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Sample records for newly identified risk

  1. Identifying Malnutrition: Nutritional Status in Newly Diagnosed Patients With Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnasamy, Karthikayini; Li Yoong, Tang; Mei Chan, Chong; Peng Choong, Lau; Chinna, Karuthan

    2017-02-01

    Malnutrition is common among patients with cancer, but little attention is given to its risks and consequences. The aim of this study is to assess the nutritional status and identify the factors associated with malnutrition among newly diagnosed patients with cancer. Patients admitted with newly diagnosed cancer at a teaching hospital in Malaysia were recruited from January to April 2015. Nutritional status was assessed before treatment initiation, and patients were classified into three categories. A total of 132 pretreatment patients were recruited into the study. About half were severely malnourished. Patients with stage III cancer had the highest prevalence of severe malnourishment. Clinical parameters and disease characteristics were significantly associated with nutritional status. Demographic variables were also statistically significantly associated with severe nutritional status.

  2. Cellular Proliferation by Multiplex Immunohistochemistry Identifies High-Risk Multiple Myeloma in Newly Diagnosed, Treatment-Naive Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Scott; Forsberg, Peter; Ouansafi, Ihsane; Rossi, Adriana; Modin, Alvin; Pearse, Roger; Pekle, Karen; Perry, Arthur; Coleman, Morton; Jayabalan, David; Di Liberto, Maurizio; Chen-Kiang, Selina; Niesvizky, Ruben; Mark, Tomer M

    2017-12-01

    Therapeutic options for multiple myeloma (MM) are growing, yet clinical outcomes remain heterogeneous. Cytogenetic analysis and disease staging are mainstays of risk stratification, but data suggest a complex interplay between numerous abnormalities. Myeloma cell proliferation is a metric shown to predict outcomes, but available methods are not feasible in clinical practice. Multiplex immunohistochemistry (mIHC), using multiple immunostains simultaneously, is universally available for clinical use. We tested mIHC as a method to calculate a plasma cell proliferation index (PCPI). By mIHC, marrow trephine core biopsy samples were costained for CD138, a plasma cell-specific marker, and Ki-67. Myeloma cells (CD138 + ) were counted as proliferating if coexpressing Ki-67. Retrospective analysis was performed on 151 newly diagnosed, treatment-naive patients divided into 2 groups on the basis of myeloma cell proliferation: low (PCPI ≤ 5%, n = 87), and high (PCPI > 5%, n = 64). Median overall survival (OS) was not reached versus 78.9 months (P = .0434) for the low versus high PCPI groups. Multivariate analysis showed that only high-risk cytogenetics (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.02; P = .023), International Staging System (ISS) stage > I (HR = 2.30; P = .014), and PCPI > 5% (HR = 1.70; P = .041) had independent effects on OS. Twenty-three (36%) of the 64 patients with low-risk disease (ISS stage 1, without high-risk cytogenetics) were uniquely reidentified as high risk by PCPI. PCPI is a practical method that predicts OS in newly diagnosed myeloma and facilitates broader use of MM cell proliferation for risk stratification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Dynamic 18F-FET PET in newly diagnosed astrocytic low-grade glioma identifies high-risk patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Nathalie L; Suchorska, Bogdana; Wenter, Vera; Eigenbrod, Sabina; Schmid-Tannwald, Christine; Zwergal, Andreas; Niyazi, Maximilian; Drexler, Mark; Bartenstein, Peter; Schnell, Oliver; Tonn, Jörg-Christian; Thon, Niklas; Kreth, Friedrich-Wilhelm; la Fougère, Christian

    2014-02-01

    Because the clinical course of low-grade gliomas in the individual adult patient varies considerably and is unpredictable, we investigated the prognostic value of dynamic (18)F-fluorethyltyrosine ((18)F-FET) PET in the early diagnosis of astrocytic low-grade glioma (World Health Organization grade II). Fifty-nine patients with newly diagnosed low-grade glioma and dynamic (18)F-FET PET before histopathologic assessment were retrospectively investigated. (18)F-FET PET analysis comprised a qualitative visual classification of lesions; assessment of the semiquantitative parameters maximal, mean, and total standardized uptake value as ratio to background and biologic tumor volume; and dynamic analysis of intratumoral (18)F-FET uptake over time (increasing vs. decreasing time-activity curves). The correlation between PET parameters and progression-free survival, overall survival, and time to malignant transformation was investigated. (18)F-FET uptake greater than the background level was found in 34 of 59 tumors. Dynamic (18)F-FET uptake analysis was available for 30 of these 34 patients. Increasing and decreasing time-activity curves were found in 18 and 12 patients, respectively. Neither the qualitative factor presence or absence of (18)F-FET uptake nor any of the semiquantitative uptake parameters significantly influenced clinical outcome. In contrast, decreasing time-activity curves in the kinetic analysis were highly prognostic for shorter progression-free survival and time to malignant transformation (P dynamic (18)F-FET PET constitute an unfavorable prognostic factor in astrocytic low-grade glioma and, by identifying high-risk patients, may ease treatment decisions.

  4. Age-stratified 5-year risks of cervical precancer among women with enrollment and newly detected HPV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Julia C; Katki, Hormuzd A; Schiffman, Mark; Fetterman, Barbara; Poitras, Nancy E; Lorey, Thomas; Cheung, Li C; Castle, Philip E; Kinney, Walter K

    2015-04-01

    It is unclear whether a woman's age influences her risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse (CIN3+) upon detection of HPV. A large change in risk as women age would influence vaccination and screening policies. Among 972,029 women age 30-64 undergoing screening with Pap and HPV testing (Hybrid Capture 2, Qiagen, Germantown, MD) at Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC), we calculated age-specific 5-year CIN3+ risks among women with HPV infections detected at enrollment, and among women with "newly detected" HPV infections at their second screening visit. Women (57,899, 6.0%) had an enrollment HPV infection. Among the women testing HPV negative at enrollment with a second screening visit, 16,724 (3.3%) had a newly detected HPV infection at their second visit. Both enrollment and newly detected HPV rates declined with age (p < 0.001). Women with enrollment versus newly detected HPV infection had higher 5-year CIN3+ risks: 8.5% versus 3.9%, (p < 0.0001). Risks did not increase with age but declined slightly from 30-34 years to 60-64 years: 9.4% versus 7.4% (p = 0.017) for enrollment HPV and 5.1% versus 3.5% (p = 0.014) for newly detected HPV. Among women age 30-64 in an established screening program, women with newly detected HPV infections were at lower risk than women with enrollment infections, suggesting reduced benefit vaccinating women at older ages. Although the rates of HPV infection declined dramatically with age, the subsequent CIN3+ risks associated with HPV infection declined only slightly. The CIN3+ risks among older women are sufficiently elevated to warrant continued screening through age 65. © 2014 UICC.

  5. High nutrition risk is associated with higher risk of dysphagia in advanced age adults newly admitted to hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popman, Amy; Richter, Marilize; Allen, Jacqueline; Wham, Carol

    2018-02-01

    To establish the prevalence of nutrition risk and associated risk factors among adults of advanced age newly admitted to hospital. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in adults aged over 85 years admitted to one of two hospital wards in Auckland within the previous 5 days. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to establish participant's socio-demographic and health characteristics. Markers of body composition and muscle strength were collected. Nutrition risk was assessed using the Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form (MNA-SF), dysphagia risk using the 10-Item Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10) and level of cognition using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. A total of 88 participants with a mean age of 90.0 ± 3.7 years completed the assessments. A third (28.4%) of the participants were categorised by the MNA-SF as malnourished and 43.2% were classified at risk of malnutrition. A third (29.5%) were at risk of dysphagia as assessed by EAT-10. Malnourished participants were more likely to be at risk of dysphagia (P = 0.015). The MNA-SF score was positively correlated with body mass index (r = 0.484, P strength (r = 0.250, P = 0.026) and negatively correlated with risk of dysphagia (r = -0.383, P strength and negatively correlated with dysphagia risk. Findings highlight the importance of screening for dysphagia risk, especially in those identified to be malnourished or at nutrition risk. © 2017 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  6. Risk Factors for Carbapenemase-Producing Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CP-CRE) Acquisition Among Contacts of Newly Diagnosed CP-CRE Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz-Neiderman, Anat; Braun, Tali; Fallach, Noga; Schwartz, David; Carmeli, Yehuda; Schechner, Vered

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE Carbapenemase-producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CP-CRE) are extremely drug-resistant pathogens. Screening of contacts of newly identified CP-CRE patients is an important step to limit further transmission. We aimed to determine the risk factors for CP-CRE acquisition among patients exposed to a CP-CRE index patient. METHODS A matched case-control study was performed in a tertiary care hospital in Israel. The study population was comprised of patients who underwent rectal screening for CP-CRE following close contact with a newly identified CP-CRE index patient. Cases were defined as positive tests for CP-CRE. For each case patient, 2 matched controls were randomly selected from the pool of contacts who tested negative for CP-CRE following exposure to the same index case. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS In total, 53 positive contacts were identified in 40 unique investigations (896 tests performed on 735 contacts) between October 6, 2008, and June 7, 2012. bla KPC was the only carbapenemase identified. In multivariate analysis, risk factors for CP-CRE acquisition among contacts were (1) contact with an index patient for ≥3 days (odds ratio [OR], 9.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.0-48.9), (2) mechanical ventilation (OR, 4.1; 95% CI, 1.4-11.9), and (3) carriage or infection with another multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO; OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.0-7.1). Among patients who received antibiotics, cephalosporins were associated with a lower risk of acquisition. CONCLUSIONS Patient characteristics (ventilation and carriage of another MDRO) as well as duration of contact are risk factors for CP-CRE acquisition among contacts. The role of cephalosporins requires further study. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;1-7.

  7. Risk Assessment for CPAP Nonadherence in Adults with Newly-diagnosed Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Preliminary Testing of the Index for Nonadherence to PAP (I-NAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Amy M.; King, Tonya S.; Hanlon, Alexandra; Richards, Kathy C.; Sweer, Leon; Rizzo, Albert; Weaver, Terri E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Identification of risk for CPAP nonadherence prior to home treatment is an opportunity to deliver targeted, adherence interventions. Study objectives included (1) test a risk screening questionnaire to prospectively identify CPAP nonadherence risk among adults with newly-diagnosed OSA; (2) reduce the questionnaire to a minimum item set that effectively identifies 1-month CPAP nonadherence; and (3) examine the diagnostic utility of the screening index. Methods A prospective, longitudinal study at two clinical sleep centers in the U.S. included adults with newly diagnosed OSA (n=97; AHI ≥ 5 events/hr) by polysomnogram (PSG) consecutively recruited to participate. After baseline participant and OSA characteristics were collected, a risk screening questionnaire was administered immediately following CPAP titration polysomnogram. One-month objective CPAP use was collected. Results Predominantly white (87%) males (55%) and females (45%) with obesity (BMI 38.3 kg/m2; SD 9.3) and severe OSA (AHI 36.8; SD 19.7) were included. One-month CPAP use was 4.25hrs/night (SD 2.35). Nineteen questionnaire items (I-NAP) reliably identified nonadherers defined at CPAP use (Wald X2[8] =34.67, p60% (63%). Conclusion A risk screening questionnaire employed immediately after titration PSG may reliably identify CPAP nonadherers and permit the delivery of targeted interventions to prevent or reduce nonadherence. This novel approach may enhance cost-effectiveness of care and permit appropriate allocation of resources for CPAP adherence. PMID:24595715

  8. Investigation of gene-environment interactions between 47 newly identified breast cancer susceptibility loci and environmental risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolph, Anja; Milne, Roger L; Truong, Thérèse

    2015-01-01

    and overall BC risk was stronger for women who had had four or more pregnancies (OR = 0.85, p = 2.0 × 10(-4) ), and absent in women who had had just one (OR = 0.96, p = 0.19, pint = 6.1 × 10(-4) ). SNP rs11242675 was inversely associated with overall BC risk in never/former smokers (OR = 0.93, p = 2.8 × 10......(-5) ), but no association was observed in current smokers (OR = 1.07, p = 0.14, pint = 3.4 × 10(-4) ). In conclusion, recently identified BC susceptibility loci are not strongly modified by established risk factors and the observed potential interactions require confirmation in independent studies....

  9. Investigation of gene-environment interactions between 47 newly identified breast cancer susceptibility loci and environmental risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudolph, Anja; Milne, Roger L.; Truong, Thérèse; Knight, Julia A.; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Behrens, Sabine; Eilber, Ursula; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Dunning, Alison M.; Shah, Mitul; Munday, Hannah R.; Darabi, Hatef; Eriksson, Mikael; Brand, Judith S.; Olson, Janet; Vachon, Celine M.; Hallberg, Emily; Castelao, J. Esteban; Carracedo, Angel; Torres, Maria; Li, Jingmei; Humphreys, Keith; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Menegaux, Florence; Flyger, Henrik; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Yesilyurt, Betul T.; Floris, Giuseppe; Leunen, Karin; Engelhardt, Ellen G.; Broeks, Annegien; Rutgers, Emiel J.; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Cross, Simon; Reed, Malcolm; Gonzalez-Neira, Anna; Arias Perez, José Ignacio; Provenzano, Elena; Apicella, Carmel; Southey, Melissa C.; Spurdle, Amanda; Häberle, Lothar; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Ekici, Arif B.; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; McLean, Catriona; Baglietto, Laura; Chanock, Stephen J.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Sherman, Mark E.; Brüning, Thomas; Hamann, Ute; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Orr, Nick; Schoemaker, Minouk; Ashworth, Alan; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kataja, Vesa; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Mannermaa, Arto; Swerdlow, Anthony; Giles, Graham G.; Brenner, Hermann; Fasching, Peter A.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Hopper, John; Benítez, Javier; Cox, Angela; Andrulis, Irene L.; Lambrechts, Diether; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Couch, Fergus; Czene, Kamila; Bojesen, Stig E.; Easton, Doug F.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Guénel, Pascal; Hall, Per; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Chang-Claude, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    A large genotyping project within the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) recently identified 41 associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and overall breast cancer (BC) risk. We investigated whether the effects of these 41 SNPs, as well as six SNPs associated with estrogen

  10. Comorbidities and risk factors associated with newly diagnosed epilepsy in the U.S. pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ahyuda; Thurman, David J; Kim, Hyunmi

    2017-10-01

    Neurobehavioral comorbidities can be related to underlying etiology of epilepsy, epilepsy itself, and adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs. We examined the relationship between neurobehavioral comorbidities and putative risk factors for epilepsy in children with newly diagnosed epilepsy. We conducted a retrospective analysis of children aged ≤18years in 50 states and the District of Columbia, using the Truven Health MarketScan® commercial claims and encounters database from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2013. The eligible study cohort was continuously enrolled throughout 2013 as well as enrolled for any days during a baseline period of at least the prior 2years. Newly diagnosed cases of epilepsy were defined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification-coded diagnoses of epilepsy or recurrent seizures and evidence of prescribed antiepileptic drugs during 2013, when neither seizure codes nor seizure medication claims were recorded during baseline periods. Twelve neurobehavioral comorbidities and eleven putative risk factors for epilepsy were measured. More than 6 million children were analyzed (male, 51%; mean age, 8.8years). A total of 7654 children were identified as having newly diagnosed epilepsy (125 per 100,000, 99% CI=122-129). Neurobehavioral comorbidities were more prevalent in children with epilepsy than children without epilepsy (60%, 99% CI=58.1-61.0 vs. 23%, CI=23.1-23.2). Children with epilepsy were far more likely to have multiple comorbidities (36%, 99% CI=34.3-37.1) than those without epilepsy (8%, 99% CI=7.45-7.51, Pepilepsy were detected in 28% (99% CI=26.9-29.6) of children with epilepsy. After controlling for demographics, neurobehavioral comorbidities, family history of epilepsy, and other risk factors than primary interest, neonatal seizures had the strongest independent association with the development of epilepsy (OR=29.8, 99% CI=23.7-37.3, Pepilepsy, those with both epilepsy and risk factors were

  11. Cardiovascular Risk Assessment with Vascular Function, Carotid Atherosclerosis and the UKPDS Risk Engine in Korean Patients with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choon Sik Seon

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPatients with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Few studies have evaluated the cardiovascular disease (CVD risk simultaneously using the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS risk engine and non-invasive vascular tests in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.MethodsParticipants (n=380; aged 20 to 81 years with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes were free of clinical evidence of CVD. The 10-year coronary heart disease (CHD and stroke risks were calculated for each patient using the UKPDS risk engine. Carotid intima media thickness (CIMT, flow mediated dilation (FMD, pulse wave velocity (PWV and augmentation index (AI were measured. The correlations between the UKPDS risk engine and the non-invasive vascular tests were assessed using partial correlation analysis, after adjusting for age, and multiple regression analysis.ResultsThe mean 10-year CHD and 10-year stroke risks were 14.92±11.53% and 4.03±3.95%, respectively. The 10-year CHD risk correlated with CIMT (P<0.001, FMD (P=0.017, and PWV (P=0.35 after adjusting for age. The 10-year stroke risk correlated only with the mean CIMT (P<0.001 after adjusting for age. FMD correlated with age (P<0.01 and systolic blood pressure (P=0.09. CIMT correlated with age (P<0.01, HbA1c (P=0.05, and gender (P<0.01.ConclusionThe CVD risk is increased at the onset of type 2 diabetes. CIMT, FMD, and PWV along with the UKPDS risk engine should be considered to evaluate cardiovascular disease risk in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.

  12. The role of infections and coinfections with newly identified and emerging respiratory viruses in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debiaggi Maurizia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acute respiratory infections are a major cause of morbidity in children both in developed and developing countries. A wide range of respiratory viruses, including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, influenza A and B viruses, parainfluenza viruses (PIVs, adenovirus, rhinovirus (HRV, have repeatedly been detected in acute lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI in children in the past decades. However, in the last ten years thanks to progress in molecular technologies, newly discovered viruses have been identified including human Metapneumovirus (hMPV, coronaviruses NL63 (HcoV-NL63 and HKU1 (HcoV-HKU1, human Bocavirus (HBoV, new enterovirus (HEV, parechovirus (HpeV and rhinovirus (HRV strains, polyomaviruses WU (WUPyV and KI (KIPyV and the pandemic H1N1v influenza A virus. These discoveries have heavily modified previous knowledge on respiratory infections mainly highlighting that pediatric population is exposed to a variety of viruses with similar seasonal patterns. In this context establishing a causal link between a newly identified virus and the disease as well as an association between mixed infections and an increase in disease severity can be challenging. This review will present an overview of newly recognized as well as the main emerging respiratory viruses and seek to focus on the their contribution to infection and co-infection in LRTIs in childhood.

  13. TU-FG-201-12: Designing a Risk-Based Quality Assurance Program for a Newly Implemented Y-90 Microspheres Procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vile, D; Zhang, L; Cuttino, L; Kim, S; Palta, J [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To create a quality assurance program based upon a risk-based assessment of a newly implemented SirSpheres Y-90 procedure. Methods: A process map was created for a newly implemented SirSpheres procedure at a community hospital. The process map documented each step of this collaborative procedure, as well as the roles and responsibilities of each member. From the process map, different potential failure modes were determined as well as any current controls in place. From this list, a full failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) was performed by grading each failure mode’s likelihood of occurrence, likelihood of detection, and potential severity. These numbers were then multiplied to compute the risk priority number (RPN) for each potential failure mode. Failure modes were then ranked based on their RPN. Additional controls were then added, with failure modes corresponding to the highest RPNs taking priority. Results: A process map was created that succinctly outlined each step in the SirSpheres procedure in its current implementation. From this, 72 potential failure modes were identified and ranked according to their associated RPN. Quality assurance controls and safety barriers were then added for failure modes associated with the highest risk being addressed first. Conclusion: A quality assurance program was created from a risk-based assessment of the SirSpheres process. Process mapping and FMEA were effective in identifying potential high-risk failure modes for this new procedure, which were prioritized for new quality assurance controls. TG 100 recommends the fault tree analysis methodology to design a comprehensive and effective QC/QM program, yet we found that by simply introducing additional safety barriers to address high RPN failure modes makes the whole process simpler and safer.

  14. TU-FG-201-12: Designing a Risk-Based Quality Assurance Program for a Newly Implemented Y-90 Microspheres Procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vile, D; Zhang, L; Cuttino, L; Kim, S; Palta, J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To create a quality assurance program based upon a risk-based assessment of a newly implemented SirSpheres Y-90 procedure. Methods: A process map was created for a newly implemented SirSpheres procedure at a community hospital. The process map documented each step of this collaborative procedure, as well as the roles and responsibilities of each member. From the process map, different potential failure modes were determined as well as any current controls in place. From this list, a full failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) was performed by grading each failure mode’s likelihood of occurrence, likelihood of detection, and potential severity. These numbers were then multiplied to compute the risk priority number (RPN) for each potential failure mode. Failure modes were then ranked based on their RPN. Additional controls were then added, with failure modes corresponding to the highest RPNs taking priority. Results: A process map was created that succinctly outlined each step in the SirSpheres procedure in its current implementation. From this, 72 potential failure modes were identified and ranked according to their associated RPN. Quality assurance controls and safety barriers were then added for failure modes associated with the highest risk being addressed first. Conclusion: A quality assurance program was created from a risk-based assessment of the SirSpheres process. Process mapping and FMEA were effective in identifying potential high-risk failure modes for this new procedure, which were prioritized for new quality assurance controls. TG 100 recommends the fault tree analysis methodology to design a comprehensive and effective QC/QM program, yet we found that by simply introducing additional safety barriers to address high RPN failure modes makes the whole process simpler and safer.

  15. NEWLY IDENTIFIED EXTENDED GREEN OBJECTS (EGOs) FROM THE SPITZER GLIMPSE II SURVEY. II. MOLECULAR CLOUD ENVIRONMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xi; Gan Conggui; Shen Zhiqiang [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200030 (China); Ellingsen, Simon P.; Titmarsh, Anita [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania (Australia); He Jinhua, E-mail: chenxi@shao.ac.cn [Key Laboratory for the Structure and Evolution of Celestial Objects, Yunnan Astronomical Observatory/National Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 110, Kunming 650011, Yunnan Province (China)

    2013-06-01

    We have undertaken a survey of molecular lines in the 3 mm band toward 57 young stellar objects using the Australia Telescope National Facility Mopra 22 m radio telescope. The target sources were young stellar objects with active outflows (extended green objects (EGOs)) newly identified from the GLIMPSE II survey. We observe a high detection rate (50%) of broad line wing emission in the HNC and CS thermal lines, which combined with the high detection rate of class I methanol masers toward these sources (reported in Paper I) further demonstrates that the GLIMPSE II EGOs are associated with outflows. The physical and kinematic characteristics derived from the 3 mm molecular lines for these newly identified EGOs are consistent with these sources being massive young stellar objects with ongoing outflow activity and rapid accretion. These findings support our previous investigations of the mid-infrared properties of these sources and their association with other star formation tracers (e.g., infrared dark clouds, methanol masers and millimeter dust sources) presented in Paper I. The high detection rate (64%) of the hot core tracer CH{sub 3}CN reveals that the majority of these new EGOs have evolved to the hot molecular core stage. Comparison of the observed molecular column densities with predictions from hot core chemistry models reveals that the newly identified EGOs from the GLIMPSE II survey are members of the youngest hot core population, with an evolutionary time scale of the order of 10{sup 3} yr.

  16. A partner-related risk behavior index to identify people at elevated risk for sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Richard; Shrier, Lydia A

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test a sexual-partner-related risk behavior index to identify high-risk individuals most likely to have a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Patients from five STI and adolescent medical clinics in three US cities were recruited (N = 928; M age = 29.2 years). Data were collected using audio-computer-assisted self-interviewing. Of seven sexual-partner-related variables, those that were significantly associated with the outcomes were combined into a partner-related risk behavior index. The dependent variables were laboratory-confirmed infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and/or Trichomonas vaginalis. Nearly one-fifth of the sample (169/928; 18.4%) tested positive for an STI. Three of the seven items were significantly associated with having one or more STIs: sex with a newly released prisoner, sex with a person known or suspected of having an STI, and sexual concurrency. In combined form, this three-item index was significantly associated with STI prevalence (p one or more of three STIs. This index could be used to prioritize and guide intensified clinic-based counseling for high-risk patients of STI and other clinics.

  17. Identification and partial characterization of Taastrup virus: a newly identified member species of the Mononegavirales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bock, J.O.; Lundsgaard, T.; Pedersen, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    with the glycoproteins of Filoviridae and Pneumovirinae, and a nucleoprotein (N) with homology to the nucleoprotein of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), a member of the Rhabdoviridae. Highly conserved domains were identified in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L) between TV and other viruses within the order...... of Mononegavirales, and homology was found in particular with members of the Rhabdoviridae. The sequence similarities and the unique filovirus-like but nonidentical morphology unambiguously refer this newly identified virus to the order of Mononegavirales but to no family more than any to other within the order....

  18. Identifying and Managing Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Janice M.

    1999-01-01

    The role of the college or university chief financial officer in institutional risk management is (1) to identify risk (physical, casualty, fiscal, business, reputational, workplace safety, legal liability, employment practices, general liability), (2) to develop a campus plan to reduce and control risk, (3) to transfer risk, and (4) to track and…

  19. Association of Thiazolidinedione with a Lower Risk of Parkinson's Disease in a Population with Newly-Diagnosed Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsiu-Li; Lin, Hsiu-Chen; Tseng, Yuan-Fu; Chao, Jane Chen-Jui; Hsu, Chien-Yeh

    2018-06-11

    We investigated the association of thiazolidinedione and its dose effect with the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). This study enrolled 38,521 patients with newly-diagnosed DM between 2001 and 2013 and compared them to matched subjects without DM. The hazard ratios (HRs) for PD were compared between the thiazolidinedione-treated and non-thiazolidinedione-treated groups of the study cohort, and between subgroups who received different cumulative dosages of thiazolidinedione. We observed 544 (1.4%) patients with PD during the follow up of median duration of 6.2 years in patients with newly-diagnosed DM who had a higher risk for PD than patients without DM (HR = 1.150). In the study cohort, the risk of PD was significantly lower in the thiazolidinedione-treated group (HR = 0.399) compared to the non-thiazolidinedione-treated group. Thiazolidinedione reduced the risk of PD in a dose-dependent manner, with HRs ranging from 0.613 to 0.081 with defined daily doses of 0-90 to > 720, respectively. Thiazolidinedione use was associated with a significantly reduced risk of PD in patients with newly-diagnosed DM. Further studies to elucidate the common mechanism of PD and DM may provide novel therapies for these two diseases.

  20. Impact of universal health coverage on suicide risk in newly diagnosed cancer patients: Population-based cohort study from 1985 to 2007 in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Po-Hsien; Liao, Shih-Cheng; Chen, I-Ming; Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Shan, Jia-Chi; Lee, Ming-Been; Chen, Wei J

    2017-11-01

    National Health Insurance (NHI), launched in 1995 in Taiwan, lightens patient's financial burdens but its effect on the suicide risk in cancer patients is unclear. We aimed to investigate the impacts of the NHI on the suicide in newly diagnosed cancer patients. We identified patients with newly diagnosed cancer from the nationwide Taiwan Cancer Registration from 1985 to 2007, and ascertained suicide deaths from the national database of registered deaths between 1985 and 2009. Standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of suicide risk among patients with cancer was calculated, and the suicide risk ratios were examined by gender, age group, and prognosis. For the 916 337 registered cancer patients with 4 300 953 person-years, 2 543 died by suicide, with a suicide rate of 59.1 per 100 000 person-years. Compared to the general population, cancer patients had an SMR of 2.47 for suicide, with a higher figure for males (2.73), age 45 to 64 (2.89), and cancer of poor prognosis (3.19). The suicide risk was highest in the first 2 years after the initial diagnosis. Comparing the cohorts of the period before (1985 to 1992) and after (1996 to 2007) the launch of NHI, we saw a reduction in the SMR within the first 2 years after cancer diagnosis (20%), with more prominent reduction for females (29%), age under 45 (69%), and cancer of good prognosis (33%). A universal health coverage relieving both physical and psychological distress may account for the post-NHI reduction of immediate suicide risk in patients of newly diagnosed cancer. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Regional differences in the incidence of tuberculosis among patients with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo Ram; Kang, Young Ae; Heo, Eun Young; Koo, Bo Kyung; Choi, Nam-Kyong; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Lee, Chang-Hoon

    2018-04-01

    There are regional differences in the burden of tuberculosis (TB). Although these differences might be explained by regional differences in the risk factors of TB, whether such risk factors are actually associated with the regional differences in the TB burden remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the risk factors of and regional differences in TB incidence. A cohort study applying nationwide claims database in Republic of Korea included patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in 2009. The main outcome was the incidence of TB defined based on the diagnostic codes combined with anti-tuberculosis treatment repeated within 90 days. Sixteen regions were categorized into 3 groups according to the age- and sex-standardized TB incidence rates. Multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for risk factors was performed to identify the determinants of the regional differences in TB incidence. Among 331 601 participants newly diagnosed with type 2 DM and with no history of previous TB, 1216 TB cases were observed. The regional TB incidence rates ranged between 2.3 and 5.9/1000 patients. Multivariate analyses did not identify any determinants of regional differences in the TB incidence among the various risk factors, including age, sex, health care utilization, co-morbidities, medication and treatment and complications of DM. Similarly, temperature, humidity and latent TB infection rate also did not affect the results. Although substantial regional differences in the TB incidence rate were observed among patients with newly diagnosed DM, no determinants of regional difference were identified among the risk factors. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. A newly identified group of adolescents at "invisible" risk for psychopathology and suicidal behavior: findings from the SEYLE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carli, Vladimir; Hoven, Christina W; Wasserman, Camilla; Chiesa, Flaminia; Guffanti, Guia; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean Pierre; Keeley, Helen; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar; Varnik, Airi; Wasserman, Danuta

    2014-02-01

    This study explored the prevalence of risk behaviors (excessive alcohol use, illegal drug use, heavy smoking, reduced sleep, overweight, underweight, sedentary behavior, high use of Internet/TV/videogames for reasons not related to school or work, and truancy), and their association with psychopathology and self-destructive behaviors, in a sample of 12,395 adolescents recruited in randomly selected schools across 11 European countries. Latent class analysis identified three groups of adolescents: a low-risk group (57.8%) including pupils with low or very low frequency of risk behaviors; a high-risk group (13.2%) including pupils who scored high on all risk behaviors, and a third group ("invisible" risk, 29%) including pupils who were positive for high use of Internet/TV/videogames for reasons not related to school or work, sedentary behavior and reduced sleep. Pupils in the "invisible" risk group, compared with the high-risk group, had a similar prevalence of suicidal thoughts (42.2% vs. 44%), anxiety (8% vs. 9.2%), subthreshold depression (33.2% vs. 34%) and depression (13.4% vs. 14.7%). The prevalence of suicide attempts was 5.9% in the "invisible" group, 10.1% in the high-risk group and 1.7% in the low-risk group. The prevalence of all risk behaviors increased with age and most of them were significantly more frequent among boys. Girls were significantly more likely to experience internalizing (emotional) psychiatric symptoms. The "invisible" group may represent an important new intervention target group for potentially reducing psychopathology and other untoward outcomes in adolescence, including suicidal behavior. Copyright © 2014 World Psychiatric Association.

  3. The more from East-Asian, the better: risk prediction of colorectal cancer risk by GWAS-identified SNPs among Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Makiko; Ito, Hidemi; Oze, Isao; Nomura, Masatoshi; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Matsuo, Keitaro

    2017-12-01

    Little is known about the difference of genetic predisposition for CRC between ethnicities; however, many genetic traits common to colorectal cancer have been identified. This study investigated whether more SNPs identified in GWAS in East Asian population could improve the risk prediction of Japanese and explored possible application of genetic risk groups as an instrument of the risk communication. 558 Patients histologically verified colorectal cancer and 1116 first-visit outpatients were included for derivation study, and 547 cases and 547 controls were for replication study. Among each population, we evaluated prediction models for the risk of CRC that combined the genetic risk group based on SNPs from GWASs in European-population and a similarly developed model adding SNPs from GWASs in East Asian-population. We examined whether adding East Asian-specific SNPs would improve the discrimination. Six SNPs (rs6983267, rs4779584, rs4444235, rs9929218, rs10936599, rs16969681) from 23 SNPs by European-based GWAS and five SNPs (rs704017, rs11196172, rs10774214, rs647161, rs2423279) among ten SNPs by Asian-based GWAS were selected in CRC risk prediction model. Compared with a 6-SNP-based model, an 11-SNP model including Asian GWAS-SNPs showed improved discrimination capacity in Receiver operator characteristic analysis. A model with 11 SNPs resulted in statistically significant improvement in both derivation (P = 0.0039) and replication studies (P = 0.0018) compared with six SNP model. We estimated cumulative risk of CRC by using genetic risk group based on 11 SNPs and found that the cumulative risk at age 80 is approximately 13% in the high-risk group while 6% in the low-risk group. We constructed a more efficient CRC risk prediction model with 11 SNPs including newly identified East Asian-based GWAS SNPs (rs704017, rs11196172, rs10774214, rs647161, rs2423279). Risk grouping based on 11 SNPs depicted lifetime difference of CRC risk. This might be useful for

  4. Scheduling and shift work characteristics associated with risk for occupational injury in newly licensed registered nurses: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimpfel, Amy Witkoski; Brewer, Carol S; Kovner, Christine T

    2015-11-01

    Registered nurses across the globe bear a heavy injury burden. Every shift, nurses are exposed to a variety of hazards that can jeopardize their health, which negatively impacts their ability to provide high-quality patient care. Previous research suggests that inexperienced, or newly licensed nurses, may have an increased risk for certain occupational injuries. However, the current knowledge base is insufficient to fully understand how work hours influence newly licensed nurses' occupational injury, given the significant variation in hospital organization and work characteristics. To describe newly licensed nurses' shift work characteristics and determine the association between shift type and scheduling characteristics and nurse injury, before and after adjusting for individual and combined effects of demographics, external context, organizational context, and work context, following the Organization of Work model. This study is a secondary analysis of a nationally representative survey of newly licensed registered nurses using a cross-sectional design. The analytic sample includes 1744 newly licensed registered nurses from 34 states and the District of Columbia who reported working in a hospital and were within 6-18 months of passing their state licensure exam at the time of survey administration. Descriptive statistics were calculated, followed by bivariate and multivariate Poisson regression models to assess the relationship between shift type and scheduling characteristics and nurse injury. Lastly, full models with the addition of demographics, external context, organizational context, and work context variables were calculated. The majority (79%) of newly licensed nurses worked 12-h shifts, a near majority worked night shift (44%), and over half (61%) worked overtime (mandatory or voluntary) weekly. Nurses working weekly overtime were associated with a 32% [incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.32, CI 1.07-1.62] increase in the risk of a needle stick and nurses

  5. A newly identified group of adolescents at “invisible” risk for psychopathology and suicidal behavior: findings from the SEYLE study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carli, Vladimir; Hoven, Christina W; Wasserman, Camilla; Chiesa, Flaminia; Guffanti, Guia; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean Pierre; Keeley, Helen; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar; Varnik, Airi; Wasserman, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the prevalence of risk behaviors (excessive alcohol use, illegal drug use, heavy smoking, reduced sleep, overweight, underweight, sedentary behavior, high use of Internet/TV/videogames for reasons not related to school or work, and truancy), and their association with psychopathology and self-destructive behaviors, in a sample of 12,395 adolescents recruited in randomly selected schools across 11 European countries. Latent class analysis identified three groups of adolescents: a low-risk group (57.8%) including pupils with low or very low frequency of risk behaviors; a high-risk group (13.2%) including pupils who scored high on all risk behaviors, and a third group (“invisible” risk, 29%) including pupils who were positive for high use of Internet/TV/videogames for reasons not related to school or work, sedentary behavior and reduced sleep. Pupils in the “invisible” risk group, compared with the high-risk group, had a similar prevalence of suicidal thoughts (42.2% vs. 44%), anxiety (8% vs. 9.2%), subthreshold depression (33.2% vs. 34%) and depression (13.4% vs. 14.7%). The prevalence of suicide attempts was 5.9% in the “invisible” group, 10.1% in the high-risk group and 1.7% in the low-risk group. The prevalence of all risk behaviors increased with age and most of them were significantly more frequent among boys. Girls were significantly more likely to experience internalizing (emotional) psychiatric symptoms. The “invisible” group may represent an important new intervention target group for potentially reducing psychopathology and other untoward outcomes in adolescence, including suicidal behavior. PMID:24497256

  6. NIH Researchers Identify OCD Risk Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News From NIH NIH Researchers Identify OCD Risk Gene Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents For ... and Alcoholism (NIAAA) have identified a previously unknown gene variant that doubles an individual's risk for obsessive- ...

  7. The risk of newly developed visual impairment in treated normal-tension glaucoma: 10-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun Jeong; Kim, Martha; Park, Ki Ho; Kim, Dong Myung; Kim, Seok Hwan

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the risk and risk factors for newly developed visual impairment in treated patients with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) followed up on for 10 years. Patients with NTG, who did not have visual impairment at the initial diagnosis and had undergone intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering treatment for more than 7 years, were included on the basis of a retrospective chart review. Visual impairment was defined as either low vision (0.05 [20/400] ≤ visual acuity (VA) visual field (VF) visual impairment, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and generalized linear mixed effects models were utilized. During the 10.8 years mean follow-up period, 20 eyes of 16 patients were diagnosed as visual impairment (12 eyes as low vision, 8 as blindness) among 623 eyes of 411 patients. The cumulative risk of visual impairment in at least one eye was 2.8% at 10 years and 8.7% at 15 years. The risk factors for visual impairment from treated NTG were worse VF mean deviation (MD) at diagnosis and longer follow-up period. The risk of newly developed visual impairment in the treated patients with NTG was relatively low. Worse VF MD at diagnosis and longer follow-up period were associated with development of visual impairment. © 2014 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. A prospective multicenter study of venous thromboembolism in patients with newly-diagnosed high-grade glioma: hazard rate and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streiff, Michael B; Ye, Xiaobu; Kickler, Thomas S; Desideri, Serena; Jani, Jayesh; Fisher, Joy; Grossman, Stuart A

    2015-09-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common complication in patients with high-grade gliomas. The purpose of this prospective multicenter study was to determine the hazard rate of first symptomatic VTE in newly-diagnosed glioma patients and identify clinical and laboratory risk factors. On enrollment, demographic and clinical information were recorded and a comprehensive coagulation evaluation was performed. Patients were followed until death. The study end point was objectively-documented symptomatic VTE. One hundred seven patients were enrolled with a median age of 57 years (range 29-85) between June 2005 and April 2008. Ninety-one (85 %) had glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). During an average survival of 17.7 months, 26 patients (24 %) (95 % CI 17-34 %) developed VTE (hazard rate 0.15 per person-year) and 94 patients (88 %) died. Median time to VTE was 14.2 weeks post-operation (range 3-126). Patients with an initial tumor biopsy were 3.0 fold more likely to suffer VTE (p = 0.02). Patients with an elevated factor VIII activity (>147 %) were 2.1-fold more likely to develop VTE. ABO blood group, D dimer and thrombin generation were not associated with VTE. No fatal VTE occurred. VTE is a common complication in patients with newly-diagnosed high grade gliomas, particularly in the first six months after diagnosis. Patients with an initial tumor biopsy and elevated factor VIII levels are at increased risk. However, VTE was not judged to be primarily responsible for any patient deaths. Therefore, outpatient primary VTE prophylaxis remains investigational until more effective primary prophylaxis strategies and therapies for glioma are identified.

  9. Newly Identified CYP2C93 Is a Functional Enzyme in Rhesus Monkey, but Not in Cynomolgus Monkey

    OpenAIRE

    Uno, Yasuhiro; Uehara, Shotaro; Kohara, Sakae; Iwasaki, Kazuhide; Nagata, Ryoichi; Fukuzaki, Koichiro; Utoh, Masahiro; Murayama, Norie; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Cynomolgus monkey and rhesus monkey are used in drug metabolism studies due to their evolutionary closeness and physiological resemblance to human. In cynomolgus monkey, we previously identified cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP) 2C76 that does not have a human ortholog and is partly responsible for species differences in drug metabolism between cynomolgus monkey and human. In this study, we report characterization of CYP2C93 cDNA newly identified in cynomolgus monkey and rhesus monkey. The CYP2C9...

  10. Prevalence and risk factors of agitation in newly hospitalized schizophrenia patients in China: An observational survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Weifeng; Zhang, Suzhen; Liu, Qi; Yang, Fude; Wang, Yong; Li, Tao; Mei, Qiyi; He, Hongbo; Chen, Zhiyu; Su, Zhonghua; Liu, Tiebang; Xie, Shiping; Tan, Qingrong; Zhang, Jinbei; Zhang, Congpei; Sang, Hong; Chen, Wenhao; Shi, Le; Li, Lingzhi; Shi, Ying; Guo, Lihua; Zhang, Hongyan; Lu, Lin

    2017-07-01

    This multi-center observational study investigated the prevalence of agitation in newly hospitalized schizophrenia patients in China and its potential risk factors. It was performed in 2014 and covered 14 hospitals. Newly hospitalized patients with schizophrenia or suspected schizophrenia who met the diagnostic criteria of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th revision, were recruited. Agitation and related risk factors were evaluated by a questionnaire designed for the survey. General demographic data, disease characteristics, scores on schizophrenia rating scales and agitation rating scales (e.g., Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale-Excited Component [PANSS-EC] and Behavioral Activity Rating Scale [BARS]) were collected. Among the 1512 patients screened in the study, 1400 (92.59%) were eligible. According to the PANSS-EC and BARS, the prevalence of agitation was 60.92% (853 of 1400) and 59.00% (826 of 1400), respectively. The overall prevalence of agitation was 47.50% (665 of 1400). The most important risk factor of agitation was being aggressive at baseline (Modified Overt Aggression Scale score ≥4, odds ratio=6.54; 95% confidence interval=4.93-8.69). Other risk factors included a history of aggressive behavior, northern region of residence, involuntary hospitalization, disease severity, low level of education, living alone, being unemployed or retired. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Association Analysis Suggests SOD2 as a Newly Identified Candidate Gene Associated With Leprosy Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Geovana Brotto; Salomão, Heloisa; Francio, Angela Schneider; Fava, Vinícius Medeiros; Werneck, Renata Iani; Mira, Marcelo Távora

    2016-08-01

    Genetic studies have identified several genes and genomic regions contributing to the control of host susceptibility to leprosy. Here, we test variants of the positional and functional candidate gene SOD2 for association with leprosy in 2 independent population samples. Family-based analysis revealed an association between leprosy and allele G of marker rs295340 (P = .042) and borderline evidence of an association between leprosy and alleles C and A of markers rs4880 (P = .077) and rs5746136 (P = .071), respectively. Findings were validated in an independent case-control sample for markers rs295340 (P = .049) and rs4880 (P = .038). These results suggest SOD2 as a newly identified gene conferring susceptibility to leprosy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Identifying patient risks during hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucélia Ferreira Lima

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the risks reported at a public institution andto know the main patient risks from the nursing staff point of view.Methods: A retrospective, descriptive and exploratory study. Thesurvey was developed at a hospital in the city of Taboão da Serra, SãoPaulo, Brazil. The study included all nurses working in care areas whoagreed to participate in the study. At the same time, sentinel eventsoccurring in the period from July 2006 to July 2007 were identified.Results: There were 440 sentinel events reported, and the main risksincluded patient falls, medication errors and pressure ulcers. Sixty-fivenurses were interviewed. They also reported patient falls, medicationerrors and pressure ulcers as the main risks. Conclusions: Riskassessment and implementation of effective preventive actions arenecessary to ensure patient’s safety. Involvement of a multidisciplinaryteam is one of the steps for a successful process.

  13. Neuropsychological and psychological interventions for people with newly diagnosed epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Cerian F; Makin, Selina M; Baker, Gus A

    2015-07-22

    Many people with epilepsy report experiencing psychological difficulties such as anxiety, depression and neuropsychological deficits including memory problems. Research has shown that these difficulties are often present not only for people with chronic epilepsy but also for people with newly diagnosed epilepsy. Despite this, there are very few published interventions that detail means to help people with newly diagnosed epilepsy manage these problems. To identify and assess possible psychological and neuropsychological interventions for adults with newly diagnosed epilepsy. We searched the following databases on 30 June 2015: the Cochrane Epilepsy Group Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (Ovid), SCOPUS, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). This review includes all randomised controlled trials, quasi-randomised controlled trials, prospective cohort controlled studies, and prospective before and after studies which include psychological or neuropsychological interventions for people with newly diagnosed epilepsy. We excluded studies that included people with epilepsy and any other psychological disorder or neurological condition. We excluded studies carried out which recruited only children. We used the standard methodological procedure expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Two authors independently completed data extraction and risk of bias analysis. The results of this were cross-checked and third author resolved any discrepancies. In the event of missing data, we contacted the study authors. Meta-analysis was not completed due to differences in the intervention and outcomes reported in the two studies. We included two randomised controlled trials assessing psychological interventions for people with newly diagnosed epilepsy. One study assessed a cognitive behavioural intervention (CBI) in an adolescent

  14. Identification and partial characterization of Taastrup virus: a newly identified member species of the Mononegavirales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, J.O.; Lundsgaard, T.; Pedersen, P.A.; Christensen, L.S.

    2004-01-01

    We present a 8904-nt sequence of the central part of the RNA genome of a novel virus with a filovirus-like, nonidentical morphology named Taastrup virus (TV) detected in the leafhopper Psammotettix alienus. Sequence analysis identified five potential open reading frames (ORFs) and a complex pattern of homologies to various members of the Mononegavirales suggests a genome organization with the following order of genes: 3'-N-P-M-G-L-5'. Sequence analyses reveal an unusually large glycoprotein (G) containing both potential O-linked (14) and N-linked (9) glycosylation sites--a feature shared with the glycoproteins of Filoviridae and Pneumovirinae, and a nucleoprotein (N) with homology to the nucleoprotein of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), a member of the Rhabdoviridae. Highly conserved domains were identified in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L) between TV and other viruses within the order of Mononegavirales, and homology was found in particular with members of the Rhabdoviridae. The sequence similarities and the unique filovirus-like but nonidentical morphology unambiguously refer this newly identified virus to the order of Mononegavirales but to no family more than any, to other within the order

  15. Mutations in the newly identified RAX regulatory sequence are not a frequent cause of micro/anophthalmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassaing, Nicolas; Vigouroux, Adeline; Calvas, Patrick

    2009-06-01

    Microphthalmia and anophthalmia are at the severe end of the spectrum of abnormalities in ocular development. A few genes (SOX2, OTX2, RAX, and CHX10) have been implicated in isolated micro/anophthalmia, but causative mutations of these genes explain less than a quarter of these developmental defects. A specifically conserved SOX2/OTX2-mediated RAX expression regulatory sequence has recently been identified. We postulated that mutations in this sequence could lead to micro/anophthalmia, and thus we performed molecular screening of this regulatory element in patients suffering from micro/anophthalmia. Fifty-one patients suffering from nonsyndromic microphthalmia (n = 40) or anophthalmia (n = 11) were included in this study after negative molecular screening for SOX2, OTX2, RAX, and CHX10 mutations. Mutation screening of the RAX regulatory sequence was performed by direct sequencing for these patients. No mutations were identified in the highly conserved RAX regulatory sequence in any of the 51 patients. Mutations in the newly identified RAX regulatory sequence do not represent a frequent cause of nonsyndromic micro/anophthalmia.

  16. Antipsychotic medications and dental caries in newly diagnosed schizophrenia: A nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kai-Fang; Chou, Yu-Hsiang; Wen, Yen-Hsia; Hsieh, Kun-Pin; Tsai, Jui-Hsiu; Yang, Pinchen; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Lin, Chun-Hung Richard

    2016-11-30

    We investigated the association between antipsychotic medications and the risk of dental caries in patients with schizophrenia. We enroled a nationwide cohort of patients with newly diagnosed schizophrenia within 1 year of dental caries development. Exposure to antipsychotics and other medications was categorised according to their type and duration, and the association between exposure and dental caries was assessed through logistic regressions. Of the 3610 patients with newly diagnosed schizophrenia, 2149 (59.5%) exhibited an incidence of treated dental caries. Logistic regression analysis identified a younger age, female sex, high income, a 2-year history of dental caries, and exposure to first-generation antipsychotics, and antihypertensives as independent risk factors for treated dental caries in patients with schizophrenia. Hyposalivation, the adverse effect of first-generation antipsychotics and antihypertensives, was associated with an increased risk of treated dental caries. However, hypersalivation from first-generation antipsychotics for dental caries was associated with a protective factor. These findings suggest that clinicians should pay attention to the aforementioned risk factors for dental caries in patients with schizophrenia, particularly while prescribing first-generation antipsychotics and antihypertensives to such patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A newly identified protein of Leptospira interrogans mediates binding to laminin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, Mariana T; Oliveira, Tatiane R; Romero, Eliete C; Gonçales, Amane P; de Morais, Zenaide M; Vasconcellos, Silvio A; Nascimento, Ana L T O

    2009-10-01

    Pathogenic Leptospira is the aetiological agent of leptospirosis, a life-threatening disease that affects populations worldwide. The search for novel antigens that could be relevant in host-pathogen interactions is being pursued. These antigens have the potential to elicit several activities, including adhesion. This study focused on a hypothetical predicted lipoprotein of Leptospira, encoded by the gene LIC12895, thought to mediate attachment to extracellular matrix (ECM) components. The gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 Star (DE3)pLys by using the expression vector pAE. The recombinant protein tagged with N-terminal hexahistidine was purified by metal-charged chromatography and characterized by circular dichroism spectroscopy. The capacity of the protein to mediate attachment to ECM components was evaluated by binding assays. The leptospiral protein encoded by LIC12895, named Lsa27 (leptospiral surface adhesin, 27 kDa), bound strongly to laminin in a dose-dependent and saturable fashion. Moreover, Lsa27 was recognized by antibodies from serum samples of confirmed leptospirosis specimens in both the initial and the convalescent phases of the disease. Lsa27 is most likely a surface protein of Leptospira as revealed in liquid-phase immunofluorescence assays with living organisms. Taken together, these data indicate that this newly identified membrane protein is expressed during natural infection and may play a role in mediating adhesion of L. interrogans to its host.

  18. Genetic and molecular risk factors within the newly identified primate-specific exon of the SAP97/DLG1 gene in the 3q29 schizophrenia-associated locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uezato, Akihito; Yamamoto, Naoki; Jitoku, Daisuke; Haramo, Emiko; Hiraaki, Eri; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Toyota, Tomoko; Umino, Masakazu; Umino, Asami; Iwata, Yasuhide; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Hashimoto, Tasuku; Kanahara, Nobuhisa; Kurumaji, Akeo; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Nishikawa, Toru

    2017-12-01

    The synapse-associated protein 97/discs, large homolog 1 of Drosophila (DLG1) gene encodes synaptic scaffold PDZ proteins interacting with ionotropic glutamate receptors including the N-methyl-D-aspartate type glutamate receptor (NMDAR) that is presumed to be hypoactive in brains of patients with schizophrenia. The DLG1 gene resides in the chromosomal position 3q29, the microdeletion of which confers a 40-fold increase in the risk for schizophrenia. In the present study, we performed genetic association analyses for DLG1 gene using a Japanese cohort with 1808 schizophrenia patients and 2170 controls. We detected an association which remained significant after multiple comparison testing between schizophrenia and the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs3915512 that is located within the newly identified primate-specific exon (exon 3b) of the DLG1 gene and constitutes the exonic splicing enhancer sequence. When stratified by onset age, although it did not survive multiple comparisons, the association was observed in non-early onset schizophrenia, whose onset-age selectivity is consistent with our recent postmortem study demonstrating a decrease in the expression of the DLG1 variant in early-onset schizophrenia. Although the present study did not demonstrate the previously reported association of the SNP rs9843659 by itself, a meta-analysis revealed a significant association between DLG1 gene and schizophrenia. These findings provide a valuable clue for molecular mechanisms on how genetic variations in the primate-specific exon of the gene in the schizophrenia-associated 3q29 locus affect its regulation in the glutamate system and lead to the disease onset around a specific stage of brain development. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Viral etiology of bronchiolitis among pediatric inpatients in northern Taiwan with emphasis on newly identified respiratory viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Wen; Huang, Yhu-Chering; Ho, Tai-Hua; Huang, Chung-Guei; Tsao, Kuo-Chien; Lin, Tzou-Yien

    2014-04-01

    Viral etiology of bronchiolitis in children in Taiwan has been fragmentary. We conducted a prospective study to figure out the viral epidemiology of bronchiolitis in Taiwan. From January 2009 to March 2011, a total of 113 children with bronchiolitis, aged culture, antigen test, and polymerase chain reaction. A total of 120 viruses were detected from 113 children. Positive viral etiology was identified in 86 (76%) children. Mixed viral pathogens were found in 28 cases (25%). Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was the most common pathogen and was identified in 43.4% of the cases. Human bocavirus (hBoV) was the second most common identified virus (in 19.5%), followed by human metapneumovirus (hMPV), rhinovirus, influenza viruses, and coronavirus OC43. In terms of clinical characteristics, no significant difference was found among the children with bronchiolitis either caused by different single or mixed viral infection. RSV was the most common etiologic agent for children with bronchiolitis in Taiwan. Newly identified viruses, including hMPV and hBoV, were also among the common causative agents. Clinical characteristics were not significantly different among the children with bronchiolitis caused by different viruses. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Identifying risk event in Indonesian fresh meat supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuni, H. C.; Vanany, I.; Ciptomulyono, U.

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify risk issues in Indonesian fresh meat supply chain from the farm until to the “plate”. The critical points for food safety in physical fresh meat product flow are also identified. The paper employed one case study in the Indonesian fresh meat company by conducting observations and in-depth three stages of interviews. At the first interview, the players, process, and activities in the fresh meat industry were identified. In the second interview, critical points for food safety were recognized. The risk events in each player and process were identified in the last interview. The research will be conducted in three stages, but this article focuses on risk identification process (first stage) only. The second stage is measuring risk and the third stage focuses on determining the value of risk priority. The results showed that there were four players in the fresh meat supply chain: livestock (source), slaughter (make), distributor and retail (deliver). Each player has different activities and identified 16 risk events in the fresh meat supply chain. Some of the strategies that can be used to reduce the occurrence of such risks include improving the ability of laborers on food safety systems, improving cutting equipment and distribution processes

  1. Risk of insomnia attributable to β-blockers in elderly patients with newly diagnosed hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Hsien; Yang, Yea-Huei Kao; Lin, Swu-Jane; Su, Jyun-Jhong; Cheng, Ching-Lan; Lin, Li-Jen

    2013-01-01

    Use of β-blockers may cause insomnia and central nervous system and/or psychological side effects, but data are limited on the relative risks of insomnia among β-blockers. This retrospective cohort study used Taiwan's National Health Insurance claims database from 2003 to 2007, where 4,063 patients aged above 65 years with newly diagnosed hypertension and treated with β-blockers were followed for 1 year. The primary endpoint was a new insomnia event within 30 days of treatment initiation. Adjusted odds ratios of insomnia were obtained by logistic regressions, controlling for baseline risk factors of insomnia. Using propranolol therapy as the reference, the adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for the insomnia risk was 0.47 (0.35-0.63) for non-propranolol users, 0.31 (0.19-0.50) for bisoprolol, and 0.46 (0.33-0.66) for atenolol. Compared to the patients using non-selective β-blockers, the adjusted odds ratio was 0.48 (0.36-0.34) for those using selective β(1)-blockers. Additionally, the adjusted odds ratio was 0.72 (0.53-0.96) for β-blockers with low lipophilicity when compared to those with high lipophilicity. The use of bisoprolol and atenolol was associated with the lowest risk of insomnia in elderly patients, as compared to propranolol. β-Blockers with high selectivity in β(1)-receptors and/or low lipophilicity were associated with a lower risk of insomnia.

  2. Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) improves the risk assessment of ISS staging in newly diagnosed MM patients treated upfront with novel agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, A; Parrinello, N L; Consoli, M L; Marchionni, L; Forte, S; Conticello, C; Pompa, A; Corso, A; Milone, G; Di Raimondo, F; Borrello, I

    2015-11-01

    Recent reports identify the ratio between absolute neutrophil count (ANC) and absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), called neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), as a predictor of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in various malignancies. We retrospectively examined the NLR in a cohort of 309 newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) patients treated upfront with novel agents. NLR was calculated using data obtained from the complete blood count (CBC) at diagnosis and subsequently correlated with PFS and OS. The median NLR was 1.9 (range 0.4-15.9). Higher NLR was independent of international staging system (ISS) stage, plasma cell infiltration or cytogenetics. The 5-year PFS and OS estimates were, respectively, 18.2 and 36.4 % for patients with NLR ≥ 2 versus 25.5 and 66.6 % in patients with NLR < 2. Among younger patients (age <65 years, N = 179), NLR ≥ 2 had a negative prognostic impact on both PFS and OS, in all ISS stages. By combining ISS stage and NLR in a model limited to young patients, we found that 19 % of the patients were classified as very low risk, 70 % standard risk and 11 % very high risk. The 5-year estimates were 39.3, 19.4 and 10.9 % for PFS and 95.8, 50.9 and 23.6 % for OS for very low, standard-risk and very high-risk groups. We found NLR to be a predictor of PFS and OS in MM patients treated upfront with novel agents. NLR can be combined with ISS staging system to identify patients with dismal outcome. However, larger cohorts and prospective studies are needed to use NLR as additional parameter to personalise MM therapy in the era of novel agents.

  3. Coupling mode-destination accessibility with seismic risk assessment to identify at-risk communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Mahalia; Baker, Jack W.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a framework for coupling mode-destination accessibility with quantitative seismic risk assessment to identify communities at high risk for travel disruptions after an earthquake. Mode-destination accessibility measures the ability of people to reach destinations they desire. We use a probabilistic seismic risk assessment procedure, including a stochastic set of earthquake events, ground-motion intensity maps, damage maps, and realizations of traffic and accessibility impacts. For a case study of the San Francisco Bay Area, we couple our seismic risk framework with a practical activity-based traffic model. As a result, we quantify accessibility risk probabilistically by community and household type. We find that accessibility varies more strongly as a function of travelers' geographic location than as a function of their income class, and we identify particularly at-risk communities. We also observe that communities more conducive to local trips by foot or bike are predicted to be less impacted by losses in accessibility. This work shows the potential to link quantitative risk assessment methodologies with high-resolution travel models used by transportation planners. Quantitative risk metrics of this type should have great utility for planners working to reduce risk to a region's infrastructure systems. - Highlights: • We couple mode-destination accessibility with probabilistic seismic risk assessment. • Results identify communities at high risk for post-earthquake travel disruptions. • Accessibility varies more as a function of home location than by income. • Our model predicts reduced accessibility risk for more walking-friendly communities.

  4. Hereditary internal anal sphincter myopathy causing proctalgia fugax and constipation. A newly identified condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamm, M A; Hoyle, C H; Burleigh, D E; Law, P J; Swash, M; Martin, J E; Nicholls, R J; Northover, J M

    1991-03-01

    A newly identified myopathy of the internal anal sphincter is described. In the affected family, at least one member from each of five generations had severe proctalgia fugax; onset was usually in the third to fifth decades of life. Three members of the family have been studied in detail. Each had severe pain intermittently during the day and hourly during the night. Constipation was an associated symptom, in particular difficulty with rectal evacuation. Clinically the internal anal sphincter was thickened and of decreased compliance. The maximum anal canal pressure was usually increased with marked ultraslow wave activity. Anal endosonography confirmed a grossly thickened internal anal sphincter. Two patients were treated by internal anal sphincter strip myectomy; one showed marked improvement and one was relieved of the constipation but had only slight improvement of the pain. The hypertrophied muscle in two of the patients showed unique myopathic changes, consisting of vacuolar changes with periodic acid-Schiff-positive polyglycosan bodies in the smooth muscle fibers and increased endomysial fibrosis. In vitro organ-bath studies showed insensitivity of the muscle to noradrenaline, isoprenaline, carbachol, dimethylpiperazinium, and electrical-field stimulation. Immunohistochemical studies for substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, galanin, neuropeptide Y, and vasoactive intestinal peptide showed staining in a similar distribution to that in control tissue. A specific autosomal-dominant inherited myopathy of the internal anal sphincter that causes anal pain and constipation has been identified and characterized.

  5. New land disposal restrictions on contaminated soil and debris, and newly identified toxicity characteristic organics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortune, William B.; Schumann, Jean C.; Fallon, William E.; Badden, Janet W.; Smith, Edward H.

    1992-01-01

    The applicability of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) program to radioactive mixed wastes (RMW) has been clarified through U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) rulemakings and notices. However, a number of waste management concerns involving RMW and RMW-contaminated soil and debris continue to exist with respect to achieving compliance with LDR provisions and treatment standards. Consequently, DOE has become increasingly proactive in its participation in the LDR rulemaking process and in the identification of LDR compliance issues associated with its RMW inventories. Both data and recommendations from across the DOE complex were collected and transmitted to EPA in response to proposed requirements that would implement LDR for contaminated soil and debris, and certain newly identified toxicity characteristic (TC) organics. Much of this information focused on concerns related to the application of proposed regulatory approaches to RMW streams. Highlights from the information included in these DOE responses are presented. (author)

  6. Newly identified CHO ERCC3/XPB mutations and phenotype characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybanská, Ivana; Gurský, Ján; Fašková, Miriam; Salazar, Edmund P.; Kimlíčková-Polakovičová, Erika; Kleibl, Karol; Thompson, Larry H.; Piršel, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is a complex multistage process involving many interacting gene products to repair a wide range of DNA lesions. Genetic defects in NER cause human hereditary diseases including xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), Cockayne syndrome (CS), trichothiodystrophy and a combined XP/CS overlapping symptom. One key gene product associated with all these disorders is the excision repair cross-complementing 3/xeroderma pigmentosum B (ERCC3/XPB) DNA helicase, a subunit of the transcription factor IIH complex. ERCC3 is involved in initiation of basal transcription and global genome repair as well as in transcription-coupled repair (TCR). The hamster ERCC3 gene shows high degree of homology with the human ERCC3/XPB gene. We identified new mutations in the Chinese hamster ovary cell ERCC3 gene and characterized the role of hamster ERCC3 protein in DNA repair of ultraviolet (UV)-induced and oxidative DNA damage. All but one newly described mutations are located in the protein C-terminal region around the last intron–exon boundary. Due to protein truncations or frameshifts, they lack amino acid Ser751, phosphorylation of which prevents the 5′ incision of the UV-induced lesion during NER. Thus, despite the various locations of the mutations, their phenotypes are similar. All ercc3 mutants are extremely sensitive to UV-C light and lack recovery of RNA synthesis (RRS), confirming a defect in TCR of UV-induced damage. Their limited global genome NER capacity averages ∼8%. We detected modest sensitivity of ercc3 mutants to the photosensitizer Ro19-8022, which primarily introduces 8-oxoguanine lesions into DNA. Ro19-8022-induced damage interfered with RRS, and some of the ercc3 mutants had delayed kinetics. All ercc3 mutants showed efficient base excision repair (BER). Thus, the positions of the mutations have no effect on the sensitivity to, and repair of, Ro19-8022-induced DNA damage, suggesting that the ERCC3 protein is not involved in BER. PMID:19942596

  7. 41 CFR 102-80.50 - Are Federal agencies responsible for identifying/estimating risks and for appropriate risk...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Environmental Management Risks and Risk Reduction Strategies § 102-80.50 Are Federal agencies responsible for... identify and estimate safety and environmental management risks and appropriate risk reduction strategies... responsible for identifying/estimating risks and for appropriate risk reduction strategies? 102-80.50 Section...

  8. Health Risk Assessment of Inhalation Exposure to Formaldehyde and Benzene in Newly Remodeled Buildings, Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lihui; Mo, Jinhan; Sundell, Jan; Fan, Zhihua; Zhang, Yinping

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess health risks associated with inhalation exposure to formaldehyde and benzene mainly emitted from building and decoration materials in newly remodeled indoor spaces in Beijing. Methods We tested the formaldehyde and benzene concentrations in indoor air of 410 dwellings and 451 offices remodeled within the past year, in which the occupants had health concerns about indoor air quality. To assess non-carcinogenic health risks, we compared the data to the health guidelines in China and USA, respectively. To assess carcinogenic health risks, we first modeled indoor personal exposure to formaldehyde and benzene using the concentration data, and then estimated the associated cancer risks by multiplying the indoor personal exposure by the Inhalation Unit Risk values (IURs) provided by the U.S. EPA Integrated Risk Information System (U.S. EPA IRIS) and the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA), respectively. Results (1) The indoor formaldehyde concentrations of 85% dwellings and 67% offices were above the acute Reference Exposure Level (REL) recommended by the OEHHA and the concentrations of all tested buildings were above the chronic REL recommended by the OEHHA; (2) The indoor benzene concentrations of 12% dwellings and 32% offices exceeded the reference concentration (RfC) recommended by the U.S. EPA IRIS; (3) The median cancer risks from indoor exposure to formaldehyde and benzene were 1,150 and 106 per million (based on U.S. EPA IRIS IURs), 531 and 394 per million (based on OEHHA IURs). Conclusions In the tested buildings, formaldehyde exposure may pose acute and chronic non-carcinogenic health risks to the occupants, whereas benzene exposure may pose chronic non-carcinogenic risks to the occupants. Exposure to both compounds is associated with significant carcinogenic risks. Improvement in ventilation, establishment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emission labeling systems for decorating and refurbishing materials

  9. A newly identified essential complex, Dre2-Tah18, controls mitochondria integrity and cell death after oxidative stress in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Vernis

    Full Text Available A mutated allele of the essential gene TAH18 was previously identified in our laboratory in a genetic screen for new proteins interacting with the DNA polymerase delta in yeast [1]. The present work shows that Tah18 plays a role in response to oxidative stress. After exposure to lethal doses of H(2O(2, GFP-Tah18 relocalizes to the mitochondria and controls mitochondria integrity and cell death. Dre2, an essential Fe/S cluster protein and homologue of human anti-apoptotic Ciapin1, was identified as a molecular partner of Tah18 in the absence of stress. Moreover, Ciapin1 is able to replace yeast Dre2 in vivo and physically interacts with Tah18. Our results are in favour of an oxidative stress-induced cell death in yeast that involves mitochondria and is controlled by the newly identified Dre2-Tah18 complex.

  10. Fetal alcohol-spectrum disorders: identifying at-risk mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montag AC

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Annika C Montag Department of Pediatrics, Division of Dysmorphology and Teratology, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: Fetal alcohol-spectrum disorders (FASDs are a collection of physical and neuro­behavioral disabilities caused by prenatal exposure to alcohol. To prevent or mitigate the costly effects of FASD, we must identify mothers at risk for having a child with FASD, so that we may reach them with interventions. Identifying mothers at risk is beneficial at all time points, whether prior to pregnancy, during pregnancy, or following the birth of the child. In this review, three approaches to identifying mothers at risk are explored: using characteristics of the mother and her pregnancy, using laboratory biomarkers, and using self-report assessment of alcohol-consumption risk. At present, all approaches have serious limitations. Research is needed to improve the sensitivity and specificity of biomarkers and screening instruments, and to link them to outcomes as opposed to exposure. Universal self-report screening of all women of childbearing potential should ideally be incorporated into routine obstetric and gynecologic care, followed by brief interventions, including education and personalized feedback for all who consume alcohol, and referral to treatment as indicated. Effective biomarkers or combinations of biomarkers may be used during pregnancy and at birth to determine maternal and fetal alcohol exposure. The combination of self-report and biomarker screening may help identify a greater proportion of women at risk for having a child with FASD, allowing them to access information and treatment, and empowering them to make decisions that benefit their children. Keywords: fetal alcohol-spectrum disorder (FASD, alcohol, pregnancy, screening, biomarkers, SBIRT

  11. Previously known and newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation: a major risk indicator after a myocardial infarction complicated by heart failure or left ventricular dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køber, Lars; Swedberg, Karl; McMurray, John J V

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: To characterize the relationship between known and newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation (AF) and the risk of death and major cardiovascular (CV) events in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) complicated by heart failure (HF) and/or left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD). MET...

  12. Generational differences among newly licensed registered nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keepnews, David M; Brewer, Carol S; Kovner, Christine T; Shin, Juh Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Responses of 2369 newly licensed registered nurses from 3 generational cohorts-Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y-were studied to identify differences in their characteristics, work-related experiences, and attitudes. These responses revealed significant differences among generations in: job satisfaction, organizational commitment, work motivation, work-to-family conflict, family-to-work conflict, distributive justice, promotional opportunities, supervisory support, mentor support, procedural justice, and perceptions of local job opportunities. Health organizations and their leaders need to anticipate intergenerational differences among newly licensed nurses and should provide for supportive working environments that recognize those differences. Orientation and residency programs for newly licensed nurses should be tailored to the varying needs of different generations. Future research should focus on evaluating the effectiveness of orientation and residency programs with regard to different generations so that these programs can be tailored to meet the varying needs of newly licensed nurses at the start of their careers. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. CD4+ T cell count, HIV-1 viral loads and demographic variables of newly identified patients with HIV infection in Wuhan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Man-Qing; Tang, Li; Kong, Wen-Hua; Zhu, Ze-Rong; Peng, Jin-Song; Wang, Xia; Yao, Zhong-Zhao; Schilling, Robert; Zhou, Wang

    2013-10-01

    In China, the rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing is increasing among men who have sex with men. The purpose of the present study was to describe HIV-related biomarkers and selected demographic variables of persons with newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS, among men who have sex with men in particular, in Wuhan China. Demographic indicators, and CD4+ T cell counts and HIV-1 viral load were collected from individuals newly identified as HIV-1 antibody positive during 2011. Of 176 enrolled patients, 132 (75.0%) were men who have sex with men. This group was significantly younger and had higher CD4+ T cell counts than patients who were likely infected through heterosexual contact. Most men who have sex with men (56.6%) were discovered by initiative investigation. Among heterosexual patients CD4+ T cell counts and HIV-1 viral load were significantly correlated; among the group of men who have sex with men, no such association was found. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Identifying children at risk for being bullies in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetgiri, Rashmi; Lin, Hua; Flores, Glenn

    2012-01-01

    To identify risk factors associated with the greatest and lowest prevalence of bullying perpetration among U.S. children. Using the 2001-2002 Health Behavior in School-Aged Children, a nationally representative survey of U.S. children in 6th-10th grades, bivariate analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with any (once or twice or more), moderate (two to three times/month or more), and frequent (weekly or more) bullying. Stepwise multivariable analyses identified risk factors associated with bullying. Recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) identified risk factors which, in combination, identify students with the highest and lowest bullying prevalence. The prevalence of any bullying in the 13,710 students was 37.3%, moderate bullying was 12.6%, and frequent bullying was 6.6%. Characteristics associated with bullying were similar in the multivariable analyses and RPA clusters. In RPA, the highest prevalence of any bullying (67%) accrued in children with a combination of fighting and weapon-carrying. Students who carry weapons, smoke, and drink alcohol more than 5 to 6 days/week were at greatest risk for moderate bullying (61%). Those who carry weapons, smoke, have more than one alcoholic drink per day, have above-average academic performance, moderate/high family affluence, and feel irritable or bad-tempered daily were at greatest risk for frequent bullying (68%). Risk clusters for any, moderate, and frequent bullying differ. Children who fight and carry weapons are at greatest risk of any bullying. Weapon-carrying, smoking, and alcohol use are included in the greatest risk clusters for moderate and frequent bullying. Risk-group categories may be useful to providers in identifying children at the greatest risk for bullying and in targeting interventions. Copyright © 2012 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Factors Associated with Newly Diagnosed Children with Diabetic Ketoacidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh Mirsadraee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Diabetes mellitus type 1 is one of the most prevalent endocrine diseases in pediatrics. Diabetic ketoacidosis is considered as one of the most threatening clinical pictures of DM1, especially if occurred as the first presentation of DM1 in children. Objectives The current study aimed to identify factors which may play a role in DKA onset in children. Methods This case-control study included all patients under 18 years old who referred to department of pediatrics endocrinology at Mashhad University Hospital (Imam Reza from January 2013 to December 2015 as newly diagnosed patients with DM1. Patients who fulfilled DKA criteria at diagnosis were considered as DKA group and those who referred with other presentations were considered as control group (non-DKA group. Data were analyzed by SPSS software ver. 16. Results During the study period, 97 (39.2% male newly diagnosed patients were included as DKA group. Accordingly 97 gender- and age-matched patients were added as non-DKA group. The most prevalent symptoms in both groups were polyuria (91.88% and polydipsia (88.66%. Fever and cold symptoms were significantly higher in the DKA group (P < 0.001 and P =0.005, respectively. Hemoglobin A1c level was significantly higher in the DKA group (P = 0.001, while body mass index was significantly lower in the DKA group (P = 0.045. Fever and father’s education level were the most important risk and protective factors in the DKA onset in newly diagnosed patients with DM1 (adjusted OR = 10.1, 95% CI = 2.9-35.3; P < 0.001 and adjusted OR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.3 - 0.9 and P = 0.019, respectively. Conclusions In conclusion, a recent febrile illness was found as the strongest risk factor and father’s education level as the main protective factor in the DKA to diagnose children with DM1. The study findings suggested that DKA is a severe form of DM1 instead of a neglected or misdiagnosed disease.

