WorldWideScience

Sample records for newly formed particles

  1. Appearance of newly formed mRNA and rRNA as ribonucleoprotein-particles in the cytoplasmic subribosomal fraction of pea embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Noribumi; Takaiwa, Fumio; Fukuei, Keisuke; Sakamaki, Tadashi; Tanifuji, Shigeyuki

    1977-01-01

    Incorporation studies with 3 H-uridine or 3 H-adenosine showed that germinating pea embryos synthesize all types of poly A(+) RNA, rRNA and 4-5S RNA at the early stage of germination. After the pulse labeling for 30 min, only heterodisperse RNA and 4-5S RNA appeared in the cytoplasm as labeled RNA species. At this time the radioactivity was associated with cytoplasmic structures heavier than 80S and RNP particles of 68-70S, 52-55S, 36-38S and 20-22S which are presumed to be free mRNP particles in plants. When the pulse-labeled embryos were incubated for a further 60 min in an isotope-free medium, the labeled 17S and 25S rRNA emerged in the cytoplasm, together with labeled heterodisperse and 4-5S RNAs. More radioactivity accumulated in the regions of the polysome, 62-65S and 38-42S particles. The results of analysis of RNAs extracted from the whole cytoplasm, polysome or subribosomal fractions indicated that small subunits of newly formed ribosomes appear more rapidly in the cytoplasm than new large subunits, which accumulate for a while as free particles in the cytoplasm than are incorporated into polysomes. The actinomycin treatment which caused preferential inhibition of rRNA synthesis reduced the accumulation of free, newly formed ribosome subunits and partially permitted detection of the presumed mRNP particles in the subribosomal region even after the chase treatment. (auth.)

  2. Observation of the bone mineral density of newly formed bone using rabbits. Compared with newly formed bone around implants and cortical bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakada, Hiroshi; Numata, Yasuko; Sakae, Toshiro; Tamaki, Hiroyuki; Kato, Takao

    2009-01-01

    There have been many studies reporting that newly formed bone around implants is spongy bone. However, although the morphology is reported as being like spongy bone, it is difficult to discriminate whether the bone quality of newly formed bone appears similar to osteoid or cortical bone; therefore, evaluation of bone quality is required. The aims of this study were to measure the bone mineral density (BMD) values of newly formed bone around implants after 4, 8, 16, 24 and 48 weeks, to represent these values on three-dimensional color mapping (3Dmap), and to evaluate the change in bone quality associated with newly formed bone around implants. The animal experimental protocol of this study was approved by the Ethics Committee for Animal Experiments of our University. This experiment used 20 surface treatment implants (Ti-6Al-4V alloy: 3.1 mm in diameter and 30.0 mm in length) by grit-blasting. They were embedded into surgically created flaws in femurs of 20 New Zealand white rabbits (16 weeks old, male). The rabbits were sacrificed with an ear intravenous overdose of pentobarbital sodium under general anesthesia each period, and the femurs were resected. We measured BMD of newly formed bone around implants and cortical bone using Micro-CT, and the BMD distribution map of 3Dmap (TRI/3D Bon BMD, Ratoc System Engineering). The BMD of cortical bone was 1,026.3±44.3 mg/cm 3 at 4 weeks, 1,023.8±40.9 mg/cm 3 at 8 weeks, 1,048.2±45.6 mg/cm 3 at 16 weeks, 1,067.2±60.2 mg/cm 3 at 24 weeks, and 1,069.3±50.7 mg/cm 3 at 48 weeks after implantation, showing a non-significant increase each period. The BMD of newly formed bone around implants was 296.8±25.6 mg/cm 3 at 4 weeks, 525.0±72.4 mg/cm 3 at 8 weeks, 691.2±26.0 mg/cm 3 at 16 weeks, 776.9±27.7 mg/cm 3 at 24 weeks, and 845.2±23.1 mg/cm 3 at 48 weeks after implantation, showing a significant increase after each period. It was revealed that the color scale of newly formed bone was Low level at 4 weeks, and then it

  3. Shrinkage of Newly Formed Particles in an Urban Environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škrabalová, Lenka; Zíková, Naděžda; Ždímal, Vladimír

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 4 (2015), s. 1313-1324 ISSN 1680-8584 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/11/1342 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : aerosol dynamics * ultrafine particles * particle shrinkage Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.393, year: 2015

  4. Newly-formed emotional memories guide selective attention processes: Evidence from event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schupp, Harald T; Kirmse, Ursula; Schmälzle, Ralf; Flaisch, Tobias; Renner, Britta

    2016-06-20

    Emotional cues can guide selective attention processes. However, emotional stimuli can both activate long-term memory representations reflecting general world knowledge and engage newly formed memory representations representing specific knowledge from the immediate past. Here, the self-completion feature of associative memory was utilized to assess the regulation of attention processes by newly-formed emotional memory. First, new memory representations were formed by presenting pictures depicting a person either in an erotic pose or as a portrait. Afterwards, to activate newly-built memory traces, edited pictures were presented showing only the head region of the person. ERP recordings revealed the emotional regulation of attention by newly-formed memories. Specifically, edited pictures from the erotic compared to the portrait category elicited an early posterior negativity and late positive potential, similar to the findings observed for the original pictures. A control condition showed that the effect was dependent on newly-formed memory traces. Given the large number of new memories formed each day, they presumably make an important contribution to the regulation of attention in everyday life.

  5. Newly-formed emotional memories guide selective attention processes: Evidence from event-related potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schupp, Harald T.; Kirmse, Ursula; Schmälzle, Ralf; Flaisch, Tobias; Renner, Britta

    2016-01-01

    Emotional cues can guide selective attention processes. However, emotional stimuli can both activate long-term memory representations reflecting general world knowledge and engage newly formed memory representations representing specific knowledge from the immediate past. Here, the self-completion feature of associative memory was utilized to assess the regulation of attention processes by newly-formed emotional memory. First, new memory representations were formed by presenting pictures depicting a person either in an erotic pose or as a portrait. Afterwards, to activate newly-built memory traces, edited pictures were presented showing only the head region of the person. ERP recordings revealed the emotional regulation of attention by newly-formed memories. Specifically, edited pictures from the erotic compared to the portrait category elicited an early posterior negativity and late positive potential, similar to the findings observed for the original pictures. A control condition showed that the effect was dependent on newly-formed memory traces. Given the large number of new memories formed each day, they presumably make an important contribution to the regulation of attention in everyday life. PMID:27321471

  6. Cross-Linking Mast Cell Specific Gangliosides Stimulates the Release of Newly Formed Lipid Mediators and Newly Synthesized Cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edismauro Garcia Freitas Filho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells are immunoregulatory cells that participate in inflammatory processes. Cross-linking mast cell specific GD1b derived gangliosides by mAbAA4 results in partial activation of mast cells without the release of preformed mediators. The present study examines the release of newly formed and newly synthesized mediators following ganglioside cross-linking. Cross-linking the gangliosides with mAbAA4 released the newly formed lipid mediators, prostaglandins D2 and E2, without release of leukotrienes B4 and C4. The effect of cross-linking these gangliosides on the activation of enzymes in the arachidonate cascade was then investigated. Ganglioside cross-linking resulted in phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 and increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2. Translocation of 5-lipoxygenase from the cytosol to the nucleus was not induced by ganglioside cross-linking. Cross-linking of GD1b derived gangliosides also resulted in the release of the newly synthesized mediators, interleukin-4, interleukin-6, and TNF-α. The effect of cross-linking the gangliosides on the MAP kinase pathway was then investigated. Cross-linking the gangliosides induced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and p38 as well as activating both NFκB and NFAT in a Syk-dependent manner. Therefore, cross-linking the mast cell specific GD1b derived gangliosides results in the activation of signaling pathways that culminate with the release of newly formed and newly synthesized mediators.

  7. The Effect of Pollution on Newly-Formed Particle Composition in Boreal Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaattovaara, Petri

    2010-05-01

    Petri Vaattovaara (1), Tuukka Petäjä (2), Jorma Joutsensaari (1), Pasi Miettinen (1), Boris Zaprudin (1,6), Aki Kortelainen (1), Juha Heijari (3,7), Pasi Yli-Pirilä (3), Pasi Aalto (2), Doug R. Worsnop (4), and Ari Laaksonen(1,5) (1) University of Eastern Finland, Finland (2) University of Helsinki, Finland (3) University of Eastern Finland, Finland (4) Aerodyne Research Inc., USA (5) Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland (6) Currently at University of Turku, Finland (7) Currently at Maritime Research Centre, Finland Email address of the Corresponding author: Petri.Vaattovaara@uef.fi The geographical extent of the tropical, temperate and boreal forests is about 30% of the Earth's land surface. Those forests are located around the world in different climate zones effecting widely on atmospheric composition via new particle formation. The Boreal forests solely cover one third of the forests extent and are one of the largest vegetation environments, forming a circumpolar band throughout the northern hemisphere continents, with a high potential to affect climate processes [1]. In order to more fully understand the possible climatic effects of the forests, the properties of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in varying conditions (e.g. a change in meteorological parameters or in the concentrations of biogenic and antropogenic trace gases) need to be better known. In this study, we applied the UFO-TDMA (ultrafine organic tandem differential mobility analyzer [2]) and the UFH-TDMA (ultrafine hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer [3]) methods parallel to shed light on the evolution of the nucleation and Aitken mode particle compositions (via physic-chemical properties) at a virgin boreal forest site in varying conditions. The measurements were carried out at Hyytiälä forest station in Northern Europe (Finland) during 15 spring nucleation events. We also carried out a statistical analysis using linear correlations in order to explain the variability in

  8. Methods for forming particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert V.; Zhang, Fengyan; Rodriguez, Rene G.; Pak, Joshua J.; Sun, Chivin

    2016-06-21

    Single source precursors or pre-copolymers of single source precursors are subjected to microwave radiation to form particles of a I-III-VI.sub.2 material. Such particles may be formed in a wurtzite phase and may be converted to a chalcopyrite phase by, for example, exposure to heat. The particles in the wurtzite phase may have a substantially hexagonal shape that enables stacking into ordered layers. The particles in the wurtzite phase may be mixed with particles in the chalcopyrite phase (i.e., chalcopyrite nanoparticles) that may fill voids within the ordered layers of the particles in the wurtzite phase thus produce films with good coverage. In some embodiments, the methods are used to form layers of semiconductor materials comprising a I-III-VI.sub.2 material. Devices such as, for example, thin-film solar cells may be fabricated using such methods.

  9. Newly-formed emotional memories guide selective attention processes: Evidence from event-related potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Harald T. Schupp; Ursula Kirmse; Ralf Schmälzle; Tobias Flaisch; Britta Renner

    2016-01-01

    Emotional cues can guide selective attention processes. However, emotional stimuli can both activate long-term memory representations reflecting general world knowledge and engage newly formed memory representations representing specific knowledge from the immediate past. Here, the self-completion feature of associative memory was utilized to assess the regulation of attention processes by newly-formed emotional memory. First, new memory representations were formed by presenting pictures depi...

  10. Release of newly synthesized nucleoplasmic ribosomal subunits or their precursor particles from isolated nuclei of regenerating rat liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usami, K; Ogata, K [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1930-06-16

    The authors present the time course of the labeling of RNA and protein moieties of these particles in vivo as well as the pattern of one-dimensional acrylamide gel electrophoresis of their protein moieties labeled with (/sup 35/S)methionine in vivo, which shows that released 60 S particles are newly synthesized ribosomal large subunits or their precursor particles in the nucleoplasm on their way from the nucleolus to the cytoplasm. It appears likely that released 40 S particles contain newly synthesized ribosomal small subunits or their precursors in the nucleoplasm.

  11. Airborne observations of newly formed boundary layer aerosol particles under cloudy conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Altstädter

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the appearance of ultrafine boundary layer aerosol particles under classical non-favourable conditions at the research site of TROPOS (Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research. Airborne measurements of meteorological and aerosol properties of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL were repeatedly performed with the unmanned aerial system ALADINA (Application of Light-weight Aircraft for Detecting IN-situ Aerosol during three seasons between October 2013 and July 2015. More than 100 measurement flights were conducted on 23 different days with a total flight duration of 53 h. In 26 % of the cases, maxima of ultrafine particles were observed close to the inversion layer at altitudes between 400 and 600 m and the particles were rapidly mixed vertically and mainly transported downwards during short time intervals of cloud gaps. This study focuses on two measurement days affected by low-level stratocumulus clouds, but different wind directions (NE, SW and minimal concentrations (< 4.6 µg m−3 of SO2, as a common indicator for precursor gases at ground. Taken from vertical profiles, the onset of clouds led to a non-linearity of humidity that resulted in an increased turbulence at the local-scale and caused fast nucleation e.g., but in relation to rapid dilution of surrounding air, seen in sporadic clusters of ground data, so that ultrafine particles disappeared in the verticality. The typical banana shape of new particle formation (NPF and growth was not seen at ground and thus these days might not have been classified as NPF event days by pure surface studies.

  12. A Comparison of Traditional and Newly Emerging Forms of Cooperative Capitalization

    OpenAIRE

    Barton, David G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper compares the traditional forms of capitalization used by American co-ops to newly emerging forms. It is based on an in-depth review of several case co-ops. A broad framework is provided that may be beneficial in more extensive studies of capitalization practices of cooperatives and similar organizations. It is divided into three parts. Part One outlines the alternative capitalization forms being used by cooperatives and their antecedents, where conversions to other structures and f...

  13. Methods for forming particles from single source precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert V [Idaho Falls, ID; Rodriguez, Rene G [Pocatello, ID; Pak, Joshua [Pocatello, ID

    2011-08-23

    Single source precursors are subjected to carbon dioxide to form particles of material. The carbon dioxide may be in a supercritical state. Single source precursors also may be subjected to supercritical fluids other than supercritical carbon dioxide to form particles of material. The methods may be used to form nanoparticles. In some embodiments, the methods are used to form chalcopyrite materials. Devices such as, for example, semiconductor devices may be fabricated that include such particles. Methods of forming semiconductor devices include subjecting single source precursors to carbon dioxide to form particles of semiconductor material, and establishing electrical contact between the particles and an electrode.

  14. Newly formed skeletal muscle fibers are prone to false positive immunostaining by rabbit antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ditte C; Kliem, Anette; Schrøder, Henrik Daa

    2011-01-01

    rely on controls that reveal non-specific binding by the secondary antibody and neglect that the primary rabbit antibody itself may cause false positive staining of the muscle. We suggest that reliable immuno-based protein detection in newly formed muscle fibers at least requires a nonsense rabbit......Reports on muscle biology and regeneration often implicate immuno(cyto/histo)chemical protein characterization using rabbit polyclonal antibodies. In this study we demonstrate that newly formed myofibers are especially prone to false positive staining by rabbit antibodies and this unwanted staining...

  15. Assessment of the Quality of Newly Formed Bone around Titanium Alloy Implants by Using X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Nakada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in bones quality between newly formed bone and cortical bone formed around titanium alloy implants by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. As a result of narrow scan measurement at 4 weeks, the newly formed bone of C1s, P2p, O1s, and Ca2p were observed at a different peak range and strength compared with a cortical bone. At 8 weeks, the peak range and strength of newly formed bone were similar to those of cortical bone at C1s, P2p, and Ca2p, but not O1s. The results from this analysis indicate that the peaks and quantities of each element of newly formed bone were similar to those of cortical bone at 8 weeks, suggestive of a strong physicochemical resemblance.

  16. Sizes of particles formed during municipal wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Smoczynski; Marta, Kosobucka; Michal, Smoczynski; Harsha, Ratnaweera; Krystyna, Pieczulis-Smoczynska

    2017-02-01

    Volumetric diameters Dv and specific surface area SpS of sludge particles formed during chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation of sewage were determined. The obtained aggregate-flocs differed substantially in both Dv and SpS values. The differences in Dv and SpS values of the analyzed particles were interpreted based on theoretical models for expanding aggregates. The most uniform particles were formed under exposure to: (a) optimal and maximal doses of PIX, (b) optimal doses of PAX, (c) maximal doses of the Al electro-coagulant. The lowest PIX dose produced the least uniform particles. Sludge aggregates-particles produced under exposure to minimal doses of PIX and the Al electro-coagulant were characterized by the lowest SpS values. Sludge particles coagulated by PAX and the particles formed at higher doses of PIX and the Al electro-coagulant had higher SpS values. The particles formed at all doses of the applied coagulants and electro-coagulants were generally classified into two size ranges: the main range and the secondary range. Most particles belonged to the main size range. An increase in the percentage of colloidal hydroxide particles in sewage sludge increased SpS.

  17. Nanodiamond particles forming photonic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grichko, Varvara; Tyler, Talmage; Grishko, Victor I; Shenderova, Olga

    2008-01-01

    Colloid suspensions of irregularly shaped, highly charged detonation nanodiamond particles are found to have unexpected optical properties, similar to those of photonic crystals. This finding is all the more surprising since the particles used in this work are far more polydisperse than those typically forming photonic crystals. Intensely iridescent structures have been fabricated using the centrifugation of aqueous suspensions of nanodiamonds

  18. Nanodiamond particles forming photonic structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grichko, Varvara; Tyler, Talmage; Grishko, Victor I; Shenderova, Olga [International Technology Center, 8100 Brownleigh Drive, Suite 120, Raleigh, NC 27617 (United States)], E-mail: oshenderova@itc-inc.org

    2008-06-04

    Colloid suspensions of irregularly shaped, highly charged detonation nanodiamond particles are found to have unexpected optical properties, similar to those of photonic crystals. This finding is all the more surprising since the particles used in this work are far more polydisperse than those typically forming photonic crystals. Intensely iridescent structures have been fabricated using the centrifugation of aqueous suspensions of nanodiamonds.

  19. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of a newly designed passive particle sampler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjadi, H; Tavakoli, B; Ahmadi, G; Dhaniyala, S; Harner, T; Holsen, T M

    2016-07-01

    In this work a series of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed to predict the deposition of particles on a newly designed passive dry deposition (Pas-DD) sampler. The sampler uses a parallel plate design and a conventional polyurethane foam (PUF) disk as the deposition surface. The deposition of particles with sizes between 0.5 and 10 μm was investigated for two different geometries of the Pas-DD sampler for different wind speeds and various angles of attack. To evaluate the mean flow field, the k-ɛ turbulence model was used and turbulent fluctuating velocities were generated using the discrete random walk (DRW) model. The CFD software ANSYS-FLUENT was used for performing the numerical simulations. It was found that the deposition velocity increased with particle size or wind speed. The modeled deposition velocities were in general agreement with the experimental measurements and they increased when flow entered the sampler with a non-zero angle of attack. The particle-size dependent deposition velocity was also dependent on the geometry of the leading edge of the sampler; deposition velocities were more dependent on particle size and wind speeds for the sampler without the bend in the leading edge of the deposition plate, compared to a flat plate design. Foam roughness was also found to have a small impact on particle deposition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Amorphous calcium carbonate particles form coral skeletons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mass, Tali; Giuffre, Anthony J.; Sun, Chang-Yu; Stifler, Cayla A.; Frazier, Matthew J.; Neder, Maayan; Tamura, Nobumichi; Stan, Camelia V.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Gilbert, Pupa U. P. A.

    2017-09-01

    Do corals form their skeletons by precipitation from solution or by attachment of amorphous precursor particles as observed in other minerals and biominerals? The classical model assumes precipitation in contrast with observed “vital effects,” that is, deviations from elemental and isotopic compositions at thermodynamic equilibrium. Here, we show direct spectromicroscopy evidence in Stylophora pistillata corals that two amorphous precursors exist, one hydrated and one anhydrous amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC); that these are formed in the tissue as 400-nm particles; and that they attach to the surface of coral skeletons, remain amorphous for hours, and finally, crystallize into aragonite (CaCO3). We show in both coral and synthetic aragonite spherulites that crystal growth by attachment of ACC particles is more than 100 times faster than ion-by-ion growth from solution. Fast growth provides a distinct physiological advantage to corals in the rigors of the reef, a crowded and fiercely competitive ecosystem. Corals are affected by warming-induced bleaching and postmortem dissolution, but the finding here that ACC particles are formed inside tissue may make coral skeleton formation less susceptible to ocean acidification than previously assumed. If this is how other corals form their skeletons, perhaps this is how a few corals survived past CO2 increases, such as the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum that occurred 56 Mya.

  1. Protogalaxy interactions in newly formed clusters: Galaxy luminosities, colors, and intergalactic gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.

    1978-01-01

    The role of protogalaxy interactions in galactic evolution is studied during the formation of galaxy clusters. In the early stages of the collapse, coalescent encounters of protogalaxies lead to the development of a galactic luminosity function. Once galaxies acquire appreciable random motions, mutual collisions between galaxies in rich clusters will trigger the collapse of interstellar clouds to form stars. This provides both a source for enriched intracluster gas and an interpretation of the correlation between luminosity and color for cluster elliptical galaxies. Other observational consequences that are considered include optical, X-ray, and diffuse nonthermal radio emission from newly formed clusters of galaxies

  2. The link between atmospheric radicals and newly formed particles at a spruce forest site in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonn, B.; Bourtsoukidis, E.; Sun, T. S.

    2014-01-01

    It has been claimed for more than a century that atmospheric new particle formation is primarily influenced by the presence of sulfuricacid. However, the activation process of sulfuric acid related clusters into detectable particles is still an unresolved topic. In this study we focus onthe PARAD...

  3. The link between atmospheric radicals and newly formed particles at a spruce forest site in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonn, B.; Bourtsoukidis, E.; Sun, T. S.

    2013-01-01

    It has been claimed for more than a century that atmospheric new particle formation is primarily influenced by the presence of sulphuric acid. However, the activation process of sulphuric acid related clusters into detectable particles is still an unresolved topic. In this study we focus on the P...

  4. Localization of foot-and-mouth disease - RNA synthesis on newly formed cellular smooth membranous vacuoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polatnick, J.; Wool, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    Viral RNA synthesis in foot-and-mouth disease infected bovine kidney cell cultures was associated throughout the infectious period with newly formed smooth membranous vacuoles. Membrane formation was measured by choline uptake. The site of RNA synthesis was determined by electron microscopic examination of autoradiograms of incorporated [ 3 H] uridine. Both membrane formation and RNA synthesis became signifcant at 2.5 hours postinfection, but membrane formation increased steadily to 4.5 hours while RNA synthesis peaked at 3.5 hours. Percent density distributions of developed silver grains on autoradiograms showed that almost all RNA synthesis was concentrated on the smooth vacuoles of infected cells. Histogram analysis of grain density distributions established that the site of RNA synthesis was the vacuolar membrane. The newly formed smooth membrane-bound vacuoles were not seen to coalesce into the large vacuolated areas typical of poliovirus cytopathogenicity. (Author)

  5. Localization of foot-and-mouth disease - RNA synthesis on newly formed cellular smooth membranous vacuoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polatnick, J.; Wool, S.H. (United States Department of Agriculture, Science and Education, Greenport, New York (USA). Agricultural Research, Plum Island Animal Disease Center)

    1982-01-01

    Viral RNA synthesis in foot-and-mouth disease infected bovine kidney cell cultures was associated throughout the infectious period with newly formed smooth membranous vacuoles. Membrane formation was measured by choline uptake. The site of RNA synthesis was determined by electron microscopic examination of autoradiograms of incorporated (/sup 3/H) uridine. Both membrane formation and RNA synthesis became signifcant at 2.5 hours postinfection, but membrane formation increased steadily to 4.5 hours while RNA synthesis peaked at 3.5 hours. Percent density distributions of developed silver grains on autoradiograms showed that almost all RNA synthesis was concentrated on the smooth vacuoles of infected cells. Histogram analysis of grain density distributions established that the site of RNA synthesis was the vacuolar membrane. The newly formed smooth membrane-bound vacuoles were not seen to coalesce into the large vacuolated areas typical of poliovirus cytopathogenicity.

  6. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE ORTHO/PARA RATIO OF NEWLY FORMED MOLECULAR HYDROGEN ON AMORPHOUS SOLID WATER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavilan, L.; Lemaire, J. L.; Dulieu, F.; Congiu, E.; Chaabouni, H.; Vidali, G.; Chehrouri, M.; Fillion, J.-H.

    2012-01-01

    Several astronomical observations have shown that the ortho/para ratio (OPR) of H 2 can differ from the expected statistical value of 3 or the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) value at the gas or dust temperature. It is thus important to know the OPR of H 2 newly formed on dust grain surfaces, in order to clarify the dependence of the observed OPR in space on the formation process. Using an experimental setup designed to mimic interstellar medium environments, we measured the OPR of H 2 and D 2 formed on the surface of porous amorphous water ice held at 10 K. We report for the first time the OPR value for newly formed D 2 , consistent with the expected LTE value at the high-temperature limit found by previous theoretical and experimental works on the determination of the OPR upon H 2 formation on surfaces at low temperature.

  7. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE ORTHO/PARA RATIO OF NEWLY FORMED MOLECULAR HYDROGEN ON AMORPHOUS SOLID WATER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavilan, L.; Lemaire, J. L.; Dulieu, F.; Congiu, E.; Chaabouni, H. [LERMA, UMR 8112 du CNRS, de l' Observatoire de Paris et de l' Universite de Cergy Pontoise, 5 mail Gay Lussac, F-95000 Cergy Pontoise Cedex (France); Vidali, G. [Visiting Professor. Permanent address: Physics Department, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244-1320 (United States); Chehrouri, M. [Permanent address: LEPC Universite de Saida, BP138, ENSAR, 20002 Saida (Algeria); Fillion, J.-H., E-mail: lisseth.gavilan@obspm.fr [Permanent address: LPMAA, UMR 7092, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2012-11-20

    Several astronomical observations have shown that the ortho/para ratio (OPR) of H{sub 2} can differ from the expected statistical value of 3 or the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) value at the gas or dust temperature. It is thus important to know the OPR of H{sub 2} newly formed on dust grain surfaces, in order to clarify the dependence of the observed OPR in space on the formation process. Using an experimental setup designed to mimic interstellar medium environments, we measured the OPR of H{sub 2} and D{sub 2} formed on the surface of porous amorphous water ice held at 10 K. We report for the first time the OPR value for newly formed D{sub 2}, consistent with the expected LTE value at the high-temperature limit found by previous theoretical and experimental works on the determination of the OPR upon H{sub 2} formation on surfaces at low temperature.

  8. Coated particle waste form development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oma, K.H.; Buckwalter, C.Q.; Chick, L.A.

    1981-12-01

    Coated particle waste forms have been developed as part of the multibarrier concept at Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the Alternative Waste Forms Program for the Department of Energy. Primary efforts were to coat simulated nuclear waste glass marbles and ceramic pellets with low-temperature pyrolytic carbon (LT-PyC) coatings via the process of chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Fluidized bed (FB) coaters, screw agitated coaters (SAC), and rotating tube coaters were used. Coating temperatures were reduced by using catalysts and plasma activation. In general, the LT-PyC coatings did not provide the expected high leach resistance as previously measured for carbon alone. The coatings were friable and often spalled off the substrate. A totally different concept, thermal spray coating, was investigated at PNL as an alternative to CVD coating. Flame spray, wire gun, and plasma gun systems were evaluated using glass, ceramic, and metallic coating materials. Metal plasma spray coatings (Al, Sn, Zn, Pb) provided a two to three orders-of-magnitude increase in chemical durability. Because the aluminum coatings were porous, the superior leach resistance must be due to either a chemical interaction or to a pH buffer effect. Because they are complex, coated waste form processes rank low in process feasibility. Of all the possible coated particle processes, plasma sprayed marbles have the best rating. Carbon coating of pellets by CVD ranked ninth when compared with ten other processes. The plasma-spray-coated marble process ranked sixth out of eleven processes

  9. OSCILLATION OF NEWLY FORMED LOOPS AFTER MAGNETIC RECONNECTION IN THE SOLAR CHROMOSPHERE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shuhong [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Xiang, Yongyuan, E-mail: shuhongyang@nao.cas.cn [Fuxian Solar Observatory, Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China)

    2016-03-10

    With the high spatial and temporal resolution Hα images from the New Vacuum Solar Telescope, we focus on two groups of loops with an X-shaped configuration in the dynamic chromosphere. We find that the anti-directed loops approach each other and reconnect continually. The connectivity of the loops is changed and new loops are formed and stack together. The stacked loops are sharply bent, implying that they are greatly impacted by the magnetic tension force. When another reconnection process takes place, one new loop is formed and stacks with the previously formed ones. Meanwhile, the stacked loops retract suddenly and move toward the balance position, performing an overshoot movement, which led to an oscillation with an average period of about 45 s. The oscillation of newly formed loops after magnetic reconnection in the chromosphere is observed for the first time. We suggest that the stability of the stacked loops is destroyed due to the attachment of the last new loop and then suddenly retract under the effect of magnetic tension. Because of the retraction, another lower loop is pushed outward and performs an oscillation with a period of about 25 s. The different oscillation periods may be due to their difference in three parameters, i.e., loop length, plasma density, and magnetic field strength.

  10. Socket Preservation with d-PTFE Membrane: Histologic Analysis of the Newly Formed Matrix at Membrane Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurito, Domenico; Cugnetto, Riccardo; Lollobrigida, Marco; Guerra, Fabrizio; Vestri, Annarita; Gianno, Francesca; Bosco, Sandro; Lamazza, Luca; De Biase, Alberto

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of an exposed high-density polytetrafluoroethylene (d-PTFE) membrane in preventing epithelial migration in postextraction sockets. For this purpose, a histologic description of the newly formed soft tissue underlying the membrane is presented. The periodontal status of the adjacent teeth was also evaluated to assess the gingival response. Ten premolar extraction sockets were treated. After tooth extraction, the sockets were filled with nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and covered with d-PTFE membranes. Subperiosteal pockets were created to ensure the stability of the membranes. Membranes were left intentionally exposed and were atraumatically removed after 28 days. At that time, a bioptic specimen of the newly formed soft tissue under the membranes was taken. All the histologic samples showed a dense connective tissue without epithelial cells and no signs of foreign body reaction. No significant variation of the periodontal indices was observed on the teeth adjacent to the extraction sites. The study results indicate that exposed d-PTFE membranes can prevent epithelial migration in healing sockets without consequences on the periodontal health.

  11. Plastic fluctuations in empty crystals formed by cubic wireframe particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, John M.; Avendaño, Carlos

    2018-05-01

    We present a computer simulation study of the phase behavior of colloidal hard cubic frames, i.e., particles with nonconvex cubic wireframe geometry interacting purely by excluded volume. Despite the propensity of cubic wireframe particles to form cubic phases akin to their convex counterparts, these particles exhibit unusual plastic fluctuations in which a random and dynamic fraction of particles rotate around their lattice positions in the crystal lattice while the remainder of the particles remains fully ordered. We argue that this unexpected effect stems from the nonconvex geometry of the particles in which the faces of a particle can be penetrated by the vertices of the nearest neighbors even at high number densities.

  12. Relationships between particle precipitation and auroral forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, J.L.; Winningham, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    The present state of knowledge on the relationships between high-latitude particle precipitation and the aurora is reviewed. Attention is focused on the largescale relationships between auroral forms and magnetospheric particle populations, on the relationships between satellite and sounding-rocket measurements, and on the interaction of auroral electrons with the atmosphere. While significant progress is being made in relating the largescale features of the aurora to magnetospheric plasma domains, and in understanding the way in which auroral electrons deposit their energy in the atmosphere, only slight progress has been made in relating satellite data to the small-scale phenomena associated with auroral arcs. (author)

  13. LHCb unveils new particles

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb collaboration announces the observation of four “exotic” particles from its analysis of the LHC data.   The LHCb experimental cavern. On 28 June, the LHCb collaboration reported the observation of three new "exotic" particles and confirmation of the existence of a fourth one in data from the LHC. These particles each appear to be formed by four quarks (the fundamental constituents of the matter inside all the atoms of the universe): two quarks and two antiquarks (that is, a tetraquark). Due to their non-standard quark content, the newly observed particles have been included in the broad category of so-called exotic particles, although their exact theoretical interpretation is still under study.            The quark model, proposed by Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig in 1964, is considered to be the most valid scheme for the classification of hadrons (all the composite particles) that has been fou...

  14. Cytoplasmic assembly of snRNP particles from stored proteins and newly transcribed snRNA's in L929 mouse fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauterer, R.A.; Feeney, R.J.; Zieve, G.W.

    1988-01-01

    Newly synthesized snRNAs appear transiently in the cytoplasm where they assemble into ribonucleoprotein particles, the snRNP particles, before returning permanently to the interphase nucleus. In this report, bona fide cytoplasmic fractions, prepared by cell enucleation, are used for a quantitative analysis of snRNP assembly in growing mouse fibroblasts. The half-lives and abundances of the snRNP precursors in the cytoplasm and the rates of snRNP assembly are calculated in L929 cells. With the exception of U6, the major snRNAs are stable RNA species; U1 is almost totally stable while U2 has a half-life of about two cell cycles. In contrast, the majority of newly synthesized U6 decays with a half-life of about 15 h. The relative abundances of the newly synthesized snRNA species U1, U2, U3, U4 and U6 in the cytoplasm are determined by Northern hybridization using cloned probes and are approximately 2% of their nuclear abundance. The half-lives of the two major snRNA precursors in the cytoplasm (U1 and U2) are approximately 20 min as determined by labeling to steady state. The relative abundance of the snRNP B protein in the cytoplasm is determined by Western blotting with the Sm class of autoantibodies and is approximately 25% of the nuclear abundance. Kinetic studies, using the Sm antiserum to immunoprecipitate the methionine-labeled snRNP proteins, suggest that the B protein has a half-life of 90 to 120 min in the cytoplasm. These data are discussed and suggest that there is a large pool of more stable snRNP proteins in the cytoplasm available for assembly with the less abundant but more rapidly turning-over snRNAs

  15. Relationship between the isotopic composition of strontium in newly formed continental clay minerals and their source material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauer, N.

    1979-01-01

    The 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios of recent montmorillonites and kaolinites newly formed in weathering profiles of western and central Africa and of Nosy Be and La Reunion islands near Madagascar are directly related to the composition and age of the parent rocks or minerals. They may, therefore, be used as a genetic tracer. The 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios are about 0.704 when these clays crystallise from recent basalts and they are higher than 0.715 when the parent rocks are of sialic composition and old in age. Kaolinites newly formed in situ from feldspars contain small amounts of Sr with abnormally high 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios: in this study they are higher than 1.094. When these minerals crystallize from biotites, their 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios are much lower and can be close to the value of the primary Sr trapped in the biotites during their crystallization. On the other hand, the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr of continental montmorillonites are less scattered: they range, in this study, between 0.704 and 0.722. These low values, as well as the high adsorption capacities of these minerals in the sedimentary environment, allow the assumption that they frequently have 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios close to that of marine Sr during sedimentation. Therefore, montmorillonites are able to form homogeneous authigenic minerals by synsedimentary alterations. (Auth.)

  16. Possibilities of Particle Finite Element Methods in Industrial Forming Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, J.; Cante, J. C.; Weyler, R.; Hernandez, J.

    2007-04-01

    The work investigates the possibilities offered by the particle finite element method (PFEM) in the simulation of forming problems involving large deformations, multiple contacts, and new boundaries generation. The description of the most distinguishing aspects of the PFEM, and its application to simulation of representative forming processes, illustrate the proposed methodology.

  17. Form factors and related quantities in clothed-particle representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shebeko Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We show new applications of the notion of clothed particles in quantum field theory. Its realization by means of the clothing procedure put forward by Greenberg and Schweber allows one to express the total Hamiltonian H and other generators of the Poincaré group for a given system of interacting fields through the creation (annihilation operators for the so-called clothed particles with physical (observed properties. Here such a clothed particle representation is used to calculate the matrix elements (shortly, form factors of the corresponding Nöther current operators sandwiched between the H eigenstates. Our calculations are performed with help of an iterative technique suggested by us earlier when constructing the NN → πNN transition operators. As an illustration, we outline some application of our approach in the spinor quantum electrodynamics.

  18. The composition of nucleation and Aitken modes particles during coastal nucleation events: evidence for marine secondary organic contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vaattovaara

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Newly-formed nanometer-sized particles have been observed at coastal and marine environments world wide. Organic species have so far not been detected in those newly-formed nucleation mode particles. In this study, we applied the ultrafine organic tandem differential mobility analyzer method to study the possible existence of an organic fraction in recently formed coastal nucleation mode particles (d<20 nm at the Mace Head research station. Furthermore, effects of those nucleation events on potential cloud condensation nuclei were studied. The coastal events were typical for the Mace Head region and they occurred at low tide conditions during efficient solar radiation and enhanced biological activity in spring 2002. Additionally, a pulse height analyzer ultrafine condensation particle counter technique was used to study the composition of newly-formed particles formed in low tide conditions during a lower biological activity in October 2002. The overall results of the ultrafine organic tandem differential mobility analyzer and the pulse height analyzer ultrafine condensation particle counter measurements indicate that those coastally/marinely formed nucleation mode particles include a remarkable fraction of secondary organic products, beside iodine oxides, which are likely to be responsible for the nucleation. During clean marine air mass conditions, the origin of those secondary organic oxidation compounds can be related to marine coast and open ocean biota and thus a major fraction of the organics may originate from biosynthetic production of alkenes such as isoprene and their oxidation driven by iodine radicals, hydroxyl radicals, acid catalysis, and ozone during efficient solar radiation. During modified marine conditions, also anthropogenic secondary organic compounds may contribute to the nucleation mode organic mass, in addition to biogenic secondary organic compounds. Thus, the ultrafine organic tandem differential mobility analyzer

  19. The effect of particles in different sizes on the mechanical properties of spray formed steel composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kenneth; Pedersen, A. S.; Pryds, N.

    2000-01-01

    particle size of 46 and 134 μm were carried out with respect to their mechanical properties e.g. wear resistance and tensile strength. It was found that the addition of Al2O3 particles to the steel improves its wear properties and reduces the elongation and tensile strength of the material......The main objective of the work was to investigate the effect of addition of ceramic particles with different size distributions on the mechanical properties, e.g. wear resistance and tensile strength, of spray formed materials. The experiments were carried out in a spray-forming unit at Risø...... National Laboratory, Denmark, where composites with a low alloyed boron steel (0.2 wt.% carbon) matrix containing alumina particles were produced. A comparison between cast hot-rolled material without particles, spray formed material without particles and the spray formed composites with an average ceramic...

  20. Light extinction method for diagnostics of particles sizes formed in magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myshkin, Vyacheslav; Izhoykin, Dmitry; Grigoriev, Alexander; Gamov, Denis; Leonteva, Daria

    2018-03-01

    The results of laser diagnostics of dispersed particles formed upon cooling of Zn vapor are presented. The radiation attenuation in the wavelength range 420-630 nm with a step of 0.3 nm was registered. The attenuation coefficients spectral dependence was processed using known algorithms for integral equation solving. The 10 groups of 8 attenuation coefficients were formed. Each group was processed taking with considering of previous decisions. After processing of the 10th group of data, calculations were repeated from the first one. Data of the particles sizes formed in a magnetic field of 0, 44 and 76 mT are given. A model of physical processes in a magnetic field is discussed.

  1. Particle hygroscopicity during atmospheric new particle formation events: implications for the chemical species contributing to particle growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Wu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the hygroscopicity of newly formed particles (diameters range 25–45 nm during two atmospheric new particle formation (NPF events in the German mid-level mountains during the Hill Cap Cloud Thuringia 2010 (HCCT-2010 field experiment. At the end of the NPF event involving clear particle growth, we measured an unusually high soluble particle fraction of 58.5% at 45 nm particle size. The particle growth rate contributed through sulfuric acid condensation only accounts for around 6.5% of the observed growth rate. Estimations showed that sulfuric acid condensation explained, however, only around 10% of that soluble particle fraction. Therefore, the formation of additional water-soluble matter appears imperative to explain the missing soluble fraction. Although direct evidence is missing, we consider water-soluble organics as candidates for this mechanism. For the case with clear growth process, the particle growth rate was determined by two alternative methods based on tracking the mode diameter of the nucleation mode. The mean particle growth rate obtained from the inter-site data comparison using Lagrangian consideration is 3.8 (± 2.6 nm h−1. During the same period, the growth rate calculated based on one site data is 5.0 nm h−1 using log-normal distribution function method. In light of the fact that considerable uncertainties could be involved in both methods, we consider both estimated growth rates consistent.

  2. Seizures beget seizures in temporal lobe epilepsies: the boomerang effects of newly formed aberrant kainatergic synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Yehezkel; Crepel, Valérie; Represa, Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    Do temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) seizures in adults promote further seizures? Clinical and experimental data suggest that new synapses are formed after an initial episode of status epilepticus, however their contribution to the transformation of a naive network to an epileptogenic one has been debated. Recent experimental data show that newly formed aberrant excitatory synapses on the granule cells of the fascia dentate operate by means of kainate receptor-operated signals that are not present on naive granule cells. Therefore, genuine epileptic networks rely on signaling cascades that differentiate them from naive networks. Recurrent limbic seizures generated by the activation of kainate receptors and synapses in naive animals lead to the formation of novel synapses that facilitate the emergence of further seizures. This negative, vicious cycle illustrates the central role of reactive plasticity in neurological disorders.

  3. Can Randall's plug composed of calcium oxalate form via the free particle mechanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grases, F; Söhnel, O

    2017-09-08

    The likelihood of a Randall's plug composed of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) forming by the free particle mechanism in a model of kidney with a structure recently described by Robertson was examined at the most favourable conditions for the considered mechanism. The Robertson model of the kidney is used in the following development. The classical theory of crystallization was used for calculations. Initial COM nuclei were assumed to form at the beginning of the ascending loop of Henle where the supersaturation with respect to COM has been shown to reach the threshold level for spontaneous nucleation. Nucleation proceeds by a heterogeneous mechanism. The formed particles are transported in the nephron by a laminar flow of liquid with a parabolic velocity profile. Particles travel with a velocity dependent on their position in the cross-section of the nephron assumed to be straight tubule with smooth walls and without any sharp bends and kinks. These particles move faster with time as they grow as a result of being surrounded by the supersaturated liquid. Individual COM particles (crystals) can reach maximum diameter of 5.2 × 10 -6  m, i.e. 5.2 μm, at the opening of the CD and would thus always be washed out of the CD into the calyx regardless of the orientation of the CD. Agglomeration of COM crystals forms a fractal object with an apparent density lower than the density of solid COM. The agglomerate that can block the beginning of the CD is composed of more crystals than are available even during crystaluria. Moreover the settling velocity of agglomerate blocking the opening of the CD is lower than the liquid flow and thus such agglomerate would be washed out even from upward-draining CD. The free particle mechanism may be responsible for the formation of a Randall's plug composed by COM only in specific infrequent cases such as an abnormal structure of kidney. Majority of incidences of Randall's plug development by COM are caused by mechanism different

  4. Star-forming galaxy models: Blending star formation into TREESPH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihos, J. Christopher; Hernquist, Lars

    1994-01-01

    We have incorporated star-formation algorithms into a hybrid N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamics code (TREESPH) in order to describe the star forming properties of disk galaxies over timescales of a few billion years. The models employ a Schmidt law of index n approximately 1.5 to calculate star-formation rates, and explicitly include the energy and metallicity feedback into the Interstellar Medium (ISM). Modeling the newly formed stellar population is achieved through the use of hybrid SPH/young star particles which gradually convert from gaseous to collisionless particles, avoiding the computational difficulties involved in creating new particles. The models are shown to reproduce well the star-forming properties of disk galaxies, such as the morphology, rate of star formation, and evolution of the global star-formation rate and disk gas content. As an example of the technique, we model an encounter between a disk galaxy and a small companion which gives rise to a ring galaxy reminiscent of the Cartwheel (AM 0035-35). The primary galaxy in this encounter experiences two phases of star forming activity: an initial period during the expansion of the ring, and a delayed phase as shocked material in the ring falls back into the central regions.

  5. Splitting method for the combined formulation of fluid-particle problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hyung Gwon; Yoo, Jung Yul; Joseph, D. D.

    2000-01-01

    A splitting method for the direct numerical simulation of solid-liquid mixtures is presented, where a symmetric pressure equation is newly proposed. Through numerical experiment, it is found that the newly proposed splitting method works well with a matrix-free formulation for some bench mark problems avoiding an erroneous pressure field which appears when using the conventional pressure equation of a splitting method. When deriving a typical pressure equation of a splitting method, the motion of a solid particle has to be approximated by the 'intermediate velocity' instead of treating it as unknowns since it is necessary as a boundary condition. Therefore, the motion of a solid particle is treated in such an explicit way that a particle moves by the known form drag(pressure drag) that is calculated from the pressure equation in the previous step. From the numerical experiment, it was shown that this method gives an erroneous pressure field even for the very small time step size as a particle velocity increases. In this paper, coupling the unknowns of particle velocities in the pressure equation is proposed, where the resulting matrix is reduced to the symmetric one by applying the projector of the combined formulation. It has been tested over some bench mark problems and gives reasonable pressure fields

  6. Linear arrangement of nano-scale magnetic particles formed in Cu-Fe-Ni alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sung, E-mail: k3201s@hotmail.co [Department of Materials Engineering (SEISAN), Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogayaku, Yokohama, 240-8501 (Japan); Takeda, Mahoto [Department of Materials Engineering (SEISAN), Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogayaku, Yokohama, 240-8501 (Japan); Takeguchi, Masaki [Advanced Electron Microscopy Group, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Sakura 3-13, Tsukuba, 305-0047 (Japan); Bae, Dong-Sik [School of Nano and Advanced Materials Engineering, Changwon National University, Gyeongnam, 641-773 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-30

    The structural evolution of nano-scale magnetic particles formed in Cu-Fe-Ni alloys on isothermal annealing at 878 K has been investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Phase decomposition of Cu-Fe-Ni occurred after an as-quenched specimen received a short anneal, and nano-scale magnetic particles were formed randomly in the Cu-rich matrix. A striking feature that two or more nano-scale particles with a cubic shape were aligned linearly along <1,0,0> directions was observed, and the trend was more pronounced at later stages of the precipitation. Large numbers of <1,0,0> linear chains of precipitates extended in three dimensions in late stages of annealing.

  7. Homogenization of metasurfaces formed by random resonant particles in periodical lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Petrov, Mihail

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we suggest a simple analytical method for description of electromagnetic properties of a geometrically regular two-dimensional subwavelength arrays (metasurfaces) formed by particles with randomly fluctuating polarizabilities. We propose an analytical homogenization method applicable...

  8. The emergence of shared leadership in newly-formed teams with an initial structure of vertical leadership: A longitudinal analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Fransen, Katrien; Delvaux, Ellen; Mesquita, Batja; Van Puyenbroeck, Stef

    2018-01-01

    The importance of high-quality leadership for team effectiveness is widely recognized, with recent viewpoints arguing shared leadership to be a more powerful predictor than vertical leadership. To identify changes in leadership structures over time, we longitudinally tracked the leadership structure of 27 newly-formed teams (N = 195), all having an initial structure of vertical leadership. Our findings demonstrated that the average team leadership strengthened over the course of the 24-week p...

  9. Use of newly developed standardized form for interpretation of high-resolution CT in screening for pneumoconiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julien, P.J.; Sider, L.; Silverman, J.M.; Dahlgren, J.; Harber, P.; Bunn, W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that although the International Labour Office (ILO) standard for interpretation of the posteroanterior chest radiograph has been available for 10 years, there has been no attempt to standardize the high-resolution CT (HRTC) readings for screening of pneumoconiosis. An integrated respirator surveillance program for 87 workers exposed to inorganic dust was conducted. This program consisted of a detailed occupational exposure history, physical symptoms and signs, spirometry, chest radiography, and HRCT. Two groups of workers with known exposure were studied with HRCT. Group 1 had normal spirometry results and chest radiographs, and group 2 had abnormalities at spirometry or on chest radiographs. The HRCT scans were read independently of the clinical findings and chest radiographs. The HRCT scans were interpreted by using an ILO-based standard form developed by the authors for this project. With the newly developed HRCT form, individual descriptive abnormality localized severity, and overall rating systems have been developed and compared for inter- and intraobserver consistency

  10. Computational modeling of electrically conductive networks formed by graphene nanoplatelet-carbon nanotube hybrid particles

    KAUST Repository

    Mora Cordova, Angel

    2018-01-30

    One strategy to ensure that nanofiller networks in a polymer composite percolate at low volume fractions is to promote segregation. In a segregated structure, the concentration of nanofillers is kept low in some regions of the sample. In turn, the concentration in remaining regions is much higher than the average concentration of the sample. This selective placement of the nanofillers ensures percolation at low average concentration. One original strategy to promote segregation is by tuning the shape of the nanofillers. We use a computational approach to study the conductive networks formed by hybrid particles obtained by growing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs). The objective of this study is (1) to show that the higher electrical conductivity of these composites is due to the hybrid particles forming a segregated structure and (2) to understand which parameters defining the hybrid particles determine the efficiency of the segregation. We construct a microstructure to observe the conducting paths and determine whether a segregated structure has indeed been formed inside the composite. A measure of efficiency is presented based on the fraction of nanofillers that contribute to the conductive network. Then, the efficiency of the hybrid-particle networks is compared to those of three other networks of carbon-based nanofillers in which no hybrid particles are used: only CNTs, only GNPs, and a mix of CNTs and GNPs. Finally, some parameters of the hybrid particle are studied: the CNT density on the GNPs, and the CNT and GNP geometries. We also present recommendations for the further improvement of a composite\\'s conductivity based on these parameters.

  11. Computational modeling of electrically conductive networks formed by graphene nanoplatelet-carbon nanotube hybrid particles

    KAUST Repository

    Mora Cordova, Angel; Han, Fei; Lubineau, Gilles

    2018-01-01

    One strategy to ensure that nanofiller networks in a polymer composite percolate at low volume fractions is to promote segregation. In a segregated structure, the concentration of nanofillers is kept low in some regions of the sample. In turn, the concentration in remaining regions is much higher than the average concentration of the sample. This selective placement of the nanofillers ensures percolation at low average concentration. One original strategy to promote segregation is by tuning the shape of the nanofillers. We use a computational approach to study the conductive networks formed by hybrid particles obtained by growing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs). The objective of this study is (1) to show that the higher electrical conductivity of these composites is due to the hybrid particles forming a segregated structure and (2) to understand which parameters defining the hybrid particles determine the efficiency of the segregation. We construct a microstructure to observe the conducting paths and determine whether a segregated structure has indeed been formed inside the composite. A measure of efficiency is presented based on the fraction of nanofillers that contribute to the conductive network. Then, the efficiency of the hybrid-particle networks is compared to those of three other networks of carbon-based nanofillers in which no hybrid particles are used: only CNTs, only GNPs, and a mix of CNTs and GNPs. Finally, some parameters of the hybrid particle are studied: the CNT density on the GNPs, and the CNT and GNP geometries. We also present recommendations for the further improvement of a composite's conductivity based on these parameters.

  12. Formation of newly synthesized adeno-associated virus capsids in the cell nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter; Vandenberghe, Luk H; Wilson, James M

    2014-06-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) particles inside the nucleus of a HEK 293 cell are shown by electron microscopy. Cells have been triple-transfected for vector production and were analyzed for capsid formation three days later. Newly assembled particle are visible as seemingly unstructured conglomerates or crystal-like arrays.

  13. Structure of zinc particles formed by condensation for transportation to an analytic device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barone, T.; Wochele, J.; Ludwig, C.; Schuler, A.J.; Ketterer, B.

    2002-03-01

    Aerosol containing small particles with homogeneous structural characteristics are desired for analysis in Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES). To investigate heavy metal evaporation behaviour during thermal treatment a laboratory on-line elemental analyzer has been developed. The analyzer consists of a Condensation Interface (CI) for the generation of aerosols and an ICP-OES as detector. The settings at the CI can strongly influence the particle formation, and therefore the quality of the measurements. To improve the method preliminary experiments were conducted to investigate the characteristics of zinc particles formed in the evaporation/condensation process. System conditions, such as vaporization temperature, carrier gas, and flow rate, were varied to investigate their influence on particle size, homogeneity and shape. The experiments suggest that particles vary most with temperature, lower vaporization temperatures resulted in the formation of smaller particles. (author)

  14. New-particle formation events in a continental boundary layer: first results from the SATURN experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Stratmann

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available During the SATURN experiment, which took place from 27 May to 14 June 2002, new particle formation in the continental boundary layer was investigated. Simultaneous ground-based and tethered-balloon-borne measurements were performed, including meteorological parameters, particle number concentrations and size distributions, gaseous precursor concentrations and SODAR and LIDAR observations. Newly formed particles were observed inside the residual layer, before the break-up process of the nocturnal inversion, and inside the mixing layer throughout the break-up of the nocturnal inversion and during the evolution of the planetary boundary layer.

  15. New Particle Formation Study Final Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, JN; McMurry, PH [University of Minnesota

    2015-01-01

    The scientific foci of the New Particle Formation Study were the formation and evolution of atmospheric aerosols and the impacts of newly formed particles on cloud processes. Specifically, we planned to: (1) to identify the species and mechanisms responsible for the initial steps of new particle formation, i.e., the formation of thermodynamically stable clusters; (2) investigate the role of acid-base chemistry in new particle growth through measurements of ammonia and amines as well as organic and inorganic acids in both atmospheric nanoparticles and the gas phase; (3) investigate the contribution of other surface area or volume-controlled processes to nanoparticle formation and growth; (4) create a comprehensive dataset related to new particle formation and growth that can be used as input for our own thermodynamic models as well as the modeling efforts by our Department of Energy (DOE) Aerosol Life Cycle working group collaborators; (5) characterize the increase of the number and activity of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) due to particle formation and growth; (6) determine the regional extent of new particle formation to address the role that atmospheric transport plays in determining the impacts, if any, of new particle formation on cloud number and properties.

  16. Development of laboratory and process sensors to monitor particle size distribution of industrial slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendse, H.P.

    1992-10-01

    In this paper we present a novel measurement technique for monitoring particle size distributions of industrial colloidal slurries based on ultrasonic spectroscopy and mathematical deconvolution. An on-line sensor prototype has been developed and tested extensively in laboratory and production settings using mineral pigment slurries. Evaluation to date shows that the sensor is capable of providing particle size distributions, without any assumptions regarding their functional form, over diameters ranging from 0.1 to 100 micrometers in slurries with particle concentrations of 10 to 50 volume percents. The newly developed on-line sensor allows one to obtain particle size distributions of commonly encountered inorganic pigment slurries under industrial processing conditions without dilution.

  17. Computational modeling of electrically conductive networks formed by graphene nanoplatelet-carbon nanotube hybrid particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, A.; Han, F.; Lubineau, G.

    2018-04-01

    One strategy to ensure that nanofiller networks in a polymer composite percolate at low volume fractions is to promote segregation. In a segregated structure, the concentration of nanofillers is kept low in some regions of the sample. In turn, the concentration in the remaining regions is much higher than the average concentration of the sample. This selective placement of the nanofillers ensures percolation at low average concentration. One original strategy to promote segregation is by tuning the shape of the nanofillers. We use a computational approach to study the conductive networks formed by hybrid particles obtained by growing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs). The objective of this study is (1) to show that the higher electrical conductivity of these composites is due to the hybrid particles forming a segregated structure and (2) to understand which parameters defining the hybrid particles determine the efficiency of the segregation. We construct a microstructure to observe the conducting paths and determine whether a segregated structure has indeed been formed inside the composite. A measure of efficiency is presented based on the fraction of nanofillers that contribute to the conductive network. Then, the efficiency of the hybrid-particle networks is compared to those of three other networks of carbon-based nanofillers in which no hybrid particles are used: only CNTs, only GNPs, and a mix of CNTs and GNPs. Finally, some parameters of the hybrid particle are studied: the CNT density on the GNPs, and the CNT and GNP geometries. We also present recommendations for the further improvement of a composite’s conductivity based on these parameters.

  18. Synthesis and new structure shaping mechanism of silica particles formed at high pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Henan; Zhao, Yu; Akins, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    For the sol–gel synthesis of silica particles under high pH catalytic conditions (pH>12) in water/ethanol solvent, we have deduced that the competing dynamics of chemical etching and sol–gel process can explain the types of silica particles formed and their morphologies. We have demonstrated that emulsion droplets that are generated by adding tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) to a water–ethanol solution serve as soft templates for hollow spherical silica (1–2 μm). And if the emulsion is converted by the sol–gel process, one finds that suspended solid silica spheres of diameter of ∼900 nm are formed. Moreover, several other factors are found to play fundamental roles in determining the final morphologies of silica particles, such as by variation of the pH (in our case, using OH – ) to a level where condensation dominates; by changing the volume ratios of water/ethanol; and using an emulsifier (specifically, CTAB) - Graphical abstract: “Local chemical etching” and sol–gel process have been proposed to interpret the control of morphologies of silica particles through varying initial pHs in syntheses. Highlights: ► Different initial pHs in our syntheses provides morphological control of silica particles. ► “Local chemical etching” and sol–gel process describes the formation of silica spheres. ► The formation of emulsions generates hollow silica particles.

  19. Thermodynamic limit of particle-hole form factors in the massless XXZ Heisenberg chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitanine, N. [Univ. de Bourgogne (France). IMB, UMR 5584 du CNRS; Kozlowski, K.K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Maillet, J.M.; Terras, V. [ENS Lyon (France). UMR 5672 du CNRS, Lab. de Physique; Slavnov, N.A. [Steklov Mathematical Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-03-15

    We study the thermodynamic limit of the particle-hole form factors of the XXZ Heisenberg chain in the massless regime. We show that, in this limit, such form factors decrease as an explicitly computed power-law in the system size. Moreover, the corresponding amplitudes can be obtained as a product of a ''smooth'' and a ''discrete'' part: the former depends continuously on the rapidities of the particles and holes, whereas the latter has an additional explicit dependence on the set of integer numbers that label each excited state in the associated logarithmic Bethe equations. We also show that special form factors corresponding to zero-energy excitations lying on the Fermi surface decrease as a power-law in the system size with the same critical exponents as in the longdistance asymptotic behavior of the related two-point correlation functions. The methods we develop in this article are rather general and can be applied to other massless integrable models associated to the six-vertex R-matrix and having determinant representations for their form factors. (orig.)

  20. Asymptotic behavior of composite-particle form factors and the renormalization group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, A.; Mueller, A.H.

    1980-01-01

    Composite-particle form factors are studied in the limit of large momentum transfer Q. It is shown that in models with spinor constituents and either scalar or gauge vector gluons, the meson electromagnetic form factor factorizes at large Q 2 and is given by independent light-cone expansions on the initial and final meson legs. The coefficient functions are shown to satisfy a Callan-Symanzik equation. When specialized to quantum chromodynamics, this equation leads to the asymptotic formula of Brodsky and Lepage for the pion electromagnetic form factor. The nucleon form factors G/sub M/(Q 2 ), G/sub E/(Q 2 ) are also considered. It is shown that momentum flows which contribute to subdominant logarithms in G/sub M/(Q 2 ) vitiate a conventional renormalization-group interpretation for this form factor. For large Q 2 , the electric form factor G/sub E/(Q 2 ) fails to factorize, so that a renormalization-group treatment seems even more unlikely in this case

  1. Interfacial electronic structure of electrodeposited Ag nanoparticles on iron oxide nanorice particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Young Ku [Dept. of Chemistry, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    A bimetallic hybrid nanostructure of uni- formly electrodeposited Ag NPs on an Fe oxide nanorice particle template was developed. Figure 6 schematically illustrates uniform electrodeposition of Ag NPs on Fe oxide nanorice supported on a Si substrate. According to Ar + ion depth-probling XPS spectra, the electrodeposited Ag NPs are metallic, and the Fe oxide nanorice particles consist of a metallic shell covered by ultrathin FeOOH or Fe 2 O 3 shells. When the template was functionalized with 1,4-diisocyanobenzene, one terminal NC group was bridge- bonded as in the N C form on the Fe surface. The newly developed selective facial electrodeposition method will be very useful for facial fabrication of bimetallic hybrid systems for diverse application areas.

  2. Form factor of relativistic two-particle system and covariant hamiltonian formulation of quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skachkov, N.; Solovtsov, I.

    1979-01-01

    Based on the hamiltonian formulation of quantum field theory proposed by Kadyshevsky the three-dimensional relativistic approach is developed for describing the form factors of composite systems. The main features of the diagram technique appearing in the covariant hamiltonian formulation of field theory are discussed. The three-dimensional relativistic equation for the vertex function is derived and its connection with that for the quasipotential wave function is found. The expressions are obtained for the form factor of the system through equal-time two-particle wave functions both in momentum and relativistic configurational representations. An explicit expression for the form factor is found for the case of two-particle interaction through the Coulomb potential

  3. A spatially-supported forced-choice recognition test reveals children’s long-term memory for newly learned word forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine R. Gordon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Children’s memories for the link between a newly trained word and its referent have been the focus of extensive past research. However, memory for the word form itself is rarely assessed among preschool-age children. When it is, children are typically asked to verbally recall the forms, and they generally perform at floor on such tests. To better measure children’s memory for word forms, we aimed to design a more sensitive test that required recognition rather than recall, provided spatial cues to off-set the phonological memory demands of the test, and allowed pointing rather than verbal responses. We taught 12 novel word-referent pairs via ostensive naming to sixteen 4-to-6-year-olds and measured their memory for the word forms after a week-long retention interval using the new spatially-supported form recognition test. We also measured their memory for the word-referent links and the generalization of the links to untrained referents with commonly used recognition tests. Children demonstrated memory for word forms at above chance levels; however, their memory for forms was poorer than their memory for trained or generalized word-referent links. When in error, children were no more likely to select a foil that was a close neighbor to the target form than a maximally different foil. Additionally, they more often selected correct forms that were among the first six than the last six to be trained. Overall, these findings suggest that children are able to remember word forms after a limited number of ostensive exposures and a long-term delay. However, word forms remain more difficult to learn than word-referent links and there is an upper limit on the number of forms that can be learned within a given period of time.

