Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Kagiya, Shigeo
An accident occurred at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in March 2011 at which time large amounts of radionuclides were released into the atmosphere and the sea. In early May 2011, it was found that newly emerged tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves contained radiocesium, both 134 Cs and 137 Cs in some areas more than 300 km away from the Fukushima plant. To understand the mechanisms of radiocesium transfer to newly emerged tissues (shoots, leaves and fruits) of other plants in the future, radiocesium concentrations in newly emerged leaves of 14 plant species collected from the sampling areas in and near National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Chiba, Japan. The studied plant types were: (1) herbaceous plants, (2) woody plants with no old leaves at the time of the March accident, and (3) woody plants with old leaves out before the accident. About 40–50 d after the start of the accident, newly emerged leaves from woody plant with old leaves tended to show higher values than other woody or herbaceous plants. Concentrations of radiocesium in newly emerged tissues of trees decreased with time, but they did not decrease to the level of herbaceous plants. The type of the plant and presence of old leaves at the time of the heavy deposition period affected the radiocesium concentrations in newly emerged tissues.
Roberts, Deborah L.
This study investigated newly qualified teachers' visions of science learning and teaching. The study also documented their preparation in an elementary science methods course. The research questions were: What educational and professional experiences influenced the instructor's visions of science learning and teaching? What visions of science learning and teaching were promoted in the participants' science methods course? What visions of science learning and teaching did these newly qualified teachers bring with them as they graduated from their teacher preparation program? How did these visions compare with those advocated by reform documents? Data sources included participants' assignments, weekly reflections, and multi-media portfolio finals. Semi-structured interviews provided the emic voice of participants, after graduation but before they had begun to teach. These data were interpreted via a combination of qualitative methodologies. Vignettes described class activities. Assertions supported by excerpts from participants' writings emerged from repeated review of their assignments. A case study of a typical participant characterized weekly reflections and final multi-media portfolio. Four strands of science proficiency articulated in a national reform document provided a framework for interpreting activities, assignments, and interview responses. Prior experiences that influenced design of the methods course included an inquiry-based undergraduate physics course, participation in a reform-based teacher preparation program, undergraduate and graduate inquiry-based science teaching methods courses, participation in a teacher research group, continued connection to the university as a beginning teacher, teaching in diverse Title 1 schools, service as the county and state elementary science specialist, participation in the Carnegie Academy for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, service on a National Research Council committee, and experience teaching a
Paddock, Christopher D
As newly recognized rickettsial diseases and rickettsial pathogens increase in scope and magnitude, several elements related to the concept of emerging rickettsioses deserve consideration. Newly identified rickettsiae may be mildly pathogenic, or perhaps even nonpathogenic, and have little direct impact on human or animal health, yet nonetheless wield considerable influence on the epidemiology and ecology of historically recognized diseases. In this context "new" rickettsioses provide a lens through which "old" rickettsioses are more accurately represented. Predicting pathogen from nonpathogen is not an exact science, particularly as so few rickettsiae have been broadly accepted as nonpathogenic by contemporary rickettsiologists. However, various factors relating to specific physiologic requirements and molecular machinery of the particular rickettsia, as well as characteristics of its invertebrate host that either position or exclude the rickettsia from infecting a human host, must be considered. Close inspection of mild or atypical forms of historically recognized rickettsioses and a greater emphasis on culture- and molecular-based diagnostic techniques are the keys to identifying future rickettsial agents of disease.
In this paper, qualitative research is conducted to gain insight into the current application and potential of database marketing in a newly emerging African economy, Tanzania. It is found that database marketing applications in Tanzania are currently limited, but that there is potential. The most
Mazer-Amirshahi, Maryann; Pourmand, Ali; May, Larissa
Millions of patients are evaluated every year in the emergency department (ED) for bacterial infections. Emergency physicians often diagnose and prescribe initial antibiotic therapy for a variety of bacterial infections, ranging from simple urinary tract infections to severe sepsis. In life-threatening infections, inappropriate choice of initial antibiotic has been shown to increase morbidity and mortality. As such, initiation of appropriate antibiotic therapy on the part of the emergency physician is critical. Increasing rates of antibiotic resistance, drug allergies, and antibiotic shortages further complicates the choice of antibiotics. Patients may have a history of prior resistant infections or culture data indicating that common first-line antibiotics used in the ED may be ineffective. In recent years, there have been several new antibiotic approvals as well as renewed interest in second and third line antibiotics because of the aforementioned concerns. In addition, several newly approved antibiotics have the advantage of being administered once weekly or even as a single infusion, which has the potential to decrease hospitalizations and healthcare costs. This article reviews newly approved antibiotics and antibiotics used to treat resistant infections with a focus on implications for emergency medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Harmer, Andrew; Xiao, Yina; Missoni, Eduardo; Tediosi, Fabrizio
Since 2010, five newly emerging economies collectively known as 'BRICS' (Brazil, India, Russia, China and South Africa) have caught the imagination, and scholarly attention, of political scientists, economists and development specialists. The prospect of a unified geopolitical bloc, consciously seeking to re-frame international (and global) health development with a new set of ideas and values, has also, if belatedly, begun to attract the attention of the global health community. But what influence, if any, do the BRICS wield in global health, and, if they do wield influence, how has that influence been conceptualized and recorded in the literature? We conducted a systematic literature review in (March-December 2012) of documents retrieved from the databases EMBASE, PubMed/Medline, Global Health, and Google Scholar, and the websites of relevant international organisations, research institutions and philanthropic organisations. The results were synthesised using a framework of influence developed for the review from the political science literature. Our initial search of databases and websites yielded 887 documents. Exclusion criteria narrowed the number of documents to 71 journal articles and 23 reports. Two researchers using an agreed set of inclusion criteria independently screened the 94 documents, leaving just 7 documents. We found just one document that provided sustained analysis of the BRICS' collective influence; the overwhelming tendency was to describe individual BRICS countries influence. Although influence was predominantly framed by BRICS countries' material capability, there were examples of institutional and ideational influence - particularly from Brazil. Individual BRICS countries were primarily 'opportunity seekers' and region mobilisers but with potential to become 'issue leaders' and region organisers. Though small in number, the written output on BRICS influence in global health has increased significantly since a similar review conducted in
Full Text Available The article discusses how data science emerges from information science,statistics, computer science, and knowledge domain. Schools of information stand as meaningful and substantive entities that are critical to the education of scholars and practitioners who work across a wide range of enterprises. Data science is but one emerging field that will benefit from information school engagement.
Lopez, Alexis A.; Turkan, Sultan; Guzman-Orth, Danielle
"Translanguaging" refers to the flexible use of the bilingual repertoire. In this report, we provide a theoretical framework to support the use of translanguaging to assess the academic content knowledge of newly arrived emergent bilingual students. In this report, we argue that translanguaging offers newly arrived emergent bilingual…
Background Since 2010, five newly emerging economies collectively known as ‘BRICS’ (Brazil, India, Russia, China and South Africa) have caught the imagination, and scholarly attention, of political scientists, economists and development specialists. The prospect of a unified geopolitical bloc, consciously seeking to re-frame international (and global) health development with a new set of ideas and values, has also, if belatedly, begun to attract the attention of the global health community. But what influence, if any, do the BRICS wield in global health, and, if they do wield influence, how has that influence been conceptualized and recorded in the literature? Methods We conducted a systematic literature review in (March-December 2012) of documents retrieved from the databases EMBASE, PubMed/Medline, Global Health, and Google Scholar, and the websites of relevant international organisations, research institutions and philanthropic organisations. The results were synthesised using a framework of influence developed for the review from the political science literature. Results Our initial search of databases and websites yielded 887 documents. Exclusion criteria narrowed the number of documents to 71 journal articles and 23 reports. Two researchers using an agreed set of inclusion criteria independently screened the 94 documents, leaving just 7 documents. We found just one document that provided sustained analysis of the BRICS’ collective influence; the overwhelming tendency was to describe individual BRICS countries influence. Although influence was predominantly framed by BRICS countries’ material capability, there were examples of institutional and ideational influence - particularly from Brazil. Individual BRICS countries were primarily ‘opportunity seekers’ and region mobilisers but with potential to become ‘issue leaders’ and region organisers. Conclusion Though small in number, the written output on BRICS influence in global health has
Barton, David G.
This paper compares the traditional forms of capitalization used by American co-ops to newly emerging forms. It is based on an in-depth review of several case co-ops. A broad framework is provided that may be beneficial in more extensive studies of capitalization practices of cooperatives and similar organizations. It is divided into three parts. Part One outlines the alternative capitalization forms being used by cooperatives and their antecedents, where conversions to other structures and f...
Navy, S. L.; Luft, J. A.; Toerien, R.; Hewson, P. W.
In many parts of the world, newly hired science teachers' practices are developing in a complex policy environment. However, little is known about how newly hired science teachers' practices are enacted throughout a cycle of instruction and how these practices can be influenced by macro-, meso-, and micro-policies. Knowing how policies impact practice can result in better policies or better support for certain policies in order to enhance the instruction of newly hired teachers. This comparative study investigated how 12 newly hired science teachers at sites in South Africa (SA) and the United States (US) progressed through an instructional cycle of planning, teaching, and reflection. The qualitative data were analysed through beginning teacher competency frameworks, the cycle of instruction, and institutional theory. Data analysis revealed prevailing areas of practice and connections to levels of policy within the instructional cycle phases. There were some differences between the SA and US teachers and among first-, second-, and third-year teachers. More importantly, this study indicates that newly hired teachers are susceptible to micro-policies and are progressively developing their practice. It also shows the importance of meso-level connectors. It suggests that teacher educators and policy makers must consider how to prepare and support newly hired science teachers to achieve the shared global visions of science teaching.
This study investigated newly qualified K-8 teachers' visions of science learning and teaching after they had completed preparation in a science teaching methods course I taught. What visions of science learning and teaching were these newly qualified teachers taking away from my course? How did these visions compare with those advocated by reform…
Joko Prasetyo; Titik Nur Aeny
ABSTRACT Pineapple fruit collapse: newly emerging disease of pineapple fruit in Lampung, Indonesia Recently, a new disease on pineapple fruit has occurred in Lampung. Symptoms of the disease are complex. Fruits rotted and exuded copious liquid from the inter- fruitlet tissues accompanied by gas bubbles. Open spaces were formed inside the rotten fruit. Dissection of diseased fruit showed many cavities within its sceletal fibres and bad odour was exerted from the rotten tissues. A bacterial...
von Hoermann, Christian; Steiger, Sandra; M?ller, Josef K.; Ayasse, Manfred
The necrophagous burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides reproduces on small carcasses that are buried underground to serve as food for their offspring. Cadavers that are too large to bury have previously been postulated to be important food sources for newly emerged beetles; however, the attractiveness of distinct successive stages of decomposition were not further specified. Therefore, we investigated the potential preference of newly emerged N. vespilloides females for odour bouquets of pi...
Friol, Priscila Sepúlveda; Catae, Aline Fernanda; Tavares, Daiana Antonia; Malaspina, Osmar; Roat, Thaisa Cristina
The use of insecticides on crops can affect non-target insects, such as bees. In addition to the adult bees, larvae can be exposed to the insecticide through contaminated floral resources. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the possible effects of the exposure of A. mellifera larvae to a field concentration of thiamethoxam (0.001 ng/μL thiamethoxam) on larval and pupal survival and on the percentage of adult emergence. Additionally, its cytotoxic effects on the digestive cells of midgut, Malpighian tubules cells and Kenyon cells of the brain of newly emerged A. mellifera bees were analyzed. The results showed that larval exposure to this concentration of thiamethoxam did not influence larval and pupal survival or the percentage of adult bee emergence. However, this exposure caused ultra-structural alterations in the target and non-target organs of newly emerged bees. The digestive cell of bees that were exposed to the insecticide exhibited a basal labyrinth without long and thin channels and compromised mitochondria. In Malpighian tubules cells, disorganized basal labyrinth, dilated mitochondria with a deformed shape and a loss of cristae, and disorganized microvilli were observed. The results showed that the exposed bees presented Kenyon cells with alterations in the nucleus and mitochondria. These alterations indicate possible tissue degeneration, demonstrating the cytotoxicity of thiamethoxam in the target and non-target organs of newly emerged bees. Such results suggest cellular organelle impairment that can compromise cellular function of the midgut cells, Malpighian tubules cells and Kenyon cells, and, consequently, can compromise the longevity of the bees of the whole colony. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shadbolt, Nigel; Berners-Lee, Tim
The relentless rise in Web pages and links is creating emergent properties, from social networks to virtual identity theft, that are transforming society. A new discipline, Web Science, aims to discover how Web traits arise and how they can be harnessed or held in check to benefit society. Important advances are beginning to be made; more work can solve major issues such as securing privacy and conveying trust.
Full Text Available To describe an innovative approach for developing and implementing an in-service curriculum in China for staff of the newly established health emergency response offices (HEROs, and that is generalisable to other settings.The multi-method training needs assessment included reviews of the competency domains needed to implement the International Health Regulations (2005 as well as China's policies and emergency regulations. The review, iterative interviews and workshops with experts in government, academia, the military, and with HERO staff were reviewed critically by an expert technical advisory panel.Over 1600 participants contributed to curriculum development. Of the 18 competency domains identified as essential for HERO staff, nine were developed into priority in-service training modules to be conducted over 2.5 weeks. Experts from academia and experienced practitioners prepared and delivered each module through lectures followed by interactive problem-solving exercises and desktop simulations to help trainees apply, experiment with, and consolidate newly acquired knowledge and skills.This study adds to the emerging literature on China's enduring efforts to strengthen its emergency response capabilities since the outbreak of SARS in 2003. The multi-method approach to curriculum development in partnership with senior policy-makers, researchers, and experienced practitioners can be applied in other settings to ensure training is responsive and customized to local needs, resources and priorities. Ongoing curriculum development should reflect international standards and be coupled with the development of appropriate performance support systems at the workplace for motivating staff to apply their newly acquired knowledge and skills effectively and creatively.
Wang, Yadong; Li, Xiangrui; Yuan, Yiwen; Patel, Mahomed S
To describe an innovative approach for developing and implementing an in-service curriculum in China for staff of the newly established health emergency response offices (HEROs), and that is generalisable to other settings. The multi-method training needs assessment included reviews of the competency domains needed to implement the International Health Regulations (2005) as well as China's policies and emergency regulations. The review, iterative interviews and workshops with experts in government, academia, the military, and with HERO staff were reviewed critically by an expert technical advisory panel. Over 1600 participants contributed to curriculum development. Of the 18 competency domains identified as essential for HERO staff, nine were developed into priority in-service training modules to be conducted over 2.5 weeks. Experts from academia and experienced practitioners prepared and delivered each module through lectures followed by interactive problem-solving exercises and desktop simulations to help trainees apply, experiment with, and consolidate newly acquired knowledge and skills. This study adds to the emerging literature on China's enduring efforts to strengthen its emergency response capabilities since the outbreak of SARS in 2003. The multi-method approach to curriculum development in partnership with senior policy-makers, researchers, and experienced practitioners can be applied in other settings to ensure training is responsive and customized to local needs, resources and priorities. Ongoing curriculum development should reflect international standards and be coupled with the development of appropriate performance support systems at the workplace for motivating staff to apply their newly acquired knowledge and skills effectively and creatively.
The jewel beetle Agrilus fleischeri Obenberger (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is a newly emerging major pest of poplar trees (Populus spp.) in northeast China and is responsible for the poplar mortality throughout its distribution range. In order to determine how to manage this pest effectively, we stud...
Polyxeni Potter, retired managing editor of the Emerging Infectious Diseases journal, discusses the history of the journal and her new book, Art in Science: Selections from Emerging Infectious Diseases.
Christian von Hoermann
Full Text Available The necrophagous burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides reproduces on small carcasses that are buried underground to serve as food for their offspring. Cadavers that are too large to bury have previously been postulated to be important food sources for newly emerged beetles; however, the attractiveness of distinct successive stages of decomposition were not further specified. Therefore, we investigated the potential preference of newly emerged N. vespilloides females for odour bouquets of piglet cadavers at specific stages of decomposition. Analyses of walking tracks on a Kramer sphere revealed a significantly higher mean walking speed and, consequently, a higher mean total track length when beetles were confronted with odour plumes of the decomposition stages 'post-bloating', 'advanced decay' or 'dry remains' in comparison with the solvent control. Such a change of the walking speed of newly emerged N. vespilloides females indicates a higher motivation to locate such food sources. In contrast to less discriminating individuals this behaviour provides the advantage of not wasting time at unsuitable food sources. Furthermore, in the advanced decay stage, we registered a significantly higher preference of beetles for upwind directions to its specific odour plume when compared with the solvent control. Such a change to upwind walking behaviour increases the likelihood that a large cadaver will be quickly located. Our findings are of general importance for applied forensic entomology: newly emerged N. vespilloides females on large cadavers can and should be regarded as potential indicators of prolonged post mortem intervals as our results clearly show that they prefer emitted odour bouquets of later decomposition stages.
SummaryBackground and purpose: Major changes occur in an individuals life after his acceptance in the university which cloud be considered as every important period of his life. This new condition is stressful and can affect the newly admitted student’s mental health. In this article we analyze the mental health status of newly admitted students to Mazandaran university of medical sciences in the academic year 1999-2000.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study all the newl...
Iskander, John; Rose, Dale A; Ghiya, Neelam D
Recent high-profile activations of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Emergency Operations Center (EOC) include responses to the West African Ebola and Zika virus epidemics. Within the EOC, emergency responses are organized according to the Incident Management System, which provides a standardized structure and chain of command, regardless of whether the EOC activation occurs in response to an outbreak, natural disaster, or other type of public health emergency. By embedding key scientific roles, such as the associate director for science, and functions within a Scientific Response Section, the current CDC emergency response structure ensures that both urgent and important science issues receive needed attention. Key functions during emergency responses include internal coordination of scientific work, data management, information dissemination, and scientific publication. We describe a case example involving the ongoing Zika virus response that demonstrates how the scientific response structure can be used to rapidly produce high-quality science needed to answer urgent public health questions and guide policy. Within the context of emergency response, longer-term priorities at CDC include both streamlining administrative requirements and funding mechanisms for scientific research.
Polyxeni Potter, retired managing editor of the Emerging Infectious Diseases journal, discusses the history of the journal and her new book, Art in Science: Selections from Emerging Infectious Diseases. Created: 2/12/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 2/13/2014.
Mambretti, Joe; DeFanti, Tom; Brown, Maxine
This document is the final report on the EMERGE Science Grid testbed research project from the perspective of the International Center for Advanced Internet Research (iCAIR) at Northwestern University, which was a subcontractor to this UIC project. This report is a compilation of information gathered from a variety of materials related to this project produced by multiple EMERGE participants, especially those at Electronic Visualization Lab (EVL) at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC), Argonne National Lab and iCAIR. The EMERGE Science Grid project was managed by Tom DeFanti, PI from EVL at UIC.
Full Text Available Abstract Acute respiratory infections are a major cause of morbidity in children both in developed and developing countries. A wide range of respiratory viruses, including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, influenza A and B viruses, parainfluenza viruses (PIVs, adenovirus, rhinovirus (HRV, have repeatedly been detected in acute lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI in children in the past decades. However, in the last ten years thanks to progress in molecular technologies, newly discovered viruses have been identified including human Metapneumovirus (hMPV, coronaviruses NL63 (HcoV-NL63 and HKU1 (HcoV-HKU1, human Bocavirus (HBoV, new enterovirus (HEV, parechovirus (HpeV and rhinovirus (HRV strains, polyomaviruses WU (WUPyV and KI (KIPyV and the pandemic H1N1v influenza A virus. These discoveries have heavily modified previous knowledge on respiratory infections mainly highlighting that pediatric population is exposed to a variety of viruses with similar seasonal patterns. In this context establishing a causal link between a newly identified virus and the disease as well as an association between mixed infections and an increase in disease severity can be challenging. This review will present an overview of newly recognized as well as the main emerging respiratory viruses and seek to focus on the their contribution to infection and co-infection in LRTIs in childhood.
Henly, Susan J; McCarthy, Donna O; Wyman, Jean F; Heitkemper, Margaret M; Redeker, Nancy S; Titler, Marita G; McCarthy, Ann Marie; Stone, Patricia W; Moore, Shirley M; Alt-White, Anna C; Conley, Yvette P; Dunbar-Jacob, Jacqueline
The Council for the Advancement of Nursing Science aims to "facilitate and recognize life-long nursing science career development" as an important part of its mission. In light of fast-paced advances in science and technology that are inspiring new questions and methods of investigation in the health sciences, the Council for the Advancement of Nursing Science convened the Idea Festival for Nursing Science Education and appointed the Idea Festival Advisory Committee (IFAC) to stimulate dialogue about linking PhD education with a renewed vision for preparation of the next generation of nursing scientists. Building on the 2005 National Research Council report Advancing The Nation's Health Needs and the 2010 American Association of Colleges of Nursing Position Statement on the Research-Focused Doctorate Pathways to Excellence, the IFAC specifically addressed the capacity of PhD programs to prepare nursing scientists to conduct cutting-edge research in the following key emerging and priority areas of health sciences research: omics and the microbiome; health behavior, behavior change, and biobehavioral science; patient-reported outcomes; big data, e-science, and informatics; quantitative sciences; translation science; and health economics. The purpose of this article is to (a) describe IFAC activities, (b) summarize 2014 discussions hosted as part of the Idea Festival, and (c) present IFAC recommendations for incorporating these emerging areas of science and technology into research-focused doctoral programs committed to preparing graduates for lifelong, competitive careers in nursing science. The recommendations address clearer articulation of program focus areas; inclusion of foundational knowledge in emerging areas of science in core courses on nursing science and research methods; faculty composition; prerequisite student knowledge and skills; and in-depth, interdisciplinary training in supporting area of science content and methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc
Saravanan, Muthupandian; Asmalash, Tsehaye; Gebrekidan, Atsebaha; Gebreegziabiher, Dawit; Araya, Tadele; Hilekiros, Haftamu; Barabadi, Hamed; Ramanathan, Kumaresan
Human Immuno deficiency Virus (HIV) infection has attained pandemic level due to its complexity on both the HIV infection cycle and on the targets for drug delivery. This limits medication and consequently requires prominent and promising drug delivery systems to be invented. Notably, various nanomaterial have been studied to enhance effective delivery of the antiretroviral drugs for HIV prevention, diagnosis and cure. Some of these nanomaterials are liposomes, dendrimers, inorganic nanoparticles (NPs), polymeric micelles, natural and synthetic polymers. The present study aimed to review the recent progress in nanomedicine as a newly emerging approach to combat HIV. The scientific data bases reviewed carefully to find both in vitro and in vivo studies representing the role of nonomedicine to combat HIV. Impressively, nanomedicine drug delivery systems have been commendable in various models ranging from in vitro to in vivo. It gives notion about the application of nano-carrier systems for the delivery of anti-retroviral drugs which ideally should provide better distribution to surpass Blood- Brain Barrier (BBB) and other tissue or to overcome innate barriers such as mucus. Considerably, nanomaterials such as dendrimers and many other inorganic NPs such as silver, gold, iron, and zinc can be used for HIV treatment by interfering in varying stages of HIV life cycle. Furthermore, NPs could best act as adjuvants, convoys during vaccine delivery, as intra-vaginal microbicides and for the early detection of HIV-1 p24 antigen. Nanomedicine may be a proper approach in HIV/AIDS therapy by means of offering lower dosage and side effect, better patient-to-patient consistency, bioavailability, target specificity and improved sensitivity of HIV diagnosis. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pineapple fruit collapse: newly emerging disease of pineapple fruit in Lampung, Indonesia Recently, a new disease on pineapple fruit has occurred in Lampung. Symptoms of the disease are complex. Fruits rotted and exuded copious liquid from the inter- fruitlet tissues accompanied by gas bubbles. Open spaces were formed inside the rotten fruit. Dissection of diseased fruit showed many cavities within its sceletal fibres and bad odour was exerted from the rotten tissues. A bacterial entity was isolated from the diseased materials. In a pathogenicity test, the isolated bacteria caused the same symptom as mentioned. In the growing-on test the crown of the heavily infected fruit showed heart rot symptom. Those indicated that the disease was pineapple fruit collapse. Both symptoms were known related to the same causal agent, Erwinia chrysanthemi (pineapple strain Dickeya sp.. In our opinion, this is the first report of pineapple fruit collapse in Indonesia.