  16. Using risk-tracing snowball approach to increase HIV case detection among high-risk populations in Cambodia: an intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhim, Srean; Macom, John; Pav, Chettana; Nim, Nirada; Yun, Phearun; Seng, Sopheap; Chhim, Kolab; Tuot, Sovannary; Yi, Siyan

    2017-10-18

    Early HIV diagnosis and initiation onto antiretroviral therapy may prevent ongoing spread of HIV. Risk Tracing Snowball Approach (RTSA) has been shown to be effective in detecting new HIV cases in other settings. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of RTSA in increasing the rate of newly identified HIV cases among high-risk populations. Our second objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of RTSA, as compared to the walk-in group, in increasing the number of HIV tests and early case detection. This study was conducted from April 1 to September 30, 2016 at two NGO clinics in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Respondent driven sampling method was adapted to develop RTSA to reach high-risk populations, including key populations and the general population who have social connections with key populations. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted. During the implementation period, 721 clients walked in for HIV testing (walk-in group), and all were invited to be seeds. Of the invited clients, 36.6% agreed to serve as seeds. Throughout the implementation, 6195 coupons were distributed to seeds or recruiters, and resulted in 1572 clients visiting the two clinics with coupons (RTSA group), for a coupon return rate of 25.3%. The rate of newly identified HIV cases among the RTSA group was significantly lower compared to that in walk-in group. However, the highest number of newly identified HIV cases was found during the implementation period, compared to both pre- and post-implementation period. Although statistically not significant, the mean CD4 count of newly identified HIV cases detected through RTSA was almost 200 cells/mm3 higher than that in the walk-in group. Although the rate of newly identified HIV cases among the RTSA group was lower than that in the walk-in group, the inclusion of RTSA in addition to the traditional walk-in method boosted new HIV case detection in the two participating clinics. A higher mean CD4

  17. TLR4, NOD1 and NOD2 mediate immune recognition of putative newly identified periodontal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesan, Julie; Jiao, Yizu; Schaff, Riley A; Hao, Jie; Morelli, Thiago; Kinney, Janet S; Gerow, Elizabeth; Sheridan, Rachel; Rodrigues, Vinicius; Paster, Bruce J; Inohara, Naohiro; Giannobile, William V

    2016-06-01

    Periodontitis is a polymicrobial inflammatory disease that results from the interaction between the oral microbiota and the host immunity. Although the innate immune response is important for disease initiation and progression, the innate immune receptors that recognize both classical and putative periodontal pathogens that elicit an immune response have not been elucidated. By using the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM), we identified multiple predominant oral bacterial species in human plaque biofilm that strongly associate with severe periodontitis. Ten of the identified species were evaluated in greater depth, six being classical pathogens and four putative novel pathogens. Using human peripheral blood monocytes (HPBM) and murine bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) from wild-type (WT) and Toll-like receptor (TLR)-specific and MyD88 knockouts (KOs), we demonstrated that heat-killed Campylobacter concisus, Campylobacter rectus, Selenomonas infelix, Porphyromonas endodontalis, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Tannerella forsythia mediate high immunostimulatory activity. Campylobacter concisus, C. rectus, and S. infelix exhibited robust TLR4 stimulatory activity. Studies using mesothelial cells from WT and NOD1-specific KOs and NOD2-expressing human embryonic kidney cells demonstrated that Eubacterium saphenum, Eubacterium nodatum and Filifactor alocis exhibit robust NOD1 stimulatory activity, and that Porphyromonas endodontalis and Parvimonas micra have the highest NOD2 stimulatory activity. These studies allowed us to provide important evidence on newly identified putative pathogens in periodontal disease pathogenesis showing that these bacteria exhibit different immunostimulatory activity via TLR4, NOD1, and NOD2 (Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01154855). © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. TLR4, NOD1 and NOD2 Mediate Immune Recognition of Putative Newly-Identified Periodontal Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaff, Riley A.; Hao, Jie; Morelli, Thiago; Kinney, Janet S.; Gerow, Elizabeth; Sheridan, Rachel; Rodrigues, Vinicius; Paster, Bruce J.; Inohara, Naohiro; Giannobile, William V.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Periodontitis is a polymicrobial inflammatory disease that results from the interaction between the oral microbiota and the host immunity. While the innate immune response is important for disease initiation and progression, the innate immune receptors that recognize both classical and putative periodontal pathogens that elicit an immune response have not been elucidated. By using the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM), we identified multiple predominant oral bacterial species in human plaque biofilm that strongly associate with severe periodontitis. Ten of the identified species were evaluated in greater depth, 6 being classical pathogens and 4 putative novel pathogens. Using human peripheral blood monocytes (HPBM) and murine bone marrow–derived macrophages (BMDM) from wild-type (WT) and toll-like receptor (TLR)-specific and MyD88 knockouts (KOs), we demonstrated that heat-killed Campylobacter concisus, Campylobacter rectus, Selenomonas infelix, Porphyromonas endodontalis, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Tannerella forsythia mediate high immunostimulatory activity. C. concisus, C. rectus, and S. infelix exhibited robust TLR4 stimulatory activity. Studies using mesothelial cells from WT and NOD1-specific KOs and NOD2-expressing human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells demonstrated that Eubacterium saphenum, Eubacterium nodatum and Filifactor alocis exhibit robust NOD1 stimulatory activity, and that Porphyromonas endodontalis and Parvimonas micra have the highest NOD2-stimulatory activity. These studies allowed us to provide important evidence on newly-identified putative pathogens in periodontal disease pathogenesis showing that these bacteria exhibit different immunostimulatory activity via TLR4, NOD1, and NOD2 (Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01154855). PMID:26177212

  19. Comparison of Newly Diagnosed Ocular Hypertension and Open-Angle Glaucoma: Ocular Variables, Risk Factors, and Disease Severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne M. Buys

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To describe the distribution of ocular variables, risk factors, and disease severity in newly diagnosed ocular hypertension (OH or open-angle glaucoma (OAG. Methods. Eligible subjects underwent a complete history and examination. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs obtained from multiple logistic regression models were used to compare OAG to OH and advanced to early/moderate OAG. Results. 405 subjects were enrolled: 292 (72.1% with OAG and 113 (27.9% with OH. 51.7% had early, 27.1% moderate, and 20.9% advanced OAG. The OR for OAG versus OH was 8.19 (P<0.0001 for disc notch, 5.36 (P<0.0001 for abnormal visual field, 1.45 (P=0.001 for worsening mean deviation, 1.91 (P<0.0001 for increased cupping, 1.03 for increased age (P=0.030, and 0.36 (P=0.010 for smoking. Conclusions. Increased age was a risk for OAG, and smoking decreased the risk of OAG compared to OH. Almost half of the OAG subjects had moderate/advanced disease at diagnosis.

  20. Who Is Doing Well? A Typology of Newly Homeless Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milburn, Norweeta; Liang, Li-Jung; Lee, Sung-Jae; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Rosenthal, Doreen; Mallett, Shelley; Lightfoot, Marguerita; Lester, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    There is growing evidence to support developing new typologies for homeless adolescents. Current typologies focus on the risks associated with being homeless, with less consideration of the positive attributes of homeless adolescents. The authors examined both risk and protective factors in a sample of newly homeless adolescents. Using cluster…

  1. Identifying and managing risk in international construction projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Kerur

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, major construction projects have increasingly arisen in countries or regions that lack specialist, expert construction contractors, suppliers and consultants. Steps are being taken by governments in the Middle East, Eastern Europe, China, India and developing markets to address national infrastructure deficits, and by so doing, are creating new regions of booming construction demand. When coupled with anaemic growth in developed markets such as the United Kingdom, the USA and Western Europe, foreign markets present attractive opportunities to the global construction industry. However, foreign markets are littered with the cautionary tales of international contractors and consultants that have failed to grasp the intricacies and risks of operating in a new environment and have failed to capitalise on the opportunities available. By identifying the classes of risks, and undertaking detailed analysis, ranking and mitigation of relevant jurisdictional risks, participants in international construction projects will increase the likelihood of project success and commercial longevity in the new jurisdiction. Risk identification and assessment is not a science but an art, and while there are many potential approaches to the issue, we propose that our strategies for identifying, assessing, ranking and mitigating jurisdictional risks offer new international players a good chance of commercial success.

  2. Newly identified psychiatric illness in one general practice: 12-month outcome and the influence of patients' personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, A F; Anderson, A J

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Relatively little is known about the natural history and outcome of psychological problems in patients who present to general practitioners. Only a small proportion of such patients are seen by specialists. Clinical experience suggests that patient personality is one of the factors influencing outcome in patients diagnosed as having psychiatric illness. AIM. This study set out to examine prospectively the progress and 12-month outcome of patients with newly identified psychiatric illness, and the association of patients' personality with outcome. METHOD. One hundred and seventy one patients with clinically significant psychiatric illness attending one practice in a Scottish new town were followed up prospectively (96 presented with psychological symptoms and 75 with somatic symptoms), and were compared with a group of 127 patients with chronic physical illness. Patients were assessed in terms of psychiatric state, social problems and personality using both computer-based and pencil and paper tests in addition to clinical assessments at each consultation during the follow-up year and structured interview one year after recruitment. RESULTS. Most of the improvement in psychiatric state scores on the 28-item general health questionnaire occurred in the first six months of the illness. Of the 171 patients with psychiatric illness 34% improved quickly and remained well, 54% had an intermittent course but had improved at 12-month follow up while 12% pursued a chronic course without improvement. The mean number of consultations in the follow-up year was 8.4 for patients presenting with psychological symptoms, 7.2 for those presenting with somatic symptoms and 6.6 for patients with chronic physical illness. The Eysenck N score proved a strong predictor of the outcome of new psychiatric illness. CONCLUSION. Only one in three patients with newly identified psychiatric illness improved quickly and and remained well, reflecting the importance of continuing care of

  3. High-risk populations identified in Childhood Cancer Survivor Study investigations: implications for risk-based surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Melissa M; Mulrooney, Daniel A; Bowers, Daniel C; Sklar, Charles A; Green, Daniel M; Donaldson, Sarah S; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Neglia, Joseph P; Meadows, Anna T; Robison, Leslie L

    2009-05-10

    Childhood cancer survivors often experience complications related to cancer and its treatment that may adversely affect quality of life and increase the risk of premature death. The purpose of this manuscript is to review how data derived from Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) investigations have facilitated identification of childhood cancer survivor populations at high risk for specific organ toxicity and secondary carcinogenesis and how this has informed clinical screening practices. Articles previously published that used the resource of the CCSS to identify risk factors for specific organ toxicity and subsequent cancers were reviewed and results summarized. CCSS investigations have characterized specific groups to be at highest risk of morbidity related to endocrine and reproductive dysfunction, pulmonary toxicity, cerebrovascular injury, neurologic and neurosensory sequelae, and subsequent neoplasms. Factors influencing risk for specific outcomes related to the individual survivor (eg, sex, race/ethnicity, age at diagnosis, attained age), sociodemographic status (eg, education, household income, health insurance) and cancer history (eg, diagnosis, treatment, time from diagnosis) have been consistently identified. These CCSS investigations that clarify risk for treatment complications related to specific treatment modalities, cumulative dose exposures, and sociodemographic factors identify profiles of survivors at high risk for cancer-related morbidity who deserve heightened surveillance to optimize outcomes after treatment for childhood cancer.

  4. Identifying nursing home residents at risk for falling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, D K; Kiel, D P; Burrows, A B; Lipsitz, L A

    1998-05-01

    To develop a fall risk model that can be used to identify prospectively nursing home residents at risk for falling. The secondary objective was to determine whether the nursing home environment independently influenced the development of falls. A prospective study involving 1 year of follow-up. Two hundred seventy-two nursing homes in the state of Washington. A total of 18,855 residents who had a baseline assessment in 1991 and a follow-up assessment within the subsequent year. Baseline Minimum Data Set items that could be potential risk factors for falling were considered as independent variables. The dependent variable was whether the resident fell as reported at the follow-up assessment. We estimated the extrinsic risk attributable to particular nursing home environments by calculating the annual fall rate in each nursing home and grouping them into tertiles of fall risk according to these rates. Factors associated independently with falling were fall history, wandering behavior, use of a cane or walker, deterioration of activities of daily living performance, age greater than 87 years, unsteady gait, transfer independence, wheelchair independence, and male gender. Nursing home residents with a fall history were more than three times as likely to fall during the follow-up period than residents without a fall history. Residents in homes with the highest tertile of fall rates were more than twice as likely to fall compared with residents of homes in the lowest tertile, independent of resident-specific risk factors. Fall history was identified as the strongest risk factor associated with subsequent falls and accounted for the vast majority of the predictive strength of the model. We recommend that fall history be used as an initial screener for determining eligibility for fall intervention efforts. Studies are needed to determine the facility characteristics that contribute to fall risk, independent of resident-specific risk factors.

  5. Cross-Genome Comparisons of Newly Identified Domains in Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Domain Architectures with Other Mycoplasma species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Sekhar Reddy Chilamakuri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate functional annotation of protein sequences is hampered by important factors such as the failure of sequence search methods to identify relationships and the inherent diversity in function of proteins related at low sequence similarities. Earlier, we had employed intermediate sequence search approach to establish new domain relationships in the unassigned regions of gene products at the whole genome level by taking Mycoplasma gallisepticum as a specific example and established new domain relationships. In this paper, we report a detailed comparison of the conservation status of the domain and domain architectures of the gene products that bear our newly predicted domains amongst 14 other Mycoplasma genomes and reported the probable implications for the organisms. Some of the domain associations, observed in Mycoplasma that afflict humans and other non-human primates, are involved in regulation of solute transport and DNA binding suggesting specific modes of host-pathogen interactions.

  6. Obstetric Risk Factors and Subsequent Mental Health Problems in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Studies suggest that obstetric complications are associated with several child psychiatric conditions. In planning for child psychiatric services it is important to monitor patterns of morbidity and associated risk factors. Identifying obstetric risk factors in a newly opened child psychiatric clinic population with ...

  7. Patients with newly diagnosed Rheumatoid Arthritis are at increased risk of Diabetes Mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emamifar, Amir; Levin, Klaus; Jensen Hansen, Inger Marie

    2018-01-01

    -C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP) at the time of diagnosis and after 4 months (±1-2 months) of treatment initiation were extracted from Danbio Registry. To reveal the presence of DM, patients' electronic medical records were reviewed. The prevalence of DM in our patients was compared (using an age- and gender......-matched analysis) with that expected from Danish population. RESULTS: of 439 included patients, 60.1% were female, mean of age 64.6±15.0 years and RA disease duration 2.6±1.7 years. Prevalence of DM was 57/439 (12.9%), herein type II DM 52 (91.2%) and type I DM 5 (8.8%). Except for two patients, diagnosis of DM......AIMS: To reveal the prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) in patients with newly diagnosed Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) and evaluate the association between clinical characteristics of RA and DM as well as treatment response in newly diagnosed RA patients with DM. METHODS: Newly diagnosed, adult, RA...

  8. Study on mid and long-term strategic plan formulation for newly-constructed NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Lin

    2014-01-01

    Mid and Long-term strategic plan plays a key role for the management of a newly constructed nuclear power company. Among others, process, goals, and risk management, are the primary concerns during plan preparing. The article analyzed these three areas for Fuqing NPP, including the formulating process for the plan, the mid and long-term goal setting of the company, the major risk analysis and countermeasure selection therefore. Through that solutions and suggestions for strategic plan formulation were concluded for newly-constructed NPP. (author)

  9. Original Research Identifying patients at high risk for obstructive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    determine the factors associated with high risk for obstructive sleep apnoea and use it to identify patients at risk for the condition in ... mainstay of management is CPAP in addition to behavioral ..... the present study has some potential limitations which ... consequences of obstructive sleep apnea and short sleep duration.

  10. Lung cancer and risk factors: how to identify phenotypic markers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement-Duchene, Christelle

    2009-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of death in the world. Most lung cancer are diagnosed at an advanced stage (IIIB and IV), with a poor prognosis. The main risk factors are well known like active smoking, and occupational exposure (asbestos), but 10 a 20% occur in never smokers. In this population, various studies have been conducted in order to identify possible risk factors, and although many have been identified, none seem to explain more than a small percentage of the cases. According to the histological types, adenocarcinoma is now the more frequent type, and its association with the main risk factors (tobacco exposure, asbestos exposure) is still studied. The tumoral location is associated with the exposure to the risk factors. Finally, the survival seems to be different between gender, and between smokers, and never smokers. All these characteristics are perhaps associated with different pathways of carcinogenesis. In this context, we have analyzed a cohort of 1493 patients with lung cancer in order to identify phenotypic markers, and to understand the mechanisms of the lung carcinogenesis. (author) [fr

  11. Comparing complete and partial classification for identifying customers at risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemer, J.M.M.; Brijs, T.; Swinnen, S.P.; Vanhoof, K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper evaluates complete versus partial classification for the problem of identifying customers at risk. We define customers at risk as customers reporting overall satisfaction, but these customers also possess characteristics that are strongly associated with dissatisfied customers. This

  12. Predictive risk modelling under different data access scenarios: who is identified as high risk and for how long?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tracy L; Kaldor, Jill; Sutherland, Kim; Humphries, Jacob; Jorm, Louisa R; Levesque, Jean-Frederic

    2018-01-01

    Objective This observational study critically explored the performance of different predictive risk models simulating three data access scenarios, comparing: (1) sociodemographic and clinical profiles; (2) consistency in high-risk designation across models; and (3) persistence of high-risk status over time. Methods Cross-sectional health survey data (2006–2009) for more than 260 000 Australian adults 45+ years were linked to longitudinal individual hospital, primary care, pharmacy and mortality data. Three risk models predicting acute emergency hospitalisations were explored, simulating conditions where data are accessed through primary care practice management systems, or through hospital-based electronic records, or through a hypothetical ‘full’ model using a wider array of linked data. High-risk patients were identified using different risk score thresholds. Models were reapplied monthly for 24 months to assess persistence in high-risk categorisation. Results The three models displayed similar statistical performance. Three-quarters of patients in the high-risk quintile from the ‘full’ model were also identified using the primary care or hospital-based models, with the remaining patients differing according to age, frailty, multimorbidity, self-rated health, polypharmacy, prior hospitalisations and imminent mortality. The use of higher risk prediction thresholds resulted in lower levels of agreement in high-risk designation across models and greater morbidity and mortality in identified patient populations. Persistence of high-risk status varied across approaches according to updated information on utilisation history, with up to 25% of patients reassessed as lower risk within 1 year. Conclusion/implications Small differences in risk predictors or risk thresholds resulted in comparatively large differences in who was classified as high risk and for how long. Pragmatic predictive risk modelling design decisions based on data availability or projected

  13. The greatest risk for low-back pain among newly educated female health care workers; body weight or physical work load?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Jette

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low back pain (LBP represents a major socioeconomic burden for the Western societies. Both life-style and work-related factors may cause low back pain. Prospective cohort studies assessing risk factors among individuals without prior history of low back pain are lacking. This aim of this study was to determine risk factors for developing low back pain (LBP among health care workers. Methods Prospective cohort study with 2,235 newly educated female health care workers without prior history of LBP. Risk factors and incidence of LBP were assessed at one and two years after graduation. Results Multinomial logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, smoking, and psychosocial factors showed that workers with high physical work load had higher risk for developing LBP than workers with low physical work load (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.1–2.8. In contrast, workers with high BMI were not at a higher risk for developing LBP than workers with a normal BMI. Conclusion Preventive initiatives for LBP among health care workers ought to focus on reducing high physical work loads rather than lowering excessive body weight.

  14. Perceptions of the clinical competence of newly registered nurses in the North West province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Moeti

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The clinical competence of newly registered nurses relating to the care of individual Clients, depends on their ability to correlate theoretical knowledge learned in the classroom with practice and the development of clinical skills. Its foundation lies in the ability to identify and solve problems that emanate from critical thinking, analytical reasoning and reflective practice. It is clear that the quality of clinical exposure plays a leading role in the development of nursing professionals. Nursing skills alone cannot ensure quality care of clients without the application of theory. Facilitation of this theory to practice therefore remains an essential component of nursing education. This study was aimed at identifying areas of incompetence of newly registered nurses (1998- 2001 in the clinical area by determining the newly registered nurses1 and professional nurses1 perceptions of the competence of the newly registered nurses. A quantitative, non-experimental, descriptive survey was used to collect the data regarding the clinical competence of newly registered nurses (1998-2001.

  15. Identifying risk factors for first-episode neck pain: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Rebecca; Wiest, Colin; Clark, Kelly; Cook, Chad; Horn, Maggie

    2018-02-01

    Neck pain affects 15.1% of the United States' general population every 3 months, and ranks fourth in global disability. Because of the tendency for neck pain to become a chronic issue, it is important to identify risk factors that could encourage prevention and early diagnosis. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify risk factors for a first episode of neck pain. Three databases were searched with key words such as "neck pain" and "first incidence." Risk factors from the resulting articles were reported as either a physical or psychosocial risk factor and ranked by the strength of their odds/risk/hazard ratio: empowering leadership, high perceived social climate, leisure physical activity, and cervical extensor endurance. Most risk factors found for neck pain were related to psychosocial characteristics, rather than physical characteristics. A number of these risk factors were mediating factors, suggesting that a prevention-based program may be useful in modifying the existence of the risk factors before the occurrence of neck pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Psycho-social factors of sexual failure among newly married Uyghur young males].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkin, Ashim; Hamrajan, Memtili; Kadirjan, Mijit; Adil, Eli; Elijan, Abdureshit; Ibrahim, Ubul; Abdulla, Tursun; Hasanjan, Abdurehim; Turgun, Hekim; Eli, Ablet; Eset, Metmusa

    2016-08-01

    To study the psycho-social risk factors of sexual failure among newly married young males in the Uyghur population. We conducted a paired case control study of 186 newly married Uyghur young males (aged 17-30 [23.4±2.9] yr) with sexual failure and another 186 (aged 18-34 [24.0±3.1] yr) with no such problem as controls. We performed a logistic regression analysis on the possible psycho-social risk factors of this condition. Logistic regression analysis showed that the risk factors of sexual failure among the newly married men included personality (OR=0.271, 95% CI 0.176-0.420), income (OR=0.391, 95% CI 0.264-0.580), history of masturbation (OR=0.824, 95% CI 0.710-0.956), premarital sex (OR=0.757, 95% CI 0.677-0.847), sense of obligation (OR=1.756, 95% CI 1.157-2.693), equality of the social status (OR=0.574, 95% CI 0.435-0.756), degree of mutual care (OR=1.605, 95% CI 1.268-2.032), female's psychological obstacle (OR=2.832, 95% CI 1.221-6.569), and religion (OR=0.643, 95% CI 0.472-0.967). There was a statistical significance in the correlation between these factors and sexual failure in the newly married males (all Ppsycho-social factors, which necessitates sexual education among young males and particularly pre-marriage sexual education and psychological guide among both males and females.

  17. Tricks of the trade: time management tips for newly qualified doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offiah, Gozie; Doherty, Eva

    2018-03-01

    The transition from medical student to doctor is an important milestone. The discovery that their time is no longer their own and that the demands of their job are greater than the time they have available is extremely challenging. At a recent surgical boot camp training programme, 60 first-year surgical trainees who had just completed their internship were invited to reflect on the lessons learnt regarding effective time management and to recommend tips for their newly qualified colleagues. They were asked to identify clinical duties that were considered urgent and important using the time management matrix and the common time traps encountered by newly qualified doctors. The surgical trainees identified several practical tips that ranged from writing a priority list to working on relationships within the team. These tips are generic and so applicable to all newly qualified medial doctors. We hope that awareness of these tips from the outset as against learning them through experience will greatly assist newly qualified doctors. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Identifiable risk factors in hepatitis b and c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, F.U.; Pervez, A.; Rafiq, A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Both hepatitis B and C are common infections affecting masses and are leading causes of Chronic Liver Disease in Pakistan as well as worldwide. In majority of cases both viral diseases spread by factors that are preventable. The present study is conducted to determine the identifiable risk factors in patients admitted with Chronic Hepatitis B and C. Methods: An observational study was carried out for a period of 6 months. All age groups and both sexes were included. The patients were interviewed and the identifiable risk factors were looked for. The standard methods for detection of Hepatitis B and C were used. Results: One-hundred and ten patients were studied from January to July 2009. Sixty-five patients had Hepatitis C, 35 had Hepatitis B, and 10 had both Hepatitis B and C. Ninety-three patients had a history of injections and transfusions etc., and 38 had surgical scars. Tattoos were present in 42 patients and nose and/or ear piercing marks were present in 28 patients. The number of risk factors increased in co-infection. Conclusion: There is a role of unhygienic health delivery practices, lack of awareness and resources for standard screening protocol for spread of Hepatitis B and C. (author)

  19. Identifying and evaluating E-procurement in supply chain risk by Fuzzy MADM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Memarzade

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available E-procurement risks has emerged as an important issue for researchers and practitioners because mitigating supply chain risk helps improve firms’ as well as supply chains’ performance. E-marketplaces have been steadily growing and there have been significant interest in e-business research. There are different risks and uncertainties involved with E-marketplaces, which jeopardizes the sector but we have had a large amount of hype and the business still continue to grow. The primary aim of this study is to identify E-procurement risks and evaluate them using a fuzzy AHP framework. We contribute E-procurement risk by identifying 13 critical criteria and determine four important ones including the extent of acceptable information, interrelationship risk, lack of honesty in relationships and product quality and safety for evaluating suppliers’ risk.

  20. Worldwide drinking water occurrence and levels of newly-identified perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaboré, Hermann A; Vo Duy, Sung; Munoz, Gabriel; Méité, Ladji; Desrosiers, Mélanie; Liu, Jinxia; Sory, Traoré Karim; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2018-03-01

    In the last decade or so, concerns have arisen with respect to the widespread occurrence of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the environment, food, drinking water, and humans. In this study, the occurrence and levels of a large range of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were investigated in drinking water (bottled and tap water samples) from various locations around the world. Automated off-line solid phase extraction followed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry was used to analyze PFASs of various chain lengths and functional groups. In total, 29 target and 104 suspect-target PFASs were screened in drinking water samples (n=97) from Canada and other countries (Burkina Faso, Chile, Ivory Coast, France, Japan, Mexico, Norway, and the USA) in 2015-2016. Out of the 29 PFASs quantitatively analyzed, perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs: C 4/14 ), perfluoroalkane sulfonates (PFSAs: C 4 , C 6 , C 8 ), and perfluoroalkyl acid precursors (e.g., 5:3 fluorotelomer carboxylate (5:3 FTCA)) were recurrently detected in drinking water samples (concentration range: water samples from Canada showed noteworthy differences depending on their source; for instance, ∑ 29 PFASwas significantly greater in those produced from the Great Lakes/St. Lawrence River ecosystem than those produced from other types of sources (14 versus 5.3ngL -1 , respectively). A suspect-target screening approach indicated that other perfluoroalkane sulfonamides (FBSA, FHxSA), perfluoroethyl cyclohexane sulfonate (PFECHS), ultrashort chain (C 2 -C 3 ) PFSAs (PFEtS, PFPrS), and two additional PFSAs (PFPeS (C 5 ) and PFHpS (C 7 )) were repeatedly present in tap water samples (concentration ranges: water. According to the newly updated US EPA health advisory for PFOS and PFOA (70ngL -1 ), the drinking water samples collected in the present monitoring would not pose a health risk to consumers as regards PFAA levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  1. Identifying populations at risk from environmental contamination from point sources

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, F; Ogston, S

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To compare methods for defining the population at risk from a point source of air pollution. A major challenge for environmental epidemiology lies in correctly identifying populations at risk from exposure to environmental pollutants. The complexity of today's environment makes it essential that the methods chosen are accurate and sensitive.

  2. Association analysis identifies 65 new breast cancer risk loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michailidou, Kyriaki; Lindström, Sara; Dennis, Joe

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer risk is influenced by rare coding variants in susceptibility genes, such as BRCA1, and many common, mostly non-coding variants. However, much of the genetic contribution to breast cancer risk remains unknown. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study of breast...... cancer in 122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European ancestry and 14,068 cases and 13,104 controls of East Asian ancestry. We identified 65 new loci that are associated with overall breast cancer risk at P risk single-nucleotide polymorphisms in these loci fall......-nucleotide polymorphisms in regulatory features was 2-5-fold enriched relative to the genome-wide average, with strong enrichment for particular transcription factor binding sites. These results provide further insight into genetic susceptibility to breast cancer and will improve the use of genetic risk scores...

  3. Higher incidence of hip fracture in newly diagnosed schizophrenic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Higher incidence of hip fracture in newly diagnosed schizophrenic patients in Taiwan. Hip fracture is a major public health concern due to its poor outcome and serious socioeconomic burden in older people (1). Evidence has shown that many factors are related to increased risk of hip fracture, but psychiatric diseases are ...

  4. Newly Generated Liquid Waste Processing Alternatives Study, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landman, William Henry; Bates, Steven Odum; Bonnema, Bruce Edward; Palmer, Stanley Leland; Podgorney, Anna Kristine; Walsh, Stephanie

    2002-09-01

    This report identifies and evaluates three options for treating newly generated liquid waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The three options are: (a) treat the waste using processing facilities designed for treating sodium-bearing waste, (b) treat the waste using subcontractor-supplied mobile systems, or (c) treat the waste using a special facility designed and constructed for that purpose. In studying these options, engineers concluded that the best approach is to store the newly generated liquid waste until a sodium-bearing waste treatment facility is available and then to co-process the stored inventory of the newly generated waste with the sodium-bearing waste. After the sodium-bearing waste facility completes its mission, two paths are available. The newly generated liquid waste could be treated using the subcontractor-supplied system or the sodium-bearing waste facility or a portion of it. The final decision depends on the design of the sodium-bearing waste treatment facility, which will be completed in coming years.

  5. Risk factors for atherosclerosis - can they be used to identify the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk factors are often used in preventive care programmes to identify the patient at particular risk for developing atherosclerosis. Risk factors for atherosclerosis have also been shown to be linked to the presence of the disease at a given time, a fact that may be helpful when screening for additional atherosclerotic disease in ...

  6. Risk-Aware Planetary Rover Operation: Autonomous Terrain Classification and Path Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Masahiro; Fuchs, Thoams J.; Steffy, Amanda; Maimone, Mark; Yen, Jeng

    2015-01-01

    Identifying and avoiding terrain hazards (e.g., soft soil and pointy embedded rocks) are crucial for the safety of planetary rovers. This paper presents a newly developed groundbased Mars rover operation tool that mitigates risks from terrain by automatically identifying hazards on the terrain, evaluating their risks, and suggesting operators safe paths options that avoids potential risks while achieving specified goals. The tool will bring benefits to rover operations by reducing operation cost, by reducing cognitive load of rover operators, by preventing human errors, and most importantly, by significantly reducing the risk of the loss of rovers.

  7. In Search of Black Swans: Identifying Students at Risk of Failing Licensing Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Cassandra; Hammond, Robert; Gula, Lorne; Tithecott, Gary; Chahine, Saad

    2018-03-01

    To determine which admissions variables and curricular outcomes are predictive of being at risk of failing the Medical Council of Canada Qualifying Examination Part 1 (MCCQE1), how quickly student risk of failure can be predicted, and to what extent predictive modeling is possible and accurate in estimating future student risk. Data from five graduating cohorts (2011-2015), Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, Western University, were collected and analyzed using hierarchical generalized linear models (HGLMs). Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to evaluate the accuracy of predictive models and determine whether they could be used to predict future risk, using the 2016 graduating cohort. Four predictive models were developed to predict student risk of failure at admissions, year 1, year 2, and pre-MCCQE1. The HGLM analyses identified gender, MCAT verbal reasoning score, two preclerkship course mean grades, and the year 4 summative objective structured clinical examination score as significant predictors of student risk. The predictive accuracy of the models varied. The pre-MCCQE1 model was the most accurate at predicting a student's risk of failing (AUC 0.66-0.93), while the admissions model was not predictive (AUC 0.25-0.47). Key variables predictive of students at risk were found. The predictive models developed suggest, while it is not possible to identify student risk at admission, we can begin to identify and monitor students within the first year. Using such models, programs may be able to identify and monitor students at risk quantitatively and develop tailored intervention strategies.

  8. Knowledge and perception of tuberculosis and the risk to become treatment default among newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients treated in primary health care, East Nusa Tenggara: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putera, Ikhwanuliman; Pakasi, Trevino A; Karyadi, Elvina

    2015-06-10

    Despite the high efficacy of tuberculosis (TB) drug regiments, one of the barriers in the TB control program is the non-compliance to treatment. Morbidity, mortality, and risk to become resistant to drugs are emerging among defaulters. Thus, the aim of this study is to identify the factors, especially knowledge and perceptions of TB and association with treatment default among patients treated in primary care settings, East Nusa Tenggara. This study was part of a bigger cohort community-based controlled trial study. The subjects were newly diagnosed pulmonary TB patients from four districts in East Nusa Tenggara. Knowledge, perception of TB, and other related factors were assessed prior to the treatment. Patients who interrupted the treatment in two consecutive months were classified as defaulters, as World Health Organization stated. Odds ratio (OR) looking for factors associated with becoming defaulter was analyzed. A total of 300 patients were recruited for this study. At the end of the treatment, 255 patients (85%) completed the treatment without interruption from regular visit. In univariate analysis, none of the socio-demographic factors attributed to treatment default yet lack of knowledge and incorrect perception of TB prior therapy (OR 2.49 1.30-4.79 95% CI, p = 0.006; OR 5.40 2.64-11.04 95% CI, p default (OR 4.75 2.30-9.86 95% CI). Assessing the knowledge and perception of TB prior to the treatment in newly pulmonary TB patients is important as both of them were known as risk factor for treatment default. Education and counseling may be required to improve patients' compliance to treatment.

  9. Space-Time Analysis to Identify Areas at Risk of Mortality from Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliany C. O. Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at identifying areas that were at risk of mortality due to cardiovascular disease in residents aged 45 years or older of the cities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande between 2009 and 2011. We conducted an ecological study of mortality rates related to cardiovascular disease. Mortality rates were calculated for each census tract by the Local Empirical Bayes estimator. High- and low-risk clusters were identified by retrospective space-time scans for each year using the Poisson probability model. We defined the year and month as the temporal analysis unit and the census tracts as the spatial analysis units adjusted by age and sex. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the socioeconomic and environmental variables by risk classification. High-risk clusters showed higher income ratios than low-risk clusters, as did temperature range and atmospheric particulate matter. Low-risk clusters showed higher humidity than high-risk clusters. The Eastern region of Várzea Grande and the central region of Cuiabá were identified as areas at risk of mortality due to cardiovascular disease in individuals aged 45 years or older. High mortality risk was associated with socioeconomic and environmental factors. More high-risk clusters were observed at the end of the dry season.

  10. Evolving antithrombotic treatment patterns for patients with newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camm, A.J.; Accetta, G.; Ambrosio, G.; Atar, D.; Bassand, J.P.; Berge, E. van de; Cools, F.; Fitzmaurice, D.A.; Goldhaber, S.Z.; Goto, S.; Haas, S.; Kayani, G.; Koretsune, Y.; Mantovani, L.G.; Misselwitz, F.; Oh, S.; Turpie, A.G.G.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Kakkar, A.K.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We studied evolving antithrombotic therapy patterns in patients with newly diagnosed non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) and >/=1 additional stroke risk factor between 2010 and 2015. METHODS: 39 670 patients were prospectively enrolled in four sequential cohorts in the Global

  11. Evaluation of an inpatient fall risk screening tool to identify the most critical fall risk factors in inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wen-Hsuan; Kang, Chun-Mei; Ho, Mu-Hsing; Kuo, Jessie Ming-Chuan; Chen, Hsiao-Lien; Chang, Wen-Yin

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of the inpatient fall risk screening tool and to identify the most critical fall risk factors in inpatients. Variations exist in several screening tools applied in acute care hospitals for examining risk factors for falls and identifying high-risk inpatients. Secondary data analysis. A subset of inpatient data for the period from June 2011-June 2014 was extracted from the nursing information system and adverse event reporting system of an 818-bed teaching medical centre in Taipei. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis and logistic regression analysis. During the study period, 205 fallers and 37,232 nonfallers were identified. The results revealed that the inpatient fall risk screening tool (cut-off point of ≥3) had a low sensitivity level (60%), satisfactory specificity (87%), a positive predictive value of 2·0% and a negative predictive value of 99%. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed an area under the curve of 0·805 (sensitivity, 71·8%; specificity, 78%). To increase the sensitivity values, the Youden index suggests at least 1·5 points to be the most suitable cut-off point for the inpatient fall risk screening tool. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed a considerably increased fall risk in patients with impaired balance and impaired elimination. The fall risk factor was also significantly associated with days of hospital stay and with admission to surgical wards. The findings can raise awareness about the two most critical risk factors for falls among future clinical nurses and other healthcare professionals and thus facilitate the development of fall prevention interventions. This study highlights the needs for redefining the cut-off points of the inpatient fall risk screening tool to effectively identify inpatients at a high risk of falls. Furthermore, inpatients with impaired balance and impaired elimination should be closely

  12. Risk assessment and monitoring of Legionella by culture and q-PCR in a newly built block of flats associated with a small outbreak of legionnaires´ disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøjgaard, Louise Hjelmar; Krogfelt, Karen A.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    During the investigation of a small outbreak of legionnaires’ disease in a newly built block of flats, several risk factors were uncovered. The outbreak encompassed two men (age 44 and 65) of which the oldest one died. Two interventions (heat treatments of 70ºC for 12 and 24 hours respectively...

  13. Seven newly identified loci for autoimmune thyroid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jason D; Simmonds, Matthew J; Walker, Neil M; Burren, Oliver; Brand, Oliver J; Guo, Hui; Wallace, Chris; Stevens, Helen; Coleman, Gillian; Franklyn, Jayne A; Todd, John A; Gough, Stephen C L

    2012-12-01

    Autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), including Graves' disease (GD) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), is one of the most common of the immune-mediated diseases. To further investigate the genetic determinants of AITD, we conducted an association study using a custom-made single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array, the ImmunoChip. The SNP array contains all known and genotype-able SNPs across 186 distinct susceptibility loci associated with one or more immune-mediated diseases. After stringent quality control, we analysed 103 875 common SNPs (minor allele frequency >0.05) in 2285 GD and 462 HT patients and 9364 controls. We found evidence for seven new AITD risk loci (P test derived significance threshold), five at locations previously associated and two at locations awaiting confirmation, with other immune-mediated diseases.

  14. Can subsyndromal manifestations of major depression be identified in children at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, M; Fitzgerald, M; Lin, K; Carrellas, N; Woodworth, H; Biederman, J

    2017-02-01

    Children of parents with major depression are at significantly increased risk for developing major depression themselves; however, not all children at genetic risk will develop major depressive disorder (MDD). We investigated the utility of subsyndromal scores on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) Anxiety/Depression scale in identifying children at the highest risk for pediatric MDD from among the pool of children of parents with MDD or bipolar disorder. The sample was derived from two previously conducted longitudinal case-control family studies of psychiatrically and pediatrically referred youth and their families. For this study, probands were stratified based on the presence or absence of a parental mood disorder. Subsyndromal scores on the CBCL Anxiety/Depression scale significantly separated the children at high risk for pediatric MDD from those at low risk in a variety of functional areas, including social and academic functioning. Additionally, children at genetic risk without elevated CBCL Anxiety/Depression scale scores were largely indistinguishable from controls. These results suggest that the CBCL Anxiety/Depression scale can help identify children at highest risk for pediatric MDD. If implemented clinically, this scale would cost-effectively screen children and identify those most in need of early intervention resources to impede the progression of depression. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Identifying workers at risk of sickness absence by questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, Corne A. M.; van der Pol, Tjepke R.; Koopmans, Petra C.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2006-01-01

    Background Sickness absence is an important economic problem, because of high costs and lost productivity. Determining factors associated with increased risk of sickness absence may lead to the development of preventive measures. Aims To determine whether self-report questionnaires can identify

  16. Epidemiology, natural history, and risk factors: panel report from the Ninth International Research Conference on Otitis Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daly, Kathleen A; Hoffman, Howard J; Kvaerner, Kari Jorunn

    2010-01-01

    The 2007 Recent Advances in Otitis Media Research Conference Panel Report provides an update on otitis media (OM) research published from 2003 to 2007. This report summarizes important trends in disease incidence and prevalence, describes established and newly identified risk factors for acute an...... vaccine in infants. The panel report also recommends short and long term goals for current and future OM research.......The 2007 Recent Advances in Otitis Media Research Conference Panel Report provides an update on otitis media (OM) research published from 2003 to 2007. This report summarizes important trends in disease incidence and prevalence, describes established and newly identified risk factors for acute...... and chronic OM and OM with effusion, and conveys information on newly discovered genetic factors. In this report, researchers have described declining rates of OM diagnosis, antibiotic prescriptions, offices visits for OM, and middle ear surgery since the licensure and routine use of pneumococcal conjugate...

  17. Parental influences on sperm banking attempts among adolescent males newly diagnosed with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosky, James L; Flynn, Jessica S; Lehmann, Vicky; Russell, Kathryn M; Wang, Fang; Hardin, Robin N; Eddinger, Jasmine R; Zhang, Hui; Schenck, Lauren A-M; Schover, Leslie R

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the influence of parental sociodemographic, communication, and psychological factors on sperm collection attempts among at-risk adolescent males newly diagnosed with cancer. Prospective, single group, observational study design. Pediatric oncology centers. Parents (N = 144) of 122 newly diagnosed adolescent males at increased risk for infertility secondary to cancer therapy. Survey-based assessment of parent factors associated with adolescent collection attempts. Attempt of manual collection of sperm. Parental recommendation to bank sperm (odds ratio [OR] 3.72; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-11.76) and perceived self-efficacy to facilitate banking (OR 1.20; 95% CI 1.02-1.41) were associated with an increased likelihood of making a collection attempt. Parental recommendation to bank is a critical influence for sperm banking among adolescent males newly diagnosed with cancer. These findings highlight the importance of effective communication between parents, patients, and health-care teams when discussing preservation options. Parent perceptions of their ability to facilitate sperm banking at the time of diagnosis should also be targeted in future interventions. NCT01152268. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Whole-body {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for M staging in the patient with newly diagnosed nasopharyngeal carcinoma: Who needs?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Yun-yan; Li, You-cai; Wu, Hu-bing, E-mail: wuhbym@163.com; Wang, Quan-shi; Han, Yan-jiang; Zhou, Wen-lan; Li, Hong-sheng

    2017-04-15

    Objective: Although whole-body fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) ({sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT) is commonly used for M staging of newly diagnosed nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), some patients may not benefit from this procedure. The present study investigated which patients require this modality for M staging. Methods: Whole-body {sup 18}F FDG PET/CT results and clinical data were collected for 264 patients with newly diagnosed NPC. The relationships between distant metastasis and age, gender, pathological type, lesion size, SUVmax-T, T staging, N staging, SUVmax-N and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) quantity were retrospectively analysed to identify factors associated with increased risk. Results: Of the 264 patients, only 37 (14.0%) were diagnosed with distant metastasis. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, EBV-positivity (OR = 13.1; 95% CI:1.61,106.80), N staging (OR = 3.05; 95% CI:1.41,6.63) and T staging (OR = 2.16; 95% CI:1.10, 4.24) were significantly related to distant metastasis (all P < 0.05). EBV DNA levels ≥ 9000 copies/ml, N3 stage and T4 stage were identified as high risk factors. A low risk of distant metastasis was found in patients with 0–1 risk factors and in those with 2 specific risk factors, T3/T4 and N2/N3 staging. Patients with EBV DNA levels ≥9000 copies/ml and N3 or T4 staging and those with 3 risk factors had a medium or high risk, with a much higher incidence of distant metastasis (χ{sup 2} = 29.896, P = 0.000), and needed a whole-body {sup 18}F FDG PET/CT for M staging. Conclusions: Due to the low incidence of distant metastasis, only patients with medium or high risk need to undergo a whole-body scan.

  19. Newly Identified Wild Rice Accessions Conferring High Salt Tolerance Might Use a Tissue Tolerance Mechanism in Leaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prusty, Manas R.; Kim, Sung-Ryul; Vinarao, Ricky; Entila, Frederickson; Egdane, James; Diaz, Maria G. Q.; Jena, Kshirod K.

    2018-01-01

    Cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) is very sensitive to salt stress. So far a few rice landraces have been identified as a source of salt tolerance and utilized in rice improvement. These tolerant lines primarily use Na+ exclusion mechanism in root which removes Na+ from the xylem stream by membrane Na+ and K+ transporters, and resulted in low Na+ accumulation in shoot. Identification of a new donor source conferring high salt tolerance is imperative. Wild relatives of rice having wide genetic diversity are regarded as a potential source for crop improvement. However, they have been less exploited against salt stress. Here, we simultaneously evaluated all 22 wild Oryza species along with the cultivated tolerant lines including Pokkali, Nona Bokra, and FL478, and sensitive check varieties under high salinity (240 mM NaCl). Based on the visual salt injury score, three species (O. alta, O. latifolia, and O. coarctata) and four species (O. rhizomatis, O. eichingeri, O. minuta, and O. grandiglumis) showed higher and similar level of tolerance compared to the tolerant checks, respectively. All three CCDD genome species exhibited salt tolerance, suggesting that the CCDD genome might possess the common genetic factors for salt tolerance. Physiological and biochemical experiments were conducted using the newly isolated tolerant species together with checks under 180 mM NaCl. Interestingly, all wild species showed high Na+ concentration in shoot and low concentration in root unlike the tolerant checks. In addition, the wild-tolerant accessions showed a tendency of a high tissue tolerance in leaf, low malondialdehyde level in shoot, and high retention of chlorophyll in the young leaves. These results suggest that the wild species employ tissue tolerance mechanism to manage salt stress. Gene expression analyses of the key salt tolerance-related genes suggested that high Na+ in leaf of wild species might be affected by OsHKT1;4-mediated Na+ exclusion in leaf and the following Na

  20. Association analysis identifies 65 new breast cancer risk loci

    OpenAIRE

    Michailidou, Kyriaki; Lindström, Sara; Dennis, Joe; Beesley, Jonathan; Hui, Shirley; Kar, Siddhartha; Lemaçon, Audrey; Soucy, Penny; Glubb, Dylan; Rostamianfar, Asha; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Tyrer, Jonathan; Dicks, Ed; Lee, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer risk is influenced by rare coding variants in susceptibility genes, such as BRCA1, and many common, mostly non-coding variants. However, much of the genetic contribution to breast cancer risk remains unknown. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study of breast cancer in 122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European ancestry and 14,068 cases and 13,104 controls of East Asian ancestry. We identified 65 new loci that are associated with overall breast cancer ri...

  1. Risk predicting of macropore flow using pedotransfer functions, textural maps and modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Børgesen, Christen Duus; Lægdsmand, Mette

    2011-01-01

    of this study were first to develop pedotransfer functions (PTFs) predicting near-saturated [k(−1)] and saturated (Ks) hydraulic conductivity using simple soil parameters as predictors and second to use this information and a newly developed rasterbased soil property map of Denmark to identify risk areas...... modeling were used to construct a new map dividing Denmark into risk categories for macropore flow. This map can be combined with other tools to identify areas where there is a high risk of contaminants leaching out of the root zone....

  2. Newly postulated neurodevelopmental risks of pediatric anesthesia: theories that could rock our world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Stephen Robert; Deshpande, Jayant K

    2013-04-01

    General anesthetics can induce apoptotic neurodegeneration and subsequent maladaptive behaviors in animals. Retrospective human studies suggest associations between early anesthetic exposure and subsequent adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. The relevance of animal data to clinical practice is unclear and to our knowledge the causality underlying observed associations in humans is unknown. We reviewed newly postulated neurodevelopmental risks of pediatric anesthesia and discuss implications for the surgical care of children. We queried the MEDLINE®/PubMed® and EMBASE® databases for citations in English on pediatric anesthetic neurotoxicity with the focus on references from the last decade. Animal studies in rodents and primates demonstrate apoptotic neuropathology and subsequent maladaptive behaviors after exposure to all currently available general anesthetics with the possible exception of α2-adrenergic agonists. Similar adverse pathological and clinical effects occur after untreated pain. Anesthetic neurotoxicity in animals develops only after exposure above threshold doses and durations during a critical neurodevelopmental window of maximal synaptogenesis in the absence of concomitant painful stimuli. Anesthetic exposure outside this window or below threshold doses and durations shows no apparent neurotoxicity, while exposure in the context of concomitant painful stimuli is neuroprotective. Retrospective human studies suggest associations between early anesthetic exposure and subsequent adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes, particularly after multiple exposures. The causality underlying the associations is unknown. Ongoing investigations may clarify the risks associated with current practice. Surgical care of all patients mandates appropriate anesthesia. Neurotoxic doses and the duration of anesthetic exposure in animals may have little relevance to clinical practice, particularly surgical anesthesia for perioperative pain. The causality underlying the

  3. Identifying environmental risk factors and mapping the risk of human West Nile virus in South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, A.; Davis, J. K.; Wimberly, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    Human West Nile virus (WNV) first arrived in the USA in 1999 and has since then spread across the country. Today, the highest incidence rates are found in the state of South Dakota. The disease occurrence depends on the complex interaction between the mosquito vector, the bird host and the dead-end human host. Understanding the spatial domain of this interaction and being able to identify disease transmission hotspots is crucial for effective disease prevention and mosquito control. In this study we use geospatial environmental information to understand what drives the spatial distribution of cases of human West Nile virus in South Dakota and to map relative infection risk across the state. To map the risk of human West Nile virus in South Dakota, we used geocoded human case data from the years 2004-2016. Satellite data from the Landsat ETM+ and MODIS for the years 2003 to 2016 were used to characterize environmental patterns. From these datasets we calculated indices, such as the normalized differenced vegetation index (NDVI) and the normalized differenced water index (NDWI). In addition, datasets such as the National Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS), National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD), National Wetland inventory (NWI), National Elevation Dataset (NED) and Soil Survey Geographic Database (SSURGO) were utilized. Environmental variables were summarized for a buffer zone around the case and control points. We used a boosted regression tree model to identify the most important variables describing the risk of WNV infection. We generated a risk map by applying this model across the entire state. We found that the highest relative risk is present in the James River valley in northeastern South Dakota. Factors that were identified as influencing the transmission risk include inter-annual variability of vegetation cover, water availability and temperature. Land covers such as grasslands, low developed areas and wetlands were also found to be good predictors for human

  4. Identifying At-Risk Students in General Chemistry via Cluster Analysis of Affective Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Julia Y. K.; Bauer, Christopher F.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify academically at-risk students in first-semester general chemistry using affective characteristics via cluster analysis. Through the clustering of six preselected affective variables, three distinct affective groups were identified: low (at-risk), medium, and high. Students in the low affective group…

  5. Historical biogeography and diversification of truffles in the Tuberaceae and their newly identified Southern hemisphere sister lineage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory Bonito; Matthew E. Smith; Michael Nowak; Rosanne A. Healy; Gonzalo Guevara; Efren Cazares; Akihiko Kinoshita; Eduardo R. Nouhra; Laura S. Dominguez; Leho Tedersoo; Claude Murat; Yun Wang; Baldomero Arroyo Moreno; Donald H. Pfister; Kazuhide Nara; Alessandra Zambonelli; James M. Trappe; Rytas. Vilgalys

    2013-01-01

    In this study we reassessed the biogeography and origin of the Tuberaceae and their relatives using multiple loci and a global sampling of taxa. Multiple independent transitions from an aboveground to a belowground truffie fruiting body form have occurred in the Tuberaceae and in its newly recognized sister lineage...

  6. Identifying patients at high risk for obstructive sleep apnoea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Obstructive sleep apnoea is associated with significant health consequences. A significant proportion of hospitalized patients at risk for obstructive sleep apnoea were never identified and referred for polysomnography for diagnosis. The objective of this study was to determine the factors associated with high ...

  7. [Muscle and bone health as a risk factor of fall among the elderly. An approach to identify high-risk fallers by risk assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Reiko; Kozaki, Koichi; Nakamura, Tetsuro; Toba, Kenji

    2008-06-01

    Fall-induced hip fracture is one of the major causes rendering the elderly to be in a low ADL or bed-ridden status. Fall is not only the cause for fractures, but it lowers elderly peoples'ADL. History of fall, age, decline of motor function, orthostatic hypotension, balance deficit, dementia, drug and environmental factors were raised as possible risk factor for falls. We created a fall predicting score which consist of 21 risk factors and a history of falls. We found that the score is useful to identify high-risk fallers. It would be necessary to identify high-risk fallers early and give an appropriate individual approach.

  8. Prognostic factors of nasopharynx tumors investigated by MR imaging and the value of MR imaging in the newly published TNM staging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, Koh-ichi; Hareyama, Masato; Tamakawa, Mituharu; Oouchi, Atushi; Sido, Mitsuo; Nagakura, Hisayasu; Akiba, Hidenari; Koito, Kazumitsu; Himi, Tetsuo; Asakura, Kohji

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the usefulness of MR imaging for predicting local control of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and the value of MR imaging in the newly published fifth edition of the TNM classification. Methods and Materials: We studied 29 patients with NPC with MR imaging and CT before and after treatment. Staging was done according to the fourth and newly published fifth editions of the International Union Against Cancer (UICC) staging system. The radiotherapy protocol was designed to deliver 66 to 68 Gy to the primary tumor and clinically involved nodes. Results: MR proved better than CT at identifying obliteration of the pharyngobasilar fascia, invasion of the sinus of Morgagni, through which the cartilaginous portion of the eustachian tube and the levator veli palatini muscle pass, invasion of the skull base, and metastases to lymph nodes in the carotid and retropharyngeal spaces. All seven patients without invasion of the pharyngobasilar fascia had local control. The local control rates of patients with invasion of the skull base were not good (60 to 73%). There was no apparent relationship between tumor volume determined by T1-weighted MR images and local control when the tumor volume was more than 20 cc. The newly published N staging system appears to successfully identify the high-risk group for distant metastasis as N3. In our series, four of five patients with N3 disease developed distant metastases. Conclusion: Deep infiltration of the tumor is a more important prognostic factor in NPC than tumor volume. Since the newly published T staging system requires a search for tumor invasion into soft tissue such as parapharyngeal space and bony structures, MR imaging may be indispensable for the newly published NPC staging system

  9. Being a team leader: newly registered nurses relate their experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekström, Louise; Idvall, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study that explores how newly qualified registered nurses experience their leadership role in the ward-based nursing care team. A nurse's clinical leadership affects the quality of care provided. Newly qualified nurses experience difficulties during the transition period from student to qualified professional and find it challenging to lead nursing care. Twelve nurses were interviewed and the transcribed texts analysed using qualitative content analysis to assess both manifest and latent content. Five themes were identified: feeling stranded; forming well-functioning teams; learning to lead; having the courage, strength, and desire to lead; and ensuring appropriate care. The findings indicate that many factors limit nurses' leadership but some circumstances are supportive. The leadership prerequisites for newly registered nurses need to improve, emphasizing different ways to create a supportive atmosphere that promotes professional development and job satisfaction. To increase nurse retention and promote quality of care, nurse managers need to clarify expectations and guide and support newly qualified nurses in a planned way. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Risk of newly detected infections and cervical abnormalities in women seropositive for naturally acquired human papillomavirus type 16/18 antibodies: analysis of the control arm of PATRICIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellsagué, Xavier; Naud, Paulo; Chow, Song-Nan; Wheeler, Cosette M; Germar, Maria Julieta V; Lehtinen, Matti; Paavonen, Jorma; Jaisamrarn, Unnop; Garland, Suzanne M; Salmerón, Jorge; Apter, Dan; Kitchener, Henry; Teixeira, Julio C; Skinner, S Rachel; Limson, Genara; Szarewski, Anne; Romanowski, Barbara; Aoki, Fred Y; Schwarz, Tino F; Poppe, Willy A J; Bosch, F Xavier; de Carvalho, Newton S; Peters, Klaus; Tjalma, Wiebren A A; Safaeian, Mahboobeh; Raillard, Alice; Descamps, Dominique; Struyf, Frank; Dubin, Gary; Rosillon, Dominique; Baril, Laurence

    2014-08-15

    We examined risk of newly detected human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical abnormalities in relation to HPV type 16/18 antibody levels at enrollment in PATRICIA (Papilloma Trial Against Cancer in Young Adults; NCT00122681). Using Poisson regression, we compared risk of newly detected infection and cervical abnormalities associated with HPV-16/18 between seronegative vs seropositive women (15-25 years) in the control arm (DNA negative at baseline for the corresponding HPV type [HPV-16: n = 8193; HPV-18: n = 8463]). High titers of naturally acquired HPV-16 antibodies and/or linear trend for increasing antibody levels were significantly associated with lower risk of incident and persistent infection, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or greater (ASCUS+), and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 1/2 or greater (CIN1+, CIN2+). For HPV-18, although seropositivity was associated with lower risk of ASCUS+ and CIN1+, no association between naturally acquired antibodies and infection was demonstrated. Naturally acquired HPV-16 antibody levels of 371 (95% confidence interval [CI], 242-794), 204 (95% CI, 129-480), and 480 (95% CI, 250-5756) EU/mL were associated with 90% reduction of incident infection, 6-month persistent infection, and ASCUS+, respectively. Naturally acquired antibodies to HPV-16, and to a lesser extent HPV-18, are associated with some reduced risk of subsequent infection and cervical abnormalities associated with the same HPV type. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  11. Chromosome 17 alterations identify good-risk and poor-risk tumors independently of clinical factors in medulloblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Martin G.; Bäcklund, L. Magnus; Leong, Hui Sun; Ichimura, Koichi; Collins, V. Peter

    2011-01-01

    Current risk stratification schemas for medulloblastoma, based on combinations of clinical variables and histotype, fail to accurately identify particularly good- and poor-risk tumors. Attempts have been made to improve discriminatory power by combining clinical variables with cytogenetic data. We report here a pooled analysis of all previous reports of chromosomal copy number related to survival data in medulloblastoma. We collated data from previous reports that explicitly quoted survival data and chromosomal copy number in medulloblastoma. We analyzed the relative prognostic significance of currently used clinical risk stratifiers and the chromosomal aberrations previously reported to correlate with survival. In the pooled dataset metastatic disease, incomplete tumor resection and severe anaplasia were associated with poor outcome, while young age at presentation was not prognostically significant. Of the chromosomal variables studied, isolated 17p loss and gain of 1q correlated with poor survival. Gain of 17q without associated loss of 17p showed a trend to improved outcome. The most commonly reported alteration, isodicentric chromosome 17, was not prognostically significant. Sequential multivariate models identified isolated 17p loss, isolated 17q gain, and 1q gain as independent prognostic factors. In a historical dataset, we have identified isolated 17p loss as a marker of poor outcome and 17q gain as a novel putative marker of good prognosis. Biological markers of poor-risk and good-risk tumors will be critical in stratifying treatment in future trials. Our findings should be prospectively validated independently in future clinical studies. PMID:21292688

  12. Co-morbidity and clinically significant interactions between antiepileptic drugs and other drugs in elderly patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruun, Emmi; Virta, Lauri J; Kälviäinen, Reetta; Keränen, Tapani

    2017-08-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the frequency of potential pharmacokinetic drug-to-drug interactions in elderly patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy. We also investigated co-morbid conditions associated with epilepsy. From the register of Kuopio University Hospital (KUH) we identified community-dwelling patients aged 65 or above with newly diagnosed epilepsy and in whom use of the first individual antiepileptic drug (AED) began in 2000-2013 (n=529). Furthermore, register data of the Social Insurance Institution of Finland were used for assessing potential interactions in a nationwide cohort of elderly subjects with newly diagnosed epilepsy. We extracted all patients aged 65 or above who had received special reimbursement for the cost of AEDs prescribed on account of epilepsy in 2012 where their first AED was recorded in 2011-2012 as monotherapy (n=1081). Clinically relevant drug interactions (of class C or D) at the time of starting of the first AED, as assessed via the SFINX-PHARAO database, were analysed. Hypertension (67%), dyslipidemia (45%), and ischaemic stroke (32%) were the most common co-morbid conditions in the hospital cohort of patients. In these patients, excessive polypharmacy (more than 10 concomitant drugs) was identified in 27% of cases. Of the patients started on carbamazepine, 52 subjects (32%) had one class-C or class-D drug interaction and 51 (31%) had two or more C- or D-class interactions. Only 2% of the subjects started on valproate exhibited a class-C interaction. None of the subjects using oxcarbazepine displayed class-C or class-D interactions. Patients with 3-5 (OR 4.22; p=0.05) or over six (OR 8.86; p=0.003) other drugs were more likely to have C- or D-class interaction. The most common drugs with potential interactions with carbamazepine were dihydropyridine calcium-blockers, statins, warfarin, and psychotropic drugs. Elderly patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy are at high risk of clinically relevant pharmacokinetic

  13. TAMING TROJAN HORSES: IDENTIFYING AND MITIGATING CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY RISKS

    OpenAIRE

    P. P. M. A. R. HEUGENS; N. A. DENTCHEV

    2007-01-01

    textabstractOrganizations are exposed to increasing pressures from their constituents to integrate corporate social responsibility (CSR) principles into their ongoing business practices. But accepting new and potentially open-ended commitments is not a harmless exercise, and companies may well expose themselves to serious risks when embracing such principles. To identify these risks, we conducted two naturalistic studies: one exploratory, the other corroborative. The results show that CSR ado...

  14. Oral Cancer Knowledge Assessment: Newly Graduated versus Senior Dental Clinicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado de Souza, Ricardo; Gallego Arias Pecorari, Vanessa; Lauria Dib, Luciano

    2018-01-01

    The present study assessed the level of dentists' knowledge regarding oral cancer in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. A questionnaire was used to compare the level of knowledge among newly graduated and senior clinicians. A total of 20,154 e-mails were correctly delivered to the dentists registered in the database of the Regional Dentistry Council of São Paulo, and 477 (2.36%) responses were received. This sample consisted of 84 newly graduated clinicians and 105 senior clinicians. For the statistical analysis, the chi-square test and the logistic regression analysis were performed with α = 0.05, and the results were described herein. According to their knowledge level, the results were statistically different between the groups, since 19% of the newly graduated clinicians were evaluated with knowledge grade A (excellent) in comparison to 6.7% of the senior clinicians. In spite of the results indicated that newly graduated clinicians' knowledge regarding oral cancer was 2.1 times higher, 34.5% of the professionals in this group had regular or poor knowledge on the subject, and several questions relating to clinical characteristics and risk factors indicated that there still exist some knowledge gaps, demonstrating that there is a need for further studies and information activities addressing oral cancer. PMID:29666649

  15. A Policy Intervention Study to Identify High-Risk Groups to Prevent Industrial Accidents in Republic of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwan Hyung Yi

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: The manufacturing industry, age over 50 years and workplaces with more than 50 employees showed a high severity level of occupational accidents. Male workers showed a higher severity level of occupational accidents than female workers. The employment period of < 3 years and newly hired workers with a relatively shorter working period are likely to have more occupational accidents than others. Overall, an industrial accident prevention policy must be established by concentrating all available resources and capacities of these high-risk groups.

  16. Modeling Success: Using Preenrollment Data to Identify Academically At-Risk Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gansemer-Topf, Ann M.; Compton, Jonathan; Wohlgemuth, Darin; Forbes, Greg; Ralston, Ekaterina

    2015-01-01

    Improving student success and degree completion is one of the core principles of strategic enrollment management. To address this principle, institutional data were used to develop a statistical model to identify academically at-risk students. The model employs multiple linear regression techniques to predict students at risk of earning below a…

  17. Juvenile Hormone Prevents 20-Hydroxyecdysone-induced Metamorphosis by Regulating the Phosphorylation of a Newly Identified Broad Protein*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Mei-Juan; Liu, Wen; Pei, Xu-Yang; Li, Xiang-Ru; He, Hong-Juan; Wang, Jin-Xing; Zhao, Xiao-Fan

    2014-01-01

    The steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) initiates insect molting and metamorphosis. By contrast, juvenile hormone (JH) prevents metamorphosis. However, the mechanism by which JH inhibits metamorphosis remains unclear. In this study, we propose that JH induces the phosphorylation of Broad isoform Z7 (BrZ7), a newly identified protein, to inhibit 20E-mediated metamorphosis in the lepidopteran insect Helicoverpa armigera. The knockdown of BrZ7 in larvae inhibited metamorphosis by repressing the expression of the 20E response gene. BrZ7 was weakly expressed and phosphorylated during larval growth but highly expressed and non-phosphorylated during metamorphosis. JH regulated the rapid phosphorylation of BrZ7 via a G-protein-coupled receptor-, phospholipase C-, and protein kinase C-triggered pathway. The phosphorylated BrZ7 bound to the 5′-regulatory region of calponin to regulate its expression in the JH pathway. Exogenous JH induced BrZ7 phosphorylation to prevent metamorphosis by suppressing 20E-related gene transcription. JH promoted non-phosphorylated calponin interacting with ultraspiracle protein to activate the JH pathway and antagonize the 20E pathway. This study reveals one of the possible mechanisms by which JH counteracts 20E-regulated metamorphosis by inducing the phosphorylation of BrZ7. PMID:25096576

  18. Body mass index cut-points to identify cardiometabolic risk in black South Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, H Salome; Schutte, Aletta E; Walsh, Corinna M; Kruger, Annamarie; Rennie, Kirsten L

    2017-02-01

    To determine optimal body mass index (BMI) cut-points for the identification of cardiometabolic risk in black South African adults. We performed a cross-sectional study of a weighted sample of healthy black South Africans aged 25-65 years (721 men, 1386 women) from the North West and Free State Provinces. Demographic, lifestyle and anthropometric measures were taken, and blood pressure, fasting serum triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and blood glucose were measured. We defined elevated cardiometabolic risk as having three or more risk factors according to international metabolic syndrome criteria. Receiver operating characteristic curves were applied to identify an optimal BMI cut-point for men and women. BMI had good diagnostic performance to identify clustering of three or more risk factors, as well as individual risk factors: low HDL-cholesterol, elevated fasting glucose and triglycerides, with areas under the curve >.6, but not for high blood pressure. Optimal BMI cut-points averaged 22 kg/m 2 for men and 28 kg/m 2 for women, respectively, with better sensitivity in men (44.0-71.9 %), and in women (60.6-69.8 %), compared to a BMI of 30 kg/m 2 (17-19.1, 53-61.4 %, respectively). Men and women with a BMI >22 and >28 kg/m 2 , respectively, had significantly increased probability of elevated cardiometabolic risk after adjustment for age, alcohol use and smoking. In black South African men, a BMI cut-point of 22 kg/m 2 identifies those at cardiometabolic risk, whereas a BMI of 30 kg/m 2 underestimates risk. In women, a cut-point of 28 kg/m 2 , approaching the WHO obesity cut-point, identifies those at risk.

  19. Incremental prognostic value of coronary computed tomographic angiography high-risk plaque characteristics in newly symptomatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Shinichiro; Kondo, Takeshi; Takamura, Kazuhisa; Baber, Usman; Shinozaki, Tomohiro; Nishizaki, Yuji; Kawaguchi, Yuko; Matsumori, Rie; Hiki, Makoto; Miyauchi, Katsumi; Daida, Hiroyuki; Hecht, Harvey; Stone, Gregg W; Narula, Jagat

    2016-06-01

    The incremental prognostic value of the plaque features in coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA) has not been well assessed. This study was designed to determine whether CTA high-risk plaques have prognostic value incremental to the Framingham risk score (FRS) and the severity of luminal obstruction. A total of 628 newly symptomatic patients without known coronary artery disease underwent CTA. They were followed for a median of 677 days during which there were 26 cardiac events, including cardiac death, acute myocardial infarction, and hospitalization for unstable angina. Incremental prognostic value of adding plaque characteristics to the number of diseased vessels and the FRS was evaluated using 3 Cox models and net reclassification indexes. The discrimination index was significantly increased by adding the number of diseased vessels to the FRS (change in c-statistic from 65.8% to 78.6%, p=0.028) but not significantly by further adding plaque characteristics (change in c-statistic from 78.6% to 80.0%, p=0.812). However, improved model-fitting by adding plaque characteristics into the linear combination with risk score and the number of diseased vessels (p=0.007 from likelihood ratio test) and the lowest value of Akaike's information criteria of that model indicated that plaque characteristics improved both predictive accuracy and discrimination perspective. More subjects reclassified by plaque characteristics were moved to directions consistent with their subsequent cardiac event status than in an inconsistent direction. Evaluation of CTA plaque characteristics may provide incremental prognostic value to the number of diseased vessels and the FRS. Copyright © 2015 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A cross-sectional study of leukopenia and thrombocytopenia among Chinese adults with newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yinzhong; Wang, Jiangrong; Wang, Zhenyan; Shen, Jiayin; Tangkai Qi; Song, Wei; Tang, Yang; Liu, Li; Zhang, Renfang; Zeng, Yi; Lu, Hongzhou

    2015-04-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence and risk factors of leukopenia and thrombocytopenia among Chinese adults with newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS. One thousand nine hundred and forty-eight newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients were enrolled between 2009 and 2010. Serum samples obtained from each individual were collected for complete blood count. Factors associated with the presence of leukopenia and thrombocytopenia were analyzed by multiple logistic regression. The overall prevalence of leukopenia and of thrombocytopenia was 33.2% and 15.6%, respectively. The prevalence of leukopenia was higher among females than among males (39.4% versus 31.2%). The prevalence of leukopenia increased with decreasing CD4 count (8.2%, 26.5%, 33.4%, and 41.5% among patients with CD4 count of ≥ 350, 200-349, 50-199, and risk of leukopenia, and that lower CD4 count, and HIV transmission by blood were significantly associated with an increased risk of thrombocytopenia. The study reflects that leukopenia and thrombocytopenia are common among Chinese adults with newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS; and lower CD4 count is associated with an increased risk of both leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. We propose that a routine assessment of these parameters is necessary for timely and adequate clinical management.

  1. Identifying risk factors for PTSD in women seeking medical help after rape

    OpenAIRE

    Möller, Anna Tiihonen; Bäckström, Torbjörn; Söndergaard, Hans Peter; Helström, Lotti

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Rape has been found to be the trauma most commonly associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among women. It is therefore important to be able to identify those women at greatest risk of developing PTSD. The aims of the present study were to analyze the PTSD prevalence six months after sexual assaults and identify the major risk factors for developing PTSD. Methods: Participants were 317 female victims of rape who sought help at the Emergency Clinic for Raped Women at S...

  2. Grades and Graduation: A Longitudinal Risk Perspective to Identify Student Dropouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Alex J.

    2010-01-01

    Studies of student risk of school dropout have shown that present predictors of at-risk status do not accurately identify a large percentage of students who eventually drop out. Through the analysis of the entire Grade 1-12 longitudinal cohort-based grading histories of the class of 2006 for two school districts in the United States, the author…

  3. Predictors of Distant Brain Recurrence for Patients With Newly Diagnosed Brain Metastases Treated With Stereotactic Radiosurgery Alone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawrie, Stephen M.; Guthrie, Barton L.; Spencer, Sharon A.; Nordal, Robert A.; Meredith, Ruby F.; Markert, James M.; Cloud, Gretchen A.; Fiveash, John B.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To ascertain predictors of distant brain failure (DBF) in patients treated initially with stereotactic radiosurgery alone for newly diagnosed brain metastases. We hypothesize that these factors may be used to group patients according to risk of DBF. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed 100 patients with newly diagnosed brain metastases treated from 2003 to 2005 at our Gamma Knife radiosurgery facility. The primary endpoint was DBF. Potential predictors included number of metastases, tumor volume, histologic characteristics, extracranial disease, and use of temozolomide. Results: One-year actuarial risk of DBF was 61% for all patients. Significant predictors of DBF included more than three metastases (hazard ratio, 3.30; p = 0.004), stable or poorly controlled extracranial disease (hazard ratio, 2.16; p = 0.04), and melanoma histologic characteristics (hazard ratio, 2.14; p = 0.02). These were confirmed in multivariate analysis. Those with three or fewer metastases, no extracranial disease, and nonmelanoma histologic characteristics (N = 18) had a median time to DBF of 89 weeks vs. 33 weeks for all others. One-year actuarial freedom from DBF for this group was 83% vs. 26% for all others. Conclusions: Independent significant predictors of DBF in our series included number of metastases (more than three), present or uncontrolled extracranial disease, and melanoma histologic characteristics. These factors were combined to identify a lower risk subgroup with significantly longer time to DBF. These patients may be candidates for initial localized treatment, reserving whole-brain radiation therapy for salvage. Patients in the higher risk group may be candidates for initial whole-brain radiation therapy or should be considered for clinical trials

  4. Methodology to identify risk-significant components for inservice inspection and testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.T.; Hartley, R.S.; Jones, J.L. Jr.; Kido, C.; Phillips, J.H.

