WorldWideScience

Sample records for newton institute cambridge

  1. 17 January 2011 - British (Cambridge) Trustee of the London Science Museum Chair of the Management Committee of the Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences H. Covington in the LHCB underground experimental area with A. Schopper; signing the guest book with Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers; throughout accompanied by R. Veness.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    17 January 2011 - British (Cambridge) Trustee of the London Science Museum Chair of the Management Committee of the Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences H. Covington in the LHCB underground experimental area with A. Schopper; signing the guest book with Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers; throughout accompanied by R. Veness.

  2. Newton's gift how Sir Isaac Newton unlocked the system of the world

    CERN Document Server

    Berlinski, David

    2000-01-01

    Sir Isaac Newton, creator of the first and perhaps most important scientific theory, is a giant of the scientific era. Despite this, he has remained inaccessible to most modern readers, indisputably great but undeniably remote. In this witty, engaging, and often moving examination of Newton's life, David Berlinski recovers the man behind the mathematical breakthroughs. The story carries the reader from Newton's unremarkable childhood to his awkward undergraduate days at Cambridge through the astonishing year in which, working alone, he laid the foundation for his system of the world, his Principia Mathematica, and to the subsequent monumental feuds that poisoned his soul and wearied his supporters. An edifying appreciation of Newton's greatest accomplishment, Newton's Gift is also a touching celebration of a transcendent man.

  3. Isaac Newton Institute of Chile: The fifteenth anniversary of its "Yugoslavia" Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijević, M. S.

    In 2002, the Isaac Newton Institute of Chile established in Belgrade its "Yugoslavia" Branch, one of 15 branches in nine countries in Eastern Europe and Eurasia. On the occasion of fifteen years since its foundation, the activities of "Yugoslavia" Branch of the Isaac Newton Institute of Chile are briefly reviewed.

  4. Newton's Metaphysics of Space as God's Emanative Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquette, Dale

    2014-09-01

    In several of his writings, Isaac Newton proposed that physical space is God's "emanative effect" or "sensorium," revealing something interesting about the metaphysics underlying his mathematical physics. Newton's conjectures depart from Plato and Aristotle's metaphysics of space and from classical and Cambridge Neoplatonism. Present-day philosophical concepts of supervenience clarify Newton's ideas about space and offer a portrait of Newton not only as a mathematical physicist but an independent-minded rationalist philosopher.

  5. International Commercial Contracts, by Giuditta Cordero Moss. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Review of: Giuditta Cordero Moss, International Commercial Contracts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014. XV + 329 pages. ISBN: 9781107684713......Review of: Giuditta Cordero Moss, International Commercial Contracts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014. XV + 329 pages. ISBN: 9781107684713...

  6. Programming for the Newton software development with NewtonScript

    CERN Document Server

    McKeehan, Julie

    1994-01-01

    Programming for the Newton: Software Development with NewtonScript focuses on the processes, approaches, operations, and principles involved in software development with NewtonScript.The publication first elaborates on Newton application design, views on the Newton, and protos. Discussions focus on system protos, creating and using user protos, linking and naming templates, creating the views of WaiterHelper, Newton application designs, and life cycle of an application. The text then elaborates on the fundamentals of NewtonScript, inheritance in NewtonScript, and view system and messages. Topi

  7. The Newtonian Moment - Isaac Newton and the Making of Modern Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feingold, Mordechai

    2004-12-01

    Isaac Newton is a legendary figure whose mythical dimension threatens to overshadow the actual man. The story of the apple falling from the tree may or may not be true, but Isaac Newton's revolutionary discoveries and their importance to the Enlightenment era and beyond are undeniable. The Newtonian Moment , a companion volume to a forthcoming exhibition by the New York Public Library, investigates the effect that Newton's theories and discoveries had, not only on the growth of science, but also on the very shape of modern culture and thought. Newton's scientific work at Cambridge was groundbreaking. From his optical experiments with prisms during the 1660s to the publication of both Principia (1687) and Opticks (1704), Newton's achievements were widely disseminated, inciting tremendous interest and excitement. Newtonianism developed into a worldview marked by many tensions: between modernity and the old guard, between the humanities and science, and the public battles between great minds. The Newtonian Moment illuminates the many facets of his colossal accomplishments, as well as the debates over the kind of knowledge that his accomplishments engendered. The book contributes to a greater understanding of the world today by offering a panoramic view of the profound impact of Newtonianism on the science, literature, art, and religion of the Enlightenment. Copiously illustrated with items drawn from the collections of the New York Public Library as well as numerous other libraries and museums, The Newtonian Moment enlightens its audience with a guided and in-depth look at the man, his world, and his enduring legacy.

  8. Continuation Newton methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Axelsson, Owe; Sysala, Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 11 (2015), s. 2621-2637 ISSN 0898-1221 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-18652S Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : system of nonlinear equations * Newton method * load increment method * elastoplasticity Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 1.398, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0898122115003818

  9. Weizmann ties with Cambridge in physics contest

    CERN Multimedia

    Siegel, J

    2004-01-01

    "Scientists and students from the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot and Cambridge University in England have tied for first place in a physics competition aimed at simulating the future functioning of the particle accelerator being built at the European center CERN and due to open in 2007" (1/2 page)

  10. The importance of being equivalent: Newton's two models of one-body motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourciau, Bruce

    2004-05-01

    As an undergraduate at Cambridge, Newton entered into his "Waste Book" an assumption that we have named the Equivalence Assumption (The Younger): "If a body move progressively in some crooked line [about a center of motion] ..., [then this] crooked line may bee conceived to consist of an infinite number of streight lines. Or else in any point of the croked line the motion may bee conceived to be on in the tangent". In this assumption, Newton somewhat imprecisely describes two mathematical models, a "polygonal limit model" and a "tangent deflected model", for "one-body motion", that is, for the motion of a "body in orbit about a fixed center", and then claims that these two models are equivalent. In the first part of this paper, we study the Principia to determine how the elder Newton would more carefully describe the polygonal limit and tangent deflected models. From these more careful descriptions, we then create Equivalence Assumption (The Elder), a precise interpretation of Equivalence Assumption (The Younger) as it might have been restated by Newton, after say 1687. We then review certain portions of the Waste Book and the Principia to make the case that, although Newton never restates nor even alludes to the Equivalence Assumption after his youthful Waste Book entry, still the polygonal limit and tangent deflected models, as well as an unspoken belief in their equivalence, infuse Newton's work on orbital motion. In particular, we show that the persuasiveness of the argument for the Area Property in Proposition 1 of the Principia depends crucially on the validity of Equivalence Assumption (The Elder). After this case is made, we present the mathematical analysis required to establish the validity of the Equivalence Assumption (The Elder). Finally, to illustrate the fundamental nature of the resulting theorem, the Equivalence Theorem as we call it, we present three significant applications: we use the Equivalence Theorem first to clarify and resolve questions

  11. Nutrition in medical education: reflections from an initiative at the University of Cambridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ball L

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Lauren Ball,1 Jennifer Crowley,2 Celia Laur,3 Minha Rajput-Ray,3 Stephen Gillam,4 Sumantra Ray3 1Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Allied Health Sciences, Centre for Health Practice Innovation, Griffith University, Queensland, Brisbane, Australia; 2Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 3Need for Nutrition Education/Innovation Programme, Medical Research Council Human Nutrition Research, Cambridge, UK; 4Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Institute of Public Health, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK Abstract: Landmark reports have confirmed that it is within the core responsibilities of doctors to address nutrition in patient care. There are ongoing concerns that doctors receive insufficient nutrition education during medical training. This paper provides an overview of a medical nutrition education initiative at the University of Cambridge, School of Clinical Medicine, including 1 the approach to medical nutrition education, 2 evaluation of the medical nutrition education initiative, and 3 areas identified for future improvement. The initiative utilizes a vertical, spiral approach during the clinically focused years of the Cambridge undergraduate and graduate medical degrees. It is facilitated by the Nutrition Education Review Group, a group associated with the UK Need for Nutrition Education/Innovation Programme, and informed by the experiences of their previous nutrition education interventions. Three factors were identified as contributing to the success of the nutrition education initiative including the leadership and advocacy skills of the nutrition academic team, the variety of teaching modes, and the multidisciplinary approach to teaching. Opportunities for continuing improvement to the medical nutrition education initiative included a review of evaluation tools, inclusion of nutrition in assessment items, and further alignment of the Cambridge curriculum with the

  12. Alquimia: Isaac Newton revisitado Alchemy: Isaac Newton Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Carmello Corrêa de Moraes

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Nota sobre publicações recentes que revelam aspectos pouco conhecidos da biblioteca de Newton - os numerosos textos religiosos, místicos e herméticos. Os biógrafos de Newton resistiram muito até admitir que os escritos esotéricos fossem genuíno interesse do sábio e que tivessem importância para entender sua trajetória intelectual. As publicações aqui indicadas afirmam o contrário, seguindo trilha aberta por ensaio pioneiro de J. M. Keynes (1946.A note on recent books about an unexplored side of Newton’s library: religious, mystical and hermetic texts. Newton's biographers had resisted so much to believe that esoteric writings were in Newton’s field of interest. Even if they recognized that, they didn't believe those strange works were important elements to understand his intellectual trajectory. The studies we mention here are saying just the opposite thing, exploring the way opened by the pioneer essay of J. M. Keynes (1946.

  13. Mechanics and Newton-Cartan-like gravity on the Newton-Hooke space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Yu; Guo Hanying; Huang Chaoguang; Xu Zhan; Zhou Bin

    2005-01-01

    We focus on the dynamical aspects on Newton-Hooke space-time NH + mainly from the viewpoint of geometric contraction of the de Sitter spacetime with Beltrami metric. (The term spacetime is used to denote a space with non-degenerate metric, while the term space-time is used to denote a space with degenerate metric.) We first discuss the Newton-Hooke classical mechanics, especially the continuous medium mechanics, in this framework. Then, we establish a consistent theory of gravity on the Newton-Hooke space-time as a kind of Newton-Cartan-like theory, parallel to the Newton's gravity in the Galilei space-time. Finally, we give the Newton-Hooke invariant Schroedinger equation from the geometric contraction, where we can relate the conservative probability in some sense to the mass density in the Newton-Hooke continuous medium mechanics. Similar consideration may apply to the Newton-Hooke space-time NH - contracted from anti-de Sitter spacetime

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Isaac Newton Telescope Wide Field Survey (CASU 2002)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambridge Astronomical Survey Unit

    2002-04-01

    The INT Wide Field Survey (WFS) is using the Wide Field Camera (~0.3 square degrees) on the 2.5m Isaac Newton Telescope (INT). The project was initiated in August 1998 and is expected to have a duration of up to five years. Multicolour data will be obtained over 200+ square degrees to a typical depth of ~25 mag (u' through z'). The data is publically accessible via the Cambridge Astronomical Survey Unit to UK and NL communities from day one, with access to the rest of the world after one year. This observation log lists all observations older than the one year proprietary period. (1 data file).

  15. 76 FR 13665 - Cambridge Tool & Die, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Action Total Staffing, Cambridge, OH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,605] Cambridge Tool & Die... Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance In accordance with Section 223 of the Trade Act of 1974... of Cambridge Tool & Die, Cambridge, Ohio. The workers are engaged in the production of plastic...

  16. Maps into projective spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Usha N Bhosle. Acknowledgements. This work was initiated during the author's visit to the Isaac Newton Institute, Cambridge,. UK as a visiting fellow to participate in the programme Moduli Spaces (MOS) during. June 2011. She would like to thank the Institute for hospitality and excellent working environment. References.

  17. Fractal aspects and convergence of Newton`s method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drexler, M. [Oxford Univ. Computing Lab. (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    Newton`s Method is a widely established iterative algorithm for solving non-linear systems. Its appeal lies in its great simplicity, easy generalization to multiple dimensions and a quadratic local convergence rate. Despite these features, little is known about its global behavior. In this paper, we will explain a seemingly random global convergence pattern using fractal concepts and show that the behavior of the residual is entirely explicable. We will also establish quantitative results for the convergence rates. Knowing the mechanism of fractal generation, we present a stabilization to the orthodox Newton method that remedies the fractal behavior and improves convergence.

  18. A combined modification of Newton`s method for systems of nonlinear equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, M.T.; Fernandes, E.M.G.P. [Universidade do Minho, Braga (Portugal)

    1996-12-31

    To improve the performance of Newton`s method for the solution of systems of nonlinear equations a modification to the Newton iteration is implemented. The modified step is taken as a linear combination of Newton step and steepest descent directions. In the paper we describe how the coefficients of the combination can be generated to make effective use of the two component steps. Numerical results that show the usefulness of the combined modification are presented.

  19. Philosophy at Cambridge, Newsletter of the Faculty of Philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Lecky-Thompson, Jenni

    2009-01-01

    Philosophy Newsletter. Articles by: Edward Craig - From the Chairman. Onora O'Neill - "It's the newspapers I can't stand. Serena Olsaretti - The 2004 Annual Royal Institute of Philosophy Conference. Mary Leng - Mathematical Knowledge Conference. Postgraduate Conference. Jane Heal - Facts, Fables and Funds. Hugh Mellor - Uses and Abuses of Probability. Amanda Boyle - Nobody Knows Anything: Philosophy, Film and Me. Jaime Whyte - Seven Years at Cambridge Alex Oliver...

  20. Clark and Prehistory at Cambridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Jane Smith

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available If honours and titles give measure of a man, then Professor Sir Grahame Clark was indeed important. Faculty Assistant Lecturer in the Faculty of Archaeology and Anthropology at Cambridge University from 1935-46, University Lecturer 1946-52, Disney Professor of Archaeology 1952-74, Head of the Department of Archaeol­ogy and Anthropology 1956-61 and 1968-71, Fellow of Peterhouse, Cambridge 1950-73, Master of Peterhouse 1973-80, he was a visiting lecturer at diverse universities; appointed CBE in 1971, he received many awards includ­ing the prestigious Erasmus Prize for 1990, presented by Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands, for his "long and inspiring devotion to prehistory" (Scarre 1991:10; and in June 1992, he was knighted. Yet well before fame and position were rewards, Clark made major contributions to the establishment of prehis­tory as an academic subject at Cambridge University. Cambridge was the first and, for many years, only British university granting an undergraduate degree which offered prehistory as a specialization. "The development of postgraduate research in prehistoric archaeology at Cambridge had to wait on the provision of undergraduate teaching;' Clark (1989b: 6 recently observed. The "faculty was the only one in Britain producing a flow of graduates in prehistoric archaeology" (Clark 1989a: 53.

  1. Newton's apple Isaac Newton and the English scientific renaissance

    CERN Document Server

    Aughton, Peter

    2003-01-01

    In the aftermath of the English Civil War, the Restoration overturned England's medieval outlook and a new way of looking at the world allowed the genius of Isaac Newton (b. 1642) and his contemporaries to flourish. Newton had a long and eventful life apart from his scentific discoveries. He was born at the beginnings of the Civil War, his studies were disrupted by the twin disasters of the Great Plague and the Fire of London; a brilliant and enigmatic genius, Newton dabbled in alchemy, wrote over a million words on the Bible, quarrelled with his contemporaries and spent his last years as Master of the Royal Mint as well as President of the Royal Society. This book sets Newton's life and work against this dramatic intellectual rebirth; among his friends and contemporaries were Samuel Pepys, the colourful diarist, John Evelyn, the eccentric antiquarian, the astronomers Edmund Halley and John Flamsteed, and Christopher Wren, the greatest architect of his age. They were all instrumental in the founding of the Ro...

  2. Isaac Newton: Eighteenth-century Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, A. Rupert

    1999-05-01

    This new product of the ever-flourishing Newton industry seems a bit far-fetched at first sight: who but a few specialists would be interested in the historiography of Newton biography in the eighteenth century? On closer inspection, this book by one of the most important Newton scholars of our day turns out to be of interest to a wider audience as well. It contains several biographical sketches of Newton, written in the decades after his death. The two most important ones are the Eloge by the French mathematician Bernard de Fontenelle and the Italian scholar Paolo Frisi's Elogio. The latter piece was hitherto unavailable in English translation. Both articles are well-written, interesting and sometimes even entertaining. They give us new insights into the way Newton was revered throughout Europe and how not even the slightest blemish on his personality or work could be tolerated. An example is the way in which Newton's famous controversy with Leibniz is treated: Newton is without hesitation presented as the wronged party. Hall has provided very useful historical introductions to the memoirs as well as footnotes where needed. Among the other articles discussed is a well-known memoir by John Conduitt, who was married to Newton's niece. This memoir, substantial parts of which are included in this volume, has been a major source of personal information for Newton biographers up to this day. In a concluding chapter, Hall gives a very interesting overview of the later history of Newton biography, in which he describes the gradual change from adoration to a more critical approach in Newton's various biographers. In short, this is a very useful addition to the existing biographical literature on Newton. A J Kox

  3. Cambridge Analytica

    OpenAIRE

    ANTOR Md Ahsan Habib

    2018-01-01

    10 mintures presentation slides for Cambridge Analytica...... You will get a glimpse idea about the biggest data scandal of 2018. If your are preparing for IT security presentation , I believe this would help you to understand about the basic idea & reason of the CA.

  4. Newton and scholastic philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitin, Dmitri

    2016-03-01

    This article examines Isaac Newton's engagement with scholastic natural philosophy. In doing so, it makes two major historiographical interventions. First of all, the recent claim that Newton's use of the concepts of analysis and synthesis was derived from the Aristotelian regressus tradition is challenged on the basis of bibliographical, palaeographical and intellectual evidence. Consequently, a new, contextual explanation is offered for Newton's use of these concepts. Second, it will be shown that some of Newton's most famous pronouncements - from the General Scholium appended to the second edition of the Principia (1713) and from elsewhere - are simply incomprehensible without an understanding of specific scholastic terminology and its later reception, and that this impacts in quite significant ways on how we understand Newton's natural philosophy more generally. Contrary to the recent historiographical near-consensus, Newton did not hold an elaborate metaphysics, and his seemingly 'metaphysical' statements were in fact anti-scholastic polemical salvoes. The whole investigation will permit us a brief reconsideration of the relationship between the self-proclaimed 'new' natural philosophy and its scholastic predecessors.

  5. Lojasiewicz exponents and Newton polyhedra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Tien Son

    2006-07-01

    In this paper we obtain the exact value of the Lojasiewicz exponent at the origin of analytic map germs on K n (K = R or C under the Newton non-degeneracy condition, using information from their Newton polyhedra. We also give some conclusions on Newton non-degenerate analytic map germs. As a consequence, we obtain a link between Newton non-degenerate ideals and their integral closures, thus leading to a simple proof of a result of Saia. Similar results are also considered to polynomial maps which are Newton non-degenerate at infinity. (author)

  6. The Cambridge Structural Database in retrospect and prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Colin R; Allen, Frank H

    2014-01-13

    The Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC) was established in 1965 to record numerical, chemical and bibliographic data relating to published organic and metal-organic crystal structures. The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) now stores data for nearly 700,000 structures and is a comprehensive and fully retrospective historical archive of small-molecule crystallography. Nearly 40,000 new structures are added each year. As X-ray crystallography celebrates its centenary as a subject, and the CCDC approaches its own 50th year, this article traces the origins of the CCDC as a publicly funded organization and its onward development into a self-financing charitable institution. Principally, however, we describe the growth of the CSD and its extensive associated software system, and summarize its impact and value as a basis for research in structural chemistry, materials science and the life sciences, including drug discovery and drug development. Finally, the article considers the CCDC's funding model in relation to open access and open data paradigms. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Newton's Apple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Archibald W.

    2007-01-01

    Isaac Newton may have seen an apple fall, but it was Robert Hooke who had a better idea of where it would land. No one really knows whether or not Isaac Newton actually saw an apple fall in his garden. Supposedly it took place in 1666, but it was a tale he told in his old age more than 60 years later, a time when his memory was failing and his…

  8. Reflections on Cambridge: John Maynard Keynes at King's College Cambridge

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan

    2012-01-01

    .mp4 video file The economist John Maynard Keynes spent much of his life in Cambridge, connected to King's College. Alan Macfarlane reflects on a few aspects of his life and work. Filmed by Xu Bei in 2010

  9. PREFACE: Preface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffatt, Keith; Kephart, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    This online volume contains a selection of papers arising from two workshops organised within the six-month programme Topological Dynamics in the Physical and Biological Sciences held at the Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Cambridge, from July to December 2012. The first of these was a 'satellite workshop' held at the International Centre for Mathematical Sciences (ICMS), Edinburgh, 15-19 October 2012, under the title Tangled Magnetic Fields in Astro- and Plasma Physics, and with Scientific Organising Committee: Konrad Bajer (Warsaw), Mitchell Berger (Exeter), Steve Cowley (Culham Centre for Fusion Energy), Andrew Gilbert (Exeter), Gunnar Hornig (Dundee), and Clare Parnell (St Andrews). The second was the workshop Quantised Flux in Tightly Knotted and Linked Systems held at the Newton Institute, 3- 7 December 2012, with Scientific Organising Committee: Natalia Berloff (DAMTP, Cambridge), Anne-Christine Davis (DAMTP, Cambridge), Jason Cantarella (University of Georgia), Thomas Kephart (Vanderbilt University), Paul Sutcliffe (Durham University), and Tanmay Vachaspati (Arizona State University). Videos of the lectures given at this second workshop can be viewed at http://www.newton.ac.uk/webseminars. The papers published here follow a natural progression through the following topics: helicity and related invariants of magnetic fields in ideal MHD; relaxation under topological constraints; lower bounds on magnetic energy; current and vortex filaments; applications in the solar corona, tokamak plasmas, and cyclone dynamics; higher-order invariants; topology of curves and surfaces, and energy measures; tight knots; applications to Bose-Einstein condensates, QCD, and cosmic superstring theory. Some of the papers span more than one of these areas. We owe a great debt of gratitude to Konrad Bajer, who was one of the guiding spirits behind the whole Newton Institute program, and who took particular responsibility for the Satellite Workshop at ICMS

  10. Hamming's "open doors" and group creativity as keys to scientific excellence: the example of Cambridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erren, Thomas C

    2008-01-01

    Dr. Charlton used diverse approaches to identify research institutions which provided home to outstanding scientists and work. One intriguing example of long-lasting scientific excellence is Cambridge with 19 Nobel laureates who worked at the University or at the MRC Molecular Biology Unit when they received the prize between 1947 and 2006. With specific reference to Cambridge, I would like to complement the primarily quantitative assessment and offer considerations as to why and how research achievements may have clustered in space and time. Indeed, observations voiced by the mathematician Richard Hamming as to how great research can be pursued offer explanations for the series of great science in the UK. In my view, the most important determinant of the clustering may be illustrated by Hamming's fitting picture of "open doors": working in environments with the doors open allows constant interactions with peers with various disciplinary backgrounds, and thus fast avoidance of detours or dead ends in science and, ultimately, a focus on and the solution of problems of paramount, rather than of tangential, importance. Narrative insights into a strong argumentative tradition at Cambridge provided by Drs. Watson and Magueijo between 1968 and 2003 are in line with Hamming's suggestion and the value of group creativity. In the internet age with abundant interactions beyond home institutions we should not be surprised if clusters of great science were no longer confined to the usual suspect institutions which were awarded disproportionally with Nobel prizes in the past.

  11. The Enigma of Newton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, E.

    1973-01-01

    Presents a brief biography of Sir Isaac Newton, lists contemporary scientists and scientific developments and discusses Newton's optical research and conceptual position concerning the nature of light. (JR)

  12. Trial access to Cambridge University Press ebooks

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2011-01-01

    From 1 August till 31 October, CERN users are invited to enjoy a trial access to all Cambridge University Press electronic books: http://ebooks.cambridge.org/. Please don't hesitate to send feedback to library.desk@cern.ch.

  13. How quantum physics came to Cambridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCrea, William

    1985-01-01

    The paper traces the early stages of quantum physics, in Cambridge, in the 1920's. The mathematicians who inspired a generation of quantum physicists are briefly described, as well as the work of Dirac on quantum mechanics. The author's own contribution to quantum mechanics is outlined, along with other work in physics carried out at that time in Cambridge. (U.K.)

  14. Sometimes "Newton's Method" Always "Cycles"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latulippe, Joe; Switkes, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Are there functions for which Newton's method cycles for all non-trivial initial guesses? We construct and solve a differential equation whose solution is a real-valued function that two-cycles under Newton iteration. Higher-order cycles of Newton's method iterates are explored in the complex plane using complex powers of "x." We find a class of…

  15. Cambridge IGCSE English first language

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, John

    2013-01-01

    Revised edition for the 2015 syllabus to help your students prepare for their examination and enhance their enjoyment of English. This title has been written for the revised Cambridge IGCSE First Language English (0500 and 0522) syllabuses, for first teaching from 2013. ? Develops the skills necessary to become a better reader and writer. ? Offers detailed advice and preparation for the examination. ? Teaches skills for successful writing of essays and coursework assignment. We are working with Cambridge International Examinations to gain endorsement for this title.

  16. The Newton papers the strange and true odyssey of Isaac Newton's manuscripts

    CERN Document Server

    Dry, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    When Isaac Newton died at 85 without a will on March 20, 1727, he left a mass of disorganized papers-upwards of 8 million words-that presented an immediate challenge to his heirs. Most of these writings, on subjects ranging from secret alchemical formulas to impassioned rejections of the Holy Trinity to notes and calculations on his core discoveries in calculus, universal gravitation, and optics, were summarily dismissed by his heirs as "not fit to be printed." Rabidly heretical, alchemically obsessed, and possibly even mad, the Newton presented in these papers threatened to undermine not just his personal reputation but the status of science itself. As a result, the private papers of the world's greatest scientist remained hidden to all but a select few for over two hundred years. In The Newton Papers, Sarah Dry divulges the story of how this secret archive finally came to light-and the complex and contradictory man it revealed. Covering a broad swath of history, Dry explores who controlled Newton's legacy, ...

  17. Black Hole Results from XMM-Newton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Schartel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available XMM-Newton is one of the most successful science missions of the  European Space Agency. Since 2003 every year about 300 articles are published in refereed journals making directly use of XMM-Newton data. All XMM-Newton calls for observing proposals are highly oversubscribed by factors of six and more. In the following some scientic highlights of XMM-Newton observations of black holes are summarized.

  18. Isaac Newton: Man, Myth, and Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickey, V. Frederick

    1987-01-01

    This article was written in part to celebrate the anniversaries of landmark mathematical works by Newton and Descartes. It's other purpose is to dispel some myths about Sir Isaac Newton and to encourage readers to read Newton's works. (PK)

  19. From Newton to Einstein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, L. H.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the history of scientific thought in terms of the theories of inertia and absolute space, relativity and gravitation. Describes how Sir Isaac Newton used the work of earlier scholars in his theories and how Albert Einstein used Newton's theories in his. (CW)

  20. Revisiting the Mathematisation Thesis. Galileo, Descartes, Newton, and the Language of Nature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kvasz, Ladislav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 4 (2016), s. 399-406 ISSN 0269-8595 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : mathematization of motion * Koyré * Galilei * Newton Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion OBOR OECD: Philosophy, History and Philosophy of science and technology

  1. Harder–Narasimhan filtration for rank 2 tensors and stable coverings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We call σ the Harder–Narasimhan section of the covering. Acknowledgements. The author wishes to thank Usha Bhosle, Tomás L Gómez and Peter Newstead for useful discussions, and to the Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences in Cambridge,. United Kingdom, where part of this work was done, for hospitality.

  2. Newton-Cartan gravity revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andringa, Roel

    2016-01-01

    In this research Newton's old theory of gravity is rederived using an algebraic approach known as the gauging procedure. The resulting theory is Newton's theory in the mathematical language of Einstein's General Relativity theory, in which gravity is spacetime curvature. The gauging procedure sheds

  3. Isaac Newton pocket giants

    CERN Document Server

    May, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Isaac Newton had an extraordinary idea. He believed the physical universe and everything in it could be described in exact detail using mathematical relationships. He formulated a law of gravity that explained why objects fall downwards, how the moon causes the tides, and why planets and comets orbit the sun. While Newton's work has been added to over the years, his basic approach remains at the heart of the scientific worldview. Yet Newton's own had little in common with that of a modern scientist. He believed the universe was created to a precise and rational design - a design that was fully

  4. Cambridge English First 2 with answers : authentic examination papers

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Four authentic Cambridge English Language Assessment examination papers for the Cambridge English: First (FCE) exam. These examination papers for the Cambridge English: First (FCE) exam provide the most authentic exam preparation available, allowing candidates to familiarise themselves with the content and format of the exam and to practise useful exam techniques. The Student's Book is also available in a 'without answers' edition. Audio CDs (2) containing the exam Listening material and a Student's Book with answers and downloadable Audio are available separately. These tests are also available as Cambridge English: First Tests 5-8 on Testbank.org.uk

  5. Some Peculiarities of Newton-Hooke Space-Times

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Yu

    2011-01-01

    Newton-Hooke space-times are the non-relativistic limit of (anti-)de Sitter space-times. We investigate some peculiar facts about the Newton-Hooke space-times, among which the "extraordinary Newton-Hooke quantum mechanics" and the "anomalous Newton-Hooke space-times" are discussed in detail. Analysis on the Lagrangian/action formalism is performed in the discussion of the Newton-Hooke quantum mechanics, where the path integral point of view plays an important role, and the physically measurab...

  6. NEWTON'S SECOND LAW OF MOTION, F=MA; EULER'S OR NEWTON'S?

    OpenAIRE

    Ajay Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Objective: F =ma is taught as Newton’s second law of motion all over the world. But it was given by Euler in 1775, forty-eight years after the death of Newton. It is debated here with scientific logic. Methods/Statistical analysis: The discussion partially deals with history of science so various aspects are quoted from original references. Newton did not give any equation in the Principia for second, third laws motion and law of gravitation. Conceptually, in Newton’s time, neither accele...

  7. Never at rest: a biography of Isaac Newton

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Westfall, Richard S

    1980-01-01

    ... Paulo, Delhi, Dubai, Tokyo, Mexico City Cambridge University Press 32 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10013-2473, © Cambridge University Press 1980 USA www.cambridge.org Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521231435 This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant...

  8. Cambridge English First 2 audio CDs : authentic examination papers

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Four authentic Cambridge English Language Assessment examination papers for the Cambridge English: First (FCE) exam. These examination papers for the Cambridge English: First (FCE) exam provide the most authentic exam preparation available, allowing candidates to familiarise themselves with the content and format of the exam and to practise useful exam techniques. The Audio CDs contain the recorded material to allow thorough preparation for the Listening paper and are designed to be used with the Student's Book. A Student's Book with or without answers and a Student's Book with answers and downloadable Audio are available separately. These tests are also available as Cambridge English: First Tests 5-8 on Testbank.org.uk

  9. Truncated Newton-Raphson Methods for Quasicontinuum Simulations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liang, Yu; Kanapady, Ramdev; Chung, Peter W

    2006-01-01

    .... In this research, we report the effectiveness of the truncated Newton-Raphson method and quasi-Newton method with low-rank Hessian update strategy that are evaluated against the full Newton-Raphson...

  10. Turning around Newton's Second Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, John Eric

    2004-01-01

    Conceptual and quantitative difficulties surrounding Newton's second law often arise among introductory physics students. Simply turning around how one expresses Newton's second law may assist students in their understanding of a deceptively simple-looking equation.

  11. Measuring, Understanding, and Responding to Covert Social Networks: Passive and Active Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-11

    Methods for generating a random sample of networks with desired properties are important tools for the analysis of social , biological, and information...on Theoretical Foundations for Statistical Network Analysis at the Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences at Cambridge U. (organized by...Approach SOCIAL SCIENCES STATISTICS EECS Problems span three disciplines Scientific focus is needed at the interfaces

  12. NITSOL: A Newton iterative solver for nonlinear systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pernice, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Walker, H.F. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Newton iterative methods, also known as truncated Newton methods, are implementations of Newton`s method in which the linear systems that characterize Newton steps are solved approximately using iterative linear algebra methods. Here, we outline a well-developed Newton iterative algorithm together with a Fortran implementation called NITSOL. The basic algorithm is an inexact Newton method globalized by backtracking, in which each initial trial step is determined by applying an iterative linear solver until an inexact Newton criterion is satisfied. In the implementation, the user can specify inexact Newton criteria in several ways and select an iterative linear solver from among several popular {open_quotes}transpose-free{close_quotes} Krylov subspace methods. Jacobian-vector products used by the Krylov solver can be either evaluated analytically with a user-supplied routine or approximated using finite differences of function values. A flexible interface permits a wide variety of preconditioning strategies and allows the user to define a preconditioner and optionally update it periodically. We give details of these and other features and demonstrate the performance of the implementation on a representative set of test problems.

  13. Newton-Hooke Limit of Beltrami-de Sitter Spacetime, Principles of Galilei-Hooke's Relativity and Postulate on Newton-Hooke Universal Time

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Chao-Guang; Guo, Han-Ying; Tian, Yu; Xu, Zhan; Zhou, Bin

    2004-01-01

    Based on the Beltrami-de Sitter spacetime, we present the Newton-Hooke model under the Newton-Hooke contraction of the $BdS$ spacetime with respect to the transformation group, algebra and geometry. It is shown that in Newton-Hooke space-time, there are inertial-type coordinate systems and inertial-type observers, which move along straight lines with uniform velocity. And they are invariant under the Newton-Hooke group. In order to determine uniquely the Newton-Hooke limit, we propose the Gal...

  14. Efficient Tridiagonal Preconditioner for the Matrix-Free Truncated Newton Method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukšan, Ladislav; Vlček, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 235, 25 May (2014), s. 394-407 ISSN 0096-3003 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-06684S Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : unconstrained optimization * large scale optimization * matrix-free truncated Newton method * preconditioned conjugate gradient method * preconditioners obtained by the directional differentiation * numerical algorithms Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.551, year: 2014

  15. Newton flows for elliptic functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helminck, G.F.; Twilt, F.

    2015-01-01

    Newton flows are dynamical systems generated by a continuous, desingularized Newton method for mappings from a Euclidean space to itself. We focus on the special case of meromorphic functions on the complex plane. Inspired by the analogy between the rational (complex) and the elliptic (i.e., doubly

  16. Introducing Newton and classical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rankin, William

    2002-01-01

    The rainbow, the moon, a spinning top, a comet, the ebb and flood of the oceans ...a falling apple. There is only one universe and it fell to Isaac Newton to discover its secrets. Newton was arguably the greatest scientific genius of all time, and yet he remains a mysterious figure. Written and illustrated by William Rankin, "Introducting Newton and Classical Physics" explains the extraordinary ideas of a man who sifted through the accumulated knowledge of centuries, tossed out mistaken beliefs, and single-handedly made enormous advances in mathematics, mechanics and optics. By the age of 25, entirely self-taught, he had sketched out a system of the world. Einstein's theories are unthinkable without Newton's founding system. He was also a secret heretic, a mystic and an alchemist, the man of whom Edmund Halley said "Nearer to the gods may no man approach!". This is an ideal companion volume to "Introducing Einstein".

  17. From Galileo to Newton

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Alfred Rupert

    1982-01-01

    The near century (1630–1720) that separates the important astronomical findings of Galileo Galilei (1564–1642) and the vastly influential mathematical work of Sir Isaac Newton (1642–1727) represents a pivotal stage of transition in the history of science. Tracing the revolution in physics initiated by Galileo and culminating in Newton's achievements, this book surveys the work of Huygens, Leeuwenhoek, Boyle, Descartes, and others. 35 illustrations.

  18. New Quasi-Newton Method for Solving Systems of Nonlinear Equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukšan, Ladislav; Vlček, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 2 (2017), s. 121-134 ISSN 0862-7940 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-06684S Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : nonlinear equations * systems of equations * trust-region methods * quasi-Newton methods * adjoint Broyden methods * numerical algorithms * numerical experiments Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 0.618, year: 2016 http://hdl.handle.net/10338.dmlcz/146699

  19. Subsampled Hessian Newton Methods for Supervised Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chien-Chih; Huang, Chun-Heng; Lin, Chih-Jen

    2015-08-01

    Newton methods can be applied in many supervised learning approaches. However, for large-scale data, the use of the whole Hessian matrix can be time-consuming. Recently, subsampled Newton methods have been proposed to reduce the computational time by using only a subset of data for calculating an approximation of the Hessian matrix. Unfortunately, we find that in some situations, the running speed is worse than the standard Newton method because cheaper but less accurate search directions are used. In this work, we propose some novel techniques to improve the existing subsampled Hessian Newton method. The main idea is to solve a two-dimensional subproblem per iteration to adjust the search direction to better minimize the second-order approximation of the function value. We prove the theoretical convergence of the proposed method. Experiments on logistic regression, linear SVM, maximum entropy, and deep networks indicate that our techniques significantly reduce the running time of the subsampled Hessian Newton method. The resulting algorithm becomes a compelling alternative to the standard Newton method for large-scale data classification.

  20. Newton's Cradle in Physics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauld, Colin F.

    2006-01-01

    Newton's Cradle is a series of bifilar pendulums used in physics classrooms to demonstrate the role of the principles of conservation of momentum and kinetic energy in elastic collisions. The paper reviews the way in which textbooks use Newton's Cradle and points out the unsatisfactory nature of these treatments in almost all cases. The literature…

  1. Cambridge IGCSE mathematics core and extended

    CERN Document Server

    Pimentel, Ric

    2013-01-01

    The most cost effective and straightforward way to teach the revised syllabus, with all the core and extended content covered by a single book and accompanying free digital resources.  . This title has been written for the revised Cambridge IGCSE Mathematics (0580) syllabus, for first teaching from 2013.  . ·         Gives students the practice they require to deepen their understanding through plenty of questions. ·         Consolidates learning with unique digital resources on the CD, included free with every Student's Book.  . We are working with Cambridge International Examinations to gain

  2. Using the Cambridge structure database of organic and organometalic compounds in structure biology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hašek, Jindřich

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 17, 1a (2010), b24-b26 ISSN 1211-5894. [Discussions in Structural Molecular Biology /8./. Nové Hrady, 18.03.2010-20.03.2010] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500500701; GA ČR GA305/07/1073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : organic chemistry * Cambridge Structure Data base * molecular structure Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry http://xray.cz/ms/bul2010-1a/friday2.pdf

  3. The perihelion of Mercury advance and the light bending calculated in (enhanced) Newton's theory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abramowicz, M. A.; Ellis, G. F. R.; Horák, Jiří; Wielgus, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 1 (2014), 1630/1-1630/14 ISSN 0001-7701 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M100031242 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : space curvature * Newton's gravity * Perihelion advance Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.771, year: 2014

  4. Low-rank Quasi-Newton updates for Robust Jacobian lagging in Newton methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.; Brune, P.

    2013-01-01

    Newton-Krylov methods are standard tools for solving nonlinear problems. A common approach is to 'lag' the Jacobian when assembly or preconditioner setup is computationally expensive, in exchange for some degradation in the convergence rate and robustness. We show that this degradation may be partially mitigated by using the lagged Jacobian as an initial operator in a quasi-Newton method, which applies unassembled low-rank updates to the Jacobian until the next full reassembly. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this technique on problems in glaciology and elasticity. (authors)

  5. Newton flows for elliptic functions: A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twilt, F.; Helminck, G.F.; Snuverink, M.; van den Brug, L.

    2008-01-01

    Elliptic Newton flows are generated by a continuous, desingularized Newton method for doubly periodic meromorphic functions on the complex plane. In the special case, where the functions underlying these elliptic Newton flows are of second-order, we introduce various, closely related, concepts of

  6. Application of a modified semismooth Newton method to some elasto-plastic problems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sysala, Stanislav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 10 (2012), s. 2004-2021 ISSN 0378-4754 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA105/09/1830 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : elasto-plasticity * hardening * Incremental finite element method * Semismooth Newton method * damping Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.836, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378475412001292

  7. Michele Renee Salzman, Marvina A. Sweeney & William Adler (eds., The Cambridge History of Religions in the Ancient World (2 vols. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Baruchello

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Michele Renee Salzman, Marvina A. Sweeney & William Adler (eds., The Cambridge History of Religions in the Ancient World (2 vols. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013

  8. Choosing the forcing terms in an inexact Newton method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenstat, S.C. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Walker, H.F. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States)

    1994-12-31

    An inexact Newton method is a generalization of Newton`s method for solving F(x) = 0, F: {Re}{sup n} {r_arrow} {Re}{sup n}, in which each step reduces the norm of the local linear model of F. At the kth iteration, the norm reduction is usefully expressed by the inexact Newton condition where x{sub k} is the current approximate solution and s{sub k} is the step. In many applications, an {eta}{sub k} is first specified, and then an S{sub k} is found for which the inexact Newton condition holds. Thus {eta}{sub k} is often called a {open_quotes}forcing term{close_quotes}. In practice, the choice of the forcing terms is usually critical to the efficiency of the method and can affect robustness as well. Here, the authors outline several promising choices, discuss theoretical support for them, and compare their performance in a Newton iterative (truncated Newton) method applied to several large-scale problems.

  9. "To Improve upon Hints of Things": Illustrating Isaac Newton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilt, Cornelis J

    2016-01-01

    When Isaac Newton died in 1727 he left a rich legacy in terms of draft manuscripts, encompassing a variety of topics: natural philosophy, mathematics, alchemy, theology, and chronology, as well as papers relating to his career at the Mint. One thing that immediately strikes us is the textuality of Newton's legacy: images are sparse. Regarding his scholarly endeavours we witness the same practice. Newton's extensive drafts on theology and chronology do not contain a single illustration or map. Today we have all of Newton's draft manuscripts as witnesses of his working methods, as well as access to a significant number of books from his own library. Drawing parallels between Newton's reading practices and his natural philosophical and scholarly work, this paper seeks to understand Newton's recondite writing and publishing politics.

  10. Newton-Cartan gravity and torsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergshoeff, Eric; Chatzistavrakidis, Athanasios; Romano, Luca; Rosseel, Jan

    2017-10-01

    We compare the gauging of the Bargmann algebra, for the case of arbitrary torsion, with the result that one obtains from a null-reduction of General Relativity. Whereas the two procedures lead to the same result for Newton-Cartan geometry with arbitrary torsion, the null-reduction of the Einstein equations necessarily leads to Newton-Cartan gravity with zero torsion. We show, for three space-time dimensions, how Newton-Cartan gravity with arbitrary torsion can be obtained by starting from a Schrödinger field theory with dynamical exponent z = 2 for a complex compensating scalar and next coupling this field theory to a z = 2 Schrödinger geometry with arbitrary torsion. The latter theory can be obtained from either a gauging of the Schrödinger algebra, for arbitrary torsion, or from a null-reduction of conformal gravity.

  11. On Newton-Cartan trace anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auzzi, Roberto; Baiguera, Stefano; Nardelli, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    We classify the trace anomaly for parity-invariant non-relativistic Schrödinger theories in 2+1 dimensions coupled to background Newton-Cartan gravity. The general anomaly structure looks very different from the one in the z=2 Lifshitz theories. The type A content of the anomaly is remarkably identical to that of the relativistic 3+1 dimensional case, suggesting the conjecture that an a-theorem should exist also in the Newton-Cartan context.