  4. Precipitation sequence and its effect on age hardening of alumina-forming austenitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Joonoh, E-mail: mjo99@kims.re.kr [Ferrous Alloy Department, Advanced Metallic Materials Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon, Gyeongnam 642-831 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Tae-Ho [Ferrous Alloy Department, Advanced Metallic Materials Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon, Gyeongnam 642-831 (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Yoon-Uk [Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology, Pohang University of Science and Technology, 77 Cheongam-ro, Nam-gu, Gyeongbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Young-Soo [Neutron Science Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Jun-Yun; Ha, Heon-Young [Ferrous Alloy Department, Advanced Metallic Materials Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon, Gyeongnam 642-831 (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Dong-Woo [Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology, Pohang University of Science and Technology, 77 Cheongam-ro, Nam-gu, Gyeongbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-01

    The precipitation sequence during ageing of Fe–14Cr–20Ni–0.9Nb–2.5Al based alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) steel was explored through a transmission electron microscopy analysis and a small angle neutron scattering experiment. The samples were aged at 700 °C for up to 504 h. Particles of NbC, M{sub 23}C{sub 6} and Ni{sub 3}Al-type L1{sub 2} were observed in the early stage of ageing. Metastable L1{sub 2} particles were formed both in grain interior and along grain boundary. M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides precipitated along grain boundary accompanied with precipitation of L1{sub 2} particles. After ageing for longer than 48 h, particles of B2-NiAl and Laves-Fe{sub 2}Nb were newly formed. We suggest the possibility of phase transition from L1{sub 2} to B2 with increase in ageing time. Finally, this study examined the change of mechanical properties during ageing through a Gleeble hot tension test and a Vickers hardness test, and then the relationship between precipitation behavior and mechanical properties was carefully investigated and discussed in terms of precipitation behavior.

  5. Application of normal form methods to the analysis of resonances in particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, W.G.

    1992-01-01

    The transformation to normal form in a Lie-algebraic framework provides a very powerful method for identifying and analysing non-linear behaviour and resonances in particle accelerators. The basic ideas are presented and illustrated. (author). 4 refs

  6. Characterisation of intermetallic particles formed during solution treatment of an Al–7Si–0.4Mg–0.12Fe alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, J.Y.; Taylor, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► It is concluded in this work that the fine needle-like particles formed during the solution treatment of the 356 type alloy are indeed β phase plates similar to those frequently observed in as-cast aluminium alloys but of much finer sizes, most likely formed by precipitation in the vicinity of the dissolving π phase particles. ► The crystal structure of the needle-like particles, as examined by selected area electron diffraction, can be essentially indexed as either the A-Centred Monoclinic lattice or the Orthorhombic lattice . ► The particles appear to co-exist in two distinct forms: single crystal particles and composite micro-constituent particles. - Abstract: When Fe-containing Al–7Si–xMg alloys are solution-treated, usually as the initial stage of a T6 heat treatment, some of the π-Al 9 Mg 3 FeSi 5 phase present in the as-cast alloy transforms into fine needle-like intermetallic particles (as seen on a polished surface). These precipitated needles, speculated to be β-Al 5 FeSi phase, have not been definitively characterised to date. In this work, electron microscopy characterisation by various techniques was conducted to assess the nature (i.e. the composition, morphology and crystallography) of these particles to verify or otherwise the validity of the above hypothesis. It is found that the particles are indeed β phase platelets, of the same Al 5 FeSi or Al 4.5 FeSi stoichiometry as particles formed during solidification. Close observation of their crystallographic structure suggests fine-scale internal complexities in some of the particles.

  7. Normal form of particle motion under the influence of an ac dipole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tomás

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available ac dipoles in accelerators are used to excite coherent betatron oscillations at a drive frequency close to the tune. These beam oscillations may last arbitrarily long and, in principle, there is no significant emittance growth if the ac dipole is adiabatically turned on and off. Therefore the ac dipole seems to be an adequate tool for nonlinear diagnostics provided the particle motion is well described in the presence of the ac dipole and nonlinearities. Normal forms and Lie algebra are powerful tools to study the nonlinear content of an accelerator lattice. In this article a way to obtain the normal form of the Hamiltonian of an accelerator with an ac dipole is described. The particle motion to first order in the nonlinearities is derived using Lie algebra techniques. The dependence of the Hamiltonian terms on the longitudinal coordinate is studied showing that they vary differently depending on the ac dipole parameters. The relation is given between the lines of the Fourier spectrum of the turn-by-turn motion and the Hamiltonian terms.

  8. Experimental study of the form of "hot" steel particles on the ignition characteristics of liquid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharevich, Arkadiy V.

    2015-01-01

    The results of an experimental study of laws governing the ignition of liquid propellants (kerosene, diesel fuel and petroleum residue) by the single spherical steel particle heated to high temperatures are presented. Is carried out the comparison of the ignition delay times of the investigated flammable substances by the particles in the sphere and disk forms. It is established that the particle shape does not exert a substantial influence on the ignition process characteristics.

  9. PENTACLE: Parallelized particle-particle particle-tree code for planet formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasawa, Masaki; Oshino, Shoichi; Fujii, Michiko S.; Hori, Yasunori

    2017-10-01

    We have newly developed a parallelized particle-particle particle-tree code for planet formation, PENTACLE, which is a parallelized hybrid N-body integrator executed on a CPU-based (super)computer. PENTACLE uses a fourth-order Hermite algorithm to calculate gravitational interactions between particles within a cut-off radius and a Barnes-Hut tree method for gravity from particles beyond. It also implements an open-source library designed for full automatic parallelization of particle simulations, FDPS (Framework for Developing Particle Simulator), to parallelize a Barnes-Hut tree algorithm for a memory-distributed supercomputer. These allow us to handle 1-10 million particles in a high-resolution N-body simulation on CPU clusters for collisional dynamics, including physical collisions in a planetesimal disc. In this paper, we show the performance and the accuracy of PENTACLE in terms of \\tilde{R}_cut and a time-step Δt. It turns out that the accuracy of a hybrid N-body simulation is controlled through Δ t / \\tilde{R}_cut and Δ t / \\tilde{R}_cut ˜ 0.1 is necessary to simulate accurately the accretion process of a planet for ≥106 yr. For all those interested in large-scale particle simulations, PENTACLE, customized for planet formation, will be freely available from https://github.com/PENTACLE-Team/PENTACLE under the MIT licence.

  10. Quarks and gluons in nuclear and particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hove, L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper provides a broad overview of strong interactions, or nuclear forces, as ones understanding has expanded over the past 25 years. The major particles and models are briefly touched upon. The author expands upon the field theories which have evolved to explain the experimental work, and the present model of quarks and gluons which form the components of hadrons. The standard model has been very successful in explaining much of the newly acquired experimental data. But the property of confinement, where the partons, (quarks and gluons), are not observed seperately has precluded observation of these particles. He touches on the manifestation of these particles in high energy physics, where they model the observed particles and resonances, and are responsible for the production of hadronic jets. However in nuclear physics, one does not need to postulate the existance of these particles to explain the properties of nuclei, until one deals with interaction energies in the range of GeV. The author then touches on the area of ultra-relativistic nuclear physics, where the partons must play a role in the effects which are observed. In particular he discusses deep inelastic lepton scattering on nuclei, the Drell-Yan process in nuclei, and ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions. Finally he gives a brief discussion of the quark-gluon plasma, which is postulated to form during very high energy collisions, manifesting itself as a brief deconfinement of the partons into an equilibrium plasma

  11. Evaluation of interim and final waste forms for the newly generated liquid low-level waste flowsheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abotsi, G.M.K.; Bostick, D.T.; Beck, D.E.

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this review is to evaluate the final forms that have been proposed for radioactive-containing solid wastes and to determine their application to the solid wastes that will result from the treatment of newly generated liquid low-level waste (NGLLLW) and Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) supernate at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Since cesium and strontium are the predominant radionuclides in NGLLLW and MVST supernate, this review is focused on the stabilization and solidification of solid wastes containing these radionuclides in cement, glass, and polymeric materials-the principal waste forms that have been tested with these types of wastes. Several studies have shown that both cesium and strontium are leached by distilled water from solidified cement, although the leachabilities of cesium are generally higher than those of strontium under similar conditions. The situation is exacerbated by the presence of sulfates in the solution, as manifested by cracking of the grout. Additives such as bentonite, blast-furnace slag, fly ash, montmorillonite, pottery clay, silica, and zeolites generally decrease the cesium and strontium release rates. Longer cement curing times (>28 d) and high ionic strengths of the leachates, such as those that occur in seawater, also decrease the leach rates of these radionuclides. Lower cesium leach rates are observed from vitrified wastes than from grout waste forms. However, significant quantities of cesium are volatilized due to the elevated temperatures required to vitrify the waste. Hence, vitrification will generally require the use of cleanup systems for the off-gases to prevent their release into the atmosphere

  12. Chicago particle accelerator conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southworth, Brian

    1989-01-01

    Naturally, emphasis at the Particle Accelerator Conference in Chicago in March was on work in the US, just as the newly instituted European Particle Accelerator Conference places emphasis on work in the 'old continent'. All will come together at the international conference in Japan in August. The proposed US Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) was highlighted in the opening talk at Chicago. Progress on this inchoate project to explore the TeV (1000 GeV) energy region by colliding 20 TeV proton beams was reported by the recently-appointed Director of the SSC Laboratory, Roy Schwitters. He reviewed the physics challenges and described progress and plans towards full authorization of construction.This year, the SSC conceptual design will be transformed into a 'site specific' report, now that the location at Waxahachie in Ellis County, Texas, has been selected. The Central Design Group, based in Berkeley for the past few years, will soon move to the Waxahachie region. The top management structure is taking shape and an International Advisory Committee is being formed

  13. Chicago particle accelerator conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southworth, Brian

    1989-06-15

    Naturally, emphasis at the Particle Accelerator Conference in Chicago in March was on work in the US, just as the newly instituted European Particle Accelerator Conference places emphasis on work in the 'old continent'. All will come together at the international conference in Japan in August. The proposed US Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) was highlighted in the opening talk at Chicago. Progress on this inchoate project to explore the TeV (1000 GeV) energy region by colliding 20 TeV proton beams was reported by the recently-appointed Director of the SSC Laboratory, Roy Schwitters. He reviewed the physics challenges and described progress and plans towards full authorization of construction.This year, the SSC conceptual design will be transformed into a 'site specific' report, now that the location at Waxahachie in Ellis County, Texas, has been selected. The Central Design Group, based in Berkeley for the past few years, will soon move to the Waxahachie region. The top management structure is taking shape and an International Advisory Committee is being formed.

  14. Activation of a remote (1-year old) emotional memory interferes with the retrieval of a newly formed hippocampus-dependent memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Woodson, James C; Haynes, Vernon F; Diamond, David M

    2010-01-01

    The persistent intrusion of remote traumatic memories in people with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may contribute to the impairment of their ongoing hippocampal and prefrontal cortical functioning. In the current work, we have developed a rodent analogue of the intrusive memory phenomenon. We studied the influence of the activation of a remote traumatic memory in rats on their ability to retrieve a newly formed hippocampus-dependent memory. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were given inhibitory avoidance (IA) training, and then 24 h or 1, 6 or 12 months later, the same rats were trained to learn, and then remember across a 30-min delay period, the location of a hidden escape platform in the radial-arm water maze (RAWM). When IA-trained rats spent the 30-min delay period in the IA apparatus, they exhibited intact remote (1-year old) memory of the shock experience. More importantly, activation of the rats' memory of the shock experience profoundly impaired their ability to retrieve the newly formed spatial memory of the hidden platform location in the RAWM. Our finding that reactivation of a remote emotional memory exerted an intrusive effect on new spatial memory processing in rats provides a novel approach toward understanding how intrusive memories of traumatic experiences interfere with ongoing cognitive processing in people with PTSD.

  15. Distinguishing Newly Born Strange Stars from Neutron Stars with g-Mode Oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Weijie; Wei Haiqing; Liu Yuxin

    2008-01-01

    The gravity-mode (g-mode) eigenfrequencies of newly born strange quark stars (SQSs) and neutron stars (NSs) are studied. It is found that the eigenfrequencies in SQSs are much lower than those in NSs by almost 1 order of magnitude, since the components of a SQS are all extremely relativistic particles while nucleons in a NS are nonrelativistic. We therefore propose that newly born SQSs can be distinguished from the NSs by detecting the eigenfrequencies of the g-mode pulsations of supernovae cores through gravitational radiation by LIGO-class detectors

  16. Contribution to the study of nuclear aerosol: looking for the dynamic form factor of the aerosol of primary particles of sodium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbe, M.

    1982-09-01

    The dynamical form factor describes the entrainment of any non spherical particle, of inhomogeneous density, in relation to the entrainment of a spherical particle with the same volume and some sedimentation speed. Experimental study of the form factor and particle size distribution of sodium peroxide primary aerosols [fr

  17. A theoretical relation between the form factor concept and the fractal description of irregularily shaped particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumann, K.H.; Bunz, H.

    1994-04-01

    This report describes a theoretical concept that establishes a complete link between the form factor characterization and the fractal description of irregularily shaped particles. Of central importance is the approximate consideration of hydrodynamic interactions between the primary particles within the framework of the Kirkwood-Riseman theory, resulting in a clear distinction between the geometric and the hydrodynamic radius of the agglomerates. Furthermore, special attention is given to the description of the density decay in the outer regions of the particles. Using connectivity arguments it is shown that the case of particles with very low fractal dimension (e.g. chainlike species) requires a specific treatment. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Laser surface forming of AlCoCrCuFeNi particle reinforced AZ91D matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Guanghui; Yue, T. M.; Lin, Xin; Yang, Haiou; Xie, Hui; Ding, Xu

    2015-07-01

    Traditionally, the laser melt injection (LMI) technique can only be used for forming ceramic particles reinforced metal matrix composites (MMCs) for enhancing surface properties of lightweight engineering materials. In this research, the LMI method was employed to form metal particles reinforced MMCs on AZ91D instead. This was viable because of the unique properties of the AlCoCrCuFeNi high-entropy alloy (HEA) metal particles used. The large difference in melting point between the HEA and the substrate material (AZ91D), and the limited reaction and the lack of fusion between the HEA and Mg have made it possible that a metal particles reinforced AZ91D composite material was produced. The reason of limited reaction was considered mainly due to the relatively high mixing enthalpy between the HEA constituent elements and Mg. Although there was some melting occurred at the particles surface with some solute segregation found in the vicinity close to the surface, intermetallic compounds were not observed. With regard to the wear resistance of the MMCs, it was found that when the volume fraction of the reinforcement phase, i.e. the HEA particles, reached about 0.4, the wear volume loss of the coating was only one-seventh of that of the substrate material.

  19. Isolation of microbial DNA by newly designed magnetic particles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rittich, B.; Španová, A.; Horák, Daniel; Beneš, Milan J.; Klesnilová, L.; Petrová, K.; Rybnikář, A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 2 (2006), s. 143-148 ISSN 0927-7765 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/05/2256; GA MZe 1G57037 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : magnetic particles * P(HEMA-co-GMA) * cobalt ferrite Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.789, year: 2006

  20. DEM Particle Fracture Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Boning [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Herbold, Eric B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Homel, Michael A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Regueiro, Richard A. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-12-01

    An adaptive particle fracture model in poly-ellipsoidal Discrete Element Method is developed. The poly-ellipsoidal particle will break into several sub-poly-ellipsoids by Hoek-Brown fracture criterion based on continuum stress and the maximum tensile stress in contacts. Also Weibull theory is introduced to consider the statistics and size effects on particle strength. Finally, high strain-rate split Hopkinson pressure bar experiment of silica sand is simulated using this newly developed model. Comparisons with experiments show that our particle fracture model can capture the mechanical behavior of this experiment very well, both in stress-strain response and particle size redistribution. The effects of density and packings o the samples are also studied in numerical examples.

  1. Methods of forming semiconductor devices and devices formed using such methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert V; Rodriguez, Rene G; Pak, Joshua

    2013-05-21

    Single source precursors are subjected to carbon dioxide to form particles of material. The carbon dioxide may be in a supercritical state. Single source precursors also may be subjected to supercritical fluids other than supercritical carbon dioxide to form particles of material. The methods may be used to form nanoparticles. In some embodiments, the methods are used to form chalcopyrite materials. Devices such as, for example, semiconductor devices may be fabricated that include such particles. Methods of forming semiconductor devices include subjecting single source precursors to carbon dioxide to form particles of semiconductor material, and establishing electrical contact between the particles and an electrode.

  2. Different selective pressures lead to different genomic outcomes as newly-formed hybrid yeasts evolve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotrowski Jeff S

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interspecific hybridization occurs in every eukaryotic kingdom. While hybrid progeny are frequently at a selective disadvantage, in some instances their increased genome size and complexity may result in greater stress resistance than their ancestors, which can be adaptively advantageous at the edges of their ancestors' ranges. While this phenomenon has been repeatedly documented in the field, the response of hybrid populations to long-term selection has not often been explored in the lab. To fill this knowledge gap we crossed the two most distantly related members of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto group, S. cerevisiae and S. uvarum, and established a mixed population of homoploid and aneuploid hybrids to study how different types of selection impact hybrid genome structure. Results As temperature was raised incrementally from 31°C to 46.5°C over 500 generations of continuous culture, selection favored loss of the S. uvarum genome, although the kinetics of genome loss differed among independent replicates. Temperature-selected isolates exhibited greater inherent and induced thermal tolerance than parental species and founding hybrids, and also exhibited ethanol resistance. In contrast, as exogenous ethanol was increased from 0% to 14% over 500 generations of continuous culture, selection favored euploid S. cerevisiae x S. uvarum hybrids. Ethanol-selected isolates were more ethanol tolerant than S. uvarum and one of the founding hybrids, but did not exhibit resistance to temperature stress. Relative to parental and founding hybrids, temperature-selected strains showed heritable differences in cell wall structure in the forms of increased resistance to zymolyase digestion and Micafungin, which targets cell wall biosynthesis. Conclusions This is the first study to show experimentally that the genomic fate of newly-formed interspecific hybrids depends on the type of selection they encounter during the course of evolution

  3. Universal analytical scattering form factor for shell-, core-shell, or homogeneous particles with continuously variable density profile shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Tobias

    2011-09-01

    A novel analytical and continuous density distribution function with a widely variable shape is reported and used to derive an analytical scattering form factor that allows us to universally describe the scattering from particles with the radial density profile of homogeneous spheres, shells, or core-shell particles. Composed by the sum of two Fermi-Dirac distribution functions, the shape of the density profile can be altered continuously from step-like via Gaussian-like or parabolic to asymptotically hyperbolic by varying a single "shape parameter", d. Using this density profile, the scattering form factor can be calculated numerically. An analytical form factor can be derived using an approximate expression for the original Fermi-Dirac distribution function. This approximation is accurate for sufficiently small rescaled shape parameters, d/R (R being the particle radius), up to values of d/R ≈ 0.1, and thus captures step-like, Gaussian-like, and parabolic as well as asymptotically hyperbolic profile shapes. It is expected that this form factor is particularly useful in a model-dependent analysis of small-angle scattering data since the applied continuous and analytical function for the particle density profile can be compared directly with the density profile extracted from the data by model-free approaches like the generalized inverse Fourier transform method. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  4. Experimental study of the form of “hot” steel particles on the ignition characteristics of liquid fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakharevich Arkadiy V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of an experimental study of laws governing the ignition of liquid propellants (kerosene, diesel fuel and petroleum residue by the single spherical steel particle heated to high temperatures are presented. Is carried out the comparison of the ignition delay times of the investigated flammable substances by the particles in the sphere and disk forms. It is established that the particle shape does not exert a substantial influence on the ignition process characteristics.

  5. Effect of drift on the temporal asymptotic form of the particle survival probability in media with absorbing traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhincheev, V. E.

    2017-01-01

    A new asymptotic form of the particle survival probability in media with absorbing traps has been established. It is shown that this drift mechanism determines a new temporal behavior of the probability of particle survival in media with absorbing traps over long time intervals.

  6. Bounce behavior of freshly nucleated biogenic secondary organic aerosol particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Virtanen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of the climatic impacts and adverse health effects of atmospheric aerosol particles requires detailed information on particle properties. However, very limited information is available on the morphology and phase state of secondary organic aerosol (SOA particles. The physical state of particles greatly affects particulate-phase chemical reactions, and thus the growth rates of newly formed atmospheric aerosol. Thus verifying the physical phase state of SOA particles gives new and important insight into their formation, subsequent growth, and consequently potential atmospheric impacts. According to our recent study, biogenic SOA particles produced in laboratory chambers from the oxidation of real plant emissions as well as in ambient boreal forest atmospheres can exist in a solid phase in size range >30 nm. In this paper, we extend previously published results to diameters in the range of 17–30 nm. The physical phase of the particles is studied by investigating particle bounce properties utilizing electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI. We also investigate the effect of estimates of particle density on the interpretation of our bounce observations. According to the results presented in this paper, particle bounce clearly decreases with decreasing particle size in sub 30 nm size range. The comparison measurements by ammonium sulphate and investigation of the particle impaction velocities strongly suggest that the decreasing bounce is caused by the differences in composition and phase of large (diameters greater than 30 nm and smaller (diameters between 17 and 30 nm particles.

  7. Growth behavior of LiMn2O4 particles formed by solid-state reactions in air and water vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozawa, Takahiro; Yanagisawa, Kazumichi; Murakami, Takeshi; Naito, Makio

    2016-01-01

    Morphology control of particles formed during conventional solid-state reactions without any additives is a challenging task. Here, we propose a new strategy to control the morphology of LiMn 2 O 4 particles based on water vapor-induced growth of particles during solid-state reactions. We have investigated the synthesis and microstructural evolution of LiMn 2 O 4 particles in air and water vapor atmospheres as model reactions; LiMn 2 O 4 is used as a low-cost cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. By using spherical MnCO 3 precursor impregnated with LiOH, LiMn 2 O 4 spheres with a hollow structure were obtained in air, while angulated particles with micrometer sizes were formed in water vapor. The pore structure of the particles synthesized in water vapor was found to be affected at temperatures below 700 °C. We also show that the solid-state reaction in water vapor is a simple and valuable method for the large-scale production of particles, where the shape, size, and microstructure can be controlled. - Graphical abstract: This study has demonstrated a new strategy towards achieving morphology control without the use of additives during conventional solid-state reactions by exploiting water vapor-induced particle growth. - Highlights: • A new strategy to control the morphology of LiMn 2 O 4 particles is proposed. • Water vapor-induced particle growth is exploited in solid-state reactions. • The microstructural evolution of LiMn 2 O 4 particles is investigated. • The shape, size and microstructure can be controlled by solid-state reactions.

  8. PARTICLE, a Triplex-Forming Long ncRNA, Regulates Locus-Specific Methylation in Response to Low-Dose Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Bríd O’Leary

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to low-dose irradiation causes transiently elevated expression of the long ncRNA PARTICLE (gene PARTICLE, promoter of MAT2A-antisense radiation-induced circulating lncRNA. PARTICLE affords both a cytosolic scaffold for the tumor suppressor methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT2A and a nuclear genetic platform for transcriptional repression. In situ hybridization discloses that PARTICLE and MAT2A associate together following irradiation. Bromouridine tracing and presence in exosomes indicate intercellular transport, and this is supported by ex vivo data from radiotherapy-treated patients. Surface plasmon resonance indicates that PARTICLE forms a DNA-lncRNA triplex upstream of a MAT2A promoter CpG island. We show that PARTICLE represses MAT2A via methylation and demonstrate that the radiation-induced PARTICLE interacts with the transcription-repressive complex proteins G9a and SUZ12 (subunit of PRC2. The interplay of PARTICLE with MAT2A implicates this lncRNA in intercellular communication and as a recruitment platform for gene-silencing machineries through triplex formation in response to irradiation.

  9. Evidence for Diverse Biogeochemical Drivers of Boreal Forest New Particle Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Michael J.; Rissanen, Matti P.; Ehn, Mikael; Mauldin, R. Lee; Sarnela, Nina; Sipilä, Mikko; Smith, James N.

    2018-02-01

    New particle formation (NPF) is an important contributor to particle number in many locations, but the chemical drivers for this process are not well understood. Daytime NPF events occur regularly in the springtime Finnish boreal forest and strongly impact aerosol abundance. In April 2014 size-resolved chemical measurements of ambient nanoparticles were made using the Time-of-Flight Thermal Desorption Chemical ionization Mass Spectrometer and we report results from two NPF events. While growth overall was dominated by terpene oxidation products, newly formed 20-70 nm particles showed enhancement in apparent alkanoic acids. The events occurred on days with rapid transport of marine air, which correlated with low background aerosol loading and higher gas phase methanesulfonic acid levels. These results are broadly consistent with previous studies on Nordic NPF but indicate that further attention should be given to the sources and role of non-terpenoid organics and the possible contribution of transported marine compounds in this process.

  10. Direct evidence for coastal iodine particles from Laminaria macroalgae – linkage to emissions of molecular iodine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. McFiggans

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewal of ultrafine aerosols in the marine boundary layer may lead to repopulation of the marine distribution and ultimately determine the concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN. Thus the formation of nanometre-scale particles can lead to enhanced scattering of incoming radiation and a net cooling of the atmosphere. The recent demonstration of the chamber formation of new particles from the photolytic production of condensable iodine-containing compounds from diiodomethane (CH2I2, (O'Dowd et al., 2002; Kolb, 2002; Jimenez et al., 2003a; Burkholder and Ravishankara, 2003, provides an additional mechanism to the gas-to-particle conversion of sulphuric acid formed in the photo-oxidation of dimethylsulphide for marine aerosol repopulation. CH2I2 is emitted from seaweeds (Carpenter et al., 1999, 2000 and has been suggested as an initiator of particle formation. We demonstrate here for the first time that ultrafine iodine-containing particles are produced by intertidal macroalgae exposed to ambient levels of ozone. The particle composition is very similar both to those formed in the chamber photo-oxidation of diiodomethane and in the oxidation of molecular iodine by ozone. The particles formed in all three systems are similarly aspherical. When small, those formed in the molecular iodine system swell only moderately when exposed to increased humidity environments, and swell progressively less with increasing size; this behaviour occurs whether they are formed in dry or humid environments, in contrast to those in the CH2I2 system. Direct coastal boundary layer observations of molecular iodine, ultrafine particle production and iodocarbons are reported. Using a newly measured molecular iodine photolysis rate, it is shown that, if atomic iodine is involved in the observed particle bursts, it is of the order of at least 1000 times more likely to result from molecular iodine photolysis than diiodomethane photolysis. A hypothesis for molecular

  11. Method for forming ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peter C.; Pink, Robert J.; Zuck, Larry D.

    2008-08-19

    A method for forming ammonia is disclosed and which includes the steps of forming a plasma; providing a source of metal particles, and supplying the metal particles to the plasma to form metal nitride particles; and providing a substance, and reacting the metal nitride particles with the substance to produce ammonia, and an oxide byproduct.

  12. Review of particle properties 1975: Supplement to 1974 edition

    CERN Document Server

    Particle Data Group. Berkeley; Bricman, Claude; Barbaro-Galtieri, Angela; Chew, Denyse M; Kelly, Robert L; Lasinski, Thomas A; Rittenberg, Alan; Rosenfeld, Arthur Hinton; Trippe, Thomas G; Uchiyama, Fumiyo; Yost, George P; Barash-Schmidt, Naomi; Roos, Matts

    1975-01-01

    This supplement to the 1974 edition of "Review of Particle Properties," Particle Data Group Phys. Lett. 50B, (1974), contains an announcement concerning the postponement of the usual Review, a list of Errata, and a tabulation of the experimental results on the newly discovered mesons.

  13. [Principles of nutrition in patients with newly appointed stoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachocka, Lucyna Małgorzata; Urbanik, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of intestinal stoma is often a difficult experience for patients and results in numerous problems in the physical, psychological and social aspects. Therefore, post-operative care of the patient with the newly appointed stoma should be taken by therapeutic team consisting of doctors, nurses, physiotherapists, dieticians, psychologists and social workers. Appropriate nutritional education of patients aims to improve their quality of life and to prevent from unpleasant ailments formed after the operation. The specific type of stoma may decide about certain dietary recommendations. The presented work provides a practical dietary recommendations for patients with newly appointed stoma.

  14. Closed form formula for the exchange integrals in the impact-parameter treatment of heavy-particle collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocbach, Ladislav; Liska, Richard

    1994-01-01

    The three-dimensional exchange integrals in the impact-parameter treatment of heavy particle collisions can be transformed to one-dimensional integrals over finite range. The closed form formula for the integrands of these one-dimensional integrals is derived. (Author)

  15. High-temperature LDV seed particle development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frish, Michael B.; Pierce, Vicky G.

    1989-05-01

    The feasibility of developing a method for making monodisperse, unagglomerated spherical particles greater than 50 nm in diameter was demonstrated. Carbonaceous particles were made by pyrolyzing ethylene with a pulsed CO2 laser, thereby creating a non-equilibrium mixture of carbon, hydrogen, hydrocarbon vapors, and unpyrolyzed ethylene. Via a complex series of reactions, the carbon and hydrocarbon vapors quickly condensed into the spherical particles. By cooling and dispersing them in a supersonic expansion immediately after their creation, the hot newly-formed spheres were prevented from colliding and coalescing, thus preventing the problem of agglomeration which as plagued other investigators studying laser-simulated particle formation. The cold particles could be left suspended in the residual gases indefinitely without agglomerating. Their uniform sizes and unagglomerated nature were visualized by collecting the particles on filters that were subsequently examined using electron microscopy. It was found the mean particle size can be coarsely controlled by varying the initial ethylene pressure, and can be finely controlled by varying the fluence (energy/unit area) with which the laser irradiates the gas. The motivating application for this research was to manufacture particles that could be used as laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) seeds in high-temperature high-speed flows. Though the particles made in this program will not evaporate until heated to about 3000 K, and thus could serve as LDV seeds in some applications, they are not ideal when the hot atmosphere is also oxidizing. In that situation, ceramic materials would be preferable. Research performed elsewhere has demonstrated that selected ceramic materials can be manufactured by laser pyrolysis of appropriate supply gases. It is anticipated that, when the same gases are used in conjunction with the rapid cooling technique, unagglomerated spherical ceramic particles can be made with little difficulty. Such

  16. Influence of moisture content, particle size and forming temperature on productivity and quality of rice straw pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Kazuei, E-mail: k-ishii@eng.hokudai.ac.jp; Furuichi, Toru

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Optimized conditions were determined for the production of rice straw pellets. • The moisture content and forming temperature are key factors. • High quality rice pellets in the lower heating value and durability were produced. - Abstract: A large amount of rice straw is generated and left as much in paddy fields, which causes greenhouse gas emissions as methane. Rice straw can be used as bioenergy. Rice straw pellets are a promising technology because pelletization of rice straw is a form of mass and energy densification, which leads to a product that is easy to handle, transport, store and utilize because of the increase in the bulk density. The operational conditions required to produce high quality rice straw pellets have not been determined. This study determined the optimal moisture content range required to produce rice straw pellets with high yield ratio and high heating value, and also determined the influence of particle size and the forming temperature on the yield ratio and durability of rice straw pellets. The optimal moisture content range was between 13% and 20% under a forming temperature of 60 or 80 °C. The optimal particle size was between 10 and 20 mm, considering the time and energy required for shredding, although the particle size did not significantly affect the yield ratio and durability of the pellets. The optimized conditions provided high quality rice straw pellets with nearly 90% yield ratio, ⩾12 MJ/kg for the lower heating value, and >95% durability.

  17. Influence of moisture content, particle size and forming temperature on productivity and quality of rice straw pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Kazuei; Furuichi, Toru

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimized conditions were determined for the production of rice straw pellets. • The moisture content and forming temperature are key factors. • High quality rice pellets in the lower heating value and durability were produced. - Abstract: A large amount of rice straw is generated and left as much in paddy fields, which causes greenhouse gas emissions as methane. Rice straw can be used as bioenergy. Rice straw pellets are a promising technology because pelletization of rice straw is a form of mass and energy densification, which leads to a product that is easy to handle, transport, store and utilize because of the increase in the bulk density. The operational conditions required to produce high quality rice straw pellets have not been determined. This study determined the optimal moisture content range required to produce rice straw pellets with high yield ratio and high heating value, and also determined the influence of particle size and the forming temperature on the yield ratio and durability of rice straw pellets. The optimal moisture content range was between 13% and 20% under a forming temperature of 60 or 80 °C. The optimal particle size was between 10 and 20 mm, considering the time and energy required for shredding, although the particle size did not significantly affect the yield ratio and durability of the pellets. The optimized conditions provided high quality rice straw pellets with nearly 90% yield ratio, ⩾12 MJ/kg for the lower heating value, and >95% durability

  18. Reactions of newly formed fission products in the gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strickert, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    A dynamic gas-flow system was constructed which stopped fission products in the gas phase and rapidly separated (in less than 2 sec) volatile compounds from non-volatile ones. The filter assembly designed and used was shown to stop essentially all non-volatile fission products. Between 5 percent and 20 percent of tellurium fission-product isotopes reacted with several hydrocarbon gases to form volatile compounds, which passed through the filter. With carbon monoxide gas, volatile tellurium compound(s) (probably TeCO) were also formed with similar efficiencies. The upper limits for the yields of volatile compounds formed between CO and tin and antimony fission products were shown to be less than 0.3 percent, so tellurium nuclides, not their precursors, reacted with CO. It was found that CO reacted preferentially with independently produced tellurium atoms; the reaction efficiency of beta-produced atoms was only 27 +- 3 percent of that of the independently formed atoms. The selectivity, which was independent of the over-all reaction efficiency, was shown to be due to reaction of independently formed atoms in the gas phase. The gas phase reactions are believed to occur mainly at thermal energies because of the independence of the yield upon argon moderator mole-fraction (up to 80 percent). It was shown in some experiments that about one-half of the TeCO decomposed in passing through a filter and that an appreciable fraction (approximately 20 percent) of the tellurium atoms deposited on the filter reacted agin with CO. Other tellurium atoms on the filter surface (those formed by beta decay and those formed independently but not reacting in the gas phase) also reacted with CO, but probably somewhat less efficiently than atoms formed by TeCO decomposition. No evidence was found for formation of TeCO as a direct result of beta-decay

  19. Observations concerning the particle-size of the oxidation products of uranium formed in air or in carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baque, P.; Leclercq, D.

    1964-01-01

    This report brings together the particle-size analysis results obtained on products formed by the oxidation or the ignition of uranium in moist air or dry carbon dioxide. The results bring out the importance of the nature of the oxidising atmosphere, the combustion in moist air giving rise to the formation of a larger proportion of fine particles than combustion in carbon dioxide under pressure. (authors) [fr

  20. EVIDENCE FOR NEWLY INITIATED RECONNECTION IN THE SOLAR WIND AT 1 AU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xiaojun; Ma, Yonghui; Wong, Hon-Cheng; Wang, Yi; Zuo, Pingbing; Wei, Fengsi; Feng, Xueshang; Zhou, Meng; Deng, Xiaohua

    2015-01-01

    We report the first evidence for a large-scale reconnection exhaust newly initiated in the solar wind using observations from three spacecraft: ACE, Wind, and ARTEMIS P2. We identified a well-structured X-line exhaust using measurements from ARTEMIS P2 in the downstream solar wind. However, in the upstream solar wind, ACE detected the same current sheet that corresponds to the exhaust identified by ARTEMIS P2 data without showing any reconnection signals. We cannot find any reconnection signals from Wind located between ACE and ARTEMIS P2. Within the exhaust, a magnetic island is identified, which is not consistent with the quasi-steady feature as previously reported and provides further evidence that the reconnection is newly initiated. Our observations show that the entering of energetic particles, probably from Earth's bow shock, makes the crucial difference between the non-reconnecting current sheet and the exhaust. Since no obvious driving factors are responsible for the reconnection initiation, we infer that these energetic particles probably play an important role in the reconnection initiation. Theoretical analysis also shows support for this potential mechanism

  1. Discrimination between Newly Formed and Aged Thrombi Using Empirical Mode Decomposition of Ultrasound B-Scan Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui Fang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound imaging is a first-line diagnostic method for screening the thrombus. During thrombus aging, the proportion of red blood cells (RBCs in the thrombus decreases and therefore the signal intensity of B-scan can be used to detect the thrombus age. To avoid the effect of system gain on the measurements, this study proposed using the empirical mode decomposition (EMD of ultrasound image as a strategy to classify newly formed and aged thrombi. Porcine blood samples were used for the in vitro induction of fresh and aged thrombi (at hematocrits of 40%. Each thrombus was imaged using an ultrasound scanner at different gains (15, 20, and 30 dB. Then, EMD of ultrasound signals was performed to obtain the first and second intrinsic mode functions (IMFs, which were further used to calculate the IMF-based echogenicity ratio (IER. The results showed that the performance of using signal amplitude of B-scan to reflect the thrombus age depends on gain. However, the IER is less affected by the gain in discriminating between fresh and aged thrombi. In the future, ultrasound B-scan combined with the EMD may be used to identify the thrombus age for the establishment of thrombolytic treatment planning.

  2. Being a team leader: newly registered nurses relate their experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekström, Louise; Idvall, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study that explores how newly qualified registered nurses experience their leadership role in the ward-based nursing care team. A nurse's clinical leadership affects the quality of care provided. Newly qualified nurses experience difficulties during the transition period from student to qualified professional and find it challenging to lead nursing care. Twelve nurses were interviewed and the transcribed texts analysed using qualitative content analysis to assess both manifest and latent content. Five themes were identified: feeling stranded; forming well-functioning teams; learning to lead; having the courage, strength, and desire to lead; and ensuring appropriate care. The findings indicate that many factors limit nurses' leadership but some circumstances are supportive. The leadership prerequisites for newly registered nurses need to improve, emphasizing different ways to create a supportive atmosphere that promotes professional development and job satisfaction. To increase nurse retention and promote quality of care, nurse managers need to clarify expectations and guide and support newly qualified nurses in a planned way. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Influence of in situ formed ZrB2 particles on microstructure and mechanical properties of AA6061 metal matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinaharan, I.; Murugan, N.; Parameswaran, Siva

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → In situ fabrication of aluminium metal matrix composite reinforced ZrB 2 particles. → Colour metallography of composites. → Improvement of matrix properties by ZrB 2 particles. → Sliding wear behaviour of in situ composites. - Abstract: Particulate reinforced metal matrix composites (PMMCs) have gained considerable amount of research emphasis and attention in the present era. Research is being carried out across the globe to produce new combination of PMMCs. PMMCs are prepared by adding a variety of ceramic particles with monolithic alloys using several techniques. An attempt has been made to produce aluminium metal matrix composites reinforced with zirconium boride (ZrB 2 ) particles by the in situ reaction of K 2 ZrF 6 and KBF 4 salts with molten aluminium. The influence of in situ formed ZrB 2 particles on the microstructure and mechanical properties of AA6061 alloy was studied in this work. The in situ formed ZrB 2 particles significantly refined the microstructure and enhanced the mechanical properties of AA6061 alloy. The weight percentage of ZrB 2 was varied from 0 to 10 in steps of 2.5. Improvement of hardness, ultimate tensile strength and wear resistance of AA6061 alloy was observed with the increase in ZrB 2 content.

  4. Particle-size distribution and phosphorus forms as a function of hydrological forcing in the Yellow River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Qing-Zhen; Du, Jun-Tao; Chen, Hong-Tao; Yu, Zhi-Gang

    2016-02-01

    Samples were collected monthly from January to December in 2010, and daily observations were made during the water-sediment regulation event in June-July 2010. Sequential extractions were applied to determine the forms of P in different particle-size fractions and to assess the potential bioavailability of particulate phosphorus (PP). The results indicated that exchangeable phosphorus, organic phosphorus, authigenic phosphorus, and refractory phosphorus increased with the decreasing of particulate size; conversely, detrital phosphorus decreased with the decreasing of particulate size. The content of bioavailable particulate phosphorus (BAPP) varied greatly in different sizes of particles. In general, the smaller the particle size, the higher the content of bioavailable phosphorus and its proportion in total phosphorous was found in these particles. Hydrological forcing controlled the variability in the major P phases found in the suspended sediments via changes in the sources and the particle grain-size distribution. The variation of particle sizes can be attributed also to different total suspended sediment (TSS) sources. Water-sediment regulation (WSR) mobilized only particulate matter from the riverbed, while during the rainstorm soil erosion and runoff were the main source. The BAPP fluxes associated with the "truly suspended" fraction was approximately 200 times larger than the dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) flux. Thus, the transfer of fine particles to the open sea is most probably accompanied by BAPP release to the DIP and can support greater primary and secondary production.

  5. Particle mass yield in secondary organic aerosol formed by the dark ozonolysis of α-pinene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Shilling

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The yield of particle mass in secondary organic aerosol (SOA formed by dark ozonolysis was measured for 0.3–22.8 ppbv of reacted α-pinene. Most experiments were conducted using a continuous-flow chamber, allowing nearly constant SOA concentration and chemical composition for several days. For comparison, some experiments were also conducted in batch mode. Reaction conditions were 25°C, 40% RH, dry (NH4SO4 seed particles, and excess 1-butanol. The organic particle loading was independently measured by an aerosol mass spectrometer and a scanning mobility particle sizer, and the two measurements agreed well. The observations showed that SOA formation occurred for even the lowest reacted α-pinene concentration of 0.3 ppbv. The particle mass yield was 0.09 at 0.15 μg m−3, increasing to 0.27 at 40 μg m−3. Compared to some results reported in the literature, the yields were 80 to 100% larger for loadings above 2 μg m−3. At lower loadings, the yields had an offset of approximately +0.07 from those reported in the literature. To as low as 0.15 μm−3, the yield curve had no inflection point toward null yield, implying the formation of one or several products having vapor pressures below this value. These observations of increased yields, especially for low loadings, are potentially important for accurate prediction by chemical transport models of organic particle concentrations in the ambient atmosphere.

  6. Canonical form of three-fermion pure-states with six single particle states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Lin; Ž Ðoković, Dragomir; Grassl, Markus; Zeng, Bei

    2014-01-01

    We construct a canonical form for pure states in ∧ 3 (C 6 ), the three-fermion system with six single particle states, under local unitary (LU) transformations, i.e., the unitary group U(6). We also construct a minimal set of generators of the algebra of polynomial U(6)-invariants on ∧ 3 (C 6 ). It turns out that this algebra is isomorphic to the algebra of polynomial LU-invariants of three-qubits which are additionally invariant under qubit permutations. As a consequence of this surprising fact, we deduce that there is a one-to-one correspondence between the U(6)-orbits of pure three-fermion states in ∧ 3 (C 6 ) and the LU orbits of pure three-qubit states when qubit permutations are allowed. As an important byproduct, we obtain a new canonical form for pure three-qubit states under LU transformations U(2) × U(2) × U(2) (no qubit permutations allowed)

  7. Growth behavior of LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles formed by solid-state reactions in air and water vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozawa, Takahiro, E-mail: t-kozawa@jwri.osaka-u.ac.jp [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, 11–1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Yanagisawa, Kazumichi [Research Laboratory of Hydrothermal Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Kochi University, 2–5-1 Akebono-cho, Kochi 780-8520 (Japan); Murakami, Takeshi; Naito, Makio [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, 11–1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    Morphology control of particles formed during conventional solid-state reactions without any additives is a challenging task. Here, we propose a new strategy to control the morphology of LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles based on water vapor-induced growth of particles during solid-state reactions. We have investigated the synthesis and microstructural evolution of LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles in air and water vapor atmospheres as model reactions; LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} is used as a low-cost cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. By using spherical MnCO{sub 3} precursor impregnated with LiOH, LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} spheres with a hollow structure were obtained in air, while angulated particles with micrometer sizes were formed in water vapor. The pore structure of the particles synthesized in water vapor was found to be affected at temperatures below 700 °C. We also show that the solid-state reaction in water vapor is a simple and valuable method for the large-scale production of particles, where the shape, size, and microstructure can be controlled. - Graphical abstract: This study has demonstrated a new strategy towards achieving morphology control without the use of additives during conventional solid-state reactions by exploiting water vapor-induced particle growth. - Highlights: • A new strategy to control the morphology of LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles is proposed. • Water vapor-induced particle growth is exploited in solid-state reactions. • The microstructural evolution of LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles is investigated. • The shape, size and microstructure can be controlled by solid-state reactions.

  8. Contribution of Arctic seabird-colony ammonia to atmospheric particles and cloud-albedo radiative effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, B.; Wentworth, G. R.; Martin, R. V.; Leaitch, W. R.; Murphy, J. G.; Murphy, B. N.; Kodros, J. K.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; Pierce, J. R.

    2016-01-01

    The Arctic region is vulnerable to climate change and able to affect global climate. The summertime Arctic atmosphere is pristine and strongly influenced by natural regional emissions, which have poorly understood climate impacts related to atmospheric particles and clouds. Here we show that ammonia from seabird-colony guano is a key factor contributing to bursts of newly formed particles, which are observed every summer in the near-surface atmosphere at Alert, Nunavut, Canada. Our chemical-transport model simulations indicate that the pan-Arctic seabird-influenced particles can grow by sulfuric acid and organic vapour condensation to diameters sufficiently large to promote pan-Arctic cloud-droplet formation in the clean Arctic summertime. We calculate that the resultant cooling tendencies could be large (about −0.5 W m−2 pan-Arctic-mean cooling), exceeding −1 W m−2 near the largest seabird colonies due to the effects of seabird-influenced particles on cloud albedo. These coupled ecological–chemical processes may be susceptible to Arctic warming and industrialization. PMID:27845764

  9. Flagellation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in newly divided cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kun; Lee, Calvin; Anda, Jaime; Wong, Gerard

    2015-03-01

    For monotrichous bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, after cell division, one daughter cell inherits the old flagellum from its mother cell, and the other grows a new flagellum during or after cell division. It had been shown that the new flagellum grows at the distal pole of the dividing cell when the two daughter cells haven't completely separated. However, for those daughter cells who grow new flagella after division, it still remains unknown at which pole the new flagellum will grow. Here, by combining our newly developed bacteria family tree tracking techniques with genetic manipulation method, we showed that for the daughter cell who did not inherit the old flagellum, a new flagellum has about 90% chances to grow at the newly formed pole. We proposed a model for flagellation of P. aeruginosa.

  10. Further obsrvations on a newly located prawn fishery off Saurashtra coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalan, U.K.

    The abundance of prawns in a newly located ground off Saurashtra has been described Catch omposition showed that Metapenaeus affinis formed the bulk of the catches Previously this species was thought to be of not much commercial importance...

  11. Beta delayed particle emission in light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riisager, K.; Gabelmann, H.

    1991-01-01

    A short discussion of theoretical treatments of beta delayed particle emission is followed by a presentation of data on the newly found beta delayed deuteron decay of 6 He. This decay cannot be described properly with existing theories. (author) 8 refs.; 3 figs

  12. Forms of newly retained phosphorus in mineral soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armi Kaila

    1964-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of soluble phosphate in various fractions of soil phosphorus was studied by treating 1 g-samples of 180 mineral soils with 50 ml of a KH2PO4- solution containing P 5 mg/l for 24 hours, and carrying out the fractionation by the method of CHANG and JACKSON after the solution was removed and the moist samples had stood for 3 days at room temperature. The amount of retained phosphorus in the different fractions was computed by taking the difference between the treated and check samples. In the 70 samples of clay soils, the mean proportion of the retained phosphorus was 57 per cent of the 250 mg/kg applied, in the 62 samples of the sand and fine sand soils the corresponding part was 45 per cent, and in the 48 samples of loam and silt soils it was 44 per cent. The higher retention in the clay soils was mainly due to a higher retention in the alkali-soluble fraction. The net increase in the fluoride-soluble forms was of the same order in these three soil groups. On the average, more than 95 per cent of the sorbed phosphorus was found in the fluoride-soluble and alkali-soluble fractions. In one third of the samples a low net increase in the acid soluble fraction was detected, but this may be partly due to changes in the solubility of the native phosphorus in the treated samples. Owing to the fairly large variation, the tendency to somewhat higher mean values for the sorption in the subsoils compared with those of the topsoils was not statistically significant. The ratio between the sorbed amounts of fluoride-soluble and alkali soluble forms was higher in the sand and fine sand soils than in the clay soils. Only in 15 samples, most of them Litorina-soils, the net increase in the alkali-soluble forms was higher than in the fluoride-soluble fraction. Probably, because an equilibrium in the phosphorus conditions was not yet reached at the end of the treatment, the attempt failed to find any clear connection between the distribution of the

  13. Global atmospheric particle formation from CERN CLOUD measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Dunne, E M; Kurten, A; Almeida, J; Duplissy, J; Williamson, C; Ortega, I K; Pringle, K J; Adamov, A; Baltensperger, U; Barmet, P; Benduhn, F; Bianchi, F; Breitenlechner, M; Clarke, A; Curtius, J; Dommen, J; Donahue, N M; Ehrhart, S; Flagan, R C; Franchin, A; Guida, R; Hakala, J; Hansel, A; Heinritzi, M; Jokinen, T; Kangasluoma, J; Kirkby, J; Kulmala, M; Kupc, A; Lawler, M J; Lehtipalo, K; Makhmutov, V; Mann, G; Mathot, S; Merikanto, J; Miettinen, P; Nenes, A; Onnela, A; Rap, A; Reddington, C L S; Riccobono, F; Richards, N A D; Rissanen, M P; Rondo, L; Sarnela, N; Schobesberger, S; Sengupta, K; Simon, M; Sipila, M; Smith, J N; Stozkhov, Y; Tome, A; Trostl, J; Wagner, P E; Wimmer, D; Winkler, P M; Worsnop, D R; Carslaw, K S

    2016-01-01

    Fundamental questions remain about the origin of newly formed atmospheric aerosol particles because data from laboratory measurements have been insufficient to build global models. In contrast, gas-phase chemistry models have been based on laboratory kinetics measurements for decades. Here we build a global model of aerosol formation using extensive laboratory-measured nucleation rates involving sulfuric acid, ammonia, ions and organic compounds. The simulations and a comparison with atmospheric observations show that nearly all nucleation throughout the present-day atmosphere involves ammonia or biogenic organic compounds in addition to sulfuric acid. A significant fraction of nucleation involves ions, but the relatively weak dependence on ion concentrations indicates that for the processes studied variations in cosmic ray intensity do not significantly affect climate via nucleation in the present-day atmosphere.

  14. On Adiabatic Processes at the Elementary Particle Level

    OpenAIRE

    A, Michaud

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of adiabatic processes at the elementary particle level and of the manner in which they correlate with the principle of conservation of energy, the principle of least action and entropy. Analysis of the initial and irreversible adiabatic acceleration sequence of newly created elementary particles and its relation to these principles. Exploration of the consequences if this first initial acceleration sequence is not subject to the principle of conservation.

  15. Scaling Properties of Particle Density Fields Formed in Simulated Turbulent Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Robert C.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Dobrovolskis, Anthony R.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of particle concentrations in fully developed 3D turbulence were carried out in order to study the nonuniform structure of the particle density field. Three steady-state turbulent fluid fields with Taylor microscale Reynolds numbers (Re(sub lambda)) of 40, 80 and 140 were generated by solving the Navier-Stokes equations with pseudospectral methods. Large scale forcing was used to drive the turbulence and maintain temporal stationarity. The response of the particles to the fluid was parameterized by the particle Stokes number St, defined as the ratio of the particle's stopping time to the mean period of eddies on the Kolmogorov scale (eta). In this paper, we consider only passive particles optimally coupled to these eddies (St approx. = 1) because of their tendency to concentrate more than particles with lesser or greater St values. The trajectories of up to 70 million particles were tracked in the equilibrated turbulent flows until the particle concentration field reached a statistically stationary state. The nonuniform structure of the concentration fields was characterized by the multifractal singularity spectrum, f(alpha), derived from measures obtained after binning particles into cells ranging from 2(eta) to 15(eta) in size. We observed strong systematic variations of f(alpha) across this scale range in all three simulations and conclude that the particle concentration field is not statistically self similar across the scale range explored. However, spectra obtained at the 2(eta), 4(eta), and 8(eta) scales of each flow case were found to be qualitatively similar. This result suggests that the local structure of the particle concentration field may be flow-Independent. The singularity spectra found for 2n-sized cells were used to predict concentration distributions in good agreement with those obtained directly from the particle data. This Singularity spectrum has a shape similar to the analogous spectrum derived for the

  16. UAV observation of newly formed volcanic island, Nishinoshima, Japan, from a ship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohminato, T.; Kaneko, T.; Takagi, A.

    2016-12-01

    We conducted an aerial observation at Nishinoshima island, south of Japan, from Jun 7 to Jun 9, 2016 by using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), a radio controlled small helicopter. Takeoff and landing of the UAV was conducted on a ship. Nishinoshima is a small island, 130km west of Chichijima in Ogasawara Islands, Japan. New eruption started in November 2013 in a shallow sea approximately 400 m southeast of the existing Nishinoshima Island. It started from a small islet and evolved with 1-5 × 105 m3/day discharge rate (Maeno et al, 2016). In late December 2013, the islet coalesced with the existing Nishinoshima. In 16 month, the lava field reached 2.6×106 m2and covered almost all of the existing Nishinoshima. Human landing upon the newly formed part of the island has still been prohibited due to the danger of sudden eruptions. Before our mission, some pumice or rock samples had been taken from the island but their amount was not enough to conduct detailed petrological analyses. The evolution of the lava field from the central cone has been well documented by using images taken from satellites and airplanes. However, due to the limited resolution of satellite images or photos taken from distant airplanes, there still be uncertainties in detailed morphological evolution of lava flows. The purpose of our observation includes, 1) sampling of pyroclasts near the central cone in order to investigate the condition of magma chamber and magma ascent process, and 2) taking high resolution 4K images in order to clarify the characteristic morphology of the lava flow covering the island. During the three days operation, we were successfully able to sample 250g of pyroclasts and to take 1.5TB of 4K movies. Conducting UAV's takeoff and landing on a ship was not an easy task. We used a marine research ship, Keifu-Maru, operated by Japan Meteorological Agency. The ship size is 1483 tons. On the ship deck, there are several structures which can interfere with the helicopter

  17. Particle accelerator physics

    CERN Document Server

    Wiedemann, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    This book by Helmut Wiedemann is a well-established, classic text, providing an in-depth and comprehensive introduction to the field of high-energy particle acceleration and beam dynamics. The present 4th edition has been significantly revised, updated and expanded. The newly conceived Part I is an elementary introduction to the subject matter for undergraduate students. Part II gathers the basic tools in preparation of a more advanced treatment, summarizing the essentials of electrostatics and electrodynamics as well as of particle dynamics in electromagnetic fields. Part III is an extensive primer in beam dynamics, followed, in Part IV, by an introduction and description of the main beam parameters and including a new chapter on beam emittance and lattice design. Part V is devoted to the treatment of perturbations in beam dynamics. Part VI then discusses the details of charged particle acceleration. Parts VII and VIII introduce the more advanced topics of coupled beam dynamics and describe very intense bea...

  18. CAMS newly detected meteor showers and the sporadic background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenniskens, P.; Nénon, Q.; Gural, P. S.; Albers, J.; Haberman, B.; Johnson, B.; Morales, R.; Grigsby, B. J.; Samuels, D.; Johannink, C.

    2016-03-01

    The Cameras for Allsky Meteor Surveillance (CAMS) video-based meteoroid orbit survey adds 60 newly identified showers to the IAU Working List of Meteor Showers (numbers 427, 445-446, 506-507, and part of 643-750). 28 of these are also detected in the independent SonotaCo survey. In total, 230 meteor showers and shower components are identified in CAMS data, 177 of which are detected in at least two independent surveys. From the power-law size frequency distribution of detected showers, we extrapolate that 36% of all CAMS-observed meteors originated from ∼700 showers above the N = 1 per 110,000 shower limit. 71% of mass falling to Earth from streams arrives on Jupiter-family type orbits. The transient Geminids account for another 15%. All meteoroids not assigned to streams form a sporadic background with highest detected numbers from the apex source, but with 98% of mass falling in from the antihelion source. Even at large ∼7-mm sizes, a Poynting-Robertson drag evolved population is detected, which implies that the Grün et al. collisional lifetimes at these sizes are underestimated by about a factor of 10. While these large grains survive collisions, many fade on a 104-y timescale, possibly because they disintegrate into smaller particles by processes other than collisions, leaving a more resilient population to evolve.

  19. Viscous properties of ferrofluids containing both micrometer-size magnetic particles and fine needle-like particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ido, Yasushi, E-mail: ido.yasushi@nitech.ac.jp [Department of Electric and Mechanical Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya (Japan); Nishida, Hitoshi [Department of Electrical and Control Systems Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Toyama College, 13 Hongo-cho, Toyama (Japan); Iwamoto, Yuhiro [Department of Electric and Mechanical Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya (Japan); Yokoyama, Hiroki [KYB Corporation, 2-4-1 Hamamatsu-cho, Minato-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2017-06-01

    Ferrofluids containing both micrometer-size spherical magnetic particles and nanometer-size needle-like nonmagnetic hematite particles were newly produced. Average length of long axis of the needle-like nonmagnetic particles was 194 nm and the aspect ratio was 8.3. Shear stress and viscosity were measured using the rheometer with the additional equipment for viscosity measurements in the presence of magnetic field. When the total volume fraction of particles in the fluid is constant (0.30), there is the specific mixing ratio of the particles to increase viscosity of the fluid drastically in the absence of magnetic field due to the percolation phenomenon. The fluid of the specific mixing ratio shows solid-like behavior even in the absence of magnetic field. Mixing the needle-like nonmagnetic particles causes strong yield stress and strong viscous force in the presence of magnetic field. - Highlights: • Viscous properties of new magnetic functional fluids were studied experimentally. • The new fluids contain spherical magnetic particles and needle-like particles. • Percolation occurs in the fluid of specific mixing ratio of particles without field. • The fluid of the specific mixing ratio behaves like solid without field. • Mixing needle-like particles causes strong yield stress of the fluid in the field.

  20. Form Filling with Self-Compacting Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars Nyholm

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a newly started Ph.D. project with the aim of simulating the form filling ability of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) taking into account the form geometry, reinforcement configuration, casting technique, and the rheological properties of the concrete. Comparative studies...

  1. Truncated forms of viral VP2 proteins fused to EGFP assemble into fluorescent parvovirus-like particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuento Matti

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS monitors random movements of fluorescent molecules in solution, giving information about the number and the size of for example nano-particles. The canine parvovirus VP2 structural protein as well as N-terminal deletion mutants of VP2 (-14, -23, and -40 amino acids were fused to the C-terminus of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP. The proteins were produced in insect cells, purified, and analyzed by western blotting, confocal and electron microscopy as well as FCS. The non-truncated form, EGFP-VP2, diffused with a hydrodynamic radius of 17 nm, whereas the fluorescent mutants truncated by 14, 23 and 40 amino acids showed hydrodynamic radii of 7, 20 and 14 nm, respectively. These results show that the non-truncated EGFP-VP2 fusion protein and the EGFP-VP2 constructs truncated by 23 and by as much as 40 amino acids were able to form virus-like particles (VLPs. The fluorescent VLP, harbouring VP2 truncated by 23 amino acids, showed a somewhat larger hydrodynamic radius compared to the non-truncated EGFP-VP2. In contrast, the construct containing EGFP-VP2 truncated by 14 amino acids was not able to assemble into VLP-resembling structures. Formation of capsid structures was confirmed by confocal and electron microscopy. The number of fluorescent fusion protein molecules present within the different VLPs was determined by FCS. In conclusion, FCS provides a novel strategy to analyze virus assembly and gives valuable structural information for strategic development of parvovirus-like particles.