    1992-08-01

    Periodic inspection and testing of vital system components should be performed to ensure the safe and reliable operation of Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear processing facilities. Probabilistic techniques may be used to help identify and rank components by their relative risk. A risk-based ranking would allow varied DOE sites to implement inspection and testing programs in an effective and cost-efficient manner. This report describes a methodology that can be used to rank components, while addressing multiple risk issues

  5. Newly graduated nurses' use of knowledge sources: a meta-ethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voldbjerg, Siri Lygum; Grønkjaer, Mette; Sørensen, Erik Elgaard; Hall, Elisabeth O C

    2016-08-01

    To advance evidence on newly graduated nurses' use of knowledge sources. Clinical decisions need to be evidence-based and understanding the knowledge sources that newly graduated nurses use will inform both education and practice. Qualitative studies on newly graduated nurses' use of knowledge sources are increasing though generated from scattered healthcare contexts. Therefore, a metasynthesis of qualitative research on what knowledge sources new graduates use in decision-making was conducted. Meta-ethnography. Nineteen reports, representing 17 studies, published from 2000-2014 were identified from iterative searches in relevant databases from May 2013-May 2014. Included reports were appraised for quality and Noblit and Hare's meta-ethnography guided the interpretation and synthesis of data. Newly graduated nurses' use of knowledge sources during their first 2-year postgraduation were interpreted in the main theme 'self and others as knowledge sources,' with two subthemes 'doing and following' and 'knowing and doing,' each with several elucidating categories. The metasynthesis revealed a line of argument among the report findings underscoring progression in knowledge use and perception of competence and confidence among newly graduated nurses. The transition phase, feeling of confidence and ability to use critical thinking and reflection, has a great impact on knowledge sources incorporated in clinical decisions. The synthesis accentuates that for use of newly graduated nurses' qualifications and skills in evidence-based practice, clinical practice needs to provide a supportive environment which nurtures critical thinking and questions and articulates use of multiple knowledge sources. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Identifying Adolescents at Highly Elevated Risk for Suicidal Behavior in the Emergency Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berona, Johnny; Czyz, Ewa; Horwitz, Adam G.; Gipson, Polly Y.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The feasibility and concurrent validity of adolescent suicide risk screening in medical emergency departments (EDs) has been documented. The objectives of this short-term prospective study of adolescents who screened positive for suicide risk in the ED were: 1) to examine adolescents' rate of suicidal behavior during the 2 months following their ED visits and compare it with reported rates for psychiatric samples; and 2) to identify possible predictors of acute risk for suicidal behavior in this at-risk sample. Method: Participants were 81 adolescents, ages 14–19 years, seeking services for psychiatric and nonpsychiatric chief complaints, who screened positive for suicide risk because of recent suicidal ideation, a suicide attempt, and/or depression plus alcohol or substance misuse. A comprehensive assessment of suicidal behavior, using the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale, was conducted at baseline and 2 month follow-up. Results: Six adolescents (7.4%) reported a suicide attempt and 15 (18.5%) engaged in some type of suicidal behavior (actual, aborted, or interrupted suicide attempt; preparatory behavior) during the 2 months following their ED visit. These rates suggest that this screen identified a high-risk sample. Furthermore, adolescents who screened positive for suicidal ideation and/or attempt plus depression and alcohol/substance misuse were most likely to engage in future suicidal behavior (38.9%). Conclusions: In this study, use of a higher screen threshold (multiple suicide risk factors) showed promise for identifying highly elevated acute risk for suicidal behavior. PMID:25746114

  7. Association analysis identifies 65 new breast cancer risk loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaçon, Audrey; Soucy, Penny; Glubb, Dylan; Rostamianfar, Asha; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Tyrer, Jonathan; Dicks, Ed; Lee, Andrew; Wang, Zhaoming; Allen, Jamie; Keeman, Renske; Eilber, Ursula; French, Juliet D.; Chen, Xiao Qing; Fachal, Laura; McCue, Karen; McCart Reed, Amy E.; Ghoussaini, Maya; Carroll, Jason; Jiang, Xia; Finucane, Hilary; Adams, Marcia; Adank, Muriel A.; Ahsan, Habibul; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia N.; Arndt, Volker; Aronson, Kristan J.; Arun, Banu; Auer, Paul L.; Bacot, François; Barrdahl, Myrto; Baynes, Caroline; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Behrens, Sabine; Benitez, Javier; Bermisheva, Marina; Bernstein, Leslie; Blomqvist, Carl; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Bojesen, Stig E.; Bonanni, Bernardo; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Brand, Judith S.; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brennan, Paul; Brenner, Hermann; Brinton, Louise; Broberg, Per; Brock, Ian W.; Broeks, Annegien; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Brucker, Sara Y.; Brüning, Thomas; Burwinkel, Barbara; Butterbach, Katja; Cai, Qiuyin; Cai, Hui; Caldés, Trinidad; Canzian, Federico; Carracedo, Angel; Carter, Brian D.; Castelao, Jose E.; Chan, Tsun L.; Cheng, Ting-Yuan David; Chia, Kee Seng; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Christiansen, Hans; Clarke, Christine L.; Collée, Margriet; Conroy, Don M.; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Cornelissen, Sten; Cox, David G; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Czene, Kamila; Daly, Mary B.; Devilee, Peter; Doheny, Kimberly F.; Dörk, Thilo; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Dumont, Martine; Durcan, Lorraine; Dwek, Miriam; Eccles, Diana M.; Ekici, Arif B.; Eliassen, A. Heather; Ellberg, Carolina; Elvira, Mingajeva; Engel, Christoph; Eriksson, Mikael; Fasching, Peter A.; Figueroa, Jonine; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Fletcher, Olivia; Flyger, Henrik; Fritschi, Lin; Gaborieau, Valerie; Gabrielson, Marike; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gapstur, Susan M.; García-Sáenz, José A.; Gaudet, Mia M.; Georgoulias, Vassilios; Giles, Graham G.; Glendon, Gord; Goldberg, Mark S.; Goldgar, David E.; González-Neira, Anna; Grenaker Alnæs, Grethe I.; Grip, Mervi; Gronwald, Jacek; Grundy, Anne; Guénel, Pascal; Haeberle, Lothar; Hahnen, Eric; Haiman, Christopher A.; Håkansson, Niclas; Hamann, Ute; Hamel, Nathalie; Hankinson, Susan; Harrington, Patricia; Hart, Steven N.; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Hartman, Mikael; Hein, Alexander; Heyworth, Jane; Hicks, Belynda; Hillemanns, Peter; Ho, Dona N.; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hoover, Robert N.; Hopper, John L.; Hou, Ming-Feng; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Huang, Guanmengqian; Humphreys, Keith; Ishiguro, Junko; Ito, Hidemi; Iwasaki, Motoki; Iwata, Hiroji; Jakubowska, Anna; Janni, Wolfgang; John, Esther M.; Johnson, Nichola; Jones, Kristine; Jones, Michael; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kabisch, Maria; Kaczmarek, Katarzyna; Kang, Daehee; Kasuga, Yoshio; Kerin, Michael J.; Khan, Sofia; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Kiiski, Johanna I.; Kim, Sung-Won; Knight, Julia A.; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kristensen, Vessela N.; Krüger, Ute; Kwong, Ava; Lambrechts, Diether; Marchand, Loic Le; Lee, Eunjung; Lee, Min Hyuk; Lee, Jong Won; Lee, Chuen Neng; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Li, Jingmei; Lilyquist, Jenna; Lindblom, Annika; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lo, Wing-Yee; Loibl, Sibylle; Long, Jirong; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Lubinski, Jan; Luccarini, Craig; Lux, Michael P.; Ma, Edmond S.K.; MacInnis, Robert J.; Maishman, Tom; Makalic, Enes; Malone, Kathleen E; Kostovska, Ivana Maleva; Mannermaa, Arto; Manoukian, Siranoush; Manson, JoAnn E.; Margolin, Sara; Mariapun, Shivaani; Martinez, Maria Elena; Matsuo, Keitaro; Mavroudis, Dimitrios; McKay, James; McLean, Catriona; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Meindl, Alfons; Menéndez, Primitiva; Menon, Usha; Meyer, Jeffery; Miao, Hui; Miller, Nicola; Mohd Taib, Nur Aishah; Muir, Kenneth; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Mulot, Claire; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Neven, Patrick; Nielsen, Sune F.; Noh, Dong-Young; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Norman, Aaron; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Olson, Janet E.; Olsson, Håkan; Olswold, Curtis; Orr, Nick; Pankratz, V. Shane; Park, Sue K.; Park-Simon, Tjoung-Won; Lloyd, Rachel; Perez, Jose I.A.; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peto, Julian; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Pinchev, Mila; Plaseska-Karanfilska, Dijana; Prentice, Ross; Presneau, Nadege; Prokofieva, Darya; Pugh, Elizabeth; Pylkäs, Katri; Rack, Brigitte; Radice, Paolo; Rahman, Nazneen; Rennert, Gadi; Rennert, Hedy S.; Rhenius, Valerie; Romero, Atocha; Romm, Jane; Ruddy, Kathryn J; Rüdiger, Thomas; Rudolph, Anja; Ruebner, Matthias; Rutgers, Emiel J. Th.; Saloustros, Emmanouil; Sandler, Dale P.; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Schmidt, Daniel F.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Schoemaker, Minouk J.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Schürmann, Peter; Scott, Rodney J.; Scott, Christopher; Seal, Sheila; Seynaeve, Caroline; Shah, Mitul; Sharma, Priyanka; Shen, Chen-Yang; Sheng, Grace; Sherman, Mark E.; Shrubsole, Martha J.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Smeets, Ann; Sohn, Christof; Southey, Melissa C.; Spinelli, John J.; Stegmaier, Christa; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Stone, Jennifer; Stram, Daniel O.; Surowy, Harald; Swerdlow, Anthony; Tamimi, Rulla; Taylor, Jack A.; Tengström, Maria; Teo, Soo H.; Terry, Mary Beth; Tessier, Daniel C.; Thanasitthichai, Somchai; Thöne, Kathrin; Tollenaar, Rob A.E.M.; Tomlinson, Ian; Tong, Ling; Torres, Diana; Truong, Thérèse; Tseng, Chiu-chen; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Ulmer, Hans-Ulrich; Ursin, Giske; Untch, Michael; Vachon, Celine; van Asperen, Christi J.; Van Den Berg, David; van den Ouweland, Ans M.W.; van der Kolk, Lizet; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Vincent, Daniel; Vollenweider, Jason; Waisfisz, Quinten; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Weinberg, Clarice R.; Wendt, Camilla; Whittemore, Alice S.; Wildiers, Hans; Willett, Walter; Winqvist, Robert; Wolk, Alicja; Wu, Anna H.; Xia, Lucy; Yamaji, Taiki; Yang, Xiaohong R.; Yip, Cheng Har; Yoo, Keun-Young; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Zheng, Wei; Zheng, Ying; Zhu, Bin; Ziogas, Argyrios; Ziv, Elad; Lakhani, Sunil R.; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Droit, Arnaud; Andrulis, Irene L.; Amos, Christopher I.; Couch, Fergus J.; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hall, Per; Hunter, David J.; Milne, Roger L.; García-Closas, Montserrat; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Dunning, Alison M.; Edwards, Stacey L.; Bader, Gary D.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Simard, Jacques; Kraft, Peter; Easton, Douglas F.

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer risk is influenced by rare coding variants in susceptibility genes such as BRCA1 and many common, mainly non-coding variants. However, much of the genetic contribution to breast cancer risk remains unknown. We report results from a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of breast cancer in 122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European ancestry and 14,068 cases and 13,104 controls of East Asian ancestry1. We identified 65 new loci associated with overall breast cancer at pcancer due to all SNPs in regulatory features was 2-5-fold enriched relative to the genome-wide average, with strong enrichment for particular transcription factor binding sites. These results provide further insight into genetic susceptibility to breast cancer and will improve the utility of genetic risk scores for individualized screening and prevention. PMID:29059683

  8. Identifying risk factors that contribute to acute mountain sickness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is a questionnaire-based study conducted in London and at Everest Base Camp, in which 116 lowlanders were invited to participate and fill in a questionnaire to identify potential risk factors in their history that may have contributed to development of or protection against AMS. Results. A total of 89 lowlanders ...

  9. Using Hospitalization and Mortality Data to Identify Areas at Risk for Adolescent Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kun; Aseltine, Robert H

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to use statewide data on inpatient hospitalizations for suicide attempts and suicide mortality to identify communities and school districts at risk for adolescent suicide. Five years of data (2010-2014) from the Office of the Connecticut Medical Examiner and the Connecticut Hospital Inpatient Discharge Database were analyzed. A mixed-effects Poisson regression model was used to assess whether suicide attempt/mortality rates in the state's 119 school districts were significantly better or worse than expected after adjusting for 10 community-level characteristics. Ten districts were at significantly higher risk for suicidal behavior, with suicide mortality/hospitalization rates ranging from 154% to 241% of their expected rates, after accounting for their community characteristics. Four districts were identified as having significantly lower risk for suicide attempts than expected after accounting for community-level advantages and disadvantages. Data capturing hospitalization for suicide attempts and suicide deaths can inform prevention activities by identifying high-risk areas to which resources should be allocated, as well as low-risk areas that may provide insight into the best practices in suicide prevention. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Identifying perinatal risk factors for infant maltreatment: an ecological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallisey Elaine J

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child maltreatment and its consequences are a persistent problem throughout the world. Public health workers, human services officials, and others are interested in new and efficient ways to determine which geographic areas to target for intervention programs and resources. To improve assessment efforts, selected perinatal factors were examined, both individually and in various combinations, to determine if they are associated with increased risk of infant maltreatment. State of Georgia birth records and abuse and neglect data were analyzed using an area-based, ecological approach with the census tract as a surrogate for the community. Cartographic visualization suggested some correlation exists between risk factors and child maltreatment, so bivariate and multivariate regression were performed. The presence of spatial autocorrelation precluded the use of traditional ordinary least squares regression, therefore a spatial regression model coupled with maximum likelihood estimation was employed. Results Results indicate that all individual factors or their combinations are significantly associated with increased risk of infant maltreatment. The set of perinatal risk factors that best predicts infant maltreatment rates are: mother smoked during pregnancy, families with three or more siblings, maternal age less than 20 years, births to unmarried mothers, Medicaid beneficiaries, and inadequate prenatal care. Conclusion This model enables public health to take a proactive stance, to reasonably predict areas where poor outcomes are likely to occur, and to therefore more efficiently allocate resources. U.S. states that routinely collect the variables the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS defines for birth certificates can easily identify areas that are at high risk for infant maltreatment. The authors recommend that agencies charged with reducing child maltreatment target communities that demonstrate the perinatal risks

  11. Identifying the necessary and sufficient number of risk factors for predicting academic failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucio, Robert; Hunt, Elizabeth; Bornovalova, Marina

    2012-03-01

    Identifying the point at which individuals become at risk for academic failure (grade point average [GPA] academic success or failure. This study focused on 12 school-related factors. Using a thorough 5-step process, we identified which unique risk factors place one at risk for academic failure. Academic engagement, academic expectations, academic self-efficacy, homework completion, school relevance, school safety, teacher relationships (positive relationship), grade retention, school mobility, and school misbehaviors (negative relationship) were uniquely related to GPA even after controlling for all relevant covariates. Next, a receiver operating characteristic curve was used to determine a cutoff point for determining how many risk factors predict academic failure (GPA academic failure, which provides a way for early identification of individuals who are at risk. Further implications of these findings are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Different patterns in the risk of newly developed fatty liver and lipid changes with tamoxifen versus aromatase inhibitors in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer: A propensity score-matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Namki; Yoon, Han Gyul; Seo, Da Hea; Park, Seho; Kim, Seung Il; Sohn, Joo Hyuk; Rhee, Yumie

    2017-09-01

    Management of metabolic complications of long-term adjuvant endocrine therapy in early breast cancer remained an unmet need. We aimed to compare the effects of tamoxifen (TMX) and aromatase inhibitors (AIs) on the risk of fatty liver in conjunction with longitudinal changes in the serum lipid parameters. Among 1203 subjects who were taking adjuvant TMX or AI (anastrozole or letrozole) without fatty liver at baseline, those taking TMX or AI were 1:1 matched on the propensity score. The primary outcome was newly developed fatty liver detected on annual liver ultrasonography. Among 328 matched subjects (mean age 53.5 years, body mass index 22.9 kg/m 2 ), 62 cases of fatty liver in the TMX group and 41 cases in the AI group were detected in a total of 987.4 person-years. The incidence rate of fatty liver was higher in the TMX group than in the AI group (128.7 versus 81.1 per 1000 person-years, P = 0.021), particularly within the first 2 years of therapy. TMX was associated with an increased 5-year risk of newly developed fatty liver (adjusted hazard ratio 1.61, P = 0.030) compared with AI independent of obesity and cholesterol level. Subjects who developed fatty liver had higher triglycerides (TGs) and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level at baseline than those without, which was sustained during follow-up despite the serum cholesterol-lowering effect of TMX. TMX independently increased the 5-year risk of newly developed fatty liver compared with AI in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer. Our findings suggest the need for considering the risk of fatty liver as a different adverse event profile between AI and TMX, particularly in patients with obesity, high TGs and low HDL-C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The interrelation between intestinal parasites and latent TB infections among newly resettled refugees in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Board, Amy R; Suzuki, Sumihiro

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has documented that parasite infection may increase vulnerability to TB among certain at risk populations. The purpose of this study was to identify whether an association exists between latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and intestinal parasite infection among newly resettled refugees in Texas while controlling for additional effects of region of origin, age and sex. Data for all refugees screened for both TB and intestinal parasites between January 2010 and mid-October 2013 were obtained from the Texas Refugee Health Screening Program and were analyzed using logistic regression. A total of 9860 refugees were included. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, pathogenic and non-pathogenic intestinal parasite infections yielded statistically significant reduced odds of LTBI. However, when individual parasite species were analyzed, hookworm infection indicated statistically significant increased odds of LTBI (OR 1.674, CI: 1.126-2.488). A positive association exists between hookworm infection and LTBI in newly arrived refugees to Texas. More research is needed to assess the nature and extent of these associations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Juvenile hormone prevents 20-hydroxyecdysone-induced metamorphosis by regulating the phosphorylation of a newly identified broad protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Mei-Juan; Liu, Wen; Pei, Xu-Yang; Li, Xiang-Ru; He, Hong-Juan; Wang, Jin-Xing; Zhao, Xiao-Fan

    2014-09-19

    The steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) initiates insect molting and metamorphosis. By contrast, juvenile hormone (JH) prevents metamorphosis. However, the mechanism by which JH inhibits metamorphosis remains unclear. In this study, we propose that JH induces the phosphorylation of Broad isoform Z7 (BrZ7), a newly identified protein, to inhibit 20E-mediated metamorphosis in the lepidopteran insect Helicoverpa armigera. The knockdown of BrZ7 in larvae inhibited metamorphosis by repressing the expression of the 20E response gene. BrZ7 was weakly expressed and phosphorylated during larval growth but highly expressed and non-phosphorylated during metamorphosis. JH regulated the rapid phosphorylation of BrZ7 via a G-protein-coupled receptor-, phospholipase C-, and protein kinase C-triggered pathway. The phosphorylated BrZ7 bound to the 5'-regulatory region of calponin to regulate its expression in the JH pathway. Exogenous JH induced BrZ7 phosphorylation to prevent metamorphosis by suppressing 20E-related gene transcription. JH promoted non-phosphorylated calponin interacting with ultraspiracle protein to activate the JH pathway and antagonize the 20E pathway. This study reveals one of the possible mechanisms by which JH counteracts 20E-regulated metamorphosis by inducing the phosphorylation of BrZ7. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Gene expression profiling for molecular classification of multiple myeloma in newly diagnosed patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broyl, Annemiek; Hose, Dirk; Lokhorst, Henk; de Knegt, Yvonne; Peeters, Justine; Jauch, Anna; Bertsch, Uta; Buijs, Arjan; Stevens-Kroef, Marian; Beverloo, H. Berna; Vellenga, Edo; Zweegman, Sonja; Kersten, Marie-Josée; van der Holt, Bronno; el Jarari, Laila; Mulligan, George; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; van Duin, Mark; Sonneveld, Pieter

    2010-01-01

    To identify molecularly defined subgroups in multiple myeloma, gene expression profiling was performed on purified CD138(+) plasma cells of 320 newly diagnosed myeloma patients included in the Dutch-Belgian/German HOVON-65/GMMG-HD4 trial. Hierarchical clustering identified 10 subgroups; 6

  16. Profile of Infections in Newly Diagnosed Patients with Acute Leukemia During the Induction Phase of Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayed, H.A.; Talaat, S.M.; El-Mahallawy, H.A.; Kaddah, A.M.; Ismael, H.T.

    2009-01-01

    Acute leukemia is the most common pediatric malignancy. Despite the significant progress in the treatment of infectious complications, infection-related morbidity and mortality continue to be of great importance. Prompt initiation of the appropriate empiric antibiotic treatment has improved infection outcome. The aim of the present study is to assess the type, frequency, and severity of infectious complications in a cohort of pediatric cancer patients treated at a single medical institution. We also aim to identify factors affecting bloodstream infections in newly diagnosed ALL and AML pediatric patients during the induction phase of treatment. Patients and Methods: This study was carried out at the Department of Pediatric Oncology, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, during the time period from January 1st to June 30th 2007. Inclusion criteria were pediatric age group (from 0-16 years), newly diagnosed acute leukemia, positive blood culture and documented site of infection. Data were analyzed using the SPSS package version 15. A p-value £0.05 was considered significant. Results: This is a retrospective study including 100 newly diagnosed cases of acute leukemia. Fifty-four patients had ALL, and 46 patients had AML. 348 infectious episodes were recorded. Blood stream infections (BSI) occurred once or twice in 32%, 3-4 episodes in 58%, and five or more episodes in 10% of the cases. Gram-positive cocci were the most frequently observed cause of BSI, accounting for 77.9% of the total isolates followed by Gram negative organisms seen in 18.9% and mixed infections in 8%. The majority of the episodes (n= 208, 58.4%) responded to first-line empirical antibiotic therapy. Conclusion: Clinical and laboratory risk factors could be identified and can help prediction of serious BSI.

  17. Perioperative considerations in a newly described subtype of congenital long QT syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph-Reynolds, Ann; Auden, Steve; Sobczyzk, Walter

    1997-05-01

    An infant with a newly-described subtype of congenital long QT syndrome is presented, along with her perioperative management on three separate occasions. During each anaesthetic characteristic arrhythmias occurred. The available literature and rational approaches to these high risk patients are reviewed. 1997 Blackwell Science Ltd.

  18. Identifying risk factors for PTSD in women seeking medical help after rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiihonen Möller, Anna; Bäckström, Torbjörn; Söndergaard, Hans Peter; Helström, Lotti

    2014-01-01

    Rape has been found to be the trauma most commonly associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among women. It is therefore important to be able to identify those women at greatest risk of developing PTSD. The aims of the present study were to analyze the PTSD prevalence six months after sexual assaults and identify the major risk factors for developing PTSD. Participants were 317 female victims of rape who sought help at the Emergency Clinic for Raped Women at Stockholm South Hospital, Sweden. Baseline assessments of mental health were carried out and followed up after six months. Thirty-nine percent of the women had developed PTSD at the six month assessment, and 47% suffered from moderate or severe depression. The major risk factors for PTSD were having been sexually assaulted by more than one person, suffering from acute stress disorder (ASD) shortly after the assault, having been exposed to several acts during the assault, having been injured, having co-morbid depression, and having a history of more than two earlier traumas. Further, ASD on its own was found to be a poor predictor of PTSD because of the substantial ceiling effect after sexual assaults. Development of PTSD is common in the aftermath of sexual assaults. Increased risk of developing PTSD is caused by a combination of victim vulnerability and the extent of the dramatic nature of the current assault. By identifying those women at greatest risk of developing PTSD appropriate therapeutic resources can be directed.

  19. Association analysis identifies 65 new breast cancer risk loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michailidou, Kyriaki; Lindström, Sara; Dennis, Joe; Beesley, Jonathan; Hui, Shirley; Kar, Siddhartha; Lemaçon, Audrey; Soucy, Penny; Glubb, Dylan; Rostamianfar, Asha; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Tyrer, Jonathan; Dicks, Ed; Lee, Andrew; Wang, Zhaoming; Allen, Jamie; Keeman, Renske; Eilber, Ursula; French, Juliet D; Qing Chen, Xiao; Fachal, Laura; McCue, Karen; McCart Reed, Amy E; Ghoussaini, Maya; Carroll, Jason S; Jiang, Xia; Finucane, Hilary; Adams, Marcia; Adank, Muriel A; Ahsan, Habibul; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia N; Arndt, Volker; Aronson, Kristan J; Arun, Banu; Auer, Paul L; Bacot, François; Barrdahl, Myrto; Baynes, Caroline; Beckmann, Matthias W; Behrens, Sabine; Benitez, Javier; Bermisheva, Marina; Bernstein, Leslie; Blomqvist, Carl; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Bojesen, Stig E; Bonanni, Bernardo; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Brand, Judith S; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brennan, Paul; Brenner, Hermann; Brinton, Louise; Broberg, Per; Brock, Ian W; Broeks, Annegien; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Brucker, Sara Y; Brüning, Thomas; Burwinkel, Barbara; Butterbach, Katja; Cai, Qiuyin; Cai, Hui; Caldés, Trinidad; Canzian, Federico; Carracedo, Angel; Carter, Brian D; Castelao, Jose E; Chan, Tsun L; David Cheng, Ting-Yuan; Seng Chia, Kee; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Christiansen, Hans; Clarke, Christine L; Collée, Margriet; Conroy, Don M; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Cornelissen, Sten; Cox, David G; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Cunningham, Julie M; Czene, Kamila; Daly, Mary B; Devilee, Peter; Doheny, Kimberly F; Dörk, Thilo; Dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Dumont, Martine; Durcan, Lorraine; Dwek, Miriam; Eccles, Diana M; Ekici, Arif B; Eliassen, A Heather; Ellberg, Carolina; Elvira, Mingajeva; Engel, Christoph; Eriksson, Mikael; Fasching, Peter A; Figueroa, Jonine; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Fletcher, Olivia; Flyger, Henrik; Fritschi, Lin; Gaborieau, Valerie; Gabrielson, Marike; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gapstur, Susan M; García-Sáenz, José A; Gaudet, Mia M; Georgoulias, Vassilios; Giles, Graham G; Glendon, Gord; Goldberg, Mark S; Goldgar, David E; González-Neira, Anna; Grenaker Alnæs, Grethe I; Grip, Mervi; Gronwald, Jacek; Grundy, Anne; Guénel, Pascal; Haeberle, Lothar; Hahnen, Eric; Haiman, Christopher A; Håkansson, Niclas; Hamann, Ute; Hamel, Nathalie; Hankinson, Susan; Harrington, Patricia; Hart, Steven N; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Hartman, Mikael; Hein, Alexander; Heyworth, Jane; Hicks, Belynda; Hillemanns, Peter; Ho, Dona N; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Hooning, Maartje J; Hoover, Robert N; Hopper, John L; Hou, Ming-Feng; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Huang, Guanmengqian; Humphreys, Keith; Ishiguro, Junko; Ito, Hidemi; Iwasaki, Motoki; Iwata, Hiroji; Jakubowska, Anna; Janni, Wolfgang; John, Esther M; Johnson, Nichola; Jones, Kristine; Jones, Michael; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kabisch, Maria; Kaczmarek, Katarzyna; Kang, Daehee; Kasuga, Yoshio; Kerin, Michael J; Khan, Sofia; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Kiiski, Johanna I; Kim, Sung-Won; Knight, Julia A; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kristensen, Vessela N; Krüger, Ute; Kwong, Ava; Lambrechts, Diether; Le Marchand, Loic; Lee, Eunjung; Lee, Min Hyuk; Lee, Jong Won; Neng Lee, Chuen; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Li, Jingmei; Lilyquist, Jenna; Lindblom, Annika; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lo, Wing-Yee; Loibl, Sibylle; Long, Jirong; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Lubinski, Jan; Luccarini, Craig; Lux, Michael P; Ma, Edmond S K; MacInnis, Robert J; Maishman, Tom; Makalic, Enes; Malone, Kathleen E; Kostovska, Ivana Maleva; Mannermaa, Arto; Manoukian, Siranoush; Manson, JoAnn E; Margolin, Sara; Mariapun, Shivaani; Martinez, Maria Elena; Matsuo, Keitaro; Mavroudis, Dimitrios; McKay, James; McLean, Catriona; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Meindl, Alfons; Menéndez, Primitiva; Menon, Usha; Meyer, Jeffery; Miao, Hui; Miller, Nicola; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Muir, Kenneth; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Mulot, Claire; Neuhausen, Susan L; Nevanlinna, Heli; Neven, Patrick; Nielsen, Sune F; Noh, Dong-Young; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Norman, Aaron; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Olson, Janet E; Olsson, Håkan; Olswold, Curtis; Orr, Nick; Pankratz, V Shane; Park, Sue K; Park-Simon, Tjoung-Won; Lloyd, Rachel; Perez, Jose I A; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peto, Julian; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Pinchev, Mila; Plaseska-Karanfilska, Dijana; Prentice, Ross; Presneau, Nadege; Prokofyeva, Darya; Pugh, Elizabeth; Pylkäs, Katri; Rack, Brigitte; Radice, Paolo; Rahman, Nazneen; Rennert, Gadi; Rennert, Hedy S; Rhenius, Valerie; Romero, Atocha; Romm, Jane; Ruddy, Kathryn J; Rüdiger, Thomas; Rudolph, Anja; Ruebner, Matthias; Rutgers, Emiel J T; Saloustros, Emmanouil; Sandler, Dale P; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Sawyer, Elinor J; Schmidt, Daniel F; Schmutzler, Rita K; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Schumacher, Fredrick; Schürmann, Peter; Scott, Rodney J; Scott, Christopher; Seal, Sheila; Seynaeve, Caroline; Shah, Mitul; Sharma, Priyanka; Shen, Chen-Yang; Sheng, Grace; Sherman, Mark E; Shrubsole, Martha J; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Smeets, Ann; Sohn, Christof; Southey, Melissa C; Spinelli, John J; Stegmaier, Christa; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Stone, Jennifer; Stram, Daniel O; Surowy, Harald; Swerdlow, Anthony; Tamimi, Rulla; Taylor, Jack A; Tengström, Maria; Teo, Soo H; Beth Terry, Mary; Tessier, Daniel C; Thanasitthichai, Somchai; Thöne, Kathrin; Tollenaar, Rob A E M; Tomlinson, Ian; Tong, Ling; Torres, Diana; Truong, Thérèse; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Ulmer, Hans-Ulrich; Ursin, Giske; Untch, Michael; Vachon, Celine; van Asperen, Christi J; Van Den Berg, David; van den Ouweland, Ans M W; van der Kolk, Lizet; van der Luijt, Rob B; Vincent, Daniel; Vollenweider, Jason; Waisfisz, Quinten; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Weinberg, Clarice R; Wendt, Camilla; Whittemore, Alice S; Wildiers, Hans; Willett, Walter; Winqvist, Robert; Wolk, Alicja; Wu, Anna H; Xia, Lucy; Yamaji, Taiki; Yang, Xiaohong R; Har Yip, Cheng; Yoo, Keun-Young; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Zheng, Wei; Zheng, Ying; Zhu, Bin; Ziogas, Argyrios; Ziv, Elad; Lakhani, Sunil R; Antoniou, Antonis C; Droit, Arnaud; Andrulis, Irene L; Amos, Christopher I; Couch, Fergus J; Pharoah, Paul D P; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hall, Per; Hunter, David J; Milne, Roger L; García-Closas, Montserrat; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Chanock, Stephen J; Dunning, Alison M; Edwards, Stacey L; Bader, Gary D; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Simard, Jacques; Kraft, Peter; Easton, Douglas F

    2017-11-02

    Breast cancer risk is influenced by rare coding variants in susceptibility genes, such as BRCA1, and many common, mostly non-coding variants. However, much of the genetic contribution to breast cancer risk remains unknown. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study of breast cancer in 122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European ancestry and 14,068 cases and 13,104 controls of East Asian ancestry. We identified 65 new loci that are associated with overall breast cancer risk at P < 5 × 10 -8 . The majority of credible risk single-nucleotide polymorphisms in these loci fall in distal regulatory elements, and by integrating in silico data to predict target genes in breast cells at each locus, we demonstrate a strong overlap between candidate target genes and somatic driver genes in breast tumours. We also find that heritability of breast cancer due to all single-nucleotide polymorphisms in regulatory features was 2-5-fold enriched relative to the genome-wide average, with strong enrichment for particular transcription factor binding sites. These results provide further insight into genetic susceptibility to breast cancer and will improve the use of genetic risk scores for individualized screening and prevention.

  20. Newly identified CYP2C93 is a functional enzyme in rhesus monkey, but not in cynomolgus monkey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Uno

    Full Text Available Cynomolgus monkey and rhesus monkey are used in drug metabolism studies due to their evolutionary closeness and physiological resemblance to human. In cynomolgus monkey, we previously identified cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP 2C76 that does not have a human ortholog and is partly responsible for species differences in drug metabolism between cynomolgus monkey and human. In this study, we report characterization of CYP2C93 cDNA newly identified in cynomolgus monkey and rhesus monkey. The CYP2C93 cDNA contained an open reading frame of 490 amino acids approximately 84-86% identical to human CYP2Cs. CYP2C93 was located in the genomic region, which corresponded to the intergenic region in the human genome, indicating that CYP2C93 does not correspond to any human genes. CYP2C93 mRNA was expressed predominantly in the liver among 10 tissues analyzed. The CYP2C93 proteins heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli metabolized human CYP2C substrates, diclofenac, flurbiprofen, paclitaxel, S-mephenytoin, and tolbutamide. In addition to a normal transcript (SV1, an aberrantly spliced transcript (SV2 lacking exon 2 was identified, which did not give rise to a functional protein due to frameshift and a premature termination codon. Mini gene assay revealed that the genetic variant IVS2-1G>T at the splice site of intron 1, at least partly, accounted for the exon-2 skipping; therefore, this genotype would influence CYP2C93-mediated drug metabolism. SV1 was expressed in 6 of 11 rhesus monkeys and 1 of 8 cynomolgus monkeys, but the SV1 in the cynomolgus monkey was nonfunctional due to a rare null genotype (c.102T>del. These results suggest that CYP2C93 can play roles as a drug-metabolizing enzyme in rhesus monkeys (not in cynomolgus monkeys, although its relative contribution to drug metabolism has yet to be validated.

  1. Systemic Thinking and Requisite Holism in Mastering Logistics Risks: the Model for Identifying Risks in Organisations and Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Rosi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Risks in logistic processes represent one of the major issues in supply chain management nowadays. Every organization strives for success, and uninterrupted operations are the key factors in achieving this goal, which cannot be achieved without efficient risk management. In the scope of supply chain risk research, we identified some key issues in the field, the major issue being the lack of standardization and models, which can make risk management in an organization easier and more efficient. Consequently, we developed a model, which captures and identifies risks in an organization and its supply chain. It is in accordance with the general risk management standard – ISO 31000, and incorporates some relevant recent findings from general and supply chain risk management, especially from the viewpoint of public segmentation. This experimental catalogue (which is also published online can serve as a checklist and a starting point of supply chain risk management in organizations. Its main idea is cooperation between experts from the area in order to compile an ever-growing list of possible risks and to provide an insight in the model and its value in practice, for which reason input and opinions of anyone who uses our model are greatly appreciated and included in the catalogue.

  2. Importance of circulating tumor cells in newly diagnosed colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalum, Guus; Stam, Gerrit-Jan; Scholten, Loes F.A.; Mastboom, Walter J.B.; Vermes, I.; Tibbe, Arjan G.J.; De Groot, Marco R.; Terstappen, Leonardus Wendelinus Mathias Marie

    2015-01-01

    Presence of circulating tumor cells (CTC) is associated with poor prognosis in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). The present study was conducted to determine if the presence of CTC prior to surgery and during follow‑up in patients with newly diagnosed non-metastatic CRC can identify

  3. Identifying noncoding risk variants using disease-relevant gene regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Long; Uzun, Yasin; Gao, Peng; He, Bing; Ma, Xiaoke; Wang, Jiahui; Han, Shizhong; Tan, Kai

    2018-02-16

    Identifying noncoding risk variants remains a challenging task. Because noncoding variants exert their effects in the context of a gene regulatory network (GRN), we hypothesize that explicit use of disease-relevant GRNs can significantly improve the inference accuracy of noncoding risk variants. We describe Annotation of Regulatory Variants using Integrated Networks (ARVIN), a general computational framework for predicting causal noncoding variants. It employs a set of novel regulatory network-based features, combined with sequence-based features to infer noncoding risk variants. Using known causal variants in gene promoters and enhancers in a number of diseases, we show ARVIN outperforms state-of-the-art methods that use sequence-based features alone. Additional experimental validation using reporter assay further demonstrates the accuracy of ARVIN. Application of ARVIN to seven autoimmune diseases provides a holistic view of the gene subnetwork perturbed by the combinatorial action of the entire set of risk noncoding mutations.

  4. Could cognitive vulnerability identify high-risk subjects for schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfati, Yves; Hardy-Baylé, Marie-Christine

    2002-12-08

    This review puts into questions the possible role of cognitive vulnerability markers in prediction and prevention of schizophrenia. Until recently, none of the identified cognitive anomalies has been proved to be definitive. However, as new promising candidates are emerging (DS-CPT, CPT-IP, P suppression, Saccadic Eye Movements), the predictive value of these trait-type anomalies may be criticized regarding four issues, which are discussed: technical, metrological, theoretical, and clinical. As things stand, the existence of a cognitive vulnerability marker, which testify to a permanent pathological trait, does not constitute a sufficient factor to identify and treat subjects who are at risk for schizophrenia. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Health assessments for Indigenous Australians at Orange Aboriginal Medical Service: health problems identified and subsequent follow up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Tegan; Stevens, Wendy; Newman, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to document the types, management and follow up of health issues identified by all Aboriginal Health Assessments (AHA) performed at Orange Aboriginal Medical Service from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2012. This was done with a retrospective audit of clinical records. In total, 1169 AHAs were performed: 41% child, 53% adult and 6% older person AHAs. Newly identified health issues were documented in 85% (984). Being overweight (41%; 476) and smoking (26%; 301) were the common risk factors identified. As a result of the AHA, most children who were not up-to-date with their vaccinations received catch-up immunisations; 11% (36) of adult women (n=314) received a Pap smear, although Pap smear status was unknown or not up-to-date for 61% (192); 27% (311) of cases were prescribed new medication; and 1239 referrals were made but only 40% were attended. At 6 months following the AHA, 26% (240) of cases with newly identified health issues were completely managed and followed up, whereas 25% (226) received no follow up. The AHAs are useful for identifying new health issues; however, follow up of the identified health issues should be improved. If AHAs are to improve health outcomes, appropriate management and follow up of the identified health issues are essential.

  6. A synthetic cannabinoid FDU-NNEI, two 2H-indazole isomers of synthetic cannabinoids AB-CHMINACA and NNEI indazole analog (MN-18), a phenethylamine derivative N-OH-EDMA, and a cathinone derivative dimethoxy-α-PHP, newly identified in illegal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Nahoko; Shimokawa, Yoshihiko; Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Demizu, Yosuke; Goda, Yukihiro; Hakamatsuka, Takashi

    Six new psychoactive substances were identified together with two other substances (compounds 1 - 8 ) in illegal products by our ongoing survey in Japan between January and July 2014. A new synthetic cannabinoid, FDU-NNEI [1-(4-fluorobenzyl)- N -(naphthalen-1-yl)-1 H -indole-3-carboxamide, 2 ], was detected with the newly distributed synthetic cannabinoid FDU-PB-22 ( 1 ). Two 2 H -indazole isomers of synthetic cannabinoids, AB-CHMINACA 2 H -indazole analog ( 3 ) and NNEI 2 H -indazole analog ( 4 ), were newly identified with 1 H -indazoles [AB-CHMINACA and NNEI indazole analog (MN-18)]. In addition, 2-methylpropyl N -(naphthalen-1-yl) carbamate ( 5 ) and isobutyl 1-pentyl-1 H -indazole-3-carboxylate ( 6 ) were detected in illegal products. Compound 6 is considered to be a by-product of the preparation of NNEI indazole analog from compound 5 and 1-pentyl-1 H -indazole. A phenethylamine derivative, N -OH-EDMA [ N -hydroxy-3,4-ethylenedioxy- N -methylamphetamine, 7 ], and a cathinone derivative, dimethoxy-α-PHP (dimethoxy-α-pyrrolidinohexanophenone, 8 ), were newly identified in illegal products. Among them, compounds 1 and 8 have been controlled as designated substances (Shitei-Yakubutsu) under the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law in Japan since August and November 2014, respectively.

  7. Simple risk stratification at admission to identify patients with reduced mortality from primary angioplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thune, Jens Jakob; Hoefsten, Dan Eik; Lindholm, Matias Greve

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Randomized trials comparing fibrinolysis with primary angioplasty for acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction have demonstrated a beneficial effect of primary angioplasty on the combined end point of death, reinfarction, and disabling stroke but not on all-cause death. Identifying...... a patient group with reduced mortality from an invasive strategy would be important for early triage. The Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk score is a simple validated integer score that makes it possible to identify high-risk patients on admission to hospital. We hypothesized that a high...... as high risk. There was a significant interaction between risk status and effect of primary angioplasty (P=0.008). In the low-risk group, there was no difference in mortality (primary angioplasty, 8.0%; fibrinolysis, 5.6%; P=0.11); in the high-risk group, there was a significant reduction in mortality...

  8. Identifying risk factors for PTSD in women seeking medical help after rape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Tiihonen Möller

    Full Text Available Rape has been found to be the trauma most commonly associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD among women. It is therefore important to be able to identify those women at greatest risk of developing PTSD. The aims of the present study were to analyze the PTSD prevalence six months after sexual assaults and identify the major risk factors for developing PTSD.Participants were 317 female victims of rape who sought help at the Emergency Clinic for Raped Women at Stockholm South Hospital, Sweden. Baseline assessments of mental health were carried out and followed up after six months.Thirty-nine percent of the women had developed PTSD at the six month assessment, and 47% suffered from moderate or severe depression. The major risk factors for PTSD were having been sexually assaulted by more than one person, suffering from acute stress disorder (ASD shortly after the assault, having been exposed to several acts during the assault, having been injured, having co-morbid depression, and having a history of more than two earlier traumas. Further, ASD on its own was found to be a poor predictor of PTSD because of the substantial ceiling effect after sexual assaults.Development of PTSD is common in the aftermath of sexual assaults. Increased risk of developing PTSD is caused by a combination of victim vulnerability and the extent of the dramatic nature of the current assault. By identifying those women at greatest risk of developing PTSD appropriate therapeutic resources can be directed.

  9. Quality of life of elderly persons with newly diagnosed cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, B A; Osterlind, K; Roer, O

    2004-01-01

    The aim was to investigate quality of life (QoL) in elderly persons newly diagnosed with cancer (65+ years) in relation to age, contact with the health-care system, ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL), hope, social network and support, and to identify which factors were associated...

  10. Combined and interactive effects of environmental and GWAS-identified risk factors in ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Rossing, Mary Anne; Lee, Alice W

    2013-01-01

    There are several well-established environmental risk factors for ovarian cancer, and recent genome-wide association studies have also identified six variants that influence disease risk. However, the interplay between such risk factors and susceptibility loci has not been studied....

  11. Cardiovascular risk assessment in type 2 diabetes mellitus: comparison of the World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension risk prediction charts versus UK Prospective Diabetes Study risk engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, Herath M Meththananda; Weerarathna, Thilak Priyantha; Umesha, Dilini

    2015-01-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at higher risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, and assessment of their cardiac risk is important for preventive strategies. The Ministry of Health of Sri Lanka has recommended World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension (WHO/ISH) charts for cardiac risk assessment in individuals with T2DM. However, the most suitable cardiac risk assessment tool for Sri Lankans with T2DM has not been studied. This study was designed to evaluate the performance of two cardiac risk assessments tools; WHO/ISH charts and UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) risk engine. Cardiac risk assessments were done in 2,432 patients with T2DM attending a diabetes clinic in Southern Sri Lanka using the two risk assessment tools. Validity of two assessment tools was further assessed by their ability to recognize individuals with raised low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and raised diastolic blood pressure in a cohort of newly diagnosed T2DM patients (n=332). WHO/ISH charts identified 78.4% of subjects as low cardiac risk whereas the UKPDS risk engine categorized 52.3% as low cardiac risk (Pengine identified higher proportions of patients (28%) compared to WHO/ISH charts (7%). Approximately 6% of subjects were classified as low cardiac risk (20%. Agreement between the two tools was poor (κ value =0.144, Pengine. Risk assessment by both assessment tools demonstrated poor sensitivity in identifying those with treatable levels of LDL cholesterol and diastolic blood pressure.

  12. Identifying and assessing highly hazardous drugs within quality risk management programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Robert G; Schatz, Anthony R; Kimmel, Tracy A; Ader, Allan; Naumann, Bruce D; Weideman, Patricia A

    2016-08-01

    Historically, pharmaceutical industry regulatory guidelines have assigned certain active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) to various categories of concern, such as "cytotoxic", "hormones", and "steroids". These categories have been used to identify APIs requiring segregation or dedication in order to prevent cross-contamination and protect the quality and safety of drug products. Since these terms were never defined by regulatory authorities, and many novel pharmacological mechanisms challenge these categories, there is a recognized need to modify the historical use of these terms. The application of a risk-based approach using a health-based limit, such as an acceptable daily exposure (ADE), is more appropriate for the development of a Quality Risk Management Program (QRMP) than the use of categories of concern. The toxicological and pharmacological characteristics of these categories are discussed to help identify and prioritize compounds requiring special attention. Controlling airborne concentrations and the contamination of product contact surfaces in accordance with values derived from quantitative risk assessments can prevent adverse effects in workers and patients, regardless of specific categorical designations to which these APIs have been assigned. The authors acknowledge the movement away from placing compounds into categories and, while not yet universal, the importance of basing QRMPs on compound-specific ADEs and risk assessments. Based on the results of a risk assessment, segregation and dedication may also be required for some compounds to prevent cross contamination during manufacture of APIs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Integrated systems approach identifies risk regulatory pathways and key regulators in coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Liu, Dianming; Wang, Lihong; Wang, Shuyuan; Yu, Xuexin; Dai, Enyu; Liu, Xinyi; Luo, Shanshun; Jiang, Wei

    2015-12-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of heart disease. However, the molecular mechanisms of CAD remain elusive. Regulatory pathways are known to play crucial roles in many pathogenic processes. Thus, inferring risk regulatory pathways is an important step toward elucidating the mechanisms underlying CAD. With advances in high-throughput data, we developed an integrated systems approach to identify CAD risk regulatory pathways and key regulators. Firstly, a CAD-related core subnetwork was identified from a curated transcription factor (TF) and microRNA (miRNA) regulatory network based on a random walk algorithm. Secondly, candidate risk regulatory pathways were extracted from the subnetwork by applying a breadth-first search (BFS) algorithm. Then, risk regulatory pathways were prioritized based on multiple CAD-associated data sources. Finally, we also proposed a new measure to prioritize upstream regulators. We inferred that phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) may be a key regulator in the dysregulation of risk regulatory pathways. This study takes a closer step than the identification of disease subnetworks or modules. From the risk regulatory pathways, we could understand the flow of regulatory information in the initiation and progression of the disease. Our approach helps to uncover its potential etiology. We developed an integrated systems approach to identify risk regulatory pathways. We proposed a new measure to prioritize the key regulators in CAD. PTEN may be a key regulator in dysregulation of the risk regulatory pathways.

  14. Identifying and managing the risks of medical ionizing radiation in endourology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yecies, Todd; Averch, Timothy D; Semins, Michelle J

    2018-02-01

    The risks of exposure to medical ionizing radiation is of increasing concern both among medical professionals and the general public. Patients with nephrolithiasis are exposed to high levels of ionizing radiation through both diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. Endourologists who perform a high-volume of fluoroscopy guided procedures are also exposed to significant quantities of ionizing radiation. The combination of judicious use of radiation-based imaging modalities, application of new imaging techniques such as ultra-low dose computed tomography (CT) scan, and modifying use of current technology such as increasing ultrasound and pulsed fluoroscopy utilization offers the possibility of significantly reducing radiation exposure. We present a review of the literature regarding the risks of medical ionizing radiation to patients and surgeons as it pertains to the field of endourology and interventions that can be performed to limit this exposure. A review of the current state of the literature was performed using MEDLINE and PubMed. Interventions designed to limit patient and surgeon radiation exposure were identified and analyzed. Summaries of the data were compiled and synthesized in the body of the text. While no level 1 evidence exists demonstrating the risk of secondary malignancy with radiation exposure, the preponderance of evidence suggests a dose and age dependent increase in malignancy risk from ionizing radiation. Patients with nephrolithiasis were exposed to an average effective dose of 37mSv over a 2 year period. Multiple evidence-based interventions to limit patient and surgeon radiation exposure and associated risk were identified. Current evidence suggest an age and dose dependent risk of secondary malignancy from ionizing radiation. Urologists must act in accordance with ALARA principles to safely manage nephrolithiasis while minimizing radiation exposure.

  15. Systemic Thinking and Requisite Holism in Mastering Logistics Risks: the Model for Identifying Risks in Organisations and Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Borut Jereb; Teodora Ivanuša; Bojan Rosi

    2013-01-01

    Risks in logistic processes represent one of the major issues in supply chain management nowadays. Every organization strives for success, and uninterrupted operations are the key factors in achieving this goal, which cannot be achieved without efficient risk management. In the scope of supply chain risk research, we identified some key issues in the field, the major issue being the lack of standardization and models, which can make risk management in an organization easier and more efficient...

  16. Identifying Children at High Risk for a Child Maltreatment Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowitz, Howard; Kim, Jeongeun; Black, Maureen M.; Weisbart, Cindy; Semiatin, Joshua; Magder, Laurence S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To help professionals identify factors that place families at risk for future child maltreatment, to facilitate necessary services and to potentially help prevent abuse and neglect. Method: The data are from a prospective, longitudinal study of 332 low-income families recruited from urban pediatric primary care clinics, followed for…

  17. Risk and Performance Technologies: Identifying the Keys to Successful Implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClain, Lynn; Smith, Art; O'Regan, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    The nuclear power industry has been utilizing risk and performance based technologies for over thirty years. Applications of these technologies have included risk assessment (e.g. Individual Plant Examinations), burden reduction (e.g. Risk-Informed Inservice Inspection, RI-ISI) and risk management (Maintenance Rule, 10CFR50.65). Over the last five to ten years the number of risk-informed (RI) burden reduction initiatives has increased. Unfortunately, the efficiencies of some of these applications have been questionable. This paper investigates those attributes necessary to support successful, cost-effective RI-applications. The premise to this paper is that by understanding the key attributes that support one successful application, insights can be gleaned that will streamline/coordinate future RI-applications. This paper is an extension to a paper presented at the Pressure Vessel and Piping (PVP-2001) Conference. In that paper, a number issues and opportunities were identified that needed to be assessed in order to support future (and efficient) RI-applications. It was noted in the paper that a proper understanding and resolution of these issues will facilitate implementation of risk and performance technology in the operation, maintenance and design disciplines. In addition, it will provide the foundation necessary to support regulatory review and approval. (authors)

  18. What's the risk? Identifying potential human pathogens within grey-headed flying foxes faeces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah Henry

    Full Text Available Pteropus poliocephalus (grey-headed flying foxes are recognised vectors for a range of potentially fatal human pathogens. However, to date research has primarily focused on viral disease carriage, overlooking bacterial pathogens, which also represent a significant human disease risk. The current study applied 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, community analysis and a multi-tiered database OTU picking approach to identify faecal-derived zoonotic bacteria within two colonies of P. poliocephalus from Victoria, Australia. Our data show that sequences associated with Enterobacteriaceae (62.8% ± 24.7%, Pasteurellaceae (19.9% ± 25.7% and Moraxellaceae (9.4% ± 11.8% dominate flying fox faeces. Further colony specific differences in bacterial faecal colonisation patterns were also identified. In total, 34 potential pathogens, representing 15 genera, were identified. However, species level definition was only possible for Clostridium perfringens, which likely represents a low infectious risk due to the low proportion observed within the faeces and high infectious dose required for transmission. In contrast, sequences associated with other pathogenic species clusters such as Haemophilus haemolyticus-H. influenzae and Salmonella bongori-S. enterica, were present at high proportions in the faeces, and due to their relatively low infectious doses and modes of transmissions, represent a greater potential human disease risk. These analyses of the microbial community composition of Pteropus poliocephalus have significantly advanced our understanding of the potential bacterial disease risk associated with flying foxes and should direct future epidemiological and quantitative microbial risk assessments to further define the health risks presented by these animals.

  19. Practicing on Newly Dead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jewel Abraham

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A newly dead cadaver simulation is practiced on the physical remains of the dead before the onset of rigor mortis. This technique has potential benefits for providing real-life in-situ experience for novice providers in health care practices. Evolving ethical views in health care brings into question some of the ethical aspects associated with newly dead cadaver simulation in terms of justification for practice, autonomy, consent, and the need of disclosure. A clear statement of policies and procedures on newly dead cadaver simulation has yet to be implemented. Although there are benefits and disadvantages to an in-situ cadaver simulation, such practices should not be carried out in secrecy as there is no compelling evidence that suggests such training as imperative. Secrecy in these practices is a violation of honor code of nursing ethics. As health care providers, practitioners are obliged to be ethically honest and trustworthy to their patients. The author explores the ethical aspects of using newly dead cadaver simulation in training novice nursing providers to gain competency in various lifesaving skills, which otherwise cannot be practiced on a living individual. The author explores multiple views on cadaver simulation in relation to ethical theories and practices such as consent and disclosure to family.

  20. A lower baseline glomerular filtration rate predicts high mortality and newly cerebrovascular accidents in acute ischemic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Kai; Huang, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Qian; Yu, Zhipeng; Ding, Jianping; Song, Haiqing

    2017-02-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is gradually recognized as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular and cardio-/cerebrovascular disease. This study aimed to examine the association of the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and clinical outcomes at 3 months after the onset of ischemic stroke in a hospitalized Chinese population.Totally, 972 patients with acute ischemic stroke were enrolled into this study. Modified of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equations were used to calculate eGFR and define CKD. The site and degree of the stenosis were examined. Patients were followed-up for 3 months. Endpoint events included all-cause death and newly ischemic events. The multivariate logistic model was used to determine the association between renal dysfunction and patients' outcomes.Of all patients, 130 patients (13.4%) had reduced eGFR (<60 mL/min/1.73 m), and 556 patients had a normal eGFR (≥90 mL/min/1.73 m). A total of 694 patients suffered from cerebral artery stenosis, in which 293 patients only had intracranial artery stenosis (ICAS), 110 only with extracranial carotid atherosclerotic stenosis (ECAS), and 301 with both ICAS and ECAS. The patients with eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73m had a higher proportion of death and newly ischemic events compared with those with a relatively normal eGFR. Multivariate analysis revealed that a baseline eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m increased the risk of mortality by 3.089-fold and newly ischemic events by 4.067-fold. In further analysis, a reduced eGFR was associated with increased rates of mortality and newly events both in ICAS patients and ECAS patients. However, only an increased risk of newly events was found as the degree of renal function deteriorated in ICAS patients (odds ratio = 8.169, 95% confidence interval = 2.445-14.127).A low baseline eGFR predicted a high mortality and newly ischemic events at 3 months in ischemic stroke patients. A low baseline eGFR was also a strong independent predictor for newly

  1. NRIP is newly identified as a Z-disc protein, activating calmodulin signaling for skeletal muscle contraction and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Hsiung; Chen, Wen-Pin; Yan, Wan-Lun; Huang, Yuan-Chun; Chang, Szu-Wei; Fu, Wen-Mei; Su, Ming-Jai; Yu, I-Shing; Tsai, Tzung-Chieh; Yan, Yu-Ting; Tsao, Yeou-Ping; Chen, Show-Li

    2015-11-15

    Nuclear receptor interaction protein (NRIP, also known as DCAF6 and IQWD1) is a Ca(2+)-dependent calmodulin-binding protein. In this study, we newly identify NRIP as a Z-disc protein in skeletal muscle. NRIP-knockout mice were generated and found to have reduced muscle strength, susceptibility to fatigue and impaired adaptive exercise performance. The mechanisms of NRIP-regulated muscle contraction depend on NRIP being downstream of Ca(2+) signaling, where it stimulates activation of both 'calcineurin-nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1' (CaN-NFATc1; also known as NFATC1) and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) through interaction with calmodulin (CaM), resulting in the induction of mitochondrial activity and the expression of genes encoding the slow class of myosin, and in the regulation of Ca(2+) homeostasis through the internal Ca(2+) stores of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Moreover, NRIP-knockout mice have a delayed regenerative capacity. The amount of NRIP can be enhanced after muscle injury and is responsible for muscle regeneration, which is associated with the increased expression of myogenin, desmin and embryonic myosin heavy chain during myogenesis, as well as for myotube formation. In conclusion, NRIP is a novel Z-disc protein that is important for skeletal muscle strength and regenerative capacity. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. PREVALENCE OF DIABETIC RETINOPATHY IN PATIENTS WITH NEWLY DIAGNOSED TYPE II DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bostak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is a common complication of type II diabetes mellitus and carries with it the threat of blindness. Accurate information regarding the incidence of diabetic retinopathy and associated risk factors is important in the prevention of its development and of the visual impairment caused by this complication. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in newly diagnosed patients with type II diabetes mellitus. We have also evaluated the association of diabetic retinopathy with clinical and biochemical variables. In a cross-sectional study, 152 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed type II diabetes mellitus were referred from two outpatient clinics in Tehran for ophthalmologic exam to detect retinopathy. Indirect ophthalmoscopy was performed and data regarding risk factors were extracted from routine medical records. Chi square and Mann Whitney U tests were used to analyze the data. The overall prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was 13.8 %( 21 cases: three cases with microaneurysm only, 10 with mild, 5 with moderate and 2 with severe non proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Only one patient had advanced proliferative retinopathy. The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was positively associated with age, duration of disease, fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, and systolic blood pressure. Diabetic retinopathy is common in newly diagnosed type II diabetes mellitus patients. Ophthalmologic consultation is essential at the time of diagnosis for all patients.

  3. A newly identified frontal path from fornix in septum pellucidum with 7.0T MRI track density imaging (TDI – The septum pellucidum tract (SPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zang-Hee eCho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The high anatomical contrast achieved with the newly emerging MRI tractographic technique of super-resolution track density imaging (TDI encouraged us to search for a new fiber tract in the septum pellucidum. Although this septum pellucidum tract (SPT has been observed previously, its connections were unclear due to ambiguity and limited resolution of conventional MRI images. It is now possible to identify detailed parts of SPT with the increased resolution of TDI, which involves diffusion MRI imaging, whole-brain tractography, and voxel subdivision using the track-count information. Four healthy male subjects were included in the study. The experiment was performed with 7.0T MRI, following the guidelines of the institute’s institutional review board. Data were processed with the super-resolution TDI technique to generate a tractographic map with 0.18 mm isotropic resolution. The SPT was identified in all subjects. Based on additional seed tracking method with inter-axis correlation search, we have succeeded in identifying a new frontal lobe pathway in the SPT. We hypothesize that the tract is connected as a superior dorsal branch of the fornix that leads to the prefrontal cortex.

  4. 18F Fluorocholine Dynamic Time-of-Flight PET/MR Imaging in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Intermediate- to High-Risk Prostate Cancer: Initial Clinical-Pathologic Comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Joon Young; Yang, Jaewon; Noworolski, Susan M; Behr, Spencer; Chang, Albert J; Simko, Jeffry P; Nguyen, Hao G; Carroll, Peter R; Kurhanewicz, John; Seo, Youngho

    2017-02-01

    Purpose To investigate the initial clinical value of fluorine 18 ( 18 F) fluorocholine (FCH) dynamic positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance (MR) imaging by comparing its parameters with clinical-pathologic findings in patients with newly diagnosed intermediate- to high-risk prostate cancer (PCa) who plan to undergo radical prostatectomy. Materials and Methods The institutional review board approved the study protocol, and informed written consent was obtained from all subjects for this HIPAA-compliant study. Twelve men (mean age ± standard deviation, 61.7 years ± 8.4; range, 46-74 years) with untreated intermediate- to high-risk PCa characterized according to Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment (CAPRA) underwent preoperative FCH dynamic PET/MR imaging followed by radical prostatectomy between April and November 2015. PET/MR imaging parameters including average and maximum K1 (delivery rate constant) and standardized uptake values (SUVs) and Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) version 2 scores were measured and compared with clinical-pathologic characteristics. For statistical analysis, the Spearman rank correlation and Mann-Whitney U tests were performed. Results Of the PET parameters, maximum SUV of primary tumors showed significant correlations with several clinical-pathologic parameters including serum prostate-specific antigen level (ρ = 0.71, P = .01), pathologic stage (ρ = 0.59, P = .043), and postsurgical CAPRA score (ρ = 0.72, P = .008). The overall PI-RADS score showed significant correlations with pathologic tumor volume (ρ = 0.81, P PET and MR imaging showed improved sensitivity (88%) for prediction of pathologic extraprostatic extension compared with that with MR imaging (50%) and PET (75%) performed separately. Conclusion Maximum SUVs and PI-RADS scores from FCH PET/MR imaging show good correlation with clinical-pathologic characteristics, such as postsurgical CAPRA score, which are related to prognosis in

  5. Changes in immunological status among newly-diagnosed HIV-infected in Denmark 1995-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoegh, S.; Lohse, N.; Hansen, A.B.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The incidence of new HIV diagnoses in Denmark has remained stable since 1991, but it has increased among the subgroup of homosexual men in recent years. This may reflect an actual increase in newly infected, e.g. as a result of increased risk behaviour, or it may reflect increased HIV....... MATERIALS AND METHODS: Observational study based on the Danish HIV Cohort Study, which includes all adults seen at Danish HIV clinics since 1995. RESULTS: From 2000 to 2004 the number of newly-infected homosexual men increased (from 69 to 123), particularly in persons under 30 years (from 5 to 42......). The median CD4 cell count at the time of diagnosis increased in this group (median 19.1 cells/microL per year [95% CI: 3.7-11.3]), while it remained stable among heterosexually infected. The number of newly-diagnosed homosexually infected under 30 years with a CD4 cell count over 400 cells/microL increased...

  6. Identifying Students at Risk: An Examination of Computer-Adaptive Measures and Latent Class Growth Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller-Margulis, Milena; McQuillin, Samuel D.; Castañeda, Juan Javier; Ochs, Sarah; Jones, John H.

    2018-01-01

    Multitiered systems of support depend on screening technology to identify students at risk. The purpose of this study was to examine the use of a computer-adaptive test and latent class growth analysis (LCGA) to identify students at risk in reading with focus on the use of this methodology to characterize student performance in screening.…

  7. A systematic review and meta-analysis on the safety of newly adjuvanted vaccines among children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stassijns, Jorgen; Bollaerts, Kaatje; Baay, Marc; Verstraeten, Thomas

    2016-02-03

    New adjuvants such as the AS- or the MF59-adjuvants improve vaccine efficacy and facilitate dose-sparing. Their use in influenza and malaria vaccines has resulted in a large body of evidence on their clinical safety in children. We carried out a systematic search for safety data from published clinical trials on newly adjuvanted vaccines in children ≤10 years of age. Serious adverse events (SAEs), solicited AEs, unsolicited AEs and AEs of special interest were evaluated for four new adjuvants: the immuno-stimulants containing adjuvant systems AS01 and AS02, and the squalene containing oil-in-water emulsions AS03 and MF59. Relative risks (RR) were calculated, comparing children receiving newly adjuvanted vaccines to children receiving other vaccines with a variety of antigens, both adjuvanted and unadjuvanted. Twenty-nine trials were included in the meta-analysis, encompassing 25,056 children who received at least one dose of the newly adjuvanted vaccines. SAEs did not occur more frequently in adjuvanted groups (RR 0.85, 95%CI 0.75-0.96). Our meta-analyses showed higher reactogenicity following administration of newly adjuvanted vaccines, however, no consistent pattern of solicited AEs was observed across adjuvant systems. Pain was the most prevalent AE, but often mild and of short duration. No increased risks were found for unsolicited AEs, febrile convulsions, potential immune mediated diseases and new onset of chronic diseases. Our meta-analysis did not show any safety concerns in clinical trials of the newly adjuvanted vaccines in children ≤10 years of age. An unexplained increase of meningitis in one Phase III AS01-adjuvanted malaria trial and the link between narcolepsy and the AS03-adjuvanted pandemic vaccine illustrate that continued safety monitoring is warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mentorship for newly appointed physicians: a strategy for enhancing patient safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Reema; McClean, Serwaa; Lawton, Rebecca; Wright, John; Kay, Clive

    2014-09-01

    Mentorship is an increasingly popular innovation from business and industry that is being applied in health-care contexts. This paper explores the concept of mentorship for newly appointed physicians in their first substantive senior post, and specifically its utilization to enhance patient safety. Semi-structured face to face and telephone interviews with Medical Directors (n = 5), Deputy Medical Directors (n = 4), and Clinical Directors (n = 6) from 9 acute NHS Trusts in the Yorkshire and Humber region in the north of England. A focused thematic analysis was used. A number of beneficial outcomes were associated with mentorship for newly appointed physicians including greater personal and professional support, organizational commitment, and general well-being. Providing newly appointed senior physicians with support through mentorship was considered to enhance the safety of patient care. Mentorship may prevent or reduce active failures, be used to identify threats in the local working environment, and in the longer term, address latent threats to safety within the organization by encouraging a healthier safety culture. Offering mentorship to all newly appointed physicians in their first substantive post in health care may be a useful strategy to support the development of their clinical, professional, and personal skills in this transitional period that may also enhance the safety of patient care.

  9. Large-scale association analyses identify new loci influencing glycemic traits and provide insight into the underlying biological pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Robert A; Lagou, Vasiliki; Welch, Ryan P; Wheeler, Eleanor; Montasser, May E; Luan, Jian’an; Mägi, Reedik; Strawbridge, Rona J; Rehnberg, Emil; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J; Yengo, Loïc; Lecoeur, Cecile; Shungin, Dmitry; Sanna, Serena; Sidore, Carlo; Johnson, Paul C D; Jukema, J Wouter; Johnson, Toby; Mahajan, Anubha; Verweij, Niek; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Shah, Sonia; Smith, Albert V; Sennblad, Bengt; Gieger, Christian; Salo, Perttu; Perola, Markus; Timpson, Nicholas J; Evans, David M; Pourcain, Beate St; Wu, Ying; Andrews, Jeanette S; Hui, Jennie; Bielak, Lawrence F; Zhao, Wei; Horikoshi, Momoko; Navarro, Pau; Isaacs, Aaron; O’Connell, Jeffrey R; Stirrups, Kathleen; Vitart, Veronique; Hayward, Caroline; Esko, Tönu; Mihailov, Evelin; Fraser, Ross M; Fall, Tove; Voight, Benjamin F; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Chen, Han; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Morris, Andrew P; Rayner, Nigel W; Robertson, Neil; Rybin, Denis; Liu, Ching-Ti; Beckmann, Jacques S; Willems, Sara M; Chines, Peter S; Jackson, Anne U; Kang, Hyun Min; Stringham, Heather M; Song, Kijoung; Tanaka, Toshiko; Peden, John F; Goel, Anuj; Hicks, Andrew A; An, Ping; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Folkersen, Lasse; Marullo, Letizia; Jansen, Hanneke; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Pankow, James S; North, Kari E; Forouhi, Nita G; Loos, Ruth J F; Edkins, Sarah; Varga, Tibor V; Hallmans, Göran; Oksa, Heikki; Antonella, Mulas; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Trompet, Stella; Ford, Ian; Bakker, Stephan J L; Kong, Augustine; Kumari, Meena; Gigante, Bruna; Herder, Christian; Munroe, Patricia B; Caulfield, Mark; Antti, Jula; Mangino, Massimo; Small, Kerrin; Miljkovic, Iva; Liu, Yongmei; Atalay, Mustafa; Kiess, Wieland; James, Alan L; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Palmer, Colin N A; Doney, Alex S F; Willemsen, Gonneke; Smit, Johannes H; Campbell, Susan; Polasek, Ozren; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Hercberg, Serge; Dimitriou, Maria; Bolton, Jennifer L; Fowkes, Gerard R; Kovacs, Peter; Lindström, Jaana; Zemunik, Tatijana; Bandinelli, Stefania; Wild, Sarah H; Basart, Hanneke V; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Grallert, Harald; Maerz, Winfried; Kleber, Marcus E; Boehm, Bernhard O; Peters, Annette; Pramstaller, Peter P; Province, Michael A; Borecki, Ingrid B; Hastie, Nicholas D; Rudan, Igor; Campbell, Harry; Watkins, Hugh; Farrall, Martin; Stumvoll, Michael; Ferrucci, Luigi; Waterworth, Dawn M; Bergman, Richard N; Collins, Francis S; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Watanabe, Richard M; de Geus, Eco J C; Penninx, Brenda W; Hofman, Albert; Oostra, Ben A; Psaty, Bruce M; Vollenweider, Peter; Wilson, James F; Wright, Alan F; Hovingh, G Kees; Metspalu, Andres; Uusitupa, Matti; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Kaprio, Jaakko; Price, Jackie F; Dedoussis, George V; Deloukas, Panos; Meneton, Pierre; Lind, Lars; Boehnke, Michael; Shuldiner, Alan R; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Morris, Andrew D; Toenjes, Anke; Peyser, Patricia A; Beilby, John P; Körner, Antje; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Bornstein, Stefan R; Schwarz, Peter E H; Lakka, Timo A; Rauramaa, Rainer; Adair, Linda S; Smith, George Davey; Spector, Tim D; Illig, Thomas; de Faire, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kivimaki, Mika; Hingorani, Aroon; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M; Saaristo, Timo E; Boomsma, Dorret I; Stefansson, Kari; van der Harst, Pim; Dupuis, Josée; Pedersen, Nancy L; Sattar, Naveed; Harris, Tamara B; Cucca, Francesco; Ripatti, Samuli; Salomaa, Veikko; Mohlke, Karen L; Balkau, Beverley; Froguel, Philippe; Pouta, Anneli; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Wareham, Nicholas J; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; McCarthy, Mark I; Franks, Paul W; Meigs, James B; Teslovich, Tanya M; Florez, Jose C; Langenberg, Claudia; Ingelsson, Erik; Prokopenko, Inga; Barroso, Inês

    2012-01-01

    Through genome-wide association meta-analyses of up to 133,010 individuals of European ancestry without diabetes, including individuals newly genotyped using the Metabochip, we have raised the number of confirmed loci influencing glycemic traits to 53, of which 33 also increase type 2 diabetes risk (q fasting insulin showed association with lipid levels and fat distribution, suggesting impact on insulin resistance. Gene-based analyses identified further biologically plausible loci, suggesting that additional loci beyond those reaching genome-wide significance are likely to represent real associations. This conclusion is supported by an excess of directionally consistent and nominally significant signals between discovery and follow-up studies. Functional follow-up of these newly discovered loci will further improve our understanding of glycemic control. PMID:22885924

  10. Newly graduated nurses' use of knowledge sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldbjerg, Siri Lygum; Grønkjaer, Mette; Sørensen, Erik Elgaard

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To advance evidence on newly graduated nurses' use of knowledge sources. BACKGROUND: Clinical decisions need to be evidence-based and understanding the knowledge sources that newly graduated nurses use will inform both education and practice. Qualitative studies on newly graduated nurses' use...... underscoring progression in knowledge use and perception of competence and confidence among newly graduated nurses. CONCLUSION: The transition phase, feeling of confidence and ability to use critical thinking and reflection, has a great impact on knowledge sources incorporated in clinical decisions....... The synthesis accentuates that for use of newly graduated nurses' qualifications and skills in evidence-based practice, clinical practice needs to provide a supportive environment which nurtures critical thinking and questions and articulates use of multiple knowledge sources....