  12. On Newton-Cartan trace anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auzzi, Roberto [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore,Via Musei 41, 25121 Brescia (Italy); INFN Sezione di Perugia,Via A. Pascoli, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Baiguera, Stefano [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore,Via Musei 41, 25121 Brescia (Italy); Nardelli, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore,Via Musei 41, 25121 Brescia (Italy); TIFPA - INFN, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Trento,38123 Povo (Italy)

    2016-02-01

    We classify the trace anomaly for parity-invariant non-relativistic Schrödinger theories in 2+1 dimensions coupled to background Newton-Cartan gravity. The general anomaly structure looks very different from the one in the z=2 Lifshitz theories. The type A content of the anomaly is remarkably identical to that of the relativistic 3+1 dimensional case, suggesting the conjecture that an a-theorem should exist also in the Newton-Cartan context.

  13. Goethe's Exposure of Newton's theory a polemic on Newton's theory of light and colour

    CERN Document Server

    Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von

    2016-01-01

    Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, although best known for his literary work, was also a keen and outspoken natural scientist. In the second polemic part of Zur Farbenlehre (Theory of Colours), for example, Goethe attacked Isaac Newton's ground-breaking revelation that light is heterogeneous and not immutable, as was previously thought.This polemic was unanimously rejected by the physicists of the day, and has often been omitted from compendia of Goethe's works. Indeed, although Goethe repeated all of Newton's key experiments, he was never able to achieve the same results. Many reasons have been proposed for this, ranging from the psychological — such as a blind hatred of Newtonism, self-deceit and paranoid psychosis — to accusations of incapability — Goethe simply did not understand the experiments. Yet Goethe was never to be dissuaded from this passionate conviction.This translation of Goethe's second polemic, published for the first time in English, makes it clear that Goethe did understand the thrust of Ne...

  14. The Cambridge encyclopaedia of astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    1977-01-01

    Astronomy has been transformed in the last two decades by a series of dramatic discoveries that have left most reference books completely out of date. The Cambridge Encyclopaedia of Astronomy presents a broadly based survey of the whole of astronomy which places emphasis on these critical new findings.

  15. Field-Split Preconditioned Inexact Newton Algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Lulu

    2015-06-02

    The multiplicative Schwarz preconditioned inexact Newton (MSPIN) algorithm is presented as a complement to additive Schwarz preconditioned inexact Newton (ASPIN). At an algebraic level, ASPIN and MSPIN are variants of the same strategy to improve the convergence of systems with unbalanced nonlinearities; however, they have natural complementarity in practice. MSPIN is naturally based on partitioning of degrees of freedom in a nonlinear PDE system by field type rather than by subdomain, where a modest factor of concurrency can be sacrificed for physically motivated convergence robustness. ASPIN, originally introduced for decompositions into subdomains, is natural for high concurrency and reduction of global synchronization. We consider both types of inexact Newton algorithms in the field-split context, and we augment the classical convergence theory of ASPIN for the multiplicative case. Numerical experiments show that MSPIN can be significantly more robust than Newton methods based on global linearizations, and that MSPIN can be more robust than ASPIN and maintain fast convergence even for challenging problems, such as high Reynolds number Navier--Stokes equations.

  16. Field-Split Preconditioned Inexact Newton Algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Lulu; Keyes, David E.

    2015-01-01

    The multiplicative Schwarz preconditioned inexact Newton (MSPIN) algorithm is presented as a complement to additive Schwarz preconditioned inexact Newton (ASPIN). At an algebraic level, ASPIN and MSPIN are variants of the same strategy to improve the convergence of systems with unbalanced nonlinearities; however, they have natural complementarity in practice. MSPIN is naturally based on partitioning of degrees of freedom in a nonlinear PDE system by field type rather than by subdomain, where a modest factor of concurrency can be sacrificed for physically motivated convergence robustness. ASPIN, originally introduced for decompositions into subdomains, is natural for high concurrency and reduction of global synchronization. We consider both types of inexact Newton algorithms in the field-split context, and we augment the classical convergence theory of ASPIN for the multiplicative case. Numerical experiments show that MSPIN can be significantly more robust than Newton methods based on global linearizations, and that MSPIN can be more robust than ASPIN and maintain fast convergence even for challenging problems, such as high Reynolds number Navier--Stokes equations.

  17. Newton-type methods for optimization and variational problems

    CERN Document Server

    Izmailov, Alexey F

    2014-01-01

    This book presents comprehensive state-of-the-art theoretical analysis of the fundamental Newtonian and Newtonian-related approaches to solving optimization and variational problems. A central focus is the relationship between the basic Newton scheme for a given problem and algorithms that also enjoy fast local convergence. The authors develop general perturbed Newtonian frameworks that preserve fast convergence and consider specific algorithms as particular cases within those frameworks, i.e., as perturbations of the associated basic Newton iterations. This approach yields a set of tools for the unified treatment of various algorithms, including some not of the Newton type per se. Among the new subjects addressed is the class of degenerate problems. In particular, the phenomenon of attraction of Newton iterates to critical Lagrange multipliers and its consequences as well as stabilized Newton methods for variational problems and stabilized sequential quadratic programming for optimization. This volume will b...

  18. Anneli Randla kaitses doktorikraadi Cambridge'is / Anneli Randla ; interv. Reet Varblane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randla, Anneli, 1970-

    1999-01-01

    5. mail kaitses Cambridge'is esimese eesti kunstiteadlasena doktorikraadi Anneli Randla. Töö teema: kerjusmungaordukloostrite arhitektuur Põhja-Euroopas. Juhendaja dr. Deborah Howard. Doktorikraadile esitatavatest nõudmistest, doktoritöö kaitsmisest, magistrikraadi kaitsnu õppimisvõimalustest Cambridge's.

  19. Newton's law in de Sitter brane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghoroku, Kazuo; Nakamura, Akihiro; Yahiro, Masanobu

    2003-01-01

    Newton potential has been evaluated for the case of dS brane embedded in Minkowski, dS 5 and AdS 5 bulks. We point out that only the AdS 5 bulk might be consistent with the Newton's law from the brane-world viewpoint when we respect a small cosmological constant observed at present universe

  20. 3, 2, 1 ... Discovering Newton's Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Joe; Sylvester, Kevin; Oliver, Keith; Herrington, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    "For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction." "Except when a bug hits your car window, the car must exert more force on the bug because Newton's laws only apply in the physics classroom, right?" Students in our classrooms were able to pick out definitions as well as examples of Newton's three laws; they could…

  1. Newton-Krylov methods applied to nonequilibrium radiation diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, D.A.; Rider, W.J.; Olsen, G.L.

    1998-01-01

    The authors present results of applying a matrix-free Newton-Krylov method to a nonequilibrium radiation diffusion problem. Here, there is no use of operator splitting, and Newton's method is used to convert the nonlinearities within a time step. Since the nonlinear residual is formed, it is used to monitor convergence. It is demonstrated that a simple Picard-based linearization produces a sufficient preconditioning matrix for the Krylov method, thus elevating the need to form or store a Jacobian matrix for Newton's method. They discuss the possibility that the Newton-Krylov approach may allow larger time steps, without loss of accuracy, as compared to an operator split approach where nonlinearities are not converged within a time step

  2. Newton`s iteration for inversion of Cauchy-like and other structured matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, V.Y. [Lehman College, Bronx, NY (United States); Zheng, Ailong; Huang, Xiaohan; Dias, O. [CUNY, New York, NY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    We specify some initial assumptions that guarantee rapid refinement of a rough initial approximation to the inverse of a Cauchy-like matrix, by mean of our new modification of Newton`s iteration, where the input, output, and all the auxiliary matrices are represented with their short generators defined by the associated scaling operators. The computations are performed fast since they are confined to operations with short generators of the given and computed matrices. Because of the known correlations among various structured matrices, the algorithm is immediately extended to rapid refinement of rough initial approximations to the inverses of Vandermonde-like, Chebyshev-Vandermonde-like and Toeplitz-like matrices, where again, the computations are confined to operations with short generators of the involved matrices.

  3. The Cambridge crystallography subroutine library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, P.J.; Matthewman, J.C.

    1981-06-01

    This manual is an amalgamation of the original Cambridge Crystallography Subroutine Library Mark II manual and its supplement No I. The original Mark II system, a set of FORTRAN Subroutines which can be used for standard crystallographic calculations, has been extended to include facilities for conventional least squares refinement. Several new routines have also been added. (U.K.)

  4. 8th Cambridge Workshop on Universal Access and Assistive Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Lazar, Jonathan; Heylighen, Ann; Dong, Hua

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the 8th Cambridge Workshop on Universal Access and Assistive Technology (CWUAAT '14), incorporating the 11th Cambridge Workshop on Rehabilitation Robotics, held in Cambridge, England in March 2016. It presents novel and state-of-the-art research from an international group of leaders in the fields of universal access and assistive technology. It explores various issues including the reconciliation of usability, accessibility and inclusive design, the design of inclusive assistive and rehabilitation systems, measuring product demand and human capabilities, data mining and visualizing inclusion, legislation in inclusive design, and situational inclusive interfaces (automotive and aerospace). This book provides an invaluable resource to researchers, postgraduates, design practitioners, therapists and clinical practitioners, as well as design teachers.

  5. Newton-Krylov-Schwarz methods in unstructured grid Euler flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyes, D.E. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Newton-Krylov methods and Krylov-Schwarz (domain decomposition) methods have begun to become established in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) over the past decade. The former employ a Krylov method inside of Newton`s method in a Jacobian-free manner, through directional differencing. The latter employ an overlapping Schwarz domain decomposition to derive a preconditioner for the Krylov accelerator that relies primarily on local information, for data-parallel concurrency. They may be composed as Newton-Krylov-Schwarz (NKS) methods, which seem particularly well suited for solving nonlinear elliptic systems in high-latency, distributed-memory environments. We give a brief description of this family of algorithms, with an emphasis on domain decomposition iterative aspects. We then describe numerical simulations with Newton-Krylov-Schwarz methods on an aerodynamic application emphasizing comparisons with a standard defect-correction approach and subdomain preconditioner consistency.

  6. Conformal mechanics in Newton-Hooke spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galajinsky, Anton

    2010-01-01

    Conformal many-body mechanics in Newton-Hooke spacetime is studied within the framework of the Lagrangian formalism. Global symmetries and Noether charges are given in a form convenient for analyzing the flat space limit. N=2 superconformal extension is built and a new class on N=2 models related to simple Lie algebras is presented. A decoupling similarity transformation on N=2 quantum mechanics in Newton-Hooke spacetime is discussed.

  7. Cambridge Marketing College - interview about e-commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Paa-Kerner, Greta; Cambridge Marketing College

    2015-01-01

    Interview about e-commerce.\\ud \\ud The Cambridge Marketing College interviews Greta Paa-Kerner to learn about the dynamic world of e-commerce. She discusses online retail trends and shopping influencers.

  8. Isaac Newton Olympics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Carol

    2001-01-01

    Presents the Isaac Newton Olympics in which students complete a hands-on activity at seven stations and evaluate what they have learned in the activity and how it is related to real life. Includes both student and teacher instructions for three of the activities. (YDS)

  9. Newton's law of cooling revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollmer, M

    2009-01-01

    The cooling of objects is often described by a law, attributed to Newton, which states that the temperature difference of a cooling body with respect to the surroundings decreases exponentially with time. Such behaviour has been observed for many laboratory experiments, which led to a wide acceptance of this approach. However, the heat transfer from any object to its surrounding is not only due to conduction and convection but also due to radiation. The latter does not vary linearly with temperature difference, which leads to deviations from Newton's law. This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the cooling of objects with a small Biot number. It is shown that Newton's law of cooling, i.e. simple exponential behaviour, is mostly valid if temperature differences are below a certain threshold which depends on the experimental conditions. For any larger temperature differences appreciable deviations occur which need the complete nonlinear treatment. This is demonstrated by results of some laboratory experiments which use IR imaging to measure surface temperatures of solid cooling objects with temperature differences of up to 300 K.

  10. Isaac Newton and the astronomical refraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehn, Waldemar H

    2008-12-01

    In a short interval toward the end of 1694, Isaac Newton developed two mathematical models for the theory of the astronomical refraction and calculated two refraction tables, but did not publish his theory. Much effort has been expended, starting with Biot in 1836, in the attempt to identify the methods and equations that Newton used. In contrast to previous work, a closed form solution is identified for the refraction integral that reproduces the table for his first model (in which density decays linearly with elevation). The parameters of his second model, which includes the exponential variation of pressure in an isothermal atmosphere, have also been identified by reproducing his results. The implication is clear that in each case Newton had derived exactly the correct equations for the astronomical refraction; furthermore, he was the first to do so.

  11. Geometry Report; Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics Feasibility Study No. 39.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenberg, Gabriel

    These materials were written with the aim of reflecting the thinking of the Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics (CCSM) regarding the goals and objectives for school mathematics. This report deals with some seventh grade mathematical concepts taught at Cambridge Friends' School. The discovery approach was utilized by the teacher in order to…

  12. Newton slopes for Artin-Schreier-Witt towers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Christopher; Wan, Daqing; Xiao, Liang

    2016-01-01

    We fix a monic polynomial f(x)∈Fq[x] over a finite field and consider the Artin-Schreier-Witt tower defined by f(x); this is a tower of curves ⋯→Cm→Cm−1→⋯→C0=A1, with total Galois group Zp. We study the Newton slopes of zeta functions of this tower of curves. This reduces to the study of the Newton...... slopes of L-functions associated to characters of the Galois group of this tower. We prove that, when the conductor of the character is large enough, the Newton slopes of the L-function form arithmetic progressions which are independent of the conductor of the character. As a corollary, we obtain...

  13. On the topology of the Newton boundary at infinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Tien Son

    2007-07-01

    We will be interested in a global version of Le-Ramanujam μ -constant theorem from the Newton polyhedron point of view. More precisely, we prove a stability theorem which says that the global monodromy fibration of a polynomial with Newton non-degenerate is uniquely determined by its Newton boundary at infinity. Besides, the continuity of atypical values for a family of complex polynomial functions also is considered. (author)

  14. Cambridge Bay: Six years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edworthy, J.

    1992-01-01

    The story of a wind energy project in Cambridge Bay, Northwest Territories, is presented from the perspective of the company that supplied the equipment and supported the project through its life. The project was intended to demonstrate the technical, economic, institutional, and operational issues and barriers to the use of wind power in remote communities. The system, involving four Carter Model 25 units each rated at 25 kW, was installed in 1987 and commissioned in January 1988. Shortly thereafter, the Northern Canada Power Commission (which requested the project in the first place) was taken over by the territorial administration, and employee continuity was disrupted. At about the same time, Federal support for the project decreased. Technical problems included a transformer failure, a generator failure, and a failed yaw tube which turned out to be lightly designed and poorly made. The Carter turbine company also went out of business, making spare parts difficult to obtain. The utility organization changed abruptly in summer 1991 with the arrival of a new area superintendent who did not support the project. The wind farm was shut down in 1992. The project generated a total of 160,982 kWh with over 71% availability. The positive and negative results from the project are summarized and recommendations are made for future Arctic wind power projects. 2 figs., 1 tab

  15. La malle de Newton

    CERN Document Server

    Verlet, Loup

    1993-01-01

    En 1936, une vente publique ramena au jour le contenu d'une malle où Newton avait enfermé ses manuscrits. Ô surprise, les travaux du savant y voisinaient avec les spéculations de l'exégète et de l'alchimiste. Ce n'est pas seulement la face cachée d'un exceptionnel génie scientifique qui nous était ainsi révélée, mais, au-delà du mystère d'un homme, le secret partage qui gouverne notre univers, comme le montre cette lecture originale de la naissance de la physique moderne.Dans quel monde suis-je tombé ? Pourquoi les choses sont-elles ainsi ? Comment faire avec ? Questions lancinantes de l'enfant quand la mère fait défaut, du chercheur face à la nature qui se dérobe. La réponse, Newton sait où la trouver : Dieu le Père, à jamais insaisissable, est présent «partout et toujours», Il se révèle par la bouche des prophètes, se devine dans les arcanes de l'alchimie, se manifeste par les lois admirables qui règlent le cours ordinaire des choses. Ses écrits de l'ombre l'attestent, Newton ...

  16. Voltaire-Newton... Renversant!

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The encounter, even improbable, between François Marie Arouet, said Voltaire, and Isaac Newton could occur only in Pays de Gex, near his city... It's indeed right above of the accelerator, in Saint-Genis, that the meeting between this two "monsters" of the 18e century took place

  17. Newton's law in braneworlds with an infinite extra dimension

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Masato

    2001-01-01

    We study the behavior of the four$-$dimensional Newton's law in warped braneworlds. The setup considered here is a $(3+n)$-brane embedded in $(5+n)$ dimensions, where $n$ extra dimensions are compactified and a dimension is infinite. We show that the wave function of gravity is described in terms of the Bessel functions of $(2+n/2)$-order and that estimate the correction to Newton's law. In particular, the Newton's law for $n=1$ can be exactly obtained.

  18. Hukum Newton Tentang Gerak Dalam Ruang Fase Tak Komutatif

    OpenAIRE

    Purwanto, Joko

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the Newton's law of motions in a noncomutative phase space has been investigated. Its show that correction to the Newton's first and second law appear if we assume that the phase space has symplectic structure consistent with the rules of comutation of the noncomutative quantum mechanics. In the free particle and harmonic oscillator case the equations of motion are derived on basis of the modified Newton's second law in a noncomutative phase space.

  19. Newton and the origin of civilization

    CERN Document Server

    Buchwald, Jed Z

    2012-01-01

    Isaac Newton's Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended, published in 1728, one year after the great man's death, unleashed a storm of controversy. And for good reason. The book presents a drastically revised timeline for ancient civilizations, contracting Greek history by five hundred years and Egypt's by a millennium. Newton and the Origin of Civilization tells the story of how one of the most celebrated figures in the history of mathematics, optics, and mechanics came to apply his unique ways of thinking to problems of history, theology, and mythology, and of how his radical ideas produced an uproar that reverberated in Europe's learned circles throughout the eighteenth century and beyond. Jed Buchwald and Mordechai Feingold reveal the manner in which Newton strove for nearly half a century to rectify universal history by reading ancient texts through the lens of astronomy, and to create a tight theoretical system for interpreting the evolution of civilization on the basis of population dynamics. It was duri...

  20. Some Elementary Examples from Newton's Principia -R-ES ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ing both differential and integral calculus. Newton used many geometrical methods extensively to derive the re- sults in spite of his having discovered calculus. Geome- try, judiciously used with limiting procedures, was one principal strategy used by Newton in the Principia. The Principia presents an enormous range of ...

  1. XMM-Newton On-demand Reprocessing Using SaaS Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, A.; Fajersztejn, N.; Loiseau, N.; Gabriel, C.

    2014-05-01

    We present here the architectural design of the new on-the-fly reprocessing capabilities that will be soon developed and implemented in the new XMM-Newton Science Operation Centre. The inclusion of processing capabilities into the archive, as we plan, will be possible thanks to the recent refurbishment of the XMM-Newton science archive, its alignment with the latest web technologies and the XMM-Newton Remote Interface for Science Analysis (RISA), a revolutionary idea of providing processing capabilities through internet services.

  2. Newton's Contributions to Optics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    creativity is apparent, even in ideas and models in optics that were ... Around Newton's time, a number of leading figures in science ..... successive circles increased as integers, i.e. d increases by inte- ... of easy reflections and transmission".

  3. Disformal transformation in Newton-Cartan geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Peng [Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Department of Information, Hangzhou (China); Sun Yat-Sen University, School of Physics and Astronomy, Guangzhou (China); Yuan, Fang-Fang [Nankai University, School of Physics, Tianjin (China)

    2016-08-15

    Newton-Cartan geometry has played a central role in recent discussions of the non-relativistic holography and condensed matter systems. Although the conformal transformation in non-relativistic holography can easily be rephrased in terms of Newton-Cartan geometry, we show that it requires a nontrivial procedure to arrive at the consistent form of anisotropic disformal transformation in this geometry. Furthermore, as an application of the newly obtained transformation, we use it to induce a geometric structure which may be seen as a particular non-relativistic version of the Weyl integrable geometry. (orig.)

  4. Bargmann structures and Newton-Cartan theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duval, C.; Burdet, G.; Kuenzle, H.P.; Perrin, M.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that Newton-Cartan theory of gravitation can best be formulated on a five-dimensional extended space-time carrying a Lorentz metric together with a null parallel vector field. The corresponding geometry associated with the Bargmann group (nontrivially extended Galilei group) viewed as a subgroup of the affine de Sitter group AO(4,1) is thoroughly investigated. This new global formalism allows one to recast classical particle dynamics and the Schroedinger equation into a purely covariant form. The Newton-Cartan field equations are readily derived from Einstein's Lagrangian on the space-time extension

  5. Eye-openers from XMM-Newton

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-02-01

    many years of work. They are all that we hoped they would be. In the LMC we can see the elements, which go to make up new stars and planets, being released in giant stellar explosions. We can even see the creation of new stars going on, using elements scattered through space by previous stellar explosions. This is what we built the EPIC cameras for and they are really fulfilling their promise" Multiwavelength views of Hickson Group 16 The HCG-16 viewed by EPIC and by the Optical Monitor in the visible and ultraviolet wavelengths is one of approximately a hundred compact galaxy clusters listed by Canadian astronomer Paul Hickson in the 1980s. The criteria for the Hickson cluster groups included their compactness, their isolation from other galaxies and a limited magnitude range between their members. Most Hicksons are very faint, but a few can be observed with modest aperture telescopes. Galaxies in Hickson groups have a high probability of interacting. Their study has shed light on the question of galactic evolution and the effects of interaction. Investigation into their gravitational behaviour has also significantly contributed to our understanding of "dark matter", the mysterious matter that most astronomers feel comprises well over 90% of our universe. Observation of celestial objects from space over a range of X-ray, ultraviolet and visible wavelengths, is a unique feature of the XMM-Newton mission. The EPIC-PN view of the Hickson 16 group shows a handful of bright X-sources and in the background more than a hundred faint X-ray sources that XMM-Newton is revealing for the first time. Juxtaposing the X-ray view of HCG 16 with that of the Optical Monitor reveals one of the great strengths of XMM-Newton in being able to routinely compare the optical, ultraviolet and X-ray properties of objects. Many of the X-ray sources are revealed as elongated "fuzzy blobs" coincident with some of the optical galaxies. Routine access to ultraviolet images is a first for the mission

  6. Newtons law of funding

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Isaac Newton, besides being the founder of modern physics, was also master of Britain's mint. That is a precedent which many British physicists must surely wish had become traditional. At the moment, money for physics is in short supply in Britain.

  7. Newton force from wave function collapse: speculation and test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diósi, Lajos

    2014-01-01

    The Diosi-Penrose model of quantum-classical boundary postulates gravity-related spontaneous wave function collapse of massive degrees of freedom. The decoherence effects of the collapses are in principle detectable if not masked by the overwhelming environmental decoherence. But the DP (or any other, like GRW, CSL) spontaneous collapses are not detectable themselves, they are merely the redundant formalism of spontaneous decoherence. To let DP collapses become testable physics, recently we extended the DP model and proposed that DP collapses are responsible for the emergence of the Newton gravitational force between massive objects. We identified the collapse rate, possibly of the order of 1/ms, with the rate of emergence of the Newton force. A simple heuristic emergence (delay) time was added to the Newton law of gravity. This non-relativistic delay is in peaceful coexistence with Einstein's relativistic theory of gravitation, at least no experimental evidence has so far surfaced against it. We derive new predictions of such a 'lazy' Newton law that will enable decisive laboratory tests with available technologies. The simple equation of 'lazy' Newton law deserves theoretical and experimental studies in itself, independently of the underlying quantum foundational considerations.

  8. Cambridge Illustrated History of Archaeology, edited by Paul G. Bahn, Cambridge University Press, New York, 1996

    OpenAIRE

    Givens, Douglas R.

    1997-01-01

    The Cambridge Illustrated History of Archaeology is another in a series of volumes devoted to the history of archaeology that have appeared in recent time. Paul Bahn, the editor of the volume, has broken down his coverage of the history of worldwide archaeology into the following arrangement 'The Archaeology of Archaeology", "Old Worlds and New, 1500-1760", "Antiquarians and Explorers, 1760-1820", "Science and Romantic...

  9. INVESTIGATION OF THE MISCONCEPTION IN NEWTON II LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudi Kurniawan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to provide a comprehensive description of the level of the number of students who have misconceptions about Newton's II Law. This research is located at one State Junior High School in Kab. Pandeglang. The purposive sampling was considering used in this study because it is important to distinguish students who do not know the concept of students who experience misconception. Data were collected using a three tier-test diagnostic test and analyzed descriptively quantitatively. The results showed that the level of misconception was in the two categories of high and medium levels. It needs an innovative teaching technique for subsequent research to treat Newton's Newton misconception.

  10. Preconditioned Inexact Newton for Nonlinear Sparse Electromagnetic Imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Desmal, Abdulla

    2014-05-04

    Newton-type algorithms have been extensively studied in nonlinear microwave imaging due to their quadratic convergence rate and ability to recover images with high contrast values. In the past, Newton methods have been implemented in conjunction with smoothness promoting optimization/regularization schemes. However, this type of regularization schemes are known to perform poorly when applied in imagining domains with sparse content or sharp variations. In this work, an inexact Newton algorithm is formulated and implemented in conjunction with a linear sparse optimization scheme. A novel preconditioning technique is proposed to increase the convergence rate of the optimization problem. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed framework produces sharper and more accurate images when applied in sparse/sparsified domains.

  11. Preconditioned Inexact Newton for Nonlinear Sparse Electromagnetic Imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Desmal, Abdulla

    2014-01-06

    Newton-type algorithms have been extensively studied in nonlinear microwave imaging due to their quadratic convergence rate and ability to recover images with high contrast values. In the past, Newton methods have been implemented in conjunction with smoothness promoting optimization/regularization schemes. However, this type of regularization schemes are known to perform poorly when applied in imagining domains with sparse content or sharp variations. In this work, an inexact Newton algorithm is formulated and implemented in conjunction with a linear sparse optimization scheme. A novel preconditioning technique is proposed to increase the convergence rate of the optimization problem. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed framework produces sharper and more accurate images when applied in sparse/sparsified domains.

  12. Preconditioned Inexact Newton for Nonlinear Sparse Electromagnetic Imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Desmal, Abdulla; Bagci, Hakan

    2014-01-01

    Newton-type algorithms have been extensively studied in nonlinear microwave imaging due to their quadratic convergence rate and ability to recover images with high contrast values. In the past, Newton methods have been implemented in conjunction with smoothness promoting optimization/regularization schemes. However, this type of regularization schemes are known to perform poorly when applied in imagining domains with sparse content or sharp variations. In this work, an inexact Newton algorithm is formulated and implemented in conjunction with a linear sparse optimization scheme. A novel preconditioning technique is proposed to increase the convergence rate of the optimization problem. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed framework produces sharper and more accurate images when applied in sparse/sparsified domains.

  13. There is grandeur in this view of Newton: Charles Darwin, Isaac Newton and Victorian conceptions of scientific virtue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellon, Richard

    2014-01-01

    For Victorian men of science, the scientific revolution of the seventeenth century represented a moral awakening. Great theoretical triumphs of inductive science flowed directly from a philosophical spirit that embraced the virtues of self-discipline, courage, patience and humility. Isaac Newton exemplified this union of moral and intellectual excellence. This, at least, was the story crafted by scientific leaders like David Brewster, Thomas Chalmers, John Herschel, Adam Sedgwick and William Whewell. Not everyone accepted this reading of history. Evangelicals who decried the 'materialism' of mainstream science assigned a different meaning to Newton's legacy on behalf of their 'scriptural' alternative. High-church critics of science like John Henry Newman, on the other hand, denied that Newton's secular achievements carried any moral significance at all. These debates over Newtonian standards of philosophical behavior had a decisive influence on Charles Darwin as he developed his theory of evolution by natural selection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Quasi-Newton methods for implicit black-box FSI coupling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bogaers, Alfred EJ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce a new multi-vector update quasi-Newton (MVQN) method for implicit coupling of partitioned, transient FSI solvers. The new quasi-Newton method facilitates the use of 'black-box' field solvers and under certain circumstances...

  15. Expanding Newton Mechanics with Neutrosophy and Quadstage Method ──New Newton Mechanics Taking Law of Conservation of Energy as Unique Source Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Yuhua

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neutrosophy is a new branch of philosophy, and "Quad-stage" (Four stages is the expansion of Hegel’s triad thesis, antithesis, synthesis of development. Applying Neutrosophy and "Quad-stage" method, the purposes of this paper are expanding Newton Mechanics and making it become New Newton Mechanics (NNW taking law of conservation of energy as unique source law. In this paper the examples show that in some cases other laws may be contradicted with the law of conservation of energy. The original Newton's three laws and the law of gravity, in principle can be derived by the law of conservation of energy. Through the example of free falling body, this paper derives the original Newton's second law by using the law of conservation of energy, and proves that there is not the contradiction between the original law of gravity and the law of conservation of energy; and through the example of a small ball rolls along the inclined plane (belonging to the problem cannot be solved by general relativity that a body is forced to move in flat space, derives improved Newton's second law and improved law of gravity by using law of conservation of energy. Whether or not other conservation laws (such as the law of conservation of momentum and the law of conservation of angular momentum can be utilized, should be tested by law of conservation of energy. When the original Newton's second law is not correct, then the laws of conservation of momentum and angular momentum are no longer correct; therefore the general forms of improved law of conservation of momentum and improved law of conservation of angular momentum are presented. In the cases that law of conservation of energy cannot be used effectively, New Newton Mechanics will not exclude that according to other theories or accurate experiments to derive the laws or formulas to solve some specific problems. For example, with the help of the result of general relativity, the improved Newton's formula of universal

  16. Dynamic Newton-Puiseux Theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mannaa, Bassel; Coquand, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    A constructive version of Newton-Puiseux theorem for computing the Puiseux expansions of algebraic curves is presented. The proof is based on a classical proof by Abhyankar. Algebraic numbers are evaluated dynamically; hence the base field need not be algebraically closed and a factorization...

  17. Newton\\'s equation of motion in the gravitational field of an oblate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we derived Newton's equation of motion for a satellite in the gravitational scalar field of a uniformly rotating, oblate spheriodal Earth using spheriodal coordinates. The resulting equation is solved for the corresponding precession and the result compared with similar ones. JONAMP Vol. 11 2007: pp. 279-286 ...

  18. Findings from the Harvard Medical School Cambridge Integrated Clerkship, a Year-Long Longitudinal Psychiatry Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Elisa; Hirsh, David; Gaufberg, Elizabeth; Griswold, Todd; Wesley Boyd, J

    2018-06-01

    The Harvard Medical School Cambridge Integrated Clerkship is a longitudinal integrated clerkship that has provided an alternative clinical model for medical education in psychiatry since its inception in 2004. This study was undertaken in an effort to better understand the student experience of the Cambridge Integrated Clerkship and how it may have impacted students' perceptions of and interest in psychiatry, as well as performance. Qualitative surveys were sent via e-mail to the first 11 student cohorts who had completed the Cambridge Integrated Clerkship (from 2004 to 2014) and for whom we had e-mail addresses (N = 100), and the free-text responses were coded thematically. All available standardized scoring data and residency match data for Cambridge Integrated Clerkship graduates were obtained. From 2006 to 2014, 12 out of 73 Cambridge Integrated Clerkship students who entered the match chose a psychiatry residency (16.4%), four times more than students in traditional clerkships at Harvard Medical School (3.8% of 1355 students) or the national average (4.1% of 146,066 US applicants). Thirty of the 100 surveyed Cambridge Integrated Clerkship graduates (30%) responded to the qualitative survey with free-text remarks on a number of themes. Cambridge Integrated Clerkship students compared positively to their classmates in terms of standardized test performance. Their fourfold higher match rate into psychiatry compared to other students raises intriguing questions as to what role a longitudinal clerkship might have played in developing interest in psychiatry as a career.

  19. Coupling of partitioned physics codes with quasi-Newton methods

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Haelterman, R

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available , A class of methods for solving nonlinear simultaneous equations. Math. Comp. 19, pp. 577–593 (1965) [3] C.G. Broyden, Quasi-Newton methods and their applications to function minimization. Math. Comp. 21, pp. 368–381 (1967) [4] J.E. Dennis, J.J. More...´, Quasi-Newton methods: motivation and theory. SIAM Rev. 19, pp. 46–89 (1977) [5] J.E. Dennis, R.B. Schnabel, Least Change Secant Updates for quasi- Newton methods. SIAM Rev. 21, pp. 443–459 (1979) [6] G. Dhondt, CalculiX CrunchiX USER’S MANUAL Version 2...

  20. Various Newton-type iterative methods for solving nonlinear equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to introduce and investigate new ninth and seventh order convergent Newton-type iterative methods for solving nonlinear equations. The ninth order convergent Newton-type iterative method is made derivative free to obtain seventh-order convergent Newton-type iterative method. These new with and without derivative methods have efficiency indices 1.5518 and 1.6266, respectively. The error equations are used to establish the order of convergence of these proposed iterative methods. Finally, various numerical comparisons are implemented by MATLAB to demonstrate the performance of the developed methods.

  1. Problem in Two Unknowns: Robert Hooke and a Worm in Newton's Apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, Robert

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the place that Robert Hooke has in science history versus the scientific contributions he made. Examines the relationship between Hooke and his contemporary, Isaac Newton, and Hooke's claims that Newton built on his ideas without receiving Newton's recognition. (26 references) (MDH)

  2. Non-Relativistic Twistor Theory and Newton-Cartan Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunajski, Maciej; Gundry, James

    2016-03-01

    We develop a non-relativistic twistor theory, in which Newton-Cartan structures of Newtonian gravity correspond to complex three-manifolds with a four-parameter family of rational curves with normal bundle O oplus O(2)}. We show that the Newton-Cartan space-times are unstable under the general Kodaira deformation of the twistor complex structure. The Newton-Cartan connections can nevertheless be reconstructed from Merkulov's generalisation of the Kodaira map augmented by a choice of a holomorphic line bundle over the twistor space trivial on twistor lines. The Coriolis force may be incorporated by holomorphic vector bundles, which in general are non-trivial on twistor lines. The resulting geometries agree with non-relativistic limits of anti-self-dual gravitational instantons.

  3. On the classification of plane graphs representing structurally stable rational Newton flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongen, H.Th.; Jonker, P.; Twilt, F.

    1991-01-01

    We study certain plane graphs, called Newton graphs, representing a special class of dynamical systems which are closely related to Newton's iteration method for finding zeros of (rational) functions defined on the complex plane. These Newton graphs are defined in terms of nonvanishing angles

  4. Eigenvalue Decomposition-Based Modified Newton Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-jun Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available When the Hessian matrix is not positive, the Newton direction may not be the descending direction. A new method named eigenvalue decomposition-based modified Newton algorithm is presented, which first takes the eigenvalue decomposition of the Hessian matrix, then replaces the negative eigenvalues with their absolute values, and finally reconstructs the Hessian matrix and modifies the searching direction. The new searching direction is always the descending direction. The convergence of the algorithm is proven and the conclusion on convergence rate is presented qualitatively. Finally, a numerical experiment is given for comparing the convergence domains of the modified algorithm and the classical algorithm.

  5. Newton da Costa and the school of Curitiba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artibano Micali

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to report on the beginning of the publications of Newton da Costa outside Brazil. Two mathematicians played an important role in this beginning: Marcel Guillaume from the University of Clermont-Ferrand and Paul Dedecker from the Universities of Lille and Liège. At the same time we recall the role played by Newton da Costa and Jayme Machado Cardoso in the development of what we call here the School of Curitiba [Escola de Curitiba]. Paraconsistent logic was initiated in this school under the influence of Newton da Costa. As another contribution of this school we mention the development of the theory of quasigroups; Jayme Machado Cardoso's name has been given, by Sade, to some particular objects which are now called Cardoso quasigroups.

  6. Students’ misconceptions about Newton's second law in outer space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temiz, B K; Yavuz, A

    2014-01-01

    Students’ misconceptions about Newton's second law in frictionless outer space were investigated. The research was formed according to an epistemic game theoretical framework. The term ‘epistemic’ refers to students’ participation in problem-solving activities as a means of constructing new knowledge. The term ‘game’ refers to a coherent activity that consists of moves and rules. A set of questions in which students are asked to solve two similar Newton's second law problems, one of which is on the Earth and the other in outer space, was administered to 116 undergraduate students. The findings indicate that there is a significant difference between students’ epistemic game preferences and race-type (outer space or frictional surface) question. So students who used Newton's second law on the ground did not apply this law and used primitive reasoning when it came to space. Among these students, voluntary interviews were conducted with 18 students. Analysis of interview transcripts showed that: (1) the term ‘space’ causes spontaneity among students that prevents the use of the law; (2) students hesitate to apply Newton's second law in space due to the lack of a condition—the friction; (3) students feel that Newton's second law is not valid in space for a variety of reasons, but mostly for the fact that the body in space is not in contact with a surface. (paper)

  7. Newton's Contributions to Optics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 12. Newton's Contributions to Optics. Arvind Kumar. General Article Volume 11 Issue 12 December 2006 pp 10-20. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/011/12/0010-0020. Keywords.

  8. A year after lift-off, XMM-Newton is impressing the X-ray astronomy community

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-11-01

    XMM-Newton was launched from Kourou on 10 December 1999 on the first Ariane-5 commercial flight. After in-orbit commissioning of the spacecraft, and calibration and performance verification of its science instruments, the observatory entered its routine operations phase on 1 July. At the press conference, ESA's Director of Science Prof. Roger-Maurice Bonnet and XMM-Newton Project Scientist Fred Jansen will present some of the many scientific results from the first eight months of the mission. Also present will be two of Europe's foremost X-ray astronomers, Prof. Johan Bleeker of the Space Research Organisation of the Netherlands, and Prof. Guenther Hasinger of the Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam, Germany. Amongst the topics to be illustrated with some remarkably vivid "colour" images of the X-ray Universe, will be XMM-Newton's first examination of a cataclysmic binary star, its first insights into some enigmatic black hole systems, analysis of the morphology of a few supernovae remnants, and evidence it has collected to end the long-standing mystery over X-ray cosmic background emission... The press conference will also recap on the spacecraft's operations, the performance of its science instruments, the issue of radiation constraints and future aspects of the mission. Media representatives wishing to attend the press event are kindly invited to complete the attached reply form and fax it back to ESA Media Relations Office +33(0)1.53.69.7690. Note to editors XMM-Newton is ESA's second Cornerstone Mission of the Horizon 2000 programme. The spacecraft was built by a European consortium of companies led by Astrium (formerly Dornier Satellitensysteme), Friedrichshafen, Germany. Its X-ray imaging and spectrographic instruments (EPIC and RGS) and its optical telescope (OM) were provided by large consortia, whose principal investigators are from, respectively, the University of Leicester, UK, SRON University of Utrecht Netherlands, and the Mullard Space Science

  9. Can Newton's Third Law Be "Derived" from the Second?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyaya, Asim; Harrington, James

    2017-01-01

    Newton's laws have engendered much discussion over several centuries. Today, the internet is awash with a plethora of information on this topic. We find many references to Newton's laws, often discussions of various types of misunderstandings and ways to explain them. Here we present an intriguing example that shows an assumption hidden in…

  10. The Service Programme of the Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, J.

    2013-05-01

    The Service Programme of the Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes (Roque de los Muchachos Observatory, La Palma, Spain) aims at providing astronomers with a rapid and flexible tool for obtaining small sets of observations on the William Herschel Telescope up to 8 hours. This can be used to try new ideas or complement a regular observing programme allocated on the ING telescopes, for instance. Proposals are accepted from principal investigators working in an institution located in the United Kingdom, the Netherlands or Spain, but also regardless the nationality of the host institution. A monthly deadline for application submission takes place at midnight on the last day of each month but urgent requests submitted at any time can also be accepted. Proposals are generally withdrawn from the scheme after a one year period. In this poster we provide an overview of the programme and some statistics. More information can be obtained at http://www.ing.iac.es/astronomy/service/.

  11. A variational principle for Newton-Cartan theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goenner, H.F.M.

    1984-01-01

    In the framework of a space-time theory of gravitation a variational principle is set up for the gravitational field equations and the equations of motion of matter. The general framework leads to Newton's equations of motion with an unspecified force term and, for irrotational motion, to a restriction on the propagation of the shear tensor along the streamlines of matter. The field equations obtained from the variation are weaker than the standard field equations of Newton-Cartan theory. An application to fluids with shear and bulk viscosity is given. (author)

  12. Newton shows the light: a commentary on Newton (1672) 'A letter … containing his new theory about light and colours…'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fara, Patricia

    2015-04-13

    Isaac Newton's reputation was initially established by his 1672 paper on the refraction of light through a prism; this is now seen as a ground-breaking account and the foundation of modern optics. In it, he claimed to refute Cartesian ideas of light modification by definitively demonstrating that the refrangibility of a ray is linked to its colour, hence arguing that colour is an intrinsic property of light and does not arise from passing through a medium. Newton's later significance as a world-famous scientific genius and the apparent confirmation of his experimental results have tended to obscure the realities of his reception at the time. This paper explores the rhetorical strategies Newton deployed to convince his audience that his conclusions were certain and unchallengeable. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.

  13. Matrix De Rham Complex and Quantum A-infinity algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barannikov, S.

    2014-04-01

    I establish the relation of the non-commutative BV-formalism with super-invariant matrix integration. In particular, the non-commutative BV-equation, defining the quantum A ∞-algebras, introduced in Barannikov (Modular operads and non-commutative Batalin-Vilkovisky geometry. IMRN, vol. 2007, rnm075. Max Planck Institute for Mathematics 2006-48, 2007), is represented via de Rham differential acting on the supermatrix spaces related with Bernstein-Leites simple associative algebras with odd trace q( N), and gl( N| N). I also show that the matrix Lagrangians from Barannikov (Noncommutative Batalin-Vilkovisky geometry and matrix integrals. Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Cambridge University, 2006) are represented by equivariantly closed differential forms.

  14. Newton 1642-1727

    CERN Document Server

    Westfall, Richard S

    1994-01-01

    Le plus célèbre des savants, Isaac Newton, est aussi celui qui a le plus de biographes. Avant même sa mort, en 1727, l'un d'eux publiait un récit de la vie du grand homme. Richard Westfall, universitaire américain, est aujourd'hui le meilleur connaisseur d'un personnage en tout point extraordinaire, dont Aldous Huxley disait : « En tant qu'homme, c'est un fiasco ; en tant que monstre, il est superbe ! » Découvrant à 24 ans la loi de la gravitation universelle, établissant peu après les lois de l'optique tout en poursuivant des études alchimiques et théologiques, cet homme capable de rester des jours entiers sans manger ni dormir, absorbé par les énigmes du savoir, connaît une grave dépression dont il réchappe de justesse... pour se consacrer à l'économie de son pays : il devient directeur de la Monnaie de Londres, organisant une impitoyable chasse aux faux-monnayeurs ! L'image d'Épinal de Newton regardant une pomme tomber sort enrichie et complexifiée de ce livre fruit d'une vie de reche...