  2. A new balance formula to estimate new particle formation rate: reevaluating the effect of coagulation scavenging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A new balance formula to estimate new particle formation rate is proposed. It is derived from the aerosol general dynamic equation in the discrete form and then converted into an approximately continuous form for analyzing data from new particle formation (NPF field campaigns. The new formula corrects the underestimation of the coagulation scavenging effect that occurred in the previously used formulae. It also clarifies the criteria for determining the upper size bound in measured aerosol size distributions for estimating new particle formation rate. An NPF field campaign was carried out from 7 March to 7 April 2016 in urban Beijing, and a diethylene glycol scanning mobility particle spectrometer equipped with a miniature cylindrical differential mobility analyzer was used to measure aerosol size distributions down to ∼ 1 nm. Eleven typical NPF events were observed during this period. Measured aerosol size distributions from 1 nm to 10 µm were used to test the new formula and the formulae widely used in the literature. The previously used formulae that perform well in a relatively clean atmosphere in which nucleation intensity is not strong were found to underestimate the comparatively high new particle formation rate in urban Beijing because of their underestimation or neglect of the coagulation scavenging effect. The coagulation sink term is the governing component of the estimated formation rate in the observed NPF events in Beijing, and coagulation among newly formed particles contributes a large fraction to the coagulation sink term. Previously reported formation rates in Beijing and in other locations with intense NPF events might be underestimated because the coagulation scavenging effect was not fully considered; e.g., estimated formation rates of 1.5 nm particles in this campaign using the new formula are 1.3–4.3 times those estimated using the formula neglecting coagulation among particles in the nucleation mode.

  3. Effect of in-situ formed Al3Ti particles on the microstructure and mechanical properties of 6061 Al alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rahul; Chaudhari, G. P.; Daniel, B. S. S.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, in situ Titanium-tri-aluminide (Al3Ti) particles reinforced Al 6061 alloy matrix composites were fabricated by the reaction of potassium hexafluorotitanate (K2TiF6) inorganic salt with molten Al 6061 alloy via liquid metallurgy route. The development of in-situ Al3Ti particles and their effects on the mechanical properties such as yield strength (YS), ductility, ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and hardness, and microstructure of Al 6061 alloy were studied. It was observed from the results that in-situ formed Al3Ti particles were blocky in morphology whose average size was around 2.6 ± 1.1 μm. Microstructure studies showed that grain size of Al matrix was reduced due to the nucleating effect of Al3Ti particles. It was observed from the mechanical properties analysis that when the volume fraction of Al3Ti particles was increased, the hardness, UTS and YS of the composites were also increased as compared to that of Al 6061 alloy. An improvement in ductility was observed with the dispersion of Al3Ti particles in base alloy which is contrary to many other composites.

  4. Inorganic salts interact with oxalic acid in submicron particles to form material with low hygroscopicity and volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozd, G.; Woo, J.; Häkkinen, S. A. K.; Nenes, A.; McNeill, V. F.

    2014-05-01

    Volatility and hygroscopicity are two key properties of organic aerosol components, and both are strongly related to chemical identity. While the hygroscopicities of pure salts, di-carboxylic acids (DCA), and DCA salts are known, the hygroscopicity of internal mixtures of these components, as they are typically found in the atmosphere, has not been fully characterized. Here we show that inorganic-organic component interactions typically not considered in atmospheric models can lead to very strongly bound metal-organic complexes and greatly affect aerosol volatility and hygroscopicity; in particular, the bi-dentate binding of DCA to soluble inorganic ions. We have studied the volatility of pure, dry organic salt particles and the hygroscopicity of internal mixtures of oxalic acid (OxA, the dominant DCA in the atmosphere) and a number of salts, both mono- and di-valent. The formation of very low volatility organic salts was confirmed, with minimal evaporation of oxalate salt particles below 75 °C. Dramatic increases in the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activation diameter for particles with di-valent salts (e.g., CaCl2) and relatively small particle volume fractions of OxA indicate that standard volume additivity rules for hygroscopicity do not apply. Thus small organic compounds with high O : C ratios are capable of forming low-volatility and very low hygroscopicity particles. Given current knowledge of the formation mechanisms of OxA and M-Ox salts, surface enrichment of insoluble M-Ox salts is expected. The resulting formation of an insoluble coating of metal-oxalate salts can explain low-particle hygroscopicities. The formation of particles with a hard coating could offer an alternative explanation for observations of glass-like particles without the need for a phase transition.

  5. U1 small nuclear RNA variants differentially form ribonucleoprotein particles in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somarelli, Jason A; Mesa, Annia; Rodriguez, Carol E; Sharma, Shalini; Herrera, Rene J

    2014-04-25

    The U1 small nuclear (sn)RNA participates in splicing of pre-mRNAs by recognizing and binding to 5' splice sites at exon/intron boundaries. U1 snRNAs associate with 5' splice sites in the form of ribonucleoprotein particles (snRNPs) that are comprised of the U1 snRNA and 10 core components, including U1A, U1-70K, U1C and the 'Smith antigen', or Sm, heptamer. The U1 snRNA is highly conserved across a wide range of taxa; however, a number of reports have identified the presence of expressed U1-like snRNAs in multiple species, including humans. While numerous U1-like molecules have been shown to be expressed, it is unclear whether these variant snRNAs have the capacity to form snRNPs and participate in splicing. The purpose of the present study was to further characterize biochemically the ability of previously identified human U1-like variants to form snRNPs and bind to U1 snRNP proteins. A bioinformatics analysis provided support for the existence of multiple expressed variants. In vitro gel shift assays, competition assays, and immunoprecipitations (IPs) revealed that the variants formed high molecular weight assemblies to varying degrees and associated with core U1 snRNP proteins to a lesser extent than the canonical U1 snRNA. Together, these data suggest that the human U1 snRNA variants analyzed here are unable to efficiently bind U1 snRNP proteins. The current work provides additional biochemical insights into the ability of the variants to assemble into snRNPs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A statistical analysis on erosion wear behaviour of A356 alloy reinforced with in situ formed TiB2 particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, S.; Subramanya Sarma, V.; Murty, B.S.

    2008-01-01

    Solid particle erosion wear behaviour of A356 and A356/TiB 2 in situ composites has been studied. A356 alloy reinforced with in situ TiB 2 particles was fabricated by the reaction of halide salts with aluminium melt and the formation of Al 3 Ti brittle phase is completely suppressed. The composites show good grain refinement of α-Al and modification of eutectic Si. These in situ composites show high hardness and better erosion resistance than the base alloy. Though the sizes of in situ formed TiB 2 reinforcement particles are smaller than the erodent SiC particles, TiB 2 particles are able to effectively resist the erodent particles. Design of experiment has been used to run the solid particle erosion experiment. An attempt has also been made to develop a mathematical model by using regression analysis. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique is applied to check the validity of the developed model. Student's t-test is utilized to find out the significance of factors. The wear mechanism has been studied by analyzing the surface of the worn specimen using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis

  7. Metallic nanomaterials formed by exerting large plastic strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richert, M; Richert, J.; Zasadzinski, J.; Hawrylkiewicz, S.

    2002-01-01

    The investigations included pure Al and Cu single crystals, AlMg5 alloy and AlCuZr alloy have been presented. The materials were deformed by the cyclic extrusion compression method (CEC) within the range of true strains φ = 0.4-59.8 (1 to 67 deformation cycles by the CEC method). In all examined materials a strong tendency to form banded was observed. Within the range of very large plastic strains there was observed intensive rebuilding of the banded microstructure into subgrains, at first of rhombic shape, and next into equiaxial subgrains. A characteristic feature of the newly formed subgrains, not encountered in the range of conventional deformations, was the occurrence of large misorientation angles between the newly formed subgrains. The proportion of large misorientation angles in the microstructure varied, and it increased with increasing deformation. Reduction of the recovery process in AlMg5 and AlCuZr alloys preserved the growth of the newly formed nanograins, favoring the retaining of the nanomeric dimensions. This results show that there is the effective possibility of production of metallic nanomaterials by exerting of very large nonconventional plastic strains. (author)

  8. Particle-two particle interaction in configuration space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzmichev, V.E.

    1982-07-01

    The problem if three indentical particles with zero-range two-particle interaction is considered. An explicit expression for the effective potential between one particle and the remaining two-particle system is obtained in the coordinate representation. It is shown that for arbitrary energies, at small and, for zero energy, at large distances rho between the one particle and centre of mass of the other two particles the diagonal matrix element of the effective potential is attractive and proportional to 1/rho 2 . This property of the effective potenial explains both the Thomas singularity and the Efimov effect. In the case of zero total energy of the system the general form of the solution of the three-particle integral equation is found in configuration space. (orig.)

  9. Universality of Schmidt decomposition and particle identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciara, Stefania; Lo Franco, Rosario; Compagno, Giuseppe

    2017-03-01

    Schmidt decomposition is a widely employed tool of quantum theory which plays a key role for distinguishable particles in scenarios such as entanglement characterization, theory of measurement and state purification. Yet, its formulation for identical particles remains controversial, jeopardizing its application to analyze general many-body quantum systems. Here we prove, using a newly developed approach, a universal Schmidt decomposition which allows faithful quantification of the physical entanglement due to the identity of particles. We find that it is affected by single-particle measurement localization and state overlap. We study paradigmatic two-particle systems where identical qubits and qutrits are located in the same place or in separated places. For the case of two qutrits in the same place, we show that their entanglement behavior, whose physical interpretation is given, differs from that obtained before by different methods. Our results are generalizable to multiparticle systems and open the way for further developments in quantum information processing exploiting particle identity as a resource.

  10. Effect of harvest time and physical form of alfalfa silage on chewing time and particle size distribution in boli, rumen content and faeces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornfelt, L. F.; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Norgaard, P.

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the effects of physical form and harvest time of alfalfa silage on eating and ruminating activity and particle size distribution in feed boli, rumen content and faeces in dry cows. The alfalfa crop was harvested at two stages of growth (early: NDF 37 late: NDF 44% in dry matter.......01), physical form (P time (P distribution function...... fractions. The length (PL) and width (PW) of particles within each fraction was measured by the use of image analysis. The eating activity (min/kg dry matter intake (P time. The mean ruminating time (min/kg DM) was affected by harvest time (P

  11. EUCAARI ion spectrometer measurements at 12 European sites – analysis of new particle formation events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. E. Manninen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We present comprehensive results on continuous atmospheric cluster and particle measurements in the size range ~1–42 nm within the European Integrated project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality interactions (EUCAARI project. We focused on characterizing the spatial and temporal variation of new particle formation events and relevant particle formation parameters across Europe. Different types of air ion and cluster mobility spectrometers were deployed at 12 field sites across Europe from March 2008 to May 2009. The measurements were conducted in a wide variety of environments, including coastal and continental locations as well as sites at different altitudes (both in the boundary layer and the free troposphere. New particle formation events were detected at all of the 12 field sites during the year-long measurement period. From the data, nucleation and growth rates of newly formed particles were determined for each environment. In a case of parallel ion and neutral cluster measurements, we could also estimate the relative contribution of ion-induced and neutral nucleation to the total particle formation. The formation rates of charged particles at 2 nm accounted for 1–30% of the corresponding total particle formation rates. As a significant new result, we found out that the total particle formation rate varied much more between the different sites than the formation rate of charged particles. This work presents, so far, the most comprehensive effort to experimentally characterize nucleation and growth of atmospheric molecular clusters and nanoparticles at ground-based observation sites on a continental scale.

  12. The variation of organ doses with the particle size and chemical form of an inhaled radioactive aerosol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, B.W.; Adams, N.; Reissland, J.A.

    1979-04-01

    In this report, radiation doses to organs are calculated as a function of the particle size of the inhaled radioactive material. Aerosols with an Activity Median Aerodynamic Diameter (AMAD) from 0.1 μm to 20 μm are considered and doses accumulated by various organs in periods ranging from 1 day to 70 years are given for 65 radionuclides. A computer program is used which calculates the transformations taking place in each organ per curie of inhaled nuclide from the basic radioactivity and metabolic data. The program also calculates the resulting doses both for the organ in which the transformations occur and from penetrating radiation emitted as a result of transformations in other organs. The effects of particle size and chemical form of the nuclides on the doses received by organs are discussed. Tables of doses accumulated by 10 specific organs and other organs together with effective whole body doses are given for particle sizes 0.1 μm, 1 μm and 10 μm (AMAD). (author)

  13. Ifluence of the collisions of electrons and ions with atoms and molecules on the dynamic form-factors of bounded many-particle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakimenko, I.P.; Zagorodny, A.G.

    1980-01-01

    The kinetic theory of fluctuations is used to investigate the influence of the collisions of charged particles with atoms and molecules on the dynamic form-factors of semi-infinite weakly ionized plasma. It is shown that the collisions between the electrons and neutral particles and the diffuse processes connected with them lead to a much increased influence of the boundary on correlations in a plasma [ru

  14. Global atmospheric particle formation from CERN CLOUD measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Eimear M; Gordon, Hamish; Kürten, Andreas; Almeida, João; Duplissy, Jonathan; Williamson, Christina; Ortega, Ismael K; Pringle, Kirsty J; Adamov, Alexey; Baltensperger, Urs; Barmet, Peter; Benduhn, Francois; Bianchi, Federico; Breitenlechner, Martin; Clarke, Antony; Curtius, Joachim; Dommen, Josef; Donahue, Neil M; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Flagan, Richard C; Franchin, Alessandro; Guida, Roberto; Hakala, Jani; Hansel, Armin; Heinritzi, Martin; Jokinen, Tuija; Kangasluoma, Juha; Kirkby, Jasper; Kulmala, Markku; Kupc, Agnieszka; Lawler, Michael J; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Makhmutov, Vladimir; Mann, Graham; Mathot, Serge; Merikanto, Joonas; Miettinen, Pasi; Nenes, Athanasios; Onnela, Antti; Rap, Alexandru; Reddington, Carly L S; Riccobono, Francesco; Richards, Nigel A D; Rissanen, Matti P; Rondo, Linda; Sarnela, Nina; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Sengupta, Kamalika; Simon, Mario; Sipilä, Mikko; Smith, James N; Stozkhov, Yuri; Tomé, Antonio; Tröstl, Jasmin; Wagner, Paul E; Wimmer, Daniela; Winkler, Paul M; Worsnop, Douglas R; Carslaw, Kenneth S

    2016-12-02

    Fundamental questions remain about the origin of newly formed atmospheric aerosol particles because data from laboratory measurements have been insufficient to build global models. In contrast, gas-phase chemistry models have been based on laboratory kinetics measurements for decades. We built a global model of aerosol formation by using extensive laboratory measurements of rates of nucleation involving sulfuric acid, ammonia, ions, and organic compounds conducted in the CERN CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets) chamber. The simulations and a comparison with atmospheric observations show that nearly all nucleation throughout the present-day atmosphere involves ammonia or biogenic organic compounds, in addition to sulfuric acid. A considerable fraction of nucleation involves ions, but the relatively weak dependence on ion concentrations indicates that for the processes studied, variations in cosmic ray intensity do not appreciably affect climate through nucleation in the present-day atmosphere. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Exposure to nano-size titanium dioxide causes oxidative damages in human mesothelial cells: The crystal form rather than size of particle contributes to cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Kenji; Nakadate, Kazuhiko; Morii, Akane; Noguchi, Takumi; Ogasawara, Yuki; Ishii, Kazuyuki

    2017-10-14

    Exposure to nanoparticles such as carbon nanotubes has been shown to cause pleural mesothelioma similar to that caused by asbestos, and has become an environmental health issue. Not only is the percutaneous absorption of nano-size titanium dioxide particles frequently considered problematic, but the possibility of absorption into the body through the pulmonary route is also a concern. Nevertheless, there are few reports of nano-size titanium dioxide particles on respiratory organ exposure and dynamics or on the mechanism of toxicity. In this study, we focused on the morphology as well as the size of titanium dioxide particles. In comparing the effects between nano-size anatase and rutile titanium dioxide on human-derived pleural mesothelial cells, the anatase form was shown to be actively absorbed into cells, producing reactive oxygen species and causing oxidative damage to DNA. In contrast, we showed for the first time that the rutile form is not easily absorbed by cells and, therefore, does not cause oxidative DNA damage and is significantly less damaging to cells. These results suggest that with respect to the toxicity of titanium dioxide particles on human-derived mesothelial cells, the crystal form rather than the particle size has a greater effect on cellular absorption. Also, it was indicated that the difference in absorption is the primary cause of the difference in the toxicity against mesothelial cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Practicing on Newly Dead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jewel Abraham

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A newly dead cadaver simulation is practiced on the physical remains of the dead before the onset of rigor mortis. This technique has potential benefits for providing real-life in-situ experience for novice providers in health care practices. Evolving ethical views in health care brings into question some of the ethical aspects associated with newly dead cadaver simulation in terms of justification for practice, autonomy, consent, and the need of disclosure. A clear statement of policies and procedures on newly dead cadaver simulation has yet to be implemented. Although there are benefits and disadvantages to an in-situ cadaver simulation, such practices should not be carried out in secrecy as there is no compelling evidence that suggests such training as imperative. Secrecy in these practices is a violation of honor code of nursing ethics. As health care providers, practitioners are obliged to be ethically honest and trustworthy to their patients. The author explores the ethical aspects of using newly dead cadaver simulation in training novice nursing providers to gain competency in various lifesaving skills, which otherwise cannot be practiced on a living individual. The author explores multiple views on cadaver simulation in relation to ethical theories and practices such as consent and disclosure to family.

  17. Forms of Knowledge Incorporated in Clinical Decision-making among Newly-Graduated Nurses: A Metasynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldbjerg, Siri; Elgaard Sørensen, Erik; Grønkjær, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Clinical-decision-making is of decisive importance to how evidence-based practice is put into practice. Schools of Nursing have a responsibility to teach and train nursing students to make clinical decisions within a frame of evidence-based practice. Clinical decision-making among nurses has been...... explored from numerous angles using a diversity of methodologies. Existing research has mainly focused on promoting and inhibiting factors for implementation of evidence-based practice and incorporation of research evidence in the clinical-decision. Little attention has been given to the nurses' behavior......, including the knowledge that actually informs the newly graduated nurses’ clinical decision. The aim of the study is to combine and synthesize results from qualitative research. Noblit and Hare’s meta-ethnographic approach is used to conduct a metasynthesis of qualitative research that has studied...

  18. A method for detecting the presence of organic fraction in nucleation mode sized particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vaattovaara

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available New particle formation and growth has a very important role in many climate processes. However, the overall knowlegde of the chemical composition of atmospheric nucleation mode (particle diameter, d<20 nm and the lower end of Aitken mode particles (d≤50 nm is still insufficient. In this work, we have applied the UFO-TDMA (ultrafine organic tandem differential mobility analyzer method to shed light on the presence of an organic fraction in the nucleation mode size class in different atmospheric environments. The basic principle of the organic fraction detection is based on our laboratory UFO-TDMA measurements with organic and inorganic compounds. Our laboratory measurements indicate that the usefulness of the UFO-TDMA in the field experiments would arise especially from the fact that atmospherically the most relevant inorganic compounds do not grow in subsaturated ethanol vapor, when particle size is 10 nm in diameter and saturation ratio is about 86% or below it. Furthermore, internally mixed particles composed of ammonium bisulfate and sulfuric acid with sulfuric acid mass fraction ≤33% show no growth at 85% saturation ratio. In contrast, 10 nm particles composed of various oxidized organic compounds of atmospheric relevance are able to grow in those conditions. These discoveries indicate that it is possible to detect the presence of organics in atmospheric nucleation mode sized particles using the UFO-TDMA method. In the future, the UFO-TDMA is expected to be an important aid to describe the composition of atmospheric newly-formed particles.

  19. Surface functionalized hollow silica particles and composites

    KAUST Repository

    Rodionov, Valentin

    2017-05-26

    Composition comprising hollow spherical silica particles having outside particle walls and inside particle walls, wherein the particles have an average particle size of about 10 nm to about 500 nm and an average wall thickness of about 10 nm to about 50 nm; and wherein the particles are functionalized with at least one organic functional group on the outside particle wall, on the inside particle wall, or on both the outside and inside particle walls, wherein the organic functional group is in a reacted or unreacted form. The organic functional group can be epoxy. The particles can be mixed with polymer precursor or a polymer material such as epoxy to form a prepreg or a nanocomposite. Lightweight but strong materials can be formed. Low loadings of hollow particles can be used.

  20. Surface functionalized hollow silica particles and composites

    KAUST Repository

    Rodionov, Valentin; Khanh, Vu Bao

    2017-01-01

    Composition comprising hollow spherical silica particles having outside particle walls and inside particle walls, wherein the particles have an average particle size of about 10 nm to about 500 nm and an average wall thickness of about 10 nm to about 50 nm; and wherein the particles are functionalized with at least one organic functional group on the outside particle wall, on the inside particle wall, or on both the outside and inside particle walls, wherein the organic functional group is in a reacted or unreacted form. The organic functional group can be epoxy. The particles can be mixed with polymer precursor or a polymer material such as epoxy to form a prepreg or a nanocomposite. Lightweight but strong materials can be formed. Low loadings of hollow particles can be used.

  1. The role of ions in new particle formation in the CLOUD chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wagner

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The formation of secondary particles in the atmosphere accounts for more than half of global cloud condensation nuclei. Experiments at the CERN CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets chamber have underlined the importance of ions for new particle formation, but quantifying their effect in the atmosphere remains challenging. By using a novel instrument setup consisting of two nanoparticle counters, one of them equipped with an ion filter, we were able to further investigate the ion-related mechanisms of new particle formation. In autumn 2015, we carried out experiments at CLOUD on four systems of different chemical compositions involving monoterpenes, sulfuric acid, nitrogen oxides, and ammonia. We measured the influence of ions on the nucleation rates under precisely controlled and atmospherically relevant conditions. Our results indicate that ions enhance the nucleation process when the charge is necessary to stabilize newly formed clusters, i.e., in conditions in which neutral clusters are unstable. For charged clusters that were formed by ion-induced nucleation, we were able to measure, for the first time, their progressive neutralization due to recombination with oppositely charged ions. A large fraction of the clusters carried a charge at 1.5 nm diameter. However, depending on particle growth rates and ion concentrations, charged clusters were largely neutralized by ion–ion recombination before they grew to 2.5 nm. At this size, more than 90 % of particles were neutral. In other words, particles may originate from ion-induced nucleation, although they are neutral upon detection at diameters larger than 2.5 nm. Observations at Hyytiälä, Finland, showed lower ion concentrations and a lower contribution of ion-induced nucleation than measured at CLOUD under similar conditions. Although this can be partly explained by the observation that ion-induced fractions decrease towards lower ion concentrations, further investigations

  2. Weathering model in paleomagnetic field intensity measurements on ancient fired clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singalas, I.; Gangas, N-H.J.; Danon, J.

    1978-03-01

    Nonlinearities observed in Thellier's plots are explained in terms of a weathering model. This model is based on the reduction in size of the originaly present iron oxide particles, due to leaching. In the general case, the slope of the Thellier's plot is a function of the particle size destributions of the magnetic particles, both newly formed and leached ones. In the special case in which the newly formed magnetic particles are superparamagnetic, the limiting value of the slope of th Thellier's plot towards the magnetic ordering temperature is equal to the ratio of the ancient field intensity to the modern one

  3. Evolution of single-particle structure and beta-decay near 78Ni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borzov I. N.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The extended self-consistent beta-decay model has been applied for bet-decay rates and delayed neutron emission probabilities of spherical neutron-rich isotopes near the r-process paths. Unlike a popular global FRDM+RPA model, in our fully microscopic approach, the Gamow-Teller and first-forbidden decays are treated on the same footing. The model has been augmented by blocking of the odd particle in order to account for important ground-state spin-parity inversion effect which has been shown to exist in the region of the most neutron-rich doubly-magic nucleus 78Ni. Finally, a newly developed form of density functional DF3a has been employed which gives a better spin-orbit splitting due to the modified tensor components of the density functional.

  4. Mass spectrometer provided with an optical system for separating neutron particles against charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeher, J R; Story, M S; Smith, R D

    1977-03-03

    This invention concerns a mass spectrometer with an ion focusing optical system that efficiently separates the charged and neutral particles. It concerns an apparatus that can be used in ionisation areas operating at relatively high pressure (> 10/sup -2/ Torr). The invention relates more particularly to a mass spectrometer with an inlet device for the samples to be identified, a sample ionisation system for forming charged and neutral particles, a mass analyser and an optical system for focusing the ions formed in the mass analyser. The optics include several conducting components of which at least one has sides formed of grids, in the direction of the axis, towards the analyser the optics forming a potential well along the axis. The selected charged particles are focused in the analyser and the remaining particles can escape by the openings in the conducting grids.

  5. Unstable structure of ribosomal particles synthesized in. gamma. -irradiated Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, H; Morita, K [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1975-06-01

    Stability of Escherichia coli ribosomes newly synthesized after ..gamma..-irradiation was compared with that of normal ribosomes. The ribosomal particles around 70-S synthesized in irradiated cells were more sensitive to digestion by pancreatic ribonuclease A. A larger number of the salt-unstable '50-S' precursor particles existed in the extract from irradiated cells than in the extract from unirradiated cells. These facts suggest that ribosomal particles, synthesized during an earlier stage in irradiated cells, maintain an incomplete structure even though they are not distinguishable from normal ribosomes by means of sucrose density-gradient centrifugation.

  6. Wave actions and topography determine the small-scale spatial distribution of newly settled Asari clams Ruditapes philippinarum on a tidal flat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambu, Ryogen; Saito, Hajime; Tanaka, Yoshio; Higano, Junya; Kuwahara, Hisami

    2012-03-01

    There are many studies on spatial distributions of Asari clam Ruditapes philippinarum adults on tidal flats but few have dealt with spatial distributions of newly settled Asari clam (physical/topographical conditions on tidal flats. We examined small-scale spatial distributions of newly settled individuals on the Matsunase tidal flat, central Japan, during the low spring tides on two days 29th-30th June 2007, together with the shear stress from waves and currents on the flat. The characteristics of spatial distribution of newly settled Asari clam markedly varied depending on both of hydrodynamic and topographical conditions on the tidal flat. Using generalized linear models (GLMs), factors responsible for affecting newly settled Asari clam density and its spatial distribution were distinguished between sampling days, with "crest" sites always having a negative influence each on the density and the distribution on both sampling days. The continuously recorded data for the wave-current flows at the "crest" site on the tidal flat showed that newly settled Asari clam, as well as bottom sediment particles, at the "crest" site to be easily displaced. Small-scale spatial distributions of newly settled Asari clam changed with more advanced benthic stages in relation to the wave shear stress.

  7. Newly graduated nurses' use of knowledge sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldbjerg, Siri Lygum; Grønkjaer, Mette; Sørensen, Erik Elgaard

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To advance evidence on newly graduated nurses' use of knowledge sources. BACKGROUND: Clinical decisions need to be evidence-based and understanding the knowledge sources that newly graduated nurses use will inform both education and practice. Qualitative studies on newly graduated nurses' use...... underscoring progression in knowledge use and perception of competence and confidence among newly graduated nurses. CONCLUSION: The transition phase, feeling of confidence and ability to use critical thinking and reflection, has a great impact on knowledge sources incorporated in clinical decisions....... The synthesis accentuates that for use of newly graduated nurses' qualifications and skills in evidence-based practice, clinical practice needs to provide a supportive environment which nurtures critical thinking and questions and articulates use of multiple knowledge sources....

  8. Environmental and health impacts of fine and ultrafine metallic particles: Assessment of threat scores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goix, Sylvaine [Université de Toulouse, INP-ENSAT, Av. Agrobiopôle, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); UMR 5245 CNRS-INP-UPS, EcoLab (Laboratoire d' écologie fonctionnelle), Avenue de l' Agrobiopôle, BP 32607, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); Lévêque, Thibaut [Université de Toulouse, INP-ENSAT, Av. Agrobiopôle, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); UMR 5245 CNRS-INP-UPS, EcoLab (Laboratoire d' écologie fonctionnelle), Avenue de l' Agrobiopôle, BP 32607, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); ADEME (French Agency for Environment and Energy Management), 20 Avenue du Grésillé, BP 90406, 49004 Angers Cedex 01 (France); Xiong, Tian-Tian [Université de Toulouse, INP-ENSAT, Av. Agrobiopôle, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); UMR 5245 CNRS-INP-UPS, EcoLab (Laboratoire d' écologie fonctionnelle), Avenue de l' Agrobiopôle, BP 32607, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); Schreck, Eva [Géosciences Environnement Toulouse (GET), Observatoire Midi Pyrénées, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, IRD, 14 Avenue E. Belin, F-31400 Toulouse (France); and others

    2014-08-15

    This study proposes global threat scores to prioritize the harmfulness of anthropogenic fine and ultrafine metallic particles (FMP) emitted into the atmosphere at the global scale. (Eco)toxicity of physicochemically characterized FMP oxides for metals currently observed in the atmosphere (CdO, CuO, PbO, PbSO{sub 4}, Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and ZnO) was assessed by performing complementary in vitro tests: ecotoxicity, human bioaccessibility, cytotoxicity, and oxidative potential. Using an innovative methodology based on the combination of (eco)toxicity and physicochemical results, the following hazard classification of the particles is proposed: CdCl{sub 2}∼CdO>CuO>PbO>ZnO>PbSO{sub 4}>Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Both cadmium compounds exhibited the highest threat score due to their high cytotoxicity and bioaccessible dose, whatever their solubility and speciation, suggesting that cadmium toxicity is due to its chemical form rather than its physical form. In contrast, the Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} threat score was the lowest due to particles with low specific area and solubility, with no effects except a slight oxidative stress. As FMP physicochemical properties reveal differences in specific area, crystallization systems, dissolution process, and speciation, various mechanisms may influence their biological impact. Finally, this newly developed and global approach could be widely used in various contexts of pollution by complex metal particles and may improve risk management. - Highlights: • Seven micro- and nano- monometallic characterized particles were studied as references. • Bioaccessibility, eco and cytotoxicity, and oxidative potential assays were performed. • According to calculated threat scores: CdCl{sub 2}∼CdO>CuO>PbO>ZnO>PbSO{sub 4}>Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  9. Summertime observations of elevated levels of ultrafine particles in the high Arctic marine boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, Julia; Willis, Megan D.; Bozem, Heiko; Thomas, Jennie L.; Law, Kathy; Hoor, Peter; Aliabadi, Amir A.; Köllner, Franziska; Schneider, Johannes; Herber, Andreas; Abbatt, Jonathan P. D.; Leaitch, W. Richard

    2017-05-01

    Motivated by increasing levels of open ocean in the Arctic summer and the lack of prior altitude-resolved studies, extensive aerosol measurements were made during 11 flights of the NETCARE July 2014 airborne campaign from Resolute Bay, Nunavut. Flights included vertical profiles (60 to 3000 m above ground level) over open ocean, fast ice, and boundary layer clouds and fogs. A general conclusion, from observations of particle numbers between 5 and 20 nm in diameter (N5 - 20), is that ultrafine particle formation occurs readily in the Canadian high Arctic marine boundary layer, especially just above ocean and clouds, reaching values of a few thousand particles cm-3. By contrast, ultrafine particle concentrations are much lower in the free troposphere. Elevated levels of larger particles (for example, from 20 to 40 nm in size, N20 - 40) are sometimes associated with high N5 - 20, especially over low clouds, suggestive of aerosol growth. The number densities of particles greater than 40 nm in diameter (N > 40) are relatively depleted at the lowest altitudes, indicative of depositional processes that will lower the condensation sink and promote new particle formation. The number of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN; measured at 0.6 % supersaturation) are positively correlated with the numbers of small particles (down to roughly 30 nm), indicating that some fraction of these newly formed particles are capable of being involved in cloud activation. Given that the summertime marine Arctic is a biologically active region, it is important to better establish the links between emissions from the ocean and the formation and growth of ultrafine particles within this rapidly changing environment.

  10. Transparent Exopolymeric Particles (TEP Selectively Increase Biogenic Silica Dissolution From Fossil Diatoms as Compared to Fresh Diatoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Toullec

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Diatom production is mainly supported by the dissolution of biogenic silica (bSiO2 within the first 200 m of the water column. The upper oceanic layer is enriched in dissolved and/or colloidal organic matter, such as exopolymeric polysaccharides (EPS and transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP excreted by phytoplankton in large amounts, especially at the end of a bloom. In this study we explored for the first time the direct influence of TEP-enriched diatom excretions on bSiO2 dissolution. Twelve dissolution experiments on fresh and fossil diatom frustules were carried out on seawater containing different concentrations of TEP extracted from diatom cultures. Fresh diatom frustules were cleaned from the organic matter by low ash temperature, and fossil diatoms were made from diatomite powder. Results confirm that newly formed bSiO2 dissolved at a faster rate than fossil diatoms due to a lower aluminum (Al content. Diatom excretions have no effect on the dissolution of the newly formed bSiO2 from Chaetoceros muelleri. Reversely, the diatomite specific dissolution rate constant and solubility of the bSiO2 were positively correlated to TEP concentrations, suggesting that diatom excretion may provide an alternative source of dSi when limitations arise.

  11. A multi-parametric particle-pairing algorithm for particle tracking in single and multiphase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardwell, Nicholas D; Vlachos, Pavlos P; Thole, Karen A

    2011-01-01

    Multiphase flows (MPFs) offer a rich area of fundamental study with many practical applications. Examples of such flows range from the ingestion of foreign particulates in gas turbines to transport of particles within the human body. Experimental investigation of MPFs, however, is challenging, and requires techniques that simultaneously resolve both the carrier and discrete phases present in the flowfield. This paper presents a new multi-parametric particle-pairing algorithm for particle tracking velocimetry (MP3-PTV) in MPFs. MP3-PTV improves upon previous particle tracking algorithms by employing a novel variable pair-matching algorithm which utilizes displacement preconditioning in combination with estimated particle size and intensity to more effectively and accurately match particle pairs between successive images. To improve the method's efficiency, a new particle identification and segmentation routine was also developed. Validation of the new method was initially performed on two artificial data sets: a traditional single-phase flow published by the Visualization Society of Japan (VSJ) and an in-house generated MPF data set having a bi-modal distribution of particles diameters. Metrics of the measurement yield, reliability and overall tracking efficiency were used for method comparison. On the VSJ data set, the newly presented segmentation routine delivered a twofold improvement in identifying particles when compared to other published methods. For the simulated MPF data set, measurement efficiency of the carrier phases improved from 9% to 41% for MP3-PTV as compared to a traditional hybrid PTV. When employed on experimental data of a gas–solid flow, the MP3-PTV effectively identified the two particle populations and reported a vector efficiency and velocity measurement error comparable to measurements for the single-phase flow images. Simultaneous measurement of the dispersed particle and the carrier flowfield velocities allowed for the calculation of

  12. Magnetic particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Manchium (Inventor); Colvin, Michael S. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Magnetic polymer particles are formed by swelling porous, polymer particles and impregnating the particles with an aqueous solution of precursor magnetic metal salt such as an equimolar mixture of ferrous chloride and ferric chloride. On addition of a basic reagent such as dilute sodium hydroxide, the metal salts are converted to crystals of magnetite which are uniformly contained througout the pores of the polymer particle. The magnetite content can be increased and neutral buoyancy achieved by repetition of the impregnaton and neutralization steps to adjust the magnetite content to a desired level.

  13. Simulating Marine New Particle Formation and Growth Using the M7 Modal Aerosol Dynamics Modal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciaran Monahan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A modal atmospheric aerosol model (M7 is evaluated in terms of predicting marine new particle formation and growth. Simulations were carried out for three different nucleation schemes involving (1 kinetic self-nucleation of OIO (2 nucleation via OIO activation by H2SO4 and (3 nucleation via OIO activation by H2SO4 plus condensation of a low-volatility organic vapour. Peak OIO and H2SO4 vapour concentrations were both limited to 6×106 molecules cm-3 at noontime while the peak organic vapour concentration was limited to 12×106 molecules cm-3. All simulations produced significant concentrations of new particles in the Aitken mode. From a base case particle concentration of 222 cm-3 at radii >15 nm, increases in concentrations to 366 cm-3 were predicted from the OIO-OIO case, 722 cm-3 for the OIO-H2SO4 case, and 1584 cm-3 for the OIO-H2SO4 case with additional condensing organic vapours. The results indicate that open ocean new particle production is feasible for clean conditions; however, new particle production becomes most significant when an additional condensable organic vapour is available to grow the newly formed particles to larger sizes. Comparison to sectional model for a typical case study demonstrated good agreement and the validity of using the modal model.

  14. Production of micron-sized polymer particles for additive manufacturing by melt emulsification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanselow, Stephanie; Schmidt, Jochen; Wirth, Karl-Ernst; Peukert, Wolfgang, E-mail: Wolfgang.Peukert@fau.de [Institute of Particle Technology, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Cauerstrasse 4, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2016-03-09

    Melt emulsification is an advanced top-down approach that permits to produce spherical particles and thus widens the availability of polymer feed materials for additive manufacturing. In the process the polymer is molten in a continuous phase and droplet breakup is realized in a rotor-stator-device. The stabilization of the newly formed surfaces is quite challenging. Therefore, a new method to identify an appropriate emulsifier by measuring the interfacial tension between the polymer and continuous phase using a high pressure / high temperature cell is presented. The obtained powders are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and by a Zimmermann tensile strength tester to determine the powder flowability. The processability of the polymer powders for additive manufacturing is investigated and demonstrated by building single layers by laser beam melting.

  15. Phytotoxicity, uptake, and accumulation of silver with different particle sizes and chemical forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quah, Bryan [Southern Illinois University Carbondale, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (United States); Musante, Craig; White, Jason C. [The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, Department of Analytical Chemistry (United States); Ma, Xingmao, E-mail: xma@civil.tamu.edu [Texas A& M University, Zachry Department of Civil Engineering (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The antimicrobial property of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) makes it one of the most commonly encountered nanomaterials in commercial products. Consequently, its detection in the environment is highly likely and its potential toxicity has been heavily investigated. While it is now generally agreed that AgNP itself exerts unique toxicity to plants in addition to that of dissolved silver ion, the accumulation and fate of different forms of silver in plant tissues are unknown. This study investigates the phytotoxicity, accumulation, and transport of Ag with different physical and chemical characteristics (e.g., ionic, nanoparticles, and bulk) in two agricultural crop species: Glycine max (soybean) and Triticum aestivum (wheat). The results showed that different forms of Ag demonstrated differential toxicity in these two species, with the Ag{sup +} at the same nominal concentration displaying the strongest effect on plant growth. Exposure to 5 mg/L of elemental Ag in different forms all resulted in significant deposition on the root surface but its morphology and distribution patterns varied considerably. The Ag transport efficiency from roots to shoots differed with both Ag type and plant species. Notably, the upward transport of AgNPs (20–50 nm) was considerably more substantial than that of bulk Ag (1–3 µm). Cell fractionation studies confirmed that all types of Ag were internalized, with the plant cell wall as the predominant place for element accumulation. The findings demonstrate that Ag toxicity and in planta fate vary with particle type and that such considerations are likely necessary to adequately assess food safety concerns upon NP exposure.

  16. Coated particles for lithium battery cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mohit; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Pratt, Russell Clayton; Mullin, Scott Allen; Wang, Xiao-Liang

    2017-07-18

    Particles of cathodic materials are coated with polymer to prevent direct contact between the particles and the surrounding electrolyte. The polymers are held in place either by a) growing the polymers from initiators covalently bound to the particle, b) attachment of the already-formed polymers by covalently linking to functional groups attached to the particle, or c) electrostatic interactions resulting from incorporation of cationic or anionic groups in the polymer chain. Carbon or ceramic coatings may first be formed on the surfaces of the particles before the particles are coated with polymer. The polymer coating is both electronically and ionically conductive.

  17. An Efficient and Robust Method for Lagrangian Magnetic Particle Tracking in Fluid Flow Simulations on Unstructured Grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen Stuart, D.C.; Kleijn, C.R.; Kenjeres, S.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we report on a newly developed particle tracking scheme for fluid flow simulations on 3D unstructured grids, aiming to provide detailed insights in the particle behaviour in complex geometries. A possible field of applications is the Magnetic Drug Targeting (MDT) technique, on which

  18. Development of particle multiplicity distributions using a general form of the grand canonical partition function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.J.; Mekjian, A.Z.

    2004-01-01

    Various phenomenological models of particle multiplicity distributions are discussed using a general form of a unified model which is based on the grand canonical partition function and Feynman's path integral approach to statistical processes. These models can be written as special cases of a more general distribution which has three control parameters which are a,x,z. The relation to these parameters to various physical quantities are discussed. A connection of the parameter a with Fisher's critical exponent τ is developed. Using this grand canonical approach, moments, cumulants and combinants are discussed and a physical interpretation of the combinants are given and their behavior connected to the critical exponent τ. Various physical phenomena such as hierarchical structure, void scaling relations, Koba-Nielson-Olesen or KNO scaling features, clan variables, and branching laws are shown in terms of this general approach. Several of these features which were previously developed in terms of the negative binomial distribution are found to be more general. Both hierarchical structure and void scaling relations depend on the Fisher exponent τ. Applications of our approach to the charged particle multiplicity distribution in jets of L3 and H1 data are given

  19. Trajectory traces of charged particles in the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejiri, M.

    1978-01-01

    The characteristic enhancements of ring current particles with energies of about 1--1000keV, associated with magnetospheric substorms, were observed by Explorer 45 (S 3 -A) around the plasmapause in the afternoon to midnight region and showed the characteristic structure called a 'noise' in the proton spectrograms. This paper examines the time developing characteristics of newly injected particles in the magnetosphere under a recently proposed convection electric field and a dipole magnetic field. Approximate equations of a bounce period, a second adiabatic invariant, and a bounce-averaged azimuthal velocity are given with an error of less than about 10 -3 for all pitch angles. The complete set of flow patterns of 90 0 pitch angles is also described by means of inflection lines through whicch radial and/or azimuthal drifts change their directions and where particle velocities show their local minima, i.e., the flow becomes sluggish. These particle tracings in the magnetosphere, from which time dependent particle fronts can be constructed, give the basic concept and mechanics to explain the complex and dynamical properties of the magnetic storm time particle enhancements

  20. Los Alamos Plutonium Facility newly generated TRU waste certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruetzmacher, K.; Montoya, A.; Sinkule, B.; Maez, M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the activities being planned and implemented to certify newly generated contact handled transuranic (TRU) waste produced by Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL's) Plutonium Facility. Certifying waste at the point of generation is the most important cost and labor saving step in the WIPP certification process. The pedigree of a waste item is best known by the originator of the waste and frees a site from expensive characterization activities such as those associated with legacy waste. Through a cooperative agreement with LANLs Waste Management Facility and under the umbrella of LANLs WIPP-related certification and quality assurance documents, the Plutonium Facility will be certifying its own newly generated waste. Some of the challenges faced by the Plutonium Facility in preparing to certify TRU waste include the modification and addition of procedures to meet WIPP requirements, standardizing packaging for TRU waste, collecting processing documentation from operations which produce TRU waste, and developing ways to modify waste streams which are not certifiable in their present form

  1. Quasi-particles at finite temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narnhofer, H.; Thirring, W.; Requardt, M.

    1983-01-01

    We study the consequences of the KMS-condition on the properties of quasi-particles, assuming their existence. We establish: (i) If the correlation functions decay sufficiently, we can create them by quasi-free field operators. (ii) There are many age-operators T conjugate to H. For special forms of the dispersion law epsilon(k) of the quasi-particles there is a T commuting with the; (iii) There are many age-operators T conjugate to H. For special forms of the dispersion law epsilon(k) of the quasi-particles there is a T commuting with the number of quasi-particles and its time-monotonicity describes how the quasi-particles travel to infinity. (orig.)

  2. Porous metal oxide particles and their methods of synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fanglin; Liu, Qiang

    2013-03-12

    Methods are generally disclosed for synthesis of porous particles from a solution formed from a leaving agent, a surfactant, and a soluble metal salt in a solvent. The surfactant congregates to form a nanoparticle core such that the metal salt forms about the nanoparticle core to form a plurality of nanoparticles. The solution is heated such that the leaving agent forms gas bubbles in the solution, and the plurality of nanoparticles congregate about the gas bubbles to form a porous particle. The porous particles are also generally disclosed and can include a particle shell formed about a core to define an average diameter from about 0.5 .mu.m to about 50 .mu.m. The particle shell can be formed from a plurality of nanoparticles having an average diameter of from about 1 nm to about 50 nm and defined by a metal salt formed about a surfactant core.

  3. The enterovirus 71 A-particle forms a gateway to allow genome release: a cryoEM study of picornavirus uncoating.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin L Shingler

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Since its discovery in 1969, enterovirus 71 (EV71 has emerged as a serious worldwide health threat. This human pathogen of the picornavirus family causes hand, foot, and mouth disease, and also has the capacity to invade the central nervous system to cause severe disease and death. Upon binding to a host receptor on the cell surface, the virus begins a two-step uncoating process, first forming an expanded, altered "A-particle", which is primed for genome release. In a second step after endocytosis, an unknown trigger leads to RNA expulsion, generating an intact, empty capsid. Cryo-electron microscopy reconstructions of these two capsid states provide insight into the mechanics of genome release. The EV71 A-particle capsid interacts with the genome near the icosahedral two-fold axis of symmetry, which opens to the external environment via a channel ∼10 Å in diameter that is lined with patches of negatively charged residues. After the EV71 genome has been released, the two-fold channel shrinks, though the overall capsid dimensions are conserved. These structural characteristics identify the two-fold channel as the site where a gateway forms and regulates the process of genome release.

  4. Hardened over-coating fuel particle and manufacture of nuclear fuel using its fuel particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimuda, Hideharu.

    1990-01-01

    Coated-fuel particles comprise a coating layer formed by coating ceramics such as silicon carbide or zirconium carbide and carbons, etc. to a fuel core made of nuclear fuel materials. The fuel core generally includes oxide particles such as uranium, thorium and plutonium, having 400 to 600 μm of average grain size. The average grain size of the coated-fuel particle is usually from 800 to 900 μm. The thickness of the coating layer is usually from 150 to 250 μm. Matrix material comprising a powdery graphite and a thermosetting resin such as phenol resin, etc. is overcoated to the surface of the coated-fuel particle and hardened under heating to form a hardened overcoating layer to the coated-fuel particle. If such coated-fuel particles are used, cracks, etc. are less caused to the coating layer of the coated-fuel particles upon production, thereby enabling to prevent the damages to the coating layer. (T.M.)

  5. Loading relativistic Maxwell distributions in particle simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenitani, S.

    2015-12-01

    In order to study energetic plasma phenomena by using particle-in-cell (PIC) and Monte-Carlo simulations, we need to deal with relativistic velocity distributions in these simulations. However, numerical algorithms to deal with relativistic distributions are not well known. In this contribution, we overview basic algorithms to load relativistic Maxwell distributions in PIC and Monte-Carlo simulations. For stationary relativistic Maxwellian, the inverse transform method and the Sobol algorithm are reviewed. To boost particles to obtain relativistic shifted-Maxwellian, two rejection methods are newly proposed in a physically transparent manner. Their acceptance efficiencies are 􏰅50% for generic cases and 100% for symmetric distributions. They can be combined with arbitrary base algorithms.

  6. Traffic of indistinguishable particles in complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qing-Kuan, Meng; Jian-Yang, Zhu

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we apply a simple walk mechanism to the study of the traffic of many indistinguishable particles in complex networks. The network with particles stands for a particle system, and every vertex in the network stands for a quantum state with the corresponding energy determined by the vertex degree. Although the particles are indistinguishable, the quantum states can be distinguished. When the many indistinguishable particles walk randomly in the system for a long enough time and the system reaches dynamic equilibrium, we find that under different restrictive conditions the particle distributions satisfy different forms, including the Bose–Einstein distribution, the Fermi–Dirac distribution and the non-Fermi distribution (as we temporarily call it). As for the Bose–Einstein distribution, we find that only if the particle density is larger than zero, with increasing particle density, do more and more particles condense in the lowest energy level. While the particle density is very low, the particle distribution transforms from the quantum statistical form to the classically statistical form, i.e., transforms from the Bose distribution or the Fermi distribution to the Boltzmann distribution. The numerical results fit well with the analytical predictions

  7. Newly Homeless Youth Typically Return Home

    OpenAIRE

    Milburn, Norweeta G.; Rosenthal, Doreen; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Mallett, Shelley; Batterham, Philip; Rice, Eric; Solorio, Rosa

    2007-01-01

    165 newly homeless adolescents from Melbourne, Australia and 261 from Los Angeles, United States were surveyed and followed for two years. Most newly homeless adolescents returned home (70% U.S., 47% Australia) for significant amounts of time (39% U.S., 17% Australia more than 12 months) within two years of becoming homeless.

  8. Improving Vector Evaluated Particle Swarm Optimisation by incorporating nondominated solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kian Sheng; Ibrahim, Zuwairie; Buyamin, Salinda; Ahmad, Anita; Naim, Faradila; Ghazali, Kamarul Hawari; Mokhtar, Norrima

    2013-01-01

    The Vector Evaluated Particle Swarm Optimisation algorithm is widely used to solve multiobjective optimisation problems. This algorithm optimises one objective using a swarm of particles where their movements are guided by the best solution found by another swarm. However, the best solution of a swarm is only updated when a newly generated solution has better fitness than the best solution at the objective function optimised by that swarm, yielding poor solutions for the multiobjective optimisation problems. Thus, an improved Vector Evaluated Particle Swarm Optimisation algorithm is introduced by incorporating the nondominated solutions as the guidance for a swarm rather than using the best solution from another swarm. In this paper, the performance of improved Vector Evaluated Particle Swarm Optimisation algorithm is investigated using performance measures such as the number of nondominated solutions found, the generational distance, the spread, and the hypervolume. The results suggest that the improved Vector Evaluated Particle Swarm Optimisation algorithm has impressive performance compared with the conventional Vector Evaluated Particle Swarm Optimisation algorithm.

  9. Online Particle Physics Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreitz, Patricia A

    2003-04-24

    This list describes a broad set of online resources that are of value to the particle physics community. It is prescreened and highly selective. It describes the scope, size, and organization of the resources so that efficient choices can be made amongst many sites which may appear similar. A resource is excluded if it provides information primarily of interest to only one institution. Because this list must be fixed in print, it is important to consult the updated version of this compilation which includes newly added resources and hypertext links to more complete information at: http://www.slac.stanford.edu/library/pdg/.

  10. Online Particle Physics Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreitz, Patricia A

    2003-01-01

    This list describes a broad set of online resources that are of value to the particle physics community. It is prescreened and highly selective. It describes the scope, size, and organization of the resources so that efficient choices can be made amongst many sites which may appear similar. A resource is excluded if it provides information primarily of interest to only one institution. Because this list must be fixed in print, it is important to consult the updated version of this compilation which includes newly added resources and hypertext links to more complete information at: http://www.slac.stanford.edu/library/pdg/

  11. Detailed modeling of size distribution functions and hydrogen content in combustion-formed particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirignano, Mariano; D' Anna, Andrea [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita di Napoli ' ' Federico II' ' , Napoli (Italy); Kent, John [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia)

    2010-06-15

    A kinetic modeling approach is proposed to delve into the nature and chemistry of combustion-produced particles. A sectional method is used for the first time on this purpose. It is based on modeling of gas-to-particle transitions by sections containing 125 lumped species with C numbers ranging from 24 to 4 x 10{sup 8} and H/C ratio ranging from 0 to 1. This allows not only the mass evolution of particles, but also their hydrogen content to be followed. The model is tested in an atmospheric pressure premixed flat flame of ethylene/oxygen with C/O = 0.8 and cold gas flow velocity of 4 cm/s. Comparison of modeled results with experimental data is satisfying in terms of species concentrations and H/C ratio of the particles. Analysis of model results in comparison with the experimental data has shown that it is possible to distinguish different precursors of particles moving from the exit of the burner into the post-oxidation region of the flame. At particle inception, i.e. just downstream from the flame front, gas-phase PAHs are responsible for particle nucleation and oligomers of aromatic hydrocarbons and small pericondensed hydrocarbons are predominantly present. Then the dehydrogenation process takes place and soot formation starts; in this zone large pericondensed and stacked structures are produced. Further up soot maturation generally linked with dehydrogenation is present, but still a few particles with higher H/C and with low coagulation efficiency are produced and remain present along the flame. The model, in accordance with experimental structural soot analysis, shows that in soot particles condensed structures typical of clusters of large pericondensed hydrocarbons are present whereas high-molecular mass condensed species mainly comprise oligomers of small aromatic compounds of clusters of small pericondensed hydrocarbons. (author)

  12. The Generation of Turnip Crinkle Virus-Like Particles in Plants by the Transient Expression of Wild-Type and Modified Forms of Its Coat Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Keith; Lomonossoff, George P

    2015-01-01

    Turnip crinkle virus (TCV), a member of the genus carmovirus of the Tombusviridae family, has a genome consisting of a single positive-sense RNA molecule that is encapsidated in an icosahedral particle composed of 180 copies of a single type of coat protein. We have employed the CPMV-HT transient expression system to investigate the formation of TCV-like particles following the expression of the wild-type coat protein or modified forms of it that contain either deletions and/or additions. Transient expression of the coat protein in plants results in the formation of capsid structures that morphologically resemble TCV virions (T = 3 structure) but encapsidate heterogeneous cellular RNAs, rather than the specific TCV coat protein messenger RNA. Expression of an amino-terminal deleted form of the coat protein resulted in the formation of smaller T = 1 structures that are free of RNA. The possibility of utilizing TCV as a carrier for the presentation of foreign proteins on the particle surface was also explored by fusing the sequence of GFP to the C-terminus of the coat protein. The expression of coat protein-GFP hybrids permitted the formation of VLPs but the yield of particles is diminished compared to the yield obtained with unmodified coat protein. Our results confirm the importance of the N-terminus of the coat protein for the encapsidation of RNA and show that the coat protein's exterior P domain plays a key role in particle formation.

  13. Charge interaction between particle-laden fluid interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui; Kirkwood, John; Lask, Mauricio; Fuller, Gerald

    2010-03-02

    Experiments are described where two oil/water interfaces laden with charged particles move at close proximity relative to one another. The particles on one of the interfaces were observed to be attracted toward the point of closest approach, forming a denser particle monolayer, while the particles on the opposite interface were repelled away from this point, forming a particle depletion zone. Such particle attraction/repulsion was observed even if one of the interfaces was free of particles. This phenomenon can be explained by the electrostatic interaction between the two interfaces, which causes surface charges (charged particles and ions) to redistribute in order to satisfy surface electric equipotential at each interface. In a forced particle oscillation experiment, we demonstrated the control of charged particle positions on the interface by manipulating charge interaction between interfaces.

  14. Rice Starch Particle Interactions at Air/Aqueous Interfaces—Effect of Particle Hydrophobicity and Solution Ionic Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamee, Cathy E.; Sato, Yu; Wiege, Berthold; Furikado, Ippei; Marefati, Ali; Nylander, Tommy; Kappl, Michael; Rayner, Marilyn

    2018-01-01

    Starch particles modified by esterification with dicarboxylic acids to give octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) starch is an approved food additive that can be used to stabilize oil in water emulsions used in foods and drinks. However, the effects of the OSA modification of the starch particle on the interfacial interactions are not fully understood. Here, we directly measured the packing of films of rice starch granules, i.e., the natural particle found inside the plant, at air/aqueous interfaces, and the interaction forces in that system as a function of the particle hydrophobicity and ionic strength, in order to gain insight on how starch particles can stabilize emulsions. This was achieved by using a combined Langmuir trough and optical microscope system, and the Monolayer Interaction Particle Apparatus. Native rice starch particles were seen to form large aggregates at air/water interfaces, causing films with large voids to be formed at the interface. The OSA modification of the rice starches particles decreased this aggregation. Increasing the degree of modification improved the particle packing within the film of particles at the air/water interface, due to the introduction of inter-particle electrostatic interactions within the film. The introduction of salt to the water phase caused the particles to aggregate and form holes within the film, due to the screening of the charged groups on the starch particles by the salt. The presence of these holes in the film decreased the stiffness of the films. The effect of the OSA modification was concluded to decrease the aggregation of the particles at an air/water interface. The presence of salts, however, caused the particles to aggregate, thereby reducing the strength of the interfacial film. PMID:29868551

  15. A palette of particles

    CERN Document Server

    Bernstein, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    From molecules to stars, much of the cosmic canvas can be painted in brushstrokes of primary color: the protons, neutrons, and electrons we know so well. But for meticulous detail, we have to dip into exotic hues - leptons, mesons, hadrons, quarks. Bringing particle physics to life as few authors can, Jeremy Bernstein here unveils nature in all its subatomic splendor. In this graceful account, Bernstein guides us through high-energy physics from the early twentieth century to the present, including such highlights as the newly discovered Higgs boson. Beginning with Ernest Rutherford's 1911 explanation of the nucleus, a model of atomic structure emerged that sufficed until the 1930s, when new particles began to be theorized and experimentally confirmed. In the postwar period, the subatomic world exploded in a blaze of unexpected findings leading to the theory of the quark, in all its strange and charmed variations. An eyewitness to developments at Harvard University and the Institute for Advanced Study in Prin...

  16. Total Particle Number Emissions from Modern Diesel, Natural Gas, and Hybrid Heavy-Duty Vehicles During On-Road Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianyang; Quiros, David C; Thiruvengadam, Arvind; Pradhan, Saroj; Hu, Shaohua; Huai, Tao; Lee, Eon S; Zhu, Yifang

    2017-06-20

    Particle emissions from heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) have significant environmental and public health impacts. This study measured total particle number emission factors (PNEFs) from six newly certified HDVs powered by diesel and compressed natural gas totaling over 6800 miles of on-road operation in California. Distance-, fuel- and work-based PNEFs were calculated for each vehicle. Distance-based PNEFs of vehicles equipped with original equipment manufacturer (OEM) diesel particulate filters (DPFs) in this study have decreased by 355-3200 times compared to a previous retrofit DPF dynamometer study. Fuel-based PNEFs were consistent with previous studies measuring plume exhaust in the ambient air. Meanwhile, on-road PNEF shows route and technology dependence. For vehicles with OEM DPFs and Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems, PNEFs under highway driving (i.e., 3.34 × 10 12 to 2.29 × 10 13 particles/mile) were larger than those measured on urban and drayage routes (i.e., 5.06 × 10 11 to 1.31 × 10 13 particles/mile). This is likely because a significant amount of nucleation mode volatile particles were formed when the DPF outlet temperature reached a critical value, usually over 310 °C, which was commonly achieved when vehicle speed sustained over 45 mph. A model year 2013 diesel HDV produced approximately 10 times higher PNEFs during DPF active regeneration events than nonactive regeneration.

  17. An experimental study of the impact of trees and urban form on the turbulent dispersion of heavy particles from near ground point sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, R., II; Christen, A.; Mahaffee, W.; Salesky, S.; Therias, A.; Caitlin, S.

    2017-12-01

    Pollution in the form of small particles has a strong impact on a wide variety of urban processes that play an important role in the function of urban ecosystems and ultimately human health and well-being. As a result, a substantial body of research exists on the sources, sinks, and transport characteristics of urban particulate matter. Most of the existing experimental work examining point sources employed gases (e.g., SF6) as the working medium. Furthermore, the focus of most studies has been on the dispersion of pollutants far from the source location. Here, our focus is on the turbulent dispersion of heavy particles in the near source region of a suburban neighborhood. To this end, we conducted a series of heavy particle releases in the Sunset neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada during June, 2017. The particles where dispersed from a near ground point source at two different locations. The Sunset neighborhood is composed mostly of single dwelling detached houses and has been used in numerous previous urban studies. One of the release points was just upwind of a 4-way intersection and the other in the middle of a contiguous block of houses. Each location had a significant density of trees. A minimum of four different successful release events were conducted at each site. During each release, fluorescing micro particles (mean diameter approx. 30 micron) were released from ultrasonic atomizer nozzles for a duration of approximately 20 minutes. The particles where sampled at 50 locations (1.5 m height) in the area downwind of the release over distances from 1-15 times the mean canopy height ( 6 m) using rotating impaction traps. In addition to the 50 sampler locations, instantaneous wind velocities were measured with eight sonic anemometers distributed horizontally and vertically throughout the release area. The resulting particle plume distributions indicate a strong impact of local urban form in the near source region and a high degree of sensitivity to the local

  18. Beyond the God particle

    CERN Document Server

    Lederman, Leon M

    2013-01-01

    On July 4, 2012, the long-sought Higgs Boson--aka "the God Particle"--was discovered at the world's largest particle accelerator, the LHC, in Geneva, Switzerland. On March 14, 2013, physicists at CERN confirmed it. This elusive subatomic particle forms a field that permeates the entire universe, creating the masses of the elementary particles that are the basic building blocks of everything in the known world--from viruses to elephants, from atoms to quasars.

