- to 7-year-old children. We found that verbal estimation variability, but not estimation accuracy, predicted formal math abilities even when controlling for age, expressive vocabulary, and ANS precision, and that it mediated the link between ANS precision and overall math ability. These findings suggest that variability in the ANS-number word mapping may be especially important for formal math abilities. PMID:27348475
19 CFR 24.5 - Filing identification number.
2010-04-01
... TREASURY CUSTOMS FINANCIAL AND ACCOUNTING PROCEDURE § 24.5 Filing identification number. (a) Generally..., the Social Security number. (2) If neither an Internal Revenue Service employer identification number nor a Social Security number has been assigned, the word “None” shall be written on the line provided...
The Algebra of Complex Numbers.
LePage, Wilbur R.
This programed text is an introduction to the algebra of complex numbers for engineering students, particularly because of its relevance to important problems of applications in electrical engineering. It is designed for a person who is well experienced with the algebra of real numbers and calculus, but who has no experience with complex number…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brekke, L.; Freund, P.G.O.
1993-01-01
The boundary of the ordinary open string world sheet is the real line. Along with the usual open string, one can consider p-adic open strings whose world sheet has as boundary the p-adic line instead (the points on this boundary are labelled by p-adic numbers rather than real numbers). The world sheet itself is then no longer a continuous manifold but becomes a discrete homogeneous Bethe lattice, or Bruhat-Tits tree of incidence number p + 1. The p-adic strings thus correspond to specific discretizations of the world sheet. Studying all these discretizations (one for each prime p) together, as suggested by number theory, sheds new light on the ordinary string, via adelic product formulae. One is also led this way to a new type of string, the adelic string. These issues and their generalization to closed strings are discussed after a self-contained mathematical introduction. Other physical systems with natural p-adic counterparts are considered and in their context the connection between p-adic theories and quantum groups is explored. (orig.)
Strouhal number for free swimming
Saadat, Mehdi; van Buren, Tyler; Floryan, Daniel; Smits, Alexander; Haj-Hariri, Hossein
2015-11-01
In this work, we present experimental results to explore the implications of free swimming for Strouhal number (as an outcome) in the context of a simple model for a fish that consists of a 2D virtual body (source of drag) and a 2D pitching foil (source of thrust) representing cruising with thunniform locomotion. The results validate the findings of Saadat and Haj-Hariri (2012): for pitching foils thrust coefficient is a function of Strouhal number for all gaits having amplitude less than a certain critical value. Equivalently, given the balance of thrust and drag forces at cruise, Strouhal number is only a function of the shape, i.e. drag coefficient and area, and essentially a constant for high enough swimming speeds for which the mild dependence of drag coefficient on the speed vanishes. Furthermore, a dimensional analysis generalizes the findings. A scaling analysis shows that the variation of Strouhal number with cruising speed is functionally related to the variation of body drag coefficient with speed. Supported by ONR MURI Grant N00014-14-1-0533.
Large number discrimination in newborn fish.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Laura Piffer
Full Text Available Quantitative abilities have been reported in a wide range of species, including fish. Recent studies have shown that adult guppies (Poecilia reticulata can spontaneously select the larger number of conspecifics. In particular the evidence collected in literature suggest the existence of two distinct systems of number representation: a precise system up to 4 units, and an approximate system for larger numbers. Spontaneous numerical abilities, however, seem to be limited to 4 units at birth and it is currently unclear whether or not the large number system is absent during the first days of life. In the present study, we investigated whether newborn guppies can be trained to discriminate between large quantities. Subjects were required to discriminate between groups of dots with a 0.50 ratio (e.g., 7 vs. 14 in order to obtain a food reward. To dissociate the roles of number and continuous quantities that co-vary with numerical information (such as cumulative surface area, space and density, three different experiments were set up: in Exp. 1 number and continuous quantities were simultaneously available. In Exp. 2 we controlled for continuous quantities and only numerical information was available; in Exp. 3 numerical information was made irrelevant and only continuous quantities were available. Subjects successfully solved the tasks in Exp. 1 and 2, providing the first evidence of large number discrimination in newborn fish. No discrimination was found in experiment 3, meaning that number acuity is better than spatial acuity. A comparison with the onset of numerical abilities observed in shoal-choice tests suggests that training procedures can promote the development of numerical abilities in guppies.
Wetherell, Chris
2017-01-01
This is an edited extract from the keynote address given by Dr. Chris Wetherell at the 26th Biennial Conference of the Australian Association of Mathematics Teachers Inc. The author investigates the surprisingly rich structure that exists within a simple arrangement of numbers: the times tables.
Observing Optional Number in DDC Edition 23
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rotmianto Mohamad
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Dewey Decimal Classification is a most popular classification system in the world because of its completeness and most up-to-date. There are many optional number in this classification system, although it rarely to be discussed even it is important to known well about that optional number, especially for a librarian as classifier. This paper is a literature study about Dewey Decimal Classification Edition 23, to describe about optional numbers, particularly the number in relationship with Indonesia’s subject and discipline. This paper is to avoid misunderstanding in interpreted about optional number among librarians, especially for who that does not understand well about optional numbers.
Visuospatial Priming of the Mental Number Line
Stoianov, Ivilin; Kramer, Peter; Umilta, Carlo; Zorzi, Marco
2008-01-01
It has been argued that numbers are spatially organized along a "mental number line" that facilitates left-hand responses to small numbers, and right-hand responses to large numbers. We hypothesized that whenever the representations of visual and numerical space are concurrently activated, interactions can occur between them, before response…
Analysis of android random number generator
Sarıtaş, Serkan
2013-01-01
Ankara : The Department of Computer Engineering and the Graduate School of Engineering and Science of Bilkent University, 2013. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2013. Includes bibliographical references leaves 61-65. Randomness is a crucial resource for cryptography, and random number generators are critical building blocks of almost all cryptographic systems. Therefore, random number generation is one of the key parts of secure communication. Random number generatio...
Random walk of the baryon number
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kazaryan, A.M.; Khlebnikov, S.Y.; Shaposhnikov, M.E.
1989-01-01
A new approach is suggested for the anomalous nonconservation of baryon number in the electroweak theory at high temperatures. Arguments are presented in support of the idea that the baryon-number changing reactions may be viewed as random Markov processes. Making use of the general theory of Markov processes, the Fokker--Planck equation for the baryon-number distribution density is obtained and kinetic coefficients are calculated
On the binary expansions of algebraic numbers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.; Crandall, Richard E.; Pomerance, Carl
2003-07-01
Employing concepts from additive number theory, together with results on binary evaluations and partial series, we establish bounds on the density of 1's in the binary expansions of real algebraic numbers. A central result is that if a real y has algebraic degree D > 1, then the number {number_sign}(|y|, N) of 1-bits in the expansion of |y| through bit position N satisfies {number_sign}(|y|, N) > CN{sup 1/D} for a positive number C (depending on y) and sufficiently large N. This in itself establishes the transcendency of a class of reals {summation}{sub n{ge}0} 1/2{sup f(n)} where the integer-valued function f grows sufficiently fast; say, faster than any fixed power of n. By these methods we re-establish the transcendency of the Kempner--Mahler number {summation}{sub n{ge}0}1/2{sup 2{sup n}}, yet we can also handle numbers with a substantially denser occurrence of 1's. Though the number z = {summation}{sub n{ge}0}1/2{sup n{sup 2}} has too high a 1's density for application of our central result, we are able to invoke some rather intricate number-theoretical analysis and extended computations to reveal aspects of the binary structure of z{sup 2}.
Interaction of Number Magnitude and Auditory Localization.
Golob, Edward J; Lewald, Jörg; Jungilligens, Johannes; Getzmann, Stephan
2016-01-01
The interplay of perception and memory is very evident when we perceive and then recognize familiar stimuli. Conversely, information in long-term memory may also influence how a stimulus is perceived. Prior work on number cognition in the visual modality has shown that in Western number systems long-term memory for the magnitude of smaller numbers can influence performance involving the left side of space, while larger numbers have an influence toward the right. Here, we investigated in the auditory modality whether a related effect may bias the perception of sound location. Subjects (n = 28) used a swivel pointer to localize noise bursts presented from various azimuth positions. The noise bursts were preceded by a spoken number (1-9) or, as a nonsemantic control condition, numbers that were played in reverse. The relative constant error in noise localization (forward minus reversed speech) indicated a systematic shift in localization toward more central locations when the number was smaller and toward more peripheral positions when the preceding number magnitude was larger. These findings do not support the traditional left-right number mapping. Instead, the results may reflect an overlap between codes for number magnitude and codes for sound location as implemented by two channel models of sound localization, or possibly a categorical mapping stage of small versus large magnitudes. © The Author(s) 2015.
On domination multisubdivision number of unicyclic graphs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joanna Raczek
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The paper continues the interesting study of the domination subdivision number and the domination multisubdivision number. On the basis of the constructive characterization of the trees with the domination subdivision number equal to 3 given in [H. Aram, S.M. Sheikholeslami, O. Favaron, Domination subdivision number of trees, Discrete Math. 309 (2009, 622-628], we constructively characterize all connected unicyclic graphs with the domination multisubdivision number equal to 3. We end with further questions and open problems.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Typical Complexity Numbers. Say. 1000 tones,; 100 Users,; Transmission every 10 msec. Full Crosstalk cancellation would require. Full cancellation requires a matrix multiplication of order 100*100 for all the tones. 1000*100*100*100 operations every second for the ...
Some relations between entropy and approximation numbers
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
郑志明
1999-01-01
A general result is obtained which relates the entropy numbers of compact maps on Hilbert space to its approximation numbers. Compared with previous works in this area, it is particularly convenient for dealing with the cases where the approximation numbers decay rapidly. A nice estimation between entropy and approximation numbers for noncompact maps is given.
Andreescu, Titu
2014-01-01
It is impossible to imagine modern mathematics without complex numbers. The second edition of Complex Numbers from A to … Z introduces the reader to this fascinating subject that, from the time of L. Euler, has become one of the most utilized ideas in mathematics. The exposition concentrates on key concepts and then elementary results concerning these numbers. The reader learns how complex numbers can be used to solve algebraic equations and to understand the geometric interpretation of complex numbers and the operations involving them. The theoretical parts of the book are augmented with rich exercises and problems at various levels of difficulty. Many new problems and solutions have been added in this second edition. A special feature of the book is the last chapter, a selection of outstanding Olympiad and other important mathematical contest problems solved by employing the methods already presented. The book reflects the unique experience of the authors. It distills a vast mathematical literature, most ...
Topics from the theory of numbers
Grosswald, Emil
1984-01-01
Many of the important and creative developments in modern mathematics resulted from attempts to solve questions that originate in number theory. The publication of Emil Grosswald’s classic text presents an illuminating introduction to number theory. Combining the historical developments with the analytical approach, Topics from the Theory of Numbers offers the reader a diverse range of subjects to investigate, including: * divisibility * congruences * the Riemann zeta function * Diophantine equations and Fermat’s conjecture * the theory of partitions Comprehensive in nature, Topics from the Theory of Numbers is an ideal text for advanced undergraduates and graduate students alike. "In my opinion it is excellent. It is carefully written and represents clearly a work of a scholar who loves and understands his subject. One can only wish more authors would take such pains and would be as good and honest expositors as Grosswald." — Marc Kac "This book is designed for use in a first course in number theory at...
Relativistic theory of surficial Love numbers
Landry, Philippe; Poisson, Eric
2014-06-01
A relativistic theory of surficial Love numbers, which characterize the surface deformation of a body subjected to tidal forces, was initiated by Damour and Nagar. We revisit this effort in order to extend it, clarify some of its aspects, and simplify its computational implementation. First, we refine the definition of surficial Love numbers proposed by Damour and Nagar and formulate it directly in terms of the deformed curvature of the body's surface, a meaningful geometrical quantity. Second, we develop a unified theory of surficial Love numbers that applies equally well to material bodies and black holes. Third, we derive a compactness-dependent relation between the surficial and (electric-type) gravitational Love numbers of a perfect-fluid body and show that it reduces to the familiar Newtonian relation when the compactness is small. And fourth, we simplify the tasks associated with the practical computation of the surficial and gravitational Love numbers for a material body.
What Do Numbers Do in Transnational Governance?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krause Hansen, Hans; Porter, Tony
2012-01-01
processes. Numbers have properties that differ from words, and shifts from one to the other in governance, for instance in the displacement of laws or norms with risk models or rankings based on numbers, have particular effects, including political effects on states, firms, individuals, and other actors......This study examines how numbers in transnational governance constitute actors, objects, and relationships, including relationships of power. We review the existing literatures on numbers for insights relevant to their role in transnational governance, including the ontology of numbers, the history...
Core Knowledge, Language, and Number
Spelke, Elizabeth S.
2017-01-01
The natural numbers may be our simplest, most useful, and best-studied abstract concepts, but their origins are debated. I consider this debate in the context of the proposal, by Gallistel and Gelman, that natural number system is a product of cognitive evolution and the proposal, by Carey, that it is a product of human cultural history. I offer a…
On Counting the Rational Numbers
Almada, Carlos
2010-01-01
In this study, we show how to construct a function from the set N of natural numbers that explicitly counts the set Q[superscript +] of all positive rational numbers using a very intuitive approach. The function has the appeal of Cantor's function and it has the advantage that any high school student can understand the main idea at a glance…
Numbers for reducible cubic scrolls
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Israel Vainsencher
2004-12-01
Full Text Available We show how to compute the number of reducible cubic scrolls of codimension 2 in (math blackboard symbol Pn incident to the appropriate number of linear spaces.Mostramos como calcular o número de rolos cúbicos redutíveis de codimensão 2 em (math blackboard symbol Pn incidentes a espaços lineares apropriados.
Istiningrum, Reni Banowati; Saepuloh, Azis; Jannah, Wirdatul; Aji, Didit Waskito
2017-03-01
Yogyakarta is one of patchouli oil distillation center in Indonesia. The quality of patchouli oil greatly affect its market price. Therefore, testing quality of patchouli oil parameters is an important concern, one through determination of the measurement uncertainty. This study will determine the measurement uncertainty of ester number, acid number and content of patchouli alcohol through a bottom up approach. Source contributor to measurement uncertainty of ester number is a mass of the sample, a blank and sample titration volume, the molar mass of KOH, HCl normality, and replication. While the source contributor of the measurement uncertainty of acid number is the mass of the sample, the sample titration volume, the relative mass and normality of KOH, and repetition. Determination of patchouli alcohol by Gas Chromatography considers the sources of measurement uncertainty only from repeatability because reference materials are not available.
THE DISCOUNTED REPRODUCTIVE NUMBER FOR EPIDEMIOLOGY
Reluga, Timothy C.; Medlock, Jan; Galvani, Alison
2009-01-01
The basic reproductive number, , and the effective reproductive number, , are commonly used in mathematical epidemiology as summary statistics for the size and controllability of epidemics. However, these commonly used reproductive numbers can be misleading when applied to predict pathogen evolution because they do not incorporate the impact of the timing of events in the life-history cycle of the pathogen. To study evolution problems where the host population size is changing, measur...
Trudgian, Timothy
2009-01-01
One of the difficulties in any teaching of mathematics is to bridge the divide between the abstract and the intuitive. Throughout school one encounters increasingly abstract notions, which are more and more difficult to relate to everyday experiences. This article examines a familiar approach to thinking about negative numbers, that is an…
Random numbers from vacuum fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shi, Yicheng; Kurtsiefer, Christian; Chng, Brenda
2016-01-01
We implement a quantum random number generator based on a balanced homodyne measurement of vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. The digitized signal is directly processed with a fast randomness extraction scheme based on a linear feedback shift register. The random bit stream is continuously read in a computer at a rate of about 480 Mbit/s and passes an extended test suite for random numbers.
Random numbers from vacuum fluctuations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shi, Yicheng; Kurtsiefer, Christian, E-mail: christian.kurtsiefer@gmail.com [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Center for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Chng, Brenda [Center for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543 (Singapore)
2016-07-25
We implement a quantum random number generator based on a balanced homodyne measurement of vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. The digitized signal is directly processed with a fast randomness extraction scheme based on a linear feedback shift register. The random bit stream is continuously read in a computer at a rate of about 480 Mbit/s and passes an extended test suite for random numbers.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Falcon, Sergio; Plaza, Angel
2007-01-01
We introduce a general Fibonacci sequence that generalizes, between others, both the classic Fibonacci sequence and the Pell sequence. These general kth Fibonacci numbers {F k,n } n=0 ∼ were found by studying the recursive application of two geometrical transformations used in the well-known four-triangle longest-edge (4TLE) partition. Many properties of these numbers are deduce directly from elementary matrix algebra
Universal dependence of the total number albedo of photons on the mean number of photon scatterings
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ljubenov Vladan L.
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research on photon reflection from plane targets based on Monte Carlo simulations performed by the MCNP code. Five materials (water, concrete, aluminum, iron, and copper are examined in the area of initial photon energies of up to 200 keV. The values of the total number albedo for photons dependent on the initial photon energy or the mean number of photon scatterings are calculated and graphically presented. We have shown that the values of the total number albedo for different target materials, expressed as a function of the mean number of photon scatterings, are in good agreement with each other and can be approximated by simple, universal analytic functions obtained by the least squares method. The accuracy of these analytic appoximations is confirmed by their comparison with the results of PENELOPE and FOTELP Monte Carlo codes.
Experimental determination of Ramsey numbers.
Bian, Zhengbing; Chudak, Fabian; Macready, William G; Clark, Lane; Gaitan, Frank
2013-09-27
Ramsey theory is a highly active research area in mathematics that studies the emergence of order in large disordered structures. Ramsey numbers mark the threshold at which order first appears and are extremely difficult to calculate due to their explosive rate of growth. Recently, an algorithm that can be implemented using adiabatic quantum evolution has been proposed that calculates the two-color Ramsey numbers R(m,n). Here we present results of an experimental implementation of this algorithm and show that it correctly determines the Ramsey numbers R(3,3) and R(m,2) for 4≤m≤8. The R(8,2) computation used 84 qubits of which 28 were computational qubits. This computation is the largest experimental implementation of a scientifically meaningful adiabatic evolution algorithm that has been done to date.
Number conserving approach in quasiparticle representation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oudih, M.R.; Fellah, M.; Allal, N.H.
2003-01-01
An exact number conserving approach is formulated in the quasiparticle representation to show the effect of the particle-number projection on the ground and the first 0+ excited states. It is applied to the two-level pairing model, which allows an exact solution and a comparison to other approaches. The present method has proved to be an advantageous alternative as compared to the BCS and to the usual methods used to restore the particle number symmetry. (author)
Application of quasi-random numbers for simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kazachenko, O.N.; Takhtamyshev, G.G.
1985-01-01
Application of the Monte-Carlo method for multidimensional integration is discussed. The main goal is to check the statement that the application of quasi-random numbers instead of regular pseudo-random numbers provides more rapid convergency. The Sobol, Richtmayer and Halton algorithms of quasi-random sequences are described. Over 50 tests to compare these quasi-random numbers as well as pseudo-random numbers were fulfilled. In all cases quasi-random numbers have clearly demonstrated a more rapid convergency as compared with pseudo-random ones. Positive test results on quasi-random trend in Monte-Carlo method seem very promising
Reynold-Number Effects on Near-Wall Turbulence
Mansour, N. N.; Kim, J.; Moser, R. D.; Rai, Man Mohan (Technical Monitor)
1995-01-01
The Reynolds stress budget in a full developed turbulent channel flow for three Reynolds numbers (Re = 180,395,590) are used to investigate the near wall scaling of various turbulence quantities. We find that as the Reynolds number increases, the extent of the region where the production of the kinetic energy is equal to the dissipation increases. At the highest Reynolds number the region of equilibrium extends from y+ - 120 to y+ = 240. As the Reynolds number increases, we find that wall scaling collapses the budgets for the streamwise fluctuating component, but the budgets for the other two components show Reynolds number dependency.
Observing Optional Number in DDC Edition 23
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohamad Rotmianto
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Dewey Decimal Classification is a most popular classification system in the world because of its completeness and most up-to-date. There are many optional number in this classification system, although it rarely to be discussed even it is important to known well about that optional number, especially for a librarian as classifier. This paper is a literature study about Dewey Decimal Classification Edition 23, to describe about optional numbers, particularly the number in relationship with Indonesia’s subject and discipline. This paper is to avoid misunderstanding in interpreted about optional number among librarians, especially for who that does not understand well about optional numbers.
Cortical areas involved in Arabic number reading.
Roux, F-E; Lubrano, V; Lauwers-Cances, V; Giussani, C; Démonet, J-F
2008-01-15
Distinct functional pathways for processing words and numbers have been hypothesized from the observation of dissociated impairments of these categories in brain-damaged patients. We aimed to identify the cortical areas involved in Arabic number reading process in patients operated on for various brain lesions. Direct cortical electrostimulation was prospectively used in 60 brain mappings. We used object naming and two reading tasks: alphabetic script (sentences and number words) and Arabic number reading. Cortical areas involved in Arabic number reading were identified according to location, type of interference, and distinctness from areas associated with other language tasks. Arabic number reading was sustained by small cortical areas, often extremely well localized (area (Brodmann area 45), the anterior part of the dominant supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann area 40; p area (Brodmann area 37; p areas.
Ghersi, Dario; Parakh, Abhishek; Mezei, Mihaly
2017-12-05
Four pseudorandom number generators were compared with a physical, quantum-based random number generator using the NIST suite of statistical tests, which only the quantum-based random number generator could successfully pass. We then measured the effect of the five random number generators on various calculated properties in different Markov-chain Monte Carlo simulations. Two types of systems were tested: conformational sampling of a small molecule in aqueous solution and liquid methanol under constant temperature and pressure. The results show that poor quality pseudorandom number generators produce results that deviate significantly from those obtained with the quantum-based random number generator, particularly in the case of the small molecule in aqueous solution setup. In contrast, the widely used Mersenne Twister pseudorandom generator and a 64-bit Linear Congruential Generator with a scrambler produce results that are statistically indistinguishable from those obtained with the quantum-based random number generator. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Distribution function of faint galaxy numbers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fesenko, L.M.
1981-01-01
The Lick observatory counts of galaxies are considered. The distribution of number of galaxies in elementary regions (ER) of 1 degx1 deg is investigated. Each field of 6 degx6 deg was treated separately At b>40 deg the probab+lity to observe of n galaxies in ER is an exponential decreasing function of n, if unequality n> were fulfilled. The mean apparent multiplicity of a galaxy (2.8+-0.9) was derived. The galaxy number distribution was simple model for the number of various systems of galaxies. The supperclustering of galaxies was not introduced. Based on that model the approximate expression for galaxy number distribution was considered and was compared with observed distributions. The agreement between these distributions become better with reducing of the interstellar absorption of light
Neocortical glial cell numbers in human brains.
Pelvig, D P; Pakkenberg, H; Stark, A K; Pakkenberg, B
2008-11-01
Stereological cell counting was applied to post-mortem neocortices of human brains from 31 normal individuals, age 18-93 years, 18 females (average age 65 years, range 18-93) and 13 males (average age 57 years, range 19-87). The cells were differentiated in astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia and neurons and counting were done in each of the four lobes. The study showed that the different subpopulations of glial cells behave differently as a function of age; the number of oligodendrocytes showed a significant 27% decrease over adult life and a strong correlation to the total number of neurons while the total astrocyte number is constant through life; finally males have a 28% higher number of neocortical glial cells and a 19% higher neocortical neuron number than females. The overall total number of neocortical neurons and glial cells was 49.3 billion in females and 65.2 billion in males, a difference of 24% with a high biological variance. These numbers can serve as reference values in quantitative studies of the human neocortex.
The b-chromatic number of power graphs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Brice Effantin
2003-06-01
Full Text Available The b-chromatic number of a graph G is defined as the maximum number k of colors that can be used to color the vertices of G, such that we obtain a proper coloring and each color i, with 1 ≤ i≤ k, has at least one representant x i adjacent to a vertex of every color j, 1 ≤ j ≠ i ≤ k. In this paper, we discuss the b-chromatic number of some power graphs. We give the exact value of the b-chromatic number of power paths and power complete binary trees, and we bound the b-chromatic number of power cycles.
Topological quantum numbers in nonrelativistic physics
Thouless, David James
1998-01-01
Topological quantum numbers are distinguished from quantum numbers based on symmetry because they are insensitive to the imperfections of the systems in which they are observed. They have become very important in precision measurements in recent years, and provide the best measurements of voltage and electrical resistance. This book describes the theory of such quantum numbers, starting with Dirac's argument for the quantization of electric charge, and continuing with discussions on the helium superfluids, flux quantization and the Josephson effect in superconductors, the quantum Hall effect,
Wire-number effects on high-power annular z-pinches and some characteristics at high wire number
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
SANFORD,THOMAS W. L.
2000-05-23
Characteristics of annular wire-array z-pinches as a function of wire number and at high wire number are reviewed. The data, taken primarily using aluminum wires on Saturn are comprehensive. The experiments have provided important insights into the features of wire-array dynamics critical for high x-ray power generation, and have initiated a renaissance in z-pinches when high numbers of wires are used. In this regime, for example, radiation environments characteristic of those encountered during the early pulses required for indirect-drive ICF ignition on the NIF have been produced in hohlraums driven by x-rays from a z-pinch, and are commented on here.
Wire-number effects on high-power annular z-pinches and some characteristics at high wire number
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
SANFORD, THOMAS W. L.
2000-01-01
Characteristics of annular wire-array z-pinches as a function of wire number and at high wire number are reviewed. The data, taken primarily using aluminum wires on Saturn are comprehensive. The experiments have provided important insights into the features of wire-array dynamics critical for high x-ray power generation, and have initiated a renaissance in z-pinches when high numbers of wires are used. In this regime, for example, radiation environments characteristic of those encountered during the early pulses required for indirect-drive ICF ignition on the NIF have been produced in hohlraums driven by x-rays from a z-pinch, and are commented on here
Altermatic number of categorical product of graphs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alishahi, Meysam; Hajiabolhassan, Hossein
2018-01-01
In this paper, we prove some relaxations of Hedetniemi's conjecture in terms of altermatic number and strong altermatic number of graphs, two combinatorial parameters introduced by the present authors Alishahi and Hajiabolhassan (2015) providing two sharp lower bounds for the chromatic number of ...