  15. The Celestial Mechanics of Newton

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    hannes Kepler had announced his first two laws of plan- etary motion (AD 1609), ... "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy" .... He provided two different sets of proofs .... the Sun. Newton then formulated a theory of tides based on the.

  16. Lewis, Prof. Gilbert Newton

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1935 Honorary. Lewis, Prof. Gilbert Newton. Date of birth: 25 October 1875. Date of death: 24 March 1946. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. 29th Mid-year meeting. Posted on 19 January 2018. The 29th Mid-year meeting of the Academy will be held ...

  17. Space and motion in nature and Scripture: Galileo, Descartes, Newton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiak, Andrew

    2015-06-01

    In the Scholium to the Definitions in Principia mathematica, Newton departs from his main task of discussing space, time and motion by suddenly mentioning the proper method for interpreting Scripture. This is surprising, and it has long been ignored by scholars. In this paper, I argue that the Scripture passage in the Scholium is actually far from incidental: it reflects Newton's substantive concern, one evident in correspondence and manuscripts from the 1680s, that any general understanding of space, time and motion must enable readers to recognize the veracity of Biblical claims about natural phenomena, including the motion of the earth. This substantive concern sheds new light on an aspect of Newton's project in the Scholium. It also underscores Newton's originality in dealing with the famous problem of reconciling theological and philosophical conceptions of nature in the seventeenth century. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mathematics, Science and the Cambridge Tradition

    OpenAIRE

    Nuno Ornelas Martins

    2012-01-01

    Copyright © 2012 World Economics Association. In this paper the use of mathematics in economics will be discussed, by comparing two approaches to mathematics, a Cartesian approach, and a Newtonian approach. I will argue that while mainstream economics is underpinned by a Cartesian approach which led to a divorce between mathematics and reality, the contributions of key authors of the Cambridge tradition, like Marshall, Keynes and Sraffa, are characterised by a Newtonian approach to mathema...

  19. Astronomical and Cosmological Symbolism in Art Dedicated to Newton and Einstein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, R.

    2013-04-01

    Separated by two and a half centuries, Isaac Newton (1642-1727) and Albert Einstein (1879-1955) had profound impacts on our understanding of the universe. Newton established our understanding of universal gravitation, which was recast almost beyond recognition by Einstein. Both discovered basic patterns behind astronomical phenomena and became the best-known scientists of their respective periods. I will describe here how artists of the 18th and 20th centuries represented the achievements of Newton and Einstein. Representations of Newton express reverence, almost an apotheosis, portraying him as the creator of the universe. Einstein, in a different age, is represented often as a comic figure, and only rarely do we find art that hints at the profound view of the universe he developed.

  20. Life after Newton: an ecological metaphysic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulanowicz, R E

    1999-05-01

    Ecology may indeed be 'deep', as some have maintained, but perhaps much of the mystery surrounding it owes more simply to the dissonance between ecological notions and the fundamentals of the modern synthesis. Comparison of the axioms supporting the Newtonian world view with those underlying the organicist and stochastic metaphors that motivate much of ecosystems science reveals strong disagreements--especially regarding the nature of the causes of events and the scalar domains over which these causes can operate. The late Karl Popper held that the causal closure forced by our mechanical perspective on nature frustrates our attempts to achieve an 'evolutionary theory of knowledge.' He suggested that the Newtonian concept of 'force' must be generalized to encompass the contingencies that arise in evolutionary processes. His reformulation of force as 'propensity' leads quite naturally to a generalization of Newton's laws for ecology. The revised tenets appear, however, to exhibit more scope and allow for change to arise from within a system. Although Newton's laws survive (albeit in altered form) within a coalescing ecological metaphysic, the axioms that Enlightenment thinkers appended to Newton's work seem ill-suited for ecology and perhaps should yield to a new and coherent set of assumptions on how to view the processes of nature.

  1. On Time-II: Newton's Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, C. K.

    1991-01-01

    A study of time in Newtonian physics is presented. Newton's laws of motion, falsifiability and physical theories, laws of motion and law of gravitation, and Laplace's demon are discussed. Short bibliographic sketches of Laplace and Karl Popper are included. (KR)

  2. The 'Naturals' and Victorian Cambridge: Reflections on the Anatomy of an Elite, 1851-1914.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Roy; Moseley, Russell

    1980-01-01

    Explores how graduates of Cambridge University from 1851-1914 contributed expertise gained during their university years to British society, particularly the public sector in which they occupied many important positions. The term 'Naturals' refers to those who passed final exams in natural sciences and mathematics at Cambridge. (Author/DB)

  3. Reginald Crundall Punnett: first Arthur Balfour Professor of Genetics, Cambridge, 1912.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, A W F

    2012-09-01

    R. C. Punnett, the codiscoverer of linkage with W. Bateson in 1904, had the good fortune to be invited to be the first Arthur Balfour Professor of Genetics at Cambridge University, United Kingdom, in 1912 when Bateson, for whom it had been intended, declined to leave his new appointment as first Director of the John Innes Horticultural Institute. We here celebrate the centenary of the first professorship dedicated to genetics, outlining Punnett's career and his scientific contributions, with special reference to the discovery of "partial coupling" in the sweet pea (later "linkage") and to the diagram known as Punnett's square. His seeming reluctance as coauthor with Bateson to promote the reduplication hypothesis to explain the statistical evidence for linkage is stressed, as is his relationship with his successor as Arthur Balfour Professor, R. A. Fisher. The background to the establishment of the Professorship is also described.

  4. Catch a falling apple: Isaac Newton and myths of genius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fara, P

    1999-01-01

    Newton has become a legendary figure belonging to the distant past rather than a historical person who lived at a specific time. Historians and scientists have constantly reinterpreted many anecdotal tales describing Newton's achievements and behaviour, but the most famous concerns the falling apple in his country garden. Newton's apple conjures up multiple allegorical resonances, and examining its historical accuracy is less important than uncovering the mythical truths embedded within this symbol. Because interest groups fashion different collective versions of the past, analysing mythical tales can reveal fundamental yet conflicting attitudes towards science and its practices.

  5. ESA's XMM-Newton sees matter speed-racing around a black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    shift and resembles that used by the police to catch speeding motorists. As an object moves towards us, the frequency or energy of its light rises. Conversely, the energy falls as the object moves away. This is the ‘Doppler effect’ and a similar phenomenon happens with the changing pitch of a police siren. If it is approaching, the frequency of the sound is higher, but if it is receding the frequency is lower. "We think we are viewing the accretion disc at a slightly tilted angle, so we see the light from each of these flares rise and fall in energy as they orbit the black hole," Miller said. By studying the pattern with which the light from the clumps rises and falls in energy, scientists could also determine the mass of the black hole and the viewing angle of the accretion disc. With a known mass and orbital period, Turner and her team could determine the speed of the clumps using relatively simple Newtonian physics. Two factors made the measurement possible. One is that XMM-Newton captured particularly persistent flares during a long observation, lasting nearly 27 hours. Equally crucial is the unprecedented light collecting power of XMM-Newton, which allowed scientists to look at how energy from the clumps changed over time. Turner said this observation confirms a preliminary XMM-Newton result, announced in September 2004 by a European team led by Dr Kazushi Iwasawa of the Institute of Astronomy in Cambridge, United Kingdom, that something as detailed as an orbital period could be detected with the current generation of X-ray observatories. The combination of results indicates that scientists, given long observation times, are now able to make careful black hole measurements and even test general relativity in the domain of extreme gravity.

  6. Entropic corrections to Newton's law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setare, M R; Momeni, D; Myrzakulov, R

    2012-01-01

    In this short paper, we calculate separately the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) and self-gravitational corrections to Newton's gravitational formula. We show that for a complete description of the GUP and self-gravity effects, both the temperature and entropy must be modified. (paper)

  7. Sparse contrast-source inversion using linear-shrinkage-enhanced inexact Newton method

    KAUST Repository

    Desmal, Abdulla

    2014-07-01

    A contrast-source inversion scheme is proposed for microwave imaging of domains with sparse content. The scheme uses inexact Newton and linear shrinkage methods to account for the nonlinearity and ill-posedness of the electromagnetic inverse scattering problem, respectively. Thresholded shrinkage iterations are accelerated using a preconditioning technique. Additionally, during Newton iterations, the weight of the penalty term is reduced consistently with the quadratic convergence of the Newton method to increase accuracy and efficiency. Numerical results demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method.

  8. Sparse contrast-source inversion using linear-shrinkage-enhanced inexact Newton method

    KAUST Repository

    Desmal, Abdulla; Bagci, Hakan

    2014-01-01

    A contrast-source inversion scheme is proposed for microwave imaging of domains with sparse content. The scheme uses inexact Newton and linear shrinkage methods to account for the nonlinearity and ill-posedness of the electromagnetic inverse scattering problem, respectively. Thresholded shrinkage iterations are accelerated using a preconditioning technique. Additionally, during Newton iterations, the weight of the penalty term is reduced consistently with the quadratic convergence of the Newton method to increase accuracy and efficiency. Numerical results demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method.

  9. Newton's Principia: Myth and Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, George

    2016-03-01

    Myths about Newton's Principia abound. Some of them, such as the myth that the whole book was initially developed using the calculus and then transformed into a geometric mathematics, stem from remarks he made during the priority controversy with Leibniz over the calculus. Some of the most persistent, and misleading, arose from failures to read the book with care. Among the latter are the myth that he devised his theory of gravity in order to explain the already established ``laws'' of Kepler, and that in doing so he took himself to be establishing that Keplerian motion is ``absolute,'' if not with respect to ``absolute space,'' then at least with respect to the fixed stars taken as what came later to be known as an inertial frame. The talk will replace these two myths with the reality of what Newton took himself to have established.

  10. Newton Binomial Formulas in Schubert Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Cordovez, Jorge; Gatto, Letterio; Santiago, Taise

    2008-01-01

    We prove Newton's binomial formulas for Schubert Calculus to determine numbers of base point free linear series on the projective line with prescribed ramification divisor supported at given distinct points.

  11. Three lectures on Newton's laws

    OpenAIRE

    Kokarev, Sergey S.

    2009-01-01

    Three small lectures are devoted to three Newton's laws, lying in the foundation of classical mechanics. These laws are analyzed from the viewpoint of our contemporary knowledge about space, time and physical interactions. The lectures were delivered for students of YarGU in RSEC "Logos".

  12. A primeira Lei de Newton: uma abordagem didática

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva, Saulo Luis Lima

    2018-01-01

    Resumo No estudo da mecânica Newtoniana o essencial é a compreensão das leis de Newton em profundidade. Se isso acontecer, ficará fácil perceber que todos os outros fenômenos a serem estudados são consequências dessas três leis básicas do movimento formuladas por Isaac Newton. Dentre elas, a primeira lei de Newton, conhecida como lei da Inércia, é a de maior complexidade filosófica e a menos compreendida pelos alunos ao saírem de um curso de física básica. Não é incomum encontrar alunos descr...

  13. Analysis of pharmacist-patient communication using the Calgary-Cambridge guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhill, Nicola; Anderson, Claire; Avery, Anthony; Pilnick, Alison

    2011-06-01

    This study explored communication between pharmacists and patients through application of the Calgary-Cambridge guide [1] to appointment-based pharmacist-patient consultations and considers use of the guide in pharmacy education. Eighteen patients attending appointment-based consultations with five pharmacists were recruited to this qualitative study. Consultations were audio-recorded and observed. Transcripts were coded according to the use of skills within the guide and analysed thematically. The results showed good use of many skills by pharmacists, particularly signposting and closing the session. Some skills were poorly represented such as listening effectively, eliciting the patient's perspective, effective use of computers and creating patient-centred consultations. A key theme of social conversation was present in the data but this skill was not defined in the guide. The Calgary-Cambridge guide was developed for use in medical consultations but its application to pharmacist-patient consultations showed that the guide could be successfully used in pharmacy with some minor alterations. Pharmacists may need more training to improve the use of specific communication skills including how to conduct a patient-centred consultation. The Calgary-Cambridge guide is well aligned with many aspects of pharmacist-patient consultations and could help pharmacists to improve their consultation skills. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Newton law on the generalized singular brane with and without 4d induced gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Eylee; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Park, D.K.

    2003-01-01

    Newton law arising due to the gravity localized on the general singular brane embedded in AdS 5 bulk is examined in the absence or presence of the 4d induced Einstein term. For the RS brane, apart from the subleading correction, Newton potential obeys 4d- and 5d-type gravitational law at long- and short-ranges if it were not for the induced Einstein term. The 4d induced Einstein term generates an intermediate range at short distance, in which the 5d Newton potential 1/r 2 emerges. For Neumann brane the long-range behavior of Newton potential is exponentially suppressed regardless of the existence of the induced Einstein term. For Dirichlet brane the expression of Newton potential is dependent on the renormalized coupling constant v ren . At particular value of v ren Newton potential on Dirichlet brane exhibits a similar behavior to that on RS brane. For other values the long-range behavior of Newton potential is exponentially suppressed as that in Neumann brane

  15. Brief history of the Cambridge STEM aberration correction project and its progeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L. Michael [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Batson, Philip E. [Institute for Advanced Materials, Devices and Nanotechnology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Department of Physics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Department of Materials Science, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Dellby, Niklas [Nion Company, 11515 NE 118th Street, Kirkland, WA 98034 (United States); Krivanek, Ondrej L. [Nion Company, 11515 NE 118th Street, Kirkland, WA 98034 (United States); Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    We provide a brief history of the project to correct the spherical aberration of the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) that started in Cambridge (UK) and continued in Kirkland (WA, USA), Yorktown Heights (NY, USA), and other places. We describe the project in the full context of other aberration correction research and related work, partly in response to the incomplete context presented in the paper “In quest of perfection in electron optics: A biographical sketch of Harald Rose on the occasion of his 80th birthday”, recently published in Ultramicroscopy. - Highlights: • We provide a brief history of the Cambridge project to correct the spherical aberration of the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). • We describe the project in the full context of other aberration correction work and related research. • We summarize our corrector development work that followed the Cambridge project, and which was the first to reach higher spatial resolution than any non-corrected electron microscope.

  16. Brief history of the Cambridge STEM aberration correction project and its progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, L. Michael; Batson, Philip E.; Dellby, Niklas; Krivanek, Ondrej L.

    2015-01-01

    We provide a brief history of the project to correct the spherical aberration of the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) that started in Cambridge (UK) and continued in Kirkland (WA, USA), Yorktown Heights (NY, USA), and other places. We describe the project in the full context of other aberration correction research and related work, partly in response to the incomplete context presented in the paper “In quest of perfection in electron optics: A biographical sketch of Harald Rose on the occasion of his 80th birthday”, recently published in Ultramicroscopy. - Highlights: • We provide a brief history of the Cambridge project to correct the spherical aberration of the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). • We describe the project in the full context of other aberration correction work and related research. • We summarize our corrector development work that followed the Cambridge project, and which was the first to reach higher spatial resolution than any non-corrected electron microscope

  17. XMM-Newton operations beyond the design lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Arvind N.; Kirsch, Marcus G. F.; Muñoz, J. Ramon; Santos-Lleo, Maria; Schartel, Norbert

    2012-09-01

    After more than twelve years in orbit and two years beyond the design lifetime, XMM-Newton continues its near faultless operations providing the worldwide astronomical community with an unprecedented combination of imaging and spectroscopic X-ray capabilities together with simultaneous optical and ultra-violet monitoring. The interest from the scientific community in observing with XMM-Newton remains extremely high with the last annual Announcement of Observing Opportunity (AO-11) attracting proposals requesting 6.7 times more observing time than was available. Following recovery from a communications problem in 2008, all elements of the mission are stable and largely trouble free. The operational lifetime if currently limited by the amount of available hydrazine fuel. XMM-Newton normally uses reaction wheels for attitude control and fuel is only used when offsetting reaction wheel speed away from limiting values and for emergency Sun acquisition following an anomaly. Currently, the hydrazine is predicted to last until around 2020. However, ESA is investigating the possibility of making changes to the operations concept and the onboard software that would enable lower fuel consumption. This could allow operations to well beyond 2026.

  18. Newton's Telescope in Print: the Role of Images in the Reception of Newton's Instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dupré, Sven

    2008-01-01

    While Newton tried to make his telescope into a proof of the supremacy of his theory of colours over older theories, his instrument was welcomed as a way to shorten telescopes, not as a way to solve the problem of chromatic aberration. This paper argues that the image published together with the

  19. 77 FR 54584 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of... Imaging and Bioengineering Special Emphasis Panel, ZEB1 OSR-D(J2) P Tissue Engineering Resource Center... applications. Place: Best Western Hotel III Tria, 220 Alewife Brook Parkway, Cambridge, MA 02138. Contact...

  20. The frictional Schroedinger-Newton equation in models of wave function collapse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diosi, Lajos [Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, H-1525 Budapest 114, PO Box 49 (Hungary)

    2007-05-15

    Replacing the Newtonian coupling G by -iG, the Schroedinger--Newton equation becomes {sup f}rictional{sup .} Instead of the reversible Schroedinger-Newton equation, we advocate its frictional version to generate the set of pointer states for macroscopic quantum bodies.

  1. Newton shows the light: a commentary on Newton (1672) ‘A letter … containing his new theory about light and colours…’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fara, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Isaac Newton's reputation was initially established by his 1672 paper on the refraction of light through a prism; this is now seen as a ground-breaking account and the foundation of modern optics. In it, he claimed to refute Cartesian ideas of light modification by definitively demonstrating that the refrangibility of a ray is linked to its colour, hence arguing that colour is an intrinsic property of light and does not arise from passing through a medium. Newton's later significance as a world-famous scientific genius and the apparent confirmation of his experimental results have tended to obscure the realities of his reception at the time. This paper explores the rhetorical strategies Newton deployed to convince his audience that his conclusions were certain and unchallengeable. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. PMID:25750143

  2. Newton's Path to Universal Gravitation: The Role of the Pendulum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulos, Pierre J.

    2006-01-01

    Much attention has been given to Newton's argument for Universal Gravitation in Book III of the "Principia". Newton brings an impressive array of phenomena, along with the three laws of motion, and his rules for reasoning to deduce Universal Gravitation. At the centre of this argument is the famous "moon test". Here it is the empirical evidence…

  3. Disk-galaxy density distribution from orbital speeds using Newton's law

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholson, Kenneth F.

    2000-01-01

    Given the dimensions (including thickness) of an axisymmetric galaxy, Newton's law is used in integral form to find the density distributions required to match a wide range of orbital speed profiles. Newton's law is not modified and no dark matter halos are required. The speed distributiions can have extreme shapes if they are reasonably smooth. Several examples are given.

  4. N=2 superconformal Newton-Hooke algebra and many-body mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galajinsky, Anton

    2009-01-01

    A representation of the conformal Newton-Hooke algebra on a phase space of n particles in arbitrary dimension which interact with one another via a generic conformal potential and experience a universal cosmological repulsion or attraction is constructed. The minimal N=2 superconformal extension of the Newton-Hooke algebra and its dynamical realization in many-body mechanics are studied.

  5. On the Shoulders of Sir Isaac Newton and Arthur Storer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Helen E.; Evans-Gondo, Bonita

    2013-01-01

    Helen E. Martin, the author of this article, is a retired National Board Certified Teacher who has been researching Sir Isaac Newton's unpublished manuscripts for over three decades. While researching the work of Newton, a teacher she was mentoring asked for some hands-on activities to study planetary motion. The description of the activity…

  6. Laboratory Test of Newton's Second Law for Small Accelerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundlach, J. H.; Schlamminger, S.; Spitzer, C. D.; Choi, K.-Y.; Woodahl, B. A.; Coy, J. J.; Fischbach, E.

    2007-01-01

    We have tested the proportionality of force and acceleration in Newton's second law, F=ma, in the limit of small forces and accelerations. Our tests reach well below the acceleration scales relevant to understanding several current astrophysical puzzles such as the flatness of galactic rotation curves, the Pioneer anomaly, and the Hubble acceleration. We find good agreement with Newton's second law at accelerations as small as 5x10 -14 m/s 2

  7. Investigating the Impact of Cambridge International Assessments on U.S. Stakeholders: Student and Teacher Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    As part of the continuing program to study the impact of its international assessments, the University of Cambridge International Examinations ("Cambridge") has undertaken a series of studies investigating the impact on a range of US stakeholders. This paper reports on research designed to respond to a series of washback and impact…

  8. An Improved Cambridge Filter Pad Extraction Methodology to Obtain More Accurate Water and “Tar” Values: In Situ Cambridge Filter Pad Extraction Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh David

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous investigations by others and internal investigations at Philip Morris International (PMI have shown that the standard trapping and extraction procedure used for conventional cigarettes, defined in the International Standard ISO 4387 (Cigarettes -- Determination of total and nicotine-free dry particulate matter using a routine analytical smoking machine, is not suitable for high-water content aerosols. Errors occur because of water losses during the opening of the Cambridge filter pad holder to remove the filter pad as well as during the manual handling of the filter pad, and because the commercially available filter pad holder, which is constructed out of plastic, may adsorb water. This results in inaccurate values for the water content, and erroneous and overestimated values for Nicotine Free Dry Particulate Matter (NFDPM. A modified 44 mm Cambridge filter pad holder and extraction equipment which supports in situ extraction methodology has been developed and tested. The principle of the in situ extraction methodology is to avoid any of the above mentioned water losses by extracting the loaded filter pad while kept in the Cambridge filter pad holder which is hermetically sealed by two caps. This is achieved by flushing the extraction solvent numerous times through the hermetically sealed Cambridge filter pad holder by means of an in situ extractor. The in situ methodology showed a significantly more complete water recovery, resulting in more accurate NFDPM values for high-water content aerosols compared to the standard ISO methodology. The work presented in this publication demonstrates that the in situ extraction methodology applies to a wider range of smoking products and smoking regimens, whereas the standard ISO methodology only applies to a limited range of smoking products and smoking regimens, e.g., conventional cigarettes smoked under ISO smoking regimen. In cases where a comparison of yields between the PMI HTP and

  9. Does the Newton's world model revive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meszaros, A.

    1984-03-01

    Newton's world model may have a physical meaning if the gravitation has small non-zero mass and if the observable part of the universe is the interior of a giant finite body. Both possibilities are allowed theoretically. (author)

  10. Judaism in the theology of Sir Isaac Newton

    CERN Document Server

    Goldish, Matt

    1998-01-01

    This book is based on my doctoral dissertation from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem (1996) of the same title. As a master's student, working on an entirely different project, I was well aware that many of Newton's theological manuscripts were located in our own Jewish National and University Library, but I was under the mistaken assumption that scores of highly qualified scholars must be assiduously scouring them and publishing their results. It never occurred to me to look at them at all until, having fmished my master's, I spoke to Professor David Katz at Tel-Aviv University about an idea I had for doctoral research. Professor Katz informed me that the project I had suggested was one which he himself had just fmished, but that I might be interested in working on the famous Newton manuscripts in the context of a project being organized by him, Richard Popkin, James Force, and the late Betty Jo Teeter Dobbs, to study and publish Newton's theological material. I asked him whether he was not sending me into ...

  11. An experimental test of Newton's law of gravitation for small accelerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, Sven

    2011-10-01

    The experiment presented in this thesis has been designed to test Newton's law of gravitation in the limit of small accelerations caused by weak gravitational forces. It is located at DESY, Hamburg, and is a modification of an experiment that was carried out in Wuppertal, Germany, until 2002 in order to measure the gravitational constant G. The idea of testing Newton's law in the case of small accelerations emerged from the question whether the flat rotation curves of spiral galaxies can be traced back to Dark Matter or to a law of gravitation that deviates from Newton on cosmic scales like e.g. MOND (Modified Newtonian Dynamics). The core of this experiment is a microwave resonator which is formed by two spherical concave mirrors that are suspended as pendulums. Masses between 1 and 9 kg symmetrically change their distance to the mirrors from far to near positions. Due to the increased gravitational force the mirrors are pulled apart and the length of the resonator increases. This causes a shift of the resonance frequency which can be translated into a shift of the mirror distance. The small masses are sources of weak gravitational forces and cause accelerations on the mirrors of about 10 -10 m/s 2 . These forces are comparable to those between stars on cosmic scales and the accelerations are in the vicinity of the characteristic acceleration of MOND a 0 ∼ 1.2.10 -10 m/s 2 , where deviations from Newton's law are expected. Thus Newton's law could be directly checked for correctness under these conditions. First measurements show that due to the sensitivity of this experiment many systematic influences have to be accounted for in order to get consistent results. Newton's law has been confirmed with an accuracy of 3%. MOND has also been checked. In order to be able to distinguish Newton from MOND with other interpolation functions the accuracy of the experiment has to be improved. (orig.)

  12. What are the Hidden Quantum Processes Behind Newton's Laws?

    OpenAIRE

    Ostoma, Tom; Trushyk, Mike

    1999-01-01

    We investigate the hidden quantum processes that are responsible for Newton's laws of motion and Newton's universal law of gravity. We apply Electro-Magnetic Quantum Gravity or EMQG to investigate Newtonian classical physics. EQMG is a quantum gravity theory that is manifestly compatible with Cellular Automata (CA) theory, a new paradigm for physical reality. EMQG is also based on a theory of inertia proposed by R. Haisch, A. Rueda, and H. Puthoff, which we modified and called Quantum Inertia...

  13. Assessing the Impact of Arts and Humanities Research at the University of Cambridge. Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Ruth; Celia, Claire; Diepeveen, Stephanie; Chonaill, Siobhan Ni; Rabinovich, Lila; Tiessen, Jan

    2010-01-01

    This project for the University of Cambridge and the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) assesses the impacts of arts and humanities research at the University of Cambridge. Evidence from interviews, a survey of research staff and detailed case studies indicates that these disciplines already have a broad range of impacts. Many of these…

  14. Discovery Science: Newton All around You.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigo, Robert; Humphrey, Gregg

    1993-01-01

    Presents activities for helping elementary students learn about Newton's third law of motion. Several activity cards demonstrate the concept of the law of action and reaction. The activities require only inexpensive materials that can be found around the house. (SM)

  15. Fundamentos kantianos dos axiomas do movimento de Newton

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira Coutinho Abreu Gomes, Írio

    2006-01-01

    Esse trabalho se insere na perspectiva fundacionista kantiana, particularmente no que diz respeito às três leis de Newton. Em sua obra de 1786, Princípios Metafísicos da Ciência da Natureza, Kant empreende a tarefa de fundamentar a física mecânica através de princípios metafísicos. Nosso objetivo nessa dissertação foi abordar essa obra especificamente em seu terceiro capítulo onde Kant trata dos axiomas do movimento de Newton. Nessa dissertação elucidamos a argumentação kantiana na fundamenta...

  16. Newton's Law of Cooling Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, M.

    2009-01-01

    The cooling of objects is often described by a law, attributed to Newton, which states that the temperature difference of a cooling body with respect to the surroundings decreases exponentially with time. Such behaviour has been observed for many laboratory experiments, which led to a wide acceptance of this approach. However, the heat transfer…

  17. On-the-fly XMM-Newton Spacecraft Data Reduction on the Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ibarra

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of the first prototype of a XMM-Newton pipeline processing task, parallelized at a CCD level, which can be run in a Grid system. By using the Grid Way application and the XMM-Newton Science Archive system, the processing of the XMM-Newton data is distributed across the Virtual Organization (VO constituted by three different research centres: ESAC (European Space Astronomy Centre, ESTEC (the European Space research and TEchnology Centre and UCM (Complutense University of Madrid. The proposed application workflow adjusts well to the Grid environment, making use of the massive parallel resources in a flexible and adaptive fashion.

  18. Isaac Newton learns Hebrew: Samuel Johnson's Nova cubi Hebræi tabella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joalland, Michael; Mandelbrote, Scott

    2016-01-01

    This article concerns the earliest evidence for Isaac Newton's use of Hebrew: a manuscript copy by Newton of part of a work intended to provide a reader of the Hebrew alphabet with the ability to identify or memorize more than 1000 words and to begin to master the conjugations of the Hebrew verb. In describing the content of this unpublished manuscript and establishing its source and original author for the first time, we suggest how and when Newton may have initially become acquainted with the language. Finally, basing our discussion in part on an examination of the reading marks that Newton left in the surviving copies of Hebrew grammars and lexicons that he owned, we will argue that his interest in Hebrew was not intended to achieve linguistic proficiency but remained limited to particular theological queries of singular concern.

  19. The architecture of Newton, a general-purpose dynamics simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, James F.; Stewart, A. James

    1989-01-01

    The architecture for Newton, a general-purpose system for simulating the dynamics of complex physical objects, is described. The system automatically formulates and analyzes equations of motion, and performs automatic modification of this system equations when necessitated by changes in kinematic relationships between objects. Impact and temporary contact are handled, although only using simple models. User-directed influence of simulations is achieved using Newton's module, which can be used to experiment with the control of many-degree-of-freedom articulated objects.

  20. Classical mechanics from Newton to Einstein : a modern introduction

    CERN Document Server

    McCall, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This new edition of Classical Mechanics, aimed at undergraduate physics and engineering students, presents in a user-friendly style an authoritative approach to the complementary subjects of classical mechanics and relativity.   The text starts with a careful look at Newton's Laws, before applying them in one dimension to oscillations and collisions. More advanced applications - including gravitational orbits and rigid body dynamics - are discussed after the limitations of Newton's inertial frames have been highlighted through an exposition of Einstein's Special Relativity. Examples gi

  1. A Line Search Multilevel Truncated Newton Algorithm for Computing the Optical Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís Garrido

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe the implementation details and give the experimental results of three optimization algorithms for dense optical flow computation. In particular, using a line search strategy, we evaluate the performance of the unilevel truncated Newton method (LSTN, a multiresolution truncated Newton (MR/LSTN and a full multigrid truncated Newton (FMG/LSTN. We use three image sequences and four models of optical flow for performance evaluation. The FMG/LSTN algorithm is shown to lead to better optical flow estimation with less computational work than both the LSTN and MR/LSTN algorithms.

  2. Evolution of physics examining 1940-2000 at Cambridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, A.; Brown, L. M.

    2001-07-01

    Much controversy exists about the supposed changing examination standards. Emphasis has been placed on the standards of GCSE and A-level examinations. However, many large employers recruit graduates, and so university examination standards also deserve attention. Here, Cambridge University Part II (third year undergraduate) examinations in Physics are studied since 1940. Trends in prescriptiveness, choice of questions, and other variables were found.

  3. 76 FR 12729 - Cambridge Environmental Inc; Transfer of Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... number, [EP-W-11-020], Cambridge Environmental Inc., will review, evaluate a portion of a risk assessment... assessment, and the soundness of the conclusions. Develop and enhance risk assessment methods and tools which... recommending improvements to existing tools and methods, or investigating issues related to the risk assessment...

  4. Variational nature, integration, and properties of Newton reaction path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bofill, Josep Maria; Quapp, Wolfgang

    2011-02-21

    The distinguished coordinate path and the reduced gradient following path or its equivalent formulation, the Newton trajectory, are analyzed and unified using the theory of calculus of variations. It is shown that their minimum character is related to the fact that the curve is located in a valley region. In this case, we say that the Newton trajectory is a reaction path with the category of minimum energy path. In addition to these findings a Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg algorithm to integrate these curves is also proposed.

  5. Variational nature, integration, and properties of Newton reaction path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bofill, Josep Maria; Quapp, Wolfgang

    2011-02-01

    The distinguished coordinate path and the reduced gradient following path or its equivalent formulation, the Newton trajectory, are analyzed and unified using the theory of calculus of variations. It is shown that their minimum character is related to the fact that the curve is located in a valley region. In this case, we say that the Newton trajectory is a reaction path with the category of minimum energy path. In addition to these findings a Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg algorithm to integrate these curves is also proposed.

  6. Newton law in DGP brane-world with semi-infinite extra dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, D.K.; Tamaryan, S.; Miao Yangang

    2004-01-01

    Newton potential for DGP brane-world scenario is examined when the extra dimension is semi-infinite. The final form of the potential involves a self-adjoint extension parameter α, which plays a role of an additional mass (or distance) scale. The striking feature of Newton potential in this setup is that the potential behaves as seven-dimensional in long range when α is non-zero. For small α there is an intermediate range where the potential is five-dimensional. Five-dimensional Newton constant decreases with increase of α from zero. In the short range the four-dimensional behavior is recovered. The physical implication of this result is discussed in the context of the accelerating behavior of universe

  7. Newton's constant from a minimal length: additional models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahlmann, Hanno

    2011-01-01

    We follow arguments of Verlinde (2010 arXiv:1001.0785 [hep-th]) and Klinkhamer (2010 arXiv:1006.2094 [hep-th]), and construct two models of the microscopic theory of a holographic screen that allow for the thermodynamical derivation of Newton's law, with Newton's constant expressed in terms of a minimal length scale l contained in the area spectrum of the microscopic theory. One of the models is loosely related to the quantum structure of surfaces and isolated horizons in loop quantum gravity. Our investigation shows that the conclusions reached by Klinkhamer regarding the new length scale l seem to be generic in all their qualitative aspects.

  8. A Non-smooth Newton Method for Multibody Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erleben, K.; Ortiz, R.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we deal with the simulation of rigid bodies. Rigid body dynamics have become very important for simulating rigid body motion in interactive applications, such as computer games or virtual reality. We present a novel way of computing contact forces using a Newton method. The contact problem is reformulated as a system of non-linear and non-smooth equations, and we solve this system using a non-smooth version of Newton's method. One of the main contribution of this paper is the reformulation of the complementarity problems, used to model impacts, as a system of equations that can be solved using traditional methods.

  9. The giant and the thief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socrates Bardi, Jason

    2010-01-01

    In 1696 Isaac Newton made what seems like a bizarre career move. Abandoning Cambridge University and the mathematical pursuits that made him famous, the 53-year-old scientist upped sticks for London to become warden of the Royal Mint. Part administrator, part coining expert, and part criminal prosecutor, this new role would occupy Newton for the remaining three decades of his life.

  10. The Cambridge Guide to the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Kenneth R.

    2003-10-01

    The Cambridge Guide to the Solar System provides a comprehensive, funamental, and up-to-date description of the solar system. It is written in a concise, light and uniform style, without being unnecessarily weighted down with specialized materials or the variable writing of multiple authors. It is filled with vital facts and information for astronomers of all types and for anyone with a scientific interest in the Earth, our Moon, all the other planets and their satellites, and related topics such as asteroids, comets, meteorites and meteors. The language, style, ideas and profuse illustrations will attract the general reader as well as professionals. A thorough report for general readers, it includes much compact reference data. Metaphors, similes and analogies will be of immense help to the lay person or non-science student, and they add to the enjoyment of the material. Vignettes containing historical, literary and even artistic material make this book unusual and interesting, and enhance its scientific content. Kenneth Lang is professor of astronomy in the Physics and Astronomy Department at Tufts University. He is the author of several astrophysics books, including The Sun from Space (Springer Verlag, 2000), Astrophysical Formulae: Radiation, Gas Processes, and High Energy Physics (Springer Verlag, 1999), Sun, Earth and Sky (Copernicus Books, 1997), Astrophysical Data: Planets and Stars (Springer Verlag, 1993), and Wanderers in Space: Exploration and Discovery in the Solar System (Cambridge, 1991),

  11. Teaching Newton's Third Law of Motion in the Presence of Student Preconception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, C. H.

    2006-01-01

    The concept of interaction that underlies Newton's Laws of Motion is compared with the students' commonsense ideas of force and motion. An approach to teaching Newton's Third Law of Motion is suggested that focuses on refining the student's intuitive thinking on the nature of interaction.

  12. University of Cambridge deploys Procket Networks' PRO/8801

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Procket Networks, a provider of high performance Internet Protocol (IP) technology and products has announced that the University of Cambridge has deployed the PRO/8801(TM) router into its research network to develop industry-leading deep packet inspection applications. The major application for this deployment is to identify and understand new traffic patterns created by large scale scientific computations and downloads such as the GRID (1 page).

  13. POEMS in Newton's Aerodynamic Frustum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampedro, Jaime Cruz; Tetlalmatzi-Montiel, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    The golden mean is often naively seen as a sign of optimal beauty but rarely does it arise as the solution of a true optimization problem. In this article we present such a problem, demonstrating a close relationship between the golden mean and a special case of Newton's aerodynamical problem for the frustum of a cone. Then, we exhibit a parallel…

  14. Local Convergence and Radius of Convergence for Modified Newton Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Măruşter Ştefan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the local convergence of modified Newton method, i.e., the classical Newton method in which the derivative is periodically re-evaluated. Based on the convergence properties of Picard iteration for demicontractive mappings, we give an algorithm to estimate the local radius of convergence for considered method. Numerical experiments show that the proposed algorithm gives estimated radii which are very close to or even equal with the best ones.

  15. ESA's XMM-Newton gains deep insights into the distant Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    progress, first results seem to confirm that the number of clusters 7000 million years ago is little different from that of today. This behaviour is predicted by models of the Universe that expand forever and drive the galaxy clusters further and further apart. Eventually, it will be possible for the team to use their results to determine whether the expansion of the Universe is accelerating, as indicated by some other recent observations, or decelerating, as traditionally thought. Note to Editors: This is a coordinated ESA/ESO release. The presented results have been obtained by the XMM-LSS consortium, led by Service d'Astrophysique du CEA (France) and consisting of Co-I institutes from the United Kingdom, Ireland, Denmark, The Netherlands, Belgium, France, Italy, Germany, Spain and Chile. The home page of the XMM-LSS project can be found at: http://vela.astro.ulg.ac.be/themes/spatial/xmm/LSS/index_e.html This work is based on two papers to be published in the professional astronomy journal, Astronomy and Astrophysics (The XMM-LSS survey:I. Scientific motivations, design and first results by Marguerite Pierre et al., astro-ph/0305191 and The XMM-LSS survey:II. First high redshift galaxy clusters: relaxed and collapsing systems by Ivan Valtchanov et al.,astro-ph/0305192). More about XMM-Newton XMM-Newton can detect more X-ray sources than any previous satellite and is helping to solve many cosmic mysteries of the violent Universe, from black holes to the formation of galaxies. It was launched on 10 December 1999, using an Ariane-5 rocket from French Guiana. It is expected to return data for a decade. XMM-Newton's high-tech design uses over 170 wafer-thin cylindrical mirrors spread over three telescopes. Its orbit takes it almost a third of the way to the Moon, so that astronomers can enjoy long, uninterrupted views of celestial objects.

  16. How Two Differing Portraits of Newton Can Teach Us about the Cultural Context of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucci, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Like several scientists, Isaac Newton has been represented many times over many different periods, and portraits of Newton were often commissioned by the scientist himself. These portraits tell us a lot about the scientist, the artist and the cultural context. This article examines two very different portraits of Newton that were realized more…

  17. Isaac Newton's scientific method turning data into evidence about gravity and cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Harper, William L.

    2014-01-01

    Isaac Newton's Scientific Method examines Newton's argument for universal gravity and his application of it to resolve the problem of deciding between geocentric and heliocentric world systems by measuring masses of the sun and planets. William L. Harper suggests that Newton's inferences from phenomena realize an ideal of empirical success that is richer than prediction. Any theory that can achieve this rich sort of empirical success must not only be able to predict the phenomena it purports to explain, but also have those phenomena accurately measure the parameters which explain them. Harper explores the ways in which Newton's method aims to turn theoretical questions into ones which can be answered empirically by measurement from phenomena, and to establish that propositions inferred from phenomena are provisionally accepted as guides to further research. This methodology, guided by its rich ideal of empirical success, supports a conception of scientific progress that does not require construing it as progr...

  18. A gravitação universal na filosofia da natureza de Isaac Newton

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Valdinei Gomes

    2010-01-01

    Resumo: Esta pesquisa apresenta um estudo sobre o conceito de força gravitacional na filosofia da natureza de Isaac Newton. O presente texto foi elaborado a partir dos argumentos desenvolvidos por Newton para defender esse conceito em sua obra mais importante, o Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1687). Será visto que, em tais argumentos, Newton restringe o conceito de força gravitacional a partir de um tratamento matemático, que ele próprio elaborou em sua obra. Por outro lado, Ne...

  19. British physics Newton's law of funding

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    In Britain, fundamental physics is in a pickle ISAAC NEWTON, besides being the founder of modern physics, was also master of Britain's mint. That is a precedent which many British physicists must surely wish had become traditional. At the moment, money for physics is in short supply in Britain.

  20. The Cooling Law and the Search for a Good Temperature Scale, from Newton to Dalton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, Ugo

    2011-01-01

    The research on the cooling law began with an article by Newton published in 1701. Later, many studies were performed by other scientists confirming or confuting Newton's law. This paper presents a description and an interpretation of Newton's article, provides a short overview of the research conducted on the topic during the 18th century, and…

  1. The Schrödinger–Newton equation and its foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahrami, Mohammad; Großardt, André; Donadi, Sandro; Bassi, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    The necessity of quantising the gravitational field is still subject to an open debate. In this paper we compare the approach of quantum gravity, with that of a fundamentally semi-classical theory of gravity, in the weak-field non-relativistic limit. We show that, while in the former case the Schrödinger equation stays linear, in the latter case one ends up with the so-called Schrödinger–Newton equation, which involves a nonlinear, non-local gravitational contribution. We further discuss that the Schrödinger–Newton equation does not describe the collapse of the wave-function, although it was initially proposed for exactly this purpose. Together with the standard collapse postulate, fundamentally semi-classical gravity gives rise to superluminal signalling. A consistent fundamentally semi-classical theory of gravity can therefore only be achieved together with a suitable prescription of the wave-function collapse. We further discuss, how collapse models avoid such superluminal signalling and compare the nonlinearities appearing in these models with those in the Schrödinger–Newton equation. (paper)

  2. Bohlin transformation: the hidden symmetry that connects Hooke to Newton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saggio, Maria Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Hooke's name is familiar to students of mechanics thanks to the law of force that bears his name. Less well-known is the influence his findings had on the founder of mechanics, Isaac Newton. In a lecture given some twenty years ago, W Arnol'd pointed out the outstanding contribution to science made by Hooke, and also noted the controversial issue of the attribution of important discoveries to Newton that were actually inspired by Hooke. It therefore seems ironic that the two most famous force laws, named after Hooke and Newton, are two geometrical aspects of the same law. This relationship, together with other illuminating aspects of Newtonian mechanics, is described in Arnol'd's book and is worth remembering in standard physics courses. In this didactical paper the duality of the two forces is expounded and an account of the more recent contributions to the subject is given. (paper)

  3. [Isaac Newton's Anguli Contactus method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzycki, Jarosław

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the geometrical method for calculating the curvature of a class of curves from the third Book of Isaac Newton's Principia. The method involves any curve which is generated from an elementary curve (actually from any curve whose curvature we known of) by means of transformation increasing the polar angular coordinate in a constant ratio, but unchanging the polar radial angular coordinate.