  19. Clearance patterns for 111In-oxide particles deposited in specific airways of beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snipes, M.B.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Griffith, W.C.; Guilmette, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has incorporated long-term retention of radioactive particles in conducting airways into its newly approved respiratory tract dosimetry model. This model is purported to provide a better basis for assessing risk associated with human inhalation exposures to radioactive particles. However, applying the new model requires an understanding of particle retention patterns in conducting airways of the lung. Studies are being conducted at ITRI to quantify long-term retention patterns for particles deposited at specific sites in conducting airways of Beagle dogs. The dog was selected as a model because long-term retention and clearance patterns for particles deposited in the lungs of dogs and humans are similar

  20. Formation of Ag nanoparticles in percolative Ag–PbTiO3 composite thin films through lead-rich Ag–Pb alloy particles formed as transitional phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Tao; Wang, Zongrong; Su, Yanbo; Tang, Liwen; Shen, Ge; Song, Chenlu; Han, Gaorong; Weng, Wenjian; Ma, Ning; Du, Piyi

    2012-01-01

    The Ag nanoparticle dispersed percolative PbTiO 3 ceramic thin film was prepared in situ by sol–gel method with excess lead introduced into a sol precursor. The influence of excess lead and the heat treatment time on the formation of Ag nanoparticles was investigated by energy dispersive X-ray spectra, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and ultraviolet–visible absorption spectra. Results showed that the excess lead introduced into the sol precursor was in favor of the crystallization of the thin film and in favor of formation of the perovskite phase without the pyrochlore phase. Lead-rich Ag–Pb alloy particles first formed in the thin films and then decomposed to become large numbers of Ag nanoparticles of about 3 nm in size in the thin films when the heat treatment time was longer than 2 min. The content of the Ag nanoparticles increased with increasing the heat treatment time. The percolative behavior appears typically in the Ag nanoparticle dispersed thin films. The dielectric constant of the thin film was about 3 times of that without Ag nanoparticles. - Highlights: ► The Ag nanoparticles formed in the PbTiO 3 percolative ceramic thin film. ► The Ag–Pb alloy particles formed as transitional phase during thin film preparation. ► The lead-rich Ag–Pb alloy particles decomposed to form Ag nanoparticles in the film. ► Permittivity of the thin film is 3 times higher than that without Ag nanoparticles.

  1. Radioactive particles in the environment: sources, particle characterization and analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-08-01

    Over the years, radioactive particles have been released to the environment from nuclear weapons testing and nuclear fuel cycle operations. However, measurements of environmental radioactivity and any associated assessments are often based on the average bulk mass or surface concentration, assuming that radionuclides are homogeneously distributed as simple ionic species. It has generally not been recognised that radioactive particles present in the environment often contain a significant fraction of the bulk sample activity, leading to sample heterogeneity problems and false and/or erratic measurement data. Moreover, the inherent differences in the transport and bioavailability of particle bound radionuclides compared with those existing as molecules or ions have largely been ignored in dose assessments. To date, most studies regarding radionuclide behaviour in the soil-plant system have dealt with soluble forms of radionuclides. When radionuclides are deposited in a less mobile form, or in case of a superposition of different physico-chemical forms, the behaviour of radionuclides becomes much more complicated and extra efforts are required to provide information about environmental status and behaviour of radioactive particles. There are currently no documents or international guides covering this aspect of environmental impact assessments. To fill this gap, between 2001 and 2008 the IAEA performed a Coordinated Research Programme (CRP- G4.10.03) on the 'Radiochemical, Chemical and Physical Characterization of Radioactive Particles in the Environment' with the objective of development, adoption and application of standardized analytical techniques for the comprehensive study of radioactive particles. The CRP was in line with the IAEA project intended to assist the Member States in building capacity for improving environmental assessments and for management of sites contaminated with radioactive particles. This IAEA-TECDOC presents the findings and achievements of

  2. Novel fragmentation model for pulverized coal particles gasification in low temperature air thermal plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Rastko D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available New system for start-up and flame support based on coal gasification by low temperature air thermal plasma is planned to supplement current heavy oil system in Serbian thermal power plants in order to decrease air pollutions emission and operational costs. Locally introduced plasma thermal energy heats up and ignites entrained coal particles, thus starting chain process which releases heat energy from gasified coal particles inside burner channel. Important stages during particle combustion, such as particle devolatilisation and char combustion, are described with satisfying accuracy in existing commercial CFD codes that are extensively used as powerful tool for pulverized coal combustion and gasification modeling. However, during plasma coal gasification, high plasma temperature induces strong thermal stresses inside interacting coal particles. These stresses lead to “thermal shock” and extensive particle fragmentation during which coal particles with initial size of 50-100 m disintegrate into fragments of at most 5-10 m. This intensifies volatile release by a factor 3-4 and substantially accelerates the oxidation of combustible matter. Particle fragmentation, due to its small size and thus limited influence on combustion process is commonly neglected in modelling. The main focus of this work is to suggest novel approach to pulverized coal gasification under high temperature conditions and to implement it into commercial comprehensive code ANSYS FLUENT 14.0. Proposed model was validated against experimental data obtained in newly built pilot scale D.C plasma burner test facility. Newly developed model showed very good agreement with experimental results with relative error less than 10%, while the standard built-in gasification model had error up to 25%.

  3. Immunoparesis in newly diagnosed Multiple Myeloma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorrig, Rasmus; Klausen, Tobias W.; Salomo, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Immunoparesis (hypogammaglobulinemia) is associated to an unfavorable prognosis in newly diagnosed Multiple myeloma (MM) patients. However, this finding has not been validated in an unselected population-based cohort. We analyzed 2558 newly diagnosed MM patients in the Danish Multiple Myeloma...

  4. Auroral particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    The problems concerning the aurora posed prior to the war are now either solved in principle or were restated in a more fundamental form. The pre-war hypothesis concerning the nature of the auroral particles and their energies was fully confirmed, with the exception that helium and oxygen ions were identified as participating in the auroral particle precipitation in addition to the protons. The nature of the near-Earth energization processes affecting auroral particles was clarified. Charged particle trajectories in various electric field geometries were modeled. The physical problems have now moved from determining the nature and geometry of the electric fields, which accelerate charged particles near the Earth, to accounting for the existence of these electric fields as a natural consequence of the solar wind's interaction with Earth. Ultimately the reward in continuing the work in auroral and magnetospheric particle dynamics will be a deeper understanding of the subtleties of classical electricity and magnetism as applied to situations not blessed with well-defined and invariant geometries

  5. Flow Patterns in the Sedimentation of a Capsule-Shaped Particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie De-Ming; Lin Jian-Zhong; Zhang Kai

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to numerically investigate the settling of a capsule-shaped particle in an infinitely long channel by the newly developed LB-DF/FD method. This work will focus on the effects of the particle orientation and particle/fluid density ratio on the flow patterns during sedimentation. As the density ratio is varied, our results show that there are four distinct modes of sedimentation: vertical sedimentation, horizontal sedimentation, periodically oscillating sedimentation and chaotic mode where the particle is released from the center of the domain with an initial inclination of π/4 to break the symmetry. Furthermore, we also numerically investigate the flow patterns where the particle is released with an initial inclination of 0, π/6, π/3 and π/2. We conduct a detailed study on the effects of density ratio on the transition from the vertical sedimentation mode to horizontal sedimentation mode. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  6. Phase transitions of antibiotic clarithromycin forms I, IV and new form VII crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Masataka; Shiba, Rika; Watanabe, Miteki; Iwao, Yasunori; Itai, Shigeru; Noguchi, Shuji

    2018-06-01

    Metastable crystal form I of the antibiotic clarithromycin has a pharmaceutically valuable characteristic that its crystalline phase transition can be applied for its sustained release from tablets. The phase transition of form I was investigated in detail by single crystal and powder X-ray analyses, dynamic vapor sorption analysis and thermal analysis. The single crystal structure of form I revealed that form I was not an anhydrate crystal but contained a partially occupied water molecule in the channel-like void space. Dynamic vapor sorption (DVS) analysis demonstrated that form I crystals reversibly sorbed water molecules in two steps when the relative humidity (RH) increased and finally transited to hydrate form IV at 95% RH. DVS analysis also showed that when the RH decreased form IV crystals lost water molecules at 40% RH and transited to the newly identified anhydrate crystal form VII. Form VII reversibly transited to form IV at lower RH than form I, suggesting that form I is more suitable for manufacturing a sustained-release tablet of CAM utilizing the crystalline phase transition. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Construction of the radiation oncology teaching files system for charged particle radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masami, Mukai; Yutaka, Ando; Yasuo, Okuda; Naoto, Takahashi; Yoshihisa, Yoda; Hiroshi, Tsuji; Tadashi, Kamada

    2013-01-01

    Our hospital started the charged particle therapy since 1996. New institutions for charged particle therapy are planned in the world. Our hospital are accepting many visitors from those newly planned medical institutions and having many opportunities to provide with the training to them. Based upon our experiences, we have developed the radiation oncology teaching files system for charged particle therapy. We adopted the PowerPoint of Microsoft as a basic framework of our teaching files system. By using our export function of the viewer any physician can create teaching files easily and effectively. Now our teaching file system has 33 cases for clinical and physics contents. We expect that we can improve the safety and accuracy of charged particle therapy by using our teaching files system substantially.

  8. Particle hygroscopicity and its link to chemical composition in the urban atmosphere of Beijing, China, during summertime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. J. Wu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous measurements of particle number size distribution, particle hygroscopic properties, and size-resolved chemical composition were made during the summer of 2014 in Beijing, China. During the measurement period, the mean hygroscopicity parameters (κs of 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 nm particles were respectively 0.16  ±  0.07, 0.19  ±  0.06, 0.22  ±  0.06, 0.26  ±  0.07, and 0.28  ±  0.10, showing an increasing trend with increasing particle size. Such size dependency of particle hygroscopicity was similar to that of the inorganic mass fraction in PM1. The hydrophilic mode (hygroscopic growth factor, HGF  >  1.2 was more prominent in growth factor probability density distributions and its dominance of hydrophilic mode became more pronounced with increasing particle size. When PM2.5 mass concentration was greater than 50 μg m−3, the fractions of the hydrophilic mode for 150, 250, and 350 nm particles increased towards 1 as PM2.5 mass concentration increased. This indicates that aged particles dominated during severe pollution periods in the atmosphere of Beijing. Particle hygroscopic growth can be well predicted using high-time-resolution size-resolved chemical composition derived from aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS measurements using the Zdanovskii–Stokes–Robinson (ZSR mixing rule. The organic hygroscopicity parameter (κorg showed a positive correlation with the oxygen to carbon ratio. During the new particle formation event associated with strongly active photochemistry, the hygroscopic growth factor or κ of newly formed particles is greater than for particles with the same sizes not during new particle formation (NPF periods. A quick transformation from external mixture to internal mixture for pre-existing particles (for example, 250 nm particles was observed. Such transformations may modify the state of the mixture of pre-existing particles and thus modify properties such

  9. On the Matching of Seen and Felt Shape by Newly Sighted Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Schwenkler

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available How do we recognize identities between seen shapes and felt ones? Is this due to associative learning, or intrinsic connections these sensory modalities? We can address this question by testing the capacities of newly sighted subjects to match seen and felt shapes, but only if the subjects can see the objects well enough to form adequate visual representations of their shapes. In light of this, a recent study by R. Held and colleagues fails to demonstrate that their newly sighted subjects' inability to match seen and felt shape was due to a lack of intermodal connections rather than a purely visual deficit, as the subjects may not have been able visually to represent 3D shape in the perspective-invariant manner required for intermodal matching. However, the study could be modified in any of several ways to help avoid this problem.

  10. Pineapple Fruit Collapse: Newly Emerging Disease of Pineapple Fruit in Lampung, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Joko Prasetyo; Titik Nur Aeny

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pineapple fruit collapse: newly emerging disease of pineapple fruit in Lampung, Indonesia Recently, a new disease on pineapple fruit has occurred in Lampung. Symptoms of the disease are complex. Fruits rotted and exuded copious liquid from the inter- fruitlet tissues accompanied by gas bubbles. Open spaces were formed inside the rotten fruit. Dissection of diseased fruit showed many cavities within its sceletal fibres and bad odour was exerted from the rotten tissues. A bacterial...

  11. Generational differences among newly licensed registered nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keepnews, David M; Brewer, Carol S; Kovner, Christine T; Shin, Juh Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Responses of 2369 newly licensed registered nurses from 3 generational cohorts-Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y-were studied to identify differences in their characteristics, work-related experiences, and attitudes. These responses revealed significant differences among generations in: job satisfaction, organizational commitment, work motivation, work-to-family conflict, family-to-work conflict, distributive justice, promotional opportunities, supervisory support, mentor support, procedural justice, and perceptions of local job opportunities. Health organizations and their leaders need to anticipate intergenerational differences among newly licensed nurses and should provide for supportive working environments that recognize those differences. Orientation and residency programs for newly licensed nurses should be tailored to the varying needs of different generations. Future research should focus on evaluating the effectiveness of orientation and residency programs with regard to different generations so that these programs can be tailored to meet the varying needs of newly licensed nurses at the start of their careers. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Hope in newly diagnosed cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggleby, Wendy; Ghosh, Sunita; Cooper, Dan; Dwernychuk, Lynne

    2013-11-01

    Hope is important to cancer patients as it helps them deal with their diagnosis. Little is known about hope in newly diagnosed cancer patients. Based on the Transcending Possibilities conceptual model of hope, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of hope with pain, energy, and psychological and demographic characteristics in newly diagnosed adult oncology outpatients. Data from 310 New Patient Assessment Forms from cancer outpatients' health records were collected. Health records from the first six months of 2009 were reviewed and data were collected on hope, energy, pain, depression, anxiety, feeling overwhelmed, and demographic variables. A generalized linear modeling approach was used to study the relationship of hope scores with these variables. Hypothesized variables and variables that were significant at the P = 0.01 level from the univariate analysis were entered into the multivariate model, with hope scores as the dependent variable. Hope scores were significantly negatively related to age (P = 0.02). More specifically, oncology patients who were 65 years of age or older had significantly less hope than those under the age of 65 years (P = 0.01). Gender (P = 0.009) also was a significant factor, with men having higher hope scores than women. No other variables were significant. Older adults comprise the majority of persons in Canada with cancer. The lower hope scores found in this age group compared with their younger counterparts underscore the importance of further research. This study provides a foundation for future research in this important area for oncology patients. Copyright © 2013 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Improving Vector Evaluated Particle Swarm Optimisation by Incorporating Nondominated Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kian Sheng Lim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Vector Evaluated Particle Swarm Optimisation algorithm is widely used to solve multiobjective optimisation problems. This algorithm optimises one objective using a swarm of particles where their movements are guided by the best solution found by another swarm. However, the best solution of a swarm is only updated when a newly generated solution has better fitness than the best solution at the objective function optimised by that swarm, yielding poor solutions for the multiobjective optimisation problems. Thus, an improved Vector Evaluated Particle Swarm Optimisation algorithm is introduced by incorporating the nondominated solutions as the guidance for a swarm rather than using the best solution from another swarm. In this paper, the performance of improved Vector Evaluated Particle Swarm Optimisation algorithm is investigated using performance measures such as the number of nondominated solutions found, the generational distance, the spread, and the hypervolume. The results suggest that the improved Vector Evaluated Particle Swarm Optimisation algorithm has impressive performance compared with the conventional Vector Evaluated Particle Swarm Optimisation algorithm.

  14. A Monte Carlo method for the simulation of coagulation and nucleation based on weighted particles and the concepts of stochastic resolution and merging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotalczyk, G., E-mail: Gregor.Kotalczyk@uni-due.de; Kruis, F.E.

    2017-07-01

    Monte Carlo simulations based on weighted simulation particles can solve a variety of population balance problems and allow thus to formulate a solution-framework for many chemical engineering processes. This study presents a novel concept for the calculation of coagulation rates of weighted Monte Carlo particles by introducing a family of transformations to non-weighted Monte Carlo particles. The tuning of the accuracy (named ‘stochastic resolution’ in this paper) of those transformations allows the construction of a constant-number coagulation scheme. Furthermore, a parallel algorithm for the inclusion of newly formed Monte Carlo particles due to nucleation is presented in the scope of a constant-number scheme: the low-weight merging. This technique is found to create significantly less statistical simulation noise than the conventional technique (named ‘random removal’ in this paper). Both concepts are combined into a single GPU-based simulation method which is validated by comparison with the discrete-sectional simulation technique. Two test models describing a constant-rate nucleation coupled to a simultaneous coagulation in 1) the free-molecular regime or 2) the continuum regime are simulated for this purpose.

  15. Crystallographic and single-particle analyses of native- and nucleotide-bound forms of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awayn, N H; Rosenberg, M F; Kamis, A B; Aleksandrov, L A; Riordan, J R; Ford, R C

    2005-11-01

    Cystic fibrosis, one of the major human inherited diseases, is caused by defects in the CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator), a cell-membrane protein. CFTR acts as a chloride channel which can be opened by ATP. Low-resolution structural studies of purified recombinant human CFTR are described in the present paper. Localization of the C-terminal decahistidine tag in CFTR was achieved by Ni2+-nitriloacetate nanogold labelling, followed by electron microscopy and single-particle analysis. The presence of the gold label appears to improve the single-particle-alignment procedure. Projection structures of CFTR from two-dimensional crystals analysed by electron crystallography displayed two alternative conformational states in the presence of nucleotide and nanogold, but only one form of the protein was observed in the quiescent (nucleotide-free) state.

  16. Health-related quality of life of children with newly diagnosed specific learning disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karande, Sunil; Bhosrekar, Kirankumar; Kulkarni, Madhuri; Thakker, Arpita

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to measure health-related quality of life (HRQL) of children with newly diagnosed specific learning disability (SpLD) using the Child Health Questionnaire-Parent Form 50. We detected clinically significant deficits (effect size > or = -0.5) in 9 out of 12 domains: limitations in family activities, emotional impact on parents, social limitations as a result of emotional-behavioral problems, time impact on parents, general behavior, physical functioning, social limitations as a result of physical health, general health perceptions and mental health; and in both summary scores (psychosocial > physical). Multivariate analysis revealed having > or = 1 non-academic problem(s) (p or =1 non-academic problem(s) (p = 0.006) or first-born status (p = 0.035) predicted a poor physical summary score. HRQL is significantly compromised in children having newly diagnosed SpLD.

  17. Effects of fibre-form nanostructures on particle emissions from a tungsten surface in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamura, S.; Miyamoto, T.; Ohno, N.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of fibre-form nanostructure of a tungsten surface on both electron emission and sputtering in helium/argon plasmas are represented. Generally, a nano-fibre forest, the so-called ‘fuzz’, made of tungsten with helium gas inside is found to have the tendency of suppressing the particle emission substantially. The electron emission comes from the impact of high-energy primary electrons. In addition, a deeply biased tungsten target, which inhibits the influx of even energetic primary electrons, seems to produce an electron emission, and it may be suppressed on the way to nanostructure formation on the surface of the W target. Such an emission process is discussed here. The sputtering yield of the He-damaged tungsten surface with the fibre-form nanostructure depends on the surface morphology while the sputtering itself changes the surface morphology, so that the time evolutions of sputtering yield from the W surface with an originally well-developed nanostructure are found to show a minimum in sputtering yield, which is about a half for the fresh nanostructured tungsten and roughly one-fifth of the yield for the original flat normal tungsten surface. The surface morphology at that time is, for the first time, made clear with field emission scanning electron microscopy observation. The physical mechanism for the appearance of such a minimum in sputtering yield is discussed. (paper)

  18. Violation of Particle Anti-particle Symmetry

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    Symmetry is a fundamental concept which can be found in the whole range of human activities e. g. from arts to science. The beauty of a statues is often related to its symmetric form. In physics, all the laws are related to some sort of symmetry. Equally important is a small breakdown ofsymmetry. Even for the case of a statue, its beauty might be enhanced by introducing small distortions. In this course, we investigate the role symmetry in the world of elementary particles. Some symmetries found there are very similar to those which can be seen in our daily life, while others are more exotic and related to the quantum nature of the elementary particles. Our particular focus ismade on symmetry and its violation between the matter and anti-matter, known as CP violation. It is experimentally well established that particleand anti-particle behave a tiny bit differently in the world of elementary particles. We discuss how this would be explained and how we can extendour knowledge. Evolution of our universe is stro...

  19. Maintaining Professional Commitment as a Newly Credentialed Athletic Trainer in the Secondary School Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Myers, Sarah L; Walker, Stacy E; Kirby, Jessica

    2018-03-01

      Professional commitment, or one's affinity and loyalty to a career, has become a topic of interest in athletic training. The expanding research on the topic, however, has omitted newly credentialed athletic trainers (ATs). For an impressionable group of practitioners, transitioning to clinical practice can be stressful.   To explore the professional commitment of newly credentialed ATs in the secondary school setting.   Secondary school.   Qualitative study.   A total of 31 newly credentialed ATs (6 men, 25 women; mean age = 24 ± 3 years) participated. Of these, 17 ATs (4 men, 13 women; mean age = 25 ± 4 years) were employed full time in the secondary school setting, and 14 ATs (2 men, 12 women; mean age = 23.0 ± 2.0 years) were graduate assistant students in the secondary school setting.   All participants completed semistructured interviews, which focused on their experiences in the secondary school setting and transitioning into the role and setting. Transcripts were analyzed using the phenomenologic approach. Creditability was established by peer review, member checks, and researcher triangulation.   Four main findings related to the professional commitment of newly credentialed ATs in the secondary school setting were identified. Work-life balance, professional relationships formed with the student-athletes, enjoyment gained from working in the secondary school setting, and professional responsibility emerged as factors facilitating commitment.   Affective commitment is a primary facilitator of professional commitment. Newly credentialed ATs who enjoy their jobs and have time to engage in nonwork roles are able to maintain a positive professional commitment. Our findings align with the previous literature and help strengthen our understanding that rejuvenation and passion are important to professional commitment.

  20. A method for the separation of non-ferrous metal containing particles from a particle stream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Weijden, R.D.; Rem, P.C.

    2004-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for the recovery of non-ferrous metal-comprising particles from a particle stream. According to the invention, the particle stream is put onto a conveyor belt in the form of a monolayer such that with the aid of a liquid, at least the non-ferrous metal comprising

  1. Washing of gel particles in wet chemical manufacture of reactor fuel particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringel, H.

    1980-07-01

    In the manufacture of HTR fuel particles and particles of fertile material by wet chemical methods, the ammonium nitrate formed during the precipitation reaction must be washed out of the gel particles. This washing process has been investigated theoretically and experimentally. A counter-current washer has been developed which in particular takes account of the aspects of refabrication - such as compact construction and minimum waste. A counter-current washing column of 17 mm internal diameter and 640 mm length gives to gel particle throughput of 0.65 1/h. The volume ratio of wash water to gel particles is 5, and the residual nitrate concentration in the particles is 7 x 10 -3 mols of NO - 3 /1. (orig.) [de

  2. Astrophysical dark matter: candidates from particle physics and detection possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freese, K.

    1989-01-01

    In this talk, I will discuss the arguments that 50% to 90% of the matter in galaxies, including our own, is made of an unknown type of dark matter. I will review the reason why cosmologists believe Ω = 1 and illustrate the contrast with the limits on the amount of baryonic matter from element abundances in Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. Other arguments for nonbaryonic dark matter will also be discussed. Candidates for the dark matter from particle physics will be presented. I will focus on cold dark matter candidates known as WIMPs, weakly interacting massive (O(GeV)) particles. I will try to illustrate why these particles are interesting for astrophysics and outline ideas for cornering them. Detection possibilities for these particles include indirect detection, which takes advantage of the annihilation products of these particles in the galactic halo, the sun, or the earth. Direct detection via newly proposed cryogenic detectors must be sensitive to <∼ keV energy deposits. Annual modulation of the dark matter signal can be used as a signature for these halo particles. I hope to motivate the interest in these particles and discuss ideas for finding them

  3. Ripple enhanced transport of suprathermal alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, K.; Takizuka, T.; Azumi, M.

    1986-01-01

    The ripple enhanced transport of suprathermal alpha particles has been studied by the newly developed Monte-Carlo code in which the motion of banana orbit in a toroidal field ripple is described by a mapping method. The existence of ripple-resonance diffusion has been confirmed numerically. We have developed another new code in which the radial displacement of banana orbit is given by the diffusion coefficients from the mapping code or the orbit following Monte-Carlo code. The ripple loss of α particles during slowing down has been estimated by the mapping model code as well as the diffusion model code. From the comparison of the results with those from the orbit-following Monte-Carlo code, it has been found that all of them agree very well. (author)

  4. Michael Maier--nine newly discovered letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenke, Nils; Roudet, Nicolas; Tilton, Hereward

    2014-02-01

    The authors provide a transcription, translation, and evaluation of nine newly discovered letters from the alchemist Michael Maier (1568-1622) to Gebhardt Johann von Alvensleben (1576-1631), a noble landholder in the vicinity of Magdeburg. Stemming from the final year of his life, this correspondence casts new light on Maier's biography, detailing his efforts to secure patronage amid the financial crisis of the early Thirty Years' War. While his ill-fated quest to perfect potable gold continued to form the central focus of his patronage suits, Maier also offered his services in several arts that he had condemned in his printed works, namely astrology and "supernatural" magic. Remarks concerning his previously unknown acquaintance with Heinrich Khunrath call for a re-evaluation of Maier's negotiation of the discursive boundaries between Lutheran orthodoxy and Paracelsianism. The letters also reveal Maier's substantial contribution to a work previously ascribed solely to the English alchemist Francis Anthony.

  5. Establishment probability in newly founded populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusset Markus

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Establishment success in newly founded populations relies on reaching the established phase, which is defined by characteristic fluctuations of the population’s state variables. Stochastic population models can be used to quantify the establishment probability of newly founded populations; however, so far no simple but robust method for doing so existed. To determine a critical initial number of individuals that need to be released to reach the established phase, we used a novel application of the “Wissel plot”, where –ln(1 – P0(t is plotted against time t. This plot is based on the equation P0t=1–c1e–ω1t, which relates the probability of extinction by time t, P0(t, to two constants: c1 describes the probability of a newly founded population to reach the established phase, whereas ω1 describes the population’s probability of extinction per short time interval once established. Results For illustration, we applied the method to a previously developed stochastic population model of the endangered African wild dog (Lycaon pictus. A newly founded population reaches the established phase if the intercept of the (extrapolated linear parts of the “Wissel plot” with the y-axis, which is –ln(c1, is negative. For wild dogs in our model, this is the case if a critical initial number of four packs, consisting of eight individuals each, are released. Conclusions The method we present to quantify the establishment probability of newly founded populations is generic and inferences thus are transferable to other systems across the field of conservation biology. In contrast to other methods, our approach disaggregates the components of a population’s viability by distinguishing establishment from persistence.

  6. Formation and dynamic change of aerosol particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasahara, Mikio

    1986-01-01

    Processes of aerosol particle nucleation are roughly grouped into two types. In one, aerosol is produced as a result of dispersion of solid or liquid by mechanical force while in the other it is formed through phase transition from gas to solid or liquid due to cohesion caused by cooling, expansion or chemical reaction. This article reviews various aspects of aerosol particle nucleation through the latter type of processes and behaviors of the particles formed. Gas-to-particle conversion processes are divided into those of homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation, and the former include homogeneous homomolecular and homogeneous heteromolecular nucleation processes. Here, homoneneous homomolecular nucleation is described centering on the theories proposed by Backer and Doring-Zeldovich-Volmer-Frenkel while homogeneous heteromolecular systems are outlined citing the theory developed by Kiang and Stauffer. Heterogeneous nucleation (or heterogeneous condensation) is discussed on the basis of the relationship between the mean free path of air molecules and the particle size. Various theories for particle formation and growth are listed and briefly outlined. Some of them are compared with experimental results. Models are cited to explain behaviors of aerosol particles after being formed. Also described is simulation of particle nucleation and growth in relation to atmospheric pollution and possible accidents of liquid-metal fast breeder reactors. (Nogami, K.)

  7. Dispersion relations in three-particle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grach, I.L.; Harodetskij, I.M.; Shmatikov, M.Zh.

    1979-01-01

    Positions of all dynamical singularities of the triangular nonrelativistic diagram are calculated including the form factors. The jumps of the amplitude are written in an analitical form. The dispersion method predictions for bound states in the three-particle system are compared with the results of the Amado exactly solvable model. It is shown that the one-channel N/D method is equivalent to the pole approximation in the Amado model, and that the three-particle s channel unitarity should be taken into account calculating (in the dispersion method) the ground and excited states of the three-particle system. The relation of the three-particle unitary contribution to the Thomas theorem and Efimov effect is briefly discussed

  8. Particle-assisted wetting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Hui; Yan Feng; Tierno, Pietro; Marczewski, Dawid; Goedel, Werner A

    2005-01-01

    Wetting of a solid surface by a liquid is dramatically impeded if either the solid or the liquid is decorated by particles. Here it is shown that in the case of contact between two liquids the opposite effect may occur; mixtures of a hydrophobic liquid and suitable particles form wetting layers on a water surface though the liquid alone is non-wetting. In these wetting layers, the particles adsorb to, and partially penetrate through, the liquid/air and/or the liquid/water interface. This formation of wetting layers can be explained by the reduction in total interfacial energy due to the replacement of part of the fluid/fluid interfaces by the particles. It is most prominent if the contact angles at the fluid/fluid/particle contact lines are close to 90 0

  9. Non-isochronous spiral orbit particle accelerator and fixed frequency closed orbit particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, Takashi; Hattori, Toshiyuki

    2006-01-01

    One of the present inventions provides a spiral orbit charged particle accelerator in which the magnetic field increases as the radius increases more rapidly than an isochronous magnetic field distribution, and the distribution of fixed-frequency accelerating RF voltage is formed so that a harmonic number changes in integer for every particle revolution. The other invention realizes to make the closed orbit charged particle accelerator having a fixed frequency amplitude modulator that is able to modulate amplitude of the RF voltage so that a harmonic number decreases in integer in an every particle revolution. (author)

  10. Ultrahigh-energy particles from cosmic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharjee, P.

    1991-02-01

    The idea of production of ultrahigh-energy particles in the present universe due to annihilation or collapse of topological defects is discussed. Topological defects, formed in symmetry-breaking phase transitions in the early universe, can survive till today owing to their topological stability. However, under certain circumstances, topological defects may be physically destroyed. When topological defects are destroyed, the energy contained in the defects can be released in the form of massive gauge- and Higgs bosons of the underlying spontaneously broken gauge theory. Subsequent decay of these massive particles can give rise to energetic particles ranging up to an energy on the order of the mass of the original particles released from the defects. This may give us a ''natural'' mechanism of production of extremely energetic cosmic ray particles in the universe today, without the need for any acceleration mechanism. To illustrate this idea, I describe in detail the calculation of the expected ultrahigh-energy proton spectrum due to a specific process which involves collapse or multiple self-intersections of a class of closed cosmic string loops formed in a phase transition at a grand unification energy scale. I discuss the possibility that some of the highest-energy cosmic ray particles are of this origin. By comparing with the observational results on the ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays, we derive an upper limit to the average fraction of the total energy in all ''primary'' cosmic string loops that may be released in the form of particles due to collapse or multiple self-intersections of these loops. No nuclei such as α's or Fe's are in the spectrum. 43 refs., 3 figs

  11. Investigations on the magnetization behavior of magnetic composite particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichholz, Christian [Process Research and Chemical Engineering, BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Knoll, Johannes, E-mail: johannes.knoll@kit.edu [Institute of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Lerche, Dietmar [L.U.M. GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Nirschl, Hermann [Institute of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    In life sciences the application of surface functionalized magnetic composite particles is establishing in diagnostics and in downstream processing of modern biotechnology. These magnetic composite particles consist of non-magnetic material, e.g. polystyrene, which serves as a matrix for the second magnetic component, usually colloidal magnetite. Because of the multitude of magnetic cores these magnetic beads show a complex magnetization behavior which cannot be described with the available approaches for homogeneous magnetic material. Therefore, in this work a new model for the magnetization behavior of magnetic composite particles is developed. By introducing an effective magnetization and considering an overall demagnetization factor the deviation of the demagnetization of homogeneously magnetized particles is taken into account. Calculated and experimental results show a good agreement which allows for the verification of the adapted model of particle magnetization. Besides, a newly developed magnetic analyzing centrifuge is used for the characterization of magnetic composite particle systems. The experimental results, also used for the model verification, give both, information about the magnetic properties and the interaction behavior of particle systems. By adding further components to the particle solution, such as salts or proteins, industrial relevant systems can be reconstructed. The analyzing tool can be used to adapt industrial processes without time-consuming preliminary tests with large samples in the process equipments. - Highlights: • New model for magnetizability calculation of magnetic composite particles. • New method for particle bulk characterization relating to their magnetizability. • Model verification due to experimental data.

  12. Investigations on the magnetization behavior of magnetic composite particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichholz, Christian; Knoll, Johannes; Lerche, Dietmar; Nirschl, Hermann

    2014-01-01

    In life sciences the application of surface functionalized magnetic composite particles is establishing in diagnostics and in downstream processing of modern biotechnology. These magnetic composite particles consist of non-magnetic material, e.g. polystyrene, which serves as a matrix for the second magnetic component, usually colloidal magnetite. Because of the multitude of magnetic cores these magnetic beads show a complex magnetization behavior which cannot be described with the available approaches for homogeneous magnetic material. Therefore, in this work a new model for the magnetization behavior of magnetic composite particles is developed. By introducing an effective magnetization and considering an overall demagnetization factor the deviation of the demagnetization of homogeneously magnetized particles is taken into account. Calculated and experimental results show a good agreement which allows for the verification of the adapted model of particle magnetization. Besides, a newly developed magnetic analyzing centrifuge is used for the characterization of magnetic composite particle systems. The experimental results, also used for the model verification, give both, information about the magnetic properties and the interaction behavior of particle systems. By adding further components to the particle solution, such as salts or proteins, industrial relevant systems can be reconstructed. The analyzing tool can be used to adapt industrial processes without time-consuming preliminary tests with large samples in the process equipments. - Highlights: • New model for magnetizability calculation of magnetic composite particles. • New method for particle bulk characterization relating to their magnetizability. • Model verification due to experimental data

  13. Microstructural evolution and magnetic properties of ultrafine solute-atom particles formed in a Cu75-Ni20-Fe5 alloy on isothermal annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Seop; Takeda, Mahoto; Bae, Dong-Sik

    2016-12-01

    Microstructural features strongly affect magnetism in nano-granular magnetic materials. In the present work we have investigated the relationship between the magnetic properties and the self-organized microstructure formed in a Cu75-Ni20-Fe5 alloy comprising ferromagnetic elements and copper atoms. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) observations showed that on isothermal annealing at 873 K, nano-scale solute (Fe,Ni)-rich clusters initially formed with a random distribution in the Cu-rich matrix. Superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) measurements revealed that these ultrafine solute clusters exhibited super-spinglass and superparamagnetic states. On further isothermal annealing the precipitates evolved to cubic or rectangular ferromagnetic particles and aligned along the directions of the copper-rich matrix. Electron energy-band calculations based on the first-principle Korringa-Kohn-Rostocker (KKR) method were also implemented to investigate both the electronic structure and the magnetic properties of the alloy. Inputting compositions obtained experimentally by scanning transmission electron microscopy-electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (STEM-EDS) analysis, the KKR calculation confirmed that ferromagnetic precipitates (of moment 1.07μB per atom) formed after annealing for 2 × 104 min. Magneto-thermogravimetric (MTG) analysis determined with high sensitivity the Curie temperatures and magnetic susceptibility above room temperature of samples containing nano-scale ferromagnetic particles.

  14. Capillary interactions in nano-particle suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossev, D.P.; Warren, G.

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the structures formed by colloidal particles suspended in solvents at volume fractions below 10% and interacting through capillary bridges. Such systems resemble colloidal gas of sticky nano-spheres that form pearl-necklace like chains that, in turn, induce strong viscoelasticity due to the formation of 3-D fractal network. The capillary force dominates the electrostatic and Van der Waals forces in solutions and can bridge multiple particles depending of the volume of the capillary bridge. We have investigated the morphology of the structures formed at different fractions of the bridging fluid. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) is used to study nanoparticles with an average diameter of 10 nm in polar and non-polar organic solvents at ambient temperatures. SANS intensity as a function of the scattering vector is analyzed as a product of a form factor, that depends on the particle shape, and a structure factor, that characterizes the interparticle inter reactions. The interaction of particles in polar solvents is considered to be through electrostatic repulsion and the data is successfully fitted by Hayter-Penfold mean spherical approximation (HPMSA). Computer simulations of a pearl necklace-like chain of spheres is conducted to explain the structure factor when capillary bridges are present. Alternatively, we have analyzed the slope of the intensity at low scattering vector in a double logarithmic plot to determine the dimension of the fractal structures formed by the particles at different volume fraction of the bridging fluid. We have also studied the properties of the capillary bridge between a pair of particles. The significance of this study is to explore the possibility of using capillary force as a tool to engineer new colloidal structures and materials in solutions and to optimize their viscoelastic properties. (author)

  15. Actin-myosin network is required for proper assembly of influenza virus particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumakura, Michiko; Kawaguchi, Atsushi, E-mail: ats-kawaguchi@md.tsukuba.ac.jp; Nagata, Kyosuke, E-mail: knagata@md.tsukuba.ac.jp

    2015-02-15

    Actin filaments are known to play a central role in cellular dynamics. After polymerization of actin, various actin-crosslinking proteins including non-muscle myosin II facilitate the formation of spatially organized actin filament networks. The actin-myosin network is highly expanded beneath plasma membrane. The genome of influenza virus (vRNA) replicates in the cell nucleus. Then, newly synthesized vRNAs are nuclear-exported to the cytoplasm as ribonucleoprotein complexes (vRNPs), followed by transport to the beneath plasma membrane where virus particles assemble. Here, we found that, by inhibiting actin-myosin network formation, the virus titer tends to be reduced and HA viral spike protein is aggregated on the plasma membrane. These results indicate that the actin-myosin network plays an important role in the virus formation. - Highlights: • Actin-myosin network is important for the influenza virus production. • HA forms aggregations at the plasma membrane in the presence of blebbistatin. • M1 is recruited to the budding site through the actin-myosin network.

  16. Actin-myosin network is required for proper assembly of influenza virus particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumakura, Michiko; Kawaguchi, Atsushi; Nagata, Kyosuke

    2015-01-01

    Actin filaments are known to play a central role in cellular dynamics. After polymerization of actin, various actin-crosslinking proteins including non-muscle myosin II facilitate the formation of spatially organized actin filament networks. The actin-myosin network is highly expanded beneath plasma membrane. The genome of influenza virus (vRNA) replicates in the cell nucleus. Then, newly synthesized vRNAs are nuclear-exported to the cytoplasm as ribonucleoprotein complexes (vRNPs), followed by transport to the beneath plasma membrane where virus particles assemble. Here, we found that, by inhibiting actin-myosin network formation, the virus titer tends to be reduced and HA viral spike protein is aggregated on the plasma membrane. These results indicate that the actin-myosin network plays an important role in the virus formation. - Highlights: • Actin-myosin network is important for the influenza virus production. • HA forms aggregations at the plasma membrane in the presence of blebbistatin. • M1 is recruited to the budding site through the actin-myosin network

  17. Historical biogeography and diversification of truffles in the Tuberaceae and their newly identified Southern hemisphere sister lineage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory Bonito; Matthew E. Smith; Michael Nowak; Rosanne A. Healy; Gonzalo Guevara; Efren Cazares; Akihiko Kinoshita; Eduardo R. Nouhra; Laura S. Dominguez; Leho Tedersoo; Claude Murat; Yun Wang; Baldomero Arroyo Moreno; Donald H. Pfister; Kazuhide Nara; Alessandra Zambonelli; James M. Trappe; Rytas. Vilgalys

    2013-01-01

    In this study we reassessed the biogeography and origin of the Tuberaceae and their relatives using multiple loci and a global sampling of taxa. Multiple independent transitions from an aboveground to a belowground truffie fruiting body form have occurred in the Tuberaceae and in its newly recognized sister lineage...

  18. In-vitro analysis of the dissolution kinetics and systemic availability of plutonium ingested in the form of 'hot' particles from the Semipalatinsk NTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, M; León Vintró, L; Mitchell, P I; García-Tenorio, R; Jimenez-Ramos, M C; Burkitbayev, M; Priest, N D

    2009-05-01

    In-vitro leaching of radioactive 'hot' particles isolated from soils sampled at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site has been carried out in order to evaluate the fraction of plutonium activity released into simulated human stomach and small intestine fluids during digestion. Characterisation of the particles (10-100 Bq(239,240)Pu) and investigation of their dissolution kinetics in simulated fluids has been accomplished using a combination of high-resolution alpha-spectrometry, gamma-spectrometry and liquid scintillation counting. The results of these analyses indicate that plutonium transfer across the human gut following the ingestion of 'hot' particles can be up to two orders of magnitude lower than that expected for plutonium in a more soluble form, and show that for areas affected by local fallout, use of published ingestion dose coefficients, together with bulk radionuclide concentrations in soil, may lead to a considerable overestimation of systemic uptake via the ingestion pathway.

  19. Unstable particles as open quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caban, Pawel; Rembielinski, Jakub; Smolinski, Kordian A.; Walczak, Zbigniew

    2005-01-01

    We present the probability-preserving description of the decaying particle within the framework of quantum mechanics of open systems, taking into account the superselection rule prohibiting the superposition of the particle and vacuum. In our approach the evolution of the system is given by a family of completely positive trace-preserving maps forming a one-parameter dynamical semigroup. We give the Kraus representation for the general evolution of such systems, which allows one to write the evolution for systems with two or more particles. Moreover, we show that the decay of the particle can be regarded as a Markov process by finding explicitly the master equation in the Lindblad form. We also show that there are remarkable restrictions on the possible strength of decoherence

  20. Comparison of in vivo polyethylene wear particles between mobile- and fixed-bearing TKA in the same patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minoda, Yukihide; Hata, Kanako; Ikebuchi, Mitsuhiko; Mizokawa, Shigekazu; Ohta, Yoichi; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2017-09-01

    Polyethylene wear particle generation is one of the most important factors that affects the mid- to long-term results of total knee arthroplasties (TKA). Mobile-bearing total knee prostheses were developed to reduce polyethylene wear generation. However, whether mobile-bearing prostheses actually generate fewer polyethylene wear particles than fixed-bearing prostheses remains controversial. The aim of this study was to compare, within individual patients, the in vivo polyethylene wear particles created by a newly introduced mobile-bearing prosthesis in one knee and a conventional fixed-bearing prosthesis in other knee. Eighteen patients receiving bilateral TKAs to treat osteoarthritis were included. The synovial fluid was obtained from 36 knees at an average of 3.5 years after the operation. The in vivo polyethylene wear particles were isolated from the synovial fluid using a previously validated method and examined using a scanning electron microscope and an image analyser. The size and shape of the polyethylene wear particles from the mobile-bearing prostheses were similar to those from the conventional fixed-bearing prostheses. Although the number of wear particles from the mobile-bearing prosthesis (1.63 × 10 7  counts/knee) appeared smaller than that from the fixed-bearing prosthesis (2.16 × 10 7  counts/knee), the difference was not statistically significant. The current in vivo study shows that no statistically significant differences were found between the polyethylene wear particles generated by a newly introduced mobile-bearing PS prosthesis and a conventional fixed-bearing PS prosthesis during the early clinical stage after implantation. Therapeutic study, Level III.

  1. Airborne measurements over the boreal forest of southern Finland during new particle formation events in 2009 and 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schobesberger, S.; Vaananen, R.; Leino, K. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics, Division of Atmospheric Sciences] [and others

    2013-06-01

    We conducted airborne observations of aerosol physical properties over the southern Finland boreal forest environment. The aim was to investigate the lower tropospheric aerosol (up to 4-km altitude) over an area of 250 by 200 km, in particular during new particle formation (NPF) events, and to address the spatial variability of aerosol number concentration and number size distribution. The regional NPF events, detected both airborne and at the ground, with air masses originating from the Arctic or northern Atlantic Ocean were studied throughout the boundary layer and throughout the area covered. Three suitable case studies are presented in more detail. In two of these studies, the concentrations of nucleation mode particles (3-10 nm in diameter) were found considerably higher (up to a factor of 30) in the upper parts of the planetary boundary layer compared to ground-based measurements during the nucleation events. The observed vertical variation can be connected to boundary layer dynamics and interactions between the boundary layer and the lower free troposphere, likely yielding high concentrations of newly formed aerosol particles. Our results suggest that nucleation does not necessarily occur close to the surface. In one presented case we found evidence of NPF occurring in a limited area above cloud, in the complete absence of a regional NPF event. (orig.)

  2. Superplastic forming and diffusion bonding: Progress and trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarized recent progress in metal superplasticity and the application of Superplastic Forming/Diffusion Bonding (SPF/DB or SPF/Welding in typical structures. Various aerospace components such as three dimensional lattice structures made by SPF/DB have been demonstrated. In addition, some newly developed technologies, such as melt droplet spreading/thermo-mechanical forming (MDS/TMF, were also included. Finally, the future potential of SPF/DB technology was predicted.

  3. Fractal aggregation and breakup of fine particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Bingru

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Breakup may exert a controlling influence on particle size distributions and particles either are fractured or are eroded particle-by-particle through shear. The shear-induced breakage of fine particles in turbulent conditions is investigated using Taylor-expansion moment method. Their equations have been derived in continuous form in terms of the number density function with particle volume. It suitable for future implementation in computational fluid dynamics modeling.

  4. Clustering of low-valence particles: structure and kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markova, Olga; Alberts, Jonathan; Munro, Edwin; Lenne, Pierre-François

    2014-08-01

    We compute the structure and kinetics of two systems of low-valence particles with three or six freely oriented bonds in two dimensions. The structure of clusters formed by trivalent particles is complex with loops and holes, while hexavalent particles self-organize into regular and compact structures. We identify the elementary structures which compose the clusters of trivalent particles. At initial stages of clustering, the clusters of trivalent particles grow with a power-law time dependence. Yet at longer times fusion and fission of clusters equilibrates and clusters form a heterogeneous phase with polydispersed sizes. These results emphasize the role of valence in the kinetics and stability of finite-size clusters.

  5. Particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, Anwar

    2014-01-01

    Provides step-by-step derivations. Contains numerous tables and diagrams. Supports learning and teaching with numerous worked examples, questions and problems with answers. Sketches also the historical development of the subject. This textbook teaches particle physics very didactically. It supports learning and teaching with numerous worked examples, questions and problems with answers. Numerous tables and diagrams lead to a better understanding of the explanations. The content of the book covers all important topics of particle physics: Elementary particles are classified from the point of view of the four fundamental interactions. The nomenclature used in particle physics is explained. The discoveries and properties of known elementary particles and resonances are given. The particles considered are positrons, muon, pions, anti-protons, strange particles, neutrino and hadrons. The conservation laws governing the interactions of elementary particles are given. The concepts of parity, spin, charge conjugation, time reversal and gauge invariance are explained. The quark theory is introduced to explain the hadron structure and strong interactions. The solar neutrino problem is considered. Weak interactions are classified into various types, and the selection rules are stated. Non-conservation of parity and the universality of the weak interactions are discussed. Neutral and charged currents, discovery of W and Z bosons and the early universe form important topics of the electroweak interactions. The principles of high energy accelerators including colliders are elaborately explained. Additionally, in the book detectors used in nuclear and particle physics are described. This book is on the upper undergraduate level.

  6. Linear particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    A linear particle accelerator which provides a pulsed beam of charged particles of uniform energy is described. The accelerator is in the form of an evacuated dielectric tube, inside of which a particle source is located at one end of the tube, with a target or window located at the other end of the dielectric tube. Along the length of the tube are externally located pairs of metal plates, each insulated from each other in an insulated housing. Each of the plates of a pair are connected to an electrical source of voltage of opposed polarity, with the polarity of the voltage of the plates oriented so that the plate of a pair, nearer to the particle source, is of the opposed polarity to the charge of the particle emitted by the source. Thus, a first plate about the tube located nearest the particle source, attracts a particle which as it passes through the tube past the first plate is then repelled by the reverse polarity of the second plate of the pair to continue moving towards the target

  7. Source and role of diacylglycerol formed during phagocytosis of opsonized yeast particles and associated respiratory burst in human neutrophils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Della Bianca, V.; Grzeskowiak, M.; Lissandrini, D.; Rossi, F.

    1991-01-01

    The results presented in this paper demonstrate that in human neutrophils phagocytosis of C3b/bi and IgG-opsonized yeast particles is associated with activation of phospholipase D and that this reaction is the main source of diglycerides. The demonstration is based upon the following findings: (1) the challenge of neutrophils with these opsonized particles was followed by a rapid formation of [3H]alkyl-phosphatidic acid [( 3H]alkyl-PA) and [3H]alkyl-diglyceride [( 3H]alkyl-DG) in cells labeled with [3H]alkyl-lyso-phosphatidylcholine; (2) in the presence of ethanol [3H]alkyl-phosphatidylethanol was formed, and accumulation of [3H]alkyl-PA and [3H]alkyl-DG was depressed; (3) propranolol, by inhibiting the dephosphorylation of [3H]alkyl-PA, completely inhibited the accumulation of [3H]alkyl-DG and depressed by about 75% the formation of diglyceride mass. Evidence is also presented that phagocytosis of C3b/bi and IgG-opsonized yeast particles and associated respiratory burst can take place independently of diglyceride formation and of the activity of this second messenger on protein kinase C. In fact: (a) propranolol while completely inhibited the formation of diglyceride mass did not modify either the phagocytosis or respiratory burst; (b) these two processes were insensitive to staurosporine

  8. A New Form of Matter — Unmatter, Composed of Particles and Anti-Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smarandache F.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Besides matter and antimatter there must exist unmatter (as a new form of matter in accordance with the neutrosophy theory that between an entity and its opposite there exist intermediate entities . Unmatter is neither matter nor antimatter, but something in between. An atom of unmatter is formed either by (1: electrons, protons, and antineutrons, or by (2: antielectrons, antiprotons, and neutrons. At CERN it will be possible to test the production of unmatter. The existence of unmatter in the universe has a similar chance to that of the antimatter, and its production also difficult for present technologies.

  9. Particle acceleration in modified shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, L.O' C. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany, F.R.)); Axford, W.I. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Aeronomie, Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany, F.R.)); Summers, D. (Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s (Canada))

    1982-03-01

    Efficient particle acceleration in shocks must modify the shock structure with consequent changes in the particle acceleration. This effect is studied and analytic solutions are found describing the diffusive acceleration of particles with momentum independent diffusion coefficients in hyperbolic tangent type velocity transitions. If the input particle spectrum is a delta function, the shock smoothing replaces the truncated power-law downstream particle spectrum by a more complicated form, but one which has a power-law tail at high momenta. For a cold plasma this solution can be made completely self-consistent. Some problems associated with momentum dependent diffusion coefficients are discussed.

  10. Particle acceleration in modified shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, L.O'C.; Axford, W.I.; Summers, D.

    1982-01-01

    Efficient particle acceleration in shocks must modify the shock structure with consequent changes in the particle acceleration. This effect is studied and analytic solutions are found describing the diffusive acceleration of particles with momentum independent diffusion coefficients in hyperbolic tangent type velocity transitions. If the input particle spectrum is a delta function, the shock smoothing replaces the truncated power-law downstream particle spectrum by a more complicated form, but one which has a power-law tail at high momenta. For a cold plasma this solution can be made completely self-consistent. Some problems associated with momentum dependent diffusion coefficients are discussed. (author)

  11. Particle filters on light diesel vehicles - a socio-economic analysis on the introduction of particle filters; Partikelfiltre pae lette dieselkoeretoejer - en samfundsoekonomisk analyse af fremskyndelse af partikelfiltre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohl, M.; Larsen, Thommy; Carlsen, Kirsten; Mulvad Jeppesen, L.

    2006-09-15

    Emission of particles into the atmosphere is one of the biggest air pollution problems of our times. The emission of particles causes severe health problems such as respiratory and circulatory diseases, lung cancer, asthma, bronchitis and even causes premature deaths. The emission of particles comes from a number of different sources, where traffic is a considerable contributor. The effects of particle emissions from the traffic on the population are substantial, as the emission comes from mobile sources which create a high local pollution in city areas and in consequence high exposure of the local population. Exhaust particle emissions come mainly from diesel engines, and the introduction of particle filters would have a considerable impact on particle emissions. Vehicle emissions regulation is controlled by the EU. The coming emission regulation, EURO 5, is expected to be put into effect by the beginning of 2010. The current suggestions for the EURO 5 restrictions on particles are set so strict that they will be impossible to fulfil without a particle filter. This report performs a socio-economic analysis on the introduction of particle filters on all light vehicles (<3,500 kg). The analysis assumes that all newly registered diesel powered cars and vans should have a factory installed particle filter from the beginning of 2007. This thereby gives a period of three years before implementation of the EURO 5. (au)

  12. Magnetic characteristics of ultrafine Fe particles reduced from uniform iron oxide particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridger, K.; Watts, J.; Tadros, M.; Xiao, Gang; Liou, S. H.; Chien, C. L.

    1987-04-01

    Uniform, cubic 0.05-μm iron oxide particles were formed by forced hydrolysis of ferric perchlorate. These particles were reduced to α-Fe by heating in hydrogen at temperatures between 300 and 500 °C. The effect of reduction temperature and various prereduction treatments on the microstructure of the iron particles will be discussed. Complete reduction to α-Fe was established by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. Magnetic measurements on epoxy and polyurethane films containing these particles with various mass fractions gave coercivities as high as 1000 Oe. The relationship between the magnetic measurements and the microstructure will be discussed. Na2SiO3 is found to be the best coating material for the process of reducing iron oxide particles to iron.

  13. New particle formation and growth from methanesulfonic acid, trimethylamine and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haihan; Ezell, Michael J; Arquero, Kristine D; Varner, Mychel E; Dawson, Matthew L; Gerber, R Benny; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J

    2015-05-28

    New particle formation from gas-to-particle conversion represents a dominant source of atmospheric particles and affects radiative forcing, climate and human health. The species involved in new particle formation and the underlying mechanisms remain uncertain. Although sulfuric acid is commonly recognized as driving new particle formation, increasing evidence suggests the involvement of other species. Here we study particle formation and growth from methanesulfonic acid, trimethylamine and water at reaction times from 2.3 to 32 s where particles are 2-10 nm in diameter using a newly designed and tested flow system. The flow system has multiple inlets to facilitate changing the mixing sequence of gaseous precursors. The relative humidity and precursor concentrations, as well as the mixing sequence, are varied to explore their effects on particle formation and growth in order to provide insight into the important mechanistic steps. We show that water is involved in the formation of initial clusters, greatly enhancing their formation as well as growth into detectable size ranges. A kinetics box model is developed that quantitatively reproduces the experimental data under various conditions. Although the proposed scheme is not definitive, it suggests that incorporating such mechanisms into atmospheric models may be feasible in the near future.

  14. Dynamics of neutral and charged aerosol particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppae, J.

    2012-07-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles have various climate effects and adverse health effects, which both depend on the size and number concentration of the particles. Freshly-formed particles are not large enough to impact neither health nor climate and they are most susceptible to removal by collisions with larger pre-existing particles. Consequently, the knowledge of both the formation and the growth rate of particles are crucially important when assessing the health and climate effects of atmospheric new particle formation. The purpose of this thesis is to increase our knowledge of the dynamics of neutral and charged aerosol particles with a specific interest towards the particle growth rate and processes affecting the aerosol charging state. A new model, Ion-UHMA, which simulates the dynamics of neutral and charged particles, was developed for this purpose. Simple analytical formulae that can be used to estimate the growth rate due to various processes were derived and used to study the effects of charged particles on the growth rate. It was found that the growth rate of a freshly-formed particle population due to condensation and coagulation could be significantly increased when a considerable fraction of the particles are charged. Finally, recent data-analysis methods that have been applied to the aerosol charging states obtained from the measurements were modified for a charge asymmetric framework. The methods were then tested on data obtained from aerosol dynamics simulations. The methods were found to be able to provide reasonable estimates on the growth rate and proportion of particles formed via ion-induced nucleation, provided that the growth rate is high enough and that the charged particles do not grow much more rapidly than the neutral ones. A simple procedure for estimating whether the methods are suitable for analysing data obtained in specific conditions was provided. In this thesis, the dynamics of neutral and charged aerosol particles were studied in

  15. Improvement of Particle Recovery Method for Uranium Isotope Analysis Using SIMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taehee; Park, Jinkyu; Lee, Chi-Gyu; Lim, Sang Ho; Han, Sun-Ho

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we developed a new design of vacuum-suction impactor with wider inlet nozzle and outlet nozzle for guiding particles to disperse the particles on the surface of carbon planchet. We prepared simulated samples with lead dioxide and examined particle recovery yield and degree of dispersion using the conventional vacuum impactor and the newly designed ones with different inlet nozzle diameters. We tried to improve the inlet part of vacuum impactor, in order to increase the recovery yield and disperse the collected particle on carbon planchet. As the diameter of inlet nozzle became larger, the collected particles were better dispersed on planchet. In addition, when the inner diameter of the impactor was 3 mm or 5 mm, the recovery yield was higher than that of conventional impactor. Considering the degree of dispersion and recovery yield, we used the impactor with 5 mm exit diameter and recovered the mixed uranium standard materials for SIMS measurement. We were able to reduce the mixing effect and measure the isotopic ratio more accurately and precisely.

  16. Identifying WIMP dark matter from particle and astroparticle data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertone, Gianfranco; Bozorgnia, Nassim; Kim, Jong Soo; Liem, Sebastian; McCabe, Christopher; Otten, Sydney; Ruiz de Austri, Roberto

    2018-03-01

    One of the most promising strategies to identify the nature of dark matter consists in the search for new particles at accelerators and with so-called direct detection experiments. Working within the framework of simplified models, and making use of machine learning tools to speed up statistical inference, we address the question of what we can learn about dark matter from a detection at the LHC and a forthcoming direct detection experiment. We show that with a combination of accelerator and direct detection data, it is possible to identify newly discovered particles as dark matter, by reconstructing their relic density assuming they are weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) thermally produced in the early Universe, and demonstrating that it is consistent with the measured dark matter abundance. An inconsistency between these two quantities would instead point either towards additional physics in the dark sector, or towards a non-standard cosmology, with a thermal history substantially different from that of the standard cosmological model.

  17. Simultaneous measurements of new particle formation at 1 s time resolution at a street site and a rooftop site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yujiao; Yan, Caiqing; Zhang, Renyi; Wang, Zifa; Zheng, Mei; Gao, Huiwang; Gao, Yang; Yao, Xiaohong

    2017-08-01

    This study is the first to use two identical Fast Mobility Particle Sizers for simultaneous measurement of particle number size distributions (PNSDs) at a street site and a rooftop site within 500 m distance in wintertime and springtime to investigate new particle formation (NPF) in Beijing. The collected datasets at 1 s time resolution allow deduction of the freshly emitted traffic particle signal from the measurements at the street site and thereby enable the evaluation of the effects on NPF in an urban atmosphere through a site-by-site comparison. The number concentrations of 8 to 20 nm newly formed particles and the apparent formation rate (FR) in the springtime were smaller at the street site than at the rooftop site. In contrast, NPF was enhanced in the wintertime at the street site with FR increased by a factor of 3 to 5, characterized by a shorter NPF time and higher new particle yields than at the rooftop site. Our results imply that the street canyon likely exerts distinct effects on NPF under warm or cold ambient temperature conditions because of on-road vehicle emissions, i.e., stronger condensation sinks that may be responsible for the reduced NPF in the springtime but efficient nucleation and partitioning of gaseous species that contribute to the enhanced NPF in the wintertime. The occurrence or absence of apparent growth for new particles with mobility diameters larger than 10 nm was also analyzed. The oxidization of biogenic organics in the presence of strong photochemical reactions is suggested to play an important role in growing new particles with diameters larger than 10 nm, but sulfuric acid is unlikely to be the main species for the apparent growth. However, the number of datasets used in this study is relatively small, and larger datasets are essential to draw a general conclusion.

  18. Adsorption of organic molecules may explain growth of newly nucleated clusters and new particle formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Wexler, Anthony S.

    2013-05-01

    New particle formation consists of formation of thermodynamically stable clusters from trace gas molecules (homogeneous nucleation) followed by growth of these clusters to a detectable size. Because of the large coagulation rate of clusters smaller than 3 nm with the preexisting aerosol population, for new particle formation to take place, these clusters need to grow sufficiently fast to escape removal by coagulation. Previous studies have indicated that condensation of low-volatility organic vapor may play an important role in the initial growth of the clusters. However, due to the relatively high vapor pressure and partial molar volume of even highly oxidized organic compounds, the strong Kelvin effect may prevent typical ambient organics from condensing on these small clusters. Earlier studies did not consider that adsorption of organic molecules on the cluster surface, due to the intermolecular forces between the organic molecule and cluster, may occur and substantially alter the growth process under sub-saturated conditions. Using the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) isotherm, we show that the adsorption of organic molecules onto the surface of clusters may significantly reduce the saturation ratio required for condensation of organics to occur, and therefore may provide a physico-chemical explanation for the enhanced initial growth by condensation of organics despite the strong Kelvin effect.

  19. On the absorbing force of magnetic fields acting on magnetic particle under magnetic particle examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, N.