Graphing Powers and Roots of Complex Numbers.
Embse, Charles Vonder
1993-01-01
Using De Moivre's theorem and a parametric graphing utility, examines powers and roots of complex numbers and allows students to establish connections between the visual and numerical representations of complex numbers. Provides a program to numerically verify the roots of complex numbers. (MDH)
Neocortical glial cell numbers in human brains
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pelvig, D.P.; Pakkenberg, H.; Stark, A.K.
2008-01-01
Stereological cell counting was applied to post-mortem neocortices of human brains from 31 normal individuals, age 18-93 years, 18 females (average age 65 years, range 18-93) and 13 males (average age 57 years, range 19-87). The cells were differentiated in astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia...... while the total astrocyte number is constant through life; finally males have a 28% higher number of neocortical glial cells and a 19% higher neocortical neuron number than females. The overall total number of neocortical neurons and glial cells was 49.3 billion in females and 65.2 billion in males...... and neurons and counting were done in each of the four lobes. The study showed that the different subpopulations of glial cells behave differently as a function of age; the number of oligodendrocytes showed a significant 27% decrease over adult life and a strong correlation to the total number of neurons...
Nielsen number of a covering map
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jezierski Jerzy
2006-01-01
Full Text Available We consider a finite regular covering over a compact polyhedron and a map admitting a lift . We show some formulae expressing the Nielsen number as a linear combination of the Nielsen numbers of its lifts.
Some inequalities for the Bell numbers
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Feng Qi
2017-08-19
Aug 19, 2017 ... Bell number determinant; product; inequality; generating function; derivative; absolutely monotonic function; completely monotonic func- tion; logarithmically absolutely monotonic function; logarithmically completely monotonic function; Stirling number of the second kind; induction; Faà di Bruno formula;.
49 CFR 229.105 - Steam generator number.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam generator number. 229.105 Section 229.105..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Steam Generators § 229.105 Steam generator number. An identification number shall be marked on the steam generator's...
Baryon number violation and string topologies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sjoestrand, T.; Skands, P.Z.
2003-01-01
In supersymmetric scenarios with broken R-parity, baryon number violating sparticle decays become possible. In order to search for such decays, a good understanding of expected event properties is essential. We here develop a complete framework that allows detailed studies. Special attention is given to the hadronization phase, wherein the baryon number violating vertex is associated with the appearance of a junction in the colour confinement field. This allows us to tell where to look for the extra (anti)baryon directly associated with the baryon number violating decay
Numbers at work a cultural perspective
Taschner , Rudolf
2007-01-01
Drawing primarily from historical examples, this book explains the tremendous role that numbers and, in particular, mathematics play in all aspects of our civilization and culture. The lively style and illustrative examples will engage the reader who wants to understand the many ways in which mathematics enables science, technology, art, music, politics, and rational foundations of human thought. Each chapter focuses on the influence of mathematics in a specific field and on a specific historical figure, such as ""Pythagoras: Numbers and Symbol""; ""Bach: Numbers and Music""; ""Descartes: Numb
Characteristics of Complexity: Clique Number of a Polytope Graph and Rectangle Covering Number
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. N. Maksimenko
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In the 1980s V.A. Bondarenko found that the clique number of the graph of a polytope in many cases corresponds to the actual complexity of the optimization problem on the vertices of the polytope. For an explanation of this phenomenon he proposed the theory of direct type algorithms. This theory asserts that the clique number of the graph of a polytope is the lower bound of the complexity of the corresponding problem in the so-called class of direct type algorithms. Moreover, it was argued that this class is wide enough and includes many classical combinatorial algorithms. In this paper we present a few examples, designed to identify the limits of applicability of this theory. In particular, we describe a modification of algorithms that is quite frequently used in practice. This modification takes the algorithms out of the specified class, while the complexity is not changed. Another, much closer to reality combinatorial characteristic of complexity is the rectangle covering number of the facet-vertex incidence matrix, introduced into consideration by M. Yannakakis in 1988. We give an example of a polytope with a polynomial (with respect to the dimension of the polytope value of this characteristic, while the corresponding optimization problem is NP-hard.
Meanings for Fraction as Number-Measure by Exploring the Number Line
Psycharis, Giorgos; Latsi, Maria; Kynigos, Chronis
2009-01-01
This paper reports on a case-study design experiment in the domain of fraction as number-measure. We designed and implemented a set of exploratory tasks concerning comparison and ordering of fractions as well as operations with fractions. Two groups of 12-year-old students worked collaboratively using paper and pencil as well as a specially…
Theory of analogous force on number sets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Canessa, Enrique [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)
2003-08-01
A general statistical thermodynamic theory that considers given sequences of x-integers to play the role of particles of known type in an isolated elastic system is proposed. By also considering some explicit discrete probability distributions p{sub x} for natural numbers, we claim that they lead to a better understanding of probabilistic laws associated with number theory. Sequences of numbers are treated as the size measure of finite sets. By considering p{sub x} to describe complex phenomena, the theory leads to derive a distinct analogous force f{sub x} on number sets proportional to ({partial_derivative}p{sub x}/{partial_derivative}x){sub T} at an analogous system temperature T. In particular, this yields to an understanding of the uneven distribution of integers of random sets in terms of analogous scale invariance and a screened inverse square force acting on the significant digits. The theory also allows to establish recursion relations to predict sequences of Fibonacci numbers and to give an answer to the interesting theoretical question of the appearance of the Benford's law in Fibonacci numbers. A possible relevance to prime numbers is also analyzed. (author)
Prandtl-number Effects in High-Rayleigh-number Spherical Convection
Orvedahl, Ryan J.; Calkins, Michael A.; Featherstone, Nicholas A.; Hindman, Bradley W.
2018-03-01
Convection is the predominant mechanism by which energy and angular momentum are transported in the outer portion of the Sun. The resulting overturning motions are also the primary energy source for the solar magnetic field. An accurate solar dynamo model therefore requires a complete description of the convective motions, but these motions remain poorly understood. Studying stellar convection numerically remains challenging; it occurs within a parameter regime that is extreme by computational standards. The fluid properties of the convection zone are characterized in part by the Prandtl number \\Pr = ν/κ, where ν is the kinematic viscosity and κ is the thermal diffusion; in stars, \\Pr is extremely low, \\Pr ≈ 10‑7. The influence of \\Pr on the convective motions at the heart of the dynamo is not well understood since most numerical studies are limited to using \\Pr ≈ 1. We systematically vary \\Pr and the degree of thermal forcing, characterized through a Rayleigh number, to explore its influence on the convective dynamics. For sufficiently large thermal driving, the simulations reach a so-called convective free-fall state where diffusion no longer plays an important role in the interior dynamics. Simulations with a lower \\Pr generate faster convective flows and broader ranges of scales for equivalent levels of thermal forcing. Characteristics of the spectral distribution of the velocity remain largely insensitive to changes in \\Pr . Importantly, we find that \\Pr plays a key role in determining when the free-fall regime is reached by controlling the thickness of the thermal boundary layer.
Banner prints social security numbers
Robbins RA
2014-01-01
No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The Monday edition of the Arizona Republic contained a story with potential interest to our readers. On the most recent address labels of Banner Health's magazine, Smart & Healthy, the addressee's Social Security or Medicare identification numbers, which are often identical to their Social Security numbers (1). The magazine was mailed to more than 50,000 recipients in Arizona late last week. The recipients are members of the Medicare Pion...
Analytic number theory an introductory course
Bateman, Paul T
2004-01-01
This valuable book focuses on a collection of powerful methods ofanalysis that yield deep number-theoretical estimates. Particularattention is given to counting functions of prime numbers andmultiplicative arithmetic functions. Both real variable ("elementary")and complex variable ("analytic") methods are employed.
Sequences, groups, and number theory
Rigo, Michel
2018-01-01
This collaborative book presents recent trends on the study of sequences, including combinatorics on words and symbolic dynamics, and new interdisciplinary links to group theory and number theory. Other chapters branch out from those areas into subfields of theoretical computer science, such as complexity theory and theory of automata. The book is built around four general themes: number theory and sequences, word combinatorics, normal numbers, and group theory. Those topics are rounded out by investigations into automatic and regular sequences, tilings and theory of computation, discrete dynamical systems, ergodic theory, numeration systems, automaton semigroups, and amenable groups. This volume is intended for use by graduate students or research mathematicians, as well as computer scientists who are working in automata theory and formal language theory. With its organization around unified themes, it would also be appropriate as a supplemental text for graduate level courses.
Complex architecture of primes and natural numbers.
García-Pérez, Guillermo; Serrano, M Ángeles; Boguñá, Marián
2014-08-01
Natural numbers can be divided in two nonoverlapping infinite sets, primes and composites, with composites factorizing into primes. Despite their apparent simplicity, the elucidation of the architecture of natural numbers with primes as building blocks remains elusive. Here, we propose a new approach to decoding the architecture of natural numbers based on complex networks and stochastic processes theory. We introduce a parameter-free non-Markovian dynamical model that naturally generates random primes and their relation with composite numbers with remarkable accuracy. Our model satisfies the prime number theorem as an emerging property and a refined version of Cramér's conjecture about the statistics of gaps between consecutive primes that seems closer to reality than the original Cramér's version. Regarding composites, the model helps us to derive the prime factors counting function, giving the probability of distinct prime factors for any integer. Probabilistic models like ours can help to get deeper insights about primes and the complex architecture of natural numbers.
Solar Indices - Sunspot Numbers
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Reza Mahmoudi
Full Text Available For accurate dose calculations, it is necessary to provide a correct relationship between the CT numbers and electron density in radiotherapy treatment planning systems (TPSs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the energy dependence of measured CT numbers on substituted materials used for CT number calibration of radiotherapy TPSs and the resulting errors in the treatment planning calculation doses.In this study, we designed a cylindrical water phantom with different materials used as tissue equivalent materials for the simulation of tissues and obtaining the related CT numbers. For evaluating the effect of CT number variations of substituted materials due to energy changing of scanner (kVp on the dose calculation of TPS, the slices of the scanned phantom at three kVp's were imported into the desired TPSs (MIRS and CorePLAN. Dose calculations were performed on two TPSs.The mean absolute percentage differences between the CT numbers of CT scanner and two treatment planning systems for all the samples were 3.22%±2.57% for CorePLAN and 2.88%±2.11% for MIRS. It was also found that the maximum absolute percentage difference between all of the calculated doses from each photon beam of linac (6 and 15 MV at three kVp's was less than 1.2%.The present study revealed that, for the materials with effective low atomic number, the mean CT number increased with increasing energy, which was opposite for the materials with an effective high atomic number. We concluded that the tissue substitute materials had a different behavior in the energy ranges from 80 to 130 kVp. So, it is necessary to consider the energy dependence of the substitute materials used for the measurement or calibration of CT number for radiotherapy treatment planning systems.
34 CFR 668.36 - Social security number.
2010-07-01
... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Social security number. 668.36 Section 668.36 Education... Islands, and the Republic of Palau, the Secretary attempts to confirm the social security number a student... Security Administration. If the Social Security Administration confirms that number, the Secretary notifies...
4 CFR 83.9 - Social Security number.
2010-01-01
... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Social Security number. 83.9 Section 83.9 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE RECORDS PRIVACY PROCEDURES FOR PERSONNEL RECORDS § 83.9 Social Security number. (a) GAO may not require individuals to disclose their Social Security Number (SSN) unless...
Total dominator chromatic number of a graph
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adel P. Kazemi
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Given a graph $G$, the total dominator coloring problem seeks a proper coloring of $G$ with the additional property that every vertex in the graph is adjacent to all vertices of a color class. We seek to minimize the number of color classes. We initiate to study this problem on several classes of graphs, as well as finding general bounds and characterizations. We also compare the total dominator chromatic number of a graph with the chromatic number and the total domination number of it.
Residual number processing in dyscalculia.
Cappelletti, Marinella; Price, Cathy J
2014-01-01
Developmental dyscalculia - a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts - is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and categorical colour-decision tasks with numerical and non-numerical stimuli, with adults with dyscalculia performing slower than controls in the number semantic tasks only. Structural imaging showed less grey-matter volume in the right parietal cortex in people with dyscalculia relative to controls. Functional MRI showed that accurate number semantic judgements were maintained by parietal and inferior frontal activations that were common to adults with dyscalculia and controls, with higher activation for participants with dyscalculia than controls in the right superior frontal cortex and the left inferior frontal sulcus. Enhanced activation in these frontal areas was driven by people with dyscalculia who made faster rather than slower numerical decisions; however, activation could not be accounted for by response times per se, because it was greater for fast relative to slow dyscalculics but not greater for fast controls relative to slow dyscalculics. In conclusion, our results reveal two frontal brain regions that support efficient number processing in dyscalculia.
Residual number processing in dyscalculia
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marinella Cappelletti
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Developmental dyscalculia – a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts – is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and categorical colour-decision tasks with numerical and non-numerical stimuli, with adults with dyscalculia performing slower than controls in the number semantic tasks only. Structural imaging showed less grey-matter volume in the right parietal cortex in people with dyscalculia relative to controls. Functional MRI showed that accurate number semantic judgements were maintained by parietal and inferior frontal activations that were common to adults with dyscalculia and controls, with higher activation for participants with dyscalculia than controls in the right superior frontal cortex and the left inferior frontal sulcus. Enhanced activation in these frontal areas was driven by people with dyscalculia who made faster rather than slower numerical decisions; however, activation could not be accounted for by response times per se, because it was greater for fast relative to slow dyscalculics but not greater for fast controls relative to slow dyscalculics. In conclusion, our results reveal two frontal brain regions that support efficient number processing in dyscalculia.
Residual number processing in dyscalculia☆
Cappelletti, Marinella; Price, Cathy J.
2013-01-01
Developmental dyscalculia – a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts – is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and categorical colour-decision tasks with numerical and non-numerical stimuli, with adults with dyscalculia performing slower than controls in the number semantic tasks only. Structural imaging showed less grey-matter volume in the right parietal cortex in people with dyscalculia relative to controls. Functional MRI showed that accurate number semantic judgements were maintained by parietal and inferior frontal activations that were common to adults with dyscalculia and controls, with higher activation for participants with dyscalculia than controls in the right superior frontal cortex and the left inferior frontal sulcus. Enhanced activation in these frontal areas was driven by people with dyscalculia who made faster rather than slower numerical decisions; however, activation could not be accounted for by response times per se, because it was greater for fast relative to slow dyscalculics but not greater for fast controls relative to slow dyscalculics. In conclusion, our results reveal two frontal brain regions that support efficient number processing in dyscalculia. PMID:24266008
Estimation hydrophilic-lipophilic balance number of surfactants
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pawignya, Harsa, E-mail: harsa-paw@yahoo.co.id [Chemical Engineering Department Diponegoro University (Indonesia); Chemical Engineering Departement University of Pembangunan Nasional Yogyakarta (Indonesia); Prasetyaningrum, Aji, E-mail: ajiprasetyaningrum@gmail.com; Kusworo, Tutuk D.; Pramudono, Bambang, E-mail: Pramudono2004@yahoo.com [Chemical Engineering Department Diponegoro University (Indonesia); Dyartanti, Endah R. [Chemical Engineering Department Diponegoro University (Indonesia); Chemical Enginering Departement Sebelas Maret University (Indonesia)
2016-02-08
Any type of surfactant has a hydrophilic-lipophilic balance number (HLB number) of different. There are several methods for determining the HLB number, with ohysical properties of surfactant (solubility cloud point and interfacial tension), CMC methods and by thermodynamics properties (Free energy Gibbs). This paper proposes to determined HLB numbers from interfelation methods. The result of study indicated that the CMC method described by Hair and Moulik espesially for nonionic surfactant. The application of exess Gibbs free energy and by implication activity coefficient provides the ability to predict the behavior of surfactants in multi component mixtures of different concentration. Determination of HLB number by solubility and cloud point parameter is spesific for anionic and nonionic surfactant but this methods not available for cationic surfactants.
Low Nephron Number and Its Clinical Consequences
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Valerie A. Luyckx
2011-10-01
Full Text Available decades ago, that developmental programming of the kidney impacts an individual’s risk for hypertension and renal disease in later life. Low birth weight is the strongest current clinical surrogate marker for an adverse intrauterine environment and, based on animal and human studies, is associated with a low nephron number. Other clinical correlates of low nephron number include female gender, short adult stature, small kidney size, and prematurity. Low nephron number in Caucasian and Australian Aboriginal subjects has been shown to be associated with higher blood pressures, and, conversely, hypertension is less prevalent in individuals with higher nephron numbers. In addition to nephron number, other programmed factors associated with the increased risk of hypertension include salt sensitivity, altered expression of renal sodium transporters, altered vascular reactivity, and sympathetic nervous system overactivity. Glomerular volume is universally found to vary inversely with nephron number, suggesting a degree of compensatory hypertrophy and hyperfunction in the setting of a low nephron number. This adaptation may become overwhelmed in the setting of superimposed renal insults, e.g. diabetes mellitus or rapid catch-up growth, leading to the vicious cycle of on-going hyperfiltration, proteinuria, nephron loss and progressive renal functional decline. Many millions of babies are born with low birth weight every year, and hypertension and renal disease prevalences are increasing around the globe. At present, little can be done clinically to augment nephron number; therefore adequate prenatal care and careful postnatal nutrition are crucial to optimize an individual’s nephron number during development and potentially to stem the tide of the growing cardiovascular and renal disease epidemics worldwide.
7 CFR 273.6 - Social security numbers.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Social security numbers. 273.6 Section 273.6... normally uses the Receipt of Application for a Social Security Number, Form SSA-5028, as evidence that an... security numbers. (a) Requirements for participation. The State agency shall require that a household...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
OLUWOLE
Agro-Science Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment and Extension. Volume 9 Number 1 ... of persistent dumping of cheap subsidized food imports from developed ... independence of the inefficiency effects in the two estimation ...
Standard random number generation for MBASIC
Tausworthe, R. C.
1976-01-01
A machine-independent algorithm is presented and analyzed for generating pseudorandom numbers suitable for the standard MBASIC system. The algorithm used is the polynomial congruential or linear recurrence modulo 2 method. Numbers, formed as nonoverlapping adjacent 28-bit words taken from the bit stream produced by the formula a sub m + 532 = a sub m + 37 + a sub m (modulo 2), do not repeat within the projected age of the solar system, show no ensemble correlation, exhibit uniform distribution of adjacent numbers up to 19 dimensions, and do not deviate from random runs-up and runs-down behavior.
Language and number: a bilingual training study.
Spelke, E S; Tsivkin, S
2001-01-01
Three experiments investigated the role of a specific language in human representations of number. Russian-English bilingual college students were taught new numerical operations (Experiment 1), new arithmetic equations (Experiments 1 and 2), or new geographical or historical facts involving numerical or non-numerical information (Experiment 3). After learning a set of items in each of their two languages, subjects were tested for knowledge of those items, and new items, in both languages. In all the studies, subjects retrieved information about exact numbers more effectively in the language of training, and they solved trained problems more effectively than untrained problems. In contrast, subjects retrieved information about approximate numbers and non-numerical facts with equal efficiency in their two languages, and their training on approximate number facts generalized to new facts of the same type. These findings suggest that a specific, natural language contributes to the representation of large, exact numbers but not to the approximate number representations that humans share with other mammals. Language appears to play a role in learning about exact numbers in a variety of contexts, a finding with implications for practice in bilingual education. The findings prompt more general speculations about the role of language in the development of specifically human cognitive abilities.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakayama, Kazunori; Takahashi, Fuminobu; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.
2011-01-01
We propose that the stability of dark matter is ensured by a discrete subgroup of the U(1) B-L gauge symmetry, Z 2 (B-L). We introduce a set of chiral fermions charged under the U(1) B-L in addition to the right-handed neutrinos, and require the anomaly-cancellation conditions associated with the U(1) B-L gauge symmetry. We find that the possible number of fermions and their charges are tightly constrained, and that non-trivial solutions appear when at least five additional chiral fermions are introduced. The Fermat theorem in the number theory plays an important role in this argument. Focusing on one of the solutions, we show that there is indeed a good candidate for dark matter, whose stability is guaranteed by Z 2 (B-L).
Stream ciphers and number theory
Cusick, Thomas W; Renvall, Ari R
2004-01-01
This is the unique book on cross-fertilisations between stream ciphers and number theory. It systematically and comprehensively covers known connections between the two areas that are available only in research papers. Some parts of this book consist of new research results that are not available elsewhere. In addition to exercises, over thirty research problems are presented in this book. In this revised edition almost every chapter was updated, and some chapters were completely rewritten. It is useful as a textbook for a graduate course on the subject, as well as a reference book for researchers in related fields. · Unique book on interactions of stream ciphers and number theory. · Research monograph with many results not available elsewhere. · A revised edition with the most recent advances in this subject. · Over thirty research problems for stimulating interactions between the two areas. · Written by leading researchers in stream ciphers and number theory.
49 CFR 10.29 - Social Security numbers.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Social Security numbers. 10.29 Section 10.29... INDIVIDUALS Maintenance of Records § 10.29 Social Security numbers. (a) No individual is denied any right... which is required by Federal statute; or (2) The disclosure of a Social Security number when such...
14 CFR 1212.604 - Social security numbers.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Social security numbers. 1212.604 Section... REGULATIONS Instructions for NASA Employees § 1212.604 Social security numbers. (a) It is unlawful for NASA to...' refusal to disclose their social security numbers, except where: (1) The disclosure is required by law; or...
Developmental Changes in the Whole Number Bias
Braithwaite, David W.; Siegler, Robert S.
2018-01-01
Many students' knowledge of fractions is adversely affected by whole number bias, the tendency to focus on the separate whole number components (numerator and denominator) of a fraction rather than on the fraction's magnitude (ratio of numerator to denominator). Although whole number bias appears early in the fraction learning process and under…
32 CFR 635.21 - USACRC control numbers.
2010-07-01
... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true USACRC control numbers. 635.21 Section 635.21 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.21 USACRC control numbers. (a) Case numbers to support reporting...
20 CFR 422.103 - Social security numbers.
2010-04-01
... personal interview with the dependent is not required. Form SS-5 may be obtained at: (i) Any local social... previously assigned social security number(s), if any, of the applicant. A personal interview may be required... sponsoring agency of a refugee, if no personal mailing address is available). (d) Social security number...
High Reynolds Number Turbulence
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Smits, Alexander J
2007-01-01
The objectives of the grant were to provide a systematic study to fill the gap between existing research on low Reynolds number turbulent flows to the kinds of turbulent flows encountered on full-scale vehicles...
2010-07-01
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Numbering. 105-1.109 Section 105-1.109 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulations System § 105-1.109 Numbering. ...
New technique for number-plate recognition
Guo, Jie; Shi, Peng-Fei
2001-09-01
This paper presents an alternative algorithm for number plate recognition. The algorithm consists of three modules. Respectively, they are number plate location module, character segmentation module and character recognition module. Number plate location module extracts the number plate from the detected car image by analyzing the color and the texture properties. Different from most license plate location methods, the algorithm has fewer limits to the car size, the car position in the image and the image background. Character segmentation module applies connected region algorithm both to eliminate noise points and to segment characters. Touching characters and broken characters can be processed correctly. Character recognition module recognizes characters with HHIC (Hierarchical Hybrid Integrated Classifier). The system has been tested with 100 images obtained from crossroad and parking lot, etc, where the cars have different size, position, background and illumination. Successful recognition rate is about 92%. The average processing time is 1.2 second.
Topics in the theory of numbers
Erdős, Paul
2003-01-01
This rather unique book is a guided tour through number theory. While most introductions to number theory provide a systematic and exhaustive treatment of the subject, the authors have chosen instead to illustrate the many varied subjects by associating recent discoveries, interesting methods, and unsolved problems. In particular, we read about combinatorial problems in number theory, a branch of mathematics co-founded and popularized by Paul Erdös. Janos Suranyis vast teaching experience successfully complements Paul Erdös'ability to initiate new directions of research by suggesting new problems and approaches. This book will surely arouse the interest of the student and the teacher alike. Until his death in 1996, Professor Paul Erdös was one of the most prolific mathematicians ever, publishing close to 1,500 papers. While his papers contributed to almost every area of mathematics, his main research interest was in the area of combinatorics, graph theory, and number theory. He is most famous for proposing...
Generation of photon number states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Waks, Edo; Diamanti, Eleni; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa
2006-01-01
The visible light photon counter (VLPC) has the capability to discriminate photon number states, in contrast to conventional photon counters which can only detect the presence or absence of photons. We use this capability, along with the process of parametric down-conversion, to generate photon number states. We experimentally demonstrate generation of states containing 1, 2, 3 and 4 photons with high fidelity. We then explore the effect the detection efficiency of the VLPC has on the generation rate and fidelity of the created states
Numbers and other math ideas come alive
Pappas, Theoni
2012-01-01
Most people don't think about numbers, or take them for granted. For the average person numbers are looked upon as cold, clinical, inanimate objects. Math ideas are viewed as something to get a job done or a problem solved. Get ready for a big surprise with Numbers and Other Math Ideas Come Alive. Pappas explores mathematical ideas by looking behind the scenes of what numbers, points, lines, and other concepts are saying and thinking. In each story, properties and characteristics of math ideas are entertainingly uncovered and explained through the dialogues and actions of its math
Number-concept acquisition and general vocabulary development.
Negen, James; Sarnecka, Barbara W
2012-11-01
How is number-concept acquisition related to overall language development? Experiments 1 and 2 measured number-word knowledge and general vocabulary in a total of 59 children, ages 30-60 months. A strong correlation was found between number-word knowledge and vocabulary, independent of the child's age, contrary to previous results (D. Ansari et al., 2003). This result calls into question arguments that (a) the number-concept creation process is scaffolded mainly by visuo-spatial development and (b) that language only becomes integrated after the concepts are created (D. Ansari et al., 2003). Instead, this may suggest that having a larger nominal vocabulary helps children learn number words. Experiment 3 shows that the differences with previous results are likely due to changes in how the data were analyzed. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Search for lepton-family-number nonconservation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoffman, C.M.