  4. Anisotropic harmonic oscillator, non-commutative Landau problem and exotic Newton-Hooke symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Pedro D.; Gomis, Joaquim; Kamimura, Kiyoshi; Plyushchay, Mikhail S.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the planar anisotropic harmonic oscillator with explicit rotational symmetry as a particle model with non-commutative coordinates. It includes the exotic Newton-Hooke particle and the non-commutative Landau problem as special, isotropic and maximally anisotropic, cases. The system is described by the same (2+1)-dimensional exotic Newton-Hooke symmetry as in the isotropic case, and develops three different phases depending on the values of the two central charges. The special cases of the exotic Newton-Hooke particle and non-commutative Landau problem are shown to be characterized by additional, so(3) or so(2,1) Lie symmetry, which reflects their peculiar spectral properties

  5. The new Cambridge English course student 1

    CERN Document Server

    Swan, Michael

    1991-01-01

    The New Cambridge English Course is a course teachers and students can rely on to cover the complete range and depth of language and skills needed from beginner to upper-intermediate level. Each level is designed to provide at least 72 hours of class work using the Student's Book, with additional self-study material provided in the Practice Book. The course has a proven multi-syllabus approach which integrates work on all the vital aspects of language study: grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation, skills, notions and functions.

  6. [Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics Feasibility Studies 9-13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics, Newton, MA.

    These materials are a part of a series of studies sponsored by the Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics which reflects the ideas of CCSM regarding the goals and objectives for school mathematics K-12. Feasibility Studies 9-13 contain a wide range of topics. The following are the titles and brief descriptions of these studies. Number…

  7. Newton, Goethe and the process of perception: an approach to design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platts, Jim

    2006-06-01

    Whereas Newton traced a beam of white light passing through a prism and fanning out into the colours of the rainbow as it was refracted, Goethe looked through a prism and was concerned with understanding what his eye subjectively saw. He created a sequence of experiments which produced what appeared to be anomalies in Newton's theory. What he was carefully illustrating concerns limitations accepted when following a scientifically objective approach. Newton was concerned with the description of 'facts' derived from the analysis of observations. Goethe was concerned with the synthesis of meaning. He then went on to describe subjective techniques for training 'the mind's eye' to work efficiently in the subjective world of the imagination. Derided as 'not science', what he was actually describing is the skill which is central to creative design.

  8. One hundred years of pressure hydrostatics from Stevin to Newton

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, Alan F

    2017-01-01

    This monograph investigates the development of hydrostatics as a science. In the process, it sheds new light on the nature of science and its origins in the Scientific Revolution. Readers will come to see that the history of hydrostatics reveals subtle ways in which the science of the seventeenth century differed from previous periods. The key, the author argues, is the new insights into the concept of pressure that emerged during the Scientific Revolution. This came about due to contributions from such figures as Simon Stevin, Pascal, Boyle and Newton. The author compares their work with Galileo and Descartes, neither of whom grasped the need for a new conception of pressure. As a result, their contributions to hydrostatics were unproductive. The story ends with Newton insofar as his version of hydrostatics set the subject on its modern course. He articulated a technical notion of pressure that was up to the task. Newton compared the mathematical way in hydrostatics and the experimental way, and sided with t...

  9. Newton Decatur AL water sample polyfluor compound discovery

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — All the pertinent information for recreation of the published (hopefully) tables and figures. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Newton, S.,...

  10. KEMAMPUAN PEMECAHAN MASALAH HUKUM GERAK NEWTON MAHASISWA MELALUI PEMBELAJARAN COOPERATIVE PROBLEM SOLVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Wahyu Nurcahyo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe the increase in problem-solving abilities Newton's laws of motion and students' perceptions of cooperative problem solving (CPS learning. Analysis of the data is based on the student's written answers to the five problems, the results of questionnaires and interviews. This study concluded that: (1 learning CPS make a strong impact (d-effect size = 1.81 to increase problem-solving ability of students Newton's laws of motion, (2 cooperation in the learning group CPS makes the problem easier to solve and misconceptions can be corrected. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mendeskripsikan peningkatan kemampuan pemecahan masalah hukum gerak Newton, kesulitan yang dialami, dan persepsi mahasiswa terhadap pembelajaran cooperative problem solving (CPS. Analisa data didasarkan pada jawaban tertulis mahasiswa terhadap lima permasalahan, hasil angket dan wawancara. Penelitian ini berkesimpulan bahwa (1 pembelajaran CPS memberikan dampak yang kuat (d-effect size=1,81 terhadap peningkatan kemampuan pemecahan masalah hukum gerak Newton mahasiswa dan (2 kerjasama kelompok dalam pembelajaran CPS membuat permasalahan lebih mudah dipecahkan dan miskonsepsi dapat diperbaiki.

  11. A Fast Newton-Shamanskii Iteration for a Matrix Equation Arising from M/G/1-Type Markov Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chang Guo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For the nonlinear matrix equations arising in the analysis of M/G/1-type and GI/M/1-type Markov chains, the minimal nonnegative solution G or R can be found by Newton-like methods. We prove monotone convergence results for the Newton-Shamanskii iteration for this class of equations. Starting with zero initial guess or some other suitable initial guess, the Newton-Shamanskii iteration provides a monotonically increasing sequence of nonnegative matrices converging to the minimal nonnegative solution. A Schur decomposition method is used to accelerate the Newton-Shamanskii iteration. Numerical examples illustrate the effectiveness of the Newton-Shamanskii iteration.

  12. Application of Quasi-Newton methods to the analysis of axisymmetric pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parisi, D.A.C.

    1987-01-01

    This work studies the application of Quasi-Newton techniques to material nonlinear analysis of axisymmetrical pressure vessels by the finite element method. In the formulation the material bahavior is described by an isotropic elastoplastic model with strain hardening. The continum is discretized through triangular finite elements of axisymmetrical solids with linear interpolation of the displacement field. The incremental governing equations are derived by the virtual work. The solution of the system of simultaneous nonlinear equations is solved iteratively by the Quasi-Newton method employing the BFGS update. The numerical performance of the proposed method is compared with the Newton-Raphson method and some of its variants through some selected examples. (author) [pt

  13. Magnetic Levitation and Newton's Third Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Horacio Munguia

    2007-01-01

    Newton's third law is often misunderstood by students and even their professors, as has already been pointed out in the literature. Application of the law in the context of electromagnetism can be especially problematic, because the idea that the forces of "action" and "reaction" are equal and opposite independent of the medium through which they…

  14. Isaac Newton and the Royal Mint

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 12. Isaac Newton and the Royal Mint. Biman Nath. Article-in-a-Box Volume 11 Issue 12 December 2006 pp 6-7. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/011/12/0006-0007 ...

  15. A comparison of different quasi-newton acceleration methods for partitioned multi-physics codes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Haelterman, R

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available & structures, 88/7, pp. 446–457 (2010) 8. J.E. Dennis, J.J. More´, Quasi-Newton methods: motivation and theory. SIAM Rev. 19, pp. 46–89 (1977) A Comparison of Quasi-Newton Acceleration Methods 15 9. J.E. Dennis, R.B. Schnabel, Least Change Secant Updates... Dois Metodos de Broyden. Mat. Apl. Comput. 1/2, pp. 135– 143 (1982) 25. J.M. Martinez, A quasi-Newton method with modification of one column per iteration. Com- puting 33, pp. 353–362 (1984) 26. J.M. Martinez, M.C. Zambaldi, An Inverse Column...

  16. Twisted Acceleration-Enlarged Newton-Hooke Hopf Algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daszkiewicz, M.

    2010-01-01

    Ten Abelian twist deformations of acceleration-enlarged Newton-Hooke Hopf algebra are considered. The corresponding quantum space-times are derived as well. It is demonstrated that their contraction limit τ → ∞ leads to the new twisted acceleration-enlarged Galilei spaces. (author)

  17. The cooling law and the search for a good temperature scale, from Newton to Dalton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besson, Ugo

    2011-01-01

    The research on the cooling law began with an article by Newton published in 1701. Later, many studies were performed by other scientists confirming or confuting Newton's law. This paper presents a description and an interpretation of Newton's article, provides a short overview of the research conducted on the topic during the 18th century, and discusses the relationships between the research on cooling laws and the definition of a temperature scale, as it was treated in Newton's article and in the work of Dalton, including Dalton's search for the absolute zero of temperature. It is shown that these scientists considered the exponential cooling law as a fundamental principle rather than a conjecture to be tested by means of experiments. The faith in the simplicity of natural laws and the spontaneous idea of proportionality between cause and effect seem to have strongly influenced Newton and Dalton. The topic is developed in a way that can be suitable for both undergraduate students and general physicists.

  18. Newton solution of inviscid and viscous problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatakrishnan, V.

    1988-01-01

    The application of Newton iteration to inviscid and viscous airfoil calculations is examined. Spatial discretization is performed using upwind differences with split fluxes. The system of linear equations which arises as a result of linearization in time is solved directly using either a banded matrix solver or a sparse matrix solver. In the latter case, the solver is used in conjunction with the nested dissection strategy, whose implementation for airfoil calculations is discussed. The boundary conditions are also implemented in a fully implicit manner, thus yielding quadratic convergence. Complexities such as the ordering of cell nodes and the use of a far field vortex to correct freestream for a lifting airfoil are addressed. Various methods to accelerate convergence and improve computational efficiency while using Newton iteration are discussed. Results are presented for inviscid, transonic nonlifting and lifting airfoils and also for laminar viscous cases. 17 references

  19. Sir Isaac Newton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Venter

    1964-03-01

    Full Text Available Die geweldige oplewing van die Christelike wetenskaps- gedagte in ons geeslose tyd, is ongetwyfeld ’n haas onverklaar- bare verskynsel. Dwarsdeur die eeue het Christene ook wetenskap beoefen saam met ongelowiges, maar dit was eers in ons leeftyd dat die principia van die Christelike religie ook vrugbaar gemaak is vir die wetenskapsbeoefening. In hierdie verband sal die name van Dooyeweerd, Vollenhoven, Stoker e.a. steeds met eer vermeld word. Natuurlik het belydende Christene ook voorheen wel deeglik saamgewerk aan die gebou van die wetenskap. Die intieme verband tussen religie, wysbegeerte en wetenskaps­ beoefening is toe egter nog nie suiwer ingesien nie. Uit hier­ die tydperk dateer die arbeid van sir Isaac Newton.

  20. An experimental test of Newton's law of gravitation for small accelerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, Sven

    2011-10-15

    The experiment presented in this thesis has been designed to test Newton's law of gravitation in the limit of small accelerations caused by weak gravitational forces. It is located at DESY, Hamburg, and is a modification of an experiment that was carried out in Wuppertal, Germany, until 2002 in order to measure the gravitational constant G. The idea of testing Newton's law in the case of small accelerations emerged from the question whether the flat rotation curves of spiral galaxies can be traced back to Dark Matter or to a law of gravitation that deviates from Newton on cosmic scales like e.g. MOND (Modified Newtonian Dynamics). The core of this experiment is a microwave resonator which is formed by two spherical concave mirrors that are suspended as pendulums. Masses between 1 and 9 kg symmetrically change their distance to the mirrors from far to near positions. Due to the increased gravitational force the mirrors are pulled apart and the length of the resonator increases. This causes a shift of the resonance frequency which can be translated into a shift of the mirror distance. The small masses are sources of weak gravitational forces and cause accelerations on the mirrors of about 10{sup -10} m/s{sup 2}. These forces are comparable to those between stars on cosmic scales and the accelerations are in the vicinity of the characteristic acceleration of MOND a{sub 0} {approx} 1.2.10{sup -10} m/s{sup 2}, where deviations from Newton's law are expected. Thus Newton's law could be directly checked for correctness under these conditions. First measurements show that due to the sensitivity of this experiment many systematic influences have to be accounted for in order to get consistent results. Newton's law has been confirmed with an accuracy of 3%. MOND has also been checked. In order to be able to distinguish Newton from MOND with other interpolation functions the accuracy of the experiment has to be improved. (orig.)

  1. De las Leyes de Newton a la Guerra de Troya

    OpenAIRE

    Plastino, Ángel Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    La publicación en 1687 del libro Philosophia Naturalis Principia Mathematica por Issac Newton marcó un importante hito en la historia del pensamiento humano. Sobre la base de tres sencillos principios de movimiento y de la ley de gravitación universal, y mediante razonamientos matemáticos, Newton logró explicar y unificar dentro de un esquema conceptual coherente una gran cantidad de fenómenos naturales: el movimiento de los planetas, las mareas, la forma de la Tierra, entre otros. Más aún, N...

  2. [Probability, Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics Feasibility Study No. 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R.

    These materials were written with the aim of reflecting the thinking of the Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics (CCSM) regarding the goals and objectives for school mathematics. They represent a practical response to a proposal by CCSM that some elements of probability be introduced in the elementary grades. These materials provide children…

  3. Early detection of Alzheimer's disease using the Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmand, B.; Walstra, G.; Lindeboom, J.; Teunisse, S.; Jonker, C.

    2000-01-01

    Dementia screening instruments, such as the Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG), measure a variety of cognitive functions. However, memory impairment generally is the first sign of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It seems logical, therefore, to use only memory-related items for the early detection of

  4. Non-relativistic conformal symmetries and Newton-Cartan structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duval, C; Horvathy, P A

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides us with a unifying classification of the conformal infinitesimal symmetries of non-relativistic Newton-Cartan spacetime. The Lie algebras of non-relativistic conformal transformations are introduced via the Galilei structure. They form a family of infinite-dimensional Lie algebras labeled by a rational 'dynamical exponent', z. The Schroedinger-Virasoro algebra of Henkel et al corresponds to z = 2. Viewed as projective Newton-Cartan symmetries, they yield, for timelike geodesics, the usual Schroedinger Lie algebra, for which z = 2. For lightlike geodesics, they yield, in turn, the Conformal Galilean Algebra (CGA) of Lukierski, Stichel and Zakrzewski (alias 'alt' of Henkel), with z = 1. Physical systems realizing these symmetries include, e.g. classical systems of massive and massless non-relativistic particles, and also hydrodynamics, as well as Galilean electromagnetism.

  5. Conceptual Understanding and Representation Quality through Multi-representation Learning on Newton Law Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suci Furwati

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Students who have good conceptual acquisition will be able to represent the concept by using multi representation. This study aims to determine the improvement of students' understanding of the concept of Newton's Law material, and the quality of representation used in solving problems on Newton's Law material. The results showed that the concept acquisition of students increased from the average of 35.32 to 78.97 with an effect size of 2.66 (strong and N-gain of 0.68 (medium. The quality of each type of student representation also increased from level 1 and level 2 up to level 3. Key Words: concept aquisition, represetation quality, multi representation learning, Newton’s Law Abstrak: Siswa yang memiliki penguasaan konsep yang baik akan mampu merepresentasikan konsep dengan menggunakan multi representasi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui peningkatan pemahaman konsep siswa SMP pada materi Hukum Newton, dan kualitas representasi yang digunakan dalam menyelesaikan masalah pada materi Hukum Newton. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penguasaan konsep siswa meningkat dari rata-rata 35,32 menjadi 78,97 dengan effect size sebesar 2,66 (kuat dan N-gain sebesar 0,68 (sedang. Kualitas tiap jenis representasi siswa juga mengalami peningkatan dari level 1 dan level 2 naik menjadi level 3. Kata kunci: hukum Newton, kualitas representasi, pemahaman konsep, pembelajaran multi representasi

  6. Preconditioned Inexact Newton for Nonlinear Sparse Electromagnetic Imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Desmal, Abdulla; Bagci, Hakan

    2014-01-01

    with smoothness promoting optimization/regularization schemes. However, this type of regularization schemes are known to perform poorly when applied in imagining domains with sparse content or sharp variations. In this work, an inexact Newton algorithm

  7. Cambridge IGCSE english as a second language

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, John

    2014-01-01

    Revised edition for the 2015 syllabus offering the easiest and most cost effective way to teach both the speaking and listening components with one set of books covering two years and free digital material. This title has been written for the revised Cambridge IGCSE English as a Second Language (0510 and 0511) syllabuses, for first teaching from 2013. ? Prepares students for their exams with a focus on assessed language features, such as inference, opinion and attitude. ? Develops language abilities at an appropriate pace with extra interactive tests on a free CD-ROM. We are working with Cambr

  8. The problem of Newton dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman Roldan, R.

    1998-01-01

    The problem of the teaching of Newton's principles of dynamics at High School level is addressed. Some usages, reasoning and wording, are pointed as the responsible for the deficient results which are revealed in the background of the first year University students in Physics. A methodology based on simplifying the common vocabulary is proposed in order to provide to the students with a clearer view of the dynamic problems. Some typical examples are shown which illustrate the proposal. (Author)

  9. The cooling law and the search for a good temperature scale, from Newton to Dalton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besson, Ugo, E-mail: ugo.besson@unipv.it [Department of Physics ' A Volta' , University of Pavia, Via A Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy)

    2011-03-15

    The research on the cooling law began with an article by Newton published in 1701. Later, many studies were performed by other scientists confirming or confuting Newton's law. This paper presents a description and an interpretation of Newton's article, provides a short overview of the research conducted on the topic during the 18th century, and discusses the relationships between the research on cooling laws and the definition of a temperature scale, as it was treated in Newton's article and in the work of Dalton, including Dalton's search for the absolute zero of temperature. It is shown that these scientists considered the exponential cooling law as a fundamental principle rather than a conjecture to be tested by means of experiments. The faith in the simplicity of natural laws and the spontaneous idea of proportionality between cause and effect seem to have strongly influenced Newton and Dalton. The topic is developed in a way that can be suitable for both undergraduate students and general physicists.

  10. Applications of the Cambridge Structural Database in chemical education1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battle, Gary M.; Ferrence, Gregory M.; Allen, Frank H.

    2010-01-01

    The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) is a vast and ever growing compendium of accurate three-dimensional structures that has massive chemical diversity across organic and metal–organic compounds. For these reasons, the CSD is finding significant uses in chemical education, and these applications are reviewed. As part of the teaching initiative of the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC), a teaching subset of more than 500 CSD structures has been created that illustrate key chemical concepts, and a number of teaching modules have been devised that make use of this subset in a teaching environment. All of this material is freely available from the CCDC website, and the subset can be freely viewed and interrogated using WebCSD, an internet application for searching and displaying CSD information content. In some cases, however, the complete CSD System is required for specific educational applications, and some examples of these more extensive teaching modules are also discussed. The educational value of visualizing real three-dimensional structures, and of handling real experimental results, is stressed throughout. PMID:20877495

  11. Weight, the Normal Force and Newton's Third Law: Dislodging a Deeply Embedded Misconception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, David; Wilson, Kate

    2017-01-01

    On entry to university, high-achieving physics students from all across Australia struggle to identify Newton's third law force pairs. In particular, less than one in ten can correctly identify the Newton's third law reaction pair to the weight of (gravitational force acting on) an object. Most students incorrectly identify the normal force on the…

  12. DE NEWTON A EINSTEIN: A DEBATE EL DESTINO DEL UNIVERSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROGELIO PARREIRA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se describe la historia del pensamiento científico en términos de las teorías de la inercia, el espacio absoluto, la relatividad y la gravitación; de cómo Newton utilizó el trabajo de los primeros investigadores en sus teorías, y Einstein las teorías de Newton en la suya, para tratar de explicar el destino del universo. Es la descripción de un proceso revolucionario del conocimiento científico, y sus aportes al desarrollo de muchos otros campos del saber

  13. Designing stellarator coils by a modified Newton method using FOCUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Caoxiang; Hudson, Stuart R.; Song, Yuntao; Wan, Yuanxi

    2018-06-01

    To find the optimal coils for stellarators, nonlinear optimization algorithms are applied in existing coil design codes. However, none of these codes have used the information from the second-order derivatives. In this paper, we present a modified Newton method in the recently developed code FOCUS. The Hessian matrix is calculated with analytically derived equations. Its inverse is approximated by a modified Cholesky factorization and applied in the iterative scheme of a classical Newton method. Using this method, FOCUS is able to recover the W7-X modular coils starting from a simple initial guess. Results demonstrate significant advantages.

  14. Quasi-Newton methods for the acceleration of multi-physics codes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Haelterman, R

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available .E. Dennis, J.J. More´, Quasi-Newton methods: motivation and theory. SIAM Rev. 19, pp. 46–89 (1977) [11] J.E. Dennis, R.B. Schnabel, Least Change Secant Updates for quasi- Newton methods. SIAM Rev. 21, pp. 443–459 (1979) [12] G. Dhondt, CalculiX CrunchiX USER...) [25] J.M. Martinez, M.C. Zambaldi, An Inverse Column-Updating Method for solving large-scale nonlinear systems of equations. Optim. Methods Softw. 1, pp. 129–140 (1992) [26] J.M. Martinez, On the convergence of the column-updating method. Comp. Appl...

  15. Convergence and Applications of a Gossip-Based Gauss-Newton Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Scaglione, Anna

    2013-11-01

    The Gauss-Newton algorithm is a popular and efficient centralized method for solving non-linear least squares problems. In this paper, we propose a multi-agent distributed version of this algorithm, named Gossip-based Gauss-Newton (GGN) algorithm, which can be applied in general problems with non-convex objectives. Furthermore, we analyze and present sufficient conditions for its convergence and show numerically that the GGN algorithm achieves performance comparable to the centralized algorithm, with graceful degradation in case of network failures. More importantly, the GGN algorithm provides significant performance gains compared to other distributed first order methods.

  16. Deviations from Newton's law in supersymmetric large extra dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callin, P.; Burgess, C.P.

    2006-01-01

    Deviations from Newton's inverse-squared law at the micron length scale are smoking-gun signals for models containing supersymmetric large extra dimensions (SLEDs), which have been proposed as approaches for resolving the cosmological constant problem. Just like their non-supersymmetric counterparts, SLED models predict gravity to deviate from the inverse-square law because of the advent of new dimensions at sub-millimeter scales. However SLED models differ from their non-supersymmetric counterparts in three important ways: (i) the size of the extra dimensions is fixed by the observed value of the dark energy density, making it impossible to shorten the range over which new deviations from Newton's law must be seen; (ii) supersymmetry predicts there to be more fields in the extra dimensions than just gravity, implying different types of couplings to matter and the possibility of repulsive as well as attractive interactions; and (iii) the same mechanism which is purported to keep the cosmological constant naturally small also keeps the extra-dimensional moduli effectively massless, leading to deviations from general relativity in the far infrared of the scalar-tensor form. We here explore the deviations from Newton's law which are predicted over micron distances, and show the ways in which they differ and resemble those in the non-supersymmetric case

  17. On deviations from Newton's law and the proposal for a 'Fifth Force'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, L.A.; Malbouisson, A.P.C.

    1986-01-01

    The results of geophysical and laboratory measurements of Newton's constant of gravitation, seem to disagree by one percent. Attempts to explain this have led to the revival of the proposal for a fifth interaction in Nature. The experimental results on measurements of G and tests of Newton's inverse square law are reviewed. The recent reanalysis of the Eoetvoes experiment and proposals for new experiments are discussed. (Author) [pt

  18. Disk-galaxy density distribution from orbital speeds using Newton's law, version 1.1

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholson, Kenneth F.

    2000-01-01

    Given the dimensions(including thickness) of an axisymmetric galaxy, Newton's law is used in integral form to find the density distributions required to match a wide range of orbital speed profiles. Newton's law is not modified and no dark-matter halos are required. The speed distributions can have extreme shapes if they are reasonably smooth. Several examples are given.

  19. A Newton-type neural network learning algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.V.; Puzynin, I.V.; Purehvdorzh, B.

    1993-01-01

    First- and second-order learning methods for feed-forward multilayer networks are considered. A Newton-type algorithm is proposed and compared with the common back-propagation algorithm. It is shown that the proposed algorithm provides better learning quality. Some recommendations for their usage are given. 11 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  20. An Improved Cambridge Filter Pad Extraction Methodology to Obtain More Accurate Water and “Tar” Values: In Situ Cambridge Filter Pad Extraction Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh David; Jeannet Cyril

    2014-01-01

    Previous investigations by others and internal investigations at Philip Morris International (PMI) have shown that the standard trapping and extraction procedure used for conventional cigarettes, defined in the International Standard ISO 4387 (Cigarettes -- Determination of total and nicotine-free dry particulate matter using a routine analytical smoking machine), is not suitable for high-water content aerosols. Errors occur because of water losses during the opening of the Cambridge filter p...

  1. Nonsmooth Newton method for Fischer function reformulation of contact force problems for interactive rigid body simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silcowitz, Morten; Niebe, Sarah Maria; Erleben, Kenny

    2009-01-01

    contact response. In this paper, we present a new approach to contact force determination. We reformulate the contact force problem as a nonlinear root search problem, using a Fischer function. We solve this problem using a generalized Newton method. Our new Fischer - Newton method shows improved...... qualities for specific configurations where the most widespread alternative, the Projected Gauss-Seidel method, fails. Experiments show superior convergence properties of the exact Fischer - Newton method....

  2. Recombinant DNA in Cambridge: lessons for nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federow, H.

    1977-09-01

    The 1976 experience of Cambridge, Massachusetts, in settling the recombinant DNA research issue is unique in recent history as the first instance of essentially lay panels judging the conduct of scientific research. Furthermore, because the panel was composed of citizens who would be affected by the research, the experience suggests a model for conflict resolution in other areas of public controversy. With one of these, nuclear energy, the controversy has two important points in common: although the primary burden of any accident would be borne by the local community, benefits of the DNA research or reactor operation accrue to a much broader range of people; and in both issues there is a need to resolve the question, ''How safe is safe enough.'' It is therefore proposed that a panel similar to the Cambridge one could be established to deal with the controversy surrounding a proposed nuclear plant. In any community where there was such controversy, a panel could be convened to assess whether the plant was acceptable to that community. Such a panel would be composed of members of the community who were not affected directly by the plant. It would also have to have a restricted range of inquiry, oriented toward the specifics of the proposed plant. Such a plant review panel, under properly designed procedures, could change the licensing process to one concerned solely with safety and provide an appropriate forum for issues concerning the acceptability of nuclear power

  3. A Newton Algorithm for Multivariate Total Least Squares Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Leyang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve calculation efficiency of parameter estimation, an algorithm for multivariate weighted total least squares adjustment based on Newton method is derived. The relationship between the solution of this algorithm and that of multivariate weighted total least squares adjustment based on Lagrange multipliers method is analyzed. According to propagation of cofactor, 16 computational formulae of cofactor matrices of multivariate total least squares adjustment are also listed. The new algorithm could solve adjustment problems containing correlation between observation matrix and coefficient matrix. And it can also deal with their stochastic elements and deterministic elements with only one cofactor matrix. The results illustrate that the Newton algorithm for multivariate total least squares problems could be practiced and have higher convergence rate.

  4. Running Newton constant, improved gravitational actions, and galaxy rotation curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, M.; Weyer, H.

    2004-01-01

    A renormalization group (RG) improvement of the Einstein-Hilbert action is performed which promotes Newton's constant and the cosmological constant to scalar functions on spacetime. They arise from solutions of an exact RG equation by means of a 'cutoff identification' which associates RG scales to the points of spacetime. The resulting modified Einstein equations for spherically symmetric, static spacetimes are derived and analyzed in detail. The modifications of the Newtonian limit due to the RG evolution are obtained for the general case. As an application, the viability of a scenario is investigated where strong quantum effects in the infrared cause Newton's constant to grow at large (astrophysical) distances. For two specific RG trajectories exact vacuum spacetimes modifying the Schwarzschild metric are obtained by means of a solution-generating Weyl transformation. Their possible relevance to the problem of the observed approximately flat galaxy rotation curves is discussed. It is found that a power law running of Newton's constant with a small exponent of the order 10 -6 would account for their non-Keplerian behavior without having to postulate the presence of any dark matter in the galactic halo

  5. Camera-pose estimation via projective Newton optimization on the manifold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkis, Michel; Diepold, Klaus

    2012-04-01

    Determining the pose of a moving camera is an important task in computer vision. In this paper, we derive a projective Newton algorithm on the manifold to refine the pose estimate of a camera. The main idea is to benefit from the fact that the 3-D rigid motion is described by the special Euclidean group, which is a Riemannian manifold. The latter is equipped with a tangent space defined by the corresponding Lie algebra. This enables us to compute the optimization direction, i.e., the gradient and the Hessian, at each iteration of the projective Newton scheme on the tangent space of the manifold. Then, the motion is updated by projecting back the variables on the manifold itself. We also derive another version of the algorithm that employs homeomorphic parameterization to the special Euclidean group. We test the algorithm on several simulated and real image data sets. Compared with the standard Newton minimization scheme, we are now able to obtain the full numerical formula of the Hessian with a 60% decrease in computational complexity. Compared with Levenberg-Marquardt, the results obtained are more accurate while having a rather similar complexity.

  6. Cambridge IGCSE and international certificate French foreign language

    CERN Document Server

    Grime, Yvette; Thacker, Mike

    2013-01-01

    This brand-new Student Book provides a grammar-led approach with extensive exam preparation that will help you develop independent, culturally aware students of French ready for the exam. The book is written to the latest Cambridge International Examinations syllabus by experienced teachers. Extensive use of French reflects the style of the exams and, with specific advice and practice, it helps students use the acquired skills to their best ability. Topics on Francophone cultures are integrated throughout to ensure students gain the cultural awareness that is at the heart of this qualification

  7. MPPT for Photovoltaic Modules via Newton-Like Extremum Seeking Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Leyva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper adapts the Newton-like Extremum-Seeking Control technique to extract the maximum power from photovoltaic panels. This technique uses the gradient and Hessian of the panel characteristic in order to approximate the operating point to its optimum. The paper describes in detail the gradient and Hessian estimations carried out by means of sinusoidal dithering signals. Furthermore, we compare the proposed technique with the common Extremum Seeking Control that only uses the gradient. The comparison is done by means of PSIM simulations and it shows the different transient behaviors and the faster response of the Newton-like Extremum-Seeking Control solution.

  8. Newton-Cartan supergravity with torsion and Schrödinger supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergshoeff, Eric; Rosseel, Jan; Zojer, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We derive a torsionfull version of three-dimensional N=2 Newton-Cartan supergravity using a non-relativistic notion of the superconformal tensor calculus. The “superconformal” theory that we start with is Schrödinger supergravity which we obtain by gauging the Schrödinger superalgebra. We present two non-relativistic N=2 matter multiplets that can be used as compensators in the superconformal calculus. They lead to two different off-shell formulations which, in analogy with the relativistic case, we call “old minimal” and “new minimal” Newton-Cartan supergravity. We find similarities but also point out some differences with respect to the relativistic case.

  9. Newton-Cartan supergravity with torsion and Schrödinger supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergshoeff, Eric [Van Swinderen Institute for Particle Physics and Gravity, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Rosseel, Jan [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Vienna University of Technology,Wiedner Hauptstr. 8-10/136, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, University of Bern,Sidlerstrasse 5, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Zojer, Thomas [Van Swinderen Institute for Particle Physics and Gravity, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)

    2015-11-25

    We derive a torsionfull version of three-dimensional N=2 Newton-Cartan supergravity using a non-relativistic notion of the superconformal tensor calculus. The “superconformal” theory that we start with is Schrödinger supergravity which we obtain by gauging the Schrödinger superalgebra. We present two non-relativistic N=2 matter multiplets that can be used as compensators in the superconformal calculus. They lead to two different off-shell formulations which, in analogy with the relativistic case, we call “old minimal” and “new minimal” Newton-Cartan supergravity. We find similarities but also point out some differences with respect to the relativistic case.

  10. Enlarging the bounds of moral philosophy: Why did Isaac Newton conclude the Opticks the way he did?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, John

    2017-01-01

    This paper draws attention to the remarkable closing words of Isaac Newton's Optice (1706) and subsequent editions of the Opticks (1718, 1721), and tries to suggest why Newton chose to conclude his book with a puzzling allusion to his own unpublished conclusions about the history of religion. Newton suggests in this concluding passage that the bounds of moral philosophy will be enlarged as natural philosophy is ‘perfected’. Asking what Newton might have had in mind, the paper first considers the idea that he was foreshadowing the ‘moral Newtonianism’ developed later in the eighteenth century; then it considers the idea that he was perhaps pointing to developments in natural theology. Finally, the paper suggests that Newton wanted to at least signal the importance of attempting to recover the true original religion, and perhaps was hinting at his intention to publish his own extensive research on the history of the Church.

  11. Linguistic Turn and Gendering Language in the Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimbi, Diah A.; Kwary, Deny A.

    2016-01-01

    Language constructs how humans perceive things. Since language is a human construction, it tends to be biased as it is mainly men's construction. Using gender perspectives, this paper attempts to discuss the imbalance in gender representations found in the examples given in an English learner's dictionary, that is, the "Cambridge Advanced…

  12. The Cambridge Behavioural Inventory revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wear, Helen J; Wedderburn, Catherine J; Mioshi, Eneida; Williams-Gray, Caroline H; Mason, Sarah L; Barker, Roger A; Hodges, John R

    2008-01-01

    Neurobehavioural and psychiatric symptoms are common in a range of neurodegenerative disorders with distinct profiles which are helpful in the diagnosis and monitoring of these disorders. The Cambridge Behavioural Inventory (CBI) has been shown to distinguish frontotemporal dementia (FTD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), but it is lengthy. To develop a shorter version of the 81 item CBI. CBI data from 450 participants with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bv-FTD) (64), AD (96), PD (215) and HD (75) were analysed using Principal Components Analysis and measures of internal consistency (Cronbach alpha). A reduced 45-item questionnaire was developed. The instrument identified distinct behavioural profiles and performed as well as the original version. A shorter (45 item) version of the CBI is capable of differentiating bv-FTD and AD from PD and HD. It may be useful in delineating the type and extent of problems in these disorders as well as monitoring therapeutic interventions.

  13. Newton-Cartan supergravity with torsion and Schrodinger supergravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric; Rosseel, Jan; Zojer, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We derive a torsionfull version of three-dimensional N - 2 Newton-Cartan supergravity using a non-relativistic notion of the superconformal tensor calculus. The "superconformal" theory that we start with is Schrodinger supergravity which we obtain by gauging the Schrodinger superalgebra. We present

  14. Torsional Newton-Cartan geometry and the Schrodinger algebra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Hartong, Jelle; Rosseel, Jan

    2015-01-01

    We show that by gauging the Schrodinger algebra with critical exponent z and imposing suitable curvature constraints, that make diffeomorphisms equivalent to time and space translations, one obtains a geometric structure known as (twistless) torsional Newton-Cartan geometry (TTNC). This is a version

  15. Emilie du Châtelet between Leibniz and Newton

    CERN Document Server

    Hagengruber, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    This book describes Emilie du Chatelet known as "Emilia Newtonmania", and her innovative and outstanding position within the controversy between Newton and Leibniz, one of the fundamental scientific discourses of her time.

  16. 3D CSEM data inversion using Newton and Halley class methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, M.; Hansen, K. R.; Morten, J. P.

    2016-05-01

    For the first time in 3D controlled source electromagnetic data inversion, we explore the use of the Newton and the Halley optimization methods, which may show their potential when the cost function has a complex topology. The inversion is formulated as a constrained nonlinear least-squares problem which is solved by iterative optimization. These methods require the derivatives up to second order of the residuals with respect to model parameters. We show how Green's functions determine the high-order derivatives, and develop a diagrammatical representation of the residual derivatives. The Green's functions are efficiently calculated on-the-fly, making use of a finite-difference frequency-domain forward modelling code based on a multi-frontal sparse direct solver. This allow us to build the second-order derivatives of the residuals keeping the memory cost in the same order as in a Gauss-Newton (GN) scheme. Model updates are computed with a trust-region based conjugate-gradient solver which does not require the computation of a stabilizer. We present inversion results for a synthetic survey and compare the GN, Newton, and super-Halley optimization schemes, and consider two different approaches to set the initial trust-region radius. Our analysis shows that the Newton and super-Halley schemes, using the same regularization configuration, add significant information to the inversion so that the convergence is reached by different paths. In our simple resistivity model examples, the convergence speed of the Newton and the super-Halley schemes are either similar or slightly superior with respect to the convergence speed of the GN scheme, close to the minimum of the cost function. Due to the current noise levels and other measurement inaccuracies in geophysical investigations, this advantageous behaviour is at present of low consequence, but may, with the further improvement of geophysical data acquisition, be an argument for more accurate higher-order methods like those

  17. Modified Block Newton method for the lambda modes problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González-Pintor, S., E-mail: segonpin@isirym.upv.es [Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Nuclear, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera 14, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Ginestar, D., E-mail: dginestar@mat.upv.es [Instituto de Matemática Multidisciplinar, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera 14, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Verdú, G., E-mail: gverdu@iqn.upv.es [Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Nuclear, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera 14, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► The Modal Method is based on expanding the solution in a set of dominant modes. ► Updating the set of dominant modes improve its performance. ► A Modified Block Newton Method, which use previous calculated modes, is proposed. ► The method exhibits a very good local convergence with few iterations. ► Good performance results are also obtained for heavy perturbations. -- Abstract: To study the behaviour of nuclear power reactors it is necessary to solve the time dependent neutron diffusion equation using either a rectangular mesh for PWR and BWR reactors or a hexagonal mesh for VVER reactors. This problem can be solved by means of a modal method, which uses a set of dominant modes to expand the neutron flux. For the transient calculations using the modal method with a moderate number of modes, these modes must be updated each time step to maintain the accuracy of the solution. The updating modes process is also interesting to study perturbed configurations of a reactor. A Modified Block Newton method is studied to update the modes. The performance of the Newton method has been tested for a steady state perturbation analysis of two 2D hexagonal reactors, a perturbed configuration of the IAEA PWR 3D reactor and two configurations associated with a boron dilution transient in a BWR reactor.

  18. 40-Godišnjica institucije Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre posvećene pohranjivanju podataka o molekularnim i kristalnim strukturama -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molčanov, K.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to 40th anniversary of The Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC, the world-known centre (http://www.ccdc.cam.ac.uk responsible for deposition and control of crystallographic data, including atomic coordinates that define the three-dimensional structures of organic molecules and metal complexes containing organic ligands. Cambride Structural Database (CSD, one among the first established electronic databases, nowadays is the most significant crystallographic database in the world. CSD has about 400,000 deposited structures. The use of the extensive database, which is growing rapidly, needs support of efficient and sophisticated software for searching, analysing and visualising structural data. The seminal role of CSD in the research related to crystallography, chemistry, material sciences, solid state physics and chemistry, life sciences, pharmacology, and in particular in drug design, has been documented in more than 1300 scientific papers. The important issues of CCDC are the accuracy of deposited data and development of software that enables a wide variety of applications. Such demanding project requires higly competent team of experts; thus the article brings into focus the scientific approach of the team based on the long tradition in crystallography, modelling and informatics. The article is not dedicated to 40th anniversary of the centre only, but it also reveals how Cambridge Structural Database can be used in the research and teaching. The use of electronic media and computer graphics makes “data mining" very efficient and useful but also esthetically appealing due to the molecular architecture. At the Rudjer Bošković Institute, Zagreb, Croatia there is The National Affiliated Centre of Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre responsible for communication and dissemination of CSD in Croatia, Slovenia and Macedonia. The use of CSD is illustrated by two examples performed and published by the presenting

  19. A smooth generalized Newton method for a class of non-smooth equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uko, L. U.

    1995-10-01

    This paper presents a Newton-type iterative scheme for finding the zero of the sum of a differentiable function and a multivalued maximal monotone function. Local and semi-local convergence results are proved for the Newton scheme, and an analogue of the Kantorovich theorem is proved for the associated modified scheme that uses only one Jacobian evaluation for the entire iteration. Applications in variational inequalities are discussed, and an illustrative numerical example is given. (author). 24 refs

  20. Heat kernel for Newton-Cartan trace anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auzzi, Roberto [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Via Musei 41, Brescia, 25121 (Italy); INFN Sezione di Perugia, Via A. Pascoli, Perugia, 06123 (Italy); Nardelli, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Via Musei 41, Brescia, 25121 (Italy); TIFPA - INFN, Università di Trento,c/o Dipartimento di Fisica, Povo, TN, 38123 (Italy)

    2016-07-11

    We compute the leading part of the trace anomaly for a free non-relativistic scalar in 2+1 dimensions coupled to a background Newton-Cartan metric. The anomaly is proportional to 1/m, where m is the mass of the scalar. We comment on the implications of a conjectured a-theorem for non-relativistic theories with boost invariance.

  1. Newton's First Law: A Learning Cycle Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    To demonstrate how Newton's first law of motion applies to students' everyday lives, the author developed a learning cycle series of activities on inertia. The discrepant event at the heart of these activities is sure to elicit wide-eyed stares and puzzled looks from students, but also promote critical thinking and help bring an abstract concept…

  2. CAIXA: a catalogue of AGN in the XMM-Newton archive. III. Excess variance analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponti, G.; Papadakis, I.; Bianchi, S.; Guainazzi, M.; Matt, G.; Uttley, P.; Bonilla, N.F.

    2012-01-01

    Context. We report on the results of the first XMM-Newton systematic "excess variance" study of all the radio quiet, X-ray un-obscured AGN. The entire sample consist of 161 sources observed by XMM-Newton for more than 10 ks in pointed observations, which is the largest sample used so far to study

  3. Improved Quasi-Newton method via PSB update for solving systems of nonlinear equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamat, Mustafa; Dauda, M. K.; Waziri, M. Y.; Ahmad, Fadhilah; Mohamad, Fatma Susilawati

    2016-10-01

    The Newton method has some shortcomings which includes computation of the Jacobian matrix which may be difficult or even impossible to compute and solving the Newton system in every iteration. Also, the common setback with some quasi-Newton methods is that they need to compute and store an n × n matrix at each iteration, this is computationally costly for large scale problems. To overcome such drawbacks, an improved Method for solving systems of nonlinear equations via PSB (Powell-Symmetric-Broyden) update is proposed. In the proposed method, the approximate Jacobian inverse Hk of PSB is updated and its efficiency has improved thereby require low memory storage, hence the main aim of this paper. The preliminary numerical results show that the proposed method is practically efficient when applied on some benchmark problems.