    1988-01-01

    During the magnetic particle examination, magnetic particles near defects are deposited by an absorbing force of magnetic fields acting on the magnetic particles. Therefore, a quantitative determination of this absorbing force is a theoretical and experimental basis for solving various problems associated with magnetic particle examinations. The absorbing force is formulated based on a magnetic dipole model, and a measuring method of the absorbing force using magnetic fields formed around linear current is proposed. Measurements according to this method produced appropriate results, verifying the validation of the concept and the measuring method

  20. Method of stripping solid particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A method of stripping loaded solid particles is specified in which uniform batches of the loaded particles are passed successively upwardly through an elution column in the form of discrete plugs, the particles of which do not intermingle substantially with the particles of the vertically adjacent plug(s), and are contacted therein with eluant liquid flowed downwardly, strong eluate being withdrawn from the lower region of the column, the loaded particles being supplied as a slurry in a carrier liquid, and successive batches of loaded particles being isolated as measured batches and being separated from their carrier liquid before being contacted with strong eluate and slurried with the strong eluate into the lower region of the column. An example describes the stripping of ion exchange resin particles loaded with complex uranium ions. (author)

  1. PERFORMANCE OF NEWLY CONFIGURED SUBMERGED MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR FOR AEROBIC INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gede Wenten

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The application of membrane to replace secondary clarifier of conventional activated sludge, known as membrane bioreactor, has led to a small footprint size of treatment with excellent effluent quality. The use of MBR eliminates almost all disadvantages encountered in conventional wastewater treatment plant such as low biomass concentration and washout of fine suspended solids. However, fouling remains as a main drawback. To minimize membrane fouling, a new configuration of submerged membrane bioreactor for aerobic industrial wastewater treatment has been developed. For the new configuration, a bed of porous particle is applied to cover the submerged ends-free mounted ultrafiltration membrane. Membrane performance was assessed based on flux productivity and selectivity. By using tapioca wastewater containing high organic matter as feed solution, reasonably high and stable fluxes around 11 l/m2.h were achieved with COD removal efficiency of more than 99%. The fouling analysis also shows that the newly configured ends-free membrane bioreactor exhibits lower irreversible resistance compared with the submerged one. In addition, the performance of pilot scale system, using a membrane module  with 10 m2 effective area and reactor tank with 120 L volume, was also assessed. The flux achieved from the pilot scale system around 8 l/m2.h with COD removal of more than 99%. Hence, this study has demonstrated the feasibility of the newly configured submerged ends-free MBR at larger scale.

  2. Factors Associated with Newly Diagnosed Children with Diabetic Ketoacidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh Mirsadraee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Diabetes mellitus type 1 is one of the most prevalent endocrine diseases in pediatrics. Diabetic ketoacidosis is considered as one of the most threatening clinical pictures of DM1, especially if occurred as the first presentation of DM1 in children. Objectives The current study aimed to identify factors which may play a role in DKA onset in children. Methods This case-control study included all patients under 18 years old who referred to department of pediatrics endocrinology at Mashhad University Hospital (Imam Reza from January 2013 to December 2015 as newly diagnosed patients with DM1. Patients who fulfilled DKA criteria at diagnosis were considered as DKA group and those who referred with other presentations were considered as control group (non-DKA group. Data were analyzed by SPSS software ver. 16. Results During the study period, 97 (39.2% male newly diagnosed patients were included as DKA group. Accordingly 97 gender- and age-matched patients were added as non-DKA group. The most prevalent symptoms in both groups were polyuria (91.88% and polydipsia (88.66%. Fever and cold symptoms were significantly higher in the DKA group (P < 0.001 and P =0.005, respectively. Hemoglobin A1c level was significantly higher in the DKA group (P = 0.001, while body mass index was significantly lower in the DKA group (P = 0.045. Fever and father’s education level were the most important risk and protective factors in the DKA onset in newly diagnosed patients with DM1 (adjusted OR = 10.1, 95% CI = 2.9-35.3; P < 0.001 and adjusted OR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.3 - 0.9 and P = 0.019, respectively. Conclusions In conclusion, a recent febrile illness was found as the strongest risk factor and father’s education level as the main protective factor in the DKA to diagnose children with DM1. The study findings suggested that DKA is a severe form of DM1 instead of a neglected or misdiagnosed disease.

  3. Laboratory Measurements of Single-Particle Polarimetric Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsevich, M.; Penttila, A.; Maconi, G.; Kassamakov, I.; Helander, P.; Puranen, T.; Salmi, A.; Hæggström, E.; Muinonen, K.

    2017-12-01

    Measuring scattering properties of different targets is important for material characterization, remote sensing applications, and for verifying theoretical results. Furthermore, there are usually simplifications made when we model targets and compute the scattering properties, e.g., ideal shape or constant optical parameters throughout the target material. Experimental studies help in understanding the link between the observed properties and computed results. Experimentally derived Mueller matrices of studied particles can be used as input for larger-scale scattering simulations, e.g., radiative transfer computations. This method allows to bypass the problem of using an idealized model for single-particle optical properties. While existing approaches offer ensemble- and orientation-averaged particle properties, our aim is to measure individual particles with controlled or known orientation. With the newly developed scatterometer, we aim to offer novel possibility to measure single, small (down to μm-scale) targets and their polarimetric spectra. This work presents an experimental setup that measures light scattered by a fixed small particle with dimensions ranging between micrometer and millimeter sizes. The goal of our setup is nondestructive characterization of such particles by measuring light of multiple wavelengths scattered in 360° in a horizontal plane by an ultrasonically levitating sample, whilst simultaneously controlling its 3D position and orientation. We describe the principles and design of our instrument and its calibration. We also present example measurements of real samples. This study was conducted under the support from the European Research Council, in the frame of the Advanced Grant project No. 320773 `Scattering and Absorption of Electromagnetic Waves in Particulate Media' (SAEMPL).

  4. Characterization of the Morphology of RDX Particles Formed by Laser Ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    military-grade RDX can contain significant amounts of HMX (up to 5% for type-I RDX produced by direct nitration with the Woolwich process and up to...potentially produce RDX particles with specific morphologies in support of microstructural experiments for the Multiscale Response of Energetic

  5. Development of an optimal filter substrate for the identification of small microplastic particles in food by micro-Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oßmann, Barbara E; Sarau, George; Schmitt, Sebastian W; Holtmannspötter, Heinrich; Christiansen, Silke H; Dicke, Wilhelm

    2017-06-01

    When analysing microplastics in food, due to toxicological reasons it is important to achieve clear identification of particles down to a size of at least 1 μm. One reliable, optical analytical technique allowing this is micro-Raman spectroscopy. After isolation of particles via filtration, analysis is typically performed directly on the filter surface. In order to obtain high qualitative Raman spectra, the material of the membrane filters should not show any interference in terms of background and Raman signals during spectrum acquisition. To facilitate the usage of automatic particle detection, membrane filters should also show specific optical properties. In this work, beside eight different, commercially available membrane filters, three newly designed metal-coated polycarbonate membrane filters were tested to fulfil these requirements. We found that aluminium-coated polycarbonate membrane filters had ideal characteristics as a substrate for micro-Raman spectroscopy. Its spectrum shows no or minimal interference with particle spectra, depending on the laser wavelength. Furthermore, automatic particle detection can be applied when analysing the filter surface under dark-field illumination. With this new membrane filter, analytics free of interference of microplastics down to a size of 1 μm becomes possible. Thus, an important size class of these contaminants can now be visualized and spectrally identified. Graphical abstract A newly developed aluminium coated polycarbonate membrane filter enables automatic particle detection and generation of high qualitative Raman spectra allowing identification of small microplastics.

  6. α-particle radioactivity of hot particles from the Esk estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, E.I.

    1981-01-01

    Transuranium radionuclides (Pu, Am and Cm) present in effluents discharged into the north-east Irish Sea by British Nuclear Fuels Limited, Windscale, Cumbria, UK, are found in sediment and biota of the Esk estuary approximately 10 km to the south. The site of the present investigation was at Newbiggin and the materials examined were suspended particulate debris samples at the sea surface, bottom sediments and some forms of biota collected in September 1977. It is shown here that hot particles (defined as small volumes of material emitting α particles recorded in a dielectric detector as dense clusters of tracks from a common origin) found in the estuary are likely to be original effluent debris derived from the processing of Magnox uranium fuel elements and not formed in situ as a result of natural processes common to the estuary. (author)

  7. Education through fiction: acquiring opinion-forming skills in the context of genomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knippels, M.C.P.J.; Severiens, S.E.; Klop, T.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the outcomes of a newly designed four-lesson science module on opinion-forming in the context of genomics in upper secondary education. The lesson plan aims to foster 16-year-old students’ opinion-forming skills in the context of genomics and to test the effect of the use

  8. Production of sized particles of uranium oxides and uranium oxyfluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudsen, I.E.; Randall, C.C.

    1976-01-01

    A process is claimed for converting uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) to uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) of a relatively large particle size in a fluidized bed reactor by mixing uranium hexafluoride with a mixture of steam and hydrogen and by preliminary reacting in an ejector gaseous uranium hexafluoride with steam and hydrogen to form a mixture of uranium and oxide and uranium oxyfluoride seed particles of varying sizes, separating the larger particles from the smaller particles in a cyclone separator, recycling the smaller seed particles through the ejector to increase their size, and introducing the larger seed particles from the cyclone separator into a fluidized bed reactor where the seed particles serve as nuclei on which coarser particles of uranium dioxide are formed. 9 claims, 2 drawing figures

  9. Measurement of T-lymphocyte responses in whole-blood cultures using newly synthesized DNA and ATP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sottong, P R; Rosebrock, J A; Britz, J A; Kramer, T R

    2000-03-01

    The proliferative response is most frequently determined by estimating the amount of [(3)H]thymidine incorporated into newly synthesized DNA. The [(3)H]thymidine procedure requires the use of radioisotopes as well as lengthy periods of incubation (>72 h). An alternative method of assessing T-lymphocyte activation in whole-blood cultures involves the measurement of the nucleotide ATP instead of [(3)H]thymidine incorporation. In addition, the Luminetics assay of T-cell activation measures specific T-lymphocyte subset responses through the use of paramagnetic particles coated with monoclonal antibodies against CD antigens. This assay permits rapid (24 h) analysis of lymphocyte subset activation responses to mitogens and recall antigens in small amounts of blood.

  10. Confidence in leadership among the newly qualified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss-Pratt, Lisa; Morley, Mary; Bagley, Liz; Alderson, Steven

    2013-10-23

    The Francis report highlighted the importance of strong leadership from health professionals but it is unclear how prepared those who are newly qualified feel to take on a leadership role. We aimed to assess the confidence of newly qualified health professionals working in the West Midlands in the different competencies of the NHS Leadership Framework. Most respondents felt confident in their abilities to demonstrate personal qualities and work with others, but less so at managing or improving services or setting direction.

  11. Chemical equilibrium between particles and complex particles in quantum many-body system at very low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Atsushi

    2004-01-01

    The equilibrium state at very low temperature and phase state at 0 K between the particle 1 and particle 2 and the particle 12, which particle 1 bond with particle 2, of infinite uniform system was investigated. Boson and fermion are thought as particle and three kinds of reactions are considered. On the case of boson + boson ? boson, the system is all molecules or atoms when ΔE≠0 and T=0, and the density is not determined under Tc when ΔE=0. On the case of boson + fermion ? fermion, molecules and atoms are able to exist together at T=0. On fermion + fermion ? boson, molecule is formed and condensed. The chemical equilibrium between particles and complex particles and three cases of equilibrium are explained. (S.Y.)

  12. Simultaneous measurements of new particle formation at 1 s time resolution at a street site and a rooftop site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study is the first to use two identical Fast Mobility Particle Sizers for simultaneous measurement of particle number size distributions (PNSDs at a street site and a rooftop site within 500 m distance in wintertime and springtime to investigate new particle formation (NPF in Beijing. The collected datasets at 1 s time resolution allow deduction of the freshly emitted traffic particle signal from the measurements at the street site and thereby enable the evaluation of the effects on NPF in an urban atmosphere through a site-by-site comparison. The number concentrations of 8 to 20 nm newly formed particles and the apparent formation rate (FR in the springtime were smaller at the street site than at the rooftop site. In contrast, NPF was enhanced in the wintertime at the street site with FR increased by a factor of 3 to 5, characterized by a shorter NPF time and higher new particle yields than at the rooftop site. Our results imply that the street canyon likely exerts distinct effects on NPF under warm or cold ambient temperature conditions because of on-road vehicle emissions, i.e., stronger condensation sinks that may be responsible for the reduced NPF in the springtime but efficient nucleation and partitioning of gaseous species that contribute to the enhanced NPF in the wintertime. The occurrence or absence of apparent growth for new particles with mobility diameters larger than 10 nm was also analyzed. The oxidization of biogenic organics in the presence of strong photochemical reactions is suggested to play an important role in growing new particles with diameters larger than 10 nm, but sulfuric acid is unlikely to be the main species for the apparent growth. However, the number of datasets used in this study is relatively small, and larger datasets are essential to draw a general conclusion.

  13. Explicit K-symplectic algorithms for charged particle dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Yang; Zhou, Zhaoqi; Sun, Yajuan; Liu, Jian; Qin, Hong

    2017-01-01

    We study the Lorentz force equation of charged particle dynamics by considering its K-symplectic structure. As the Hamiltonian of the system can be decomposed as four parts, we are able to construct the numerical methods that preserve the K-symplectic structure based on Hamiltonian splitting technique. The newly derived numerical methods are explicit, and are shown in numerical experiments to be stable over long-term simulation. The error convergency as well as the long term energy conservation of the numerical solutions is also analyzed by means of the Darboux transformation.

  14. Explicit K-symplectic algorithms for charged particle dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yang [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhou, Zhaoqi [LSEC, Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2719, Beijing 100190 (China); Sun, Yajuan, E-mail: sunyj@lsec.cc.ac.cn [LSEC, Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2719, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Jian [Department of Modern Physics and School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, CAS, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Qin, Hong [Department of Modern Physics and School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)

    2017-02-12

    We study the Lorentz force equation of charged particle dynamics by considering its K-symplectic structure. As the Hamiltonian of the system can be decomposed as four parts, we are able to construct the numerical methods that preserve the K-symplectic structure based on Hamiltonian splitting technique. The newly derived numerical methods are explicit, and are shown in numerical experiments to be stable over long-term simulation. The error convergency as well as the long term energy conservation of the numerical solutions is also analyzed by means of the Darboux transformation.

  15. Method of producing spherical lithium aluminate particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, L.; Medico, R.R.; Baugh, W.A.

    1983-01-01

    Spherical particles of lithium aluminate are formed by initially producing aluminium hydroxide spheroids, and immersing the spheroids in a lithium ion-containing solution to infuse lithium ions into the spheroids. The lithium-infused spheroids are rinsed to remove excess lithium ion from the surface, and the rinsed spheroids are soaked for a period of time in a liquid medium, dried and sintered to form lithium aluminate spherical particles. (author)

  16. Deformation and fracture behavior of simulated particle gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rzepiela, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    In this PhD project rheological properties of model particle gels are investigated using Brownian Dynamics (BD) simulations. Particle gels are systems of colloidal particles that form weakly bonded percolating networks interpenetrated by a suspending fluid. They are characterized as

  17. Particle porosity at plasma are spraying of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrunichev, V.A.; Koroleva, E.B.; Pushilin, N.P.

    1985-01-01

    Quantitative dependences of porosity and character of pore distribution in particles of different materials on particle size and composition of atmosphere in a working chamber are studied experimentally as applied to the process of plasma wire sputtering. Wires 1.2 mm in diameter made of tungsten, molybdenum, Kh20N80 alloy, and zirconium served as sputtering materials. It is shown that pore size and character of their distribution in particles of powders obtained by the method of plasma wire sputtering are dependent on sizes of forming particles and determined by conditions of their cooling. Intensive porosity formation is characteristic of wire sputtering in argon plasma with nitrogen additions, but there are critical values of nitrogen concentration in plasma, above which intensive porosity formation in forming particles stops

  18. Coherent radiation from atoms and a channeled particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epp, V.; Sosedova, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Impact of coherent atoms vibrations on radiation of a channeled particle is studied. ► Resonant amplification of atomic radiation is possible under certain conditions. ► Radiation of vibrating atoms forms an intense narrow peak in angular distribution. ► Radiation of atoms on resonance conditions is higher than that of channeled particle. -- Abstract: A new mechanism of radiation emitted at channeling of a relativistic charged particle in a crystal is studied. The superposition of coherent radiation from atoms, which are excited to vibrate in the crystal lattice by a channeled charged particle, with the ordinary channeling radiation is considered. It is shown that the coherent radiation from a chain of oscillating atoms forms a resonance peak on the tail of radiation emitted by the channeled particle

  19. Catalytic silica particles via template-directed molecular imprinting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markowitz, M.A.; Kust, P.R.; Deng, G.; Schoen, P.E.; Dordick, J.S.; Clark, D.S.; Gaber, B.P.

    2000-02-22

    The surfaces of silica particle were molecularly imprinted with an {alpha}-chymotrypsin transition-state analogue (TSA) by utilizing the technique of template-directed synthesis of mineralized materials. The resulting catalytic particles hydrolyzed amides in an enantioselective manner. A mixture of a nonionic surfactant and the acylated chymotrysin TSA, with the TSA acting as the headgroup at the surfactant-water interface, was used to form a microemulsion for silica particle formation. Incorporation of amine-, dihydroimidazole-, and carboxylate-terminated trialkoxysilanes into the particles during imprinting resulted in enhancement of the rates of amide hydrolysis. Acylated imprint molecules formed more effective imprints in the presence of the functionalized silanes than nonacylated imprint molecules. Particles surface-imprinted with the chymotrypsin TSA were selective for the trypsin substrate, and particles surface-imprinted with the L-isomer of the enzyme TSA were enantioselective for the D-isomer of the substrate.

  20. New particle formation in air mass transported between two measurement sites in Northern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Komppula

    2006-01-01

    organic vapours to accumulate in the air and to interact with the particles is relatively short. This can lead to low nucleation mode growth rates and even to suppression of detectable particle formation event due to efficient scavenging of newly formed clusters, as was observed in the case studies.

  1. Problems faced by newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus patients at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetes mellitus can be a frightening experience for newly diagnosed patients. The aim of this study was to determine and describe the problems faced by newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus patients at primary healthcare facilities at Mopani district, Limpopo Province. A qualitative, descriptive and contextual research ...

  2. Newly graduated nurses' use of knowledge sources in clinical decision-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldbjerg, Siri Lygum; Grønkjaer, Mette; Wiechula, Rick

    2017-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore which knowledge sources newly graduated nurses' use in clinical decision-making and why and how they are used. BACKGROUND: In spite of an increased educational focus on skills and competencies within evidence based practice newly graduated nurses' ability to use...... approaches to strengthen the knowledgebase used in clinical decision-making. DESIGN AND METHODS: Ethnographic study using participant-observation and individual semi-structured interviews of nine Danish newly graduated nurses in medical and surgical hospital settings. RESULTS: Newly graduates use...... in clinical decision-making. If newly graduates are to be supported in an articulate and reflective use of a variety of sources, they have to be allocated to experienced nurses who model a reflective, articulate and balanced use of knowledge sources. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  3. Three-dimensional visualization of forming Hepatitis C virus-like particles by electron-tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badia-Martinez, Daniel; Peralta, Bibiana [Structural Biology Unit, CIC bioGUNE, CIBERehd, 48160 Derio (Spain); Andres, German; Guerra, Milagros [Electron Microscopy Unit, Centro de Biologia Molecular Severo Ochoa, CSIC-UAM, Campus Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Gil-Carton, David [Structural Biology Unit, CIC bioGUNE, CIBERehd, 48160 Derio (Spain); Abrescia, Nicola G.A., E-mail: nabrescia@cicbiogune.es [Structural Biology Unit, CIC bioGUNE, CIBERehd, 48160 Derio (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, 48011 Bilbao (Spain)

    2012-09-01

    Hepatitis C virus infects almost 170 million people per year but its assembly pathway, architecture and the structures of its envelope proteins are poorly understood. Using electron tomography of plastic-embedded sections of insect cells, we have visualized the morphogenesis of recombinant Hepatitis C virus-like particles. Our data provide a three-dimensional sketch of viral assembly at the endoplasmic reticulum showing different budding stages and contiguity of buds. This latter phenomenon could play an important role during the assembly of wt-HCV and explain the size-heterogeneity of its particles.

  4. Three-dimensional visualization of forming Hepatitis C virus-like particles by electron-tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badia-Martinez, Daniel; Peralta, Bibiana; Andrés, German; Guerra, Milagros; Gil-Carton, David; Abrescia, Nicola G.A.

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus infects almost 170 million people per year but its assembly pathway, architecture and the structures of its envelope proteins are poorly understood. Using electron tomography of plastic-embedded sections of insect cells, we have visualized the morphogenesis of recombinant Hepatitis C virus-like particles. Our data provide a three-dimensional sketch of viral assembly at the endoplasmic reticulum showing different budding stages and contiguity of buds. This latter phenomenon could play an important role during the assembly of wt-HCV and explain the size-heterogeneity of its particles.

  5. Value of a newly sequenced bacterial genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbosa, Eudes; Aburjaile, Flavia F; Ramos, Rommel Tj

    2014-01-01

    and annotation will not be undertaken. It is important to know what is lost when we settle for a draft genome and to determine the "scientific value" of a newly sequenced genome. This review addresses the expected impact of newly sequenced genomes on antibacterial discovery and vaccinology. Also, it discusses...... heightened expectations that NGS would boost antibacterial discovery and vaccine development. Although many possible drug and vaccine targets have been discovered, the success rate of genome-based analysis has remained below expectations. Furthermore, NGS has had consequences for genome quality, resulting...

  6. Training manuals for nondestructive testing using magnetic particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Training manuals containing the fundamentals of nondestructive testing using magnetic particle as detection media are used by metal parts inspectors and quality assurance specialists. Magnetic particle testing involves magnetization of the test specimen, application of the magnetic particle and interpretation of the patterns formed.

  7. Analysis of Soil Structure Turnover with Garnet Particles and X-Ray Microtomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Schlüter

    Full Text Available Matter turnover in soil is tightly linked to soil structure which governs the heterogeneous distribution of habitats, reaction sites and pathways in soil. Thereby, the temporal dynamics of soil structure alteration is deemed to be important for essential ecosystem functions of soil but very little is known about it. A major reason for this knowledge gap is the lack of methods to study soil structure turnover directly at microscopic scales. Here we devise a conceptual approach and an image processing workflow to study soil structure turnover by labeling some initial state of soil structure with small garnet particles and tracking their fate with X-ray microtomography. The particles adhere to aggregate boundaries at the beginning of the experiment but gradually change their position relative to the nearest pore as structure formation progresses and pores are destructed or newly formed. A new metric based on the contact distances between particles and pores is proposed that allows for a direct quantification of soil structure turnover rates. The methodology is tested for a case study about soil compaction of a silty loam soil during stepwise increase of bulk density (ρ = {1.1, 1.3, 1.5} g/cm3. We demonstrate that the analysis of mean contact distances provides genuinely new insights about changing diffusion pathways that cannot be inferred neither from conventional pore space attributes (porosity, mean pore size, pore connectivity nor from deformation analysis with digital image correlation. This structure labeling approach to quantify soil structure turnover provides a direct analogy to stable isotope labeling for the analysis of matter turnover and can be readily combined with each other.

  8. Analysis of Soil Structure Turnover with Garnet Particles and X-Ray Microtomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlüter, Steffen; Vogel, Hans-Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Matter turnover in soil is tightly linked to soil structure which governs the heterogeneous distribution of habitats, reaction sites and pathways in soil. Thereby, the temporal dynamics of soil structure alteration is deemed to be important for essential ecosystem functions of soil but very little is known about it. A major reason for this knowledge gap is the lack of methods to study soil structure turnover directly at microscopic scales. Here we devise a conceptual approach and an image processing workflow to study soil structure turnover by labeling some initial state of soil structure with small garnet particles and tracking their fate with X-ray microtomography. The particles adhere to aggregate boundaries at the beginning of the experiment but gradually change their position relative to the nearest pore as structure formation progresses and pores are destructed or newly formed. A new metric based on the contact distances between particles and pores is proposed that allows for a direct quantification of soil structure turnover rates. The methodology is tested for a case study about soil compaction of a silty loam soil during stepwise increase of bulk density (ρ = {1.1, 1.3, 1.5} g/cm3). We demonstrate that the analysis of mean contact distances provides genuinely new insights about changing diffusion pathways that cannot be inferred neither from conventional pore space attributes (porosity, mean pore size, pore connectivity) nor from deformation analysis with digital image correlation. This structure labeling approach to quantify soil structure turnover provides a direct analogy to stable isotope labeling for the analysis of matter turnover and can be readily combined with each other.

  9. Extended micro objects as dark matter particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belotsky, K.; Rubin, S.; Svadkovsky, I.

    2017-05-01

    Models of various forms of composite dark matter (DM) predicted by particle theory and the DM constituents formed by gravity that are not reduced to new elementary particle candidates are discussed. Main attention is paid to a gravitational origin of the DM. The influence of extended mass spectrum of primordial black holes on observational limits is considered. It is shown that non-uniformly deformed extra space can be considered as point-like masses which possess only gravitational interaction with each other and with the ordinary particles. The recently discussed six-dimensional stable wormholes could contribute to the DM. The contribution of dark atoms is also considered.

  10. Fine particles in the Soufriere eruption plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, D. C.; Chuan, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    The size distributions of fine particles measured at tropospheric altitudes in the periphery of the eruption plume formed during the April 17, 1979 eruption of Soufriere Volcano and in the low-level effluents on May 15, 1979 were found to be bimodal, having peak concentrations at geometric mean diameters of 1.1 and 0.23 micrometers. Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis of the samples revealed an abundance of aluminum and silicon and traces of sodium, magnesium, chlorine, potassium, calcium, and iron in the large-particle mode. The submicrometer-sized particles were covered with liquid containing sulfur, assumed to be in the form of liquid sulfuric acid.

  11. A Novel Chaotic Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Parking Space Guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Dong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An evolutionary approach of parking space guidance based upon a novel Chaotic Particle Swarm Optimization (CPSO algorithm is proposed. In the newly proposed CPSO algorithm, the chaotic dynamics is combined into the position updating rules of Particle Swarm Optimization to improve the diversity of solutions and to avoid being trapped in the local optima. This novel approach, that combines the strengths of Particle Swarm Optimization and chaotic dynamics, is then applied into the route optimization (RO problem of parking lots, which is an important issue in the management systems of large-scale parking lots. It is used to find out the optimized paths between any source and destination nodes in the route network. Route optimization problems based on real parking lots are introduced for analyzing and the effectiveness and practicability of this novel optimization algorithm for parking space guidance have been verified through the application results.

  12. On the coupling of fields and particles in accelerator and plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2016-10-01

    In accelerator and plasma physics it is generally accepted that there is no need to solve the dynamical equations for particles motion in manifestly covariant form, that is by using the coordinate-independent proper time to parameterize particle world-lines in space-time. In other words, in order to describe the dynamical processes in the laboratory frame there is no need to use the laws of relativistic kinematics. It is sufficient to take into account the relativistic dependence of the particles momentum on the velocity in the second Newton's law. Therefore, the coupling of fields and particles is based, on the one hand, on the use of result from particle dynamics treated according to Newton's laws in terms of the relativistic three-momentum and, on the other hand, on the use of Maxwell's equations in standard form. In previous papers we argued that this is a misconception. The purpose of this paper is to describe in detail how to calculate the coupling between fields and particles in a correct way and how to develop a new algorithm for a particle tracking code in agreement with the use of Maxwell's equations in their standard form. Advanced textbooks on classical electrodynamics correctly tell us that Maxwell's equations in standard form in the laboratory frame and charged particles are coupled by introducing particles trajectories as projections of particles world-lines onto coordinates of the laboratory frame and by subsequently using the laboratory time to parameterize the trajectory curves. For the first time we showed a difference between conventional and covariant particle tracking results in the laboratory frame. This essential point has never received attention in the physical community. Only the solution of the dynamical equations in covariant form gives the correct coupling between field equations in standard form and particles trajectories in the laboratory frame. We conclude that previous theoretical and simulation results in accelerator and plasma

  13. On the coupling of fields and particles in accelerator and plasma physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    In accelerator and plasma physics it is generally accepted that there is no need to solve the dynamical equations for particles motion in manifestly covariant form, that is by using the coordinate-independent proper time to parameterize particle world-lines in space-time. In other words, in order to describe the dynamical processes in the laboratory frame there is no need to use the laws of relativistic kinematics. It is sufficient to take into account the relativistic dependence of the particles momentum on the velocity in the second Newton's law. Therefore, the coupling of fields and particles is based, on the one hand, on the use of result from particle dynamics treated according to Newton's laws in terms of the relativistic three-momentum and, on the other hand, on the use of Maxwell's equations in standard form. In previous papers we argued that this is a misconception. The purpose of this paper is to describe in detail how to calculate the coupling between fields and particles in a correct way and how to develop a new algorithm for a particle tracking code in agreement with the use of Maxwell's equations in their standard form. Advanced textbooks on classical electrodynamics correctly tell us that Maxwell's equations in standard form in the laboratory frame and charged particles are coupled by introducing particles trajectories as projections of particles world-lines onto coordinates of the laboratory frame and by subsequently using the laboratory time to parameterize the trajectory curves. For the first time we showed a difference between conventional and covariant particle tracking results in the laboratory frame. This essential point has never received attention in the physical community. Only the solution of the dynamical equations in covariant form gives the correct coupling between field equations in standard form and particles trajectories in the laboratory frame. We conclude that previous theoretical and simulation results in

  14. Effects of grinding method, particle size, and physical form of the diet on gastrointestinal morphology and jejunal glucose transport in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhe, I; Ruhnke, I; Knorr, F; Mader, A; Boroojeni, F Goodarzi; Löwe, R; Zentek, J

    2014-08-01

    Several studies illustrated that the structure of feed, i.e., the particle size, particle-size distribution, and the physical form of the diet, affects the avian gastrointestinal function and health leading to changes in productive performance. However, investigations concerning the effects of feeding differently processed diets on laying hens are limited and primarily concentrated on bird performance. The current study examines the effect of feed processing on the gastrointestinal morphology and on the jejunal glucose transport of laying hens. In 8 replicates, a total of 384 hens (Lohmann Brown) aged 20 wk were randomly allocated to 8 different groups and fed over a period of 21 d in a 3-factorial design. Diets differed in 1) grinding method, either hammer or roller mill; 2) physical form, either mash or expandate; and 3) particle size, either coarsely or finely ground. During the experimental trial, the laying performance of each feeding group was recorded daily and the feed intake and BW determined weekly. After slaughtering, the weights of the pancreas, proventriculus, gizzard, and small intestine were measured. Villus lengths and crypt depths of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were determined. The jejunal electrogenic glucose transport was studied in Ussing chambers. Hens that received mash instead of expandate had higher proventriculus (P = 0.011), gizzard (P feeding of coarsely instead of finely ground diets led to higher gizzard weights (P hens showed longer duodenal (P hens had higher glucose transport rates than expandate-fed hens (P feeding of coarsely ground as well as mash diets had stimulating effects on the development of the gastrointestinal organs. Moreover, the feeding of mash influenced the intestinal microstructure of the epithelium that was accompanied by higher glucose transport capacities. © Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. Transition metal carbide and boride abrasive particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdsaar, H.

    1978-01-01

    Abrasive particles and their preparation are discussed. The particles consist essentially of a matrix of titanium carbide and zirconium carbide, at least partially in solid solution form, and grains of crystalline titanium diboride dispersed throughout the carbide matrix. These abrasive particles are particularly useful as components of grinding wheels for abrading steel. 1 figure, 6 tables

  16. Particle acceleration in the interplanetary space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tverskoj, B.A.

    1983-01-01

    A review on the problem of particle acceleration in the interplanetary space is given. The main lationship attention is paid to the problem of the re/ between the impact- and turbulent acceleration when an undisturbed magnetic field forms not too small angle THETA > 10 deg with the shock wave front. The following conclusions are drawn. Particle acceleration at the shock wave front is manifested in the explicit form, if the shock wave propagates along a homogeneous (in the 11 cm range) solar wind. The criterion of such an acceleration is the exponential distribution function F approximately vsup(-ν) (v is the particle velocity and ν is the accelerated particle spectrum index) in the low energy range and the conservation of this function at considerable distances behind the front. The presence of an additional turbulent acceleration behind the front is manifested in decreasing ν down to approximately 3.5 in the low energy range and in the spectrum evolution behind the front

  17. Magnetic particle inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastri, Sankar

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment is to familiarize the student with magnetic particle inspection and relate it to classification of various defects. Magnetic particle inspection is a method of detecting the presence of cracks, laps, tears, inclusions, and similar discontinuities in ferromagnetic materials such as iron and steel. This method will most clearly show defects that are perpendicular to the magnetic field. The Magnaglo method uses a liquid which is sprayed on the workpiece to be inspected, and the part is magnetized at the same time. The workpiece is then viewed under a black light, and the presence of discontinuity is shown by the formation of a bright indication formed by the magnetic particles over the discontinuity. The equipment and experimental procedures are described.

  18. Uniform particles formed by hydrolysis of acid mine drainage with urea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šubrt, Jan; Michalková, E.; Boháček, Jaroslav; Lukáč, Jozef; Gánovská, Z.; Máša, B.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 106, 1-2 (2011), s. 12-18 ISSN 0304-386X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC523; GA MŠk(CZ) MEB0810136 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : acid mine drainage * urea hydrolysis * morphology * particles * surface area Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.027, year: 2011

  19. Electromagnetic form factors of a massive neutrino

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvornikov, M.S.; Studenikin, A.I.

    2004-01-01

    Electromagnetic form factors of a massive neutrino are studied in a minimally extended standard model in an arbitrary R ξ gauge and taking into account the dependence on the masses of all interacting particles. The contribution from all Feynman diagrams to the electric, magnetic, and anapole form factors, in which the dependence of the masses of all particles as well as on gauge parameters is accounted for exactly, are obtained for the first time in explicit form. The asymptotic behavior of the magnetic form factor for large negative squares of the momentum of an external photon is analyzed and the expression for the anapole moment of a massive neutrino is derived. The results are generalized to the case of mixing between various flavors of the neutrino. Explicit expressions are obtained for the electric, magnetic, and electric dipole and anapole transitional form factors as well as for the transitional electric dipole moment

  20. Removal of toxic Cr(VI) ions from tannery industrial wastewater using a newly designed three-phase three-dimensional electrode reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace Pavithra, K.; Senthil Kumar, P.; Carolin Christopher, Femina; Saravanan, A.

    2017-11-01

    In this research, the wastewater samples were collected from leather tanning industry at different time intervals. The parameters like pH, electrical conductivity, temperature, turbidity, chromium and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the samples were analyzed. A three-phase three-dimensional fluidized type electrode reactor (FTER) was newly designed for the effective removal of toxic pollutants from wastewater. The influencing parameters were optimized for the maximum removal of toxic pollutants from wastewater. The optimum condition for the present system was calculated as: contact time of 30 min, applied voltage of 3 V and the particle electrodes of 15 g. The particle electrode was characterized by using FT-IR analysis. Langmuir-Hinshelwood and pseudo-second order kinetic models were fits well with the experimental data. The results showed that the FTER can be successfully employed for the treatment of industrial wastewater.

  1. Crystallization by particle attachment in synthetic, biogenic, and geologic environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Yoreo, James; Gilbert, P.U.P.A.; Sommerdijk, N.A.J.M.; Lee Penn, R.; Whitelam, S.; Joester, D.; Zhang, H.; Rimer, J.D.; Navrotsky, A.; Banfield, J.F.; Wallace, A.F.; Marc Michel, F.; Meldrum, F.C.; Cölfen, H.; Dove, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Field and laboratory observations show that crystals commonly form by the addition and attachment of particles that range from multi-ion complexes to fully formed nanoparticles. The particles involved in these nonclassical pathways to crystallization are diverse, in contrast to classical models that

  2. A Newly Improved Modified Method Development and Validation of Bromofenac Sodium Sesquihydrate in Bulk Drug Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Sunil Kumar Yelamanchi V; Useni Reddy Mallu; I. V Kasi Viswanath; D. Balasubramanyam; G. Narshima Murthy

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to develop a simple, efficient, specific, precise and accurate newly improved modified Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Purity (or) Related substance method for bromofenac sodium sesquihydrate active pharmaceuticals ingredient dosage form. Validation of analytical method is the confirmation by examination and the provision of objective evidence that the particular requirements for a specific intended use are fulfilled as per ICH, USP...

  3. The construction of social identity in newly recruited nuclear engineering staff: A longitudinal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Lynda; Murphy, Glen; Chang, Artemis

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the process by which newly recruited nuclear engineering and technical staff came to understand, define, think, feel and behave within a distinct group that has a direct contribution to the organization's overall emphasis on a culture of reliability and system safety. In the field of organizational behavior the interactive model of social identity formation has been recently proposed to explain the process by which the internalization of shared norms and values occurs, an element critical in identity formation. Using this rich model of organizational behavior we analyzed multiple sources of data from nine new hires over a period of three years. This was done from the time they were employed to investigate the construction of social identity by new entrants entering into a complex organizational setting reflected in the context of a nuclear facility. Informed by our data analyses, we found support for the interactive model of social identity development and report the unexpected finding that a newly appointed member's age and level of experience appears to influence the manner in which they adapt, and assimilate into their surroundings. This study represents an important contribution to the safety and reliability literature as it provides a rich insight into the way newly recruited employees enact the process by which their identities are formed and hence act, particularly under conditions of duress or significant organizational disruption in complex organizational settings. - Highlights: • We examined how newly recruited nuclear engineer staff develop their social identity. • The study empirically examined the interactive model of social identity formation. • Innovative research strategies were used to capture rich primary data for all case studies. • Age and experience moderated internalization route and the social identity formation process

  4. Deposition of particles and iodine to outdoor surfaces and in the respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    Dry deposition of particles depends strongly on particle size, and is also influenced by the geometry of the surface and weather parameters. Precipitation scavenging is also influenced to some degree by particle size, but hygroscopic properties of soluble particles are also likely to enhance deposition in precipitation. Similar comments apply in the respiratory tract, where particle size and solubility may influence the extent and site of deposition: the site is important for insoluble particles at least since it determines retention time in the body. Thus measurement of particle size and investigation of solubility would be valuable in interpreting deposition inhalation and air concentration observations. Iodine has several chemical forms in the air. It is valuable to sample in such a way that different forms are partitioned, although there is some uncertainty in their identification. The rate of deposition to vegetation depends strongly on the chemical form of the iodine, but the vapour forms of iodine that occur in the atmosphere may all be retained efficiently on inhalation

  5. Collection of particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frew, J.D.

    1979-01-01

    Apparatus and a method for collecting particles formed by vaporisation during a high temperature treatment of steel (eg cutting or welding) are described in which gas is drawn from the area in which the treatment is taking place through a collector in which the particles are separated magnetically. The air may be drawn by an air ejector from a hood around the treatment area. The invention has particular application where the high temperature treatment is the laser cutting of the stainless steel wrapper around a nuclear fuel sub-assembly. (author)

  6. Influence of Boron on the Creep Behavior and the Microstructure of Particle Reinforced Aluminum Matrix Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Siebeck

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The reinforcement of aluminum alloys with particles leads to the enhancement of their mechanical properties at room temperature. However, the creep behavior at elevated temperatures is often negatively influenced. This raises the question of how it is possible to influence the creep behavior of this type of material. Within this paper, selected creep and tensile tests demonstrate the beneficial effects of boron on the properties of precipitation-hardenable aluminum matrix composites (AMCs. The focus is on the underlying microstructure behind this effect. For this purpose, boron was added to AMCs by means of mechanical alloying. Comparatively higher boron contents than in steel are investigated in order to be able to record their influence on the microstructure including the formation of potential new phases as well as possible. While the newly formed phase Al3BC can be reliably detected by X-ray diffraction (XRD, it is difficult to obtain information about the phase distribution by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM investigations. An important contribution to this is finally provided by the investigation using Raman microscopy. Thus, the homogeneous distribution of finely scaled Al3BC particles is detectable, which allows conclusions about the microstructure/property relationship.

  7. Forming Spirals From Shadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    What causes the large-scale spiral structures found in some protoplanetary disks? Most models assume theyre created by newly-forming planets, but a new study suggests that planets might have nothing to do with it.Perturbations from Planets?In some transition disks protoplanetary disks with gaps in their inner regions weve directly imaged large-scale spiral arms. Many theories currently attribute the formation of these structures to young planets: either the direct perturbations of a planet embedded in the disk cause the spirals, or theyre indirectly caused by the orbit of a planetary body outside of the arms.Another example of spiral arms detected in a protoplanetary disk, MWC 758. [NASA/ESA/ESO/M. Benisty et al.]But what if you could get spirals without any planets? A team of scientists led by Matas Montesinos (University of Chile) have recently published a study in which they examine what happens to a shadowed protoplanetary disk.Casting Shadows with WarpsIn the teams setup, they envision a protoplanetary disk that is warped: the inner region is slightly tilted relative to the outer region. As the central star casts light out over its protoplanetary disk, this disk warping would cause some regions of the disk to be shaded in a way that isnt axially symmetric with potentially interesting implications.Montesinos and collaborators ran 2D hydrodynamics simulations to determine what happens to the motion of particles within the disk when they pass in and out of the shadowed regions. Since the shadowed regions are significantly colder than the illuminated disk, the pressure in these regions is much lower. Particles are therefore accelerated and decelerated as they pass through these regions, and the lack of axial symmetry causes spiral density waves to form in the disk as a result.Initial profile for the stellar heating rate per unit area for one of the authors simulations. The regions shadowed as a result of the disk warp subtend 0.5 radians each (shown on the left

  8. Diffraction of radiation from channelled charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baryshevskij, V.G.; Grubich, A.O.; Dubovskaya, I.Ya.

    1978-01-01

    An explicit expression for cross-section and radiation spectrum at diffraction is calculated. It is shown that photons emitted by channelled particles form a typical diffraction pattern which contains information about the crystal structure. It is also shown that the change of the longitudinal energy of the particle caused by the radiation braking becomes important when the particle energy is increased. (author)

  9. Integral equations for four identical particles in angular momentum representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharchenko, V.F.; Shadchin, S.A.

    1975-01-01

    In integral equations of motion for a system of four identical spinless particles with central pair interactions, transition is realized from the representation of relative Jacobi momenta to the representation of their moduli and relative angular moments. As a result, the variables associated with the rotation of the system as a whole are separated in the equations. The integral equations of motion for four particles are reduced to the form of an infinite system of three-demensional integral equations. The four-particle kinematic factors contained in integral kernels are expressed in terms of three-particle type kinematic factors. In the case of separable two-particle interaction, the equations of motion for four particles have the form of an infinite system of two-dimensional integral equations

  10. Short range investigation of sub-micron zirconia particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caracoche, M C; Martinez, J A [Departamento de Fisica, IFLP, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, CICPBA, Universidad Nacional de La Plata (Argentina); Rivas, P C [IFLP-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y Forestales, Universidad Nacional de La Plata (Argentina); Bondioli, F; Cannillo, V [Dipartimento di Ingegniria dei Materiali e dell' Ambiente, Facolta di Ingegneria, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia (Italy); Ferrari, A M, E-mail: cristina@fisica.unlp.edu.a [Dipartimento di Scienza a Metodi dell' Ingegneria, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia (Italy)

    2009-05-01

    The Perturbed Angular Correlations technique was used to determine the configurations around Zirconium ions and their thermal behavior in non-aggregated sub-micron zirconia spherical particles. Three residues containing- Zr surroundings were determined for the non-crystalline starting particles, which were identified under the assumption of a certain chemical reactions sequence during synthesis. While the one made up mainly by hydroxyl groups was common to both samples, the two involving mainly organic residues were particle size dependent. Upon crystallization, both samples stabilized in the t'- and t- tetragonal forms and the Xc-cubic form but their amounts and temperatures of appearance were different. On heating, the structure of the smaller particles became gradually monoclinic achieving total degradation upon the subsequent cooling to RT.

  11. In-vitro analysis of the dissolution kinetics and systemic availability of plutonium ingested in the form of 'hot' particles from the Semipalatinsk NTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway, M. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Leon Vintro, L. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)], E-mail: luis.leon@ucd.ie; Mitchell, P.I. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Garcia-Tenorio, R.; Jimenez-Ramos, M.C. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Sevilla, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Burkitbayev, M. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Priest, N.D. [School of Health and Social Sciences, Middlesex University, Queensway, Enfield EN3 4SA (United Kingdom)

    2009-05-15

    In-vitro leaching of radioactive 'hot' particles isolated from soils sampled at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site has been carried out in order to evaluate the fraction of plutonium activity released into simulated human stomach and small intestine fluids during digestion. Characterisation of the particles (10-100 Bq {sup 239,240}Pu) and investigation of their dissolution kinetics in simulated fluids has been accomplished using a combination of high-resolution alpha-spectrometry, gamma-spectrometry and liquid scintillation counting. The results of these analyses indicate that plutonium transfer across the human gut following the ingestion of 'hot' particles can be up to two orders of magnitude lower than that expected for plutonium in a more soluble form, and show that for areas affected by local fallout, use of published ingestion dose coefficients, together with bulk radionuclide concentrations in soil, may lead to a considerable overestimation of systemic uptake via the ingestion pathway.

  12. Newly Generated Liquid Waste Processing Alternatives Study, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landman, William Henry; Bates, Steven Odum; Bonnema, Bruce Edward; Palmer, Stanley Leland; Podgorney, Anna Kristine; Walsh, Stephanie

    2002-09-01

    This report identifies and evaluates three options for treating newly generated liquid waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The three options are: (a) treat the waste using processing facilities designed for treating sodium-bearing waste, (b) treat the waste using subcontractor-supplied mobile systems, or (c) treat the waste using a special facility designed and constructed for that purpose. In studying these options, engineers concluded that the best approach is to store the newly generated liquid waste until a sodium-bearing waste treatment facility is available and then to co-process the stored inventory of the newly generated waste with the sodium-bearing waste. After the sodium-bearing waste facility completes its mission, two paths are available. The newly generated liquid waste could be treated using the subcontractor-supplied system or the sodium-bearing waste facility or a portion of it. The final decision depends on the design of the sodium-bearing waste treatment facility, which will be completed in coming years.

  13. Tar balls are processed, weakly absorbing, primary aerosol particles formed downwind of boreal forest fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlacek, A. J., III; Buseck, P. R.; Adachi, K.; Kleinman, L. I.; Onasch, T. B.; Springston, S. R.

    2017-12-01

    Biomass burning is a major source of light-absorbing black and brown carbonaceous aerosols Brown carbon is a poorly characterized mixture that includes tar balls (TBs), a type of carbonaceous particle unique to biomass burning. Here we describe the first atmospheric observations of the formation and evolution of TBs Aerosol particles were collected on TEM grids during individual aircraft transects at varying downwind distances from the Colockum Tarp wildland fire. The TEM images show primary particles transforming from viscous, impact-deformed particles to spherical TBs. The number fraction of TBs in the wildfire smoke plume increased from less than 5% in samples collected close to the emission source to greater than 40% after 3 hours of aging, with little change in downwind TB diameters. The TB mass fraction increased from 2% near the fire to 23±9% downwind. Single-scatter albedo determined from scattering and absorption measurements increased slightly with downwind distance. Mie calculations show this observation is consistent with weak light absorbance by TBs (m=1.56 - 0.02i) but not consistent with order-of-magnitude stronger absorption observed in different settings. The field-derived TB mass fractions reported here indicate that this particle type should be accounted for in biomass-burn emission inventories.

  14. Introduction to Particle Physics course

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva HR-RFA

    2006-01-01

    These lectures are an introduction to the ideas of particle physics, aimed at students and teachers with little or on knowledge of the subject. They form a broad basis that will be developed in more detail by the subsequent lecturers in the school. These four lectures are meant to present an overview of particle physics based on its historical evolution over the past century. It will be shown how concepts have evolved following progress in instrumentation and in theoretical ideas, from atoms to the elementary particles and their interactions, as they are known today.

  15. Strange-particle production via the weak interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adera, G. B.; Van Der Ventel, B. I. S.; Niekerk, D. D. van; Mart, T.

    2010-01-01

    The differential cross sections for the neutrino-induced weak charged current production of strange particles in the threshold energy region are presented. The general representation of the weak hadronic current is newly developed in terms of eighteen unknown invariant amplitudes to parametrize the hadron vertex. The Born-term approximation is used for the numerical calculations in the framework of the Cabibbo theory and SU(3) symmetry. For unpolarized octet baryons four processes are investigated, whereas in the case of polarized baryons only one process is chosen to study the sensitivity of the differential cross section to the various polarizations of the initial-state nucleon and the final-state hyperon.

  16. Particle electric dipole moments

    CERN Document Server

    Pendlebury, J M

    2000-01-01

    Measurements of particle electric dipole moments (EDMs) continue to put powerful constraints on theories of T-symmetry and CP-symmetry violation, which form currently one of the most prominent fields in particle physics. EDM measurements have been concentrated on neutral systems such as the neutron and atoms and molecules. These measurements allow one to deduce, in turn, the electric dipole moments of the fundamental fermions, that is, the lighter leptons and quarks and also those of some heavy nuclei.

  17. Soot and liquid-phase fuel distributions in a newly designed optically accessible DI diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dec, J. E.; Espey, C.

    1993-10-01

    Two-dimensional (2-D) laser-sheet imaging has been used to examine the soot and liquid-phase fuel distributions in a newly designed, optically accessible, direct-injection diesel engine of the heavy-duty size class. The design of this engine preserves the intake port geometry and basic dimensions of a Cummins N-series production engine. It also includes several unique features to provide considerable optical access. Liquid-phase fuel and soot distribution studies were conducted at a medium speed (1,200 rpm) using a Cummins closed-nozzle fuel injector. The scattering was used to obtain planar images of the liquid-phase fuel distribution. These images show that the leading edge of the liquid-phase portion of the fuel jet reaches a maximum length of 24 mm, which is about half the combustion bowl radius for this engine. Beyond this point virtually all the fuel has vaporized. Soot distribution measurements were made at a high load condition using three imaging diagnostics: natural flame luminosity, 2-D laser-induced incandescence, and 2-D elastic scattering. This investigation showed that the soot distribution in the combusting fuel jet develops through three stages. First, just after the onset of luminous combustion, soot particles are small and nearly uniformly distributed throughout the luminous region of the fuel jet. Second, after about 2 crank angle degrees a pattern develops of a higher soot concentration of larger sized particles in the head vortex region of the jet and a lower soot concentration of smaller sized particles upstream toward the injector. Third, after fuel injection ends, both the soot concentration and soot particle size increase rapidly in the upstream portion of the fuel jet.

  18. DETACHMENT OF BACTERIOPHAGE FROM ITS CARRIER PARTICLES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetler, D M; Bronfenbrenner, J

    1931-05-20

    The active substance (phage) present in the lytic broth filtrate is distributed through the medium in the form of particles. These particles vary in size within broad limits. The average size of these particles as calculated on the basis of the rate of diffusion approximates 4.4 mmicro in radius. Fractionation by means of ultrafiltration permits partial separation of particles of different sizes. Under conditions of experiments here reported the particles varied in the radius size from 0.6 mmicro to 11.4 mmicro. The active agent apparently is not intimately identified with these particles. It is merely carried by them by adsorption, and under suitable experimental conditions it can be detached from the larger particles and redistributed on smaller particles of the medium.

  19. Do evaporating black holes form photospheres?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGibbon, Jane H.; Carr, B. J.; Page, Don N.

    2008-01-01

    Several authors, most notably Heckler, have claimed that the observable Hawking emission from a microscopic black hole is significantly modified by the formation of a photosphere around the black hole due to QED or QCD interactions between the emitted particles. In this paper we analyze these claims and identify a number of physical and geometrical effects which invalidate these scenarios. We point out two key problems. First, the interacting particles must be causally connected to interact, and this condition is satisfied by only a small fraction of the emitted particles close to the black hole. Second, a scattered particle requires a distance ∼E/m e 2 for completing each bremsstrahlung interaction, with the consequence that it is improbable for there to be more than one complete bremsstrahlung interaction per particle near the black hole. These two effects have not been included in previous analyses. We conclude that the emitted particles do not interact sufficiently to form a QED photosphere. Similar arguments apply in the QCD case and prevent a QCD photosphere (chromosphere) from developing when the black hole temperature is much greater than Λ QCD , the threshold for QCD particle emission. Additional QCD phenomenological arguments rule out the development of a chromosphere around black hole temperatures of order Λ QCD . In all cases, the observational signatures of a cosmic or Galactic halo background of primordial black holes or an individual black hole remain essentially those of the standard Hawking model, with little change to the detection probability. We also consider the possibility, as proposed by Belyanin et al. and D. Cline et al., that plasma interactions between the emitted particles form a photosphere, and we conclude that this scenario too is not supported.

  20. Cancer-treating composition containing inductively-heatable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, R.T.

    1978-01-01

    A cancer-treating composition including minute particles suspended in an aqueous solution in dosage form is described. This makes it possible to introduce into the interior of the cells of living tissue minute particles, with magnetic properties, which are inductively heated when subjected to a high frequency alternating electromagnetic field. Incorporating specific radioisotopes or tumor-specific antibodies bound to the particles increases selectivity and affinity of cancer cells for the particles. The particles may be used to deliver a chemotherapeutic agent primarily to the interior of the cancer cells by encapsulating the chemotherapeutic agent within the particles for release when the high frequency alternating electromagnetic field is applied. (author)

  1. Eddy covariance measurements of sea spray particles over the Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Norris

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Most estimates of sea spray aerosol source functions have used indirect means to infer the rate of production as a function of wind speed. Only recently has the technology become available to make high frequency measurements of aerosol spectra suitable for direct eddy correlation determination of the sea spray particle flux. This was accomplished in this study by combining a newly developed fast aerosol particle counter with an ultrasonic anemometer which allowed for eddy covariance measurements of size-segregated particle fluxes. The aerosol instrument is the Compact Lightweight Aerosol Spectrometer Probe (CLASP – capable of measuring 8-channel size spectra for mean radii between 0.15 and 3.5 µm at 10 Hz. The first successful measurements were made during the Waves, Air Sea Fluxes, Aerosol and Bubbles (WASFAB field campaign in October 2005 in Duck (NC, USA. The method and initial results are presented and comparisons are made with recent sea spray source functions from the literature.

  2. Pharmaceutical Particle Engineering via Spray Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    This review covers recent developments in the area of particle engineering via spray drying. The last decade has seen a shift from empirical formulation efforts to an engineering approach based on a better understanding of particle formation in the spray drying process. Microparticles with nanoscale substructures can now be designed and their functionality has contributed significantly to stability and efficacy of the particulate dosage form. The review provides concepts and a theoretical framework for particle design calculations. It reviews experimental research into parameters that influence particle formation. A classification based on dimensionless numbers is presented that can be used to estimate how excipient properties in combination with process parameters influence the morphology of the engineered particles. A wide range of pharmaceutical application examples—low density particles, composite particles, microencapsulation, and glass stabilization—is discussed, with specific emphasis on the underlying particle formation mechanisms and design concepts. PMID:18040761

  3. Grazing of particle-associated bacteria-an elimination of the non-viable fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsalves, Maria-Judith; Fernandes, Sheryl Oliveira; Priya, Madasamy Lakshmi; LokaBharathi, Ponnapakkam Adikesavan

    Quantification of bacteria being grazed by microzooplankton is gaining importance since they serve as energy subsidies for higher trophic levels which consequently influence fish production. Hence, grazing pressure on viable and non-viable fraction of free and particle-associated bacteria in a tropical estuary controlled mainly by protist grazers was estimated using the seawater dilution technique. In vitro incubations over a period of 42h showed that at the end of 24h, growth coefficient (k) of particle-associated bacteria was 9 times higher at 0.546 than that of free forms. Further, 'k' value of viable cells on particles was double that of free forms at 0.016 and 0.007, respectively. While bacteria associated with particles were grazed (coefficient of removal (g)=0.564), the free forms were relatively less grazed indicating that particle-associated bacteria were exposed to grazers in these waters. Among the viable and non-viable forms, 'g' of non-viable fraction (particle-associated bacteria=0.615, Free=0.0086) was much greater than the viable fraction (particle-associated bacteria=0.056, Free=0.068). Thus, grazing on viable cells was relatively low in both the free and attached states. These observations suggest that non-viable forms of particle-associated bacteria were more prone to grazing and were weeded out leaving the viable cells to replenish the bacterial standing stock. Particle colonization could thus be a temporary refuge for the "persistent variants" where the viable fraction multiply and release their progeny. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Grazing of particle-associated bacteria-an elimination of the non-viable fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Judith Gonsalves

    Full Text Available Abstract Quantification of bacteria being grazed by microzooplankton is gaining importance since they serve as energy subsidies for higher trophic levels which consequently influence fish production. Hence, grazing pressure on viable and non-viable fraction of free and particle-associated bacteria in a tropical estuary controlled mainly by protist grazers was estimated using the seawater dilution technique. In vitro incubations over a period of 42 h showed that at the end of 24 h, growth coefficient (k of particle-associated bacteria was 9 times higher at 0.546 than that of free forms. Further, ‘k’ value of viable cells on particles was double that of free forms at 0.016 and 0.007, respectively. While bacteria associated with particles were grazed (coefficient of removal (g = 0.564, the free forms were relatively less grazed indicating that particle-associated bacteria were exposed to grazers in these waters. Among the viable and non-viable forms, ‘g’ of non-viable fraction (particle-associated bacteria = 0.615, Free = 0.0086 was much greater than the viable fraction (particle-associated bacteria = 0.056, Free = 0.068. Thus, grazing on viable cells was relatively low in both the free and attached states. These observations suggest that non-viable forms of particle-associated bacteria were more prone to grazing and were weeded out leaving the viable cells to replenish the bacterial standing stock. Particle colonization could thus be a temporary refuge for the “persistent variants” where the viable fraction multiply and release their progeny.

  5. pH-Responsive Particle-Liquid Aggregates—Electrostatic Formation Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M. Ireland

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Liquid-particle aggregates were formed electrostatically using pH-responsive poly[2-(diethylaminoethyl methacrylate] (PDEA-coated polystyrene particles. This novel non-contact electrostatic method has been used to assess the particle stimulus-responsive wettability in detail. Video footage and fractal analysis were used in conjunction with a two-stage model to characterize the kinetics of transfer of particles to a water droplet surface, and internalization of particles by the droplet. While no stable liquid marbles were formed, metastable marbles were manufactured, whose duration of stability depended strongly on drop pH. Both transfer and internalization were markedly faster for droplets at low pH, where the particles were expected to be hydrophilic, than at high pH where they were expected to be hydrophobic. Increasing the driving electrical potential produced greater transfer and internalization times. Possible reasons for this are discussed.

  6. Hybrid particles and associated methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert V; Rodriguez, Rene; Pak, Joshua J; Sun, Chivin

    2015-02-10

    Hybrid particles that comprise a coating surrounding a chalcopyrite material, the coating comprising a metal, a semiconductive material, or a polymer; a core comprising a chalcopyrite material and a shell comprising a functionalized chalcopyrite material, the shell enveloping the core; or a reaction product of a chalcopyrite material and at least one of a reagent, heat, and radiation. Methods of forming the hybrid particles are also disclosed.

  7. Remunicipalisation and Foundation of Municipal Utilities in the German Energy Sector: Details about Newly Established Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Wagner

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the majority of network concession contracts in Germany were set to expire some time between 2005 and 2016, a window of opportunity arose in which to rebuild and remunicipalise the local energy supply. As a result, 72 new local power companies were established in Germany within the space of just seven years (between early 2005 and late 2012. This paper provides an introduction to the topic of establishing municipal utilities in Germany. The findings were identified on the basis of the comprehensive screening of all newly established municipal utilities in Germany. Our analysis provides information about regional concentration, the size of municipalities, the legal forms of the newly founded municipal public utilities and the role of strategic partnerships. The key findings are that remunicipalisation is not a question of size and that knowledge gaps may be closed by entering into close strategic partnerships.

  8. Cement waste form development for ion-exchange resins and fine particles ILW of AREVA La Hague Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chartier, D.; Sanchez-Canet, J.; Avril, D.; Roussel, C.; Pineau, J.N.