1986-01-01
A review of the status of lepton-family-number nonconservation is given. After a brief historical and theoretical discussion, a description of how experimental searches for lepton-family-number nonconservation are performed is presented. Finally, a summary of the results from past experiments and prospects for future experiments is given
Approximate number word knowledge before the cardinal principle.
Gunderson, Elizabeth A; Spaepen, Elizabet; Levine, Susan C
2015-02-01
Approximate number word knowledge-understanding the relation between the count words and the approximate magnitudes of sets-is a critical piece of knowledge that predicts later math achievement. However, researchers disagree about when children first show evidence of approximate number word knowledge-before, or only after, they have learned the cardinal principle. In two studies, children who had not yet learned the cardinal principle (subset-knowers) produced sets in response to number words (verbal comprehension task) and produced number words in response to set sizes (verbal production task). As evidence of approximate number word knowledge, we examined whether children's numerical responses increased with increasing numerosity of the stimulus. In Study 1, subset-knowers (ages 3.0-4.2 years) showed approximate number word knowledge above their knower-level on both tasks, but this effect did not extend to numbers above 4. In Study 2, we collected data from a broader age range of subset-knowers (ages 3.1-5.6 years). In this sample, children showed approximate number word knowledge on the verbal production task even when only examining set sizes above 4. Across studies, children's age predicted approximate number word knowledge (above 4) on the verbal production task when controlling for their knower-level, study (1 or 2), and parents' education, none of which predicted approximation ability. Thus, children can develop approximate knowledge of number words up to 10 before learning the cardinal principle. Furthermore, approximate number word knowledge increases with age and might not be closely related to the development of exact number word knowledge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nakayama, Kazunori [Theory Center, KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Takahashi, Fuminobu, E-mail: fumi@tuhep.phys.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8568 (Japan); Yanagida, Tsutomu T. [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8568 (Japan); Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)
2011-05-23
We propose that the stability of dark matter is ensured by a discrete subgroup of the U(1){sub B-L} gauge symmetry, Z{sub 2}(B-L). We introduce a set of chiral fermions charged under the U(1){sub B-L} in addition to the right-handed neutrinos, and require the anomaly-cancellation conditions associated with the U(1){sub B-L} gauge symmetry. We find that the possible number of fermions and their charges are tightly constrained, and that non-trivial solutions appear when at least five additional chiral fermions are introduced. The Fermat theorem in the number theory plays an important role in this argument. Focusing on one of the solutions, we show that there is indeed a good candidate for dark matter, whose stability is guaranteed by Z{sub 2}(B-L).
26 CFR 301.7701-11 - Social security number.
2010-04-01
... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Social security number. 301.7701-11 Section 301... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Definitions § 301.7701-11 Social security number. For purposes of this chapter, the term social security number means the taxpayer identifying number of an individual or...
Klein, D. Harley; Leal, L. Gary; García-Cervera, Carlos J.; Ceniceros, Hector D.
2007-02-01
We consider the behavior of the Doi-Marrucci-Greco (DMG) model for nematic liquid crystalline polymers in planar shear flow. We found the DMG model to exhibit dynamics in both qualitative and quantitative agreement with experimental observations reported by Larson and Mead [Liq. Cryst. 15, 151 (1993)] for the Ericksen number and Deborah number cascades. For increasing shear rates within the Ericksen number cascade, the DMG model displays three distinct regimes: stable simple shear, stable roll cells, and irregular structure accompanied by disclination formation. In accordance with experimental observations, the model predicts both ±1 and ±1/2 disclinations. Although ±1 defects form via the ridge-splitting mechanism first identified by Feng, Tao, and Leal [J. Fluid Mech. 449, 179 (2001)], a new mechanism is identified for the formation of ±1/2 defects. Within the Deborah number cascade, with increasing Deborah number, the DMG model exhibits a streamwise banded texture, in the absence of disclinations and roll cells, followed by a monodomain wherein the mean orientation lies within the shear plane throughout the domain.
Cellular Automata Rules and Linear Numbers
Nayak, Birendra Kumar; Sahoo, Sudhakar; Biswal, Sagarika
2012-01-01
In this paper, linear Cellular Automta (CA) rules are recursively generated using a binary tree rooted at "0". Some mathematical results on linear as well as non-linear CA rules are derived. Integers associated with linear CA rules are defined as linear numbers and the properties of these linear numbers are studied.
Promoting Number Theory in High Schools or Birthday Problem and Number Theory
Srinivasan, V. K.
2010-01-01
The author introduces the birthday problem in this article. This can amuse willing members of any birthday party. This problem can also be used as the motivational first day lecture in number theory for the gifted students in high schools or in community colleges or in undergraduate classes in colleges.
Persistent consequences of atypical early number concepts
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michèle M. M. Mazzocco
2013-09-01
Full Text Available How does symbolic number knowledge performance help identify young children at risk for poor mathematics achievement outcomes? In research and practice, classification of mathematics learning disability (MLD, or dyscalculia is typically based on composite scores from broad measures of mathematics achievement. These scores do predict later math achievement levels, but do not specify the nature of math difficulties likely to emerge among students at greatest risk for long-term mathematics failure. Here we report that gaps in 2nd and 3rd graders’ number knowledge predict specific types of errors made on math assessments at Grade 8. Specifically, we show that early whole number misconceptions predict slower and less accurate performance, and atypical computational errors, on Grade 8 arithmetic tests. We demonstrate that basic number misconceptions can be detected by idiosyncratic responses to number knowledge items, and that when such misconceptions are evident during primary school they persist throughout the school age years, with variable manifestation throughout development. We conclude that including specific qualitative assessments of symbolic number knowledge in primary school may provide greater specificity of the types of difficulties likely to emerge among students at risk for poor mathematics outcomes.
Gyorfy, Zsuzsanna; Draskovits, Gabor; Vernyik, Viktor; Blattner, Frederick F.; Gaal, Tamas; Posfai, Gyorgy
2015-01-01
Ribosomal RNA (rrn) operons, characteristically present in several copies in bacterial genomes (7 in E. coli), play a central role in cellular physiology. We investigated the factors determining the optimal number of rrn operons in E. coli by constructing isogenic variants with 5–10 operons. We found that the total RNA and protein content, as well as the size of the cells reflected the number of rrn operons. While growth parameters showed only minor differences, competition experiments revealed a clear pattern: 7–8 copies were optimal under conditions of fluctuating, occasionally rich nutrient influx and lower numbers were favored in stable, nutrient-limited environments. We found that the advantages of quick adjustment to nutrient availability, rapid growth and economic regulation of ribosome number all contribute to the selection of the optimal rrn operon number. Our results suggest that the wt rrn operon number of E. coli reflects the natural, ‘feast and famine’ life-style of the bacterium, however, different copy numbers might be beneficial under different environmental conditions. Understanding the impact of the copy number of rrn operons on the fitness of the cell is an important step towards the creation of functional and robust genomes, the ultimate goal of synthetic biology. PMID:25618851
Program pseudo-random number generator for microcomputers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ososkov, G.A.
1980-01-01
Program pseudo-random number generators (PNG) intended for the test of control equipment and communication channels are considered. In the case of 8-bit microcomputers it is necessary to assign 4 words of storage to allocate one random number. The proposed economical algorithms of the random number generation are based on the idea of the ''mixing'' of such quarters of the preceeding random number to obtain the next one. Test results of the PNG are displayed for two such generators. A FORTRAN variant of the PNG is presented along with a program realizing the PNG made on the base of the INTEL-8080 autocode
An integrable low-cost hardware random number generator
Ranasinghe, Damith C.; Lim, Daihyun; Devadas, Srinivas; Jamali, Behnam; Zhu, Zheng; Cole, Peter H.
2005-02-01
A hardware random number generator is different from a pseudo-random number generator; a pseudo-random number generator approximates the assumed behavior of a real hardware random number generator. Simple pseudo random number generators suffices for most applications, however for demanding situations such as the generation of cryptographic keys, requires an efficient and a cost effective source of random numbers. Arbiter-based Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) proposed for physical authentication of ICs exploits statistical delay variation of wires and transistors across integrated circuits, as a result of process variations, to build a secret key unique to each IC. Experimental results and theoretical studies show that a sufficient amount of variation exits across IC"s. This variation enables each IC to be identified securely. It is possible to exploit the unreliability of these PUF responses to build a physical random number generator. There exists measurement noise, which comes from the instability of an arbiter when it is in a racing condition. There exist challenges whose responses are unpredictable. Without environmental variations, the responses of these challenges are random in repeated measurements. Compared to other physical random number generators, the PUF-based random number generators can be a compact and a low-power solution since the generator need only be turned on when required. A 64-stage PUF circuit costs less than 1000 gates and the circuit can be implemented using a standard IC manufacturing processes. In this paper we have presented a fast and an efficient random number generator, and analysed the quality of random numbers produced using an array of tests used by the National Institute of Standards and Technology to evaluate the randomness of random number generators designed for cryptographic applications.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamamoto, Yoshinobu; Kunugi, Tomoaki
2015-01-01
Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • For the first time, the MHD heat transfer DNS database corresponding to the typical nondimensional parameters of the fusion blanket design using molten salt, were established. • MHD heat transfer correlation was proposed and about 20% of the heat transfer degradation was evaluated under the design conditions. • The contribution of the turbulent diffusion to heat transfer is increased drastically with increasing Hartmann number. - Abstract: The high-Prandtl number passive scalar transport of the turbulent channel flow imposed a wall-normal magnetic field is investigated through the large-scale direct numerical simulation (DNS). All essential turbulence scales of velocities and temperature are resolved by using 2048 × 870 × 1024 computational grid points in stream, vertical, and spanwise directions. The heat transfer phenomena for a Prandtl number of 25 were observed under the following flow conditions: the bulk Reynolds number of 14,000 and Hartman number of up to 28. These values were equivalent to the typical nondimensional parameters of the fusion blanket design proposed by Wong et al. As a result, a high-accuracy DNS database for the verification of magnetohydrodynamic turbulent heat transfer models was established for the first time, and it was confirmed that the heat transfer correlation for a Prandtl number of 5.25 proposed by Yamamoto and Kunugi was applicable to the Prandtl number of 25 used in this study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yamamoto, Yoshinobu, E-mail: yamamotoy@yamanashi.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Systems Engineering, University of Yamanashi, 4-3-11 Takeda, Kofu 400-8511 (Japan); Kunugi, Tomoaki [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University Yoshida, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)
2015-01-15
Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • For the first time, the MHD heat transfer DNS database corresponding to the typical nondimensional parameters of the fusion blanket design using molten salt, were established. • MHD heat transfer correlation was proposed and about 20% of the heat transfer degradation was evaluated under the design conditions. • The contribution of the turbulent diffusion to heat transfer is increased drastically with increasing Hartmann number. - Abstract: The high-Prandtl number passive scalar transport of the turbulent channel flow imposed a wall-normal magnetic field is investigated through the large-scale direct numerical simulation (DNS). All essential turbulence scales of velocities and temperature are resolved by using 2048 × 870 × 1024 computational grid points in stream, vertical, and spanwise directions. The heat transfer phenomena for a Prandtl number of 25 were observed under the following flow conditions: the bulk Reynolds number of 14,000 and Hartman number of up to 28. These values were equivalent to the typical nondimensional parameters of the fusion blanket design proposed by Wong et al. As a result, a high-accuracy DNS database for the verification of magnetohydrodynamic turbulent heat transfer models was established for the first time, and it was confirmed that the heat transfer correlation for a Prandtl number of 5.25 proposed by Yamamoto and Kunugi was applicable to the Prandtl number of 25 used in this study.
2010-01-01
... and entered on all sales tickets identifying and segregating the sales from the various shipments on hand. The lot number shall be entered on the sales tickets by the salesmen at the time of sale or by the produce dispatcher, and not by bookkeepers or others after the sales have been made. No lot number...
Fourier analysis in combinatorial number theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shkredov, Il'ya D
2010-01-01
In this survey applications of harmonic analysis to combinatorial number theory are considered. Discussion topics include classical problems of additive combinatorics, colouring problems, higher-order Fourier analysis, theorems about sets of large trigonometric sums, results on estimates for trigonometric sums over subgroups, and the connection between combinatorial and analytic number theory. Bibliography: 162 titles.
Fourier analysis in combinatorial number theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shkredov, Il' ya D [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2010-09-16
In this survey applications of harmonic analysis to combinatorial number theory are considered. Discussion topics include classical problems of additive combinatorics, colouring problems, higher-order Fourier analysis, theorems about sets of large trigonometric sums, results on estimates for trigonometric sums over subgroups, and the connection between combinatorial and analytic number theory. Bibliography: 162 titles.
Atomic Fisher information versus atomic number
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagy, A.; Sen, K.D.
2006-01-01
It is shown that the Thomas-Fermi Fisher information is negative. A slightly more sophisticated model proposed by Gaspar provides a qualitatively correct expression for the Fisher information: Gaspar's Fisher information is proportional to the two-third power of the atomic number. Accurate numerical calculations show an almost linear dependence on the atomic number
Pell and Pell–Lucas numbers with applications
Koshy, Thomas
2014-01-01
Pell and Pell–Lucas Numbers has been carefully crafted as an undergraduate/graduate textbook; the level of which depends on the college/university and the instructor’s preference. The exposition moves from the basics to more advanced topics in a systematic rigorous fashion, motivating the reader with numerous examples, figures, and exercises. Only a strong foundation in precalculus, plus a good background in matrices, determinants, congruences, and combinatorics is required. The text may be used in a variety of number theory courses, as well as in seminars, workshops, and other capstone experiences for teachers in-training and instructors at all levels. A number of key features on the Pell family surrounds the historical flavor that is interwoven into an extensive, in-depth coverage of this unique text on the subject. Pell and Pell-Lucas numbers, like the well-known Fibonacci and Catalan numbers, continue to intrigue the mathematical community with their beauty and applicability. Beyond the cla...
A conversational introduction to algebraic number theory
Pollack, Paul
2017-01-01
Gauss famously referred to mathematics as the "queen of the sciences" and to number theory as the "queen of mathematics". This book is an introduction to algebraic number theory, meaning the study of arithmetic in finite extensions of the rational number field \\mathbb{Q}. Originating in the work of Gauss, the foundations of modern algebraic number theory are due to Dirichlet, Dedekind, Kronecker, Kummer, and others. This book lays out basic results, including the three "fundamental theorems": unique factorization of ideals, finiteness of the class number, and Dirichlet's unit theorem. While these theorems are by now quite classical, both the text and the exercises allude frequently to more recent developments. In addition to traversing the main highways, the book reveals some remarkable vistas by exploring scenic side roads. Several topics appear that are not present in the usual introductory texts. One example is the inclusion of an extensive discussion of the theory of elasticity, which provides a precise w...
CT numbers of liver and spleen in normal children
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Young Kim
2002-01-01
To determine the mean liver CT numbers, and differences between liver and spleen, and liver and back muscle CT numbers in normal children, and to correlate the findings with sex and age. One hundred and five normal children aged 2-14 years underwent pre-contrast CT scanning. Mean CT numbers of the liver, spleen, and back muscles were calculated, as well as the differences in CT numbers between the liver and spleen (liver-spleen CT numbers), and between the liver-back muscle CT numbers were 70.22±6.51 HU, 53.28±3.57 HU, 17.13±6.57 HU, and 11.88±5.94 HU, respectively. Mean liver CT numbers and the difference between liver and back muscle CT numbers were not different by age. By sex, all the CT numbers did not vary according to age. The sex of a subject did not affect the CT number. The children's mean liver CT number was 70.22±6.51 HU and the difference between liver and spleen CT numbers was 17.13±6.57 HU. Younger children had higher liver CT and liver-spleen CT numbers than older children. No CT numbers varied according to sex
On the Euler Function of the Catalan Numbers
2012-02-26
ON THE EULER FUNCTION OF THE CATALAN NUMBERS FLORIAN LUCA AND PANTELIMON STĂNICĂ Abstract. We study the solutions of the equation φ(Cm)/φ(Cn) = r...where r is a fixed rational number , Ck is the kth Catalan number and φ is the Euler function. We note that the number r = 4 is special for this...observation concerning φ(Cn+1)/φ(Cn) For a positive integer n, let (1) Cn = 1 n+ 1 ( 2n n ) be the n-th Catalan number . For a positive integer m we put φ(m) for
Number fluctuations of cold, spatially split bosonic objects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakmann, Kaspar; Streltsov, Alexej I.; Cederbaum, Lorenz S.; Alon, Ofir E.
2011-01-01
We investigate the number fluctuations of spatially split many-boson systems employing a theorem about the maximally and minimally attainable variances of an observable. The number fluctuations of many-boson systems are given for different numbers of lattice sites and both mean-field and many-body wave functions. It is shown which states maximize the particle number fluctuations, both in lattices and double wells. The fragmentation of the states is discussed, and it is shown that the number fluctuations of some fragmented states are identical to those of fully condensed states.
Development of fuel number reader by ultrasonic imaging techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Omote, T.; Yoshida, T.
1991-01-01
This paper reports on a spent fuel ID number reader using ultrasonic imaging techniques that has been developed to realize efficient and automatic verification of fuel numbers, thereby to reduce mental load and radiation exposure for operators engaged in the verification task. The ultrasonic imaging techniques for automatic fuel number recognition are described. High-speed and high reliability imaging of the spent fuel ID number are obtained by using linear array type ultrasonic probe. The ultrasonic wave is scanned by switching array probe in vertical direction, and scanned mechanically in horizontal direction. Time for imaging of spent fuel ID number on assembly was confirmed less than three seconds by these techniques. And it can recognize spent fuel ID number even if spent fuel ID number can not be visualized by an optical method because of depositing fuel number regions by soft card. In order to recognize spent fuel ID number more rapidly and more reliably, coded fuel number expressed by plural separate recesses form is developed. Every coded fuel number consists of six small holes (about 1 mm dia.) and can be marked adjacent to the existing fuel number expressed by letters and numbers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shetnikov, Andrey
2009-06-01
Full Text Available The paper concerns the concept of number (arithmos, important for dialectical method of later Plato. It becomes clear that the arithmos in Plato’s dialectics should be understood as a concrete operation, a sort of tekhne, such as counting, enumeration, compilation of a comprehensive and systematic list, etc., rather then the theoretical number of abstract arithmetic. The author analyses a series of grammatical, musical and rhetorical examples, supplied by Plato in the Philebus and other dialogues, and traces the usage of arithmos and similar words in the earlier tradition, particularly, in Homer, Hesiod, the classical tragedy, and Herodotus.
McCracken, M. E.; Bellis, M.; Adhikari, K. P.; Adikaram, D.; Akbar, Z.; Pereira, S. Anefalos; Badui, R. A.; Ball, J.; Baltzell, N. A.; Battaglieri, M.; Batourine, V.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Biselli, A. S.; Boiarinov, S.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Cao, T.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cortes, O.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Dodge, G. E.; Dupre, R.; Alaoui, A. El; Fassi, L. El; Elouadrhiri, E.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Fersch, R.; Filippi, A.; Fleming, J. A.; Garillon, B.; Gevorgyan, N.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guidal, M.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Hanretty, C.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hughes, S. M.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jenkins, D.; Jiang, H.; Jo, H. S.; Keller, D.; Khachatryan, G.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Kubarovsky, V.; Lenisa, P.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Mestayer, M. D.; Meyer, C. A.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Moody, C. I.; Moriya, K.; Camacho, C. Munoz; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Net, L. A.; Niccolai, S.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Park, K.; Pasyuk, E.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Prok, Y.; Raue, B. A.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Roy, P.; Sabatié, F.; Salgado, C.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seder, E.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Skorodumina, Iu.; Sokhan, D.; Sparveris, N.; Stoler, P.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Tian, Ye; Ungaro, M.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Wei, X.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, Z. W.; Zonta, I.; CLAS Collaboration
2015-10-01
We present a search for ten baryon number violating decay modes of Λ hyperons using the CLAS detector at Jefferson Laboratory. Nine of these decay modes result in a single meson and single lepton in the final state (Λ →m ℓ) and conserve either the sum or the difference of baryon and lepton number (B ±L ). The tenth decay mode (Λ →p ¯ π+ ) represents a difference in baryon number of two units and no difference in lepton number. We observe no significant signal and set upper limits on the branching fractions of these reactions in the range (4 - 200 )×10-7 at the 90% confidence level.
Van Luit, Johannes E. H.; Van der Molen, Mariet J.
2011-01-01
Background: Children from Asian countries score higher on early years' arithmetic tests than children from Europe or the United States of America. An explanation for these differences may be the way numbers are named. A clear ten-structure like in the Korean language method leads to a better insight into numbers and arithmetic skills. This…
Embedded systems design with special arithmetic and number systems
Sousa, Leonel; Chang, Chip-Hong
2017-01-01
This book introduces readers to alternative approaches to designing efficient embedded systems using unconventional number systems. The authors describe various systems that can be used for designing efficient embedded and application-specific processors, such as Residue Number System, Logarithmic Number System, Redundant Binary Number System Double-Base Number System, Decimal Floating Point Number System and Continuous Valued Number System. Readers will learn the strategies and trade-offs of using unconventional number systems in application-specific processors and be able to apply and design appropriate arithmetic operations from these number systems to boost the performance of digital systems. • Serves as a single-source reference to designing embedded systems with unconventional number systems • Covers theory as well as implementation on application-specific processors • Explains mathematical concepts in a manner accessible to readers with diverse backgrounds.
Nonclassicality in phase-number uncertainty relations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matia-Hernando, Paloma; Luis, Alfredo
2011-01-01
We show that there are nonclassical states with lesser joint fluctuations of phase and number than any classical state. This is rather paradoxical since one would expect classical coherent states to be always of minimum uncertainty. The same result is obtained when we replace phase by a phase-dependent field quadrature. Number and phase uncertainties are assessed using variance and Holevo relation.
Nonclassicality in phase-number uncertainty relations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matia-Hernando, Paloma; Luis, Alfredo [Departamento de Optica, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain)
2011-12-15
We show that there are nonclassical states with lesser joint fluctuations of phase and number than any classical state. This is rather paradoxical since one would expect classical coherent states to be always of minimum uncertainty. The same result is obtained when we replace phase by a phase-dependent field quadrature. Number and phase uncertainties are assessed using variance and Holevo relation.
Two explicit formulas for the generalized Motzkin numbers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiao-Lian Zhao
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract In the paper, by the Faà di Bruno formula, the authors establish two explicit formulas for the Motzkin numbers, the generalized Motzkin numbers, and the restricted hexagonal numbers.
Seniority Number in Valence Bond Theory.
Chen, Zhenhua; Zhou, Chen; Wu, Wei
2015-09-08
In this work, a hierarchy of valence bond (VB) methods based on the concept of seniority number, defined as the number of singly occupied orbitals in a determinant or an orbital configuration, is proposed and applied to the studies of the potential energy curves (PECs) of H8, N2, and C2 molecules. It is found that the seniority-based VB expansion converges more rapidly toward the full configuration interaction (FCI) or complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) limit and produces more accurate PECs with smaller nonparallelity errors than its molecular orbital (MO) theory-based analogue. Test results reveal that the nonorthogonal orbital-based VB theory provides a reverse but more efficient way to truncate the complete active Hilbert space by seniority numbers.