Maienschein, Jane; Laubichler, Manfred; Loettgers, Andrea
History of science has developed into a methodologically diverse discipline, adding greatly to our understanding of the interplay between science, society, and culture. Along the way, one original impetus for the then newly emerging discipline--what George Sarton called the perspective "from the point of view of the scientist"--dropped out of fashion. This essay shows, by means of several examples, that reclaiming this interaction between science and history of science yields interesting perspectives and new insights for both science and history of science. The authors consequently suggest that historians of science also adopt this perspective as part of their methodological repertoire.
Yamanouchi, Kaoru; Mathur, Deepak
The PUILS series delivers up-to-date reviews of progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science, a newly emerging interdisciplinary research field spanning atomic and molecular physics, molecular science, and optical science, which has been stimulated by the recent developments in ultrafast laser technologies. Each volume compiles peer-reviewed articles authored by researchers at the forefront of each their own subfields of UILS. Every chapter opens with an overview of the topics to be discussed, so that researchers unfamiliar to the subfield, as well as graduate students, can grasp the importance
Full Text Available Abstract Background Porcine Deltacoronavirus (PDCoV is a newly emerged enteropathogenic coronavirus that causes diarrhea and mortality in neonatal piglets. PDCoV has spread to many countries around the world, leading to significant economic losses in the pork industry. Therefore, a rapid and sensitive method for detection of PDCoV in clinical samples is urgently needed. Results In this study, we developed a single-tube one-step reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP assay specific for nucleocapsid gene to diagnose and monitor PDCoV infections. The detection limit of RT-LAMP assay was 1 × 101 copies of PDCoV, which was approximately 100-fold more sensitive than gel-based one-step reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. This assay could specifically amplify PDCoV and had no cross amplification with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV, transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV, porcine kobuvirus (PKoV, porcine astrovirus (PAstV, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV, classic swine fever virus (CSFV, and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2. By screening a panel of clinical specimens (N = 192, this method presented a similar sensitivity with nested RT-PCR and was 1–2 log more sensitive than conventional RT-PCR in detection of PDCoV. Conclusions The RT-LAMP assay established in this study is a potentially valuable tool, especially in low-resource laboratories and filed settings, for a rapid diagnosis, surveillance, and molecular epidemiology investigation of PDCoV infections. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work for detection of newly emerged PDCoV with LAMP technology.
Yamanouchi, Kaoru; Martin, Philippe
The PUILS series delivers up-to-date reviews of progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science, a newly emerging interdisciplinary research field spanning atomic and molecular physics, molecular science and optical science, which has been stimulated by the recent developments in ultrafast laser technologies. Each volume compiles peer-reviewed articles authored by researchers at the forefront of each their own subfields of UILS. Every chapter opens with an overview of the topics to be discussed, so that researchers unfamiliar to the subfield, as well as graduate students, can grasp the importance
Yamanouchi, Kaoru; Agostini, Pierre; Ferrante, Gaetano
This book series addresses a newly emerging interdisciplinary research field, Ultrafast Intense Laser Science, spanning atomic and molecular physics, molecular science, and optical science. Its progress is being stimulated by the recent development of ultrafast laser technologies. Highlights of this second volume include Coulomb explosion and fragmentation of molecules, control of chemical dynamics, high-order harmonic generation, propagation and filamentation, and laser-plasma interaction. All chapters are authored by foremost experts in their fields and the texts are written at a level accessible to newcomers and graduate students, each chapter beginning with an introductory overview.
Andrews, Kathryn Jean
To address the lack of research in early science learning and on young children's informal science experiences, this 6-month long case study investigated an 8-year-old boy's emergent science competencies and his science experiences in family and school contexts. The four research questions used to guide this investigation were: (1) What are Nathan's emergent science competencies? (2) What are Nathan's science experiences in a family context? How does family learning contribute to his emergent science competencies? (3) What are Nathan's science experiences in school? How does school learning contribute to his emergent science competencies? (4) What is the role of parents and teachers in fostering emergent science competencies? My intensive 6-month fieldwork generated multiple data sources including field notes of 12 classroom observations, one parent interview, eight child interviews, one classroom teacher interview, and observation of eight family produced videos. In addition, I collected a parent journal including 38 entries of the child's how and why questions, a child digital photo journal including 15 entries of when Nathan saw or participated in science, and 25 various documents of work completed in the classroom. First, I analyzed data through an on-going and recursive process. Then, I applied several cycles of open coding to compare and contrast science learning between home and school, establish clear links between research questions and data, and form categories. Finally, I applied a cycle of holistic coding to categorized data that eventually culminated into themes. As a method of quality control, I shared my interpretations with the family and classroom teacher throughout the study. Findings revealed, Nathan's pre-scientific views of science were fluid and playful, he saw differences between the science he did at home and that he did in school, but he was able to articulate a relatively complex understanding of scientists' collaborative efforts. Nathan
Collaborations and conflicts between the sciences and the humanities are central to disciplines from digital humanities to archaeology. The exploration of these tensions and synergies in the newly emerging field of technical art history is the focus of this forum. This is also a first step toward
In this paper, I will argue that there is an important connection between two questions concerning how certain features of the macro world emerge from the laws and processes of fundamental microphysics and suggest an approach to answering these questions. The approach involves a kind of emergence but quite different from 'top-down' emergence discussed at the conference, for which an earlier version of this paper was written. The two questions are (i) How do 'the arrows of time' emerge from microphysics? (ii) How do macroscopic special science laws and causation emerge from microphysics? Answering these questions is especially urgent for those, who like myself, think that a certain version of physicalism, which I call 'micro-physical completeness' (MC), is true. According to MC, there are fundamental dynamical laws that completely govern (deterministically or probabilistically), the evolution of all micro-physical events and there are no additional ontologically independent dynamical or causal special science laws. In other words, there is no ontologically independent 'top-down' causation. Of course, MC does not imply that physicists now or ever will know or propose the complete laws of physics. Or even if the complete laws were known we would know how special science properties and laws reduce to laws and properties of fundamental physics. Rather, MC is a contingent metaphysical claim about the laws of our world. After a discussion of the two questions, I will argue the key to showing how it is possible for the arrows of time and the special science laws to emerge from microphysics and a certain account of how thermodynamics is related to fundamental dynamical laws.
Robert T Grant-Downton
Full Text Available Foliar tissue samples of cultivated daylilies (Hemerocallis hybrids showing the symptoms of a newly emergent foliar disease known as 'spring sickness' were investigated for associated fungi. The cause(s of this disease remain obscure. We isolated repeatedly a fungal species which proved to be member of the genus Botrytis, based on immunological tests. DNA sequence analysis of these isolates, using several different phyogenetically informative genes, indicated that they represent a new Botrytis species, most closely related to B. elliptica (lily blight, fire blight which is a major pathogen of cultivated Lilium. The distinction of the isolates was confirmed by morphological analysis of asexual sporulating cultures. Pathogenicity tests on Hemerocallis tissues in vitro demonstrated that this new species was able to induce lesions and rapid tissue necrosis. Based on this data, we infer that this new species, described here as B. deweyae, is likely to be an important contributor to the development of 'spring sickness' symptoms. Pathogenesis may be promoted by developmental and environmental factors that favour assault by this necrotrophic pathogen. The emergence of this disease is suggested to have been triggered by breeding-related changes in cultivated hybrids, particularly the erosion of genetic diversity. Our investigation confirms that emergent plant diseases are important and deserve close monitoring, especially in intensively in-bred plants.
AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0067 Science & Emerging Technology of 2D Atomic Layered Materials and Devices Angel Rubio UNIVERSIDAD DEL PAIS VASCO - EUSKAL...DD-MM-YYYY) 27-09-2017 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 19 Feb 2015 to 18 Feb 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Science ...reporting documents for AOARD project 144088, “2D Materials and Devices Beyond Graphene Science & Emerging Technology of 2D Atomic Layered Materials and
Klaas van Berkel
Full Text Available H.J. Cook, Matters of exchange. Commerce, medicine, and science in the Dutch Golden AgeRediscovering Clusius. How Dutch Commerce contributed to the Emergence of Modern ScienceIn his highly stimulating book Matters of Exchange. Commerce, Medicine, and Science in the Dutch Golden Age, Harold J. Cook argues that the intellectual activities we call science emerged from ways of knowing that were valued most highly by merchant-rulers. He demonstrates this thesis by describing and analyzing scientific developments in the Dutch Republic. However, both Cook’s one-sided description of the new science and his idealized reconstruction of the mentality of the merchant elite in the Dutch Republic weaken his case considerably. A more ecumenical view of early modern science and a more realistic picture of the values and the conduct of merchants in Europe are needed to bolster an argument that still looks very promising.
Whitehead, Clay C
The neo-psychoanalytic paradigm re-establishes the connection between psychodynamics and evolution. This allows us to transcend the limitations of dualistic metapsychology, and to make seminal contributions to traditional science. The new paradigm employs the concept of emergence, the potential for change in the evolutionary and clinical process. Emergence is described as originating with the Big Bang, but also is reflected at much higher levels, for example, biochemistry, or the capacity of the evolved mind to produce insights in psychotherapy. The constraints of dualistic theories are examined. A neuron-based view of change illustrates the evolution of traditional science as well as the neuron, itself. The new mind paradigm recognizes individual, familial, communitarian, and global reciprocal influences mediated by culture and illustrated by the extended mind and the democratic spirit. Thus both traditional and psychodynamic sciences are undergoing revolutionary changes in their common efforts to better understand the mechanisms of knowledge, relationship and consciousness. The boundaries of the self and the consultation suite are also expanded in this view. Following a survey of invagination, the work is concluded by an application of emergence theory to the creationist controversy and Freud's views of religion.
In this paper, I describe the strong and reciprocal relations between the emergence of the specialized expert in the natural sciences and the establishment of science education, in early Modern Greece. Accordingly, I show how science and public education interacted within the Greek state from its inception in the early 1830, to the first decade of the twentieth century, when the University of Athens established an autonomous Mathematics and Physics School. Several factors are taken into account, such as the negotiations of Western educational theories and practices within a local context, the discourses of the science savants of the University of Athens, the role of the influential Greek pedagogues of the era, the state as an agent which imposed restrictions or facilitated certain developments and finally the intellectual and cultural aspirations of the nation itself. Science education is shown to be of fundamental importance for Greek scientists. The inclusion of science within the school system preceded and promoted the appearance of a scientific community and the institution of science courses was instrumental for the emergence of the first trained Greek scientists. Thus, the conventional narrative that would have science appearing in the classrooms as an aftermath of the emergence of a scientific community is problematized.
Background: Computational exposure science represents a frontier of environmental science that is emerging and quickly evolving.Objectives: In this commentary, we define this burgeoning discipline, describe a framework for implementation, and review some key ongoing research elements that are advancing the science with respect to exposure to chemicals in consumer products.Discussion: The fundamental elements of computational exposure science include the development of reliable, computationally efficient predictive exposure models; the identification, acquisition, and application of data to support and evaluate these models; and generation of improved methods for extrapolating across chemicals. We describe our efforts in each of these areas and provide examples that demonstrate both progress and potential.Conclusions: Computational exposure science, linked with comparable efforts in toxicology, is ushering in a new era of risk assessment that greatly expands our ability to evaluate chemical safety and sustainability and to protect public health. The National Exposure Research Laboratory’s (NERL’s) Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division (HEASD) conducts research in support of EPA’s mission to protect human health and the environment. HEASD’s research program supports Goal 1 (Clean Air) and Goal 4 (Healthy People) of EPA’s strategic plan. More specifically, our division conducts research to characterize the movement of pollutants from the source
Żółtowska, Krystyna; Lipiński, Zbigniew; Łopieńska-Biernat, Elżbieta; Farjan, Marek; Dmitryjuk, Małgorzata
The activity of glycogen Phosphorylase and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes α-amylase, glucoamylase, trehalase, and sucrase was studied in the development of the Carniolan honey bee, Apis mellifera carnica Pollman (Hymenoptera: Apidae), from newly hatched larva to freshly emerged imago of worker and drone. Phosphorolytic degradation of glycogen was significantly stronger than hydrolytic degradation in all developmental stages. Developmental profiles of hydrolase activity were similar in both sexes of brood; high activity was found in unsealed larvae, the lowest in prepupae followed by an increase in enzymatic activity. Especially intensive increases in activity occurred in the last stage of pupae and newly emerged imago. Besides α-amylase, the activities of other enzymes were higher in drone than in worker broods. Among drones, activity of glucoamylase was particularly high, ranging from around three times higher in the youngest larvae to 13 times higher in the oldest pupae. This confirms earlier suggestions about higher rates of metabolism in drone broods than in worker broods.
Heimeriks, G.; Leydesdorff, L.
Scientometric data is used to investigate empirically the emergence of search regimes in biotechnology, genomics and nanotechnology. Complex regimes can emerge when three independent sources of variance interact. In our model, researchers can be considered as the nodes that carry the science system.
Adolphe Quetelet was one of the most prominent figures of the second half of the nineteenth century, yet in present-day histories of several social sciences the impact of his ideas is widely ignored. The first part consists of a sketch of his life and work. Astronomer and statistician, he sought to apply the mathematical tools of astronomy to create was has been called a 'mathematics of society'. In particular he demonstrated regularities in the incidence of various social phenomena, notably crime, whose implications were widely debated. In the second part the influence he exerted on some key figures in the then emerging social sciences is traced in some detail; these figures include Durkheim, Galton, Marx, and Tylor. He also advocated the wider use of statistics and his call had a powerful impact on the then emerging fields such as administration, economics, sociology and psychology. He influenced some of his most famous contemporaries, including Florence Nightingale, Karl Marx and Francis Galton.
Jordens, J. Zoe; Zepke, Nick
Achieving quality in higher education is a complex task involving the interrelationship of many factors. The influence of the teacher is well established and has led to some general principles of good teaching. However, less is known about the extent that specific disciplines influence quality teaching. The purposes of the paper are to investigate how quality teaching is perceived in the sciences and from these perceptions to develop for discussion a framework for teaching practice in the sciences. A New Zealand study explored the views of national teaching excellence award winners in science on quality teaching in undergraduate science. To capture all possible views from this expert panel, a dissensus-recognising Delphi method was used together with sensitising concepts based on complexity and wickedity. The emergent conceptual framework for quality teaching in undergraduate science highlighted areas of consensus and areas where there were a variety of views. About the purposes of science and its knowledge base, there was relative consensus, but there was more variable support for values underpinning science teaching. This highlighted the complex nature of quality teaching in science. The findings suggest that, in addition to general and discipline-specific influences, individual teacher values contribute to an understanding of quality in undergraduate science teaching.
Caroline, B; Jayanthi, J
The present book is based on the research papers presented in the International Conference on Emerging Trends in Science, Engineering and Technology 2012, held at Tiruchirapalli, India. The papers presented bridges the gap between science, engineering and technology. This book covers a variety of topics, including mechanical, production, aeronautical, material science, energy, civil and environmental energy, scientific management, etc. The prime objective of the book is to fully integrate the scientific contributions from academicians, industrialists and research scholars.
Emerging Trends in Computing, Informatics, Systems Sciences, and Engineering includes a set of rigorously reviewed world-class manuscripts addressing and detailing state-of-the-art research projects in the areas of Industrial Electronics, Technology & Automation, Telecommunications and Networking, Systems, Computing Sciences and Software Engineering, Engineering Education, Instructional Technology, Assessment, and E-learning. This book includes the proceedings of the International Joint Conferences on Computer, Information, and Systems Sciences, and Engineering (CISSE 2010). The proceedings are a set of rigorously reviewed world-class manuscripts presenting the state of international practice in Innovative Algorithms and Techniques in Automation, Industrial Electronics and Telecommunications.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of newly emerging, popular suicide methods on overall rates of suicide has not previously been investigated systematically. Understanding these effects may have important implications for public health surveillance. We examine the emergence of three novel methods of suicide by gassing in the 20th and 21st centuries and determine the impact of emerging methods on overall suicide rates. Methods We studied the epidemic rises in domestic coal gas (1919-1935, England and Wales, motor vehicle exhaust gas (1975-1992, England and Wales and barbecue charcoal gas (1999-2006, Taiwan suicide using Poisson and joinpoint regression models. Joinpoint regression uses contiguous linear segments and join points (points at which trends change to describe trends in incidence. Results Epidemic increases in the use of new methods of suicide were generally associated with rises in overall suicide rates of between 23% and 71%. The recent epidemic of barbecue charcoal suicides in Taiwan was associated with the largest rise in overall rates (40-50% annual rise, whereas the smallest rise was seen for car exhaust gassing in England and Wales (7% annual rise. Joinpoint analyses were only feasible for car exhaust and charcoal burning suicides; these suggested an impact of the emergence of car exhaust suicides on overall suicide rates in both sexes in England and Wales. However there was no statistical evidence of a change in the already increasing overall suicide trends when charcoal burning suicides emerged in Taiwan, possibly due to the concurrent economic recession. Conclusions Rapid rises in the use of new sources of gas for suicide were generally associated with increases in overall suicide rates. Suicide prevention strategies should include strengthening local and national surveillance for early detection of novel suicide methods and implementation of effective media guidelines and other appropriate interventions to limit the spread of
Manoukis, Nicholas C; Baber, Ibrahima; Diallo, Moussa; Sogoba, Nafomon; Ribeiro, José M C
The direction and magnitude of movement by the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae Giles has been of great interest to medical entomologists for over 70 years. This direction of movement is likely to be affected by many factors, from environmental conditions and stage of life history of the mosquito to the existence of attractants in the vicinity. We report here the direction of movement of newly emerged An. gambiae in nature, around the village of Donéguébougou, Mali. We assessed the direction of movement for individual mosquitoes by placing them in a novel enclosure with exit traps oriented in the direction of the cardinal and intermediate points of the compass. We consistently found predominantly Southward directions of movement during 2009 and 2010, with an additional Eastward component during the dry season and a Westward one during the wet season. Our data indicate that wind has an important effect on the direction of movement, but that this effect varied by season: Average directions of movement were downwind during the dry season and upwind during the wet season. A switch in anemotactic response suggests that the direction of movement of An. gambiae relative to the wind immediately after emergence under varying conditions of humidity should be further investigated under controlled conditions.
Nicholas C Manoukis
Full Text Available The direction and magnitude of movement by the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae Giles has been of great interest to medical entomologists for over 70 years. This direction of movement is likely to be affected by many factors, from environmental conditions and stage of life history of the mosquito to the existence of attractants in the vicinity. We report here the direction of movement of newly emerged An. gambiae in nature, around the village of Donéguébougou, Mali. We assessed the direction of movement for individual mosquitoes by placing them in a novel enclosure with exit traps oriented in the direction of the cardinal and intermediate points of the compass. We consistently found predominantly Southward directions of movement during 2009 and 2010, with an additional Eastward component during the dry season and a Westward one during the wet season. Our data indicate that wind has an important effect on the direction of movement, but that this effect varied by season: Average directions of movement were downwind during the dry season and upwind during the wet season. A switch in anemotactic response suggests that the direction of movement of An. gambiae relative to the wind immediately after emergence under varying conditions of humidity should be further investigated under controlled conditions.
Woellert, Kirk; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Ricco, Antonio J.; Hertzfeld, Henry
The development, operation, and analysis of data from cubesats can promote science education and spur technology utilization in emerging and developing nations. This platform offers uniquely low construction and launch costs together with a comparative ubiquity of launch providers; factors that have led more than 80 universities and several emerging nations to develop programs in this field. Their small size and weight enables cubesats to “piggyback” on rocket launches and accompany orbiters travelling to Moon and Mars. It is envisaged that constellations of cubesats will be used for larger science missions. We present a brief history, technology overview, and summary of applications in science and industry for these small satellites. Cubesat technical success stories are offered along with a summary of pitfalls and challenges encountered in both developed and emerging nations. A discussion of economic and public policy issues aims to facilitate the decision-making process for those considering utilization of this unique technology.
Suarez, Enrique A.
This dissertation investigates how emerging bilingual students make sense of natural phenomena through engaging in certain epistemic practices of science, and the elements of the learning environment that created those opportunities. Specifically, the dissertation focuses on how emerging bilingual students problematized electrical phenomena, like electric flow and electrical resistance, and how the design features of the environment (e.g., sequencing of activities, linguistic practices) may have supported students as they made sense of phenomena. The first study describes how for students presented and evaluated mechanistic models of electric flow, focusing specifically on how students identified and negotiated a disagreement between their explanatory models. The results from this study highlight the complexity of students' disagreements, not only because of the epistemological aspects related to presenting and evaluating knowledge, but also due to interpersonal dynamics and the discomfort associated with disagreeing with another person. The second study focuses on the design features of the learning environment that supported emerging bilingual students' investigations of electrical phenomena. The findings from this study highlight how a carefully designed set of activities, with the appropriate material resources (e.g., experimental tools), could support students to problematize electrical resistance. The third study describes how emerging bilingual students engaged in translanguaging practices and the contextual features of the learning environment that created and hindered opportunities for translanguaging. The findings from this study identify and articulate how emerging bilingual students engaged in translanguaging practices when problematizing electrical resistance, and strengthen the perspective that, in order to be equitable for emerging bilingual students, science learning environments need to act as translanguaging spaces. This dissertation makes three
Full Text Available This article deals with the emergence of social sciences in Spain at the end of the nineteenth century. It focuses on the Royal Academy of moral and political sciences, whose creation in 1857, on the French model, was part of the reorganisation of public education, but also an ideological reaction of the conservative party (partido moderado, which returned to power after the 1854-1956 Revolution. The Academy was officially in charge of propagating the political doctrines of the regime (namely “doctrinaire” liberalism and of countering socialism at the scientific level. This paper shows the methodological relevance of studying such a multidisciplinary institution in order to grasp simultaneously the pluralistic scientific matrix of the social sciences as well as the political issues that surround them. It analyses the content and the evolution of moral and political sciences between 1857 and 1923 and highlights the multiple factors that played an active role in the emergence of the social sciences: the legacy of former scholarly disciplines, the impact of the propagation of naturalistic theories during the liberal revolution of 1868, and the critique of liberalism and liberal sciences following the social and political crisis from the 1880s onwards.
Banks, Zarata Mann; Bailey, Jessica H.
Despite vast research on newly licensed registered nurses (RNs), we don't know why some newly licensed registered nurses remain in their current jobs and others leave the nursing profession early in their career. Job satisfaction, the most significant factor emerging from the literature, plays a significant role in nurses' decisions to remain in…
Wood, Nathan Brent; Erichsen, Elizabeth Anne; Anicha, Cali L.