    2015-01-01

    Wastes have been temporarily stored in dedicated silos in La Hague reprocessing plant. These wastes are to be retrieved in the near future and to be conditioned for final disposal. Some of these wastes are supposed to be encapsulated in cement matrix and, depending on the chemical composition of the waste streams, several projects are presently ongoing. The present article aims to focus on one amongst these cement encapsulation relevant projects, namely the conditioning of a mix of spent ion-exchange resins (from filtration of pool) and fine particles (insoluble fission products from spent fuel dissolution and Zircaloy and stainless steel fines from cladding shearing). The project, aims to retrieve these wastes from a silo, separate the resins and fine particles from the other waste (hulls and end pieces), in order to encapsulate the intermediate-level fines and resins in a cement matrix. The waste forms will be produced in AREVA's La Hague reprocessing plant, prior to being sent as intermediate-level waste to a long-term repository. The cement formulation developments were initially carried out at a small scale at C.E.A. Marcoule on surrogate wastes. One of the main issues that were considered was the chemical compatibility between waste and cement matrix. Indeed, swelling phenomena are sometimes reported when ion exchange resins are embedded in cement matrixes such as Portland cement. This kind of destructive phenomenon has been prevented by the use of cement containing a high amount of ground granulated blast furnace slag. The impact of the variability of ionic charge of the resins on the waste form's properties has also been addressed in order to comfort the results obtained on the reference ionic charge of resins NaNO 3 . Once the results obtained were satisfactory, intermediate scale and full scale tests were performed by AREVA. These tests have focused on adjusting the mixing process and controlling the thermal properties of the mix during setting

  9. Dynamics of colloidal particles in ice

    KAUST Repository

    Spannuth, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    We use x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) to probe the dynamics of colloidal particles in polycrystalline ice. During freezing, the dendritic ice morphology and rejection of particles from the ice created regions of high particle density, where some of the colloids were forced into contact and formed disordered aggregates. The particles in these high density regions underwent ballistic motion, with a characteristic velocity that increased with temperature. This ballistic motion is coupled with both stretched and compressed exponential decays of the intensity autocorrelation function. We suggest that this behavior could result from ice grain boundary migration. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

  10. Particle detector spatial resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Mendez, V.

    1992-01-01

    Method and apparatus for producing separated columns of scintillation layer material, for use in detection of X-rays and high energy charged particles with improved spatial resolution is disclosed. A pattern of ridges or projections is formed on one surface of a substrate layer or in a thin polyimide layer, and the scintillation layer is grown at controlled temperature and growth rate on the ridge-containing material. The scintillation material preferentially forms cylinders or columns, separated by gaps conforming to the pattern of ridges, and these columns direct most of the light produced in the scintillation layer along individual columns for subsequent detection in a photodiode layer. The gaps may be filled with a light-absorbing material to further enhance the spatial resolution of the particle detector. 12 figs

  11. The practical skills of newly qualified nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danbjørg, Dorthe Boe; Birkelund, Regner

    2011-02-01

    This paper reports the findings from a study of newly qualified nurses and which subjects the nurses regarded as the most important in order to be able to live up to the requirements of clinical practice, and how they experience their potential for developing practical and moral skills, after the decrease in practical training. A qualitative approach guided the research process and the analysis of the data. The data was collected by participant observation and qualitative interviews with four nurses as informants. The conclusions made in this study are based on the statements and the observations of the newly qualified nurses. Our findings are discussed in relation to the Aristotelian concept and other relevant literature. The main message is that the newly qualified nurses did not feel equipped when they finished their training. This could be interpreted as a direct consequence of the decrease in practical training. Our study also underlines that the way nursing theory is perceived and taught is problematic. The interviews revealed that the nurses think that nursing theories should be applied directly in practice. This misunderstanding is probably also applicable to the teachers of the theories. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Charged-particle spectroscopy in the microsecond range following projectile fragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Pfützner, M; Grzywacz, R; Janas, Z; Momayezi, M; Bingham, C; Blank, B; Chartier, M; Geissel, H; Giovinazzo, J; Hellström, M; Kurcewicz, J; Lalleman, A S; Mazzocchi, C; Mukha, I; Plettner, C; Roeckl, E; Rykaczewski, K; Schmidt, K; Simon, R S; Stanoiu, M; Thomas, J C

    2002-01-01

    We present a new approach to charged-particle spectroscopy of short-lived nuclei produced by relativistic projectile fragmentation. The system based on digital DGF-4C CAMAC modules and newly developed fast-reset preamplifiers was tested at the Fragment Separator of GSI. We were able to detect low-energy (approx 1 MeV) decay signals occurring a few microseconds after a heavy-ion implantation accompanied by a release of approx 1 GeV energy. Applications for the study of one- and two-proton radioactivity are discussed.

  13. Newly graduated nurses' use of knowledge sources: a meta-ethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voldbjerg, Siri Lygum; Grønkjaer, Mette; Sørensen, Erik Elgaard; Hall, Elisabeth O C

    2016-08-01

    To advance evidence on newly graduated nurses' use of knowledge sources. Clinical decisions need to be evidence-based and understanding the knowledge sources that newly graduated nurses use will inform both education and practice. Qualitative studies on newly graduated nurses' use of knowledge sources are increasing though generated from scattered healthcare contexts. Therefore, a metasynthesis of qualitative research on what knowledge sources new graduates use in decision-making was conducted. Meta-ethnography. Nineteen reports, representing 17 studies, published from 2000-2014 were identified from iterative searches in relevant databases from May 2013-May 2014. Included reports were appraised for quality and Noblit and Hare's meta-ethnography guided the interpretation and synthesis of data. Newly graduated nurses' use of knowledge sources during their first 2-year postgraduation were interpreted in the main theme 'self and others as knowledge sources,' with two subthemes 'doing and following' and 'knowing and doing,' each with several elucidating categories. The metasynthesis revealed a line of argument among the report findings underscoring progression in knowledge use and perception of competence and confidence among newly graduated nurses. The transition phase, feeling of confidence and ability to use critical thinking and reflection, has a great impact on knowledge sources incorporated in clinical decisions. The synthesis accentuates that for use of newly graduated nurses' qualifications and skills in evidence-based practice, clinical practice needs to provide a supportive environment which nurtures critical thinking and questions and articulates use of multiple knowledge sources. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Path integral for relativistic particle theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fradkin, E.S.; Gitman, D.M.; Shvartsman, Sh.M.

    1990-06-01

    An action for a relativistic spinning particle interacting with external electromagnetic field is considered in reparametrization and local supergauge invariant form. It is shown that various path integral representations derived for the causal Green function correspond to the different forms of the relativistic particle action. The analogy of the path integral derived with the Lagrangian path integral of the field theory is discussed. It is shown that to obtain the causal propagator, the integration over the null mode of the Lagrangian multiplier corresponding to the reparametrization invariance, has to be performed in the (0,+infinity) limits. (author). 23 refs

  15. Scaling during capillary thinning of particle-laden drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thete, Sumeet; Wagoner, Brayden; Basaran, Osman

    2017-11-01

    A fundamental understanding of drop formation is crucial in many applications such as ink-jet printing, microfluidic devices, and atomization. During drop formation, the about-to-form drop is connected to the fluid hanging from the nozzle via a thinning filament. Therefore, the physics of capillary thinning of filaments is key to understanding drop formation and has been thoroughly studied for pure Newtonian fluids using theory, simulations, and experiments. In some of the applications however, the forming drop and hence the thinning filament may contain solid particles. The thinning dynamics of such particle-laden filaments differs radically from that of particle-free filaments. Moreover, our understanding of filament thinning in the former case is poor compared to that in the latter case despite the growing interest in pinch-off of particle-laden filaments. In this work, we go beyond similar studies and experimentally explore the impact of solid particles on filament thinning by measuring both the radial and axial scalings in the neck region. The results are summarized in terms of a phase diagram of capillary thinning of particle-laden filaments.

  16. On the functional form of particle number size distributions: influence of particle source and meteorological variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugerone, Katia; De Michele, Carlo; Ghezzi, Antonio; Gianelle, Vorne; Gilardoni, Stefania

    2018-04-01

    Particle number size distributions (PNSDs) have been collected periodically in the urban area of Milan, Italy, during 2011 and 2012 in winter and summer months. Moreover, comparable PNSD measurements were carried out in the rural mountain site of Oga-San Colombano (2250 m a.s.l.), Italy, during February 2005 and August 2011. The aerosol data have been measured through the use of optical particle counters in the size range 0.3-25 µm, with a time resolution of 1 min. The comparison of the PNSDs collected in the two sites has been done in terms of total number concentration, showing higher numbers in Milan (often exceeding 103 cm-3 in winter season) compared to Oga-San Colombano (not greater than 2×102 cm-3), as expected. The skewness-kurtosis plane has been used in order to provide a synoptic view, and select the best distribution family describing the empirical PNSD pattern. The four-parameter Johnson system-bounded distribution (called Johnson SB or JSB) has been tested for this aim, due to its great flexibility and ability to assume different shapes. The PNSD pattern has been found to be generally invariant under site and season changes. Nevertheless, several PNSDs belonging to the Milan winter season (generally more than 30 %) clearly deviate from the standard empirical pattern. The seasonal increase in the concentration of primary aerosols due to combustion processes in winter and the influence of weather variables throughout the year, such as precipitation and wind speed, could be considered plausible explanations of PNSD dynamics.

  17. A Particle Consistent with the Higgs Boson Observed with the ATLAS Detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Atkinson, Markus; Aubert, Bernard; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Backus Mayes, John; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Balek, Petr; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Valeria; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beale, Steven; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Bertella, Claudia; Bertin, Antonio; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bittner, Bernhard; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boelaert, Nele; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Bohm, Jan; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Bolnet, Nayanka Myriam; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borjanovic, Iris; Borri, Marcello; Borroni, Sara; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Branchini, Paolo; Brandenburg, George; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Brelier, Bertrand; Bremer, Johan; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Broggi, Francesco; Bromberg, Carl; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brown, Gareth; Brown, Heather; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Bucci, Francesca; Buchanan, James; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Budick, Burton; Büscher, Volker; Bugge, Lars; Bulekov, Oleg; Bundock, Aaron Colin; Bunse, Moritz; Buran, Torleiv; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgess, Thomas; Burke, Stephen; Busato, Emmanuel; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Buttinger, William; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Caloi, Rita; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Canale, Vincenzo; Canelli, Florencia; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Capasso, Luciano; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capriotti, Daniele; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Bryan; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Cascella, Michele; Caso, Carlo; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo Martin; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalleri, Pietro; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chan, Kevin; Chang, Philip; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Chareyre, Eve; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Yujiao; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Sing-Leung; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiefari, Giovanni; Chikovani, Leila; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Christidi, Illectra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Cirkovic, Predrag; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cogneras, Eric; Colas, Jacques; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collins, Neil; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Colon, German; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Courneyea, Lorraine; Cowan, Glen; Cowden, Christopher; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crescioli, Francesco; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuenca Almenar, Cristóbal; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Curatolo, Maria; Curtis, Chris; Cuthbert, Cameron; Cwetanski, Peter; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dameri, Mauro; Damiani, Daniel; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Dassoulas, James; Davey, Will; Davidek, Tomas; Davidson, Nadia; Davidson, Ruth; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davignon, Olivier; Davison, Adam; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; de Mora, Lee; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; De Zorzi, Guido; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dechenaux, Benjamin; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Del Papa, Carlo; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delemontex, Thomas; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delpierre, Pierre; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Deng, Jianrong; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Devetak, Erik; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dindar Yagci, Kamile; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dinut, Florin; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; do Vale, Maria Aline Barros; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobbs, Matt; Dobinson, Robert; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dodd, Jeremy; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Doi, Yoshikuni; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolenc, Irena; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Dohmae, Takeshi; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dos Anjos, Andre; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Dowell, John; Doxiadis, Alexander; Doyle, Tony; Dressnandt, Nandor; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Dührssen, Michael; Duerdoth, Ian; Duflot, Laurent; Dufour, Marc-Andre; Duguid, Liam; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Duxfield, Robert; Dwuznik, Michal; Dydak, Friedrich; Düren, Michael; Ebenstein, William; Ebke, Johannes; Eckweiler, Sebastian; Edmonds, Keith; Edson, William; Edwards, Clive; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Eisenhandler, Eric; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Epp, Brigitte; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienne, Francois; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evangelakou, Despoina; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farley, Jason; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Fazio, Salvatore; Febbraro, Renato; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Fellmann, Denis; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fisher, Matthew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Fournier, Daniel; Fowler, Andrew; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Frank, Tal; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Friedrich, Conrad; Friedrich, Felix; Froeschl, Robert; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Gan, KK; Gao, Yongsheng; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garberson, Ford; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garitaonandia, Hegoi; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerlach, Peter; Gershon, Avi; Geweniger, Christoph; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Victoria; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gildemeister, Otto; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giunta, Michele; Giusti, Paolo; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glitza, Karl-Walter; Glonti, George; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Göpfert, Thomas; Goeringer, Christian; Gössling, Claus; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Gosdzik, Bjoern; Goshaw, Alfred; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Grau, Nathan; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grybel, Kai; Guest, Daniel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Guo, Jun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Hahn, Ferdinand; Haider, Stefan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Hall, David; Haller, Johannes; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Hare, Gabriel; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Henß, Tobias; Hernandez, Carlos Medina; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holder, Martin; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Horner, Stephan; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huettmann, Antje; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hurwitz, Martina; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibbotson, Michael; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Ince, Tayfun; Inigo-Golfin, Joaquin; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Jež, Pavel; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Joram, Christian; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Jovin, Tatjana; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kabana, Sonja; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagounis, Michael; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Keener, Paul; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Keller, John; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kitamura, Takumi; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; Köpke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolachev, Guennady; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kreiss, Sven; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Labbe, Julien; Lablak, Said; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lamanna, Massimo; Lambourne, Luke; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larner, Aimee; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorini, Vincenzo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Lazovich, Tomo; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Lepold, Florian; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Jonathan; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Losty, Michael; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Luijckx, Guy; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Björn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundberg, Olof; Lundquist, Johan; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Mahmoud, Sara; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Malecki, Piotr; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Manabe, Atsushi; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Mangeard, Pierre-Simon; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany Andreina; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Zach; Martens, Kalen; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massaro, Graziano; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Matricon, Pierre; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mc Donald, Jeffrey; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehdiyev, Rashid; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Meyer, Thomas Christian; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Moeller, Victoria; Mönig, Klaus; Möser, Nicolas; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molfetas, Angelos; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moorhead, Gareth; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Müller, Thomas; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Munwes, Yonathan; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Narayan, Rohin; Nash, Michael; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newcomer, Mitchel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen Thi Hong, Van; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Norton, Peter; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Nugent, Ian Michael; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakes, Louise Beth; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Orlov, Iliya; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Osuna, Carlos; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Ottersbach, John; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Paleari, Chiara; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Papadelis, Aras; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Park, Woochun; Parker, Andy; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pashapour, Shabnaz; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pecsy, Martin; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perantoni, Marcelo; Perez, Kerstin; Perez Cavalcanti, Tiago; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Perrodo, Pascal; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petschull, Dennis; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phan, Anna; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pinto, Belmiro; Pizio, Caterina; Plamondon, Mathieu; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Plotnikova, Elena; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Pohl, Martin; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Poll, James; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Pretzl, Klaus Peter; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Purdham, John; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quinonez, Fernando; Raas, Marcel; Raddum, Silje; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radloff, Peter; Rador, Tonguc; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rahimi, Amir; Rahm, David; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Randrianarivony, Koloina; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Reinherz-Aronis, Erez; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisinger, Ingo; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rijpstra, Manouk; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Rios, Ryan Randy; Riu, Imma; Rivoltella, Giancesare; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Rocha de Lima, Jose Guilherme; Roda, Chiara; Roda Dos Santos, Denis; Roe, Adam; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Anthony; Rose, Matthew; Rosenbaum, Gabriel; Rosenberg, Eli; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rosselet, Laurent; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexander; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Gerald; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rumyantsev, Leonid; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Rutherfoord, John; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Samset, Björn Hallvard; Sanchez, Arturo; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Saraiva, João; Sarangi, Tapas; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarri, Francesca; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sasao, Noboru; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Savard, Pierre; Savinov, Vladimir; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schäfer, Uli; Schaelicke, Andreas; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R~Dean; Schamov, Andrey; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmid, Peter; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitz, Martin; Schneider, Basil; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultes, Joachim; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwierz, Rainer; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scott, Bill; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellden, Bjoern; Sellers, Graham; Seman, Michal; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Sherman, Daniel; Sherwood, Peter; Shimizu, Shima; Shimojima, Makoto; Shin, Taeksu; Shiyakova, Maria; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simoniello, Rosa; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Ben Campbell; Smith, Douglas; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snow, Steve; Snow, Joel; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Soni, Nitesh; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiwoks, Ralf; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Staude, Arnold; Stavina, Pavel; Steele, Genevieve; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Strachota, Pavel; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strang, Michael; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Strong, John; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Stugu, Bjarne; Stumer, Iuliu; Stupak, John; Sturm, Philipp; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Soh, Dart-yin; Su, Dong; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Suzuki, Yuta; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Sánchez, Javier; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tamsett, Matthew; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tardif, Dominique; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tassi, Enrico; Tatarkhanov, Mous; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teinturier, Marthe; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thong, Wai Meng; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tic, Tomáš; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topfel, Cyril; Topilin, Nikolai; Torchiani, Ingo; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alesandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trilling, George; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Triplett, Nathan; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiakiris, Menelaos; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tua, Alan; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuggle, Joseph; Turala, Michal; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turlay, Emmanuel; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Tzanakos, George; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Uhrmacher, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urquijo, Phillip; Usai, Giulio; Uslenghi, Massimiliano; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vahsen, Sven; Valenta, Jan; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Berg, Richard; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Poel, Egge; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; van Vulpen, Ivo; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Vari, Riccardo; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Vegni, Guido; Veillet, Jean-Jacques; Veloso, Filipe; Veness, Raymond; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinek, Elisabeth; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virchaux, Marc; Virzi, Joseph; Vitells, Ofer; Viti, Michele; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; Volpini, Giovanni; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorwerk, Volker; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Voss, Thorsten Tobias; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahlen, Helmut; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walch, Shannon; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Walsh, Brian; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watanabe, Ippei; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Anthony; Waugh, Ben; Weber, Michele; Weber, Pavel; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Werth, Michael; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Weydert, Carole; Whalen, Kathleen; Wheeler-Ellis, Sarah Jane; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Sebastian; Whitehead, Samuel Robert; Whiteson, Daniel; Whittington, Denver; Wicek, Francois; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilhelm, Ivan; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Eric; Williams, Hugh; Willis, William; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Michael Galante; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkelmann, Stefan; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wong, Wei-Cheng; Wooden, Gemma; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Michael; Wrona, Bozydar; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xie, Song; Xu, Chao; Xu, Da; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamazaki, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zhaoyu; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Liwen; Yao, Yushu; Yasu, Yoshiji; Ybeles Smit, Gabriel Valentijn; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Riktura; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, Dantong; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Byszewski, Marcin; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zajacova, Zuzana; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zendler, Carolin; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zieminska, Daria; Zimin, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Živković, Lidija; Zmouchko, Viatcheslav; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2012-01-01

    Nearly 50 years ago, theoretical physicists proposed that a field permeates the universe and gives energy to the vacuum. This field was required to explain why some, but not all, fundamental particles have mass. Numerous precision measurements during recent decades have provided indirect support for the existence of this field, but one crucial prediction of this theory has remained unconfirmed despite 30 years of experimental searches: the existence of a massive particle, the standard model Higgs boson. The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN has now observed the production of a new particle with a mass of 126 giga–electron volts and decay signatures consistent with those expected for the Higgs particle. This result is strong support for the standard model of particle physics, including the presence of this vacuum field. The existence and properties of the newly discovered particle may also have consequences beyond the standard model itself.

  18. A particle consistent with the Higgs boson observed with the ATLAS detector at the large hadron collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aad, G.; Ahles, F.; Barber, T.; Bernhard, R.; Boehler, M.; Bruneliere, R.; Christov, A.; Consorti, V.; Fehling-Kaschek, M.; Flechl, M.; Hartert, J.; Herten, G.; Horner, S.; Jakobs, K.; Janus, M.; Kononov, A.I.; Kuehn, S.; Lai, S.; Landgraf, U.; Lohwasser, K.; Ludwig, I.; Ludwig, J.; Mahboubi, K.; Mohr, W.; Nilsen, H.; Parzefall, U.; Rammensee, M.; Rave, T.C.; Rurikova, Z.; Schmidt, E.; Schumacher, M.; Siegert, F.; Stoerig, K.; Sundermann, J.E.; Temming, K.K.; Thoma, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Venturi, M.; Vivarelli, I.; Radziewski, H. von; Vu Anh, T.; Warsinsky, M.; Weiser, C.; Werner, M.; Wiik-Fuchs, L.A.M.; Winkelmann, S.; Xie, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Abreu, H.; Bachacou, H.; Bauer, F.; Besson, N.; Blanchard, J.B.; Bolnet, N.M.; Boonekamp, M.; Chevalier, L.; Ernwein, J.; Etienvre, A.I.; Formica, A.; Gauthier, L.; Giraud, P.F.; Guyot, C.; Hassani, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lancon, E.; Laporte, J.F.; Legendre, M.; Maiani, C.; Mal, P.; Manjarres Ramos, J.A.; Mansoulie, B.; Meyer, J.P.; Mijovic, L.; Morange, N.; Nguyen Thi Hong, V.; Nicolaidou, R.; Ouraou, A.; Resende, B.; Royon, C.R.; Schoeffel, L.; Schune, Ph.; Schwindling, J.; Simard, O.; Vranjes, N.; Xiao, M.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Andari, N.; Arnault, C.; Auge, E.; Barrillon, P.; Benoit, M.; Binet, S.; Bourdarios, C.; De La Taille, C.; De Vivie De Regie, J.B.; Duflot, L.; Escalier, M.; Fayard, L.; Fournier, D.; Grivaz, J.F.; Guillemin, T.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hrivnac, J.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Idarraga, J.; Kado, M.; Lorenzo Martinez, N.; Lounis, A.; Makovec, N.; Matricon, P.; Niedercorn, F.; Poggioli, L.; Puzo, P.; Renaud, A.; Rousseau, D.; Rybkin, G.; Sauvan, J.B.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schaffer, A.C.; Serin, L.; Simion, S.; Tanaka, R.; Teinturier, M.; Veillet, J.J.; Wicek, F.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, Z.; Abajyan, T.; Arutinov, D.; Backhaus, M.; Barbero, M.; Bechtle, P.; Brock, I.; Cristinziani, M.; Davey, W.; Desch, K.; Dingfelder, J.; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, Ch.; Glatzer, J.; Gonella, L.; Haefner, P.; Havranek, M.; Hellmich, D.; Hillert, S.; Huegging, F.; Karagounis, M.; Khoriauli, G.; Koevesarki, P.; Kostyukhin, V.V.; Kraus, J.K.; Kroseberg, J.; Kruger, H.; Lapoire, C.; Lehmacher, M.; Leyko, A.M.; Limbach, C.; Loddenkoetter, T.; Mazur, M.; Moser, N.; Mueller, K.; Nanava, G.; Nattermann, T.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A.E.; Pohl, D.; Psoroulas, S.; Schaepe, S.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitz, M.; Schultens, M.J.; Schwindt, T.; Stillings, J.A.; Therhaag, J.; Tsung, J.W.; Uchida, K.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Urquijo, P.; Vogel, A.; Toerne, E. von; Wang, T.; Wermes, N.; Wienemann, P.; Zendler, C.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Abbott, B.; Gutierrez, P.; Jana, D.K.; Marzin, A.; Meera-Lebbai, R.; Norberg, S.; Saleem, M.; Severini, H.; Skubic, P.; Snow, J.; Strauss, M.

    2012-01-01

    Nearly 50 years ago, theoretical physicists proposed that a field permeates the universe and gives energy to the vacuum. This field was required to explain why some, but not all, fundamental particles have mass. Numerous precision measurements during recent decades have provided indirect support for the existence of this field, but one crucial prediction of this theory has remained unconfirmed despite 30 years of experimental searches: the existence of a massive particle, the standard model Higgs boson. The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN has now observed the production of a new particle with a mass of 126 giga-electron volts and decay signatures consistent with those expected for the Higgs particle. This result is strong support for the standard model of particle physics, including the presence of this vacuum field. The existence and properties of the newly discovered particle may also have consequences beyond the standard model itself. (authors)

  19. Alpha-particle response characteristics of CR-39

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou El-Khier, A.A.; Gaber, M.; El-Khatib, A.M.; Fawzy, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The form of the response curve of the polycarbonate CR-39 for α-particles at relatively low energies has been established. The investigation included measurements of both bulk- and track-etch rates. The latter was measured as a function of α-particle energies. (author)

  20. Bedforms formed by experimental supercritical density flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruse, Hajime; Izumi, Norihiro; Yokokawa, Miwa; Muto, Tetsuji

    2014-05-01

    This study reveals characteristics and formative conditions of bedforms produced by saline density flows in supercritical flow conditions, especially focusing on the mechanism of the formation of plane bed. The motion of sediment particles forming bedforms was resolved by high-speed cameras (1/1000 frame/seconds). Experimental density flows were produced by mixtures of salt water (1.01-1.04 in density) and plastic particles (1.5 in specific density, 140 or 240 mm in diameter). Salt water and plastic particles are analogue materials of muddy water and sand particles in turbidity currents respectively. Acrylic flume (4.0 m long, 2.0 cm wide and 0.5 m deep) was submerged in an experimental tank (6.0 m long, 1.8 m wide and 1.2 m deep) that was filled by clear water. Features of bedforms were observed when the bed state in the flume reached equilibrium condition. The experimental conditions range 1.5-4.2 in densimetric Froude number and 0.2-0.8 in Shields dimensionless stress. We report the two major discoveries as a result of the flume experiments: (1) Plane bed under Froude-supercritical flows and (2) Geometrical characteristics of cyclic steps formed by density flows. (1) Plane bed was formed under the condition of supercritical flow regime. In previous studies, plane bed has been known to be formed by subcritical unidirectional flows (ca. 0.8 in Froude number). However, this study implies that plane bed can also be formed by supercritical conditions with high Shields dimensionless stress (>0.4) and very high Froude number (> 4.0). This discovery may suggest that previous estimations of paleo-hydraulic conditions of parallel lamination in turbidites should be reconsidered. The previous experimental studies and data from high-speed camera suggest that the region of plane bed formation coincides with the region of the sheet flow developments. The particle transport in sheet flow (thick bedload layer) induces transform of profile of flow shear stress, which may be

  1. Hybrid Algorithm of Particle Swarm Optimization and Grey Wolf Optimizer for Improving Convergence Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narinder Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A newly hybrid nature inspired algorithm called HPSOGWO is presented with the combination of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO and Grey Wolf Optimizer (GWO. The main idea is to improve the ability of exploitation in Particle Swarm Optimization with the ability of exploration in Grey Wolf Optimizer to produce both variants’ strength. Some unimodal, multimodal, and fixed-dimension multimodal test functions are used to check the solution quality and performance of HPSOGWO variant. The numerical and statistical solutions show that the hybrid variant outperforms significantly the PSO and GWO variants in terms of solution quality, solution stability, convergence speed, and ability to find the global optimum.

  2. Method to detect biological particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giaever, I.

    1976-01-01

    A medical-diagnostic method to detect immunological as well as other specific reactions is described. According to the invention, first reactive particles (e.g. antibodies) are adsorbed on the surface of a solid, non-reactive substrate. The coated substrate is subjected to a solution which one assumes to contain the second biological particles (e.g. antigens) which are specific to the first and form complexes with these. A preferential radioactive labelling (e.g. with iodine 125) of the second biological particle is then directly or indirectly carried out. Clearage follows labelling in order to separate the second biological particles from the first ones. A specific splitting agent can selectively break the bond of both types of particle. The splitting agent solution is finally separated off and its content is investigated for the presence of labelling. (VJ) [de

  3. The impact of organisational culture on the adaptation of newly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Usually newly employed nurses find adjusting to a work setting a challenging experience. Their successful adaptation to their work situation is greatly influenced by the socialisation process inherent in the organisational culture. The newly employed nurse often finds that the norms are unclear, confusing and restrictive.

  4. GABA regulates synaptic integration of newly generated neurons in the adult brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shaoyu; Goh, Eyleen L. K.; Sailor, Kurt A.; Kitabatake, Yasuji; Ming, Guo-Li; Song, Hongjun

    2006-02-01

    Adult neurogenesis, the birth and integration of new neurons from adult neural stem cells, is a striking form of structural plasticity and highlights the regenerative capacity of the adult mammalian brain. Accumulating evidence suggests that neuronal activity regulates adult neurogenesis and that new neurons contribute to specific brain functions. The mechanism that regulates the integration of newly generated neurons into the pre-existing functional circuitry in the adult brain is unknown. Here we show that newborn granule cells in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus are tonically activated by ambient GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) before being sequentially innervated by GABA- and glutamate-mediated synaptic inputs. GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult brain, initially exerts an excitatory action on newborn neurons owing to their high cytoplasmic chloride ion content. Conversion of GABA-induced depolarization (excitation) into hyperpolarization (inhibition) in newborn neurons leads to marked defects in their synapse formation and dendritic development in vivo. Our study identifies an essential role for GABA in the synaptic integration of newly generated neurons in the adult brain, and suggests an unexpected mechanism for activity-dependent regulation of adult neurogenesis, in which newborn neurons may sense neuronal network activity through tonic and phasic GABA activation.

  5. Direct measurement of newly synthesized ATP dissociation kinetics in sarcoplasmic reticulum ATPase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teruel-Puche, J.; Kurzmack, M.; Inesi, G.

    1987-01-01

    Incubation of SR vesicles with Ca 2+ and ( 32 P)acetylphosphate, yields steady state levels of ( 32 P)phosphorylated enzyme (ATPase) intermediate and high concentrations of Ca 2+ in the lumen of the vesicles. At this time, addition of ADP (and EGTA to lower the Ca 2+ concentration in the medium outside the vesicles) results in single cycle formation of (γ- 32 P)ATP by transfer of ( 32 P)phosphate from the enzyme intermediate to ADP. The phosphoenzyme decay and ATP formation exhibit a fast component within the first 20 msec following addition of ADP, and a slower component reaching an asymptote in approximately 100 msec. They have now measured by a rapid filtration method the fraction of newly synthesized ATP which is bound to the enzyme, as opposed to the fraction dissociated into the medium. They find that nearly all the ATP formed during the initial burst is still bound to the enzyme within the initial 20 msec of reaction. Dissociation of newly synthesized ATP occurs then with approximately 13 sec -1 rate constant, permitting reequilibration of the system and further formation of ATP. The rate limiting effect of ATP dissociation and other partial reactions on the slow component of single cycle ATP synthesis is evaluated by appropriate kinetic simulations

  6. Composite of ceramic-coated magnetic alloy particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhead, Arthur J.; Kim, Hyoun-Ee

    2000-01-01

    A composite structure and method for manufacturing same, the composite structure being comprised of metal particles and an inorganic bonding media. The method comprises the steps of coating particles of a metal powder with a thin layer of an inorganic bonding media selected from the group of powders consisting of a ceramic, glass, and glass-ceramic. The particles are assembled in a cavity and heat, with or without the addition of pressure, is thereafter applied to the particles until the layer of inorganic bonding media forms a strong bond with the particles and with the layer of inorganic bonding media on adjacent particles. The resulting composite structure is strong and remains cohesive at high temperatures.

  7. cisTEM, user-friendly software for single-particle image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    We have developed new open-source software called cisTEM (computational imaging system for transmission electron microscopy) for the processing of data for high-resolution electron cryo-microscopy and single-particle averaging. cisTEM features a graphical user interface that is used to submit jobs, monitor their progress, and display results. It implements a full processing pipeline including movie processing, image defocus determination, automatic particle picking, 2D classification, ab-initio 3D map generation from random parameters, 3D classification, and high-resolution refinement and reconstruction. Some of these steps implement newly-developed algorithms; others were adapted from previously published algorithms. The software is optimized to enable processing of typical datasets (2000 micrographs, 200 k – 300 k particles) on a high-end, CPU-based workstation in half a day or less, comparable to GPU-accelerated processing. Jobs can also be scheduled on large computer clusters using flexible run profiles that can be adapted for most computing environments. cisTEM is available for download from cistem.org. PMID:29513216

  8. cisTEM, user-friendly software for single-particle image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Timothy; Rohou, Alexis; Grigorieff, Nikolaus

    2018-03-07

    We have developed new open-source software called cis TEM (computational imaging system for transmission electron microscopy) for the processing of data for high-resolution electron cryo-microscopy and single-particle averaging. cis TEM features a graphical user interface that is used to submit jobs, monitor their progress, and display results. It implements a full processing pipeline including movie processing, image defocus determination, automatic particle picking, 2D classification, ab-initio 3D map generation from random parameters, 3D classification, and high-resolution refinement and reconstruction. Some of these steps implement newly-developed algorithms; others were adapted from previously published algorithms. The software is optimized to enable processing of typical datasets (2000 micrographs, 200 k - 300 k particles) on a high-end, CPU-based workstation in half a day or less, comparable to GPU-accelerated processing. Jobs can also be scheduled on large computer clusters using flexible run profiles that can be adapted for most computing environments. cis TEM is available for download from cistem.org. © 2018, Grant et al.

  9. Assessment for markers of nephropathy in newly diagnosed type 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess for markers of nephropathy in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetics, using blood pressure levels, endogenous creatinine clearance and urinary protein excretion as markers of renal disease. Study design: Ninety newly diagnosed type 2 diabetics were studied within 6 weeks of diagnosis. They were in ...

  10. Effect of particle size of granules on some mechanical properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solid dosage forms are invariably multiparticulate systems of heterogenous particle size distribution. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of particle size distribution of paracetamol granules on some tablet mechanical properties of paracetamol tablets. Granules were formed by wet massing paracetamol ...

  11. Processes of conversion of a hot metal particle into aerogel through clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, B. M., E-mail: bmsmirnov@gmail.com [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-15

    Processes are considered for conversion into a fractal structure of a hot metal micron-size particle that is located in a buffer gas or a gas flow and is heated by an external electric or electromagnetic source or by a plasma. The parameter of this heating is the particle temperature, which is the same in the entire particle volume because of its small size and high conductivity. Three processes determine the particle heat balance: particle radiation, evaporation of metal atoms from the particle surface, and heat transport to the surrounding gas due to its thermal conductivity. The particle heat balance is analyzed based on these processes, which are analogous to those for bulk metals with the small particle size, and its high temperature taken into account. Outside the particle, where the gas temperature is lower than on its surface, the formed metal vapor in a buffer gas flow is converted into clusters. Clusters grow as a result of coagulation until they become liquid, and then clusters form fractal aggregates if they are removed form the gas flow. Subsequently, associations of fractal aggregates join into a fractal structure. The rate of this process increases in medium electric fields, and the formed fractal structure has features of aerogels and fractal fibers. As a result of a chain of the above processes, a porous metal film may be manufactured for use as a filter or catalyst for gas flows.

  12. Chapter 2. Peculiarities of radioactive particle formation and isotope fractionation resulted from underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Radioactive particles, forming terrain fallouts from underground nuclear explosion differ sufficiently from radioactive particles, produced by atmospheric nuclear explosions. Patterns of underground nuclear explosion development, release of radioactivity to the atmosphere, formation of a cloud and base surge, peculiarities of formed radioactive particles, data on isotope fractionation in radioactive particles are presented. Scheme of particle activation, resulted from underground explosions is given

  13. Dynamic behaviors of laser ablated Si particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyanagi, T.; Murakami, K.; Miyashita, A.; Yoda, O.

    1995-01-01

    The dynamics of laser-ablated Si particles produced by laser ablation have been investigated by time-and-space resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy in a time scale ranging from 0 ns to 120 ns with a time resolution of 10 ns. Neutral and charged particles are observed through all X-ray absorption spectra. Assignments of transitions from 2s and 2p initial states to higher Rydberg states of Si atom and ions are achieved, and we experimentally determine the L II,III absorption edges of neutral Si atom (Si 0 ) and Si + , Si 2+ , Si 3+ and Si 4+ ions. The main ablated particles are found to be Si atom and Si ions in the initial stage of 0 ns to 120 ns. The relative amounts depend strongly on times and laser energy densities. We find that the spatial distributions of particles produced by laser ablation are changed with supersonic helium gas bombardment, but no cluster formation takes place. This suggests that a higher-density region of helium gas is formed at the top of the plume of ablated particles, and free expansion of particles is restrained by this helium cloud, and that it takes more than 120 ns to form Si clusters. (author)

  14. Variation in aerosol nucleation and growth in coal-fired power plant plumes due to background aerosol, meteorology and emissions: sensitivity analysis and parameterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, R. G.; Lonsdale, C. L.; Brock, C. A.; Reed, M. K.; Crawford, J. H.; Holloway, J. S.; Ryerson, T. B.; Huey, L. G.; Nowak, J. B.; Pierce, J. R.

    2012-04-01

    New-particle formation in the plumes of coal-fired power plants and other anthropogenic sulphur sources may be an important source of particles in the atmosphere. It remains unclear, however, how best to reproduce this formation in global and regional aerosol models with grid-box lengths that are 10s of kilometres and larger. The predictive power of these models is thus limited by the resultant uncertainties in aerosol size distributions. In this presentation, we focus on sub-grid sulphate aerosol processes within coal-fired power plant plumes: the sub-grid oxidation of SO2 with condensation of H2SO4 onto newly-formed and pre-existing particles. Based on the results of the System for Atmospheric Modelling (SAM), a Large-Eddy Simulation/Cloud-Resolving Model (LES/CRM) with online TwO Moment Aerosol Sectional (TOMAS) microphysics, we develop a computationally efficient, but physically based, parameterization that predicts the characteristics of aerosol formed within coal-fired power plant plumes based on parameters commonly available in global and regional-scale models. Given large-scale mean meteorological parameters, emissions from the power plant, mean background condensation sink, and the desired distance from the source, the parameterization will predict the fraction of the emitted SO2 that is oxidized to H2SO4, the fraction of that H2SO4 that forms new particles instead of condensing onto preexisting particles, the median diameter of the newly-formed particles, and the number of newly-formed particles per kilogram SO2 emitted. We perform a sensitivity analysis of these characteristics of the aerosol size distribution to the meteorological parameters, the condensation sink, and the emissions. In general, new-particle formation and growth is greatly reduced during polluted conditions due to the large preexisting aerosol surface area for H2SO4 condensation and particle coagulation. The new-particle formation and growth rates are also a strong function of the

  15. Desorption of SVOCs from Heated Surfaces in the Form of Ultrafine Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallace, Lance A.; Ott, Wayne R.; Weschler, Charles J.

    2017-01-01

    of the accumulation rate of SVOCs on surfaces were similar to those in studies of organic film buildup on indoor windows. Transfer of skin oils by touching the glass or foil surfaces, or after washing the glass surface with detergent and bare hands, was also observed, with measured particle production comparable...

  16. Observed characteristics of auroral forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, T.N.

    1978-01-01

    Observations indicate that the extended auroral arc is the basic form of the discrete aurora, the brightest and most obvious kind of aurora. Both motions of auroral arcs and their distortions into convoluted forms indicate the presence of shear processes involving substantial charge excesses and magnetic field-aligned currents. Consequently, strong electric fields, both horizontal and vertical, characterize the discrete aurora. The observations of auroral arcs and observations of associated charged-particle fluxes, electric fields and currents fit together into a relatively cohesive description of the auroral arc which is compatible with at least one proposed model of the causative processes. On the other hand, an equally important type of aurora - pulsating aurora - exhibits quite different characteristics which distinguish it from the discrete aurora and which are difficult to interpret satisfactorily in terms of existing proposed models of particle precipitation and excitation of auroral emission. The lack of shearing behavior in the pulsating aurora indicates that substantial electric fields are not associated with it. Transitional forms of auroras exhibit an intermediate degree of shear motion. (Auth.)

  17. Atmospheric particles acting as ice forming nuclei in different size ranges and cloud condensation nuclei measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santachiara, G.; Di Matteo, L.; Belosi, F.; Prodi, F.

    2009-01-01

    Measurements of ice nuclei (I N) in different size classes of aerosol P M1, P M2.5, PM10, and total suspended particles (Tsp) were performed at a rural site (S.Pietro Capofiume, in the Po Valley, Italy). Simultaneous measurements of particle number concentrations were also made with a condensation nucleus counter (CN C-TSI), along with particle concentration in different size classes starting from diameter d > 0.3 μm (Optical Spectrometer Grimm, Mod.1.108). No correlation is observed between I N and the particle number concentration measured with the condensation nuclei counter, and there is only a weak correlation with the particle concentration measured using the optical counter, thus confirming the contribution of the accumulation and coarse aerosol fraction. A positive correlation is observed between supersaturation with respect to ice and water values and ice nuclei number concentration, and an exponential dependence of I N on temperature is found. In addition, cloud concentration nuclei (C CN) were measured. The present measurements reveal a diurnal trend, with lower values at about midday and higher ones during the night, a similar trend between C CN and the relative humidity, and opposite to the mixing layer height.

  18. Development of charged particle nuclear reaction data retrieval system on IntelligentPad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohbayashi, Yosihide; Masui, Hiroshi; Aoyama, Shigeyoshi; Kato, Kiyoshi; Chiba, Masaki

    1999-01-01

    An newly designed database retrieval system of charged particle nuclear reaction database system is developed with IntelligentPad architecture. We designed the network-based (server-client) data retrieval system, and a client system constructs on Windows95, 98/NT with IntelligentPad. We set the future aim of our database system toward the 'effective' use of nuclear reaction data: I. 'Re-produce, Re-edit, Re-use', II. 'Circulation, Evolution', III. 'Knowledge discovery'. Thus, further developments are under way. (author)

  19. 14 CFR 26.39 - Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank... Tank Flammability § 26.39 Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability. (a) Applicability: This... Series 767 Series (b) Any fuel tank meeting all of the criteria stated in paragraphs (b)(1), (b)(2) and...

  20. Interaction Potential between Parabolic Rotator and an Outside Particle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available At micro/nanoscale, the interaction potential between parabolic rotator and a particle located outside the rotator is studied on the basis of the negative exponential pair potential 1/Rn between particles. Similar to two-dimensional curved surfaces, we confirm that the potential of the three-dimensional parabolic rotator and outside particle can also be expressed as a unified form of curvatures; that is, it can be written as the function of curvatures. Furthermore, we verify that the driving forces acting on the particle may be induced by the highly curved micro/nano-parabolic rotator. Curvatures and the gradient of curvatures are the essential elements forming the driving forces. Through the idealized numerical experiments, the accuracy of the curvature-based potential is preliminarily proved.

  1. Deposition of bi-dispersed particles in inkjet-printed evaporating colloidal drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ying; Joshi, Abhijit; Chhasatia, Viral

    2010-11-01

    In this study, the deposition behaviors of inkjet-printed evaporating colloidal drops consisting of bi-dispersed micro and nano-sized particles are investigated by fluorescence microscopy and SEM. The results on hydrophilic glass substrates show that, evaporatively-driven outward flow drives the nanoparticles to deposit close to the pinned contact line while an inner ring deposition is formed by microparticles. This size-induced particle separation is consistent with the existence of a wedge-shaped drop edge near the contact line region of an evaporating drop on a hydrophilic substrate. The replenishing evaporatively-driven flow assembles nanoparticles closer to the pinned contact line forming an outer ring of nanoparticles and this particle jamming further enhances the contact line pinning. Microparticles are observed to form an inner ring inside the nano-sized deposits. This size-induced particle separation presents a new challenge to the uniformity of functional materials in bioprinting applications where nanoparticles and micro-sized cells are mixed together. On the other hand, particle self-assembly based on their sizes provides enables easy and well-controlled pattern formation. The effects of particle size contrast, particle volume fraction, substrate surface energy, and relative humidity of the printing environment on particle separation are examined in detail.

  2. Nested high voltage generator/particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a modular high voltage particle accelerator having an emission axis and an emission end, the accelerator. It comprises: a plurality of high voltage generators in nested adjacency to form a nested stack, each the generator comprising a cup-like housing having a base and a tubular sleeve extending from the base, a primary transformer winding encircling the nested stack; a secondary transformer winding between each adjacent pair of housings, magnetically linked to the primary transformer winding through the gaps; a power supply respective to each of the secondary windings converting alternating voltage from its respective secondary winding to d.c. voltage, the housings at the emission end forming a hollow throat for particle acceleration, a vacuum seal at the emission end of the throat which enables the throat to be evacuated; a particle source in the thrond power means to energize the primary transformer winding

  3. Dyson Orbitals, Quasi-Particle effects and Compton scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Barbiellini, B.; Bansil, A.

    2004-01-01

    Dyson orbitals play an important role in understanding quasi-particle effects in the correlated ground state of a many-particle system and are relevant for describing the Compton scattering cross section beyond the frameworks of the impulse approximation (IA) and the independent particle model (IPM). Here we discuss corrections to the Kohn-Sham energies due to quasi-particle effects in terms of Dyson orbitals and obtain a relatively simple local form of the exchange-correlation energy. Illust...

  4. Tensile flow stress of ceramic particle-reinforced metal in the presence of particle cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, R. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Laboratory for Mechanical Metallurgy, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Rossoll, A. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Laboratory for Mechanical Metallurgy, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)], E-mail: andreas.rossoll@epfl.ch; Weber, L. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Laboratory for Mechanical Metallurgy, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Bourke, M.A.M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), LANSCE-12, P.O. Box 1663, MS H805, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Dunand, D.C. [Northwestern University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Mortensen, A. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Laboratory for Mechanical Metallurgy, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2008-10-15

    A simplified model is proposed to quantify the effect of damage in the form of particle cracking on the elastic and plastic behaviour of particle-reinforced metal matrix composites under uniaxial tensile loading: cracked particles are simply replaced, in a mean-field model, with as much matrix. Pure aluminium reinforced with 44 vol.% alumina particles, tested in tension and unloaded at periodic plastic deformations, is analysed by neutron diffraction during each reloading elastic step, at 30%, 50%, 70% and 90% of the tensile flow stress. The data give the evolution of the elastic matrix strains in the composite and also measure the progress of internal damage by particle cracking. The test gives (i) the evolution of the in situ matrix flow stress, and (ii) the evolution of load partitioning during elastic deformation with increasing composite damage. Predictions of the present model compare favourably with relevant results in the literature, and with results from the present neutron diffraction experiments.

  5. Tensile flow stress of ceramic particle-reinforced metal in the presence of particle cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, R.; Rossoll, A.; Weber, L.; Bourke, M.A.M.; Dunand, D.C.; Mortensen, A.

    2008-01-01

    A simplified model is proposed to quantify the effect of damage in the form of particle cracking on the elastic and plastic behaviour of particle-reinforced metal matrix composites under uniaxial tensile loading: cracked particles are simply replaced, in a mean-field model, with as much matrix. Pure aluminium reinforced with 44 vol.% alumina particles, tested in tension and unloaded at periodic plastic deformations, is analysed by neutron diffraction during each reloading elastic step, at 30%, 50%, 70% and 90% of the tensile flow stress. The data give the evolution of the elastic matrix strains in the composite and also measure the progress of internal damage by particle cracking. The test gives (i) the evolution of the in situ matrix flow stress, and (ii) the evolution of load partitioning during elastic deformation with increasing composite damage. Predictions of the present model compare favourably with relevant results in the literature, and with results from the present neutron diffraction experiments

  6. Chemical compositions of subway particles in Seoul, Korea determined by a quantitative single particle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sunni; Hwang, HeeJin; Park, YooMyung; Kim, HyeKyoung; Ro, Chul-Un

    2008-12-15

    A novel single particle analytical technique, low-Z particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis, was applied to characterize seasonal subway samples collected at a subway station in Seoul, Korea. For all 8 samples collected twice in each season, 4 major types of subway particles, based on their chemical compositions, are significantly encountered: Fe-containing; soil-derived; carbonaceous; and secondary nitrate and/or sulfate particles. Fe-containing particles are generated indoors from wear processes at rail-wheel-brake interfaces while the others may be introduced mostly from the outdoor urban atmosphere. Fe-containing particles are the most frequently encountered with relative abundances in the range of 61-79%. In this study, it is shown that Fe-containing subway particles almost always exist either as partially or fully oxidized forms in underground subway microenvironments. Their relative abundances of Fe-containing particles increase as particle sizes decrease. Relative abundances of Fe-containing particles are higher in morning samples than in afternoon samples because of heavier train traffic in the morning. In the summertime samples, Fe-containing particles are the most abundantly encountered, whereas soil-derived and nitrate/sulfate particles are the least encountered, indicating the air-exchange between indoor and outdoor environments is limited in the summer, owing to the air-conditioning in the subway system. In our work, it was observed that the relative abundances of the particles of outdoor origin vary somewhat among seasonal samples to a lesser degree, reflecting that indoor emission sources predominate.

  7. Real time 2 dimensional detector for charged particle and soft X-ray images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, M.; Ito, M.; Endo, T.; Oba, K.

    1995-01-01

    The conventional instruments used in experiments for the soft X-ray region such as X-ray diffraction analysis are X-ray films or imaging plates. However, these instruments are not suitable for real time observation. In this paper, newly developed imaging devices will be presented, which have the capability to take X-ray images in real time with a high detection efficiency. Also, another capability, to take elementary particle tracking images, is described. (orig.)

  8. Formation of polymeric toroidal-spiral particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vishal; Szymusiak, Magdalena; Shen, Hao; Nitsche, Ludwig C; Liu, Ying

    2012-01-10

    Compared to spherical matrices, particles with well-defined internal structure provide large surface to volume ratio and predictable release kinetics for the encapsulated payloads. We describe self-assembly of polymeric particles, whereby competitive kinetics of viscous sedimentation, diffusion, and cross-linking yield a controllable toroidal-spiral (T-S) structure. Precursor polymeric droplets are splashed through the surface of a less dense, miscible solution, after which viscous forces entrain the surrounding bulk solution into the sedimenting polymer drop to form T-S channels. The intricate structure forms because low interfacial tension between the two miscible solutions is dominated by viscous forces. The biocompatible polymer, poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEG-DA), is used to demonstrate the solidification of the T-S shapes at various configurational stages by UV-triggered cross-linking. The dimensions of the channels are controlled by Weber number during impact on the surface, and Reynolds number and viscosity ratio during subsequent sedimentation. We anticipate applications of the T-S particle in drug delivery, wherein diffusion through these T-S channels and the polymer matrix would offer parallel release pathways for molecules of different sizes. Polyphosphate, as a model macromolecule, is entrained in T-S particles during their formation. The in vitro release kinetics of polyphosphate from the T-S particles with various channel length and width is reported. In addition, self-assembly of T-S particles occurs in a single step under benign conditions for delicate macromolecules, and appears conducive to scaleup.

  9. Chrysosplenium japonicum (Saxifragaceae, Newly Recorded from Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Chuan Hsu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Chrysosplenium japonicum (Maxim. Makino (Saxifragaceae is newly recorded from northeastern Taiwan. Description, color photos and a key to the Chrysosplenium species in Taiwan are provided.

  10. Quantum electrodynamics of particles with arbitrary spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, H.S.

    1978-01-01

    A generalization of quantum electrodynamics is developed for particles of higher spin, with careful attention to the requirements of consistency, causality, unitarity and renormalizability. It is shown that field equations studied previously by the author are expressible in arbitrarily many different forms, which are equivalent in the absence of electromagnetic interactions, but not when electromagnetic coupling is introduced in a gauge-invariant way. A form is chosen which satisfies the requirements of casuality. It is shown how to define a particle density, which is positive-definite in the subspace spanned by solutions of the field equation, and satisifies a Lorentz-invariant conservation law. The quantization and renormalization of the resulting electrodynamics is studied, and is found to require only minor modifications of the existing theory for particles of spin 1/2

  11. Three Dimensional Characterization of Typical Urban and Desert Particles: Implications to Particle Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, V.; Mishra, S.; Ahlawat, A. S.; Sharma, C.; Kotnala, R. K.

    2017-12-01

    Aerosol particles are generally considered as chemically homogeneous spheres in the retrieval techniques of ground and space borne observations which is not accurate approach and can lead to erroneous observations. For better simulation of optical and radiative properties of aerosols, a good knowledge of aerosol's morphology, chemical composition and internal structure is essential. Till date, many studies have reported the morphology and chemical composition of particles but very few of them provide internal structure and spatial distribution of different chemical species within the particle. The research on the effect of particle internal structure and its contribution to particle optics is extremely limited. In present work, we characterize the PM10 particles collected form typical arid (the Thar Desert, Rajasthan, India) and typical urban (New Delhi, India) environment using microscopic techniques. The particles were milled several times to investigate their internal structure. The EDS (Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy) spectra were recorded after each milling to check the variation in the chemical composition. In arid environment, Fe, Ca, C, Al, and Mg rich shell was observed over a Si rich particle whereas in urban environment, shell of Hg, Ag, C and N was observed over a Cu rich particle. Based on the observations, different model shapes [homogenous sphere and spheroid; heterogeneous sphere and spheroid; core shell] have been considered for assessing the associated uncertainties with the routine modeling of optical properties where volume equivalent homogeneous sphere approximation is considered. The details will be discussed during presentation.

  12. Shape-forming and densification of ceramic superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, Om; Thomas, C.A.; Magadum, A.P.; Anklekar, R.M.; Khosla, N.K.; Kumar, Sunil; Chaudhuri, B.; Ramesh, M.; Rao, B.T.; Rama Mohan, T.R.

    1991-01-01

    Processing studies on varied shape-forming and densification of bulk ceramic superconductor, YBa 2 Cu 3 Osub(7-δ), are reported in this paper. Polyvinyl butyral-polyethylene glycol-trichloroethylene has been found to be the best binder-plasticizer-solvent system in plastic shape-forming. The effect of initial particle morphology on final densification has been the most sensitive single parameter as compared to compaction pressure and final sintering durations at ∼930degC. 1-2-3 powders of mean particle size ∼1.94μm have yielded sintered densities ∼92%T.D. albeit with lower oxygen intake Osub(6.7). (author). 8 refs., 8 figs

  13. Relativistic two-and three-particle scattering equations using instant and light-front dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, S.K.; Tomio, L.; Frederico, T.

    1992-01-01

    Starting from the Bethe-Salpeter equation for two particles in the ladder approximation and integrating over the time component of momentum we derive three dimensional scattering integral equations satisfying constraints of unitarity and relativity, both employing the light-front and instant-form variables. The equations we arrive at are those first derived by Weinberg and by Blankenbecler and Sugar, and are shown to be related by a transformation of variables. Hence we show how to perform and relate identical dynamical calculation using these two equations. We extends this procedure to the case of three particles interacting via two-particle separable potentials. Using light-front and instant form variables we suggest a couple of three dimensional three-particle scattering equations satisfying constraints of two and three-particle unitarity and relativity. The three-particle light-front equation is shown to be approximately related by a transformation of variables to one of the instant-form three-particle equations. (author)

  14. Particle-bubble aggregate stability on static bubble generated by single nozzle on flotation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warjito, Harinaldi, Setyantono, Manus; Siregar, Sahala D.

    2016-06-01

    There are three sub-processes on flotation. These processes are intervening liquid film into critical thickness, rupture of liquid film forming three phase contact line, and expansion three phase contact line forming aggregate stability. Aggregate stability factor contribute to determine flotation efficiency. Aggregate stability has some important factors such as reagent and particle geometry. This research focussed on to understand effect of particle geometry to aggregate stability. Experimental setup consists of 9 x 9 x26 cm flotation column made of glass, bubble generator, particle feeding system, and high speed video camera. Bubble generator made from single nozzle with 0.3 mm diameter attached to programmable syringe pump. Particle feeding system made of pipette. Particle used in this research is taken from open pit Grasberg in Timika, Papua. Particle has sub-angular geometry and its size varies from 38 to 300 µm. Bubble-particle interaction are recorded using high speed video camera. Recordings from high speed video camera analyzed using image processing software. Experiment result shows that aggregate particle-bubble and induction time depends on particle size. Small particle (38-106 µm) has long induction time and able to rupture liquid film and also forming three phase contact line. Big particle (150-300 µm) has short induction time, so it unable to attach with bubble easily. This phenomenon is caused by apparent gravity work on particle-bubble interaction. Apparent gravity worked during particle sliding on bubble surface experience increase and reached its maximum magnitude at bubble equator. After particle passed bubble equator, apparent gravity force experience decrease. In conclusion particle size from 38-300 µm can form stable aggregate if particle attached with bubble in certain condition.

  15. Effects of physical form and stage of maturity at harvest of whole-crop barley silage on intake, chewing activity, diet selection and faecal particle size of dairy steers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rustas, B.-O.; Nørgaard, Peder; Jalali, Alireza

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of physical form and stage of maturity at harvest of whole-crop barley silage (WCBS) on feed intake, eating and rumination activity, diet selection and faecal particle size in dairy steers. Whole-crop barley was harvested and ensiled in round bales. Eight dairy ste...

  16. UV Nano-Lights - Nonlinear Quantum Dot-Plasmon Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-20

    the electromagnetic interaction shows significant plasmonic interaction at the interface between the gold and semiconductor particles as shown in...crystal facets possessing hexagonal symmetry, and the (000 ) basal plane of the seeded, wurzite ZnO nanocrytals. Au particle size played a crucial...discovered. Au particle size played a crucial role in determining the structure and morphology of newly forming crystallites. Small (~4 nm) Au seeds

  17. UV Nano Lights - Nonlinear Quantum Dot-Plasmon Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-20

    the electromagnetic interaction shows significant plasmonic interaction at the interface between the gold and semiconductor particles as shown in...crystal facets possessing hexagonal symmetry, and the (000 ) basal plane of the seeded, wurzite ZnO nanocrytals. Au particle size played a crucial...discovered. Au particle size played a crucial role in determining the structure and morphology of newly forming crystallites. Small (~4 nm) Au seeds

  18. Newly developed chitosan-silver hybrid nanoparticles: biosafety and apoptosis induction in HepG2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sherbiny, Ibrahim M.; Salih, Ehab; Yassin, Abdelrahman M.; Hafez, Elsayed E.

    2016-01-01

    The present study reports the biosafety assessment, the exact molecular effects, and apoptosis induction of newly developed chitosan-silver hybrid nanoparticles (Cs–Ag NPs) in HepG2 cells. The investigated hybrid NPs were green synthesized using Cs/grape leaves aqueous extract (Cs/GLE) or Cs/GLE NPs as reducing and stabilizing agents. The successful formation of Cs/GLE NPs and Cs–Ag hybrid NPs has been confirmed by UV–Vis spectrophotometry, FTIR spectroscopy, XRD, and HRTEM. From the TEM analysis, the prepared Cs/GLE NPs are uniform and spherical with an average size of 150 nm, and the AgNPs (5–10 nm) were formed mainly on their surface. The UV–Vis spectra of Cs–Ag NPs showed a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak at about 450 nm confirming their formation. The synthesized Cs–Ag NPs were found to be crystalline as shown by XRD patterns with fcc phase oriented along the (111), (200), (220), and (311) planes. The cytotoxicity patterns, the antiproliferative activities, and the possible mechanisms of anticancer activity at molecular level of the newly developed Cs–Ag hybrid NPs were investigated. Cytotoxicity patterns of all the preparations demonstrated that the nontoxic treatment concentrations are ranged from 0.39 to 50 %, and many of the newly prepared Cs–Ag hybrid NPs showed high anticancer activities against HpG2 cells, and induced cellular apoptosis by downregulating BCL2 gene and upregulating P53.Graphical Abstract

  19. Newly developed chitosan-silver hybrid nanoparticles: biosafety and apoptosis induction in HepG2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sherbiny, Ibrahim M., E-mail: ielsherbiny@Zewailcity.edu.eg; Salih, Ehab [Zewail City of Science and Technology, Center for Materials Science (Egypt); Yassin, Abdelrahman M. [Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, City of Scientific Research and Technology Applications, Biopharmaceutical Product Research Department (Egypt); Hafez, Elsayed E. [City of Scientific Research and Technology Applications, Plant Protection and Biomolecular Diagnosis Department (Egypt)

    2016-07-15

    The present study reports the biosafety assessment, the exact molecular effects, and apoptosis induction of newly developed chitosan-silver hybrid nanoparticles (Cs–Ag NPs) in HepG2 cells. The investigated hybrid NPs were green synthesized using Cs/grape leaves aqueous extract (Cs/GLE) or Cs/GLE NPs as reducing and stabilizing agents. The successful formation of Cs/GLE NPs and Cs–Ag hybrid NPs has been confirmed by UV–Vis spectrophotometry, FTIR spectroscopy, XRD, and HRTEM. From the TEM analysis, the prepared Cs/GLE NPs are uniform and spherical with an average size of 150 nm, and the AgNPs (5–10 nm) were formed mainly on their surface. The UV–Vis spectra of Cs–Ag NPs showed a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak at about 450 nm confirming their formation. The synthesized Cs–Ag NPs were found to be crystalline as shown by XRD patterns with fcc phase oriented along the (111), (200), (220), and (311) planes. The cytotoxicity patterns, the antiproliferative activities, and the possible mechanisms of anticancer activity at molecular level of the newly developed Cs–Ag hybrid NPs were investigated. Cytotoxicity patterns of all the preparations demonstrated that the nontoxic treatment concentrations are ranged from 0.39 to 50 %, and many of the newly prepared Cs–Ag hybrid NPs showed high anticancer activities against HpG2 cells, and induced cellular apoptosis by downregulating BCL2 gene and upregulating P53.Graphical Abstract.

  20. Hydrodynamic Capture and Release of Passively Driven Particles by Active Particles Under Hele-Shaw Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishler, Grant; Tsang, Alan Cheng Hou; Pak, On Shun

    2018-03-01

    The transport of active and passive particles plays central roles in diverse biological phenomena and engineering applications. In this paper, we present a theoretical investigation of a system consisting of an active particle and a passive particle in a confined micro-fluidic flow. The introduction of an external flow is found to induce the capture of the passive particle by the active particle via long-range hydrodynamic interactions among the particles. This hydrodynamic capture mechanism relies on an attracting stable equilibrium configuration formed by the particles, which occurs when the external flow intensity exceeds a certain threshold. We evaluate this threshold by studying the stability of the equilibrium configurations analytically and numerically. Furthermore, we study the dynamics of typical capture and non-capture events and characterize the basins of attraction of the equilibrium configurations. Our findings reveal a critical dependence of the hydrodynamic capture mechanism on the external flow intensity. Through adjusting the external flow intensity across the stability threshold, we demonstrate that the active particle can capture and release the passive particle in a controllable manner. Such a capture-and-release mechanism is desirable for biomedical applications such as the capture and release of therapeutic payloads by synthetic micro-swimmers in targeted drug delivery.