Fast IMRT by increasing the beam number and reducing the number of segments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bratengeier, Klaus; Gainey, Mark B; Flentje, Michael
2011-01-01
The purpose of this work is to develop fast deliverable step and shoot IMRT technique. A reduction in the number of segments should theoretically be possible, whilst simultaneously maintaining plan quality, provided that the reduction is accompanied by an increased number of gantry angles. A benefit of this method is that the segment shaping could be performed during gantry motion, thereby reducing the delivery time. The aim was to find classes of such solutions whose plan quality can compete with conventional IMRT. A planning study was performed. Step and shoot IMRT plans were created using direct machine parameter optimization (DMPO) as a reference. DMPO plans were compared to an IMRT variant having only one segment per angle ('2-Step Fast'). 2-Step Fast is based on a geometrical analysis of the topology of the planning target volume (PTV) and the organs at risk (OAR). A prostate/rectum case, spine metastasis/spinal cord, breast/lung and an artificial PTV/OAR combination of the ESTRO-Quasimodo phantom were used for the study. The composite objective value (COV), a quality score, and plan delivery time were compared. The delivery time for the DMPO reference plan and the 2-Step Fast IMRT technique was measured and calculated for two different linacs, a twelve year old Siemens Primus™ ('old' linac) and two Elekta Synergy™ 'S' linacs ('new' linacs). 2-Step Fast had comparable or better quality than the reference DMPO plan. The number of segments was smaller than for the reference plan, the number of gantry angles was between 23 and 34. For the modern linac the delivery time was always smaller than that for the reference plan. The calculated (measured) values showed a mean delivery time reduction of 21% (21%) for the new linac, and of 7% (3%) for the old linac compared to the respective DMPO reference plans. For the old linac, the data handling time per beam was the limiting factor for the treatment time reduction. 2-Step
Fast IMRT by increasing the beam number and reducing the number of segments
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bratengeier Klaus
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Abstract Purpose The purpose of this work is to develop fast deliverable step and shoot IMRT technique. A reduction in the number of segments should theoretically be possible, whilst simultaneously maintaining plan quality, provided that the reduction is accompanied by an increased number of gantry angles. A benefit of this method is that the segment shaping could be performed during gantry motion, thereby reducing the delivery time. The aim was to find classes of such solutions whose plan quality can compete with conventional IMRT. Materials/Methods A planning study was performed. Step and shoot IMRT plans were created using direct machine parameter optimization (DMPO as a reference. DMPO plans were compared to an IMRT variant having only one segment per angle ("2-Step Fast". 2-Step Fast is based on a geometrical analysis of the topology of the planning target volume (PTV and the organs at risk (OAR. A prostate/rectum case, spine metastasis/spinal cord, breast/lung and an artificial PTV/OAR combination of the ESTRO-Quasimodo phantom were used for the study. The composite objective value (COV, a quality score, and plan delivery time were compared. The delivery time for the DMPO reference plan and the 2-Step Fast IMRT technique was measured and calculated for two different linacs, a twelve year old Siemens Primus™ ("old" linac and two Elekta Synergy™ "S" linacs ("new" linacs. Results 2-Step Fast had comparable or better quality than the reference DMPO plan. The number of segments was smaller than for the reference plan, the number of gantry angles was between 23 and 34. For the modern linac the delivery time was always smaller than that for the reference plan. The calculated (measured values showed a mean delivery time reduction of 21% (21% for the new linac, and of 7% (3% for the old linac compared to the respective DMPO reference plans. For the old linac, the data handling time per beam was the limiting factor for the treatment time
Embedding Number-Combinations Practice Within Word-Problem Tutoring
Powell, Sarah R.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas
2012-01-01
Two aspects of mathematics with which students with mathematics learning difficulty (MLD) often struggle are word problems and number-combination skills. This article describes a math program in which students receive instruction on using algebraic equations to represent the underlying problem structure for three word-problem types. Students also learn counting strategies for answering number combinations that they cannot retrieve from memory. Results from randomized-control trials indicated that embedding the counting strategies for number combinations produces superior word-problem and number-combination outcomes for students with MLD beyond tutoring programs that focus exclusively on number combinations or word problems. PMID:22661880
Schmale, Julia; Henning, Silvia; Decesari, Stefano; Henzing, Bas; Keskinen, Helmi; Sellegri, Karine; Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Pöhlker, Mira L.; Brito, Joel; Bougiatioti, Aikaterini; Kristensson, Adam; Kalivitis, Nikos; Stavroulas, Iasonas; Carbone, Samara; Jefferson, Anne; Park, Minsu; Schlag, Patrick; Iwamoto, Yoko; Aalto, Pasi; Äijälä, Mikko; Bukowiecki, Nicolas; Ehn, Mikael; Frank, Göran; Fröhlich, Roman; Frumau, Arnoud; Herrmann, Erik; Herrmann, Hartmut; Holzinger, Rupert; Kos, Gerard; Kulmala, Markku; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Nenes, Athanasios; O'Dowd, Colin; Petäjä, Tuukka; Picard, David; Pöhlker, Christopher; Pöschl, Ulrich; Poulain, Laurent; Prévôt, André Stephan Henry; Swietlicki, Erik; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Artaxo, Paulo; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Ogren, John; Matsuki, Atsushi; Yum, Seong Soo; Stratmann, Frank; Baltensperger, Urs; Gysel, Martin
2018-02-01
Aerosol-cloud interactions (ACI) constitute the single largest uncertainty in anthropogenic radiative forcing. To reduce the uncertainties and gain more confidence in the simulation of ACI, models need to be evaluated against observations, in particular against measurements of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Here we present a data set - ready to be used for model validation - of long-term observations of CCN number concentrations, particle number size distributions and chemical composition from 12 sites on 3 continents. Studied environments include coastal background, rural background, alpine sites, remote forests and an urban surrounding. Expectedly, CCN characteristics are highly variable across site categories. However, they also vary within them, most strongly in the coastal background group, where CCN number concentrations can vary by up to a factor of 30 within one season. In terms of particle activation behaviour, most continental stations exhibit very similar activation ratios (relative to particles > 20 nm) across the range of 0.1 to 1.0 % supersaturation. At the coastal sites the transition from particles being CCN inactive to becoming CCN active occurs over a wider range of the supersaturation spectrum. Several stations show strong seasonal cycles of CCN number concentrations and particle number size distributions, e.g. at Barrow (Arctic haze in spring), at the alpine stations (stronger influence of polluted boundary layer air masses in summer), the rain forest (wet and dry season) or Finokalia (wildfire influence in autumn). The rural background and urban sites exhibit relatively little variability throughout the year, while short-term variability can be high especially at the urban site. The average hygroscopicity parameter, κ, calculated from the chemical composition of submicron particles was highest at the coastal site of Mace Head (0.6) and lowest at the rain forest station ATTO (0.2-0.3). We performed closure studies based on κ-Köhler theory
Al-Marri, Faraj; Reza, Faruque; Begum, Tahamina; Hitam, Wan Hazabbah Wan; Jin, Goh Khean; Xiang, Jing
2017-10-25
Visual cognitive function is important to build up executive function in daily life. Perception of visual Number form (e.g., Arabic digit) and numerosity (magnitude of the Number) is of interest to cognitive neuroscientists. Neural correlates and the functional measurement of Number representations are complex occurrences when their semantic categories are assimilated with other concepts of shape and colour. Colour perception can be processed further to modulate visual cognition. The Ishihara pseudoisochromatic plates are one of the best and most common screening tools for basic red-green colour vision testing. However, there is a lack of study of visual cognitive function assessment using these pseudoisochromatic plates. We recruited 25 healthy normal trichromat volunteers and extended these studies using a 128-sensor net to record event-related EEG. Subjects were asked to respond by pressing Numbered buttons when they saw the Number and Non-number plates of the Ishihara colour vision test. Amplitudes and latencies of N100 and P300 event related potential (ERP) components were analysed from 19 electrode sites in the international 10-20 system. A brain topographic map, cortical activation patterns and Granger causation (effective connectivity) were analysed from 128 electrode sites. No major significant differences between N100 ERP components in either stimulus indicate early selective attention processing was similar for Number and Non-number plate stimuli, but Non-number plate stimuli evoked significantly higher amplitudes, longer latencies of the P300 ERP component with a slower reaction time compared to Number plate stimuli imply the allocation of attentional load was more in Non-number plate processing. A different pattern of asymmetric scalp voltage map was noticed for P300 components with a higher intensity in the left hemisphere for Number plate tasks and higher intensity in the right hemisphere for Non-number plate tasks. Asymmetric cortical activation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amati, G.; Koal, K.; Massaioli, F.; Sreenivasan, K.R.; Verzicco, R.
2006-12-01
The results from direct numerical simulations of turbulent Boussinesq convection are briefly presented. The flow is computed for a cylindrical cell of aspect ratio 1/2 in order to compare with the results from recent experiments. The results span eight decades of Ra from 2x10 6 to 2x10 14 and form the baseline data for a strictly Boussinesq fluid of constant Prandtl number (Pr=0.7). A conclusion is that the Nusselt number varies nearly as the 1/3 power of Ra for about four decades towards the upper end of the Ra range covered. (author)
Trading volume and the number of trades
Marwan Izzeldin
2007-01-01
Trading volume and the number of trades are both used as proxies for market activity, with disagreement as to which is the better proxy for market activity. This paper investigates this issue using high frequency data for Cisco and Intel in 1997. A number of econometric methods are used, including GARCH augmented with lagged trading volume and number of trades, tests based on moment restrictions, regression analysis of volatility on volume and trades, normality of returns when standardized by...
Conferences on Combinatorial and Additive Number Theory
2014-01-01
This proceedings volume is based on papers presented at the Workshops on Combinatorial and Additive Number Theory (CANT), which were held at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York in 2011 and 2012. The goal of the workshops is to survey recent progress in combinatorial number theory and related parts of mathematics. The workshop attracts researchers and students who discuss the state-of-the-art, open problems, and future challenges in number theory.
Unpredictability and the transmission of numbers
Myers, John M.; Madjid, F. Hadi
2016-03-01
Curiously overlooked in physics is its dependence on the transmission of numbers. For example, the transmission of numerical clock readings is implicit in the concept of a coordinate system. The transmission of numbers and other logical distinctions is often achieved over a computer-mediated communications network in the face of an unpredictable environment. By unpredictable we mean something stronger than the spread of probabilities over given possible outcomes, namely an opening to unforeseeable possibilities. Unpredictability, until now overlooked in theoretical physics, makes the transmission of numbers interesting. Based on recent proofs within quantum theory that provide a theoretical foundation to unpredictability, here we show how regularities in physics rest on a background of channels over which numbers are transmitted. As is known to engineers of digital communications, numerical transmissions depend on coordination reminiscent of the cycle of throwing and catching by players tossing a ball back and forth. In digital communications, the players are computers, and the required coordination involves unpredictably adjusting "live clocks" that step these computers through phases of a cycle. We show how this phasing, which we call logical synchronization, constrains number-carrying networks, and, if a spacetime manifold in invoked, put "stripes" on spacetime. Via its logically synchronized channels, a network of live clocks serves as a reference against which to locate events. Such a network in any case underpins a coordinate frame, and in some cases the direct use of a network can be tailored to investigate an unpredictable environment. Examples include explorations of gravitational variations near Earth.
Number theory in the spirit of Ramanujan
Berndt, Bruce C
2006-01-01
Ramanujan is recognized as one of the great number theorists of the twentieth century. Here now is the first book to provide an introduction to his work in number theory. Most of Ramanujan's work in number theory arose out of q-series and theta functions. This book provides an introduction to these two important subjects and to some of the topics in number theory that are inextricably intertwined with them, including the theory of partitions, sums of squares and triangular numbers, and the Ramanujan tau function. The majority of the results discussed here are originally due to Ramanujan or were rediscovered by him. Ramanujan did not leave us proofs of the thousands of theorems he recorded in his notebooks, and so it cannot be claimed that many of the proofs given in this book are those found by Ramanujan. However, they are all in the spirit of his mathematics. The subjects examined in this book have a rich history dating back to Euler and Jacobi, and they continue to be focal points of contemporary mathematic...
Approximate particle number projection in hot nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kosov, D.S.; Vdovin, A.I.
1995-01-01
Heated finite systems like, e.g., hot atomic nuclei have to be described by the canonical partition function. But this is a quite difficult technical problem and, as a rule, the grand canonical partition function is used in the studies. As a result, some shortcomings of the theoretical description appear because of the thermal fluctuations of the number of particles. Moreover, in nuclei with pairing correlations the quantum number fluctuations are introduced by some approximate methods (e.g., by the standard BCS method). The exact particle number projection is very cumbersome and an approximate number projection method for T ≠ 0 basing on the formalism of thermo field dynamics is proposed. The idea of the Lipkin-Nogami method to perform any operator as a series in the number operator powers is used. The system of equations for the coefficients of this expansion is written and the solution of the system in the next approximation after the BCS one is obtained. The method which is of the 'projection after variation' type is applied to a degenerate single j-shell model. 14 refs., 1 tab
True random numbers from amplified quantum vacuum.
Jofre, M; Curty, M; Steinlechner, F; Anzolin, G; Torres, J P; Mitchell, M W; Pruneri, V
2011-10-10
Random numbers are essential for applications ranging from secure communications to numerical simulation and quantitative finance. Algorithms can rapidly produce pseudo-random outcomes, series of numbers that mimic most properties of true random numbers while quantum random number generators (QRNGs) exploit intrinsic quantum randomness to produce true random numbers. Single-photon QRNGs are conceptually simple but produce few random bits per detection. In contrast, vacuum fluctuations are a vast resource for QRNGs: they are broad-band and thus can encode many random bits per second. Direct recording of vacuum fluctuations is possible, but requires shot-noise-limited detectors, at the cost of bandwidth. We demonstrate efficient conversion of vacuum fluctuations to true random bits using optical amplification of vacuum and interferometry. Using commercially-available optical components we demonstrate a QRNG at a bit rate of 1.11 Gbps. The proposed scheme has the potential to be extended to 10 Gbps and even up to 100 Gbps by taking advantage of high speed modulation sources and detectors for optical fiber telecommunication devices.
All-optical fast random number generator.
Li, Pu; Wang, Yun-Cai; Zhang, Jian-Zhong
2010-09-13
We propose a scheme of all-optical random number generator (RNG), which consists of an ultra-wide bandwidth (UWB) chaotic laser, an all-optical sampler and an all-optical comparator. Free from the electric-device bandwidth, it can generate 10Gbit/s random numbers in our simulation. The high-speed bit sequences can pass standard statistical tests for randomness after all-optical exclusive-or (XOR) operation.
CAT-ASVAB Technical Bulletin Number 1
2006-03-01
CAT -ASVAB Technical Bulletin #1 Personnel Testing Division Defense Manpower Data Center March 2006 Report...2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CAT -ASVAB Technical Bulletin #1 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...Hetter, R. D. "Psychometric Procedures for Administering CAT -ASVAB" (pp. 131-140) Chapter 4 Hetter, R. D., & Sympson J. B. "Item Exposure
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
IAS Admin
improved by Selberg [4] in 1941 who showed that a pos- ... be seen by entries of his first letter to G H Hardy in ... tary in the technical sense of the word, employed com- ..... III: On the expression of a number as a sum of primes, Acta Math.,.
Hydration numbers of trivalent lanthanide and actinide ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
David, F.; Fourest, B.; Duplessis, J.
1987-01-01
Investigations on the structure of actinide aquo ions and determination of hydration numbers have to be studied, essentially, through radiochemical methods. They measured the transport numbers, diffusion coefficient D by the open end capillary method and ionic mobility u by electrophoresis. Both methods show a discontinuity in the transport number corresponding to the crystallographic radius of Eu 3+ or Bk 3+ ion. They deduced the volume of the actinide aquo ions, and the coordination number in the primary sphere. From calculations of the electrostriction phenomenon in the vicinity of central ion, they obtained effective volume of the water molecules and the dynamic hydration number corresponding to the second hydration sphere
Graphical analysis of some pseudo-random number generators
Lewis, Peter A. W.
1986-01-01
There exist today many 'good' pseudo-random number generators; the problem is to retrieve them. This document discusses three commonly used pseudo- random number generators, the first being RANDU, a notoriously bad generator, but one which is still occasionally used. The next is the widely used prime modulus, multiplicative congruential generator used in LL-RANDOMII, the Naval Postgraduate School random number package, and the last is the random number generator provided for microcomputers wi...
Baryon number nonconservation in extreme conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matveev, V.A.; Rubakov, V.A.; Tavkhelidze, A.N.; Shaposhnikov, M.E.
1988-01-01
In gauge theories with the left-right asymmetric fermionic content (e.g. in standard electroweak theory) fermion number F is not conserved due to the anomaly. It is shown that anomalous processes, while being exponentially suppressed, under normal conditions, are in fact rapid. The mechanism of fermionic number nonconservation connected with a level crossing phenomenon in external gauge fields is described. The theory and experimental consequences of monopole catalysis of a proton decay is reviewed. It is shown that cold dense fermionic matter is stable only up to some limiting density. It is demonstrated that there is no exponential suppression of the rate F nonconservation at high temperatures. The cosmological implications of this fact are discussed. The strong anomalous fermionic number violation in decays of superheavy fermions technibaryons is considered
Large numbers hypothesis. II - Electromagnetic radiation
Adams, P. J.
1983-01-01
This paper develops the theory of electromagnetic radiation in the units covariant formalism incorporating Dirac's large numbers hypothesis (LNH). A direct field-to-particle technique is used to obtain the photon propagation equation which explicitly involves the photon replication rate. This replication rate is fixed uniquely by requiring that the form of a free-photon distribution function be preserved, as required by the 2.7 K cosmic radiation. One finds that with this particular photon replication rate the units covariant formalism developed in Paper I actually predicts that the ratio of photon number to proton number in the universe varies as t to the 1/4, precisely in accord with LNH. The cosmological red-shift law is also derived and it is shown to differ considerably from the standard form of (nu)(R) - const.
47 CFR 52.11 - North American Numbering Council.
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false North American Numbering Council. 52.11 Section... recommendations, reached through consensus, that foster efficient and impartial number administration; (c) Initially resolving disputes, through consensus, that foster efficient and impartial number administration...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khan, T.A.; Baum, J.W.; Beckman, M.C.
1993-10-01
This document contains information dealing with the lessons learned from the experience of nuclear plants. In this issue the authors tried to avoid the 'tyranny' of numbers and concentrated on the main lessons learned. Topics include: filtration devices for air pollution abatement, crack repair and inspection, and remote handling equipment
Materiales, 1995
1995-01-01
Four booklets present articles on Spanish language and culture aimed at teachers of Spanish in the United States for student use in their classes. Number 17, "Los Jovenes Espanoles" (Spanish Youth), includes articles on Spanish youth sports, music, gangs, thoughts, and t-shirt slogans: (1) "Young Spanish Athletes"; (2)…
When a number is not only a number
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Ken Ramshøj; Roepstorff, Andreas; Saddy, Douglas
at. 1999, 2004). Furthermore, lesions studies have shown that damage to the posterior inferior parietal cortex leads to severe difficulties with performing simple calculation, such as stepwise computation (Joseph 2000: 463). The same frontal-parietal network is also involved in working memory (WM......MRI study which involves numerical processing as well as WM and error detection. Three types of stimuli: (a) repeated chunks (x, y, z, x, y, z…), (b) smaller structured chunks requiring minimal calculation (x, x+1, y, y+1, z, z+1…), and (c) strings with an increased calculation requirement (x = x+3......). The control condition consists of simple x = x+1 strings (e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6…). The subjects have to press a button when they detect error to the general patterns, i.e., when a number does not conform to the numerical string. Using a block design to investigate the numerical processing, all three...
Symbols in numbers: From numerals to magnitude information
Lindemann, O.; Rüschemeyer, S.A.; Bekkering, H.
2009-01-01
A dual-code model of number processing needs to take into account the difference between a number symbol and its meaning. The transition of automatic non-abstract number representations into intentional abstract representations could be conceptualized as a translation of perceptual asematic
A Repetition Test for Pseudo-Random Number Generators
Gil, Manuel; Gonnet, Gaston H.; Petersen, Wesley P.
2017-01-01
A new statistical test for uniform pseudo-random number generators (PRNGs) is presented. The idea is that a sequence of pseudo-random numbers should have numbers reappear with a certain probability. The expectation time that a repetition occurs provides the metric for the test. For linear congruential generators (LCGs) failure can be shown theoretically. Empirical test results for a number of commonly used PRNGs are reported, showing that some PRNGs considered to have good statistical propert...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Schmale
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Aerosol–cloud interactions (ACI constitute the single largest uncertainty in anthropogenic radiative forcing. To reduce the uncertainties and gain more confidence in the simulation of ACI, models need to be evaluated against observations, in particular against measurements of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN. Here we present a data set – ready to be used for model validation – of long-term observations of CCN number concentrations, particle number size distributions and chemical composition from 12 sites on 3 continents. Studied environments include coastal background, rural background, alpine sites, remote forests and an urban surrounding. Expectedly, CCN characteristics are highly variable across site categories. However, they also vary within them, most strongly in the coastal background group, where CCN number concentrations can vary by up to a factor of 30 within one season. In terms of particle activation behaviour, most continental stations exhibit very similar activation ratios (relative to particles > 20 nm across the range of 0.1 to 1.0 % supersaturation. At the coastal sites the transition from particles being CCN inactive to becoming CCN active occurs over a wider range of the supersaturation spectrum. Several stations show strong seasonal cycles of CCN number concentrations and particle number size distributions, e.g. at Barrow (Arctic haze in spring, at the alpine stations (stronger influence of polluted boundary layer air masses in summer, the rain forest (wet and dry season or Finokalia (wildfire influence in autumn. The rural background and urban sites exhibit relatively little variability throughout the year, while short-term variability can be high especially at the urban site. The average hygroscopicity parameter, κ, calculated from the chemical composition of submicron particles was highest at the coastal site of Mace Head (0.6 and lowest at the rain forest station ATTO (0.2–0.3. We performed closure
Hodge numbers for all CICY quotients
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Constantin, Andrei; Gray, James; Lukas, Andre
2017-01-01
We present a general method for computing Hodge numbers for Calabi-Yau manifolds realised as discrete quotients of complete intersections in products of projective spaces. The method relies on the computation of equivariant cohomologies and is illustrated for several explicit examples. In this way, we compute the Hodge numbers for all discrete quotients obtained in Braun’s classification http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP04(2011)005.
Hodge numbers for all CICY quotients
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Constantin, Andrei [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, SE-751 20, Uppsala (Sweden); Gray, James [Physics Department, Robeson Hall, Virginia Tech,Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Lukas, Andre [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, Oxford University,1 Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3NP (United Kingdom)
2017-01-02
We present a general method for computing Hodge numbers for Calabi-Yau manifolds realised as discrete quotients of complete intersections in products of projective spaces. The method relies on the computation of equivariant cohomologies and is illustrated for several explicit examples. In this way, we compute the Hodge numbers for all discrete quotients obtained in Braun’s classification http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP04(2011)005.
Higher arithmetic an algorithmic introduction to number theory
Edwards, Harold M
2008-01-01
Although number theorists have sometimes shunned and even disparaged computation in the past, today's applications of number theory to cryptography and computer security demand vast arithmetical computations. These demands have shifted the focus of studies in number theory and have changed attitudes toward computation itself. The important new applications have attracted a great many students to number theory, but the best reason for studying the subject remains what it was when Gauss published his classic Disquisitiones Arithmeticae in 1801: Number theory is the equal of Euclidean geometry--some would say it is superior to Euclidean geometry--as a model of pure, logical, deductive thinking. An arithmetical computation, after all, is the purest form of deductive argument. Higher Arithmetic explains number theory in a way that gives deductive reasoning, including algorithms and computations, the central role. Hands-on experience with the application of algorithms to computational examples enables students to m...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Attila Krajcsi
2018-02-01
Full Text Available HIGHLIGHTSWe test whether symbolic number comparison is handled by an analog noisy system.Analog system model has systematic biases in describing symbolic number comparison.This suggests that symbolic and non-symbolic numbers are processed by different systems.Dominant numerical cognition models suppose that both symbolic and non-symbolic numbers are processed by the Analog Number System (ANS working according to Weber's law. It was proposed that in a number comparison task the numerical distance and size effects reflect a ratio-based performance which is the sign of the ANS activation. However, increasing number of findings and alternative models propose that symbolic and non-symbolic numbers might be processed by different representations. Importantly, alternative explanations may offer similar predictions to the ANS prediction, therefore, former evidence usually utilizing only the goodness of fit of the ANS prediction is not sufficient to support the ANS account. To test the ANS model more rigorously, a more extensive test is offered here. Several properties of the ANS predictions for the error rates, reaction times, and diffusion model drift rates were systematically analyzed in both non-symbolic dot comparison and symbolic Indo-Arabic comparison tasks. It was consistently found that while the ANS model's prediction is relatively good for the non-symbolic dot comparison, its prediction is poorer and systematically biased for the symbolic Indo-Arabic comparison. We conclude that only non-symbolic comparison is supported by the ANS, and symbolic number comparisons are processed by other representation.
A new method for ordering triangular fuzzy numbers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S.H. Nasseri
2010-09-01
Full Text Available Ranking fuzzy numbers plays a very important role in linguistic decision making and other fuzzy application systems. In spite of many ranking methods, no one can rank fuzzy numbers with human intuition consistently in all cases. Shortcoming are found in some of the convenient methods for ranking triangular fuzzy numbers such as the coefficient of variation (CV index, distance between fuzzy sets, centroid point and original point, and also weighted mean value. In this paper, we introduce a new method for ranking triangular fuzzy number to overcome the shortcomings of the previous techniques. Finally, we compare our method with some convenient methods for ranking fuzzy numbers to illustrate the advantage our method.
33 CFR 181.29 - Hull identification number display.
2010-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hull identification number... SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY MANUFACTURER REQUIREMENTS Identification of Boats § 181.29 Hull identification number display. Two identical hull identification numbers are required to be displayed on each...
Proper Use of Capillary Number in Chemical Flooding
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hu Guo
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Capillary number theory is very important for chemical flooding enhanced oil recovery. The difference between microscopic capillary number and the microscopic one is easy to confuse. After decades of development, great progress has been made in capillary number theory and it has important but sometimes incorrect application in EOR. The capillary number theory was based on capillary tube bundles and Darcy’s law hypothesis, and this should always be kept in mind when used in chemical flooding EOR. The flow in low permeability porous media often shows obvious non-Darcy effects, which is beyond Darcy’s law. Experiments data from ASP flooding and SP flooding showed that remaining oil saturation was not always decreasing as capillary number kept on increasing. Relative permeability was proved function of capillary number; its rate dependence was affected by capillary end effects. The mobility control should be given priority rather than lowering IFT. The displacement efficiency was not increased as displacement velocity increased as expected in heavy oil chemical flooding. Largest capillary number does not always make highest recovery in chemical flooding in heterogeneous reservoir. Misuse of CDC in EOR included the ignorance of mobility ratio, Darcy linear flow hypothesis, difference between microscopic capillary number and the microscopic one, and heterogeneity caused flow regime alteration. Displacement of continuous oil or remobilization of discontinuous oil was quite different.
Large number discrimination by mosquitofish.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christian Agrillo
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated that fish display rudimentary numerical abilities similar to those observed in mammals and birds. The mechanisms underlying the discrimination of small quantities (<4 were recently investigated while, to date, no study has examined the discrimination of large numerosities in fish. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Subjects were trained to discriminate between two sets of small geometric figures using social reinforcement. In the first experiment mosquitofish were required to discriminate 4 from 8 objects with or without experimental control of the continuous variables that co-vary with number (area, space, density, total luminance. Results showed that fish can use the sole numerical information to compare quantities but that they preferentially use cumulative surface area as a proxy of the number when this information is available. A second experiment investigated the influence of the total number of elements to discriminate large quantities. Fish proved to be able to discriminate up to 100 vs. 200 objects, without showing any significant decrease in accuracy compared with the 4 vs. 8 discrimination. The third experiment investigated the influence of the ratio between the numerosities. Performance was found to decrease when decreasing the numerical distance. Fish were able to discriminate numbers when ratios were 1:2 or 2:3 but not when the ratio was 3:4. The performance of a sample of undergraduate students, tested non-verbally using the same sets of stimuli, largely overlapped that of fish. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Fish are able to use pure numerical information when discriminating between quantities larger than 4 units. As observed in human and non-human primates, the numerical system of fish appears to have virtually no upper limit while the numerical ratio has a clear effect on performance. These similarities further reinforce the view of a common origin of non-verbal numerical systems in all
Uniform random number generators
Farr, W. R.
1971-01-01
Methods are presented for the generation of random numbers with uniform and normal distributions. Subprogram listings of Fortran generators for the Univac 1108, SDS 930, and CDC 3200 digital computers are also included. The generators are of the mixed multiplicative type, and the mathematical method employed is that of Marsaglia and Bray.
Bell, Eric Temple
1991-01-01
From one of the foremost interpreters for lay readers of the history and meaning of mathematics: a stimulating account of the origins of mathematical thought and the development of numerical theory. It probes the work of Pythagoras, Galileo, Berkeley, Einstein, and others, exploring how ""number magic"" has influenced religion, philosophy, science, and mathematics
On gauged Baryon and Lepton numbers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rajpoot, S.