  4. Newton-Hooke spacetimes, Hpp-waves and the cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, G W; Patricot, C E

    2003-01-01

    We show explicitly how the Newton-Hooke groups N ± 10 act as symmetries of the equations of motion of non-relativistic cosmological models with a cosmological constant. We give the action on the associated non-relativistic spacetimes M ± 4 and show how these may be obtained from a null reduction of five-dimensional homogeneous pp-wave Lorentzian spacetimes M ± 5 . This allows us to realize the Newton-Hooke groups and their Bargmann-type central extensions as subgroups of the isometry groups of M ± 5 . The extended Schroedinger-type conformal group is identified and its action on the equations of motion given. The non-relativistic conformal symmetries also have applications to time-dependent harmonic oscillators. Finally we comment on a possible application to Gao's generalization of the matrix model

  5. Study on the algorithm for Newton-Rapson iteration interpolation of NURBS curve and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wanjun; Gao, Shanping; Cheng, Xiyan; Zhang, Feng

    2017-04-01

    In order to solve the problems of Newton-Rapson iteration interpolation method of NURBS Curve, Such as interpolation time bigger, calculation more complicated, and NURBS curve step error are not easy changed and so on. This paper proposed a study on the algorithm for Newton-Rapson iteration interpolation method of NURBS curve and simulation. We can use Newton-Rapson iterative that calculate (xi, yi, zi). Simulation results show that the proposed NURBS curve interpolator meet the high-speed and high-accuracy interpolation requirements of CNC systems. The interpolation of NURBS curve should be finished. The simulation results show that the algorithm is correct; it is consistent with a NURBS curve interpolation requirements.

  6. The XMM-Newton Science Archive and its integration into ESASky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiseau, N.; Baines, D.; Colomo, E.; Giordano, F.; Merín, B.; Racero, E.; Rodríguez, P.; Salgado, J.; Sarmiento, M.

    2017-07-01

    We describe the variety of functionalities of the XSA (XMM-Newton Science Archive) that allow to search and access the XMM-Newton data and catalogues. The web interface http://nxsa.esac.esa.int/ is very flexible allowing different kinds of searches by a single position or target name, or by a list of targets, with several selecting options (target type, text in the abstract, etc.), and with several display options. The resulting data can be easily broadcast to Virtual Observatory (VO) facilities for a first look analysis, or for cross-matching the results with info from other observatories. Direct access via URL or command line are also possible for scripts usage, or to link XMM-Newton data from other interfaces like Vizier, ADS, etc. The full metadata content of the XSA can be queried through the TAP (Table access Protocol) via ADQL (Astronomical Data Query Language). We present also the roadmap for future improvements of the XSA including the integration of the Upper Limit server, the on-the-fly data analysis, and the interactive visualization of EPIC sources spectra and light curves and RGS spectra, among other advanced features. Within this modern visualization philosophy XSA is also being integrated into ESASky (http://sky.esa.int). ESASky is the science-driven multi-wavelength discovery portal for all the ESA Astronomy Missions (Integral, HST, Herschel, Suzaku, Planck, etc.), and other space and ground telescope data. The system offers progressive multi-resolution all-sky projections of full mission datasets using HiPS, a new generation of HEALPix projections developed by CDS, precise footprints to connect to individual observations, and direct access to science-ready data from the underlying mission specific science archives. XMM-Newton EPIC and OM all-sky HiPS maps, catalogues and links to the observations are available through ESASky.

  7. Sediment remediation of the Hespeler Mill Pond, Cambridge, Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeloni, D.; Eby, M.; Jarvis, S.; Martin, P. [Univ. of Guelph, School of Engineering, Guelph, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: danielle.angeloni@earthtech.ca

    2002-06-15

    'Full text:' Low dissolved oxygen levels and large accumulated sediment remediation alternatives were examined to assemble the Hespeler Mill Pond, Cambridge (HMP) into a healthier and more desirable recreational area in the City of Cambridge. The theory that a large amount of sediment has been deposited into the HMP from the Speed River upstream over a number of years predicts the depressed oxygen levels, high nutrient-loading rates and the odour problems in the summer months. The initial phase in the remediation plan for this project involved extensive background research and investigation. The focus was on determining the characteristics of the sediment and the history of the pond, to ultimately decide if the sediment was the source of the issues. Dissolved oxygen field tests and sediment sampling were conducted to get information on the magnitude of the problem and the environmental hazards potentially present in the pond. The pond was modelled utilising the Streeter-Phelps oxygen-sag model to predict the oxygen deficit. Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD{sub 5}) testing was completed to determine the oxygen demand in the pond. These tests were conducted by using water samples obtained from various sample points at the pond. The proposed solution is a combined dredging and aeration approach. Mechanical dredging using a clamshell bucket and the installation of aerators is expected to solve the dissolved oxygen and water quality issues. (author)

  8. The continuous, desingularized Newton method for meromorphic functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongen, H.Th.; Jonker, P.; Twilt, F.

    For any (nonconstant) meromorphic function, we present a real analytic dynamical system, which may be interpreted as an infinitesimal version of Newton's method for finding its zeros. A fairly complete description of the local and global features of the phase portrait of such a system is obtained

  9. Easy XMM-Newton Data Analysis with the Streamlined ABC Guide!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencic, Lynne A.; Snowden, Steven L.; Pence, William D.

    2016-01-01

    The US XMM-Newton GOF has streamlined the time-honored XMM-Newton ABC Guide, making it easier to find and use what users may need to analyze their data. It takes into account what type of data a user might have, if they want to reduce the data on their own machine or over the internet with Web Hera, and if they prefer to use the command window or a GUI. The GOF has also included an introduction to analyzing EPIC and RGS spectra, and PN Timing mode data. The guide is provided for free to students, educators, and researchers for educational and research purposes. Try it out at: http://heasarc.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/xmm/sl/intro.html

  10. A Newton-based Jacobian-free approach for neutronic-Monte Carlo/thermal-hydraulic static coupled analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mylonakis, Antonios G.; Varvayanni, M.; Catsaros, N.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A Newton-based Jacobian-free Monte Carlo/thermal-hydraulic coupling approach is introduced. •OpenMC is coupled with COBRA-EN with a Newton-based approach. •The introduced coupling approach is tested in numerical experiments. •The performance of the new approach is compared with the traditional “serial” coupling approach. -- Abstract: In the field of nuclear reactor analysis, multi-physics calculations that account for the bonded nature of the neutronic and thermal-hydraulic phenomena are of major importance for both reactor safety and design. So far in the context of Monte-Carlo neutronic analysis a kind of “serial” algorithm has been mainly used for coupling with thermal-hydraulics. The main motivation of this work is the interest for an algorithm that could maintain the distinct treatment of the involved fields within a tight coupling context that could be translated into higher convergence rates and more stable behaviour. This work investigates the possibility of replacing the usually used “serial” iteration with an approximate Newton algorithm. The selected algorithm, called Approximate Block Newton, is actually a version of the Jacobian-free Newton Krylov method suitably modified for coupling mono-disciplinary solvers. Within this Newton scheme the linearised system is solved with a Krylov solver in order to avoid the creation of the Jacobian matrix. A coupling algorithm between Monte-Carlo neutronics and thermal-hydraulics based on the above-mentioned methodology is developed and its performance is analysed. More specifically, OpenMC, a Monte-Carlo neutronics code and COBRA-EN, a thermal-hydraulics code for sub-channel and core analysis, are merged in a coupling scheme using the Approximate Block Newton method aiming to examine the performance of this scheme and compare with that of the “traditional” serial iterative scheme. First results show a clear improvement of the convergence especially in problems where significant

  11. Hořava-Lifshitz gravity from dynamical Newton-Cartan geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartong, Jelle; Obers, Niels A.

    2015-01-01

    Recently it has been established that torsional Newton-Cartan (TNC) geometry is the appropriate geometrical framework to which non-relativistic field theories couple. We show that when these geometries are made dynamical they give rise to Hořava-Lifshitz (HL) gravity. Projectable HL gravity corresponds to dynamical Newton-Cartan (NC) geometry without torsion and non-projectable HL gravity corresponds to dynamical NC geometry with twistless torsion (hypersurface orthogonal foliation). We build a precise dictionary relating all fields (including the scalar khronon), their transformations and other properties in both HL gravity and dynamical TNC geometry. We use TNC invariance to construct the effective action for dynamical twistless torsional Newton-Cartan geometries in 2+1 dimensions for dynamical exponent 1

  12. Hořava-Lifshitz gravity from dynamical Newton-Cartan geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartong, Jelle [Physique Théorique et Mathématique and International Solvay Institutes, Université Libre de Bruxelles,C.P. 231, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Obers, Niels A. [The Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University,Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark)

    2015-07-29

    Recently it has been established that torsional Newton-Cartan (TNC) geometry is the appropriate geometrical framework to which non-relativistic field theories couple. We show that when these geometries are made dynamical they give rise to Hořava-Lifshitz (HL) gravity. Projectable HL gravity corresponds to dynamical Newton-Cartan (NC) geometry without torsion and non-projectable HL gravity corresponds to dynamical NC geometry with twistless torsion (hypersurface orthogonal foliation). We build a precise dictionary relating all fields (including the scalar khronon), their transformations and other properties in both HL gravity and dynamical TNC geometry. We use TNC invariance to construct the effective action for dynamical twistless torsional Newton-Cartan geometries in 2+1 dimensions for dynamical exponent 1

  13. A multi-reference filtered-x-Newton narrowband algorithm for active isolation of vibration and experimental investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-yu; He, Lin; Li, Yan; Shuai, Chang-geng

    2018-01-01

    In engineering applications, ship machinery vibration may be induced by multiple rotational machines sharing a common vibration isolation platform and operating at the same time, and multiple sinusoidal components may be excited. These components may be located at frequencies with large differences or at very close frequencies. A multi-reference filtered-x Newton narrowband (MRFx-Newton) algorithm is proposed to control these multiple sinusoidal components in an MIMO (multiple input and multiple output) system, especially for those located at very close frequencies. The proposed MRFx-Newton algorithm can decouple and suppress multiple sinusoidal components located in the same narrow frequency band even though such components cannot be separated from each other by a narrowband-pass filter. Like the Fx-Newton algorithm, good real-time performance is also achieved by the faster convergence speed brought by the 2nd-order inverse secondary-path filter in the time domain. Experiments are also conducted to verify the feasibility and test the performance of the proposed algorithm installed in an active-passive vibration isolation system in suppressing the vibration excited by an artificial source and air compressor/s. The results show that the proposed algorithm not only has comparable convergence rate as the Fx-Newton algorithm but also has better real-time performance and robustness than the Fx-Newton algorithm in active control of the vibration induced by multiple sound sources/rotational machines working on a shared platform.

  14. The Cambridge Illustrated History of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskin, Michael

    Expertly written and lavishly illustrated, The Cambridge Illustrated History of Astronomy offers a unique account of astronomical theory and practice from antiquity to the present day. How did Moslems of the Middle Ages use astronomy to calculate the direction of Mecca from far-flung corners of the Islamic world? Who was the only ancient Greek to suspect that the earth might revolve around the sun? How did Christopher Columbus abuse his knowledge of a lunar eclipse predicted by an astronomical almanac? Packed with anecdotes and intriguing detail, this book describes how we observed the sky and interpreted what we saw at different periods of history; how this influenced our beliefs and mythology; and how great astronomers contributed to what we now know. The result is a lively and highly visual history of astronomy - a compelling read for specialists and non-specialists alike.

  15. Physics-based preconditioning and the Newton-Krylov method for non-equilibrium radiation diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousseau, V.A.; Knoll, D.A.; Rider, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    An algorithm is presented for the solution of the time dependent reaction-diffusion systems which arise in non-equilibrium radiation diffusion applications. This system of nonlinear equations is solved by coupling three numerical methods, Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov, operator splitting, and multigrid linear solvers. An inexact Newton's method is used to solve the system of nonlinear equations. Since building the Jacobian matrix for problems of interest can be challenging, the authors employ a Jacobian-free implementation of Newton's method, where the action of the Jacobian matrix on a vector is approximated by a first order Taylor series expansion. Preconditioned generalized minimal residual (PGMRES) is the Krylov method used to solve the linear systems that come from the iterations of Newton's method. The preconditioner in this solution method is constructed using a physics-based divide and conquer approach, often referred to as operator splitting. This solution procedure inverts the scalar elliptic systems that make up the preconditioner using simple multigrid methods. The preconditioner also addresses the strong coupling between equations with local 2 x 2 block solves. The intra-cell coupling is applied after the inter-cell coupling has already been addressed by the elliptic solves. Results are presented using this solution procedure that demonstrate its efficiency while incurring minimal memory requirements

  16. Inequality and growth in neo-Kaleckian and Cambridge growth theory

    OpenAIRE

    Palley, Thomas I.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between inequality and growth in the neo-Kaleckian and Cambridge growth models. The paper explores the channels whereby functional and personal income distribution impact growth. The growth - inequality relationship can be negative or positive, depending on the economy's characteristics. Contrary to widespread claims, inequality per se does not impact growth through macroeconomic channels. Instead, both growth and inequality are impacted by changes in the ...

  17. List of Institutes who have agreed to send material on loan to contributors of Flora Malesiana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1947-01-01

    The Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University, Jamaica Plain, Mass. The Gray Herbarium of Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. U.S. National Herbarium, Smithonian Institution, Washington, DC. New York Botanical Gardens, Bronx Park, Fordham Br.P.O., N.Y. Bot. Gardens, Ann. Arbor, Mich. University of

  18. Mime, Music and Drama on the Eighteenth-Century Stage. The Ballet d'Action. Edward Nye, Cambridge-New York, Cambridge University Press, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Onesti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Mime, Music and Drama on the Eighteenth-Century Stage by Edward Nye (Cambridge University Press, 2011 has the merit of inspiring a strong reflection on ballet d'action, connected with cultural, literaturary and philosophic environment of Eighteenth century. The author, with brilliant insight and careful historical research, explores the most debated issues of the new genre, providing an unusual interpretation. The review traces the focal points and the structure of the book, developing further consideration of some of the most challenging aspects offered by the text.

  19. Final Report of Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics, January 1962 - August 1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics, Newton, MA.

    The Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics (CCSM) was an association of prominent mathematicians who had a concern for mathematics education at school level, from kindergarten through grade twelve. These mathematicians organized three main conferences in three areas of mathematics education, and have carried on activities related to the…

  20. The Singapore-Cambridge General Certificate of Education Advanced-Level General Paper Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Nurul Huda; Shih, Chih-Min

    2013-01-01

    This article describes and reviews the Singapore-Cambridge General Certificate of Education Advanced Level General Paper (GP) examination. As a written test that is administered to preuniversity students, the GP examination is internationally recognised and accepted by universities and employers as proof of English competence. In this article, the…

  1. Demonstrating Kinematics and Newton's Laws in a Jump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamela, Martin

    2007-01-01

    When students begin the study of Newton's laws they are generally comfortable with static equilibrium type problems, but dynamic examples where forces are not constant are more challenging. The class exercise presented here helps students to develop an intuitive grasp of both the position-velocity-acceleration relation and the force-acceleration…

  2. Gamow on Newton: Another Look at Centripetal Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrao, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Presented here is an adaptation of George Gamow's derivation of the centripetal acceleration formula as it applies to Earth's orbiting Moon. The derivation appears in Gamows short but engaging book "Gravity", first published in 1962, and is essentially a distillation of Newton's work. While "TPT" contributors have offered several insightful…

  3. Proving Newton Right or Wrong with Blur Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidhazy, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Sir Isaac Newton determined that the acceleration constant for gravity was 32 ft./per/sec/sec. This is a fact that most students become familiar with over time and through various means. This article describes how this can be demonstrated in a technology classroom using simple photographic equipment. (Contains 5 figures.)

  4. Self-adaptive Newton-based iteration strategy for the LES of turbulent multi-scale flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daude, F.; Mary, I.; Comte, P.

    2014-01-01

    An improvement of the efficiency of implicit schemes based on Newton-like methods for the simulation of turbulent flows by compressible LES or DNS is proposed. It hinges on a zonal Self-Adaptive Newton method (hereafter denoted SAN), capable of taking advantage of Newton convergence rate heterogeneities in multi-scale flow configurations due to a strong spatial variation of the mesh resolution, such as transitional or turbulent flows controlled by small actuators or passive devices. Thanks to a predictor of the local Newton convergence rate, SAN provides computational savings by allocating resources in regions where they are most needed. The consistency with explicit time integration and the efficiency of the method are checked in three test cases: - The standard test-case of 2-D linear advection of a vortex, on three different two-block grids. - Transition to 3-D turbulence on the lee-side of an airfoil at high angle of attack, which features a challenging laminar separation bubble with a turbulent reattachment. - A passively-controlled turbulent transonic cavity flow, for which the CPU time is reduced by a factor of 10 with respect to the baseline algorithm, illustrates the interest of the proposed algorithm. (authors)

  5. On topological modifications of Newton's law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floratos, E.G.; Leontaris, G.K.

    2012-01-01

    Recent cosmological data for very large distances challenge the validity of the standard cosmological model. Motivated by the observed spatial flatness the accelerating expansion and the various anisotropies with preferred axes in the universe we examine the consequences of the simple hypothesis that the three-dimensional space has a global R 2 × S 1 topology. We take the radius of the compactification to be the observed cosmological scale beyond which the accelerated expansion starts. We derive the induced corrections to the Newton's gravitational potential and we find that for distances smaller than the S 1 radius the leading 1/r-term is corrected by convergent power series of multipole form in the polar angle making explicit the induced anisotropy by the compactified third dimension. On the other hand, for distances larger than the compactification scale the asymptotic behavior of the potential exhibits a logarithmic dependence with exponentially small corrections. The change of Newton's force from 1/r 2 to 1/r behavior implies a weakening of the deceleration for the expanding universe. Such topologies can also be created locally by standard Newtonian axially symmetric mass distributions with periodicity along the symmetry axis. In such cases we can use our results to obtain measurable modifications of Newtonian orbits for small distances and flat rotation spectra, for large distances at the galactic level

  6. Special relativity, electrodynamics, and general relativity from Newton to Einstein

    CERN Document Server

    Kogut, John B

    2018-01-01

    Special Relativity, Electrodynamics and General Relativity: From Newton to Einstein, Second Edition, is intended to teach (astro)physics, astronomy, and cosmology students how to think about special and general relativity in a fundamental, but accessible, way. Designed to render any reader a "master of relativity," everything on the subject is comprehensible and derivable from first principles. The book emphasizes problem solving, contains abundant problem sets, and is conveniently organized to meet the needs of both student and instructor. Fully revised, updated and expanded second edition Includes new chapters on magnetism as a consequence of relativity and electromagnetism Contains many improved and more engaging figures Uses less algebra resulting in more efficient derivations Enlarged discussion of dynamics and the relativistic version of Newton's second law

  7. Two new species of the genus Paramitraceras Pickard-Cambridge, 1905 (Opiliones: Laniatores: Stygnopsidae) from Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-López, Jesús A; Francke, Oscar F

    2013-01-01

    Parainitraceras pickardcanibridgei sp. nov. and Paramitraceras tzotzil sp. nov. from Chiapas, Mexico are described based on specimens previously determined as Paramitraceras granulatum Pickard-Cambridge, 1905 by Goodnight and Goodnight. The male genitalia of the new species and P. granulatum are illustrated with scanning electronic micrographs (SEMs) or drawings derived from them. The importance of the ocular tubercle, cheliceral dentition and sexual dimorphism, pedipalpal armature and male genitalia as taxonomic characters within the genus is discussed as well as differences and similarities between Paramitraceras Pickard-Cambridge, 1905 and its most similar genus, Sbordonia Šilhavý, 1977.

  8. Newton's Law: Not so Simple after All

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, William C.; Gallagher, Jeremiah; Miller, William

    2004-01-01

    One of the most basic concepts related to force and motion is Newton's first law, which essentially states, "An object at rest tends to remain at rest unless acted on by an unbalanced force. An object in motion in a straight line tends to remain in motion in a straight line unless acted upon by an unbalanced force." Judging by the time and space…

  9. Cambridge Illustrated History of Archaeology, edited by Paul G. Bahn, Cambridge University Press, New York, 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas R. Givens

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available The Cambridge Illustrated History of Archaeology is another in a series of volumes devoted to the history of archaeology that have appeared in recent time. Paul Bahn, the editor of the volume, has broken down his coverage of the history of worldwide archaeology into the following arrangement 'The Archaeology of Archaeology", "Old Worlds and New, 1500-1760", "Antiquarians and Explorers, 1760-1820", "Science and Romanticism, 1820-1860", "The Search for Human Origins, 1860-1920", "Archaeology Comes of Age, 1920-1960", "New Techniques and Competing Philosophies, 1960-1990",and "Current Controversies and Future Trends". Bahn's volume explores many of the major developments in archaeological practice from both in the classical world and was as from the practice of archaeology in the Americas. The volume even gives the reader a glimpse into the origins and growth of archaeology in New Zealand. Of particular interest is coverage of the history of early archaeological efforts having to do with early studies of human origins.

  10. A CD with the wishes for the 21st century from thousands of readers of the science magazine "Newton", was buried at the Atlas construction site on 16.03.2000 (handling the CD: Giorgio Riviecco, Editor of "Newton")

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    A CD with the wishes for the 21st century from thousands of readers of the science magazine "Newton", was buried at the Atlas construction site on 16.03.2000 (handling the CD: Giorgio Riviecco, Editor of "Newton")

  11. Newton's 'Principia Mathematica Philosophia' and Planck's elementary constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rompe, R.; Treder, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    Together with Planck's elementary constants Newton's principles prove a guaranteed basis of physics and 'exact' sciences of all directions. The conceptions in physics are competent at all physical problems as well as technology too. Classical physics was founded in such a way to reach far beyond the physics of macroscopic bodies. (author)

  12. Genius Is Not Immune to Persistent Misconceptions: Conceptual Difficulties Impeding Isaac Newton and Contemporary Physics Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Melvin S.; And Others

    Recent research has shown that serious misconceptions frequently survive high school and university instruction in mechanics. It is interesting to inquire whether Newton himself encountered conceptual difficulties before he wrote the "Principia." This paper compares Newton's pre-"Principia" beliefs, based upon his writings,…

  13. Newton's Use of the Pendulum to Investigate Fluid Resistance: A Case Study and Some Implications for Teaching about the Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauld, Colin F.

    2009-01-01

    Books I and III of Newton's "Principia" develop Newton's dynamical theory and show how it explains a number of celestial phenomena. Book II has received little attention from historians or educators because it does not play a major role in Newton's argument. However, it is in Book II that we see most clearly Newton both as a theoretician and an…

  14. Decentralized Quasi-Newton Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Mark; Mokhtari, Aryan; Ribeiro, Alejandro

    2017-05-01

    We introduce the decentralized Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (D-BFGS) method as a variation of the BFGS quasi-Newton method for solving decentralized optimization problems. The D-BFGS method is of interest in problems that are not well conditioned, making first order decentralized methods ineffective, and in which second order information is not readily available, making second order decentralized methods impossible. D-BFGS is a fully distributed algorithm in which nodes approximate curvature information of themselves and their neighbors through the satisfaction of a secant condition. We additionally provide a formulation of the algorithm in asynchronous settings. Convergence of D-BFGS is established formally in both the synchronous and asynchronous settings and strong performance advantages relative to first order methods are shown numerically.

  15. Female body as a fetish in Helmut Newton's photography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantović Katarina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper illuminates some of the principles by which Helmut Newton's photographic poetics functions. It is examined from the perspectives of recent art history, feminist critique and psychoanalytic theory. His photographs came to a standstill not far from pornography, yet they stayed within the jet-set community, reflecting at the same time the sexual revolution in the 60s and 70s of the twentieth century and the rising of the fashion and film industries and other Western emancipatory movements. Newton's obscure photojournalism provoked conventions, presenting the female body as a fetish and object of erotic pleasure, affirming, nonetheless, a new feminine self-consciousness and freedom. Thus, he constituted modern eroticism by connecting fetishism, voyeurism and sadomasochism, creating a provocative hybrid photography that embraced fashion, eroticism and portrait, hence documenting, in highly stylistic manner, the decadency and eccentricity of the lifestyle of the rich.

  16. Stabilized quasi-Newton optimization of noisy potential energy surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Bastian; Goedecker, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.goedecker@unibas.ch [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Alireza Ghasemi, S. [Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, P.O. Box 45195-1159, IR-Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Roy, Shantanu [Computational and Systems Biology, Biozentrum, University of Basel, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2015-01-21

    Optimizations of atomic positions belong to the most commonly performed tasks in electronic structure calculations. Many simulations like global minimum searches or characterizations of chemical reactions require performing hundreds or thousands of minimizations or saddle computations. To automatize these tasks, optimization algorithms must not only be efficient but also very reliable. Unfortunately, computational noise in forces and energies is inherent to electronic structure codes. This computational noise poses a severe problem to the stability of efficient optimization methods like the limited-memory Broyden–Fletcher–Goldfarb–Shanno algorithm. We here present a technique that allows obtaining significant curvature information of noisy potential energy surfaces. We use this technique to construct both, a stabilized quasi-Newton minimization method and a stabilized quasi-Newton saddle finding approach. We demonstrate with the help of benchmarks that both the minimizer and the saddle finding approach are superior to comparable existing methods.

  17. On Newton's third law and its symmetry-breaking effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, Mario J

    2011-01-01

    The law of action-reaction, considered by Ernst Mach as the cornerstone of physics, is thoroughly used to derive the conservation laws of linear and angular momentum. However, the conflict between momentum conservation law and Newton's third law, on experimental and theoretical grounds, calls for more attention. We give a background survey of several questions raised by the action-reaction law and, in particular, the role of the physical vacuum is shown to provide an appropriate framework for clarifying the occurrence of possible violations of the action-reaction law. Then, in the framework of statistical mechanics, using a maximizing entropy procedure, we obtain an expression for the general linear momentum of a body particle. The new approach presented here shows that Newton's third law is not verified in systems out of equilibrium due to an additional entropic gradient term present in the particle's momentum.

  18. Stabilized quasi-Newton optimization of noisy potential energy surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, Bastian; Goedecker, Stefan; Alireza Ghasemi, S.; Roy, Shantanu

    2015-01-01

    Optimizations of atomic positions belong to the most commonly performed tasks in electronic structure calculations. Many simulations like global minimum searches or characterizations of chemical reactions require performing hundreds or thousands of minimizations or saddle computations. To automatize these tasks, optimization algorithms must not only be efficient but also very reliable. Unfortunately, computational noise in forces and energies is inherent to electronic structure codes. This computational noise poses a severe problem to the stability of efficient optimization methods like the limited-memory Broyden–Fletcher–Goldfarb–Shanno algorithm. We here present a technique that allows obtaining significant curvature information of noisy potential energy surfaces. We use this technique to construct both, a stabilized quasi-Newton minimization method and a stabilized quasi-Newton saddle finding approach. We demonstrate with the help of benchmarks that both the minimizer and the saddle finding approach are superior to comparable existing methods

  19. Newton's second law in a non-commutative space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, Juan M.; Santiago, J.A.; Vergara, J. David

    2003-01-01

    In this Letter we show that corrections to Newton's second law appear if we assume a symplectic structure consistent with the commutation rules of the non-commutative quantum mechanics. For central field we find that the correction term breaks the rotational symmetry. For the Kepler problem, this term is similar to a Coriolis force

  20. Bericht uber den 2. Internationalen Kongress fur Angewandte Linguistik. Cambridge 8.-12. IX. 1969. [Report on the Second International Congress for Applied Linguistics, Cambridge, Dec. 8-12, 1969.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Peter

    This paper is a summary report on the Second International Congress of Applied Linguistics held in Cambridge, England in September 1969. Because of the large number of papers delivered, only a selection of the papers delivered in any one section of the Congress are considered, and the author attempts to identify current interests and trends in…

  1. Has ESA's XMM-Newton cast doubt over dark energy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    Galaxy cluster RXJ0847 hi-res Size hi-res: 100k Galaxy cluster RXJ0847 The fuzzy object at the centre of the frame is one of the galaxy clusters observed by XMM-Newton in its investigation of the distant Universe. The cluster, designated RXJ0847.2+3449, is about 7 000 million light years away, so we see it here as it was 7 000 million years ago, when the Universe was only about half of its present age. This cluster is made up of several dozen galaxies. Observations of eight distant clusters of galaxies, the furthest of which is around 10 thousand million light years away, were studied by an international group of astronomers led by David Lumb of ESA's Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC) in the Netherlands. They compared these clusters to those found in the nearby Universe. This study was conducted as part of the larger XMM-Newton Omega Project, which investigates the density of matter in the Universe under the lead of Jim Bartlett of the College de France. Clusters of galaxies are prodigious emitters of X-rays because they contain a large quantity of high-temperature gas. This gas surrounds galaxies in the same way as steam surrounds people in a sauna. By measuring the quantity and energy of X-rays from a cluster, astronomers can work out both the temperature of the cluster gas and also the mass of the cluster. Theoretically, in a Universe where the density of matter is high, clusters of galaxies would continue to grow with time and so, on average, should contain more mass now than in the past. Most astronomers believe that we live in a low-density Universe in which a mysterious substance known as 'dark energy' accounts for 70% of the content of the cosmos and, therefore, pervades everything. In this scenario, clusters of galaxies should stop growing early in the history of the Universe and look virtually indistinguishable from those of today. In a paper soon to be published by the European journal Astronomy and Astrophysics, astronomers from the XMM-Newton

  2. When Newton's cooling law doesn't hold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarnow, E.

    1994-01-01

    What is the fastest way to cool something? If the object is macroscopic it is to lower the surrounding temperature as much as possible and let Newton's cooling law take effect. If we enter the microscopic world where quantum mechanics rules, this procedure may no longer be the best. This is shown in a simple example where we calculate the optimum cooling rate for an asymmetric two-state system

  3. Cambridge Homes Increases Energy Efficiency in a Mix of Housing Types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poole, L.; Anderson, R.

    2001-01-01

    New houses designed by Cambridge Homes in Crest Hill, Illinois, with technical support from the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America Program, save their homeowners money by applying the principles of ''whole-building'' design to the entire home product line. Regardless of the model chosen, home buyers can enjoy consistently high levels of comfort and performance with the added benefit of reduced operating costs

  4. Newton's laws through a science adventure

    OpenAIRE

    Šuštar, Sara

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of my diploma thesis is to create a scientific adventure based on the Newton's laws. My aim has been to introduce this topic to the kids in elementary school as well as the general public. That is why the adventure will take place in the House of Experiments. The first part is dedicated to theory and various experiments, which lead to deeper understanding of the laws. I implemented experiments on rollerblades, such as free movement, movement with the help of springs which wer...

  5. Observations of MCG-5-23-16 with Suzaku, XMM-Newton and Nustar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoghbi, A.; Cackett, E. M.; Reynolds, C.

    2014-01-01

    MCG-5-23-16 is one of the first active galactic nuclei (AGNs) where relativistic reverberation in the iron K line originating in the vicinity of the supermassive black hole was found, based on a short XMM-Newton observation. In this work, we present the results from long X-ray observations using...... Suzaku, XMM-Newton, and NuSTAR designed to map the emission region using X-ray reverberation. A relativistic iron line is detected in the lag spectra on three different timescales, allowing the emission from different regions around the black hole to be separated. Using NuSTAR coverage of energies above...

  6. Listening in the Silences for Fred Newton Scott

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrangelo, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    As part of her recent sabbatical, the author proposed going to the University of Michigan Bentley Archives to do research on Fred Newton Scott, founder and chair of the Department of Rhetoric and teacher from 1889 to 1926 at the University of Michigan. Scott ran the only graduate program in rhetoric and composition in the country between those…

  7. Dramatic (and Simple!) Demonstration of Newton's Third Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    An operational understanding of Newton's third law is often elusive for students. Typical examples of this concept are given for contact forces that are closer to the students' everyday experience. While this is a good thing in general, the reaction force can sometimes be taken for granted, and the students can miss the opportunity to really think…

  8. Symmetry Motion Classes; Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics Feasibility Study No. 40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLane, Lyn

    These materials were written with the aim of reflecting the thinking of The Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics (CCSM) regarding the goals and objectives for school mathematics. This document details the planning and response for each of ten lessons involving symmetry motions. The problems focused on (1) combining motions in a given order,…

  9. The flight of Newton's cannonball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesnell, W. Dean

    2018-05-01

    Newton's Cannon is a thought experiment used to motivate orbital motion. Cannonballs were fired from a high mountain at increasing muzzle velocity until they orbit the Earth. We will use the trajectories of these cannonballs to describe the shape of orbital tunnels that allow a cannonball fired from a high mountain to pass through the Earth. A sphere of constant density is used as the model of the Earth to take advantage of the analytic solutions for the interior trajectories that exist for that model. For the example shown, the cannonball trajectories that pass through the Earth intersect near the antipodal point of the cannon.

  10. Tartu Ülikooli teadur kaitses Cambridgeì Ülikoolis doktorikraadi / Krõõt Nõges

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nõges, Krõõt

    2006-01-01

    Tartu Ülikooli filosoofia osakonna teadur ja eetikakeskuse stipendiaat Eva Piirimäe kaitses Cambridgeì Ülikoolis doktorikraadi ideede ajaloo erialal doktoritööga "Thomas Abbt (1738-1766) and the Philosophical Genesis of German Nationalism"

  11. Illustrating Newton's Second Law with the Automobile Coast-Down Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Ronald A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes a run test of automobiles for applying Newton's second law of motion and the concept of power. Explains some automobile thought-experiments and provides the method and data of an actual coast-down test. (YP)

  12. Extension of Newton's Dynamical Spectral Shift for Photons in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extension of Newton's Dynamical Spectral Shift for Photons in Gravitational Fields of Static Homogeneous Spherical Massive Bodies. ... is perfectly in agreement with the physical fact that gravitational scalar potential is negative and increase in recession leads to decrease in kinetic energy and hence decrease in frequency.

  13. Using the Concordancer in Vocabulary Development for the Cambridge Advanced English (CAE) Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, Emma

    1996-01-01

    Discusses concordancing activities tailored for use with English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students in the Cambridge Advanced English course in Australia. The article focuses on students selecting appropriate vocabulary to complete gapped text. Findings indicate that these activities benefit ESL students by providing authentic examples of…

  14. Conference | From Newton to Hawking and beyond | 28 May

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    From Newton to Hawking and beyond: Why disability equality is relevant to the world of particle physics, Dr Tom Shakespeare.    Tuesday, 28 May 2013 - 11.30 am - 1 pm Main Auditorium – Room 500-1-001 Conference organised by the CERN Diversity Programme English with French interpretation According to the recent world report on disability, 15% of the world’s population is disabled.  Among that group could be numbered famous physicists such as Isaac Newton and Paul Dirac, neither of whom could be classed as “neuro-typical”, and Stephen Hawking.  This presentation will provide some basic data about global disability, and the socially imposed barriers which disabled people face.  It will also include some stories about high achieving people with disabilities.  Finally, some practical suggestions will be offered on how to respect and include people with disabilities in the workplace. Tom Shakespeare is a social sci...

  15. [Geometry Through Symmetry, Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics Feasibility Study No. 32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Bernard

    These materials were written for the use of a class of eighth grade high ability students in a four week course sponsored by Educational Services Incorporated on the Stanford campus. They represent a practical response to the proposal by the Cambridge Conference of 1963 that geometry be taught by vector space methods. Instead of using vector…

  16. Medium-resolution isaac newton telescope library of empirical spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez-Blazquez, P.; Peletier, R. F.; Jimenez-Vicente, J.; Cardiel, N.; Cenarro, A. J.; Falcon-Barroso, J.; Gorgas, J.; Selam, S.; Vazdekis, A.

    2006-01-01

    A new stellar library developed for stellar population synthesis modelling is presented. The library consists of 985 stars spanning a large range in atmospheric parameters. The spectra were obtained at the 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope and cover the range lambda lambda 3525-7500 angstrom at 2.3

  17. The Work of the Prince's Teaching Institute--Insisting that Established Subjects Matter to All Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The Prince's Teaching Institute (PTI), which has evolved out of the Summer Schools for English Literature and History which The Prince of Wales inaugurated in 2002, now provides a variety of courses in the major subjects of the secondary curriculum. In partnership with Cambridge University it enables teachers to update and extend their subject…

  18. Dark Matter Search Using XMM-Newton Observations of Willman 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, Michael; Kusenko, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of a search for an emission line from radiatively decaying dark matter in the ultra-faint dwarf spheroidal galaxy Willman 1 based on analysis of spectra extracted from XMM-Newton X-ray Observatory data. The observation follows up our analysis of Chandra data of Willman 1that resulted in line flux upper limits over the Chandra bandpass and evidence of a 2.5 keY feature at a significance below the 99% confidence threshold used to define the limits. The higher effective area of the XMM-Newton detectors, combined with application of recently developing methods for extended-source analysis, allow us to derive improved constraints on the combination of mass and mixing angle of the sterile neutrino dark matter candidate. We do not confirm the Chandra evidence for a 2.5 keV emission line.

  19. Efficient management of high level XMM-Newton science data products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotukhin, Ivan

    2015-12-01

    Like it is the case for many large projects, XMM-Newton data have been used by the community to produce many valuable higher level data products. However, even after 15 years of the successful mission operation, the potential of these data is not yet fully uncovered, mostly due to the logistical and data management issues. We present a web application, http://xmm-catalog.irap.omp.eu, to highlight an idea that existing public high level data collections generate significant added research value when organized and exposed properly. Several application features such as access to the all-time XMM-Newton photon database and online fitting of extracted sources spectra were never available before. In this talk we share best practices we worked out during the development of this website and discuss their potential use for other large projects generating astrophysical data.

  20. Modified Newton-Raphson GRAPE methods for optimal control of spin systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, D. L.; Kuprov, Ilya

    2016-01-01

    Quadratic convergence throughout the active space is achieved for the gradient ascent pulse engineering (GRAPE) family of quantum optimal control algorithms. We demonstrate in this communication that the Hessian of the GRAPE fidelity functional is unusually cheap, having the same asymptotic complexity scaling as the functional itself. This leads to the possibility of using very efficient numerical optimization techniques. In particular, the Newton-Raphson method with a rational function optimization (RFO) regularized Hessian is shown in this work to require fewer system trajectory evaluations than any other algorithm in the GRAPE family. This communication describes algebraic and numerical implementation aspects (matrix exponential recycling, Hessian regularization, etc.) for the RFO Newton-Raphson version of GRAPE and reports benchmarks for common spin state control problems in magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

  1. Modified Newton-Raphson GRAPE methods for optimal control of spin systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodwin, D. L.; Kuprov, Ilya, E-mail: i.kuprov@soton.ac.uk [School of Chemistry, University of Southampton, Highfield Campus, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-28

    Quadratic convergence throughout the active space is achieved for the gradient ascent pulse engineering (GRAPE) family of quantum optimal control algorithms. We demonstrate in this communication that the Hessian of the GRAPE fidelity functional is unusually cheap, having the same asymptotic complexity scaling as the functional itself. This leads to the possibility of using very efficient numerical optimization techniques. In particular, the Newton-Raphson method with a rational function optimization (RFO) regularized Hessian is shown in this work to require fewer system trajectory evaluations than any other algorithm in the GRAPE family. This communication describes algebraic and numerical implementation aspects (matrix exponential recycling, Hessian regularization, etc.) for the RFO Newton-Raphson version of GRAPE and reports benchmarks for common spin state control problems in magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

  2. Q-Step methods for Newton-Jacobi operator equation | Uwasmusi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper considers the Newton-Jacobi operator equation for the solution of nonlinear systems of equations. Special attention is paid to the computational part of this method with particular reference to the q-step methods. Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics Vol. 8 2004: pp. 237-241 ...

  3. Adaptation of the Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (CAMPHOR into French-Canadian and English-Canadian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Coffin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (CAMPHOR is the first disease-specific instrument for assessing patient-reported symptoms, functioning and quality of life (QoL in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH.

  4. Fast and exact Newton and Bidirectional fitting of Active Appearance Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossaifi, Jean; Tzimiropoulos, Yorgos; Pantic, Maja

    2016-12-21

    Active Appearance Models (AAMs) are generative models of shape and appearance that have proven very attractive for their ability to handle wide changes in illumination, pose and occlusion when trained in the wild, while not requiring large training dataset like regression-based or deep learning methods. The problem of fitting an AAM is usually formulated as a non-linear least squares one and the main way of solving it is a standard Gauss-Newton algorithm. In this paper we extend Active Appearance Models in two ways: we first extend the Gauss-Newton framework by formulating a bidirectional fitting method that deforms both the image and the template to fit a new instance. We then formulate a second order method by deriving an efficient Newton method for AAMs fitting. We derive both methods in a unified framework for two types of Active Appearance Models, holistic and part-based, and additionally show how to exploit the structure in the problem to derive fast yet exact solutions. We perform a thorough evaluation of all algorithms on three challenging and recently annotated inthe- wild datasets, and investigate fitting accuracy, convergence properties and the influence of noise in the initialisation. We compare our proposed methods to other algorithms and show that they yield state-of-the-art results, out-performing other methods while having superior convergence properties.

  5. The Use of Kruskal-Newton Diagrams for Differential Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishaleck, T.; White, R.B.

    2008-01-01

    The method of Kruskal-Newton diagrams for the solution of differential equations with boundary layers is shown to provide rapid intuitive understanding of layer scaling and can result in the conceptual simplification of some problems. The method is illustrated using equations arising in the theory of pattern formation and in plasma physics.

  6. Newton's Laws, Euler's Laws and the Speed of Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Chemical engineering students begin their studies of mechanics in a department of physics where they are introduced to the mechanics of Newton. The approach presented by physicists differs in both perspective and substance from that encountered in chemical engineering courses where Euler's laws provide the foundation for studies of fluid and solid…

  7. The role of competing knowledge structures in undermining learning: Newton's second and third laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, David J.; Wilson, Kate F.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the development of student understanding of Newton's laws using a pre-instruction test (the Force Concept Inventory), followed by a series of post-instruction tests and interviews. While some students' somewhat naive, pre-existing models of Newton's third law are largely eliminated following a semester of teaching, we find that a particular inconsistent model is highly resilient to, and may even be strengthened by, instruction. If test items contain words that cue students to think of Newton's second law, then students are more likely to apply a "net force" approach to solving problems, even if it is inappropriate to do so. Additional instruction, reinforcing physical concepts in multiple settings and from multiple sources, appears to help students develop a more connected and consistent level of understanding. We recommend explicitly encouraging students to check their work for consistency with physical principles, along with the standard checks for dimensionality and order of magnitude, to encourage reflective and rigorous problem solving.

  8. Psychiatry in the Harvard Medical School-Cambridge Integrated Clerkship: An Innovative, Year-Long Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, Todd; Bullock, Christopher; Gaufberg, Elizabeth; Albanese, Mark; Bonilla, Pedro; Dvorak, Ramona; Epelbaum, Claudia; Givon, Lior; Kueppenbender, Karsten; Joseph, Robert; Boyd, J. Wesley; Shtasel, Derri

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors present what is to their knowledge the first description of a model for longitudinal third-year medical student psychiatry education. Method: A longitudinal, integrated psychiatric curriculum was developed, implemented, and sustained within the Harvard Medical School-Cambridge Integrated Clerkship. Curriculum elements…

  9. Producción de entropía y ley de enfriamiento de newton

    OpenAIRE

    Barragán, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Para un sistema con una fuente interna de generación de calor se analizan, en el marco de la termodinámica de los procesos irreversibles, las ecuaciones evolutivas que describen la transferencia de calor según la ley de enfriamiento de Newton. A partir del balance de flujo de entropía se muestra que la generación de entropía no es mínima en el estado estacionario descrito por la ley de enfriamiento de Newton. Igualmente, se discute cómo realizar el balance de flujos en el sistema, su conex...