  1. Physical equivalence of three forms of relativistic dynamics and addition of interactions in the front and instant forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, S.N.

    1977-01-01

    The point, instant and front forms of the relativistic Hamiltonian theory are shown to be S-matrix equivalent in the general case (of many channels and particles with spin). The corresponding transformations are found. The problem of relativistic addition of the direct interactions is solved for the front and instant forms of dynamics

  2. Estimating the impact of newly arrived foreign-born persons on tuberculosis in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yecai Liu

    Full Text Available Among approximately 163.5 million foreign-born persons admitted to the United States annually, only 500,000 immigrants and refugees are required to undergo overseas tuberculosis (TB screening. It is unclear what extent of the unscreened nonimmigrant visitors contributes to the burden of foreign-born TB in the United States.We defined foreign-born persons within 1 year after arrival in the United States as "newly arrived", and utilized data from U.S. Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and World Health Organization to estimate the incidence of TB among newly arrived foreign-born persons in the United States. During 2001 through 2008, 11,500 TB incident cases, including 291 multidrug-resistant TB incident cases, were estimated to occur among 20,989,738 person-years for the 1,479,542,654 newly arrived foreign-born persons in the United States. Of the 11,500 estimated TB incident cases, 41.6% (4,783 occurred among immigrants and refugees, 36.6% (4,211 among students/exchange visitors and temporary workers, 13.8% (1,589 among tourists and business travelers, and 7.3% (834 among Canadian and Mexican nonimmigrant visitors without an I-94 form (e.g., arrival-departure record. The top 3 newly arrived foreign-born populations with the largest estimated TB incident cases per 100,000 admissions were immigrants and refugees from high-incidence countries (e.g., 2008 WHO-estimated TB incidence rate of ≥100 cases/100,000 population/year; 235.8 cases/100,000 admissions, 95% confidence interval [CI], 228.3 to 243.3, students/exchange visitors and temporary workers from high-incidence countries (60.9 cases/100,000 admissions, 95% CI, 58.5 to 63.3, and immigrants and refugees from medium-incidence countries (e.g., 2008 WHO-estimated TB incidence rate of 15-99 cases/100,000 population/year; 55.2 cases/100,000 admissions, 95% CI, 51.6 to 58.8.Newly arrived nonimmigrant visitors contribute substantially to the burden of

  3. Estimating the impact of newly arrived foreign-born persons on tuberculosis in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yecai; Painter, John A; Posey, Drew L; Cain, Kevin P; Weinberg, Michelle S; Maloney, Susan A; Ortega, Luis S; Cetron, Martin S

    2012-01-01

    Among approximately 163.5 million foreign-born persons admitted to the United States annually, only 500,000 immigrants and refugees are required to undergo overseas tuberculosis (TB) screening. It is unclear what extent of the unscreened nonimmigrant visitors contributes to the burden of foreign-born TB in the United States. We defined foreign-born persons within 1 year after arrival in the United States as "newly arrived", and utilized data from U.S. Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and World Health Organization to estimate the incidence of TB among newly arrived foreign-born persons in the United States. During 2001 through 2008, 11,500 TB incident cases, including 291 multidrug-resistant TB incident cases, were estimated to occur among 20,989,738 person-years for the 1,479,542,654 newly arrived foreign-born persons in the United States. Of the 11,500 estimated TB incident cases, 41.6% (4,783) occurred among immigrants and refugees, 36.6% (4,211) among students/exchange visitors and temporary workers, 13.8% (1,589) among tourists and business travelers, and 7.3% (834) among Canadian and Mexican nonimmigrant visitors without an I-94 form (e.g., arrival-departure record). The top 3 newly arrived foreign-born populations with the largest estimated TB incident cases per 100,000 admissions were immigrants and refugees from high-incidence countries (e.g., 2008 WHO-estimated TB incidence rate of ≥100 cases/100,000 population/year; 235.8 cases/100,000 admissions, 95% confidence interval [CI], 228.3 to 243.3), students/exchange visitors and temporary workers from high-incidence countries (60.9 cases/100,000 admissions, 95% CI, 58.5 to 63.3), and immigrants and refugees from medium-incidence countries (e.g., 2008 WHO-estimated TB incidence rate of 15-99 cases/100,000 population/year; 55.2 cases/100,000 admissions, 95% CI, 51.6 to 58.8). Newly arrived nonimmigrant visitors contribute substantially to the burden of foreign

  4. Lévy particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Linda Vadgård; Thorarinsdottir, Thordis Linda; Gneiting, Tilmann

    to a von Mises–Fisher density, or uniform on a spherical cap, the correlation function of the associated random field admits a closed form expression. Using a Gaussian basis, the fractal or Hausdorff dimension of the surface of the Lévy particle reflects the decay of the correlation function at the origin...

  5. Electrical Field Guided Electrospray Deposition for Production of Gradient Particle Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wei-Cheng; Xie, Jingwei; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2018-06-06

    Our previous work demonstrated the uniform particle pattern formation on the substrates using electrical field guided electrospray deposition. In this work, we reported for the first time the fabrication of gradient particle patterns on glass slides using an additional point, line, or bar electrode based on our previous electrospray deposition configuration. We also demonstrated that the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coating could result in the formation of uniform particle patterns instead of gradient particle patterns on glass slides using the same experimental setup. Meanwhile, we investigated the effect of experimental configurations on the gradient particle pattern formation by computational simulation. The simulation results are in line with experimental observations. The formation of gradient particle patterns was ascribed to the gradient of electric field and the corresponding focusing effect. Cell patterns can be formed on the particle patterns deposited on PDMS-coated glass slides. The formed particle patterns hold great promise for high-throughput screening of biomaterial-cell interactions and sensing.

  6. Design of sustained release fine particles using two-step mechanical powder processing: particle shape modification of drug crystals and dry particle coating with polymer nanoparticle agglomerate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Keita; Ito, Natsuki; Niwa, Toshiyuki; Danjo, Kazumi

    2013-09-10

    We attempted to prepare sustained release fine particles using a two-step mechanical powder processing method; particle-shape modification and dry particle coating. First, particle shape of bulk drug was modified by mechanical treatment to yield drug crystals suitable for the coating process. Drug crystals became more rounded with increasing rotation speed, which demonstrates that powerful mechanical stress yields spherical drug crystals with narrow size distribution. This process is the result of destruction, granulation and refinement of drug crystals. Second, the modified drug particles and polymer coating powder were mechanically treated to prepare composite particles. Polymer nanoparticle agglomerate obtained by drying poly(meth)acrylate aqueous dispersion was used as a coating powder. The porous nanoparticle agglomerate has superior coating performance, because it is completely deagglomerated under mechanical stress to form fine fragments that act as guest particles. As a result, spherical drug crystals treated with porous agglomerate were effectively coated by poly(meth)acrylate powder, showing sustained release after curing. From these findings, particle-shape modification of drug crystals and dry particle coating with nanoparticle agglomerate using a mechanical powder processor is expected as an innovative technique for preparing controlled-release coated particles having high drug content and size smaller than 100 μm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. People newly in love are more responsive to positive feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Cassandra L; Beninger, Richard J

    2012-06-01

    Passionate love is associated with increased activity in dopamine-rich regions of the brain. Increased dopamine in these regions is associated with a greater tendency to learn from reward in trial-and-error learning tasks. This study examined the prediction that individuals who were newly in love would be better at responding to reward (positive feedback). In test trials, people who were newly in love selected positive outcomes significantly more often than their single (not in love) counterparts but were no better at the task overall. This suggests that people who are newly in love show a bias toward responding to positive feedback, which may reflect a general bias towards reward-seeking.

  8. Effect of Finite Particle Size on Convergence of Point Particle Models in Euler-Lagrange Multiphase Dispersed Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nili, Samaun; Park, Chanyoung; Haftka, Raphael T.; Kim, Nam H.; Balachandar, S.

    2017-11-01

    Point particle methods are extensively used in simulating Euler-Lagrange multiphase dispersed flow. When particles are much smaller than the Eulerian grid the point particle model is on firm theoretical ground. However, this standard approach of evaluating the gas-particle coupling at the particle center fails to converge as the Eulerian grid is reduced below particle size. We present an approach to model the interaction between particles and fluid for finite size particles that permits convergence. We use the generalized Faxen form to compute the force on a particle and compare the results against traditional point particle method. We apportion the different force components on the particle to fluid cells based on the fraction of particle volume or surface in the cell. The application is to a one-dimensional model of shock propagation through a particle-laden field at moderate volume fraction, where the convergence is achieved for a well-formulated force model and back coupling for finite size particles. Comparison with 3D direct fully resolved numerical simulations will be used to check if the approach also improves accuracy compared to the point particle model. Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Advanced Simulation and Computing Program, as a Cooperative Agreement under the Predictive Science Academic Alliance Program, under Contract No. DE-NA0002378.

  9. Extended two-particle Green close-quote s functions and optical potentials for two particle scattering by by many-body targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brand, J.; Cederbaum, L.S.

    1996-01-01

    An extension of the fermionic particle-particle propagator is presented that possesses similar algebraic properties to the single-particle Green close-quote s function. In particular, this extended two-particle Green close-quote s function satisfies Dyson close-quote s equation and its self energy has the same analytic structure as the self energy of the single-particle Green close-quote s function. For the case of a system interacting with one-particle potentials only, the two-particle self energy takes on a particularly simple form, just like the common self energy does. The new two-particle self energy also serves as a well behaved optical potential for the elastic scattering of a two-particle projectile by a many-body target. Due to its analytic structure, the two-particle self energy avoids divergences that appear with effective potentials derived by other means. Copyright copyright 1996 Academic Press, Inc

  10. Method of determining the characteristics of circulatory systems using tracer particles, making the particles and radioactive particles for use in the method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, F.P.; Gagnon, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    In the method described tracer particles consist of ion exchange resin cores labelled with suitable radioactive ions or with a nuclide excitable by X-rays, and have a non-leaching polymeric coating. The particles are introduced into the system and are detected by visual inspection, radiation detection or X-ray fluorescence techniques. The cores are labelled using conventional batch ion exchange techniques. Coated tracers are produced by contacting a monomer, preferably furfuryl alcohol, with cores bearing catalytic ions (hydroxyl or hydrogen) on the surface which catalyse the monomer to form a polymer. The tracer particles in a physiologically acceptable liquid carrier are useful in clinical and medical investigations of blood flow. They can also be used for flow measurement in chemical process control streams. (U.K.)

  11. No difference in in vivo polyethylene wear particles between oxidized zirconium and cobalt-chromium femoral component in total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minoda, Yukihide; Hata, Kanako; Iwaki, Hiroyoshi; Ikebuchi, Mitsuhiko; Hashimoto, Yusuke; Inori, Fumiaki; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2014-03-01

    Polyethylene wear particle generation is one of the most important factors affecting mid- to long-term results of total knee arthroplasties. Oxidized zirconium was introduced as a material for femoral components to reduce polyethylene wear generation. However, an in vivo advantage of oxidized zirconium on polyethylene wear particle generation is still controversial. The purpose of this study was to compare in vivo polyethylene wear particles between oxidized zirconium total knee prosthesis and conventional cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) total knee prosthesis. Synovial fluid was obtained from the knees of 6 patients with oxidized zirconium total knee prosthesis and from 6 patients with conventional cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) total knee prosthesis 12 months after the operation. Polyethylene particles were isolated and examined using a scanning electron microscope and image analyser. Total number of particles in each knee was 3.3 ± 1.3 × 10(7) in the case of oxidized zirconium (mean ± SD) and 3.4 ± 1.2 × 10(7) in that of Co-Cr (n.s.). The particle size (equivalent circle diameter) was 0.8 ± 0.3 μm in the case of oxidized zirconium and 0.6 ± 0.1 μm in that of Co-Cr (n.s.). The particle shape (aspect ratio) was 1.4 ± 0.0 in the case of oxidized zirconium and 1.4 ± 0.0 in that of metal Co-Cr (n.s). Although newly introduced oxidized zirconium femoral component did not reduce the in vivo polyethylene wear particles in early clinical stage, there was no adverse effect of newly introduced material. At this moment, there is no need to abandon oxidized zirconium femoral component. However, further follow-up of polyethylene wear particle generation should be performed to confirm the advantage of the oxidized zirconium femoral component. Therapeutic study, Level III.

  12. Four-dimensional optical manipulation of colloidal particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigo, P.J.; Daria, V.R.; Glückstad, J.

    2005-01-01

    We transform a TEM00 laser mode into multiple counterpropagating optical traps to achieve four-dimensional simultaneous manipulation of multiple particles. Efficient synthesis and dynamic control of the counterpropagating-beam traps is carried out via the generalized phase contrast method......, and a spatial polarization-encoding scheme. Our experiments genuinely demonstrate real-time, interactive particle-position control for forming arbitrary volumetric constellations and complex three-dimensional trajectories of multiple particles. This opens up doors for cross-disciplinary cutting-edge research...

  13. Preparation of Ti-coated diamond particles by microwave heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Quanchao; Peng, Jinghui; Xu, Lei; Srinivasakannan, C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The Ti-Coated diamond particles have been prepared using by microwave heating. • The uniform and dense coating can be produced, and the TiC species was formed. • With increases the temperature results in the thickness of coating increased. • The coating/diamond interfacial bonding strength increased with temperature increasing until 760 °C, then decreased. - Abstract: Depositing strong carbide-forming elements on diamond surface can dramatically improve the interfacial bonding strength between diamond grits and metal matrix. In the present work, investigation on the preparation of Ti-coated diamond particles by microwave heating has been conducted. The morphology, microstructure, and the chemical composition of Ti-coated diamond particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer (EDX). The thickness of Ti coating was measured and the interfacial binding strength between Ti coating and diamond was analyzed. The results show that the surface of the diamond particles could be successfully coated with Ti, forming a uniform and continuous Ti-coated layer. The TiC was found to form between the surface of diamond particles and Ti-coated layer. The amount of TiC as well as the thickness of coating increased with increasing coating temperature, furthermore, the grain size of the coating also grew gradually. The interfacial bonding strength between coating and diamond was found to be best at the temperature of 760 °C.

  14. Preparation of Ti-coated diamond particles by microwave heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Quanchao [National Local Joint Laboratory of Engineering Application of Microwave Energy and Equipment Technology, Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Yunnan Copper Smelting and Processing Complex, Yunnan Copper (Group) CO., LTD., Kunming 650102 (China); International Joint Research Center of Advanced Preparation of Superhard Materials Field, Kunming Academician Workstation of Advanced Preparation of Superhard Materials Field, Kunming 650093 (China); Peng, Jinghui [National Local Joint Laboratory of Engineering Application of Microwave Energy and Equipment Technology, Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); International Joint Research Center of Advanced Preparation of Superhard Materials Field, Kunming Academician Workstation of Advanced Preparation of Superhard Materials Field, Kunming 650093 (China); Xu, Lei, E-mail: xulei_kmust@aliyun.com [National Local Joint Laboratory of Engineering Application of Microwave Energy and Equipment Technology, Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); International Joint Research Center of Advanced Preparation of Superhard Materials Field, Kunming Academician Workstation of Advanced Preparation of Superhard Materials Field, Kunming 650093 (China); Srinivasakannan, C. [Chemical Engineering Department, The Petroleum Institute, P.O. Box 2533, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); and others

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • The Ti-Coated diamond particles have been prepared using by microwave heating. • The uniform and dense coating can be produced, and the TiC species was formed. • With increases the temperature results in the thickness of coating increased. • The coating/diamond interfacial bonding strength increased with temperature increasing until 760 °C, then decreased. - Abstract: Depositing strong carbide-forming elements on diamond surface can dramatically improve the interfacial bonding strength between diamond grits and metal matrix. In the present work, investigation on the preparation of Ti-coated diamond particles by microwave heating has been conducted. The morphology, microstructure, and the chemical composition of Ti-coated diamond particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer (EDX). The thickness of Ti coating was measured and the interfacial binding strength between Ti coating and diamond was analyzed. The results show that the surface of the diamond particles could be successfully coated with Ti, forming a uniform and continuous Ti-coated layer. The TiC was found to form between the surface of diamond particles and Ti-coated layer. The amount of TiC as well as the thickness of coating increased with increasing coating temperature, furthermore, the grain size of the coating also grew gradually. The interfacial bonding strength between coating and diamond was found to be best at the temperature of 760 °C.

  15. Collisions of droplets on spherical particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalampous, Georgios; Hardalupas, Yannis

    2017-10-01

    Head-on collisions between droplets and spherical particles are examined for water droplets in the diameter range between 170 μm and 280 μm and spherical particles in the diameter range between 500 μm and 2000 μm. The droplet velocities range between 6 m/s and 11 m/s, while the spherical particles are fixed in space. The Weber and Ohnesorge numbers and ratio of droplet to particle diameter were between 92 deposition and splashing regimes, a regime is observed in the intermediate region, where the droplet forms a stable crown, which does not breakup but propagates along the particle surface and passes around the particle. This regime is prevalent when the droplets collide on small particles. The characteristics of the collision at the onset of rim instability are also described in terms of the location of the film on the particle surface and the orientation and length of the ejected crown. Proper orthogonal decomposition identified that the first 2 modes are enough to capture the overall morphology of the crown at the splashing threshold.

  16. Chou-Yang model and PHI form factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazal-e-Aleem; Saleem, M.; Rafique, M.

    1988-03-01

    By using the deduced differential cross-section data for PHIp elastic scattering at 175 GeV/c in the Chou-Yang model, the PHI form factor has been computed and parametrized. Then in conjunction with the proton form factor this form factor is used in the pristine Chou-Yang model to obtain differential cross-section data at Fermilab energies. The theoretical results agree with the experimental measurements, endorsing the conjecture that the hadronic form factor of neutral particle is proportional to its magnetic form factor.

  17. Atypical energetic particle events observed prior energetic particle enhancements associated with corotating interaction regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabarova, Olga; Malandraki, Olga; Zank, Gary; Jackson, Bernard; Bisi, Mario; Desai, Mihir; Li, Gang; le Roux, Jakobus; Yu, Hsiu-Shan

    2017-04-01

    's shocks, and these shocks to be believed to accelerate ions up to several MeV per nucleon. In this paradigm particle acceleration is commonly believed to occur mainly at the well-formed reverse shock at 2-3 AU with particles streaming back from the shocks from the outer heliosphere to 1 AU (Malandraki et al., 2007). However, AEPEs observed for many hours before the crossing of the forward shock (or even before the leading edge of a CIR without well-formed forward shock) cannot be explained within the framework of this paradigm. We have recently found that the effect of pre-CIR AEPEs occurs mainly as a result of the formation of a region filled with magnetic islands compressed between the high-density leading edge of a CIR and the HCS (Khabarova et al. ApJ, 2016). We show here that any kind of complicated stream-CIR interactions may lead to the same effect due to the formation of magnetic cavities in front of CIRs. The analysis of in situ multi-spacecraft measurements often suggests very complicated ways of propagation of streams and current sheets that form magnetic cavities. In the case of multiple stream-stream interaction, comparisons of data from distant spacecraft may be puzzling and even useless for understanding the large-scale topology of the region of particle acceleration, because even several point measurements cannot reconstruct approximate forms of the magnetic cavities and shed light on the pre-history of their origin and evolution. We employ interplanetary scintillation tomographic data for reconstructions of the solar wind speed, density and interplanetary magnetic field profiles to understand a 3-D picture of stream interactions responsible for pre-CIR AEPEs. This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 637324

  18. Workplace Violence and Job Outcomes of Newly Licensed Nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Hyoung Eun; Cho, Sung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of workplace violence toward newly licensed nurses and the relationship between workplace violence and job outcomes. Methods: An online survey was conducted of newly licensed registered nurses who had obtained their license in 2012 or 2013 in South Korea and had been working for 5–12 months after first being employed. The sample consisted of 312 nurses working in hospitals or clinics. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire...

  19. Study of the chemical interaction between the beryllium powders of different particles size and the air in the temperature range 500-1000degC form the viewpoint of ITER safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davydov, D.A. [State Scientific Center of Russian Federation, Moscow (Russian Federation); Konovalov, Y.V.; Gorokhov, V.A.; Levin, V.B.; Chekhlatov, G.M.; Khomutov, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Under an effect of some factors characteristic for the ITER- operating condition a dense beryllium facing plasma can transit into various forms, changing its structural states. As a result of the bombardment of beryllium plasma facing components by ion fluxes, the production of a dust including the particles from a few micrometers to a few millimeters in size is possible. The specific features in the behaviour of various beryllium forms under emergency conditions are of an essential interest from the viewpoint of ITER safety. Some grades of powders of different average particles size (14-31 micron) have been produced in a given study, and their chemical interaction at high temperatures with air (500-1100degC), test duration effects simulating the emergency situation at ITER in the first approximation have been studied. The temperature dependence of beryllium powders (different particles size after disc abrased) interaction with air in the temperature range 500-1000degC at the exposure of 5 hours long for each temperature and kinetic dependence of interaction of these powders with air at 800degC for the exposure from half an hour to 7 hours long were studied. An analysis of granulometric weight fraction in the metallic and oxidized beryllium powders with different particles size has been done by the photosedimentational technique with the instrument `Analysette-20`. Construction of a mathematical model for the chemical interaction of beryllium powders with air at high temperatures have been carried out. (author)

  20. Erosion of magnesium potassium phosphate ceramic waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goretta, K. C.

    1998-01-01

    Phosphate-based chemically bonded ceramics were formed from magnesium potassium phosphate (MKP) binder and either industrial fly ash or steel slag. The resulting ceramics were subjected to solid-particle erosion by a stream of either angular Al 2 O 3 particles or rounded SiO 2 sand. Particle impact angles were 30 or 90degree and the impact velocity was 50 m/s. Steady-state erosion rates, measured as mass lost from a specimen per mass of impacting particle, were dependent on impact angle and on erodent particle size and shape. Material was lost by a combination of fracture mechanisms. Evolution of H 2 O from the MKP phase appeared to contribute significantly to the material loss

  1. Can Condensing Organic Aerosols Lead to Less Cloud Particles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, C. Y.; Tsigaridis, K.; Bauer, S.

    2017-12-01

    We examined the impact of condensing organic aerosols on activated cloud number concentration in a new aerosol microphysics box model, MATRIX-VBS. The model includes the volatility-basis set (VBS) framework in an aerosol microphysical scheme MATRIX (Multiconfiguration Aerosol TRacker of mIXing state) that resolves aerosol mass and number concentrations and aerosol mixing state. Preliminary results show that by including the condensation of organic aerosols, the new model (MATRIX-VBS) has less activated particles compared to the original model (MATRIX), which treats organic aerosols as non-volatile. Parameters such as aerosol chemical composition, mass and number concentrations, and particle sizes which affect activated cloud number concentration are thoroughly evaluated via a suite of Monte-Carlo simulations. The Monte-Carlo simulations also provide information on which climate-relevant parameters play a critical role in the aerosol evolution in the atmosphere. This study also helps simplifying the newly developed box model which will soon be implemented in the global model GISS ModelE as a module.

  2. Microstructure of Semi-Solid Billets Produced by Electromagnetic Stirring and Behavior of Primary Particles during the Indirect Forming Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul Kyu Jin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An A356 alloy semi-solid billet was fabricated using electromagnetic stirring. After inserting the semi-solid billet into an indirect die, a thin plate of 1.2 mm thickness was fabricated by applying compression. The microstructure of the semi-solid billets fabricated in various stirring conditions (solid fraction and stirring force were analyzed. The deformation and behavior of the primary α-Al particles were analyzed for various parameters (solid fraction, die friction, compression rate, and compression pressure. In the stirred billets, a globular structure was dominant, while a dendrite structure was dominant in the unstirred billets. As the solid fraction decreased and the stirring current increased, the equivalent diameter and roundness of the primary α-Al particles decreased. The primary α-Al particle sizes were reduced as the compressing velocity increased, while a greater number of particles could move as the compressing pressure increased. As the path over which the motion occurred became smoother, the fluidity of the particles improved. Under compression, bonded primary α-Al particles became separated into individual particles again, as the bonds were broken. As wearing caused by friction and collisions between the particles during this motion occurred, the particle sizes were reduced, and the particle shapes become increasingly spheroid.

  3. Non-minimal Particle Creation from Asymptotic-de Sitter Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusofi, E.; Mohsenzadeh, M.

    2018-06-01

    A general form of quasi-de Sitter(dS) modes is used to study the creation of particle during the inflation. Actually, by considering the general form of inflaton field equation as a function of the Hankel function index and by using the Planck 2015 constraint on spectral index, we obtain the possible new constraints for the values of coupling constant in the era with asymptotic-dS space-time. Then, we explicitly calculate the general form of expectation value of the created particles in terms of the Hankel function index and the conformal time. The correction terms in the number of created particles are very tiny in the early time but can have the significant effects in the later universe. Our result is general and at the early time limit confirm the conventional special results for the Minkowski and dS background.

  4. High-density lipoprotein-like particle formation of Synuclein variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, Cédric; Kumari, Pratibha; Riek, Roland

    2017-01-01

    α-Synuclein (α-Syn) is an intrinsically disordered protein in solution whose fibrillar aggregates are the hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although the specific function of α-Syn is still unclear, its high structural plasticity is key for the interactions of α-Syn with biological membranes. Recently, it has been observed that α-Syn is able to form high-density lipoprotein-like (HDL-like) particles that are reminiscent of self-assembling phospholipid bilayer nanodiscs. Here, we extended our preparation method for the production of α-Syn lipoprotein particles to the β- and γ-Syn variants, and the PD-related familial α-Syn mutants. We show that all human Syns can form stable and homogeneous populations of HDL-like particles with distinct morphologies. Our results characterize the impact of the individual Syns on the formation capacity of these particles and indicate that Syn HDL-like particles are neither causing toxicity nor a toxicity-related loss of α-Syn in PD. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  5. Quasi-particles ultrafastly releasing kink bosons to form Fermi arcs in a cuprate superconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Y; Saitoh, T; Mochiku, T; Nakane, T; Hirata, K; Shin, S

    2016-01-05

    In a conventional framework, superconductivity is lost at a critical temperature (Tc) because, at higher temperatures, gluing bosons can no longer bind two electrons into a Cooper pair. In high-Tc cuprates, it is still unknown how superconductivity vanishes at Tc. We provide evidence that the so-called ≲ 70-meV kink bosons that dress the quasi-particle excitations are playing a key role in the loss of superconductivity in a cuprate. We irradiated a 170-fs laser pulse on Bi2Sr2CaCu2O(8+δ) and monitored the responses of the superconducting gap and dressed quasi-particles by time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. We observe an ultrafast loss of superconducting gap near the d-wave node, or light-induced Fermi arcs, which is accompanied by spectral broadenings and weight redistributions occurring within the kink binding energy. We discuss that the underlying mechanism of the spectral broadening that induce the Fermi arc is the undressing of quasi-particles from the kink bosons. The loss mechanism is beyond the conventional framework, and can accept the unconventional phenomena such as the signatures of Cooper pairs remaining at temperatures above Tc.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of mesoporous silica core-shell particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Nikolić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Core-shell particles were formed by deposition of primary silica particles synthesized from sodium silicate solution on functionalized silica core particles (having size of ~0.5 µm prepared by hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethylortosilicate. The obtained mesoporous shell has thickness of about 60 nm and consists of primary silica particles with average size of ~21 nm. Scanning electron microscopy and zeta potential measurements showed that continuous silica shell exists around functionalized core particles which was additionally proved by FTIR and TEM results.

  7. Nano/micro particle beam for ceramic deposition and mechanical etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Doo-Man; Kim, Min-Saeng; Kim, Min-Hyeng; Ahn, Sung-Hoon; Yeo, Jun-Cheol; Lee, Caroline Sunyong

    2010-01-01

    Nano/micro particle beam (NPB) is a newly developed ceramic deposition and mechanical etching process. Additive (deposition) and subtractive (mechanical etching) processes can be realized in one manufacturing process using ceramic nano/micro particles. Nano- or micro-sized powders are sprayed through the supersonic nozzle at room temperature and low vacuum conditions. According to the process conditions, the ceramic powder can be deposited on metal substrates without thermal damage, and mechanical etching can be conducted in the same process with a simple change of process conditions and powders. In the present work, ceramic aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) thin films were deposited on metal substrates. In addition, the glass substrate was etched using a mask to make small channels. Deposited and mechanically etched surface morphology, coating thickness and channel depth were investigated. The test results showed that the NPB provides a feasible additive and subtractive process using ceramic powders.

  8. Measurements of ultrafine particles from a gas-turbine burning biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allouis, C.; Beretta, F.; Minutolo, P.; Pagliara, R. [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione, CNR, Piazzale V. Tecchio, 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Sirignano, M.; Sgro, L.A.; D' Anna, A. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale V. Tecchio, 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy)

    2010-04-15

    Measurements of ultrafine particles have been performed at the exhaust of a low emission microturbine for power generation. This device has been fuelled with liquid fuels, including a commercial diesel oil, a mixture of the diesel oil with a biodiesel and kerosene, and tested under different loads. Primarily attention has been focused on the measurements of the size distribution functions of the particles emitted from the system by using particle differential mobility analysis. A bimodal size distribution function of the particle emitted has been found in all the examined conditions. Burning diesel oil, the first mode of the size distribution function of the combustion-formed particles is centered at around 2-3 nm, whereas the second mode is centered at about 20-30 nm. The increase of the turbine load and the addition of 50% of biodiesel has not caused changes in the shape of size distribution of the particles. A slightly decrease of the amount of particle formed has been found. By using kerosene the amount of emitted particles increases of more than one order of magnitude. Also the shape of the size distribution function changes with the first mode shifted towards larger particles of the order of 8-10 nm but with a lower emission of larger 20-30 nm particles. Overall, in this conditions, the mass concentration of particles is increased respect to the diesel oil operation. Particle sizes measured with the diesel oil have been compared with the results on a diesel engine operated in the same power conditions and with the same fuel. Measurements have showed that the mean sizes of the formed particles do not change in the two combustion systems. However, diesel engine emits a number concentration of particles more than two orders of magnitude higher in the same conditions of power and with the same fuel. By running the engine in more premixed-like conditions, the size distribution function of the particles approaches that measured by burning kerosene in the

  9. Nucleation and growth of sub-3 nm particles in the polluted urban atmosphere of a megacity in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Yu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Particle size distribution down to 1.4 nm was measured in the urban atmosphere of Nanjing, China, in spring, summer, and winter during 2014–2015. Sub-3 nm particle event, which is equivalent to nucleation event, occurred on 42 out of total 90 observation days, but new particles could grow to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN-active sizes on only 9 days. In summer, infrequent nucleation was limited by both unfavorable meteorological conditions (high temperature and relative humidity – RH and reduced anthropogenic precursor availability due to strict emission control measures during the 2014 Youth Olympic Games in Nanjing. The limiting factors for nucleation in winter and spring were meteorological conditions (radiation, temperature, and RH and condensation sink, but for the further growth of sub-3 nm particles to CCN-active sizes, anthropogenic precursors again became limiting factors. Nucleation events were strong in the polluted urban atmosphere. Initial J1.4 at the onset and peak J1.4 at the noontime could be up to 2.1 × 102 and 2.5 × 103 cm−3 s−1, respectively, during the eight nucleation events selected from different seasons. Time-dependent J1.4 usually showed good linear correlations with a sulfuric acid proxy for every single event (R2 = 0.56–0.86, excluding a day with significant nocturnal nucleation, but the correlation among all eight events deteriorated (R2 =  0.17 due to temperature or season change. We observed that new particle growth rate (GR did not increase monotonically with particle size, but had a local maximum up to 25 nm h−1 between 1 and 3 nm. The existence of local maxima GR in sub-3 nm size range, though sensitive to measurement uncertainties, gives new insight into cluster dynamics in polluted environments. In this study such growth rate behavior was interpreted as the solvation effect of organic activating vapor in newly formed inorganic nuclei.

  10. ATom observations of new particle formation in the tropical upper troposphere. The role of convection and nucleation mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupc, A.; Williamson, C.; Hodshire, A. L.; Pierce, J. R.; Ray, E. A.; Froyd, K. D.; Richardson, M.; Weinzierl, B.; Dollner, M.; Erdesz, F.; Bui, T. V.; Diskin, G. S.; Brock, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    Measurements of size distributions during the Atmospheric Tomography Mission (ATom) reveal high number concentrations (>>1000 cm-3) of nucleation mode particles at high altitudes in the tropics and subtropics under low condensation sink conditions and are associated with upwelling in convective clouds. The broad spatial extent of these newly formed particles shows that the upper free troposphere (FT) of the tropics and subtropics is a globally significant source. In this study, we investigate the link between convection and new particle formation (NPF) by exploring the processes that govern NPF and growth in the tropical and subtropical FT of the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. We use measurements of the size distributions made with a suite of fast-response instruments on board of a NASA DC-8 aircraft during ATom mission. ATom maps the remote atmosphere over the Pacific and Atlantic basins ( 80 °N and 65 °S) in continuous ascents and descents (0.2 and 13 km), providing the latitudinal and vertical information on the greenhouse gases, reactive and tracer species and aerosol properties and their seasonal variability. We couple measurements of size distributions between 0.003 and 4.8 µm and potential aerosol precursor vapors measured on ATom (August 2016 and February 2017) with calculated air mass back trajectories and the TwO-Moment Aerosol Sectional (TOMAS) box model. The back trajectories identify air masses potentially influenced by recent convection. We then use TOMAS to model particle nucleation, condensation and coagulation along that trajectory to investigate the link between convection and NPF. Through TOMAS, we explore the influence of different nucleation mechanisms (such as binary, ternary or the one with organics) and gas-phase aerosol precursors (such as sulfur dioxide) on observed particle size distributions. We discuss similarities and differences in NPF over the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans and their relationship to convection, examine particle

  11. Electromagnetic transition form factor of the η meson with WASA-at-COSY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goswami, Ankita [Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Indore (India); Collaboration: WASA-at-COSY-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this work is to measure the transition form factor of the η meson. The transition form factor describes the internal structure of a particle. The precise determination of the transition form factor of the η meson is possible through the η→γe{sup +} e{sup -} Dalitz decay. When a particle is point-like then its decay rate can be calculated within QED. However, the complex structure of the particle modifies its decay rate. The transition form factor is determined by comparing the lepton-antilepton invariant mass distribution with QED. η mesons are produced using the reaction pp→ppη at a beam kinetic energy of 1.4 GeV at the COSY accelerator of Forschungszentrum Juelich and decay particles of the η meson are detected with the WASA detector. In the higher invariant mass region recent theoretical calculations slightly deviate from the the data. With the high statistics dataset we expect precise results in the higher invariant mass region. The status of the analysis is reported.

  12. A NEWLY FORMING COLD FLOW PROTOGALACTIC DISK, A SIGNATURE OF COLD ACCRETION FROM THE COSMIC WEB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D. Christopher; Matuszewski, Mateusz; Morrissey, Patrick; Neill, James D.; Moore, Anna; Steidel, Charles C.; Trainor, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    How galaxies form from, and are fueled by, gas from the intergalactic medium (IGM) remains one of the major unsolved problems in galaxy formation. While the classical Cold Dark Matter paradigm posits galaxies forming from cooling virialized gas, recent theory and numerical simulations have highlighted the importance of cold accretion flows—relatively cool ( T ∼ few × 104 K) unshocked gas streaming along filaments into dark matter halos, including hot, massive, high-redshift halos. These flows are thought to deposit gas and angular momentum into the circumgalactic medium resulting in disk- or ring-like structures, eventually coalescing into galaxies forming at filamentary intersections. We earlier reported a bright, Ly α emitting filament near the QSO HS1549+19 at redshift z = 2.843 discovered with the Palomar Cosmic Web Imager. We now report that the bright part of this filament is an enormous ( R > 100 kpc) rotating structure of hydrogen gas with a disk-like velocity profile consistent with a 4 × 10"1"2 M _⊙ halo. The orbital time of the outer part of the what we term a “protodisk” is comparable to the virialization time and the age of the universe at this redshift. We propose that this protodisk can only have recently formed from cold gas flowing directly from the cosmic web.

  13. A NEWLY FORMING COLD FLOW PROTOGALACTIC DISK, A SIGNATURE OF COLD ACCRETION FROM THE COSMIC WEB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, D. Christopher; Matuszewski, Mateusz; Morrissey, Patrick; Neill, James D. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1216 East California Boulevard, Mail Code 278-17, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Moore, Anna [Caltech Optical Observatories, Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1216 East California Boulevard, Mail Code 11-17, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Steidel, Charles C. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1216 East California Boulevard, Mail Code 249-17, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Trainor, Ryan, E-mail: cmartin@srl.caltech.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, 501 15 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-06-10

    How galaxies form from, and are fueled by, gas from the intergalactic medium (IGM) remains one of the major unsolved problems in galaxy formation. While the classical Cold Dark Matter paradigm posits galaxies forming from cooling virialized gas, recent theory and numerical simulations have highlighted the importance of cold accretion flows—relatively cool ( T ∼ few × 104 K) unshocked gas streaming along filaments into dark matter halos, including hot, massive, high-redshift halos. These flows are thought to deposit gas and angular momentum into the circumgalactic medium resulting in disk- or ring-like structures, eventually coalescing into galaxies forming at filamentary intersections. We earlier reported a bright, Ly α emitting filament near the QSO HS1549+19 at redshift z = 2.843 discovered with the Palomar Cosmic Web Imager. We now report that the bright part of this filament is an enormous ( R > 100 kpc) rotating structure of hydrogen gas with a disk-like velocity profile consistent with a 4 × 10{sup 12} M {sub ⊙} halo. The orbital time of the outer part of the what we term a “protodisk” is comparable to the virialization time and the age of the universe at this redshift. We propose that this protodisk can only have recently formed from cold gas flowing directly from the cosmic web.

  14. Method for producing ceramic particles and agglomerates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan; Gleiman, Seth S.; Chen, Chun-Ku

    2001-01-01

    A method for generating spherical and irregularly shaped dense particles of ceramic oxides having a controlled particle size and particle size distribution. An aerosol containing precursor particles of oxide ceramics is directed into a plasma. As the particles flow through the hot zone of the plasma, they melt, collide, and join to form larger particles. If these larger particles remain in the hot zone, they continue melting and acquire a spherical shape that is retained after they exit the hot zone, cool down, and solidify. If they exit the hot zone before melting completely, their irregular shape persists and agglomerates are produced. The size and size distribution of the dense product particles can be controlled by adjusting several parameters, the most important in the case of powder precursors appears to be the density of powder in the aerosol stream that enters the plasma hot zone. This suggests that particle collision rate is responsible for determining ultimate size of the resulting sphere or agglomerate. Other parameters, particularly the gas flow rates and the microwave power, are also adjusted to control the particle size distribution.

  15. Neptune: An astrophysical smooth particle hydrodynamics code for massively parallel computer architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandalski, Stou

    Smooth particle hydrodynamics is an efficient method for modeling the dynamics of fluids. It is commonly used to simulate astrophysical processes such as binary mergers. We present a newly developed GPU accelerated smooth particle hydrodynamics code for astrophysical simulations. The code is named neptune after the Roman god of water. It is written in OpenMP parallelized C++ and OpenCL and includes octree based hydrodynamic and gravitational acceleration. The design relies on object-oriented methodologies in order to provide a flexible and modular framework that can be easily extended and modified by the user. Several pre-built scenarios for simulating collisions of polytropes and black-hole accretion are provided. The code is released under the MIT Open Source license and publicly available at http://code.google.com/p/neptune-sph/.

  16. Neutron absorbers and methods of forming at least a portion of a neutron absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillen, Donna P; Porter, Douglas L; Swank, W David; Erickson, Arnold W

    2014-12-02

    Methods of forming at least a portion of a neutron absorber include combining a first material and a second material to form a compound, reducing the compound into a plurality of particles, mixing the plurality of particles with a third material, and pressing the mixture of the plurality of particles and the third material. One or more components of neutron absorbers may be formed by such methods. Neutron absorbers may include a composite material including an intermetallic compound comprising hafnium aluminide and a matrix material comprising pure aluminum.

  17. Modeling of particle mixing in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Shupeng

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents a newly developed size-composition resolved aerosol model (SCRAM), which is able to simulate the dynamics of externally-mixed particles in the atmosphere, and evaluates its performance in three-dimensional air-quality simulations. The main work is split into four parts. First, the research context of external mixing and aerosol modelling is introduced. Secondly, the development of the SCRAM box model is presented along with validation tests. Each particle composition is defined by the combination of mass-fraction sections of its chemical components or aggregates of components. The three main processes involved in aerosol dynamic (nucleation, coagulation, condensation/ evaporation) are included in SCRAM. The model is first validated by comparisons with published reference solutions for coagulation and condensation/evaporation of internally-mixed particles. The particle mixing state is investigated in a 0-D simulation using data representative of air pollution at a traffic site in Paris. The relative influence on the mixing state of the different aerosol processes and of the algorithm used to model condensation/evaporation (dynamic evolution or bulk equilibrium between particles and gas) is studied. Then, SCRAM is integrated into the Polyphemus air quality platform and used to conduct simulations over Greater Paris during the summer period of 2009. This evaluation showed that SCRAM gives satisfactory results for both PM2.5/PM10 concentrations and aerosol optical depths, as assessed from comparisons to observations. Besides, the model allows us to analyze the particle mixing state, as well as the impact of the mixing state assumption made in the modelling on particle formation, aerosols optical properties, and cloud condensation nuclei activation. Finally, two simulations are conducted during the winter campaign of MEGAPOLI (Megacities: Emissions, urban, regional and Global Atmospheric Pollution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for

  18. Exercise recommendations in patients with newly diagnosed fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Brad; Spencer, Horace; Kortebein, Patrick

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate exercise recommendations in patients newly diagnosed with fibromyalgia. A retrospective chart review. A public university rheumatology clinic. Patients newly diagnosed with fibromyalgia (N = 122). Frequency and type of exercise recommendations. The mean (standard deviation) age of these patients with fibromyalgia was 45 ± 12 years; 91% were women. Exercise was recommended as part of the documented treatment plan in 47% of these patients (57/122); only 3 patients had a documented contraindication for exercise. Aquatic exercise was most frequently recommended (56% [32/57]), followed by combined aquatic-aerobic exercise (26% [15/57]), and, infrequently, aerobic exercise only (5% [3/57]); only 7% of these patients (4/57) were referred for physical therapy. The primary method of communication was verbal discussion (94% [54/57]). Although there is well-documented evidence that exercise is beneficial for patients with fibromyalgia, we found that less than half of patients with newly diagnosed fibromyalgia in our study were provided recommendations to initiate an exercise program as part of their treatment plan. Further investigation of these findings are warranted, including evaluation of other university and community rheumatology practices as well as that of other physicians caring for patients with fibromyalgia. However, our findings indicate that there appears to be an opportunity to provide more specific and practical education regarding the implementation of an exercise regimen for patients with newly diagnosed fibromyalgia. Physiatrists may be particularly well suited to manage the exercise component of patients with fibromyalgia because of their specialized training in exercise prescription. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Investigating the settling dynamics of cohesive silt particles with particle-resolving simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rui; Xiao, Heng; Sun, Honglei

    2018-01-01

    The settling of cohesive sediment is ubiquitous in aquatic environments, and the study of the settling process is important for both engineering and environmental reasons. In the settling process, the silt particles show behaviors that are different from non-cohesive particles due to the influence of inter-particle cohesive force. For instance, the flocs formed in the settling process of cohesive silt can loosen the packing, and thus the structural densities of cohesive silt beds are much smaller than that of non-cohesive sand beds. While there is a consensus that cohesive behaviors depend on the characteristics of sediment particles (e.g., Bond number, particle size distribution), little is known about the exact influence of these characteristics on the cohesive behaviors. In addition, since the cohesive behaviors of the silt are caused by the inter-particle cohesive forces, the motions of and the contacts among silt particles should be resolved to study these cohesive behaviors in the settling process. However, studies of the cohesive behaviors of silt particles in the settling process based on particle-resolving approach are still lacking. In the present work, three-dimensional settling process is investigated numerically by using CFD-DEM (Computational Fluid Dynamics-Discrete Element Method). The inter-particle collision force, the van der Waals force, and the fluid-particle interaction forces are considered. The numerical model is used to simulate the hindered settling process of silt based on the experimental setup in the literature. The results obtained in the simulations, including the structural densities of the beds, the characteristic lines, and the particle terminal velocity, are in good agreement with the experimental observations in the literature. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first time that the influences of non-dimensional Bond number and particle polydispersity on the structural densities of silt beds have been investigated separately

  20. Test-particle motion in Einstein's unified field theory. III. Magnetic monopoles and charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    In a previous paper (paper I), we developed a method for finding the exact equations of structure and motion of multipole test particles in Einstein's unified field theory: the theory of the nonsymmetric field. In that paper we also applied the method and found in Einstein's unified field theory the equations of structure and motion of neutral pole-dipole test particles possessing no electromagnetic multipole moments. In a second paper (paper II), we applied the method and found in Einstein's unified field theory the exact equations of structure and motion of charged test particles possessing no magnetic monopole moments. In the present paper (paper III), we apply the method and find in Einstein's unified field theory the exact equations of structure and motion of charged test particles possessing magnetic monopole moments. It follows from the form of these equations of structure and motion that in general in Einstein's unified field theory a test particle possessing a magnetic monopole moment in a background electromagnetic field must also possess spin

  1. Hypostatic jammed packings of frictionless nonspherical particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderWerf, Kyle; Jin, Weiwei; Shattuck, Mark D.; O'Hern, Corey S.

    2018-01-01

    We perform computational studies of static packings of a variety of nonspherical particles including circulo-lines, circulo-polygons, ellipses, asymmetric dimers, dumbbells, and others to determine which shapes form packings with fewer contacts than degrees of freedom (hypostatic packings) and which have equal numbers of contacts and degrees of freedom (isostatic packings), and to understand why hypostatic packings of nonspherical particles can be mechanically stable despite having fewer contacts than that predicted from naive constraint counting. To generate highly accurate force- and torque-balanced packings of circulo-lines and cir-polygons, we developed an interparticle potential that gives continuous forces and torques as a function of the particle coordinates. We show that the packing fraction and coordination number at jamming onset obey a masterlike form for all of the nonspherical particle packings we studied when plotted versus the particle asphericity A , which is proportional to the ratio of the squared perimeter to the area of the particle. Further, the eigenvalue spectra of the dynamical matrix for packings of different particle shapes collapse when plotted at the same A . For hypostatic packings of nonspherical particles, we verify that the number of "quartic" modes along which the potential energy increases as the fourth power of the perturbation amplitude matches the number of missing contacts relative to the isostatic value. We show that the fourth derivatives of the total potential energy in the directions of the quartic modes remain nonzero as the pressure of the packings is decreased to zero. In addition, we calculate the principal curvatures of the inequality constraints for each contact in circulo-line packings and identify specific types of contacts with inequality constraints that possess convex curvature. These contacts can constrain multiple degrees of freedom and allow hypostatic packings of nonspherical particles to be mechanically

  2. Granulation study of porous silica particles for MA recovery process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Ichiro; Kofuji, Hirohide; Oriuchi, Akio; Watanabe, Sou; Takeuchi, Masayuki

    2017-01-01

    particle was achieved by optimizing the speed. Those particles satisfied targeted pore size as well. Preparation of the adsorbent using the porous silica particles obtained in this study and batch-wise adsorption experiments on simulated HLLW were carried out. Newly-prepared adsorbent showed superior performance of adsorption capacity. (author)

  3. Single Particle Linear and Nonlinear Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Y

    2004-01-01

    I will give a comprehensive review of existing particle tracking tools to assess long-term particle stability for small and large accelerators in the presence of realistic magnetic imperfections and machine misalignments. The emphasis will be on the tracking and analysis tools based upon the differential algebra, Lie operator, and ''polymorphism''. Using these tools, a uniform linear and non-linear analysis will be outlined as an application of the normal form

  4. Identification and quantification of particle growth channels during new particle formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Pennington

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric new particle formation (NPF is a key source of ambient ultrafine particles that may contribute substantially to the global production of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN. While NPF is driven by atmospheric nucleation, its impact on CCN concentration depends strongly on atmospheric growth mechanisms since the growth rate must exceed the loss rate due to scavenging in order for the particles to reach the CCN size range. In this work, chemical composition measurements of 20 nm diameter particles during NPF in Hyytiälä, Finland, in March–April 2011 permit identification and quantitative assessment of important growth channels. In this work we show the following: (A sulfuric acid, a key species associated with atmospheric nucleation, accounts for less than half of particle mass growth during this time period; (B the sulfate content of a growing particle during NPF is quantitatively explained by condensation of gas-phase sulfuric acid molecules (i.e., sulfuric acid uptake is collision-limited; (C sulfuric acid condensation substantially impacts the chemical composition of preexisting nanoparticles before new particles have grown to a size sufficient to be measured; (D ammonium and sulfate concentrations are highly correlated, indicating that ammonia uptake is driven by sulfuric acid uptake; (E sulfate neutralization by ammonium does not reach the predicted thermodynamic end point, suggesting that a barrier exists for ammonia uptake; (F carbonaceous matter accounts for more than half of the particle mass growth, and its oxygen-to-carbon ratio (~ 0.5 is characteristic of freshly formed secondary organic aerosol; and (G differences in the overall growth rate from one formation event to another are caused by variations in the growth rates of all major chemical species, not just one individual species.

  5. Constraints on rapidity-dependent initial conditions from charged-particle pseudorapidity densities and two-particle correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Weiyao; Moreland, J. Scott; Bernhard, Jonah E.; Bass, Steffen A.

    2017-10-01

    We study the initial three-dimensional spatial configuration of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions using centrality and pseudorapidity-dependent measurements of the medium's charged particle density and two-particle correlations. A cumulant-generating function is first used to parametrize the rapidity dependence of local entropy deposition and extend arbitrary boost-invariant initial conditions to nonzero beam rapidities. The model is then compared to p +Pb and Pb + Pb charged-particle pseudorapidity densities and two-particle pseudorapidity correlations and systematically optimized using Bayesian parameter estimation to extract high-probability initial condition parameters. The optimized initial conditions are then compared to a number of experimental observables including the pseudorapidity-dependent anisotropic flows, event-plane decorrelations, and flow correlations. We find that the form of the initial local longitudinal entropy profile is well constrained by these experimental measurements.

  6. Cavitational micro-particles: plasma formation mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bica, Ioan

    2005-01-01

    Cavitational micro-particles are a class to which the micro-spheres, the micro-tubes and the octopus-shaped micro-particles belong. The cavitational micro-particles (micro-spheres, micro-tubes and octopus-shaped micro-particles) at an environmental pressure. The micro-spheres, the micro-tubes and the ligaments of the octopus-shaped micro-particles are produced in the argon plasma and are formed of vapors with low values of the molar concentration in comparison with the molar density of the gas and vapor mixture, the first one on the unstable and the last two on the stable movement of the vapors. The ligaments of the octopus-shaped micro-particles are open at the top for well-chosen values of the sub-cooling of the vapor and gas cylinders. The nitrogen in the air favors the formation of pores in the wall of the micro-spheres. In this paper we present the cavitational micro-particles, their production in the plasma and some mechanisms for their formation in the plasma. (author)

  7. Composite material reinforced with atomized quasicrystalline particles and method of making same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biner, S.B.; Sordelet, D.J.; Lograsso, B.K.; Anderson, I.E.

    1998-12-22

    A composite material comprises an aluminum or aluminum alloy matrix having generally spherical, atomized quasicrystalline aluminum-transition metal alloy reinforcement particles disposed in the matrix to improve mechanical properties. A composite article can be made by consolidating generally spherical, atomized quasicrystalline aluminum-transition metal alloy particles and aluminum or aluminum alloy particles to form a body that is cold and/or hot reduced to form composite products, such as composite plate or sheet, with interfacial bonding between the quasicrystalline particles and the aluminum or aluminum alloy matrix without damage (e.g. cracking or shape change) of the reinforcement particles. The cold and/or hot worked composite exhibits substantially improved yield strength, tensile strength, Young`s modulus (stiffness). 3 figs.

  8. Non-spherical particle formation induced by repulsive hydration forces during spray drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Yong Jae; Lee, Jin-Woo; Chang, Hankwon; Jang, Hee-Dong, E-mail: hdjang@kigam.re.kr; Cho, Kuk, E-mail: kukcho@pusan.ac.kr [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    Non-spherical particles were produced during a spray-drying process, but the exact mechanism of their formation was unknown. The non-spherical particles form when the strength of the colloidal droplets is exceeded by external stress stemming from drag in the velocity gradient. Here, we show that repulsive hydration forces reduce the mechanical strength of the droplets; this is critical to the formation of non-spherical particles. Toroidal or ellipsoidal particles were prepared from low-concentration hydrophilic SiO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}, and CuO colloidal solutions, but not from hydrophobic ZnO colloidal solutions. The surface properties of the solid particulates are crucial for the morphology of particles formed during spray drying.

  9. Non-spherical particle formation induced by repulsive hydration forces during spray drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Yong Jae; Lee, Jin-Woo; Chang, Hankwon; Jang, Hee-Dong; Cho, Kuk

    2013-01-01

    Non-spherical particles were produced during a spray-drying process, but the exact mechanism of their formation was unknown. The non-spherical particles form when the strength of the colloidal droplets is exceeded by external stress stemming from drag in the velocity gradient. Here, we show that repulsive hydration forces reduce the mechanical strength of the droplets; this is critical to the formation of non-spherical particles. Toroidal or ellipsoidal particles were prepared from low-concentration hydrophilic SiO 2 , TiO 2 , and CuO colloidal solutions, but not from hydrophobic ZnO colloidal solutions. The surface properties of the solid particulates are crucial for the morphology of particles formed during spray drying

  10. Suppressing turbulence of self-propelling rods by strongly coupled passive particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yen-Shuo; Wang, Hao-Chen; I, Lin

    2015-03-01

    The strong turbulence suppression, mainly for large-scale modes, of two-dimensional self-propelling rods, by increasing the long-range coupling strength Γ of low-concentration passive particles, is numerically demonstrated. It is found that large-scale collective rod motion in forms of swirls or jets is mainly contributed from well-aligned dense patches, which can push small poorly aligned rod patches and uncoupled passive particles. The more efficient momentum transfer and dissipation through increasing passive particle coupling leads to the formation of a more ordered and slowed down network of passive particles, which competes with coherent dense active rod clusters. The frustration of active rod alignment ordering and coherent motion by the passive particle network, which interrupt the inverse cascading of forming large-scale swirls, is the key for suppressing collective rod motion with scales beyond the interpassive distance, even in the liquid phase of passive particles. The loosely packed active rods are weakly affected by increasing passive particle coupling due to the weak rod-particle interaction. They mainly contribute to the small-scale modes and high-speed motion.

  11. Classification of new particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karl, G.

    1976-01-01

    A classification of the new particles is proposed. Hadrons are constructed from quarks corresponding to several different representations of an SU 3 color group, with confined color. The new family of resonances, related to psi/J, is assigned to color-antisextet quarks Q. These new quarks Q do not form mixed mesons q-barQ with old antiquarks but can form mixed baryons Qqq. We speculate on the relation between color and mass. High-mass recurrences of the psi/J family are expected to have associated large changes in the cross section for electron-positron annihilation (ΔR > 4). A conjectured mass formula, which relates the masses of psi/J and ω, predicts the masses of possible recurrences of the psi/J particle. Other experimental implications at presently available energies are discussed, especially the necessity for an isovector partner for psi/J, and for pseudoscalar mesons at 1.8--2.2 GeV, some of which can decay into two photons

  12. Erosion of magnesium potassium phosphate ceramic waste forms.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goretta, K. C.

    1998-11-20

    Phosphate-based chemically bonded ceramics were formed from magnesium potassium phosphate (MKP) binder and either industrial fly ash or steel slag. The resulting ceramics were subjected to solid-particle erosion by a stream of either angular Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles or rounded SiO{sub 2} sand. Particle impact angles were 30 or 90{degree} and the impact velocity was 50 m/s. Steady-state erosion rates, measured as mass lost from a specimen per mass of impacting particle, were dependent on impact angle and on erodent particle size and shape. Material was lost by a combination of fracture mechanisms. Evolution of H{sub 2}O from the MKP phase appeared to contribute significantly to the material loss.

  13. Nilotinib versus imatinib for newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saglio, Giuseppe; Kim, Dong-Wook; Issaragrisil, Surapol

    2010-01-01

    Nilotinib has been shown to be a more potent inhibitor of BCR-ABL than imatinib. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of nilotinib, as compared with imatinib, in patients with newly diagnosed Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in the chronic phase.......Nilotinib has been shown to be a more potent inhibitor of BCR-ABL than imatinib. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of nilotinib, as compared with imatinib, in patients with newly diagnosed Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in the chronic phase....

  14. Transformation of organic N newly added to red soil treated with different cultural practices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangQin-Zheng; YeQing-Fu; 等

    1998-01-01

    By using 15N tracer method,transformation of organic N,which wqas newly added to red soil treated with different cultural practices,was studied under thelaboratory incubation condition.The experimental results showed that the transformation of N from newly added organic matter and soil native pool during incubation was influenced by cultural practice treatment beforeincubation.Fallow was favorable to the mineralization of newly added organic N and soil N compared with the planting wheat treatment.Planting wheat greatly increased the loss of soil N.Application of fertilizers stimulated the mineralization of newly added organic N and application of organic matter reduced the mineralization,but stimulated microbialtransformation of newly adde4d organic N.

  15. Future of motion graphics and particle systems

    OpenAIRE

    Warambo, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to study the use of particle systems in motion graphics, which is known to be the most popular graphics tool for multiple animated elements. It is known to be a procedural animation because as the emitter builds up more particles are formed to create a motion effect. At the same time exploring the future of motion graphics and Particle systems connection and the relevance it has in terms of longevity in being a major post-production element in digital media. Th...

  16. Investigating on Effect of Particle Form and Mixing Method on applied Properties Green Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Daii

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays Paulownia as the fast growing species has noticed for wood industry in the world. In this research, Paulownia fortuni planted in Shaskolateh forest of Gorgan were studied. Two particle form, flour (60 mesh size and fiber (RMP, L/D= 21/54 were prepared. 60 percent of this material with 37% of HDPE , 3% of MAPE were blended separately. Part from this material by internal mixer and other part by extruder blended. Output was prepared like pellets. Samples were prepared in dimensions of 30cm×30cm×1cm, and nominal density 1 g/cm3 by hot press. The mechanical testing of the panels (flexural, hardness, unnotched impact strength and the physical testing of the panels (thickness swelling and water absorption after 2 & 24 hours immersion in water were measured. The result showed that modulus of rupture, hardness, unnotched impact strength of composite made of fiber-PE were lower than composite made of flour-PE. Flexural elastic modulus of composite made of fiber-PE were higher than flour-PE. Water absorption and thickness swelling of composite made of fiber-PE were higher than flour-PE. Also physical and mechanical properties of composites blended by internal mixer improved in compared composites blended by extruder. Physical and mechanical properties of composite made of fiber-PE blended by internal mixer improved in compared composite made of fiber-PE blended by extruder.

  17. Creating and using a type of free-form geometry in Monte Carlo particle transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wessol, D.E.; Wheeler, F.J.

    1993-01-01

    While the reactor physicists were fine-tuning the Monte Carlo paradigm for particle transport in regular geometries, the computer scientists were developing rendering algorithms to display extremely realistic renditions of irregular objects ranging from the ubiquitous teakettle to dynamic Jell-O. Even though the modeling methods share a common basis, the initial strategies each discipline developed for variance reduction were remarkably different. Initially, the reactor physicist used Russian roulette, importance sampling, particle splitting, and rejection techniques. In the early stages of development, the computer scientist relied primarily on rejection techniques, including a very elegant hierarchical construction and sampling method. This sampling method allowed the computer scientist to viably track particles through irregular geometries in three-dimensional space, while the initial methods developed by the reactor physicists would only allow for efficient searches through analytical surfaces or objects. As time goes by, it appears there has been some merging of the variance reduction strategies between the two disciplines. This is an early (possibly first) incorporation of geometric hierarchical construction and sampling into the reactor physicists' Monte Carlo transport model that permits efficient tracking through nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces in three-dimensional space. After some discussion, the results from this model are compared with experiments and the model employing implicit (analytical) geometric representation

  18. Theoretical mechanics for sixth forms

    CERN Document Server

    Plumpton, C

    1971-01-01

    Theoretical Mechanics for Sixth Forms, Second Edition is a 14-chapter book that begins by elucidating the nature of theoretical mechanics. The book then describes the statics of a particle in illustration of the techniques of handling vector quantities. Subsequent chapters focus on the principle of moments, parallel forces and centers of gravity; and the application of Newton's second law to the dynamics of a particle and the ideas of work and energy, impulse and momentum, and power. The concept of friction is also explained. This volume concludes with chapters concerning motion in a circle an

  19. Savannah River Certification Plan for newly generated, contact-handled transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierzbicki, K.S.