1990-01-01
The observation that Baryon number and Lepton number are conserved in nature provides strong motivation for associating gauge symmetries to these conserved numbers. This endeavor requires that the gauge group of electroweak interactions be extended from SU(2) L X U(1) Y to SU(2) L X U(1) R X U(1) Lepton where U(1) R couples only to the right-handed quarks and leptons. If it furthur postulated that right-handed currents exist on par with the left-handed ones, then the full electroweak symmetry is SU(2) L X SU(2) R X U(1) Baryon X U(1) Lepton . The SU(2) L X SU(2) R X U(1) Baryon X U(1) Lepton model is described in some detail. The triangle anomalies of the three families of quarks and leptons in the model are cancelled invoking leptoquark matter which is new fermionic matter that carries baryon as well as lepton numbers. In addition to the standard neutral boson (Z degree), the theory predicts two neutral gauge bosons with mass lower bounds of 120 GeV and 210 GeV which makes these particles prospective candidates for production at LEP, the TEVATRON and the SSC
Gauge transformations with fractional winding numbers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abouelsaood, A.
1996-01-01
The role which gauge transformations of noninteger winding numbers might play in non-Abelian gauge theories is studied. The phase factor acquired by the semiclassical physical states in an arbitrary background gauge field when they undergo a gauge transformation of an arbitrary real winding number is calculated in the path integral formalism assuming that a θFF term added to the Lagrangian plays the same role as in the case of integer winding numbers. Requiring that these states provide a representation of the group of open-quote open-quote large close-quote close-quote gauge transformations, a condition on the allowed backgrounds is obtained. It is shown that this representability condition is only satisfied in the monopole sector of a spontaneously broken gauge theory, but not in the vacuum sector of an unbroken or a spontaneously broken non-Abelian gauge theory. It is further shown that the recent proof of the vanishing of the θ parameter when gauge transformations of arbitrary fractional winding numbers are allowed breaks down in precisely those cases where the representability condition is obeyed because certain gauge transformations needed for the proof, and whose existence is assumed, are either spontaneously broken or cannot be globally defined as a result of a topological obstruction. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Reproduction numbers of infectious disease models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pauline van den Driessche
2017-08-01
Full Text Available This primer article focuses on the basic reproduction number, â0, for infectious diseases, and other reproduction numbers related to â0 that are useful in guiding control strategies. Beginning with a simple population model, the concept is developed for a threshold value of â0 determining whether or not the disease dies out. The next generation matrix method of calculating â0 in a compartmental model is described and illustrated. To address control strategies, type and target reproduction numbers are defined, as well as sensitivity and elasticity indices. These theoretical ideas are then applied to models that are formulated for West Nile virus in birds (a vector-borne disease, cholera in humans (a disease with two transmission pathways, anthrax in animals (a disease that can be spread by dead carcasses and spores, and Zika in humans (spread by mosquitoes and sexual contacts. Some parameter values from literature data are used to illustrate the results. Finally, references for other ways to calculate â0 are given. These are useful for more complicated models that, for example, take account of variations in environmental fluctuation or stochasticity. Keywords: Basic reproduction number, Disease control, West Nile virus, Cholera, Anthrax, Zika virus
Partitioning of copy-number genotypes in pedigrees
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andelfinger Gregor U
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Copy number variations (CNVs and polymorphisms (CNPs have only recently gained the genetic community's attention. Conservative estimates have shown that CNVs and CNPs might affect more than 10% of the genome and that they may be at least as important as single nucleotide polymorphisms in assessing human variability. Widely used tools for CNP analysis have been implemented in Birdsuite and PLINK for the purpose of conducting genetic association studies based on the unpartitioned total number of CNP copies provided by the intensities from Affymetrix's Genome-Wide Human SNP Array. Here, we are interested in partitioning copy number variations and polymorphisms in extended pedigrees for the purpose of linkage analysis on familial data. Results We have developed CNGen, a new software for the partitioning of copy number polymorphism using the integrated genotypes from Birdsuite with the Affymetrix platform. The algorithm applied to familial trios or extended pedigrees can produce partitioned copy number genotypes with distinct parental alleles. We have validated the algorithm using simulations on a complex pedigree structure using frequencies calculated from a real dataset of 300 genotyped samples from 42 pedigrees segregating a congenital heart defect phenotype. Conclusions CNGen is the first published software for the partitioning of copy number genotypes in pedigrees, making possible the use CNPs and CNVs for linkage analysis. It was implemented with the Python interpreter version 2.5.2. It was successfully tested on current Linux, Windows and Mac OS workstations.
Some functional equations originating from number theory
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
Moreover, we will also study some stability problems of those equations. ... Wisconsin in which he discussed a number of important unsolved problems [18]. ... According to a well-known theorem in number theory, a positive integer of the form.
33 CFR 181.25 - Hull identification number format.
2010-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hull identification number format... (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY MANUFACTURER REQUIREMENTS Identification of Boats § 181.25 Hull identification number format. Each of the hull identification numbers required by § 181.23 must consist of twelve...
Cayley number and conservation laws for elementary particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vollendorf, F.
1975-01-01
It is shown that the five conservation laws of charge, hyper-charge, barion number and the two lepton numbers lead to the construction of a commutative non-associative 24 dimensional linear algebra. Each element of the algebra is an ordered set of three Cayley numbers. (orig.) [de
78 FR 26244 - Updating of Employer Identification Numbers
2013-05-06
... Number, or EIN. Employers are required to know the identity of their responsible party. The amount of...-BK02 Updating of Employer Identification Numbers AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury... assigned an employer identification number (EIN) to provide updated information to the IRS in the manner...
Modified Mason number for charged paramagnetic colloidal suspensions
Du, Di; Hilou, Elaa; Biswal, Sibani Lisa
2016-06-01
The dynamics of magnetorheological fluids have typically been described by the Mason number, a governing parameter defined as the ratio between viscous and magnetic forces in the fluid. For most experimental suspensions of magnetic particles, surface forces, such as steric and electrostatic interactions, can significantly influence the dynamics. Here we propose a theory of a modified Mason number that accounts for surface forces and show that this modified Mason number is a function of interparticle distance. We demonstrate that this modified Mason number is accurate in describing the dynamics of a rotating pair of paramagnetic colloids of identical or mismatched sizes in either high or low salt solutions. The modified Mason number is confirmed to be pseudoconstant for particle pairs and particle chains undergoing a stable-metastable transition during rotation. The interparticle distance term can be calculated using theory or can be measured experimentally. This modified Mason number is more applicable to magnetorheological systems where surface forces are not negligible.
The generative basis of natural number concepts.
Leslie, Alan M; Gelman, Rochel; Gallistel, C R
2008-06-01
Number concepts must support arithmetic inference. Using this principle, it can be argued that the integer concept of exactly ONE is a necessary part of the psychological foundations of number, as is the notion of the exact equality - that is, perfect substitutability. The inability to support reasoning involving exact equality is a shortcoming in current theories about the development of numerical reasoning. A simple innate basis for the natural number concepts can be proposed that embodies the arithmetic principle, supports exact equality and also enables computational compatibility with real- or rational-valued mental magnitudes.
20 CFR 209.3 - Social security number required.
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Social security number required. 209.3... RAILROAD EMPLOYERS' REPORTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES § 209.3 Social security number required. Each employer shall furnish to the Board a social security number for each employee for whom any report is submitted...
Cognitive Analysis of Educational Games: The Number Game
Van der Maas, Han; Nyamsuren, Enkhbold
2018-01-01
We analyze the cognitive strategies underlying performance in the Number task, a Math game that requires both arithmetic fluency and mathematical creativity. In this game all elements in a set of numbers (for instance, 2, 5, 9) have to be used precisely once to create a target number (for
[Frequency distribution of dibucaine numbers in 24,830 patients].
Pestel, G; Sprenger, H; Rothhammer, A
2003-06-01
Atypical cholinesterase prolongs the duration of neuromuscular blocking drugs such as succinylcholine and mivacurium. Measuring the dibucaine number identifies patients who are at risk. This study shows the frequency distribution of dibucaine numbers routinely measured and discusses avoidable clinical problems and economic implications. Dibucaine numbers were measured on a Hitachi 917-analyzer and all dibucaine numbers recorded over a period of 4 years were taken into consideration. Repeat observations were excluded. A total of 24,830 dibucaine numbers were analysed and numbers below 30 were found in 0.07% ( n=18) giving an incidence of 1:1,400. Dibucaine numbers from 30 to 70 were found in 1.23% ( n=306). On the basis of identification of the Dibucaine numbers we could avoid the administration of succinylcholine or mivacurium resulting in a cost reduction of 12,280 Euro offset against the total laboratory costs amounting to 10,470 Euro. An incidence of 1:1,400 of dibucaine numbers below 30 is higher than documented in the literature. Therefore, routine measurement of dibucaine number is a cost-effective method of identifying patients at increased risk of prolonged neuromuscular blockade due to atypical cholinesterase.
Materiales, 1997
1997-01-01
These three journals of contemporary cultural, historical, and social interest contain activities designed to enhance the awareness of students of Spanish as a foreign language regarding the entire panorama of daily life in Spain. Number 21 focuses on the role of modern Spanish women; their career status; female authors; and the changing place of…
A self-organizing learning account of number-form synaesthesia.
Makioka, Shogo
2009-09-01
Some people automatically and involuntarily "see" mental images of numbers in spatial arrays when they think of numbers. This phenomenon, called number forms, shares three key characteristics with the other types of synaesthesia, within-individual consistency, between-individual variety, and mixture of regularity and randomness. A theoretical framework called SOLA (self-organizing learning account of number forms) is proposed, which explains the generation process of number forms and the origin of those three characteristics. The simulations replicated the qualitative properties of the shapes of number forms, the property that numbers are aligned in order of size, that discontinuity usually occurs at the point of carry, and that continuous lines tend to have many bends.
Factorials of real negative and imaginary numbers - A new perspective.
Thukral, Ashwani K
2014-01-01
Presently, factorials of real negative numbers and imaginary numbers, except for zero and negative integers are interpolated using the Euler's gamma function. In the present paper, the concept of factorials has been generalised as applicable to real and imaginary numbers, and multifactorials. New functions based on Euler's factorial function have been proposed for the factorials of real negative and imaginary numbers. As per the present concept, the factorials of real negative numbers, are complex numbers. The factorials of real negative integers have their imaginary part equal to zero, thus are real numbers. Similarly, the factorials of imaginary numbers are complex numbers. The moduli of the complex factorials of real negative numbers, and imaginary numbers are equal to their respective real positive number factorials. Fractional factorials and multifactorials have been defined in a new perspective. The proposed concept has also been extended to Euler's gamma function for real negative numbers and imaginary numbers, and beta function.
Cognitive Analysis of Educational Games : The Number Game
van der Maas, H.L.J.; Nyamsuren, E.
We analyze the cognitive strategies underlying performance in the Number task, a Math game that requires both arithmetic fluency and mathematical creativity. In this game all elements in a set of numbers (for instance, 2, 5, 9) have to be used precisely once to create a target number (for instance,
Microcomputer-Assisted Discoveries: Random Numbers.
Kimberling, Clark
1983-01-01
A programing contest was designed to promote interest in mathematical randomness. Student-developed programs making clever uses of random numbers are presented. Modifications users might make are suggested. (MNS)
On contact numbers in random rod packings
Wouterse, A.; Luding, Stefan; Philipse, A.P.
2009-01-01
Random packings of non-spherical granular particles are simulated by combining mechanical contraction and molecular dynamics, to determine contact numbers as a function of density. Particle shapes are varied from spheres to thin rods. The observed contact numbers (and packing densities) agree well
Number sense in infancy predicts mathematical abilities in childhood.
Starr, Ariel; Libertus, Melissa E; Brannon, Elizabeth M
2013-11-05
Human infants in the first year of life possess an intuitive sense of number. This preverbal number sense may serve as a developmental building block for the uniquely human capacity for mathematics. In support of this idea, several studies have demonstrated that nonverbal number sense is correlated with mathematical abilities in children and adults. However, there has been no direct evidence that infant numerical abilities are related to mathematical abilities later in childhood. Here, we provide evidence that preverbal number sense in infancy predicts mathematical abilities in preschool-aged children. Numerical preference scores at 6 months of age correlated with both standardized math test scores and nonsymbolic number comparison scores at 3.5 years of age, suggesting that preverbal number sense facilitates the acquisition of numerical symbols and mathematical abilities. This relationship held even after controlling for general intelligence, indicating that preverbal number sense imparts a unique contribution to mathematical ability. These results validate the many prior studies purporting to show number sense in infancy and support the hypothesis that mathematics is built upon an intuitive sense of number that predates language.
Some Combinatorial Interpretations and Applications of Fuss-Catalan Numbers
Lin, Chin-Hung
2011-01-01
Fuss-Catalan number is a family of generalized Catalan numbers. We begin by two definitions of Fuss-Catalan numbers and some basic properties. And we give some combinatorial interpretations different from original Catalan numbers. Finally we generalize the Jonah's theorem as its applications.
Fibonacci and Lucas numbers with applications
Koshy, Thomas
2011-01-01
[Koshy's] book is without doubt the most comprehensive and scholarly work on Fibonacci numbers to date and I am sure that it will quickly signal its presence and impose itself as an authoritative reference manual on Fibonacci numbers. -Napoleon Gauthier, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON What a gem this is! [...] My only regrest about the book is that it wasn't around years ago. It fills such a void. -Monte Zerger, Adams State College, Alamosa, CO
Division in a Binary Representation for Complex Numbers
Blest, David C.; Jamil, Tariq
2003-01-01
Computer operations involving complex numbers, essential in such applications as Fourier transforms or image processing, are normally performed in a "divide-and-conquer" approach dealing separately with real and imaginary parts. A number of proposals have treated complex numbers as a single unit but all have foundered on the problem of the…
Number skills are maintained in healthy ageing.
Cappelletti, Marinella; Didino, Daniele; Stoianov, Ivilin; Zorzi, Marco
2014-03-01
Numerical skills have been extensively studied in terms of their development and pathological decline, but whether they change in healthy ageing is not well known. Longer exposure to numbers and quantity-related problems may progressively refine numerical skills, similar to what happens to other cognitive abilities like verbal memory. Alternatively, number skills may be sensitive to ageing, reflecting either a decline of number processing itself or of more auxiliary cognitive abilities that are involved in number tasks. To distinguish between these possibilities we tested 30 older and 30 younger participants on an established numerosity discrimination task requiring to judge which of two sets of items is more numerous, and on arithmetical tasks. Older participants were remarkably accurate in performing arithmetical tasks although their numerosity discrimination (also known as 'number acuity') was impaired. Further analyses indicate that this impairment was limited to numerosity trials requiring inhibiting information incongruent to numerosity (e.g., fewer but larger items), and that this also correlated with poor inhibitory processes measured by standard tests. Therefore, rather than a numerical impairment, poor numerosity discrimination is likely to reflect elderly's impoverished inhibitory processes. This conclusion is supported by simulations with a recent neuro-computational model of numerosity perception, where only the specific degradation of inhibitory processes produced a pattern that closely resembled older participants' performance. Numeracy seems therefore resilient to ageing but it is influenced by the decline of inhibitory processes supporting number performance, consistent with the 'Inhibitory Deficit' Theory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Department of Homeland Security — SEVIS by the Numbers is a quarterly report that highlights nonimmigrant student and exchange visitor trends, values and information using data from the Student and...
Department of Homeland Security — SEVIS by the Numbers is a quarterly report that highlights nonimmigrant student and exchange visitor trends, values and information using data from the Student and...
Numbers their history and meaning
Flegg, Graham
2003-01-01
Readable, jargon-free book examines the earliest endeavors to count and record numbers, initial attempts to solve problems by using equations, and origins of infinite cardinal arithmetic. "Surprisingly exciting." - Choice.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kaitlynn LeRiche
Full Text Available Pokey is a class II DNA transposon that inserts into 28S ribosomal RNA (rRNA genes and other genomic regions of species in the subgenus, Daphnia. Two divergent lineages, PokeyA and PokeyB have been identified. Recombination between misaligned rRNA genes changes their number and the number of Pokey elements. We used quantitative PCR (qPCR to estimate rRNA gene and Pokey number in isolates from natural populations of Daphnia obtusa, and in clonally-propagated mutation accumulation lines (MAL initiated from a single D. obtusa female. The change in direction and magnitude of Pokey and rRNA gene number did not show a consistent pattern across ∼ 87 generations in the MAL; however, Pokey and rRNA gene number changed in concert. PokeyA and 28S gene number were positively correlated in the isolates from both natural populations and the MAL. PokeyB number was much lower than PokeyA in both MAL and natural population isolates, and showed no correlation with 28S gene number. Preliminary analysis did not detect PokeyB outside rDNA in any isolates and detected only 0 to 4 copies of PokeyA outside rDNA indicating that Pokey may be primarily an rDNA element in D. obtusa. The recombination rate in this species is high and the average size of the rDNA locus is about twice as large as that in other Daphnia species such as D. pulicaria and D. pulex, which may have facilitated expansion of PokeyA to much higher numbers in D. obtusa rDNA than these other species.
Strictly-regular number system and data structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim; Jensen, Claus; Katajainen, Jyrki
2010-01-01
We introduce a new number system that we call the strictly-regular system, which efficiently supports the operations: digit-increment, digit-decrement, cut, concatenate, and add. Compared to other number systems, the strictly-regular system has distinguishable properties. It is superior to the re...
7 CFR 1940.1000 - OMB control number.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true OMB control number. 1940.1000 Section 1940.1000 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS....1000 OMB control number. The collection of information requirements contained in this regulation has...
Hacking DNA copy number for circuit engineering.
Wu, Feilun; You, Lingchong
2017-07-27
DNA copy number represents an essential parameter in the dynamics of synthetic gene circuits but typically is not explicitly considered. A new study demonstrates how dynamic control of DNA copy number can serve as an effective strategy to program robust oscillations in gene expression circuits.
Gaussian distribution of LMOV numbers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Mironov
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Recent advances in knot polynomial calculus allowed us to obtain a huge variety of LMOV integers counting degeneracy of the BPS spectrum of topological theories on the resolved conifold and appearing in the genus expansion of the plethystic logarithm of the Ooguri–Vafa partition functions. Already the very first look at this data reveals that the LMOV numbers are randomly distributed in genus (! and are very well parameterized by just three parameters depending on the representation, an integer and the knot. We present an accurate formulation and evidence in support of this new puzzling observation about the old puzzling quantities. It probably implies that the BPS states, counted by the LMOV numbers can actually be composites made from some still more elementary objects.
Number Line Estimation in Children with Developmental Dyscalculia
Sella, Francesco; Berteletti, Ilaria; Martina, Brazzolotto; Lucangeli, Daniela; Zorzi, Marco
2013-01-01
In the number to position task, several studies have shown that typically developing children shift from a biased (logarithmic) to an accurate (linear) mapping of symbolic digits onto a spatial position on a line. The initial pattern of overestimation of small numbers and the underestimation of larger numbers is compensated by means of age and…
The number of independent sets in unicyclic graphs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Anders Sune; Vestergaard, Preben Dahl
In this paper, we determine upper and lower bounds for the number of independent sets in a unicyclic graph in terms of its order. This gives an upper bound for the number of independent sets in a connected graph which contains at least one cycle. We also determine the upper bound for the number...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
O' Rourke, Patrick Francis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2016-10-27
The purpose of this report is to provide the reader with an understanding of how a Monte Carlo neutron transport code was written, developed, and evolved to calculate the probability distribution functions (PDFs) and their moments for the neutron number at a final time as well as the cumulative fission number, along with introducing several basic Monte Carlo concepts.
Quantum numbers and band topology of nanotubes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Damnjanovic, M [Faculty of Physics, University of Belgrade, POB 368, 11001 Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Milosevic, I [Faculty of Physics, University of Belgrade, POB 368, 11001 Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Vukovic, T [Faculty of Physics, University of Belgrade, POB 368, 11001 Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Maultzsch, J [Institut fuer Festkoerper Physik, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany)
2003-05-30
Nanotubes as well as polymers and quasi-1D subsystems of 3D crystals have line group symmetry. This allows two types of quantum numbers: roto-translational and helical. The roto-translational quantum numbers are linear and total angular (not conserved) momenta, while the helical quantum numbers are helical and complementary angular momenta. Their mutual relations determine some topological properties of energy bands, such as systematic band sticking or van Hove singularities related to parities. The importance of these conclusions is illustrated by the optical absorption in carbon nanotubes: parity may prevent absorption peaks at van Hove singularities.
Quantum numbers and band topology of nanotubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Damnjanovic, M; Milosevic, I; Vukovic, T; Maultzsch, J
2003-01-01
Nanotubes as well as polymers and quasi-1D subsystems of 3D crystals have line group symmetry. This allows two types of quantum numbers: roto-translational and helical. The roto-translational quantum numbers are linear and total angular (not conserved) momenta, while the helical quantum numbers are helical and complementary angular momenta. Their mutual relations determine some topological properties of energy bands, such as systematic band sticking or van Hove singularities related to parities. The importance of these conclusions is illustrated by the optical absorption in carbon nanotubes: parity may prevent absorption peaks at van Hove singularities
Quantum numbers and band topology of nanotubes
Damnjanovic, M; Vukovic, T; Maultzsch, J
2003-01-01
Nanotubes as well as polymers and quasi-1D subsystems of 3D crystals have line group symmetry. This allows two types of quantum numbers: roto-translational and helical. The roto-translational quantum numbers are linear and total angular (not conserved) momenta, while the helical quantum numbers are helical and complementary angular momenta. Their mutual relations determine some topological properties of energy bands, such as systematic band sticking or van Hove singularities related to parities. The importance of these conclusions is illustrated by the optical absorption in carbon nanotubes: parity may prevent absorption peaks at van Hove singularities.
On Generalizations of the Stirling Number Triangles
Lang, Wolfdieter
2000-09-01
Sequences of generalized Stirling numbers of both kinds are introduced. These sequences of triangles (i.e. infinite-dimensional lower triangular matrices) of numbers will be denoted by S2(k;n,m) and S1(k;n,m) with k in Z. The original Stirling number triangles of the second and first kind arise when k = 1. S2(2;n,m) is identical with the unsigned S1(2;n,m) triangle, called S1p(2;n,m), which also represents the triangle of signless Lah numbers. Certain associated number triangles, denoted by s2(k;n,m) and s1(k;n,m), are also defined. Both s2(2;n,m) and s1(2;n + 1, m + 1) form Pascal's triangle, and s2(-1,n,m) turns out to be Catalan's triangle. Generating functions are given for the columns of these triangles. Each S2(k) and S1(k) matrix is an example of a Jabotinsky matrix. Therefore the generating functions for the rows of these triangular arrays constitute exponential convolution polynomials. The sequences of the row sums of these triangles are also considered. These triangles are related to the problem of obtaining finite transformations from infinitesimal ones generated by x^k d/dx, for k in Z.
Number theory an introduction via the density of primes
Fine, Benjamin
2016-01-01
Now in its second edition, this textbook provides an introduction and overview of number theory based on the density and properties of the prime numbers. This unique approach offers both a firm background in the standard material of number theory, as well as an overview of the entire discipline. All of the essential topics are covered, such as the fundamental theorem of arithmetic, theory of congruences, quadratic reciprocity, arithmetic functions, and the distribution of primes. New in this edition are coverage of p-adic numbers, Hensel's lemma, multiple zeta-values, and elliptic curve methods in primality testing. Key topics and features include: A solid introduction to analytic number theory, including full proofs of Dirichlet's Theorem and the Prime Number Theorem Concise treatment of algebraic number theory, including a complete presentation of primes, prime factorizations in algebraic number fields, and unique factorization of ideals Discussion of the AKS algorithm, which shows that primality testing is...
ABOUT COMPLEX OPERATIONS IN NON-POSITIONAL RESIDUE NUMBER SYSTEM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu. D. Polissky
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this work is the theoretical substantiation of methods for increased efficiency of execution of difficult, so-called not modular, operations in non-positional residue number system for which it is necessary to know operand digits for all grade levels. Methodology. To achieve the target the numbers are presented in odd module system, while the result of the operation is determined on the basis of establishing the operand parity. The parity is determined by finding the sum modulo for the values of the number positional characteristics for all of its modules. Algorithm of position characteristics includes two types of iteration. The first iteration is to move from this number to a smaller number, in which the remains of one or more modules are equal to zero. This is achieved by subtracting out of all the residues the value of one of them. The second iteration is to move from this number to a smaller number due to exclusion of modules, which residues are zero, by dividing this number by the product of these modules. Iterations are performed until the residues of one, some or all of the modules equal to zero and other modules are excluded. The proposed method is distinguished by its simplicity and allows you to obtain the result of the operation quickly. Findings. There are obtained rather simple solutions of not modular operations for definition of outputs beyond the range of the result of adding or subtracting pairs of numbers, comparing pairs of numbers, determining the number belonging to the specific half of the range, defining parity of numbers presented in non-positional residue number system. Originality. The work offered the new effective approaches to solve the non-modular operations of the non-positional residue number system. It seems appropriate to consider these approaches as research areas to enhance the effectiveness of the modular calculation. Practical value. The above solutions have high performance and can
Aldhous, Marian C.; Abu Bakar, Suhaili; Prescott, Natalie J.; Palla, Raquel; Soo, Kimberley; Mansfield, John C.; Mathew, Christopher G.; Satsangi, Jack; Armour, John A.L.