  11. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (Richter syndrome) in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL): a cohort study of newly diagnosed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Sameer A; Rabe, Kari G; Call, Timothy G; Zent, Clive S; Habermann, Thomas M; Ding, Wei; Leis, Jose F; Schwager, Susan M; Hanson, Curtis A; Macon, William R; Kay, Neil E; Slager, Susan L; Shanafelt, Tait D

    2013-09-01

    Nearly all information about patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) who develop diffuse large B-cell lymphoma [Richter syndrome (RS)] is derived from retrospective case series or patients treated on clinical trials. We used the Mayo Clinic CLL Database to identify patients with newly diagnosed CLL between January 2000 and July 2011. Individuals who developed biopsy-proven RS during follow-up were identified. After a median follow-up of 4 years, 37/1641 (2·3%) CLL patients developed RS. The rate of RS was approximately 0·5%/year. Risk of RS was associated with advanced Rai stage at diagnosis (P CLL (1%/year). Stereotyped B-cell receptors (odds-ratio = 4·2; P = 0·01) but not IGHV4-39 family usage was associated with increased risk of RS. Treatment with combination of purine analogues and alkylating agents increased the risk of RS three-fold (odds-ratio = 3·26, P = 0·0003). Median survival after RS diagnosis was 2·1 years. The RS prognosis score stratified patients into three risk groups with median survivals of 0·5 years, 2·1 years and not reached. Both underlying characteristics of the CLL clone and subsequent CLL therapy influence the risk of RS. Survival after RS remains poor and new therapies are needed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Hospital Admissions, Costs, and 30-Day Readmissions Among Newly Diagnosed Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation Patients Treated with Dabigatran Etexilate or Warfarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Eileen; Sander, Stephen D; Hess, Gregory P; Ghosh, Sabyasachi

    2015-11-01

    Oral anticoagulation such as warfarin and dabigatran is indicated for atrial fibrillation (AF) patients at risk of ischemic stroke. Dabigatran etexilate was developed to address the limitations of warfarin, including the need for regular blood monitoring, which has the potential to lead to higher health care resource use, particularly in hospitalized patients. To evaluate whether hospitalization cost, length of hospital stay (LOS), likelihood of readmission within 30 days, and cost of readmissions differed across inpatient encounters among nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) patients that were newly diagnosed and newly treated with either dabigatran or warfarin. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using IMS Health's Charge Detail Master (CDM) database. Hospitalizations were identified based on a primary or secondary AF diagnosis, dabigatran or warfarin use, and a discharge date from January 2011 through March 2012. The identified patients without valvular procedures and transient AF were required to have a minimum of 12 months of pharmacy and private practitioner records prior to the inpatient encounter to ensure that they were newly treated on dabigatran or warfarin. Propensity score matching was used to balance baseline characteristics between treatment cohorts. Outcomes assessed were LOS, 30-day readmissions, and costs. Because individual patients could have more than 1 hospital observation, generalized estimating equations (GEE) with a gamma distribution (log link) were used for the analysis of continuous outcome measures (e.g., LOS and costs) and a binominal distribution for dichotomous outcomes (hospital readmissions). Two cohorts were propensity score matched (1:2) on demographic and clinical characteristics. The dabigatran cohort included 646 hospitalizations, and the warfarin cohort included 1,292 hospitalizations. Hospitalizations were on average 13% shorter (4.8 vs. 5.5 days, P  less than  0.001) and cost 12% less ($14,794 vs. $16,826, P

  13. The readmission risk flag: using the electronic health record to automatically identify patients at risk for 30-day readmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Charles A; VanZandbergen, Christine; Tait, Gordon; Hanish, Asaf; Leas, Brian; French, Benjamin; Hanson, C William; Behta, Maryam; Umscheid, Craig A

    2013-12-01

    Identification of patients at high risk for readmission is a crucial step toward improving care and reducing readmissions. The adoption of electronic health records (EHR) may prove important to strategies designed to risk stratify patients and introduce targeted interventions. To develop and implement an automated prediction model integrated into our health system's EHR that identifies on admission patients at high risk for readmission within 30 days of discharge. Retrospective and prospective cohort. Healthcare system consisting of 3 hospitals. All adult patients admitted from August 2009 to September 2012. An automated readmission risk flag integrated into the EHR. Thirty-day all-cause and 7-day unplanned healthcare system readmissions. Using retrospective data, a single risk factor, ≥ 2 inpatient admissions in the past 12 months, was found to have the best balance of sensitivity (40%), positive predictive value (31%), and proportion of patients flagged (18%), with a C statistic of 0.62. Sensitivity (39%), positive predictive value (30%), proportion of patients flagged (18%), and C statistic (0.61) during the 12-month period after implementation of the risk flag were similar. There was no evidence for an effect of the intervention on 30-day all-cause and 7-day unplanned readmission rates in the 12-month period after implementation. An automated prediction model was effectively integrated into an existing EHR and identified patients on admission who were at risk for readmission within 30 days of discharge. © 2013 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  14. Sexual Risk Behavior Among Youth With Bipolar Disorder: Identifying Demographic and Clinical Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, Megan; Goldstein, Tina; Rooks, Brian; Merranko, John; Liao, Fangzi; Gill, Mary Kay; Diler, Rasim; Hafeman, Danella; Ryan, Neal; Goldstein, Benjamin; Yen, Shirley; Hower, Heather; Hunt, Jeffrey; Keller, Martin; Strober, Michael; Axelson, David; Birmaher, Boris

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to document rates of sexual activity among youth with bipolar spectrum disorder (BD) and to examine demographic and clinical factors associated with first sexual activity and sexual risk behavior during follow-up. The sample was drawn from the Course and Outcome of Bipolar Youth (COBY) study of 413 youth 7 to 17 years at baseline who met criteria for bipolar spectrum disorder according to the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children. Psychiatric symptoms during follow-up were assessed using the Adolescent Longitudinal Interview Follow-Up Evaluation (ALIFE). Sexual behavior and level of sexual risk (e.g., unprotected sex, multiple partners, and/or partners with known sexually transmitted infections) were assessed by trained evaluators using the ALIFE Psychosocial Functioning Scale. Analyses were conducted in relation to first sexual behavior during follow-up and then to subsequent sexual behaviors (mean 9.7 years, standard deviation 3.2). Sexually active COBY youth (n = 292 of 413; 71%) were more likely females, using substances, and not living with both parents. Consistent with findings among healthy youth, earlier first sexual activity in the sample was significantly associated with low socioeconomic status, female sex, comorbid disruptive behavior disorder, and substance use. As with healthy youth, sexual risk behavior during follow-up was significantly associated with non-Caucasian race, low socioeconomic status, substance use, and history of sexual abuse. Of those COBY youth who were sexually active, 11% reported sexual assault or abuse, 36% reported becoming pregnant (or the significant other becoming pregnant), and 15% reported having at least 1 abortion (or the significant other having an abortion) during follow-up. Hypomanic symptoms during follow-up were temporally associated with the greatest risk for sexual risk behavior. Demographic and clinical factors could help identify youth with bipolar spectrum

  15. How Schools Can Promote Healthy Development for Newly Arrived Immigrant and Refugee Adolescents: Research Priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeely, Clea A; Morland, Lyn; Doty, S Benjamin; Meschke, Laurie L; Awad, Summer; Husain, Altaf; Nashwan, Ayat

    2017-02-01

    The US education system must find creative and effective ways to foster the healthy development of the approximately 2 million newly arrived immigrant and refugee adolescents, many of whom contend with language barriers, limited prior education, trauma, and discrimination. We identify research priorities for promoting the school success of these youth. The study used the 4-phase priority-setting method of the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative. In the final stage, 132 researchers, service providers, educators, and policymakers based in the United States were asked to rate the importance of 36 research options. The highest priority research options (range 1 to 5) were: evaluating newcomer programs (mean = 4.44, SD = 0.55), identifying how family and community stressors affect newly arrived immigrant and refugee adolescents' functioning in school (mean = 4.40, SD = 0.56), identifying teachers' major stressors in working with this population (mean = 4.36, SD = 0.72), and identifying how to engage immigrant and refugee families in their children's education (mean = 4.35, SD = 0.62). These research priorities emphasize the generation of practical knowledge that could translate to immediate, tangible benefits for schools. Funders, schools, and researchers can use these research priorities to guide research for the highest benefit of schools and the newly arrived immigrant and refugee adolescents they serve. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  16. Epidemiology, natural history, and risk factors: panel report from the Ninth International Research Conference on Otitis Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daly, Kathleen A; Hoffman, Howard J; Kvaerner, Kari Jorunn

    2010-01-01

    The 2007 Recent Advances in Otitis Media Research Conference Panel Report provides an update on otitis media (OM) research published from 2003 to 2007. This report summarizes important trends in disease incidence and prevalence, describes established and newly identified risk factors for acute...

  17. Genome-wide association study identifies multiple risk loci for chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Berndt, S.I.; Skibola, C.F.; Joseph, V.; Camp, N.J.; Nieters, A.; Wang, Z.; Cozen, W.; Monnereau, A.; Wang, S.S.; Kelly, R.S.; Lan, Q.; Teras, L.R.; Chatterjee, N.; Chung, C.C.; Yeager, M.

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have previously identified 13 loci associated with risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL). To identify additional CLL susceptibility loci, we conducted the largest meta-analysis for CLL thus far, including four GWAS with a total of 3,100 individuals with CLL (cases) and 7,667 controls. In the meta-analysis, we identified ten independent associated SNPs in nine new loci at 10q23.31 (ACTA2 or FAS (ACTA2/FAS), P = 1.22 × 10...

  18. A new approach to hazardous materials transportation risk analysis: decision modeling to identify critical variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Renee M; Besterfield-Sacre, Mary E

    2009-03-01

    We take a novel approach to analyzing hazardous materials transportation risk in this research. Previous studies analyzed this risk from an operations research (OR) or quantitative risk assessment (QRA) perspective by minimizing or calculating risk along a transport route. Further, even though the majority of incidents occur when containers are unloaded, the research has not focused on transportation-related activities, including container loading and unloading. In this work, we developed a decision model of a hazardous materials release during unloading using actual data and an exploratory data modeling approach. Previous studies have had a theoretical perspective in terms of identifying and advancing the key variables related to this risk, and there has not been a focus on probability and statistics-based approaches for doing this. Our decision model empirically identifies the critical variables using an exploratory methodology for a large, highly categorical database involving latent class analysis (LCA), loglinear modeling, and Bayesian networking. Our model identified the most influential variables and countermeasures for two consequences of a hazmat incident, dollar loss and release quantity, and is one of the first models to do this. The most influential variables were found to be related to the failure of the container. In addition to analyzing hazmat risk, our methodology can be used to develop data-driven models for strategic decision making in other domains involving risk.

  19. Identifying Factors Associated with Risk Assessment Competencies of Public Health Emergency Responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jiejing; Ren, Jiaojiao; Wu, Qunhong; Hao, Yanhua; Sun, Hong; Ning, Ning; Ding, Ding

    2017-06-04

    This study aimed to better understand the current situation of risk assessment and identify the factors associated with competence of emergency responders in public health risk assessment. The participants were selected by a multi-stage, stratified cluster sampling method in Heilongjiang Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The questionnaires that measured their perceptions on risk assessment competences were administered through the face-to-face survey. A final sample of 1889 staff was obtained. Of this sample, 78.6% of respondents rated their own risk assessment competences as "relatively low", contrasting with 21.4% rated as "relatively high". Most of the respondents (62.7%) did not participate in any risk assessment work. Only 13.7% and 42.7% of respondents reported participating in risk assessment training and were familiar with risk assessment tools. There existed statistical significance between risk assessment-related characteristics of respondents and their self-rated competences scores. Financial support from the government and administrative attention were regarded as the important factors contributing to risk assessment competences of CDC responders. Higher attention should be given to risk assessment training and enhancing the availability of surveillance data. Continuous efforts should be made to remove the financial and technical obstacles to improve the competences of risk assessment for public health emergency responders.

  20. Health risks in perspective: Judging health risks of energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, M.D.

    1992-09-18

    Almost daily, Americans receive reports from the mass news media about some new and frightening risk to health and welfare. Most such reports emphasize the newsworthiness of the risks -- the possibility of a crisis, disagreements among experts, how things happened, who is responsible for fixing them, how much will it cost, conflict among parties involved, etc. As a rule, the magnitudes of the risks, or the difficulty of estimating those magnitudes, have limited newsworthiness, and so they are not mentioned. Because of this emphasis in the news media, most people outside the risk assessment community must judge the relative significance of the various risks to which we all are exposed with only that information deemed newsworthy by reporters. This information is biased and shows risks in isolation. There is no basis for understanding and comparing the relative importance of risks among themselves, or for comparing one risk, perhaps a new or newly-discovered one, in the field of all risks. The purpose of this report is to provide perspective on the various risks to which we are routinely exposed. It serves as a basis for understanding the meaning of quantitative risk estimates and for comparing new or newly-discovered risks with other, better-understood risks. Specific emphasis is placed on health risks of energy technologies.

  1. Investigations regarding the lowering of specific intellectual property risks identified in the production process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakocs Ramona

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research is to decrease the emergence of specific intellectual property risks within the production process as well as increasing risk management performance of IP by preventing them. In order to achieve this, previous studies regarding the main specific intellectual property risks from industrial companies were analyzed together with their managerial methods as well as the possibility of reducing their emergence. As a result of the research conducted were identified five types of intellectual property risks that have a high potential of emergence in the production process, namely: the risk of production of goods in violation of IP rights; the know-how, production knowledge and trade secret disclosure risk; the technological risk of unprotected utility models; the technological risk of unprotected integrated circuits topographies and finally the risk of product counterfeit. In order to achieve the main purpose of our investigation, we have proposed new formulas for estimating the specific intellectual property risks identified in the production process. Their purpose was to minimalize the risk’s negative effects on industrial companies and to increase the managerial performance from the intellectual property domain through a new type of management appropriately named: intellectual property management. The research is finalized with a case study regarding the lapse of rights of a patented invention. Based on a case analysis, it was proved that the exploitation of an invention without a contract represents a counterfeit.

  2. Risk Prioritization Tool to Identify the Public Health Risks of Wildlife Trade: The Case of Rodents from Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, I; Smith, K M; Sampedro, F; Machalaba, C C; Karesh, W B; Travis, D A

    2016-06-01

    Wildlife trade (both formal and informal) is a potential driver of disease introduction and emergence. Legislative proposals aim to prevent these risks by banning wildlife imports, and creating 'white lists' of species that are cleared for importation. These approaches pose economic harm to the pet industry, and place substantial burden on importers and/or federal agencies to provide proof of low risk for importation of individual species. As a feasibility study, a risk prioritization tool was developed to rank the pathogens found in rodent species imported from Latin America into the United States with the highest risk of zoonotic consequence in the United States. Four formally traded species and 16 zoonotic pathogens were identified. Risk scores were based on the likelihood of pathogen release and human exposure, and the severity of the disease (consequences). Based on the methodology applied, three pathogens (Mycobacterium microti, Giardia spp. and Francisella tularensis) in one species (Cavia porcellus) were ranked as highest concern. The goal of this study was to present a methodological approach by which preliminary management resources can be allocated to the identified high-concern pathogen-species combinations when warranted. This tool can be expanded to other taxa and geographic locations to inform policy surrounding the wildlife trade. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Apolipoprotein A5: A newly identified gene impacting plasmatriglyceride levels in humans and mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennacchio, Len A.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2002-09-15

    Apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) is a newly described member of theapolipoprotein gene family whose initial discovery arose from comparativesequence analysis of the mammalian APOA1/C3/A4 gene cluster. Functionalstudies in mice indicated that alteration in the level of APOA5significantly impacted plasma triglyceride concentrations. Miceover-expressing human APOA5 displayed significantly reducedtriglycerides, while mice lacking apoA5 had a large increase in thislipid parameter. Studies in humans have also suggested an important rolefor APOA5 in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations. In theseexperiments, polymorphisms in the human gene were found to define severalcommon haplotypes that were associated with significant changes intriglyceride concentrations in multiple populations. Several separateclinical studies have provided consistent and strong support for theeffect with 24 percent of Caucasians, 35 percent of African-Americans and53 percent of Hispanics carrying APOA5 haplotypes associated withincreased plasma triglyceride levels. In summary, APOA5 represents anewly discovered gene involved in triglyceride metabolism in both humansand mice whose mechanism of action remains to be deciphered.

  4. Smoldering multiple myeloma risk factors for progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørrig, Rasmus; Klausen, Tobias W; Salomo, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Several risk scores for disease progression in Smoldering Multiple Myeloma (SMM) patients have been proposed, however, all have been developed using single center registries. To examine risk factors for time to progression (TTP) to Multiple Myeloma (MM) for SMM we analyzed a nationwide population......-based cohort of 321 newly diagnosed SMM patients registered within the Danish Multiple Myeloma Registry between 2005 and 2014. Significant univariable risk factors for TTP were selected for multivariable Cox regression analyses. We found that both an M-protein ≥ 30g/l and immunoparesis significantly influenced......-high risk of transformation to MM. Using only immunoparesis and M-protein ≥ 30g/l, we created a scoring system to identify low, intermediate and high risk SMM. This first population-based study of SMM patients confirms that an M-protein ≥ 30g/l and immunoparesis remain important risk factors for progression...

  5. Work Ability Index as tool to identify workers at risk of premature work exit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelen, Corné A M; Heymans, Martijn W; Twisk, Jos W R; van der Klink, Jac J L; Groothoff, Johan W; van Rhenen, Willem

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the Work Ability Index (WAI) as tool for identifying workers at risk of premature work exit in terms of disability pension, unemployment, or early retirement. Prospective cohort study of 11,537 male construction workers (mean age 45.5 years), who completed the WAI at baseline and reported their work status (employed, unemployed, disability pension, or retired) after mean 2.3 years of follow-up. Associations between WAI scores and work status were investigated by multinomial logistic regression analysis. The ability of the WAI to discriminate between workers at high and low risk of premature work exit was analyzed by the area (AUC) under the receiver operating characteristic curve. 9,530 (83 %) construction workers had complete data for analysis. At follow-up, 336 (4 %) workers reported disability pension, 125 (1 %) unemployment, and 255 (3 %) retirement. WAI scores were prospectively associated with the risk of disability pension at follow-up, but not with the risk of unemployment and early retirement. The WAI showed fair discrimination to identify workers at risk of disability pension [AUC = 0.74; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.70-0.77]. The discriminative ability decreased with age from AUC = 0.78 in workers aged 30-39 years to AUC = 0.69 in workers ≥50 years of age. Discrimination failed for unemployment (AUC = 0.51; 95 % CI 0.47-0.55) and early retirement (AUC = 0.58; 95 % CI 0.53-0.61). The WAI can be used to identify construction workers <50 years of age at increased risk of disability pension and invite them for preventive interventions.

  6. Identifying risk factors for victimization among male prisoners in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Shih-Ya; Cuvelier, Steven J; Huang, Yung-Shun

    2014-02-01

    This study identified risk factors for prison victimization in Taiwan with an application of Western literature and assessed the extent of its applicability in an Eastern context. The sample was drawn from four male prisons located in Northern, Central, Southern, and Eastern Taiwan; a total of 1,181 valid surveys were collected. The results generally support the major findings of the extant Western studies. Crowding, however, was not significantly associated with the risk of victimization in any of the statistical models, which might be related to the different experiences and living conditions in the free community between Taiwanese and American inmates. This study generated clear policy implications, which may reduce prison victimization and engender a greater sense of well-being in the prison environment.

  7. Methodology for identifying patients at high risk for osteoporotic fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westfall, G; Littlefield, R; Heaton, A; Martin, S

    2001-09-01

    Osteoporotic fractures are associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. The purpose of this paper is to present and validate a mathematical model that managed care organizations can apply to administrative claims data to help locate members at risk for osteoporotic fracture and estimate future fracture rates. Using known risk factors from previous clinical studies, 92,000 members of a large Midwest health plan were placed in 1 of 4 risk categories based on historical claims markers: demographic/lifestyle (age, sex, smoking, alcoholism); steroid use; medical history (previous osteoporotic fracture, ordinary bone fracture, osteoporosis diagnosis, bone mineral density test); or steroid use with medical history. Logistic regression was used to assign a probability of fracture for the 4 groups over the next 2 years. These predictions were compared with actual fracture rates, and refined models were produced. The models were then validated by applying them to current data and comparing the predicted fracture rate for each group to known results. The model predicted that 1.26% of the study members would experience osteoporotic fracture over the next 2 years; the actual result was 1.27%. Within the 4 risk groups, the predicted fracture rates were lower than the actual rates for the demographic risk group (0.87% predicted vs 0.97% actual) and higher than the actual rates for the steroid use (1.78% predicted vs 1.58% actual), medical history (5.90% predicted vs 4.94% actual), and the steroid use with medical history groups (7.80% predicted vs 6.42% actual). The application of this risk model to an administrative claims database successfully identified plan members at risk for osteoporotic fracture.

  8. Monotherapy of aspirin or warfarin for prevention of ischemic stroke in low-risk atrial fibrillation: A Easter Asian population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chieh-Yu; Chen, Hui-Chun

    2018-05-02

    This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of monotherapy aspirin and warfarin for stroke prevention in low-risk atrial fibrillation (AF) by using a population-based cohort study in Taiwan. A newly diagnosed low-risk AF patient cohort were identified by using National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) in Taiwan in 2008. The study cohort was observed with a follow-up of 2 years to examine the onset of ischemic stroke (IS) (to 2010). The longitudinal data were analyzed by using generalized estimation equations (GEE). A total of 8,065 newly-diagnosed low-risk AF patients were identified in 2008. 7.4% were prescribed with aspirin and 4.6% were prescribed with warfarin. The GEE results showed that low-risk AF patients with hypertension who received warfarin were associated with a statistically significant 58.4% reduction of IS risk (OR = 0.416, p = 0.024, 95% CI 0.194-0.891). Additionally, low-risk AF patients with hyperlipidemia who received warfarin were associated with a 69.3% reduction of IS risk (OR = 0.307, p = 0.044, 95% CI 0.097-0.969). Warfarin is suggested to be prescribed in preventing ischemic stroke for low-stroke-risk atrial fibrillation patients with hypertension and hyperlipidemia.

  9. Developing a Model for Identifying Students at Risk of Failure in a First Year Accounting Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Malcolm; Therry, Len; Whale, Jacqui

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the process involved in attempting to build a predictive model capable of identifying students at risk of failure in a first year accounting unit in an Australian university. Identifying attributes that contribute to students being at risk can lead to the development of appropriate intervention strategies and support…

  10. Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Identifies Four New Disease-Specific Risk Loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, G.T.; Tromp, G.; Kuivaniemi, H.; Gretarsdottir, S.; Baas, A.F.; Giusti, B.; Strauss, E.; Hof, F.N. van 't; Webb, T.R.; Erdman, R.; Ritchie, M.D.; Elmore, J.R.; Verma, A.; Pendergrass, S.; Kullo, I.J.; Ye, Z.; Peissig, P.L.; Gottesman, O.; Verma, S.S.; Malinowski, J.; Rasmussen-Torvik, L.J.; Borthwick, K.M.; Smelser, D.T.; Crosslin, D.R.; Andrade, M. de; Ryer, E.J.; McCarty, C.A.; Bottinger, E.P.; Pacheco, J.A.; Crawford, D.C.; Carrell, D.S.; Gerhard, G.S.; Franklin, D.P.; Carey, D.J.; Phillips, V.L.; Williams, M.J.; Wei, W.; Blair, R.; Hill, A.A.; Vasudevan, T.M.; Lewis, D.R.; Thomson, I.A.; Krysa, J.; Hill, G.B.; Roake, J.; Merriman, T.R.; Oszkinis, G.; Galora, S.; Saracini, C.; Abbate, R.; Pulli, R.; Pratesi, C.; Saratzis, A.; Verissimo, A.R.; Bumpstead, S.; Badger, S.A.; Clough, R.E.; Cockerill, G.; Hafez, H.; Scott, D.J.; Futers, T.S.; Romaine, S.P.; Bridge, K.; Griffin, K.J.; Bailey, M.A.; Smith, A.; Thompson, M.M.; Bockxmeer, F.M. van; Matthiasson, S.E.; Thorleifsson, G.; Thorsteinsdottir, U.; Blankensteijn, J.D.; Teijink, J.A.; Wijmenga, C.; Graaf, J. de; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Lindholt, J.S.; Hughes, A.; Bradley, D.T.; Stirrups, K.; Golledge, J.; Norman, P.E.; Powell, J.T.; Humphries, S.E.; Hamby, S.E.; Goodall, A.H.; Nelson, C.P.; Sakalihasan, N.; Courtois, A.; Ferrell, R.E.; Eriksson, P.; Folkersen, L.; Franco-Cereceda, A.; Eicher, J.D.; Johnson, A.D.; Betsholtz, C.; Ruusalepp, A.; Franzen, O.; Schadt, E.E.; Bjorkegren, J.L.; et al.,

    2017-01-01

    RATIONALE: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a complex disease with both genetic and environmental risk factors. Together, 6 previously identified risk loci only explain a small proportion of the heritability of AAA. OBJECTIVE: To identify additional AAA risk loci using data from all available

  11. Spin period evolution of the newly identified ULX pulsar (NGC 300 ULX1) associated with the supernova impostor SN2010da

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilopoulos, G.; Haberl, F.; Carpano, S.; Maitra, C.

    2018-01-01

    Following the discovery of the newly discovered ULX pulsar in NGC 300 (ATel #11158) we searched the available X-ray data for the evolution of the spin period of the neutron star and the X-ray luminosity.

  12. A molecular key for building hyphae aggregates: the role of the newly identified Streptomyces protein HyaS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koebsch, Ilona; Overbeck, Jens; Piepmeyer, Sophie; Meschke, Holger; Schrempf, Hildgund

    2009-05-01

    Streptomycetes produce many metabolites with medical and biotechnological applications. During fermentations, their hyphae build aggregates, a process in which the newly identified protein HyaS plays an important role. The corresponding hyaS gene is present within all investigated Streptomyces species. Reporter fusions indicate that transcription of hyaS occurs within substrate hyphae of the Streptomyces lividans wild type (WT). The HyaS protein is dominantly associated with the substrate hyphae. The WT strain forms cylindrically shaped clumps of densely packed substrate hyphae, often fusing to higher aggregates (pellets), which remain stably associated during shaking. Investigations by electron microscopy suggest that HyaS induces tight fusion-like contacts among substrate hyphae. In contrast, the pellets of the designed hyaS disruption mutant ΔH are irregular in shape, contain frequently outgrowing bunches of hyphae, and fuse less frequently. ΔH complemented with a plasmid carrying hyaS resembles the WT phenotype. Biochemical studies indicate that the C-terminal region of HyaS has amine oxidase activity. Investigations of ΔH transformants, each carrying a specifically mutated gene, lead to the conclusion that the in situ oxidase activity correlates with the pellet-inducing role of HyaS, and depends on the presence of certain histidine residues. Furthermore, the level of undecylprodigiosin, a red pigment with antibiotic activity, is influenced by the engineered hyaS subtype within a strain. These data present the first molecular basis for future manipulation of pellets, and concomitant production of secondary metabolites during biotechnological processes. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Identifying potential risk situations for humans when removing horses from groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Elke; Søndergaard, Eva; Keeling, Linda J.

    2012-01-01

    Removing a horse from its social group may be considered risky, both for the handler and the horse, because other horses can interfere in the catching process. The main aim of this study was to identify where and when these risk situations occur while removing a horse from its group. A potential...

  14. PREDICT-PD: An online approach to prospectively identify risk indicators of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyce, Alastair J; R'Bibo, Lea; Peress, Luisa; Bestwick, Jonathan P; Adams-Carr, Kerala L; Mencacci, Niccolo E; Hawkes, Christopher H; Masters, Joseph M; Wood, Nicholas; Hardy, John; Giovannoni, Gavin; Lees, Andrew J; Schrag, Anette

    2017-02-01

    A number of early features can precede the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD). To test an online, evidence-based algorithm to identify risk indicators of PD in the UK population. Participants aged 60 to 80 years without PD completed an online survey and keyboard-tapping task annually over 3 years, and underwent smell tests and genotyping for glucocerebrosidase (GBA) and leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) mutations. Risk scores were calculated based on the results of a systematic review of risk factors and early features of PD, and individuals were grouped into higher (above 15th centile), medium, and lower risk groups (below 85th centile). Previously defined indicators of increased risk of PD ("intermediate markers"), including smell loss, rapid eye movement-sleep behavior disorder, and finger-tapping speed, and incident PD were used as outcomes. The correlation of risk scores with intermediate markers and movement of individuals between risk groups was assessed each year and prospectively. Exploratory Cox regression analyses with incident PD as the dependent variable were performed. A total of 1323 participants were recruited at baseline and >79% completed assessments each year. Annual risk scores were correlated with intermediate markers of PD each year and baseline scores were correlated with intermediate markers during follow-up (all P values < 0.001). Incident PD diagnoses during follow-up were significantly associated with baseline risk score (hazard ratio = 4.39, P = .045). GBA variants or G2019S LRRK2 mutations were found in 47 participants, and the predictive power for incident PD was improved by the addition of genetic variants to risk scores. The online PREDICT-PD algorithm is a unique and simple method to identify indicators of PD risk. © 2017 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder

  15. Randomized trial of proactive rapid genetic counseling versus usual care for newly diagnosed breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Marc D; Peshkin, Beth N; Isaacs, Claudine; Willey, Shawna; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis B; Nusbaum, Rachel; Hooker, Gillian; O'Neill, Suzanne; Jandorf, Lina; Kelly, Scott P; Heinzmann, Jessica; Zidell, Aliza; Khoury, Katia

    2018-04-02

    Breast cancer patients who carry BRCA1/BRCA2 gene mutations may consider bilateral mastectomy. Having bilateral mastectomy at the time of diagnosis not only reduces risk of a contralateral breast cancer, but can eliminate the need for radiation therapy and yield improved reconstruction options. However, most patients do not receive genetic counseling or testing at the time of their diagnosis. In this trial, we tested proactive rapid genetic counseling and testing (RGCT) in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients in order to facilitate pre-surgical genetic counseling and testing. We recruited newly diagnosed breast cancer patients at increased risk for carrying a BRCA1/2 mutation. Of 379 eligible patients who completed a baseline survey, 330 agreed to randomization in a 2:1 ratio to RGCT (n = 220) versus UC (n = 108). Primary outcomes were genetic counseling and testing uptake and breast cancer surgical decisions. RGCT led to higher overall (83.8% vs. 54.6%; p genetic counseling uptake compared to UC. Despite higher rates of genetic counseling, RGCT did not differ from UC in overall (54.1% vs. 49.1%, p > 0.10) or pre-surgical (30.6% vs. 27.4%, p > 0.10) receipt of genetic test results nor did they differ in uptake of bilateral mastectomy (26.6% vs. 21.8%, p > 0.10). Although RGCT yielded increased genetic counseling participation, this did not result in increased rates of pre-surgical genetic testing or impact surgical decisions. These data suggest that those patients most likely to opt for genetic testing at the time of diagnosis are being effectively identified by their surgeons.

  16. EVIDENCE FOR NEWLY INITIATED RECONNECTION IN THE SOLAR WIND AT 1 AU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xiaojun; Ma, Yonghui; Wong, Hon-Cheng; Wang, Yi; Zuo, Pingbing; Wei, Fengsi; Feng, Xueshang; Zhou, Meng; Deng, Xiaohua

    2015-01-01

    We report the first evidence for a large-scale reconnection exhaust newly initiated in the solar wind using observations from three spacecraft: ACE, Wind, and ARTEMIS P2. We identified a well-structured X-line exhaust using measurements from ARTEMIS P2 in the downstream solar wind. However, in the upstream solar wind, ACE detected the same current sheet that corresponds to the exhaust identified by ARTEMIS P2 data without showing any reconnection signals. We cannot find any reconnection signals from Wind located between ACE and ARTEMIS P2. Within the exhaust, a magnetic island is identified, which is not consistent with the quasi-steady feature as previously reported and provides further evidence that the reconnection is newly initiated. Our observations show that the entering of energetic particles, probably from Earth's bow shock, makes the crucial difference between the non-reconnecting current sheet and the exhaust. Since no obvious driving factors are responsible for the reconnection initiation, we infer that these energetic particles probably play an important role in the reconnection initiation. Theoretical analysis also shows support for this potential mechanism

  17. Expert Opinion to Identify High-Risk Entry Routes of Canine Rabies into Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, V J; Ward, M P

    2017-03-01

    The proximity of Papua New Guinea (PNG) to canine rabies-endemic countries in South-East Asia presents a risk of incursion of this disease into PNG and the rest of the Oceanic region. The objective of this study was to identify the highest risk routes for entry of dogs - associated with movement of people - into PNG from canine rabies-endemic countries. A structured, in-country expert-elicitation workshop was used, and 20 entry routes were identified. The highest risk routes were three land routes from Papua, Indonesia (hunters, traditional border crossers and unregulated, unchecked 'shopper-crossers') and two sea routes (fishing and logging). These results will be used to direct more detailed risk assessments to develop surveillance strategies and incursion response plans. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Timing of entry to care by newly diagnosed HIV cases before and after the 2010 New York State HIV testing law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Daniel E; Bian, Fuqin; Anderson, Bridget J; Smith, Lou C

    2015-01-01

    Prompt entry to care after HIV diagnosis benefits the infected individual and reduces the likelihood of further transmission of the virus. The New York State HIV Testing Law of 2010 requires diagnosing providers to refer persons newly diagnosed with HIV to follow-up medical care. This study used routinely collected HIV-related laboratory data from the New York State HIV surveillance system to assess whether the fraction of newly diagnosed cases entering care within 90 days of diagnosis increased after the implementation of the law. Laboratory data on 23,302 newly diagnosed cases showed that entry to care within 90 days rose steadily from 72.0% in 2007 to 85.4% in 2012. The rise was observed across all race/ethnic groups, ages, transmission risk groups, sexes, and regions of residence. Logistic regression analyses of entry to care pre-law and post-law, controlling for demographic characteristics, transmission risk, and geographic area, indicate that percentage of newly diagnosed cases entering care within 90 days grew more rapidly in the post-law period. This is consistent with a positive effect of the law on entry to care.

  19. Use of clinical risk factors to identify postmenopausal women with vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, J H; Hutchinson, A P; Hunt, L P; McCloskey, E V; Stone, M D; Martin, J C; Thompson, P W; Palferman, T G; Bhalla, A K

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have been unable to identify risk factors for prevalent vertebral fractures (VF), which are suitable for use in selection strategies intended to target high-risk sub-groups for diagnostic assessment. However, these studies generally consisted of large epidemiology surveys based on questionnaires and were only able to evaluate a limited number of risk factors. Here, we investigated whether a stronger relationship exists with prevalent VF when conventional risk factors are combined with additional information obtained from detailed one-to-one assessment. Women aged 65-75 registered at four geographically distinct GP practices were invited to participate (n=1,518), of whom 540 attended for assessment as follows: a questionnaire asking about risk factors for osteoporosis such as height loss compared to age 25 and history of non-vertebral fracture (NVF), the get-up-and-go test, Margolis back pain score, measurement of wall-tragus and rib-pelvis distances, and BMD as measured by the distal forearm BMD. A lateral thoraco-lumbar spine X-ray was obtained, which was subsequently scored for the presence of significant vertebral deformities. Of the 509 subjects who underwent spinal radiographs, 37 (7.3%) were found to have one or more VF. Following logistic regression analysis, the four most predictive clinical risk factors for prevalent VF were: height loss (P=0.006), past NVF (P=0.004), history of back pain (P=0.075) and age (P=0.05). BMD was also significantly associated with prevalent VF (P=0.002), but its inclusion did not affect associations with other variables. Factors elicited from detailed one-to-one assessment were not related to the risk of one or more prevalent VFs. The area under ROC curves derived from these regressions, which suggested that models for prevalent VF had modest predictive accuracy, were as follows: 0.68 (BMD), 0.74 (four clinical risk factors above) and 0.78 (clinical risk factors + BMD). Analyses were repeated in relation to the

  20. Using relative handgrip strength to identify children at risk of sarcopenic obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Steffl

    Full Text Available Identifying children at risk of developing childhood sarcopenic obesity often requires specialized equipment and costly testing procedures, so cheaper and quicker methods would be advantageous, especially in field-based settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between the muscle-to-fat ratio (MFR and relative handgrip strength, and to determine the ability of handgrip strength relative to body mass index (grip-to-BMI to identify children who are at risk of developing sarcopenic obesity. Grip-to-BMI was measured in 730 Czech children (4 to 14 yrs. Bioelectrical impedance was used to estimate body fat mass and skeletal muscle mass, from which the MFR was calculated. The area under the curve (AUC was 0.791 (95% CI 0.692-0.890, p ˂ 0.001 in girls 4-9; 0.789 (95% CI 0.688-0.890, p ˂ 0.001 in girls 10-14 years old; 0.719 (95% CI 0.607-0.831, p = 0.001 in boys 4-9; and 0.896 (95% CI 0.823-0.969, p ˂ 0.001 in boys 10-14 years old. Calculated using the grip-to-BMI ratio, the OR (95% CI for girls to be at risk of sarcopenic obesity identified by MFR was 9.918 (4.243-23.186, p ˂ 0.001 and was 11.515 (4.280-30.982, p ˂ 0.001 for boys. The grip-to-BMI ratio can be used to predict the presence of sarcopenic obesity in children, which can play a role in pediatric health interventions.

  1. Cross-Linking Mast Cell Specific Gangliosides Stimulates the Release of Newly Formed Lipid Mediators and Newly Synthesized Cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edismauro Garcia Freitas Filho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells are immunoregulatory cells that participate in inflammatory processes. Cross-linking mast cell specific GD1b derived gangliosides by mAbAA4 results in partial activation of mast cells without the release of preformed mediators. The present study examines the release of newly formed and newly synthesized mediators following ganglioside cross-linking. Cross-linking the gangliosides with mAbAA4 released the newly formed lipid mediators, prostaglandins D2 and E2, without release of leukotrienes B4 and C4. The effect of cross-linking these gangliosides on the activation of enzymes in the arachidonate cascade was then investigated. Ganglioside cross-linking resulted in phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 and increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2. Translocation of 5-lipoxygenase from the cytosol to the nucleus was not induced by ganglioside cross-linking. Cross-linking of GD1b derived gangliosides also resulted in the release of the newly synthesized mediators, interleukin-4, interleukin-6, and TNF-α. The effect of cross-linking the gangliosides on the MAP kinase pathway was then investigated. Cross-linking the gangliosides induced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and p38 as well as activating both NFκB and NFAT in a Syk-dependent manner. Therefore, cross-linking the mast cell specific GD1b derived gangliosides results in the activation of signaling pathways that culminate with the release of newly formed and newly synthesized mediators.

  2. Creating a Chinese suicide dictionary for identifying suicide risk on social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Meizhen; Li, Ang; Liu, Tianli; Zhu, Tingshao

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Suicide has become a serious worldwide epidemic. Early detection of individual suicide risk in population is important for reducing suicide rates. Traditional methods are ineffective in identifying suicide risk in time, suggesting a need for novel techniques. This paper proposes to detect suicide risk on social media using a Chinese suicide dictionary. Methods. To build the Chinese suicide dictionary, eight researchers were recruited to select initial words from 4,653 posts published on Sina Weibo (the largest social media service provider in China) and two Chinese sentiment dictionaries (HowNet and NTUSD). Then, another three researchers were recruited to filter out irrelevant words. Finally, remaining words were further expanded using a corpus-based method. After building the Chinese suicide dictionary, we tested its performance in identifying suicide risk on Weibo. First, we made a comparison of the performance in both detecting suicidal expression in Weibo posts and evaluating individual levels of suicide risk between the dictionary-based identifications and the expert ratings. Second, to differentiate between individuals with high and non-high scores on self-rating measure of suicide risk (Suicidal Possibility Scale, SPS), we built Support Vector Machines (SVM) models on the Chinese suicide dictionary and the Simplified Chinese Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (SCLIWC) program, respectively. After that, we made a comparison of the classification performance between two types of SVM models. Results and Discussion. Dictionary-based identifications were significantly correlated with expert ratings in terms of both detecting suicidal expression (r = 0.507) and evaluating individual suicide risk (r = 0.455). For the differentiation between individuals with high and non-high scores on SPS, the Chinese suicide dictionary (t1: F 1 = 0.48; t2: F 1 = 0.56) produced a more accurate identification than SCLIWC (t1: F 1 = 0.41; t2: F 1 = 0.48) on different

  3. Creating a Chinese suicide dictionary for identifying suicide risk on social media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meizhen Lv

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Suicide has become a serious worldwide epidemic. Early detection of individual suicide risk in population is important for reducing suicide rates. Traditional methods are ineffective in identifying suicide risk in time, suggesting a need for novel techniques. This paper proposes to detect suicide risk on social media using a Chinese suicide dictionary.Methods. To build the Chinese suicide dictionary, eight researchers were recruited to select initial words from 4,653 posts published on Sina Weibo (the largest social media service provider in China and two Chinese sentiment dictionaries (HowNet and NTUSD. Then, another three researchers were recruited to filter out irrelevant words. Finally, remaining words were further expanded using a corpus-based method. After building the Chinese suicide dictionary, we tested its performance in identifying suicide risk on Weibo. First, we made a comparison of the performance in both detecting suicidal expression in Weibo posts and evaluating individual levels of suicide risk between the dictionary-based identifications and the expert ratings. Second, to differentiate between individuals with high and non-high scores on self-rating measure of suicide risk (Suicidal Possibility Scale, SPS, we built Support Vector Machines (SVM models on the Chinese suicide dictionary and the Simplified Chinese Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (SCLIWC program, respectively. After that, we made a comparison of the classification performance between two types of SVM models.Results and Discussion. Dictionary-based identifications were significantly correlated with expert ratings in terms of both detecting suicidal expression (r = 0.507 and evaluating individual suicide risk (r = 0.455. For the differentiation between individuals with high and non-high scores on SPS, the Chinese suicide dictionary (t1: F1 = 0.48; t2: F1 = 0.56 produced a more accurate identification than SCLIWC (t1: F1 = 0.41; t2: F1 = 0.48 on

  4. Risk score for identifying adults with CSF pleocytosis and negative CSF Gram stain at low risk for an urgent treatable cause

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasbun, Rodrigo; Bijlsma, Merijn; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; Khoury, Nabil; Hadi, Christiane M.; van der Ende, Arie; Wootton, Susan H.; Salazar, Lucrecia; Hossain, Md Monir; Beilke, Mark; van de Beek, Diederik

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to derive and validate a risk score that identifies adults with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis and a negative CSF Gram stain at low risk for an urgent treatable cause. Patients with CSF pleocytosis and a negative CSF Gram stain were stratified into a prospective derivation (n = 193)

  5. Newly Homeless Youth Typically Return Home

    OpenAIRE

    Milburn, Norweeta G.; Rosenthal, Doreen; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Mallett, Shelley; Batterham, Philip; Rice, Eric; Solorio, Rosa

    2007-01-01

    165 newly homeless adolescents from Melbourne, Australia and 261 from Los Angeles, United States were surveyed and followed for two years. Most newly homeless adolescents returned home (70% U.S., 47% Australia) for significant amounts of time (39% U.S., 17% Australia more than 12 months) within two years of becoming homeless.

  6. Practice and payment preferences of newly practising family physicians in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brcic, Vanessa; McGregor, Margaret J.; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Dharamsi, Shafik; Verma, Serena

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine the remuneration model preferences of newly practising family physicians. Design Mixed-methods study comprising a cross-sectional, Web-based survey, as well as qualitative content analysis of answers to open-ended questions. Setting British Columbia. Participants University of British Columbia family practice residents who graduated between 2000 and 2009. Main outcome measures Preferred remuneration models of newly practising physicians. Results The survey response rate was 31% (133 of 430). Of respondents, 71% (93 of 132) preferred non–fee-for-service practice models and 86% (110 of 132) identified the payment model as very or somewhat important in their choice of future practice. Three principal themes were identified from content analysis of respondents’ open-ended comments: frustrations with fee-for-service billing, which encompassed issues related to aggravations with “the business side of things” and was seen as impeding “the freedom to focus on medicine”; quality of patient care, which embraced the importance of a payment model that supported “comprehensive patient care” and “quality rather than quantity”; and freedom to choose, which supported the plurality of practice preferences among providers who strived to provide quality care for patients, “whatever model you happen to be working in.” Conclusion Newly practising physicians in British Columbia preferred alternatives to fee-for-service payment models, which were perceived as contributing to fewer frustrations with billing systems, improved quality of work life, and better quality of patient care. PMID:22586205

  7. Risk assessment tools to identify women with increased risk of osteoporotic fracture. Complexity or simplicity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, Katrine Hass; Friis-Holmberg, Teresa; Hermann, Anne Pernille

    2013-01-01

    A huge number of risk assessment tools have been developed. Far from all have been validated in external studies, more of them have absence of methodological and transparent evidence and few are integrated in national guidelines. Therefore, we performed a systematic review to provide an overview...... of existing valid and reliable risk assessment tools for prediction of osteoporotic fractures. Additionally, we aimed to determine if the performance each tool was sufficient for practical use and lastly to examine whether the complexity of the tools influenced their discriminative power. We searched Pub......Med, Embase and Cochrane databases for papers and evaluated these with respect to methodological quality using the QUADAS checklist. A total of 48 tools were identified, 20 had been externally validated, however only 6 tools had been tested more than once in a population-based setting with acceptable...

  8. Best management practices for newly weaned calves for improved health and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, B K; Richards, C J; Step, D L; Krehbiel, C R

    2017-05-01

    Morbidity and mortality in newly weaned calves resulting from bovine respiratory disease (BRD) continue to be the most significant problems facing the beef industry. Morbidity attributed to BRD accounts for approximately 75% of total feedlot morbidity. Several experiments have documented the economic impacts of BRD. Direct costs attributable to BRD include death loss, treatment and labor costs, and prevention costs, while indirect costs associated with BRD include decreased growth performance and feed efficiency, increased days on feed, and decreased carcass merit and market value. In recent years, cattle treated for BRD have returned $50 to $250 less per head at harvest than cattle never treated for BRD. Best management practices for newly weaned calves vary depending on a multitude of factors including: season of year calves are purchased, calf genetics, length of time in the marketing and transport channels, previous management and vaccination programs, and other factors. In general, calves purchased directly from a ranch have fewer health problems than calves purchased through auction markets. The longer a calf is in the marketing chain, the more likely health problems will be encountered. Calves that have spent several days in the marketing chain may develop clinical BRD before or very soon after arrival, whereas cattle with less time in the marketing chain may get sick later (2 to 4 wk), due to the length of time it takes for BRD to develop. On or before arrival, calves should be given a risk score (high, medium, or low) that relates to the quantity and magnitude of stress they have encountered and the probability they will develop BRD. High-risk calves typically will have been recently weaned, received no vaccinations, not been castrated or dehorned, been commingled, and moved through an auction market. Low-risk calves will often originate from a single source and will have gone through a preconditioning program that includes vaccination, castration

  9. Breast Density and Benign Breast Disease: Risk Assessment to Identify Women at High Risk of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Jeffrey A; Miglioretti, Diana L; Li, Chin-Shang; Vachon, Celine M; Gard, Charlotte C; Kerlikowske, Karla

    2015-10-01

    Women with proliferative breast lesions are candidates for primary prevention, but few risk models incorporate benign findings to assess breast cancer risk. We incorporated benign breast disease (BBD) diagnoses into the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) risk model, the only breast cancer risk assessment tool that uses breast density. We developed and validated a competing-risk model using 2000 to 2010 SEER data for breast cancer incidence and 2010 vital statistics to adjust for the competing risk of death. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate the relative hazards for age, race/ethnicity, family history of breast cancer, history of breast biopsy, BBD diagnoses, and breast density in the BCSC. We included 1,135,977 women age 35 to 74 years undergoing mammography with no history of breast cancer; 17% of the women had a prior breast biopsy. During a mean follow-up of 6.9 years, 17,908 women were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer. The BCSC BBD model slightly overpredicted risk (expected-to-observed ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.06) and had modest discriminatory accuracy (area under the receiver operator characteristic curve, 0.665). Among women with proliferative findings, adding BBD to the model increased the proportion of women with an estimated 5-year risk of 3% or higher from 9.3% to 27.8% (P<.001). The BCSC BBD model accurately estimates women's risk for breast cancer using breast density and BBD diagnoses. Greater numbers of high-risk women eligible for primary prevention after BBD diagnosis are identified using the BCSC BBD model. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  10. A newly identified DNA ligase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae involved in RAD52-independent repair of DNA double-strand breaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schär, Primo; Herrmann, Gernot; Daly, Graham; Lindahl, Tomas

    1997-01-01

    Eukaryotic DNA ligases are ATP-dependent DNA strand-joining enzymes that participate in DNA replication, repair, and recombination. Whereas mammalian cells contain several different DNA ligases, encoded by at least three distinct genes, only one DNA ligase has been detected previously in either budding yeast or fission yeast. Here, we describe a newly identified nonessential Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene that encodes a DNA ligase distinct from the CDC9 gene product. This DNA ligase shares significant amino acid sequence homology with human DNA ligase IV; accordingly, we designate the yeast gene LIG4. Recombinant LIG4 protein forms a covalent enzyme-AMP complex and can join a DNA single-strand break in a DNA/RNA hybrid duplex, the preferred substrate in vitro. Disruption of the LIG4 gene causes only marginally increased cellular sensitivity to several DNA damaging agents, and does not further sensitize cdc9 or rad52 mutant cells. In contrast, lig4 mutant cells have a 1000-fold reduced capacity for correct recircularization of linearized plasmids by illegitimate end-joining after transformation. Moreover, homozygous lig4 mutant diploids sporulate less efficiently than isogenic wild-type cells, and show retarded progression through meiotic prophase I. Spore viability is normal, but lig4 mutants appear to produce a higher proportion of tetrads with only three viable spores. The mutant phenotypes are consistent with functions of LIG4 in an illegitimate DNA end-joining pathway and ensuring efficient meiosis. PMID:9271115

  11. Novel Application of Statistical Methods to Identify New Urinary Incontinence Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theophilus O. Ogunyemi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal data for studying urinary incontinence (UI risk factors are rare. Data from one study, the hallmark Medical, Epidemiological, and Social Aspects of Aging (MESA, have been analyzed in the past; however, repeated measures analyses that are crucial for analyzing longitudinal data have not been applied. We tested a novel application of statistical methods to identify UI risk factors in older women. MESA data were collected at baseline and yearly from a sample of 1955 men and women in the community. Only women responding to the 762 baseline and 559 follow-up questions at one year in each respective survey were examined. To test their utility in mining large data sets, and as a preliminary step to creating a predictive index for developing UI, logistic regression, generalized estimating equations (GEEs, and proportional hazard regression (PHREG methods were used on the existing MESA data. The GEE and PHREG combination identified 15 significant risk factors associated with developing UI out of which six of them, namely, urinary frequency, urgency, any urine loss, urine loss after emptying, subject’s anticipation, and doctor’s proactivity, are found most highly significant by both methods. These six factors are potential candidates for constructing a future UI predictive index.

  12. Adjustment to Acute Leukemia: The Impact of Social Support and Marital Satisfaction on Distress and Quality of Life Among Newly Diagnosed Patients and Their Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pailler, Megan E; Johnson, Teresa M; Kuszczak, Sarah; Attwood, Kristopher M; Zevon, Michael A; Griffiths, Elizabeth; Thompson, James; Wang, Eunice S; Wetzler, Meir

    2016-09-01

    Little is known about the specific patterns of adjustment among newly diagnosed acute leukemia patients and their caregivers. This study examined the trajectories of patient and caregiver distress over time as well as the extent to which marital satisfaction and social support moderated these trajectories among those with significant-other caregivers. Forty six patient-caregiver dyads provided ratings at four time points: within 1 week of diagnosis (T1), 2 week follow-up (T2), 6 week follow-up (T3) and 12 week follow-up (T4). As anticipated, patients and caregivers reported higher levels of distress around the time of diagnosis than they did during subsequent time points. Marital satisfaction was a significant predictor of distress among patients, whereas among caregivers, social support predicted distress and quality of life. Results support the inclusion of relational variables such as social support and relationship satisfaction in the assessment of newly diagnosed patients and families in order to best identify those at risk for distress over time.

  13. Fine-Mapping of Common Genetic Variants Associated with Colorectal Tumor Risk Identified Potential Functional Variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengmeng Du

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified many common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with colorectal cancer risk. These SNPs may tag correlated variants with biological importance. Fine-mapping around GWAS loci can facilitate detection of functional candidates and additional independent risk variants. We analyzed 11,900 cases and 14,311 controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium and the Colon Cancer Family Registry. To fine-map genomic regions containing all known common risk variants, we imputed high-density genetic data from the 1000 Genomes Project. We tested single-variant associations with colorectal tumor risk for all variants spanning genomic regions 250-kb upstream or downstream of 31 GWAS-identified SNPs (index SNPs. We queried the University of California, Santa Cruz Genome Browser to examine evidence for biological function. Index SNPs did not show the strongest association signals with colorectal tumor risk in their respective genomic regions. Bioinformatics analysis of SNPs showing smaller P-values in each region revealed 21 functional candidates in 12 loci (5q31.1, 8q24, 11q13.4, 11q23, 12p13.32, 12q24.21, 14q22.2, 15q13, 18q21, 19q13.1, 20p12.3, and 20q13.33. We did not observe evidence of additional independent association signals in GWAS-identified regions. Our results support the utility of integrating data from comprehensive fine-mapping with expanding publicly available genomic databases to help clarify GWAS associations and identify functional candidates that warrant more onerous laboratory follow-up. Such efforts may aid the eventual discovery of disease-causing variant(s.

  14. Screening and prioritisation of chemical risks from metal mining operations, identifying exposure media of concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jilang; Oates, Christopher J; Ihlenfeld, Christian; Plant, Jane A; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2010-04-01

    Metals have been central to the development of human civilisation from the Bronze Age to modern times, although in the past, metal mining and smelting have been the cause of serious environmental pollution with the potential to harm human health. Despite problems from artisanal mining in some developing countries, modern mining to Western standards now uses the best available mining technology combined with environmental monitoring, mitigation and remediation measures to limit emissions to the environment. This paper develops risk screening and prioritisation methods previously used for contaminated land on military and civilian sites and engineering systems for the analysis and prioritisation of chemical risks from modern metal mining operations. It uses hierarchical holographic modelling and multi-criteria decision making to analyse and prioritise the risks from potentially hazardous inorganic chemical substances released by mining operations. A case study of an active platinum group metals mine in South Africa is used to demonstrate the potential of the method. This risk-based methodology for identifying, filtering and ranking mining-related environmental and human health risks can be used to identify exposure media of greatest concern to inform risk management. It also provides a practical decision-making tool for mine acquisition and helps to communicate risk to all members of mining operation teams.

  15. Identifying Risk Factors for Elder Falls in Geriatric Rehabilitation in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Natan, Merav; Heyman, Neomi; Ben Israel, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    To identify risk factors for elder falls in a geriatric rehabilitation center in Israel. Retrospective chart review study. Four hundred and twelve medical records of inpatients in geriatric rehabilitation were retrospectively analyzed to compare between elders who sustained falls and those who did not. Of elders hospitalized during this year, 14% sustained falls. Fallers included a high proportion of males, with little comorbidity, not obese, and cardiovascular patients. Falls occurred frequently during patients' first week at the facility, mostly during the daytime. The falls occurred frequently in patients' rooms, and a common scenario was a fall during transition. The research findings single out patients who are allegedly at a lower risk of falls than more complex patients. Caregivers in geriatric rehabilitation settings should pay attention to patients who are allegedly at a lower risk of falls than more complex patients, and to cardiovascular patients in particular. © 2014 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  16. Association of Caucasian-identified variants with colorectal cancer risk in Singapore Chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Fun Thean

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS in Caucasians have identified fourteen index single nucleotide polymorphisms (iSNPs that influence colorectal cancer (CRC risk.We investigated the role of eleven iSNPs or surrogate SNPs (sSNPs, in high linkage disequilibrium (LD, r(2≥ 0.8 and within 100 kb vicinity of iSNPs, in 2,000 age- and gender-matched Singapore Chinese (SCH cases and controls.Only iSNP rs6983267 at 8q24.21 and sSNPs rs6695584, rs11986063, rs3087967, rs2059254, and rs7226855 at 1q41, 8q23.3, 11q23.1, 16q22.1 and 18q21.1 respectively showed evidence of association with CRC risk, with odds ratios (OR ranging from 1.13 to 1.40. sSNP rs827401 at 10p14 was associated with rectal cancer risk (OR = 0.74, 95% CI 0.63-0.88 but not disease prognosis (OR = 0.91, 95% CI 0.69-1.20. Interestingly, sSNP rs3087967 at 11q23.1 was associated with CRC risk in men (OR = 1.34, 95% CI 1.14-1.58 but not women (OR = 1.07, 95% CI: 0.88-1.29, suggesting a gender-specific role. Half of the Caucasian-identified variants, including the recently fine-mapped BMP pathway loci, BMP4, GREM1, BMP2 and LAMA 5, did not show any evidence for association with CRC in SCH (OR ~1; p-value >0.1. Comparing the results of this study with that of the Northern and Hong Kong Chinese, only variants at chromosomes 8q24.21, 10p14, 11q23.1 and 18q21.1 were replicated in at least two out of the three Chinese studies.The contrasting results between Caucasians and Chinese could be due to different LD patterns and allelic frequencies or genetic heterogeneity. The results suggest that additional common variants contributing to CRC predisposition remained to be identified.

  17. Beta-Blockers for Exams Identify Students at High Risk of Psychiatric Morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Jawad H; Dalsgaard, Søren; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Køber, Lars; Gislason, Gunnar H; Kruuse, Christina; Fosbøl, Emil L

    2017-04-01

    Beta-blockers relieve the autonomic symptoms of exam-related anxiety and may be beneficial in exam-related and performance anxiety, but knowledge on related psychiatric outcomes is unknown. We hypothesized that beta-blocker therapy for exam-related anxiety identifies young students at risk of later psychiatric events. Using Danish nationwide administrative registries, we studied healthy students aged 14-30 years (1996-2012) with a first-time claimed prescription for a beta-blocker during the exam period (May-June); students who were prescribed a beta-blocker for medical reasons were excluded. We matched these students on age, sex, and time of year to healthy and study active controls with no use of beta-blockers. Risk of incident use of antidepressants, incident use of other psychotropic medications, and suicide attempts was examined by cumulative incidence curves for unadjusted associations and multivariable cause-specific Cox proportional hazard analyses for adjusted hazard ratios (HRs). We identified 12,147 healthy students with exam-related beta-blocker use and 12,147 matched healthy students with no current or prior use of beta-blockers (median age, 19 years; 80.3% women). Among all healthy students, 0.14% had a first-time prescription for a beta-blocker during the exam period with the highest proportion among students aged 19 years (0.39%). Eighty-one percent of the students filled only that single prescription for a beta-blocker during follow-up. During follow-up, 2225 (18.3%) beta-blocker users and 1400 (11.5%) nonbeta-blocker users were prescribed an antidepressant (p beta-blocker users and 658 (5.4%) nonbeta-blocker users were prescribed a psychotropic drug (p beta-blocker users and 6 (0.05%) nonbeta-blocker users attempted suicide (p = 0.03). Exam-related beta-blocker use was associated with an increased risk of antidepressant use (adjusted HRs, 1.68 [95% confidence intervals (CIs), 1.57-1.79], p beta-blockers during the exam period was

  18. Newly-graduated midwives transcending barriers: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Michele J; Hauck, Yvonne L; O'Donoghue, Thomas; Clarke, Simon

    2013-12-01

    Midwifery has developed its own philosophy to formalise its unique identity as a profession. Newly-graduated midwives are taught, and ideally embrace, this philosophy during their education. However, embarking in their career within a predominantly institutionalised and the medically focused health-care model may challenge this application. The research question guiding this study was as follows: 'How do newly graduated midwives deal with applying the philosophy of midwifery in their first six months of practice?' The aim was to generate a grounded theory around this social process. This Western Australian grounded theory study is conceptualised within the social theory of symbolic interactionism. Data were collected by means of in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 11 recent midwifery graduates. Participant and interviewer's journals provided supplementary data. The 'constant comparison' approach was used for data analysis. The substantive theory of transcending barriers was generated. Three stages in transcending barriers were identified: Addressing personal attributes, Understanding the 'bigger picture', and finally, 'Evaluating, planning and acting' to provide woman-centred care. An overview of these three stages provides the focus of this article. The theory of transcending barriers provides a new perspective on how newly-graduated midwives deal with applying the philosophy of midwifery in their first six months of practice. A number of implications for pre and post registration midwifery education and policy development are suggested, as well as recommendations for future research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Peer counselling versus standard-of-care on reducing high-risk behaviours among newly diagnosed HIV-positive men who have sex with men in Beijing, China: a randomized intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Vermund, Sten H; Ruan, Yuhua; Liu, Hongjie; Rivet Amico, K; Simoni, Jane M; Shepherd, Bryan E; Shao, Yiming; Qian, Han-Zhu

    2018-02-01

    Reducing high-risk behaviours (i.e. multiple partnership, condomless anal/vaginal sex, alcohol use before sex, illicit drug use) after HIV diagnosis is critical for curtailing HIV transmission. We designed an intervention to explore peer- counselling in reducing high-risk behaviours among newly diagnosed HIV-positive Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM). We randomized 367 newly diagnosed HIV-positive men to either standard-of-care (SOC; n = 183) or peer-counselling intervention (n = 184), and followed them for 12 months (visit at 0-, 3-, 6-, 9- and 12-month). SOC participants received counselling on high-risk behaviour reduction by clinic staff. Intervention participants received both SOC and peer counselling. A generalized estimating equation was used to compare pre-post diagnosis high-risk behaviour change; logistic regression was used to assess the likelihood of practicing high-risk behaviours between intervention and SOC participants. Both intent-to-treat and per-protocol (full-dosage) approaches were used for the analyses. For pre- and post-diagnosis comparisons, multiple partnership fell from 50% to 16% (p peer counselling was more likely to reduce insertive anal sex (AOR = 0.65; 95% CI: 0.45 to 0.94), condomless anal sex (AOR = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.10 to 0.64) and illicit drug use (AOR = 0.32; 95% CI: 0.16 to 0.64). In the per-protocol analysis, peer counselling was associated with a lower likelihood of using illicit drug (OR = 0.23; 95% CI: 0.07 to 0.81) and having condomless vaginal sex with women (OR = 0.12; 95% CI: 0.07 to 0.98). We observed a 14 to 43% decrease in the prevalence of selected high-risk behaviours after HIV diagnosis. Peer counselling had a greater impact in reducing condomless anal sex with men, illicit drug use and condomless vaginal sex with women over time. Future studies with exclusive peer-counselling arm are necessary to test its efficacy and effectiveness among Chinese MSM. Clinical Trial Number: NCT01904877. © 2018

  20. Sexual harassment: identifying risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, E A; O'Donohue, W

    1998-12-01

    A new model of the etiology of sexual harassment, the four-factor model, is presented and compared with several models of sexual harassment including the biological model, the organizational model, the sociocultural model, and the sex role spillover model. A number of risk factors associated with sexually harassing behavior are examined within the framework of the four-factor model of sexual harassment. These include characteristics of the work environment (e.g., sexist attitudes among co-workers, unprofessional work environment, skewed sex ratios in the workplace, knowledge of grievance procedures for sexual harassment incidents) as well as personal characteristics of the subject (e.g., physical attractiveness, job status, sex-role). Subjects were 266 university female faculty, staff, and students who completed the Sexual Experience Questionnaire to assess the experience of sexual harassment and a questionnaire designed to assess the risk factors stated above. Results indicated that the four-factor model is a better predictor of sexual harassment than the alternative models. The risk factors most strongly associated with sexual harassment were an unprofessional environment in the workplace, sexist atmosphere, and lack of knowledge about the organization's formal grievance procedures.

  1. Self-Identified Sexual Orientation and Sexual Risk Behavior Among HIV-Infected Latino Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Szlachta, Alaina

    2016-01-01

    The HIV testing, disclosure, and sexual practices of ethnic minority men suggest that addressing sexual risk behavior and the underlying reasons for not receiving HIV testing or disclosing HIV-infection status-unique to differing populations-would improve public health interventions. Descriptive behaviors and underlying perspectives reported in our study suggest that public health interventions for HIV-infected Latino men who self-identify as heterosexual should explicitly identify substance use, needle sharing, and unprotected sex to current partners as behaviors placing both oneself and one's partners at high risk for contracting HIV. However, diversity of sexual behavior among gay, straight, and bisexual HIV-infected Latino men in our study ultimately suggested that clinicians should not rely on simplistic conceptions of sexuality in assessment of self-care needs. Care in presentation and discussion of self-identified sexual preference and sexual behavior is indicated, as these do not determine actual sexual orientation or behavior and vice versa. Copyright © 2016 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Identifying drug risk perceptions in Danish youths: Ranking exercises in focus groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob; Ravn, Signe

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Background: This paper develops an analytical approach for understanding the perceptions of risks associated with drugs among youths in general. These perceptions are central in order to understand how certain drugs become popular, leading to increasing prevalence of use, while others do...... not. As such, this approach can become an efficient policy tool. Methods: Focus groups are used to investigate risk perceptions. We develop a specific methodology that combines a ranking exercise with discourse theory as an analytical approach. This methodology produces detailed information...... and provides a relatively efficient way of investigating normative risk perceptions at a national or subcultural level. The paper develops this methodology in relation to a Danish case with 12 focus group interviews with youths aged from 17 to 22. Results: The analysis identifies five discourses articulated...

  3. Identifying drug risk perceptions in Danish youths: Ranking exercises in focus groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob Johan; Ravn, Signe

    2010-01-01

    not. As such, this approach can become an efficient policy tool. Methods: Focus groups are used to investigate risk perceptions. We develop a specific methodology that combines a ranking exercise with discourse theory as an analytical approach. This methodology produces detailed information......Abstract: Background: This paper develops an analytical approach for understanding the perceptions of risks associated with drugs among youths in general. These perceptions are central in order to understand how certain drugs become popular, leading to increasing prevalence of use, while others do...... and provides a relatively efficient way of investigating normative risk perceptions at a national or subcultural level. The paper develops this methodology in relation to a Danish case with 12 focus group interviews with youths aged from 17 to 22. Results: The analysis identifies five discourses articulated...

  4. A universal meteorological method to identify potential risk of wind erosion on heavy-textured soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Středová Hana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The climate of Central Europe, mainly winter seasons with no snow cover at lower altitudes and a spring drought as well, might cause erosion events on heavy-textured soils. The aim of this paper is to define a universal method to identify the potential risk of wind erosion on heavy-textured soils. The categorization of potential wind erosion risk due to meteorological conditions is based on: (i an evaluation of the number of freeze-thaw episodes forming bare soil surfaces during the cold period of year; and (ii, an evaluation of the number of days with wet soil surfaces during the cold period of year. In the period 2001–2012 (from November to March, episodes with temperature changes from positive to negative and vice versa (thaw-freeze and freeze-thaw cycles and the effects of wet soil surfaces in connection with aggregate disintegration, are identified. The data are spatially interpolated by GIS tools for areas in the Czech Republic with heavy-textured soils. Blending critical categories is used to locate potential risks. The level of risk is divided into six classes. Those areas identified as potentially most vulnerable are the same localities where the highest number of erosive episodes on heavy-textured soils was documented.

  5. HIV-1 genetic diversity and its distribution characteristics among newly diagnosed HIV-1 individuals in Hebei province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinli; Zhao, Cuiying; Wang, Wei; Nie, Chenxi; Zhang, Yuqi; Zhao, Hongru; Chen, Suliang; Cui, Ze

    2016-01-01

    Since the first HIV-1 case in 1989, Hebei province has presented a clearly rising trend of HIV-1 prevalence, and HIV-1 genetic diversity has become the vital barrier to HIV prevention and control in this area. To obtain detailed information of HIV-1 spread in different populations and in different areas of Hebei, a cross-sectional HIV-1 molecular epidemiological investigation was performed across the province. Blood samples of 154 newly diagnosed HIV-1 individuals were collected from ten prefectures in Hebei using stratified sampling. Partial gag and env genes were amplified and sequenced. HIV-1 genotypes were identified by phylogenetic tree analyses. Among the 139 subjects genotyped, six HIV-1 subtypes were identified successfully, including subtype B (41.0 %), CRF01_AE (40.3 %), CRF07_BC (11.5 %), CRF08_BC (4.3 %), unique recombinant forms (URFs) (1.4 %) and subtype C (1.4 %). Subtype B was identified as the most frequent subtype. Two URF recombination patterns were the same as CRF01_AE/B. HIV-1 genotype distribution showed a significant statistical difference in different demographic characteristics, such as source (P  0.05). The differences in HIV-1 genotype distribution were closely associated with transmission routes. Particularly, all six subtype strains were found in heterosexuals, showing that HIV-1 has spread from the high-risk populations to the general populations in Hebei, China. In addition, CRF01_AE instead of subtype B has become the major strain of HIV-1 infection among homosexuals. Our study revealed HIV-1 evolution and genotype distribution by investigating newly diagnosed HIV-1 individuals in Hebei, China. This study provides important information to enhance the strategic plan for HIV prevention and control in China.

  6. Large-scale genotyping identifies 41 new loci associated with breast cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michailidou, Kyriaki; Hall, Per; Gonzalez-Neira, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. Common variants at 27 loci have been identified as associated with susceptibility to breast cancer, and these account for ∼9% of the familial risk of the disease. We report here a meta-analysis of 9 genome-wide association studies, including 10...

  7. Large-scale genotyping identifies 41 new loci associated with breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michailidou, Kyriaki; Hall, Per; Gonzalez-Neira, Anna; Ghoussaini, Maya; Dennis, Joe; Milne, Roger L.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Bojesen, Stig E.; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Dicks, Ed; Lee, Andrew; Turnbull, Clare; Rahman, Nazneen; Fletcher, Olivia; Peto, Julian; Gibson, Lorna; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A.; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Czene, Kamila; Irwanto, Astrid; Liu, Jianjun; Waisfisz, Quinten; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Adank, Muriel; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Hein, Rebecca; Dahmen, Norbert; Beckman, Lars; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Lichtner, Peter; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Hofman, Albert; Hunter, David J.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, François; Tessier, Daniel C.; Canisius, Sander; Wessels, Lodewyk F. A.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Shah, Mitul; Luben, Robert; Brown, Judith; Luccarini, Craig; Schoof, Nils; Humphreys, Keith; Li, Jingmei; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Flyger, Henrik; Couch, Fergus J.; Wang, Xianshu; Vachon, Celine; Stevens, Kristen N.; Lambrechts, Diether; Moisse, Matthieu; Paridaens, Robert; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Rudolph, Anja; Nickels, Stefan; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Johnson, Nichola; Aitken, Zoe; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Broeks, Annegien; van 't Veer, Laura J.; van der Schoot, C. Ellen; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Menegaux, Florence; Marme, Frederik; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Burwinkel, Barbara; Zamora, M. Pilar; Perez, Jose Ignacio Arias; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M. Rosario; Cox, Angela; Brock, Ian W.; Cross, Simon S.; Reed, Malcolm W. R.; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J.; Miller, Nicola; Henderson, Brian E.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hollestelle, Antoinette; van den Ouweland, Ans M. W.; Jager, Agnes; Bui, Quang M.; Stone, Jennifer; Dite, Gillian S.; Apicella, Carmel; Tsimiklis, Helen; Giles, Graham G.; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Fasching, Peter A.; Haeberle, Lothar; Ekici, Arif B.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Brenner, Hermann; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Swerdlow, Anthony; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nick; Jones, Michael; Figueroa, Jonine; Lissowska, Jolanta; Brinton, Louise; Goldberg, Mark S.; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hamann, Ute; Brüning, Thomas; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Bonanni, Bernardo; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Rob A. E. M.; Seynaeve, Caroline; van Asperen, Christi J.; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Antonenkova, Natalia N.; Dörk, Thilo; Kristensen, Vessela N.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Slager, Susan; Toland, Amanda E.; Edge, Stephen; Fostira, Florentia; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young; Noh, Dong-Young; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Sueta, Aiko; Wu, Anna H.; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; van den Berg, David; Stram, Daniel O.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Cai, Hui; teo, Soo Hwang; Yip, Cheng Har; Phuah, Sze Yee; Cornes, Belinda K.; Hartman, Mikael; Miao, Hui; Lim, Wei Yen; Sng, Jen-Hwei; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Shen, Chen-Yang; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Wu, Pei-Ei; Ding, Shian-Ling; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Gaborieau, Valerie; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James; Blot, William J.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Cai, Qiuyin; Zheng, Wei; Deming-Halverson, Sandra; Shrubsole, Martha; Long, Jirong; Simard, Jacques; Garcia-Closas, Montse; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Dunning, Alison M.; Benitez, Javier; Easton, Douglas F.