    1986-01-01

    This Certification Plan document describes the necessary processes and methods for certifying unclassified, newly generated, contact-handled solid transuranic (TRU) waste at the Savannah River Plant and Laboratory (SRP, SRL) to comply with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Waste Acceptance Criteria (WIPP-WAC). Section 2 contains the organizational structure as related to waste certification including a summary of functional responsibilities, levels of authority, and lines of communication of the various organizations involved in certification activities. Section 3 describes general plant operations and TRU waste generation. Included is a description of the TRU Waste classification system. Section 4 contains the SR site TRU Waste Quality Assurance Program Plan. Section 5 describes waste container procurement, inspection, and certification prior to being loaded with TRU waste. Certification of waste packages, after package closure in the waste generating areas, is described in Section 6. The packaging and certification of individual waste forms is described in Attachments 1-5. Included in each attachment is a description of controls used to ensure that waste packages meet all applicable waste form compliance requirements for shipment to the WIPP. 3 figs., 3 tabs

  20. The effect of particle size on the morphology and thermodynamics of diblock copolymer/tethered-particle membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Bo; Edwards, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    A combination of self-consistent field theory and density functional theory was used to examine the effect of particle size on the stable, 3-dimensional equilibrium morphologies formed by diblock copolymers with a tethered nanoparticle attached either between the two blocks or at the end of one of the blocks. Particle size was varied between one and four tenths of the radius of gyration of the diblock polymer chain for neutral particles as well as those either favoring or disfavoring segments of the copolymer blocks. Phase diagrams were constructed and analyzed in terms of thermodynamic diagrams to understand the physics associated with the molecular-level self-assembly processes. Typical morphologies were observed, such as lamellar, spheroidal, cylindrical, gyroidal, and perforated lamellar, with the primary concentration region of the tethered particles being influenced heavily by particle size and tethering location, strength of the particle-segment energetic interactions, chain length, and copolymer radius of gyration. The effect of the simulation box size on the observed morphology and system thermodynamics was also investigated, indicating possible effects of confinement upon the system self-assembly processes

  1. The effect of particle size on the morphology and thermodynamics of diblock copolymer/tethered-particle membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Edwards, Brian J

    2015-06-07

    A combination of self-consistent field theory and density functional theory was used to examine the effect of particle size on the stable, 3-dimensional equilibrium morphologies formed by diblock copolymers with a tethered nanoparticle attached either between the two blocks or at the end of one of the blocks. Particle size was varied between one and four tenths of the radius of gyration of the diblock polymer chain for neutral particles as well as those either favoring or disfavoring segments of the copolymer blocks. Phase diagrams were constructed and analyzed in terms of thermodynamic diagrams to understand the physics associated with the molecular-level self-assembly processes. Typical morphologies were observed, such as lamellar, spheroidal, cylindrical, gyroidal, and perforated lamellar, with the primary concentration region of the tethered particles being influenced heavily by particle size and tethering location, strength of the particle-segment energetic interactions, chain length, and copolymer radius of gyration. The effect of the simulation box size on the observed morphology and system thermodynamics was also investigated, indicating possible effects of confinement upon the system self-assembly processes.

  2. Directional Freezing of Nanocellulose Dispersions Aligns the Rod-Like Particles and Produces Low-Density and Robust Particle Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munier, Pierre; Gordeyeva, Korneliya; Bergström, Lennart; Fall, Andreas B

    2016-05-09

    We show that unidirectional freezing of nanocellulose dispersions produces cellular foams with high alignment of the rod-like nanoparticles in the freezing direction. Quantification of the alignment in the long direction of the tubular pores with X-ray diffraction shows high orientation of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) at particle concentrations above 0.2 wt % (CNC) and 0.08 wt % (CNF). Aggregation of CNF by pH decrease or addition of salt significantly reduces the particle orientation; in contrast, exceeding the concentration where particles gel by mobility constraints had a relatively small effect on the orientation. The dense nanocellulose network formed by directional freezing was sufficiently strong to resist melting. The formed hydrogels were birefringent and displayed anisotropic laser diffraction patterns, suggesting preserved nanocellulose alignment and cellular structure. Nondirectional freezing of the hydrogels followed by sublimation generates foams with a pore structure and nanocellulose alignment resembling the structure of the initial directional freezing.

  3. Detection of Overreported Psychopathology with the MMPI-2 RF Form Validity Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellbom, Martin; Bagby, R. Michael

    2010-01-01

    We examined the utility of the validity scales on the recently released Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2 RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008) to detect overreported psychopathology. This set of validity scales includes a newly developed scale and revised versions of the original MMPI-2 validity scales. We…

  4. Asymmetrical Polyhedral Configuration of Giant Vesicles Induced by Orderly Array of Encapsulated Colloidal Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsume, Yuno; Toyota, Taro

    2016-01-01

    Giant vesicles (GVs) encapsulating colloidal particles by a specific volume fraction show a characteristic configuration under a hypertonic condition. Several flat faces were formed in GV membrane with orderly array of inner particles. GV shape changed from the spherical to the asymmetrical polyhedral configuration. This shape deformation was derived by entropic interaction between inner particles and GV membrane. Because a part of inner particles became to form an ordered phase in the region neighboring the GV membrane, free volume for the other part of particles increased. Giant vesicles encapsulating colloidal particles were useful for the model of "crowding effect" which is the entropic interaction in the cell.

  5. Laser pushing or pulling of absorbing airborne particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chuji, E-mail: cw175@msstate.edu; Gong, Zhiyong [Mississippi State University, Starkville, Mississippi 39759 (United States); Pan, Yong-Le; Videen, Gorden [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, 2800 Powder Mill Road, Adelphi, Maryland 20783 (United States)

    2016-07-04

    A single absorbing particle formed by carbon nanotubes in the size range of 10–50 μm is trapped in air by a laser trapping beam and concurrently illuminated by another laser manipulating beam. When the trapping beam is terminated, the movement of the particle controlled by the manipulating beam is investigated. We report our observations of light-controlled pushing and pulling motions. We show that the movement direction has little relationship with the particle size and manipulating beam's parameters but is dominated by the particle's orientation and morphology. With this observation, the controllable optical manipulation is now able to be generalized to arbitrary particles, including irregularly shaped absorbing particles that are shown in this work.

  6. Search for dark-matter particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowsik, R.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments performed over the last two years have been very successful in drastically reducing the number of viable elementary particles that could possibly constitute the dark matter that dominates the large-scale gravitational dynamics of astronomical systems. The candidates that survive are the light neutrinos, the axion, and a supersymmetric particle with carefully chosen parameters called the neutralino. Baryonic dark matter, which might contribute not insignificantly over small scales, is perhaps present in the form of brown dwarfs, and a search for these is under way. In this article, the astrophysical studies which bear on the density and the phase-space structure of the dark-matter particles are reviewed and the implications of the various direct and indirect searches for these particles are discussed and, finally, alternative suggestions for the candidates and directions for further searches are pointed out. (author). 35 refs., 29 figs

  7. Diesel particles - a health hazard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ege, C.

    2004-08-15

    To all appearances, small particles belong to the pollutants presenting the biggest health hazards. Particles come especially from diesel-powered vehicles. According to researchers, particles cause thousands of early deaths each year in the big cities in Denmark alone, and up to 1,250 of these deaths could be prevented by fitting particle filters on diesel-powered vehicles. That is more than deaths caused by traffic accidents. Especially the elderly are affected. In addition, the small particles seem to aggravate asthma incidences, including the many children with asthma. What makes the small particles so very dangerous is that they can enter the smallest of vessels of the lungs. There is a solution within sight to this grave health hazard. The solution is called particle filters, but they will not come automatically. It requires initiatives in the form of legislation, green taxes and subsidies. The EU is introducing stricter regulations regarding particle emission from heavy vehicles from 2006, though only for new vehicles. It will therefore take many years to abate the problem this way. In the present pamphlet, the Danish Ecological Council offers a number of specific proposals on how to further the introduction of filters on diesel vehicles. The Danish government has taken a small step in the right direction by establishing a subsidy scheme for particle filters. Yet the amount allocated is too small and, because it is not followed up by setting taxes on polluting vehicles, it will have little effect. (au)

  8. Aggregated particles caused by instrument artifact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Ashley M.; Loría-Salazar, S. Marcela; Arnott, W. Patrick; Edwards, Grant C.; Miller, Matthieu B.; Gustin, Mae S.

    2018-04-01

    Previous studies have indicated that superaggregates, clusters of aggregates of soot primary particles, can be formed in large-scale turbulent fires. Due to lower effective densities, higher porosity, and lower aerodynamic diameters, superaggregates may pass through inlets designed to remove particles 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter were collected on 36 out of 158 sample days. On preliminary analysis, it was thought that these aggregated particles were superaggregates, depositing past PM10 (particles wind speeds, as well as the use of generators on site. Samples with aggregated particles, referred to as aggregates, were analyzed using a scanning electron microscope for size and shape and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was used for elemental analysis. It was determined, based on the high amounts of aluminum present in the aggregate samples, that a sampling artifact associated with the sample inlet and prolonged, high wind events was the probable reason for the observed aggregates.

  9. Pressure analysis in the fabrication process of TRISO UO2-coated fuel particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Malin; Shao Youlin; Liu Bing

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The pressure signals during the real TRISO UO2-coated fuel particle fabrication process. ► A new relationship about the pressure drop change and the coated fuel particles properties. ► The proposed relationship is validated by experimental results during successive coating. ► A convenient method for monitoring the fluidized state during coating process. - Abstract: The pressure signals in the coating furnace are obtained experimentally from the TRISO UO 2 -coated fuel particle fabrication process. The pressure signals during the coating process are analyzed and a simplified relationship about the pressure drop change due to the coated layer is proposed based on the spouted bed hydrodynamics. The change of pressure drop is found to be consistent with the change of the combination factor about particle density, bed density, particle diameter and static bed height, during the successive coating process of the buffer PyC, IPyC, SiC and OPyC layer. The newly proposed relationship is validated by the experimental values. Based on this relationship, a convenient method is proposed for real-time monitoring the fluidized state of the particles in a high-temperature coating process in the spouted bed. It can be found that the pressure signals analysis is an effective method to monitor the fluidized state on-line in the coating process at high temperature up to 1600 °C.

  10. Single Particle Linear and Nonlinear Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Y

    2004-06-25

    I will give a comprehensive review of existing particle tracking tools to assess long-term particle stability for small and large accelerators in the presence of realistic magnetic imperfections and machine misalignments. The emphasis will be on the tracking and analysis tools based upon the differential algebra, Lie operator, and ''polymorphism''. Using these tools, a uniform linear and non-linear analysis will be outlined as an application of the normal form.

  11. Investigation of granular impact using positron emission particle tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, Jeremy O.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2015-01-01

    packing states. For the first time, we have simultaneously investigated both the trajectory of the sphere, the motion of particles in a 3-D granular bed and particles which jump into the resultant jet, which arises from the collapse of the cavity formed

  12. Comprehensive modelling study on observed new particle formation at the SORPES station in Nanjing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Huang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available New particle formation (NPF has been investigated intensively during the last 2 decades because of its influence on aerosol population and the possible contribution to cloud condensation nuclei. However, intensive measurements and modelling activities on this topic in urban metropolitan areas in China with frequent high-pollution episodes are still very limited. This study provides results from a comprehensive modelling study on the occurrence of NPF events in the western part of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD region, China. The comprehensive modelling system, which combines the WRF-Chem (the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry regional chemical transport model and the MALTE-BOX sectional box model (the model to predict new aerosol formation in the lower troposphere, was shown to be capable of simulating atmospheric nucleation and subsequent growth. Here we present a detailed discussion of three typical NPF days, during which the measured air masses were notably influenced by either anthropogenic activities, biogenic emissions, or mixed ocean and continental sources. Overall, simulated NPF events were generally in good agreement with the corresponding measurements, enabling us to get further insights into NPF processes in the YRD region. Based on the simulations, we conclude that biogenic organic compounds, particularly monoterpenes, play an essential role in the initial condensational growth of newly formed clusters through their low-volatility oxidation products. Although some uncertainties remain in this modelling system, this method provides a possibility to better understand particle formation and growth processes.

  13. Validation of an Adapted French Form of the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale in Four Francophone Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Claire S.; Broonen, Jean-Paul; Stauffer, Sarah D.; Hamtiaux, Armanda; Pouyaud, Jacques; Zecca, Gregory; Houssemand, Claude; Rossier, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the validation of a French version of the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale in four Francophone countries. The aim was to re-analyze the item selection and then compare this newly developed French-language form with the international form 2.0. Exploratory factor analysis was used as a tool for item selection, and confirmatory factor…

  14. Possible origin of Saturn's newly discovered outer ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moehlmann, D.

    1986-01-01

    Within a planetogonic model the self-gravitationally caused formation of pre-planetary and pre-satellite rings from an earlier thin disk is reported. The theoretically derived orbital radii of these rings are compared with the orbital levels in the planetary system and the satellite systems of Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus. From this comparison it is concluded that at the radial position of Saturn's newly discovered outer ring an early pre-satellite ring of more or less evolved satellites could have existed. These satellites should have been disturbed in their evolution by the gravitation of the neighbouring massive satellite Titan. The comparison also may indicate similarities between the asteroidal belt and the newly discovered outer ring of Saturn

  15. Oral Cancer Knowledge Assessment: Newly Graduated versus Senior Dental Clinicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado de Souza, Ricardo; Gallego Arias Pecorari, Vanessa; Lauria Dib, Luciano

    2018-01-01

    The present study assessed the level of dentists' knowledge regarding oral cancer in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. A questionnaire was used to compare the level of knowledge among newly graduated and senior clinicians. A total of 20,154 e-mails were correctly delivered to the dentists registered in the database of the Regional Dentistry Council of São Paulo, and 477 (2.36%) responses were received. This sample consisted of 84 newly graduated clinicians and 105 senior clinicians. For the statistical analysis, the chi-square test and the logistic regression analysis were performed with α = 0.05, and the results were described herein. According to their knowledge level, the results were statistically different between the groups, since 19% of the newly graduated clinicians were evaluated with knowledge grade A (excellent) in comparison to 6.7% of the senior clinicians. In spite of the results indicated that newly graduated clinicians' knowledge regarding oral cancer was 2.1 times higher, 34.5% of the professionals in this group had regular or poor knowledge on the subject, and several questions relating to clinical characteristics and risk factors indicated that there still exist some knowledge gaps, demonstrating that there is a need for further studies and information activities addressing oral cancer. PMID:29666649

  16. Adaptation of multidimensional group particle tracking and particle wall-boundary condition model to the FDNS code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. S.; Farmer, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    A particulate two-phase flow CFD model was developed based on the FDNS code which is a pressure based predictor plus multi-corrector Navier-Stokes flow solver. Turbulence models with compressibility correction and the wall function models were employed as submodels. A finite-rate chemistry model was used for reacting flow simulation. For particulate two-phase flow simulations, a Eulerian-Lagrangian solution method using an efficient implicit particle trajectory integration scheme was developed in this study. Effects of particle-gas reaction and particle size change to agglomeration or fragmentation were not considered in this investigation. At the onset of the present study, a two-dimensional version of FDNS which had been modified to treat Lagrangian tracking of particles (FDNS-2DEL) had already been written and was operational. The FDNS-2DEL code was too slow for practical use, mainly because it had not been written in a form amenable to vectorization on the Cray, nor was the full three-dimensional form of FDNS utilized. The specific objective of this study was to reorder to calculations into long single arrays for automatic vectorization on the Cray and to implement the full three-dimensional version of FDNS to produce the FDNS-3DEL code. Since the FDNS-2DEL code was slow, a very limited number of test cases had been run with it. This study was also intended to increase the number of cases simulated to verify and improve, as necessary, the particle tracking methodology coded in FDNS.

  17. Career Motivation in Newly Licensed Registered Nurses: What Makes Them Remain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Zarata Mann; Bailey, Jessica H.

    2010-01-01

    Despite vast research on newly licensed registered nurses (RNs), we don't know why some newly licensed registered nurses remain in their current jobs and others leave the nursing profession early in their career. Job satisfaction, the most significant factor emerging from the literature, plays a significant role in nurses' decisions to remain in…

  18. Particle self-assembly at ionic liquid-based interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Denzil S; Nofen, Elizabeth M; Dai, Lenore L

    2014-04-01

    This review presents an overview of the nature of ionic liquid (IL)-based interfaces and self-assembled particle morphologies of IL-in-water, oil- and water-in-IL, and novel IL-in-IL Pickering emulsions with emphasis on their unique phenomena, by means of experimental and computational studies. In IL-in-water Pickering emulsions, particles formed monolayers at ionic liquid-water interfaces and were close-packed on fully covered emulsion droplets or aggregated on partially covered droplets. Interestingly, other than equilibrating at the ionic liquid-water interfaces, microparticles with certain surface chemistries were extracted into the ionic liquid phase with a high efficiency. These experimental findings were supported by potential of mean force calculations, which showed large energy drops as hydrophobic particles crossed the interface into the IL phase. In the oil- and water-in-IL Pickering emulsions, microparticles with acidic surface chemistries formed monolayer bridges between the internal phase droplets rather than residing at the oil/water-ionic liquid interfaces, a significant deviation from traditional Pickering emulsion morphology. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed aspects of the mechanism behind this bridging phenomenon, including the role of the droplet phase, surface chemistry, and inter-particle film. Novel IL-in-IL Pickering emulsions exhibited an array of self-assembled morphologies including the previously observed particle absorption and bridging phenomena. The appearance of these morphologies depended on the particle surface chemistry as well as the ILs used. The incorporation of particle self-assembly with ionic liquid science allows for new applications at the intersection of these two fields, and have the potential to be numerous due to the tunability of the ionic liquids and particles incorporated, as well as the particle morphology by combining certain groups of particle surface chemistry, IL type (protic or aprotic), and whether oil

  19. Meeting and activating the newly unemployed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotger, Gabriel Pons

    -demanding activity. As intensive activation is usually accompanied by intensive search monitoring, it is important to disentangling the contribution of the costly activation programs from that of caseworker meetings. Using Danish data for the period 2010-13, the paper shows that requiring newly unemployed intensive...... activation, contrary to job search meetings, reduces employment and increases sickness benefit claims....

  20. Particles with changeable topology in nematic colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravnik, Miha; Čopar, Simon; Žumer, Slobodan

    2015-01-01

    We show that nematic colloids can serve as a highly variable and controllable platform for studying inclusions with changeable topology and their effects on the surrounding ordering fields. We explore morphing of toroidal and knotted colloidal particles into effective spheres, distinctively changing their Euler characteristic and affecting the surrounding nematic field, including topological defect structures. With toroidal particles, the inner nematic defect eventually transitions from a wide loop to a point defect (a small loop). Trefoil particles become linked with two knotted defect loops, mutually forming a three component link, that upon tightening transform into a two-component particle-defect loop link. For more detailed topological analysis, Pontryagin-Thom surfaces are calculated and visualised, indicating an interesting cascade of defect rewirings caused by the shape morphing of the knotted particles. (paper)

  1. A hazard to health? Fine particles arouse worldwide interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karas, J; Oesch, P

    1998-07-01

    The most recent studies show that particles contained in the air that we breathe may have harmful effects on the health of asthmatics, children and old people in particular. Particle material found in ambient air is formed by emissions resulting from traffic, industry and other use of fuels. Nature`s own sources also have a significant effect on particle concentrations. The mechanisms by which fine particles may produce negative health effects are so far unknown. At present it is therefore impossible to assess the effects of emissions of fine particles resulting, for instance, from the use of fossil fuels

  2. Helium burning: a further measurement of the beta-delayed alpha-particle emission of 16 Na

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gai, Moshe

    1997-01-01

    The 12 C (α,γ) 16 O is a key (but still unknown) reaction in helium burning. Several attempts to constrain the p-wave S-factor at Helium burning temperatures (200 M K) using the beta-delayed alpha-particle emission of 16 N have been made. However, some discrepancy exists between the spectra measured at Settle and that of TRIUMF. We have improved our previous study of the beta-delayed alpha-particle emission of 16 N by improving our statistical sample (by more than a factor of 5), improving the energy resolution of the experiment (by 20%), and in understanding our line shape, deduced from measured quantities. Our newly measured spectrum of the beta-delayed alpha-particle emission of 16 N is consistent with the Seattle ('95) data, as well as an earlier experiment performed at Mains ('71) and is not consistent with the TRIUMF ('94) data. (author)

  3. Ageing of uranyl gel spherical particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benadik, A.; Urbanek, V.; Vosecek, V.; Skvor, V.

    1978-01-01

    The structure and chemical composition of U(VI) gel are described and the course of crystal growth in ageing process at 22+-2 degC was found. Store conditions of probes had no influence on crystal growth rate. However, the way of probe storage influenced the quality and appearance of the xerogel obtained by drying via azeotropic distillation. The gel particles stored under trichloroethylene had a good appearance also after storing for 44 hours long. Particles stored in air saturated with H 2 O and NH 3 showed a worse appearance already after 20 hours. After 70 hours particles of spiny form were found. The worst particles were those stored under a trichloroethylene-ethylalcohol mixture. For storing purposes trichloroethylene was recommended as the most appropriate medium of gel protection. (author)

  4. Evolution of Particle Bed Reactor Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Russell R.; Evans, Robert S.; Husser, Dewayne L.; Kerr, John M.

    1994-07-01

    To realize the potential performance advantages inherent in a particle bed reactor (PBR) for nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) applications, high performance particle fuel is required. This fuel must operate safely and without failure at high temperature in high pressure, flowing hydrogen propellant. The mixed mean outlet temperature of the propellant is an important characteristic of PBR performance. This temperature is also a critical parameter for fuel particle design because it dictates the required maximum fuel operating temperature. In this paper, the evolution in PBR fuel form to achieve higher operating temperatures is discussed and the potential thermal performance of the different fuel types is evaluated. It is shown that the optimum fuel type for operation under the demanding conditions in a PBR is a coated, solid carbide particle.

  5. Normal form for mirror machine Hamiltonians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragt, A.J.; Finn, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    A systematic algorithm is developed for performing canonical transformations on Hamiltonians which govern particle motion in magnetic mirror machines. These transformations are performed in such a way that the new Hamiltonian has a particularly simple normal form. From this form it is possible to compute analytic expressions for gyro and bounce frequencies. In addition, it is possible to obtain arbitrarily high order terms in the adiabatic magnetic moment expansion. The algorithm makes use of Lie series, is an extension of Birkhoff's normal form method, and has been explicitly implemented by a digital computer programmed to perform the required algebraic manipulations. Application is made to particle motion in a magnetic dipole field and to a simple mirror system. Bounce frequencies and locations of periodic orbits are obtained and compared with numerical computations. Both mirror systems are shown to be insoluble, i.e., trajectories are not confined to analytic hypersurfaces, there is no analytic third integral of motion, and the adiabatic magnetic moment expansion is divergent. It is expected also that the normal form procedure will prove useful in the study of island structure and separatrices associated with periodic orbits, and should facilitate studies of breakdown of adiabaticity and the onset of ''stochastic'' behavior

  6. Scattering of particles with internal degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slipushenko, S. V.; Tur, A. V.; Yanovsky, V. V.

    2013-01-01

    The scattering of particles with a small number of internal degrees of freedom is considered. Billiard formalism is used to study the scattering of two such structurally complex particles. The main scattering characteristics are found. Various types of scattering modes are revealed. In particular, a mode is detected when the velocity of motion of such particles away from each other is higher than their approach velocity before the collision. The scattering of such particles is shown to occur after a finite number of collisions. A generalized Newton law is proposed for the collision of particles with a small number of degrees of freedom, and the form of the effective coefficient of restitution is found

  7. Validation and upgrading of the recommended cross-section data of charged particle reactions: Gamma emitter radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takacs, S.; Tarkanyi, F.; Hermanne, A.

    2005-01-01

    An upgrade and validation test of the recommended cross-section database for production of gamma emitter radioisotopes by charged particle induced reactions, published by the IAEA in 2001, was performed. Experimental microscopic cross-section data published earlier or measured recently and not yet included in the evaluation work were collected and added to the primary database in order to improve the quality of the recommended data. The newly compiled experimental data in general supported the previous recommended data, but in a few cases they influenced the decision and resulted in different selected cross-section data sets. A Spline fitting method was used to calculate the recommended data from the selected data sets. Integral thick target yields were deduced from the newly calculated recommended cross-sections and were critically compared with the available experimental yield data

  8. Method of altering the effective bulk density of solid material and the resulting product: hollow polymeric particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kool, L.B.; Nolen, R.L.; Solomon, D.E.

    1981-01-01

    Hollow spherical particles are made by spraying a mixture of powdered solid material with a solution of a film-forming polymer in a solvent therefor into a heated chamber where the solvent evaporates. The powder is thereby captured in the wall of the hollow polymer particles formed. Such particles are used to form a suspension in a fluid material. The hollow particles are of such size and wall thickness, in relation to the bulk density of the powdered solid material, that the bulk density of each hollow spherical particle is commensurate with the density of the fluid material. The particles thereby remain in suspension over a substantial period of time with little or no agitation of the fluid. (author)

  9. Numerical Study of Particle Interaction in Gas-Particle and Liquid-Particle Flows: Part I Analysis and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mohanarangam

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A detailed study into the turbulent behaviour of dilute particulate flow under the influence of two carrier phases namely gas and liquid has been carried out behind a sudden expansion geometry. The major endeavour of the study is to ascertain the response of the particles within the carrier (gas or liquid phase. The main aim prompting the current study is the density difference between the carrier and the dispersed phases. While the ratio is quite high in terms of the dispersed phase for the gas-particle flows, the ratio is far more less in terms of the liquid-particle flows. Numerical simulations were carried out for both these classes of flows using an Eulerian two-fluid model with RNG based k-emodel as the turbulent closure. An additional kinetic energy equation to better represent the combined fluid-particle behaviour is also employed in the current set of simulations. In the first part of this two part series, experimental results of Fessler and Eaton (1995 for Gas-Particle (GP flow and that of Founti and Klipfel (1998 for Liquid-Particle (LP flow have been compared and analysed. This forms the basis of the current study which aims to look at the particulate behaviour under the influence of two carrier phases. Further numerical simulations were carried out to test whether the current numerical formulation can used to simulate these varied type of flows and the same were validated against the experimental data of both GP as well LP flow. Qualitative results have been obtained for both these classes of flows with their respective experimental data both at the mean as well as at the turbulence level for carrier as well as the dispersed phases.

  10. Competence of newly qualified registered nurses from a nursing college

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BG Morolong

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The South African education and training system, through its policy of outcomesbased education and training, has made competency a national priority. In compliance to this national requirement of producing competent learners, the South African Nursing Council ( 1999 B require that the beginner professional nurse practitioners and midwives have the necessary knowledge, skills, attitudes and values which will enable them to render efficient professional service. The health care system also demands competent nurse practitioners to ensure quality in health care. In the light of competency being a national priority and a statutory demand, the research question that emerges is, how competent are the newly qualified registered nurses from a specific nursing college in clinical nursing education? A quantitative, non-experimental contextual design was used to evaluate the competence of newly qualified registered nurses from a specific nursing college. The study was conducted in two phases. The first phase dealt with the development of an instrument together with its manual through the conceptualisation process. The second phase focused on the evaluation of the competency of newly qualified nurses using the instrument based on the steps of the nursing process. A pilot study was conducted to test the feasibility of the items of the instrument. During the evaluation phase, a sample of twenty-six newly qualified nurses was selected by simple random sampling from a target population of thirty-six newly qualified registered nurses. However, six participants withdrew from the study. Data was collected in two general hospitals where the newly qualified registered nurses were working. Observation and questioning were used as data collection techniques in accordance with the developed instrument. Measures were taken to ensure internal validity and reliability of the results. To protect the rights of the participants, the researcher adhered to DENOSA’S (1998

  11. Particle-scale structure in frozen colloidal suspensions from small-angle x-ray scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Spannuth, Melissa

    2011-02-01

    During directional solidification of the solvent in a colloidal suspension, the colloidal particles segregate from the growing solid, forming high-particle-density regions with structure on a hierarchy of length scales ranging from that of the particle-scale packing to the large-scale spacing between these regions. Previous work has concentrated mostly on the medium- to large-length scale structure, as it is the most accessible and thought to be more technologically relevant. However, the packing of the colloids at the particle scale is an important component not only in theoretical descriptions of the segregation process, but also to the utility of freeze-cast materials for new applications. Here we present the results of experiments in which we investigated this structure across a wide range of length scales using a combination of small-angle x-ray scattering and direct optical imaging. As expected, during freezing the particles were concentrated into regions between ice dendrites forming a microscopic pattern of high- and low-particle-density regions. X-ray scattering indicates that the particles in the high-density regions were so closely packed as to be touching. However, the arrangement of the particles does not conform to that predicted by standard interparticle pair potentials, suggesting that the particle packing induced by freezing differs from that formed during equilibrium densification processes. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  12. Particle-scale structure in frozen colloidal suspensions from small-angle x-ray scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Spannuth, Melissa; Mochrie, S. G. J.; Peppin, S. S. L.; Wettlaufer, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    During directional solidification of the solvent in a colloidal suspension, the colloidal particles segregate from the growing solid, forming high-particle-density regions with structure on a hierarchy of length scales ranging from that of the particle-scale packing to the large-scale spacing between these regions. Previous work has concentrated mostly on the medium- to large-length scale structure, as it is the most accessible and thought to be more technologically relevant. However, the packing of the colloids at the particle scale is an important component not only in theoretical descriptions of the segregation process, but also to the utility of freeze-cast materials for new applications. Here we present the results of experiments in which we investigated this structure across a wide range of length scales using a combination of small-angle x-ray scattering and direct optical imaging. As expected, during freezing the particles were concentrated into regions between ice dendrites forming a microscopic pattern of high- and low-particle-density regions. X-ray scattering indicates that the particles in the high-density regions were so closely packed as to be touching. However, the arrangement of the particles does not conform to that predicted by standard interparticle pair potentials, suggesting that the particle packing induced by freezing differs from that formed during equilibrium densification processes. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  13. A graphite foam reinforced by graphite particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, J.J.; Wang, X.Y.; Guo, L.F.; Wang, Y.M.; Wang, Y.P.; Yu, M.F.; Lau, K.T.T. [DongHua University, Shanghai (China). College of Material Science and Engineering

    2007-11-15

    Graphite foam was obtained after carbonization and graphitization of a pitch foam formed by the pyrolysis of coal tar based mesophase pitch mixed with graphite particles in a high pressure and temperature chamber. The graphite foam possessed high mechanical strength and exceptional thermal conductivity after adding the graphite particles. Experimental results showed that the thermal conductivity of modified graphite foam reached 110W/m K, and its compressive strength increased from 3.7 MPa to 12.5 MPa with the addition of 5 wt% graphite particles. Through the microscopic observation, it was also found that fewer micro-cracks were formed in the cell wall of the modified foam as compared with pure graphite foam. The graphitization degree of modified foam reached 84.9% and the ligament of graphite foam exhibited high alignment after carbonization at 1200{sup o}C for 3 h and graphitization at 3000{sup o}C for 10 min.

  14. Using artificial fluorescent particles as tracers of livestock wastes within an agricultural catchment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granger, Steve J.; Bol, Roland; Hawkins, Jane M.B.; White, Sue M.; Naden, Pamela S.; Old, Gareth H.; Marsh, Jon K.; Bilotta, Gary S.; Brazier, Richard E.; Macleod, Christopher J.A.; Haygarth, Philip M.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence for the movement of agricultural slurry and associated pollutants into surface waters is often anecdotal, particularly with relation to its 'particulate' components which receive less attention than 'bio-available' soluble phases. To assess the extent of movement of slurry particles artificial fluorescent particles were mixed with slurry and applied to a field sub-catchment within a headwater catchment. Particles were 2-60 μm in diameter and two different densities, 2.7 and 1.2 g cm -3 representing 'inorganic' and 'organic' material. Water samples from the field and catchment outlet were collected during two storm events following slurry application and analysed for particle and suspended sediment concentrations (SSC). SSC from the field and catchment outlet always formed clockwise hysteresis loops indicating sediment exhaustion and particles of the two densities were always found to be positively correlated. Particles from the field formed clockwise hysteresis loops during the first discharge event after slurry application, but anti-clockwise hysteresis loops during the second monitored event which indicated a depletion of readily mobilisable particles. Particles from the catchment outlet always formed anticlockwise hysteresis loops. Particle size became finer spatially, between field and catchment outlet, and temporally, between successive storm events. The results indicate that slurry particles may be readily transported within catchments but that different areas may contribute to pollutant loads long after the main peak in SSC has passed. The density of the particles did not appear to have any effect on particle transport however the size of the particles may play a more important role in the 2-60 μm range. - Research Highlights: → This study traces the movement of agricultural slurry particles from land to waters. → Two densities of artificial fluorescent particles were applied to a nested catchment. → Slurry particles moved from point of

  15. Clinical heterogeneity in newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Bart; Speelman, Johannes D.; de Haan, Rob J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine clinical heterogeneity in newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease using cluster analysis and to describe the subgroups in terms of impairment, disability, perceived quality of life, and use of dopaminergic therapy. METHODS: We conducted a k-means cluster analysis in a prospective

  16. Investigating α-particle radiation damage in phyllosilicates using synchrotron microfocus-XRD/XAS: implications for geological disposal of nuclear waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, W. R.; Pearce, C. I.; Pimblott, S. M.; Haigh, S. J.; Mosselmans, J. F. W.; Pattrick, R. A. D.

    2014-12-01

    The response of mineral phases to the radiation fields that will be experienced in a geological disposal facility (GDF) for nuclear waste is poorly understood. Phyllosilicates are critical phases in a GDF with bentonite clay as the backfill of choice surrounding high level wastes in the engineered barrier, and clays and micas forming the most important reactive component of potential host rocks. It is essential that we understand changes in mineral properties and behaviour as a result of damage from both α and γ radiation over long timescales. Radiation damage has been demonstrated to affect the physical integrity and oxidation state1 of minerals which will also influence their ability to react with radionuclides. Using the University of Manchester's newly commissioned particle accelerator at the Dalton Cumbrian Facility, UK, model phyllosilicate minerals (e.g. biotite, chlorite) were irradiated with high energy (5MeV) alpha particles at controlled dose rates. This has been compared alongside radiation damage found in naturally formed 'radiohalos' - spherical areas of discolouration in minerals surrounding radioactive inclusions, resulting from alpha particle penetration, providing a natural analogue to study lattice damage under long term bombardment1,2. Both natural and artificially irradiated samples have been analysed using microfocus X-ray absorption spectroscopy and high resolution X-ray diffraction mapping on Beamline I18 at Diamond Light Source; samples were probed for redox changes and long/short range disorder. This was combined with lattice scale imaging of damage using HR-TEM (TitanTM Transmission Electron Microscope). The results show aberrations in lattice parameters as a result of irradiation, with multiple damage-induced 'domains' surrounded by amorphous regions. In the naturally damaged samples, neo-formed phyllosilicate phases are shown to be breakdown products of highly damaged regions. A clear reduction of the Fe(III) component has been

  17. Test Particles with Acceleration-Dependent Lagrangian

    OpenAIRE

    Toller, M.

    2005-01-01

    We consider a classical test particle subject to electromagnetic and gravitational fields, described by a Lagrangian depending on the acceleration and on a fundamental length. We associate to the particle a moving local reference frame and we study its trajectory in the principal fibre bundle of all the Lorentz frames. We discuss in this framework the general form of the Lagrange equations and the connection between symmetries and conservation laws (Noether theorem). We apply these results to...

  18. Enhancement of particle-wave energy exchange by resonance sweeping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, H.L.; Breizman, B.N.

    1995-10-01

    It is shown that as the resonance condition of the particle-wave interaction is varied adiabatically, that the particles trapped in the wave will form phase space holes or clumps that can enhance the particle-wave energy exchange. This mechanism can cause much larger saturation levels of instabilities, and even allow the free energy associated with instability, to be tapped in a system that is linearly stable due to background dissipation

  19. Response of sesame to population densities and nitrogen fertilization on newly reclaimed sandy soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noorka, I.R.; Hafiz, S.I.

    2011-01-01

    Two field experiments were conducted at the Experimental Farm of Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University at Ismailia during 2008 and 2009 seasons to study the effect of nitrogen fertilization and planting density on growth , yield, its attributes as well as seed quality of new sesame variety (Taka 2 cv.). On newly reclaimed sandy soils of Ismailia Governorate, Egypt, experimental design in split plots form with four replications was used. Four levels of nitrogen fertilization 55, 105, 155 and 205 Kg/ha were arranged randomly in the main plots and three planting distances between hills (10, 15 and 20 cm, respectively) were distributed at random in the sub plots. Increasing N fertilizer level up to 205 Kg/ha significantly increased plant height, fruiting zone length, height of the first fruiting branch, number of branches and capsules/plant, 1000-seed weight, seed weight/plant, seed oil content (%) and seed and oil yields /ha. Decreasing planting distance from 20 to 15 and 10 cm consistently and significantly increased plant height, height of the first fruiting branch and seed and oil yields /ha. The reverse was true regarding the yield components. These results were expected, since experiment soil was newly reclaimed sandy soil and very poor in the nutrients and organic matter. (author)

  20. Extrasensory perception of subatomic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    A century-old claim by two early leaders of the Theosophical Society to have used extra sensory perception (ESP) to describe subatomic particles is evaluated. Their observations are found to be consistent with facts of nuclear physics and with the quark model of particle physics provided that it is hypothesized that they described not atoms (as they assumed) but quasi compound nuclear systems formed prior to observation by an induced disintegration of two atomic nuclei and by the subsequent interactions of all their released constituents. The two Theosophists account of the force binding together the fundamental constituents of matter is shown to agree with the string model version of quantum chromodynamics. The physical implication of these remarkable correlations between ostensible, para normal observations of subatomic particles and facts and ideas of nuclear and particle physics is that quarks are not fundamental (as many physicists currently believe) but, instead, are bound states of three preons or subquarks. (author). 16 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Thermophoretic motion behavior of submicron particles in boundary-layer-separation flow around a droplet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ao; Song, Qiang; Ji, Bingqiang; Yao, Qiang

    2015-12-01

    As a key mechanism of submicron particle capture in wet deposition and wet scrubbing processes, thermophoresis is influenced by the flow and temperature fields. Three-dimensional direct numerical simulations were conducted to quantify the characteristics of the flow and temperature fields around a droplet at three droplet Reynolds numbers (Re) that correspond to three typical boundary-layer-separation flows (steady axisymmetric, steady plane-symmetric, and unsteady plane-symmetric flows). The thermophoretic motion of submicron particles was simulated in these cases. Numerical results show that the motion of submicron particles around the droplet and the deposition distribution exhibit different characteristics under three typical flow forms. The motion patterns of particles are dependent on their initial positions in the upstream and flow forms. The patterns of particle motion and deposition are diversified as Re increases. The particle motion pattern, initial position of captured particles, and capture efficiency change periodically, especially during periodic vortex shedding. The key effects of flow forms on particle motion are the shape and stability of the wake behind the droplet. The drag force of fluid and the thermophoretic force in the wake contribute jointly to the deposition of submicron particles after the boundary-layer separation around a droplet.

  2. Automatic size analysis of coated fuel particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallisch, K.; Koss, P.

    1977-01-01

    The determination of the diameter, coating thickness, and sphericity of coated fuel particles by conventional methods is very time consuming. Therefore, statistical data can only be obtained with limited accuracy. An alternative method is described that avoids these disadvantages by utilizing a fast optical data-collecting system of high accuracy. This system allows the determination of the diameter of particles in the range between 100 and 1500 μm, with an accuracy of better than +-2 μm and with a rate of 100 particles per second. The density and thickness of coating layers can be determined by comparing the data obtained before and after coating, taking into account the relative increase of weight. A special device allows the automatic determination of the sphericity of single particles as well as the distribution in a batch. This device measures 50 to 100 different diameters of each particle per second. An on-line computer stores the measured data and calculates all parameters required, e.g., number of particles measured, particle diameter, standard deviation, diameter limiting values, average particle volume, average particle surface area, and the distribution of sphericity in absolute and percent form

  3. Inertial particles in a turbulent premixed Bunsen flame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battista, F.; Picano, F.; Casciola, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Many fields of engineering and physics are characterized by reacting flows seeded with particles of different inertia and dimensions, e.g. solid-propellant rockets, reciprocating engines where carbon particles form due to combustion, vulcano eruptions. Particles are also used as velocity transducers in Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) of turbulent flames. The effects of combustion on inertial particle dynamics is still poorly understood, despite its relevance for its effects on particle collisions and coalescence, phenomena which have a large influence in soot formation and growth. As a matter of fact, the flame front induces abrupt accelerations of the fluid in a very thin region which particles follow with different lags depending on their inertia. This phenomenon has a large impact on the particle spatial arrangement. The issuing clustering is here analyzed by a DNS of Bunsen turbulent flame coupled with particle Lagrangian tracking with the aim of evaluating the effect of inertia on particle spatial localization in combustion applications. The Eulerian algorith is based on Low-Mach number expansion of Navier-Stokes equations that allow arbitrary density variations neglecting acoustics waves. (orig.)

  4. Inertial particles in a turbulent premixed Bunsen flame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battista, F.; Picano, F.; Casciola, C.M. [Sapienza Univ., Rome (Italy). Dipt. di Meccanica e Aeronautica; Troiani, G. [ENEA C.R. Casaccia, Rome (Italy)

    2012-07-01

    Many fields of engineering and physics are characterized by reacting flows seeded with particles of different inertia and dimensions, e.g. solid-propellant rockets, reciprocating engines where carbon particles form due to combustion, vulcano eruptions. Particles are also used as velocity transducers in Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) of turbulent flames. The effects of combustion on inertial particle dynamics is still poorly understood, despite its relevance for its effects on particle collisions and coalescence, phenomena which have a large influence in soot formation and growth. As a matter of fact, the flame front induces abrupt accelerations of the fluid in a very thin region which particles follow with different lags depending on their inertia. This phenomenon has a large impact on the particle spatial arrangement. The issuing clustering is here analyzed by a DNS of Bunsen turbulent flame coupled with particle Lagrangian tracking with the aim of evaluating the effect of inertia on particle spatial localization in combustion applications. The Eulerian algorith is based on Low-Mach number expansion of Navier-Stokes equations that allow arbitrary density variations neglecting acoustics waves. (orig.)

  5. Particle Swarm Optimization Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The Particle Swarm Optimization Toolbox is a library of evolutionary optimization tools developed in the MATLAB environment. The algorithms contained in the library include a genetic algorithm (GA), a single-objective particle swarm optimizer (SOPSO), and a multi-objective particle swarm optimizer (MOPSO). Development focused on both the SOPSO and MOPSO. A GA was included mainly for comparison purposes, and the particle swarm optimizers appeared to perform better for a wide variety of optimization problems. All algorithms are capable of performing unconstrained and constrained optimization. The particle swarm optimizers are capable of performing single and multi-objective optimization. The SOPSO and MOPSO algorithms are based on swarming theory and bird-flocking patterns to search the trade space for the optimal solution or optimal trade in competing objectives. The MOPSO generates Pareto fronts for objectives that are in competition. A GA, based on Darwin evolutionary theory, is also included in the library. The GA consists of individuals that form a population in the design space. The population mates to form offspring at new locations in the design space. These offspring contain traits from both of the parents. The algorithm is based on this combination of traits from parents to hopefully provide an improved solution than either of the original parents. As the algorithm progresses, individuals that hold these optimal traits will emerge as the optimal solutions. Due to the generic design of all optimization algorithms, each algorithm interfaces with a user-supplied objective function. This function serves as a "black-box" to the optimizers in which the only purpose of this function is to evaluate solutions provided by the optimizers. Hence, the user-supplied function can be numerical simulations, analytical functions, etc., since the specific detail of this function is of no concern to the optimizer. These algorithms were originally developed to support entry

  6. Charged Particle Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, Chris

    2004-01-01

    The Coulomb multiple scattering of charged particles as they pass through material allows them to be used as a radiographic probe. This forms the basis for a new kind of radiography that is finding application where conventional x-ray radiography is limited by flux or backgrounds. Charged-particle radiography is providing a versatile new probe that has advantages over conventional x-ray radiography for some unique application. Proton radiography has been used to make quantitative motion pictures of high explosive driven experiments and proves to be of great value for radiographing experiments that mock up nuclear weapon primaries for stockpile certification. By taking advantage of magnetic lens to magnify images and by using the very bright beams that can be made with electrons, charged-particle radiography may be useful for studying the fine spatial detail and very fast motion in laser driven implosion experiments at the National Ignition Facility. Finally, radiographs can be made using cosmic-ray muons for searching vehicles and cargo containers for surreptitious cargo of high z materials such as uranium or plutonium.

  7. Structural rearrangements detected in newly-formed hexaploid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    signals were observed on the Epifluorescence microscope ... Images were cap- ... the chromosome pairs 1B and 6B in durum wheat (figure. 1e). The number and physical location ... 6B chromosome probably experienced an inverted pericen-.

  8. Structural rearrangements detected in newly-formed hexaploid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Institute of Biotechnology and Bioengineering (IBB), Centre of Genomics and Biotechnology (CGB), University of Tras-os-Montes and Alto Douro (UTAD), P.O. Box 1013, 5001-801 VilaReal, Portugal; Instituto de Agricultura Sostenible (IAS), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Apartado 4084, 14080 ...

  9. Germany forms alliance for terascale physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Feder, Toni

    2007-01-01

    "Germany's high-energy particle physicists have formed a network to increase their international visibility and competitiveness as their field gears up for the start next ear of the Large Hadron Collide (LHC) at CERN and, eventually, the International Linear Collider." (1 page)

  10. The effect of particle shape on hopper discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleary, P.W. [CSIRO, Clayton, Vic. (Australia). Mathematical and Information Sciences

    1999-07-01

    Hopper flows are an important class of industrial particle flows. The inclusion of particle shape allows DEM models to replicate many features of real hopper flows that are not possible when using circular particles. Elongated particles can produce flow rates up to 30% lower than for circular particles and the flow patterns are quite different. The yielding of the particle microstructure resembles more the tearing of a continuum solid, with large scale quasi-stable voids being formed and large groups of particles moving together. The flow becomes increasingly concentrated in a relatively narrow funnel above the hopper opening. This is encouragement that DEM may be able to predict important problems such as bridging and rat-holing. Increasing the blockiness or angularity of the particles also increases resistance to flow and reduces flow rates by up to 28% but does not have any perceptible effect on the nature of the flow. 11 refs., 7 figs.

  11. Characterization of condensed phase nitric acid particles formed in the gas phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long Jia; Yongfu Xu

    2011-01-01

    The formation of nitric acid hydrates has been observed in a chamber during the dark reaction of NO2 with O3 in the presence of air.The size of condensed phase nitric acid was measured to be 40-100 nm and 20-65 nm at relative humidity (RH) ≤ 5% and RH = 67% under our experimental conditions, respectively.The nitric acid particles were collected on the glass fiber membrane and their chemical compositions were analyzed by infrared spectrum.The main components of nitric acid hydrates in particles are HNO3·3H2O and NO3-·xH2O (x≥ 4) at low RH, whereas at high RH HNO3·H2O, HNO3·2H2O, HNO3·3H2O and NO3-·xH2O (x≥ 4) all exist in the condensed phase.At high RH HNO3·xH2O (x ≤ 3) collected on the glass fiber membrane is greatly increased, while NO3-·xH2O (x ≥4) decreased, compared with low RH.To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time to report that condensed phase nitric acid can be generated in the gas phase at room temperature.

  12. Subcellular topological effect of particle monolayers on cell shapes and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Manabu; Fujimoto, Keiji

    2006-12-01

    We studied topological effects of subcellular roughness displayed by a closely packed particle monolayer on adhesion and growth of endothelial cells. Poly(styrene-co-acrylamide) (SA) particles were prepared by soap-free emulsion copolymerization. Particle monolayers were prepared by Langmuir-Blodgett deposition using particles, which were 527 (SA053) and 1270 nm (SA127) in diameter. After 24-h incubation, cells tightly adhered on a tissue culture polystyrene dish and randomly spread. On the other hand, cells attached on particle monolayers were stretched into a narrow stalk-like shape. Lamellipodia spread from the leading edge of cells attached on SA053 monolayer to the top of the particles and gradually gathered to form clusters. This shows that cell-cell adhesion became stronger than cell-substrate interaction. Cells attached to SA127 monolayer extended to the reverse side of a particle monolayer and engulfed particles. They remained immobile without migration 24h after incubation. This shows that the inhibition of extensions on SA127 monolayer could inhibit cell migration and cell proliferation. Cell growth on the particle monolayers was suppressed compared with a flat TCPS dish. The number of cells on SA053 gradually increased, whereas that on SA127 decreased with time. When the cell seeding density was increased to 200,000 cells cm(-2), some adherent cells gradually became into contact with adjacent cells. F-actin condensations were formed at the frame of adherent cells and the thin filaments grew from the edges to connect each other with time. For the cell culture on SA053 monolayer, elongated cells showed a little alignment. Cells showed not arrangement of actin stress fibers but F-actin condensation at the contact regions with neighboring cells. Interestingly, the formed cell monolayer could be readily peeled from the particle monolayer. These results indicate that endothelial cells could recognize the surface roughness displayed by particle monolayers and

  13. Two Newly Discovered Plants in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Tian-Chuan Hsu; Jia-Jung Lin; Shih-Wen Chung

    2009-01-01

    Two herbs are newly discovered in Taiwan. Limnophila fragrans (G. Forst.) Seem. (Scrophulariaceae), native in SE Asia, is recognized from southern lowlands. Anagallis minima (L.) E. H. L. Krause (Primulaceae), native in N America and Europe, was found from northern mountainous region at low altitudes. In this study, descriptions, line drawings, color photos and a distribution map of the two species are provided.

  14. Particle capture by turbulent recirculation zones measured using long-time Lagrangian particle tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siu, Y.W. [Hong Kong Securities Institute, Department of Professional Education and Training, Central (China); Taylor, A.M.K.P. [Imperial College London, Department of Mechanical Engineering, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    We have measured the trajectories of particles into, and around, the recirculation zone formed in water flowing through a sudden pipe expansion with radius ratio 1:3.7, at Reynolds numbers between 5,960 and 41,700 over a range of particle Stokes number (here defined as St=(T{sub f})/({tau} p), where T{sub f} is an appropriate mean or turbulent timescale of the fluid flow and a particle relaxation time, {tau}{sub p},) between 6.2 and 51 and drift parameter between 0.3 and 2.8. The particles were thus weakly inertial but nevertheless heavy with a diameter about an order of magnitude larger than the Kolmogorov scale. Trajectories of particles, released individually into the flow, were taken in a Lagrangian framework by a three-dimensional particle tracking velocimeter using a single 25 Hz framing rate intensified CCD camera. Trajectories are quantified by the axial distribution of the locations of particle axial velocity component reversal and the probability distributions of trajectory angle and curvature. The effect of increasing the drift parameter was to reduce the tendency for particles to enter the recirculation zone. For centreline release, the proportion of particles entering the recirculation zone and acquiring a negative velocity decreased from about 80% to none and from about 66% to none, respectively, as the drift parameter increased from 0.3 to 2.8. Almost half of the particles experienced a relatively large change of direction corresponding to a radius of curvature of their trajectory comparable to, or smaller than, the radius of the downstream pipe. This was due to the interaction between these particles and eddies of this size in the downstream pipe and provides experimental evidence that particles are swept by large eddies into the recirculation zone over 1.0 < Z{sup *} < 2.5, where Z{sup *} is axial distance from the expansion plane normalized by the downstream pipe diameter, which was well upstream of the reattachment point at the wall (Z

  15. Protamine precipitation of two reovirus particle types from polluted waters.

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, D J; Ridinger, D N; Spendlove, R S; Barnett, B B

    1982-01-01

    Two forms of virus particle are released from reovirus-infected cell cultures, infectious reovirus and potentially infectious reovirus (PIV). PIV particle forms have a complete outer coat and are not infectious until the outer coat is altered or removed. The PIV concentration in polluted waters, however, has not been determined. Protamine sulfate precipitation, using 0.25% fetal bovine serum and 0.005% protamine sulfate for the first precipitation of the sample and 0.0025% for the second, was...

  16. Patchy particles made by colloidal fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhe; Hueckel, Theodore; Yi, Gi-Ra; Sacanna, Stefano

    2017-10-01

    Patches on the surfaces of colloidal particles provide directional information that enables the self-assembly of the particles into higher-order structures. Although computational tools can make quantitative predictions and can generate design rules that link the patch motif of a particle to its internal microstructure and to the emergent properties of the self-assembled materials, the experimental realization of model systems of particles with surface patches (or `patchy' particles) remains a challenge. Synthetic patchy colloidal particles are often poor geometric approximations of the digital building blocks used in simulations and can only rarely be manufactured in sufficiently high yields to be routinely used as experimental model systems. Here we introduce a method, which we refer to as colloidal fusion, for fabricating functional patchy particles in a tunable and scalable manner. Using coordination dynamics and wetting forces, we engineer hybrid liquid-solid clusters that evolve into particles with a range of patchy surface morphologies on addition of a plasticizer. We are able to predict and control the evolutionary pathway by considering surface-energy minimization, leading to two main branches of product: first, spherical particles with liquid surface patches, capable of forming curable bonds with neighbouring particles to assemble robust supracolloidal structures; and second, particles with a faceted liquid compartment, which can be cured and purified to yield colloidal polyhedra. These findings outline a scalable strategy for the synthesis of patchy particles, first by designing their surface patterns by computer simulation, and then by recreating them in the laboratory with high fidelity.

  17. Turbulent diffusion of small particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margolin, L.G.

    1977-11-01

    The diffusion of small, spherical, rigid particles suspended in an incompressible turbulent fluid, but not interacting with each other, was studied. As a stochastic process, the turbulent fluid velocity field is assumed to be homogeneous, isotropic and stationary. Assuming the Stokes regime, a particle of equation of motion is used which includes only the effects of Stokes drag and a virtual mass force and an exact solution is found for the particle velocity correlation function, for all times and initial conditions, in terms of a fluid velocity correlation function measured along the motion of the particle. This shows that for times larger than a certain time scale, the particle velocity correlation becomes stationary. The effect of small shears in the fluid velocity was considered, under the additional restrictions of a certain high frequency regime for the turbulence. The shears convected past the particle much faster than the growth of the boundary layer. New force terms due to the presence of such shears are calculated and incorporated into the equation of motion. A perturbation solution to this equation is constructed, and the resultant particle velocity correlation function and diffusion coefficient are calculated. To lowest order, the particle diffusivity is found to be unaltered by the presence of small mean flow shears. The last model treated is one in which particles traverse a turbulent fluid with a large mean velocity. Among other restrictions, linearized form drag is assumed. The diffusion coefficient for such particles was calculated, and found to be much smaller than the passive scalar diffusion coefficient. This agrees within 5 percent with the experimental results of Snyder and Lumley

  18. Electric Charge as a Form of Imaginary Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianxi Zhang

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Electric charge is considered as a form of imaginary energy. With this consideration, the energy of an electrically charged particle is a complex number. The real part is proportional to the mass, while the imaginary part is proportional to the electric charge. The energy of an antiparticle is given by conjugating the energy of its corresponding particle. Newton's law of gravity and Coulomb's law of electric force are classically unified into a single expression of the interaction between the complex energies of two electrically charged particles. Interaction between real energies (or masses is the gravitational force. Interaction between imaginary energies (or electric charges is the electromagnetic force. Since radiation is also a form of real energy, there are another two types of interactions between real energies: the mass-radiation interaction and the radiation-radiation interaction. Calculating the work done by the mass-radiation interaction on a photon, we can derive the Einsteinian gravitational redshift. Calculating the work done by the radiation-radiation interaction on a photon, we can obtain a radiation redshift. This study suggests the electric charge as a form of imaginary energy, so that classically unifies the gravitational and electric forces and derives the Einsteinian gravitational redshift.

  19. Non-monotonic variations of the nucleation free energy in a glass-forming ultra-soft particles fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desgranges, Caroline; Delhommelle, Jerome

    2018-06-18

    Using molecular dynamics simulation, we study the impact of the degree of supercooling on the crystal nucleation of ultra-soft particles, modeled with the Gaussian core potential. Focusing on systems with a high number density, our simulations reveal dramatically different behaviors as the degree of supercooling is varied. In the moderate supercooling regime, crystal nucleation proceeds as expected from classical nucleation theory, with a decrease in the free energy of nucleation, as well as in the size of the critical nucleus, as supercooling is increased. On the other hand, in the large supercooling regime, we observe an unusual reversal of behavior with an increase in the free energy of nucleation and in the critical size, as supercooling is increased. This unexpected result is analyzed in terms of the interplay between the glass transition and the crystal nucleation process. Specifically, medium range order crystal-like domains, with structural features different from that of the crystal nucleus, are found to form throughout the system when the supercooling is very large. These, in turn, play a pivotal role in the increase in the free energy of nucleation, as well as in the critical size, as the temperature gets closer to the glass transition.

  20. Coarse-grained forms for equations describing the microscopic motion of particles in a fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shankar P; Yoshimori, Akira

    2013-10-01

    Exact equations of motion for the microscopically defined collective density ρ(x,t) and the momentum density ĝ(x,t) of a fluid have been obtained in the past starting from the corresponding Langevin equations representing the dynamics of the fluid particles. In the present work we average these exact equations of microscopic dynamics over the local equilibrium distribution to obtain stochastic partial differential equations for the coarse-grained densities with smooth spatial and temporal dependence. In particular, we consider Dean's exact balance equation for the microscopic density of a system of interacting Brownian particles to obtain the basic equation of the dynamic density functional theory with noise. Our analysis demonstrates that on thermal averaging the dependence of the exact equations on the bare interaction potential is converted to dependence on the corresponding thermodynamic direct correlation functions in the coarse-grained equations.

  1. Pollen parameters estimates of genetic variability among newly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pollen parameters estimates of genetic variability among newly selected Nigerian roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) genotypes. ... Estimates of some pollen parameters where used to assess the genetic diversity among ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  2. On the performance of accelerated particle swarm optimization for charging plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Rahman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Transportation electrification has undergone major changes since the last decade. Success of smart grid with renewable energy integration solely depends upon the large-scale penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs for a sustainable and carbon-free transportation sector. One of the key performance indicators in hybrid electric vehicle is the State-of-Charge (SoC which needs to be optimized for the betterment of charging infrastructure using stochastic computational methods. In this paper, a newly emerged Accelerated particle swarm optimization (APSO technique was applied and compared with standard particle swarm optimization (PSO considering charging time and battery capacity. Simulation results obtained for maximizing the highly nonlinear objective function indicate that APSO achieves some improvements in terms of best fitness and computation time.

  3. Tricks of the trade: time management tips for newly qualified doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offiah, Gozie; Doherty, Eva

    2018-03-01

    The transition from medical student to doctor is an important milestone. The discovery that their time is no longer their own and that the demands of their job are greater than the time they have available is extremely challenging. At a recent surgical boot camp training programme, 60 first-year surgical trainees who had just completed their internship were invited to reflect on the lessons learnt regarding effective time management and to recommend tips for their newly qualified colleagues. They were asked to identify clinical duties that were considered urgent and important using the time management matrix and the common time traps encountered by newly qualified doctors. The surgical trainees identified several practical tips that ranged from writing a priority list to working on relationships within the team. These tips are generic and so applicable to all newly qualified medial doctors. We hope that awareness of these tips from the outset as against learning them through experience will greatly assist newly qualified doctors. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Hypostatic jammed packings of frictionless nonspherical particles

    OpenAIRE

    VanderWerf, Kyle; Jin, Weiwei; Shattuck, Mark D.; O'Hern, Corey S.

    2017-01-01

    We perform computational studies of static packings of a variety of nonspherical particles including circulo-lines, circulo-polygons, ellipses, asymmetric dimers, and dumbbells to determine which shapes form hypostatic versus isostatic packings and to understand why hypostatic packings of nonspherical particles can be mechanically stable despite having fewer contacts than that predicted from na\\"ive constraint counting. To generate highly accurate force- and torque-balanced packings of circul...

  5. Numerical simulation of particle settling and cohesion in liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johno, Y; Nakashima, K; Shigematsu, T; Ono, B [SASEBO National College of Technology, 1-1 Okishin, Sasebo, Nagasaki, 857-1193 (Japan); Satomi, M, E-mail: yjohno@post.cc.sasebo.ac.j [Sony Semiconductor Kyushu Corporation, Kikuchigun, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2009-02-01

    In this study, the motions of particles and particle clusters in liquid were numerically simulated. The particles of two sizes (Dp=40mum and 20mum) settle while repeating cohesion and dispersion, and finally the sediment of particles are formed at the bottom of a hexahedron container which is filled up with pure water. The flow field was solved with the Navier-Stokes equations and the particle motions were solved with the Lagrangian-type motion equations, where the interaction between fluid and particles due to drag forces were taken into account. The collision among particles was calculated using Distinct Element Method (DEM), and the effects of cohesive forces by van der Waals force acting on particle contact points were tak