  10. HIGH-RESOLUTION XMM-NEWTON SPECTROSCOPY OF THE COOLING FLOW CLUSTER A3112

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulbul, G. Esra; Smith, Randall K.; Foster, Adam [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Cottam, Jean; Loewenstein, Michael; Mushotzky, Richard; Shafer, Richard, E-mail: ebulbul@cfa.harvard.edu [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    2012-03-01

    We examine high signal-to-noise XMM-Newton European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC) and Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) observations to determine the physical characteristics of the gas in the cool core and outskirts of the nearby rich cluster A3112. The XMM-Newton Extended Source Analysis Software data reduction and background modeling methods were used to analyze the XMM-Newton EPIC data. From the EPIC data, we find that the iron and silicon abundance gradients show significant increase toward the center of the cluster while the oxygen abundance profile is centrally peaked but has a shallower distribution than that of iron. The X-ray mass modeling is based on the temperature and deprojected density distributions of the intracluster medium determined from EPIC observations. The total mass of A3112 obeys the M-T scaling relations found using XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of massive clusters at r{sub 500}. The gas mass fraction f{sub gas} = 0.149{sup +0.036}{sub -0.032} at r{sub 500} is consistent with the seven-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe results. The comparisons of line fluxes and flux limits on the Fe XVII and Fe XVIII lines obtained from high-resolution RGS spectra indicate that there is no spectral evidence for cooler gas associated with the cluster with temperature below 1.0 keV in the central <38'' ({approx}52 kpc) region of A3112. High-resolution RGS spectra also yield an upper limit to the turbulent motions in the compact core of A3112 (206 km s{sup -1}). We find that the contribution of turbulence to total energy is less than 6%. This upper limit is consistent with the energy contribution measured in recent high-resolution simulations of relaxed galaxy clusters.

  11. A direct Newton-Raphson economic dispatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.E.; Chen, S.T.; Huang, C.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a new method to solve the real-time economic dispatch problem using an alternative Jacobian matrix considering system constraints. The transition loss is approximately expressed in terms of generating powers and the generalized generation shift distribution factor. Based on this expression, a set of simultaneous equations of Jacobian matrix is formulated and solved by the Newton-Raphson method. The proposed method eliminates the penalty factor calculation, and solves the economic dispatch directly. The proposed method obtains very fast solution speed and maintains good accuracy from test examples. It is good approach to solve the economic dispatch problem

  12. Newton's Investigation of the Resistance to Moving Bodies in Continuous Fluids and the Nature of "Frontier Science"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauld, Colin F.

    2010-01-01

    Newton's experiments into the resistance which fluids offer to moving bodies provide some insight into the way he related theory and experiment. His theory demonstrates a way of thought typical of 17th century physics and his experiments are simple enough to be replicated by present day students. Newton's investigations using pendulums were…

  13. Quantum Mechanics from Newton's Second Law and the Canonical Commutation Relation [X,P]=i

    OpenAIRE

    Palenik, Mark C.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that it has been known since the time of Heisenberg that quantum operators obey a quantum version of Newton's laws, students are often told that derivations of quantum mechanics must necessarily follow from the Hamiltonian or Lagrangian formulations of mechanics. Here, we first derive the existing Heisenberg equations of motion from Newton's laws and the uncertainty principle using only the equations $F=\\frac{dP}{dt}$, $P=m\\frac{dV}{dt}$, and $\\left[X,P\\right]=i$. Then, a new...

  14. Adaptation of XMM-Newton SAS to GRID and VO architectures via web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, A.; de La Calle, I.; Gabriel, C.; Salgado, J.; Osuna, P.

    2008-10-01

    The XMM-Newton Scientific Analysis Software (SAS) is a robust software that has allowed users to produce good scientific results since the beginning of the mission. This has been possible given the SAS capability to evolve with the advent of new technologies and adapt to the needs of the scientific community. The prototype of the Remote Interface for Science Analysis (RISA) presented here, is one such example, which provides remote analysis of XMM-Newton data with access to all the existing SAS functionality, while making use of GRID computing technology. This new technology has recently emerged within the astrophysical community to tackle the ever lasting problem of computer power for the reduction of large amounts of data.

  15. Factors Affecting Applications to Oxford and Cambridge--Repeat Survey. Executive Summary with Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, Kate; White, Kerensa; Styles, Ben; Morrison, Jo

    2005-01-01

    This research follows up a study conducted in 1998 by the National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER) to investigate teachers' and students' views on the factors affecting students' choices of whether or not to apply to Oxford and Cambridge universities. It identifies what has changed since 1998 and areas in which the universities could…

  16. A multigrid Newton-Krylov method for flux-limited radiation diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rider, W.J.; Knoll, D.A.; Olson, G.L.

    1998-01-01

    The authors focus on the integration of radiation diffusion including flux-limited diffusion coefficients. The nonlinear integration is accomplished with a Newton-Krylov method preconditioned with a multigrid Picard linearization of the governing equations. They investigate the efficiency of the linear and nonlinear iterative techniques

  17. 2016 Newton County, Georgia ADS100 4-Band 8 Bit Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of 0.5-foot pixel resolution, natural color orthoimages covering Newton County, Georgia. An orthoimage is remotely sensed image data in which...

  18. What To Look for in ESL Admission Tests: Cambridge Certificate Exams, IELTS, and TOEFL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalhoub-Deville, Micheline; Turner, Carolyn E.

    2000-01-01

    Familiarizes test users with issues to consider when employing assessments for screening and admission purposes. Examines the purpose, content, and scoring methods of three English-as-a-Second-Language admissions tests--the Cambridge certificate exams, International English Language Teaching System, and Test of English as a Foreign…

  19. Newton's second law and the multiplication of distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrico, C. O. R.; Paiva, A.

    2018-01-01

    Newton's second law is applied to study the motion of a particle subjected to a time dependent impulsive force containing a Dirac delta distribution. Within this setting, we prove that this problem can be rigorously solved neither by limit processes nor by using the theory of distributions (limited to the classical Schwartz products). However, using a distributional multiplication, not defined by a limit process, a rigorous solution emerges.

  20. Inexact proximal Newton methods for self-concordant functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jinchao; Andersen, Martin Skovgaard; Vandenberghe, Lieven

    2016-01-01

    with an application to L1-regularized covariance selection, in which prior constraints on the sparsity pattern of the inverse covariance matrix are imposed. In the numerical experiments the proximal Newton steps are computed by an accelerated proximal gradient method, and multifrontal algorithms for positive definite...... matrices with chordal sparsity patterns are used to evaluate gradients and matrix-vector products with the Hessian of the smooth component of the objective....

  1. The Whipple Museum and Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippard, Brian

    The Whipple Museum is part of the History and Philosophy of Science Department in the University of Cambridge. It is on your right as soon as you enter Free School Lane from Pembroke Street, and is normally open between 1:30 and 4:30 P.M. on weekdays. The main room, a hall with hammer-beam roof, is a relic of Stephen Perse’s school (1624) now flourishing elsewhere in the city. It houses a large collection of mathematical, physical and astronomical instruments — abaci, Napier’s bones, slide rules; sextants and other surveying instruments; telescopes, compasses and pocket sundials (especially of ivory from Nuremberg 1500-1700); and a Grand Orrery by George Adams (1750). The gallery of a second room is used for special exhibitions, often of items from the well-stocked store. Some specialist catalogues have been compiled and are on sale.

  2. A Magnetic Set-Up to Help Teach Newton's Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panijpan, Bhinyo; Sujarittham, Thanida; Arayathanitkul, Kwan; Tanamatayarat, Jintawat; Nopparatjamjomras, Suchai

    2009-01-01

    A set-up comprising a magnetic disc, a solenoid and a mechanical balance was used to teach first-year physics students Newton's third law with the help of a free body diagram. The image of a floating magnet immobilized by the solenoid's repulsive force should help dispel a common misconception of students as regards the first law: that stationary…

  3. Accelerating Inexact Newton Schemes for Large Systems of Nonlinear Equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, D.R.; Sleijpen, G.L.G.; Vorst, H.A. van der

    Classical iteration methods for linear systems, such as Jacobi iteration, can be accelerated considerably by Krylov subspace methods like GMRES. In this paper, we describe how inexact Newton methods for nonlinear problems can be accelerated in a similar way and how this leads to a general

  4. Newton Power Flow Methods for Unbalanced Three-Phase Distribution Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sereeter, B.; Vuik, C.; Witteveen, C.

    2017-01-01

    Two mismatch functions (power or current) and three coordinates (polar, Cartesian andcomplex form) result in six versions of the Newton–Raphson method for the solution of powerflow problems. In this paper, five new versions of the Newton power flow method developed forsingle-phase problems in our

  5. Newtonian cosmology Newton would understand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemons, D.S.

    1988-01-01

    Isaac Newton envisioned a static, infinite, and initially uniform, zero field universe that was gravitationally unstable to local condensations of matter. By postulating the existence of such a universe and using it as a boundary condition on Newtonian gravity, a new field equation for gravity is derived, which differs from the classical one by a time-dependent cosmological term proportional to the average mass density of the universe. The new field equation not only makes Jeans' analysis of the gravitational instability of a Newtonian universe consistent, but also gives rise to a family of Newtonian evolutionary cosmologies parametrized by a time-invariant expansion velocity. This Newtonian cosmology contrasts with both 19th-century ones and with post general relativity Newtonian cosmology

  6. You err, Einstein.. Newton, Einstein, Heisenberg, and Feynman discuss quantum physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsch, Harald

    2008-01-01

    Harald Fritzsch and his star physicists Einstein, Heisenberg, and Feynman explain the central concept of nowadays physics, quantum mechanics, without it nothing goes in modern world. And the great Isaac newton puts the questions, which all would put

  7. Parallel Newton-Krylov-Schwarz algorithms for the transonic full potential equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiao-Chuan; Gropp, William D.; Keyes, David E.; Melvin, Robin G.; Young, David P.

    1996-01-01

    We study parallel two-level overlapping Schwarz algorithms for solving nonlinear finite element problems, in particular, for the full potential equation of aerodynamics discretized in two dimensions with bilinear elements. The overall algorithm, Newton-Krylov-Schwarz (NKS), employs an inexact finite-difference Newton method and a Krylov space iterative method, with a two-level overlapping Schwarz method as a preconditioner. We demonstrate that NKS, combined with a density upwinding continuation strategy for problems with weak shocks, is robust and, economical for this class of mixed elliptic-hyperbolic nonlinear partial differential equations, with proper specification of several parameters. We study upwinding parameters, inner convergence tolerance, coarse grid density, subdomain overlap, and the level of fill-in in the incomplete factorization, and report their effect on numerical convergence rate, overall execution time, and parallel efficiency on a distributed-memory parallel computer.

  8. Newton-Krylov-Schwarz algorithms for the 2D full potential equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Xiao-Chuan [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Gropp, W.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Keyes, D.E. [Old Dominion Univ. Norfolk, VA (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    We study parallel two-level overlapping Schwarz algorithms for solving nonlinear finite element problems, in particular, for the full potential equation of aerodynamics discretized in two dimensions with bilinear elements. The main algorithm, Newton-Krylov-Schwarz (NKS), employs an inexact finite-difference Newton method and a Krylov space iterative method, with a two-level overlapping Schwarz method as a preconditioner. We demonstrate that NKS, combined with a density upwinding continuation strategy for problems with weak shocks, can be made robust for this class of mixed elliptic-hyperbolic nonlinear partial differential equations, with proper specification of several parameters. We study upwinding parameters, inner convergence tolerance, coarse grid density, subdomain overlap, and the level of fill-in in the incomplete factorization, and report favorable choices for numerical convergence rate and overall execution time on a distributed-memory parallel computer.

  9. Numerical evaluation of general n-dimensional integrals by the repeated use of Newton-Cotes formulas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nihira, Takeshi; Iwata, Tadao.

    1992-07-01

    The composites Simpson's rule is extended to n-dimensional integrals with variable limits. This extension is illustrated by means of the recursion relation of n-fold series. The structure of calculation by the Newton-Cotes formulas for n-dimensional integrals is clarified with this method. A quadrature formula corresponding to the Newton-Cotes formulas can be readily constructed. The results computed for some examples are given, and the error estimates for two or three dimensional integrals are described using the error term. (author)

  10. Implementing WebQuest Based Instruction on Newton's Second Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokalp, Muhammed Sait; Sharma, Manjula; Johnston, Ian; Sharma, Mia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how WebQuests can be used in physics classes for teaching specific concepts. The study had three stages. The first stage was to develop a WebQuest on Newton's second law. The second stage involved developing a lesson plan to implement the WebQuest in class. In the final stage, the WebQuest was…

  11. Newton-like methods for Navier-Stokes solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, N.; Xu, X.; Richards, B. E.

    1992-12-01

    The paper reports on Newton-like methods called SFDN-alpha-GMRES and SQN-alpha-GMRES methods that have been devised and proven as powerful schemes for large nonlinear problems typical of viscous compressible Navier-Stokes solutions. They can be applied using a partially converged solution from a conventional explicit or approximate implicit method. Developments have included the efficient parallelization of the schemes on a distributed memory parallel computer. The methods are illustrated using a RISC workstation and a transputer parallel system respectively to solve a hypersonic vortical flow.

  12. Constraining the neutron star equation of state using XMM-Newton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaastra, J.; Mendez, M.; In 't Zand, J. J. M.; Jonker, P.G.

    We have identified three possible ways in which future XMM-Newton observations can provide significant constraints on the equation of state of neutron stars. First, using a long observation of the neutron star X-ray transient Cen X-4 in quiescence one can use the RGS spectrum to constrain the

  13. Constraining the neutron star equation of state using XMM-Newton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, P.G.; Kaastra, J.S.; Méndez, M.; in 't Zand, J.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    We have identified three possible ways in which future XMM-Newton observations can provide significant constraints on the equation of state of neutron stars. First, using a long observation of the neutron star X-ray transient Cen X-4 in quiescence one can use the RGS spectrum to constrain the

  14. Design of reciprocal unit based on the Newton-Raphson approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundersen, Anders Torp; Winther-Almstrup, Rasmus; Boesen, Michael

    A design of a reciprocal unit based on Newton-Raphson approximation is described and implemented. We present two different designs for single precisions where one of them is extremely fast but the trade-off is an increase in area. The solution behind the fast design is that the design is fully...

  15. Waveform control for magnetic testers using a quasi-Newton method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Ken-ichi; Hanba, Shigeru

    2008-01-01

    A nonlinear iterative learning algorithm is proposed to make a voltage waveform in the secondary coil sinusoidal in this paper. The algorithm employs a globally convergent Jacobian-free quasi-Newton type solver that has a BFGS-like structure. This method functions well, and it is demonstrated using typical soft magnetic materials

  16. Newton-sor iterative method for solving the two-dimensional porous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we consider the application of the Newton-SOR iterative method in obtaining the approximate solution of the two-dimensional porous medium equation (2D PME). The nonlinear finite difference approximation equation to the 2D PME is derived by using the implicit finite difference scheme. The developed ...

  17. A Framework for Generalising the Newton Method and Other Iterative Methods from Euclidean Space to Manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Manton, Jonathan H.

    2012-01-01

    The Newton iteration is a popular method for minimising a cost function on Euclidean space. Various generalisations to cost functions defined on manifolds appear in the literature. In each case, the convergence rate of the generalised Newton iteration needed establishing from first principles. The present paper presents a framework for generalising iterative methods from Euclidean space to manifolds that ensures local convergence rates are preserved. It applies to any (memoryless) iterative m...

  18. Searching for propeller-phase ULXs in the XMM-Newton Serendipitous Source Catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnshaw, H. P.; Roberts, T. P.; Sathyaprakash, R.

    2018-05-01

    We search for transient sources in a sample of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) from the 3XMM-DR4 release of the XMM-Newton Serendipitous Source Catalogue in order to find candidate neutron star ULXs alternating between an accreting state and the propeller regime, in which the luminosity drops dramatically. By examining their fluxes and flux upper limits, we identify five ULXs that demonstrate long-term variability of over an order of magnitude. Using Chandra and Swift data to further characterize their light curves, we find that two of these sources are detected only once and could be X-ray binaries in outburst that only briefly reach ULX luminosities. Two others are consistent with being super-Eddington accreting sources with high levels of inter-observation variability. One source, M51 ULX-4, demonstrates apparent bimodal flux behaviour that could indicate the propeller regime. It has a hard X-ray spectrum, but no significant pulsations in its timing data, although with an upper limit of 10 per cent of the signal pulsed at ˜1.5 Hz a pulsating ULX cannot be excluded, particularly if the pulsations are transient. By simulating XMM-Newton observations of a population of pulsating ULXs, we predict that there could be approximately 200 other bimodal ULXs that have not been observed sufficiently well by XMM-Newton to be identified as transient.

  19. An approximate block Newton method for coupled iterations of nonlinear solvers: Theory and conjugate heat transfer applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeckel, Andrew; Lun, Lisa; Derby, Jeffrey J.

    2009-12-01

    A new, approximate block Newton (ABN) method is derived and tested for the coupled solution of nonlinear models, each of which is treated as a modular, black box. Such an approach is motivated by a desire to maintain software flexibility without sacrificing solution efficiency or robustness. Though block Newton methods of similar type have been proposed and studied, we present a unique derivation and use it to sort out some of the more confusing points in the literature. In particular, we show that our ABN method behaves like a Newton iteration preconditioned by an inexact Newton solver derived from subproblem Jacobians. The method is demonstrated on several conjugate heat transfer problems modeled after melt crystal growth processes. These problems are represented by partitioned spatial regions, each modeled by independent heat transfer codes and linked by temperature and flux matching conditions at the boundaries common to the partitions. Whereas a typical block Gauss-Seidel iteration fails about half the time for the model problem, quadratic convergence is achieved by the ABN method under all conditions studied here. Additional performance advantages over existing methods are demonstrated and discussed.

  20. Masters of Theory Cambridge and the Rise of Mathematical Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Warwick, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Winner of the the Susan Elizabeth Abrams Prize in History of Science.When Isaac Newton published the Principia three centuries ago, only a few scholars were capable of understanding his conceptually demanding work. Yet this esoteric knowledge quickly became accessible in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries when Britain produced many leading mathematical physicists. In this book, Andrew Warwick shows how the education of these "masters of theory" led them to transform our understanding of everything from the flight of a boomerang to the structure of the universe. Warwick focuses on Cam

  1. BOOK REVIEW - The Experience of Face Veil Wearers in Europe and the Law (Cambridge University Press United Kingdom 2014. ISBN 978-1-107-05830-9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques L Matthee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This contribution published by Cambridge University Press provides a short overview of the book by Eva Brems "The Experience of Face Veil Wearers in Europe and the Law" published by Cambridge University Press, United Kingdom, in 2014. See ISBN 978-1-107-05830-9.

  2. Supporting the learning of Newton's laws with graphical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piggott, David

    Teaching physics provides the opportunity for a very unique interaction between students and instructor that is not found in chemistry or biology. Physics has a heavy emphasis on trying to alter students' misconceptions about how things work in the real word. In chemistry and microbiology this is not an issue because the topics of discussion in those classes are a new experience for the students. In the case of physics the students have everyday experience with the different concepts discussed. This causes the students to build incorrect mental models explaining how different things work. In order to correct these mental models physics teachers must first get the students to vocalize these misconceptions. Then the teacher must confront the students with an example that exposes the false nature of their model. Finally, the teacher must help the student resolve these discrepancies and form the correct model. This study attempts to resolve these discrepancies by giving the students concrete evidence via graphs of Newton's laws. The results reported here indicate that this method of eliciting the misconception, confronting the misconception, and resolving the misconception is successful with Newton's third law, but only marginally successful for first and second laws.

  3. Gravitation: Field theory par excellence Newton, Einstein, and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, H.

    1984-01-01

    Newtonian gravity satifies the two principles of equivalence m/sub i/ = m/sub p/ (the passive principle) and m/sub a/ = m/sub p/ (the active principle). A relativistic gauge field concept in D = s+1 dimensional curved-space will, in general, violate these two principles as in m/sub p/ = αm/sub i/, m/sub a/ = lambdam/sub p/ where α = D: 3 and lambda measures the presence of the field stress-energy t/sup ν//sub μ/ in the field equations. It is shown that α = 1, lambda = 0 corresponds to general relativity and α = 1, lambda = 1 to the theory of the author. It is noted that the correspondence limit of general relativity is not Newton's theory but a theory suggested by Robert Hooke a few years before Newton published his in Principia. The gauge is independent of the two principles but had to do with local special relativistic correspondence and compatibility with quantum mechanics. It is shown that unless α = 1, lambda = 1 the generalized theory cannot predict correctly many observables effects, including the 532'' per century Newtonian part in Mercury's perihelion advance

  4. XMM-Newton detects X-ray 'solar cycle' in distant star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-01

    The Sun as observed by SOHO hi-res Size hi-res: 708 Kb The Sun as observed by SOHO The Sun as observed by the ESA/NASA SOHO observatory near the minimum of the solar cycle (left) and near its maximum (right). The signs of solar activity near the maximum are clearly seen. New XMM-Newton observations suggest that this behaviour may be typical of stars like the Sun, such as HD 81809 in the constellation Hydra. Solar flare - 4 November 2003 The huge flare produced on 4 November 2003 This image of the Sun, obtained by the ESA/NASA SOHO observatory, shows the powerful X-ray flare that took place on 4 November 2003. The associated coronal mass ejection, coming out of the Sun at a speed of 8.2 million kilometres per hour, hit the Earth several hours later and caused disruptions to telecommunication and power distribution lines. New XMM-Newton observations suggest that this behaviour may be typical of stars like the Sun, such as HD 81809 in the constellation Hydra. Since the time Galileo discovered sunspots, in 1610, astronomers have measured their number, size and location on the disc of the Sun. Sunspots are relatively cooler areas on the Sun that are observed as dark patches. Their number rises and falls with the level of activity of the Sun in a cycle of about 11 years. When the Sun is very active, large-scale phenomena take place, such as the flares and coronal mass ejections observed by the ESA/NASA solar observatory SOHO. These events release a large amount of energy and charged particles that hit the Earth and can cause powerful magnetic storms, affecting radio communications, power distribution lines and even our weather and climate. During the solar cycle, the X-ray emission from the Sun varies by a large amount (about a factor of 100) and is strongest when the cycle is at its peak and the surface of the Sun is covered by the largest number of spots. ESA's X-ray observatory, XMM-Newton, has now shown for the first time that this cyclic X-ray behaviour is common to

  5. SELF ASSESSMENT AND INSTITUTIONAL ASSESSMENT IN THE CONTEXT OF HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumara Coutinho Tokunaga Sameshima

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Institutional Assessment is a comprehensive action, radical mobilizing and engaging the institution as a whole. Process is not indifferent or neutral. Instead, take advantage reaffirms values considered positive, the judge denies negative, their social relationships and work involved in all aspects of academic life and institutional (Newton Balzan and José Dias Sobrinho. As pointed out by the authors of the text, the institutional assessment is a challenge for managers in the field. In this sense this study addresses the understanding of Institutional Assessment and investigation procedure, that explicitly and reveal the subject institution's social reality prevailing in its various dimensions, identifying their points of excellence, their focus create obstacles, pointing paths and prospects for institutional development. The process of self-assessment meets the desire of institutions to maintain the provision of quality services and meet legislation on Institutional Assessment, specifically the Law. 10861/2004 which regulates the National Assessment of Higher Education - SINAES. The author's desire to emphasize that institutions of higher learning, being recognized as educational institutions, research and extension to provide excellence in education, training people competent, ethical and socially committed to the real exercise of citizenship.

  6. Scalable Newton-Krylov solver for very large power flow problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idema, R.; Lahaye, D.J.P.; Vuik, C.; Van der Sluis, L.

    2010-01-01

    The power flow problem is generally solved by the Newton-Raphson method with a sparse direct solver for the linear system of equations in each iteration. While this works fine for small power flow problems, we will show that for very large problems the direct solver is very slow and we present

  7. Isaac newton et la gravitation universelle un scientifique au tempérament rageur

    CERN Document Server

    Mettra, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Découvrez enfin tout ce qu'il faut savoir sur Newton et la théorie de la gravitation universelle en moins d'une heure ! Figure incontournable de l'histoire des sciences, Isaac Newton bouleverse le monde avec sa théorie de la gravitation universelle. Secrètement passionné d'alchimie, il fait accomplir à l'optique et à l'analyse mathématique d'incroyables progrès, devenant aux yeux de ses contemporains l'un des savants les plus novateurs et les plus respectés au monde, ce que la postérité ne démentira pas.Ce livre vous permettra d'en savoir plus sur : La vie de New

  8. Non-relativistic spinning particle in a Newton-Cartan background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barducci, Andrea; Casalbuoni, Roberto; Gomis, Joaquim

    2018-01-01

    We construct the action of a non-relativistic spinning particle moving in a general torsionless Newton-Cartan background. The particle does not follow the geodesic equations, instead the motion is governed by the non-relativistic analog of Papapetrou equation. The spinning particle is described in terms of Grassmann variables. In the flat case the action is invariant under the non-relativistic analog of space-time vector supersymmetry.

  9. ASCA and XMM-Newton observations of the galactic supernova remnant G311.5−0.3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pannuti T.G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an analysis of X-ray observations made with ASCA and XMM-Newton of the Galactic supernova remnant (SNR G311.5−0.3. Prior infrared and radio observations of this SNR have revealed a shell-like morphology at both wavelengths. The spectral index of the radio emission is consistent with synchrotron emission, while the infrared colors are consistent with emission from shocked molecular hydrogen. Also previous CO observations have indicated an interaction between G311.5−0.3 and an adjacent molecular cloud. Our previous analysis of the pointed ASCA observation made of this SNR detected X-ray emission from the source for the first time but lacked the sensitivity and the angular resolution to rigorously investigate its X-ray properties. We have analyzed an archival XMM-Newton observation that included G311.5−0.3 in the field of view: this is the first time that XMM-Newton data has been used to probe the X-ray properties of this SNR. The XMM-Newton observation confirms that the X-ray emission from G311.5−0.3 is centrally concentrated and supports the classification of this source as a mixed-morphology SNR. In addition, our joint fitting of extracted ASCA and XMM-Newton spectra favor a thermal origin for the X-ray emission over a non-thermal origin. The spectral fitting parameters for our TBABS×APEC fit to the extracted spectra are NH = 4.63+1.87 −0.85×1022 cm −2 and kT = 0.68+0.20−0.24 keV. From these fit parameters, we derive the following values for physical parameters of the SNR: ne = 0.20 cm −3, np = 0.17 cm −3, MX = 21.4 M· and P/k = 3.18×106 K cm −3.

  10. Newton law corrections and instabilities in f(R) gravity with the effective cosmological constant epoch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojiri, Shin'ichi; Odintsov, Sergei D.

    2007-01-01

    We consider class of modified f(R) gravities with the effective cosmological constant epoch at the early and late universe. Such models pass most of solar system tests as well they satisfy to cosmological bounds. Despite their very attractive properties, it is shown that one realistic class of such models may lead to significant Newton law corrections at large cosmological scales. Nevertheless, these corrections are small at solar system as well as at the future universe. Another realistic model with acceptable Newton law regime shows the matter instability

  11. Konrad Bajer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    These Proceedings are dedicated to our co-editor Konrad Bajer, who carried the lion's share of the work involved until his sudden and untimely death from cancer on 29th August 2014. Konrad was one of the key Organisers of the program "Topological Dynamics in the Physical and Biological Sciences" held at the Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences in Cambridge from July to December 2012. During that time, he was on leave from the University of Warsaw, and held a Visiting Fellow Commonership at Trinity College, Cambridge. He had particular responsibility for the satellite workshop Tangled Magnetic Fields in Astro- and Plasma Physics, held at ICMS, Edinburgh, in October 2012. Konrad graduated in Physics from the University of Warsaw in 1980, and took his PhD in Fluid Dynamics at DAMTP, Cambridge, 1984-89. He was active in EUROMECH, having been a principal organiser of the European Turbulence Conference (ETC13) in Warsaw 2011, and the meeting Turbulence: the Historical Perspective that followed it. He has been equally active in IUTAM; his distinction was recognised by his very recent election to the Congress Committee of IUTAM. Konrad's research interests were in magnetohydrodynamics and vortex dynamics in classical and quantum systems; also in problems of gasifcation, in which he played a coordinating role at the University of Warsaw. He impressed all with his exceptionally warm and friendly personality, and will be greatly missed in the whole scientifc community.

  12. PET/MRI in the infarcted mouse heart with the Cambridge split magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buonincontri, Guido; Sawiak, Stephen J.; Methner, Carmen; Krieg, Thomas; Hawkes, Robert C.; Adrian Carpenter, T.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic heart failure, as a result of acute myocardial infarction, is a leading cause of death worldwide. Combining diagnostic imaging modalities may aid the direct assessment of experimental treatments targeting heart failure in vivo. Here we present preliminary data using the Cambridge combined PET/MRI imaging system in a mouse model of acute myocardial infarction. The split-magnet design can deliver uncompromised MRI and PET performance, for better assessment of disease and treatment in a preclinical environment

  13. First record of Centromerus arcanus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1873) from Greenland (Araneae, Linyphiidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissner, Jørgen; Gravesen, Eigil Vestergaard

    2017-01-01

    The linyphiid spider Centromerus arcanus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1873) is reported new to Greenland. A single female was pitfall trapped in South-West Greenland at Kobbefjord in the summer of 2016 constituting the first record of this species in the Nearctic ecozone. The habitat in which the Greenland...

  14. Derivation of special relativity from Maxwell and Newton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunstan, D J

    2008-05-28

    Special relativity derives directly from the principle of relativity and from Newton's laws of motion with a single undetermined parameter, which is found from Faraday's and Ampère's experimental work and from Maxwell's own introduction of the displacement current to be the -c(-2) term in the Lorentz transformations. The axiom of the constancy of the speed of light is quite unnecessary. The behaviour and the mechanism of the propagation of light are not at the foundations of special relativity.

  15. Newton's method for solving a quadratic matrix equation with special coefficient matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Sang-Hyup; Seo, Jong Hyun; Kim, Hyun-Min

    2014-01-01

    We consider the iterative method for solving a quadratic matrix equation with special coefficient matrices which arises in the quasi-birth-death problem. In this paper, we show that the elementwise minimal positive solvents to quadratic matrix equations can be obtained using Newton's method. We also prove that the convergence rate of the Newton iteration is quadratic if the Fréchet derivative at the elementwise minimal positive solvent is nonsingular. However, if the Fréchet derivative is singular, the convergence rate is at least linear. Numerical experiments of the convergence rate are given.(This is summarized a paper which is to appear in Honam Mathematical Journal.)

  16. Deductive Reasoning to Teach Newton's Law of Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han Su; Park, Jongwon

    2013-01-01

    Finding out about and then understanding the forces acting on a moving object, based on a description of the change in motion of this object, is an important part of the conceptual understanding of Newton's law of motion. Using Hempel's deductive-normative model for scientific explanation, we developed a deductive explanation task (DET),…

  17. Probability Lessons at Hancock School, Lexington; Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics Feasibility Study No. 41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLane, Lyn

    These materials were written with the aim of reflecting the thinking of Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics (CCSM) regarding the goals and objectives for school mathematics. Presented are plans for teaching 23 probability lessons in the elementary grades at Hancock School, Lexington, Massachusetts. The discovery approach was utilized by the…

  18. Informal Geometry for Young Children; Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics; Feasibility Study No. 34b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Marion

    These materials were written with the aim of reflecting the thinking of The Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics (CCSM) regarding the goals and objectives for school mathematics. These materials are intended to provide children with a variety of informal activities in intuitive geometry in the elementary school. Opportunities are provided…

  19. Is classical mechanics based on Newton's laws or Eulers analytical equations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.Iro

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In an example I illustrate how my picture of physics is enriched due to my frequent conversations with Reinhard Folk. The subject is: Who wrote down the basic equations of motion of classical mechanics for the first time? (To be sure, it was not Newton.

  20. Notes about Newton's Law corrections in non-factorizable geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Victor Pereira do Nascimento; Almeida, Carlos Alberto Santos de

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Consistency of String Theory demands the existence of additional dimensions. Since then it was argued that, in order to observe the usual four-dimensional gravity, such dimensions must be compactified in such a way that they can only observed at very short distances. Localized gravity is however an alternative to compactification of extra dimensions, since it requires only the dominance of the ground state of Kaluza-Klein(KK) decomposition of the metric fluctuations over the other modes, associated to the extra dimensions. These modes have an interesting consequence in our world, which is the violation of the four-dimensional Newton's law of gravitation: massive KK modes contributes positively to the potential, leading to corrections which (usually) decreases faster than the inverse of distance. Moreover, the spectrum may have a gap, which is associated to a naked singularity along the additional dimensions. Each extra dimension presents a different contribution to this mass spectrum, since it can be compactified or not. Most of the work presented in literature consists in consider these contributions simultaneously. Our proposal in this work is to study the corrections to Newton's law due to the extra dimension scenario, studying separately the influence of one compact dimension and a non-compact one on the mass spectrum of the graviton. (author)

  1. Extending Newton's law from nonlocal-in-time kinetic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suykens, J.A.K.

    2009-01-01

    We study a new equation of motion derived from a context of classical Newtonian mechanics by replacing the kinetic energy with a form of nonlocal-in-time kinetic energy. It leads to a hypothetical extension of Newton's second law of motion. In a first stage the obtainable solution form is studied by considering an unknown value for the nonlocality time extent. This is done in relation to higher-order Euler-Lagrange equations and a Hamiltonian framework. In a second stage the free particle case and harmonic oscillator case are studied and compared with quantum mechanical results. For a free particle it is shown that the solution form is a superposition of the classical straight line motion and a Fourier series. We discuss the link with quanta interpretations made in Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillators. The discrete nature emerges from the continuous time setting through application of the least action principle. The harmonic oscillator case leads to energy levels that approximately correspond to the quantum harmonic oscillator levels. The solution to the extended Newton equation also admits a quantization of the nonlocality time extent, which is determined by the classical oscillator frequency. The extended equation suggests a new possible way for understanding the relationship between classical and quantum mechanics

  2. Newton da Costa e a Filosofia da Quase-Verdade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Décio Krause

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to introduce the three issues of Principia which will appear in a sequel honoring Newton da Costa’s 80th birthday. Instead of presenting the papers one by one, as it is common in presentations such as this one, we have left the papers speak by themselves, and instead we have preferred to present to the Brazilian readers, specialty to our students, some aspects of Newton da Costa’s conception of science and of the scientific activity, grounded on the concept of quasi-truth, which he contributed to develop in a rigorous way. Da Costa is known as one of the founding fathers of paraconsistent logic, but his contributions go also to the foundations of physics, theoretical computation, model theory, algebraic logic, lattice theory, applications of non-classical logics to law and technology, etc. But perhaps his main contribution was to provide a basis for the birth of a school of logic in our country (Brazil, serving as teacher and inspiring new researchers for generations. It is a pleasure to have had so enthusiastic acceptation from the editors of Principia to organize these volumes. I would like to thank the contributors and the editors of Principia, specially Prof. Cezar Mortari for his help in organizing the issue.

  3. An insight into Newton's cooling law using fractional calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondol, Adreja; Gupta, Rivu; Das, Shantanu; Dutta, Tapati

    2018-02-01

    For small temperature differences between a heated body and its environment, Newton's law of cooling predicts that the instantaneous rate of change of temperature of any heated body with respect to time is proportional to the difference in temperature of the body with the ambient, time being measured in integer units. Our experiments on the cooling of different liquids (water, mustard oil, and mercury) did not fit the theoretical predictions of Newton's law of cooling in this form. The solution was done using both Caputo and Riemann-Liouville type fractional derivatives to check if natural phenomena showed any preference in mathematics. In both cases, we find that cooling of liquids has an identical value of the fractional derivative of time that increases with the viscosity of the liquid. On the other hand, the cooling studies on metal alloys could be fitted exactly by integer order time derivative equations. The proportionality constant between heat flux and temperature difference was examined with respect to variations in the depth of liquid and exposed surface area. A critical combination of these two parameters signals a change in the mode of heat transfer within liquids. The equivalence between the proportionality constants for the Caputo and Riemann-Liouville type derivatives is established.

  4. Cambridge community Optometry Glaucoma Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Jonathan; Shahid, Humma; Bourne, Rupert R; White, Andrew J; Martin, Keith R

    2015-04-01

    With a higher life expectancy, there is an increased demand for hospital glaucoma services in the United Kingdom. The Cambridge community Optometry Glaucoma Scheme (COGS) was initiated in 2010, where new referrals for suspected glaucoma are evaluated by community optometrists with a special interest in glaucoma, with virtual electronic review and validation by a consultant ophthalmologist with special interest in glaucoma. 1733 patients were evaluated by this scheme between 2010 and 2013. Clinical assessment is performed by the optometrist at a remote site. Goldmann applanation tonometry, pachymetry, monoscopic colour optic disc photographs and automated Humphrey visual field testing are performed. A clinical decision is made as to whether a patient has glaucoma or is a suspect, and referred on or discharged as a false positive referral. The clinical findings, optic disc photographs and visual field test results are transmitted electronically for virtual review by a consultant ophthalmologist. The number of false positive referrals from initial referral into the scheme. Of the patients, 46.6% were discharged at assessment and a further 5.7% were discharged following virtual review. Of the patients initially discharged, 2.8% were recalled following virtual review. Following assessment at the hospital, a further 10.5% were discharged after a single visit. The COGS community-based glaucoma screening programme is a safe and effective way of evaluating glaucoma referrals in the community and reducing false-positive referrals for glaucoma into the hospital system. © 2014 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  5. Hawking, Stephen W (1942-)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Cosmologist and theoretical astrophysicist, born in Oxford, England, where he studied physics at University College. Moved to Cambridge to take up research in general relativity and cosmology, became Lucasian professor (an appointment earlier held by ISAAC NEWTON, with whom Hawking has been compared). Hawking worked to develop a valid mathematical treatment of the `singularities' in the theor...

  6. 'Epistemology models ontology'− In gesprek met John Polkinghorne

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    7 Jun 2011 ... maar met die aard daarvan. Polkinghorne wil met sy boek One World (1996) presies sê wat die titel suggereer. Hiervoor kry hy die oplossing by sy mentor en latere kollega, Paul Dirac. Vir meer as 30 jaar het Dirac dieselfde leerstoel in Fisika aan Cambridge beklee as Isaac Newton (Polkinghorne 2005:34).

  7. Inequality Lessons at Adams School, Lexington; Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics Feasibility Study No. 42.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, B.

    These materials were written with the aim of reflecting the thinking of The Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics (CCSM) regarding the goals and objectives for school mathematics. Presented are plans for teaching 15 inequality lessons for above average first grade students. The discovery approach is utilized by the teacher in order to involve…

  8. The Cambridge Car Memory Test: a task matched in format to the Cambridge Face Memory Test, with norms, reliability, sex differences, dissociations from face memory, and expertise effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennett, Hugh W; McKone, Elinor; Tavashmi, Raka; Hall, Ashleigh; Pidcock, Madeleine; Edwards, Mark; Duchaine, Bradley

    2012-06-01

    Many research questions require a within-class object recognition task matched for general cognitive requirements with a face recognition task. If the object task also has high internal reliability, it can improve accuracy and power in group analyses (e.g., mean inversion effects for faces vs. objects), individual-difference studies (e.g., correlations between certain perceptual abilities and face/object recognition), and case studies in neuropsychology (e.g., whether a prosopagnosic shows a face-specific or object-general deficit). Here, we present such a task. Our Cambridge Car Memory Test (CCMT) was matched in format to the established Cambridge Face Memory Test, requiring recognition of exemplars across view and lighting change. We tested 153 young adults (93 female). Results showed high reliability (Cronbach's alpha = .84) and a range of scores suitable both for normal-range individual-difference studies and, potentially, for diagnosis of impairment. The mean for males was much higher than the mean for females. We demonstrate independence between face memory and car memory (dissociation based on sex, plus a modest correlation between the two), including where participants have high relative expertise with cars. We also show that expertise with real car makes and models of the era used in the test significantly predicts CCMT performance. Surprisingly, however, regression analyses imply that there is an effect of sex per se on the CCMT that is not attributable to a stereotypical male advantage in car expertise.

  9. The dark side of the Scientific Revolution. The Biblical interpretation in Galileo Galilei and Isaac Newton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Fiorentino

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This contribution investigates a hidden and surely singular – but far from marginal – aspect of the Scientific Revolution of the 17th century, in other words the interpretation of the Holy Scriptures. First of all, this work analyzes the situation immediately before the advent of the fathers of the 17th Century Scientific Revolution like Galileo Galilei and Isaac Newton, starting from the Council of Trent. This reconstruction aims to throw light on the particular way that Galileo and Newton intended to approach the interpretation of the Holy Scriptures with respect to the main tendencies of the Catholic Reformation of biblical hermeneutics. Their way is important both in itself and in relation to the Scientific Revolution. In itself because Galileo and Newton elaborate original theories that are not entirely in agreement with the predominant views and that are decidedly no less interesting than their pure scientific theories. In relation to the Scientific Revolution because the interpretation of the Holy Scriptures is addressed in an original fashion by both Galileo and Newton, also with the intent of facilitating the spread and approval of their own scientific theories in their respective socio-cultural environments. The primacy of nature is not manifested only in contrast to and outside the book of Scriptures, but conditions the Book of Scriptures, locating it within a precise cultural perspective and religious sense that are by no means contrary to Galileo and Newton’s views.

  10. Teaching Newton's Laws with the iPod Touch in Conceptual Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Angela M.