This special issue of the Journal of Research in Science Teaching seeks to explore conceptualizations of culture that address contemporary challenges in science education. Toward this end, we unite two theoretical perspectives to advance a conceptualization of culture as a complex system, emerging from iterative processes of cultural bricolage,…
Żółtowska, Krystyna; Lipiński, Zbigniew; Łopieńska-Biernat, Elżbieta; Farjan, Marek; Dmitryjuk, Małgorzata
The activity of glycogen Phosphorylase and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes α-amylase, glucoamylase, trehalase, and sucrase was studied in the development of the Carniolan honey bee, Apis mellifera carnica Pollman (Hymenoptera: Apidae), from newly hatched larva to freshly emerged imago of worker and drone. Phosphorolytic degradation of glycogen was significantly stronger than hydrolytic degradation in all developmental stages. Developmental profiles of hydrolase activity were similar in both ...
Luciano, Joanne S; Cumming, Grant P; Wilkinson, Mark D; Kahana, Eva
The transformative power of the Internet on all aspects of daily life, including health care, has been widely recognized both in the scientific literature and in public discourse. Viewed through the various lenses of diverse academic disciplines, these transformations reveal opportunities realized, the promise of future advances, and even potential problems created by the penetration of the World Wide Web for both individuals and for society at large. Discussions about the clinical and health research implications of the widespread adoption of information technologies, including the Internet, have been subsumed under the disciplinary label of Medicine 2.0. More recently, however, multi-disciplinary research has emerged that is focused on the achievement and promise of the Web itself, as it relates to healthcare issues. In this paper, we explore and interrogate the contributions of the burgeoning field of Web Science in relation to health maintenance, health care, and health policy. From this, we introduce Health Web Science as a subdiscipline of Web Science, distinct from but overlapping with Medicine 2.0. This paper builds on the presentations and subsequent interdisciplinary dialogue that developed among Web-oriented investigators present at the 2012 Medicine 2.0 Conference in Boston, Massachusetts.
Weijuan Zhu and Xiaofeng Ren*
Full Text Available Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 is the major causative agent of post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS. Infection by PCV2 may cause heavy losses in pig industry. In this study, we report the isolation of a newly emerging PCV2 from northeastern China. The complete genome of the PCV2 isolate named PCV2-LJR contains 1766 nucleotides and was compared with reference sequences published in GenBank followed by topology analysis of the resulting phylogenetic tree. The data indicated that the prevalent PCV2 isolates in the northeastern China had close relationship, although various genotypes of PCV2 existed. In addition, by gene recombination and transfection techniques, the PCV2 infectious clone was achieved and was able to rescue virus in vitro determined by indirect immunofluorescence assay and PCR. The obtained biological materials may be used for biological characterization of PCV2.
Søberg, Peder Veng; Han, Yang
, in order to increase innovation performance. The theoretical framework is based on theories on trust, as well as institutional theory. The findings suggest that cognition-based trust as well as affect-based trust is needed for successful innovative collaboration, however, in emerging markets affect......The paper investigates innovative collaboration undertaken by newly established foreign invested R&D units in emerging markets. In particular, the paper investigates how foreign invested newly established R&D centers in emerging markets can leverage local knowledge networks, such as universities......-based trust is more important than Westerners are used to. This is due to the different institutional backgrounds, in emerging markets and developed markets respectively....
Peters, Michael A.
This article charts the rise of global science and a global science infrastructure as part of the emerging international knowledge system exemplifying a geography of knowledge and the importance of new info-communications networks. The article theorises the rise of global science, which still strongly reflects a Western bias and is highly…
Zhou, M; Weijnen, M
This volume provides a comprehensive overview of all important areas in systems science and engineering and poses the issues and challenges in these areas in order to deal with ever-increasingly complex systems and newly emergent applications. The topics range from discrete event systems, distributed intelligent systems, grey systems, and enterprise information systems to conflict resolution, robotics and intelligent sensing, smart grids, and system of systems approaches. Individual chapters are written by leading experts in the field.
Pathak, P.N.; Mohapatra, P.K.; Goswami, A.
The symposium on emerging trends in separation science and technology was held during 27 February -1 March, 2012. An attempt has been made to cover a wide range of topics in the symposium including design and synthesis of solvents/resins, development of separation equipment's, separation the nuclear fuel cycle, emerging separation technologies, electrochemical and pyrochemical separations, treatment of industrial effluents, isotope separations, membrane science and technology, radiochemical separations, water treatment and recycling, bioremediation and speciation. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately
In the past two decades, computational methods have emerged as an essential component of the scientific and engineering enterprise. A diverse assortment of scientific applications has been simulated and explored via advanced computational techniques. Computer vendors have built enormous parallel machines to support these activities, and the research community has developed new algorithms and codes, and agreed on standards to facilitate ever more ambitious computations. However, this track record of success will be increasingly hard to sustain in coming years. Power limitations constrain processor clock speeds, so further performance improvements will need to come from ever more parallelism. This higher degree of parallelism will require new thinking about algorithms, programming models, and architectural resilience. Simultaneously, cutting edge science increasingly requires more complex simulations with unstructured and adaptive grids, and multi-scale and multi-physics phenomena. These new codes will push existing parallelization strategies to their limits and beyond. Emerging data-rich scientific applications are also in need of high performance computing, but their complex spatial and temporal data access patterns do not perform well on existing machines. These interacting forces will reshape high performance computing in the coming years.
Williamson, E Diane
The purpose of this review is to survey current, emerging and predicted future biotechnologies which are impacting, or are likely to impact in the future on the life sciences, with a projection for the coming 20 years. This review is intended to discuss current and future technical strategies, and to explore areas of potential growth during the foreseeable future. Information technology approaches have been employed to gather and collate data. Twelve broad categories of biotechnology have been identified which are currently impacting the life sciences and will continue to do so. In some cases, technology areas are being pushed forward by the requirement to deal with contemporary questions such as the need to address the emergence of anti-microbial resistance. In other cases, the biotechnology application is made feasible by advances in allied fields in biophysics (e.g. biosensing) and biochemistry (e.g. bio-imaging). In all cases, the biotechnologies are underpinned by the rapidly advancing fields of information systems, electronic communications and the World Wide Web together with developments in computing power and the capacity to handle extensive biological data. A rationale and narrative is given for the identification of each technology as a growth area. These technologies have been categorized by major applications, and are discussed further. This review highlights: Biotechnology has far-reaching applications which impinge on every aspect of human existence. The applications of biotechnology are currently wide ranging and will become even more diverse in the future. Access to supercomputing facilities and the ability to manipulate large, complex biological datasets, will significantly enhance knowledge and biotechnological development.
Sheshadri, Holalu; Padma, M
PES College of Engineering is organizing an International Conference on Emerging Research in Electronics, Computer Science and Technology (ICERECT-12) in Mandya and merging the event with Golden Jubilee of the Institute. The Proceedings of the Conference presents high quality, peer reviewed articles from the field of Electronics, Computer Science and Technology. The book is a compilation of research papers from the cutting-edge technologies and it is targeted towards the scientific community actively involved in research activities.
Handwerker, Carol A.; Pollock, Tresa M.
During the next decade, fundamental research on metals and metallic nanostructures (MMNs) has the potential to continue transforming metals science into innovative materials, devices, and systems. A workshop to identify emerging and potentially transformative research areas in MMNs was held June 13 and 14, 2012, at the University of California Santa Barbara. There were 47 attendees at the workshop (listed in the Acknowledgements section), representing a broad range of academic institutions, industry, and government laboratories. The metals and metallic nanostructures (MMNs) workshop aimed to identify significant research trends, scientific fundamentals, and recent breakthroughs that can enable new or enhanced MMN performance, either alone or in a more complex materials system, for a wide range of applications. Additionally, the role that MMN research can play in high-priority research and development (R&D) areas such as the U.S. Materials Genome Initiative, the National Nanotechnology Initiative, the Advanced Manufacturing Initiative, and other similar initiatives that exist internationally was assessed. The workshop also addressed critical issues related to materials research instrumentation and the cyberinfrastructure for materials science research and education, as well as science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) workforce development, with emphasis on the United States but with an appreciation that similar challenges and opportunities for the materials community exist internationally. A central theme of the workshop was that research in MMNs has provided and will continue to provide societal benefits through the integration of experiment, theory, and simulation to link atomistic, nanoscale, microscale, and mesoscale phenomena across time scales for an ever-widening range of applications. Within this overarching theme, the workshop participants identified emerging research opportunities that are categorized and described in more detail in the
Graff, P. V.; Allen, J. S.; Tobola, K.
participating in Expedition Earth and Beyond, will also have the opportunity to virtually share their research. These virtual team presentations will allow these emerging scientists to celebrate their own exploration, and in doing so, contribute to the excitement of the Year of the Solar System. As the public joins NASA in the celebration of YSS, students across the nation will not only be excited by the science and discoveries being made, but will prime themselves with experience to perhaps someday become the new leaders in science, discovery, and NASA.
Ghazli, Nur Farahin; Che Annual, Norfatiha; Abdullah, Jafri Malin
In 1986, the Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences (MJMS) began as the small and newly established journal Diagnosa, established by the Universiti Sains Malaysia School of Medicine. After 28 years in the publishing industry, we have received the honor of a listing as a local journal in the Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI) created by Thomson Reuters (TR) to spotlight emerging high-quality scientific publications. The editorial team of MJMS looks forward to the next step in the march of progress toward the status of an international journal. PMID:28223878
Yamanouchi, Kaoru; Li, Ruxin; Chin, See Leang
The PUILS series presents Progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science, a newly emerging interdisciplinary research field spanning atomic and molecular physics, molecular science, and optical science. PUILS has been stimulated by the recent development of ultrafast laser technologies. Each volume contains approximately 15 chapters, authored by researchers at the forefront. Each chapter opens with an overview of the topics to be discussed, so that researchers, who are not experts in the specific topics, as well as graduate students can grasp the importance and attractions of this sub-field of research, and these are followed by reports of cutting-edge discoveries. This fourth volume covers a broad range of topics from this interdisciplinary research field, focusing on strong field ionization of atoms; excitation, ionization and fragmentation of molecules; nonlinear intense optical phenomena and attosecond pulses; and laser - solid interactions and photoemission.
John Cockcroft's splitting of the atom and Ernest Lawrence's invention of the cyclotron in the first half of the twentieth century ushered in the grand era of ever higher energy particle accelerators to probe deeper into matter. It also forged a link, bonding scientific discovery with technological innovation that continues today in the twenty first century. In the second half of the twentieth century, we witnessed the emergence of the photon and neutron sciences driven by accelerators built-by-design producing tailored and ultra-bright pulses of bright photons and neutrons to probe structure and function of matter from aggregate to individual molecular and atomic scales in unexplored territories in material and life sciences. As we enter the twenty first century, the race for ever higher energies, brightness and luminosity to probe atto-metric and atto-second domains of the ultra-small structures and ultra-fast processes continues. We give a glimpse of the recent developments and innovations in the conception, production and control of charged particle beams in the service of scientific society. (author)
Henly, Susan J; McCarthy, Donna O; Wyman, Jean F; Alt-White, Anna C; Stone, Patricia W; McCarthy, Ann Marie; Redeker, Nancy S; Dunbar-Jacob, Jacqueline; Titler, Marita G; Conley, Yvette P; Heitkemper, Margaret M; Moore, Shirley M
We respond to commentaries from the American Academy of Nursing, the American Association of Colleges of Nursing, and the National Institute of Nursing Research on our thoughts about integrating emerging areas of science into nursing PhD programs. We identify areas of agreement and focus our response on cross-cutting issues arising from cautions about the unique focus of nursing science and how best to proceed with incorporation of emerging areas of science into nursing PhD programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Robinson, D.K.R.; Propp, T.; Propp, Tilo
Roadmapping serves both short and long term (strategic) alignment in science and technology (S&T). Forecasts of the likely future development of S&T are generated; then research and development (R&D) efforts necessary to realize various goals are backcast. But for new and emerging S&T this trusted
Corbin, B. A.; Seager, S.; Ross, A.; Hoffman, J.
Distributed satellite systems (DSS) have emerged as an effective and cheap way to conduct space science, thanks to advances in the small satellite industry. However, relatively few space science missions have utilized multiple assets to achieve their primary scientific goals. Previous research on methods for evaluating mission concepts designs have shown that distributed systems are rarely competitive with monolithic systems, partially because it is difficult to quantify the added value of DSSs over monolithic systems. Comparatively little research has focused on how DSSs can be used to achieve new, fundamental space science goals that cannot be achieved with monolithic systems or how to choose a design from a larger possible tradespace of options. There are seven emergent capabilities of distributed satellites: shared sampling, simultaneous sampling, self-sampling, census sampling, stacked sampling, staged sampling, and sacrifice sampling. These capabilities are either fundamentally, analytically, or operationally unique in their application to distributed science missions, and they can be leveraged to achieve science goals that are either impossible or difficult and costly to achieve with monolithic systems. The Responsive Systems Comparison (RSC) method combines Multi-Attribute Tradespace Exploration with Epoch-Era Analysis to examine benefits, costs, and flexible options in complex systems over the mission lifecycle. Modifications to the RSC method as it exists in previously published literature were made in order to more accurately characterize how value is derived from space science missions. New metrics help rank designs by the value derived over their entire mission lifecycle and show more accurate cumulative value distributions. The RSC method was applied to four case study science missions that leveraged the emergent capabilities of distributed satellites to achieve their primary science goals. In all four case studies, RSC showed how scientific value was
Roso, Luis; Li, Ruxin; Mathur, Deepak; Normand, Didier
This volume covers a broad range of topics focusing on atoms, molecules, and clusters interacting in intense laser field, laser induced filamentation, and laser plasma interaction and application. The PUILS series delivers up-to-date reviews of progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science, a newly emerging interdisciplinary research field spanning atomic and molecular physics, molecular science, and optical science, which has been stimulated by the recent developments in ultrafast laser technologies. Each volume compiles peer-reviewed articles authored by researchers at the forefront of each their own subfields of UILS. Every chapter opens with an overview of the topics to be discussed, so that researchers unfamiliar to the subfield, as well as graduate students, can grasp the importance and attractions of the research topic at hand; these are followed by reports of cutting-edge discoveries. .
Linton, Anne M
This article discusses the impact on professional identity for health sciences librarians participating in the curriculum revision and development process. A qualitative survey, designed to examine the current roles, values, and self-identification of health sciences librarians involved in curricular revision, was conducted. The respondents discussed how they had participated in the planning, implementation, and rollout phases of revised curricula. They identified skills and values essential to successful participation and described the impact of expanded professional relationships on new identities as educators, change agents, and problem solvers. The study may add to the knowledge base of skills and attitudes needed for successful practice in these newly emerging roles.
Davis, Gregory G
Drug abusers have access to new, more potent compounds that evade existing laws by virtue of their novel chemical structures. These drugs are available for purchase at stores and over the internet. The drugs are not illegal because they are so new that laws have not yet been passed to ban them. These drugs are leading to emergency department visits for cardiovascular, neurologic, and psychiatric complications. Standard drug screens are not designed to detect these new substances. The internet provides access to drugs for substance abusers but also provides physicians speed of access to the habits of substance abusers.
Brintrup, Alexandra; Ledwoch, Anna
Supply networks emerge as companies procure goods from one another to produce their own products. Due to a chronic lack of data, studies on these emergent structures have long focussed on local neighbourhoods, assuming simple, chain-like structures. However, studies conducted since 2001 have shown that supply chains are indeed complex networks that exhibit similar organisational patterns to other network types. In this paper, we present a critical review of theoretical and model based studies which conceptualise supply chains from a network science perspective, showing that empirical data do not always support theoretical models that were developed, and argue that different industrial settings may present different characteristics. Consequently, a need that arises is the development and reconciliation of interpretation across different supply network layers such as contractual relations, material flow, financial links, and co-patenting, as these different projections tend to remain in disciplinary siloes. Other gaps include a lack of null models that show whether the observed properties are meaningful, a lack of dynamical models that can inform how layers evolve and adopt to changes, and a lack of studies that investigate how local decisions enable emergent outcomes. We conclude by asking the network science community to help bridge these gaps by engaging with this important area of research.
Yamanouchi, Kaoru; Agostini, Pierre; Ferrante, Gaetano
The PUILS series presents Progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science, a newly emerging interdisciplinary research field spanning atomic and molecular physics, molecular science, and optical science. PUILS has been stimulated by the recent development of ultrafast laser technologies. Each volume contains approximately 15 chapters, authored by researchers at the forefront. Each chapter opens with an overview of the topics to be discussed, so that researchers, who are not experts in the specific topics, as well as graduate students can grasp the importance and attractions of this sub-field of research, and these are followed by reports of cutting-edge discoveries. This third volume covers a diverse range of disciplines, focusing on such topics as strong field ionization of atoms, ionization and fragmentation of molecules and clusters, generation of high-order harmonics and attosecond pulses, filamentation and laser plasma interaction, and the development of ultrashort and ultrahigh-intensity light sources.
Nisoli, Mauro; Hill, Wendell; III, III
The PUILS series delivers up-to-date reviews of progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science, a newly emerging interdisciplinary research field spanning atomic and molecular physics, molecular science and optical science which has been stimulated by the recent developments in ultrafast laser technologies. Each volume compiles peer-reviewed articles authored by researchers at the forefront of each their own subfields of UILS. Every chapter opens with an overview of the topics to be discussed, so that researchers unfamiliar to the subfield as well as graduate students can grasp the importance and attractions of the research topic at hand. These are followed by reports of cutting-edge discoveries. This eighth volume covers a broad range of topics from this interdisciplinary research field, focusing on molecules interacting with ultrashort and intense laser fields, advanced technologies for the characterization of ultrashort laser pulses and their applications, laser plasma formation and laser acceleration.
Yamanouchi, Kaoru; Bandrauk, André D
The PUILS series delivers up-to-date reviews of progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science, a newly emerging interdisciplinary research field spanning atomic and molecular physics, molecular science, and optical science, which has been stimulated by the recent developments in ultrafast laser technologies. Each volume compiles peer-reviewed articles authored by researchers at the forefront of each their own subfields of UILS. Every chapter opens with an overview of the topics to be discussed, so that researchers unfamiliar to the subfield, as well as graduate students, can grasp the importance and attractions of the research topic at hand; these are followed by reports of cutting-edge discoveries. This sixth volume covers a broad range of topics from this interdisciplinary research field, focusing on responses of molecules to ultrashort intense laser pulses, generation and characterization of attosecond pulses and high-order harmonics, and filamentation and laser-plasma interaction.
Neely, J. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hornung, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Black, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Robinson, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
This document serves as a detailed companion to the powerpoint slides presented as part of the ASC L2 milestone review for Integrated Codes milestone #4782 titled “Assess Newly Emerging Programming and Memory Models for Advanced Architectures on Integrated Codes”, due on 9/30/2014, and presented for formal program review on 9/12/2014. The program review committee is represented by Mike Zika (A Program Project Lead for Kull), Brian Pudliner (B Program Project Lead for Ares), Scott Futral (DEG Group Lead in LC), and Mike Glass (Sierra Project Lead at Sandia). This document, along with the presentation materials, and a letter of completion signed by the review committee will act as proof of completion for this milestone.
Lapworth, Dan; Stuart, Marianne; Hart, Alwyn; Crane, Emily; Baran, Nicole
The term ‘emerging contaminants’ (ECs) is used to cover not only newly developed compounds but also includes newly discovered compounds in the environment (often due to analytical developments), and compounds that have been recently categorised as contaminants. ECs include a huge array of different compounds (and their metabolites) that are used by society for a range of purposes and include; pharmaceuticals, pesticides, personal care products, veterinary medicines, engineered nano-materials,...
Robert J. Torphy
Full Text Available Cancer immunotherapy has been a great breakthrough, with immune checkpoint inhibitors leading the way. Despite the clinical effectiveness of certain immune checkpoint inhibitors, the overall response rate remains low, and the effectiveness of immunotherapies for many tumors has been disappointing. There is substantial interest in looking for additional immune checkpoint molecules that may act as therapeutic targets for cancer. Recent advances during the last decade have identified several novel immune checkpoint targets, including lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3, B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA, programmed death-1 homolog (PD-1H, T-cell immunoglobulin and immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif domain (TIM-3/carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1, and the poliovirus receptor (PVR-like receptors. The investigations into these molecules have generated promising results in preclinical studies. Herein, we will summarize our current progress and understanding of these newly-characterized immune checkpoints and their potential application in cancer immunotherapy.
Parker, Miles; Acland, Andrew; Armstrong, Harry J; Bellingham, Jim R; Bland, Jessica; Bodmer, Helen C; Burall, Simon; Castell, Sarah; Chilvers, Jason; Cleevely, David D; Cope, David; Costanzo, Lucia; Dolan, James A; Doubleday, Robert; Feng, Wai Yi; Godfray, H Charles J; Good, David A; Grant, Jonathan; Green, Nick; Groen, Arnoud J; Guilliams, Tim T; Gupta, Sunjai; Hall, Amanda C; Heathfield, Adam; Hotopp, Ulrike; Kass, Gary; Leeder, Tim; Lickorish, Fiona A; Lueshi, Leila M; Magee, Chris; Mata, Tiago; McBride, Tony; McCarthy, Natasha; Mercer, Alan; Neilson, Ross; Ouchikh, Jackie; Oughton, Edward J; Oxenham, David; Pallett, Helen; Palmer, James; Patmore, Jeff; Petts, Judith; Pinkerton, Jan; Ploszek, Richard; Pratt, Alan; Rocks, Sophie A; Stansfield, Neil; Surkovic, Elizabeth; Tyler, Christopher P; Watkinson, Andrew R; Wentworth, Jonny; Willis, Rebecca; Wollner, Patrick K A; Worts, Kim; Sutherland, William J
Public policy requires public support, which in turn implies a need to enable the public not just to understand policy but also to be engaged in its development. Where complex science and technology issues are involved in policy making, this takes time, so it is important to identify emerging issues of this type and prepare engagement plans. In our horizon scanning exercise, we used a modified Delphi technique. A wide group of people with interests in the science and policy interface (drawn from policy makers, policy adviser, practitioners, the private sector and academics) elicited a long list of emergent policy issues in which science and technology would feature strongly and which would also necessitate public engagement as policies are developed. This was then refined to a short list of top priorities for policy makers. Thirty issues were identified within broad areas of business and technology; energy and environment; government, politics and education; health, healthcare, population and aging; information, communication, infrastructure and transport; and public safety and national security.
Full Text Available Public policy requires public support, which in turn implies a need to enable the public not just to understand policy but also to be engaged in its development. Where complex science and technology issues are involved in policy making, this takes time, so it is important to identify emerging issues of this type and prepare engagement plans. In our horizon scanning exercise, we used a modified Delphi technique. A wide group of people with interests in the science and policy interface (drawn from policy makers, policy adviser, practitioners, the private sector and academics elicited a long list of emergent policy issues in which science and technology would feature strongly and which would also necessitate public engagement as policies are developed. This was then refined to a short list of top priorities for policy makers. Thirty issues were identified within broad areas of business and technology; energy and environment; government, politics and education; health, healthcare, population and aging; information, communication, infrastructure and transport; and public safety and national security.