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. Common variants at 27 loci have been identified as associated with susceptibility to breast cancer, and these account for ∼9% of the familial risk of the disease. We report here a meta-analysis of 9 genome-wide association studies, including

  8. Immunoparesis in newly diagnosed Multiple Myeloma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorrig, Rasmus; Klausen, Tobias W.; Salomo, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Immunoparesis (hypogammaglobulinemia) is associated to an unfavorable prognosis in newly diagnosed Multiple myeloma (MM) patients. However, this finding has not been validated in an unselected population-based cohort. We analyzed 2558 newly diagnosed MM patients in the Danish Multiple Myeloma...

  9. Histone H4 acetylation by immunohistochemistry and prognosis in newly diagnosed adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advani, Anjali S; Sungren, Shawnda; Hsi, Eric D; Gibson, Sarah E; Douglas, Elizabeth; Jin, Tao; Zhao, Xiaoxian; Kalaycio, Matt; Copelan, Ed; Sobecks, Ronald; Sekeres, Mikkael

    2010-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are a novel anti-tumor therapy. To determine whether HDAC inhibitors may be useful in the treatment of adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), we examined the acetylation of histone H4 by immunohistochemistry in newly diagnosed ALL patients and evaluated the impact of acetylation on complete remission (CR) rate, relapse-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS). Patients ≥18 years of age and an available diagnostic bone marrow biopsy were evaluated. Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to identify univariate and multivariate correlates of CR, RFS, and OS. The variables histone H4 acetylation (positive or negative), white blood count, cytogenetic (CG) risk group (CALGB criteria), and age were used in multivariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, histone acetylation was associated with a trend towards an improved OS (for all CG risk groups) (HR = 0.51, p = 0.09). In patients without poor risk CG, there was an impressive association between the presence of histone acetylation and an improved CR rate (OR 3.43, p = 0.035), RFS (HR 0.07, p = 0.005), and OS (HR 0.24, p = 0.007). This association remained statistically significant in multivariate analysis. These data provide a rationale for the design of novel regimens incorporating HDAC inhibitors in ALL

  10. Identifying the women at risk of antenatal anxiety and depression: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biaggi, Alessandra; Conroy, Susan; Pawlby, Susan; Pariante, Carmine M

    2016-02-01

    Pregnancy is a time of increased vulnerability for the development of anxiety and depression. This systematic review aims to identify the main risk factors involved in the onset of antenatal anxiety and depression. A systematic literature analysis was conducted, using PubMed, PsychINFO, and the Cochrane Library. Original papers were included if they were written in English and published between 1st January 2003 and 31st August 2015, while literature reviews and meta-analyses were consulted regardless of publication date. A final number of 97 papers were selected. The most relevant factors associated with antenatal depression or anxiety were: lack of partner or of social support; history of abuse or of domestic violence; personal history of mental illness; unplanned or unwanted pregnancy; adverse events in life and high perceived stress; present/past pregnancy complications; and pregnancy loss. The review does not include a meta-analysis, which may have added additional information about the differential impact of each risk factor. Moreover, it does not specifically examine factors that may influence different types of anxiety disorders, or the recurrence or persistence of depression or anxiety from pregnancy to the postpartum period. The results show the complex aetiology of antenatal depression and anxiety. The administration of a screening tool to identify women at risk of anxiety and depression during pregnancy should be universal practice in order to promote the long-term wellbeing of mothers and babies, and the knowledge of specific risk factors may help creating such screening tool targeting women at higher risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A prognostic tool to identify adolescents at high risk of becoming daily smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paradis Gilles

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The American Academy of Pediatrics advocates that pediatricians should be involved in tobacco counseling and has developed guidelines for counseling. We present a prognostic tool for use by health care practitioners in both clinical and non-clinical settings, to identify adolescents at risk of becoming daily smokers. Methods Data were drawn from the Nicotine Dependence in Teens (NDIT Study, a prospective investigation of 1293 adolescents, initially aged 12-13 years, recruited in 10 secondary schools in Montreal, Canada in 1999. Questionnaires were administered every three months for five years. The prognostic tool was developed using estimated coefficients from multivariable logistic models. Model overfitting was corrected using bootstrap cross-validation. Goodness-of-fit and predictive ability of the models were assessed by R2, the c-statistic, and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test. Results The 1-year and 2-year probability of initiating daily smoking was a joint function of seven individual characteristics: age; ever smoked; ever felt like you needed a cigarette; parent(s smoke; sibling(s smoke; friend(s smoke; and ever drank alcohol. The models were characterized by reasonably good fit and predictive ability. They were transformed into user-friendly tables such that the risk of daily smoking can be easily computed by summing points for responses to each item. The prognostic tool is also available on-line at http://episerve.chumontreal.qc.ca/calculation_risk/daily-risk/daily_smokingadd.php. Conclusions The prognostic tool to identify youth at high risk of daily smoking may eventually be an important component of a comprehensive tobacco control system.

  12. Quality of life of elderly persons with newly diagnosed cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, B A; Osterlind, K; Roer, O

    2004-01-01

    The aim was to investigate quality of life (QoL) in elderly persons newly diagnosed with cancer (65+ years) in relation to age, contact with the health-care system, ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL), hope, social network and support, and to identify which factors were associated...... with low QoL. The sample consisted of 101 patients (75 women and 26 men) newly diagnosed with cancer. EORTC QLQ-C30, Nowotny's Hope Scale, Katz ADL and the Interview Schedule for Social Interaction (ISSI) were used. The analysis was carried out in four age groups and revealed no significant differences...... in QoL. Compared with the other age groups, those of a high age (80+ years) more often lived alone, used more home-help service and had a smaller social network. Factors associated with low QoL were 'no other incomes than retirement pension', 'low level of hope' and 'lung cancer'. In addition, 'being...

  13. Assessing urban potential flooding risk and identifying effective risk-reduction measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherqui, Frédéric; Belmeziti, Ali; Granger, Damien; Sourdril, Antoine; Le Gauffre, Pascal

    2015-05-01

    Flood protection is one of the traditional functions of any drainage system, and it remains a major issue in many cities because of economic and health impact. Heavy rain flooding has been well studied and existing simulation software can be used to predict and improve level of protection. However, simulating minor flooding remains highly complex, due to the numerous possible causes related to operational deficiencies or negligent behaviour. According to the literature, causes of blockages vary widely from one case to another: it is impossible to provide utility managers with effective recommendations on how to improve the level of protection. It is therefore vital to analyse each context in order to define an appropriate strategy. Here we propose a method to represent and assess the flooding risk, using GIS and data gathered during operation and maintenance. Our method also identifies potential management responses. The approach proposed aims to provide decision makers with clear and comprehensible information. Our method has been successfully applied to the Urban Community of Bordeaux (France) on 4895 interventions related to flooding recorded during the 2009-2011 period. Results have shown the relative importance of different issues, such as human behaviour (grease, etc.) or operational deficiencies (roots, etc.), and lead to identify corrective and proactive. This study also confirms that blockages are not always directly due to the network itself and its deterioration. Many causes depend on environmental and operating conditions on the network and often require collaboration between municipal departments in charge of roads, green spaces, etc. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence and characteristics of the metabolic syndrome among newly diagnosed hypertensive patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuji, Charles U.; Omejua, Emeka G.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease risk factors have a tendency to cluster. The presence of such a cluster in an individual has been designated the metabolic syndrome (MetS). There is a paucity of reports of the prevalence of MetS in hypertensive patients in south east Nigeria. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) among newly diagnosed hypertensive patients using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) criteria in a tertiary healthcare centre in South East Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A population of 250 consecutive newly diagnosed adult hypertensive patients (126 males and 124 females) was evaluated. Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were done using standardized techniques. After an overnight fast, blood samples were taken for glucose and lipid profile assays. The NCEP ATP III criteria were then applied for the diagnosis of MetS. Results: The prevalence of the MetS among the study population was 31.2%. The sex-specific prevalences were 15.1% and 47.6% among male and female patients respectively. A large number of the patients (40.4%) were at a high potential risk of developing the MetS as they already met 2 of the criteria. The MetS prevalence increased progressively from 14.3% through 23.8%, in the patients aged 24-33years and 34-43 years, respectively to a peak (40.4%) among those aged 44-53 years before declining in those aged 54-63 years (31.8%), 64-73 years (33.3%) and 74 years and above (20.6%). Central obesity was the most common component of the MetS being present in 50.4% of patients (28.6% of males and 72.6% of females). Of the other components, low HDL-C was present in 38.8% (26.2% of males and 51.6% of females), elevated FBS in 12.8% (6.3% of males and 19.4% of females) and elevated triglycerides in 8.8% (11.9% of males and 5.6% of females). Conclusion: The prevalence of the MetS is high among newly diagnosed hypertensive patients in Nnewi

  15. Q-methodology to identify young adult renal transplant recipients at risk for nonadherence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Moors-Tielen (Mirjam); A.L. van Staa (AnneLoes); S. Jedeloo (Susan); N.J.A. van Exel (Job); W. Weimar (Willem)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND. Young adult renal transplant recipients may display patterns of behavior that affect graft survival. The present study aimed to identify young adults at risk for nonadherent behavior by investigating their attitudes about posttransplant health lifestyle. METHOD. A

  16. High-risk carotid plaques identified by CT-angiogram can predict acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosleh, Wassim; Adib, Keenan; Natdanai, Punnanithinont; Carmona-Rubio, Andres; Karki, Roshan; Paily, Jacienta; Ahmed, Mohamed Abdel-Aal; Vakkalanka, Sujit; Madam, Narasa; Gudleski, Gregory D; Chung, Charles; Sharma, Umesh C

    2017-04-01

    Prior studies identified the incremental value of non-invasive imaging by CT-angiogram (CTA) to detect high-risk coronary atherosclerotic plaques. Due to their superficial locations, larger calibers and motion-free imaging, the carotid arteries provide the best anatomic access for the non-invasive characterization of atherosclerotic plaques. We aim to assess the ability of predicting obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) or acute myocardial infarction (MI) based on high-risk carotid plaque features identified by CTA. We retrospectively examined carotid CTAs of 492 patients that presented with acute stroke to characterize the atherosclerotic plaques of the carotid arteries and examined development of acute MI and obstructive CAD within 12-months. Carotid lesions were defined in terms of calcifications (large or speckled), presence of low-attenuation plaques, positive remodeling, and presence of napkin ring sign. Adjusted relative risks were calculated for each plaque features. Patients with speckled (<3 mm) calcifications and/or larger calcifications on CTA had a higher risk of developing an MI and/or obstructive CAD within 1 year compared to patients without (adjusted RR of 7.51, 95%CI 1.26-73.42, P = 0.001). Patients with low-attenuation plaques on CTA had a higher risk of developing an MI and/or obstructive CAD within 1 year than patients without (adjusted RR of 2.73, 95%CI 1.19-8.50, P = 0.021). Presence of carotid calcifications and low-attenuation plaques also portended higher sensitivity (100 and 79.17%, respectively) for the development of acute MI. Presence of carotid calcifications and low-attenuation plaques can predict the risk of developing acute MI and/or obstructive CAD within 12-months. Given their high sensitivity, their absence can reliably exclude 12-month events.

  17. Modeling strategy to identify patients with primary immunodeficiency utilizing risk management and outcome measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modell, Vicki; Quinn, Jessica; Ginsberg, Grant; Gladue, Ron; Orange, Jordan; Modell, Fred

    2017-06-01

    This study seeks to generate analytic insights into risk management and probability of an identifiable primary immunodeficiency defect. The Jeffrey Modell Centers Network database, Jeffrey Modell Foundation's 10 Warning Signs, the 4 Stages of Testing Algorithm, physician-reported clinical outcomes, programs of physician education and public awareness, the SPIRIT® Analyzer, and newborn screening, taken together, generates P values of less than 0.05%. This indicates that the data results do not occur by chance, and that there is a better than 95% probability that the data are valid. The objectives are to improve patients' quality of life, while generating significant reduction of costs. The advances of the world's experts aligned with these JMF programs can generate analytic insights as to risk management and probability of an identifiable primary immunodeficiency defect. This strategy reduces the uncertainties related to primary immunodeficiency risks, as we can screen, test, identify, and treat undiagnosed patients. We can also address regional differences and prevalence, age, gender, treatment modalities, and sites of care, as well as economic benefits. These tools support high net benefits, substantial financial savings, and significant reduction of costs. All stakeholders, including patients, clinicians, pharmaceutical companies, third party payers, and government healthcare agencies, must address the earliest possible precise diagnosis, appropriate intervention and treatment, as well as stringent control of healthcare costs through risk assessment and outcome measurement. An affected patient is entitled to nothing less, and stakeholders are responsible to utilize tools currently available. Implementation offers a significant challenge to the entire primary immunodeficiency community.

  18. Newly Graduated Nurses' Job Satisfaction: Comparison with Allied Hospital Professionals, Social Workers, and Elementary School Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihyun Park, PhD, RN

    2012-09-01

    Conclusion: Relatively dissatisfying job characteristics in nursing work environment that were significant predictors for nurses' job satisfaction should be improved. Newly graduated nurses are at risk for job dissatisfaction. This can result in high turnover rates and can exacerbate the nursing shortage. Efforts to improve the work environment are needed.

  19. Development of a novel scoring system for identifying emerging chemical risks in the food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltmanns, J; Licht, O; Bitsch, A; Bohlen, M-L; Escher, S E; Silano, V; MacLeod, M; Serafimova, R; Kass, G E N; Merten, C

    2018-02-21

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is responsible for risk assessment of all aspects of food safety, including the establishment of procedures aimed at the identification of emerging risks to food safety. Here, a scoring system was developed for identifying chemicals registered under the European REACH Regulation that could be of potential concern in the food chain using the following parameters: (i) environmental release based on maximum aggregated tonnages and environmental release categories; (ii) biodegradation in the environment; (iii) bioaccumulation and in vivo and in vitro toxicity. The screening approach was tested on 100 data-rich chemicals registered under the REACH Regulation at aggregated volumes of at least 1000 tonnes per annum. The results show that substance-specific data generated under the REACH Regulation can be used to identify potential emerging risks in the food chain. After application of the screening procedure, priority chemicals can be identified as potentially emerging risk chemicals through the integration of exposure, environmental fate and toxicity. The default approach is to generate a single total score for each substance using a predefined weighting scenario. However, it is also possible to use a pivot table approach to combine the individual scores in different ways that reflect user-defined priorities, which enables a very flexible, iterative definition of screening criteria. Possible applications of the approaches are discussed using illustrative examples. Either approach can then be followed by in-depth evaluation of priority substances to ensure the identification of substances that present a real emerging chemical risk in the food chain.

  20. Incidence of infertility and risk factors of impaired fecundity among newly married couples in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qinqin; Ren, Aiguo; Zhang, Le; Liu, Jufen; Li, Zhiwen; Yang, Yan; Li, Rong; Ma, Le

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to obtain the incidence of infertility, to examine the causes of infertility and to explore risk factors for impaired fecundity in a rural region of northern China using a prospective follow-up design. A total of 2151 newly married couples planning to become pregnant within the next 12 months were enrolled between 2009 and 2012 from two counties of Shanxi Province in northern China. Couples were followed up for at least 1 year or until a clinical pregnancy occurred. Information about clinical pregnancy was obtained. The 12-month and 24-month infertility rates were 13.6% (95% CI 11.9 to 15.3) and 8.5% (95% CI 6.7 to 10.3), respectively. About 63% of women became pregnant within 6 months of follow up, and 86% did so within 12 months of follow up. The main causes of female infertility were ovulation disorders, fallopian tube problems and polycystic ovary syndrome. The primary cause of male infertility was sperm quality problems. Couples who used coal as cooking fuel, women with a higher body mass index, women with long-term health problems, and men who had married at later ages were more likely to have delayed pregnancies. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Identifying Patterns in Extreme Precipitation Risk and the Related Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeer, K.; Tye, M. R.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme precipitation can harm human life and assets through flooding, hail, landslides, or debris flows. Flood risk assessments typically concentrate on river or mountain torrent channels, using water depth, flow velocity, and/or sediment deposition to quantify the risk. In addition, extreme events with high recurrence intervals are often the main focus. However, damages from short-term and localized convective showers often occur away from watercourses. Also, damages from more frequent small scale extremes, although usually less disastrous, can accumulate to considerable financial burdens. Extreme convective precipitation is expected to intensify in a warmer climate, and vulnerability patterns might change in tandem with changes in the character of precipitation and flood types. This has consequences for adaptation planners who want to establish effective protection measures and reduce the cost from natural hazards. Here we merge hydrological and exposure data to identify patterns of risk under varying synoptic conditions. Exposure is calculated from a database of 76k damage claims reported to the national disaster fund in 480 municipalities in south eastern Austria from 1990-2015. Hydrological data comprise sub-daily precipitation (59 gauges) and streamflow (62 gauges) observations. We use synoptic circulation types to identify typical precipitation patterns. They indicate the character of precipitation even if a gauge is not in close proximity, facilitating potential future research with regional climate model data. Results show that more claims are reported under synoptic conditions favouring convective precipitation (on average 1.5-3 times more than on other days). For agrarian municipalities, convective precipitation damages are among the costliest after long low-intensity precipitation events. In contrast, Alpine communities are particularly vulnerable to convective high-intensity rainfall. In addition to possible observational error, uncertainty is present

  2. Using Predictive Modelling to Identify Students at Risk of Poor University Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Pengfei; Maloney, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Predictive modelling is used to identify students at risk of failing their first-year courses and not returning to university in the second year. Our aim is twofold. Firstly, we want to understand the factors that lead to poor first-year experiences at university. Secondly, we want to develop simple, low-cost tools that would allow universities to…

  3. Identifying At-Risk Individuals for Insomnia Using the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmbach, David A.; Pillai, Vivek; Arnedt, J. Todd; Drake, Christopher L.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: A primary focus of the National Institute of Mental Health's current strategic plan is “predicting” who is at risk for disease. As such, the current investigation examined the utility of premorbid sleep reactivity in identifying a specific and manageable population at elevated risk for future insomnia. Methods: A community-based sample of adults (n = 2,892; 59.3% female; 47.9 ± 13.3 y old) with no lifetime history of insomnia or depression completed web-based surveys across three annual assessments. Participants reported parental history of insomnia, demographic characteristics, sleep reactivity on the Ford Insomnia in Response to Stress Test (FIRST), and insomnia symptoms. DSM-IV diagnostic criteria were used to determine insomnia classification. Results: Baseline FIRST scores were used to predict incident insomnia at 1-y follow-up. Two clinically meaningful FIRST cutoff values were identified: FIRST ≥ 16 (sensitivity 77%; specificity 50%; odds ratio [OR] = 2.88, P insomnia onset, even after controlling for stress exposure and demographic characteristics. Of the incident cases, insomniacs with highly reactive sleep systems reported longer sleep onset latencies (FIRST ≥ 16: 65 min; FIRST ≥ 18: 68 min) than participants with nonreactive insomnia (FIRST insomnia based on trait sleep reactivity. The FIRST accurately identifies a focused target population in which the psychobiological processes complicit in insomnia onset and progression can be better investigated, thus improving future preventive efforts. Citation: Kalmbach DA, Pillai V, Arnedt JT, Drake CL. Identifying at-risk individuals for insomnia using the ford insomnia response to stress test. SLEEP 2016;39(2):449–456. PMID:26446111

  4. Left ventricular functions in children with newly diagnosed Graves' disease. A single-center study from Upper Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metwalley, Kotb Abbass; Farghaly, Hekma Saad; Abdelhamid, Abdelrahman

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the left ventricular (LV) functions in a cohort of children with Graves' disease (GD). This is a cross-sectional case-control study. It included 36 children with GD and 36 healthy children matched for age and gender. Thyroid hormones (TSH, FT4, and FT3) and anti-thyroid autoantibodies [anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO), thyrotropin receptor (TRAbs), and thyroglobulin antibodies] were measured. Conventional and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) echocardiographies were used to assess left ventricular systolic and diastolic functions. LV mass index (LVMI) and myocardial performance index (MPI) were also measured. Compared to healthy children, conventional echocardiography of patients with GD revealed higher LVMI (P = 0.001) indicating LV hypertrophy but normal LV functions while TDI revealed lower Em/Am ratio indicating LV diastolic dysfunction (P = 0.001). Significant correlations were reported between FT4 with LVMI (P = 0.05), Em/Am (P = 0.01), and MPI (P = 0.01). In multivariate analysis, a positive correlation was identified between FT4 with MPI (OR = 1.17; 95% CI = 1.09-1.15; P = 0.001). Children with newly diagnosed GD may have significant subclinical changes in LV structure and function (diastolic and global). TDI is more sensitive than conventional Doppler in detecting LV dysfunction. These findings highlight the importance of early monitoring of children with GD for left ventricular mass index and diastolic function. What is Known: • There is an increased risk for cardiac abnormalities in children with Graves' disease (GD). • Limited studies assessed left ventricular function in patients with GD. What is New: • Children with newly diagnosed GD may have significant subclinical changes in left ventricular structure and functions. • Children with newly diagnosed GD should be monitored for left ventricular mass index and diastolic function.

  5. Risk factors for extrahepatic biliary tract carcinoma in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrens, Wolfgang; Timmer, Antje; Vyberg, Mogens

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors of carcinoma of the extrahepatic biliary tract in men. METHODS: Newly diagnosed and histologically confirmed patients, 35-70 years old, were interviewed between 1995 and 1997 in Denmark, Sweden, France, Germany and Italy. Population controls were frequency...... for extrahepatic biliary tract carcinoma in men (odds ratio 2.49; 95% confidence interval 1.32-4.70), particularly for gall bladder tumors (odds ratio 4.68; 95% confidence interval 1.85-11.84). For a body mass index [height (m) divided by squared weight (kg)] >30 at age 35 years, an excess risk was observed (odds...... as a strong risk factor for extrahepatic biliary tract carcinoma, whereas we did not find any strong lifestyle-associated risk factors. Inconsistent results across studies concerning the association of extrahepatic biliary tract carcinoma with overweight and obesity may be explained by the different...

  6. Will heavy metals in the soils of newly submerged areas threaten the water quality of Danjiangkou Reservoir, China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhixin; Shan, Baoqing; Tang, Wenzhong; Zhang, Chao

    2017-10-01

    Soil heavy metal contents were measured in newly submerged areas of the Danjiangkou Reservoir, China. We aimed to determine the heavy metal distribution in this area and the associated ecological risk. Most of these heavy metal contents (except Pb and Mn) suggest enrichment compared with the background values of soils from Henan Province, especially As and Cd with mean geo-accumulation index (I geo ) values of 0.84 and 0.54. The spatial analysis results indicated that the highest heavy metal contents were distributed in the arable soils above 160m elevation, whereas low heavy metal contents were observed under other land-use types above 160m elevation. According to I geo and EF values, Cd was the major heavy metal contaminant in the newly submerged area, Cr, Pb and Mn mainly originated from natural geochemical sources. In contrast, Ni, Cd, As, Cu, and Zn mainly originated from anthropogenic sources. Evaluation using the potential ecological risk (PER) method indicated that PER of individual elements were low in the studied soils, and the comprehensive PER index was at a moderate level, indicating heavy metals in the soils of newly submerged areas may not threaten the water quality of Danjiangkou Reservoir, especially in winter. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Screening for violence risk factors identifies young adults at risk for return emergency department visit for injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankin, Abigail; Wei, Stanley; Foreman, Juron; Houry, Debra

    2014-08-01

    Homicide is the second leading cause of death among youth aged 15-24. Prior cross-sectional studies, in non-healthcare settings, have reported exposure to community violence, peer behavior, and delinquency as risk factors for violent injury. However, longitudinal cohort studies have not been performed to evaluate the temporal or predictive relationship between these risk factors and emergency department (ED) visits for injuries among at-risk youth. The objective was to assess whether self-reported exposure to violence risk factors in young adults can be used to predict future ED visits for injuries over a 1-year period. This prospective cohort study was performed in the ED of a Southeastern US Level I trauma center. Eligible participants were patients aged 18-24, presenting for any chief complaint. We excluded patients if they were critically ill, incarcerated, or could not read English. Initial recruitment occurred over a 6-month period, by a research assistant in the ED for 3-5 days per week, with shifts scheduled such that they included weekends and weekdays, over the hours from 8AM-8PM. At the time of initial contact in the ED, patients were asked to complete a written questionnaire, consisting of previously validated instruments measuring the following risk factors: a) aggression, b) perceived likelihood of violence, c) recent violent behavior, d) peer behavior, e) community exposure to violence, and f) positive future outlook. At 12 months following the initial ED visit, the participants' medical records were reviewed to identify any subsequent ED visits for injury-related complaints. We analyzed data with chi-square and logistic regression analyses. Three hundred thirty-two patients were approached, of whom 300 patients consented. Participants' average age was 21.1 years, with 60.1% female, 86.0% African American. After controlling for participant gender, ethnicity, or injury complaint at time of first visit, return visits for injuries were significantly

  8. Degradation of dibenzofuran via multiple dioxygenation by a newly isolated Agrobacterium sp. PH-08.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, T T; Murugesan, K; Nam, I-H; Jeon, J-R; Chang, Y-S

    2014-03-01

    To demonstrate the biodegradation of dibenzofuran (DF) and its structural analogs by a newly isolated Agrobacterium sp. PH-08. To assess the biodegradation potential of newly isolated Agrobacterium sp. PH-08, various substrates were evaluated as sole carbon sources in growth and biotransformation experiments. ESI LC-MS/MS analysis revealed the presence of angular degrading by-products as well as lateral dioxygenation metabolites in the upper pathway. The metabolites in the lower pathway also were detected. In addition, the cometabolically degraded daughter compounds of DF-related compounds such as BP and dibenzothiophene (DBT) in dual substrate degradation were observed. Strain PH-08 exhibited the evidence of meta-cleavage pathway as confirmed by the activity and gene expression of catechol-2,3-dioxygenase. Newly isolated bacterial strain, Agrobacterium sp. PH-08, grew well with and degraded DF via both angular and lateral dioxygenation as demonstrated by metabolites identified through ESI LC-MS/MS and GC-MS analyses. The other heterocyclic pollutants were also cometabolically degraded. Few reports have described the complete degradation of DF by a cometabolic lateral pathway. Our study demonstrates the novel results that the newly isolated strain utilized the DF as a sole carbon source and mineralized it via multiple dioxygenation. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Serum lipid profile of newly diagnosed hypertensive patients in nnewi, South-East Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuji, Charles U; Omejua, Emeka G; Onwubuya, Emmanuel I; Ahaneku, Gladys I

    2012-01-01

    Abnormalities in serum lipid and lipoprotein levels are recognized major modifiable cardiovascular disease and essential hypertension risk factors. The objective of this study was to examine the serum lipid patterns of newly diagnosed hypertensive patients attending a tertiary healthcare centre in South East Nigeria. Methods. Two hundred and fifty newly diagnosed adult hypertensive patients and an equal number of age- and sex-matched controls without hypertension were consecutively recruited from the Medical and General Outpatient Clinics of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi. Result. 126 males and 124 females were in each of the two groups. Mean age was comparable in both groups. Hypertensives had significantly higher mean systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, and fasting blood sugar than the controls. The mean TC, TG, and LDL-C were significantly higher among the hypertensives. The mean HDL-C was comparable; P = 0.8. Among the hypertensive subjects, there was statistically significant positive correlation between BMI and TC; LDL-C and TG; WC and TG; FBS and TC; LDL-C and TG. HDL-C showed a statistically significant inverse correlation with WHR in hypertensives. Conclusion. This study showed that lipid abnormalities are highly prevalent among newly diagnosed hypertensives in South-East Nigeria.

  10. Development of a preliminary risk index to identify trauma patients at risk for an unplanned intubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dennis; Kobayashi, Leslie; Chang, David; Fortlage, Dale; Coimbra, Raul

    2014-01-01

    The development of respiratory failure requiring an emergent unplanned intubation (UI) is a potentially preventable complication associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to develop a clinical risk index for UI based on readily available clinical data to assist in the identification of trauma patients at risk for this complication. We also sought to determine the impact of UI on patient outcomes. This is a 3-year retrospective analysis of our Level 1 trauma center registry to identify all patients requiring a UI. Patients who required a UI were compared with patients who were never intubated. An additive risk index consisting of 10 clinical variables was created using the final significant variables from a stepwise logistic regression model. The sensitivity and specificity of every possible index score were calculated and added together to calculate the "gain in certainty" values. During the 3-year period, 7,552 patients were admitted, of whom 967 (12.8%) required intubation. Of these, 55 (5.7%) underwent a UI. The final risk index consisted of 10 variables as follows: age 55 years to 64 years, age 65 years or older, male sex, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 9 to 13, seizures, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, traumatic brain injury, four or more rib fractures, spine fractures, and long-bone fractures. Gain in certainty was maximized at an index score of 4, with the highest combined sensitivity and specificity of 86.0% and 74.9%, respectively. The probability of UI increased from 0.9% at a score of 1 to 2.9% at 4 and 43% at 9. UI was associated with increased overall complications, length of stay, and mortality (p the development of an additive risk index. Prospective validation of the risk index is potentially warranted. Diagnostic study, level III.

  11. Identifying risk factors associated with smear positivity of pulmonary tuberculosis in Kazakhstan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Hermosilla

    Full Text Available Sputum smear-positive tuberculosis (TB patients have a high risk of transmission and are of great epidemiological and infection control significance. Little is known about the smear-positive populations in high TB burden regions, such as Kazakhstan. The objective of this study is to characterize the smear-positive population in Kazakhstan and identify associated modifiable risk factors.Data on incident TB cases' (identified between April 2012 and March 2014 socio-demographic, risk behavior, and comorbidity characteristics were collected in four regions of Kazakhstan through structured survey and medical record review. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine factors associated with smear positivity.Of the total sample, 193 (34.3% of the 562 study participants tested smear-positive. In the final adjusted multivariable logistic regression model, sex (adjusted odds ratio (aOR = 2.0, 95% CI:1.3-3.1, p < 0.01, incarceration (aOR = 3.6, 95% CI:1.2-11.1, p = 0.03, alcohol dependence (aOR = 2.6, 95% CI:1.2-5.7, p = 0.02, diabetes (aOR = 5.0, 95% CI:2.4-10.7, p < 0.01, and physician access (aOR = 2.7, 95% CI:1.3-5.5p < 0.01 were associated with smear-positivity.Incarceration, alcohol dependence, diabetes, and physician access are associated with smear positivity among incident TB cases in Kazakhstan. To stem the TB epidemic, screening, treatment and prevention policies should address these factors.

  12. Cardiovascular risk assessment of dyslipidemic children: analysis of biomarkers to identify monogenic dyslipidemia[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Ana Margarida; Alves, Ana Catarina; Aguiar, Pedro; Bourbon, Mafalda

    2014-01-01

    The distinction between a monogenic dyslipidemia and a polygenic/environmental dyslipidemia is important for the cardiovascular risk assessment, counseling, and treatment of these patients. The present work aims to perform the cardiovascular risk assessment of dyslipidemic children to identify useful biomarkers for clinical criteria improvement in clinical settings. Main cardiovascular risk factors were analyzed in a cohort of 237 unrelated children with clinical diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). About 40% carried at least two cardiovascular risk factors and 37.6% had FH, presenting mutations in LDLR and APOB. FH children showed significant elevated atherogenic markers and lower concentration of antiatherogenic particles. Children without a molecular diagnosis of FH had higher levels of TGs, apoC2, apoC3, and higher frequency of BMI and overweight/obesity, suggesting that environmental factors can be the underlying cause of their hypercholesterolem≥ia. An apoB/apoA1 ratio ≥0.68 was identified as the best biomarker (area under the curve = 0.835) to differentiate FH from other dyslipidemias. The inclusion in clinical criteria of a higher cut-off point for LDL cholesterol or an apoB/apoA1 ratio ≥0.68 optimized the criteria sensitivity and specificity. The correct identification, at an early age, of all children at-risk is of great importance so that specific interventions can be implemented. apoB/apoA1 can improve the identification of FH patients. PMID:24627126

  13. Newly postulated neurodevelopmental risks of pediatric anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Stephen R; Deshpande, Jayant K

    2011-04-01

    Recent animal and human studies have raised concern that exposure to anesthetic agents in children may cause neuronal damage and be associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Exposure of young animals to anesthetic agents above threshold doses and durations during a critical neurodevelopmental window in the absence of concomitant painful stimuli causes widespread neuronal apoptosis and subsequent abnormal behaviors. The relevance of such animal data to humans is unknown. Untreated neonatal pain and stress also are associated with enhanced neuronal death and subsequent maladaptive behaviors, which can be prevented by exposure to these same anesthetic agents. Retrospective observational human studies have suggested a dose-dependent association between multiple anesthetic exposures in early childhood and subsequent learning disability, the causality of which is unknown. Ongoing prospective investigations are underway, the results of which may clarify if and what neurodevelopmental risks are associated with pediatric anesthesia. No change in current practice is yet indicated.

  14. Using Breast Cancer Risk Associated Polymorphisms to Identify Women for Breast Cancer Chemoprevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elad Ziv

    Full Text Available Breast cancer can be prevented with selective estrogen receptor modifiers (SERMs and aromatase inhibitors (AIs. The US Preventive Services Task Force recommends that women with a 5-year breast cancer risk ≥3% consider chemoprevention for breast cancer. More than 70 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs have been associated with breast cancer. We sought to determine how to best integrate risk information from SNPs with other risk factors to risk stratify women for chemoprevention.We used the risk distribution among women ages 35-69 estimated by the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC risk model. We modeled the effect of adding 70 SNPs to the BCSC model and examined how this would affect how many women are reclassified above and below the threshold for chemoprevention.We found that most of the benefit of SNP testing a population is achieved by testing a modest fraction of the population. For example, if women with a 5-year BCSC risk of >2.0% are tested (~21% of all women, ~75% of the benefit of testing all women (shifting women above or below 3% 5-year risk would be derived. If women with a 5-year risk of >1.5% are tested (~36% of all women, ~90% of the benefit of testing all women would be derived.SNP testing is effective for reclassification of women for chemoprevention, but is unlikely to reclassify women with <1.5% 5-year risk. These results can be used to implement an efficient two-step testing approach to identify high risk women who may benefit from chemoprevention.

  15. How can we identify low- and high-risk patients among unselected patients with possible acute coronary syndrome?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten Melgaard; Færgeman, Ole; Larsen, Mogens Lytken

    2007-01-01

    Objective Prognosis among patients admitted with possible acute coronary syndrome (ACS) may differ from that of patients with definite ACS. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for mortality among unselected patients and to use the statistical model to identify patients at low or high...... mortality risk. Methods From April 1, 2000, to March 31, 2002, we identified all consecutive patients aged 30 to 69 years admitted to the 2 coronary care units covering the municipality of Aarhus, Denmark (population, 138 290). ACS was considered a possible diagnosis if the physician at admission (1) had...

  16. Discontinuation risk comparison among 'real-world' newly anticoagulated atrial fibrillation patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lip, Gregory Y H; Pan, Xianying; Kamble, Shital

    2018-01-01

    Discontinuation of oral anticoagulants may expose non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) patients to an increased risk of stroke. This study describes the real-world discontinuation rates and compared the risk of drug discontinuation among NVAF patients initiating apixaban, warfarin, dabigatran,...

  17. Establishment probability in newly founded populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusset Markus

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Establishment success in newly founded populations relies on reaching the established phase, which is defined by characteristic fluctuations of the population’s state variables. Stochastic population models can be used to quantify the establishment probability of newly founded populations; however, so far no simple but robust method for doing so existed. To determine a critical initial number of individuals that need to be released to reach the established phase, we used a novel application of the “Wissel plot”, where –ln(1 – P0(t is plotted against time t. This plot is based on the equation P0t=1–c1e–ω1t, which relates the probability of extinction by time t, P0(t, to two constants: c1 describes the probability of a newly founded population to reach the established phase, whereas ω1 describes the population’s probability of extinction per short time interval once established. Results For illustration, we applied the method to a previously developed stochastic population model of the endangered African wild dog (Lycaon pictus. A newly founded population reaches the established phase if the intercept of the (extrapolated linear parts of the “Wissel plot” with the y-axis, which is –ln(c1, is negative. For wild dogs in our model, this is the case if a critical initial number of four packs, consisting of eight individuals each, are released. Conclusions The method we present to quantify the establishment probability of newly founded populations is generic and inferences thus are transferable to other systems across the field of conservation biology. In contrast to other methods, our approach disaggregates the components of a population’s viability by distinguishing establishment from persistence.

  18. Classification System for Identifying Women at Risk for Altered Partial Breast Irradiation Recommendations After Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalchik, Kristin V.; Vallow, Laura A.; McDonough, Michelle; Thomas, Colleen S.; Heckman, Michael G.; Peterson, Jennifer L.; Adkisson, Cameron D.; Serago, Christopher; McLaughlin, Sarah A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To study the utility of preoperative breast MRI for partial breast irradiation (PBI) patient selection, using multivariable analysis of significant risk factors to create a classification rule. Methods and Materials: Between 2002 and 2009, 712 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer underwent preoperative bilateral breast MRI at Mayo Clinic Florida. Of this cohort, 566 were retrospectively deemed eligible for PBI according to the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Protocol B-39 inclusion criteria using physical examination, mammogram, and/or ultrasound. Magnetic resonance images were then reviewed to determine their impact on patient eligibility. The patient and tumor characteristics were evaluated to determine risk factors for altered PBI eligibility after MRI and to create a classification rule. Results: Of the 566 patients initially eligible for PBI, 141 (25%) were found ineligible because of pathologically proven MRI findings. Magnetic resonance imaging detected additional ipsilateral breast cancer in 118 (21%). Of these, 62 (11%) had more extensive disease than originally noted before MRI, and 64 (11%) had multicentric disease. Contralateral breast cancer was detected in 28 (5%). Four characteristics were found to be significantly associated with PBI ineligibility after MRI on multivariable analysis: premenopausal status (P=.021), detection by palpation (P<.001), first-degree relative with a history of breast cancer (P=.033), and lobular histology (P=.002). Risk factors were assigned a score of 0-2. The risk of altered PBI eligibility from MRI based on number of risk factors was 0:18%; 1:22%; 2:42%; 3:65%. Conclusions: Preoperative bilateral breast MRI altered the PBI recommendations for 25% of women. Women who may undergo PBI should be considered for breast MRI, especially those with lobular histology or with 2 or more of the following risk factors: premenopausal, detection by palpation, and first-degree relative with a history of

  19. Baseline staging tests based on molecular subtype is necessary for newly diagnosed breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuesong; Sun, Lichun; Cong, Yingying; Zhang, Tingting; Lin, Qiushi; Meng, Qingwei; Pang, Hui; Zhao, Yanbin; Li, Yu; Cai, Li; Dong, Xiaoqun

    2014-03-17

    Bone scanning (BS), liver ultrasonography (LUS), and chest radiography (CXR) are commonly recommended for baseline staging in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate whether these tests are indicated for specific patient subpopulation based on clinical staging and molecular subtype. A retrospective study on 5406 patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer was conducted to identify differences in occurrence of metastasis based on clinical staging and molecular subtypes. All patients had been evaluated by BS, LUS and CXR at diagnosis. Complete information on clinical staging was available in 5184 patients. For stage I, II, and III, bone metastasis rate was 0%, 0.6% and 2.7%, respectively (P diagnosed breast cancer.

  20. PET CT Identifies Reactivation Risk in Cynomolgus Macaques with Latent M. tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philana Ling Lin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection presents across a spectrum in humans, from latent infection to active tuberculosis. Among those with latent tuberculosis, it is now recognized that there is also a spectrum of infection and this likely contributes to the variable risk of reactivation tuberculosis. Here, functional imaging with 18F-fluorodeoxygluose positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET CT of cynomolgus macaques with latent M. tuberculosis infection was used to characterize the features of reactivation after tumor necrosis factor (TNF neutralization and determine which imaging characteristics before TNF neutralization distinguish reactivation risk. PET CT was performed on latently infected macaques (n = 26 before and during the course of TNF neutralization and a separate set of latently infected controls (n = 25. Reactivation occurred in 50% of the latently infected animals receiving TNF neutralizing antibody defined as development of at least one new granuloma in adjacent or distant locations including extrapulmonary sites. Increased lung inflammation measured by PET and the presence of extrapulmonary involvement before TNF neutralization predicted reactivation with 92% sensitivity and specificity. To define the biologic features associated with risk of reactivation, we used these PET CT parameters to identify latently infected animals at high risk for reactivation. High risk animals had higher cumulative lung bacterial burden and higher maximum lesional bacterial burdens, and more T cells producing IL-2, IL-10 and IL-17 in lung granulomas as compared to low risk macaques. In total, these data support that risk of reactivation is associated with lung inflammation and higher bacterial burden in macaques with latent Mtb infection.

  1. Association Between Manual Loading and Newly Developed Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in Subjects With Physical Disabilities: A Follow-Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Nung; Chiu, Chun-Chieh; Huang, Shih-Wei; Hsu, Wen-Yen; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Chen, Yi-Wen; Chang, Kwang-Hwa

    2017-10-01

    To identify the association between body composition and newly developed carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and to search for the best probabilistic cutoff value of associated factors to predict subjects with physical disabilities developing new CTS. Longitudinal. University-affiliated medical center. Subjects with physical disabilities (N=47; mean age ± SD, 42.1±7.7y). Not applicable. Median and ulnar sensory nerve conduction velocity (SNCV) were measured at the initial and follow-up tests (interval >2y). Total and regional body composition were measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry at the initial test. Leg lean tissue percentage was calculated to delineate each participant's manual loading degree during locomotion. Leg lean tissue percentage is the lean tissue mass of both legs divided by body weight. Based on median SNCV changes, we divided all participants into 3 groups: subjects with bilateral CTS (median SNCV value normative ulnar SNCV value >37.8m/s) in the initial test (n=10), subjects with newly developed CTS in the follow-up test (n=8), and subjects without additional CTS in the follow-up test (n=27). Eight of 35 subjects not having bilateral CTS initially developed new CTS (8.8% per year; mean follow-up period, 2.6y). Leg lean tissue percentage was associated with the probability of newly developed CTS (adjusted odds ratio, .64; P12% were less likely to have developed new CTS at the follow-up test (sensitivity, .75; specificity, .85; area under the curve, .88; Pphysical disabilities. Therefore, a preventive program for those subjects at risk can start early. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Identifying Some Risk Factors for the Time to Death of the Elderly Using the Semi-Parametric Blended Model of Survival Analysis With Competing Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samane Hajiabbasi

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion In single-variable fitting, age, history of myocardial infarction, history of stroke, and kidney problems were identified to have significant effects on the time to death of the elderly. Based on one-variable semi-parametric competing risk mixture fitted models, more significant risk factors for the time to death of elderly was identified when compared with a fitted multivariate mode to the data. This implies that the role of some independent variables can be explained by other independent variables.

  3. The role of records management as a tool to identify risks in the public sector in South Africa

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    Mpho Ngoepe

    2014-06-01

    Objectives: The study utilised the King III report on corporate governance in South Africa as a framework to investigate the role of records management in identifying risks in the public sector, with a view to entrench the synergy between records management and risk management. Method: Quantitative data were collected through questionnaires distributed to records managers, risk managers and auditors in governmental bodies in South Africa. Provisions of the King III report, guided the research objectives. Results: Even though the study established that there is a reciprocal relationship between risk identification and records management, most governmental bodies in South Africa lack records management and risk-mitigating frameworks or strategy. Furthermore, records management did not feature in most governmental bodies’ risk registers. It has been established that most governmental bodies have established risk committees that do not include records management practitioners. In most governmental bodies, risk management resides within internal audit functions. Conclusion: The study concludes by arguing that a strong records management regime can be one of an organisation’s primary tools in identifying risks and implementing proper risk management. Therefore, records management should be integrated with risk management processes for organisations to benefit from the synergy.

  4. Spatial variation in risk and consequence of Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans introduction in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richgels, Katherine L. D.; Russell, Robin E.; Adams, Michael J.; White, C. LeAnn; Campbell Grant, Evan H.

    2016-01-01

    A newly identified fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal), is responsible for mass mortality events and severe population declines in European salamanders. The eastern USA has the highest diversity of salamanders in the world and the introduction of this pathogen is likely to be devastating. Although data are inevitably limited for new pathogens, disease-risk assessments use best available data to inform management decisions. Using characteristics of Bsal ecology, spatial data on imports and pet trade establishments, and salamander species diversity, we identify high-risk areas with both a high likelihood of introduction and severe consequences for local salamanders. We predict that the Pacific coast, southern Appalachian Mountains and mid-Atlantic regions will have the highest relative risk from Bsal. Management of invasive pathogens becomes difficult once they are established in wildlife populations; therefore, import restrictions to limit pathogen introduction and early detection through surveillance of high-risk areas are priorities for preventing the next crisis for North American salamanders.

  5. [Identifying clinical risk factors in recurrent idiopathic deep venous thrombosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Río Solá, M Lourdes; González Fajardo, José Antonio; Vaquero Puerta, Carlos

    2016-03-18

    Oral anticoagulant therapy for more than 6 months in patients with an episode of idiopathic thromboembolic disease is controversial. The objective was to determine predictive clinical signs that identify patients at increased risk of thromboembolic recurrence after stopping anticoagulant therapy for 6 months after an episode of idiopathic deep vein thrombosis (DVT). A prospective study which included 306 consecutive patients with a first episode of idiopathic DVT from June 2012 to June 2014. Predictor variables of recurrent thromboembolic disease and episodes of recurrence during follow-up of the patients (28.42 months) were collected. We performed a multivariate analysis to analyze possible predictors (Pthrombus (P=.001) in males, and persistence of residual thrombus in women (P=.046). The mean recurrence-free survival was shorter in both groups. The presence of echogenic thrombus in men and the existence of residual DVT in women were 2 clinical signs associated with increased risk of thromboembolic recurrence after stopping anticoagulant therapy for 6 months after an episode of idiopathic DVT in our study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluating genome-wide association study-identified breast cancer risk variants in African-American women.

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    Jirong Long

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS, conducted mostly in European or Asian descendants, have identified approximately 67 genetic susceptibility loci for breast cancer. Given the large differences in genetic architecture between the African-ancestry genome and genomes of Asians and Europeans, it is important to investigate these loci in African-ancestry populations. We evaluated index SNPs in all 67 breast cancer susceptibility loci identified to date in our study including up to 3,300 African-American women (1,231 cases and 2,069 controls, recruited in the Southern Community Cohort Study (SCCS and the Nashville Breast Health Study (NBHS. Seven SNPs were statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05 with the risk of overall breast cancer in the same direction as previously reported: rs10069690 (5p15/TERT, rs999737 (14q24/RAD51L1, rs13387042 (2q35/TNP1, rs1219648 (10q26/FGFR2, rs8170 (19p13/BABAM1, rs17817449 (16q12/FTO, and rs13329835 (16q23/DYL2. A marginally significant association (P<0.10 was found for three additional SNPs: rs1045485 (2q33/CASP8, rs4849887 (2q14/INHBB, and rs4808801 (19p13/ELL. Three additional SNPs, including rs1011970 (9p21/CDKN2A/2B, rs941764 (14q32/CCDC88C, and rs17529111 (6q14/FAM46A, showed a significant association in analyses conducted by breast cancer subtype. The risk of breast cancer was elevated with an increasing number of risk variants, as measured by quintile of the genetic risk score, from 1.00 (reference, to 1.75 (1.30-2.37, 1.56 (1.15-2.11, 2.02 (1.50-2.74 and 2.63 (1.96-3.52, respectively, (P = 7.8 × 10(-10. Results from this study highlight the need for large genetic studies in AAs to identify risk variants impacting this population.

  7. How to Identify High-Risk APS Patients: Clinical Utility and Predictive Values of Validated Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oku, Kenji; Amengual, Olga; Yasuda, Shinsuke; Atsumi, Tatsuya

    2017-08-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a clinical disorder characterised by thrombosis and/or pregnancy morbidity in the persistence of antiphospholipid (aPL) antibodies that are pathogenic and have pro-coagulant activities. Thrombosis in APS tends to recur and require prophylaxis; however, the stereotypical treatment for APS patients is inadequate and stratification of the thrombotic risks is important as aPL are prevalently observed in various diseases or elderly population. It is previously known that the multiple positive aPL or high titre aPL correlate to thrombotic events. To progress the stratification of thrombotic risks in APS patients and to quantitatively analyse those risks, antiphospholipid score (aPL-S) and the Global Anti-phospholipid Syndrome Score (GAPSS) were defined. These scores were raised from the large patient cohort data and either aPL profile classified in detail (aPL-S) or simplified aPL profile with classical thrombotic risk factors (GAPSS) was put into a scoring system. Both the aPL-S and GAPSS have shown a degree of accuracy in identifying high-risk APS patients, especially those at a high risk of thrombosis. However, there are several areas requiring improvement, or at least that clinicians should be aware of, before these instruments are applied in clinical practice. One such issue is standardisation of the aPL tests, including general testing of phosphatidylserine-dependent antiprothrombin antibodies (aPS/PT). Additionally, clinicians may need to be aware of the patient's medical history, particularly with respect to the incidence of SLE, which influences the cutoff value for identifying high-risk patients.

  8. Prevalence of HIV in pregnant women identified with a risk factor at a tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Ghazala; Abbas, Shazra

    2009-01-01

    HIV is an epidemic quite unlike any other, combining the problems of a lifelong medical disease with immense social, psychological, economic and public health consequences. Since we are living in a global village where human interactions has become fast and frequent, diseases like HIV are no more alien to us. HIV/AIDS in Pakistan is slowly gaining recognition as a public health issue of great importance. Objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of HIV in pregnant women identified with a high risk factor/behaviour at a tertiary care hospital. It is a Descriptive study. All pregnant women attending antenatal booking clinic were assessed via a pre-designed 'Risk assessment questionnaire'. Women identified with a risk factor were offered HIV Rapid screening test (Capillus HIV1/2). Positive (reactive) results on screening test were confirmed with ELISA. During the study period (March 2007-May 2008), out of 5263 antenatal bookings 785 (14%) women were identified with a risk factor. HIV screening test was done in 779 (99%), and 6 women refused testing. Three women (0.3%) were found positive (reactive) on screening. Two out of 3 women were confirmed positive (0.2%) on ELISA. Husbands of both women were tested and one found positive (migrant from Dubai). Second women had history of blood transfusion. Her husband was HIV negative. During the study period, in addition to 2 pregnant women diagnosed as HIV positive through ANC risk screening, 6 confirmed HIV positive women, found pregnant were referred from 'HIV Treatment Centre', Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS) to Prevention of Parent to Child Transmission (PPTCT) centre for obstetric care. Spouses of 5 out of 6 had history of working abroad and extramarital sexual relationships. All positive (8) women were referred to PPTCT centre for further management. A simple 'Risk Assessment Questionnaire' can help us in identifying women who need HIV screening. Sexual transmission still remains the

  9. Subclassification of newly diagnosed glioblastomas through an immunohistochemical approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhan Conroy

    Full Text Available Molecular signatures in Glioblastoma (GBM have been described that correlate with clinical outcome and response to therapy. The Proneural (PN and Mesenchymal (MES signatures have been identified most consistently, but others including Classical (CLAS have also been reported. The molecular signatures have been detected by array techniques at RNA and DNA level, but these methods are costly and cannot take into account individual contributions of different cells within a tumor. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether subclasses of newly diagnosed GBMs could be assessed and assigned by application of standard pathology laboratory procedures. 123 newly diagnosed GBMs were analyzed for the tumor cell expression of 23 pre-identified proteins and EGFR amplification, together allowing for the subclassification of 65% of the tumors. Immunohistochemistry (IHC-based profiling was found to be analogous to transcription-based profiling using a 9-gene transcriptional signature for PN and MES subclasses. Based on these data a novel, minimal IHC-based scheme for subclass assignment for GBMs is proposed. Positive staining for IDH1R132H can be used for PN subclass assignment, high EGFR expression for the CLAS subtype and a combined high expression of PTEN, VIM and/or YKL40 for the MES subclass. The application of the proposed scheme was evaluated in an independent tumor set, which resulted in similar subclass assignment rates as those observed in the training set. The IHC-based subclassification scheme proposed in this study therefore could provide very useful in future studies for stratification of individual patient samples.

  10. Screening for type 2 diabetes in a multiethnic setting using known risk factors to identify those at high risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gray, Laura J.; Tringham, Jennifer R.; Davies, Melanie J.

    2010-01-01

    population to identify those with abnormal glucose tolerance. ethods: A sample of individuals aged 25-75 years (40-75 white European) with at least one risk factor for T2DM were invited for screening from 17 Leicestershire (UK) general practices or through a health awareness campaign. All participants...... received a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, cardiovascular risk assessment, detailed medical and family histories and anthropometric measurements. Results: In the 3,225 participants who were screened. 640 (20%) were found to have some form of abnormal glucose tolerance of whom 4% had T2DM, 3% impaired...

  11. Identifying barriers to and facilitators of tuberculosis contact investigation in Kampala, Uganda: a behavioral approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayakaka, Irene; Ackerman, Sara; Ggita, Joseph M; Kajubi, Phoebe; Dowdy, David; Haberer, Jessica E; Fair, Elizabeth; Hopewell, Philip; Handley, Margaret A; Cattamanchi, Adithya; Katamba, Achilles; Davis, J Lucian

    2017-03-09

    The World Health Organization recommends routine household tuberculosis contact investigation in high-burden countries but adoption has been limited. We sought to identify barriers to and facilitators of TB contact investigation during its introduction in Kampala, Uganda. We collected cross-sectional qualitative data through focus group discussions and interviews with stakeholders, addressing three core activities of contact investigation: arranging household screening visits through index TB patients, visiting households to screen contacts and refer them to clinics, and evaluating at-risk contacts coming to clinics. We analyzed the data using a validated theory of behavior change, the Capability, Opportunity, and Motivation determine Behavior (COM-B) model, and sought to identify targeted interventions using the related Behavior Change Wheel implementation framework. We led seven focus-group discussions with 61 health-care workers, two with 21 lay health workers (LHWs), and one with four household contacts of newly diagnosed TB patients. We, in addition, performed 32 interviews with household contacts from 14 households of newly diagnosed TB patients. Commonly noted barriers included stigma, limited knowledge about TB among contacts, insufficient time and space in clinics for counselling, mistrust of health-center staff among index patients and contacts, and high travel costs for LHWs and contacts. The most important facilitators identified were the personalized and enabling services provided by LHWs. We identified education, persuasion, enablement, modeling of health-positive behaviors, incentivization, and restructuring of the service environment as relevant intervention functions with potential to alleviate barriers to and enhance facilitators of TB contact investigation. The use of a behavioral theory and a validated implementation framework provided a comprehensive approach for systematically identifying barriers to and facilitators of TB contact

  12. Identifying high-risk medication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sædder, Eva; Brock, Birgitte; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2014-01-01

    salicylic acid, and beta-blockers; 30 drugs or drug classes caused 82 % of all serious MEs. The top ten drugs involved in fatal events accounted for 73 % of all drugs identified. CONCLUSION: Increasing focus on seven drugs/drug classes can potentially reduce hospitalizations, extended hospitalizations...

  13. Identifying Children at Risk for Language Impairment or Dyslexia with Group-Administered Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlof, Suzanne M.; Scoggins, Joanna; Brazendale, Allison; Babb, Spencer; Petscher, Yaacov

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The study aims to determine whether brief, group-administered screening measures can reliably identify second-grade children at risk for language impairment (LI) or dyslexia and to examine the degree to which parents of affected children were aware of their children's difficulties. Method: Participants (N = 381) completed screening tasks…

  14. Assessment by Employers of Newly Graduated Civil Engineers from the Islamic University of Gaza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enshassi, Adnan; Hassouna, Ahmed

    2005-01-01

    The evaluation process is very important to identify and recognize the strengths and the weaknesses of graduated students. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the performance of the newly graduated civil engineers from the Islamic University of Gaza in Palestine. The methodology was based on questionnaires and informal interview. The…

  15. Strategies to Identify the Lynch Syndrome Among Patients With Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladabaum, Uri; Wang, Grace; Terdiman, Jonathan; Blanco, Amie; Kuppermann, Miriam; Boland, C. Richard; Ford, James; Elkin, Elena; Phillips, Kathryn A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Testing has been advocated for all persons with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer to identify families with the Lynch syndrome, an autosomal dominant cancer-predisposition syndrome that is a paradigm for personalized medicine. Objective To estimate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of strategies to identify the Lynch syndrome, with attention to sex, age at screening, and differential effects for probands and relatives. Design Markov model that incorporated risk for colorectal, endometrial, and ovarian cancers. Data Sources Published literature. Target Population All persons with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer and their relatives. Time Horizon Lifetime. Perspective Third-party payer. Intervention Strategies based on clinical criteria, prediction algorithms, tumor testing, or up-front germline mutation testing, followed by tailored screening and risk-reducing surgery. Outcome Measures Life-years, cancer cases and deaths, costs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Results of Base-Case Analysis The benefit of all strategies accrued primarily to relatives with a mutation associated with the Lynch syndrome, particularly women, whose life expectancy could increase by approximately 4 years with hysterectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy and adherence to colorectal cancer screening recommendations. At current rates of germline testing, screening, and prophylactic surgery, the strategies reduced deaths from colorectal cancer by 7% to 42% and deaths from endometrial and ovarian cancer by 1% to 6%. Among tumor-testing strategies, immunohistochemistry followed by BRAF mutation testing was preferred, with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $36 200 per life-year gained. Results of Sensitivity Analysis The number of relatives tested per proband was a critical determinant of both effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, with testing of 3 to 4 relatives required for most strategies to meet a threshold of $50 000 per life-year gained. Immunohistochemistry

  16. Detection of previously undiagnosed cases of COPD in a high-risk population identified in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke, Anders; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Dahl, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aim: Under-diagnosis of COPD is a widespread problem. This study aimed to identify previously undiagnosed cases of COPD in a high-risk population identified through general practice. Methods: Participating GPs (n = 241) recruited subjects with no previous diagnosis of lung disease,...

  17. Methyldibromo glutaronitrile: clinical experience and exposure-based risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariae, Claus; Rastogi, Suresh; Devantier, Charlotte; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2003-03-01

    In the year 2000, the level of methyldibromo glutaronitrile (MDGN) allergy in dermatology clinics in Europe exceeded the level of allergies to all other preservatives, with a prevalence of 3.5%. In the present study, cases of primary sensitization and elicitation to MDGN due to cosmetic products were collected over an 8-month period at the Department of Dermatology, Gentofte University Hospital. The aim was to identify the products related to hand eczema, assess exposure to MDGN in these products and relate the findings to results from a newly developed updated risk assessment model for contact allergy. Out of 24 patients with a positive patch test to MDGN, 17 patients with hand eczema were identified. In 11 of these patients, cosmetic products used in relation to the onset of the disease were shown to contain MDGN (65%). In 8 of these 11 cases, primary sensitization was probable, 5 due to hand/body lotions and 3 due to lotions and/or liquid hand soap. Chemical analysis of 12 products showed that lotions contained 149-390 ppm of MDGN, liquid hand soap 144-399 ppm, a rinsing cream 293 ppm and shampoos 78-79 ppm. The shampoo exposure was not of certain relevance to the eczema. Applying the newly developed updated risk assessment model showed that the concentrations of MDGN in lotions of 149-390 ppm exceeded the calculated maximum acceptable exposure level for MDGN, which would be expected to lead to sensitization in consumers using such products, as seen in the current study. The present cases and updated exposure-based risk assessment process add to the evidence and need for re-defining safe-use concentrations of MDGN in cosmetic products.

  18. The subject of pedagogy from theory to practice--the view of newly registered nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivarsson, Bodil; Nilsson, Gunilla

    2009-07-01

    The aim was to describe, from the newly registered nurses' perspective, specific events when using their pedagogical knowledge in their everyday clinical practice. The design was qualitative and the critical incident technique was used. Data was collected via interviews with ten newly registered nurses who graduated from the same University program 10 months earlier and are now employed at a university hospital. Two categories emerged in the analyses. The first category was "Pedagogical methods in theory" with the sub-categories Theory and the application of the course in practice, Knowledge of pedagogy and Information as a professional competence. The second category was "Pedagogical methods in everyday clinical practice" with sub-categories Factual knowledge versus pedagogical knowledge, Information and relatives, Difficulties when giving information, Understanding information received, Pedagogical tools, Collaboration in teams in pedagogical situations, and Time and giving information. By identifying specific events regarding pedagogical methods the findings can be useful for everyone from teachers and health-care managers to nurse students and newly registered nurses, to improve teaching methods in nurse education.

  19. Predicting performance at medical school: can we identify at-risk students?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaban S

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Sami Shaban, Michelle McLeanDepartment of Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab EmiratesBackground: The purpose of this study was to examine the predictive potential of multiple indicators (eg, preadmission scores, unit, module and clerkship grades, course and examination scores on academic performance at medical school, with a view to identifying students at risk.Methods: An analysis was undertaken of medical student grades in a 6-year medical school program at the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates, over the past 14 years.Results: While high school scores were significantly (P < 0.001 correlated with the final integrated examination, predictability was only 6.8%. Scores for the United Arab Emirates university placement assessment (Common Educational Proficiency Assessment were only slightly more promising as predictors with 14.9% predictability for the final integrated examination. Each unit or module in the first four years was highly correlated with the next unit or module, with 25%–60% predictability. Course examination scores (end of years 2, 4, and 6 were significantly correlated (P < 0.001 with the average scores in that 2-year period (59.3%, 64.8%, and 55.8% predictability, respectively. Final integrated examination scores were significantly correlated (P < 0.001 with National Board of Medical Examiners scores (35% predictability. Multivariate linear regression identified key grades with the greatest predictability of the final integrated examination score at three stages in the program.Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that it may be possible to identify “at-risk” students relatively early in their studies through continuous data archiving and regular analysis. The data analysis techniques used in this study are not unique to this institution.Keywords: at-risk students, grade

  20. The Laboratory-Based Intermountain Validated Exacerbation (LIVE Score Identifies Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients at High Mortality Risk

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    Denitza P. Blagev

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Identifying COPD patients at high risk for mortality or healthcare utilization remains a challenge. A robust system for identifying high-risk COPD patients using Electronic Health Record (EHR data would empower targeting interventions aimed at ensuring guideline compliance and multimorbidity management. The purpose of this study was to empirically derive, validate, and characterize subgroups of COPD patients based on routinely collected clinical data widely available within the EHR.Methods: Cluster analysis was used in 5,006 patients with COPD at Intermountain to identify clusters based on a large collection of clinical variables. Recursive Partitioning (RP was then used to determine a preferred tree that assigned patients to clusters based on a parsimonious variable subset. The mortality, COPD exacerbations, and comorbidity profile of the identified groups were examined. The findings were validated in an independent Intermountain cohort and in external cohorts from the United States Veterans Affairs (VA and University of Chicago Medicine systems.Measurements and Main Results: The RP algorithm identified five LIVE Scores based on laboratory values: albumin, creatinine, chloride, potassium, and hemoglobin. The groups were characterized by increasing risk of mortality. The lowest risk, LIVE Score 5 had 8% 4-year mortality vs. 56% in the highest risk LIVE Score 1 (p < 0.001. These findings were validated in the VA cohort (n = 83,134, an expanded Intermountain cohort (n = 48,871 and in the University of Chicago system (n = 3,236. Higher mortality groups also had higher COPD exacerbation rates and comorbidity rates.Conclusions: In large clinical datasets across different organizations, the LIVE Score utilizes existing laboratory data for COPD patients, and may be used to stratify risk for mortality and COPD exacerbations.

  1. Robust Intratumor Partitioning to Identify High-Risk Subregions in Lung Cancer: A Pilot Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jia; Gensheimer, Michael F.; Dong, Xinzhe; Rubin, Daniel L.; Napel, Sandy; Diehn, Maximilian; Loo, Billy W.; Li, Ruijiang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an intratumor partitioning framework for identifying high-risk subregions from "1"8F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and computed tomography (CT) imaging and to test whether tumor burden associated with the high-risk subregions is prognostic of outcomes in lung cancer. Methods and Materials: In this institutional review board–approved retrospective study, we analyzed the pretreatment FDG-PET and CT scans of 44 lung cancer patients treated with radiation therapy. A novel, intratumor partitioning method was developed, based on a 2-stage clustering process: first at the patient level, each tumor was over-segmented into many superpixels by k-means clustering of integrated PET and CT images; next, tumor subregions were identified by merging previously defined superpixels via population-level hierarchical clustering. The volume associated with each of the subregions was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis regarding its prognostic capability in predicting overall survival (OS) and out-of-field progression (OFP). Results: Three spatially distinct subregions were identified within each tumor that were highly robust to uncertainty in PET/CT co-registration. Among these, the volume of the most metabolically active and metabolically heterogeneous solid component of the tumor was predictive of OS and OFP on the entire cohort, with a concordance index or CI of 0.66-0.67. When restricting the analysis to patients with stage III disease (n=32), the same subregion achieved an even higher CI of 0.75 (hazard ratio 3.93, log-rank P=.002) for predicting OS, and a CI of 0.76 (hazard ratio 4.84, log-rank P=.002) for predicting OFP. In comparison, conventional imaging markers, including tumor volume, maximum standardized uptake value, and metabolic tumor volume using threshold of 50% standardized uptake value maximum, were not predictive of OS or OFP, with CI mostly below 0.60 (log-rank P>.05). Conclusion: We propose a robust intratumor

  2. Robust Intratumor Partitioning to Identify High-Risk Subregions in Lung Cancer: A Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jia; Gensheimer, Michael F.; Dong, Xinzhe [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Rubin, Daniel L. [Department of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Department of Medicine (Biomedical Informatics Research), Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Napel, Sandy [Department of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Diehn, Maximilian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Loo, Billy W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Li, Ruijiang, E-mail: rli2@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Purpose: To develop an intratumor partitioning framework for identifying high-risk subregions from {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and computed tomography (CT) imaging and to test whether tumor burden associated with the high-risk subregions is prognostic of outcomes in lung cancer. Methods and Materials: In this institutional review board–approved retrospective study, we analyzed the pretreatment FDG-PET and CT scans of 44 lung cancer patients treated with radiation therapy. A novel, intratumor partitioning method was developed, based on a 2-stage clustering process: first at the patient level, each tumor was over-segmented into many superpixels by k-means clustering of integrated PET and CT images; next, tumor subregions were identified by merging previously defined superpixels via population-level hierarchical clustering. The volume associated with each of the subregions was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis regarding its prognostic capability in predicting overall survival (OS) and out-of-field progression (OFP). Results: Three spatially distinct subregions were identified within each tumor that were highly robust to uncertainty in PET/CT co-registration. Among these, the volume of the most metabolically active and metabolically heterogeneous solid component of the tumor was predictive of OS and OFP on the entire cohort, with a concordance index or CI of 0.66-0.67. When restricting the analysis to patients with stage III disease (n=32), the same subregion achieved an even higher CI of 0.75 (hazard ratio 3.93, log-rank P=.002) for predicting OS, and a CI of 0.76 (hazard ratio 4.84, log-rank P=.002) for predicting OFP. In comparison, conventional imaging markers, including tumor volume, maximum standardized uptake value, and metabolic tumor volume using threshold of 50% standardized uptake value maximum, were not predictive of OS or OFP, with CI mostly below 0.60 (log-rank P>.05). Conclusion: We propose a robust

  3. High-density genotyping of immune loci in Koreans and Europeans identifies eight new rheumatoid arthritis risk loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwangwoo; Bang, So-Young; Lee, Hye-Soon; Cho, Soo-Kyung; Choi, Chan-Bum; Sung, Yoon-Kyoung; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Jun, Jae-Bum; Yoo, Dae Hyun; Kang, Young Mo; Kim, Seong-Kyu; Suh, Chang-Hee; Shim, Seung-Cheol; Lee, Shin-Seok; Lee, Jisoo; Chung, Won Tae; Choe, Jung-Yoon; Shin, Hyoung Doo; Lee, Jong-Young; Han, Bok-Ghee; Nath, Swapan K; Eyre, Steve; Bowes, John; Pappas, Dimitrios A; Kremer, Joel M; Gonzalez-Gay, Miguel A; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Luis; Ärlestig, Lisbeth; Okada, Yukinori; Diogo, Dorothée; Liao, Katherine P; Karlson, Elizabeth W; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Martin, Javier; Klareskog, Lars; Padyukov, Leonid; Gregersen, Peter K; Worthington, Jane; Greenberg, Jeffrey D; Plenge, Robert M; Bae, Sang-Cheol

    2015-03-01

    A highly polygenic aetiology and high degree of allele-sharing between ancestries have been well elucidated in genetic studies of rheumatoid arthritis. Recently, the high-density genotyping array Immunochip for immune disease loci identified 14 new rheumatoid arthritis risk loci among individuals of European ancestry. Here, we aimed to identify new rheumatoid arthritis risk loci using Korean-specific Immunochip data. We analysed Korean rheumatoid arthritis case-control samples using the Immunochip and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) array to search for new risk alleles of rheumatoid arthritis with anticitrullinated peptide antibodies. To increase power, we performed a meta-analysis of Korean data with previously published European Immunochip and GWAS data for a total sample size of 9299 Korean and 45,790 European case-control samples. We identified eight new rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility loci (TNFSF4, LBH, EOMES, ETS1-FLI1, COG6, RAD51B, UBASH3A and SYNGR1) that passed a genome-wide significance threshold (p<5×10(-8)), with evidence for three independent risk alleles at 1q25/TNFSF4. The risk alleles from the seven new loci except for the TNFSF4 locus (monomorphic in Koreans), together with risk alleles from previously established RA risk loci, exhibited a high correlation of effect sizes between ancestries. Further, we refined the number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that represent potentially causal variants through a trans-ethnic comparison of densely genotyped SNPs. This study demonstrates the advantage of dense-mapping and trans-ancestral analysis for identification of potentially causal SNPs. In addition, our findings support the importance of T cells in the pathogenesis and the fact of frequent overlap of risk loci among diverse autoimmune diseases. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Risk factors identified for certain lymphoma subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a large international collaborative analysis of risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), scientists were able to quantify risk associated with medical history, lifestyle factors, family history of blood or lymph-borne cancers, and occupation for 11

  5. How Schools Can Promote Healthy Development for Newly Arrived Immigrant and Refugee Adolescents: Research Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeely, Clea A.; Morland, Lyn; Doty, S. Benjamin; Meschke, Laurie L.; Awad, Summer; Husain, Altaf; Nashwan, Ayat

    2017-01-01

    Background: The US education system must find creative and effective ways to foster the healthy development of the approximately 2 million newly arrived immigrant and refugee adolescents, many of whom contend with language barriers, limited prior education, trauma, and discrimination. We identify research priorities for promoting the school…

  6. Newly diagnosed hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with advanced hepatitis C treated with DAAs: A prospective population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Antonietta; Angeli, Paolo; Piovesan, Sara; Noventa, Franco; Anastassopoulos, Georgios; Chemello, Liliana; Cavalletto, Luisa; Gambato, Martina; Russo, Francesco Paolo; Burra, Patrizia; Vincenzi, Valter; Scotton, Pier Giorgio; Panese, Sandro; Tempesta, Diego; Bertin, Tosca; Carrara, Maurizio; Carlotto, Antonio; Capra, Franco; Carolo, Giada; Scroccaro, Giovanna; Alberti, Alfredo

    2018-03-16

    Direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) are safe and effective in patients with hepatitis C. Conflicting data were reported on the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) during/after therapy with DAAs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of newly diagnosed HCC and associated risk factors in patients with advanced hepatitis C treated with DAAs. The study is based on the NAVIGATORE platform, a prospectively recording database of all patients with hepatitis C receiving DAAs in the Veneto region of Italy. The inclusion criteria were: fibrosis stage ≥F3. The exclusion criteria were: Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP)-C, liver transplantation before DAAs, history or presence of HCC, follow-up hepatocarcinoma during the first year is not higher, and might be lower, than that of untreated patients. The risk further declines thereafter. Early hepatocarcinoma appearance may reflect pre-existing, microscopic, undetectable tumors. Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the complications of hepatitis C related cirrhosis. Treating patients with advanced hepatitis C with the new interferon-free direct-acting antiviral agents has been associated with improvement in liver function and survival, while more conflicting data have been reported regarding the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. We report the results of a prospective population study on the incidence of newly diagnosed hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with advanced hepatitis C treated with direct-acting antiviral agents, clearly indicating that the residual hepatocellular carcinoma risk is reduced and declines progressively with time after a sustained virological response. Development of a liver tumor during/after therapy was associated with known risk factors and with virological failure. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Fatigue associated with newly approved vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in cancer patients: an up-to-date meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Gu, Jian

    2017-10-01

    The fatigue associated with five newly approved vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (VEGFR-TKIs) (regorafenib, vandetanib, cabozantinib, lenvatinib, axitinib) is poorly understood. We conducted this systematic review to fully investigate the fatigue associated with these VEGFR-TKIs in cancer patients. Relevant studies of randomized controlled trials in cancer patients treated with the five VEGFR-TKIs were retrieved and a systematic evaluation was conducted. EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PubMed were searched for articles published until March 2017. Thirteen randomized controlled trials and 4395 patients were included. The current analysis suggested that the use of five newly approved VEGFR-TKIs increased the risk of all-grade fatigue (1.43; 95% CI 1.23-1.66; p fatigue (1.97; 95% CI1.44-2.70; p fatigue varied significantly within drug type, but high-grade fatigue did not. The RR of all-grade and high-grade fatigue did not vary significantly according to cancer type, treatment line, and treatment duration. The risk of high-grade fatigue may vary with treatment duration, whereas all-grade fatigue may not. The available data suggest that the use of the five newly approved VEGFR-TKIs is associated with a significantly increased risk of fatigue in cancer patients. Physicians should be aware of this adverse effect and should monitor cancer patients receiving these drugs.