    2011-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges in teaching physics is helping students achieve a conceptual understanding of Newton's laws. I find that students fresh from middle school can sometimes recite the laws verbatim ("An object in motion stays in motion..." and "For every action..."), but they rarely demonstrate a working knowledge of…

  11. Employing a Monte Carlo algorithm in Newton-type methods for restricted maximum likelihood estimation of genetic parameters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaarina Matilainen

    Full Text Available Estimation of variance components by Monte Carlo (MC expectation maximization (EM restricted maximum likelihood (REML is computationally efficient for large data sets and complex linear mixed effects models. However, efficiency may be lost due to the need for a large number of iterations of the EM algorithm. To decrease the computing time we explored the use of faster converging Newton-type algorithms within MC REML implementations. The implemented algorithms were: MC Newton-Raphson (NR, where the information matrix was generated via sampling; MC average information(AI, where the information was computed as an average of observed and expected information; and MC Broyden's method, where the zero of the gradient was searched using a quasi-Newton-type algorithm. Performance of these algorithms was evaluated using simulated data. The final estimates were in good agreement with corresponding analytical ones. MC NR REML and MC AI REML enhanced convergence compared to MC EM REML and gave standard errors for the estimates as a by-product. MC NR REML required a larger number of MC samples, while each MC AI REML iteration demanded extra solving of mixed model equations by the number of parameters to be estimated. MC Broyden's method required the largest number of MC samples with our small data and did not give standard errors for the parameters directly. We studied the performance of three different convergence criteria for the MC AI REML algorithm. Our results indicate the importance of defining a suitable convergence criterion and critical value in order to obtain an efficient Newton-type method utilizing a MC algorithm. Overall, use of a MC algorithm with Newton-type methods proved feasible and the results encourage testing of these methods with different kinds of large-scale problem settings.

  12. Water Rockets. Get Funny With Newton's Laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Roca Vicent

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the movement of the rocket has been used for decades to encourage students in the study of physics. This system has an undeniable interest to introduce concepts such as properties of gases, laws of Newton,  exchange  between  different  types  of  energy  and  its  conservation  or fluid  mechanics.  Our  works has  been  to  build  and  launch  these  rockets  in  different  educational  levels  and  in  each  of  these  ones  have introduced  the  part  of  Physics  more  suited  to  the  knowledge  of  our  students.  The  aim  of  the  learning experience  is  to  launch  the  rocket  as  far  as  possible  and  learn  to  predict  the  travelled  distance,  using Newton's  laws  and fluid  mechanics.  After  experimentation  we  demonstrated  to  be  able  to  control  the parameters that improve the performance of our rocket, such as the  fill factor, the volume and mass of the empty  bottle,  liquid  density,  launch  angle,  pressure  prior  air  release.  In addition, it is a fun experience can be attached to all levels of education in primary and high school.

  13. How to manage a revolution: Isaac Newton in the early twentieth century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Imogen

    2014-01-01

    In the first half of the twentieth century, dramatic developments in physics came to be viewed as revolutionary, apparently requiring a complete overthrow of previous theories. British physicists were keen to promote quantum physics and relativity theory as exciting and new, but the rhetoric of revolution threatened science's claim to stability and its prestigious connections with Isaac Newton. This was particularly problematic in the first decades of the twentieth century, within the broader context of political turmoil, world war, and the emergence of modernist art and literature. This article examines how physicists responded to their cultural and political environment and worked to maintain disciplinary connections with Isaac Newton, emphasizing the importance of both the old and the new. In doing so they attempted to make the physics ‘revolution’ more palatable to a British public seeking a sense of permanence in a rapidly changing world.

  14. Producción de entropía y ley de enfriamiento de Newton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Barragán

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Para un sistema con una fuente interna de generación de calor se analizan, en el marco de la termodinámica de los procesos irreversibles, las ecuaciones evolutivas que describen la transferencia de calor según la ley de enfriamiento de Newton. A partir del balance de flujo de entropía se muestra que la generación de entropía no es mínima en el estado estacionario descrito por la ley de enfriamiento de Newton. Igualmente, se discute cómo realizar el balance de flujos en el sistema, su conexión con los parámetros de control y su futura aplicación a procesos de optimización basados en la segunda ley de la termodinámica.

  15. Quantum mechanics from Newton's second law and the canonical commutation relation [X, P] = i

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palenik, Mark C

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that it has been known since the time of Heisenberg that quantum operators obey a quantum version of Newton's laws, students are often told that derivations of quantum mechanics must necessarily follow from the Hamiltonian or Lagrangian formulations of mechanics. Here, we first derive the existing Heisenberg equations of motion from Newton's laws and the uncertainty principle using only the equations F=((dP)/(dt)), P=m((dV)/(dt)), and [X, P] = i. Then, a new expression for the propagator is derived that makes a connection between time evolution in quantum mechanics and the motion of a classical particle under Newton's laws. The propagator is solved for three cases where an exact solution is possible: (1) the free particle; (2) the harmonic oscillator; and (3) a constant force, or linear potential in the standard interpretation. We then show that for a general for a general force F(X), by Taylor expanding X(t) in time, we can use this methodology to reproduce the Feynman path integral formula for the propagator. Such a picture may be useful for students as they make the transition from classical to quantum mechanics and help solidify the equivalence of the Hamiltonian, Lagrangian, and Newtonian pictures of physics in their minds. (paper)

  16. Learning, Retention, and Forgetting of Newton's Third Law throughout University Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayre, Eleanor C.; Franklin, Scott V.; Dymek, Stephanie; Clark, Jessica; Sun, Yifei

    2012-01-01

    We present data from a between-student study on student response to questions on Newton's third law given in two introductory calculus-based physics classes (Mechanics and Electromagnetism) at a large northeastern university. Construction of a response curve reveals subtle dynamics in student learning not capturable by pretesting and post-testing.…

  17. The calculus gallery masterpieces from Newton to Lebesgue

    CERN Document Server

    Dunham, William

    2008-01-01

    More than three centuries after its creation, calculus remains a dazzling intellectual achievement and the gateway into higher mathematics. This book charts its growth and development by sampling from the work of some of its foremost practitioners, beginning with Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz in the late seventeenth century and continuing to Henri Lebesgue at the dawn of the twentieth--mathematicians whose achievements are comparable to those of Bach in music or Shakespeare in literature. William Dunham lucidly presents the definitions, theorems, and proofs. ""Students of literat

  18. The kinematics and chemical stratification of the type Ia supernova remnant 0519-69.0 : an XMM-Newton and Chandra study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosenko, D.; Helder, E.A.; Vink, J.

    2010-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the XMM-Newton and Chandra X-ray data of the young type Ia supernova remnant SNR 0519-69.0, which is situated in the Large Magellanic Cloud. We used data from both the Chandra ACIS and XMM-Newton EPIC MOS instruments, and high resolution X-ray spectra obtained with

  19. Quasi-Newton methods for parameter estimation in functional differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Dennis W.

    1988-01-01

    A state-space approach to parameter estimation in linear functional differential equations is developed using the theory of linear evolution equations. A locally convergent quasi-Newton type algorithm is applied to distributed systems with particular emphasis on parameters that induce unbounded perturbations of the state. The algorithm is computationally implemented on several functional differential equations, including coefficient and delay estimation in linear delay-differential equations.

  20. Bifurcation analysis and linear control of the Newton-Leipnik system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xuedi; Tian Lixin

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we study a sort of chaotic system-Newton-Leipnik system which possesses two strange attractors. The static and dynamic bifurcations of the system are studied. The chaos controlling is performed by a simpler linear controller, and numerical simulation of the control is supplied. At the same time, Lyapunov exponents of the system show that the result of the chaos controlling is right

  1. On Newton-Kantorovich Method for Solving the Nonlinear Operator Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hameed Husam Hameed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop the Newton-Kantorovich method to solve the system of 2×2 nonlinear Volterra integral equations where the unknown function is in logarithmic form. A new majorant function is introduced which leads to the increment of the convergence interval. The existence and uniqueness of approximate solution are proved and a numerical example is provided to show the validation of the method.

  2. The Target of the Question: A Taxonomy of Textual Features for Cambridge University "O" Levels English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Shanti Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the typical textual features that are most frequently targeted in short-answer reading comprehension questions of the Cambridge University "O" Level English Paper 2. Test writers' awareness of how textual features impact on understanding of meanings in text decisions will determine to great extent their decisions…

  3. PENGGUNAAN ALGORITMA NEWTON – RAPHSON UNTUK MEMBUAT SOFTWARE PENENTUAN DOSIS OBAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibnu Gunawan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available USCPACK Software from University of Carolina is one of the pioneers of computerized drug dosage system. This software uses Bayesian method. The algorithm that used in this software is known as NPEM (Non Parametric Expectation Maximization. After knowing how USCPACK work, then we made new software that has the same use like USCPACK but with new algorithm that different from NPEM. These paper will describe the how to make the software based on NPAG algorithm. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Software USCPACK buatan University of Carolina merupakan salah satu pelopor dimungkinkannya penentuan dosis obat persatuan waktu tertentu untuk pasien secara umum menggunakan komputer. Software ini bekerja dengan menggunakan metode dasar Bayesian. Algoritma yang digunakan oleh software ini adalah NPEM (Non Parametric Expectation Maximization. Setelah mengetahui cara kerja dari USCPACK maka dibuatlah sebuah software pendosisan obat menggunakan algoritma non parametrik lain selain NPEM. Paper ini akan membahas pembuatan software pendosisan obat menggunakan algoritma newton – raphson dalam penentuan dosis obat terkomputerisasi. Kata kunci: Pendosisan terkomputerisasi, optimasi, Bayesian, NPEM, Newton Raphson,USCPACK

  4. Non-relativistic AdS branes and Newton-Hooke superalgebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaguchi, Makoto; Yoshida, Kentaroh

    2006-01-01

    We examine a non-relativistic limit of D-branes in AdS 5 x S 5 and M-branes in AdS 4/7 x S 7/4 . First, Newton-Hooke superalgebras for the AdS branes are derived from AdS x S superalgebras as Inoenue-Wigner contractions. It is shown that the directions along which the AdS-brane worldvolume extends are restricted by requiring that the isometry on the AdS-brane worldvolume and the Lorentz symmetry in the transverse space naturally extend to the super-isometry. We also derive Newton-Hooke superalgebras for pp-wave branes and show that the directions along which a brane worldvolume extends are restricted. Then the Wess-Zumino terms of the AdS branes are derived by using the Chevalley-Eilenberg cohomology on the super-AdS x S algebra, and the non-relativistic limit of the AdS-brane actions is considered. We show that the consistent limit is possible for the following branes: Dp (even,even) for p = 1 mod 4 and Dp (odd,odd) for p = 3 mod 4 in AdS 5 x S 5 , and M2 (0,3), M2 (2,1), M5 (1,5) and M5 (3,3) in AdS 4 x S 7 and S 4 x AdS 7 . We furthermore present non-relativistic actions for the AdS branes

  5. The Newton constant and gravitational waves in some vector field adjusting mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santillán, Osvaldo P. [IMAS (UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina); Scornavacche, Marina, E-mail: firenzecita@hotmail.com, E-mail: marina.scorna@hotmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina)

    2017-10-01

    At the present, there exist some Lorentz breaking scenarios which explain the smallness of the cosmological constant at the present era [1]–[2]. An important aspect to analyze is the propagation of gravitational waves and the screening or enhancement of the Newton constant G {sub N} in these models. The problem is that the Lorentz symmetry breaking terms may induce an unacceptable value of the Newton constant G {sub N} or introduce longitudinal modes in the gravitational wave propagation. Furthermore this breaking may spoil the standard dispersion relation ω= ck . In [3] the authors have presented a model suggesting that the behavior of the gravitational constant is correct for asymptotic times. In the present work, an explicit checking is made and we finally agree with these claims. Furthermore, it is suggested that the gravitational waves are also well behaved for large times. In the process, some new models with the same behavior are obtained, thus enlarging the list of possible adjustment mechanisms.

  6. A Damped Gauss-Newton Method for the Second-Order Cone Complementarity Problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Shaohua; Chen, J.-S.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate some properties related to the generalized Newton method for the Fischer-Burmeister (FB) function over second-order cones, which allows us to reformulate the second-order cone complementarity problem (SOCCP) as a semismooth system of equations. Specifically, we characterize the B-subdifferential of the FB function at a general point and study the condition for every element of the B-subdifferential at a solution being nonsingular. In addition, for the induced FB merit function, we establish its coerciveness and provide a weaker condition than Chen and Tseng (Math. Program. 104:293-327, 2005) for each stationary point to be a solution, under suitable Cartesian P-properties of the involved mapping. By this, a damped Gauss-Newton method is proposed, and the global and superlinear convergence results are obtained. Numerical results are reported for the second-order cone programs from the DIMACS library, which verify the good theoretical properties of the method

  7. DAMPAK PROGRAM RESITASI TERHADAP PERUBAHAN KONSEPTUAL MAHASISWA PADA TOPIK HUKUM III NEWTON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Bagus Rini Jayanti

    2016-02-01

    Melalui penelitian ini telah dikembangkan program resitasi berbantuan komputer berisi 9 soal-soal konseptual dalam bentuk pilihan ganda beserta balikan langsung. Penelitian ini dimaksudkan untuk menyelidiki dampak program tersebut terhadap penguasaan konsep dan perubahan konsep mahasiswa mengenai hukum III Newton. Data diambil melalui pretes berupa tes pilihan ganda yang diberikan setelah pembahasan topik kinematika (satu dan dua dimensi dan dinamika partikel (hukum-hukum Newton tentang gaya dan gerak dan postes diberikan setelah menggunakan program resitasi. Program digunakan mahasiswa selama seminggu secara offline. Subjek penelitian terdiri atas 35 mahasiswa tahun pertama Program Studi Pendidikan Fisika Universitas Negeri Malang yang sedang menempuh mata kuliah Fisika Dasar I. Hasil penelitian ditemukan bahwa penguasaan konsep mahasiswa secara keseluruhan meningkat secara signifikan dengan nilai N-gain sebesar 0.31 dan perubahan konsep mahasiswa semakin baik dengan meningkatnya jumlah mahasiswa yang memiliki pemahaman mantap dan pemahaman sebagian, serta berkurangnya jumlah mahasiswa yang mengalami miskonsepsi dan yang tidak paham.

  8. Experimentally Building a Qualitative Understanding of Newton's Second Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Newton's second law is one of the cornerstones of the introductory physics curriculum, but it can still trouble a large number of students well after its introduction, hobbling their ability to apply the concept to problem solving and to related concepts, such as momentum, circular motion, and orbits. While there are several possibilities for…

  9. Scalable parallel elastic-plastic finite element analysis using a quasi-Newton method with a balancing domain decomposition preconditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusa, Yasunori; Okada, Hiroshi; Yamada, Tomonori; Yoshimura, Shinobu

    2018-04-01

    A domain decomposition method for large-scale elastic-plastic problems is proposed. The proposed method is based on a quasi-Newton method in conjunction with a balancing domain decomposition preconditioner. The use of a quasi-Newton method overcomes two problems associated with the conventional domain decomposition method based on the Newton-Raphson method: (1) avoidance of a double-loop iteration algorithm, which generally has large computational complexity, and (2) consideration of the local concentration of nonlinear deformation, which is observed in elastic-plastic problems with stress concentration. Moreover, the application of a balancing domain decomposition preconditioner ensures scalability. Using the conventional and proposed domain decomposition methods, several numerical tests, including weak scaling tests, were performed. The convergence performance of the proposed method is comparable to that of the conventional method. In particular, in elastic-plastic analysis, the proposed method exhibits better convergence performance than the conventional method.

  10. The G_Newton --> 0 Limit of Euclidean Quantum Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Smolin, Lee

    1992-01-01

    Using the Ashtekar formulation, it is shown that the G_{Newton} --> 0 limit of Euclidean or complexified general relativity is not a free field theory, but is a theory that describes a linearized self-dual connection propagating on an arbitrary anti-self-dual background. This theory is quantized in the loop representation and, as in the full theory, an infinite dimnensional space of exact solutions to the constraint is found. An inner product is also proposed. The path integral is constructed...

  11. Application of Four-Point Newton-EGSOR iteration for the numerical solution of 2D Porous Medium Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, J. V. L.; Sulaiman, J.

    2017-09-01

    Partial differential equations that are used in describing the nonlinear heat and mass transfer phenomena are difficult to be solved. For the case where the exact solution is difficult to be obtained, it is necessary to use a numerical procedure such as the finite difference method to solve a particular partial differential equation. In term of numerical procedure, a particular method can be considered as an efficient method if the method can give an approximate solution within the specified error with the least computational complexity. Throughout this paper, the two-dimensional Porous Medium Equation (2D PME) is discretized by using the implicit finite difference scheme to construct the corresponding approximation equation. Then this approximation equation yields a large-sized and sparse nonlinear system. By using the Newton method to linearize the nonlinear system, this paper deals with the application of the Four-Point Newton-EGSOR (4NEGSOR) iterative method for solving the 2D PMEs. In addition to that, the efficiency of the 4NEGSOR iterative method is studied by solving three examples of the problems. Based on the comparative analysis, the Newton-Gauss-Seidel (NGS) and the Newton-SOR (NSOR) iterative methods are also considered. The numerical findings show that the 4NEGSOR method is superior to the NGS and the NSOR methods in terms of the number of iterations to get the converged solutions, the time of computation and the maximum absolute errors produced by the methods.

  12. Convergence Analysis for the Multiplicative Schwarz Preconditioned Inexact Newton Algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Lulu

    2016-10-26

    The multiplicative Schwarz preconditioned inexact Newton (MSPIN) algorithm, based on decomposition by field type rather than by subdomain, was recently introduced to improve the convergence of systems with unbalanced nonlinearities. This paper provides a convergence analysis of the MSPIN algorithm. Under reasonable assumptions, it is shown that MSPIN is locally convergent, and desired superlinear or even quadratic convergence can be obtained when the forcing terms are picked suitably.

  13. Convergence Analysis for the Multiplicative Schwarz Preconditioned Inexact Newton Algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Lulu; Keyes, David E.

    2016-01-01

    The multiplicative Schwarz preconditioned inexact Newton (MSPIN) algorithm, based on decomposition by field type rather than by subdomain, was recently introduced to improve the convergence of systems with unbalanced nonlinearities. This paper provides a convergence analysis of the MSPIN algorithm. Under reasonable assumptions, it is shown that MSPIN is locally convergent, and desired superlinear or even quadratic convergence can be obtained when the forcing terms are picked suitably.

  14. Generalized uncertainty principles, effective Newton constant and regular black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiang; Ling, Yi; Shen, You-Gen; Liu, Cheng-Zhou; He, Hong-Sheng; Xu, Lan-Fang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the quantum spacetimes that are potentially connected with the generalized uncertainty principles. By analyzing the gravity-induced quantum interference pattern and the Gedanken for weighting photon, we find that the generalized uncertainty principles inspire the effective Newton constant as same as our previous proposal. A characteristic momentum associated with the tidal effect is suggested, which incorporates the quantum effect with the geometric nature of gravity...

  15. Newton's Cradle and Entanglement Transport in a Flexible Rydberg Chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuester, S.; Ates, C.; Eisfeld, A.; Rost, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    In a regular, flexible chain of Rydberg atoms, a single electronic excitation localizes on two atoms that are in closer mutual proximity than all others. We show how the interplay between excitonic and atomic motion causes electronic excitation and diatomic proximity to propagate through the Rydberg chain as a combined pulse. In this manner entanglement is transferred adiabatically along the chain, reminiscent of momentum transfer in Newton's cradle.

  16. XMM-Newton high-resolution spectroscopy reveals the chemical evolution of M 87

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, N.; Boehringer, H.; Kaastra, J.S.; de Plaa, J.; Simionescu, D.; Vink, J.

    2006-01-01

    We present a study of chemical abundances in the giant elliptical galaxy M 87 using high-resolution spectra obtained with the Reflection Grating Spectrometers during two deep XMM-Newton observations. While we confirm the two-temperature structure of the inter-stellar medium (ISM) in M 87, we also

  17. Time-domain incomplete Gauss-Newton full-waveform inversion of Gulf of Mexico data

    KAUST Repository

    AlTheyab, Abdullah; Wang, Xin; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2013-01-01

    We apply the incomplete Gauss-Newton full-waveform inversion (TDIGN-FWI) to Gulf of Mexico (GOM) data in the space-time domain. In our application, iterative least-squares reverse-time migration (LSRTM) is used to estimate the model update at each

  18. Cambridge Rocketry Simulator – A Stochastic Six-Degrees-of-Freedom Rocket Flight Simulator

    OpenAIRE

    Eerland, Willem J.; Box, Simon; Sóbester, András

    2017-01-01

    The Cambridge Rocketry Simulator can be used to simulate the flight of unguided rockets for both design and operational applications. The software consists of three parts: The first part is a GUI that enables the user to design a rocket. The second part is a verified and peer-reviewed physics model that simulates the rocket flight. This includes a Monte Carlo wrapper to model the uncertainty in the rocket’s dynamics and the atmospheric conditions. The third part generates visualizations of th...

  19. Predicting non-square 2D dice probabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pender, G. A. T.; Uhrin, M.

    2014-07-01

    The prediction of the final state probabilities of a general cuboid randomly thrown onto a surface is a problem that naturally arises in the minds of men and women familiar with regular cubic dice and the basic concepts of probability. Indeed, it was considered by Newton in 1664 (Newton 1967 The Mathematical Papers of Issac Newton vol I (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) pp 60-1). In this paper we make progress on the 2D problem (which can be realized in 3D by considering a long cuboid, or alternatively a rectangular cross-sectioned dreidel). For the two-dimensional case we suggest that the ratio of the probabilities of landing on each of the two sides is given by \\frac{\\sqrt{{{k}^{2}}+{{l}^{2}}}-k}{\\sqrt{{{k}^{2}}+{{l}^{2}}}-l}\\frac{arctan \\frac{l}{k}}{arctan \\frac{k}{l}} where k and l are the lengths of the two sides. We test this theory both experimentally and computationally, and find good agreement between our theory, experimental and computational results. Our theory is known, from its derivation, to be an approximation for particularly bouncy or ‘grippy’ surfaces where the die rolls through many revolutions before settling. On real surfaces we would expect (and we observe) that the true probability ratio for a 2D die is a somewhat closer to unity than predicted by our theory. This problem may also have wider relevance in the testing of physics engines.

  20. From the Landgrave in Kassel to Isaac Newton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høg, E.

    2018-01-01

    Landgrave Wilhelm IV established in 1560 the first permanent astronomical observatory in Europe. When he met the young Tycho Brahe in 1575 he recognized the genius and recommended him warmly to the Danish king Frederik II. Wilhelm and Tycho must share the credit for renewing astronomy with very accurate observations of positions of stars by new instrumentation and new methods. Tycho's observations of planets during 20 years enabled Johannes Kepler to derive the laws of planetary motion. These laws set Isaac Newton in a position to publish the laws of physical motion and universal gravitation in 1687 - the basis for the technical revolution.

  1. John Howard Marsden (1803–1891 First Disney Professor of Archaeology at the University of Cambridge 1851–1865

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Leach

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Although there were ten chairs of archaeology at universities in Germany, and one in France, by the mid-nineteenth century, in Great Britain it was the amateur societies and museums (the British Museum in particular that encouraged the study of this subject. In 1851 John Disney established the first university chair in Great Britain at Cambridge University. His proposal was initially received with considerable caution by the governing body of the university, and was only accepted by the narrowest margin of eight votes to seven. His agreement with the University of Cambridge stipulated that six lectures a year should be given on the subject of ‘Classical, Medieval, and other Antiquities, the Fine Arts and all matters and things connected therewith’ (Clark 1904, 222–225. However university archaeology was slow to establish its academic credibility nationally, and it was more than thirty years before Oxford University established its chair of classical archaeology. The Cambridge Board of Anthropological Studies, which included instruction in prehistoric archaeology, was not created until 1915, and as late as 1945 there were still only a few university lecturers in archaeology in Great Britain. It was not until 1946 that Oxford University appointed a Professor of Prehistoric Archaeology (Wilson 2002, 153; Daniel 1976, 6–12; Smith 2004, 4–5, 53–54.

  2. Using Item Analysis to Assess Objectively the Quality of the Calgary-Cambridge OSCE Checklist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyrone Donnon

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:  The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of item analysis to assess objectively the quality of items on the Calgary-Cambridge Communications OSCE checklist. Methods:  A total of 150 first year medical students were provided with extensive teaching on the use of the Calgary-Cambridge Guidelines for interviewing patients and participated in a final year end 20 minute communication OSCE station.  Grouped into either the upper half (50% or lower half (50% communication skills performance groups, discrimination, difficulty and point biserial values were calculated for each checklist item. Results:  The mean score on the 33 item communication checklist was 24.09 (SD = 4.46 and the internal reliability coefficient was ? = 0.77. Although most of the items were found to have moderate (k = 12, 36% or excellent (k = 10, 30% discrimination values, there were 6 (18% identified as ‘fair’ and 3 (9% as ‘poor’. A post-examination review focused on item analysis findings resulted in an increase in checklist reliability (? = 0.80. Conclusions:  Item analysis has been used with MCQ exams extensively. In this study, it was also found to be an objective and practical approach to use in evaluating the quality of a standardized OSCE checklist.

  3. Kohn's theorem, Larmor's equivalence principle and the Newton-Hooke group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, G.W.; Pope, C.N.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We show that non-relativistic electrons moving in a magnetic field with trapping potential admits as relativity group the Newton-Hooke group. → We use this fact to give a group theoretic interpretation of Kohn's theorem and to obtain the spectrum. → We obtain the lightlike lift of the system exhibiting showing it coincides with the Nappi-Witten spacetime. - Abstract: We consider non-relativistic electrons, each of the same charge to mass ratio, moving in an external magnetic field with an interaction potential depending only on the mutual separations, possibly confined by a harmonic trapping potential. We show that the system admits a 'relativity group' which is a one-parameter family of deformations of the standard Galilei group to the Newton-Hooke group which is a Wigner-Inoenue contraction of the de Sitter group. This allows a group-theoretic interpretation of Kohn's theorem and related results. Larmor's theorem is used to show that the one-parameter family of deformations are all isomorphic. We study the 'Eisenhart' or 'lightlike' lift of the system, exhibiting it as a pp-wave. In the planar case, the Eisenhart lift is the Brdicka-Eardley-Nappi-Witten pp-wave solution of Einstein-Maxwell theory, which may also be regarded as a bi-invariant metric on the Cangemi-Jackiw group.

  4. A Smooth Newton Method for Nonlinear Programming Problems with Inequality Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Moraru

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a reformulation of the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT system associated nonlinear programming problem into an equivalent system of smooth equations. Classical Newton method is applied to solve the system of equations. The superlinear convergence of the primal sequence, generated by proposed method, is proved. The preliminary numerical results with a problems test set are presented.

  5. Newton's second law versus modified-inertia MOND: A test using the high-latitude effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatiev, A. Yu.

    2008-01-01

    The modified-inertia MOND is an approach that proposes a change in Newton's second law at small accelerations as an alternative to dark matter. Recently it was suggested that this approach can be tested in terrestrial laboratory experiments. One way of doing the test is based on the static high-latitude equinox modified-inertia effect: around each equinox date, 2 spots emerge on the Earth where static bodies experience spontaneous displacement due to the violation of Newton's second law required by the modified-inertia MOND. Here, a detailed theory of this effect is developed and estimates of the magnitude of the signal due to the effect are obtained. The expected displacement of a mirror in a gravitational-wave interferometer is found to be about 10 -14 m. Some experimental aspects of the proposal are discussed

  6. Newton's laws of motion in form of Riccati equation

    OpenAIRE

    Nowakowski, M.; Rosu, H. C.

    2001-01-01

    We discuss two applications of Riccati equation to Newton's laws of motion. The first one is the motion of a particle under the influence of a power law central potential $V(r)=k r^{\\epsilon}$. For zero total energy we show that the equation of motion can be cast in the Riccati form. We briefly show here an analogy to barotropic Friedmann-Robertson-Lemaitre cosmology where the expansion of the universe can be also shown to obey a Riccati equation. A second application in classical mechanics, ...

  7. XMM-Newton Observations of MBM 12: More Constraints on the Solar Wind Charge Exchange and Local Bubble Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutroumpa, Dimitra; Smith, Randall K.; Edgar, Richard J.; Kuntz, Kip D.; Plucinsky, Paul P.; Snowden, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    We present the first analysis of an XMM-Newton observation of the nearby molecular cloud MBM 12. We find that in the direction of MBM 12 the total O VII (0.57 keV) triplet emission is 1.8(+0.5/-0.6) photons/sq cm/s/sr (or Line Units - LU) while for the O VIII (0.65 keV) line emission we find a 3(sigma) upper limit of by Solar Wind Charge-eXchange (SWCX) which we compare to the XMM-Newton observations. This comparison provides new constraints on the relative heliospheric and Local Bubble contributions to the local diffuse X-ray background. The heliospheric SWCX model predicts 0.82 LU for O VII, which accounts for approx. 46+/-15% of the observed value, and 0.33 LU for the O VIII line emission consistent with the XMM-Newton observed value. We discuss our results in combination with previous observations of the MBM 12 with CHANDRA and Suzaku.

  8. A Gauss-Newton method for the integration of spatial normal fields in shape Space

    KAUST Repository

    Balzer, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    to solving a nonlinear least-squares problem in shape space. Previously, the corresponding minimization has been performed by gradient descent, which suffers from slow convergence and susceptibility to local minima. Newton-type methods, although significantly

  9. Surface-water, water-quality, and meteorological data for the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area, water years 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2011-01-01

    Records of water quantity, water quality, and meteorological parameters were continuously collected from three reservoirs, two primary streams, and five subbasin tributaries in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area during water years 2007-08 (October 2006 through September 2008). Water samples were collected during base-flow conditions and storms in the Cambridge Reservoir and Stony Brook Reservoir drainage areas and analyzed for dissolved calcium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate; total nitrogen and phosphorus; and polar pesticides and metabolites. Composite samples of stormwater also were analyzed for concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons and suspended sediment in one subbasin in the Stony Brook Reservoir drainage basin. These data were collected to assist watershed administrators in managing the drinking-water source area and to identify potential sources of contaminants and trends in contaminant loading to the water supply.

  10. Quantum gravity at a TeV and the renormalization of Newton's constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmet, Xavier; Hsu, Stephen D. H.; Reeb, David

    2008-01-01

    We examine whether renormalization effects can cause Newton's constant to change dramatically with energy, perhaps even reducing the scale of quantum gravity to the TeV region without the introduction of extra dimensions. We examine a model that realizes this possibility and describe experimental signatures from the production of small black holes

  11. An Information Integration Study on the Intuitive Physics of the Newton's Cradle

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sá Teixeira, Nuno Alexandre; Oliveira, Armando Mónica; Silva, Ana Duarte

    2014-01-01

    Newton's cradle, a device consisting of a chain of steel balls suspended in alignment, has been used extensively in physics teaching to demonstrate the principles of conservation of momentum and kinetic energy in elastic collisions. The apparent simplicity of the device allows one to test commonly hold views regarding the intuitive understanding…

  12. Cambridge observations at 38-115 MHz and their implications for space astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, R.

    1987-01-01

    The design and performance of the Cambridge LF telescopes are reviewed. Consideration is given to the 151-MHz 6C telescope, the 38-MHz and 151-MHz LF synthesis telescopes, 81.5-MHz interplanetary scintillation observations with the 3.6-hectare array, long-baseline interferometry at 81.5 MHz, and the use of the Jodrell Bank MERLIN for 151-MHz closure-phase observations of bright sources. The strict limitation on the field mappable at a given resolution in ground-based observations at these frequencies is pointed out, and some outstanding astronomical problems requiring 0.3-30-MHz space observations are listed. 7 references

  13. A FIRST STEP TOWARDS THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM IN A K-12 UNGRADED SCHOOL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FOSTER, GARRETT R.

    A SERIES OF THREE CONFERENCES WAS HELD TO EXPLORE THE FEASIBILITY OF IMPLEMENTING A LONG-RANGE CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT PROJECT FOR AN UNGRADED, K-12 SCHOOL, BASED ON RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE CAMBRIDGE CONFERENCE ON SCHOOL MATHEMATICS. OVER 50 MATHEMATICIANS, MATHEMATICS EDUCATORS, AND PERSONS INVOLVED IN THEORETICAL AND APPLIED PSYCHOLOGICAL…

  14. Transcriptional and Chromatin Dynamics of Muscle Regeneration After Severe Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-12

    02127. 2Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge , MA 02142, Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Cambridge , MA 02138, Dept. of Stem Cell and...Regenerative Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge , MA 02138. 3United States Army Institute of Environmental Medicine - Military Performance Division, Natick...throughout the regenerative process in a mouse model of traumatic muscle injury. We first illustrate how the transcriptional landscape of coding and

  15. Provisional Approaches to Goals for School Mathematics; Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics Feasibility Study No. 37.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics, Newton, MA.

    These materials were written with the aim of reflecting the thinking of Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics (CCSM) regarding the goals and objectives for school mathematics K-6. In view of the experiences of other curriculum groups and of the general discussions since 1963, the present report initiates the next step in evolving the "Goals".…

  16. INTEGRAL and XMM-Newton observations of the weak gamma-ray burst GRB 030227

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mereghetti, S.; Gotz, D.; Tiengo, A.

    2003-01-01

    We present International Gamma-Ray Astrophysical Laboratory ( INTEGRAL) and XMM-Newton observations of the prompt gamma-ray emission and the X-ray afterglow of GRB 030227, the first gamma-ray burst for which the quick localization obtained with the INTEGRAL Burst Alert System has led...

  17. Investigating the origin of X-ray variability through XMM-Newton and WISE data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaino, A.; Vignali, C.; Severgnini, P.; Della Ceca, R.; Ballo, L.

    2017-10-01

    An efficient diagnostic method to find local (zmaster thesis work, in which I tested the stability of the method outlined above using the latest 3XMM and WISE data, and I investigated its potentialities in finding interesting spectrally variable (including changing-look) XMM-Newton sources.

  18. Globalized Newton-Krylov-Schwarz Algorithms and Software for Parallel Implicit CFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gropp, W. D.; Keyes, D. E.; McInnes, L. C.; Tidriri, M. D.

    1998-01-01

    Implicit solution methods are important in applications modeled by PDEs with disparate temporal and spatial scales. Because such applications require high resolution with reasonable turnaround, "routine" parallelization is essential. The pseudo-transient matrix-free Newton-Krylov-Schwarz (Psi-NKS) algorithmic framework is presented as an answer. We show that, for the classical problem of three-dimensional transonic Euler flow about an M6 wing, Psi-NKS can simultaneously deliver: globalized, asymptotically rapid convergence through adaptive pseudo- transient continuation and Newton's method-, reasonable parallelizability for an implicit method through deferred synchronization and favorable communication-to-computation scaling in the Krylov linear solver; and high per- processor performance through attention to distributed memory and cache locality, especially through the Schwarz preconditioner. Two discouraging features of Psi-NKS methods are their sensitivity to the coding of the underlying PDE discretization and the large number of parameters that must be selected to govern convergence. We therefore distill several recommendations from our experience and from our reading of the literature on various algorithmic components of Psi-NKS, and we describe a freely available, MPI-based portable parallel software implementation of the solver employed here.

  19. Teaching Newton's Laws with the iPod Touch in Conceptual Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Angela M.

    2011-04-01

    One of the greatest challenges in teaching physics is helping students achieve a conceptual understanding of Newton's laws. I find that students fresh from middle school can sometimes recite the laws verbatim ("An object in motion stays in motion…" and "For every action…"), but they rarely demonstrate a working knowledge of how to apply them to observable phenomena. As a firm believer in inquiry-based teaching methods, I like to develop activities where students can experiment and construct understandings based on relevant personal experiences. Consequently, I am always looking for exciting new technologies that can readily demonstrate how physics affects everyday things. In a conceptual physics class designed for ninth-graders, I created a structured activity where students applied Newton's laws to a series of free applications downloaded on iPod Touches. The laws had been introduced during the prior class session with textual descriptions and graphical representations. The course is offered as part of the Enlace Latino Collegiate Society, a weekend enrichment program for middle and high school students in the Bronx. The majority of students had limited or no prior exposure to physics concepts, and many attended high schools where physics was not offered at all.

  20. Fiftieth Anniversary of the Cambridge Structural Database and Thirty Years of Its Use in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kojić-Prodić B.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to the memory of Dr. F. H. Allen and the 50th anniversary of the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC; the world-renowned centre for deposition and control of crystallographic data including atomic coordinates that define the three-dimensional structures of organic molecules and metal complexes containing organic ligands. The mission exposed at the web site (http://www.ccdc.cam.ac.uk is clearly stated: “The Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC is dedicated to the advancement of chemistry and crystallography for the public benefit through providing high quality information, software and services.” The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD, one among the first established electronic databases, nowadays is one of the most significant crystallographic databases in the world. In the International Year of Crystallography 2014, the CSD announced in December over 750,000 deposited structures. The use of the extensive and rapidly growing database needs support of sophisticated and efficient software for checking, searching, analysing, and visualising structural data. The seminal role of the CSD in researches related to crystallography, chemistry, materials science, solid state physics and chemistry, (biotechnology, life sciences, and pharmacology is widely known. The important issues of the CCDC are the accuracy of deposited data and development of software for checking the data. Therefore, the Crystallographic Information File (CIF is introduced as the standard text file format for representing crystallographic information. Among the most important software for users is ConQuest, which enables searching all the CSD information fields, and the web implementation WebCSD software. Mercury is available for visualisation of crystal structures and crystal morphology including intra- and intermolecular interactions with graph-set notations of hydrogen bonds, and analysis of geometrical parameters. The CCDC gives even

  1. PERBANDINGAN KEEFISIENAN METODE NEWTON-RAPHSON, METODE SECANT, DAN METODE BISECTION DALAM MENGESTIMASI IMPLIED VOLATILITIES SAHAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IDA AYU EGA RAHAYUNI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Black-Scholes model suggests that volatility is constant or fixed during the life time of the option certainly known. However, this does not fit with what happen in the real market. Therefore, the volatility has to be estimated. Implied Volatility is the etimated volatility from a market mechanism that is considered as a reasonable way to assess the volatility's value. This study was aimed to compare the Newton-Raphson, Secant, and Bisection method, in estimating the stock volatility value of PT Telkom Indonesia Tbk (TLK. It found that the three methods have the same Implied Volatilities, where Newton-Raphson method gained roots more rapidly than the two others, and it has the smallest relative error greater than Secant and Bisection methods.

  2. Solving the Flood Propagation Problem with Newton Algorithm on Parallel Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chefi Triki

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a parallel implementation for the flood propagation method Flo2DH. The model is built on a finite element spatial approximation combined with a Newton algorithm that uses a direct LU linear solver. The parallel implementation has been developed by using the standard MPI protocol and has been tested on a set of real world problems.

  3. Teaching Newton's 3rd law of motion using learning by design approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Jiezel G.; Caliguid, Mariel P.; Buan, Amelia T.; Magsayod, Joy R.; Lahoylahoy, Myrna E.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the process and implementation of Learning by Design Approach in teaching Newton's 3rd Law of Motion. A lesson activity from integrative STEM education was adapted, modified and enhanced through pilot testing. After revisions, the implementation was done to one class. The respondent's prior knowledge was first assessed by a pretest. PPIT (present the scenario, plan, implement and test) was the framework followed in the implementation of Learning by Design. Worksheets were then utilized to measure their conceptual understanding and perception. A score guide was also used to evaluate the student's output. Paired t-test analysis showed that there is a significant difference in the pretest and posttest achievement scores. This implies that the performance of the students have improved during the implementation of the Learning by Design. The Analysis of variance also depicts that the low, average and high benefited in the Learning by Design approach. The results of this study suggests that Learning by Design is an effective approach in teaching Newton's 3rd Law of Motion and thus be used in a Science classroom.

  4. Hydrologic, Water-Quality, and Meteorological Data for the Cambridge, Massachusetts, Drinking-Water Source Area, Water Year 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2008-01-01

    Records of water quantity, water quality, and meteorological parameters were continuously collected from three reservoirs, two primary streams, and four subbasin tributaries in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area during water year 2006 (October 2005 through September 2006). Water samples were collected during base-flow conditions and storms in the subbasins of the Cambridge Reservoir and Stony Brook Reservoir drainage areas and analyzed for dissolved calcium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate; total nitrogen and phosphorus; and polar pesticides and metabolites. These data were collected to assist watershed administrators in managing the drinking-water source area and to identify potential sources of contaminants and trends in contaminant loading to the water supply. Monthly reservoir contents for the Cambridge Reservoir varied from about 59 to 98 percent of capacity during water year 2006, while monthly reservoir contents for the Stony Brook Reservoir and the Fresh Pond Reservoir was maintained at greater than 83 and 94 percent of capacity, respectively. If water demand is assumed to be 15 million gallons per day by the city of Cambridge, the volume of water released from the Stony Brook Reservoir to the Charles River during the 2006 water year is equivalent to an annual water surplus of about 127 percent. Recorded precipitation in the source area was about 16 percent greater for the 2006 water year than for the previous water year and was between 12 and 73 percent greater than for any recorded amount since water year 2002. The monthly mean specific-conductance values for all continuously monitored stations within the drinking-water source area were generally within the range of historical data collected since water year 1997, and in many cases were less than the historical medians. The annual mean specific conductance of 738 uS/cm (microsiemens per centimeter) for water discharged from the Cambridge Reservoir was nearly identical to the annual

  5. New realizations of 𝒩 = 2l-conformal Newton-Hooke superalgebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterov, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    By applying Niederer-like transformation, we construct a representation of the 𝒩 = 2l-conformal Newton-Hooke (NH) superalgebra for the case of a negative cosmological constant in terms of linear differential operators as well as its dynamical realization. Another variant of 𝒩 = 2 supersymmetric Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillator for a particular choice of its frequencies is proposed. The advantages of such realizations as compared to their analogues introduced in [I. Masterov, J. Math. Phys.53, 072904 (2012)], are discussed.

  6. Recent Developments in Cambridge College Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Wilson

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Cambridge University has three tiers of libraries available to students: the University Library, departmental (subject libraries and college libraries. Over the past thirty years there has been increasing pressure on the colleges to provide more books, reader places and technical resources in their libraries, with the result that a number of new library buildings, of very different styles, have been opened. Other colleges have opted for refurbishment and extension of existing libraries. These libraries are small (30-100,000 books and intimate, often open 24 hours a day and with generous provision for lending books. Great importance is placed on keeping them at the heart of the college. Challenges for architects are the sensitive sites, restrictions on changes to listed buildings, and the limited space available. The constricted sites cause difficulties for the builders too. I will consider some solutions to these problems with reference to projects in four colleges: Pembroke, Peterhouse, Corpus Christi and Newnham. At Pembroke architects Freeland Rees Roberts have built an extension to a listed building and at Peterhouse they have adapted an adjoining room. Corpus Christi is moving its library to a Victorian building which has been internally redesigned by Wright + Wright. Newnham demolished a 1960s extension in order to develop the plot more efficiently to a design by John Miller + Partners. All the architects have shown sensitivity to the needs of their clients and ingenuity in making intensive use of limited space.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: XMM-Newton FOV brightest serendipitous sources (Marelli+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marelli, M.; Pizzocaro, D.; de, Luca A.; Gastaldello, F.; Caraveo, P.; Parkinson, P. S.