Parker, Miles; Acland, Andrew; Armstrong, Harry J.; Bellingham, Jim R.; Bland, Jessica; Bodmer, Helen C.; Burall, Simon; Castell, Sarah; Chilvers, Jason; Cleevely, David D.; Cope, David; Costanzo, Lucia; Dolan, James A.; Doubleday, Robert; Feng, Wai Yi; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Good, David A.; Grant, Jonathan; Green, Nick; Groen, Arnoud J.; Guilliams, Tim T.; Gupta, Sunjai; Hall, Amanda C.; Heathfield, Adam; Hotopp, Ulrike; Kass, Gary; Leeder, Tim; Lickorish, Fiona A.; Lueshi, Leila M.; Magee, Chris; Mata, Tiago; McBride, Tony; McCarthy, Natasha; Mercer, Alan; Neilson, Ross; Ouchikh, Jackie; Oughton, Edward J.; Oxenham, David; Pallett, Helen; Palmer, James; Patmore, Jeff; Petts, Judith; Pinkerton, Jan; Ploszek, Richard; Pratt, Alan; Rocks, Sophie A.; Stansfield, Neil; Surkovic, Elizabeth; Tyler, Christopher P.; Watkinson, Andrew R.; Wentworth, Jonny; Willis, Rebecca; Wollner, Patrick K. A.; Worts, Kim; Sutherland, William J.
Public policy requires public support, which in turn implies a need to enable the public not just to understand policy but also to be engaged in its development. Where complex science and technology issues are involved in policy making, this takes time, so it is important to identify emerging issues of this type and prepare engagement plans. In our horizon scanning exercise, we used a modified Delphi technique . A wide group of people with interests in the science and policy interface (drawn from policy makers, policy adviser, practitioners, the private sector and academics) elicited a long list of emergent policy issues in which science and technology would feature strongly and which would also necessitate public engagement as policies are developed. This was then refined to a short list of top priorities for policy makers. Thirty issues were identified within broad areas of business and technology; energy and environment; government, politics and education; health, healthcare, population and aging; information, communication, infrastructure and transport; and public safety and national security. PMID:24879444
Zhao Yuliang; Chai Zhifang; Liu Yuanfang
Nuclear science is considered as a big science and also the frontier in the 20 th century, it developed many big scientific facilities and many technique platforms (e.g., nuclear reactor, synchrotron radiation, accelerator, etc.) Nuclear Science and Technology (NST) provide us with many unique tools such as neutron beams, electron beams, gamma rays, alpha rays, beta rays, energetic particles, etc. These are efficient and essential probes for studying many technique and scientific issues in the fields of new materials, biological sciences, environmental sciences, life sciences, medical science, etc. Nano Science and Technology (NST) is a newly emerging multidisciplinary science and the frontier in the 21 st century, it is expected to dominate the technological revolution in diverse aspects of our life. It involves diverse fields such as nanomaterials, nanobiological sciences, environmental nanotechnology, nanomedicine, etc. nanotechnology was once considered as a futuristic science with applications several decades in the future and beyond. But, the rapid development of nanotechnology has broken this prediction. For example, diverse types of manufactured nanomaterials or nanostructures have been currently utilized in industrial products, semiconductors, electronics, stain-resistant clothing, ski wax, catalysts, other commodity products such as food, sunscreens, cosmetics, automobile parts, etc., to improve their performance of previous functions, or completely create novel functions. They will also be increasingly utilized in medicines for purposes of clinic therapy, diagnosis, and drug delivery. In the talk, we will discuss the possibility of NST-NST integration: how to apply the unique probes of advanced radiochemical and nuclear techniques in nanoscience and nanotechnology. (authors)
Yamanouchi, Kaoru; Ledingham, Kenneth
The PUILS series delivers up-to-date reviews of progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science, a newly emerging interdisciplinary research field spanning atomic and molecular physics, molecular science, and optical science, which has been stimulated by the recent developments in ultrafast laser technologies. Each volume compiles peer-reviewed articles authored by researchers at the forefront of each their own subfields of UILS. Every chapter opens with an overview of the topics to be discussed, so that researchers unfamiliar to the subfield, as well as graduate students, can grasp the importance and attractions of the research topic at hand; these are followed by reports of cutting-edge discoveries. This fifth volume covers a broad range of topics from this interdisciplinary research field, focusing on coherent responses of gaseous and condensed matter to ultrashort intense laser pulses, propagation of intense laser pulses, and laser-plasma interaction and its applications.
DeFlitch, Christopher; Geeting, Glenn; Paz, Harold L
Healthcare system flow resulting in emergency departments (EDs) crowding is a quality and access problem. This case study examines an overcrowded academic health center ED with increasing patient volumes and limited physical space for expansion. ED capacity and efficiency improved via engineering principles application, addressing patient and staffing flows, and reinventing the delivery model. Using operational data and staff input, patient and staff flow models were created, identifying bottlenecks (points of inefficiency). A new flow model of emergency care delivery, physician-directed queuing, was developed. Expanding upon physicians in triage, providers passively evaluate all patients upon arrival, actively manage patients requiring fewer resources, and direct patients requiring complex resources to further evaluation in ED areas. Sustained over time, ED efficiency improved as measured by near elimination of "left without being seen" patients and waiting times with improvement in door to doctor, patient satisfaction, and total length of stay. All improvements were in the setting on increased patient volume and no increase in physician staffing. Our experience suggests that practical application of healthcare delivery science can be used to improve ED efficiency. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available Recently, morphometric analysis is being a very good tool for identification of honey bee races and characterization of genetic materials. This fact has motivated the present work to investigate the effects of two grafting methods, three types of artificial queen wax cups and four periods of queen rearing on some morphological characters of newly emerged queens. The developed technique used in the present study depends on the integration between Scanner unit and Photoshop program, called Scan Photo Method (SPM. The measurements of 23 morphological characteristics of reared queens were estimated by using SPM. Results indicated significant differences between periods in the measurements of the studied characteristics on forewing such as cubital index, distance C, distance D, radial field, inner wing length, inner wing width, dumb bell index, distance I, II, III and IV, except cubital A and cubital B. Regarding the effects of cup types and grafting methods, data also revealed significant differences in all measurements of studied characteristics, except tibial length, hind wing length, cubital B, radial field and distance IV. Further works in this area were recommended to find out a relation between some morphometric characters and important of some quantitative characters.
This paper reports that Mongolia, formerly the Mongolian People's Republic, is working to open its exploration prospects to international operators as it emerges as the world's 15th largest independent nation. The country, about the same size as Alaska with a population of 2 million, held its first free election in July 1990. The newly elected government drafted a constitution that took effect Feb. 12, 1992. The document modifies the previous government's structures to eliminate bureaucracy and allows for political pluralism. At the same time, the government is formulating energy policies, state oil company structure, and resource development philosophy
Thakur, Narsinh L; Jain, Roopesh; Natalio, Filipe; Hamer, Bojan; Thakur, Archana N; Müller, Werner E G
An appreciation of the potential applications of molecular biology is of growing importance in many areas of life sciences, including marine biology. During the past two decades, the development of sophisticated molecular technologies and instruments for biomedical research has resulted in significant advances in the biological sciences. However, the value of molecular techniques for addressing problems in marine biology has only recently begun to be cherished. It has been proven that the exploitation of molecular biological techniques will allow difficult research questions about marine organisms and ocean processes to be addressed. Marine molecular biology is a discipline, which strives to define and solve the problems regarding the sustainable exploration of marine life for human health and welfare, through the cooperation between scientists working in marine biology, molecular biology, microbiology and chemistry disciplines. Several success stories of the applications of molecular techniques in the field of marine biology are guiding further research in this area. In this review different molecular techniques are discussed, which have application in marine microbiology, marine invertebrate biology, marine ecology, marine natural products, material sciences, fisheries, conservation and bio-invasion etc. In summary, if marine biologists and molecular biologists continue to work towards strong partnership during the next decade and recognize intellectual and technological advantages and benefits of such partnership, an exciting new frontier of marine molecular biology will emerge in the future.
Observations show that newly emerging flux tends to appear on the Solar surface at sites where there is flux already. This results in clustering of solar activity. Standard dynamo theories do not predict this effect.
Yield evaluation and stability analysis in newly selected `KSA' cotton cultivars in Western Kenya. R M Opondo, G A Ombakho. Abstract. (African Crop Science Journal, 1997 5(2): 119-126). http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/acsj.v5i2.27854 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...
Udongo, Betty Pacutho
admission in higher institutions of learning, (b) curriculum reform, (c) professional development of teachers, (d) school security and safety, (e) science and technology education, and (f) increased funding for emergency education. The study proposes a model of "Schools as Islands of Peace and Hope" with science education as the tool for post-conflict economic recovery, as a blue print for emergency education policy framework.
Ciechanowski, Kathryn M.
This research explores third-grade science and language instruction for emergent bilinguals designed through a framework of planning, lessons, and assessment in an interconnected model including content, linguistic features, and functions. Participants were a team of language specialist, classroom teacher, and researcher who designed…
van der Wende, Marijk
This article explores the question of why liberal arts and sciences education has been (re-)emerging in Europe over roughly the last two decades. A period, which is also characterized by the Bologna Process, that is the introduction of distinct undergraduate--graduate degree cycles, and the explicit framing of higher education policies within the…
Joseph-Reynolds, Ann; Auden, Steve; Sobczyzk, Walter
An infant with a newly-described subtype of congenital long QT syndrome is presented, along with her perioperative management on three separate occasions. During each anaesthetic characteristic arrhythmias occurred. The available literature and rational approaches to these high risk patients are reviewed. 1997 Blackwell Science Ltd.
Shapira, Philip; Kwon, Seokbeom; Youtie, Jan
Synthetic biology is an emerging domain that combines biological and engineering concepts and which has seen rapid growth in research, innovation, and policy interest in recent years. This paper contributes to efforts to delineate this emerging domain by presenting a newly constructed bibliometric definition of synthetic biology. Our approach is dimensioned from a core set of papers in synthetic biology, using procedures to obtain benchmark synthetic biology publication records, extract keywords from these benchmark records, and refine the keywords, supplemented with articles published in dedicated synthetic biology journals. We compare our search strategy with other recent bibliometric approaches to define synthetic biology, using a common source of publication data for the period from 2000 to 2015. The paper details the rapid growth and international spread of research in synthetic biology in recent years, demonstrates that diverse research disciplines are contributing to the multidisciplinary development of synthetic biology research, and visualizes this by profiling synthetic biology research on the map of science. We further show the roles of a relatively concentrated set of research sponsors in funding the growth and trajectories of synthetic biology. In addition to discussing these analyses, the paper notes limitations and suggests lines for further work.
Full Text Available Merv, the first center and one of the four largest cities of Khorasan, had undergone some radical changes, which also influenced the history of the region it was located, in political, military, social, cultural and scientific aspects since its conquest. In this context, the emergence of Islamic sciences in Merv and its status in the first two centuries a.h. will be handled and some scientific personalities of the period will be mentioned within the scope of the article.
Dias, Michael James
Traditional, teacher-centered pedagogies dominate current teaching practice in science education despite numerous research-based assertions that promote more progressive, student-centered teaching methods. Best-practice research emerging from science education reform efforts promotes experiential, collaborative learning environments in line with the constructivist referent. Thus there is a need to identify specific teacher education program designs that will promote the utilization of constructivist theory among new teachers. This study explored the learning-to-teach process of four first-year high school teachers, all graduates of a constructivist-based science education program known as Teacher Education Environments in Mathematics and Science (TEEMS). Pedagogical perspectives and implicit theories were explored to identify common themes and their relation to the pre-service program and the teaching context. Qualitative methods were employed to gather and analyze the data. In depth, semi-structured interviews (Seidman, 1998) formed the primary data for probing the context and details of the teachers' experience as well as the personal meaning derived from first year practice. Teacher journals and teaching artifacts were utilized to validate and challenge the primary data. Through an open-coding technique (Strauss & Corbin, 1990) codes, and themes were generated from which assertions were made. The pedagogical perspectives apparent among the participants in this study emerged as six patterns in teaching method: (1) utilization of grouping strategies, (2) utilization of techniques that allow the students to help teach, (3) similar format of daily instructional strategy, (4) utilization of techniques intended to promote engagement, (5) utilization of review strategies, (6) assessment by daily monitoring and traditional tests, (7) restructuring content knowledge. Assertions from implicit theory data include: (1) Time constraints and lack of teaching experience made
Bellini, Romeo; Puggioli, Arianna; Balestrino, Fabrizio; Brunelli, Paolo; Medici, Anna; Urbanelli, Sandra; Carrieri, Marco
Aedes albopictus male survival in laboratory cages is no more than 4-5 days when kept without any access to sugar indicating their need to feed on a sugar source soon after emergence. We therefore developed a device to administer energetic substances to newly emerged males when released as pupae as part of a sterile insect technique (SIT) programme, made with a polyurethane sponge 4 cm thick and perforated with holes 2 cm in diameter. The sponge was imbibed with the required sugar solution and due to its high retention capacity the sugar solution was available for males to feed for at least 48 h. When evaluated in lab cages, comparing adults emerged from the device with sugar solution vs the device with water only (as negative control), about half of the males tested positive for fructose using the Van Handel anthrone test, compared to none of males in the control cage. We then tested the tool in semi-field and in field conditions with different sugar concentrations (10%, 15%, and 20%) and compared results to the controls fed with water only. Males were recaptured by a battery operated manual aspirator at 24 and 48 h after pupae release. Rather high share 10-25% of captured males tested positive for fructose in recollections in the vicinity of the control stations, while in the vicinity of the sugar stations around 40-55% of males were positive, though variability between replicates was large. The sugar positive males in the control test may have been released males that had access to natural sugar sources found close to the release station and/or wild males present in the environment. Only a slight increase in the proportion of positive males was obtained by increasing the sugar concentration in the feeding device from 10% to 20%. Surprisingly, modification of the device to add a black plastic inverted funnel above the container reduced rather than increased the proportion of fructose positive males collected around the station. No evidence of difference in the
Werkenthin, Moritz; Kluge, Björn; Wessolek, Gerd
Newly constructed embankments should provide both a specific bearing capacity to enable trafficability in emergency cases and a sufficient pollutant retention capacity to protect the groundwater. A number of lysimeters were installed along the A115 highway to determine total and dissolved metal concentrations in road runoff and in the soil solution of newly constructed embankments. Dissolved concentrations in soil solution of the embankments did not exceed the trigger values of the German legislation. Depending on the metal, total concentrations in soil solution were more than twice as high as dissolved concentrations. The high infiltration rates lead to increased groundwater recharge beneath the embankments (up to 4100 mm a -1 ). Although metal concentrations were not problematic from the legislators' point of view, the elevated infiltration rates beside the road facilitated the transfer of high metal loads into deeper soil layers and potentially into the groundwater as well.
Ni Made Ruastiti
Full Text Available This research is focused on the newly packaged tourist performing arts; they are anew concept and seem to be different from the general tourist performing arts. They arepackaged from various components of Balinese arts and managed as large scale-touristperforming arts in terms of materials, space, and time of their performances. The researchercalls them new types of Bali tourist performing arts because how they are presented isnew and different from the traditional tourist performing arts which are simply performed.In this research, the newly-packaged performing arts are analyzed in the perspective ofcultural studies.The research was carried out at three palaces in Bali; they are Mengwi Palace inBadung regency, Anyar Palace at Kerambitan, Tabanan regency, and Banyuning Palace atBongkasa, Badung regency. There are three main problems to be discussed: firstly, how dothe tourist performing arts emerge in all the palaces? Secondly, are they related to thetourist industry developed in the palaces?, thirdly, what is the impact and meaning of themfor the sake of the palaces, society, and Balinese culture? The researcher uses a qualitativemethod and an interdisciplinary approach as characteristics of cultural studies. The theoriesused are hegemony, deconstruction, and structuration.The result shows that the tourism development at all the palaces has made the localsociety become more critical. The money-oriented economy based on the spirit of gettingbenefit has made the emergence of comodification in all sectors of life. The emergence oftourist industry at the palaces has led to the idea of showing all of the useful art and culturalpotentials which at the palaces and their surroundings. Theoretically, the palaces can bestated to have deconstructed the concept of presenting the Bali tourist performing arts into anew one, that is, “the newly packaged Bali tourist performing arts”.It has been observed that all the palaces have developed t “Newly
Manchanda, Pammy; Bhardwaj, Rashmi
The present volume contains invited talks of 11th biennial conference on “Emerging Mathematical Methods, Models and Algorithms for Science and Technology”. The main message of the book is that mathematics has a great potential to analyse and understand the challenging problems of nanotechnology, biotechnology, medical science, oil industry and financial technology. The book highlights all the features and main theme discussed in the conference. All contributing authors are eminent academicians, scientists, researchers and scholars in their respective fields, hailing from around the world.
At the heart of the universe is a steady, insistent beat, the sound of cycles in sync. Along the tidal rivers of Malaysia, thousands of fireflies congregate and flash in unison; the moon spins in perfect resonance with its orbit around the earth; our hearts depend on the synchronous firing of ten thousand pacemaker cells. While the forces that synchronize the flashing of fireflies may seem to have nothing to do with our heart cells, there is in fact a deep connection. Synchrony is a science in its infancy, and Strogatz is a pioneer in this new frontier in which mathematicians and physicists attempt to pinpoint just how spontaneous order emerges from chaos. From underground caves in Texas where a French scientist spent six months alone tracking his sleep-wake cycle, to the home of a Dutch physicist who in 1665 discovered two of his pendulum clocks swinging in perfect time, this fascinating book spans disciplines, continents, and centuries. Engagingly written for readers of books such as Chaos and The Elegant ...
Yuan, Wei Ming; Lu, Yuan Qiang; Wei, Zheng; Chen, Ming; He, Sheng Liang; Mai, Wen Yuan; Zhang, Mei Bian
Emergencies of epistaxis in students caused by environmental pollution have rarely been reported to date. This study aimed to explore the cause of an emergency of epistaxis in elementary students by using a field epidemiological investigation. Twenty-two epistaxis cases from a single school with differences in gender, age, and classroom, were diagnosed within a period of 7 days. The air concentration of chromic acid mist (Cr6+) in the electroplating factory area, new campus, and residential area exceeded the limit of uncontrolled emissions. The emission of HCL and H2SO4 was also observed. Formaldehyde levels in the classrooms exceeded the limits of indoor air quality. Abnormal nasal mucosa was significantly more frequent in the case group (93.3%) and control group 1 (of the same school) (66.7%) than in control group 2 (from a mountainous area with no industrial zone) (34.8%; P epistaxis. Several lessons regarding factory site selection, eradication of chemical emissions, and indoor air quality in newly decorated classrooms, should be learned from this emergency. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.
In 1996 the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) continued in systematic development of its activities in the field of emergency planning according to the concept adopted by the Authority and according to the concept for building Emergency headquarters (EH) adopted after establishing of Emergency Response Centre (ERC). Major efforts were focused not only on building up a quality EH, but also tasks associated with completion and incorporation of ERC into emergency planning and emergency managing. An important role in building ERC was played by international missions. Significant position among these missions was taken by missions from Great Britain, which in the past years made a significant contribution to building up ERC. These missions focused on review of newly created standard procedures, preparation and implementation of first emergency exercises of the EH. The emergency exercises in which NRA SR took place in 1996 are reviewed. In order to make the co-operation of the Authority with the selected Army units of SR more effective in solving extraordinary situations in nuclear energy, an agreement was signed between NRA SR and the Headquarters of the Army of SR, which will help significantly to the objective
Binder, Andrew R; Cacciatore, Michael A; Scheufele, Dietram A; Shaw, Bret R; Corley, Elizabeth A
This study presents a systematic comparison of two alternative measures of citizens' perceptions of risks and benefits of emerging technologies. By focusing on two specific issues (nanotechnology and biofuels), we derive several insights for the measurement of public views of science. Most importantly, our analyses reveal that relying on global, single-item measures may lead to invalid inferences regarding external influences on public perceptions, particularly those related to cognitive schema and media use. Beyond these methodological implications, this analysis suggests several reasons why researchers in the area of public attitudes toward science must revisit notions of measurement in order to accurately inform the general public, policymakers, scientists, and journalists about trends in public opinion toward emerging technologies.
The 82nd Annual Meeting of the Indian Academy of Sciences is being held at ... by newly elected Fellows and Associates over a wide range of scientific topics. ... Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER), Bhopal: Indian ...
Full Text Available Background: emergencies can impose huge dolls on the organizations. Such consequences, due to aggregation of the experts, could lead to the more catastrophic outcomes in the academic environments. Usually, the academic environments are less familiar with the management of the emergencies. The present paper tries to measure the preparedness level against the emergencies in the Hamadan University of Medical Sciences. Method: a basic checklist was developed based on the ISO 22399:2003. The, an audit team was established and conducted the audit process. Five core element that were investigated included: planning, organizational structure, resources, communication and scenario analysis. These items were scored 0-3 according to the sampling audit evidences. Results: the overall status of all elements were assessed as the "unacceptable". The least score belonged to the scenario analysis and the most was related to the resources. Discussion: regarding the obtained results, it seems that there is a vital need to establishing an emergency management system for Hamadan University of Medical Sciences. The most practical offer is following the accepted standards for implementing an emergency management system.
Mi'kmaw students face a complexity of personal, cultural, and social conditions within contemporary educational systems that affect their continued participation in the educational process offered within Atlantic Canada. Despite a variety of approaches developed by educators to address the high drop out rate and lack of interest in science, the statistics remain largely unchanged. Aboriginal educators are calling for a "new story" in education that better meets the needs of Aboriginal students. This study attempts to identify the conditions and contexts necessary to bridge the gap that currently exists for Aboriginal students in science studies. The research investigates the basic relationship between learning in general and the meaning-making processes engaged in by students of a Grade 7/8 class within a Mi'kmaw reserve school. It leads to a proposal for an alternative pedagogy, or a new narrative, for teaching science to Aboriginal students and the foundations for a culturally interactive science curriculum. For educators to understand the complexity of issues affecting Mi'kmaw student achievement in science requires a theoretical framework that allows the students' lived experience to emerge. Toward this end, the research includes both phenomenological and ethnographic approaches to understanding the lived experiences and cultural narratives based on interviews with the students, a field trip within the community, and a trial chemistry lesson. I examined how these students perceive themselves in different contexts and how their sense of identity establishes the meaningfulness of particular educational content. I also assessed how person, community/cultural and social contexts affect the students' learning. Part of creating this new narrative requires recognizing knowledge, including science, as a cultural product Taking this cultural view of scientific knowledge allows us to view learning as a process of identity formation and culture as a system of symbols
Full text: Recent technological innovations have changed the landscape of traditional scientific research. Advances in the nano- and bio-sciences, and materials and information processing are driving innovations at a phenomenal rate, resulting in greater interest yet uncertainty in the chemical-biological threat environment, research and development and other fields of policy, and overall preparedness. Conversely, the synergy arising from the convergence of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information processing and cognitive sciences (NBIC) offers great potential for transformational, revolutionary opportunities with many technological applications. Employing a new initiative termed 'Technology Foresight, Assessment, and Road-Mapping' (Tech-FARM TM ) - a multi dimensional futures-oriented approach for identification and management of emerging and/or disruptive science and technology. In literature similar initiative termed as GRAIN and BANG appear with similarity to NBIC - however Tech-FARM is comprehensive and an exhaustive method. Trans-disciplinary principles underlying NBIC convergence facilitates the development of visions and projections of future possible scientific and technological advances, environments, and productive collaborations for integrated, novel and/or unconventional solutions for 21 st century chem. -bio defense challenges. Incorporation of cognitive sciences refers to human performance enhancement in battlefield theatre. The dynamic relationship between contextual influence (socio-economical factors) and technological development is of critical consideration for S and T futures analyses. The Tech-FARM approach comprises three over-lapping practices of futures studies, including: foresight, the identification of future S and T development and their interaction with society and environment with the purpose of guiding actions to produce a more favorable future; assessment, which is concerned with the unintended, indirect, and delayed impacts of
Swierstra, Tsjalling; Rip, Arie
There might not be a specific nano-ethics, but there definitely is an ethics of new & emerging science and technology (NEST), with characteristic tropes and patterns of moral argumentation. Ethical discussion in and around nanoscience and technology reflects such NEST-ethics. We offer an inventory
The concept of emergence appears in various places within the literature on expertise and expert practice. Here, I examine some of these applications of emergence in the light of two prominent accounts of emergence from the philosophy of science and philosophy of mind. I evaluate these accounts with respect to several specific contexts in which…
Turner II, B.L.; Lambin, E.F.; Reenberg, Anette
Land change science has emerged as a fundamental component of global environmental change and sustainability research. This interdisciplinary field seeks to understand the dynamics of land-cover and land-use as a coupled human-environment system in order to address theory, concepts, models......, and applications relevant to environmental and societal problems, including the intersection of the two. The major components and advances in land change are addressed: observation and monitoring; understanding the coupled system-causes, impacts, and consequences; modeling; and synthesis issues. The six articles...