  8. Maintaining Professional Commitment as a Newly Credentialed Athletic Trainer in the Secondary School Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Myers, Sarah L; Walker, Stacy E; Kirby, Jessica

    2018-03-01

      Professional commitment, or one's affinity and loyalty to a career, has become a topic of interest in athletic training. The expanding research on the topic, however, has omitted newly credentialed athletic trainers (ATs). For an impressionable group of practitioners, transitioning to clinical practice can be stressful.   To explore the professional commitment of newly credentialed ATs in the secondary school setting.   Secondary school.   Qualitative study.   A total of 31 newly credentialed ATs (6 men, 25 women; mean age = 24 ± 3 years) participated. Of these, 17 ATs (4 men, 13 women; mean age = 25 ± 4 years) were employed full time in the secondary school setting, and 14 ATs (2 men, 12 women; mean age = 23.0 ± 2.0 years) were graduate assistant students in the secondary school setting.   All participants completed semistructured interviews, which focused on their experiences in the secondary school setting and transitioning into the role and setting. Transcripts were analyzed using the phenomenologic approach. Creditability was established by peer review, member checks, and researcher triangulation.   Four main findings related to the professional commitment of newly credentialed ATs in the secondary school setting were identified. Work-life balance, professional relationships formed with the student-athletes, enjoyment gained from working in the secondary school setting, and professional responsibility emerged as factors facilitating commitment.   Affective commitment is a primary facilitator of professional commitment. Newly credentialed ATs who enjoy their jobs and have time to engage in nonwork roles are able to maintain a positive professional commitment. Our findings align with the previous literature and help strengthen our understanding that rejuvenation and passion are important to professional commitment.

  9. Identifying at-risk profiles and protective factors for problem gambling: A longitudinal study across adolescence and early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allami, Youssef; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Carbonneau, René; Tremblay, Richard E

    2018-05-01

    Past studies have identified various risk and protective factors for problem gambling (PG). However, no study has examined the interplay between these factors using a combination of person-centered and variable-centered approaches embedded within a longitudinal design. The present study aimed to (a) identify distinct profiles in early adolescence based on a set of risk factors commonly associated with PG (impulsivity, depression, anxiety, drug-alcohol use, aggressiveness, and antisociality), (b) explore the difference in reported gambling problems between these profiles during midadolescence and early adulthood, and (c) identify family- and peer-related variables that could operate as protective or compensatory factors in this context. Two samples were used: (a) a population sample (N = 1,033) living in low socioeconomic-status neighborhoods and (b) a population sample (N = 3,017) representative of students attending Quebec schools. Latent profile analyses were conducted to identify at-risk profiles based on individual risk factors measured at age 12 years. Negative binomial regression models were estimated to compare profiles in terms of their reported gambling problems at ages 16 and 23. Finally, family- and peer-related variables measured at age 14 were included to test their protective or compensatory role with respect to the link between at-risk profiles and gambling problems. Four profiles were identified: well-adjusted, internalizing, externalizing, and comorbid. Compared to the well-adjusted profile, the externalizing and comorbid profiles reported more gambling problems at ages 16 and 23, but the internalizing profile did not differ significantly. Various protective and compensatory factors emerged for each profile at both time points. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. [Predicting individual risk of high healthcare cost to identify complex chronic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coderch, Jordi; Sánchez-Pérez, Inma; Ibern, Pere; Carreras, Marc; Pérez-Berruezo, Xavier; Inoriza, José M

    2014-01-01

    To develop a predictive model for the risk of high consumption of healthcare resources, and assess the ability of the model to identify complex chronic patients. A cross-sectional study was performed within a healthcare management organization by using individual data from 2 consecutive years (88,795 people). The dependent variable consisted of healthcare costs above the 95th percentile (P95), including all services provided by the organization and pharmaceutical consumption outside of the institution. The predictive variables were age, sex, morbidity-based on clinical risk groups (CRG)-and selected data from previous utilization (use of hospitalization, use of high-cost drugs in ambulatory care, pharmaceutical expenditure). A univariate descriptive analysis was performed. We constructed a logistic regression model with a 95% confidence level and analyzed sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values (PPV), and the area under the ROC curve (AUC). Individuals incurring costs >P95 accumulated 44% of total healthcare costs and were concentrated in ACRG3 (aggregated CRG level 3) categories related to multiple chronic diseases. All variables were statistically significant except for sex. The model had a sensitivity of 48.4% (CI: 46.9%-49.8%), specificity of 97.2% (CI: 97.0%-97.3%), PPV of 46.5% (CI: 45.0%-47.9%), and an AUC of 0.897 (CI: 0.892 to 0.902). High consumption of healthcare resources is associated with complex chronic morbidity. A model based on age, morbidity, and prior utilization is able to predict high-cost risk and identify a target population requiring proactive care. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Using in vivo corneal confocal microscopy to identify diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy risk profiles in patients with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Evan J H; Perkins, Bruce A; Lovblom, Lief E; Bazinet, Richard P; Wolever, Thomas M S; Bril, Vera

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy (DSP) is the most prevalent complication in diabetes mellitus. Identifying DSP risk is essential for intervening early in the natural history of the disease. Small nerve fibers are affected earliest in the disease progression and evidence of this damage can be identified using in vivo corneal confocal microscopy (IVCCM). We applied IVCCM to a cohort of 40 patients with type 1 diabetes to identify their DSP risk profile. We measured standard IVCCM parameters including corneal nerve fiber length (CNFL), and performed nerve conduction studies and quantitative sensory testing. 40 patients (53% female), with a mean age of 48±14, BMI 28.1±5.8, and diabetes duration of 27±18 years were enrolled between March 2014 and June 2015. Mean IVCCM CNFL was 12.0±5.2 mm/mm 2 (normal ≥15 mm/mm 2 ). Ten patients (26%) without DSP were identified as being at risk of future DSP with mean CNFL 11.0±2.1 mm/mm 2 . Six patients (15%) were at low risk of future DSP with mean CNFL 19.0±4.6 mm/mm 2 , while 23 (59%) had established DSP with mean CNFL 10.5±4.5 mm/mm 2 . IVCCM can be used successfully to identify the risk profile for DSP in patients with type 1 diabetes. This methodology may prove useful to classify patients for DSP intervention clinical trials.

  12. Identifying the Risk Areas and Urban Growth by ArcGIS-Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Hamdy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abouelreesh is one of the most at risk areas in Aswan, Egypt, which suffers from storms, poor drainage, and flash flooding. These phenomena affect the urban areas and cause a lot of damage to buildings and infrastructure. Moreover, the potential for the further realization of dangerous situations increased when the urban areas of Abouelreesh extended towards the risk areas. In an effort to ameliorate the danger, two key issues for urban growth management were studied, namely: (i estimations regarding the pace of urban sprawl, and (ii the identification of urban areas located in regions that would be affected by flash floods. Analyzing these phenomena require a lot of data in order to obtain good results, but in our case, the official data or field data was limited so we tried to obtain it by accessing two kinds of free sources of satellite data. First, we used Arc GIS tools to analyze (digital elevation model (DEM files in order to study the watershed and better identify the risk area. Second, we studied historical imagery in Google Earth to determine the age of each urban block. The urban growth rate in the risk areas had risen to 63.31% in 2001. Urban growth in the case study area had been influenced by house sizes, because most people were looking to live in bigger houses. The aforementioned problem can be observed by considering the increasing average house sizes from 2001 until 2013, where, especially in risky areas, the average of house sizes had grown from 223 m2 in 2001 to 318 m2 in 2013. The findings from this study would be useful to urban planners and government officials in helping them to make informed decisions on urban development to benefit the community, especially those living in areas at risk from flash flooding from heavy rain events.

  13. Conservation and diversification of the miR166 family in soybean and potential roles of newly identified miR166s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuyan; Xie, Xin; Li, Ji; Cui, Yuhai; Hou, Yanming; Zhai, Lulu; Wang, Xiao; Fu, Yanli; Liu, Ranran; Bian, Shaomin

    2017-02-01

    microRNA166 (miR166) is a highly conserved family of miRNAs implicated in a wide range of cellular and physiological processes in plants. miR166 family generally comprises multiple miR166 members in plants, which might exhibit functional redundancy and specificity. The soybean miR166 family consists of 21 members according to the miRBase database. However, the evolutionary conservation and functional diversification of miR166 family members in soybean remain poorly understood. We identified five novel miR166s in soybean by data mining approach, thus enlarging the size of miR166 family from 21 to 26 members. Phylogenetic analyses of the 26 miR166s and their precursors indicated that soybean miR166 family exhibited both evolutionary conservation and diversification, and ten pairs of miR166 precursors with high sequence identity were individually grouped into a discrete clade in the phylogenetic tree. The analysis of genomic organization and evolution of MIR166 gene family revealed that eight segmental duplications and four tandem duplications might occur during evolution of the miR166 family in soybean. The cis-elements in promoters of MIR166 family genes and their putative targets pointed to their possible contributions to the functional conservation and diversification. The targets of soybean miR166s were predicted, and the cleavage of ATHB14-LIKE transcript was experimentally validated by RACE PCR. Further, the expression patterns of the five newly identified MIR166s and 12 target genes were examined during seed development and in response to abiotic stresses, which provided important clues for dissecting their functions and isoform specificity. This study enlarged the size of soybean miR166 family from 21 to 26 members, and the 26 soybean miR166s exhibited evolutionary conservation and diversification. These findings have laid a foundation for elucidating functional conservation and diversification of miR166 family members, especially during seed development or

  14. Genome-wide association study identifies shared risk loci common to two malignancies in golden retrievers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Tonomura

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Dogs, with their breed-determined limited genetic background, are great models of human disease including cancer. Canine B-cell lymphoma and hemangiosarcoma are both malignancies of the hematologic system that are clinically and histologically similar to human B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and angiosarcoma, respectively. Golden retrievers in the US show significantly elevated lifetime risk for both B-cell lymphoma (6% and hemangiosarcoma (20%. We conducted genome-wide association studies for hemangiosarcoma and B-cell lymphoma, identifying two shared predisposing loci. The two associated loci are located on chromosome 5, and together contribute ~20% of the risk of developing these cancers. Genome-wide p-values for the top SNP of each locus are 4.6×10-7 and 2.7×10-6, respectively. Whole genome resequencing of nine cases and controls followed by genotyping and detailed analysis identified three shared and one B-cell lymphoma specific risk haplotypes within the two loci, but no coding changes were associated with the risk haplotypes. Gene expression analysis of B-cell lymphoma tumors revealed that carrying the risk haplotypes at the first locus is associated with down-regulation of several nearby genes including the proximal gene TRPC6, a transient receptor Ca2+-channel involved in T-cell activation, among other functions. The shared risk haplotype in the second locus overlaps the vesicle transport and release gene STX8. Carrying the shared risk haplotype is associated with gene expression changes of 100 genes enriched for pathways involved in immune cell activation. Thus, the predisposing germ-line mutations in B-cell lymphoma and hemangiosarcoma appear to be regulatory, and affect pathways involved in T-cell mediated immune response in the tumor. This suggests that the interaction between the immune system and malignant cells plays a common role in the tumorigenesis of these relatively different cancers.

  15. Identifying patients with AAA with the highest risk following endovascular repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadili, Ali; Turnbull, Robert; Hervas-Malo, Marilou; Ghosh, Sunita; Chyczij, Harold

    2012-08-01

    It has been demonstrated that endovascular repair of arterial disease results in reduced perioperative morbidity and mortality compared to open surgical repair. The rates of complications and need for reinterventions, however, have been found to be higher than that in open repair. The purpose of this study was to identify the predictors of endograft complications and mortality in patients undergoing endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair; specifically, our aim was to identify a subset of patients with AAA whose risk of periprocedure mortality was so high that they should not be offered endovascular repair. We undertook a prospective review of patients with AAA receiving endovascular therapy at a single institution. Collected variables included age, gender, date of procedure, indication for procedure, size of aneurysm (where applicable), type of endograft used, presence of rupture, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class, major medical comorbidities, type of anesthesia (general, epidural, or local), length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and length of hospital stay. These factors were correlated with the study outcomes (overall mortality, graft complications, morbidity, and reintervention) using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. A total of 199 patients underwent endovascular AAA repair during the study period. The ICU stay, again, was significantly correlated with the primary outcomes (death and graft complications). In addition, length of hospital stay greater than 3 days, also emerged as a statistically significant predictor of graft complications in this subgroup (P = .024). Survival analysis for patients with AAA revealed that age over 85 years and ICU stay were predictive of decreased survival. Statistical analysis for other subgroups of patients (inflammatory AAA or dissection) was not performed due to the small numbers in these subgroups. Patients with AAA greater than 85 years of age are at a greater risk of mortality

  16. Failure mode effects and criticality analysis: innovative risk assessment to identify critical areas for improvement in emergency department sepsis resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Emilie S; O'Connor, Lanty M; Nannicelli, Anna P; Barker, Lisa T; Khare, Rahul K; Seivert, Nicholas P; Holl, Jane L; Vozenilek, John A

    2014-06-01

    Sepsis is an increasing problem in the practice of emergency medicine as the prevalence is increasing and optimal care to reduce mortality requires significant resources and time. Evidence-based septic shock resuscitation strategies exist, and rely on appropriate recognition and diagnosis, but variation in adherence to the recommendations and therefore outcomes remains. Our objective was to perform a multi-institutional prospective risk-assessment, using failure mode effects and criticality analysis (FMECA), to identify high-risk failures in ED sepsis resuscitation. We conducted a FMECA, which prospectively identifies critical areas for improvement in systems and processes of care, across three diverse hospitals. A multidisciplinary group of participants described the process of emergency department (ED) sepsis resuscitation to then create a comprehensive map and table listing all process steps and identified process failures. High-risk failures in sepsis resuscitation from each of the institutions were compiled to identify common high-risk failures. Common high-risk failures included limited availability of equipment to place the central venous catheter and conduct invasive monitoring, and cognitive overload leading to errors in decision-making. Additionally, we identified great variability in care processes across institutions. Several common high-risk failures in sepsis care exist: a disparity in resources available across hospitals, a lack of adherence to the invasive components of care, and cognitive barriers that affect expert clinicians' decision-making capabilities. Future work may concentrate on dissemination of non-invasive alternatives and overcoming cognitive barriers in diagnosis and knowledge translation.

  17. Genome-wide association study in BRCA1 mutation carriers identifies novel loci associated with breast and ovarian cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fergus J Couch

    Full Text Available BRCA1-associated breast and ovarian cancer risks can be modified by common genetic variants. To identify further cancer risk-modifying loci, we performed a multi-stage GWAS of 11,705 BRCA1 carriers (of whom 5,920 were diagnosed with breast and 1,839 were diagnosed with ovarian cancer, with a further replication in an additional sample of 2,646 BRCA1 carriers. We identified a novel breast cancer risk modifier locus at 1q32 for BRCA1 carriers (rs2290854, P = 2.7 × 10(-8, HR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.09-1.20. In addition, we identified two novel ovarian cancer risk modifier loci: 17q21.31 (rs17631303, P = 1.4 × 10(-8, HR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.17-1.38 and 4q32.3 (rs4691139, P = 3.4 × 10(-8, HR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.17-1.38. The 4q32.3 locus was not associated with ovarian cancer risk in the general population or BRCA2 carriers, suggesting a BRCA1-specific association. The 17q21.31 locus was also associated with ovarian cancer risk in 8,211 BRCA2 carriers (P = 2×10(-4. These loci may lead to an improved understanding of the etiology of breast and ovarian tumors in BRCA1 carriers. Based on the joint distribution of the known BRCA1 breast cancer risk-modifying loci, we estimated that the breast cancer lifetime risks for the 5% of BRCA1 carriers at lowest risk are 28%-50% compared to 81%-100% for the 5% at highest risk. Similarly, based on the known ovarian cancer risk-modifying loci, the 5% of BRCA1 carriers at lowest risk have an estimated lifetime risk of developing ovarian cancer of 28% or lower, whereas the 5% at highest risk will have a risk of 63% or higher. Such differences in risk may have important implications for risk prediction and clinical management for BRCA1 carriers.

  18. Comparison of the Effectiveness and Safety of Apixaban, Dabigatran, Rivaroxaban, and Warfarin in Newly Diagnosed Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Inmaculada; Zhang, Yuting; Saba, Samir

    2017-11-15

    No studies have performed direct pairwise comparisons of the effectiveness and safety of warfarin and the new oral anticoagulants (NOACs) apixaban, dabigatran, and rivaroxaban. Using 2013 to 2014 claims from a 5% random sample of Medicare beneficiaries, we identified patients newly diagnosed with atrial fibrillation who initiated apixaban, dabigatran, rivaroxaban, warfarin, or no oral anticoagulation therapy in 2013 to 2014. Outcomes included the composite of ischemic stroke, systemic embolism (SE) and death, any bleeding event, gastrointestinal bleeding, intracranial bleeding, and treatment persistence. We constructed Cox proportional hazard models to compare outcomes between each pair of treatment groups. The composite risk of ischemic stroke, SE, and death was lower for NOACs than for warfarin: hazard ratio (HR) 0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.76 to 0.98 for apixaban; 0.73, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.86 for dabigatran; and 0.82, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.89 for rivaroxaban, all compared with warfarin. There were no differences in effectiveness across NOACs. The risk of any bleeding was lower with apixaban than with warfarin, but higher with rivaroxaban than with warfarin. Apixaban (HR 0.69, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.79) and dabigatran (HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.69 to 0.92) were associated with lower bleeding risk than rivaroxaban. Treatment persistence was highest for apixaban (82%), and lowest for dabigatran and warfarin (64%) (p value warfarin, NOACs are more effective in preventing stroke but their risk of bleeding varies, with rivaroxaban having higher risk than warfarin. Altogether, apixaban had the most favorable effectiveness, safety, and persistence profile. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Identifying areas of high risk of human exposure to coccidioidomycosis in Texas using serology data from dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, R; Srinath, I; Clavijo, A; Szonyi, B; Bani-Yaghoub, M; Park, S; Ivanek, R

    2013-03-01

    Coccidioidomycosis or Valley Fever (VF) is an emerging soil-borne fungal zoonosis affecting humans and animals. Most non-human cases of VF are found in dogs, which we hypothesize may serve as sentinels for estimating the human exposure risk. The objective of this study is to use the spatial and temporal distribution and clusters of dogs seropositive for VF to define the geographic area in Texas where VF is endemic, and thus presents a higher risk of exposure to humans. The included specimens were seropositive dogs tested at a major diagnostic laboratory between 1999 and 2009. Data were aggregated by zip code and smoothed by empirical Bayesian estimation to develop an isopleth map of VF seropositive rates using kriging. Clusters of seropositive dogs were identified using the spatial scan test. Both the isopleth map and the scan test identified an area with a high rate of VF-seropositive dogs in the western and southwestern parts of Texas (relative risk = 31). This location overlapped an area that was previously identified as a potential endemic region based on human surveys. Together, these data suggest that dogs may serve as sentinels for estimating the risk of human exposure to VF. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Risk assessment in the management of newly diagnosed classical Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Joseph M

    2015-03-12

    Treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma is associated with 2 major types of risk: that the treatment may fail to cure the disease or that the treatment will prove unacceptably toxic. Careful assessment of the amount of the lymphoma (tumor burden), its behavior (extent of invasion or specific organ compromise), and host related factors (age; coincident systemic infection; and organ dysfunction, especially hematopoietic, cardiac, or pulmonary) is essential to optimize outcome. Elaborately assembled prognostic scoring systems, such as the International Prognostic Factors Project score, have lost their accuracy and value as increasingly effective chemotherapy and supportive care have been developed. Identification of specific biomarkers derived from sophisticated exploration of Hodgkin lymphoma biology is bringing promise of further improvement in targeted therapy in which effectiveness is increased at the same time off-target toxicity is diminished. Parallel developments in functional imaging are providing additional potential to evaluate the efficacy of treatment while it is being delivered, allowing dynamic assessment of risk during chemotherapy and adaptation of the therapy in real time. Risk assessment in Hodgkin lymphoma is continuously evolving, promising ever greater precision and clinical relevance. This article explores the past usefulness and the emerging potential of risk assessment for this imminently curable malignancy. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  1. Identifying mismatches between institutional perceptions of water-related risk drivers and water management strategies in three river basin areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räsänen, Aleksi; Juhola, Sirkku; Monge Monge, Adrián; Käkönen, Mira; Kanninen, Markku; Nygren, Anja

    2017-07-01

    Water-related risks and vulnerabilities are driven by variety of stressors, including climate and land use change, as well as changes in socio-economic positions and political landscapes. Hence, water governance, which addresses risks and vulnerabilities, should target multiple stressors. We analyze the institutional perceptions of the drivers and strategies for managing water-related risks and vulnerabilities in three regionally important river basin areas located in Finland, Mexico, and Laos. Our analysis is based on data gathered through participatory workshops and complemented by qualitative content analysis of relevant policy documents. The identified drivers and proposed risk reduction strategies showed the multidimensionality and context-specificity of water-related risks and vulnerabilities across study areas. Most of the identified drivers were seen to increase risks, but some of the drivers were positive trends, and drivers also included also policy instruments that can both increase or decrease risks. Nevertheless, all perceived drivers were not addressed with suggested risk reduction strategies. In particular, most of the risk reduction strategies were incremental adjustments, although many of the drivers classified as most important were large-scale trends, such as climate change, land use changes and increase in foreign investments. We argue that there is a scale mismatch between the identified drivers and suggested strategies, which questions the opportunity to manage the drivers by single-scale incremental adjustments. Our study suggests that for more sustainable risk and vulnerability reduction, the root causes of water-related risks and vulnerabilities should be addressed through adaptive multi-scale governance that carefully considers the context-specificity and the multidimensionality of the associated drivers and stressors.

  2. Regulatory activity based risk model identifies survival of stage II and III colorectal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Dong, Chuanpeng; Wang, Xing; Hou, Guojun; Zheng, Yu; Xu, Huilin; Zhan, Xiaohui; Liu, Lei

    2017-11-17

    Clinical and pathological indicators are inadequate for prognosis of stage II and III colorectal carcinoma (CRC). In this study, we utilized the activity of regulatory factors, univariate Cox regression and random forest for variable selection and developed a multivariate Cox model to predict the overall survival of Stage II/III colorectal carcinoma in GSE39582 datasets (469 samples). Patients in low-risk group showed a significant longer overall survival and recurrence-free survival time than those in high-risk group. This finding was further validated in five other independent datasets (GSE14333, GSE17536, GSE17537, GSE33113, and GSE37892). Besides, associations between clinicopathological information and risk score were analyzed. A nomogram including risk score was plotted to facilitate the utilization of risk score. The risk score model is also demonstrated to be effective on predicting both overall and recurrence-free survival of chemotherapy received patients. After performing Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) between high and low risk groups, we found that several cell-cell interaction KEGG pathways were identified. Funnel plot results showed that there was no publication bias in these datasets. In summary, by utilizing the regulatory activity in stage II and III colorectal carcinoma, the risk score successfully predicts the survival of 1021 stage II/III CRC patients in six independent datasets.

  3. MGMT inactivation and clinical response in newly diagnosed GBM patients treated with Gliadel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Rachel; Burger, Peter; Soudry, Ethan; Tyler, Betty; Chaichana, Kaisorn L; Weingart, Jon; Olivi, Alessandro; Gallia, Gary L; Sidransky, David; Quiñones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Ye, Xiaobu; Brem, Henry

    2015-12-01

    We examined the relationship between the O(6)-methylguanine-methyltransferase (MGMT) methylation status and clinical outcomes in newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients who were treated with Gliadel wafers (Eisai, Tokyo, Japan). MGMT promoter methylation has been associated with increased survival among patients with GBM who are treated with various alkylating agents. MGMT promoter methylation, in DNA from 122 of 160 newly diagnosed GBM patients treated with Gliadel, was determined by a quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction, and was correlated with overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS). The MGMT promoter was methylated in 40 (32.7%) of 122 patients. The median OS was 13.5 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 11.0-14.5) and RFS was 9.4 months (95% CI 7.8-10.2). After adjusting for age, Karnofsky performance score, extent of resection, temozolomide (TMZ) and radiation therapy (RT), the newly diagnosed GBM patients with MGMT methylation had a 15% reduced mortality risk, compared to patients with unmethylated MGMT (hazard ratio 0.85; 95% CI 0.56-1.31; p=0.46). The patients aged over 70 years with MGMT methylation had a significantly longer median OS of 13.5 months, compared to 7.6 months in patients with unmethylated MGMT (p=0.027). A significant difference was also found in older patients, with a median RFS of 13.1 versus 7.6 months for methylated and unmethylated MGMT groups, respectively (p=0.01). Methylation of the MGMT promoter in newly diagnosed GBM patients treated with Gliadel, RT and TMZ, was associated with significantly improved OS compared to the unmethylated population. In elderly patients, methylation of the MGMT promoter was associated with significantly better OS and RFS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Using participatory risk mapping (PRM to identify and understand people's perceptions of crop loss to animals in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda D Webber

    Full Text Available Considering how people perceive risks to their livelihoods from local wildlife is central to (i understanding the impact of crop damage by animals on local people and (ii recognising how this influences their interactions with, and attitudes towards, wildlife. Participatory risk mapping (PRM is a simple, analytical tool that can be used to identify and classify risk within communities. Here we use it to explore local people's perceptions of crop damage by wildlife and the animal species involved. Interviews (n = 93, n = 76 and seven focus groups were conducted in four villages around Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda during 2004 and 2005. Farms (N = 129 were simultaneously monitored for crop loss. Farmers identified damage by wildlife as the most significant risk to their crops; risk maps highlighted its anomalous status compared to other anticipated challenges to agricultural production. PRM was further used to explore farmers' perceptions of animal species causing crop damage and the results of this analysis compared with measured crop losses. Baboons (Papio anubis were considered the most problematic species locally but measurements of loss indicate this perceived severity was disproportionately high. In contrast goats (Capra hircus were considered only a moderate risk, yet risk of damage by this species was significant. Surprisingly, for wild pigs (Potamochoerus sp, perceptions of severity were not as high as damage incurred might have predicted, although perceived incidence was greater than recorded frequency of damage events. PRM can assist researchers and practitioners to identify and explore perceptions of the risk of crop damage by wildlife. As this study highlights, simply quantifying crop loss does not determine issues that are important to local people nor the complex relationships between perceived risk factors. Furthermore, as PRM is easily transferable it may contribute to the identification and development of

  5. A structured elicitation method to identify key direct risk factors for the management of natural resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Smith

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The high level of uncertainty inherent in natural resource management requires planners to apply comprehensive risk analyses, often in situations where there are few resources. In this paper, we demonstrate a broadly applicable, novel and structured elicitation approach to identify important direct risk factors. This new approach combines expert calibration and fuzzy based mathematics to capture and aggregate subjective expert estimates of the likelihood that a set of direct risk factors will cause management failure. A specific case study is used to demonstrate the approach; however, the described methods are widely applicable in risk analysis. For the case study, the management target was to retain all species that characterise a set of natural biological elements. The analysis was bounded by the spatial distribution of the biological elements under consideration and a 20-year time frame. Fourteen biological elements were expected to be at risk. Eleven important direct risk factors were identified that related to surrounding land use practices, climate change, problem species (e.g., feral predators, fire and hydrological change. In terms of their overall influence, the two most important risk factors were salinisation and a lack of water which together pose a considerable threat to the survival of nine biological elements. The described approach successfully overcame two concerns arising from previous risk analysis work: (1 the lack of an intuitive, yet comprehensive scoring method enabling the detection and clarification of expert agreement and associated levels of uncertainty; and (2 the ease with which results can be interpreted and communicated while preserving a rich level of detail essential for informed decision making.

  6. PREVALENCE OF SLEEP DISORDERED BREATHING IN PATIENTS WITH NEWLY DIAGNOSED ACROMEGALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. A. Tsoy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obstructive sleep disordered breathing or obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is the most common respiratory impairment in acromegaly. OSA is bound up with heightened cardiovascular mortality. Aim: Тo study frequency, features, and structure of sleep disordered breathing in patients with newly diagnosed acromegaly and to elucidate the factors influencing their development. Materials and methods: 38 patients (10 men, 28 women, median age 53 (28-76 years, median body mass index (BMI 29 (19.9-44.3 kg/m² with newly diagnosed acromegaly were recruited into the study. All subjects underwent full polysomnography (Embla N7000, Natus, USA and Remlogica software (USA. Results: Sleep disordered breathing was found in 28 (73.7% patients. OSA was revealed in all cases, in 11 (39.3% subjects it was mixed. In 10 (35.7% patients OSA was mild, in 8 (28.6% moderate, and in 10 (35.7% severe. BMI (р<0.01, disease duration (р=0.003, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 level (р=0.04 were different in patients without OSA and patients with moderate-to-severe OSA. No difference was found in sex (р=0.4, age (р=0.064, and growth hormone level (р=0.6. Frequency of arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and other glucose metabolism impairments was the same in subjects without OSA and with severe-to-moderate OSA. Conclusion: All patients with newly diagnosed acromegaly should undergo polysomnography. BMI, disease duration, and IGF-1 level are significant risk factors for OSA development. Correlation OSA with arterial hypertension and glucose metabolism impairments needs to be further investigated.

  7. Analysis of Inflammatory Mediators in Prediabetes and Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhen; Shen, Xu-Hui; Feng, Wen-Ming; Ye, Guo-fen; Qiu, Wei; Li, Bo

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the inflammatory markers in prediabetes and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Inflammatory markers levels were analyzed using one-way analysis of covariance and the association with prediabetes or T2DM risks was examined by logistic regression models. Our data showed increased levels of hypersensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin (IL-4), IL-10, and tryptase in prediabetes subjects and hs-CRP, immunoglobulin E (IgE), IL-4, and IL-10 in T2DM sub...

  8. A risk assessment approach to identifying constituents in oilfield produced water for treatment prior to beneficial use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Jennifer E; Castle, James W; Rodgers, John H

    2011-05-01

    A risk assessment approach incorporating exposure pathways and calculated risk quotients was applied to identifying constituents requiring treatment prior to beneficial use of oilfield produced water (OPW). In this study, risk quotients are ratios of constituent concentrations in soil or water to guideline concentrations for no adverse effects to receptors. The risk assessment approach is illustrated by an example of an oilfield water produced from non-marine geologic strata of a rift basin in sub-Saharan Africa. The OPW studied has the following characteristics: 704-1370 mg L(-1) total dissolved solids (TDS), 45-48 mg L(-1) chloride, and 103.8 mg L(-1) oil and grease. Exposure pathways of constituents in OPW used for irrigation include: ingestion of plant tissue, ingestion and direct contact of irrigated soil by livestock, inhalation of aerosols or volatilized constituents, and ingestion of OPW directly by livestock. Applying risk quotient methods for constituents in soil and water, constituents of concern (COCs) identified for irrigation and livestock watering using the OPW studied include: iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn), and oil and grease. Approximately 165,000 barrels d(-1) (26,233 m(3) d(-1)) of OPW from the study site are available for use. Identification of COCs and consideration of water quantity allows for development of reliable treatment design criteria to ensure effective and consistent treatment is achieved to meet guideline levels required for irrigation, livestock watering, or other uses. This study illustrates the utility of risk assessment for identifying the COCs in OPW for treatment, the level of treatment required, and viable options for use of the treated water. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. HIV risk behaviors among African American men in Los Angeles County who self-identify as heterosexual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Amy Rock; Johnson, Denise F; Lu, Sharon; Jordan, Wilbert; Beall, Gildon; Currier, Judith; Simon, Paul A

    2002-11-01

    There are limited data on high-risk behaviors among heterosexual African American men with HIV infection. Risk behaviors were examined in a case-control study of HIV-infected (n = 90) and uninfected (n = 272) African American men who self-identified as heterosexual. Of men who self-identified as heterosexual, 31% (n = 28) of the infected men and 16% (n = 43) of the uninfected men reported having had anal sex with men. Among the heterosexual men reporting anal sex with men, 100% of the infected and 67% of the uninfected men reported inconsistent condom use during anal sex with men. Few of the infected (12%) and uninfected (2%) men reported oral sex with other men. Of the men who self-identified as heterosexual, 46% of those who were HIV-positive and 37% of those who were HIV-negative reported anal sex with women with infrequent condom use. An increasing risk for HIV was associated with decreasing age at first sexual experience (chi2, 9.3; p = .002). A history of injecting drugs (odds ratio [OR], 3.1; 95% confidence intervals [CIs], 1.8, 5.4) and amphetamine (OR, 4.3; 95% CIs, 1.1, 16.7) and methamphetamine (OR, 2.9; 95% CIs, 1.4, 6.3) use were associated with HIV. Innovative HIV prevention strategies are needed that move beyond the traditional gay versus straight model to effectively access hard-to-reach African American men who self-identify as heterosexual.

  10. Beta-blockers for exams identify students at high risk of psychiatric morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butt, Jawad H.; Dalsgaard, Søren; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Beta-blockers relieve the autonomic symptoms of exam-related anxiety and may be beneficial in exam-related and performance anxiety, but knowledge on related psychiatric outcomes is unknown. We hypothesized that beta-blocker therapy for exam-related anxiety identifies young students...... at risk of later psychiatric events. Methods: Using Danish nationwide administrative registries, we studied healthy students aged 14-30 years (1996-2012) with a first-time claimed prescription for a beta-blocker during the exam period (May-June); students who were prescribed a beta-blocker for medical...... reasons were excluded. We matched these students on age, sex, and time of year to healthy and study active controls with no use of beta-blockers. Risk of incident use of antidepressants, incident use of other psychotropic medications, and suicide attempts was examined by cumulative incidence curves...

  11. Identifying Children in Middle Childhood Who Are at Risk for Reading Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speece, Deborah L; Ritchey, Kristen D; Silverman, Rebecca; Schatschneider, Christopher; Walker, Caroline Y; Andrusik, Katryna N

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and evaluate a universal screening battery for reading that is appropriate for older elementary students in a response to intervention model. Multiple measures of reading and reading correlates were administered to 230 fourth-grade children. Teachers rated children's reading skills, academic competence, and attention. Children were classified as not-at-risk or at-risk readers based on a three-factor model reflecting reading comprehension, word recognition/decoding, and word fluency. Predictors of reading status included group-administered tests of reading comprehension, silent word reading fluency, and teacher ratings of reading problems. Inclusion of individually administered tests and growth estimates did not add substantial variance. The receiver-operator characteristic curve analysis yielded an area under the curve index of 0.90, suggesting this model may both accurately and efficiently screen older elementary students with reading problems.

  12. Identifying colon cancer risk modules with better classification performance based on human signaling network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiaoli; Xie, Ruiqiang; Chen, Lina; Feng, Chenchen; Zhou, Yanyan; Li, Wan; Huang, Hao; Jia, Xu; Lv, Junjie; He, Yuehan; Du, Youwen; Li, Weiguo; Shi, Yuchen; He, Weiming

    2014-10-01

    Identifying differences between normal and tumor samples from a modular perspective may help to improve our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for colon cancer. Many cancer studies have shown that signaling transduction and biological pathways are disturbed in disease states, and expression profiles can distinguish variations in diseases. In this study, we integrated a weighted human signaling network and gene expression profiles to select risk modules associated with tumor conditions. Risk modules as classification features by our method had a better classification performance than other methods, and one risk module for colon cancer had a good classification performance for distinguishing between normal/tumor samples and between tumor stages. All genes in the module were annotated to the biological process of positive regulation of cell proliferation, and were highly associated with colon cancer. These results suggested that these genes might be the potential risk genes for colon cancer. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Risk factors of non-specific spinal pain in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szita, Julia; Boja, Sara; Szilagyi, Agnes; Somhegyi, Annamaria; Varga, Peter Pal; Lazary, Aron

    2018-05-01

    Non-specific spinal pain can occur at all ages and current evidence suggests that pediatric non-specific spinal pain is predictive for adult spinal conditions. A 5-year long, prospective cohort study was conducted to identify the lifestyle and environmental factors leading to non-specific spinal pain in childhood. Data were collected from school children aged 7-16 years, who were randomly selected from three different geographic regions in Hungary. The risk factors were measured with a newly developed patient-reported questionnaire (PRQ). The quality of the instrument was assessed by the reliability with the test-retest method. Test (N = 952) and validity (N = 897) datasets were randomly formed. Risk factors were identified with uni- and multivariate logistic regression models and the predictive performance of the final model was evaluated using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) method. The final model was built up by seven risk factors for spinal pain for days; age > 12 years, learning or watching TV for more than 2 h/day, uncomfortable school-desk, sleeping problems, general discomfort and positive familiar medical history (χ 2  = 101.07; df = 8; p < 0.001). The probabilistic performance was confirmed with ROC analysis on the test and validation cohorts (AUC = 0.76; 0.71). A simplified risk scoring system showed increasing possibility for non-specific spinal pain depending on the number of the identified risk factors (χ 2  = 65.0; df = 4; p < 0.001). Seven significant risk factors of non-specific spinal pain in childhood were identified using the new, easy to use and reliable PRQ which makes it possible to stratify the children according to their individual risk. These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.

  14. Work Ability Index as Tool to Identify Workers at Risk of Premature Work Exit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, Corne A. M.; Heymans, Martijn W.; Twisk, Jos W. R.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Groothoff, Johan W.; van Rhenen, Willem

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the Work Ability Index (WAI) as tool for identifying workers at risk of premature work exit in terms of disability pension, unemployment, or early retirement. Methods Prospective cohort study of 11,537 male construction workers (mean age 45.5 years), who completed the WAI at

  15. Work ability index as tool to identify workers at risk of premature work exit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.M.; Heymans, M.W.; Twisk, J.W.R.; van der Klink, J.J.L.; Groothoff, J.W.; van Rhenen, W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the Work Ability Index (WAI) as tool for identifying workers at risk of premature work exit in terms of disability pension, unemployment, or early retirement. Methods Prospective cohort study of 11,537 male construction workers (mean age 45.5 years), who completed the WAI at

  16. Robust Intratumor Partitioning to Identify High-Risk Subregions in Lung Cancer: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia; Gensheimer, Michael F; Dong, Xinzhe; Rubin, Daniel L; Napel, Sandy; Diehn, Maximilian; Loo, Billy W; Li, Ruijiang

    2016-08-01

    To develop an intratumor partitioning framework for identifying high-risk subregions from (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and computed tomography (CT) imaging and to test whether tumor burden associated with the high-risk subregions is prognostic of outcomes in lung cancer. In this institutional review board-approved retrospective study, we analyzed the pretreatment FDG-PET and CT scans of 44 lung cancer patients treated with radiation therapy. A novel, intratumor partitioning method was developed, based on a 2-stage clustering process: first at the patient level, each tumor was over-segmented into many superpixels by k-means clustering of integrated PET and CT images; next, tumor subregions were identified by merging previously defined superpixels via population-level hierarchical clustering. The volume associated with each of the subregions was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis regarding its prognostic capability in predicting overall survival (OS) and out-of-field progression (OFP). Three spatially distinct subregions were identified within each tumor that were highly robust to uncertainty in PET/CT co-registration. Among these, the volume of the most metabolically active and metabolically heterogeneous solid component of the tumor was predictive of OS and OFP on the entire cohort, with a concordance index or CI of 0.66-0.67. When restricting the analysis to patients with stage III disease (n=32), the same subregion achieved an even higher CI of 0.75 (hazard ratio 3.93, log-rank P=.002) for predicting OS, and a CI of 0.76 (hazard ratio 4.84, log-rank P=.002) for predicting OFP. In comparison, conventional imaging markers, including tumor volume, maximum standardized uptake value, and metabolic tumor volume using threshold of 50% standardized uptake value maximum, were not predictive of OS or OFP, with CI mostly below 0.60 (log-rank P>.05). We propose a robust intratumor partitioning method to identify clinically relevant, high-risk

  17. Asymmetric Dimethylarginine Plasma Levels and Endothelial Function in Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Perticone

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available It is now well established that major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD impact upon endothelial function by decreasing nitric oxide (NO bioavailability. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA, an endogenous analog of l-arginine, is able to inhibit the activity of endothelial-NO synthase, promoting endothelial dysfunction. Type 2 diabetes (T2D is characterized by a reduced endothelium-dependent vasodilation and increased ADMA levels and ADMA is strongly associated with micro- and macrovascular diabetic complications. However, there are not a lot of data about the role of ADMA on endothelial function in newly diagnosed T2D patients without cardiovascular (CV complications. For this aim, we have enrolled forty-five newly diagnosed T2D patients, evaluated by a oral glucose tolerance test, and thirty normal subjects. Endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilatation was investigated by intra-arterial infusion of increasing doses of acetylcholine (ACh and sodium nitroprusside. ADMA was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and insulin resistance (IR by HOMA. Newly diagnosed T2D patients showed higher ADMA and l-arginine mean values in comparison with normal subjects and a significantly reduced ACh-stimulated forearm blood flow (FBF. In T2D patients FBF was significantly and inversely correlated with ADMA (r = −0.524, p < 0.0001 and in a multivariate regression analysis, ADMA resulted the stronger predictor of FBF, explaining the 27.5% of variability (p < 0.0001. In conclusion, ADMA was strongly related to endothelial dysfunction also in patients with newly diagnosed T2D, without clinically manifest vascular complications. This field is of great interest for understanding the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of diabetic disease and its CV complications.

  18. Does the presence of tumor-induced cortical bone destruction at CT have any prognostic value in newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Hugo J.A.; Nievelstein, Rutger A.J.; Kwee, Thomas C. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Klerk, John M.H. de [Meander Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Fijnheer, Rob [Meander Medical Center, Department of Hematology, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Heggelman, Ben G.F. [Meander Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Dubois, Stefan V. [Meander Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Amersfoort (Netherlands)

    2015-05-01

    To determine the prognostic value of tumor-induced cortical bone destruction at computed tomography (CT) in newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). This retrospective study included 105 patients with newly diagnosed DLBCL who had undergone CT and bone marrow biopsy (BMB) before R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, Oncovin, and prednisolone) chemo-immunotherapy. Cox regression analyses were used to determine the associations of cortical bone status at CT (absence vs. presence of tumor-induced cortical bone destruction), BMB findings (negative vs. positive for lymphomatous involvement), and dichotomized National Comprehensive Cancer Network International Prognostic Index (NCCN-IPI) strata (low risk vs. high risk) with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Univariate Cox regression analysis indicated that cortical bone status at CT was no significant predictor of either PFS or OS (p = 0.358 and p = 0.560, respectively), whereas BMB findings (p = 0.002 and p = 0.013, respectively) and dichotomized NCCN-IPI risk strata (p = 0.002 and p = 0.003, respectively) were significant predictors of both PFS and OS. In the multivariate Cox proportional hazards model, only the dichotomized NCCN-IPI score was an independent predictive factor of PFS and OS (p = 0.004 and p = 0.003, respectively). The presence of tumor-induced cortical bone destruction at CT was not found to have any prognostic implications in newly diagnosed DLBCL. (orig.)

  19. Shortened version of the work ability index to identify workers at risk of long-term sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Lianne S.; Bultmann, Ute; Heymans, Martijn W.; Joling, Catelijne I.; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Roelen, Corne A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Work Ability Index (WAI) identifies non-sicklisted workers at risk of future long-term sickness absence (LTSA). The WAI is a complicated instrument and inconvenient for use in large-scale surveys. We investigated whether shortened versions of the WAI identify non-sicklisted workers

  20. Costs and health care resource utilization among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with newly acquired pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin J

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Junji Lin,1 Yunfeng Li,2 Haijun Tian,2 Michael J Goodman,1 Susan Gabriel,2 Tara Nazareth,2 Stuart J Turner,2,3 Stephen Arcona,2 Kristijan H Kahler21Department of Pharmacotherapy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 2Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ, USA; 3Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA Background: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are at increased risk for lung infections and other pathologies (eg, pneumonia; however, few studies have evaluated the impact of pneumonia on health care resource utilization and costs in this population. The purpose of this study was to estimate health care resource utilization and costs among COPD patients with newly acquired pneumonia compared to those without pneumonia. Methods: A retrospective claims analysis using Truven MarketScan® Commercial and Medicare databases was conducted. COPD patients with and without newly acquired pneumonia diagnosed between January 1, 2004 and September 30, 2011 were identified. Propensity score matching was used to create a 1:1 matched cohort. Patient demographics, comorbidities (measured by Charlson Comorbidity Index, and medication use were evaluated before and after matching. Health care resource utilization (ie, hospitalizations, emergency room [ER] and outpatient visits, and associated health care costs were assessed during the 12-month follow-up. Logistic regression was conducted to evaluate the risk of hospitalization and ER visits, and gamma regression models and two-part models compared health care costs between groups after matching. Results: In the baseline cohort (N=467,578, patients with newly acquired pneumonia were older (mean age: 70 versus [vs] 63 years and had higher Charlson Comorbidity Index scores (3.3 vs 2.6 than patients without pneumonia. After propensity score matching, the pneumonia cohort was nine times more likely

  1. Using a personality inventory to identify risk of distress and burnout among early stage medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bughi, Stephanie A; Lie, Desiree A; Zia, Stephanie K; Rosenthal, Jane

    2017-01-01

    Distress and burnout are common among medical students and negatively impact students' physical, mental, and emotional health. Personality inventories such as the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), used in medical education, may have a role in identifying burnout risk early. The authors conducted a cross-sectional survey study among 185 1st year medical students with the MBTI, the general well-being schedule (GWB), and Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey (MBI-SS). Descriptive statistics and one-way MANOVAs were used to identify the prevalence and differences in MBTI preferences and distress/burnout risk. Response rate was 185/185 (100%). Distress (GWB) was reported by 84/185 (45.4%). High scores on exhaustion were reported by 118/182 (64.8%), cynicism by 76/182 (41.8%), and decreased professional efficacy by 38/182 (20.9%) for the three dimensions of the MBI-SS. Only 21/182 (11.5%) of respondents had high scores on all three dimensions of burnout. Students with MBTI preferences for extraversion reported greater positive well-being (P burnout are prevalent early in medical training. The significant difference between extraversion and introversion in relation to distress and burnout deserves further study. Use of a personality inventory may help identify students at risk of burnout and allow appropriate early stress management.

  2. Risk factors of falls in inpatients and their practical use in identifying high-risk persons at admission: Fukushima Medical University Hospital cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Takehito; Hashimoto, Shigeatsu; Kanda, Hideyuki; Hirano, Noriko; Kurihara, Yumi; Kawashima, Takako; Fukushima, Tetsuhito

    2014-01-01

    To clarify the risk factors for falls in hospital settings and to propose the use of such factors to identify high-risk persons at admission. Prospective cohort study. Fukushima Medical University Hospital, Japan, from August 2008 and September 2009. 9957 adult consecutive inpatients admitted to our hospital. Information was collected at admission from clinical records obtained from a structured questionnaire conducted in face-to-face interviews with subjects by nurses and doctors and fall events were collected from clinical records. The proportion of patients who fell during follow-up was 2.5% and the incidence of falls was 3.28 per 100 person-days. There were significant differences in age, history of falling, cognitive dysfunction, planned surgery, wheelchair use, need for help to move, use of a remote caring system, rehabilitation, use of laxative, hypnotic or psychotropic medications and need for help with activities of daily living (ADL) between patients who did and did not fall. Multivariable adjusted ORs for falls showed that age, history of falls and need for help with ADL were common risk factors in both men and women. Using psychotropic medication also increased the risk of falling in men while cognitive dysfunction and use of hypnotic medication increased the risk of falling in women. Planned surgery was associated with a low risk of falls in women. To prevent falls in inpatients it is important to identify high-risk persons. Age, history of falling and the need for help with ADL are the most important pieces of information to be obtained at admission. Care plans for patients including fall prevention should be clear and considered.

  3. Prospectively Identified Incident Testicular Cancer Risk in a Familial Testicular Cancer Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Anand; Adams, Charleen D; Loud, Jennifer T; Nichols, Kathryn; Stewart, Douglas R; Greene, Mark H

    2015-10-01

    Human testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) have a strong genetic component and a high familial relative risk. However, linkage analyses have not identified a rare, highly penetrant familial TGCT (FTGCT) susceptibility locus. Currently, multiple low-penetrance genes are hypothesized to underlie the familial multiple-case phenotype. The observation that two is the most common number of affected individuals per family presents an impediment to FTGCT gene discovery. Clinically, the prospective TGCT risk in the multiple-case family context is unknown. We performed a prospective analysis of TGCT incidence in a cohort of multiple-affected-person families and sporadic-bilateral-case families; 1,260 men from 140 families (10,207 person-years of follow-up) met our inclusion criteria. Age-, gender-, and calendar time-specific standardized incidence ratios (SIR) for TGCT relative to the general population were calculated using SEER*Stat. Eight incident TGCTs occurred during prospective FTGCT cohort follow-up (versus 0.67 expected; SIR = 11.9; 95% CI, 5.1-23.4; excess absolute risk = 7.2/10,000). We demonstrate that the incidence rate of TGCT is greater among bloodline male relatives from multiple-case testicular cancer families than that expected in the general population, a pattern characteristic of adult-onset Mendelian cancer susceptibility disorders. Two of these incident TGCTs occurred in relatives of sporadic-bilateral cases (0.15 expected; SIR = 13.4; 95% CI, 1.6-48.6). Our data are the first to indicate that despite relatively low numbers of affected individuals per family, members of both multiple-affected-person FTGCT families and sporadic-bilateral TGCT families comprise high-risk groups for incident testicular cancer. Men at high TGCT risk might benefit from tailored risk stratification and surveillance strategies. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Prospectively-Identified Incident Testicular Cancer Risk in a Familial Testicular Cancer Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Anand; Adams, Charleen D.; Loud, Jennifer T.; Nichols, Kathryn; Stewart, Douglas R.; Greene, Mark H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Human testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) have a strong genetic component and a high familial relative risk. However, linkage analyses have not identified a rare, highly-penetrant familial TGCT (FTGCT) susceptibility locus. Currently, multiple low-penetrance genes are hypothesized to underlie the familial multiple-case phenotype. The observation that two is the most common number of affected individuals per family presents an impediment to FTGCT gene discovery. Clinically, the prospective TGCT risk in the multiple-case family context is unknown. Methods We performed a prospective analysis of TGCT incidence in a cohort of multiple-affected-person families and sporadic-bilateral-case families; 1,260 men from 140 families (10,207 person-years of follow-up) met our inclusion criteria. Age-, gender-, and calendar time-specific standardized incidence ratios (SIR) for TGCT relative to the general population were calculated using SEER*Stat. Results Eight incident TGCTs occurred during prospective FTGCT cohort follow-up (versus 0.67 expected; SIR=11.9; 95% confidence interval [CI]=5.1–23.4; excess absolute risk=7.2/10,000). We demonstrate that the incidence rate of TGCT is greater among bloodline male relatives from multiple-case testicular cancer families than that expected in the general population, a pattern characteristic of adult-onset Mendelian cancer susceptibility disorders. Two of these incident TGCTs occurred in relatives of sporadic-bilateral cases (0.15 expected; SIR=13.4; 95%CI=1.6–48.6). Conclusions Our data are the first indicating that despite relatively low numbers of affected individuals per family, members of both multiple-affected-person FTGCT families and sporadic-bilateral TGCT families comprise high-risk groups for incident testicular cancer. Impact Men at high TGCT risk might benefit from tailored risk stratification and surveillance strategies. PMID:26265202

  5. Identifying Risk Factors of Boot Procurement: A Case Study of Stadium Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Jefferies

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Private sector input into the procurement of public works and services is continuing to increase. This has partly arisen out of a requirement for infrastructure development to be undertaken at a rate that maintains and allows growth. This has become a major challange for the construction industry that cannot be met by government alone. The emergence of Build-Own-Operate-Transfer (BOOT schemes as a response to this challange provides a means for developing the infrastructure of a country without directly impacting on the governments budgetary constraints. The concepts of BOOT are without doubt extremely complex arrangements, which bring to the construction sector risks not experienced previously. Many of the infrastructure partnerships between public and private sector in the pastare yet to provide evidence of successful completion, since few of the concession periods have expired. This paper provides an identified list of risk factors to a case study of Stadium Australia. The most significant risk associated with Stadium Australia include the bidding process, the high level of public scrutiny, post-Olympic Games facility revenue and the complicated nature of the consortium structure.  

  6. Identifying Risk Factors of Boot Procurement: A Case Study of Stadium Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Jefferies

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Private sector input into the procurement of public works and services is continuing to increase. This has partly arisen out of a requirement for infrastructure development to be undertaken at a rate that maintains and allows growth. This has become a major challange for the construction industry that cannot be met by government alone. The emergence of Build-Own-Operate-Transfer (BOOT schemes as a response to this challange provides a means for developing the infrastructure of a country without directly impacting on the governments budgetary constraints. The concepts of BOOT are without doubt extremely complex arrangements, which bring to the construction sector risks not experienced previously. Many of the infrastructure partnerships between public and private sector in the pastare yet to provide evidence of successful completion, since few of the concession periods have expired. This paper provides an identified list of risk factors to a case study of Stadium Australia. The most significant risk associated with Stadium Australia include the bidding process, the high level of public scrutiny, post-Olympic Games facility revenue and the complicated nature of the consortium structure.

  7. Genome-wide association analysis identifies 11 risk variants associated with the asthma with hay fever phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Manuel A R; Matheson, Melanie C; Tang, Clara S; Granell, Raquel; Ang, Wei; Hui, Jennie; Kiefer, Amy K; Duffy, David L; Baltic, Svetlana; Danoy, Patrick; Bui, Minh; Price, Loren; Sly, Peter D; Eriksson, Nicholas; Madden, Pamela A; Abramson, Michael J; Holt, Patrick G; Heath, Andrew C; Hunter, Michael; Musk, Bill; Robertson, Colin F; Le Souëf, Peter; Montgomery, Grant W; Henderson, A John; Tung, Joyce Y; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Brown, Matthew A; James, Alan; Thompson, Philip J; Pennell, Craig; Martin, Nicholas G; Evans, David M; Hinds, David A; Hopper, John L

    2014-06-01

    To date, no genome-wide association study (GWAS) has considered the combined phenotype of asthma with hay fever. Previous analyses of family data from the Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study provide evidence that this phenotype has a stronger genetic cause than asthma without hay fever. We sought to perform a GWAS of asthma with hay fever to identify variants associated with having both diseases. We performed a meta-analysis of GWASs comparing persons with both physician-diagnosed asthma and hay fever (n = 6,685) with persons with neither disease (n = 14,091). At genome-wide significance, we identified 11 independent variants associated with the risk of having asthma with hay fever, including 2 associations reaching this level of significance with allergic disease for the first time: ZBTB10 (rs7009110; odds ratio [OR], 1.14; P = 4 × 10(-9)) and CLEC16A (rs62026376; OR, 1.17; P = 1 × 10(-8)). The rs62026376:C allele associated with increased asthma with hay fever risk has been found to be associated also with decreased expression of the nearby DEXI gene in monocytes. The 11 variants were associated with the risk of asthma and hay fever separately, but the estimated associations with the individual phenotypes were weaker than with the combined asthma with hay fever phenotype. A variant near LRRC32 was a stronger risk factor for hay fever than for asthma, whereas the reverse was observed for variants in/near GSDMA and TSLP. Single nucleotide polymorphisms with suggestive evidence for association with asthma with hay fever risk included rs41295115 near IL2RA (OR, 1.28; P = 5 × 10(-7)) and rs76043829 in TNS1 (OR, 1.23; P = 2 × 10(-6)). By focusing on the combined phenotype of asthma with hay fever, variants associated with the risk of allergic disease can be identified with greater efficiency. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. FEATURES OF CLINICAL COURSE OF GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE IN NEWLY RECRUITED WITH CONNECTIVE TISSUE UNDIFFERENTIATED DYSPLASIA SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.I. Kashkina

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of connective tissue undifferentiated dysplasia syndrome against a background of psychological stress at newly recruited can promote the risk of gastroesophageal reflux disease occurrence. To the utmost, correlation between the gastroesophageal reflux disease and such manifestations of connective tissue undifferentiated dysplasia syndrome as asthenic constitution, chest deformation, Gothic palate and hypermobility of joints was found

  9. Confidence in leadership among the newly qualified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss-Pratt, Lisa; Morley, Mary; Bagley, Liz; Alderson, Steven

    2013-10-23

    The Francis report highlighted the importance of strong leadership from health professionals but it is unclear how prepared those who are newly qualified feel to take on a leadership role. We aimed to assess the confidence of newly qualified health professionals working in the West Midlands in the different competencies of the NHS Leadership Framework. Most respondents felt confident in their abilities to demonstrate personal qualities and work with others, but less so at managing or improving services or setting direction.

  10. Genome-Wide Association Study in BRCA1 Mutation Carriers Identifies Novel Loci Associated with Breast and Ovarian Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianshu; McGuffog, Lesley; Lee, Andrew; Olswold, Curtis; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Soucy, Penny; Fredericksen, Zachary; Barrowdale, Daniel; Dennis, Joe; Gaudet, Mia M.; Dicks, Ed; Kosel, Matthew; Healey, Sue; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Lee, Adam; Bacot, François; Vincent, Daniel; Hogervorst, Frans B. L.; Peock, Susan; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Jakubowska, Anna; Investigators, kConFab; Radice, Paolo; Schmutzler, Rita Katharina; Domchek, Susan M.; Piedmonte, Marion; Singer, Christian F.; Friedman, Eitan; Thomassen, Mads; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Szabo, Csilla I.; Blanco, Ignacio; Greene, Mark H.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Garber, Judy; Phelan, Catherine M.; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Montagna, Marco; Olah, Edith; Andrulis, Irene L.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Goldgar, David E.; Caldes, Trinidad; Nevanlinna, Heli; Osorio, Ana; Terry, Mary Beth; Daly, Mary B.; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J.; Hamann, Ute; Ramus, Susan J.; Ewart Toland, Amanda; Caligo, Maria A.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Tung, Nadine; Claes, Kathleen; Beattie, Mary S.; Southey, Melissa C.; Imyanitov, Evgeny N.; Tischkowitz, Marc; Janavicius, Ramunas; John, Esther M.; Kwong, Ava; Diez, Orland; Balmaña, Judith; Barkardottir, Rosa B.; Arun, Banu K.; Rennert, Gad; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Ganz, Patricia A.; Campbell, Ian; van der Hout, Annemarie H.; van Deurzen, Carolien H. M.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Gómez Garcia, Encarna B.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E. J.; Gille, Johannes J. P.; Ausems, Margreet G. E. M.; Blok, Marinus J.; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J. L.; Rookus, Matti A.; Devilee, Peter; Verhoef, Senno; van Os, Theo A. M.; Wijnen, Juul T.; Frost, Debra; Ellis, Steve; Fineberg, Elena; Platte, Radka; Evans, D. Gareth; Izatt, Louise; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Adlard, Julian; Eccles, Diana M.; Cook, Jackie; Brewer, Carole; Douglas, Fiona; Hodgson, Shirley; Morrison, Patrick J.; Side, Lucy E.; Donaldson, Alan; Houghton, Catherine; Rogers, Mark T.; Dorkins, Huw; Eason, Jacqueline; Gregory, Helen; McCann, Emma; Murray, Alex; Calender, Alain; Hardouin, Agnès; Berthet, Pascaline; Delnatte, Capucine; Nogues, Catherine; Lasset, Christine; Houdayer, Claude; Leroux, Dominique; Rouleau, Etienne; Prieur, Fabienne; Damiola, Francesca; Sobol, Hagay; Coupier, Isabelle; Venat-Bouvet, Laurence; Castera, Laurent; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Léoné, Mélanie; Pujol, Pascal; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Złowocka-Perłowska, Elżbieta; Gronwald, Jacek; Lubinski, Jan; Durda, Katarzyna; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Huzarski, Tomasz; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Viel, Alessandra; Peissel, Bernard; Bonanni, Bernardo; Melloni, Giulia; Ottini, Laura; Papi, Laura; Varesco, Liliana; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia; Peterlongo, Paolo; Volorio, Sara; Manoukian, Siranoush; Pensotti, Valeria; Arnold, Norbert; Engel, Christoph; Deissler, Helmut; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Gehrig, Andrea; Kast, Karin; Rhiem, Kerstin; Meindl, Alfons; Niederacher, Dieter; Ditsch, Nina; Plendl, Hansjoerg; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Engert, Stefanie; Sutter, Christian; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Weber, Bernhard H. F.; Arver, Brita; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Loman, Niklas; Rosenquist, Richard; Einbeigi, Zakaria; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Blank, Stephanie V.; Cohn, David E.; Rodriguez, Gustavo C.; Small, Laurie; Friedlander, Michael; Bae-Jump, Victoria L.; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Rappaport, Christine; Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Pfeiler, Georg; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Lindor, Noralane M.; Kaufman, Bella; Shimon Paluch, Shani; Laitman, Yael; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Moeller, Sanne Traasdahl; Kruse, Torben A.; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Vijai, Joseph; Sarrel, Kara; Robson, Mark; Kauff, Noah; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Ejlertsen, Bent; Nielsen, Finn C.; Jønson, Lars; Andersen, Mette K.; Ding, Yuan Chun; Steele, Linda; Foretova, Lenka; Teulé, Alex; Lazaro, Conxi; Brunet, Joan; Pujana, Miquel Angel; Mai, Phuong L.; Loud, Jennifer T.; Walsh, Christine; Lester, Jenny; Orsulic, Sandra; Narod, Steven A.; Herzog, Josef; Sand, Sharon R.; Tognazzo, Silvia; Agata, Simona; Vaszko, Tibor; Weaver, Joellen; Stavropoulou, Alexandra V.; Buys, Saundra S.; Romero, Atocha; de la Hoya, Miguel; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Muranen, Taru A.; Duran, Mercedes; Chung, Wendy K.; Lasa, Adriana; Dorfling, Cecilia M.; Miron, Alexander; Benitez, Javier; Senter, Leigha; Huo, Dezheng; Chan, Salina B.; Sokolenko, Anna P.; Chiquette, Jocelyne; Tihomirova, Laima; Friebel, Tara M.; Agnarsson, Bjarni A.; Lu, Karen H.; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; James, Paul A.; Hall, Per; Dunning, Alison M.; Tessier, Daniel; Cunningham, Julie; Slager, Susan L.; Wang, Chen; Hart, Steven; Stevens, Kristen; Simard, Jacques; Pastinen, Tomi; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Offit, Kenneth; Antoniou, Antonis C.

    2013-01-01

    BRCA1-associated breast and ovarian cancer risks can be modified by common genetic variants. To identify further cancer risk-modifying loci, we performed a multi-stage GWAS of 11,705 BRCA1 carriers (of whom 5,920 were diagnosed with breast and 1,839 were diagnosed with ovarian cancer), with a further replication in an additional sample of 2,646 BRCA1 carriers. We identified a novel breast cancer risk modifier locus at 1q32 for BRCA1 carriers (rs2290854, P = 2.7×10−8, HR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.09–1.20). In addition, we identified two novel ovarian cancer risk modifier loci: 17q21.31 (rs17631303, P = 1.4×10−8, HR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.17–1.38) and 4q32.3 (rs4691139, P = 3.4×10−8, HR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.17–1.38). The 4q32.3 locus was not associated with ovarian cancer risk in the general population or BRCA2 carriers, suggesting a BRCA1-specific association. The 17q21.31 locus was also associated with ovarian cancer risk in 8,211 BRCA2 carriers (P = 2×10−4). These loci may lead to an improved understanding of the etiology of breast and ovarian tumors in BRCA1 carriers. Based on the joint distribution of the known BRCA1 breast cancer risk-modifying loci, we estimated that the breast cancer lifetime risks for the 5% of BRCA1 carriers at lowest risk are 28%–50% compared to 81%–100% for the 5% at highest risk. Similarly, based on the known ovarian cancer risk-modifying loci, the 5% of BRCA1 carriers at lowest risk have an estimated lifetime risk of developing ovarian cancer of 28% or lower, whereas the 5% at highest risk will have a risk of 63% or higher. Such differences in risk may have important implications for risk prediction and clinical management for BRCA1 carriers. PMID:23544013

  11. Shortened version of the work ability index to identify workers at risk of long-term sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, Lianne S; Bültmann, Ute; Heymans, Martijn W; Joling, Catelijne I; Twisk, Jos W R; Roelen, Corné A M

    2016-04-01

    The Work Ability Index (WAI) identifies non-sicklisted workers at risk of future long-term sickness absence (LTSA). The WAI is a complicated instrument and inconvenient for use in large-scale surveys. We investigated whether shortened versions of the WAI identify non-sicklisted workers at risk of LTSA. Prospective study including two samples of non-sicklisted workers participating in occupational health checks between 2010 and 2012. A heterogeneous development sample (N= 2899) was used to estimate logistic regression coefficients for the complete WAI, a shortened WAI version without the list of diseases, and single-item Work Ability Score (WAS). These three instruments were calibrated for predictions of different (≥2, ≥4 and ≥6 weeks) LTSA durations in a validation sample of non-sicklisted workers (N= 3049) employed at a steel mill, differentiating between manual (N= 1710) and non-manual (N= 1339) workers. The discriminative ability was investigated by receiver operating characteristic analysis. All three instruments under-predicted the LTSA risks in both manual and non-manual workers. The complete WAI discriminated between individuals at high and low risk of LTSA ≥2, ≥4 and ≥6 weeks in manual and non-manual workers. Risk predictions and discrimination by the shortened WAI without the list of diseases were as good as the complete WAI. The WAS showed poorer discrimination in manual and non-manual workers. The WAI without the list of diseases is a good alternative to the complete WAI to identify non-sicklisted workers at risk of future LTSA durations ≥2, ≥4 and ≥6 weeks. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  12. HIV-1 molecular epidemiology among newly diagnosed HIV-1 individuals in Hebei, a low HIV prevalence province in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinli; Kang, Xianjiang; Liu, Yongjian; Cui, Ze; Guo, Wei; Zhao, Cuiying; Li, Yan; Chen, Suliang; Li, Jingyun; Zhang, Yuqi; Zhao, Hongru

    2017-01-01

    New human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) diagnoses are increasing rapidly in Hebei. The aim of this study presents the most extensive HIV-1 molecular epidemiology investigation in Hebei province in China thus far. We have carried out the most extensive systematic cross-sectional study based on newly diagnosed HIV-1 positive individuals in 2013, and characterized the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 based on full length gag-partial pol gene sequences in the whole of Hebei. Nine HIV-1 genotypes based on full length gag-partial pol gene sequence were identified among 610 newly diagnosed naïve individuals. The four main genotypes were circulating recombinant form (CRF)01_AE (53.4%), CRF07_BC (23.4%), subtype B (15.9%), and unique recombinant forms URFs (4.9%). Within 1 year, three new genotypes (subtype A1, CRF55_01B, CRF65_cpx), unknown before in Hebei, were first found among men who have sex with men (MSM). All nine genotypes were identified in the sexually contracted HIV-1 population. Among 30 URFs, six recombinant patterns were revealed, including CRF01_AE/BC (40.0%), CRF01_AE/B (23.3%), B/C (16.7%), CRF01_AE/C (13.3%), CRF01_AE/B/A2 (3.3%) and CRF01_AE/BC/A2 (3.3%), plus two potential CRFs. This study elucidated the complicated characteristics of HIV-1 molecular epidemiology in a low HIV-1 prevalence northern province of China and revealed the high level of HIV-1 genetic diversity. All nine HIV-1 genotypes circulating in Hebei have spread out of their initial risk groups into the general population through sexual contact, especially through MSM. This highlights the urgency of HIV prevention and control in China.

  13. HIV-1 molecular epidemiology among newly diagnosed HIV-1 individuals in Hebei, a low HIV prevalence province in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinli Lu

    Full Text Available New human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 diagnoses are increasing rapidly in Hebei. The aim of this study presents the most extensive HIV-1 molecular epidemiology investigation in Hebei province in China thus far. We have carried out the most extensive systematic cross-sectional study based on newly diagnosed HIV-1 positive individuals in 2013, and characterized the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 based on full length gag-partial pol gene sequences in the whole of Hebei. Nine HIV-1 genotypes based on full length gag-partial pol gene sequence were identified among 610 newly diagnosed naïve individuals. The four main genotypes were circulating recombinant form (CRF01_AE (53.4%, CRF07_BC (23.4%, subtype B (15.9%, and unique recombinant forms URFs (4.9%. Within 1 year, three new genotypes (subtype A1, CRF55_01B, CRF65_cpx, unknown before in Hebei, were first found among men who have sex with men (MSM. All nine genotypes were identified in the sexually contracted HIV-1 population. Among 30 URFs, six recombinant patterns were revealed, including CRF01_AE/BC (40.0%, CRF01_AE/B (23.3%, B/C (16.7%, CRF01_AE/C (13.3%, CRF01_AE/B/A2 (3.3% and CRF01_AE/BC/A2 (3.3%, plus two potential CRFs. This study elucidated the complicated characteristics of HIV-1 molecular epidemiology in a low HIV-1 prevalence northern province of China and revealed the high level of HIV-1 genetic diversity. All nine HIV-1 genotypes circulating in Hebei have spread out of their initial risk groups into the general population through sexual contact, especially through MSM. This highlights the urgency of HIV prevention and control in China.

  14. Predicting first fall in newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease: Insights from a fall-naïve cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Sue; Galna, Brook; Yarnall, Alison J; Coleman, Shirley; Burn, David; Rochester, Lynn

    2016-12-01

    Falls are common and associated with reduced independence and mortality in Parkinson's disease. Previous research has been conducted on falls-prevalent or advanced disease cohorts. This study identifies risk factors for first fall for 36 months in a newly diagnosed, falls-naïve cohort. A total of 121 consecutive Parkinson's disease patients were recruited. Falls data were collected prospectively during 36 months from diagnosis via monthly falls diaries and telephone follow-up for 117 participants. Assessment comprised a comprehensive battery of clinical, gait, and cognitive measures. Significant predictors were identified from decision-tree analysis and survival analysis with time to first fall during 36 months as the dependent variable. At baseline, 26 (22%) participants reported retrospective falls. At 36 months, the remaining cohort (n = 91) comprised 47 fallers (52%) and 30 (33%) nonfallers and 14 (15%) participants with incomplete diaries. Fallers presented with a significantly higher disease severity, poorer ability to stand on one leg, slower gait speed, increased stance time variability, and higher swing time asymmetry. Median time to first fall was 847 days. Gait speed, stance time, and Hoehn & Yahr III stage emerged as significant predictors of first fall, hazard ratio 3.44 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.58 to 7.48), 3.31(95% CI 1.40 to 7.80), and 2.80 (95% CI 1.38 to 5.65), respectively. The hazard ratio for risk factors combined was 7.82 (CI 2.80 to 21.84). Interventions that target gait deficit and postural control in early Parkinson's disease may limit the potential for first fall. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  15. Genetic Risk Score Modelling for Disease Progression in New-Onset Type 1 Diabetes Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsson, Caroline A; Nielsen, Lotte B; Andersen, Marie-Louise

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified over 40 type 1 diabetes risk loci. The clinical impact of these loci on β-cell function during disease progression is unknown. We aimed at testing whether a genetic risk score could predict glycemic control and residual β-cell function in type...... 1 diabetes (T1D). As gene expression may represent an intermediate phenotype between genetic variation and disease, we hypothesized that genes within T1D loci which are expressed in islets and transcriptionally regulated by proinflammatory cytokines would be the best predictors of disease...... constructed a genetic risk score based on the cumulative number of risk alleles carried in children with newly diagnosed T1D. With each additional risk allele carried, HbA1c levels increased significantly within first year after diagnosis. Network and gene ontology (GO) analyses revealed that several...