    2018-02-01

    Our deep XMM-Newton observation of PSR J2055+2539, lasting 136.2 ks, was performed on 2013 May 1 (ObsID 0724090101). The PN camera (Struder et al. 2001AJ....121.1413P) of the EPIC instrument was operating in Large Window mode, with a time resolution of 47.7 ms on a 27'x13' field of view (FOV). The high time resolution, combined with the large FOV, allows for both the timing analysis of the J2055 pulsar and the spatial analysis of the nebular structures. The Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) detectors (Turner et al. 2001A&A...365L..27T) were set in full-frame mode (2.6 s time resolution on a 15' radius FOV). The thin optical filter was used for both PN and MOSs. We also analyzed XMM-Newton observations 0605470401 and 0605470901, taken on 2009 October 26 and on 2010 April 21, and lasting 24.5 and 17.9 ks, respectively. (1 data file).

  8. Using Newton's law and geophysical bounds on mass density contrast to ensure consistency between gravity and height data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strykowski, Gabriel; Larsen, Jacob Norby

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we advocate the use of Newton's law of gravitational attraction to ensure perfect consistency between gravity and height data. Starting with the absolute gravity on the topography we decompose this signal into a number of quantities associated with physics of the system. To model...... gravitational attraction from topography we use DTM and Newton's law of gravitational attraction. A residual part of the gravity signal is interpreted as inconsistency between gravity and heights. In the paper we discuss a method by which such inconsistency (at least in principle) can be decomposed...

  9. A Spectral Analysis of the X-Ray Pulsar 4U 1907+09 obtained at thePeriastron Passage with the XMM-Newton Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balman, Solen; Mendez, Mariano; Diaz Trigo, Maria; Inam, Cagdas; Baykal, Altan

    2010-01-01

    We present results from a 20 ksec observation of the wind-accreting X-ray pulsar 4U 1907+09 obtained using the XMM-Newton Observatory at the periastron passage. The XMM-Newton spectrum allows us to study the continuum emission and the emission line at 6.4 keV with the high sensitivity and

  10. Bubble dynamics equations in Newton fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, J

    2008-01-01

    For the high-speed flow of Newton fluid, bubble is produced and expanded when it moves toward the surface of fluid. Bubble dynamics is a very important research field to understand the intrinsic feature of bubble production and motion. This research formulates the bubble expansion by expansion-local rotation transformation, which can be calculated by the measured velocity field. Then, the related dynamic equations are established to describe the interaction between the fluid and the bubble. The research shows that the bubble production condition can be expressed by critical vortex value and fluid pressure; and the bubble expansion rate can be obtained by solving the non-linear dynamic equation of bubble motion. The results may help the related research as it shows a special kind of fluid motion in theoretic sense. As an application example, the nanofiber radium-voltage relation and threshold voltage-surface tension relation in electrospinning process are discussed

  11. From Newton's bucket to rotating polygons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, B.; Linnartz, E. C.; Vested, Malene Louise Hovgaard

    2014-01-01

    We present an experimental study of 'polygons' forming on the free surface of a swirling water flow in a partially filled cylindrical container. In our set-up, we rotate the bottom plate and the cylinder wall with separate motors. We thereby vary rotation rate and shear strength independently...... and move from a rigidly rotating 'Newton's bucket' flow to one where bottom and cylinder wall are rotating oppositely and the surface is strongly turbulent but flat on average. Between those two extremes, we find polygonal states for which the rotational symmetry is spontaneously broken. We investigate...... the phase diagram spanned by the two rotational frequencies at a given water filling height and find polygons in a regime, where the two frequencies are sufficiently different and, predominantly, when they have opposite signs. In addition to the extension of the family of polygons found with the stationary...

  12. Goals for Mathematical Education of Elementary School Teachers: A Report of the Cambridge Conference on Teacher Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA.

    This report is intended to provide attention to issues that the Cambridge Conference feels are related to the mathematical training of elementary school teachers. The document is divided into three parts. Part I, titled "The Problems and Proposals Towards the Solution," contains the following chapters: (1) Introduction to the Report; (2)…

  13. NuSTAR and XMM-Newton observations of 1e1743.1-2843: indications of a neutron star LMXB nature of the compact object

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lotti, Simone; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Mori, Kaya

    2016-01-01

    We report on the results of NuSTAR and XMM-Newton observations of the persistent X-ray source 1E1743.1-2843, located in the Galactic Center region. The source was observed between 2012 September and October by NuSTAR and XMM-Newton, providing almost simultaneous observations in the hard and soft X......-ray bands. The high X-ray luminosity points to the presence of an accreting compact object. We analyze the possibilities of this accreting compact object being either a neutron star (NS) or a black hole, and conclude that the joint XMM-Newton and NuSTAR spectrum from 0.3 to 40 keV fits a blackbody spectrum...

  14. Application of a primitive variable Newton's method for the calculation of an axisymmetric laminar diffusion flame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yuenong; Smooke, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we present a primitive variable Newton-based solution method with a block-line linear equation solver for the calculation of reacting flows. The present approach is compared with the stream function-vorticity Newton's method and the SIMPLER algorithm on the calculation of a system of fully elliptic equations governing an axisymmetric methane-air laminar diffusion flame. The chemical reaction is modeled by the flame sheet approximation. The numerical solution agrees well with experimental data in the major chemical species. The comparison of three sets of numerical results indicates that the stream function-vorticity solution using the approximate boundary conditions reported in the previous calculations predicts a longer flame length and a broader flame shape. With a new set of modified vorticity boundary conditions, we obtain agreement between the primitive variable and stream function-vorticity solutions. The primitive variable Newton's method converges much faster than the other two methods. Because of much less computer memory required for the block-line tridiagonal solver compared to a direct solver, the present approach makes it possible to calculate multidimensional flames with detailed reaction mechanisms. The SIMPLER algorithm shows a slow convergence rate compared to the other two methods in the present calculation

  15. TESTING RELATIVISTIC REFLECTION AND RESOLVING OUTFLOWS IN PG 1211+143 WITH XMM-NEWTON AND NuSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobban, A. P.; Pounds, K.; Vaughan, S. [University of Leicester, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Reeves, J. N., E-mail: al394@le.ac.uk [Astrophysics Group, Keele University, Staffordshire, ST5 5BG (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-10

    We analyze the broad-band X-ray spectrum (0.3–50 keV) of the luminous Seyfert 1/quasar PG 1211+143—the archetypal source for high-velocity X-ray outflows—using near-simultaneous XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observations. We compare pure relativistic reflection models with a model including the strong imprint of photoionized emission and absorption from a high-velocity wind, finding a spectral fit that extrapolates well over the higher photon energies covered by NuSTAR . Inclusion of the high signal-to-noise ratio XMM-Newton spectrum provides much tighter constraints on the model parameters, with a much harder photon index/lower reflection fraction compared to that from the NuSTAR data alone. We show that pure relativistic reflection models are not able to account for the spectral complexity of PG 1211+143 and that wind absorption models are strongly required to match the data in both the soft X-ray and Fe K spectral regions. In confirming the significance of previously reported ionized absorption features, the new analysis provides a further demonstration of the power of combining the high throughput and resolution of long-look XMM-Newton observations with the unprecedented spectral coverage of NuSTAR .

  16. Test of Newton's inverse-square law in the Greenland ice cap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ander, M.E.; Zumberge, M.A.; Lautzenhiser, T.

    1989-01-01

    An Airy-type geophysical experiment was conducted in a 2-km-deep hole in the Greenland ice cap at depths between 213 and 1673 m to test for possible violations of Newton's inverse-square law. An anomalous gravity gradient was observed. We cannot unambiguously attribute it to a breakdown of Newtonian gravity because we have shown that it might be due to unexpected geological features in the rock below the ice

  17. 7th Cambridge Workshops on Universal Access and Assistive Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Lazar, J; Heylighen, A; Dong, H; Inclusive Designing : Joining Usability, Accessibility, and Inclusion

    2014-01-01

    ‘Inclusive Designing’ presents the proceedings of the seventh Cambridge Workshop on Universal Access and Assistive Technology (CWUAAT '14). It represents a unique multi-disciplinary workshop for the Inclusive Design Research community where designers, computer scientists, engineers, architects, ergonomists, policymakers and user communities can exchange ideas. The research presented at CWUAAT '14 develops methods, technologies, tools and guidance that support product designers and architects to design for the widest possible population for a given range of capabilities, within a contemporary social and economic context. In the context of developing demographic changes leading to greater numbers of older people and people with disabilities, the general field of Inclusive Design Research strives to relate the capabilities of the population to the design of products. Inclusive populations of older people contain a greater variation in sensory, cognitive and physical user capabilities. These variations may be...

  18. Newton's Investigation of Light and Color: Historical and Experimental Notes. Experiment No. 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devons, Samuel

    The life and work of Isaac Newton and his investigations of light and color are described in detail. Notes include preliminary observations of chromatic dispersion; dispersion by an equilateral prism; the "Experimentum Crucos" or the composite nature of white light; the nature of colored light and illumination; transmissions and reflections; and…

  19. XMM-Newton study of the supersoft symbiotic system Draco C1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedi, Sara; Sasaki, Manami; Ducci, Lorenzo

    2018-01-01

    We present the results of the analysis of thirty-one XMM-Newton observations of the symbiotic star Draco C1 located in the Draco dwarf spheroidal galaxy. This object had been identified as a supersoft source based on ROSAT data. We analysed X-ray, ultraviolet (UV) and optical data taken with XMM-Newton in order to obtain the physical parameters and the geometry of the system. We have also performed the first X-ray timing analysis of Draco C1. The X-ray spectrum is well fitted with a blackbody model with a temperature of (1.8 ± 0.3) × 105 K. We obtained a bolometric luminosity of ≳1038 erg s-1 for the white dwarf. The X-ray spectrum and luminosity suggest stable nuclear burning on the surface of the white dwarf. The low column density derived from the X-ray spectrum is consistent with the lack of nebular lines found in previous UV studies. The long-term variability in the optical and the UV suggests that the system is not observed face-on and that the variability is caused by the reflection effect. For the red giant companion, we estimate a radius of ∼110 R⊙ and an upper limit ≲1.5 M⊙ for its mass assuming Roche lobe overflow.

  20. Milgrom's revision of Newton's laws: Dynamical and cosmological consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felten, J.E.; and University of Maryland, College Park)

    1984-01-01

    Milgrom's recent revision of Newtonian dynamics was introduced to eliminate the inference that large quantities of invisible mass exist in galaxies. I show by simple examples that a Milgrom acceleration, in the form presented so far, implies other far-reaching changes in dynamics. The momentum of an isolated system is not conserved, and the usual theorem for center-of-mass motion of any system does not hold. Naive applications require extreme caution. The model fails to provide a complete description of particle dynamics and should be thought of as a revision of Kepler's laws rather than Newton's

  1. Nine Years of XMM-Newton Pipeline: Experience and Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Laurent; Motch, Christian

    2009-05-01

    The Strasbourg Astronomical Observatory is member of the Survey Science Centre (SSC) of the XMM-Newton satellite. Among other responsibilities, we provide a database access to the 2XMMi catalogue and run the part of the data processing pipeline performing the cross-correlation of EPIC sources with archival catalogs. These tasks were all developed in Strasbourg. Pipeline processing is flawlessly in operation since 1999. We describe here the work load and infrastructure setup in Strasbourg to support SSC activities. Our nine year long SSC experience could be used in the framework of the Simbol-X ground segment.

  2. Nine Years of XMM-Newton Pipeline: Experience and Feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, Laurent; Motch, Christian

    2009-01-01

    The Strasbourg Astronomical Observatory is member of the Survey Science Centre (SSC) of the XMM-Newton satellite. Among other responsibilities, we provide a database access to the 2XMMi catalogue and run the part of the data processing pipeline performing the cross-correlation of EPIC sources with archival catalogs. These tasks were all developed in Strasbourg. Pipeline processing is flawlessly in operation since 1999. We describe here the work load and infrastructure setup in Strasbourg to support SSC activities. Our nine year long SSC experience could be used in the framework of the Simbol-X ground segment.

  3. Nonconvergence of the plain Newton-min algorithm for linear complementarity problems with a P-matrix --- The full report.

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Gharbia , Ibtihel; Gilbert , Jean Charles

    2012-01-01

    The plain Newton-min algorithm to solve the linear complementarity problem (LCP for short) 0 ≤ x ⊥ (Mx+q) ≥ 0 can be viewed as a nonsmooth Newton algorithm without globalization technique to solve the system of piecewise linear equations min(x,Mx+q)=0, which is equivalent to the LCP. When M is an M-matrix of order n, the algorithm is known to converge in at most n iterations. We show in this paper that this result no longer holds when M is a P-matrix of order ≥ 3, since then the algorithm may...

  4. A geophysical experiment on Newton's inverse-square law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achilli, V.; Errani, M.; Focardi, S.; Palmonari, F.; Pedrielli, F.

    1997-01-01

    A geophysical experiment consisting of measurement of the gravitational effect produced by a large water mass was performed in order to verify Newton's law. The use of a superconducting gravimeter lead to a precision of about 0.1 % in the final result. the ratio between the measured and the expected gravitational effect differs from 1 by more than 9 standard deviations. This may be explained by adding to the Newtonian potential a Yukawa repulsive term. The experimental result leads to constraints for the relationship between the relative magnitude (α) of the new term and the range (λ) of the interaction. In the region 20 m < λ < 500 m, α ranges from 2.6 % to 1.3 %

  5. The role of Newton's constant in Einstein's gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Alfaro, V.

    1983-01-01

    The role of the Newton constant in Einstein particle physics is discussed. The troubles paguing the quantum theory of gravity, including the abscence of an effective cosmological constant, are discussed. The Planck length is studied. The key point is that gravity theory is invariant under general coordinate transformations (GCT). The law of transformations of a tensor under GCT, with attention on dilatations, is determined. The results are compared to the case of a conformal invariant theory in a flat space. The fields in the flat limit are redefined under this rule: in the flat limit the kinetic term must be invariant under conformal transformations. The procedure exhibits clearly the fundamental scale invariance of the Einstein theory

  6. XMM-NEWTON OBSERVATION OF THE α PERSEI CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillitteri, Ignazio; Evans, Nancy Remage; Wolk, Scott J.; Bruck Syal, Megan

    2013-01-01

    We report on the analysis of an archival observation of part of the α Persei cluster obtained with XMM-Newton. We detected 102 X-ray sources in the band 0.3-8.0 keV, of which 39 of them are associated with the cluster as evidenced by appropriate magnitudes and colors from Two Micron All Sky Survey photometry. We extend the X-ray luminosity distribution (XLD) for M dwarfs, to add to the XLD found for hotter dwarfs from spatially extensive surveys of the whole cluster by ROSAT. Some of the hotter stars are identified as a background, possible slightly older group of stars at a distance of approximately 500 pc.

  7. Initial conditions and robust Newton-Raphson for harmonic balance analysis of free-running oscillators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Virtanen, J.E.; Maten, ter E.J.W.; Beelen, T.G.J.; Honkala, M.; Hulkkonen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Poor initial conditions for Harmonic Balance (HB) analysis of freerunning oscillators may lead to divergence of the direct Newton-Raphson method or may prevent to find the solution within an optimization approach. We exploit time integration to obtain estimates for the oscillation frequency and for

  8. Simultaneous NuSTAR and XMM-Newton 0.5-80 keV spectroscopy of the narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy SWIFT J2127.4+5654

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinucci, A.; Matt, G.; Kara, E.

    2014-01-01

    We present a broad-band spectral analysis of the joint XMM-Newton and Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array observational campaign of the narrow-line Seyfert 1 SWIFT J2127.4+5654, consisting of 300 ks performed during three XMM-Newton orbits. We detect a relativistic broadened iron Kα line...

  9. Texas Science Teacher Characteristics and Conceptual Understanding of Newton's Laws of Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Karin Burk

    Misconceptions of Newtonian mechanics and other physical science concepts are well documented in primary and pre-service teacher populations (Burgoon, Heddle, & Duran, 2009; Allen & Coole, 2012; Kruger, Summers, & Palacio, 1990; Ginns & Watters, 1995; Trumper, 1999; Asikainen & Hirovonen, 2014). These misconceptions match the misconceptions held by students, leaving teachers ill-equipped to rectify these concepts in the classroom (Kind, 2014; Kruger et al., 1990; Cochran & Jones, 1998). Little research has been devoted to misconceptions held by in-service secondary teachers, the population responsible for teaching Newtonian mechanics. This study focuses on Texas in-service science teachers in middle school and high school science, specifically sixth grade science, seventh grade science, eighth grade science, integrated physics and chemistry, and physics teachers. This study utilizes two instruments to gauge conceptual understanding of Newton's laws of motion: the Force Concept Inventory [FCI] (Hestenes, Wells, & Swackhamer, 1992) and a custom instrument developed for the Texas Regional Collaboratives for Excellence in Science and Mathematics Teaching (Urquhart, M., e-mail, April 4, 2017). Use of each instrument had its strengths and limitations. In the initial work of this study, the FCI was given to middle and high school teacher volunteers in two urban school districts in the Dallas- Fort Worth area to assess current conceptual understanding of Newtonian mechanics. Along with the FCI, each participant was asked to complete a demographic survey. Demographic data collected included participant's sex, years of service in teaching position, current teaching position, degrees, certification type, and current certifications for science education. Correlations between variables and overall average on the FCI were determined by t-tests and ANOVA tests with a post-hoc Holm-Bonferroni correction test. Test questions pertaining to each of Newton's three laws of motion were

  10. Classical Monopoles: Newton, NUT-space, gravomagnetic lensing and atomic spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Lynden-Bell, Donald; Nouri-Zonoz, Mohammad

    1996-01-01

    Stimulated by a scholium in Newton's Principia we find some beautiful results in classical mechanics which can be interpreted in terms of the orbits in the field of a mass endowed with a gravomagnetic monopole. All the orbits lie on cones! When the cones are slit open and flattened the orbits are exactly the ellipses and hyperbolae that one would have obtained without the gravomagnetic monopole. The beauty and simplicity of these results has led us to explore the similar problems in Atomic Ph...

  11. XMM-NEWTON SLEW SURVEY OBSERVATIONS OF THE GRAVITATIONAL WAVE EVENT GW150914

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troja, E. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Rd, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Read, A. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Leicester University, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Tiengo, A. [Istituto Universitario di Studi Superiori, piazza della Vittoria 15, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Salvaterra, R. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica Milano, INAF, via E. Bassini 15, I-20133 Milano (Italy)

    2016-05-01

    The detection of the first gravitational wave (GW) transient GW150914 prompted an extensive campaign of follow-up observations at all wavelengths. Although no dedicated XMM-Newton observations have been performed, the satellite passed through the GW150914 error region during normal operations. Here we report the analysis of the data taken during these satellite slews performed two hours and two weeks after the GW event. Our data cover 1.1 and 4.8 deg{sup 2} of the final GW localization region. No X-ray counterpart to GW150914 is found down to a sensitivity of 6 × 10{sup −13} erg cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} in the 0.2–2 keV band. Nevertheless, these observations show the great potential of XMM-Newton slew observations for searching for the electromagnetic counterparts of GW events. A series of adjacent slews performed in response to a GW trigger would take ≲1.5 days to cover most of the typical GW credible region. We discuss this scenario and its prospects for detecting the X-ray counterpart of future GW detections.

  12. Psychometric properties of the Calgary Cambridge guides to assess communication skills of undergraduate medical students.

    OpenAIRE

    Simmenroth-Nayda, Anne; Heinemann, Stephanie; Nolte, Catharina; Fischer, Thomas; Himmel, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyse the psychometric properties of the short version of the Calgary Cambridge Guides and to decide whether it can be recommended for use in the assessment of communications skills in young undergraduate medical students. METHODS: Using a translated version of the Guide, 30 members from the Department of General Practice rated 5 videotaped encounters between students and simulated patients twice. Item analysis should detect possible floor and/or...

  13. Initial conditions and robust Newton-Raphson for harmonic balance analysis of free-running oscillators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Virtanen, J.E.; Maten, ter E.J.W.; Honkala, M.; Hulkkonen, M.; Günther, M.; Bartel, A.; Brunk, M.; Schoeps, S.; Striebel, M.

    2012-01-01

    Poor initial conditions for Harmonic Balance (HB) analysis of free-running oscillators may lead to divergence of the direct Newton-Raphson method or may prevent to find the solution within an optimization approach. We exploit time integration to obtain estimates for the oscillation frequency and for

  14. Loads and yields of deicing compounds and total phosphorus in the Cambridge drinking-water source area, Massachusetts, water years 2009–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2017-09-12

    The source water area for the drinking-water supply of the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, encompasses major transportation corridors, as well as large areas of light industrial, commercial, and residential land use. Because of the large amount of roadway in the drinking-water source area, the Cambridge water supply is affected by the usage of deicing compounds and by other constituents that are flushed from such impervious areas. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has monitored surface-water quality in the Cambridge Reservoir and Stony Brook Reservoir Basins, which compose the drinking-water source area, since 1997 (water year 1998) through continuous monitoring and the collection of stream-flow samples.In a study conducted by the USGS, in cooperation with the City of Cambridge Water Department, concentrations and loads of calcium (Ca), chloride (Cl), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), and sulfate (SO4) were estimated from continuous records of specific conductance and streamflow for streams and tributaries at 10 continuous water-quality monitoring stations. These data were used to characterize current (2015) water-quality conditions, estimate loads and yields, and describe trends in Cl and Na in the tributaries and main-stem streams in the Cambridge Reservoir and Stony Brook Reservoir Basins. These data also were used to describe how stream-water quality is related to various basin characteristics and provide information to guide future management of the drinking-water source area.Water samples from 2009–15 were analyzed for physical properties and concentrations of Ca, Cl, Mg, Na, potassium (K), SO4, and total phosphorus (TP). Values of physical properties and constituent concentrations varied widely, particularly in composite samples of stormflow from tributaries that have high percentages of constructed impervious areas. Median concentrations of Ca, Cl, Mg, Na, and K in samples collected from the tributaries in the Cambridge Reservoir Basin (27.2, 273, 4.7, 154

  15. Randomized Block Cubic Newton Method

    KAUST Repository

    Doikov, Nikita; Richtarik, Peter

    2018-01-01

    We study the problem of minimizing the sum of three convex functions: a differentiable, twice-differentiable and a non-smooth term in a high dimensional setting. To this effect we propose and analyze a randomized block cubic Newton (RBCN) method, which in each iteration builds a model of the objective function formed as the sum of the natural models of its three components: a linear model with a quadratic regularizer for the differentiable term, a quadratic model with a cubic regularizer for the twice differentiable term, and perfect (proximal) model for the nonsmooth term. Our method in each iteration minimizes the model over a random subset of blocks of the search variable. RBCN is the first algorithm with these properties, generalizing several existing methods, matching the best known bounds in all special cases. We establish ${\\cal O}(1/\\epsilon)$, ${\\cal O}(1/\\sqrt{\\epsilon})$ and ${\\cal O}(\\log (1/\\epsilon))$ rates under different assumptions on the component functions. Lastly, we show numerically that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art on a variety of machine learning problems, including cubically regularized least-squares, logistic regression with constraints, and Poisson regression.

  16. Randomized Block Cubic Newton Method

    KAUST Repository

    Doikov, Nikita

    2018-02-12

    We study the problem of minimizing the sum of three convex functions: a differentiable, twice-differentiable and a non-smooth term in a high dimensional setting. To this effect we propose and analyze a randomized block cubic Newton (RBCN) method, which in each iteration builds a model of the objective function formed as the sum of the natural models of its three components: a linear model with a quadratic regularizer for the differentiable term, a quadratic model with a cubic regularizer for the twice differentiable term, and perfect (proximal) model for the nonsmooth term. Our method in each iteration minimizes the model over a random subset of blocks of the search variable. RBCN is the first algorithm with these properties, generalizing several existing methods, matching the best known bounds in all special cases. We establish ${\\\\cal O}(1/\\\\epsilon)$, ${\\\\cal O}(1/\\\\sqrt{\\\\epsilon})$ and ${\\\\cal O}(\\\\log (1/\\\\epsilon))$ rates under different assumptions on the component functions. Lastly, we show numerically that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art on a variety of machine learning problems, including cubically regularized least-squares, logistic regression with constraints, and Poisson regression.

  17. Data and performance profiles applying an adaptive truncation criterion, within linesearch-based truncated Newton methods, in large scale nonconvex optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Caliciotti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report data and experiments related to the research article entitled “An adaptive truncation criterion, for linesearch-based truncated Newton methods in large scale nonconvex optimization” by Caliciotti et al. [1]. In particular, in Caliciotti et al. [1], large scale unconstrained optimization problems are considered by applying linesearch-based truncated Newton methods. In this framework, a key point is the reduction of the number of inner iterations needed, at each outer iteration, to approximately solving the Newton equation. A novel adaptive truncation criterion is introduced in Caliciotti et al. [1] to this aim. Here, we report the details concerning numerical experiences over a commonly used test set, namely CUTEst (Gould et al., 2015 [2]. Moreover, comparisons are reported in terms of performance profiles (Dolan and Moré, 2002 [3], adopting different parameters settings. Finally, our linesearch-based scheme is compared with a renowned trust region method, namely TRON (Lin and Moré, 1999 [4].

  18. An Experimental Text in Transformational Geometry, Student Text; Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics Feasibility Study No. 43a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics, Newton, MA.

    This is part of a student text which was written with the aim of reflecting the thinking of The Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics (CCSM) regarding the goals and objectives for mathematics. The instructional materials were developed for teaching geometry in the secondary schools. This document is chapter six and titled Motions and…

  19. Ten Years of Monitoring 3C 273 with XMM–Newton Liu Liu ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We present ten years optical/UV/X-ray observations of 3C. 273 performed using XMM–Newton between 2000 and 2009. The short- time scale variability behaviour of the soft and hard X-ray light curves may suggest different origins of the soft/hard X-ray emissions. We fit well the 0.2–10 keV X-ray spectrum with a ...

  20. Hydrologic, Water-Quality, and Meteorological Data for the Cambridge, Massachusetts, Drinking-Water Source Area, Water Year 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2007-01-01

    Records of water quantity, water quality, and meteorological parameters were continuously collected from three reservoirs, two primary streams, and four subbasin tributaries in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area during water year 2005 (October 2004 through September 2005). Water samples were collected during base-flow conditions and storms in the subbasins of the Cambridge Reservoir and Stony Brook Reservoir drainage areas and analyzed for selected elements, organic constituents, suspended sediment, and Escherichia coli bacteria. These data were collected to assist watershed administrators in managing the drinking-water source area and to identify potential sources of contaminants and trends in contaminant loading to the water supply. Monthly reservoir capacities for the Cambridge Reservoir varied from about 59 to 98 percent during water year 2005, while monthly reservoir capacities for the Stony Brook Reservoir and the Fresh Pond Reservoir were maintained at capacities greater than 84 and 96 percent, respectively. Assuming a water demand of 15 million gallons per day by the city of Cambridge, the volume of water released from the Stony Brook Reservoir to the Charles River during the 2005 water year is equivalent to an annual water surplus of about 119 percent. Recorded precipitation in the source area for the 2005 water year was within 2 inches of the total annual precipitation for the previous 2 water years. The monthly mean specific conductances for the outflow of the Cambridge Reservoir were similar to historical monthly mean values. However, monthly mean specific conductances for Stony Brook near Route 20, in Waltham (U.S. Geological Survey station 01104460), which is the principal tributary feeding the Stony Brook Reservoir, were generally higher than the medians of the monthly mean specific conductances for the period of record. Similarly, monthly mean specific conductances for a small tributary to Stony Brook (U.S. Geological Survey

  1. Newton de Macedo : da filosofia da história para a sociologia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Baptista

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present text we present the culminant place of sociology in the Reform of the Higher Education in Philosophy attempted by Leonardo Coimbra in 1919, the time in which, as Minister for Instruction, he creates the Faculdade de Letras da Universidade do Porto (FLUP. Such a position is inscribed in the relevant interest showed for sociology, not only following the positivist tradition of the eighteen hundreds, but especially of the Portuguese Renaissance, movement that aspired to rise above it. Thus, we inform that, although the project of inscription of sociology in the philosophy’s curriculum of FLUP did not take place for political reasons, authors such as Georg Simmel were studied in detail, mainly after the critique of the philosophy of history. Newton de Macedo, historian and philosopher, is his main scholar: he shows how history as a science tends to progress from the level of historiography to the level of sociology, since historic facts should be inscribed in the category of social facts. Besides his attention to Vieira de Almeida’s scheme on historic causality, where he identi?es three phases of research, Newton de Macedo develops a critique of the naturalist and scientist visions of social phenomena produced by different positivist authors. On the other hand, when discussing the sociological thought of Durkheim, also well known in the primitive FLUP, he seems to identify himself with it. Focused on the ruins of post-war, Newton, as well as Leonardo Coimbra, produces a very critical reading of positivism (not without considering that it was a good epistemological standing point for work and has as main purpose the research for new bases for the construction of new values needed to ?ll the dangerous moral void left by belligerent barbarity. The text reveals the exceptional international and up-to-date openness of FLUP (1919-1931 in a national philosophical academic panorama closed to contemporary novelty and to the world

  2. The WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey: constraining the evolution of Newton's constant using the growth rate of structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesseris, Savvas; Blake, Chris; Davis, Tamara; Parkinson, David

    2011-01-01

    We constrain the evolution of Newton's constant using the growth rate of large-scale structure measured by the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey in the redshift range 0.1 m (assuming General Relativity), and use this to construct a diagnostic to detect the presence of an evolving Newton's constant. Secondly we directly measure the evolution of Newton's constant, G eff , that appears in Modified Gravity theories, without assuming General Relativity to be true. The novelty of these approaches are that, contrary to other methods, they do not require knowledge of the expansion history of the Universe, H(z), making them model independent tests. Our constraints for the second derivative of Newton's constant at the present day, assuming it is slowly evolving as suggested by Big Bang Nucleosynthesis constraints, using the WiggleZ data is G double-dot eff (t 0 ) = −1.19 ± 0.95·10 −20 h 2 yr −2 , where h is defined via H 0 = 100 h km s −1 Mpc −1 , while using both the WiggleZ and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Luminous Red Galaxy (SDSS LRG) data is G double-dot eff (t 0 ) = −3.6 ± 6.8·10 −21 h 2 yr −2 , both being consistent with General Relativity. Finally, our constraint for the rms mass fluctuation σ 8 using the WiggleZ data is σ 8 = 0.75 ± 0.08, while using both the WiggleZ and the SDSS LRG data σ 8 = 0.77 ± 0.07, both in good agreement with the latest measurements from the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation

  3. Cheminformatics Research at the Unilever Centre for Molecular Science Informatics Cambridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Julian E; Bender, Andreas; Glen, Robert C

    2015-09-01

    The Centre for Molecular Informatics, formerly Unilever Centre for Molecular Science Informatics (UCMSI), at the University of Cambridge is a world-leading driving force in the field of cheminformatics. Since its opening in 2000 more than 300 scientific articles have fundamentally changed the field of molecular informatics. The Centre has been a key player in promoting open chemical data and semantic access. Though mainly focussing on basic research, close collaborations with industrial partners ensured real world feedback and access to high quality molecular data. A variety of tools and standard protocols have been developed and are ubiquitous in the daily practice of cheminformatics. Here, we present a retrospective of cheminformatics research performed at the UCMSI, thereby highlighting historical and recent trends in the field as well as indicating future directions.

  4. Diagnosis of mild chronic pancreatitis (Cambridge classification): comparative study using secretin injection-magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic retrograde pancreatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai, Jin-Kan; Suyama, Masafumi; Kubokawa, Yoshihiro; Watanabe, Sumio

    2008-02-28

    To investigate the usefulness of secretin injection-MRCP for the diagnosis of mild chronic pancreatitis. Sixteen patients having mild chronic pancreatitis according to the Cambridge classification and 12 control subjects with no abnormal findings on the pancreatogram were examined for the diagnostic accuracy of secretin injection-MRCP regarding abnormal branch pancreatic ducts associated with mild chronic pancreatitis (Cambridge Classification), using endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for comparison. The sensitivity and specificity for abnormal branch pancreatic ducts determined by two reviewers were respectively 55%-63% and 75%-83% in the head, 57%-64% and 82%-83% in the body, and 44%-44% and 72%-76% in the tail of the pancreas. The sensitivity and specificity for mild chronic pancreatitis were 56%-63% and 92%-92%, respectively. Interobserver agreement (kappa statistics) concerning the diagnosis of an abnormal branch pancreatic duct and of mild chronic pancreatitis was good to excellent. Secretin injection-MRCP might be useful for the diagnosis of mild chronic pancreatitis.

  5. Rippled cosmological dark matter from a damped oscillating Newton constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, Aharon

    2005-01-01

    Let the reciprocal Newton 'constant' be an apparently non-dynamical Brans-Dicke scalar field damped oscillating towards its general relativistic VEV. We show, without introducing additional matter fields or dust, that the corresponding cosmological evolution averagely resembles, in the Jordan frame, the familiar dark radiation → dark matter → dark energy domination sequence. The fingerprints of our theory are fine ripples, hopefully testable, in the FRW scale factor; they die away at the general relativity limit. The possibility that the Brans-Dicke scalar also serves as the inflaton is favourably examined

  6. Charge quantization of wormholes and the finiteness of Newton's constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinstein, B.

    1989-01-01

    We derive, from first principles, the equations of Lee which exhibit wormhole solutions. The interpretation of such solutions becomes more transparent: they are local extrema of the action which contribute to transition amplitudes between states of definite charge. Hence the charge carried by the wormhole is quantized. We briefly review Coleman's mechanism for the vanishing of the cosmological constant, with emphasis on the problem of the vanishing of Newton's constant G. A mechanism is proposed that could naturally make 1/G a bounded function of the wormhole parameters. (orig.)

  7. Guidelines for Interactive Reliability-Based Structural Optimization using Quasi-Newton Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    increase of the condition number and preserve positive definiteness without discarding previously obtained information. All proposed modifications are also valid for non-interactive optimization problems. Heuristic rules from various optimization problems concerning when and how to impose interactions......Guidelines for interactive reliability-based structural optimization problems are outlined in terms of modifications of standard quasi-Newton algorithms. The proposed modifications minimize the condition number of the approximate Hessian matrix in each iteration, restrict the relative and absolute...

  8. Contact angles in thin liquid films III. Interaction forces in Newton black soap films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijter, J.A. de; Vrij, A.

    The interaction parameters of Newton black soap films stabilized by NaDS, as derived from contact angle experiments, have been interpretated in terms of the structure and the interaction forces in the films. From the film thickness and the difference between the surface excess of the salt in the

  9. Students' Understanding on Newton's Third Law in Identifying the Reaction Force in Gravity Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shaona; Zhang, Chunbin; Xiao, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In the past three decades, previous researches showed that students had various misconceptions of Newton's Third Law. The present study focused on students' difficulties in identifying the third-law force pair in gravity interaction situations. An instrument involving contexts with gravity and non-gravity associated interactions was designed and…

  10. Seeing It through: Advanced Strategies "for" Influencing Education Policy. Education Grantmakers Institute (Cambridge, Massachusetts, May 19-21, 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinnon, Anne

    2009-01-01

    "No education grantmaker can afford to ignore public policy. Local, state and federal policies shape the context in which we work by establishing education standards, allocating resources and setting priorities for people working in education." So begins the report on Grantmakers for Educations' 2005 Grantmakers Institute, Foundation…

  11. Observations of the transient X-ray pulsar EXO 053109-6609.2 with ASCA, BeppoSAX and XMM-Newton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naik, S.; Paul, B.; Agrawal, P.C.; Jaaffery, S.N.A.

    2004-01-01

    We report timing and spectral properties of the transient X-ray pulsar EXO 053109-6609.2 using observations carried out with ASCA, BeppoSAX, and XMM-Newton observatories. Pulse period measurements of the source show a monotonic spin-up trend since 1996. The pulse profile is found to have a strong luminosity dependence, a single peaked profile at low luminosity that changes to a double peaked profile at high luminosity. The X-ray spectrum is described by a simple power-law model with photon index in the range of 0.2-0.8. A soft excess over the power-law continuum is also detected from XMM-Newton observation

  12. Hukum Lingkungan dan Pertanggungjawaban Strict Liability dalam Sistem Hukum Common Law (Studi Kasus Cambridge Water Co. Ltd v. Eastern Countries Leather Plc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfud Mahfud

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The possibilities for pollution control still offered today Blackburn J.’s celebrated rule of strict liability, now almost 130 years old, has ensured its continuing popularity. There can be few tort lawyers, however, who have not increasingly wondered how much time should be devoted to a case which has received little judicial attention in recent years, and which was last subjected to detailed consideration by the House of Lords nearly 50 years ago, until, that is, the much-published decision of the House of Lords in Cambridge Water Co. Ltd v. Eastern Countries Leather Plc.   (Environmental Law and The Strict Liability Application In the Common Law System (The Case Study of Cambridge Water Co. Ltd V. Eastern Countries Leather Plc

  13. Preconditioner considerations for an aerodynamic Newton-Krylov solver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chisholm, T.; Zingg, D.W.

    2003-01-01

    A fast Newton-Krylov algorithm is presented for solving the compressible Navier-Stokes equations on structured multi-block grids with application to turbulent aerodynamic flows. The one-equation Spalart-Allmaras model is used to provide the turbulent viscosity. The optimization of the algorithm is discussed. ILU(4) is suggested for a preconditioner, operating on a modified Jacobian matrix. An RCM reordering is used, with a suggested root node in the wake. The advantages of a matrix-free technique for forming matrix-vector products are shown. Three test cases are used to demonstrate convergence rates. Single-element cases are solved in less than 60 seconds on a desktop computer, while the solution of a multi-element case can be found in about 10 minutes. (author)

  14. Nonrelativistic fluids on scale covariant Newton-Cartan backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Arpita

    2017-12-01

    The nonrelativistic covariant framework for fields is extended to investigate fields and fluids on scale covariant curved backgrounds. The scale covariant Newton-Cartan background is constructed using the localization of space-time symmetries of nonrelativistic fields in flat space. Following this, we provide a Weyl covariant formalism which can be used to study scale invariant fluids. By considering ideal fluids as an example, we describe its thermodynamic and hydrodynamic properties and explicitly demonstrate that it satisfies the local second law of thermodynamics. As a further application, we consider the low energy description of Hall fluids. Specifically, we find that the gauge fields for scale transformations lead to corrections of the Wen-Zee and Berry phase terms contained in the effective action.

  15. Inequalities and Real Numbers as a Basis for School Mathematics, Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics Feasibility Study No. 38.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomon, Earle

    These materials were developed as a practical response to some of the recommendations of the 1963 Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics (CCSM). Experimental sessions are described in detail in this report. In the Estabrook Elementary School, Lexington, Massachusetts, first grade children (1964-65 Academic Year) concentrated on material…

  16. A Newton-Krylov method with approximate Jacobian for implicit solution of Navier-Stokes on staggered overset-curvilinear grids with immersed boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgharzadeh, Hafez; Borazjani, Iman

    2014-11-01

    Time step-size restrictions and low convergence rates are major bottle necks for implicit solution of the Navier-Stokes in simulations involving complex geometries with moving boundaries. Newton-Krylov method (NKM) is a combination of a Newton-type method for super-linearly convergent solution of nonlinear equations and Krylov subspace methods for solving the Newton correction equations, which can theoretically address both bottle necks. The efficiency of this method vastly depends on the Jacobian forming scheme e.g. automatic differentiation is very expensive and Jacobian-free methods slow down as the mesh is refined. A novel, computationally efficient analytical Jacobian for NKM was developed to solve unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes momentum equations on staggered curvilinear grids with immersed boundaries. The NKM was validated and verified against Taylor-Green vortex and pulsatile flow in a 90 degree bend and efficiently handles complex geometries such as an intracranial aneurysm with multiple overset grids, pulsatile inlet flow and immersed boundaries. The NKM method is shown to be more efficient than the semi-implicit Runge-Kutta methods and Jabobian-free Newton-Krylov methods. We believe NKM can be applied to many CFD techniques to decrease the computational cost. This work was supported partly by the NIH Grant R03EB014860, and the computational resources were partly provided by Center for Computational Research (CCR) at University at Buffalo.

  17. A convergence analysis of the iteratively regularized Gauss–Newton method under the Lipschitz condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Qinian

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we consider the iteratively regularized Gauss–Newton method for solving nonlinear ill-posed inverse problems. Under merely the Lipschitz condition, we prove that this method together with an a posteriori stopping rule defines an order optimal regularization method if the solution is regular in some suitable sense

  18. Improved Full-Newton Step O(nL) Infeasible Interior-Point Method for Linear Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, G.; Mansouri, H.; Zangiabadi, M.; Bai, Y.Q.; Roos, C.

    2009-01-01

    We present several improvements of the full-Newton step infeasible interior-point method for linear optimization introduced by Roos (SIAM J. Optim. 16(4):1110–1136, 2006). Each main step of the method consists of a feasibility step and several centering steps. We use a more natural feasibility step,

  19. Healthy travel and the socio-economic structure of car commuting in Cambridge, UK: a mixed-methods analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Anna; Guell, Cornelia; Panter, Jenna; Jones, Natalia R; Ogilvie, David

    2012-06-01

    Car use is associated with substantial health and environmental costs but research in deprived populations indicates that car access may also promote psychosocial well-being within car-oriented environments. This mixed-method (quantitative and qualitative) study examined this issue in a more affluent setting, investigating the socio-economic structure of car commuting in Cambridge, UK. Our analyses involved integrating self-reported questionnaire data from 1142 participants in the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study (collected in 2009) and in-depth interviews with 50 participants (collected 2009-2010). Even in Britain's leading 'cycling city', cars were a key resource in bridging the gap between individuals' desires and their circumstances. This applied both to long-term life goals such as home ownership and to shorter-term challenges such as illness. Yet car commuting was also subject to constraints, with rush hour traffic pushing drivers to start work earlier and with restrictions on, or charges for, workplace parking pushing drivers towards multimodal journeys (e.g. driving to a 'park-and-ride' site then walking). These patterns of car commuting were socio-economically structured in several ways. First, the gradient of housing costs made living near Cambridge more expensive, affecting who could 'afford' to cycle and perhaps making cycling the more salient local marker of Bourdieu's class distinction. Nevertheless, cars were generally affordable in this relatively affluent, highly-educated population, reducing the barrier which distance posed to labour-force participation. Finally, having the option of starting work early required flexible hours, a form of job control which in Britain is more common among higher occupational classes. Following a social model of disability, we conclude that socio-economic advantage can make car-oriented environments less disabling via both greater affluence and greater job control, and in ways manifested across the full socio

  20. Planck intermediate results: IV. the XMM-Newton validation programme for new Planck galaxy clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartlett, J.G.; Delabrouille, J.; Ganga, K.

    2013-01-01

    We present the final results from the XMM-Newton validation follow-up of new Planck galaxy cluster candidates. We observed 15 new candidates, detected with signal-to-noise ratios between 4.0 and 6.1 in the 15.5-month nominal Planck survey. The candidates were selected using ancillary data flags d...