Hammer, Kristianna; Hall, Elisabeth; Mogensen, Ole
BACKGROUND:: In mysterious ways, hope makes life meaningful even in chaotic and uncontrolled situations. When a woman is newly diagnosed with gynecologic cancer, hope is ineffable and needs exploring. Drawings help express ineffable phenomena. OBJECTIVE:: The aim of the study was to explore how...... women newly diagnosed with gynecologic cancer express the meaning of hope in drawings. METHOD:: Participants were 15 women who on the same day had received the diagnosis of gynecologic cancer. They were between 24 and 87 years (median, 52 years) with a variety of gynecologic cancer diagnoses. Data from...... 15 drawings and postdrawing interviews with the women were analyzed using visual and hermeneutic phenomenology. RESULTS:: Three themes emerged: hope as a spirit to move on, hope as energy through nature, and hope as a communion with families. CONCLUSION:: Hope as pictured in drawings often appears...
Full Text Available Our objective is to present a focused review of the scientific literature on the effect of alcohol consumption on violence related-injuries assessed in the emergency room (ER and to show how psychological and behavioral sciences could lead to a better understanding of the factors contributing to alcohol-related injuries in the ER. We retrieved published literature through a detailed search in Academic Search Premier, MEDLINE with Full Text PsycARTICLES, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, PsycINFO, PUBMed and SocINDEX with Full Text for articles related to emergency rooms, medical problems and sociocognitive models addressing alcohol intoxication articles. The first search was conducted in June 2011 and updated until August 2013. Literature shows that compared to uninjured patients; injured ones have a higher probability of: (i having an elevated blood-alcohol concentration upon arrival at the ER; (ii reporting having drunk alcohol during the six hours preceding the event; and (iii suffering from drinking-related consequences that adversely affect their social life. The main neurocognitive and sociocognitive models on alcohol and aggression are also discussed in order to understand the aetiology of violence-related injuries in emergency rooms. Suggestions are made for future research and prevention.
Søberg, Peder Veng
for transfer - and creation of innovation related knowledge, within newly established foreign invested R&D units in emerging markets, in particular China and India. The paper utilizes extensive empirical data, collected in a holistic multiple case study, including three globally leading MNCs, originating from...... foreign invested R&D units in these countries. Implications, especially relevant for managers, working with newly established foreign invested R&D units in emerging markets, are outlined....
Evans, J. D.; Hao, W.; Chettri, S. R.
Disaster risk management has grown to rely on earth observations, multi-source data analysis, numerical modeling, and interagency information sharing. The practice and outcomes of disaster risk management will likely undergo further change as several emerging earth science technologies come of age: mobile devices; location-based services; ubiquitous sensors; drones; small satellites; satellite direct readout; Big Data analytics; cloud computing; Web services for predictive modeling, semantic reconciliation, and collaboration; and many others. Integrating these new technologies well requires developing and adapting them to meet current needs; but also rethinking current practice to draw on new capabilities to reach additional objectives. This requires a holistic view of the disaster risk management enterprise and of the analytical or operational capabilities afforded by these technologies. One helpful tool for this assessment, the GEOSS Architecture for the Use of Remote Sensing Products in Disaster Management and Risk Assessment (Evans & Moe, 2013), considers all phases of the disaster risk management lifecycle for a comprehensive set of natural hazard types, and outlines common clusters of activities and their use of information and computation resources. We are using these architectural views, together with insights from current practice, to highlight effective, interrelated roles for emerging earth science technologies in disaster risk management. These roles may be helpful in creating roadmaps for research and development investment at national and international levels.
Jefferson, A.; McKinnon, M.
Doing science in public has incalculable benefits for professional networking, science advocacy, and public outreach, but it also carries significant risks. Online harassment related to social media use can pose significant emotional hardship, negatively impact professional standing, and even threaten physical welfare. Women, people of color, and other underrepresented people in science are disproportionately targeted for anonymous online harassment. We analyzed our experiences with online harassment, and tactics for managing this harassment. While anecdotal, our experiences cover scientists with differing identities and fields, demonstrating that while the details change the overarching patterns remain the same. Fear of becoming a target poses a significant barrier to engaging in public discourse about science. But it is possible to mitigate this risk. Successful strategies for social media to promote science while staying safe are slowly creating a body of emerging best practices. These tactics include proactively restricting access to personal information, developing strategies for identifying and responding to deliberate antagonists (trolls), and choosing when and how to participate in volatile topics. They also require full-community engagement from creating support networks, partnering with allies to manage sudden floods of hostility, and educating on security practices for protecting colleagues' potentially sensitive personal information. It is our hope that frank and open discussion of the realistic threat passed by harassment and strategies for mitigating that threat will jump start a culture of online safety amongst geoscientists, and encourage our most vulnerable and underrepresented scientists to participate in the public sphere.
Hertzum, Morten; Simonsen, Jesper
In Denmark emergency departments are newly established and still in a process of devising their procedures and technology support. Electronic whiteboards are a means of supporting clinicians in creating and maintaining the overview necessary to provide quality treatment of patients. The concrete ...
The spectacular success of the scientific enterprise over the last four hundred years has led to the promise of an all encompassing vision of the natural world. In this elegant picture, everything we observe is based upon just a few fundamental processes and entities. The almost infinite variety and complexity of the world is thus the product of emergence. But the concept of emergence is fraught with controversy and confusion. This book ponders the question of how emergence should be understood within the scientific picture, and whether a complete vision of the world can be attained that includes consciousness.
Singh, R.; Bermudez, L. E.
Emerging Geospatial Sharing Technologies in Earth and Space Science Informatics The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) mission is to serve as a global forum for the collaboration of developers and users of spatial data products and services, and to advance the development of international standards for geospatial interoperability. The OGC coordinates with over 400 institutions in the development of geospatial standards. In the last years two main trends are making disruptions in geospatial applications: mobile and context sharing. People now have more and more mobile devices to support their work and personal life. Mobile devices are intermittently connected to the internet and have smaller computing capacity than a desktop computer. Based on this trend a new OGC file format standard called GeoPackage will enable greater geospatial data sharing on mobile devices. GeoPackage is perhaps best understood as the natural evolution of Shapefiles, which have been the predominant lightweight geodata sharing format for two decades. However the format is extremely limited. Four major shortcomings are that only vector points, lines, and polygons are supported; property names are constrained by the dBASE format; multiple files are required to encode a single data set; and multiple Shapefiles are required to encode multiple data sets. A more modern lingua franca for geospatial data is long overdue. GeoPackage fills this need with support for vector data, image tile matrices, and raster data. And it builds upon a database container - SQLite - that's self-contained, single-file, cross-platform, serverless, transactional, and open source. A GeoPackage, in essence, is a set of SQLite database tables whose content and layout is described in the candidate GeoPackage Implementation Specification available at https://portal.opengeospatial.org/files/?artifact_id=54838&version=1. The second trend is sharing client 'contexts'. When a user is looking into an article or a product on the web
Bruno B. Chomel
Full Text Available Since the middle of the 20th century, pets are more frequently considered as “family members” within households. However, cats and dogs still can be a source of human infection by various zoonotic pathogens. Among emerging or re-emerging zoonoses, viral diseases, such as rabies (mainly from dog pet trade or travel abroad, but also feline cowpox and newly recognized noroviruses or rotaviruses or influenza viruses can sicken our pets and be transmitted to humans. Bacterial zoonoses include bacteria transmitted by bites or scratches, such as pasteurellosis or cat scratch disease, leading to severe clinical manifestations in people because of their age or immune status and also because of our closeness, not to say intimacy, with our pets. Cutaneous contamination with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Leptospira spp., and/or aerosolization of bacteria causing tuberculosis or kennel cough are also emerging/re-emerging pathogens that can be transmitted by our pets, as well as gastro-intestinal pathogens such as Salmonella or Campylobacter. Parasitic and fungal pathogens, such as echinococcosis, leishmaniasis, onchocercosis, or sporotrichosis, are also re-emerging or emerging pet related zoonoses. Common sense and good personal and pet hygiene are the key elements to prevent such a risk of zoonotic infection.
Thuesen, Christian; Aaris Boas, Charlotte; Thorslund, Michael V.; Marmier, Francois; Grex, Sara; Lybecker, Søren
This paper presents results of a study of the connection between Best and Emerging practices of project management. Drawing upon network mapping as an analytical strategy, cases of Best and Emerging practices is analysed and juxtaposed. The case of Best practice is represented by the newly published ISO 21500 standard and the case for the Emerging practices by a deconstruction of the practices of a group of experienced project managers. The network analysis reveals a substantial difference be...
Nahrul Khaer Alang Rashid
The presentation discussed the following subjects: emerging technology; nuclear technology; fusion emerging and nuclear technology; progressive nature of knowledge; optically stimulated luminescence - application of luminescence technology to sediments; Biosystemics technology -convergence nanotechnology, ecological science, biotechnology, cognitive science and IT - prospective impact on materials science, the management of public system for bio-health, eco and food system integrity and disease mitigation
Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Patient satisfaction in emergency departments is an indicator of healthcare quality, evaluation of which can promote awareness of the relevant authorities regarding its status. This study aimed to evaluate patient satisfaction in emergency departments in hospitals affiliated to Babol University of Medical Sciences. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed in patients admitted to emergency departments in hospitals affiliated to Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran, during a period of eight months (2013-2014. The participants were chosen through convenience sampling. Information regarding hospital environment, facilities, and nursing team was collected using a standard questionnaire. Standard questionnaire responses were classified to” don’t happen, dissatisfied, low, medium and high satisfaction”. Then medium and high responses classified to favorable satisfaction (above average and low or dissatisfied responses were classified to unfavorable satisfaction. In case the patients were unable to fill-out the questionnaire, their companion completed it for them. FINDINGS: Overall, 444 (87.9% patients expressed optimum satisfaction. The highest rate of dissatisfaction (14.8%, n=74 was related to environment and services, while the highest rate of satisfaction (49.3%, n=246 was pertinent to nursing staff. The results indicated that the rate of satisfaction in residents of rural areas was 0.55 times higher than in urban residents (OR: 1.55, 95% CI: 1.12-2.70, p=0.02, 50% lower in patients compared to companions (OR: 0.55, 95% CI: 0.36-0.83, p=0.05,and in the evening shift was 0.65 times higher than in those admitted in the morning (OR: 1.65, 95% CI: 1.06-2.58, p=0.03. Moreover, this rate in patients admitted at night shift was 0.74 times higher than in those admitted in the morning (OR: 1.74, 95% CI: 1.12-2.70, p=0.01. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated optimum patient satisfaction in emergency
Lee, Kim-Sung; Cox-Singh, Janet; Brooke, George; Matusop, Asmad; Singh, Balbir
Human infections with Plasmodium knowlesi have been misdiagnosed by microscopy as Plasmodium malariae due to their morphological similarities. Although microscopy-identified P. malariae cases have been reported in the state of Sarawak (Malaysian Borno) as early as 1952, recent epidemiological studies suggest the absence of indigenous P. malariae infections. The present study aimed to determine the past incidence and distribution of P. knowlesi infections in the state of Sarawak based on archival blood films from patients diagnosed by microscopy as having P. malariae infections. Nested PCR assays were used to identify Plasmodium species in DNA extracted from 47 thick blood films collected in 1996 from patients in seven different divisions throughout the state of Sarawak. Plasmodium knowlesi DNA was detected in 35 (97.2%) of 36 blood films that were positive for Plasmodium DNA, with patients originating from all seven divisions. Only one sample was positive for P. malariae DNA. This study provides further evidence of the widespread distribution of human infections with P. knowlesi in Sarawak and its past occurrence. Taken together with data from previous studies, our findings suggest that P. knowlesi malaria is not a newly emergent disease in humans. PMID:19358848
Tragic university shootings have prompted administrators of higher education institutions to re-evaluate their emergency preparedness plans and take appropriate measures for preventing and responding to emergencies. To review the literature and identify key components needed to prevent shootings at higher education institutions in the United States, and in particular, institutions housing radiologic science programs. Twenty-eight emergency preparedness plans were retrieved electronically and reviewed from a convenience sample of accredited radiologic science programs provided by the Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology Web site. The review of the 28 emergency preparedness plans confirmed that most colleges are prepared for basic emergencies, but lack the key components needed to successfully address mass-casualty events. Only 5 (18%) of the 28 institutions addressed policies concerning school shootings.
Borja Gonzalez-Albo; Maria Bordons; Pedro Gorria
Neutron scattering (NS) is a 'big science' discipline whose research spans over a wide spectrum of fields, from fundamental or basic science to technological applications. The objective of this paper is to track the evolution of Spanish research in NS from a bibliometric perspective and to place it in the international context. Scientific publications of Spanish authors included in the Web of Science (WoS 1970-2006) are analysed with respect to five relevant dimensions: volume of research output, impact, disciplinary diversity, structural field features and internationalisation. NS emerges as a highly internationalised fast-growing field whose research is firmly rooted in Physics, Chemistry and Engineering, but with applications in a wide range of fields. International collaboration links -present in around 70% of the documents- and national links have largely contributed to mould the existing structure of research in the area, which evolves around major neutron scattering facilities abroad. The construction of a new European neutron source (ESS) would contribute to the consolidation of the field within the EU, since it will strengthen research and improve current activity. (author)
González-Valiente, Carlos Luis
The paper presents a bibliometric analysis on the topic of Information Technology (IT) in the field of Educational Sciences, aimed at envisioning the research emerging trends. The ERIC database is used as a consultation source; the results were subjected to productivity by authors, journals, and term co-occurrence analysis indicators for the…
Kim, Yunmi; You, Sunju; Kim, Jinhyun
This study aimed to analyze the impact of increasing the supply of newly licensed nurses on improving the hospital nurse staffing grades for the period of 2009~2014. Using public administrative data, we analyzed the effect of newly licensed nurses on staffing in 1,594 hospitals using Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) ordered logistic regression, and of supply variation on improving staffing grades in 1,042 hospitals using GEE logistic regression. An increase of one newly licensed nurse per 100 beds in general units had significantly lower odds of improving staffing grades (grades 6~0 vs. 7) (odds ratio=0.95, p=.005). The supply of newly licensed nurses increased by 32% from 2009 to 2014, and proportion of hospitals whose staffing grade had improved, not changed, and worsened was 19.1%, 70.1%, and 10.8% respectively. Compared to 2009, the supply variation of newly licensed nurses in 2014 was not significantly related to the increased odds of improving staffing grades in the region (OR=1.02, p=.870). To achieve a balance in the regional supply and demand for hospital nurses, compliance with nurse staffing legislation and revisions in the nursing fee differentiation policy are needed. Rather than relying on increasing nurse supply, retention policies for new graduate nurses are required to build and sustain competent nurse workforce in the future. © 2017 Korean Society of Nursing Science
Ivarsson, Bodil; Nilsson, Gunilla
The aim was to describe, from the newly registered nurses' perspective, specific events when using their pedagogical knowledge in their everyday clinical practice. The design was qualitative and the critical incident technique was used. Data was collected via interviews with ten newly registered nurses who graduated from the same University program 10 months earlier and are now employed at a university hospital. Two categories emerged in the analyses. The first category was "Pedagogical methods in theory" with the sub-categories Theory and the application of the course in practice, Knowledge of pedagogy and Information as a professional competence. The second category was "Pedagogical methods in everyday clinical practice" with sub-categories Factual knowledge versus pedagogical knowledge, Information and relatives, Difficulties when giving information, Understanding information received, Pedagogical tools, Collaboration in teams in pedagogical situations, and Time and giving information. By identifying specific events regarding pedagogical methods the findings can be useful for everyone from teachers and health-care managers to nurse students and newly registered nurses, to improve teaching methods in nurse education.
Needle, Andrew; Corbo, Christopher; Wong, Denise; Greenfeder, Gary; Raths, Linda; Fulop, Zoltan
Two of this article's authors--an art professor and a biology professor--shared a project for advanced biology, art, nursing, and computer science majors involving scientific research that used digital imaging of the brain of the zebrafish, a newly favored laboratory animal. These contemporary and innovative teaching and learning practices were a…
Full Text Available [english] Digital technologies change how scientists access and process information and consequently impact publication forms in science. Even though the core of scientific publications has remained the same, established publication formats, such as the scientific paper or book, are succumbing to the transitions caused by digital technologies. At the same time, new online tools enable new publication forms, such as blogs, microblogs or wikis, to emerge. This article explores the changing and emerging publications forms in science and also reflects upon the changing role of libraries. The transformations of publishing forms are discussed in the context of open science.
This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Practical Tools for Radiation Emergency Preparedness. A specialist working with CDC's Radiation Studies Branch describes Psychological First Aid and a newly developed multimedia training program, entitled "Psychological First Aid in Radiation Disasters."
Chaudhury, S. Raj
Norfolk State University BEST Lab successfully hosted three Summer of Seasons programs from 1998-2001. The Summer of Seasons program combined activities during the summer with additional seminars and workshops to provide broad outreach in the number of students and teachers who participated. Lessons learned from the each of the first two years of this project were incorporated into the design of the final year's activities. The "Summer of Seasons" workshop program provided emerging educators with the familiarity and knowledge to utilize in the classroom curriculum materials developed through NASA sponsorship on Earth System Science. A special emphasis was placed on the use of advanced technologies to dispel the commonly held misconceptions regarding seasonal, climactic and global change phenomena.
Full Text Available A newly dead cadaver simulation is practiced on the physical remains of the dead before the onset of rigor mortis. This technique has potential benefits for providing real-life in-situ experience for novice providers in health care practices. Evolving ethical views in health care brings into question some of the ethical aspects associated with newly dead cadaver simulation in terms of justification for practice, autonomy, consent, and the need of disclosure. A clear statement of policies and procedures on newly dead cadaver simulation has yet to be implemented. Although there are benefits and disadvantages to an in-situ cadaver simulation, such practices should not be carried out in secrecy as there is no compelling evidence that suggests such training as imperative. Secrecy in these practices is a violation of honor code of nursing ethics. As health care providers, practitioners are obliged to be ethically honest and trustworthy to their patients. The author explores the ethical aspects of using newly dead cadaver simulation in training novice nursing providers to gain competency in various lifesaving skills, which otherwise cannot be practiced on a living individual. The author explores multiple views on cadaver simulation in relation to ethical theories and practices such as consent and disclosure to family.
Galaxias 'nebula', a small fish which has adaptations for air-breathing but is not known to be amphibious, voluntarily emerged from water and, in an unfamiliar environment, moved preferentially towards an alternative water source. Nebula may thus be considered one of the few truly amphibious fishes, and their ability to detect water provides a selective advantage which aids their survival in unpredictable natural environments. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.
Tatsuzaki, H.; Hachiya, M.
The National Institute of Radiological Sciences has been conducting many training courses on radiation emergency medicine, both for Japanese and foreigners. Medical professionals working in hospitals and first responders who deal with victims have been main participants of these courses for Japanese. Typically, these courses include table top exercises and/or practical drills, which give unique features to our courses, in addition to lectures. Apart from training courses, some medical professionals came to work as a staff member of NIRS for a long term, such as two years, to learn about radiation emergency medicine. Some foreigners also stayed in NIRS as short to middle term visitors to learn about the fields. Courses for foreigners were organized sometimes in cooperation with international organizations. Participants were mainly from Asian countries, and some courses targeted one country. For example, courses for Korean professionals were organized nine times. The NIRS will continue to contribute to human development in radiation emergency medicine with training courses and other methods of education. (author)
Full Text Available The South African education and training system, through its policy of outcomesbased education and training, has made competency a national priority. In compliance to this national requirement of producing competent learners, the South African Nursing Council ( 1999 B require that the beginner professional nurse practitioners and midwives have the necessary knowledge, skills, attitudes and values which will enable them to render efficient professional service. The health care system also demands competent nurse practitioners to ensure quality in health care. In the light of competency being a national priority and a statutory demand, the research question that emerges is, how competent are the newly qualified registered nurses from a specific nursing college in clinical nursing education? A quantitative, non-experimental contextual design was used to evaluate the competence of newly qualified registered nurses from a specific nursing college. The study was conducted in two phases. The first phase dealt with the development of an instrument together with its manual through the conceptualisation process. The second phase focused on the evaluation of the competency of newly qualified nurses using the instrument based on the steps of the nursing process. A pilot study was conducted to test the feasibility of the items of the instrument. During the evaluation phase, a sample of twenty-six newly qualified nurses was selected by simple random sampling from a target population of thirty-six newly qualified registered nurses. However, six participants withdrew from the study. Data was collected in two general hospitals where the newly qualified registered nurses were working. Observation and questioning were used as data collection techniques in accordance with the developed instrument. Measures were taken to ensure internal validity and reliability of the results. To protect the rights of the participants, the researcher adhered to DENOSA’S (1998
Lakupoch, Kingthong; Manuyakorn, Wiparat; Preutthipan, Aroonwan; Kamalaporn, Harutai
Providing asthma education about controller medication use and appropriate management of asthma exacerbation are the keys to improving the disease outcome. Many asthma guidelines recommend that physicians provide written asthma action plan (WAAP) to all of their asthmatic patients. However, the benefit of WAAP is unclear. Thus, we have created a new WAAP which is simplified in Thai and more user friendly. To determine the effectiveness of the newly developed asthma action plan in management of children with asthma. Asthmatic children who meet inclusion criteria all received the WAAP and they were followed up for 6 months with measurement of outcome variables, such as asthma exacerbation that required emergency room visit, unscheduled OPD visit, admission and school absence in order to compare with the past 6 months before receiving the WAAP. The analyzed outcomes of forty-nine children show significantly reduced emergency room visit (P-value 0.005), unscheduled OPD visit (P-value 0.046), admission days (P-value 0.026) and school absence days (P-value 0.022). Well controlled group and mild severity group were not the factors that contribute to decreased emergency room visit but step up therapy may be the co-factor to decreased ER visit. The results of this study suggest that the provision of newly developed WAAP is useful for improving self-care of asthma patients and reducing asthma exacerbation.