  16. [FRAX® thresholds to identify people with high or low risk of osteoporotic fracture in Spanish female population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azagra, Rafael; Roca, Genís; Martín-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Casado, Enrique; Encabo, Gloria; Zwart, Marta; Aguyé, Amada; Díez-Pérez, Adolf

    2015-01-06

    To detect FRAX(®) threshold levels that identify groups of the population that are at high/low risk of osteoporotic fracture in the Spanish female population using a cost-effective assessment. This is a cohort study. Eight hundred and sixteen women 40-90 years old selected from the FRIDEX cohort with densitometry and risk factors for fracture at baseline who received no treatment for osteoporosis during the 10 year follow-up period and were stratified into 3 groups/levels of fracture risk (low20%) according to the real fracture incidence. The thresholds of FRAX(®) baseline for major osteoporotic fracture were: low riskX-ray absorptiometry (DXA-scan) for FRAX(®)≥ 5 (Intermediate and high risk) to reclassify by FRAX(®) with DXA-scan at high/low risk. These thresholds select 17.5% of women for DXA-scan and 10% for treatment. With these thresholds of FRAX(®), compared with the strategy of opportunistic case finding isolated risk factors, would improve the predictive parameters and reduce 82.5% the DXA-scan, 35.4% osteoporosis prescriptions and 28.7% cost to detect the same number of women who suffer fractures. The use of FRAX ® thresholds identified as high/low risk of osteoporotic fracture in this calibration (FRIDEX model) improve predictive parameters in Spanish women and in a more cost-effective than the traditional model based on the T-score ≤ -2.5 of DXA scan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Alerting the apathetic and reassuring the alarmed: communicating about radon risk in three communities. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chess, C.; Hance, B.J.

    1988-01-01

    Public reaction to the risk from radon varied widely in three communities chosen for qualitative analysis. In Boyertown, PA, some residents were very alarmed, but most were apathetic toward this newly identified environmental risk. In Clinton, NJ, residents were concerned and worked with the mayor and the state to determine whether they were at risk and to disseminate information about mitigation of high indoor radon levels. Residents in Vernon, New Jersey were very alarmed and actively opposed the state's decision to site low-level radium wastes there. The qualitative study examines why reactions differed among the three communities, and extracts lessons for communicating about the risk from radon. These lessons should apply to communicating about other environmental hazards to individuals and communities

  18. Trabecular bone score as an assessment tool to identify the risk of osteoporosis in axial spondyloarthritis: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kwi Young; Goo, Hye Yeon; Park, Sung-Hwan; Hong, Yeon Sik

    2018-03-01

    To compare the trabecular bone score (TBS) between patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) and matched normal controls and identify risk factors associated with a low TBS. TBS and BMD were assessed in the two groups (axSpA and control) using DXA. Osteoporosis risk factors and inflammatory markers were also assessed. Disease activity and radiographic progression in the sacroiliac joint and spine were evaluated in the axSpA group. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors associated with TBS. In the axSpA group, 248 subjects were enrolled; an equal number of age- and sex-matched subjects comprised the control group. The mean TBS was 1.43 (0.08) and 1.38 (0.12) in the control and axSpA groups, respectively (P tool to identify the risk of osteoporosis in patients with axSpA.

  19. Depression and cognitive impairment among newly admitted nursing home residents in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbricht, Christine M; Rothschild, Anthony J; Hunnicutt, Jacob N; Lapane, Kate L

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the prevalence of depression and cognitive impairment among newly admitted nursing home residents in the USA and to describe the treatment of depression by level of cognitive impairment. We identified 1,088,619 newly admitted older residents between 2011 and 2013 with an active diagnosis of depression documented on the Minimum Data Set 3.0. The prevalence of receiving psychiatric treatment was estimated by cognitive impairment status and depression symptoms. Binary logistic regression using generalized estimating equations provided adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between level of cognitive impairment and receipt of psychiatric treatment, adjusted for clustering of residents within nursing homes and resident characteristics. Twenty-six percent of newly admitted residents had depression; 47% of these residents also had cognitive impairment. Of those who had staff assessments of depression, anhedonia, impaired concentration, psychomotor disturbances, and irritability were more commonly experienced by residents with cognitive impairment than residents without cognitive impairment. Forty-eight percent of all residents with depression did not receive any psychiatric treatment. Approximately one-fifth of residents received a combination of treatment. Residents with severe cognitive impairment were less likely than those with intact cognition to receive psychiatric treatment (adjusted odds ratio = 0.95; 95% confidence interval: 0.93-0.98). Many newly admitted residents with an active diagnosis of depression are untreated, potentially missing an important window to improve symptoms. The extent of comorbid cognitive impairment and depression and lack of treatment suggest opportunities for improved quality of care in this increasingly important healthcare setting. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Risk management of energy system for identifying optimal power mix with financial-cost minimization and environmental-impact mitigation under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie, S.; Li, Y.P.; Liu, J.; Huang, Charley Z.

    2017-01-01

    An interval-stochastic risk management (ISRM) method is launched to control the variability of the recourse cost as well as to capture the notion of risk in stochastic programming. The ISRM method can examine various policy scenarios that are associated with economic penalties under uncertainties presented as probability distributions and interval values. An ISRM model is then formulated to identify the optimal power mix for the Beijing's energy system. Tradeoffs between risk and cost are evaluated, indicating any change in targeted cost and risk level would yield different expected costs. Results reveal that the inherent uncertainty of system components and risk attitude of decision makers have significant effects on the city's energy-supply and electricity-generation schemes as well as system cost and probabilistic penalty. Results also disclose that import electricity as a recourse action to compensate the local shortage would be enforced. The import electricity would increase with a reduced risk level; under every risk level, more electricity would be imported with an increased demand. The findings can facilitate the local authority in identifying desired strategies for the city's energy planning and management in association with financial-cost minimization and environmental-impact mitigation. - Highlights: • Interval-stochastic risk management method is launched to identify optimal power mix. • It is advantageous in capturing the notion of risk in stochastic programming. • Results reveal that risk attitudes can affect optimal power mix and financial cost. • Developing renewable energies would enhance the sustainability of energy management. • Import electricity as an action to compensate the local shortage would be enforced.

  1. The Baby TALK Model: An Innovative Approach to Identifying High-Risk Children and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalpando, Aimee Hilado; Leow, Christine; Hornstein, John

    2012-01-01

    This research report examines the Baby TALK model, an innovative early childhood intervention approach used to identify, recruit, and serve young children who are at-risk for developmental delays, mental health needs, and/or school failure, and their families. The report begins with a description of the model. This description is followed by an…

  2. Meta-analysis identifies 29 additional ulcerative colitis risk loci, increasing the number of confirmed associations to 47

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Carl A; Boucher, Gabrielle; Lees, Charlie W

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies and candidate gene studies in ulcerative colitis have identified 18 susceptibility loci. We conducted a meta-analysis of six ulcerative colitis genome-wide association study datasets, comprising 6,687 cases and 19,718 controls, and followed up the top association...... signals in 9,628 cases and 12,917 controls. We identified 29 additional risk loci (P associated loci to 47. After annotating associated regions using GRAIL, expression quantitative trait loci data and correlations with non-synonymous SNPs, we...... identified many candidate genes that provide potentially important insights into disease pathogenesis, including IL1R2, IL8RA-IL8RB, IL7R, IL12B, DAP, PRDM1, JAK2, IRF5, GNA12 and LSP1. The total number of confirmed inflammatory bowel disease risk loci is now 99, including a minimum of 28 shared association...

  3. Identifying eustachian tube dysfunction prior to hyperbaric oxygen therapy: Who is at risk for intolerance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Jason E; Pfeiffer, Michael; Patel, Niki; Sataloff, Robert T; McKinnon, Brian J

    Determine whether specific risk factors, symptoms and clinical examination findings are associated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) intolerance and subsequent tympanotomy tube placement. A retrospective case series with chart review was conducted from 2007 to 2016 of patients undergoing HBOT clearance at a tertiary care university hospital in an urban city. Eighty-one (n=81) patient charts were reviewed for risk factors, symptoms and clinical examination findings related to HBOT eustachian tube dysfunction and middle ear barotrauma. Relative risk was calculated for each variable to determine risk for HBOT intolerance and need for tympanotomy tube placement. Risk factor, symptom, physical examination and HBOT complication-susceptibility scores were calculated for each patient. Mean risk factor, clinical and HBOT complication-susceptibility scores were significantly higher in patients who did not tolerate HBOT compared to patients who tolerated HBOT. Patients reporting a history of otitis media, tinnitus, and prior ear surgery were at a higher risk for HBOT intolerance. Patients reporting a history of pressure intolerance and prior ear surgery were more likely to undergo tympanotomy tube placement. Patients noted to have otologic findings prior to HBOT were at a higher risk for both HBOT intolerance and tympanotomy tube placement. A thorough otolaryngological evaluation can potentially predict and identify patients at risk for HBOT intolerance and tympanotomy tube placement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Problems faced by newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus patients at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetes mellitus can be a frightening experience for newly diagnosed patients. The aim of this study was to determine and describe the problems faced by newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus patients at primary healthcare facilities at Mopani district, Limpopo Province. A qualitative, descriptive and contextual research ...

  5. The application of visceral adiposity index in identifying type 2 diabetes risks based on a prospective cohort in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Xu, Yan; Guo, Zhi-rong; Yang, Jie; Wu, Ming; Hu, Xiao-shu

    2014-07-08

    Visceral adiposity index (VAI), a novel sex-specific index for visceral fat measurement, has been proposed recently. We evaluate the efficacy of VAI in identifying diabetes risk in Chinese people, and compare the predictive ability between VAI and other body fatness indices, i.e., waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI) and waist- to- height ratio (WHtR). Participants (n=3,461) were recruited from an ongoing cohort study in Jiangsu Province, China. Hazard ratio (HR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) between diabetes risk and different body fatness indices were evaluated by Cox proportional hazard regression model. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and area under curve (AUC) were applied to compare the ability of identifying diabetes risk between VAI, WC, WHtR and BMI. A total number of 160 new diabetic cases occurred during the follow-up, with an incidence of 4.6%. Significant positive associations were observed for VAI with blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride, WC, BMI and WHtR. Moreover, increased VAI was observed to be associated with higher diabetes risk with a positive dose-response trend (p for trendconvenience surrogate marker for visceral adipose measurement and could be used in identifying the risk of diabetes in large-scale epidemiologic studies.

  6. Vibrational imaging of newly synthesized proteins in live cells by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lu; Yu, Yong; Shen, Yihui; Wang, Meng C.; Min, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Synthesis of new proteins, a key step in the central dogma of molecular biology, has been a major biological process by which cells respond rapidly to environmental cues in both physiological and pathological conditions. However, the selective visualization of a newly synthesized proteome in living systems with subcellular resolution has proven to be rather challenging, despite the extensive efforts along the lines of fluorescence staining, autoradiography, and mass spectrometry. Herein, we report an imaging technique to visualize nascent proteins by harnessing the emerging stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy coupled with metabolic incorporation of deuterium-labeled amino acids. As a first demonstration, we imaged newly synthesized proteins in live mammalian cells with high spatial–temporal resolution without fixation or staining. Subcellular compartments with fast protein turnover in HeLa and HEK293T cells, and newly grown neurites in differentiating neuron-like N2A cells, are clearly identified via this imaging technique. Technically, incorporation of deuterium-labeled amino acids is minimally perturbative to live cells, whereas SRS imaging of exogenous carbon–deuterium bonds (C–D) in the cell-silent Raman region is highly sensitive, specific, and compatible with living systems. Moreover, coupled with label-free SRS imaging of the total proteome, our method can readily generate spatial maps of the quantitative ratio between new and total proteomes. Thus, this technique of nonlinear vibrational imaging of stable isotope incorporation will be a valuable tool to advance our understanding of the complex spatial and temporal dynamics of newly synthesized proteome in vivo. PMID:23798434

  7. A measurement model of perinatal stressors: identifying risk for postnatal emotional distress in mothers of high-risk infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMier, R L; Hynan, M T; Hatfield, R F; Varner, M W; Harris, H B; Manniello, R L

    2000-01-01

    A measurement model of perinatal stressors was first evaluated for reliability and then used to identify risk factors for postnatal emotional distress in high-risk mothers. In Study 1, six measures (gestational age of the baby, birthweight, length of the baby's hospitalization, a postnatal complications rating for the infant, and Apgar scores at 1 and 5 min) were obtained from chart reviews of preterm births at two different hospitals. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the six measures could be accounted for by three factors: (a) Infant Maturity, (b) Apgar Ratings, and (c) Complications. In Study 2, a modified measurement model indicated that Infant Maturity and Complications were significant predictors of postnatal emotional distress in an additional sample of mothers. This measurement model may also be useful in predicting (a) other measures of psychological distress in parents, and (b) measures of cognitive and motor development in infants.

  8. A simple method to identify areas of environmental risk due to manure application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Héctor; Arumí, José Luis; Rivera, Diego; Lagos, L Octavio

    2012-06-01

    The management of swine manure is becoming an important environmental issue in Chile. One option for the final disposal of manure is to use it as a biofertilizer, but this practice could impact the surrounding environment. To assess the potential environmental impacts of the use of swine manure as a biofertilizer, we propose a method to identify zones of environmental risk through indices. The method considers two processes: nutrient runoff and solute leaching, and uses available information about soils, crops and management practices (irrigation, fertilization, and rotation). We applied the method to qualitatively assess the environmental risk associated with the use of swine manure as a biofertilizer in an 8,000-pig farm located in Central Chile. Results showed that the farm has a moderate environmental risk, but some specific locations have high environmental risks, especially those associated with impacts on areas surrounding water resources. This information could assist the definition of better farm-level management practices, as well as the preservation of riparian vegetation acting as buffer strips. The main advantage of our approach is that it combines qualitative and quantitative information, including particular situations or field features based on expert knowledge. The method is flexible, simple, and can be easily extended or adapted to other processes.

  9. Newly graduated nurses' use of knowledge sources in clinical decision-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldbjerg, Siri Lygum; Grønkjaer, Mette; Wiechula, Rick

    2017-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore which knowledge sources newly graduated nurses' use in clinical decision-making and why and how they are used. BACKGROUND: In spite of an increased educational focus on skills and competencies within evidence based practice newly graduated nurses' ability to use...... approaches to strengthen the knowledgebase used in clinical decision-making. DESIGN AND METHODS: Ethnographic study using participant-observation and individual semi-structured interviews of nine Danish newly graduated nurses in medical and surgical hospital settings. RESULTS: Newly graduates use...... in clinical decision-making. If newly graduates are to be supported in an articulate and reflective use of a variety of sources, they have to be allocated to experienced nurses who model a reflective, articulate and balanced use of knowledge sources. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  10. Identifying hotspots of coastal risk and evaluating DRR measures: results from the RISC-KIT project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dongeren, A.; Ciavola, P.; Viavattene, C.; Dekleermaeker, S.; Martinez, G.; Ferreira, O.; Costa, C.

    2016-02-01

    High-impact storm events have demonstrated the vulnerability of coastal zones in Europe and beyond. These impacts are likely to increase due to predicted climate change and ongoing coastal development. In order to reduce impacts, disaster risk reduction (DRR) measures need to be taken, which prevent or mitigate the effects of storm events. To drive the DRR agenda, the UNISDR formulated the Sendai Framework for Action, and the EU has issued the Floods Directive. However, neither is specific about the methods to be used to develop actionable DRR measures in the coastal zone. Therefore, there is a need to develop methods, tools and approaches which make it possible to: identify and prioritize the coastal zones which are most at risk through a Coastal Risk Assessment Framework, evaluate the effectiveness of DRR options for these coastal areas, using an Early Warning/Decision Support System, which can be used both in the planning and event-phase. This paper gives an overview of the products and results obtained in the FP7-funded project RISC-KIT, which aims to develop and apply a set of tools with which highly-vulnerable coastal areas (so-called "hotspots") can be identified. The identification is done using the Coastal Risk Assessment Framework, or CRAF, which computes the intensity from multi-hazards, the exposure and the vulnerability, all components of risk, including network and cascading effects. Based on this analysis hot spots of risk which warrant coastal protection investments are selected. For these hotspot areas, high-resolution Early Warning and Decision Support Tools are developed with which it is possible to compute in detail the effectiveness of Disaster Risk Reduction measures in storm event scenarios, which helps decide which measures to implement in the planning phase. The same systems, but now driven with real time data, can also be used for early warning systems. All tools are tested on eleven case study areas, at least one on each EU Regional Sea

  11. Value of a newly sequenced bacterial genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbosa, Eudes; Aburjaile, Flavia F; Ramos, Rommel Tj

    2014-01-01

    and annotation will not be undertaken. It is important to know what is lost when we settle for a draft genome and to determine the "scientific value" of a newly sequenced genome. This review addresses the expected impact of newly sequenced genomes on antibacterial discovery and vaccinology. Also, it discusses...... heightened expectations that NGS would boost antibacterial discovery and vaccine development. Although many possible drug and vaccine targets have been discovered, the success rate of genome-based analysis has remained below expectations. Furthermore, NGS has had consequences for genome quality, resulting...

  12. Multiancestry association study identifies new asthma risk loci that colocalize with immune-cell enhancer marks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demenais, Florence; Margaritte-Jeannin, Patricia; Barnes, Kathleen C

    2018-01-01

    We examined common variation in asthma risk by conducting a meta-analysis of worldwide asthma genome-wide association studies (23,948 asthma cases, 118,538 controls) of individuals from ethnically diverse populations. We identified five new asthma loci, found two new associations at two known...

  13. Osteoporosis among Fallers without Concomitant Fracture Identified in an Emergency Department: Frequencies and Risk Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Bente; Hesse, Ulrik; Houe, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    aged 50-80 years sustaining a low-energy fall without fracture were identified from an ED (n = 199). Patients answered a questionnaire on risk factors and underwent osteodensitometry. Data was compared to a group of patients routinely referred to osteodensitometry from general practice (n = 201......). Results. Among the 199 included fallers, 41 (21%) had osteoporosis. Among these, 35 (85%) reported either previous fracture or reduced body height (>3¿cm). These two risk factors were more frequent among fallers with osteoporosis compared to fallers with normal bone mineral density or osteopenia (previous...... if the patient has a prior fracture or declined body height. Since fallers generally have higher fracture risk, the ED might serve as an additional entrance to osteodensitometry compared to referral from primary care....

  14. Mortality Risks in New-Onset Childhood Epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, Anne T.; Nickels, Katherine; Wirrell, Elaine C.; Geerts, Ada T.; Callenbach, Petra M. C.; Arts, Willem F.; Rios, Christina; Camfield, Peter R.; Camfield, Carol S.

    OBJECTIVES: Estimate the causes and risk of death, specifically seizure related, in children followed from onset of epilepsy and to contrast the risk of seizure-related death with other common causes of death in the population. METHODS: Mortality experiences from 4 pediatric cohorts of newly

  15. Preceptors' perceptions of the elements of a successful and an unsuccessful orientation period for newly graduated nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindfors, Kirsi; Meretoja, Riitta; Kaunonen, Marja; Paavilainen, Eija

    2018-04-01

    To identify existing orientation patterns and to find elements that may enhance or impede successful orientation of newly graduated nurses. Preceptors have first-hand information concerning orientation and their opinions should not be forgotten when organisations develop their orientation processes. An open-ended questionnaire was undertaken to collect data from preceptors (n = 172) about the current orientation patterns. Data were analysed by using deductive content analysis and by quantifying the phrases. Communal commitment to the orientation process, strong professional orientation know-how and supportive leadership were the enhancing elements of successful orientation. Complex interpersonal relationship problems during orientation, inadequate orientation resources and the organisation's structural and functional problems were the impeding elements of successful orientation. With the elements of successful orientation we ensure a supportive transition to practice for newly graduate nurses and possibilities to focus on good orientation practices for preceptors. Nurse leaders play an important part in ensuring newly graduated nurses have a safe nursing career starting point and, for preceptors, opportunities to provide orientation that is as good as possible. Supportive leadership, sufficient resources and good interpersonal relationships should be the leading principles during newly graduated nurses' orientation period. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Coping strategies among patients with newly diagnosed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson Larsson, Birgitta; Nordin, Karin; Askmark, Håkan; Nygren, Ingela

    2014-11-01

    To prospectively identify different coping strategies among newly diagnosed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients and whether they change over time and to determine whether physical function, psychological well-being, age and gender correlated with the use of different coping strategies. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a fatal disease with impact on both physical function and psychological well-being. Different coping strategies are used to manage symptoms and disease progression, but knowledge about coping in newly diagnosed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients is scarce. This was a prospective study with a longitudinal and descriptive design. A total of 33 patients were included and evaluation was made at two time points, one to three months and six months after diagnosis. Patients were asked to complete the Motor Neuron Disease Coping Scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Physical function was estimated using the revised Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale. The most commonly used strategies were support and independence. Avoidance/venting and information seeking were seldom used at both time points. The use of information seeking decreased between the two time points. Men did not differ from women, but patients ≤64 years used positive action more often than older patients. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale was positively correlated with positive action at time point 1, but not at time point 2. Patients' psychological well-being was correlated with the use of different coping strategies. Support and independence were the most used coping strategies, and the use of different strategies changed over time. Psychological well-being was correlated with different coping strategies in newly diagnosed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients. The knowledge about coping strategies in early stage of the disease may help the nurses to improve and develop the care and support for these patients. © 2014 John Wiley

  17. Association of copeptin and cortisol in newly diagnosed multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowska-Bik, Agnieszka; Kochanowski, Jan; Uchman, Dorota; Litwiniuk, Anna; Kalisz, Malgorzata; Martynska, Lidia; Wolinska-Witort, Ewa; Baranowska, Boguslawa; Bik, Wojciech

    2015-05-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. Obesity may increase the risk of developing MS. The aim of this study was to evaluate copeptin and cortisol plasma levels in newly diagnosed untreated MS patients and to determine whether copeptin and cortisol are related to the patients' clinical statuses. We report that copeptin and cortisol were higher in overweight/obese MS patients. Positive correlations were observed between the two parameters. We conclude that alterations of copeptin and cortisol levels in multiple sclerosis patients may be related to adiposity. An increase in cortisol may also be associated with copeptin secretion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Practical use of registered veterinary medicinal products in Macedonia in identifying the risk of developing of antimicrobial resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velev Romel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of antimicrobial agents is the key risk factor for the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance. It is therefore generally recognized that data on the usage of antimicrobial agents in food-producing animals are essential for identifying and quantifying the risk of developing and spreading of antimicrobial resistance in the food-chain. According to the WHO guidelines, the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical system for the classification of veterinary medicines (ATC-vet is widely recognized as a classification tool. The aim of this work is to analyze the list of registered veterinary medicinal products in R. Macedonia and to evaluate the quality and practical use of this list according to the ATC-vet classification in order to identify the risk of developing and spreading of antimicrobial resistance.

  19. Latent Class Analysis of HIV Risk Behaviors Among Russian Women at Risk for Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohora, Som; Chaffin, Mark; Shaboltas, Alla; Bonner, Barbara; Isurina, Galina; Batluk, Julia; Bard, David; Tsvetkova, Larissa; Skitnevskaya, Larissa; Volkova, Elena; Balachova, Tatiana

    2017-11-01

    The number of HIV cases attributed to heterosexual contact and the proportion of women among HIV positive individuals has increased worldwide. Russia is a country with the highest rates of newly diagnosed HIV infections in the region, and the infection spreads beyond traditional risk groups. While young women are affected disproportionately, knowledge of HIV risk behaviors in women in the general population remains limited. The objectives of this study were to identify patterns of behaviors that place women of childbearing age at high risk for HIV transmission and determine whether socio-demographic characteristics and alcohol use are predictive of the risk pattern. A total of 708 non-pregnant women, aged between 18 and 44 years, who were at risk for an alcohol-exposed pregnancy were enrolled in two regions in Russia. Participants completed a structured interview focused on HIV risk behaviors, including risky sexual behavior and alcohol and drug use. Latent class analysis was utilized to examine associations between HIV risk and other demographic and alcohol use characteristics and to identify patterns of risk among women. Three classes were identified. 34.93% of participants were at high risk, combining their risk behaviors, e.g., having multiple sexual partners, with high partner's risk associated with partner's drug use (class I). Despite reporting self-perceived risk for HIV/STI, this class of participants was unlikely to utilize adequate protection (i.e., condom use). The second high risk class included 13.19% of participants who combined their risky sexual behaviors, i.e., multiple sexual partners and having STDs, with partner's risk that included partner's imprisonment and partner's sex with other women (class II). Participants in this class were likely to utilize protection/condoms. Finally, 51.88% of participants were at lower risk, which was associated primarily with their partners' risk, and these participants utilized protection (class III). The odds

  20. Epidermal growth factor gene is a newly identified candidate gene for gout

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Han; Chunwei Cao; Zhaotong Jia; Shiguo Liu; Zhen Liu; Ruosai Xin; Can Wang; Xinde Li; Wei Ren; Xuefeng Wang; Changgui Li

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome 4q25 has been identified as a genomic region associated with gout. However, the associations of gout with the genes in this region have not yet been confirmed. Here, we performed two-stage analysis to determine whether variations in candidate genes in the 4q25 region are associated with gout in a male Chinese Han population. We first evaluated 96 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in eight inflammatory/immune pathway- or glucose/lipid metabolism-related genes in the 4q25 re...

  1. Identifying desertification risk areas using fuzzy membership and geospatial technique - A case study, Kota District, Rajasthan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Arunima; Sastry, K. L. N.; Dhinwa, P. S.; Rathore, V. S.; Nathawat, M. S.

    2013-08-01

    Desertification risk assessment is important in order to take proper measures for its prevention. Present research intends to identify the areas under risk of desertification along with their severity in terms of degradation in natural parameters. An integrated model with fuzzy membership analysis, fuzzy rule-based inference system and geospatial techniques was adopted, including five specific natural parameters namely slope, soil pH, soil depth, soil texture and NDVI. Individual parameters were classified according to their deviation from mean. Membership of each individual values to be in a certain class was derived using the normal probability density function of that class. Thus if a single class of a single parameter is with mean μ and standard deviation σ, the values falling beyond μ + 2 σ and μ - 2 σ are not representing that class, but a transitional zone between two subsequent classes. These are the most important areas in terms of degradation, as they have the lowest probability to be in a certain class, hence highest probability to be extended or narrowed down in next or previous class respectively. Eventually, these are the values which can be easily altered, under extrogenic influences, hence are identified as risk areas. The overall desertification risk is derived by incorporating the different risk severity of each parameter using fuzzy rule-based interference system in GIS environment. Multicriteria based geo-statistics are applied to locate the areas under different severity of desertification risk. The study revealed that in Kota, various anthropogenic pressures are accelerating land deterioration, coupled with natural erosive forces. Four major sources of desertification in Kota are, namely Gully and Ravine erosion, inappropriate mining practices, growing urbanization and random deforestation.

  2. Multiancestry association study identifies new asthma risk loci that colocalize with immune-cell enhancer marks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demenais, Florence; Margaritte-Jeannin, Patricia; Barnes, Kathleen C; Cookson, William O C; Altmüller, Janine; Ang, Wei; Barr, R Graham; Beaty, Terri H; Becker, Allan B; Beilby, John; Bisgaard, Hans; Bjornsdottir, Unnur Steina; Bleecker, Eugene; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Boomsma, Dorret I; Bouzigon, Emmanuelle; Brightling, Christopher E; Brossard, Myriam; Brusselle, Guy G; Burchard, Esteban; Burkart, Kristin M; Bush, Andrew; Chan-Yeung, Moira; Chung, Kian Fan; Couto Alves, Alexessander; Curtin, John A; Custovic, Adnan; Daley, Denise; de Jongste, Johan C; Del-Rio-Navarro, Blanca E; Donohue, Kathleen M; Duijts, Liesbeth; Eng, Celeste; Eriksson, Johan G; Farrall, Martin; Fedorova, Yuliya; Feenstra, Bjarke; Ferreira, Manuel A; Freidin, Maxim B; Gajdos, Zofia; Gauderman, Jim; Gehring, Ulrike; Geller, Frank; Genuneit, Jon; Gharib, Sina A; Gilliland, Frank; Granell, Raquel; Graves, Penelope E; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Haahtela, Tari; Heckbert, Susan R; Heederik, Dick; Heinrich, Joachim; Heliövaara, Markku; Henderson, John; Himes, Blanca E; Hirose, Hiroshi; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Hofman, Albert; Holt, Patrick; Hottenga, Jouke; Hudson, Thomas J; Hui, Jennie; Imboden, Medea; Ivanov, Vladimir; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; James, Alan; Janson, Christer; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jarvis, Deborah; Jones, Graham; Jonsdottir, Ingileif; Jousilahti, Pekka; Kabesch, Michael; Kähönen, Mika; Kantor, David B; Karunas, Alexandra S; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Koppelman, Gerard H; Kozyrskyj, Anita L; Kreiner, Eskil; Kubo, Michiaki; Kumar, Rajesh; Kumar, Ashish; Kuokkanen, Mikko; Lahousse, Lies; Laitinen, Tarja; Laprise, Catherine; Lathrop, Mark; Lau, Susanne; Lee, Young-Ae; Lehtimäki, Terho; Letort, Sébastien; Levin, Albert M; Li, Guo; Liang, Liming; Loehr, Laura R; London, Stephanie J; Loth, Daan W; Manichaikul, Ani; Marenholz, Ingo; Martinez, Fernando J; Matheson, Melanie C; Mathias, Rasika A; Matsumoto, Kenji; Mbarek, Hamdi; McArdle, Wendy L; Melbye, Mads; Melén, Erik; Meyers, Deborah; Michel, Sven; Mohamdi, Hamida; Musk, Arthur W; Myers, Rachel A; Nieuwenhuis, Maartje A E; Noguchi, Emiko; O'Connor, George T; Ogorodova, Ludmila M; Palmer, Cameron D; Palotie, Aarno; Park, Julie E; Pennell, Craig E; Pershagen, Göran; Polonikov, Alexey; Postma, Dirkje S; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Puzyrev, Valery P; Raby, Benjamin A; Raitakari, Olli T; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Rich, Stephen S; Robertson, Colin F; Romieu, Isabelle; Salam, Muhammad T; Salomaa, Veikko; Schlünssen, Vivi; Scott, Robert; Selivanova, Polina A; Sigsgaard, Torben; Simpson, Angela; Siroux, Valérie; Smith, Lewis J; Solodilova, Maria; Standl, Marie; Stefansson, Kari; Strachan, David P; Stricker, Bruno H; Takahashi, Atsushi; Thompson, Philip J; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Tiesler, Carla M T; Torgerson, Dara G; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Uitterlinden, André G; van der Valk, Ralf J P; Vaysse, Amaury; Vedantam, Sailaja; von Berg, Andrea; von Mutius, Erika; Vonk, Judith M; Waage, Johannes; Wareham, Nick J; Weiss, Scott T; White, Wendy B; Wickman, Magnus; Widén, Elisabeth; Willemsen, Gonneke; Williams, L Keoki; Wouters, Inge M; Yang, James J; Zhao, Jing Hua; Moffatt, Miriam F; Ober, Carole; Nicolae, Dan L

    We examined common variation in asthma risk by conducting a meta-analysis of worldwide asthma genome-wide association studies (23,948 asthma cases, 118,538 controls) of individuals from ethnically diverse populations. We identified five new asthma loci, found two new associations at two known asthma

  3. An Integrated H-G Scheme Identifying Areas for Soil Remediation and Primary Heavy Metal Contributors: A Risk Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Bin; Jiang, Xiaolu; Duan, Xiaoli; Zhao, Xiuge; Zhang, Jing; Tang, Jingwen; Sun, Guoqing

    2017-03-23

    Traditional sampling for soil pollution evaluation is cost intensive and has limited representativeness. Therefore, developing methods that can accurately and rapidly identify at-risk areas and the contributing pollutants is imperative for soil remediation. In this study, we propose an innovative integrated H-G scheme combining human health risk assessment and geographical detector methods that was based on geographical information system technology and validated its feasibility in a renewable resource industrial park in mainland China. With a discrete site investigation of cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg) and zinc (Zn) concentrations, the continuous surfaces of carcinogenic risk and non-carcinogenic risk caused by these heavy metals were estimated and mapped. Source apportionment analysis using geographical detector methods further revealed that these risks were primarily attributed to As, according to the power of the determinant and its associated synergic actions with other heavy metals. Concentrations of critical As and Cd, and the associated exposed CRs are closed to the safe thresholds after remediating the risk areas identified by the integrated H-G scheme. Therefore, the integrated H-G scheme provides an effective approach to support decision-making for regional contaminated soil remediation at fine spatial resolution with limited sampling data over a large geographical extent.

  4. Depth-variable settlement patterns and predation influence on newly settled reef fishes (Haemulon spp., Haemulidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lance K B Jordan

    Full Text Available During early demersal ontogeny, many marine fishes display complex habitat-use patterns. Grunts of the speciose genus Haemulon are among the most abundant fishes on western North Atlantic coral reefs, with most species settling to shallow habitats (≤12 m. To gain understanding into cross-shelf distributional patterns exhibited by newly settled stages of grunts (<2 cm total length, we examined: 1 depth-specific distributions of congeners at settlement among sites at 8 m, 12 m, and 21 m, and 2 depth-variable predation pressure on newly settled individuals (species pooled. Of the six species identified from collections of newly settled specimens (n = 2125, Haemulon aurolineatum (tomtate, H. flavolineatum (French grunt, and H. striatum (striped grunt comprised 98% of the total abundance; with the first two species present at all sites. Prevalence of H. aurolineatum and H. flavolineatum decreased substantially from the 8-m site to the two deeper sites. In contrast, H. striatum was absent from the 8-m site and exhibited its highest frequency at the 21-m site. Comparison of newly settled grunt delta density for all species on caged (predator exclusion and control artificial reefs at the shallowest site (8-m revealed no difference, while the 12-m and 21-m sites exhibited significantly greater delta densities on the caged treatment. This result, along with significantly higher abundances of co-occurring piscivorous fishes at the deeper sites, indicated lower predation pressure at the 8-m site. This study suggests habitat-use patterns of newly settled stages of some coral reef fishes that undergo ontogenetic shifts are a function of depth-variable predation pressure while, for at least one deeper-water species, proximity to adult habitat appears to be an important factor affecting settlement distribution.

  5. Lifetime risk of urothelial carcinoma and lung cancer in the arseniasis-endemic area of Northeastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tse-Yen; Hsu, Ling-I.; Chen, Hui-Chi; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Hsueh, Yu-Mei; Wu, Meei-Maan; Chen, Chi-Ling; Wang, Yuan-Hung; Liao, Ya-Tang; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2013-11-01

    Arsenic in drinking water has been shown to increase the risk of urothelial carcinoma and lung cancer. However, the lifetime risk of developing urothelial carcinoma and lung cancer caused by exposure to arsenic in drinking water has not been reported. This study aimed to assess the lifetime risk of urothelial carcinoma and lung cancer caused by arsenic exposure from drinking water and cigarette smoking habit for residents living in the arseniasis-endemic area in Northeastern Taiwan. We recruited 8086 residents in 1991-1994 and monitored them for their newly developed types of cancers, identified by computerized linkage with the national cancer registry profile. There were 37 newly diagnosed urothelial carcinoma cases and 223 new lung cancer cases during the follow-up period (until 2007). The lifetime (35-85 years old) cumulative risk of developing urothelial carcinoma from an arsenic concentration in the drinking water of smoking was associated with an increased risk of urothelial carcinoma and lung cancer, showing the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of 2.48 (1.27-4.82) and 3.44 (2.00-5.90) after adjusting for the arsenic concentration in drinking water. After adjusting for cigarette smoking, the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of developing urothelial carcinoma caused by the arsenic concentration in drinking water of smoking. It is suggested that people who have had a high exposure to arsenic in drinking water should stop smoking cigarettes to lower their lifetime risk of urothelial carcinoma and lung cancer.

  6. Modeling Retention at a Large Public University: Can At-Risk Students Be Identified Early Enough to Treat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singell, Larry D.; Waddell, Glen R.

    2010-01-01

    We examine the extent to which readily available data at a large public university can be used to a priori identify at-risk students who may benefit from targeted retention efforts. Although it is possible to identify such students, there remains an inevitable tradeoff in any resource allocation between not treating the students who are likely to…

  7. Identifying nurse staffing research in Medline: development and testing of empirically derived search strategies with the PubMed interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Michael; Hausner, Elke; Klaus, Susan F; Dunton, Nancy E

    2010-08-23

    The identification of health services research in databases such as PubMed/Medline is a cumbersome task. This task becomes even more difficult if the field of interest involves the use of diverse methods and data sources, as is the case with nurse staffing research. This type of research investigates the association between nurse staffing parameters and nursing and patient outcomes. A comprehensively developed search strategy may help identify nurse staffing research in PubMed/Medline. A set of relevant references in PubMed/Medline was identified by means of three systematic reviews. This development set was used to detect candidate free-text and MeSH terms. The frequency of these terms was compared to a random sample from PubMed/Medline in order to identify terms specific to nurse staffing research, which were then used to develop a sensitive, precise and balanced search strategy. To determine their precision, the newly developed search strategies were tested against a) the pool of relevant references extracted from the systematic reviews, b) a reference set identified from an electronic journal screening, and c) a sample from PubMed/Medline. Finally, all newly developed strategies were compared to PubMed's Health Services Research Queries (PubMed's HSR Queries). The sensitivities of the newly developed search strategies were almost 100% in all of the three test sets applied; precision ranged from 6.1% to 32.0%. PubMed's HSR queries were less sensitive (83.3% to 88.2%) than the new search strategies. Only minor differences in precision were found (5.0% to 32.0%). As with other literature on health services research, nurse staffing studies are difficult to identify in PubMed/Medline. Depending on the purpose of the search, researchers can choose between high sensitivity and retrieval of a large number of references or high precision, i.e. and an increased risk of missing relevant references, respectively. More standardized terminology (e.g. by consistent use of the

  8. Genetic mapping in mice identifies DMBT1 as a candidate modifier of mammary tumors and breast cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Anneke C; Hill, Linda Z; Roberts, Amy L

    2007-01-01

    Low-penetrance breast cancer susceptibility alleles seem to play a significant role in breast cancer risk but are difficult to identify in human cohorts. A genetic screen of 176 N2 backcross progeny of two Trp53(+/-) strains, BALB/c and C57BL/6, which differ in their susceptibility to mammary...... tumors, identified a modifier of mammary tumor susceptibility in an approximately 25-Mb interval on mouse chromosome 7 (designated SuprMam1). Relative to heterozygotes, homozygosity for BALB/c alleles of SuprMam1 significantly decreased mammary tumor latency from 70.7 to 61.1 weeks and increased risk...

  9. Large-scale evaluation of candidate genes identifies associations between VEGF polymorphisms and bladder cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat García-Closas

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Common genetic variation could alter the risk for developing bladder cancer. We conducted a large-scale evaluation of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in candidate genes for cancer to identify common variants that influence bladder cancer risk. An Illumina GoldenGate assay was used to genotype 1,433 SNPs within or near 386 genes in 1,086 cases and 1,033 controls in Spain. The most significant finding was in the 5' UTR of VEGF (rs25648, p for likelihood ratio test, 2 degrees of freedom = 1 x 10(-5. To further investigate the region, we analyzed 29 additional SNPs in VEGF, selected to saturate the promoter and 5' UTR and to tag common genetic variation in this gene. Three additional SNPs in the promoter region (rs833052, rs1109324, and rs1547651 were associated with increased risk for bladder cancer: odds ratio (95% confidence interval: 2.52 (1.06-5.97, 2.74 (1.26-5.98, and 3.02 (1.36-6.63, respectively; and a polymorphism in intron 2 (rs3024994 was associated with reduced risk: 0.65 (0.46-0.91. Two of the promoter SNPs and the intron 2 SNP showed linkage disequilibrium with rs25648. Haplotype analyses revealed three blocks of linkage disequilibrium with significant associations for two blocks including the promoter and 5' UTR (global p = 0.02 and 0.009, respectively. These findings are biologically plausible since VEGF is critical in angiogenesis, which is important for tumor growth, its elevated expression in bladder tumors correlates with tumor progression, and specific 5' UTR haplotypes have been shown to influence promoter activity. Associations between bladder cancer risk and other genes in this report were not robust based on false discovery rate calculations. In conclusion, this large-scale evaluation of candidate cancer genes has identified common genetic variants in the regulatory regions of VEGF that could be associated with bladder cancer risk.

  10. Clinicians' preventive strategies for children and adolescents identified as at high risk of developing caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmadi, Roxana; Gahnberg, Lars; Gabre, Pia

    2011-05-01

    Clinicians handle diagnosis and treatment planning of caries in different ways, and the underlying factors leading to management of risk and choice of treatment strategies are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate dentists' and dental hygienists' choices of preventive strategies for children and adolescents identified as at high risk of developing caries. A sample of dental records from 432 of a total of 3372 children in a Swedish county identified as at high risk of developing caries, aged 3-19 years, was randomly selected for analysis in the study. Information of importance for the therapists' choice of caries management strategies were obtained from the dental records. The results showed that therapists considered tooth brushing instruction and fluoride treatment at the clinic to be of primary importance as treatment given in 60% of the cases, respectively. Fluoride treatment at home and diet counselling were both chosen in half of the cases. Fissure sealant therapy was used in 21% of the cases, and 15% of the patients did not receive any preventive treatment at all. The results also showed that girls more often received fluoride treatment, tooth brushing instruction and oral hygiene information than boys. In the majority of the children and adolescents, several preventive measures were given. The more background factors included in the risk assessment, the more preventive measures were given. The differences between the treatments given to girls and the boys need to be further investigated. © 2010 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2010 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Validating the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ-II) Using Set-ESEM: Identifying Psychosocial Risk Factors in a Sample of School Principals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicke, Theresa; Marsh, Herbert W; Riley, Philip; Parker, Philip D; Guo, Jiesi; Horwood, Marcus

    2018-01-01

    School principals world-wide report high levels of strain and attrition resulting in a shortage of qualified principals. It is thus crucial to identify psychosocial risk factors that reflect principals' occupational wellbeing. For this purpose, we used the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ-II), a widely used self-report measure covering multiple psychosocial factors identified by leading occupational stress theories. We evaluated the COPSOQ-II regarding factor structure and longitudinal, discriminant, and convergent validity using latent structural equation modeling in a large sample of Australian school principals ( N = 2,049). Results reveal that confirmatory factor analysis produced marginally acceptable model fit. A novel approach we call set exploratory structural equation modeling (set-ESEM), where cross-loadings were only allowed within a priori defined sets of factors, fit well, and was more parsimonious than a full ESEM. Further multitrait-multimethod models based on the set-ESEM confirm the importance of a principal's psychosocial risk factors; Stressors and depression were related to demands and ill-being, while confidence and autonomy were related to wellbeing. We also show that working in the private sector was beneficial for showing a low psychosocial risk, while other demographics have little effects. Finally, we identify five latent risk profiles (high risk to no risk) of school principals based on all psychosocial factors. Overall the research presented here closes the theory application gap of a strong multi-dimensional measure of psychosocial risk-factors.

  12. Antibody Arrays Identify Potential Diagnostic Markers of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J. Peter

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Effective treatment of HCC patients is hampered by the lack of sensitive and specific diagnostic markers of HCC. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, the currently used HCC marker, misses 30%–50% of HCC patients, who therefore remain undiagnosed and untreated. In order to identify novel diagnostic markers that can be used individually or in combination with AFP, we used an antibody array platform to detect the levels of candidate proteins in the plasma of HCC patients (n = 48 and patients with chronic hepatitis B or C viral infections (n = 19 (both of which are the major risk factors of HCC. We identified 7 proteins that significantly differentiate HCC patients from hepatitis patients (p < 0.05 (AFP, CTNNB, CSF1, SELL, IGFBP6, IL6R, and VCAM1.Importantly, we also identified 8 proteins that significantly differentiate HCC patients with ‘normal’ levels of AFP (<20 ng/ml from hepatitis patients (p < 0.05 (IL1RN, IFNG, CDKN1A, RETN, CXCL14, CTNNB, FGF2, and SELL. These markers are potentially important complementary markers to AFP. Using an independent immunoassay method in an independent group of 23 HCC patients and 22 hepatitis patients, we validated that plasma levels of CTNNB were significantly higher in the HCC group (p = 0.020. In conclusion, we used an antibody array platform to identify potential circulating diagnostic markers of HCC, some of which may be valuable when used in combination with AFP. The clinical utility of these newly identified HCC diagnostic markers needs to be systematically evaluated.

  13. Identifying At-Risk Individuals for Insomnia Using the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmbach, David A; Pillai, Vivek; Arnedt, J Todd; Drake, Christopher L

    2016-02-01

    A primary focus of the National Institute of Mental Health's current strategic plan is "predicting" who is at risk for disease. As such, the current investigation examined the utility of premorbid sleep reactivity in identifying a specific and manageable population at elevated risk for future insomnia. A community-based sample of adults (n = 2,892; 59.3% female; 47.9 ± 13.3 y old) with no lifetime history of insomnia or depression completed web-based surveys across three annual assessments. Participants reported parental history of insomnia, demographic characteristics, sleep reactivity on the Ford Insomnia in Response to Stress Test (FIRST), and insomnia symptoms. DSM-IV diagnostic criteria were used to determine insomnia classification. Baseline FIRST scores were used to predict incident insomnia at 1-y follow-up. Two clinically meaningful FIRST cutoff values were identified: FIRST ≥ 16 (sensitivity 77%; specificity 50%; odds ratio [OR] = 2.88, P insomnia onset, even after controlling for stress exposure and demographic characteristics. Of the incident cases, insomniacs with highly reactive sleep systems reported longer sleep onset latencies (FIRST ≥ 16: 65 min; FIRST ≥ 18: 68 min) than participants with nonreactive insomnia (FIRST insomnia based on trait sleep reactivity. The FIRST accurately identifies a focused target population in which the psychobiological processes complicit in insomnia onset and progression can be better investigated, thus improving future preventive efforts. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  14. Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Risk Variants for Lichen Planus in Patients With Hepatitis C Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Yumiko; Nishida, Nao; Toyo-Oka, Licht; Kawaguchi, Atsushi; Amoroso, Antonio; Carrozzo, Marco; Sata, Michio; Mizokami, Masashi; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2017-06-01

    There is a close relationship between hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and lichen planus, a chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous disease. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify genetic variants associated with HCV-related lichen planus. We conducted a GWAS of 261 patients with HCV infection treated at a tertiary medical center in Japan from October 2007 through January 2013; a total of 71 had lichen planus and 190 had normal oral mucosa. We validated our findings in a GWAS of 38 patients with HCV-associated lichen planus and 7 HCV-infected patients with normal oral mucosa treated at a medical center in Italy. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in NRP2 (rs884000) and IGFBP4 (rs538399) were associated with risk of HCV-associated lichen planus (P lichen planus. The odds ratios for the minor alleles of rs884000, rs538399, and rs9461799 were 3.25 (95% confidence interval, 1.95-5.41), 0.40 (95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.63), and 2.15 (95% confidence interval, 1.41-3.28), respectively. In a GWAS of Japanese patients with HCV infection, we replicated associations between previously reported polymorphisms in HLA class II genes and risk for lichen planus. We also identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms in NRP2 and IGFBP4 loci that increase and reduce risk of lichen planus, respectively. These genetic variants might be used to identify patients with HCV infection who are at risk for lichen planus. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sleep disorders increase the risk of burning mouth syndrome: a retrospective population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chun-Feng; Lin, Kuan-Yu; Lin, Ming-Chia; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chang, Shih-Ni; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2014-11-01

    Sleep disorders (SD), including apnea and nonapnea, and burning mouth syndrome (BMS) have been mutually associated with systemic diseases. Based on our research, the association between BMS and SD has not been elucidated. We determined whether SD patients have an increased risk of BMS. We used information from health insurance claims obtained from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance (NHI) program. We identified patients newly diagnosed with sleep apnea syndrome between 1998 and 2001 as the apnea SD cohort, and newly diagnosed patients with nonapnea SD as the nonapnea SD cohort. The non-SD cohort was 1:2 frequency matched the case group according to sex, age, and index year. We analyzed the risks of BMS by using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Compared with the non-SD cohort, both of the apnea SD (adjusted HR = 2.56, 95% CI = 1.30-5.05) and nonapnea SD (adjusted HR = 2.89, 95% CI = 2.51-3.34) were associated with a significantly higher risk of BMS. The hazard ratio (HR) increased with increased age in the apnea SD cohort and in the nonapnea SD cohort compared with patients younger than 40 years of age. Female apnea SD patients (IRR = 4.63, 95% CI = 3.82-5.61) had a higher risk of developing BMS than did male patients (IRR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.39-2.24). Based on our research, SD might increase the risk of BMS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Baseline Blood Pressure, the 2017 ACC/AHA High Blood Pressure Guidelines, and Long-Term Cardiovascular Risk in SPRINT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Pareek, Manan; Qamar, Arman; Pandey, Ambarish; Olsen, Michael H; Bhatt, Deepak L

    2018-02-05

    The 2017 American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines include lower thresholds to define hypertension than previous guidelines. Little is known about the impact of these guideline changes in patients with or at high risk for cardiovascular disease. In this exploratory analysis using baseline blood pressure assessments in Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT), we evaluated the prevalence and associated cardiovascular prognosis of patients newly reclassified with hypertension based on the 2017 ACC/AHA (systolic blood pressure ≥130 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥80 mm Hg) compared with the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7) guidelines (systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg). The primary endpoint was the composite of myocardial infarction, other acute coronary syndromes, stroke, heart failure, or cardiovascular death. In 4683 patients assigned to the standard treatment arm of SPRINT, 2328 (49.7%) met hypertension thresholds by JNC 7 guidelines, and another 1424 (30.4%) were newly reclassified as having hypertension based on the 2017 ACC/AHA guidelines. Over 3.3-year median follow-up, 319 patients experienced the primary endpoint (87 of whom were newly reclassified with hypertension based on the revised guidelines). Patients with hypertension based on prior guidelines compared with those newly identified with hypertension based on the new guidelines had similar risk of the primary endpoint (2.3 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 2.0-2.7] vs 2.0 [95% CI, 1.6-2.4] events per 100 patient-years; adjusted HR, 1.10 [95% CI, 0.84-1.44]; P = .48). The 2017 ACC/AHA high blood pressure guidelines are expected to significantly increase the prevalence of patients with hypertension (perhaps to a greater extent in higher-risk patient cohorts compared with the general population) and

  17. Endometriosis and the subsequent risk of epithelial ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hsun Chang

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Taiwanese women with endometriosis really had a risk of newly developed EOC, especially those who had a surgical diagnosis, and this three-fold increase of risk was neither influenced by exposure time nor biased by surveillance.

  18. Parasite dispersal risk tolerance is mediated by its reproductive value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Maxcy P; Delaplane, Keith S

    2017-10-01

    Parasite dispersal theory draws heavily upon epidemiological SIR models in which host status (susceptible (S), infected (I), or recovered (R)) is used to study parasite dispersal evolution. In contrast to these extrinsically host-centric drivers, in this study we focus on an intrinsic driver, the parasite's reproductive value (predicted future offspring) as a regulator of the extent to which the individual will engage in risky dispersal behaviour. As a model system we use the honeybee Apis mellifera and its ectoparasite, the mite Varroa destructor . Mite reproduction happens exclusively inside cells of bee brood, and newly emerged fecund mites may parasitize either a homocolonial brood cell (low risk dispersal) or emigrate to a new bee colony via phoretic attachment to mature forager bees (high risk dispersal). In an empirical bioassay, prepartum mites (high reproductive value) and postpartum mites (low reproductive value) were offered a choice of newly emerged homocolonial worker bees (low risk), homocolonial pollen forager bees (high risk), or heterocolonial pollen foragers (high risk). A preference for newly emerged bees was earlier and more strongly sustained among prepartum mites. This suggests comparatively greater dispersal risk tolerance among postpartum mites with lower reproductive value. A dangerous bid for dispersal may be adaptive if the individual has already successfully reproduced and the rewards for successful dispersal are sufficiently large.

  19. Decision Tree Identified Risk Groups with High Suicidal Ideation in South Korea: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Jong Hyen; Hyoung, Hee Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify risk groups with high suicidal ideation among South Korean adults. A descriptive cross-sectional design was adopted using secondary data from the 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). A total of 5,963 adults aged 19 years and older who participated in the 2011 KNHANES served as participants. The prevalence of suicidal ideation and its related factors, including physical, psychological, health behavioral, and sociodemographic characteristics, were examined. Descriptive statistics and a decision tree were used for data analysis. Nine groups with high suicidal ideation were identified. The coexistence of depression and high levels of stress increased the prevalence of suicidal ideation. The highest risk group was widowed or divorced adults with depression and high levels of stress, and 82.5% of these participants had suicidal ideation (the prevalence rate of this group was 5.7 times higher than the mean suicidal ideation prevalence rate in this study). Public health nurses and community mental health professionals should recognize risk groups with high suicidal ideation, and target these groups when implementing preventive interventions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. What Faces Reveal: A Novel Method to Identify Patients at Risk of Deterioration Using Facial Expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal-Garcia, Maria Isabel; Rodrigues, Marcos; Shenfield, Alex; Singer, Mervyn; Moreno-Cuesta, Jeronimo

    2018-07-01

    To identify facial expressions occurring in patients at risk of deterioration in hospital wards. Prospective observational feasibility study. General ward patients in a London Community Hospital, United Kingdom. Thirty-four patients at risk of clinical deterioration. A 5-minute video (25 frames/s; 7,500 images) was recorded, encrypted, and subsequently analyzed for action units by a trained facial action coding system psychologist blinded to outcome. Action units of the upper face, head position, eyes position, lips and jaw position, and lower face were analyzed in conjunction with clinical measures collected within the National Early Warning Score. The most frequently detected action units were action unit 43 (73%) for upper face, action unit 51 (11.7%) for head position, action unit 62 (5.8%) for eyes position, action unit 25 (44.1%) for lips and jaw, and action unit 15 (67.6%) for lower face. The presence of certain combined face displays was increased in patients requiring admission to intensive care, namely, action units 43 + 15 + 25 (face display 1, p facial expressions can be identified in deteriorating general ward patients. This tool may potentially augment risk prediction of current scoring systems.

  1. Operational risk quantification and modelling within Romanian insurance industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor Răzvan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at covering and describing the shortcomings of various models used to quantify and model the operational risk within insurance industry with a particular focus on Romanian specific regulation: Norm 6/2015 concerning the operational risk issued by IT systems. While most of the local insurers are focusing on implementing the standard model to compute the Operational Risk solvency capital required, the local regulator has issued a local norm that requires to identify and assess the IT based operational risks from an ISO 27001 perspective. The challenges raised by the correlations assumed in the Standard model are substantially increased by this new regulation that requires only the identification and quantification of the IT operational risks. The solvency capital requirement stipulated by the implementation of Solvency II doesn’t recommend a model or formula on how to integrate the newly identified risks in the Operational Risk capital requirements. In this context we are going to assess the academic and practitioner’s understanding in what concerns: The Frequency-Severity approach, Bayesian estimation techniques, Scenario Analysis and Risk Accounting based on risk units, and how they could support the modelling of operational risk that are IT based. Developing an internal model only for the operational risk capital requirement proved to be, so far, costly and not necessarily beneficial for the local insurers. As the IT component will play a key role in the future of the insurance industry, the result of this analysis will provide a specific approach in operational risk modelling that can be implemented in the context of Solvency II, in a particular situation when (internal or external operational risk databases are scarce or not available.

  2. Prevention of pressure sores by identifying patients at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, K E; Jensen, O; Kvorning, S A; Bach, E

    1982-01-01

    The risk of pressure sores developing in patients admitted with acute conditions was assessed by a simple risk score system based on age, reduced mobility, incontinence, pronounced emaciation, redness over bony prominences, unconsciousness, dehydration, and paralysis in a prospective clinical study. During seven months in 1977, 600 of 3571 patients were classified as at risk. Of these 35 (5.8%) developed sores compared with five (0.2%) of those not at risk. The results of this study compared with those over the same period in 1976 show that close observation of at-risk patients and early detection of pressure sores prevents their development. PMID:6803980

  3. Large-scale genotyping identifies 41 new loci associated with breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michailidou, Kyriaki; Hall, Per; Gonzalez-Neira, Anna; Ghoussaini, Maya; Dennis, Joe; Milne, Roger L; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Bojesen, Stig E; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Dicks, Ed; Lee, Andrew; Turnbull, Clare; Rahman, Nazneen; Fletcher, Olivia; Peto, Julian; Gibson, Lorna; Dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Czene, Kamila; Irwanto, Astrid; Liu, Jianjun; Waisfisz, Quinten; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Adank, Muriel; van der Luijt, Rob B; Hein, Rebecca; Dahmen, Norbert; Beckman, Lars; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Lichtner, Peter; Hopper, John L; Southey, Melissa C; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Hofman, Albert; Hunter, David J; Chanock, Stephen J; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, François; Tessier, Daniel C; Canisius, Sander; Wessels, Lodewyk F A; Haiman, Christopher A; Shah, Mitul; Luben, Robert; Brown, Judith; Luccarini, Craig; Schoof, Nils; Humphreys, Keith; Li, Jingmei; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Nielsen, Sune F; Flyger, Henrik; Couch, Fergus J; Wang, Xianshu; Vachon, Celine; Stevens, Kristen N; Lambrechts, Diether; Moisse, Matthieu; Paridaens, Robert; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Rudolph, Anja; Nickels, Stefan; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Johnson, Nichola; Aitken, Zoe; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Broeks, Annegien; Veer, Laura J Van't; van der Schoot, C Ellen; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Menegaux, Florence; Marme, Frederik; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Burwinkel, Barbara; Zamora, M Pilar; Perez, Jose Ignacio Arias; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M Rosario; Cox, Angela; Brock, Ian W; Cross, Simon S; Reed, Malcolm W R; Sawyer, Elinor J; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J; Miller, Nicola; Henderson, Brian E; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Andrulis, Irene L; Knight, Julia A; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Hooning, Maartje J; Hollestelle, Antoinette; van den Ouweland, Ans M W; Jager, Agnes; Bui, Quang M; Stone, Jennifer; Dite, Gillian S; Apicella, Carmel; Tsimiklis, Helen; Giles, Graham G; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Fasching, Peter A; Haeberle, Lothar; Ekici, Arif B; Beckmann, Matthias W; Brenner, Hermann; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Swerdlow, Anthony; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nick; Jones, Michael; Figueroa, Jonine; Lissowska, Jolanta; Brinton, Louise; Goldberg, Mark S; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hamann, Ute; Brüning, Thomas; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Bonanni, Bernardo; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Rob A E M; Seynaeve, Caroline; van Asperen, Christi J; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Antonenkova, Natalia N; Dörk, Thilo; Kristensen, Vessela N; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Slager, Susan; Toland, Amanda E; Edge, Stephen; Fostira, Florentia; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young; Noh, Dong-Young; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Sueta, Aiko; Wu, Anna H; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Van Den Berg, David; Stram, Daniel O; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Cai, Hui; Teo, Soo Hwang; Yip, Cheng Har; Phuah, Sze Yee; Cornes, Belinda K; Hartman, Mikael; Miao, Hui; Lim, Wei Yen; Sng, Jen-Hwei; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Shen, Chen-Yang; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Wu, Pei-Ei; Ding, Shian-Ling; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Gaborieau, Valerie; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James; Blot, William J; Signorello, Lisa B; Cai, Qiuyin; Zheng, Wei; Deming-Halverson, Sandra; Shrubsole, Martha; Long, Jirong; Simard, Jacques; Garcia-Closas, Montse; Pharoah, Paul D P; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Dunning, Alison M; Benitez, Javier; Easton, Douglas F

    2013-04-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. Common variants at 27 loci have been identified as associated with susceptibility to breast cancer, and these account for ∼9% of the familial risk of the disease. We report here a meta-analysis of 9 genome-wide association studies, including 10,052 breast cancer cases and 12,575 controls of European ancestry, from which we selected 29,807 SNPs for further genotyping. These SNPs were genotyped in 45,290 cases and 41,880 controls of European ancestry from 41 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). The SNPs were genotyped as part of a collaborative genotyping experiment involving four consortia (Collaborative Oncological Gene-environment Study, COGS) and used a custom Illumina iSelect genotyping array, iCOGS, comprising more than 200,000 SNPs. We identified SNPs at 41 new breast cancer susceptibility loci at genome-wide significance (P breast cancer susceptibility.

  4. Trends on epidemiological, virological, and clinical features among newly diagnosed HIV-1 persons in Northwest Spain over the last 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernas, B; Mena, A; Cañizares, A; Grandal, M; Castro-Iglesias, A; Pértega, S; Pedreira, J D; Poveda, E

    2015-08-01

    To describe temporal trend and characteristics of newly HIV-diagnosed patients in a medical care area in Northwest Spain over the last 10 years. All newly diagnosed patients for HIV-infection from 2004 to 2013 at a reference medical care area in Northwest of Spain were identified. Epidemiological, virological, immunological, and clinical data, as well as HIV genotype and drug resistance information were recorded. A total of 565 newly HIV-diagnosed patients were identified. The number of new cases increased in the last 5 years (66 cases/year). Overall, 53.1% had a median CD4 counts study period was 3.7%, but a decreased to 2.6% was observed in the last 5 years. The most prevalent TDR mutations were: T215 revertants (1.5%), K219QENR (1.2%), for NRTIs; K103N (1.9%), for NNRTIs; L90M (0.3%), for PIs. Overall, 73.2% of patients started antiretroviral treatment and 9.9% of patients died during follow-up. The number of newly HIV diagnosed patients increased since year 2009. There is a high prevalence of late diagnosis (53%) and 33% had an AIDS defining criteria. Interestingly, the most prevalent non-B subtype in our population was F (25.8%). These findings support the need to facilitate the access for HIV testing to reduce the rate of late HIV diagnosis, improve the clinical outcome and prevent HIV transmission. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Observation of the bone mineral density of newly formed bone using rabbits. Compared with newly formed bone around implants and cortical bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakada, Hiroshi; Numata, Yasuko; Sakae, Toshiro; Tamaki, Hiroyuki; Kato, Takao

    2009-01-01

    There have been many studies reporting that newly formed bone around implants is spongy bone. However, although the morphology is reported as being like spongy bone, it is difficult to discriminate whether the bone quality of newly formed bone appears similar to osteoid or cortical bone; therefore, evaluation of bone quality is required. The aims of this study were to measure the bone mineral density (BMD) values of newly formed bone around implants after 4, 8, 16, 24 and 48 weeks, to represent these values on three-dimensional color mapping (3Dmap), and to evaluate the change in bone quality associated with newly formed bone around implants. The animal experimental protocol of this study was approved by the Ethics Committee for Animal Experiments of our University. This experiment used 20 surface treatment implants (Ti-6Al-4V alloy: 3.1 mm in diameter and 30.0 mm in length) by grit-blasting. They were embedded into surgically created flaws in femurs of 20 New Zealand white rabbits (16 weeks old, male). The rabbits were sacrificed with an ear intravenous overdose of pentobarbital sodium under general anesthesia each period, and the femurs were resected. We measured BMD of newly formed bone around implants and cortical bone using Micro-CT, and the BMD distribution map of 3Dmap (TRI/3D Bon BMD, Ratoc System Engineering). The BMD of cortical bone was 1,026.3±44.3 mg/cm 3 at 4 weeks, 1,023.8±40.9 mg/cm 3 at 8 weeks, 1,048.2±45.6 mg/cm 3 at 16 weeks, 1,067.2±60.2 mg/cm 3 at 24 weeks, and 1,069.3±50.7 mg/cm 3 at 48 weeks after implantation, showing a non-significant increase each period. The BMD of newly formed bone around implants was 296.8±25.6 mg/cm 3 at 4 weeks, 525.0±72.4 mg/cm 3 at 8 weeks, 691.2±26.0 mg/cm 3 at 16 weeks, 776.9±27.7 mg/cm 3 at 24 weeks, and 845.2±23.1 mg/cm 3 at 48 weeks after implantation, showing a significant increase after each period. It was revealed that the color scale of newly formed bone was Low level at 4 weeks, and then it

  6. Communicating identifiability risks to biobank donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, T. J.; Gjerris, Mickey; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2018-01-01

    Recent highly publicized privacy breaches in healthcare and genomics research have led many to question whether current standards of data protection are adequate. Improvements in de-identification techniques, combined with pervasive data sharing, have increased the likelihood that external parties...... concerns can be incorporated into either a detailed or a simplified method of communicating risks during the consent process....

  7. The practical skills of newly qualified nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danbjørg, Dorthe Boe; Birkelund, Regner

    2011-02-01

    This paper reports the findings from a study of newly qualified nurses and which subjects the nurses regarded as the most important in order to be able to live up to the requirements of clinical practice, and how they experience their potential for developing practical and moral skills, after the decrease in practical training. A qualitative approach guided the research process and the analysis of the data. The data was collected by participant observation and qualitative interviews with four nurses as informants. The conclusions made in this study are based on the statements and the observations of the newly qualified nurses. Our findings are discussed in relation to the Aristotelian concept and other relevant literature. The main message is that the newly qualified nurses did not feel equipped when they finished their training. This could be interpreted as a direct consequence of the decrease in practical training. Our study also underlines that the way nursing theory is perceived and taught is problematic. The interviews revealed that the nurses think that nursing theories should be applied directly in practice. This misunderstanding is probably also applicable to the teachers of the theories. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Identifying Relationships between High-Risk Sexual Behaviors and Screening Positive for Chlamydia and Gonorrhea in School-Wide Screening Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Jennifer; Darling-Fisher, Cindy; Hawkins, Nicole M.; Fraker, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Background: This article describes a school-wide sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening to identify adolescent high-risk sexual behaviors, STI history/incidence, and presence of chlamydia and gonorrhea, and examines relationships between high-risk behaviors and screening positive for chlamydia and gonorrhea in an alternative high school…

  9. Identifying Risk of Future Asthma Attacks Using UK Medical Record Data : A Respiratory Effectiveness Group Initiative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blakey, John D.; Price, David B.; Pizzichini, Emilio; Popov, Todor A.; Dimitrov, Borislav D.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Josephs, Lynn K.; Kaplan, Alan; Papi, Alberto; Kerkhof, Marjan; Hillyer, Elizabeth V.; Chisholm, Alison; Thomas, Mike

    BACKGROUND: Asthma attacks are common, serious, and costly. Individual factors associated with attacks, such as poor symptom control, are not robust predictors. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether the rich data available in UK electronic medical records could identify patients at risk of recurrent

  10. Obstructive sleep apnea among commercial motor vehicle drivers: using evidence-based practice to identify risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, Kimberly; Wolf, Debra

    2013-11-01

    Commercial motor vehicle driving is a hazardous occupation, having the third highest fatality rate among common U.S. jobs. Among the estimated 14 million U.S. commercial motor vehicle drivers, the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea is reported to be 17% to 28%. Despite the identified increased prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea among commercial motor vehicle drivers, federal law does not require that they be screened for obstructive sleep apnea. This article presents an evidence-based practice change project; the authors developed, implemented, and evaluated a screening program to identify commercial motor vehicle drivers' risk for obstructive sleep apnea during commercial driver medical examinations. The results of this practice change indicated screening for obstructive sleep apnea during the commercial driver medical examination led to improved identification of obstructive sleep apnea risk among commercial motor vehicle drivers and should be a clinical standard in occupational health clinics. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Group differences in risk across three domains using an expanded measure of sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loosier, Penny S; Dittus, Patricia J

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to highlight associations between sexual orientation and risk outcomes in late adolescence and early adulthood using an expanded measure of sexual orientation. Recent data indicate higher levels of risk behavior in a newly identified population, mostly heterosexuals, as compared to heterosexuals. Comparisons among groups using an expanded measure of sexual orientation such as this, however, often do not include all possible groups or may restrict comparisons between groups. Data were derived from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health); participants identified as heterosexual, mostly heterosexual, bisexual, mostly gay, or gay. Main risk outcomes were parental mistreatment, home displacement, thoughts of suicide, depressive symptoms, frequency of drinking, and delinquency. A priori planned comparisons examined differences between: (a) heterosexual vs. mostly heterosexual, (b) gay vs. mostly gay, (c) mostly heterosexual vs. bisexual, (d) mostly gay vs. bisexual, (e) mostly heterosexual vs. mostly gay, (f) heterosexual vs. gay, (g) heterosexual vs. bisexual, and (h) gay vs. bisexual. Mostly heterosexual youth were at significantly greater risk than heterosexual youth on all outcomes but did not differ from bisexual or mostly gay youth. Heterosexuals were at lower risk as compared to mostly heterosexuals and bisexuals. This study provides further evidence of differential risk associations for sexual minorities.

  12. Defense Programs Transportation Risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, D.B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the methodology used in a probabilistic transportation risk assessment conducted to assess the probabilities and consequences of inadvertent dispersal of radioactive materials arising from severe transportation accidents. The model was developed for the Defense Program Transportation Risk Assessment (DPTRA) study. The analysis incorporates several enhancements relative to previous risk assessments of hazardous materials transportation including newly-developed statistics on the frequencies and severities of tractor semitrailer accidents and detailed route characterization using the 1990 Census data

  13. Identifying community risk factors for HIV among South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High risk sexual behaviour, alcohol and drug use, and mental health problems combine to yield high levels of HIV-risk behaviour among adolescents with mental health problems. In South Africa, little research has been conducted on parental perspectives of HIV-risk among this population. We conducted a series of focus ...

  14. Prevention of pressure sores by identifying patients at risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Jensen, O; Kvorning, S A

    1982-01-01

    The risk of pressure sores developing in patients admitted with acute conditions was assessed by a simple risk score system based on age, reduced mobility, incontinence, pronounced emaciation, redness over bony prominences, unconsciousness, dehydration, and paralysis in a prospective clinical stu...... of pressure sores prevents their development.......The risk of pressure sores developing in patients admitted with acute conditions was assessed by a simple risk score system based on age, reduced mobility, incontinence, pronounced emaciation, redness over bony prominences, unconsciousness, dehydration, and paralysis in a prospective clinical study...

  15. Identifying and Reconciling Risk Across Sectors: The implications of differing views of risk in climate policy, environmental conservation, and the finance sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, T.; Henderson, I.; Thoumi, G.

    2014-12-01

    The presence and valuation of risk are commonalities that link the diverse fields of climate change science and policy, environmental conservation, and the financial/investment sector. However, the definition and perception of risks vary widely across these critically linked fields. The "Stranded Asset" concept developed by organizations like the Carbon Tracker Initiative begins to elucidate the links between climate change risk and financial risk. Stranded assets are those that may lose some or all value from climate disruption, changes in demand-side dynamics and/or a more stringent regulatory environment. In order to shift financial flows toward climate change mitigation, emissions-heavy activities that present finance and investment opportunities must also be assessed for their GHG-asset risk attributes in terms of their contribution and vulnerability to climate disruption, as well as other environmental externalities. Until the concept of GHG-asset risk in investment is reconciled with the risks of climate change and environmental conservation, it will not be possible to shift business and financial practices, and unlock private sector resources to address the climate change and conservation challenge. UNEP-FI is researching the application of the concept of Value-atRisk (VaR) to explore links between the financial sector and deforestation/REDD+. The research will test the hypothesis that climate risk is a financial risk, and propose tools to identify and quantify risks associated with unsustainable land-use investments. The tools developed in this research will help investors, managers and governments assess their exposures to the material REDD-related risks in their portfolios. This will inform the development of 'zero net deforestation' investment indices to allow investors to lower the 'deforestation' exposure of 'benchmark' financial indices used by many of the largest money managers. A VaR analysis will be performed, combining the notion of externality

  16. Risk Management in Mergers and Acquisitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry O. Verdiev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available M&A statistics show that less than a third of newly merged companies has realized their planned synergistic effects and increased shareholder value. According to the author, such disgusting situation is due to improper planning and failure of corporate management to understand the importance of risk management in M&A. Lack of practice in identification, evaluation, mitigation and regular monitoring of risks leads to the situation when many companies merge despite the fact that the merger bears substantial risks. Corporate management fails to include risk mitigation expenses in merger costs. In many cases, risk mitigation expenses may be so substantive that the merger loses its attractiveness. Only few companies implement risk management methodology while planning M&A activity. This methodology may anticipate and minimize the consequences of various risk factors that negatively influence integration process. The article suggests an implementation of risk management best practice. This risk management best practice may act as an effective tool of successful realization of synergistic effects in M&A and may be helpful in increasing shareholder value in post-merger period. Risk management is conducted throughout the stages of merger and includes identification, analysis, assessment, management and monitoring of risks. Implementation of risk management at early stages of merger planning significantly decreases uncertainty in relation to achievement of financial and operational goals of newly merged company. The article provides with typical M&A risk matrix that may be adapted for specific M&A project. Risk matrix includes a register of risks sorted by stages of M&A deal, quality assessment of their probability, influence and impact on merger as well as risk mitigation methods.