2010-01-01
The copy number variation in beta-defensin genes on human chromosome 8 has been proposed to underlie susceptibility to inflammatory disorders, but presents considerable challenges for accurate typing on the scale required for adequately powered case–control studies. In this work, we have used accurate methods of copy number typing based on the paralogue ratio test (PRT) to assess beta-defensin copy number in more than 1500 UK DNA samples including more than 1000 cases of Crohn's disease. A subset of 625 samples was typed using both PRT-based methods and standard real-time PCR methods, from which direct comparisons highlight potentially serious shortcomings of a real-time PCR assay for typing this variant. Comparing our PRT-based results with two previous studies based only on real-time PCR, we find no evidence to support the reported association of Crohn's disease with either low or high beta-defensin copy number; furthermore, it is noteworthy that there are disagreements between different studies on the observed frequency distribution of copy number states among European controls. We suggest safeguards to be adopted in assessing and reporting the accuracy of copy number measurement, with particular emphasis on integer clustering of results, to avoid reporting of spurious associations in future case–control studies. PMID:20858604
Aldhous, Marian C; Abu Bakar, Suhaili; Prescott, Natalie J; Palla, Raquel; Soo, Kimberley; Mansfield, John C; Mathew, Christopher G; Satsangi, Jack; Armour, John A L
2010-12-15
The copy number variation in beta-defensin genes on human chromosome 8 has been proposed to underlie susceptibility to inflammatory disorders, but presents considerable challenges for accurate typing on the scale required for adequately powered case-control studies. In this work, we have used accurate methods of copy number typing based on the paralogue ratio test (PRT) to assess beta-defensin copy number in more than 1500 UK DNA samples including more than 1000 cases of Crohn's disease. A subset of 625 samples was typed using both PRT-based methods and standard real-time PCR methods, from which direct comparisons highlight potentially serious shortcomings of a real-time PCR assay for typing this variant. Comparing our PRT-based results with two previous studies based only on real-time PCR, we find no evidence to support the reported association of Crohn's disease with either low or high beta-defensin copy number; furthermore, it is noteworthy that there are disagreements between different studies on the observed frequency distribution of copy number states among European controls. We suggest safeguards to be adopted in assessing and reporting the accuracy of copy number measurement, with particular emphasis on integer clustering of results, to avoid reporting of spurious associations in future case-control studies.
Some Remarks on Iterated Maps of Natural Numbers
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
IAS Admin
happy numbers, Fibonacci Quart., Vol.41, 2003, No.4, pp.301–306,. 2003. [7]. H G Grundman and E A Teeple, Sequences of generalized happy numbers with small bases, J. Integer Seq., Vol.10, No.1, Article 07.1.8,. 6, 2007. [8]. H G Grundman and E A Teeple, Sequences of consecutive happy numbers, Rocky Mountain J.
Dynamical real numbers and living systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Datta, Dhurjati Prasad
2004-01-01
Recently uncovered second derivative discontinuous solutions of the simplest linear ordinary differential equation define not only an nonstandard extension of the framework of the ordinary calculus, but also provide a dynamical representation of the ordinary real number system. Every real number can be visualized as a living cell-like structure, endowed with a definite evolutionary arrow. We discuss the relevance of this extended calculus in the study of living systems. We also present an intelligent version of the Newton's first law of motion
Nielsen number of a covering map
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jerzy Jezierski
2006-02-01
Full Text Available We consider a finite regular covering pH:XÃ‹ÂœHÃ¢Â†Â’X over a compact polyhedron and a map f:XÃ¢Â†Â’X admitting a lift fÃ‹Âœ:XÃ‹ÂœHÃ¢Â†Â’XÃ‹ÂœH. We show some formulae expressing the Nielsen number N(f as a linear combination of the Nielsen numbers of its lifts.
Adaptive testing with equated number-correct scoring
van der Linden, Willem J.
1999-01-01
A constrained CAT algorithm is presented that automatically equates the number-correct scores on adaptive tests. The algorithm can be used to equate number-correct scores across different administrations of the same adaptive test as well as to an external reference test. The constraints are derived
49 CFR 230.51 - Number and location.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Number and location. 230.51 Section 230.51 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Water Glasses and Gauge Cocks § 230.51 Number and location. Every boiler shall be equipped with at least...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leon Hartwell Allen, Jr.
2018-04-01
Full Text Available A study was conducted in four compartments of a polycarbonate greenhouse at Gainesville, FL, USA to investigate how a soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cultivar, Maverick (maturity group III, indeterminate, responded to three elevated temperatures, ELT, (day/night of 34/26 °C, 38/30 °C, and 42/34 °C in comparison to a control growth temperature (30/22 °C. Carbon dioxide (CO2 concentration was maintained at 700 μmol mol−1 in each compartment by a processor controlled air-sampling and CO2-injection system. Three sequential experiments were conducted at different times of year (summer, autumn, and early spring to investigate the effect of intensity, timing, and duration of ELT on soybean node number, internode elongation, mainstem length, and number of pods set per plant. At the control temperature, the soybean plants grown in the polycarbonate greenhouse were taller than field-grown plants. When plants were grown under continuous ELT applied soon after sowing or at initial flowering, the number of nodes increased with increasing ELT intensity, whereas the length of individual internodes decreased. When ELT treatment was applied during the beginning of flowering stage (R1–R2 or earlier, more nodes were produced and the length of affected internodes was decreased. When the ELT was imposed later at reproductive stage R5+ just before the beginning of seed filling, effects on node numbers and internode lengths were negligible. Short-term (10-day duration of ELT applied at four stages from V3 to R5+ did not significantly affect final mean numbers of nodes or mean mainstem lengths. Possible mechanisms of elevated temperature effects on soybean internode elongation and node number (internode number are discussed. Total pod numbers per plant increased linearly with mainstem node numbers and mainstem length. Furthermore, total pod numbers per plant were greatest at 34/26 °C rather than at the control temperature of 30/22 °C (and
A hybrid-type quantum random number generator
Hai-Qiang, Ma; Wu, Zhu; Ke-Jin, Wei; Rui-Xue, Li; Hong-Wei, Liu
2016-05-01
This paper proposes a well-performing hybrid-type truly quantum random number generator based on the time interval between two independent single-photon detection signals, which is practical and intuitive, and generates the initial random number sources from a combination of multiple existing random number sources. A time-to-amplitude converter and multichannel analyzer are used for qualitative analysis to demonstrate that each and every step is random. Furthermore, a carefully designed data acquisition system is used to obtain a high-quality random sequence. Our scheme is simple and proves that the random number bit rate can be dramatically increased to satisfy practical requirements. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61178010 and 11374042), the Fund of State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications (Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications), China, and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (Grant No. bupt2014TS01).
Microcomputer Unit: Generating Random Numbers.
Haigh, William E.
1986-01-01
Presents an activity, suitable for students in grades 6-12, on generating random numbers. Objectives, equipment needed, list of prerequisite experiences, instructional strategies, and ready-to-copy student worksheets are included. (JN)
From zero to infinity what makes numbers interesting
Reid, Constance
2006-01-01
From Zero to Infinity is a combination of number lore, number history, and sparkling descriptions of the simply stated but exceedingly difficult problems posed by the most ordinary numbers that first appeared in 1955 and has been kept in print continuously ever since. With the fifth edition this classic has been updated to report on advances in number theory over the last 50 years, including the proof of Fermat's Last Theorem. Deceptively simple in style and structure, it is a book to which the reader will return again and again, gaining greater understanding and satisfaction with each reading
Building Kindergartners' Number Sense: A Randomized Controlled Study.
Jordan, Nancy C; Glutting, Joseph; Dyson, Nancy; Hassinger-Das, Brenna; Irwin, Casey
2012-08-01
Math achievement in elementary school is mediated by performance and growth in number sense during kindergarten. The aim of the present study was to test the effectiveness of a targeted small group number sense intervention for high-risk kindergartners from low-income communities. Children were randomly assigned to one of three groups ( n = 44 in each group): a number sense intervention group, a language intervention group, or a business as usual control group. Accounting for initial skill level in mathematical knowledge, children who received the number sense intervention performed better than controls at immediate post test, with meaningful effects on measures of number competencies and general math achievement. Many of the effects held eight weeks after the intervention was completed, suggesting that children internalized what they had learned. There were no differences between the language and control groups on any math-related measures.
42 CFR 435.910 - Use of social security number.
2010-10-01
... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of social security number. 435.910 Section 435... of social security number. (a) The agency must require, as a condition of eligibility, that each... religious objections, refuses to obtain a Social Security Number (SSN). The identification number may be...
Tidal Love Numbers of Neutron Stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hinderer, Tanja
2008-01-01
For a variety of fully relativistic polytropic neutron star models we calculate the star's tidal Love number k 2 . Most realistic equations of state for neutron stars can be approximated as a polytrope with an effective index n ∼ 0.5-1.0. The equilibrium stellar model is obtained by numerical integration of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkhov equations. We calculate the linear l = 2 static perturbations to the Schwarzschild spacetime following the method of Thorne and Campolattaro. Combining the perturbed Einstein equations into a single second-order differential equation for the perturbation to the metric coefficient g tt and matching the exterior solution to the asymptotic expansion of the metric in the star's local asymptotic rest frame gives the Love number. Our results agree well with the Newtonian results in the weak field limit. The fully relativistic values differ from the Newtonian values by up to ∼24%. The Love number is potentially measurable in gravitational wave signals from inspiralling binary neutron stars.
Fuel number identification method and device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doi, Takami; Seno, Makoto; Kikuchi, Takashi; Sakamoto, Hiromi; Takahashi, Masaki; Tanaka, Keiji.
1997-01-01
The present invention provides a method of and a device for automatically identifying fuel numbers impressed on fuel assemblies disposed in a fuel reprocessing facility, power plant and a reactor core at a high speed and at a high identification rate. Namely, three or more character images are photographed for one fuel assembly as an object of the identification under different illumination conditions. As a result, different character images by the number of the illumination directions can be obtained for identical impressed characters. Learning on a neural network system is applied to the images of all of the characters impressed on the fuel assembly obtained under illumination of predetermined directions. Then, result of the identification by the number of the illumination directions can be obtained for each of the characters as an object of the identification. As a result, since the result of the identification is determined based on a theory of decision of majority, highly automatic identification can be realized. (I.S.)
Hello, I am not an NHS number.
Bates, Jane
2016-09-14
I was handed a request to return a patient's call and given a name, signs and symptoms and a number with ten digits, starting with a seven. There was no preceding zero, and assuming it must be a mistake I stuck one on, and dialled. The number was unobtainable.
Fermi-Dirac statistics and the number theory
Kubasiak, A.; Korbicz, J.; Zakrzewski, J.; Lewenstein, M.
2005-01-01
We relate the Fermi-Dirac statistics of an ideal Fermi gas in a harmonic trap to partitions of given integers into distinct parts, studied in number theory. Using methods of quantum statistical physics we derive analytic expressions for cumulants of the probability distribution of the number of different partitions.
Sarnecka, Barbara W; Kamenskaya, Valentina G; Yamana, Yuko; Ogura, Tamiko; Yudovina, Yulia B
2007-09-01
This study examined whether singular/plural marking in a language helps children learn the meanings of the words 'one,' 'two,' and 'three.' First, CHILDES data in English, Russian (which marks singular/plural), and Japanese (which does not) were compared for frequency, variability, and contexts of number-word use. Then young children in the USA, Russia, and Japan were tested on Counting and Give-N tasks. More English and Russian learners knew the meaning of each number word than Japanese learners, regardless of whether singular/plural cues appeared in the task itself (e.g., "Give two apples" vs. "Give two"). These results suggest that the learning of "one," "two" and "three" is supported by the conceptual framework of grammatical number, rather than that of integers.
Children's Early Mental Number Line: Logarithmic or Decomposed Linear?
Moeller, Korbinean; Pixner, Silvia; Kaufmann, Liane; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph
2009-01-01
Recently, the nature of children's mental number line has received much investigation. In the number line task, children are required to mark a presented number on a physical number line with fixed endpoints. Typically, it was observed that the estimations of younger/inexperienced children were accounted for best by a logarithmic function, whereas…
Plume structure in high-Rayleigh-number convection
Puthenveettil, Baburaj A.; Arakeri, Jaywant H.
2005-10-01
Near-wall structures in turbulent natural convection at Rayleigh numbers of 10^{10} to 10^{11} at A Schmidt number of 602 are visualized by a new method of driving the convection across a fine membrane using concentration differences of sodium chloride. The visualizations show the near-wall flow to consist of sheet plumes. A wide variety of large-scale flow cells, scaling with the cross-section dimension, are observed. Multiple large-scale flow cells are seen at aspect ratio (AR)= 0.65, while only a single circulation cell is detected at AR= 0.435. The cells (or the mean wind) are driven by plumes coming together to form columns of rising lighter fluid. The wind in turn aligns the sheet plumes along the direction of shear. the mean wind direction is seen to change with time. The near-wall dynamics show plumes initiated at points, which elongate to form sheets and then merge. Increase in rayleigh number results in a larger number of closely and regularly spaced plumes. The plume spacings show a common log normal probability distribution function, independent of the rayleigh number and the aspect ratio. We propose that the near-wall structure is made of laminar natural-convection boundary layers, which become unstable to give rise to sheet plumes, and show that the predictions of a model constructed on this hypothesis match the experiments. Based on these findings, we conclude that in the presence of a mean wind, the local near-wall boundary layers associated with each sheet plume in high-rayleigh-number turbulent natural convection are likely to be laminar mixed convection type.
Chu, Julio; Luckring, James M.
1996-01-01
An experimental wind tunnel test of a 65 deg. delta wing model with interchangeable leading edges was conducted in the Langley National Transonic Facility (NTF). The objective was to investigate the effects of Reynolds and Mach numbers on slender-wing leading-edge vortex flows with four values of wing leading-edge bluntness. Experimentally obtained pressure data are presented without analysis in tabulated and graphical formats across a Reynolds number range of 6 x 10(exp 6) to 84 x 10(exp 6) at a Mach number of 0.85 and across a Mach number range of 0.4 to 0.9 at Reynolds numbers of 6 x 10(exp 6) and 60 x 10(exp 6). Normal-force and pitching-moment coefficient plots for these Reynolds number and Mach number ranges are also presented.
Number theory via Representation theory
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2014-11-09
Number theory via Representation theory. Eknath Ghate. November 9, 2014. Eightieth Annual Meeting, Chennai. Indian Academy of Sciences1. 1. This is a non-technical 20 minute talk intended for a general Academy audience.
Interferometric control of the photon-number distribution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Esat Kondakci
2017-07-01
Full Text Available We demonstrate deterministic control over the photon-number distribution by interfering two coherent beams within a disordered photonic lattice. By sweeping a relative phase between two equal-amplitude coherent fields with Poissonian statistics that excite adjacent sites in a lattice endowed with disorder-immune chiral symmetry, we measure an output photon-number distribution that changes periodically between super-thermal and sub-thermal photon statistics upon ensemble averaging. Thus, the photon-bunching level is controlled interferometrically at a fixed mean photon-number by gradually activating the excitation symmetry of the chiral-mode pairs with structured coherent illumination and without modifying the disorder level of the random system itself.
Algebraic Geometry and Number Theory Summer School
Sarıoğlu, Celal; Soulé, Christophe; Zeytin, Ayberk
2017-01-01
This lecture notes volume presents significant contributions from the “Algebraic Geometry and Number Theory” Summer School, held at Galatasaray University, Istanbul, June 2-13, 2014. It addresses subjects ranging from Arakelov geometry and Iwasawa theory to classical projective geometry, birational geometry and equivariant cohomology. Its main aim is to introduce these contemporary research topics to graduate students who plan to specialize in the area of algebraic geometry and/or number theory. All contributions combine main concepts and techniques with motivating examples and illustrative problems for the covered subjects. Naturally, the book will also be of interest to researchers working in algebraic geometry, number theory and related fields.
Motzkin numbers out of Random Domino Automaton
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Białecki, Mariusz, E-mail: bialecki@igf.edu.pl [Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Ks. Janusza 64, 01-452 Warszawa (Poland)
2012-10-01
Motzkin numbers are derived from a special case of Random Domino Automaton – recently proposed a slowly driven system being a stochastic toy model of earthquakes. It is also a generalisation of 1D Drossel–Schwabl forest-fire model. A solution of the set of equations describing stationary state of Random Domino Automaton in inverse-power case is presented. A link with Motzkin numbers allows to present explicit form of asymptotic behaviour of the automaton. -- Highlights: ► Motzkin numbers are derived from stochastic cellular automaton with avalanches. ► Explicit solution of toy model of earthquakes is presented. ► Case with inverse-power distribution of avalanches is found.
New similarity of triangular fuzzy number and its application.
Zhang, Xixiang; Ma, Weimin; Chen, Liping
2014-01-01
The similarity of triangular fuzzy numbers is an important metric for application of it. There exist several approaches to measure similarity of triangular fuzzy numbers. However, some of them are opt to be large. To make the similarity well distributed, a new method SIAM (Shape's Indifferent Area and Midpoint) to measure triangular fuzzy number is put forward, which takes the shape's indifferent area and midpoint of two triangular fuzzy numbers into consideration. Comparison with other similarity measurements shows the effectiveness of the proposed method. Then, it is applied to collaborative filtering recommendation to measure users' similarity. A collaborative filtering case is used to illustrate users' similarity based on cloud model and triangular fuzzy number; the result indicates that users' similarity based on triangular fuzzy number can obtain better discrimination. Finally, a simulated collaborative filtering recommendation system is developed which uses cloud model and triangular fuzzy number to express users' comprehensive evaluation on items, and result shows that the accuracy of collaborative filtering recommendation based on triangular fuzzy number is higher.
Fractal Dimension and Maximum Sunspot Number in Solar Cycle
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R.-S. Kim
2006-09-01
Full Text Available The fractal dimension is a quantitative parameter describing the characteristics of irregular time series. In this study, we use this parameter to analyze the irregular aspects of solar activity and to predict the maximum sunspot number in the following solar cycle by examining time series of the sunspot number. For this, we considered the daily sunspot number since 1850 from SIDC (Solar Influences Data analysis Center and then estimated cycle variation of the fractal dimension by using Higuchi's method. We examined the relationship between this fractal dimension and the maximum monthly sunspot number in each solar cycle. As a result, we found that there is a strong inverse relationship between the fractal dimension and the maximum monthly sunspot number. By using this relation we predicted the maximum sunspot number in the solar cycle from the fractal dimension of the sunspot numbers during the solar activity increasing phase. The successful prediction is proven by a good correlation (r=0.89 between the observed and predicted maximum sunspot numbers in the solar cycles.
European Unique Hull Identification Number for Inland Navigation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ivica Ružić
2006-03-01
Full Text Available To enable efficient management of inland navigation processes,specialized information systems should be developedthrough the application of modern information and communicationtechnology (ICT. For this purpose, individual Europeanwaterway and port authorities have developed their ownlocal information systems and databases. Due to the non-conformityof these databases, their integration at the Europeanlevel is confronted with selious problems (COMPRIS, 2003.One of the major problems is the lack of a common Europeanunique identification number for inland barges. For this reason,in some locally managed databases several different identificationnumbers are attributed to one and the same inlandbarge or certain identification numbers are not available. Thesame problem occurs in the communication between waterwayautholities and between waterway and port authorities. Therefore,a unique identification number for all floating objects onthe European waterways should be introduced. At the momentthere are only two official numbers for vessels. The first, the!MO number, introduced in 1978, is only used by maritimevessels. The second, the OFS number (Official Ship Number,is used only for vessels that have a Rhine patent (issued by theCCNR. The OFS number cannot satisfy all the requirementsof RIS Directive 2005/44/EC and the amendment to Directive82/714/EEC on technical requirements for inland navigationvessels in the enlarged European Union. The fact is that only20% of the ranges of codes are reserved for the non-Rhinecountries. A special Electronic Reporting International group(ER! was appointed to formulate a new system for uniqueidentification of inland vessels and also define a databasemodel for vessel characteristics. The initial suggestion of ERIwas to add one character in front of the OFS number in orderto increase its coding capacity. The intention was to make asfew as possible differences/modifications to the system currentlyused under the regime of
Families of Linear Recurrences for Catalan Numbers
Gauthier, N.
2011-01-01
Four different families of linear recurrences are derived for Catalan numbers. The derivations rest on John Riordan's 1973 generalization of Catalan numbers to a set of polynomials. Elementary differential and integral calculus techniques are used and the results should be of interest to teachers and students of introductory courses in calculus…
Lepton number violation searches at the LHC
Salvucci, Antonio; The ATLAS collaboration
2017-01-01
Lepton number is conserved in the Standard Model, therefore, any evidence for its violation would indicate the existence of new physics. This talk presents a review of the latest searches performed at the LHC concerning Lepton Number Violation (LNV) processes in the context of Left-Right Symmetric theory and Seesaw mechanism.
2013-06-19
... help speed the delivery of innovative services to consumers and businesses, while preserving the... available for public inspection during regular business hours in the FCC Reference Information Center... already broken the historical tie between a number and a specific device. For example, Skype permits users...
Number sense and mathematics: Which, when and how?
Tosto, Maria G; Petrill, Stephen A; Malykh, Sergey; Malki, Karim; Haworth, Claire M A; Mazzocco, Michele M M; Thompson, Lee; Opfer, John; Bogdanova, Olga Y; Kovas, Yulia
2017-10-01
Individual differences in number sense correlate with mathematical ability and performance, although the presence and strength of this relationship differs across studies. Inconsistencies in the literature may stem from heterogeneity of number sense and mathematical ability constructs. Sample characteristics may also play a role as changes in the relationship between number sense and mathematics may differ across development and cultural contexts. In this study, 4,984 16-year-old students were assessed on estimation ability, one aspect of number sense. Estimation was measured using 2 different tasks: number line and dot-comparison. Using cognitive and achievement data previously collected from these students at ages 7, 9, 10, 12, and 14, the study explored for which of the measures and when in development these links are observed, and how strong these links are and how much these links are moderated by other cognitive abilities. The 2 number sense measures correlated modestly with each other (r = .22), but moderately with mathematics at age 16. Both measures were also associated with earlier mathematics; but this association was uneven across development and was moderated by other cognitive abilities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
New paradigm for baryon and lepton number violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fileviez Pérez, Pavel
2015-01-01
The possible discovery of proton decay, neutron–antineutron oscillation, neutrinoless double beta decay in low energy experiments, and exotic signals related to the violation of the baryon and lepton numbers at collider experiments will change our understanding of the conservation of fundamental symmetries in nature. In this review we discuss the rare processes due to the existence of baryon and lepton number violating interactions. The simplest grand unified theories and the neutrino mass generation mechanisms are discussed. The theories where the baryon and lepton numbers are defined as local gauge symmetries spontaneously broken at the low scale are discussed in detail. The simplest supersymmetric gauge theory which predicts the existence of lepton number violating processes at the low scale is investigated. The main goal of this review is to discuss the main implications of baryon and lepton number violation in physics beyond the Standard Model.
Number of radiological examinations in Finland in 2000
Hakanen, A
2002-01-01
STUK (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority) collected the number of radiological examinations in Finland in 2000. The work was based on a decree of the ministry of social affairs and health on the medical use of radiation. The work was done in cooperation with the Finnish work group of nomenclature of radiological examinations and procedures and professor Seppo Soimakallio. In 2000, ca. 4.1 million x-ray examinations were made in Finland. In 1984 and in 1995, the numbers were ca. 4.6 million and 4.2 million, respectively, indicating that the total number of x-ray examinations has remained nearly unaltered. The proportions of conventional x-ray examinations, computed tomography examinations, angiographic and interventional procedures were ca. 93.5 %, 5.0 %, 0.9 % and 0.6 %, respectively. The reported number of ultrasound examinations was ca. 0.5 million. The reported number of MRI examinations was ca. 0.1 million.
Building Kindergartners’ Number Sense: A Randomized Controlled Study
Jordan, Nancy C.; Glutting, Joseph; Dyson, Nancy; Hassinger-Das, Brenna; Irwin, Casey
2015-01-01
Math achievement in elementary school is mediated by performance and growth in number sense during kindergarten. The aim of the present study was to test the effectiveness of a targeted small group number sense intervention for high-risk kindergartners from low-income communities. Children were randomly assigned to one of three groups (n = 44 in each group): a number sense intervention group, a language intervention group, or a business as usual control group. Accounting for initial skill level in mathematical knowledge, children who received the number sense intervention performed better than controls at immediate post test, with meaningful effects on measures of number competencies and general math achievement. Many of the effects held eight weeks after the intervention was completed, suggesting that children internalized what they had learned. There were no differences between the language and control groups on any math-related measures. PMID:25866417
Spreading Sequences Generated Using Asymmetrical Integer-Number Maps
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Sebesta
2007-09-01
Full Text Available Chaotic sequences produced by piecewise linear maps can be transformed to binary sequences. The binary sequences are optimal for the asynchronous DS/CDMA systems in case of certain shapes of the maps. This paper is devoted to the one-to-one integer-number maps derived from the suitable asymmetrical piecewise linear maps. Such maps give periodic integer-number sequences, which can be transformed to the binary sequences. The binary sequences produced via proposed modified integer-number maps are perfectly balanced and embody good autocorrelation and crosscorrelation properties. The number of different binary sequences is sizable. The sequences are suitable as spreading sequences in DS/CDMA systems.
The 17 GHz active region number
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Selhorst, C. L.; Pacini, A. A. [IP and D-Universidade do Vale do Paraíba-UNIVAP, São José dos Campos (Brazil); Costa, J. E. R. [CEA, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, São José dos Campos (Brazil); Giménez de Castro, C. G.; Valio, A. [CRAAM, Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, São Paulo (Brazil); Shibasaki, K., E-mail: caius@univap.br [Nobeyama Solar Radio Observatory/NAOJ, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan)
2014-08-01
We report the statistics of the number of active regions (NAR) observed at 17 GHz with the Nobeyama Radioheliograph between 1992, near the maximum of cycle 22, and 2013, which also includes the maximum of cycle 24, and we compare with other activity indexes. We find that NAR minima are shorter than those of the sunspot number (SSN) and radio flux at 10.7 cm (F10.7). This shorter NAR minima could reflect the presence of active regions generated by faint magnetic fields or spotless regions, which were a considerable fraction of the counted active regions. The ratio between the solar radio indexes F10.7/NAR shows a similar reduction during the two minima analyzed, which contrasts with the increase of the ratio of both radio indexes in relation to the SSN during the minimum of cycle 23-24. These results indicate that the radio indexes are more sensitive to weaker magnetic fields than those necessary to form sunspots, of the order of 1500 G. The analysis of the monthly averages of the active region brightness temperatures shows that its long-term variation mimics the solar cycle; however, due to the gyro-resonance emission, a great number of intense spikes are observed in the maximum temperature study. The decrease in the number of these spikes is also evident during the current cycle 24, a consequence of the sunspot magnetic field weakening in the last few years.