Wan, Zhi Hong; Wong, Siu Ling; Zhan, Ying
Nature of science (NOS) is beginning to find its place in the science education in China. In a study which investigated Chinese science teacher educators' conceptions of teaching NOS to prospective science teachers through semi-structured interviews, five key dimensions emerged from the data. This paper focuses on the dimension, "NOS content…
Voldbjerg, Siri Lygum; Grønkjaer, Mette; Sørensen, Erik Elgaard
AIM: To advance evidence on newly graduated nurses' use of knowledge sources. BACKGROUND: Clinical decisions need to be evidence-based and understanding the knowledge sources that newly graduated nurses use will inform both education and practice. Qualitative studies on newly graduated nurses' use...... underscoring progression in knowledge use and perception of competence and confidence among newly graduated nurses. CONCLUSION: The transition phase, feeling of confidence and ability to use critical thinking and reflection, has a great impact on knowledge sources incorporated in clinical decisions....... The synthesis accentuates that for use of newly graduated nurses' qualifications and skills in evidence-based practice, clinical practice needs to provide a supportive environment which nurtures critical thinking and questions and articulates use of multiple knowledge sources....
This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Practical Tools for Radiation Emergency Preparedness. A specialist working with CDC's Radiation Studies Branch describes Psychological First Aid and a newly developed multimedia training program, entitled "Psychological First Aid in Radiation Disasters.". Created: 12/30/2010 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) Radiation Studies Branch and Emergency Risk Communication Branch (ERCB)/Joint Information Center (JIC); Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR). Date Released: 1/13/2011.
Beck, Carolyn E; Boydell, Katherine M; Stasiulis, Elaine; Blanchette, Victor S; Llewellyn-Thomas, Hilary; Birken, Catherine S; Breakey, Vicky R; Parkin, Patricia C
This study aimed to examine the treatment decision-making process for children hospitalized with newly diagnosed immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Using focus groups, we studied children with ITP, parents of children with ITP, and health care professionals, inquiring about participants' experience with decision support and decision making in newly diagnosed ITP. Data were examined using thematic analysis. Themes that emerged from children were feelings of "anxiety, fear, and confusion"; the need to "understand information"; and "treatment choice," the experience of which was age dependent. For parents, "anxiety, fear, and confusion" was a dominant theme; "treatment choice" revealed that participants felt directed toward intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) for initial treatment. For health care professionals, "comfort level" highlighted factors contributing to professionals' comfort with offering options; "assumptions" were made about parental desire for participation in shared decision making (SDM) and parental acceptance of treatment options; "providing information" was informative regarding modes of facilitating SDM; and "treatment choice" revealed a discrepancy between current practice (directed toward IVIG) and the ideal of SDM. At our center, families of children with newly diagnosed ITP are not experiencing SDM. Our findings support the implementation of SDM to facilitate patient-centered care for the management of pediatric ITP.
Seymour B. Sarason's innovative ideas have influenced much of my work. These same ideas-in particular, his concepts of social settings, behavioral and programmatic regularities, and the universe of alternatives-also serve as the foundation for an action science of social settings. Questions regarding theory, measurement, intervention, and research design and data analysis are central to the development of this action science, and there have been recent innovations in each of these areas. However, future challenges remain for the field. We must continue to move forward to advance an action science of social settings and make a real difference in people's lives.
Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Myers, Sarah L; Walker, Stacy E; Kirby, Jessica
Professional commitment, or one's affinity and loyalty to a career, has become a topic of interest in athletic training. The expanding research on the topic, however, has omitted newly credentialed athletic trainers (ATs). For an impressionable group of practitioners, transitioning to clinical practice can be stressful. To explore the professional commitment of newly credentialed ATs in the secondary school setting. Secondary school. Qualitative study. A total of 31 newly credentialed ATs (6 men, 25 women; mean age = 24 ± 3 years) participated. Of these, 17 ATs (4 men, 13 women; mean age = 25 ± 4 years) were employed full time in the secondary school setting, and 14 ATs (2 men, 12 women; mean age = 23.0 ± 2.0 years) were graduate assistant students in the secondary school setting. All participants completed semistructured interviews, which focused on their experiences in the secondary school setting and transitioning into the role and setting. Transcripts were analyzed using the phenomenologic approach. Creditability was established by peer review, member checks, and researcher triangulation. Four main findings related to the professional commitment of newly credentialed ATs in the secondary school setting were identified. Work-life balance, professional relationships formed with the student-athletes, enjoyment gained from working in the secondary school setting, and professional responsibility emerged as factors facilitating commitment. Affective commitment is a primary facilitator of professional commitment. Newly credentialed ATs who enjoy their jobs and have time to engage in nonwork roles are able to maintain a positive professional commitment. Our findings align with the previous literature and help strengthen our understanding that rejuvenation and passion are important to professional commitment.
Park, Won Jong; Han, S. J.; Oh, K. H.
The emergency response organizational groups and roles of Off-site Emergency Management Center was proposed to respond in case of radiological emergency. Development of implementing procedures of Off-site Emergency Management Center in case of radiological emergency to improve effective co-operation and rapid response in radiological emergency. Establishment of 'The Ordinance of Operation of residence radiological emergency office of the Minister of Science and Technology' and announced by the Minister of Science and Technology. The Implementing procedures of Off-site Emergency Management Center and 'The Ordinance of Operation of residence radiological emergency office of the Minister of Science and Technology' can be provide guidelines in case of emergency
directly declared to him. Lastly, in ministry time of Dr. Farhadi in 2001 this major was initiated for the first time in Iran University of Medical Sciences. The present report was addressed to the education guideline of emergency medicine at Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences besides evaluating the formation history of emergency medicine discipline in Iran.
Nicholas T. Minahan
Full Text Available Rickettsial diseases, particularly vector-borne rickettsioses (VBR, have a long history in Taiwan, with studies on scrub typhus and murine typhus dating back over a century. The climatic and geographic diversity of Taiwan’s main island and its offshore islands provide many ecological niches for the diversification and maintenance of rickettsiae alike. In recent decades, scrub typhus has re-emerged as the most prevalent type of rickettsiosis in Taiwan, particularly in eastern Taiwan and its offshore islands. While murine typhus has also re-emerged on Taiwan’s western coast, it remains neglected. Perhaps more alarming than the re-emergence of these rickettsioses is the emergence of newly described VBR. The first case of human infection with Rickettsia felis was confirmed in 2005, and undetermined spotted fever group rickettsioses have recently been detected. Taiwan is at a unique advantage in terms of detecting and characterizing VBR, as it has universal health coverage and a national communicable disease surveillance system; however, these systems have not been fully utilized for this purpose. Here, we review the existing knowledge on the eco-epidemiology of VBR in Taiwan and recommend future courses of action.
Mejias Soto, Carolina
A manual has been prepared for the correct evaluation of tomographic studies in emergencies. The literature review was developed selecting printed books, journal articles, electronic of cases in etiopathogenesis, and neuroimaging findings frequently made emergencies. The information has been consulted in major bibliographic databases such as MD-Consult and Med-Line, radiology journals such as: Radiology, Radiographics, Clinics of North America, American Journal of Roetnology and newly available texts on neuroimaging. The manual has been a guide for radiology resident physicians, of the topics of greatest interest to collaborate in the diagnosis, monitoring of patients and therapeutic decisions [es
Mouritsen Ole G
Full Text Available Abstract This paper points to gastrophysics as an emerging scientific discipline that will employ a wide range of the most powerful theoretical, simulational and experimental biophysical techniques to study the empirical world of cooking and gastronomy. Gastrophysics aims to exploit recent advances in the physical sciences to forward the scientific study of food, its raw materials, the effects of processing food and quantitative aspects of the physical basis for food quality, flavour and absorption into the human body. It suggests the use in cooking of a class of raw materials little used in the Western world, the marine macroalgae or seaweeds, as a laboratory for defining, characterizing and shaping the emerging scientific discipline of gastrophysics. In relation to gastronomy, seaweed materials are virtually unexplored scientifically by physical experimentation and theory. The sea is one of the last resorts for humankind to exploit the ability to obtain more food to feed a hungry world, because world fisheries can no longer meet the need for healthy seafood. Hence, seaweeds offer a rich and virtually unexploited source of primary marine foodstuff in the Western world. To explore the full gastronomical potential of this resource, there is a need for fundamental research into the gastrophysics of seaweeds.
This paper scrutinizes FDI from a wide range of emerging economies (including newly industrializing Asian countries, Latin American countries and East European transition economies) that adopted different growth models in the past. The overarching research question of this paper is to which...... the integration of firms from different emerging economies via FDI into the global economy is linked to technological upgrading. We assume that technology seeking in advanced economies should be reflected in the relevance of particular location factors such as knowledge spillover. We analyses a large firm level...
Thuesen, Christian; Aaris Boas, Charlotte; Thorslund, Michael V.
This paper presents results of a study of the connection between Best and Emerging practices of project management. Drawing upon network mapping as an analytical strategy, cases of Best and Emerging practices is analysed and juxtaposed. The case of Best practice is represented by the newly...... published ISO 21500 standard and the case for the Emerging practices by a deconstruction of the practices of a group of experienced project managers. The network analysis reveals a substantial difference between the Best and Emerging practices. Only two central concepts where shared namely Communication...... and Planning. Of these two concepts Communication where found to be the most central to both the Emerging and Best practices. The analysis further reveals a soft side of project management that is central in the Emerging practice but absent from the Best practices. Although this soft side might be interpreted...
This article critically examines the political dimension of prevention science by asking how it constructs the problems for which prevention is seen as the solution and how it enables the monitoring and control of these problems. It also seeks to examine how prevention science has established a sphere for legitimate political deliberation and which kinds of statements are accepted as legitimate within this sphere. The material consists of 14 publications describing and discussing the goals, concepts, promises and problems of prevention science. The analysis covers the period from 1993 to 2012. The analysis shows that prevention science has established a narrow definition of "prevention", including only interventions aimed at the reduction of risks for clinical disorders. In publications from the U.S. National Institute of Drug Abuse, the principles of prevention science have enabled a commitment to a zero-tolerance policy on drugs. The drug using subject has been constructed as a rational choice actor lacking in skills in exerting self-control in regard to drug use. Prevention science has also enabled the monitoring and control of expertise, risk groups and individuals through specific forms of data gathering. Through the juxtaposition of the concepts of "objectivity" and "morality", prevention science has constituted a principle of delineation, disqualifying statements not adhering to the principles of prevention science from the political field, rendering ethical and conflictual dimensions of problem representations invisible. The valorisation of scientific accounts of drugs has acted to naturalise specific political ideals. It simultaneously marginalises the public from the public policy process, giving precedence to experts who are able to provide information that policy-makers are demanding. Alternative accounts, such as those based on marginalisation, poverty or discrimination are silenced within prevention science. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights
Schizas, Dimitrios; Psillos, Dimitris; Stamou, George
The present essay examines the emerging issue of domain-general versus domain-specific nature of science (NOS) understandings from a perspective that illuminates the value of domain-specific philosophies of science for the growth and development of the NOS educational field. Under the assumption that individual sciences do have their own…
Full Text Available Abstract Background and Objectives: Musculoskeletal disorders are one of the most common and costly occupational injuries, because they account for one-third of work-related injuries per year. In this study, the factors affecting musculoskeletal disorders, were investigated among hospital emergency nurses of Qom University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This study was performed as a descriptive cross-sectional study using census method on 127 nurses in the Emergency Department of hospitals affiliated to Qom University of Medical Sciences in 2014. The participants completed the Nordic musculoskeletal disorders questionnaire. Data analysis was carried out using Mann-Whitney and the Chi-square Statistical tests. The significance level was considered to be 0.05. Results: In this study, 46 (36.2% participants were men and the remaining were women. The mean age was 33.87±8.892 and the mean work hours per week was 57.71±17.675. The overall prevalence of musculoskeletal disorder was reported to be 82.7%, which had significant relationships with weight, interference with daily work, and pain per day (p0.05. Also, only 16 subjects had participated in ergonomics workshops and 118 subjects were aware of the occupational risks. Conclusion: According to the results of this study and high prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among nurses, it is suggested that given the type of disorder, change in the way of job performance, adjustment of working hours, holding ergonomics workshops, and preventive measures be placed on the agenda. Keywords: Musculoskeletal disorder; Emergency nurses; Occupational injuries.
The integrative nature of Earth System Science courses provides extensive opportunities to introduce students to geoethical inquiry focused on globally significant societal issues. Geoscience education has traditionally lagged in its efforts to increase student awareness of the significance of geologic knowledge to understanding and responsibly confronting causes and possible solutions for emergent, newly emerging, and future problems of anthropogenic cause and consequence. Developing an understanding of the human impact on the earth system requires early (lower division) and for geoscience majors, repeated (upper division) curricular emphasis on the interactions of the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, biosphere, and pedosphere across space and through time. Capturing the interest of university students in globally relevant earth system issues and their ethical dimensions while first learning about the earth system is an important initial step in bringing geoethical deliberation and awareness to the next generation of geoscientists. Development of a new introductory Earth System Science course replacing a traditional introductory Physical Geology course at Montana State University has involved abandonment of concept-based content organization in favor of a place-based approach incorporating examination of the complex interactions of earth system components and emergent issues and dilemmas deriving from the unique component interactions that characterize each locale. Thirteen different place-based week-long modules (using web- and classroom-based instruction) were developed to ensure cumulative broad coverage across the earth geographically and earth system components conceptually. Each place-based instructional module contains content of societal relevance requiring synthesis, critical evaluation, and reflection by students. Examples include making linkages between deforestation driven by economics and increased seismicity in Haiti, agriculture and development
Hartel, Pieter H.; Junger, Marianne; Wieringa, Roelf J.
Cyber-crime Science is an emerging area of study aiming to prevent cyber-crime by combining security protection techniques from Information Security with empirical research methods used in Crime Science. Information security research has developed techniques for protecting the confidentiality,
Scully, Christopher G; Forrest, Shawn; Galeotti, Loriano; Schwartz, Suzanne B; Strauss, David G
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) performs regulatory science to provide science-based medical product regulatory decisions. This article describes the types of scientific research the FDA's Center for Devices and Radiological Health performs and highlights specific projects related to medical devices for emergency medicine. In addition, this article discusses how results from regulatory science are used by the FDA to support the regulatory process as well as how the results are communicated to the public. Regulatory science supports the FDA's mission to assure safe, effective, and high-quality medical products are available to patients. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Foronda, Cynthia L; Alfes, Celeste M; Dev, Parvati; Kleinheksel, A J; Nelson, Douglas A; OʼDonnell, John M; Samosky, Joseph T
Augmented reality and virtual simulation technologies in nursing education are burgeoning. Preliminary evidence suggests that these innovative pedagogical approaches are effective. The aim of this article is to present 6 newly emerged products and systems that may improve nursing education. Technologies may present opportunities to improve teaching efforts, better engage students, and transform nursing education.
Nielsen, Birgitte Lund
about their own subject matter knowledge may, for a large subgroup in the cohort, affect how the teachers‘ approach the physics content when teaching primary Science & Technology (grade 1-6 in the Danish schools). Beside this the cohort can be divided into subgroups with great variation in strengths......Results from a survey of a local cohort of newly qualified Danish science teachers before they began their first jobs in primary and lower secondary schools (n=110) show a need for continual Professional Development (PD). The results highlight two main areas of concern based on the newly qualified...... teachers´ reflections on scenarios of science teaching, their considerations about themselves as future science teachers etc. These include a tendency for the teachers to limit Inquiry Based Science Teaching to activity driven science, which suggests there is a need both in in-service PD and pre...
Taylor, Joseph; Furtak, Erin; Kowalski, Susan; Martinez, Alina; Slavin, Robert; Stuhlsatz, Molly; Wilson, Christopher
This article draws upon the experiences of four recent efforts to synthesize the findings of quantitative studies in science education research. After establishing the need for research syntheses in advancing generalizable knowledge and causal effects research in our field, we identify a set themes that emerged in the process of conducting these…
While knowledge of exposure is fundamental to assessing and mitigating risks, exposure information has been costly and difficult to generate. Driven by major scientific advances in analytical methods, biomonitoring, computational tools, and a newly articulated vision for a greater impact in public health, the field of exposure science is undergoing a rapid transition that allows it to be more agile, predictive, and data- and knowledge-driven. A necessary element of this evolved paradigm is an organizational and predictive framework for exposure science that furthers the application of systems-based approaches. To enable such systems-based approaches, we proposed the Aggregate Exposure Pathway (AEP) concept to organize data and information emerging from an invigorated and expanding field of exposure science. The AEP framework is a layered structure that describes the elements of an exposure pathway, as well as the relationship between those elements. The basic building blocks of an AEP adopt the naming conventions used for Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOPs): Key Events (KEs) to describe the measurable, obligate steps through the AEP; and Key Event Relationships (KERs) describe the linkages between KEs. Importantly, the AEP offers an intuitive approach to organize exposure information from sources to internal site of action, setting the stage for predicting stressor concentrations at an internal target site. These predicted concentrations can help inform the r
Symvoulakis, Emmanouil K; Rachiotis, George; Papagiannis, Dimitrios; Markaki, Adelais; Dimitroglou, Yiannis; Morgan, Myfanwy; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Jones, Roger
The impact of presumed consent on donation rates has been widely debated. In June 2013 Greece adopted a 'soft' presumed consent law for organ and tissue donation, where relatives' approval is sought prior to organ removal. To report on the knowledge, attitudes and concerns of undergraduate students, enrolled in three health science disciplines, in regards to organ donation and presumed consent. Undergraduate junior and senior health science students [medical (MS), nursing (NS) and medical laboratory students (MLS)] were recruited from higher education settings in Thessaly, Greece. Dichotomous questions, previously used, were adopted to assess knowledge, attitudes and concerns towards organ donation, together with questions regarding the recent presumed consent legislation. Three hundred seventy-one out of 510 students participated in the study (response rate: 72.7%). Only 3.6% of NS, 8.7% of MS and 3.2% of MLS carried a donor card. Although over 78% in all groups knew that it was possible to leave kidneys for transplant after death, only 10% to 39% considered themselves well-informed. NS were more likely to consider opting-out (21.5%), followed by MLS (17.9%) and MS (10.9%). Respondents were more likely to refuse organ removal upon death when expressing one of the following views: a) opposing a system making it lawful to take kidneys from an adult who has just died, unless forbidden while alive [Odds ratio (OR) 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 2.96 (1.48-5.93), p=0.002], b) worrying about their kidneys being removed after death [OR, 95% CI: 3.37 (1.75-6.49), p=students, soon to become healthcare professionals, demonstrated limited awareness in regards to the newly reformed organ donation system. Identified knowledge deficits and concerns could have far-reaching implications in terms of conveying a clear message and shaping the public's stand. The feasibility and effectiveness of a joint inter-professional curriculum on organ and tissue donation issues across all three
Thomas, Julie; Ivey, Toni; Puckette, Jim
The Earth sciences are newly marginalized in K-12 classrooms. With few high schools offering Earth science courses, students' exposure to the Earth sciences relies on the teacher's ability to incorporate Earth science material into a biology, chemistry, or physics course. ''G.E.T. (Geoscience Experiences for Teachers) in the Field'' is an…
Nuclear reactor operator emergency response behavior has persisted as a training problem through lack of information. The industry needs an accurate definition of operator behavior in adverse stress conditions, and training methods which will produce the desired behavior. Newly assembled information from fifty years of research into human behavior in both high and low stress provides a more accurate definition of appropriate operator response, and supports training methods which will produce the needed control room behavior. The research indicates that operator response in emergencies is divided into two modes, conditioned behavior and knowledge based behavior. Methods which assure accurate conditioned behavior, and provide for the recovery of knowledge based behavior, are described in detail
Clevering, O.A.; Hundscheid, M.P.J.
The importance of plastic responses to water depth as compared to non-plastic (developmental) changes in ramet (consisting of a culm e.g., stem with leaves, rhizome spacers and - tuber, and roots) characteristics of newly established clones of the emergent macrophyte Scirpus maritimus L. was
India's response to AIDS has ranged from a 3-phase official surveillance program begun by the India Council of Medical Research (ICMR) in 1985, to legislation criticized as "bigoted and superficial", to conflicting messages, panic and confusion. The ICMR has determined that HIV is transmitted mainly by heterosexual contacts in India. In the media the Director-General of the ICMR was cited as recommending that sex with foreign visitors be banned, as a way to contain the HIV epidemic. Media also reported that defective ELISA screening kits were imported into India that infection control in some hospitals is sub-optimal, that the blood and blood products supply is grossly contaminated with HIV and that certain commercial blood donors were infected from giving blood. All foreign students currently must be HIV-negative to get a visa. It is a major problem to plan an AIDS education campaign with India's large illiterate population and dozens of languages. An AIDS network is emerging incorporating ICMR, the All India Institute of Medical Science, the Central Health Education Bureau, Mother Teresa's order, and a newly formed gay awareness group with the newsletter "Bombay Dost."
Science fiction literature reflects our constantly evolving attitudes towards science and technological innovations, and the kinds of societal impacts believed possible. The newly popular subgenre 'steampunk' shows that these attitudes have significantly shifted. Examined from a cognitive anthropological perspective, science fiction reveals the cultural evolution of the genre as intelligently designed, and implies a cognitive mechanism of group membership reliant on implicit memory. However, such an analysis also suggests that genre science fiction as it was in the 20th century may no longer exist. © The Author(s) 2013.
Changes in the past two decades of goals for science education in schools have induced new orientations in science education worldwide. One of the emerging complementary approaches was the science-technology-society (STS) movement. STS has been called the current megatrend in science education. Others have called it a paradigm shift for the field…
Wei, Lu; Yu, Yong; Shen, Yihui; Wang, Meng C.; Min, Wei
Synthesis of new proteins, a key step in the central dogma of molecular biology, has been a major biological process by which cells respond rapidly to environmental cues in both physiological and pathological conditions. However, the selective visualization of a newly synthesized proteome in living systems with subcellular resolution has proven to be rather challenging, despite the extensive efforts along the lines of fluorescence staining, autoradiography, and mass spectrometry. Herein, we report an imaging technique to visualize nascent proteins by harnessing the emerging stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy coupled with metabolic incorporation of deuterium-labeled amino acids. As a first demonstration, we imaged newly synthesized proteins in live mammalian cells with high spatial–temporal resolution without fixation or staining. Subcellular compartments with fast protein turnover in HeLa and HEK293T cells, and newly grown neurites in differentiating neuron-like N2A cells, are clearly identified via this imaging technique. Technically, incorporation of deuterium-labeled amino acids is minimally perturbative to live cells, whereas SRS imaging of exogenous carbon–deuterium bonds (C–D) in the cell-silent Raman region is highly sensitive, specific, and compatible with living systems. Moreover, coupled with label-free SRS imaging of the total proteome, our method can readily generate spatial maps of the quantitative ratio between new and total proteomes. Thus, this technique of nonlinear vibrational imaging of stable isotope incorporation will be a valuable tool to advance our understanding of the complex spatial and temporal dynamics of newly synthesized proteome in vivo. PMID:23798434
Edismauro Garcia Freitas Filho
Full Text Available Mast cells are immunoregulatory cells that participate in inflammatory processes. Cross-linking mast cell specific GD1b derived gangliosides by mAbAA4 results in partial activation of mast cells without the release of preformed mediators. The present study examines the release of newly formed and newly synthesized mediators following ganglioside cross-linking. Cross-linking the gangliosides with mAbAA4 released the newly formed lipid mediators, prostaglandins D2 and E2, without release of leukotrienes B4 and C4. The effect of cross-linking these gangliosides on the activation of enzymes in the arachidonate cascade was then investigated. Ganglioside cross-linking resulted in phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 and increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2. Translocation of 5-lipoxygenase from the cytosol to the nucleus was not induced by ganglioside cross-linking. Cross-linking of GD1b derived gangliosides also resulted in the release of the newly synthesized mediators, interleukin-4, interleukin-6, and TNF-α. The effect of cross-linking the gangliosides on the MAP kinase pathway was then investigated. Cross-linking the gangliosides induced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and p38 as well as activating both NFκB and NFAT in a Syk-dependent manner. Therefore, cross-linking the mast cell specific GD1b derived gangliosides results in the activation of signaling pathways that culminate with the release of newly formed and newly synthesized mediators.