  17. Increased plasma dipeptidyl peptidase-4 activities are associated with high prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis in Chinese patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, T P; Liu, Y H; Yang, L X; Qin, S H; Liu, H B

    2015-10-01

    Hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, dislipidemia, oxidative stress and inflammation are well-documented risk factors for subclinical atherosclerosis. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4(DPP4) is a newly identified adipokine related to these risk factors. Hence, we aimed to investigate the association between plasma DPP4 activities and subclinical atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes. A total of 985 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic subjects were studied. Plasma DPP4 activity, mannose 6-phosphate receptor (M6P-R), oxidative stress parameters, inflammatory markers and common carotid artery Intima-Media Thickness (c-IMT) were measured in all participants. Participants in the highest quartile of DPP4 activity had higher HbA1c, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance(HOMA-IR), triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C), oxidized LDL, nitrotyrosine, 8-iso-PGF2a, interleukin-6 (IL-6), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), M6P-R, c-IMT compared with participants in the lowest quartile (all P dislipidemia, oxidative stress and inflammation were higher with increasing DPP4 quartiles (P < 0.001 for trend). In the highest DPP4 quartile, subclinical atherosclerosis risk was significantly higher (OR 4.97; 95% CI 3.03-8.17) than in the lowest quartile. This association remained strong (2.17; 1.21-3.89) after further controlling for HbA1c, HOMA-IR, triglyceride, oxidized LDL, nitrotyrosine, and IL-6. This study shows that increased DPP4 activities are positively and independently associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes. Our findings suggest of potential role of DPP4 in the pathogenesis of subclinical atherosclerosis and in the prevention and management of this disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The impact of organisational culture on the adaptation of newly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Usually newly employed nurses find adjusting to a work setting a challenging experience. Their successful adaptation to their work situation is greatly influenced by the socialisation process inherent in the organisational culture. The newly employed nurse often finds that the norms are unclear, confusing and restrictive.

  19. Identifying non-pharmacological risk factors for falling in older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravesande, Janelle; Richardson, Julie

    2017-07-01

    To identify the non-pharmacological risk factors for falling in older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). A systematic review of randomized controlled trials, prospective cohort studies, cross-sectional studies and before/after studies was conducted. Eligible studies identified non-pharmacological risk factors for falling in older adults with DM2. Medline, Embase, Pubmed and CINAHL were searched for relevant studies published through December 2015. Reference lists were also searched for relevant studies. Search terms were DM2, risk factors, falls and falling, older adults, aging, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, accidental falls and trip. Publication language was restricted to English. Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria: four cross-sectional, six prospective cohorts, two randomized controlled trials and one before/after study. These studies included a total of 13,104 participants, ≥50 years. The most common risk factors for falling were impaired balance, reduced walking velocity, peripheral neuropathy and comorbid conditions. However, lower extremity pain, being overweight and comorbid conditions had the greatest impact on fall risk. Interventions to reduce falling in older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus should focus on reducing lower extremity pain, reducing body weight and managing comorbid conditions. Implications for Rehabilitation    Diabetes mellitus:   • Older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) have a higher risk for falling than older adults without.   • Older adults with DM2 are more likely to suffer serious injuries when they fall.   • Comprehensive risk factor identification is necessary for rehabilitation professionals to accurately determine whether their clients are at risk for falling.   • Rehabilitation professionals also need to tailor interventions based on the client's risk factors in order to effectively reduce falls and fall-related injuries.

  20. Illness-behaviour, attitude, and knowledge in newly diagnosed diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, B E; Vesterdal Jørgensen, H; Sestoft, L

    1986-01-01

    Sixty-five consecutive patients with newly diagnosed type I diabetes, aged 15-52, were exposed to a systematic educational programme and followed up by three-monthly controls for two to four years. In order to identify psychic, social and behavioural factors associated with good metabolic control...... and appropriate adaptation to illness, they were clinically tested and filled in a questionnaire. The study shows that the illness and the therapeutic regime created few problems regarding practical circumstances of daily living, but there were a vast number of psychological problems: perceived disability......, fatigue, fear, anger, strain, bad conscience, and perceived discrimination. The patients assessed the treatment regimen they had been taught as fair, but still the majority reported inadequate compliance and problems in relation to compliance, especially regarding dietary restrictions. The educational...

  1. Assessment for markers of nephropathy in newly diagnosed type 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess for markers of nephropathy in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetics, using blood pressure levels, endogenous creatinine clearance and urinary protein excretion as markers of renal disease. Study design: Ninety newly diagnosed type 2 diabetics were studied within 6 weeks of diagnosis. They were in ...

  2. Genome-Wide Association Study in BRCA1 Mutation Carriers Identifies Novel Loci Associated with Breast and Ovarian Cancer Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J. Couch (Fergus); X. Wang (Xing); L. McGuffog (Lesley); A. Lee (Andrew); C. Olswold (Curtis); K.B. Kuchenbaecker (Karoline); P. Soucy (Penny); Z. Fredericksen (Zachary); D. Barrowdale (Daniel); J. Dennis (Joe); M.M. Gaudet (Mia); E. Dicks (Ed); M. Kosel (Matthew); S. Healey (Sue); O. Sinilnikova (Olga); F. Bacot (Francois); D. Vincent (Daniel); F.B.L. Hogervorst (Frans); S. Peock (Susan); D. Stoppa-Lyonnet (Dominique); A. Jakubowska (Anna); P. Radice (Paolo); R.K. Schmutzler (Rita); S.M. Domchek (Susan); M. Piedmonte (Marion); C.F. Singer (Christian); E. Friedman (Eitan); M. Thomassen (Mads); T.V.O. Hansen (Thomas); S.L. Neuhausen (Susan); C. Szabo (Csilla); I. Blanco (Ignacio); M.H. Greene (Mark); B.Y. Karlan (Beth); J. Garber; C. Phelan (Catherine); J.N. Weitzel (Jeffrey); M. Montagna (Marco); E. Olah; I.L. Andrulis (Irene); A.K. Godwin (Andrew); D. Yannoukakos (Drakoulis); D. Goldgar (David); T. Caldes (Trinidad); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); A. Osorio (Ana); M.-B. Terry (Mary-Beth); M.B. Daly (Mary); E.J. van Rensburg (Elizabeth); U. Hamann (Ute); S.J. Ramus (Susan); A. Ewart-Toland (Amanda); M.A. Caligo (Maria); O.I. Olopade (Olofunmilayo); N. Tung (Nadine); K. Claes (Kathleen); M.S. Beattie (Mary); M.C. Southey (Melissa); E.N. Imyanitov (Evgeny); M. Tischkowitz (Marc); R. Janavicius (Ramunas); E.M. John (Esther); A. Kwong (Ava); O. Diez (Orland); J. Balmana (Judith); R.B. Barkardottir (Rosa); B.K. Arun (Banu); G. Rennert (Gad); S.-H. Teo (Soo-Hwang); P.A. Ganz (Patricia); I. Campbell (Ian); A.H. van der Hout (Annemarie); C.H.M. van Deurzen (Carolien); C.M. Seynaeve (Caroline); E.B. Gómez García (Encarna); F.E. van Leeuwen (F.); H. Meijers-Heijboer (Hanne); J.J. Gille (Johan); M.G.E.M. Ausems (Margreet); M.J. Blok (Marinus); M.J. Ligtenberg (Marjolijn); M.A. Rookus (Matti); P. Devilee (Peter); S. Verhoef; T.A.M. van Os (Theo); J.T. Wijnen (Juul); D. Frost (Debra); S. Ellis (Steve); E. Fineberg (Elena); R. Platte (Radka); D.G. Evans (Gareth); L. Izatt (Louise); R. Eeles (Rosalind); J.W. Adlard (Julian); D. Eccles (Diana); J. Cook (Jackie); C. Brewer (C.); F. Douglas (Fiona); S.V. Hodgson (Shirley); P.J. Morrison (Patrick); L. Side (Lucy); A. Donaldson (Alan); C. Houghton (Catherine); M.T. Rogers (Mark); H. Dorkins (Huw); J. Eason (Jacqueline); H. Gregory (Helen); E. McCann (Emma); A. Murray (Alexandra); A. Calender (Alain); A. Hardouin (Agnès); P. Berthet (Pascaline); C.D. Delnatte (Capucine); C. Nogues (Catherine); C. Lasset (Christine); C. Houdayer (Claude); D. Leroux (Dominique); E. Rouleau (Etienne); F. Prieur (Fabienne); F. Damiola (Francesca); H. Sobol (Hagay); I. Coupier (Isabelle); L. Vénat-Bouvet (Laurence); L. Castera (Laurent); M. Gauthier-Villars (Marion); M. Léone (Mélanie); P. Pujol (Pascal); S. Mazoyer (Sylvie); Y.-J. Bignon (Yves-Jean); E. Złowocka-Perłowska (Elzbieta); J. Gronwald (Jacek); J. Lubinski (Jan); K. Durda (Katarzyna); K. Jaworska (Katarzyna); T. Huzarski (Tomasz); A.B. Spurdle (Amanda); A. Viel (Alessandra); B. Peissel (Bernard); B. Bonnani (Bernardo); G. Melloni (Giulia); L. Ottini (Laura); L. Papi (Laura); L. Varesco (Liliana); M.G. Tibiletti (Maria Grazia); P. Peterlongo (Paolo); S. Volorio (Sara); S. Manoukian (Siranoush); V. Pensotti (Valeria); N. Arnold (Norbert); C. Engel (Christoph); H. Deissler (Helmut); D. Gadzicki (Dorothea); P.A. Gehrig (Paola A.); K. Kast (Karin); K. Rhiem (Kerstin); A. Meindl (Alfons); D. Niederacher (Dieter); N. Ditsch (Nina); H. Plendl (Hansjoerg); S. Preisler-Adams (Sabine); S. Engert (Stefanie); C. Sutter (Christian); R. Varon-Mateeva (Raymonda); B. Wapenschmidt (Barbara); B.H.F. Weber (Bernhard); B. Arver (Brita Wasteson); M. Stenmark-Askmalm (M.); N. Loman (Niklas); R. Rosenquist (R.); Z. Einbeigi (Zakaria); K.L. Nathanson (Katherine); R. Rebbeck (Timothy); S.V. Blank (Stephanie); D.E. Cohn (David); G.C. Rodriguez (Gustavo); L. Small (Laurie); M. Friedlander (Michael); V.L. Bae-Jump (Victoria L.); A. Fink-Retter (Anneliese); C. Rappaport (Christine); D. Gschwantler-Kaulich (Daphne); G. Pfeiler (Georg); M.-K. Tea; N.M. Lindor (Noralane); B. Kaufman (Bella); S. Shimon Paluch (Shani); Y. Laitman (Yael); A.-B. Skytte (Anne-Bine); A-M. Gerdes (Anne-Marie); I.S. Pedersen (Inge Sokilde); S.T. Moeller (Sanne Traasdahl); T.A. Kruse (Torben); U.B. Jensen; J. Vijai (Joseph); K. Sarrel (Kara); M. Robson (Mark); N. Kauff (Noah); A.M. Mulligan (Anna Marie); G. Glendon (Gord); H. Ozcelik (Hilmi); B. Ejlertsen (Bent); F.C. Nielsen (Finn); L. Jønson (Lars); M.K. Andersen (Mette); Y.C. Ding (Yuan); L. Steele (Linda); L. Foretova (Lenka); A. Teulé (A.); C. Lazaro (Conxi); J. Brunet (Joan); M.A. Pujana (Miguel); P.L. Mai (Phuong); J.T. Loud (Jennifer); C.S. Walsh (Christine); K.J. Lester (Kathryn); S. Orsulic (Sandra); S. Narod (Steven); J. Herzog (Josef); S.R. Sand (Sharon); S. Tognazzo (Silvia); S. Agata (Simona); T. Vaszko (Tibor); J. Weaver (JoEllen); A. Stavropoulou (Alexandra); S.S. Buys (Saundra); A. Romero (Alfonso); M. de La Hoya (Miguel); K. Aittomäki (Kristiina); T.A. Muranen (Taru); M. Durán (Mercedes); W.K. Chung (Wendy); A. Lasa (Adriana); C.M. Dorfling (Cecelia); A. Miron (Alexander); J. Benítez (Javier); L. Senter (Leigha); D. Huo (Dezheng); S. Chan (Salina); A. Sokolenko (Anna); J. Chiquette (Jocelyne); L. Tihomirova (Laima); M.O.W. Friebel (Mark ); B.A. Agnarsson (Bjarni); K.H. Lu (Karen); F. Lejbkowicz (Flavio); P.A. James (Paul ); A.S. Hall (Alistair); A.M. Dunning (Alison); Y. Tessier (Yann); J. Cunningham (Jane); S. Slager (Susan); C. Wang (Chen); S. Hart (Stewart); K. Stevens (Kristen); J. Simard (Jacques); T. Pastinen (Tomi); V.S. Pankratz (Shane); K. Offit (Kenneth); D.F. Easton (Douglas); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); A.C. Antoniou (Antonis); H. Thorne (Heather); E. Niedermayr (Eveline); Å. Borg (Åke); H. Olsson; H. Jernström (H.); K. Henriksson (Karin); K. Harbst (Katja); M. Soller (Maria); U. Kristoffersson (Ulf); A. Öfverholm (Anna); M. Nordling (Margareta); P. Karlsson (Per); A. von Wachenfeldt (Anna); A. Liljegren (Annelie); A. Lindblom (Annika); G.B. Bustinza; J. Rantala (Johanna); B. Melin (Beatrice); C.E. Ardnor (Christina Edwinsdotter); M. Emanuelsson (Monica); H. Ehrencrona (Hans); M.H. Pigg (Maritta ); S. Liedgren (Sigrun); M.A. Rookus (M.); S. Verhoef (S.); F.E. van Leeuwen (F.); M.K. Schmidt (Marjanka); J.L. de Lange (J.); J.M. Collée (Margriet); A.M.W. van den Ouweland (Ans); M.J. Hooning (Maartje); C.J. van Asperen (Christi); J.T. Wijnen (Juul); R.A.E.M. Tollenaar (Rob); P. Devilee (Peter); T.C.T.E.F. van Cronenburg; C.M. Kets; A.R. Mensenkamp (Arjen); R.B. van der Luijt (Rob); C.M. Aalfs (Cora); T.A.M. van Os (Theo); Q. Waisfisz (Quinten); E.J. Meijers-Heijboer (Hanne); E.B. Gomez Garcia (Encarna); J.C. Oosterwijk (Jan); M.J. Mourits (Marjan); G.H. de Bock (Geertruida); S.D. Ellis (Steve); E. Fineberg (Elena); Z. Miedzybrodzka (Zosia); L. Jeffers (Lisa); T.J. Cole (Trevor); K.-R. Ong (Kai-Ren); J. Hoffman (Jonathan); M. James (Margaret); J. Paterson (Joan); A. Taylor (Amy); A. Murray (Anna); M.J. Kennedy (John); D.E. Barton (David); M.E. Porteous (Mary); S. Drummond (Sarah); C. Brewer (Carole); E. Kivuva (Emma); A. Searle (Anne); S. Goodman (Selina); R. Davidson (Rosemarie); V. Murday (Victoria); N. Bradshaw (Nicola); L. Snadden (Lesley); M. Longmuir (Mark); C. Watt (Catherine); S. Gibson (Sarah); E. Haque (Eshika); E. Tobias (Ed); A. Duncan (Alexis); L. Izatt (Louise); C. Jacobs (Chris); C. Langman (Caroline); A.F. Brady (Angela); S.A. Melville (Scott); K. Randhawa (Kashmir); J. Barwell (Julian); G. Serra-Feliu (Gemma); I.O. Ellis (Ian); F. Lalloo (Fiona); J. Taylor (James); A. Male (Alison); C. Berlin (Cheryl); R. Collier (Rebecca); F. Douglas (Fiona); O. Claber (Oonagh); I. Jobson (Irene); L.J. Walker (Lisa); D. McLeod (Diane); D. Halliday (Dorothy); S. Durell (Sarah); B. Stayner (Barbara); S. Shanley (Susan); N. Rahman (Nazneen); R. Houlston (Richard); A. Stormorken (Astrid); E.K. Bancroft (Elizabeth); E. Page (Elizabeth); A. Ardern-Jones (Audrey); K. Kohut (Kelly); J. Wiggins (Jennifer); E. Castro (Elena); S.R. Killick; S. Martin (Sue); D. Rea (Dan); A. Kulkarni (Anjana); O. Quarrell (Oliver); C. Bardsley (Cathryn); S. Goff (Sheila); G. Brice (Glen); L. Winchester (Lizzie); C. Eddy (Charlotte); V. Tripathi (Vishakha); V. Attard (Virginia); A. Lehmann (Anna); A. Lucassen (Anneke); G. Crawford (Gabe); D. McBride (Donna); S. Smalley (Sarah); S. Mazoyer (Sylvie); F. Damiola (Francesca); L. Barjhoux (Laure); C. Verny-Pierre (Carole); S. Giraud (Sophie); D. Stoppa-Lyonnet (Dominique); B. Buecher (Bruno); V. Moncoutier (Virginie); M. Belotti (Muriel); C. Tirapo (Carole); A. de Pauw (Antoine); B. Bressac-de Paillerets (Brigitte); O. Caron (Olivier); Y.-J. Bignon (Yves-Jean); N. Uhrhammer (Nancy); V. Bonadona (Valérie); S. Handallou (Sandrine); A. hardouin (Agnès); H. Sobol (Hagay); V. Bourdon (Violaine); T. Noguchi (Tetsuro); A. Remenieras (Audrey); F. Eisinger (François); J.-P. Peyrat; J. Fournier (Joëlle); F. Révillion (Françoise); P. Vennin (Philippe); C. Adenis (Claude); R. Lidereau (Rosette); L. Demange (Liliane); D.W. Muller (Danièle); J.P. Fricker (Jean Pierre); E. Barouk-Simonet (Emmanuelle); F. Bonnet (Françoise); V. Bubien (Virginie); N. Sevenet (Nicolas); M. Longy (Michel); C. Toulas (Christine); R. Guimbaud (Rosine); L. Gladieff (Laurence); V. Feillel (Viviane); H. Dreyfus (Hélène); C. Rebischung (Christine); M. Peysselon (Magalie); F. Coron (Fanny); L. Faivre (Laurence); M. Lebrun (Marine); C. Kientz (Caroline); S.F. Ferrer; M. Frenay (Marc); I. Mortemousque (Isabelle); F. Coulet (Florence); C. Colas (Chrystelle); F. Soubrier; J. Sokolowska (Johanna); M. Bronner (Myriam); H. Lynch (Henry); C.L. Snyder (Carrie); M. Angelakos (Maggie); J. Maskiell (Judi); G.S. Dite (Gillian)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBRCA1-associated breast and ovarian cancer risks can be modified by common genetic variants. To identify further cancer risk-modifying loci, we performed a multi-stage GWAS of 11,705 BRCA1 carriers (of whom 5,920 were diagnosed with breast and 1,839 were diagnosed with ovarian cancer),

  3. Identifying the Risk of Swallowing-Related Pulmonary Complications in Older Patients With Hip Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meals, Clifton; Roy, Siddharth; Medvedev, Gleb; Wallace, Matthew; Neviaser, Robert J; O'Brien, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    To identify and potentially modify the risk of pulmonary complications in a group of older patients with hip fracture, the authors obtained speech and language pathology consultations for these patients. Then they performed a retrospective chart review of all patients 65 years and older who were admitted to their institution between June 2011 and July 2013 with acute hip fracture, were treated surgically, and had a speech and language pathology evaluation in the immediate perioperative period. The authors identified 52 patients who met the study criteria. According to the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification system, at the time of surgery, 1 patient (2%) was classified as ASA I, 12 patients (23%) were ASA II, 26 (50%) were ASA III, and 12 (23%) were ASA IV. Based on a speech and language pathology evaluation, 22 patients (42%) were diagnosed with dysphagia. Statistical analysis showed that ASA III status and ASA IV status were meaningful predictors of dysphagia and that dysphagia itself was a strong risk factor for pulmonary aspiration, pneumonia, and aspiration pneumonitis. Evaluation by a speech and language pathologist, particularly of patients classified as ASA III or ASA IV, may be an efficient means of averting pulmonary morbidity that is common in older patients with hip fracture. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Incidence of depression and anxiety among women newly diagnosed with breast or genital organ cancer in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Louis; Kalder, Matthias; Kostev, Karel

    2017-10-01

    To analyze the incidence of depression and anxiety among women newly diagnosed with breast or genital organ cancer (BC or GOC) in Germany. A total of 29 366 women initially diagnosed with BC or GOC between 2005 and 2014 were available for analysis. The main outcome measure was the incidence of depression and anxiety among women newly diagnosed with BC or GOC within 5 years after the first cancer diagnosis in German gynecologist practices. Demographic and clinical data included age, type of cancer, and presence of metastases at diagnosis. The incidence rate of depression and anxiety per 100 person-years was calculated. We performed a multivariate regression model to analyze the association between depression and the variables of interest. In total, 7994 women were diagnosed with depression/anxiety (81.3% had BC and 18.7% had GOC). The incidence of depression and anxiety was 8.8 per 100 person-years in women with BC. In individuals with GOC, the incidence of depression/anxiety was 5.9 per 100 person-years. Breast cancer was associated with a 1.41-fold increase in the risk of developing depression or anxiety as compared with GOC. Patients with metastases also had a higher risk of being depressed and anxious than others (odds ratio = 1.40). Finally, women in the age groups of 41 to 50, 51 to 60, and 61 to 70 years were at a higher risk of depression/anxiety than women in the age group of 71 to 80 years (odds ratios equal to 1.50, 1.38, and 1.22). Women diagnosed with BC were at a higher risk of developing depression or anxiety than women with GOC. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Diagnostic performance of Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference and the Waist-to-Height Ratio for identifying cardiometabolic risk in Scottish pre-adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, Duncan S; McLellan, Gillian; Donnelly, Samantha; Arthur, Rosie

    2017-06-01

    Limited studies have examined the diagnostic performance of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) or waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) for identifying cardiometabolic risk (increased clustered glucose, triglycerides, mean arterial pressure and inv-HDL-cholesterol) in pre-adolescent youth. To compare the utility of BMI, WC and WHtR as predictors of cardiometabolic risk (CMR) in Scottish pre-adolescent children. A cross-sectional analysis of 223 Scottish children (55.2% boys, mean age =8.4 years) was undertaken. BMI, WC and WHtR were used as exposure variables within multivariate logistic regression analysis and ROC analysis to examine the utility of these anthropometrical indices in identifying those at cardiometabolic risk. Individuals with an elevated WHtR, WC and BMI were 3.51 (95% CI = 1.71-7.23; p < .001); 2.34 (95% CI = 1.35-4.06; p = .002) and 2.59 (95% CI = 1.42-4.73; p = .002) times more likely to be at cardiometabolic risk, respectively. The areas under the curves [AUC] to identify children with cardiometabolic risk were significant and similar among anthropometric indices (AUC's = 0.60-0.65). When stratified by BMI, both WC and WHtR demonstrated a fair-to-good ability for identifying those at cardiometabolic risk (AUC = 0.75-0.81). Findings suggest that the combination of BMI with either WC or WHtR may provide an added benefit in the assessment of cardiometabolic risk amongst pre-adolescents.

  6. Identifying and mitigating risks for agricultural injury associated with obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan King

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In some occupational contexts overweight and obesity have been identified as risk factors for injury. The purpose of this study was to examine this hypothesis within farm work environments and then to identify specific opportunities for environmental modification as a preventive strategy. Data on farm-related injuries, height and weight used to calculate body mass index (BMI, and demographic characteristics were from the Phase 2 baseline survey of the Saskatchewan Farm Injury Cohort; a large cross-sectional mail-based survey conducted in Saskatchewan, Canada from January through May 2013. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine associations between BMI and injury. Injury narratives were explored qualitatively. Findings were inconsistent and differed according to gender. Among women (n = 927, having overweight (adjusted OR: 2.94; 95% CI: 1.29 to 6.70 but not obesity (1.10; 95% CI: 0.35 to 3.43 was associated with an increased odds of incurring a farm-related injury. No strong or statistically significant effects were observed for men (n = 1406 with overweight or obesity. While injury-related challenges associated with obesity have been addressed in other occupational settings via modification of the worksite, such strategies are challenging to implement in farm settings because of the diversity of work tasks and associated hazards. We conclude that the acute effects of overweight in terms of injury do require consideration in agricultural populations, but these should also be viewed with a differentiation based on gender.

  7. Identifying children at risk for language impairment: screening of communication at 18 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, B; Kornfält, R; Radeborg, K; Hansson, K; Nettelbladt, U

    2003-09-01

    To investigate the possibility of identifying children at risk for language impairment based on a new screening instrument to assess communication and language skills at 18 mo of age. At 18 mo, 58 children were assessed with a screening instrument for communication and language consisting of a professional assessment and a parents' questionnaire. Students of speech and language pathology, well trained in child language assessment, carried out the professional assessment, which was based on observations of play behaviour, interaction and expressive and receptive language skills. Of the 58 children, 43 attended a follow-up assessment of language skills at 54 mo of age. Nine children were considered to be at risk for language impairment at 18 mo and 10 children were evaluated as being at risk at 54 mo. A significant positive correlation was found between the professional evaluations at 18 mo and the language tests at 54 mo. Verbal comprehension and pretend play correlated significantly with the results on the language tests. A professional screening of communication and language at 18 mo of age is worthwhile for predicting problems in language development. The results further show that language comprehension and pretend play rather than expressive skills should be emphasized.

  8. 14 CFR 26.39 - Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank... Tank Flammability § 26.39 Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability. (a) Applicability: This... Series 767 Series (b) Any fuel tank meeting all of the criteria stated in paragraphs (b)(1), (b)(2) and...

  9. Ability of EDI-2 and EDI-3 to correctly identify patients and subjects at risk for eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-García, Cristina; Aloi, Matteo; Rania, Marianna; Ciambrone, Paola; Palmieri, Antonella; Pugliese, Valentina; Ruiz Moruno, Antonio José; De Fazio, Pasquale

    2015-12-01

    The prevention and early recognition of eating disorders (EDs) are important topics in public health. This study aims to compare the efficacy of the Eating Disorder Inventory 2 (EDI-2) with the new version, EDI-3 in recognising patients and identifying subjects at risk for EDs. The EDI-2 and EDI-3 were administered to 92 female patients with ED and 265 females from a population at risk for EDs. Experienced psychiatrists in this field held blind interviews with participants by means of the SCID-I to determine the diagnosis. According to the cut-offs suggested by the authors, the EDI-3 correctly identified nearly all of the ED patients (99%), while the EDI-2 divulged less than half (48%). Both versions of the test showed comparable capability to identify participants at risk for EDs but the EDI-3 seemed slightly more reliable than the EDI-2. The EDI-2 remains a valid and very specific test. However, the new EDI-3 seems to be experimentally superior, because it typifies nearly all patients across the ED span, including those with Binge Eating Disorder and Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified. In addition, it appears to be more reliable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Genome-wide association study in BRCA1 mutation carriers identifies novel loci associated with breast and ovarian cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couch, Fergus J.; Wang, Xianshu; McGuffog, Lesley; Lee, Andrew; Olswold, Curtis; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Soucy, Penny; Fredericksen, Zachary; Barrowdale, Daniel; Dennis, Joe; Gaudet, Mia M.; Dicks, Ed; Kosel, Matthew; Healey, Sue; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Lee, Adam; Bacot, François; Vincent, Daniel; Hogervorst, Frans B. L.; Peock, Susan; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Jakubowska, Anna; Radice, Paolo; Schmutzler, Rita Katharina; Domchek, Susan M.; Piedmonte, Marion; Singer, Christian F.; Friedman, Eitan; Thomassen, Mads; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Szabo, Csilla I.; Blanco, Ignacio; Greene, Mark H.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Garber, Judy; Phelan, Catherine M.; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Montagna, Marco; Olah, Edith; Andrulis, Irene L.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Goldgar, David E.; Caldes, Trinidad; Nevanlinna, Heli; Osorio, Ana; Terry, Mary Beth; Daly, Mary B.; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J.; Hamann, Ute; Ramus, Susan J.; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Caligo, Maria A.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Tung, Nadine; Claes, Kathleen; Beattie, Mary S.; Southey, Melissa C.; Imyanitov, Evgeny N.; Tischkowitz, Marc; Janavicius, Ramunas; John, Esther M.; Kwong, Ava; Diez, Orland; Balmaña, Judith; Barkardottir, Rosa B.; Arun, Banu K.; Rennert, Gad; teo, Soo-Hwang; Ganz, Patricia A.; Campbell, Ian; van der Hout, Annemarie H.; van Deurzen, Carolien H. M.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Gómez Garcia, Encarna B.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E. J.; Gille, Johannes J. P.; Ausems, Margreet G. E. M.; Blok, Marinus J.; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J. L.; Rookus, Matti A.; Devilee, Peter; Verhoef, Senno; van Os, Theo A. M.; Wijnen, Juul T.; Frost, Debra; Ellis, Steve; Fineberg, Elena; Platte, Radka; Evans, D. Gareth; Izatt, Louise; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Adlard, Julian; Eccles, Diana M.; Cook, Jackie; Brewer, Carole; Douglas, Fiona; Hodgson, Shirley; Morrison, Patrick J.; Side, Lucy E.; Donaldson, Alan; Houghton, Catherine; Rogers, Mark T.; Dorkins, Huw; Eason, Jacqueline; Gregory, Helen; McCann, Emma; Murray, Alex; Calender, Alain; Hardouin, Agnès; Berthet, Pascaline; Delnatte, Capucine; Nogues, Catherine; Lasset, Christine; Houdayer, Claude; Leroux, Dominique; Rouleau, Etienne; Prieur, Fabienne; Damiola, Francesca; Sobol, Hagay; Coupier, Isabelle; Venat-Bouvet, Laurence; Castera, Laurent; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Léoné, Mélanie; Pujol, Pascal; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Złowocka-Perłowska, Elżbieta; Gronwald, Jacek; Lubinski, Jan; Durda, Katarzyna; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Huzarski, Tomasz; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Viel, Alessandra; Peissel, Bernard; Bonanni, Bernardo; Melloni, Giulia; Ottini, Laura; Papi, Laura; Varesco, Liliana; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia; Peterlongo, Paolo; Volorio, Sara; Manoukian, Siranoush; Pensotti, Valeria; Arnold, Norbert; Engel, Christoph; Deissler, Helmut; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Gehrig, Andrea; Kast, Karin; Rhiem, Kerstin; Meindl, Alfons; Niederacher, Dieter; Ditsch, Nina; Plendl, Hansjoerg; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Engert, Stefanie; Sutter, Christian; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Weber, Bernhard H. F.; Arver, Brita; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Loman, Niklas; Rosenquist, Richard; Einbeigi, Zakaria; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Blank, Stephanie V.; Cohn, David E.; Rodriguez, Gustavo C.; Small, Laurie; Friedlander, Michael; Bae-Jump, Victoria L.; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Rappaport, Christine; Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Pfeiler, Georg; tea, Muy-Kheng; Lindor, Noralane M.; Kaufman, Bella; Shimon Paluch, Shani; Laitman, Yael; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Moeller, Sanne Traasdahl; Kruse, Torben A.; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Vijai, Joseph; Sarrel, Kara; Robson, Mark; Kauff, Noah; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Ejlertsen, Bent; Nielsen, Finn C.; Jønson, Lars; Andersen, Mette K.; Ding, Yuan Chun; Steele, Linda; Foretova, Lenka; Teulé, Alex; Lazaro, Conxi; Brunet, Joan; Pujana, Miquel Angel; Mai, Phuong L.; Loud, Jennifer T.; Walsh, Christine; Lester, Jenny; Orsulic, Sandra; Narod, Steven A.; Herzog, Josef; Sand, Sharon R.; Tognazzo, Silvia; Agata, Simona; Vaszko, Tibor; Weaver, Joellen; Stavropoulou, Alexandra V.; Buys, Saundra S.; Romero, Atocha; de la Hoya, Miguel; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Muranen, Taru A.; Duran, Mercedes; Chung, Wendy K.; Lasa, Adriana; Dorfling, Cecilia M.; Miron, Alexander; Benitez, Javier; Senter, Leigha; Huo, Dezheng; Chan, Salina B.; Sokolenko, Anna P.; Chiquette, Jocelyne; Tihomirova, Laima; Friebel, Tara M.; Agnarsson, Bjarni A.; Lu, Karen H.; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; James, Paul A.; Hall, Per; Dunning, Alison M.; Tessier, Daniel; Cunningham, Julie; Slager, Susan L.; Wang, Chen; Hart, Steven; Stevens, Kristen; Simard, Jacques; Pastinen, Tomi; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Offit, Kenneth; Easton, Douglas F.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C.

    2013-01-01

    BRCA1-associated breast and ovarian cancer risks can be modified by common genetic variants. To identify further cancer risk-modifying loci, we performed a multi-stage GWAS of 11,705 BRCA1 carriers (of whom 5,920 were diagnosed with breast and 1,839 were diagnosed with ovarian cancer), with a

  11. Genome-wide association study in BRCA1 mutation carriers identifies novel loci associated with breast and ovarian cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couch, Fergus J; Wang, Xianshu; McGuffog, Lesley

    2013-01-01

    BRCA1-associated breast and ovarian cancer risks can be modified by common genetic variants. To identify further cancer risk-modifying loci, we performed a multi-stage GWAS of 11,705 BRCA1 carriers (of whom 5,920 were diagnosed with breast and 1,839 were diagnosed with ovarian cancer), with a fur...

  12. Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) based risk factors for increased caregiver burden among elderly Asian patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekaran, Tanujaa; Tan, Tira; Ong, Whee Sze; Koo, Khai Nee; Chan, Lili; Poon, Donald; Roy Chowdhury, Anupama; Krishna, Lalit; Kanesvaran, Ravindran

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to identify Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) based risk factors to help predict caregiver burden among elderly patients with cancer. The study evaluated 249 patients newly diagnosed with cancer, aged 70years and above, who attended the geriatric oncology clinic at the National Cancer Centre Singapore between 2007 and 2010. Out of 249 patients, 244 patients had information available on family caregiver burden and were analysed. On univariate analysis, ADL dependence, lower IADL scores, ECOG performance status of 3-4, higher fall risk, lower scores in dominant hand grip strength test and mini mental state examination, polypharmacy, higher nutritional risk, haemoglobin geriatric syndromes were significantly associated with mild to severe caregiver burden. On multivariate analysis, only ECOG performance status of 3-4 (odds ratio [OR], 4.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.27-8.80) and haemoglobin patients were stratified into 3 risk groups with different proportion of patients with increased caregiver burden (low risk: 3.9% vs intermediate risk: 18.8% vs high risk: 39.6%; ppatients with cancer. Using these two factors in the clinic may help clinicians identify caregivers at risk and take preventive action to mitigate that. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Immunochip analyses identify a novel risk locus for primary biliary cirrhosis at 13q14, multiple independent associations at four established risk loci and epistasis between 1p31 and 7q32 risk variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juran, Brian D.; Hirschfield, Gideon M.; Invernizzi, Pietro; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; Li, Yafang; Xie, Gang; Kosoy, Roman; Ransom, Michael; Sun, Ye; Bianchi, Ilaria; Schlicht, Erik M.; Lleo, Ana; Coltescu, Catalina; Bernuzzi, Francesca; Podda, Mauro; Lammert, Craig; Shigeta, Russell; Chan, Landon L.; Balschun, Tobias; Marconi, Maurizio; Cusi, Daniele; Heathcote, E. Jenny; Mason, Andrew L.; Myers, Robert P.; Milkiewicz, Piotr; Odin, Joseph A.; Luketic, Velimir A.; Bacon, Bruce R.; Bodenheimer, Henry C.; Liakina, Valentina; Vincent, Catherine; Levy, Cynthia; Franke, Andre; Gregersen, Peter K.; Bossa, Fabrizio; Gershwin, M. Eric; deAndrade, Mariza; Amos, Christopher I.; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N.; Seldin, Michael F.; Siminovitch, Katherine A.

    2012-01-01

    To further characterize the genetic basis of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), we genotyped 2426 PBC patients and 5731 unaffected controls from three independent cohorts using a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array (Immunochip) enriched for autoimmune disease risk loci. Meta-analysis of the genotype data sets identified a novel disease-associated locus near the TNFSF11 gene at 13q14, provided evidence for association at six additional immune-related loci not previously implicated in PBC and confirmed associations at 19 of 22 established risk loci. Results of conditional analyses also provided evidence for multiple independent association signals at four risk loci, with haplotype analyses suggesting independent SNP effects at the 2q32 and 16p13 loci, but complex haplotype driven effects at the 3q25 and 6p21 loci. By imputing classical HLA alleles from this data set, four class II alleles independently contributing to the association signal from this region were identified. Imputation of genotypes at the non-HLA loci also provided additional associations, but none with stronger effects than the genotyped variants. An epistatic interaction between the IL12RB2 risk locus at 1p31and the IRF5 risk locus at 7q32 was also identified and suggests a complementary effect of these loci in predisposing to disease. These data expand the repertoire of genes with potential roles in PBC pathogenesis that need to be explored by follow-up biological studies. PMID:22936693

  14. Limited role for extended maintenance temozolomide for newly diagnosed glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramatzki, Dorothee; Kickingereder, Philipp; Hentschel, Bettina; Felsberg, Jörg; Herrlinger, Ulrich; Schackert, Gabriele; Tonn, Jörg-Christian; Westphal, Manfred; Sabel, Michael; Schlegel, Uwe; Wick, Wolfgang; Pietsch, Torsten; Reifenberger, Guido; Loeffler, Markus; Bendszus, Martin; Weller, Michael

    2017-04-11

    To explore an association with survival of modifying the current standard of care for patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma of surgery followed by radiotherapy plus concurrent and 6 cycles of maintenance temozolomide chemotherapy (TMZ/RT → TMZ) by extending TMZ beyond 6 cycles. The German Glioma Network cohort was screened for patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma who received TMZ/RT → TMZ and completed ≥6 cycles of maintenance chemotherapy without progression. Associations of clinical patient characteristics, molecular markers, and residual tumor determined by magnetic resonance imaging after 6 cycles of TMZ with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed with the log-rank test. Multivariate analyses using the Cox proportional hazards model were performed to assess associations of prolonged TMZ use with outcome. Sixty-one of 142 identified patients received at least 7 maintenance TMZ cycles (median 11, range 7-20). Patients with extended maintenance TMZ treatment had better PFS (20.5 months, 95% confidence interval [CI] 17.7-23.3, vs 17.2 months, 95% CI 10.2-24.2, p = 0.035) but not OS (32.6 months, 95% CI 28.9-36.4, vs 33.2 months, 95% CI 25.3-41.0, p = 0.126). However, there was no significant association of prolonged TMZ chemotherapy with PFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.8, 95% CI 0.4-1.6, p = 0.559) or OS (HR = 1.6, 95% CI 0.8-3.3, p = 0.218) adjusted for age, extent of resection, Karnofsky performance score, presence of residual tumor, O 6 -methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation status, or isocitrate dehydrogenase ( IDH ) mutation status. These data may not support the practice of prolonging maintenance TMZ chemotherapy beyond 6 cycles. This study provides Class III evidence that in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma, prolonged TMZ chemotherapy does not significantly increase PFS or OS. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  15. Genome-wide association analyses identify 44 risk variants and refine the genetic architecture of major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Naomi R; Ripke, Stephan; Mattheisen, Manuel; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Byrne, Enda M; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Adams, Mark J; Agerbo, Esben; Air, Tracy M; Andlauer, Till M F; Bacanu, Silviu-Alin; Bækvad-Hansen, Marie; Beekman, Aartjan F T; Bigdeli, Tim B; Binder, Elisabeth B; Blackwood, Douglas R H; Bryois, Julien; Buttenschøn, Henriette N; Bybjerg-Grauholm, Jonas; Cai, Na; Castelao, Enrique; Christensen, Jane Hvarregaard; Clarke, Toni-Kim; Coleman, Jonathan I R; Colodro-Conde, Lucía; Couvy-Duchesne, Baptiste; Craddock, Nick; Crawford, Gregory E; Crowley, Cheynna A; Dashti, Hassan S; Davies, Gail; Deary, Ian J; Degenhardt, Franziska; Derks, Eske M; Direk, Nese; Dolan, Conor V; Dunn, Erin C; Eley, Thalia C; Eriksson, Nicholas; Escott-Price, Valentina; Kiadeh, Farnush Hassan Farhadi; Finucane, Hilary K; Forstner, Andreas J; Frank, Josef; Gaspar, Héléna A; Gill, Michael; Giusti-Rodríguez, Paola; Goes, Fernando S; Gordon, Scott D; Grove, Jakob; Hall, Lynsey S; Hannon, Eilis; Hansen, Christine Søholm; Hansen, Thomas F; Herms, Stefan; Hickie, Ian B; Hoffmann, Per; Homuth, Georg; Horn, Carsten; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Hougaard, David M; Hu, Ming; Hyde, Craig L; Ising, Marcus; Jansen, Rick; Jin, Fulai; Jorgenson, Eric; Knowles, James A; Kohane, Isaac S; Kraft, Julia; Kretzschmar, Warren W; Krogh, Jesper; Kutalik, Zoltán; Lane, Jacqueline M; Li, Yihan; Li, Yun; Lind, Penelope A; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Lu, Leina; MacIntyre, Donald J; MacKinnon, Dean F; Maier, Robert M; Maier, Wolfgang; Marchini, Jonathan; Mbarek, Hamdi; McGrath, Patrick; McGuffin, Peter; Medland, Sarah E; Mehta, Divya; Middeldorp, Christel M; Mihailov, Evelin; Milaneschi, Yuri; Milani, Lili; Mill, Jonathan; Mondimore, Francis M; Montgomery, Grant W; Mostafavi, Sara; Mullins, Niamh; Nauck, Matthias; Ng, Bernard; Nivard, Michel G; Nyholt, Dale R; O'Reilly, Paul F; Oskarsson, Hogni; Owen, Michael J; Painter, Jodie N; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Pedersen, Marianne Giørtz; Peterson, Roseann E; Pettersson, Erik; Peyrot, Wouter J; Pistis, Giorgio; Posthuma, Danielle; Purcell, Shaun M; Quiroz, Jorge A; Qvist, Per; Rice, John P; Riley, Brien P; Rivera, Margarita; Saeed Mirza, Saira; Saxena, Richa; Schoevers, Robert; Schulte, Eva C; Shen, Ling; Shi, Jianxin; Shyn, Stanley I; Sigurdsson, Engilbert; Sinnamon, Grant B C; Smit, Johannes H; Smith, Daniel J; Stefansson, Hreinn; Steinberg, Stacy; Stockmeier, Craig A; Streit, Fabian; Strohmaier, Jana; Tansey, Katherine E; Teismann, Henning; Teumer, Alexander; Thompson, Wesley; Thomson, Pippa A; Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir E; Tian, Chao; Traylor, Matthew; Treutlein, Jens; Trubetskoy, Vassily; Uitterlinden, André G; Umbricht, Daniel; Van der Auwera, Sandra; van Hemert, Albert M; Viktorin, Alexander; Visscher, Peter M; Wang, Yunpeng; Webb, Bradley T; Weinsheimer, Shantel Marie; Wellmann, Jürgen; Willemsen, Gonneke; Witt, Stephanie H; Wu, Yang; Xi, Hualin S; Yang, Jian; Zhang, Futao; Arolt, Volker; Baune, Bernhard T; Berger, Klaus; Boomsma, Dorret I; Cichon, Sven; Dannlowski, Udo; de Geus, E C J; DePaulo, J Raymond; Domenici, Enrico; Domschke, Katharina; Esko, Tõnu; Grabe, Hans J; Hamilton, Steven P; Hayward, Caroline; Heath, Andrew C; Hinds, David A; Kendler, Kenneth S; Kloiber, Stefan; Lewis, Glyn; Li, Qingqin S; Lucae, Susanne; Madden, Pamela F A; Magnusson, Patrik K; Martin, Nicholas G; McIntosh, Andrew M; Metspalu, Andres; Mors, Ole; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nordentoft, Merete; Nöthen, Markus M; O'Donovan, Michael C; Paciga, Sara A; Pedersen, Nancy L; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Perlis, Roy H; Porteous, David J; Potash, James B; Preisig, Martin; Rietschel, Marcella; Schaefer, Catherine; Schulze, Thomas G; Smoller, Jordan W; Stefansson, Kari; Tiemeier, Henning; Uher, Rudolf; Völzke, Henry; Weissman, Myrna M; Werge, Thomas; Winslow, Ashley R; Lewis, Cathryn M; Levinson, Douglas F; Breen, Gerome; Børglum, Anders D; Sullivan, Patrick F

    2018-05-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common illness accompanied by considerable morbidity, mortality, costs, and heightened risk of suicide. We conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis based in 135,458 cases and 344,901 controls and identified 44 independent and significant loci. The genetic findings were associated with clinical features of major depression and implicated brain regions exhibiting anatomical differences in cases. Targets of antidepressant medications and genes involved in gene splicing were enriched for smaller association signal. We found important relationships of genetic risk for major depression with educational attainment, body mass, and schizophrenia: lower educational attainment and higher body mass were putatively causal, whereas major depression and schizophrenia reflected a partly shared biological etiology. All humans carry lesser or greater numbers of genetic risk factors for major depression. These findings help refine the basis of major depression and imply that a continuous measure of risk underlies the clinical phenotype.

  16. Chrysosplenium japonicum (Saxifragaceae, Newly Recorded from Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Chuan Hsu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Chrysosplenium japonicum (Maxim. Makino (Saxifragaceae is newly recorded from northeastern Taiwan. Description, color photos and a key to the Chrysosplenium species in Taiwan are provided.

  17. Identifying Risk Factors for Drug Use in an Iranian Treatment Sample: A Prediction Approach Using Decision Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirabadizadeh, Alireza; Nezami, Hossein; Vaughn, Michael G; Nakhaee, Samaneh; Mehrpour, Omid

    2018-05-12

    Substance abuse exacts considerable social and health care burdens throughout the world. The aim of this study was to create a prediction model to better identify risk factors for drug use. A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in South Khorasan Province, Iran. Of the total of 678 eligible subjects, 70% (n: 474) were randomly selected to provide a training set for constructing decision tree and multiple logistic regression (MLR) models. The remaining 30% (n: 204) were employed in a holdout sample to test the performance of the decision tree and MLR models. Predictive performance of different models was analyzed by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve using the testing set. Independent variables were selected from demographic characteristics and history of drug use. For the decision tree model, the sensitivity and specificity for identifying people at risk for drug abuse were 66% and 75%, respectively, while the MLR model was somewhat less effective at 60% and 73%. Key independent variables in the analyses included first substance experience, age at first drug use, age, place of residence, history of cigarette use, and occupational and marital status. While study findings are exploratory and lack generalizability they do suggest that the decision tree model holds promise as an effective classification approach for identifying risk factors for drug use. Convergent with prior research in Western contexts is that age of drug use initiation was a critical factor predicting a substance use disorder.

  18. Identifying Risk of Future Asthma Attacks Using UK Medical Record Data: A Respiratory Effectiveness Group Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakey, John D; Price, David B; Pizzichini, Emilio; Popov, Todor A; Dimitrov, Borislav D; Postma, Dirkje S; Josephs, Lynn K; Kaplan, Alan; Papi, Alberto; Kerkhof, Marjan; Hillyer, Elizabeth V; Chisholm, Alison; Thomas, Mike

    Asthma attacks are common, serious, and costly. Individual factors associated with attacks, such as poor symptom control, are not robust predictors. We investigated whether the rich data available in UK electronic medical records could identify patients at risk of recurrent attacks. We analyzed anonymized, longitudinal medical records of 118,981 patients with actively treated asthma (ages 12-80 years) and 3 or more years of data. Potential risk factors during 1 baseline year were evaluated using univariable (simple) logistic regression for outcomes of 2 or more and 4 or more attacks during the following 2-year period. Predictors with significant univariable association (P attacks included baseline-year markers of attacks (acute oral corticosteroid courses, emergency visits), more frequent reliever use and health care utilization, worse lung function, current smoking, blood eosinophilia, rhinitis, nasal polyps, eczema, gastroesophageal reflux disease, obesity, older age, and being female. The number of oral corticosteroid courses had the strongest association. The final cross-validated models incorporated 19 and 16 risk factors for 2 or more and 4 or more attacks over 2 years, respectively, with areas under the curve of 0.785 (95% CI, 0.780-0.789) and 0.867 (95% CI, 0.860-0.873), respectively. Routinely collected data could be used proactively via automated searches to identify individuals at risk of recurrent asthma attacks. Further research is needed to assess the impact of such knowledge on clinical prognosis. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. GWAS-identified schizophrenia risk SNPs at TSPAN18 are highly diverged between Europeans and East Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiewei; Li, Ming; Su, Bing

    2016-12-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified multiple schizophrenia (SCZ) risk variants for samples of European and East Asian descent, but most of the identified susceptibility variants are population-specific to either Europeans or East Asians. This strong genetic heterogeneity suggests that differential population histories may play a role in SCZ susceptibility. Here, we explored this possibility by examining the allele frequency divergence of 136 previously reported genome-wide SCZ risk SNPs between European and East Asian populations. Our results showed that two SNPs (rs11038167 and rs11038172) at TSPAN18, reported as genome-wide significant SCZ risk variants in Han Chinese, were entirely monomorphic in Europeans, indicating a deep between-population divergence at this gene locus. To explore the evolutionary history of TSPAN18 in East Asians, we conducted population genetic analyses including multiple neutrality tests, the haplotype-based iHS and EHH tests, as well as haplotype bifurcation map and network constructions. We found that the protective allele of rs11038172 (G allele) had a long extended haplotype with much slower decay compared to the A allele. The star-like shape of the G-allele-carrying haplotypes indicates a recent enrichment in East Asians. Together, the evidences suggest that the protective allele of rs11038172 has experienced recent Darwinian positive selection in East Asians. These findings provide new insights that may help explain the strong genetic heterogeneity in SCZ risk and previous inconsistent association results for SCZ among both Europeans and East Asians. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Prognostic meaning of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and lymphocyte to monocyte ration (LMR) in newly diagnosed Hodgkin lymphoma patients treated upfront with a PET-2 based strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Alessandra; Parrinello, Nunziatina Laura; Vetro, Calogero; Chiarenza, Annalisa; Cerchione, Claudio; Ippolito, Massimo; Palumbo, Giuseppe Alberto; Di Raimondo, Francesco

    2018-06-01

    Recent reports identify NLR (the ratio between absolute neutrophils counts, ANC, and absolute lymphocyte count, ALC), as predictor of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in cancer patients. We retrospectively tested NLR and LMR (the ratio between absolute lymphocyte and monocyte counts) in newly diagnosed Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients treated upfront with a PET-2 risk-adapted strategy. NLR and LMR were calculated using records obtained from the complete blood count (CBC) from 180 newly diagnosed HL patients. PFS was evaluated accordingly to Kaplan-Meier method. Higher NLR was associated to advanced stage, increased absolute counts of neutrophils and reduced count of lymphocytes, and markers of systemic inflammation. After a median follow-up of 68 months, PFS at 60 months was 86.6% versus 70.1%, respectively, in patients with NLR ≥ 6 or NLR PET-2 scan (p PET-2 was an independent predictor of PFS in multivariate analysis. Advanced-stage patients (N = 119) were treated according to a PET-2 risk-adapted protocol, with an early switch to BEACOPP regimen in case of PET-2 positivity. Despite this strategy, patients with positive PET-2 still had an inferior outcome, with PFS at 60 months of 84.7% versus 40.1% (negative and positive PET-2 patients, respectively, p PET-2 status and to a lesser extend NLR in advanced stage, while LMR maintained its significance in early stage. By focusing on PET-2 negative patients, we found that patients with NLR ≥ 6.0 or LMR PET-2 scan, NLR and LMR can result in a meaningful prognostic system that needs to be further validated in prospective series including patients treated upfront with PET-2 adapted-risk therapy.

  1. Identifying women with dense breasts at high risk for interval cancer: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerlikowske, Karla; Zhu, Weiwei; Tosteson, Anna N A; Sprague, Brian L; Tice, Jeffrey A; Lehman, Constance D; Miglioretti, Diana L

    2015-05-19

    Twenty-one states have laws requiring that women be notified if they have dense breasts and that they be advised to discuss supplemental imaging with their provider. To better direct discussions of supplemental imaging by determining which combinations of breast cancer risk and Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) breast density categories are associated with high interval cancer rates. Prospective cohort. Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) breast imaging facilities. 365,426 women aged 40 to 74 years who had 831,455 digital screening mammography examinations. BI-RADS breast density, BCSC 5-year breast cancer risk, and interval cancer rate (invasive cancer ≤12 months after a normal mammography result) per 1000 mammography examinations. High interval cancer rate was defined as more than 1 case per 1000 examinations. High interval cancer rates were observed for women with 5-year risk of 1.67% or greater and extremely dense breasts or 5-year risk of 2.50% or greater and heterogeneously dense breasts (24% of all women with dense breasts). The interval rate of advanced-stage disease was highest (>0.4 case per 1000 examinations) among women with 5-year risk of 2.50% or greater and heterogeneously or extremely dense breasts (21% of all women with dense breasts). Five-year risk was low to average (0% to 1.66%) for 51.0% of women with heterogeneously dense breasts and 52.5% with extremely dense breasts, with interval cancer rates of 0.58 to 0.63 and 0.72 to 0.89 case per 1000 examinations, respectively. The benefit of supplemental imaging was not assessed. Breast density should not be the sole criterion for deciding whether supplemental imaging is justified because not all women with dense breasts have high interval cancer rates. BCSC 5-year risk combined with BI-RADS breast density can identify women at high risk for interval cancer to inform patient-provider discussions about alternative screening strategies. National Cancer Institute.

  2. ART attrition and risk factors among Option B+ patients in Haiti: A retrospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Puttkammer

    Full Text Available In October 2012, the Haitian Ministry of Health endorsed the "Option B+" strategy to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV and achieve HIV epidemic control. The objective of this paper is to assess and identify risk factors for attrition from the national ART program among Option B+ patients in the 12 months after ART initiation.This retrospective cohort study included patients newly initiating ART from October 2012-August 2013 at 68 ART sites covering 45% of all newly enrolled ART patients in all regions of Haiti.With data from electronic medical records, we carried out descriptive analysis of sociodemographic, clinical, and pregnancy-related correlates of ART attrition, and used a modified Poisson regression approach to estimate relative risks in a multivariable model.There were 2,166 Option B+ patients who initiated ART, of whom 1,023 were not retained by 12 months (47.2%. One quarter (25.3% dropped out within 3 months of ART initiation. Protective factors included older age, more advanced HIV disease progression, and any adherence counseling prior to ART initiation, while risk factors included starting ART late in gestation, starting ART within 7 days of HIV testing, and using an atypical ART regimen.Our study demonstrates early ART attrition among Option B+ patients and contributes evidence on the characteristics of women who are most at risk of attrition in Haiti. Our findings highlight the importance of targeted strategies to support retention among Option B+ patients.

  3. Feasibility of a self-administered survey to identify primary care patients at risk of medication-related problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makowsky MJ

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Mark J Makowsky,1 Andrew J Cave,2 Scot H Simpson1 1Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada Background and objectives: Pharmacists working in primary care clinics are well positioned to help optimize medication management of community-dwelling patients who are at high risk of experiencing medication-related problems. However, it is often difficult to identify these patients. Our objective was to test the feasibility of a self-administered patient survey, to facilitate identification of patients at high risk of medication-related problems in a family medicine clinic. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, paper-based survey at the University of Alberta Hospital Family Medicine Clinic in Edmonton, Alberta, which serves approximately 7,000 patients, with 25,000 consultations per year. Adult patients attending the clinic were invited to complete a ten-item questionnaire, adapted from previously validated surveys, while waiting to be seen by the physician. Outcomes of interest included: time to complete the questionnaire, staff feedback regarding impact on workflow, and the proportion of patients who reported three or more risk factors for medication-related problems. Results: The questionnaire took less than 5 minutes to complete, according to the patient's report on the last page of the questionnaire. The median age (and interquartile range of respondents was 57 (45–69 years; 59% were women; 47% reported being in very good or excellent health; 43 respondents of 100 had three or more risk factors, and met the definition for being at high risk of a medication-related problem. Conclusions: Distribution of a self-administered questionnaire did not disrupt patients, or the clinic workflow, and identified an important proportion of patients at high risk of medication-related problems. Keywords: screening tool, pharmacists, primary

  4. People newly in love are more responsive to positive feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Cassandra L; Beninger, Richard J

    2012-06-01

    Passionate love is associated with increased activity in dopamine-rich regions of the brain. Increased dopamine in these regions is associated with a greater tendency to learn from reward in trial-and-error learning tasks. This study examined the prediction that individuals who were newly in love would be better at responding to reward (positive feedback). In test trials, people who were newly in love selected positive outcomes significantly more often than their single (not in love) counterparts but were no better at the task overall. This suggests that people who are newly in love show a bias toward responding to positive feedback, which may reflect a general bias towards reward-seeking.

  5. An Integrated H-G Scheme Identifying Areas for Soil Remediation and Primary Heavy Metal Contributors: A Risk Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Zou; Xiaolu Jiang; Xiaoli Duan; Xiuge Zhao; Jing Zhang; Jingwen Tang; Guoqing Sun

    2017-01-01

    Traditional sampling for soil pollution evaluation is cost intensive and has limited representativeness. Therefore, developing methods that can accurately and rapidly identify at-risk areas and the contributing pollutants is imperative for soil remediation. In this study, we propose an innovative integrated H-G scheme combining human health risk assessment and geographical detector methods that was based on geographical information system technology and validated its feasibility in a renewabl...

  6. HIV diagnosis, linkage to HIV care, and HIV risk behaviors among newly diagnosed HIV-positive female sex workers in Kigali, Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braunstein, Sarah L.; Umulisa, Marie-Michèle; Veldhuijzen, Nienke J.; Kestelyn, Evelyne; Ingabire, Chantal M.; Nyinawabega, Jeanine; van de Wijgert, Janneke H. H. M.; Nash, Denis

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate linkage-to-care, sexual behavior change, and psychosocial experiences among newly HIV-diagnosed female sex workers (FSWs) in Rwanda. FSWs (n = 800) with unknown serostatus were screened for HIV during 2007/2008. Women testing HIV positive (n = 192) were referred to care and asked to

  7. Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Identifies Four New Disease-Specific Risk Loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Gregory T; Tromp, Gerard; Kuivaniemi, Helena

    2017-01-01

    studies (GWAS). Through a meta-analysis of 6 GWAS datasets and a validation study totalling 10,204 cases and 107,766 controls we identified 4 new AAA risk loci: 1q32.3 (SMYD2), 13q12.11 (LINC00540), 20q13.12 (near PCIF1/MMP9/ZNF335), and 21q22.2 (ERG). In various database searches we observed no new...... associations between the lead AAA SNPs and coronary artery disease, blood pressure, lipids or diabetes. Network analyses identified ERG, IL6R and LDLR as modifiers of MMP9, with a direct interaction between ERG and MMP9. The 4 new risk loci for AAA appear to be specific for AAA compared with other...

  8. Better adherence to antithyroid drug is associated with decreased risk of stroke in hyperthyroidism patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, M-S; Chuang, P-Y; Huang, C-H; Shih, S-R; Chang, W-T; Chen, N-C; Yu, P-H; Cheng, H-J; Tang, C-H; Chen, W-J

    2015-12-01

    An increased risk for ischaemic stroke has been reported in young hyperthyroidism patients independent of atrial fibrillation (AF). However, whether the use of antithyroid drugs in hyperthyroidism patients can reduce the occurrence of ischaemic stroke remains unclear. A total of 36,510 newly diagnosed hyperthyroidism patients during 2003-2006 were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research database. Each patient was individually tracked for 5 years from their index date (beginning the antithyroid drugs) to identify those who suffered from new episode of ischaemic stroke. Medication possession ratio (MPR) was used to represent the antithyroid drug compliance. The association between the MPR and the risk of stroke was examined. The stroke incidence rates for hyperthyroidism patients with age hyperthyroidism patients without AF, good antithyroid drugs compliance also reduced the incidence of stroke significantly (adjusted HR, range: 1.52-1.61; p = 0.02); but not in hyperthyroidism with AF. Hyperthyroidism patients with good antithyroid drug compliance had a lower risk of ischaemic stroke than patients with poor compliance. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Prevention of oil spill from shipping by modelling of dynamic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Magnus S; Endresen, Oyvind; Breivik, Oyvind; Brude, Odd Willy; Ellingsen, Ingrid H; Røang, Kjell; Hauge, Jarle; Brett, Per Olaf

    2007-10-01

    This paper presents a new dynamic environmental risk model, with intended use within a new, dynamical approach for risk based ship traffic prioritisation. The philosophy behind this newly developed approach is that shipping risk can be reduced by directing efforts towards ships and areas that have been identified as high priority (high risk), prior to a potential accident. The risk model proposed in this paper separates itself from previous models by drawing on available information on dynamic factors and by focusing on the ship's surroundings. The model estimates the environmental risk of drift grounding accidents for oil tankers in real time and in forecast mode, combining the probability of grounding with oil spill impact on the coastline. Results show that the inherent dynamic risk introduced by an oil tanker sailing along the North Norwegian coast depends, not surprisingly, significantly upon wind and ocean currents, as well as tug position and cargo oil type. Results of this study indicate that the risk model is well suited for real time risk assessment, and effectively separates low risk and high risk situations. The model is well suited as a tool to prioritise oil tankers and coastal segments. This enables dynamic risk based positioning of tugs, using both real-time and projected risk, for effective support in case of a drifting ship situation.

  10. National Insect and Disease Risk Map (NIDRM)--cutting edge software for rapid insect and disease risk model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank J. Krist

    2010-01-01

    The Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team (FHTET) of the U.S. Forest Service is leading an effort to produce the next version of the National Insect and Disease Risk Map (NIDRM) for targeted release in 2011. The goal of this effort is to update spatial depictions of risk of tree mortality based on: (1) newly derived 240-m geospatial information depicting the...

  11. SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC DATA USED FOR IDENTIFYING ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to unique social and demographic characteristics, various segments of the population may experience exposures different from those of the general population, which, in many cases, may be greater. When risk assessments do not characterize subsets of the general population, the populations that may experience the greatest risk remain unidentified. When such populations are not identified, the social and demographic data relevant to these populations is not considered when preparing exposure estimates, which can underestimate exposure and risk estimates for at-risk populations. Thus, it is necessary for risk or exposure assessors characterizing a diverse population, to first identify and then enumerate certain groups within the general population who are at risk for greater contaminant exposures. The document entitled Sociodemographic Data Used for Identifying Potentially Highly Exposed Populations (also referred to as the Highly Exposed Populations document), assists assessors in identifying and enumerating potentially highly exposed populations. This document presents data relating to factors which potentially impact an individual or group's exposure to environmental contaminants based on activity patterns (how time is spent), microenvironments (locations where time is spent), and other socio-demographic data such as age, gender, race and economic status. Populations potentially more exposed to various chemicals of concern, relative to the general population

  12. Identifying protective and risk factors for injurious falls in patients hospitalized for acute care: a retrospective case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Aryee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Admitted patients who fall and injure themselves during an acute hospitalization incur increased costs, morbidity, and mortality, but little research has been conducted on identifying inpatients at high risk to injure themselves in a fall. Falls risk assessment tools have been unsuccessful due to their low positive predictive value when applied broadly to entire hospital populations. We aimed to identify variables associated with the risk of or protection against injurious fall in the inpatient setting. We also aimed to test the variables in the ABCs mnemonic (Age > 85, Bones-orthopedic conditions, anti-Coagulation and recent surgery for correlation with injurious fall. Methods We performed a retrospective case-control study at an academic tertiary care center comparing admitted patients with injurious fall to admitted patients without fall. We collected data on the demographics, medical and fall history, outcomes, and discharge disposition of injured fallers and control patients. We performed multivariate analysis of potential risk factors for injurious fall with logistic regression to calculate adjusted odds ratios. Results We identified 117 injured fallers and 320 controls. There were no differences in age, anti-coagulation use or fragility fractures between cases and controls. In multivariate analysis, recent surgery (OR 0.46, p = 0.003 was protective; joint replacement (OR 5.58, P = 0.002, psychotropic agents (OR 2.23, p = 0.001, the male sex (OR 2.08, p = 0.003 and history of fall (OR 2.08, p = 0.02 were significantly associated with injurious fall. Conclusion In this study, the variables in the ABCs parameters were among the variables not useful for identifying inpatients at risk of injuring themselves in a fall, while other non-ABCs variables demonstrated a significant association with injurious fall. Recent surgery was a protective factor, and practices around the care of surgical patients could be

  13. A model for mentoring newly-appointed nurse educators in nursing education institutions in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seekoe, Eunice

    2014-04-24

    South Africa transformed higher education through the enactment of the Higher Education Act (No. 101 of 1997). The researcher identified the need to develop a model for the mentoring of newly-appointed nurse educators in nursing education institutions in South Africa.  To develop and describe the model for mentoring newly-appointed nurse educators in nursing education institutions in South Africa.  A qualitative and theory-generating design was used (following empirical findings regarding needs analysis) in order to develop the model. The conceptualisation of the framework focused on the context, content, process and the theoretical domains that influenced the model. Ideas from different theories were borrowed from and integrated with the literature and deductive and inductive strategies were applied.  The structure of the model is multidimensional and complex in nature (macro, mesoand micro) based on the philosophy of reflective practice, competency-based practice andcritical learning theories. The assumptions are in relation to stakeholders, context, mentoring, outcome, process and dynamic. The stakeholders are the mentor and mentee within an interactive participatory relationship. The mentoring takes place within the process with a sequence of activities such as relationship building, development, engagement, reflective process and assessment. Capacity building and empowerment are outcomes of mentoring driven by motivation.  The implication for nurse managers is that the model can be used to develop mentoring programmes for newly-appointed nurse educators.

  14. Workplace Violence and Job Outcomes of Newly Licensed Nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Hyoung Eun; Cho, Sung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of workplace violence toward newly licensed nurses and the relationship between workplace violence and job outcomes. Methods: An online survey was conducted of newly licensed registered nurses who had obtained their license in 2012 or 2013 in South Korea and had been working for 5–12 months after first being employed. The sample consisted of 312 nurses working in hospitals or clinics. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire...

  15. Risk Recognition and Sensation Seeking in Revictimization and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkert, Jana; Randjbar, Sarah; Moritz, Steffen; Jelinek, Lena

    2013-01-01

    Impaired risk recognition has been suggested to be associated with the risk for revictimization and the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Moreover, risk behavior has been linked to high sensation seeking, which may also increase the probability of revictimization. A newly designed behavioral experiment with five audiotaped risk…

  16. Network-Based Integration of GWAS and Gene Expression Identifies a HOX-Centric Network Associated with Serous Ovarian Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Siddhartha P; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Li, Qiyuan; Lawrenson, Kate; Aben, Katja K H; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Baker, Helen; Bandera, Elisa V; Bean, Yukie T; Beckmann, Matthias W; Berchuck, Andrew; Bisogna, Maria; Bjørge, Line; Bogdanova, Natalia; Brinton, Louise; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Butzow, Ralf; Campbell, Ian; Carty, Karen; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chen, Yian Ann; Chen, Zhihua; Cook, Linda S; Cramer, Daniel; Cunningham, Julie M; Cybulski, Cezary; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Dennis, Joe; Dicks, Ed; Doherty, Jennifer A; Dörk, Thilo; du Bois, Andreas; Dürst, Matthias; Eccles, Diana; Easton, Douglas F; Edwards, Robert P; Ekici, Arif B; Fasching, Peter A; Fridley, Brooke L; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Giles, Graham G; Glasspool, Rosalind; Goode, Ellen L; Goodman, Marc T; Grownwald, Jacek; Harrington, Patricia; Harter, Philipp; Hein, Alexander; Heitz, Florian; Hildebrandt, Michelle A T; Hillemanns, Peter; Hogdall, Estrid; Hogdall, Claus K; Hosono, Satoyo; Iversen, Edwin S; Jakubowska, Anna; Paul, James; Jensen, Allan; Ji, Bu-Tian; Karlan, Beth Y; Kjaer, Susanne K; Kelemen, Linda E; Kellar, Melissa; Kelley, Joseph; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Krakstad, Camilla; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Lambrechts, Diether; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Le, Nhu D; Lee, Alice W; Lele, Shashi; Leminen, Arto; Lester, Jenny; Levine, Douglas A; Liang, Dong; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Karen; Lubinski, Jan; Lundvall, Lene; Massuger, Leon; Matsuo, Keitaro; McGuire, Valerie; McLaughlin, John R; McNeish, Iain A; Menon, Usha; Modugno, Francesmary; Moysich, Kirsten B; Narod, Steven A; Nedergaard, Lotte; Ness, Roberta B; Nevanlinna, Heli; Odunsi, Kunle; Olson, Sara H; Orlow, Irene; Orsulic, Sandra; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Pejovic, Tanja; Pelttari, Liisa M; Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Phelan, Catherine M; Pike, Malcolm C; Poole, Elizabeth M; Ramus, Susan J; Risch, Harvey A; Rosen, Barry; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rothstein, Joseph H; Rudolph, Anja; Runnebaum, Ingo B; Rzepecka, Iwona K; Salvesen, Helga B; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Schwaab, Ira; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Sieh, Weiva; Song, Honglin; Southey, Melissa C; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara E; Tangen, Ingvild L; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Kathryn L; Thompson, Pamela J; Timorek, Agnieszka; Tsai, Ya-Yu; Tworoger, Shelley S; van Altena, Anne M; Van Nieuwenhuysen, Els; Vergote, Ignace; Vierkant, Robert A; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Walsh, Christine; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S; Wicklund, Kristine G; Wilkens, Lynne R; Woo, Yin-Ling; Wu, Xifeng; Wu, Anna; Yang, Hannah; Zheng, Wei; Ziogas, Argyrios; Sellers, Thomas A; Monteiro, Alvaro N A; Freedman, Matthew L; Gayther, Simon A; Pharoah, Paul D P

    2015-10-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have so far reported 12 loci associated with serous epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk. We hypothesized that some of these loci function through nearby transcription factor (TF) genes and that putative target genes of these TFs as identified by coexpression may also be enriched for additional EOC risk associations. We selected TF genes within 1 Mb of the top signal at the 12 genome-wide significant risk loci. Mutual information, a form of correlation, was used to build networks of genes strongly coexpressed with each selected TF gene in the unified microarray dataset of 489 serous EOC tumors from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Genes represented in this dataset were subsequently ranked using a gene-level test based on results for germline SNPs from a serous EOC GWAS meta-analysis (2,196 cases/4,396 controls). Gene set enrichment analysis identified six networks centered on TF genes (HOXB2, HOXB5, HOXB6, HOXB7 at 17q21.32 and HOXD1, HOXD3 at 2q31) that were significantly enriched for genes from the risk-associated end of the ranked list (P < 0.05 and FDR < 0.05). These results were replicated (P < 0.05) using an independent association study (7,035 cases/21,693 controls). Genes underlying enrichment in the six networks were pooled into a combined network. We identified a HOX-centric network associated with serous EOC risk containing several genes with known or emerging roles in serous EOC development. Network analysis integrating large, context-specific datasets has the potential to offer mechanistic insights into cancer susceptibility and prioritize genes for experimental characterization. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Predictors of trajectories of epilepsy-specific quality of life among children newly diagnosed with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Rachelle R; Loiselle, Kristin; Rausch, Joseph R; Harrison, Jordan; Modi, Avani C

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to identify two-year trajectories of epilepsy-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among children newly diagnosed with epilepsy and to evaluate the predictive value of a comprehensive set of medical, psychosocial, and family factors. Ninety-four children with epilepsy (8.14 ± 2.37 years of age and 63% male) and their caregivers participated in this study. Caregivers completed the Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy Questionnaire (QOLCE) and measures of psychological and family functioning at one month postdiagnosis. The QOLCE was also given at eight additional time points during the subsequent two years as a part of a large observational study in children with epilepsy. Adherence data were collected via MEMS TrackCaps, and medical information was collected through chart review. Unique trajectories were identified for the overall QOLCE scale, as well as the subscales. Most trajectory models for the QOLCE subscales contained at least one at-risk trajectory for children, indicating that there is a subgroup of children experiencing poor long-term HRQOL. Health-related quality-of-life trajectories remained predominantly stable during the two-year period following treatment initiation. The number of AEDs, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems emerged as the most consistent predictors across the HRQOL domains. Medical and psychosocial interventions, such as cognitive-behavioral strategies, should target modifiable factors (e.g., internalizing symptoms, externalizing symptoms, number of AEDs trialed) shortly after diagnosis to improve HRQOL for children with epilepsy over the course of their disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. BIBLIOGRAPHIC STUDY IN RISK MANAGEMENT AIMED TO IDENTIFY MORE REFERENCED TOOLS, METHODS AND RELATIONSHIPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamir Costa Louro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to identify and discuss trends in tools and methods used in project risk<