Low-Reynolds Number Effects in Ventilated Rooms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Davidson, Lars; Nielsen, Peter V.; Topp, Claus
In the present study, we use Large Eddy Simulations (LES) which is a suitable method for simulating the flow in ventilated rooms at low Reynolds number.......In the present study, we use Large Eddy Simulations (LES) which is a suitable method for simulating the flow in ventilated rooms at low Reynolds number....
On the Concept Image of Complex Numbers
Nordlander, Maria Cortas; Nordlander, Edvard
2012-01-01
A study of how Swedish students understand the concept of complex numbers was performed. A questionnaire was issued reflecting the student view of own perception. Obtained answers show a variety of concept images describing how students adopt the concept of complex numbers. These concept images are classified into four categories in order to…
Generation of pseudo-random numbers
Howell, L. W.; Rheinfurth, M. H.
1982-01-01
Practical methods for generating acceptable random numbers from a variety of probability distributions which are frequently encountered in engineering applications are described. The speed, accuracy, and guarantee of statistical randomness of the various methods are discussed.
History of the theory of numbers
Dickson, Leonard Eugene
2005-01-01
The three-volume series History of the Theory of Numbers is the work of the distinguished mathematician Leonard Eugene Dickson, who taught at the University of Chicago for four decades and is celebrated for his many contributions to number theory and group theory. This second volume in the series, which is suitable for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students, is devoted to the subject of diophantine analysis. It can be read independently of the preceding volume, which explores divisibility and primality, and volume III, which examines quadratic and higher forms.Featured topics include
Game chromatic number of lexicographic product graphs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Alagammai
2015-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we determine the exact values of the game chromatic number of lexicographic product of path P2 with path Pn, star K1,n and wheel Wn. Also we give an upper bound for the game chromatic number of lexicographic product of any two simple graphs G and H.
40 CFR 211.103 - Number and gender.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Number and gender. 211.103 Section 211... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.103 Number and gender. In this part, words in the singular will be understood to include the plural, and words in the masculine gender will be understood to...
Teach Kids about Numbers All around Us
Hudson, Hannah Trierweiler
2011-01-01
Recognizing the role numbers play in people's everyday lives is crucial to students' math understanding now and down the road. That's why Bob Krech, a curriculum specialist in New Jersey's West Windsor-Plainsboro district, likes to teach a lesson he calls "Numbers All Around Us." This lesson uses real-world examples to show that numbers…
On the chromatic number of general Kneser hypergraphs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alishahi, Meysam; Hajiabolhassan, Hossein
2015-01-01
In a break-through paper, Lovász [20] determined the chromatic number of Kneser graphs. This was improved by Schrijver [27], by introducing the Schrijver subgraphs of Kneser graphs and showing that their chromatic number is the same as that of Kneser graphs. Alon, Frankl, and Lovász [2] extended...... their chromatic number as an approach to a supposition of Ziegler [35] and a conjecture of Alon, Drewnowski, and Łuczak [3]. In this work, our second main result is to improve this by computing the chromatic number of a large family of Schrijver hypergraphs. Our last main result is to prove the existence...... of a completely multicolored complete bipartite graph in every coloring of a graph which extends a result of Simonyi and Tardos [29].The first two results are proved using a new improvement of the Dol'nikov-Kříž [7,18] bound on the chromatic number of general Kneser hypergraphs....
Number of discernible object colors is a conundrum.
Masaoka, Kenichiro; Berns, Roy S; Fairchild, Mark D; Moghareh Abed, Farhad
2013-02-01
Widely varying estimates of the number of discernible object colors have been made by using various methods over the past 100 years. To clarify the source of the discrepancies in the previous, inconsistent estimates, the number of discernible object colors is estimated over a wide range of color temperatures and illuminance levels using several chromatic adaptation models, color spaces, and color difference limens. Efficient and accurate models are used to compute optimal-color solids and count the number of discernible colors. A comprehensive simulation reveals limitations in the ability of current color appearance models to estimate the number of discernible colors even if the color solid is smaller than the optimal-color solid. The estimates depend on the color appearance model, color space, and color difference limen used. The fundamental problem lies in the von Kries-type chromatic adaptation transforms, which have an unknown effect on the ranking of the number of discernible colors at different color temperatures.
Minimization of number of setups for mounting machines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kolman, Pavel; Nchor, Dennis; Hampel, David [Department of Statistics and Operation Analysis, Faculty of Business and Economics, Mendel University in Brno, Zemědělská 1, 603 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Žák, Jaroslav [Institute of Technology and Business, Okružní 517/10, 370 01 České Budejovice (Czech Republic)
2015-03-10
The article deals with the problem of minimizing the number of setups for mounting SMT machines. SMT is a device used to assemble components on printed circuit boards (PCB) during the manufacturing of electronics. Each type of PCB has a different set of components, which are obligatory. Components are placed in the SMT tray. The problem consists in the fact that the total number of components used for all products is greater than the size of the tray. Therefore, every change of manufactured product requires a complete change of components in the tray (i.e., a setup change). Currently, the number of setups corresponds to the number of printed circuit board type. Any production change affects the change of setup and stops production on one shift. Many components occur in more products therefore the question arose as to how to deploy the products into groups so as to minimize the number of setups. This would result in a huge increase in efficiency of production.
Phonemic awareness as a pathway to number transcoding
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Júlia Beatriz Lopes-Silva
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Although verbal and numerical abilities have a well-established interaction, the impact of phonological processing on numeric abilities remains elusive. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of phonemic awareness in number processing and to explore its association with other functions such as working memory and magnitude processing. One hundred seventy-two children in 2nd grade to 4th grade were evaluated in terms of their intelligence, number transcoding, phonemic awareness, verbal and visuospatial working memory and number sense (nonsymbolic magnitude comparison performance. All of the children had normal intelligence. Among these measurements of magnitude processing, working memory and phonemic awareness, only the last was retained in regression and path models predicting transcoding ability. Phonemic awareness mediated the influence of verbal working memory on number transcoding. The evidence suggests that phonemic awareness significantly affects number transcoding. Such an association is robust and should be considered in cognitive models of both dyslexia and dyscalculia.
Preferential solvation: dividing surface vs excess numbers.
Shimizu, Seishi; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki
2014-04-10
How do osmolytes affect the conformation and configuration of supramolecular assembly, such as ion channel opening and actin polymerization? The key to the answer lies in the excess solvation numbers of water and osmolyte molecules; these numbers are determinable solely from experimental data, as guaranteed by the phase rule, as we show through the exact solution theory of Kirkwood and Buff (KB). The osmotic stress technique (OST), in contrast, purposes to yield alternative hydration numbers through the use of the dividing surface borrowed from the adsorption theory. However, we show (i) OST is equivalent, when it becomes exact, to the crowding effect in which the osmolyte exclusion dominates over hydration; (ii) crowding is not the universal driving force of the osmolyte effect (e.g., actin polymerization); (iii) the dividing surface for solvation is useful only for crowding, unlike in the adsorption theory which necessitates its use due to the phase rule. KB thus clarifies the true meaning and limitations of the older perspectives on preferential solvation (such as solvent binding models, crowding, and OST), and enables excess number determination without any further assumptions.
DNA replication stress restricts ribosomal DNA copy number.
Salim, Devika; Bradford, William D; Freeland, Amy; Cady, Gillian; Wang, Jianmin; Pruitt, Steven C; Gerton, Jennifer L
2017-09-01
Ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) in budding yeast are encoded by ~100-200 repeats of a 9.1kb sequence arranged in tandem on chromosome XII, the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) locus. Copy number of rDNA repeat units in eukaryotic cells is maintained far in excess of the requirement for ribosome biogenesis. Despite the importance of the repeats for both ribosomal and non-ribosomal functions, it is currently not known how "normal" copy number is determined or maintained. To identify essential genes involved in the maintenance of rDNA copy number, we developed a droplet digital PCR based assay to measure rDNA copy number in yeast and used it to screen a yeast conditional temperature-sensitive mutant collection of essential genes. Our screen revealed that low rDNA copy number is associated with compromised DNA replication. Further, subculturing yeast under two separate conditions of DNA replication stress selected for a contraction of the rDNA array independent of the replication fork blocking protein, Fob1. Interestingly, cells with a contracted array grew better than their counterparts with normal copy number under conditions of DNA replication stress. Our data indicate that DNA replication stresses select for a smaller rDNA array. We speculate that this liberates scarce replication factors for use by the rest of the genome, which in turn helps cells complete DNA replication and continue to propagate. Interestingly, tumors from mini chromosome maintenance 2 (MCM2)-deficient mice also show a loss of rDNA repeats. Our data suggest that a reduction in rDNA copy number may indicate a history of DNA replication stress, and that rDNA array size could serve as a diagnostic marker for replication stress. Taken together, these data begin to suggest the selective pressures that combine to yield a "normal" rDNA copy number.
DNA replication stress restricts ribosomal DNA copy number
Salim, Devika; Bradford, William D.; Freeland, Amy; Cady, Gillian; Wang, Jianmin
2017-01-01
Ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) in budding yeast are encoded by ~100–200 repeats of a 9.1kb sequence arranged in tandem on chromosome XII, the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) locus. Copy number of rDNA repeat units in eukaryotic cells is maintained far in excess of the requirement for ribosome biogenesis. Despite the importance of the repeats for both ribosomal and non-ribosomal functions, it is currently not known how “normal” copy number is determined or maintained. To identify essential genes involved in the maintenance of rDNA copy number, we developed a droplet digital PCR based assay to measure rDNA copy number in yeast and used it to screen a yeast conditional temperature-sensitive mutant collection of essential genes. Our screen revealed that low rDNA copy number is associated with compromised DNA replication. Further, subculturing yeast under two separate conditions of DNA replication stress selected for a contraction of the rDNA array independent of the replication fork blocking protein, Fob1. Interestingly, cells with a contracted array grew better than their counterparts with normal copy number under conditions of DNA replication stress. Our data indicate that DNA replication stresses select for a smaller rDNA array. We speculate that this liberates scarce replication factors for use by the rest of the genome, which in turn helps cells complete DNA replication and continue to propagate. Interestingly, tumors from mini chromosome maintenance 2 (MCM2)-deficient mice also show a loss of rDNA repeats. Our data suggest that a reduction in rDNA copy number may indicate a history of DNA replication stress, and that rDNA array size could serve as a diagnostic marker for replication stress. Taken together, these data begin to suggest the selective pressures that combine to yield a “normal” rDNA copy number. PMID:28915237
DNA replication stress restricts ribosomal DNA copy number.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Devika Salim
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs in budding yeast are encoded by ~100-200 repeats of a 9.1kb sequence arranged in tandem on chromosome XII, the ribosomal DNA (rDNA locus. Copy number of rDNA repeat units in eukaryotic cells is maintained far in excess of the requirement for ribosome biogenesis. Despite the importance of the repeats for both ribosomal and non-ribosomal functions, it is currently not known how "normal" copy number is determined or maintained. To identify essential genes involved in the maintenance of rDNA copy number, we developed a droplet digital PCR based assay to measure rDNA copy number in yeast and used it to screen a yeast conditional temperature-sensitive mutant collection of essential genes. Our screen revealed that low rDNA copy number is associated with compromised DNA replication. Further, subculturing yeast under two separate conditions of DNA replication stress selected for a contraction of the rDNA array independent of the replication fork blocking protein, Fob1. Interestingly, cells with a contracted array grew better than their counterparts with normal copy number under conditions of DNA replication stress. Our data indicate that DNA replication stresses select for a smaller rDNA array. We speculate that this liberates scarce replication factors for use by the rest of the genome, which in turn helps cells complete DNA replication and continue to propagate. Interestingly, tumors from mini chromosome maintenance 2 (MCM2-deficient mice also show a loss of rDNA repeats. Our data suggest that a reduction in rDNA copy number may indicate a history of DNA replication stress, and that rDNA array size could serve as a diagnostic marker for replication stress. Taken together, these data begin to suggest the selective pressures that combine to yield a "normal" rDNA copy number.
Room Airflows with Low Reynolds Number Effects
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Topp, Claus; Nielsen, Peter V.; Davidson, Lars
The behaviour of room airflows under fully turbulent conditions is well known both in terms of experiments and, numerical calculations by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). For room airflows where turbulence is not fully developed though, i.e. flows at low Reynolds numbers, the existing knowledge...... is limited. It has been the objective to investigate the behaviour of a plane isothermal wall jet in a full-scale ventilated room at low Reynolds numbers, i.e. when the flow is not fully turbulent. The results are significantly different from known theory for fully turbulent flows. It was found that the jet...... constants are a strong function of the Reynolds number up to a level of Reh≈500....
Integral Presentations of Catalan Numbers
Dana-Picard, Thierry
2010-01-01
We compute in three different ways the same definite parametric integral. By-products are the derivation of a combinatorial identity and two integral presentations of Catalan numbers. One of them leads to a presentation using the [gamma] function.
Poison control center - emergency number
For a POISON EMERGENCY call: 1-800-222-1222 ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this ...
Baryon asymmetry, dark matter and local baryon number
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fileviez Pérez, Pavel; Patel, Hiren H.
2014-01-01
We propose a new mechanism to understand the relation between baryon and dark matter asymmetries in the universe in theories where the baryon number is a local symmetry. In these scenarios the B−L asymmetry generated through a mechanism such as leptogenesis is transferred to the dark matter and baryonic sectors through sphalerons processes which conserve total baryon number. We show that it is possible to have a consistent relation between the dark matter relic density and the baryon asymmetry in the universe even if the baryon number is broken at the low scale through the Higgs mechanism. We also discuss the case where one uses the Stueckelberg mechanism to understand the conservation of baryon number in nature.
Numerical Investigation of the Primety of Real numbers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Kristoffer
2011-01-01
The Farey sequences can be used [1] to create the Eulers totient function φ(n), by identifying the fractions for number n that did not occur in all Farey sequences up to n-1. This function creates, when divided by n-1, what is here called the Primety measure, which is a measure of how close...... to being a prime number n is. P(n)=φ(n)/(n-1) has maximum 1 for all prime numbers and minimum that decreases non-uniformly with n. Thus P(n) is the Primety function, which permits to designate a value of Primety of a number n. If P(n)==1, then n is a prime. If P(n)
Triangular Numbers, Gaussian Integers, and KenKen
Watkins, John J.
2012-01-01
Latin squares form the basis for the recreational puzzles sudoku and KenKen. In this article we show how useful several ideas from number theory are in solving a KenKen puzzle. For example, the simple notion of triangular number is surprisingly effective. We also introduce a variation of KenKen that uses the Gaussian integers in order to…
40 CFR 204.3 - Number and gender.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Number and gender. 204.3 Section 204.3... STANDARDS FOR CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT General Provisions § 204.3 Number and gender. As used in this part, words in the singular shall be deemed to import the plural, and words in the masculine gender shall be...
40 CFR 205.3 - Number and gender.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Number and gender. 205.3 Section 205.3... EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS General Provisions § 205.3 Number and gender. As used in this part, words in the -singular shall be deemed to import -the plural, and words in the masculine -gender shall be...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sladojević Ž.
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the influence of housing conditions, number of farrowing and number of pigs in litter on weight loss in sows during lactation. The experiment included 60 sows, half breed developed by cross breeding of Big Yorkshire and Swedish Landrace in lactation. Body weight of the sows (kg was determined 2nd, 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day after farrowing. On the basis of the obtained values, there was calculated the difference in body weight between two consecutive investigation periods. The sows were divided into two groups and held in different housing conditions: 30 of them were held in extensive, and other 30 sows in intensive way of farming. In regard to number of farrowing, the sows were divided into three groups: sows with one or two farrowing (group P1, n=20, with three or four farrowing (group P2, n=20, and sows that farrowed five or more times (P3,n=20. In regard to number of pigs in litter, the sows were divided into two groups: the first (Group I, n=30 with sows that had up to eight pigs, and the second (Group II, n=30 with sows that had nine or more pigs in litter. The obtained results showed that in all perids of the investigation during lactation, body weight in sows held in extensive farming conditions was statistically significantly higher compared to those from intensive farming conditions. On the other hand, the loss of body weight during lactation was significantly higher in sows from extensive in regard to intensive farming conditions in the first two weeks of lactation. The sows with bigger number of farrowing had greater body weight, compared to those with smaller number of farrowing. There was no statistically significant difference in body weight loss during lactation, between sows with different number of farrowing, but considering that the sows with less farrowings had significantly lower body weight, they consequently lost more weight in percentage. The sows with greater number of pigs
Pseudo-random number generator for the Sigma 5 computer
Carroll, S. N.
1983-01-01
A technique is presented for developing a pseudo-random number generator based on the linear congruential form. The two numbers used for the generator are a prime number and a corresponding primitive root, where the prime is the largest prime number that can be accurately represented on a particular computer. The primitive root is selected by applying Marsaglia's lattice test. The technique presented was applied to write a random number program for the Sigma 5 computer. The new program, named S:RANDOM1, is judged to be superior to the older program named S:RANDOM. For applications requiring several independent random number generators, a table is included showing several acceptable primitive roots. The technique and programs described can be applied to any computer having word length different from that of the Sigma 5.
Jeon, Jae Pil; Shim, Sung Mi; Jung, Jong Sun; Nam, Hye Young; Lee, Hye Jin; Oh, Berm Seok; Kim, Kuchan; Kim, Hyung Lae; Han, Bok Ghee
2009-09-30
To examine copy number variations among the Korean population, we compared individual genomes with the Korean reference genome assembly using the publicly available Korean HapMap SNP 50 k chip data from 90 individuals. Korean individuals exhibited 123 copy number variation regions (CNVRs) covering 27.2 mb, equivalent to 1.0% of the genome in the copy number variation (CNV) analysis using the combined criteria of P value (Por= 0.25) among study subjects. In contrast, when compared to the Affymetrix reference genome assembly from multiple ethnic groups, considerably more CNVRs (n=643) were detected in larger proportions (5.0%) of the genome covering 135.1 mb even by more stringent criteria (Por=0.25), reflecting ethnic diversity of structural variations between Korean and other populations. Some CNVRs were validated by the quantitative multiplex PCR of short fluorescent fragment (QMPSF) method, and then copy number invariant regions were detected among the study subjects. These copy number invariant regions would be used as good internal controls for further CNV studies. Lastly, we demonstrated that the CNV information could stratify even a single ethnic population with a proper reference genome assembly from multiple heterogeneous populations.
Number density structures in the inner heliosphere
Stansby, D.; Horbury, T. S.
2018-06-01
Aims: The origins and generation mechanisms of the slow solar wind are still unclear. Part of the slow solar wind is populated by number density structures, discrete patches of increased number density that are frozen in to and move with the bulk solar wind. In this paper we aimed to provide the first in-situ statistical study of number density structures in the inner heliosphere. Methods: We reprocessed in-situ ion distribution functions measured by Helios in the inner heliosphere to provide a new reliable set of proton plasma moments for the entire mission. From this new data set we looked for number density structures measured within 0.5 AU of the Sun and studied their properties. Results: We identified 140 discrete areas of enhanced number density. The structures occurred exclusively in the slow solar wind and spanned a wide range of length scales from 50 Mm to 2000 Mm, which includes smaller scales than have been previously observed. They were also consistently denser and hotter that the surrounding plasma, but had lower magnetic field strengths, and therefore remained in pressure balance. Conclusions: Our observations show that these structures are present in the slow solar wind at a wide range of scales, some of which are too small to be detected by remote sensing instruments. These structures are rare, accounting for only 1% of the slow solar wind measured by Helios, and are not a significant contribution to the mass flux of the solar wind.
DISCRETE MATHEMATICS/NUMBER THEORY
Mrs. Manju Devi*
2017-01-01
Discrete mathematics is the study of mathematical structures that are fundamentally discrete rather than continuous. In contrast to real numbers that have the property of varying "smoothly", the objects studied in discrete mathematics such as integers, graphs, and statements do not vary smoothly in this way, but have distinct, separated values. Discrete mathematics therefore excludes topics in "continuous mathematics" such as calculus and analysis. Discrete objects can often be enumerated by ...
2011-12-22
... customer's account; a positive indication that the new service provider has the authority from the customer... comments. Email: [email protected] , and include the following words in the body of the message, ``get form.'' A... telephone number associated with the customer's account; a positive indication that the new service provider...
32 CFR 806b.12 - Requesting the Social Security Number.
2010-07-01
... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requesting the Social Security Number. 806b.12... Number. When asking an individual for his or her Social Security Number, always give a Privacy Act... Social Security Number; and whether providing the Social Security Number is voluntary or mandatory. Do...
Number magnitude to finger mapping is disembodied and topological.
Plaisier, Myrthe A; Smeets, Jeroen B J
2011-03-01
It has been shown that humans associate fingers with numbers because finger counting strategies interact with numerical judgements. At the same time, there is evidence that there is a relation between number magnitude and space as small to large numbers seem to be represented from left to right. In the present study, we investigated whether number magnitude to finger mapping is embodied (related to the order of fingers on the hand) or disembodied (spatial). We let healthy human volunteers name random numbers between 1 and 30, while simultaneously tapping a random finger. Either the hands were placed directly next to each other, 30 cm apart, or the hands were crossed such that the left hand was on the right side of the body mid-line. The results show that naming a smaller number than the previous one was associated with tapping a finger to the left of the previously tapped finger. This shows that there is a spatial (disembodied) mapping between number magnitude and fingers. Furthermore, we show that this mapping is topological rather than metrically scaled.
Automatic Number Plate Recognition System for IPhone Devices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Călin Enăchescu
2013-06-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a system for automatic number plate recognition, implemented for devices running the iOS operating system. The methods used for number plate recognition are based on existing methods, but optimized for devices with low hardware resources. To solve the task of automatic number plate recognition we have divided it into the following subtasks: image acquisition, localization of the number plate position on the image and character detection. The first subtask is performed by the camera of an iPhone, the second one is done using image pre-processing methods and template matching. For the character recognition we are using a feed-forward artificial neural network. Each of these methods is presented along with its results.
Formation Number Of Laminar Vortex Rings. Numerical Simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosenfeld, M.; Rambod, E.; Gharib, M.
1998-01-01
The formation time scale of axisymmetric vortex rings is studied numerically for relatively long discharge times. Experimental findings on the existence and universality of a formation time scale, referred to as the formation number, are confirmed. The formation number is indicative of the time a vortex ring acquires its maximal circulation. For vortex rings generated by impulsive motion of a piston, the formation number was found experimentally to be approximately 4. Numerical extension of the experimental study to thick shear layers indicates that the scaled circulation of the pinched-off vortex is relatively insensitive of the details of the formation process, such as the velocity program, velocity profile or vortex generator geometry. In contrast, the formation number does depend on the velocity profile
Generation of sub-Poissonian photon number distribution
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Grønbech-Jensen, N.; Ramanujam, P. S.
1990-01-01
An optimization of a nonlinear Mach-Zehnder interferometer to produce sub-Poissonian photon number distribution is proposed. We treat the system quantum mechanically and estimate the mirror parameters, the nonlinearity of the medium in the interferometer, and the input power to obtain minimal...... output uncertainty in the photon number. The power efficiency of the system is shown to be high....
The Power of Numbers in Global Governance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krause Hansen, Hans; Mühlen-Schulte, Arthur
2012-01-01
of the historical and contemporary role of numbers in different governance settings. It includes a discussion of the capacity of numbers to foster social identities, relations and truths across national boundaries, to construct issue areas and to enable various modes of surveillance, communication and action...... and relations, as well as in relation to processes of politicisation and de-politicisation that transcend national spaces....
40 CFR 164.1 - Number of words.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Number of words. 164.1 Section 164.1... OTHER HEARINGS CALLED PURSUANT TO SECTION 6 OF THE ACT General § 164.1 Number of words. As used in this part, a word in the singular form shall be deemed to import the plural, and vice versa, as the case may...
The Ramsey Numbers of Paths Versus Fans
Salman, M.; Broersma, Haitze J.; Faigle, U.; Hurink, Johann L.; Pickl, Stefan; Woeginger, Gerhard
2003-01-01
For two given graphs G and H, the Ramsey number R(G,H) is the smallest positive integer p such that for every graph F on p vertices the following holds: either F contains G as a subgraph or the complement of F contains H as a subgraph. In this paper, we study the Ramsey numbers R(Pn,Fm), where Pn is
On Pell, Pell-Lucas, and balancing numbers.
Karadeniz Gözeri, Gül
2018-01-01
In this paper, we derive some identities on Pell, Pell-Lucas, and balancing numbers and the relationships between them. We also deduce some formulas on the sums, divisibility properties, perfect squares, Pythagorean triples involving these numbers. Moreover, we obtain the set of positive integer solutions of some specific Pell equations in terms of the integer sequences mentioned in the text.
Lepton number violating processes and Majorana neutrinos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dib, C.; Schmidt, I.; Gribanov, V.; Kovalenko, S.
2001-01-01
Some generic properties of lepton number violating processes and their relation to different entries of the Majorana neutrino mass matrix are discussed. Present and near future experiments searching for these processes, except the neutrinoless double beta decay, are unable to probe light (eV mass region) and heavy (hundred GeV mass region) neutrinos. On the other hand, due to the effect of a resonant enhancement, some of lepton number violating decays can be very sensitive to the intermediate-mass neutrinos with typical masses in the hundred MeV region. These neutrinos may appear as admixtures of the three active and an arbitrary number of sterile neutrino species. The experimental constraints on these massive neutrino states are analyzed and their possible cosmological and astrophysical implications are discussed
The Hankel Transform of q-Noncentral Bell Numbers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cristina B. Corcino
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We define two forms of q-analogue of noncentral Stirling numbers of the second kind and obtain some properties parallel to those of noncentral Stirling numbers. Certain combinatorial interpretation is given for the second form of the q-analogue in the context of 0-1 tableaux which, consequently, yields certain additive identity and some convolution-type formulas. Finally, a q-analogue of noncentral Bell numbers is defined and its Hankel transform is established.
Rare muon decays and lepton-family number conservation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoffman, C.M.