Milburn, Norweeta G.; Rosenthal, Doreen; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Mallett, Shelley; Batterham, Philip; Rice, Eric; Solorio, Rosa
165 newly homeless adolescents from Melbourne, Australia and 261 from Los Angeles, United States were surveyed and followed for two years. Most newly homeless adolescents returned home (70% U.S., 47% Australia) for significant amounts of time (39% U.S., 17% Australia more than 12 months) within two years of becoming homeless.
Pennington, D. D.; Gandara, A.; Gris, I.
The Virtual Learning Commons (VLC), funded by the National Science Foundation Office of Cyberinfrastructure CI-Team Program, is a combination of Semantic Web, mash up, and social networking tools that supports knowledge sharing and innovation across scientific disciplines in research and education communities and networks. The explosion of scientific resources (data, models, algorithms, tools, and cyberinfrastructure) challenges the ability of educators to be aware of resources that might be relevant to their classes. Even when aware, it can be difficult to understand enough about those resources to develop classroom materials. Often emerging data and technologies have little documentation, especially about their application. The VLC tackles this challenge by providing mechanisms for individuals and groups of educators to organize Web resources into virtual collections, and engage each other around those collections in order to a) learn about potentially relevant resources that are available; b) design classes that leverage those resources; and c) develop course syllabi. The VLC integrates Semantic Web functionality for structuring distributed information, mash up functionality for retrieving and displaying information, and social media for discussing/rating information. We are working to provide three views of information that support educators in different ways: 1. Innovation Marketplace: supports users as they find others teaching similar courses, where they are located, and who they collaborate with; 2. Conceptual Mapper: supports educators as they organize their thinking about the content of their class and related classes taught by others; 3. Curriculum Designer: supports educators as they generate a syllabus and find Web resources that are relevant. This presentation will discuss the innovation and learning theories that have informed design of the VLC, hypotheses about the use of emerging technologies to support innovation in classrooms, and will include a
This paper examines the status of science and technology in Mongolia, and discusses the policy issues which have emerged with the transition to market economy in recent years.......This paper examines the status of science and technology in Mongolia, and discusses the policy issues which have emerged with the transition to market economy in recent years....
This book offers an essential introduction to the notions of sound wave topology, duality, coherence and wave-mixing, which constitute the emerging new science of sound. It includes general principles and specific examples that illuminate new non-conventional forms of sound (sound topology), unconventional quantum-like behavior of phonons (duality), radical linear and nonlinear phenomena associated with loss and its control (coherence), and exquisite effects that emerge from the interaction of sound with other physical and biological waves (wave mixing). The book provides the reader with the foundations needed to master these complex notions through simple yet meaningful examples. General principles for unraveling and describing the topology of acoustic wave functions in the space of their Eigen values are presented. These principles are then applied to uncover intrinsic and extrinsic approaches to achieving non-conventional topologies by breaking the time revers al symmetry of acoustic waves. Symmetry brea...
Shafiei, Reza; Sarkari, Bahador; Sadjjadi, Seyed Mahmuod; Mowlavi, Gholam Reza; Moshfe, Abdolali
The current study aimed to find out the morphometric and genotypic divergences of the flukes isolated from different hosts in a newly emerging focus of human fascioliasis in Iran. Adult Fasciola spp. were collected from 34 cattle, 13 sheep, and 11 goats from Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad province, southwest of Iran. Genomic DNA was extracted from the flukes and PCR-RFLP was used to characterize the isolates. The ITS1, ITS2, and mitochondrial genes (mtDNA) of NDI and COI from individual liver flukes were amplified and the amplicons were sequenced. Genetic variation within and between the species was evaluated by comparing the sequences. Moreover, morphometric characteristics of flukes were measured through a computer image analysis system. Based on RFLP profile, from the total of 58 isolates, 41 isolates (from cattle, sheep, and goat) were identified as Fasciola hepatica, while 17 isolates from cattle were identified as Fasciola gigantica. Comparison of the ITS1 and ITS2 sequences showed six and seven single-base substitutions, resulting in segregation of the specimens into two different genotypes. The sequences of COI markers showed seven DNA polymorphic sites for F. hepatica and 35 DNA polymorphic sites for F. gigantica. Morphological diversity of the two species was observed in linear, ratios, and areas measurements. The findings have implications for studying the population genetics, epidemiology, and control of the disease. PMID:25018891
Full Text Available The current study aimed to find out the morphometric and genotypic divergences of the flukes isolated from different hosts in a newly emerging focus of human fascioliasis in Iran. Adult Fasciola spp. were collected from 34 cattle, 13 sheep, and 11 goats from Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad province, southwest of Iran. Genomic DNA was extracted from the flukes and PCR-RFLP was used to characterize the isolates. The ITS1, ITS2, and mitochondrial genes (mtDNA of NDI and COI from individual liver flukes were amplified and the amplicons were sequenced. Genetic variation within and between the species was evaluated by comparing the sequences. Moreover, morphometric characteristics of flukes were measured through a computer image analysis system. Based on RFLP profile, from the total of 58 isolates, 41 isolates (from cattle, sheep, and goat were identified as Fasciola hepatica, while 17 isolates from cattle were identified as Fasciola gigantica. Comparison of the ITS1 and ITS2 sequences showed six and seven single-base substitutions, resulting in segregation of the specimens into two different genotypes. The sequences of COI markers showed seven DNA polymorphic sites for F. hepatica and 35 DNA polymorphic sites for F. gigantica. Morphological diversity of the two species was observed in linear, ratios, and areas measurements. The findings have implications for studying the population genetics, epidemiology, and control of the disease.
Muire, Willis Christian, Jr.
This research is focused on the changes that have occurred across the complex web of systems and subsystems of education in Florida and to examine the relative impact these changes have exacted upon science education. The primary purpose of this research is to describe and interpret the practices of reform efforts in Florida as a way to inform educational stakeholders such that new visions of school improvement can be discussed and planned for improving the teaching and learning of science. This study begins with the questions of "what is happening in science education in an extremely large and diverse state and why is it happening?" The solutions to these questions required a blend of investigatory techniques to answer. The needs of elementary school teachers for improving science education were initially used to provide the organizational foci of this research. As trends emerged from analyzing these needs, a wide variety of qualitative and quantitative data sources were acquired and analyzed in a longitudinal, multi-level design to obtain rich insights into the factors associated with achievement and equity in the teaching and learning of science in Florida. Relevant statistical indicators obtained from state, district and school data in combination with interviews of teachers, principals, parents, state and district level leaders were used for interpreting qualitative evidence. As credible data were acquired, I also examined the evidence in terms of educational policy formulation and the "filter down process" associated with the impact of national, state, and district policies on schools. Moreover, I investigated issues of policy and governance and their interrelations with student achievement science. I am interested in identifying the most robust indicators of science education reform in authentic ways with the goal of ascertaining if and where reform is occurring, and in terms of grounded theory, why these changes are occurring. Though the focus of this study
Oct 10, 2015 ... P R Newton,1 MTech (Emergency Medical Care); R Naidoo,1 MSc (Cardiology); P Brysiewicz,2 PhD (Health Science). 1 Department of Emergency Medical Care and Rescue, Faculty of Health Sciences, Durban University of Technology, South Africa ..... tation, may include a straightforward refusal.
The spermathecal complex of Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli (Diptera: Psychodidae) undergoes histological and physiological changes during its gonotropic cycle. The present histochemical study revealed a mucopolysaccharide secretory mass in the spermathecae of the newly emerged sandfly. Sperm competition occurs ...
Sun, Xiaoling; Kaur, Jasleen; Milojević, Staša; Flammini, Alessandro; Menczer, Filippo
The birth and decline of disciplines are critical to science and society. How do scientific disciplines emerge? No quantitative model to date allows us to validate competing theories on the different roles of endogenous processes, such as social collaborations, and exogenous events, such as scientific discoveries. Here we propose an agent-based model in which the evolution of disciplines is guided mainly by social interactions among agents representing scientists. Disciplines emerge from splitting and merging of social communities in a collaboration network. We find that this social model can account for a number of stylized facts about the relationships between disciplines, scholars, and publications. These results provide strong quantitative support for the key role of social interactions in shaping the dynamics of science. While several ``science of science'' theories exist, this is the first account for the emergence of disciplines that is validated on the basis of empirical data.
Martin, Niels; Bergs, Jochen; Eerdekens, Dorien; Depaire, Benoît; Verelst, Sandra
As an emergency department (ED) is a complex adaptive system, the analysis of continuously gathered data is valuable to gain insight in the real-time patient flow. To support the analysis and management of ED operations, relevant data should be provided in an intuitive way. Within this context, this paper outlines the development of a dashboard which provides real-time information regarding ED crowding. The research project underlying this paper follows the principles of design science research, which involves the development and study of artifacts which aim to solve a generic problem. To determine the crowding indicators that are desired in the dashboard, a modified Delphi study is used. The dashboard is implemented using the open source Shinydashboard package in R. A dashboard is developed containing the desired crowding indicators, together with general patient flow characteristics. It is demonstrated using a dataset of a Flemish ED and fulfills the requirements which are defined a priori. The developed dashboard provides real-time information on ED crowding. This information enables ED staff to judge whether corrective actions are required in an effort to avoid the adverse effects of ED crowding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shahidi, Fatemeh; Dowlatkhah, Hamid Reza; Avand, Abolghasem; Musavi, Seyed Reza; Mohammadi, Elaheh
Some students attribute their academic failure to such factors as low aptitude, unavailability of resources, and bad luck. However, we can dare to say that the most important factor playing a role in academic success is students' little acquaintance with learning and study skills. This study aimed at examining the quality of study skills in newly-admitted students of Fasa Medical University so that the results can be used in holding teaching courses in study skills. The present study is a cross-sectional descriptive study. The sampling was done of all the newly-admitted students in the first semester of 2012 academic year including 94 students of Medicine, Nursing and Laboratory Technology. The data were collected through a questionnaire, consisting of two parts. The first part included items on demographic information of the subjects (such as sex, field of study, number of hours dedicated to studying, student's rank in Konkour, and the National University entrance exam. The second part was composed of 19 special items on such domains as 'Time management', 'Concentration', 'Class note-taking', 'Studying' and 'Taking exams' with 4, 5, 4, 3, 3 items, respectively. The checklists were filled in using Likert Scale. The collected data was then analyzed using an SPSS 14, through which descriptive statistics as mean, standard deviation and multiple regressions were obtained. Moreover, the data were analyzed using Independent Sample t and ANOVA tests. The results showed that the range of the students' study skills was 2.35, being rather below the normal level; the highest mean belonged to 'concentration' (2.56), but the lowest mean was that of 'time management' (2.05).Through ANOVA test, it was also shown that there was no significant difference between the students of Medicine, Nursing and Laboratory Sciences regarding their scores on 'study skills' as (p=0.646). In addition, through independent sample t-test, it was shown that there was no significant difference between
Clauset, Aaron; Larremore, Daniel B; Sinatra, Roberta
The desire to predict discoveries-to have some idea, in advance, of what will be discovered, by whom, when, and where-pervades nearly all aspects of modern science, from individual scientists to publishers, from funding agencies to hiring committees. In this Essay, we survey the emerging and interdisciplinary field of the "science of science" and what it teaches us about the predictability of scientific discovery. We then discuss future opportunities for improving predictions derived from the science of science and its potential impact, positive and negative, on the scientific community. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Science Education Programmes · Women in Science · Committee on Scientific ... Critical Reviews of important fields and Perspective articles in emerging areas will ... work, mandatory for Rapid Communication, and suggest 2 to 3 names of Referees. ... The Jurisdiction for all disputes concerning submitted articles, published ...
Sorrig, Rasmus; Klausen, Tobias W.; Salomo, Morten
Immunoparesis (hypogammaglobulinemia) is associated to an unfavorable prognosis in newly diagnosed Multiple myeloma (MM) patients. However, this finding has not been validated in an unselected population-based cohort. We analyzed 2558 newly diagnosed MM patients in the Danish Multiple Myeloma...
Radical reform in science and mathematics education is needed to prepare citizens for challenges of the emerging knowledge-based global economy. We consider definite proposals to establish: (1) "Standards of science and math literacy" for all students. (2) "Integration of the science curriculum" with structure of matter,…
Tulsiani, Suhella; Graham, G C; Moore, P R
gene of the virus and the discovery that the virus had an exceptionally large genome subsequently led to HeV being assigned to a new genus, Henipavirus, along with Nipah virus (a newly emergent virus in pigs). The regular outbreaks of HeV-related disease that have occurred in Australia since 1994 have...
Blom, H.A.P.; Everdij, M.H.C.; Bouarfa, S.; Cook, A; Rivas, D
In complexity science a property or behaviour of a system is called emergent if it is not a property or behaviour of the constituting elements of the system, though results from the interactions between its constituting elements. In the socio-technical air transportation system these interactions
Sun, Benjamin C.; Costantino, Giorgio; Barbic, Franca; Bossi, Ilaria; Casazza, Giovanni; Dipaola, Franca; McDermott, Daniel; Quinn, James; Reed, Matthew; Sheldon, Robert S.; Solbiati, Monica; Thiruganasambandamoorthy, Venkatesh; Krahn, Andrew D.; Beach, Daniel; Bodemer, Nicolai; Brignole, Michele; Casagranda, Ivo; Duca, Piergiorgio; Falavigna, Greta; Ippoliti, Roberto; Montano, Nicola; Olshansky, Brian; Raj, Satish R.; Ruwald, Martin H.; Shen, Win-Kuang; Stiell, Ian; Ungar, Andrea; van Dijk, J. Gert; van Dijk, Nynke; Wieling, Wouter; Furlan, Raffaello
There is limited evidence to guide the emergency department (ED) evaluation and management of syncope. The First International Workshop on Syncope Risk Stratification in the Emergency Department identified key research questions and methodological standards essential to advancing the science of
Siriwardana, H V Y D; Karunanayake, P; Goonerathne, L; Karunaweera, N D
Sri Lanka is a new focus of human cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by a genetic variant of usually visceralizing parasite Leishmania donovani. Over 3000 cases have been reported to our institution alone, during the past two decades. Recent emergence of visceral leishmaniasis is of concern. Patients suspected of having visceral leishmaniasis (n = 120) fulfilling at least two of six criteria (fever > 2 weeks, weight loss, tiredness affecting daily functions, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly and anemia) were studied using clinic-epidemiological, immunological and haematological parameters. Seven cases (four progressive, treated (group A) and 3 non- progressive, potentially asymptomatic and observed (group B) were identified. Clinical cases were treated with systemic sodium stibogluconate or amphotericin B and all were followed up at the leishmaniasis clinic of University of Colombo for 3 years with one case followed up for 9 years. All treated cases responded well to anti leishmanial treatment. Relapses were not noticed. Clinical features subsided in all non-progressive cases and did not develop suggestive clinical features or change of laboratory parameters. Visceral leishmaniasis cases have been originated from different districts within the country. Majority had a travel history to identified local foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Visceral leishmaniasis is recognized as an emerging health threat in Sri Lanka. At least a proportion of locally identified strains of L. donovani possess the ability to visceralize. Apparent anti leishmanial sensitivity is encouraging. Timely efforts in disease containment will be important in which accurate understanding of transmission characteristics, increased professional and community awareness, improved diagnostics and availability of appropriate treatment regimens.
Keepnews, David M; Brewer, Carol S; Kovner, Christine T; Shin, Juh Hyun
Responses of 2369 newly licensed registered nurses from 3 generational cohorts-Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y-were studied to identify differences in their characteristics, work-related experiences, and attitudes. These responses revealed significant differences among generations in: job satisfaction, organizational commitment, work motivation, work-to-family conflict, family-to-work conflict, distributive justice, promotional opportunities, supervisory support, mentor support, procedural justice, and perceptions of local job opportunities. Health organizations and their leaders need to anticipate intergenerational differences among newly licensed nurses and should provide for supportive working environments that recognize those differences. Orientation and residency programs for newly licensed nurses should be tailored to the varying needs of different generations. Future research should focus on evaluating the effectiveness of orientation and residency programs with regard to different generations so that these programs can be tailored to meet the varying needs of newly licensed nurses at the start of their careers. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Wu, J.; Han, X.; Zhou, Y.; Yue, P.; Wang, X.; Lu, J.; Jiang, W.; Li, J.; Tang, H.; Wang, F.; Li, X.; Fan, J.
The Disaster Monitoring and Emergency Response Service(DIMERS) project was kicked off in 2017 in China, with the purpose to improve timely responsive service of the institutions involved in the management of natural disasters and man-made emergency situations with the timely and high-quality products derived from Space-based, Air-based and the in-situ Earth observation. The project team brought together a group of top universities and research institutions in the field of Earth observations as well as the operational institute in typical disaster services at national level. The project will bridge the scientific research and the response services of massive catastrophe in order to improve the emergency response capability of China and provide scientific and technological support for the implementation of the national emergency response strategy. In response to the call for proposal of "Earth Observation and Navigation" of 2017 National Key R&D Program of China, Professor Wu Jianjun, the deputy chairman of Faculty of Geographical Science of Beijing Normal University, submitted the Disaster Monitoring and Emergency Response Service (DIMERS) project, jointly with the experts and scholars from Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan University, China Institute of Earthquake Forecasting of China Earthquake Administration and China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Science. After two round evaluations, the proposal was funded by Ministry of Science and Technology of China.
Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Yessirkepov, Marlen; Diyanova, Svetlana N; Kitas, George D
Publishing scholarly articles in traditional and newly-launched journals is a responsible task, requiring diligence from authors, reviewers, editors, and publishers. The current generation of scientific authors has ample opportunities for publicizing their research. However, they have to selectively target journals and publish in compliance with the established norms of publishing ethics. Over the past few years, numerous illegitimate or predatory journals have emerged in most fields of science. By exploiting gold Open Access publishing, these journals paved the way for low-quality articles that threatened to change the landscape of evidence-based science. Authors, reviewers, editors, established publishers, and learned associations should be informed about predatory publishing practices and contribute to the trustworthiness of scholarly publications. In line with this, there have been several attempts to distinguish legitimate and illegitimate journals by blacklisting unethical journals (the Jeffrey Beall's list), issuing a statement on transparency and best publishing practices (the Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association's and other global organizations' draft document), and tightening the indexing criteria by the Directory of Open Access Journals. None of these measures alone turned to be sufficient. All stakeholders of science communication should be aware of multiple facets of unethical practices and publish well-checked and evidence-based articles.
Initial interactions with prey may affect a predator's subsequent foraging success. With experience, second-instar Misumena vatia spiderlings (Thomisidae) that had recently emerged from their egg sacs oriented faster to fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) than näive individuals. Orientation time of these spiderlings decreased rapidly for the first two to three runs (every third day) in a simple laboratory setting, and then remained low and relatively constant. Time to capture a fly also declined initially, but subsequently became extremely variable, increasing prior to moult. Increase in capture time and the failure to capture prey appeared associated with impending moult, rather than satiation. Spiderlings oriented to prey more rapidly at the beginning of the third instar than at the start of the second instar, suggesting that experience still enhanced performance after a moult cycle. Overall capture times at the beginning of the third instar decreased from those at the end of the second instar, but did not differ significantly from the beginning of the second instar, although spiderlings gaining the most biomass had the shortest mean capture times. In a second experiment, time to orient and time to capture prey did not differ in näive, second-instar siblings run 1 and 3 days after emergence from their egg sacs. However, 3-day individuals that had captured prey each day (confiscated before they could feed) oriented faster than näive 3-day-old siblings, but did not differ in the time taken to capture prey. Experience, rather than age or energetic condition, best explains these changes in performance. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.
Renting, H.; Schermer, M.; Rossi, A.
In recent years new types of consumer-producer cooperation in food networks have emerged in which consumers play an active role in the operation and thereby clearly go beyond food provisioning as such. Examples include consumer co-ops and solidarity buying groups of local and organic food,
Sullivan, Jade L; Bulloch, Marilyn N
Ulipristal acetate (UPA) is a newly developed emergency contraceptive currently available in the USA and Europe. It is approved as a 30 mg one-time dose taken within 120 h (5 days) of unprotected intercourse or failed contraception. This selective progesterone receptor modulator appears to be more effective than the levonorgestrel-containing emergency contraceptive, which must be taken within 72 h of unprotected intercourse. According to pharmacodynamic trials, UPA delays follicular maturation and ovulation. In addition, UPA may modulate the endometrium. Both Phase III clinical trials found that UPA does not lose efficacy within the 120-h dosing interval. Throughout all phases of clinical studies, UPA was shown to be well tolerated with only minimal adverse drug reactions, all of which are similar to competitor therapies.
Yen, Hung-Che; Lai, Wei-Kang; Lin, Chuan-Shun; Chiang, Shu-Hsing
Five hundred and twenty-eight newly weaned pigs were given four treatments, with eight replicates per treatment. Sixteen to 18 pigs were assigned per replicate and were fed diets supplemented with 0 or 3% medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) and 0 or 40 ppm colistin sulfate (CS) in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement for 2 weeks. The results showed that dietary supplementation with MCT improved the gain-to-feed ratio during days 3-7 and in the overall period (P environment and the feed utilization efficiency of newly weaned pigs. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.
Mac Mahon, Brendan; Ó'Grádaigh, Seán; Ghuidhir, Sinéad Ni
This article outlines a study to examine if newly qualified teachers (NQTs) who had incorporated iPad within pedagogical practice during initial teacher education, continued to do so in their first two years of teaching, and also to identify the challenges to integration that emerged. Findings show that use of iPad in teaching, learning and…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Establishment success in newly founded populations relies on reaching the established phase, which is defined by characteristic fluctuations of the population’s state variables. Stochastic population models can be used to quantify the establishment probability of newly founded populations; however, so far no simple but robust method for doing so existed. To determine a critical initial number of individuals that need to be released to reach the established phase, we used a novel application of the “Wissel plot”, where –ln(1 – P0(t is plotted against time t. This plot is based on the equation P0t=1–c1e–ω1t, which relates the probability of extinction by time t, P0(t, to two constants: c1 describes the probability of a newly founded population to reach the established phase, whereas ω1 describes the population’s probability of extinction per short time interval once established. Results For illustration, we applied the method to a previously developed stochastic population model of the endangered African wild dog (Lycaon pictus. A newly founded population reaches the established phase if the intercept of the (extrapolated linear parts of the “Wissel plot” with the y-axis, which is –ln(c1, is negative. For wild dogs in our model, this is the case if a critical initial number of four packs, consisting of eight individuals each, are released. Conclusions The method we present to quantify the establishment probability of newly founded populations is generic and inferences thus are transferable to other systems across the field of conservation biology. In contrast to other methods, our approach disaggregates the components of a population’s viability by distinguishing establishment from persistence.
Scientists and professionals from multiple governmental agencies recently gathered at NCI at Frederick for a forum on newly emerging infectious diseases, threats to public health, and ongoing efforts to study high-risk pathogens. During the one-day event, which was sponsored by the National Interagency Confederation for Biological Research’s Scientific Interaction
Sheth, Manali J.