1984-04-01
A brief historical survey of the discovery of the muon, interest in neutrinoless processes, and lepton-number conservation laws is given. The present view of lepton-number conservation laws and the search for μ → eγ are described. Other experiments are discussed including μ + → e + e + e - decay, μ - Z → e - Z reactions, μ → e γγ decay, other rare muon processes, strangeness-changing muon-number-nonconserving decays, and tau decays. 52 references
Interaction between numbers and size during visual search
Krause, Florian; Bekkering, Harold; Pratt, Jay; Lindemann, Oliver
2016-01-01
The current study investigates an interaction between numbers and physical size (i.e. size congruity) in visual search. In three experiments, participants had to detect a physically large (or small) target item among physically small (or large) distractors in a search task comprising single-digit numbers. The relative numerical size of the digits was varied, such that the target item was either among the numerically large or small numbers in the search display and the relation between numeric...
A random-matrix theory of the number sense.
Hannagan, T; Nieder, A; Viswanathan, P; Dehaene, S
2017-02-19
Number sense, a spontaneous ability to process approximate numbers, has been documented in human adults, infants and newborns, and many other animals. Species as distant as monkeys and crows exhibit very similar neurons tuned to specific numerosities. How number sense can emerge in the absence of learning or fine tuning is currently unknown. We introduce a random-matrix theory of self-organized neural states where numbers are coded by vectors of activation across multiple units, and where the vector codes for successive integers are obtained through multiplication by a fixed but random matrix. This cortical implementation of the 'von Mises' algorithm explains many otherwise disconnected observations ranging from neural tuning curves in monkeys to looking times in neonates and cortical numerotopy in adults. The theory clarifies the origin of Weber-Fechner's Law and yields a novel and empirically validated prediction of multi-peak number neurons. Random matrices constitute a novel mechanism for the emergence of brain states coding for quantity.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'The origins of numerical abilities'. © 2017 The Author(s).
The number and its symbolism in ancient Greece
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Doc. dr Milena Bogdanović
2013-07-01
Full Text Available The symbols are of particular importance. They are the heart of the creative life; rather they are its core. They reveal the secrets of the unconscious mind open to the unknown and the infinite. While talking or gestures while express, we use the symbols, noting it or not. All spiritual science, all art and all art techniques encounter on their way symbols. History confirms that the symbols of each object can be obtained symbolic value, whether natural (rocks, trees, animals, planets, fire, lightning, etc... or abstract (geometrical shape, number, pace, ideas, etc.... The use of numbers as symbols is as old as language itself, but one that precedes writing, which symbolize numbers (that is, where the reality behind the external characters. The sheer numbers and their symbolism in ancient Greece and is closely associated with the philosophy and mathematics (namely arithmetic. They summarize their view of the world and everything around them. This paper draws attention to the symbolism of the numbers that were in ancient Greece.
Non-periodic pseudo-random numbers used in Monte Carlo calculations
Barberis, Gaston E.
2007-09-01
The generation of pseudo-random numbers is one of the interesting problems in Monte Carlo simulations, mostly because the common computer generators produce periodic numbers. We used simple pseudo-random numbers generated with the simplest chaotic system, the logistic map, with excellent results. The numbers generated in this way are non-periodic, which we demonstrated for 1013 numbers, and they are obtained in a deterministic way, which allows to repeat systematically any calculation. The Monte Carlo calculations are the ideal field to apply these numbers, and we did it for simple and more elaborated cases. Chemistry and Information Technology use this kind of simulations, and the application of this numbers to quantum Monte Carlo and cryptography is immediate. I present here the techniques to calculate, analyze and use these pseudo-random numbers, show that they lack periodicity up to 1013 numbers and that they are not correlated.
Non-periodic pseudo-random numbers used in Monte Carlo calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barberis, Gaston E.
2007-01-01
The generation of pseudo-random numbers is one of the interesting problems in Monte Carlo simulations, mostly because the common computer generators produce periodic numbers. We used simple pseudo-random numbers generated with the simplest chaotic system, the logistic map, with excellent results. The numbers generated in this way are non-periodic, which we demonstrated for 10 13 numbers, and they are obtained in a deterministic way, which allows to repeat systematically any calculation. The Monte Carlo calculations are the ideal field to apply these numbers, and we did it for simple and more elaborated cases. Chemistry and Information Technology use this kind of simulations, and the application of this numbers to quantum Monte Carlo and cryptography is immediate. I present here the techniques to calculate, analyze and use these pseudo-random numbers, show that they lack periodicity up to 10 13 numbers and that they are not correlated
Interstate Research Associates, McLean, VA.
This fact sheet on autism is offered in both English and Spanish, and is the same in both languages although numbered differently. It provides a definition, information on incidence, typical characteristics, and educational implications. It notes that autism is listed as a separate category under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act.…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peifeng Xu
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Dual rotor permanent magnet (DRPM wind power generator using ferrite magnets has the advantages of low cost, high efficiency, and high torque density. How to further improve the performance and reduce the cost of the machine by proper choice of pole number and slot number is an important problem to be solved when performing preliminarily design a DRPM wind generator. This paper presents a comprehensive performance comparison of a DRPM wind generator using ferrite magnets with different slot and pole number combinations. The main winding factors are calculated by means of the star of slots. Under the same machine volume and ferrite consumption, the flux linkage, back-electromotive force (EMF, cogging torque, output torque, torque pulsation, and losses are investigated and compared using finite element analysis (FEA. The results show that the slot and pole number combinations have an important impact on the generator properties.
1985-02-01
of the blade. The Darrieus VAWT has more complex aerodynamics. This type of wind turbine produces power as a result of the tangential thrust as...Horizontal Axis Propeller-Type b) Verticle Axis Darrieus -Type Figure 78. Wind Turbine Configurations 0 6 Q K [_ 2 -, C 4 UJ UJ...Sailplanes 23 5.2 Wind Turbines 23 6. CONCLUDING REMARKS 24 7. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH 24 REFERENCES 25 FIGURES 32 yv/ LOW REYNOLDS NUMBER
Risius, Steffen; Costantini, Marco; Koch, Stefan; Hein, Stefan; Klein, Christian
2018-05-01
The influence of unit Reynolds number (Re_1=17.5× 106-80× 106 {m}^{-1}), Mach number (M= 0.35-0.77) and incompressible shape factor (H_{12} = 2.50-2.66) on laminar-turbulent boundary layer transition was systematically investigated in the Cryogenic Ludwieg-Tube Göttingen (DNW-KRG). For this investigation the existing two-dimensional wind tunnel model, PaLASTra, which offers a quasi-uniform streamwise pressure gradient, was modified to reduce the size of the flow separation region at its trailing edge. The streamwise temperature distribution and the location of laminar-turbulent transition were measured by means of temperature-sensitive paint (TSP) with a higher accuracy than attained in earlier measurements. It was found that for the modified PaLASTra model the transition Reynolds number (Re_{ {tr}}) exhibits a linear dependence on the pressure gradient, characterized by H_{12}. Due to this linear relation it was possible to quantify the so-called `unit Reynolds number effect', which is an increase of Re_{ {tr}} with Re_1. By a systematic variation of M, Re_1 and H_{12} in combination with a spectral analysis of freestream disturbances, a stabilizing effect of compressibility on boundary layer transition, as predicted by linear stability theory, was detected (`Mach number effect'). Furthermore, two expressions were derived which can be used to calculate the transition Reynolds number as a function of the amplitude of total pressure fluctuations, Re_1 and H_{12}. To determine critical N-factors, the measured transition locations were correlated with amplification rates, calculated by incompressible and compressible linear stability theory. By taking into account the spectral level of total pressure fluctuations at the frequency of the most amplified Tollmien-Schlichting wave at transition location, the scatter in the determined critical N-factors was reduced. Furthermore, the receptivity coefficients dependence on incidence angle of acoustic waves was used to
Testing, Selection, and Implementation of Random Number Generators
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Collins, Joseph C
2008-01-01
An exhaustive evaluation of state-of-the-art random number generators with several well-known suites of tests provides the basis for selection of suitable random number generators for use in stochastic simulations...
Aerosol-cirrus interactions: a number based phenomenon at all?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Seifert
2004-01-01
Full Text Available In situ measurements of the partitioning of aerosol particles within cirrus clouds were used to investigate aerosol-cloud interactions in ice clouds. The number density of interstitial aerosol particles (non-activated particles in between the cirrus crystals was compared to the number density of cirrus crystal residuals. The data was obtained during the two INCA (Interhemispheric Differences in Cirrus Properties from Anthropogenic Emissions campaigns, performed in the Southern Hemisphere (SH and Northern Hemisphere (NH midlatitudes. Different aerosol-cirrus interactions can be linked to the different stages of the cirrus lifecycle. Cloud formation is linked to positive correlations between the number density of interstitial aerosol (Nint and crystal residuals (Ncvi, whereas the correlations are smaller or even negative in a dissolving cloud. Unlike warm clouds, where the number density of cloud droplets is positively related to the aerosol number density, we observed a rather complex relationship when expressing Ncvi as a function of Nint for forming clouds. The data sets are similar in that they both show local maxima in the Nint range 100 to 200cm, where the SH- maximum is shifted towards the higher value. For lower number densities Nint and Ncvi are positively related. The slopes emerging from the data suggest that a tenfold increase in the aerosol number density corresponds to a 3 to 4 times increase in the crystal number density. As Nint increases beyond the ca. 100 to 200cm, the mean crystal number density decreases at about the same rate for both data sets. For much higher aerosol number densities, only present in the NH data set, the mean Ncvi remains low. The situation for dissolving clouds allows us to offer two possible, but at this point only speculative, alternative interactions between aerosols and cirrus: evaporating clouds might be associated with a source of aerosol particles, or air pollution (high aerosol number density might
Dual Numbers Approach in Multiaxis Machines Error Modeling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jaroslav Hrdina
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Multiaxis machines error modeling is set in the context of modern differential geometry and linear algebra. We apply special classes of matrices over dual numbers and propose a generalization of such concept by means of general Weil algebras. We show that the classification of the geometric errors follows directly from the algebraic properties of the matrices over dual numbers and thus the calculus over the dual numbers is the proper tool for the methodology of multiaxis machines error modeling.
Number of core samples: Mean concentrations and confidence intervals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jensen, L.; Cromar, R.D.; Wilmarth, S.R.; Heasler, P.G.
1995-01-01
This document provides estimates of how well the mean concentration of analytes are known as a function of the number of core samples, composite samples, and replicate analyses. The estimates are based upon core composite data from nine recently sampled single-shell tanks. The results can be used when determining the number of core samples needed to ''characterize'' the waste from similar single-shell tanks. A standard way of expressing uncertainty in the estimate of a mean is with a 95% confidence interval (CI). The authors investigate how the width of a 95% CI on the mean concentration decreases as the number of observations increase. Specifically, the tables and figures show how the relative half-width (RHW) of a 95% CI decreases as the number of core samples increases. The RHW of a CI is a unit-less measure of uncertainty. The general conclusions are as follows: (1) the RHW decreases dramatically as the number of core samples is increased, the decrease is much smaller when the number of composited samples or the number of replicate analyses are increase; (2) if the mean concentration of an analyte needs to be estimated with a small RHW, then a large number of core samples is required. The estimated number of core samples given in the tables and figures were determined by specifying different sizes of the RHW. Four nominal sizes were examined: 10%, 25%, 50%, and 100% of the observed mean concentration. For a majority of analytes the number of core samples required to achieve an accuracy within 10% of the mean concentration is extremely large. In many cases, however, two or three core samples is sufficient to achieve a RHW of approximately 50 to 100%. Because many of the analytes in the data have small concentrations, this level of accuracy may be satisfactory for some applications
Mikoss, I
2006-01-01
Due to the sieving process represented by a Secondary Sieving Map; during the generation of the prime numbers, geometric structures with definite symmetries are formed which become evident through their geometrical representations. The study of these structures allows the development of a constructive prime generating formula. This defines a mean prime density yielding a second order recursive and discrete prime producing formula and a second order differential equation whose solutions produce an improved Prime Number Theorem. Applying these results to twin prime pairs is possible to generate a Twin Prime Number Theorem and important conclusions about the infinitude of the twin primes.
An investigation of the uniform random number generator
Temple, E. C.
1982-01-01
Most random number generators that are in use today are of the congruential form X(i+1) + AX(i) + C mod M where A, C, and M are nonnegative integers. If C=O, the generator is called the multiplicative type and those for which C/O are called mixed congruential generators. It is easy to see that congruential generators will repeat a sequence of numbers after a maximum of M values have been generated. The number of numbers that a procedure generates before restarting the sequence is called the length or the period of the generator. Generally, it is desirable to make the period as long as possible. A detailed discussion of congruential generators is given. Also, several promising procedures that differ from the multiplicative and mixed procedure are discussed.
Koyama, Kento; Hokunan, Hidekazu; Hasegawa, Mayumi; Kawamura, Shuso; Koseki, Shigenobu
2016-12-01
We investigated a bacterial sample preparation procedure for single-cell studies. In the present study, we examined whether single bacterial cells obtained via 10-fold dilution followed a theoretical Poisson distribution. Four serotypes of Salmonella enterica, three serotypes of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli and one serotype of Listeria monocytogenes were used as sample bacteria. An inoculum of each serotype was prepared via a 10-fold dilution series to obtain bacterial cell counts with mean values of one or two. To determine whether the experimentally obtained bacterial cell counts follow a theoretical Poisson distribution, a likelihood ratio test between the experimentally obtained cell counts and Poisson distribution which parameter estimated by maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) was conducted. The bacterial cell counts of each serotype sufficiently followed a Poisson distribution. Furthermore, to examine the validity of the parameters of Poisson distribution from experimentally obtained bacterial cell counts, we compared these with the parameters of a Poisson distribution that were estimated using random number generation via computer simulation. The Poisson distribution parameters experimentally obtained from bacterial cell counts were within the range of the parameters estimated using a computer simulation. These results demonstrate that the bacterial cell counts of each serotype obtained via 10-fold dilution followed a Poisson distribution. The fact that the frequency of bacterial cell counts follows a Poisson distribution at low number would be applied to some single-cell studies with a few bacterial cells. In particular, the procedure presented in this study enables us to develop an inactivation model at the single-cell level that can estimate the variability of survival bacterial numbers during the bacterial death process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fermion production despite fermion number conservation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bock, W.; Hetrick, J.E.; Smit, J.
1995-01-01
Lattice proposals for a nonperturbative formulation of the Standard Model easily lead to a global U(1) symmetry corresponding to exactly conserved fermion number. The absence of an anomaly in the fermion current would then appear to inhibit anomalous processes, such as electroweak baryogenesis in the early universe. One way to circumvent this problem is to formulate the theory such that this U(1) symmetry is explicitly broken. However we argue that in the framework of spectral flow, fermion creation and annihilation still in fact occurs, despite the exact fermion number conservation. The crucial observation is that fermions are excitations relative to the vacuum, at the surface of the Dirac sea. The exact global U(1) symmetry prohibits a state from changing its fermion number during time evolution, however nothing prevents the fermionic ground state from doing so. We illustrate our reasoning with a model in two dimensions which has axial-vector couplings, first using a sharp momentum cutoff, then using the lattice regulator with staggered fermions. The difference in fermion number between the time evolved state and the ground state is indeed in agreement with the anomaly. Both the sharp momentum cutoff and the lattice regulator break gauge invariance. In the case of the lattice model a mass counterterm for the gauge field is sufficient to restore gauge invariance in the perturbative regime. A study of the vacuum energy shows however that the perturbative counterterm is insufficient in a nonperturbative setting and that further quartic counterterms are needed. For reference we also study a closely related model with vector couplings, the Schwinger model, and we examine the emergence of the θ-vacuum structure of both theories. ((orig.))
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gaëlle Marenne
Full Text Available Copy number variants (CNV can be called from SNP-arrays; however, few studies have attempted to combine both CNV and SNP calls to test for association with complex diseases. Even when SNPs are located within CNVs, two separate association analyses are necessary, to compare the distribution of bi-allelic genotypes in cases and controls (referred to as SNP-only strategy and the number of copies of a region (referred to as CNV-only strategy. However, when disease susceptibility is actually associated with allele specific copy-number states, the two strategies may not yield comparable results, raising a series of questions about the optimal analytical approach. We performed simulations of the performance of association testing under different scenarios that varied genotype frequencies and inheritance models. We show that the SNP-only strategy lacks power under most scenarios when the SNP is located within a CNV; frequently it is excluded from analysis as it does not pass quality control metrics either because of an increased rate of missing calls or a departure from fitness for Hardy-Weinberg proportion. The CNV-only strategy also lacks power because the association testing depends on the allele which copy number varies. The combined strategy performs well in most of the scenarios. Hence, we advocate the use of this combined strategy when testing for association with SNPs located within CNVs.
Evolution of collision numbers for a chaotic gas dynamics.
Vidgop, Alexander Jonathan; Fouxon, Itzhak
2011-11-01
We put forward a conjecture of recurrence for a gas of hard spheres that collide elastically in a finite volume. The dynamics consists of a sequence of instantaneous binary collisions. We study how the numbers of collisions of different pairs of particles grow as functions of time. We observe that these numbers can be represented as a time integral of a function on the phase space. Assuming the results of the ergodic theory apply, we describe the evolution of the numbers by an effective Langevin dynamics. We use the facts that hold for these dynamics with probability one, in order to establish properties of a single trajectory of the system. We find that for any triplet of particles there will be an infinite sequence of moments of time, when the numbers of collisions of all three different pairs of the triplet will be equal. Moreover, any value of difference of collision numbers of pairs in the triplet will repeat indefinitely. On the other hand, for larger numbers of pairs there is but a finite number of repetitions. Thus the ergodic theory produces a limitation on the dynamics.
Analysis of random number generators in abnormal usage conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soucarros, M.
2012-01-01
Random numbers have been used through the ages for games of chance, more recently for secret codes and today they are necessary to the execution of computer programs. Random number generators have now evolved from simple dices to electronic circuits and algorithms. Accordingly, the ability to distinguish between random and non-random numbers has become more difficult. Furthermore, whereas in the past dices were loaded in order to increase winning chances, it is now possible to influence the outcome of random number generators. In consequence, this subject is still very much an issue and has recently made the headlines. Indeed, there was talks about the PS3 game console which generates constant random numbers and redundant distribution of secret keys on the internet. This thesis presents a study of several generators as well as different means to perturb them. It shows the inherent defects of their conceptions and possible consequences of their failure when they are embedded inside security components. Moreover, this work highlights problems yet to be solved concerning the testing of random numbers and the post-processing eliminating bias in these numbers distribution. (author) [fr
Pseudo-Random Number Generator Based on Coupled Map Lattices
Lü, Huaping; Wang, Shihong; Hu, Gang
A one-way coupled chaotic map lattice is used for generating pseudo-random numbers. It is shown that with suitable cooperative applications of both chaotic and conventional approaches, the output of the spatiotemporally chaotic system can easily meet the practical requirements of random numbers, i.e., excellent random statistical properties, long periodicity of computer realizations, and fast speed of random number generations. This pseudo-random number generator system can be used as ideal synchronous and self-synchronizing stream cipher systems for secure communications.
Penetrative convection at high Rayleigh numbers
Toppaladoddi, Srikanth; Wettlaufer, John S.
2018-04-01
We study penetrative convection of a fluid confined between two horizontal plates, the temperatures of which are such that a temperature of maximum density lies between them. The range of Rayleigh numbers studied is Ra=[0.01 ,4 ]106,108 and the Prandtl numbers are Pr=1 and 11.6. An evolution equation for the growth of the convecting region is obtained through an integral energy balance. We identify a new nondimensional parameter, Λ , which is the ratio of temperature difference between the stable and unstable regions of the flow; larger values of Λ denote increased stability of the upper stable layer. We study the effects of Λ on the flow field using well-resolved lattice Boltzmann simulations and show that the characteristics of the flow depend sensitively upon it. For the range Λ = , we find that for a fixed Ra the Nusselt number, Nu, increases with decreasing Λ . We also investigate the effects of Λ on the vertical variation of convective heat flux and the Brunt-Väisälä frequency. Our results clearly indicate that in the limit Λ →0 the problem reduces to that of the classical Rayleigh-Bénard convection.
Psychophysical evidence for the number sense.
Burr, David C; Anobile, Giovanni; Arrighi, Roberto
2017-02-19
It is now clear that most animals, including humans, possess an ability to rapidly estimate number. Some have questioned whether this ability arises from dedicated numerosity mechanisms, or is derived indirectly from judgements of density or other attributes. We describe a series of psychophysical experiments, largely using adaptation techniques, which demonstrate clearly the existence of a number sense in humans. The number sense is truly general, extending over space, time and sensory modality, and is closely linked with action. We further show that when multiple cues are present, numerosity emerges as the natural dimension for discrimination. However, when element density increases past a certain level, the elements become too crowded to parse, and the scene is perceived as a texture rather than array of elements. The two different regimes are psychophysically discriminable in that they follow distinct psychophysical laws, and show different dependencies on eccentricity, luminance levels and effects of perceptual grouping. The distinction is important, as the ability to discriminate numerosity, but not texture, correlates with formal maths skills.This article is part of the discussion meeting issue 'The origins of numerical abilities'. © 2017 The Authors.
Unbiased All-Optical Random-Number Generator
Steinle, Tobias; Greiner, Johannes N.; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Giessen, Harald; Gerhardt, Ilja
2017-10-01
The generation of random bits is of enormous importance in modern information science. Cryptographic security is based on random numbers which require a physical process for their generation. This is commonly performed by hardware random-number generators. These often exhibit a number of problems, namely experimental bias, memory in the system, and other technical subtleties, which reduce the reliability in the entropy estimation. Further, the generated outcome has to be postprocessed to "iron out" such spurious effects. Here, we present a purely optical randomness generator, based on the bistable output of an optical parametric oscillator. Detector noise plays no role and postprocessing is reduced to a minimum. Upon entering the bistable regime, initially the resulting output phase depends on vacuum fluctuations. Later, the phase is rigidly locked and can be well determined versus a pulse train, which is derived from the pump laser. This delivers an ambiguity-free output, which is reliably detected and associated with a binary outcome. The resulting random bit stream resembles a perfect coin toss and passes all relevant randomness measures. The random nature of the generated binary outcome is furthermore confirmed by an analysis of resulting conditional entropies.
Psychophysical evidence for the number sense
2018-01-01
It is now clear that most animals, including humans, possess an ability to rapidly estimate number. Some have questioned whether this ability arises from dedicated numerosity mechanisms, or is derived indirectly from judgements of density or other attributes. We describe a series of psychophysical experiments, largely using adaptation techniques, which demonstrate clearly the existence of a number sense in humans. The number sense is truly general, extending over space, time and sensory modality, and is closely linked with action. We further show that when multiple cues are present, numerosity emerges as the natural dimension for discrimination. However, when element density increases past a certain level, the elements become too crowded to parse, and the scene is perceived as a texture rather than array of elements. The two different regimes are psychophysically discriminable in that they follow distinct psychophysical laws, and show different dependencies on eccentricity, luminance levels and effects of perceptual grouping. The distinction is important, as the ability to discriminate numerosity, but not texture, correlates with formal maths skills. This article is part of the discussion meeting issue ‘The origins of numerical abilities’. PMID:29292350
Theoretical perspective for baryon number violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Langacker, P.
1982-01-01
In this talk I describe the theoretical predictions for proton decay and other baryon number violating processes, emphasizing that there are many models and theories involving baryon number violation and that it is an experimental problem to distinguish between them. I first review the the theoretical predictions for the unification mass M/sub X/ and for the weak angle sin 2 theta/sub W/. It will be seen that the class of models involving an Su 3 x SU 2 x U 1 invariant desert between M/sub W/ and M/sub X/ are strongly favored. I then turn to baryon number violation. The proton lifetime and branching ratio predictions for the SU 5 and other 3-2-1 desert models are reviewed, with emphasis on distinguishing between models and on the implications of the small value of the QCD parameter lambda/sub anti MS/ that seems to be favored by the data. I then discuss the consequences of low energy supersymmetry for proton decay, nuclear effects, and models with low mass scales. Finally, I mention possible implications of the anomalously large flux of cosmic ray antiprotons that has recently been reported
Linear Numerical-Magnitude Representations Aid Children's Memory for Numbers
Thompson, Clarissa A.; Siegler, Robert S.
2010-01-01
We investigated the relation between children's numerical-magnitude representations and their memory for numbers. Results of three experiments indicated that the more linear children's magnitude representations were, the more closely their memory of the numbers approximated the numbers presented. This relation was present for preschoolers and…
Fractional Number Operator and Associated Fractional Diffusion Equations
Rguigui, Hafedh
2018-03-01
In this paper, we study the fractional number operator as an analog of the finite-dimensional fractional Laplacian. An important relation with the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is given. Using a semigroup approach, the solution of the Cauchy problem associated to the fractional number operator is presented. By means of the Mittag-Leffler function and the Laplace transform, we give the solution of the Caputo time fractional diffusion equation and Riemann-Liouville time fractional diffusion equation in infinite dimensions associated to the fractional number operator.
13th Conference of the Canadian Number Theory Association
Alaca, Şaban; Williams, Kenneth
2015-01-01
The theory of numbers continues to occupy a central place in modern mathematics because of both its long history over many centuries as well as its many diverse applications to other fields such as discrete mathematics, cryptography, and coding theory. The proof by Andrew Wiles (with Richard Taylor) of Fermat’s last theorem published in 1995 illustrates the high level of difficulty of problems encountered in number-theoretic research as well as the usefulness of the new ideas arising from its proof. The thirteenth conference of the Canadian Number Theory Association was held at Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada from June 16 to 20, 2014. Ninety-nine talks were presented at the conference on the theme of advances in the theory of numbers. Topics of the talks reflected the diversity of current trends and activities in modern number theory. These topics included modular forms, hypergeometric functions, elliptic curves, distribution of prime numbers, diophantine equations, L-functions, Diophantine app...
Formulation of baryon number violating collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Funakubo, Koichi; Otsuki, Shoichiro; Takenaga, Kazunori; Toyoda, Fumihiko.
1992-01-01
A new formalism based on path-integral expression of time-evolution operator during tunneling is presented. Instead of instanton calculus in the LSZ formalism, a classical bounce solution leading to sphaleron (instanton action) at high (low) energies is adopted as the tunneling configuration. The formalism is applied to O(3) nonlinear sigma model in two dimensions. For the coupling constant g 2 ≅ 0.1, which may be physical in the sense that the number of produced particles ≅ 100, comparable with that of electroweak theory, the baryon number violating cross section is smaller by orders of magnitude than the so-called unitarity bound. (author)