Students of color are routinely asked to participate in science education that is less intellectually rich and self-affirming. Additionally, teachers have trouble embarking on professional growth related to issues of equity and diversity in science. The purpose of this dissertation research is to develop a multi-dimensional framework for equitable science pedagogy (ESP) through analyzing the efforts and struggles of high school science teachers. This study is grounded in a conceptual framework derived from scholarship in science education, multicultural education, critical science studies, and teacher learning. The following questions guide this research: 1) What visions and enactments emerge in teachers' practices towards equitable science pedagogy? 2) How are teachers' practice decisions towards ESP influenced by their personal theories of race/culture, science, and learning and sociocultural contexts? 3) Why are there consistencies and variances across teachers' practices? This study employs a qualitative multiple case study design with ethnographic data collection to explore the practices of three urban high school science teachers who were identified as being committed to nurturing the science learning of students of color. Data include over 120 hours of classroom observation, 60 hours of teacher interviews, and 500 teacher- and student-generated artifacts. Data analysis included coding teachers' practices using theory- and participant generated codes, construction of themes based on emergent patterns, and cross-case analysis. The affordances and limitations of the participants' pedagogical approaches inform the following framework for equitable science pedagogy: 1) Seeing race and culture and sharing responsibility for learning form foundational dimensions. Practices from the other three dimensions--- nurturing students' identities, re-centering students' epistemologies, and critiquing structural inequities---emerge from the foundation. As emergent practices
With the initiation of the first international nuclear emergency exercise INEX 1, performed as a table-top exercise in 1993, the international community tested, for the first time, approaches and policies in place to manage a nuclear or radiological emergency. INEX 1 with its related workshops led to a wealth of lessons learned and to an improvement in nuclear emergency management. The INEX 2 exercise series, initiated by the NEA and performed between 1996 and 1999, established an international nuclear emergency 'exercise culture' leading to a clear improvement of the international aspects of nuclear emergency preparedness and management. INEX 2 was a series of four command post exercises based on national nuclear emergency exercises in Switzerland, Finland, Hungary and Canada. Simulated accidents at nuclear power plants were used to test existing procedures in emergency response and management, and to analyse local, regional, national and international emergency plans under realistic conditions. In addition, the exercises allowed the participating countries to gain experience using new concepts and tools. The most significant result of INEX 2 and a major step forward in nuclear emergency management was the development of a new communication and information exchange strategy, which is currently implemented by various NEA member countries as well as by the international community in general. The objective of this new strategy is to assist the decision-maker by improving the selection of the data transmitted, by encouraging the transmission and reception of such data and information using modern communication methods, e.g. secure world wide web technologies, and by defining emergency monitoring and modelling needs. To test the validity and usefulness of the newly-developed strategy, the NEA proposed to organize an international nuclear emergency exercise, INEX 2000, similar in scope to the INEX 2 exercises. In addition, the NEA suggested to include, for the first
Matthew Thomas Rondina
Full Text Available While traditionally recognized for their roles in hemostatic pathways, emerging evidence demonstrates that platelets have previously unrecognized, dynamic roles that span the immune continuum. These newly-recognized platelet functions, including the secretion of immune mediators, interactions with endothelial cells, monocytes, and neutrophils, toll-like receptor (TLR mediated responses, and induction of neutrophil extracellular trap (NET formation, bridge thrombotic and inflammatory pathways and contribute to host defense mechanisms against invading pathogens. In this focused review, we highlight several of these emerging aspects of platelet biology and their implications in clinical infectious syndromes.
Fransen, Katrien; Delvaux, Ellen; Mesquita, Batja; Van Puyenbroeck, Stef
The importance of high-quality leadership for team effectiveness is widely recognized, with recent viewpoints arguing shared leadership to be a more powerful predictor than vertical leadership. To identify changes in leadership structures over time, we longitudinally tracked the leadership structure of 27 newly-formed teams (N = 195), all having an initial structure of vertical leadership. Our findings demonstrated that the average team leadership strengthened over the course of the 24-week p...
Wright, Lorraine M
Paradigm families and paradigm practice moments have shown me that therapeutic conversations between nurses and families can profoundly and positively change illness beliefs in family members and nurses and contribute to healing from serious illness. The integration of brain science into nursing practice offers further understanding of the importance of illness beliefs and the role they may play in helping individual and family healing. Brain science offers explanations that connect how certain family nursing interventions that soften suffering and challenge constraining illness beliefs may result in changes in brain structure and functioning. New illness beliefs may result in new neural pathways in the brain, and therefore, possibilities for a new way of being in relationship with illness and in relationship with others can also develop. Newly acquired practice skills and interventions that have emerged from an understanding of brain science plus the reemphasis of other interventions utilized in the Illness Beliefs Model are offered to enhance our care of families suffering with illness. © The Author(s) 2015.
Cobern, William W.; Loving, Cathleen C.
It is not uncommon to find media reports on the failures of science education, nor uncommon to hear prestigious scientists publicly lament the rise of antiscience attitudes. Given the position elementary teachers have in influencing children, antiscience sentiment among them would be a significant concern. Hence, this article reports on an investigation in which preservice elementary teachers responded to the Thinking about Science survey instrument. This newly developed instrument addresses the broadrelationship of science to nine important areas of society and culture and is intended to reveal the extent of views being consistent with or disagreeing with a commonly held worldview of science portrayed in the media and in popular science and science education literature. Results indicate that elementary teachers discriminate with respect to different aspects of culture and science but they are not antiscience.
Sep 6, 2010 ... 1Departments of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor Darul ... Huanglongbing (HLB) disease, also known as citrus ..... Huanglongbing: A destructive, newly-emerging,.
Trifonas, Peter Pericles
In this paper I expand on the premises of Jesse Bazzul's thesis in his paper, Neoliberal ideology, global capitalism, and science education: engaging the question of subjectivity, exploring the implications of the ideologies within the culturally emerging logic of science exposes the incommensurability of intents and purposes in its methods and epistemology. I argue that science needs to acknowledge the subjectivity at its core to make space for non-absolute agents and new fields of study.
Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance and emerging infectious diseases, including avian influenza, Ebola virus disease, and Zika virus disease have significantly affected humankind in recent years. In the premodern era, no distinction was made between animal and human medicine. However, as medical science developed, the gap between human and animal science grew deeper. Cooperation among human, animal, and environmental sciences to combat emerging public health threats has become an important issue under the One Health Initiative. Herein, we presented the history of One Health, reviewed current public health threats, and suggested opportunities for the field of public health through better understanding of the One Health paradigm.
Robin E. Miller
Objective – To provide a systematic review of the emerging or newly adopted roles of information professionals, over the past 14 years, as described in the Library and Information Science (LIS) professional literature. Design – Systematic review of the literature. Setting – Databases featuring information science content, including ACM Digital Library, Library, Information Science and Technology Abstracts (LISTA), Library and Information Science Abstracts (LISA), Citeseer, Goo...
Lederman, Judith; Bartels, Selina; Lederman, Norman; Gnanakkan, Dionysius
With the emergence of the "Next Generation Science Standards" ("NGSS"; NGSS Lead States 2013), it is apparent that teaching and learning about nature of science (NOS) continues to be an important goal of science education for all K-12 students. With this emphasis on NOS, early childhood teachers are asking how to design…
Hoffman, D; Chung, E; Hess, C; Stern, R; Benedict, S
Purpose: Two newly emerging transmission detectors positioned upstream from the patient have been evaluated for online quality assurance of external beam radiotherapy. The prototype for the Integral Quality Monitor (IQM), developed by iRT Systems GmbH (Koblenz, Germany) is a large-area ion chamber mounted on the linac accessory tray to monitor photon fluence, energy, beam shape, and gantry position during treatment. The ion chamber utilizes a thickness gradient which records variable response dependent on beam position. The prototype of Delta4 Discover™, developed by ScandiDos (Uppsala, Sweden) is a linac accessory tray mounted 4040 diode array that measures photon fluence during patient treatment. Both systems are employable for patient specific QA prior to treatment delivery. Methods: Our institution evaluated the reproducibility of measurements using various beam types, including VMAT treatment plans with both the IQM ion chamber and the Delta4 Discover diode array. Additionally, the IQM’s effect on photon fluence, dose response, simulated beam error detection, and the accuracy of the integrated barometer, thermometer, and inclinometer were characterized. The evaluated photon beam errors are based on the annual tolerances specified in AAPM TG-142. Results: Repeated VMAT treatments were measured with 0.16% reproducibility by the IQM and 0.55% reproducibility by the Delta4 Discover. The IQM attenuated 6, 10, and 15 MV photon beams by 5.43±0.02%, 4.60±0.02%, and 4.21±0.03% respectively. Photon beam profiles were affected <1.5% in the non-penumbra regions. The IQM’s ion chamber’s dose response was linear and the thermometer, barometer, and inclinometer agreed with other calibrated devices. The device detected variations in monitor units delivered (1%), field position (3mm), single MLC leaf positions (13mm), and photon energy. Conclusion: We have characterized two new transmissions detector systems designed to provide in-vivo like measurements upstream
Hoffman, D; Chung, E; Hess, C; Stern, R; Benedict, S [UC Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States)
Purpose: Two newly emerging transmission detectors positioned upstream from the patient have been evaluated for online quality assurance of external beam radiotherapy. The prototype for the Integral Quality Monitor (IQM), developed by iRT Systems GmbH (Koblenz, Germany) is a large-area ion chamber mounted on the linac accessory tray to monitor photon fluence, energy, beam shape, and gantry position during treatment. The ion chamber utilizes a thickness gradient which records variable response dependent on beam position. The prototype of Delta4 Discover™, developed by ScandiDos (Uppsala, Sweden) is a linac accessory tray mounted 4040 diode array that measures photon fluence during patient treatment. Both systems are employable for patient specific QA prior to treatment delivery. Methods: Our institution evaluated the reproducibility of measurements using various beam types, including VMAT treatment plans with both the IQM ion chamber and the Delta4 Discover diode array. Additionally, the IQM’s effect on photon fluence, dose response, simulated beam error detection, and the accuracy of the integrated barometer, thermometer, and inclinometer were characterized. The evaluated photon beam errors are based on the annual tolerances specified in AAPM TG-142. Results: Repeated VMAT treatments were measured with 0.16% reproducibility by the IQM and 0.55% reproducibility by the Delta4 Discover. The IQM attenuated 6, 10, and 15 MV photon beams by 5.43±0.02%, 4.60±0.02%, and 4.21±0.03% respectively. Photon beam profiles were affected <1.5% in the non-penumbra regions. The IQM’s ion chamber’s dose response was linear and the thermometer, barometer, and inclinometer agreed with other calibrated devices. The device detected variations in monitor units delivered (1%), field position (3mm), single MLC leaf positions (13mm), and photon energy. Conclusion: We have characterized two new transmissions detector systems designed to provide in-vivo like measurements upstream
Full Text Available In this article, the status of applied linguistics as discipline is questioned and problems of establishing it - and other newly formed scientific enterprises like cultural science - as disciplines are discussed. This discussion is contextualized using the author's own experience as applied linguist working in (the institutional structure of Austria. Secondly, applied linguistics is presented as complementing cultural science, with both exploring at times the same phenomena albeit under different perspectives and focussing on different levels of experience. Two examples of research involving such a joint interest with different foci are discussed.
Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C
On rare occasions in the history of science, remarkable discoveries transform human society and forever alter mankind's view of the world. Examples of such discoveries include the heliocentric theory, Newtonian physics, the germ theory of disease, quantum theory, plate tectonics and the discovery that DNA carries genetic information. The science philosopher Thomas Kuhn famously described science as long periods of normality punctuated by times of crisis, when anomalous observations culminate in revolutionary changes that replace one paradigm with another. This essay examines several transformative discoveries in the light of Kuhn's formulation. We find that each scientific revolution is unique, with disparate origins that may include puzzle solving, serendipity, inspiration, or a convergence of disparate observations. The causes of revolutionary science are varied and lack an obvious common structure. Moreover, it can be difficult to draw a clear distinction between so-called normal and revolutionary science. Revolutionary discoveries often emerge from basic science and are critically dependent on nonrevolutionary research. Revolutionary discoveries may be conceptual or technological in nature, lead to the creation of new fields, and have a lasting impact on many fields in addition to the field from which they emerge. In contrast to political revolutions, scientific revolutions do not necessarily require the destruction of the previous order. For humanity to continue to benefit from revolutionary discoveries, a broad palette of scientific inquiry with a particular emphasis on basic science should be supported. Copyright © 2016 Casadevall and Fang.
Nielsen, Birgitte Lund
A survey on science background and argumentation about science teaching was conducted on a local cohort of newly qualified Danish science teachers. The survey was administered before the novice teachers began their first jobs in primary and lower secondary schools and focused on their reflections...... on specific scenarios of science teaching and themselves as teachers in various science fields. Three areas of concern were identified:There was evidence of reflection upon and argumentation for the practice of science teaching being student centered, but many respondents showed a tendency to focus...... on students' activities as a goal in themselves, few considered what the students learned through the activities. Results furthermore suggest that the teachers' own assessment of their subject matter knowledge in the physics field may, for a large subgroup in the cohort, affect their approach to teaching...
Gates, Emily F
In the last twenty years, a conversation has emerged in the evaluation field about the potential of systems thinking and complexity science (STCS) to transform the practice of evaluating social interventions. Documenting and interpreting this conversation are necessary to advance our understanding of the significance of using STCS in planning, implementing, and evaluating social interventions. Guided by a generic framework for evaluation practice, this paper reports on an inter-disciplinary literature review and argues that STCS raises some new ways of thinking about and carrying out the following six activities: 1) supporting social problem solving; 2) framing interventions and contexts; 3) selecting and using methods; 4) engaging in valuing; 5) producing and justifying knowledge; and 6) facilitating use. Following a discussion of these issues, future directions for research and practice are suggested. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Digital technologies change how scientists access and process information and consequently impact publication forms in science. Even though the core of scientific publications has remained the same, established publication formats, such as the scientific paper or book, are succumbing to the transitions caused by digital technologies. At the same time, new online tools enable new publication forms, such as blogs, microblogs or wikis, to emerge. This article explores the changing and emerging p...
Full Text Available Background: Patients who undergo emergency colorectal cancer surgery has poor outcome compared to elective surgery, both in terms of morbidity and mortality. Approximately 15 to 30% of colorectal cancers present as an emergency, most often as obstruction or perforation. Objective: To compare surgical outcome and clinical profiles of emergency and elective cases for colorectal cancer. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 34 cases who underwent surgery for colorectal cancer between December 2011 to January 2013was carried out and their surgical outcomes, clinical presentation, demographic profile were analyzed. Results: The total numbers of patients included in this study were 34. Out of which 52.94 %( n=18 were emergency cases and 47.05 %( n=16 were elective. Male female ratio was 3:1 in emergency cases and 2.6:1 in elective cases. Per rectal bleeding (56% and altered bowel habit (31.25% was predominant clinical presentation in elective cases whereas intestinal obstruction (55.55% and peritonitis (22.22% were predominant clinical presentation in emergency cases. In emergency cases most of the tumors were located in left side (77.77% and in elective cases rectum was common site (37.5%. Left hemicolectomy was the commonest surgery performed (72.22% in emergency set up. In elective cases, right hemicolectomy, left hemicolectomy, APR and LAR was done in 31.25%, 31.25%, 25% and 25% cases respectively. In the emergency group 11.11% (n=2 developed enterocutaneous fistula and early mortality within 30 days was observed in 5% (n=1 of emergency cases only. Conclusion: In emergency conditions, colorectal cancer presented with intestinal obstruction where as elective cases presented with per rectal bleeding and altered bowel habits. Compared with the elective patients, the emergency patients had higher rate of morbidity and mortality. Because of higher incidence of colorectal cancer in our institution, in all emergency cases who presents with features of
Chelgren, Nathan D.; Samora, Barbara; Adams, Michael J.; McCreary, Brome
High variability in abundance, cryptic coloration, and small body size of newly metamorphosed anurans have limited demographic studies of this life-history stage. We used line-transect distance sampling and Bayesian methods to estimate the abundance and spatial distribution of newly metamorphosed Western Toads (Anaxyrus boreas) in terrestrial habitat surrounding a montane lake in central Washington, USA. We completed 154 line-transect surveys from the commencement of metamorphosis (15 September 2009) to the date of first snow accumulation in fall (1 October 2009), and located 543 newly metamorphosed toads. After accounting for variable detection probability associated with the extent of barren habitats, estimates of total surface abundance ranged from a posterior median of 3,880 (95% credible intervals from 2,235 to 12,600) in the first week of sampling to 12,150 (5,543 to 51,670) during the second week of sampling. Numbers of newly metamorphosed toads dropped quickly with increasing distance from the lakeshore in a pattern that differed over the three weeks of the study and contradicted our original hypotheses. Though we hypothesized that the spatial distribution of toads would initially be concentrated near the lake shore and then spread outward from the lake over time, we observed the opposite. Ninety-five percent of individuals occurred within 20, 16, and 15 m of shore during weeks one, two, and three respectively, probably reflecting continued emergence of newly metamorphosed toads from the lake and mortality or burrow use of dispersed individuals. Numbers of toads were highest near the inlet stream of the lake. Distance sampling may provide a useful method for estimating the surface abundance of newly metamorphosed toads and relating their space use to landscape variables despite uncertain and variable probability of detection. We discuss means of improving the precision of estimates of total abundance.
At 4:00 A.M. on 28 March 1979, a serious accident occurred in the nuclear-power plant at Three Mile Island near Middletown, Pennsylvania. It was caused by mechanical malfunctions in the plant, and for the next four days the extent and severity of the accident were not clear. Because it raised serious concerns about the safety of nuclear power, on 11 April President Carter established a commission to study and investigate the accident. Several aspects of the formation and evolution of the commission are particularly relevant to the social sciences. One was the way the original problem was defined for the commission by the presidential executive order. A second was the commission's own definition of the problem that evolved as the investigation progressed. As that definition became more inclusive, the body of social science literature relating to emergencies became increasingly relevant
Srinivas, Pothur R; Philbert, Martin; Vu, Tania Q; Huang, Qingrong; Kokini, Josef L; Saltos, Etta; Saos, Etta; Chen, Hongda; Peterson, Charles M; Friedl, Karl E; McDade-Ngutter, Crystal; Hubbard, Van; Starke-Reed, Pamela; Miller, Nancy; Betz, Joseph M; Dwyer, Johanna; Milner, John; Ross, Sharon A
The tantalizing potential of nanotechnology is to fabricate and combine nanoscale approaches and building blocks to make useful tools and, ultimately, interventions for medical science, including nutritional science, at the scale of approximately 1-100 nm. In the past few years, tools and techniques that facilitate studies and interventions in the nanoscale range have become widely available and have drawn widespread attention. Recently, investigators in the food and nutrition sciences have been applying the tools of nanotechnology in their research. The Experimental Biology 2009 symposium entitled "Nanotechnology Research: Applications in Nutritional Sciences" was organized to highlight emerging applications of nanotechnology to the food and nutrition sciences, as well as to suggest ways for further integration of these emerging technologies into nutrition research. Speakers focused on topics that included the problems and possibilities of introducing nanoparticles in clinical or nutrition settings, nanotechnology applications for increasing bioavailability of bioactive food components in new food products, nanotechnology opportunities in food science, as well as emerging safety and regulatory issues in this area, and the basic research applications such as the use of quantum dots to visualize cellular processes and protein-protein interactions. The session highlighted several emerging areas of potential utility in nutrition research. Nutrition scientists are encouraged to leverage ongoing efforts in nanomedicine through collaborations. These efforts could facilitate exploration of previously inaccessible cellular compartments and intracellular pathways and thus uncover strategies for new prevention and therapeutic modalities.
Rabaa, Maia A; Tue, Ngo Tri; Phuc, Tran My; Carrique-Mas, Juan; Saylors, Karen; Cotten, Matthew; Bryant, Juliet E; Nghia, Ho Dang Trung; Cuong, Nguyen Van; Pham, Hong Anh; Berto, Alessandra; Phat, Voong Vinh; Dung, Tran Thi Ngoc; Bao, Long Hoang; Hoa, Ngo Thi; Wertheim, Heiman; Nadjm, Behzad; Monagin, Corina; van Doorn, H Rogier; Rahman, Motiur; Tra, My Phan Vu; Campbell, James I; Boni, Maciej F; Tam, Pham Thi Thanh; van der Hoek, Lia; Simmonds, Peter; Rambaut, Andrew; Toan, Tran Khanh; Van Vinh Chau, Nguyen; Hien, Tran Tinh; Wolfe, Nathan; Farrar, Jeremy J; Thwaites, Guy; Kellam, Paul; Woolhouse, Mark E J; Baker, Stephen
The effect of newly emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases of zoonotic origin in human populations can be potentially catastrophic, and large-scale investigations of such diseases are highly challenging. The monitoring of emergence events is subject to ascertainment bias, whether at the level of species discovery, emerging disease events, or disease outbreaks in human populations. Disease surveillance is generally performed post hoc, driven by a response to recent events and by the availability of detection and identification technologies. Additionally, the inventory of pathogens that exist in mammalian and other reservoirs is incomplete, and identifying those with the potential to cause disease in humans is rarely possible in advance. A major step in understanding the burden and diversity of zoonotic infections, the local behavioral and demographic risks of infection, and the risk of emergence of these pathogens in human populations is to establish surveillance networks in populations that maintain regular contact with diverse animal populations, and to simultaneously characterize pathogen diversity in human and animal populations. Vietnam has been an epicenter of disease emergence over the last decade, and practices at the human/animal interface may facilitate the likelihood of spillover of zoonotic pathogens into humans. To tackle the scientific issues surrounding the origins and emergence of zoonotic infections in Vietnam, we have established The Vietnam Initiative on Zoonotic Infections (VIZIONS). This countrywide project, in which several international institutions collaborate with Vietnamese organizations, is combining clinical data, epidemiology, high-throughput sequencing, and social sciences to address relevant one-health questions. Here, we describe the primary aims of the project, the infrastructure established to address our scientific questions, and the current status of the project. Our principal objective is to develop an integrated approach to
Haacker, R.; Sloan, V.
The field of atmospheric sciences is rapidly changing, and with it, the employment outlook for recent graduate students. Weather and climate applications for society and the private industry are in demand and have increased significantly over the last few years, creating new employment opportunities for atmospheric scientists. It is therefore more important than ever that our graduates are well prepared for the newly emerging careers. The Bureau's Occupational Outlook predicts that opportunities for atmospheric scientists will increase more rapidly in the private industry than in other sectors (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2014). Employers in the private sector indicate that, while job applicants often bring the required scientific training, there is a gap between the technical and professional skills needed in those positions and those possessed by graduates. Job candidates were found to be most lacking in written and oral communication skills, adaptability, and project management (Chronicle for Higher Education, 2012). The geoscience community needs to come together to better prepare our graduate students. While some of this work can be done within academic institutions, partnerships with mentoring programs and the private industry are essential. In this paper we will present one approach taken by the Significant Opportunities in Atmospheric Research and Science (SOARS) program to improve its students' skills in project management, collaborating, communication, problem solving, and essential leadership skills.
Groen, A. J.; Walsh, S. T.
Many see emerging technologies as a solution vector for the global challenges of the twenty-first century. Today's emerging technologies include: computational sciences; nanotechnology; micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS); bio-fuels; mobile technologies and a host of others. Yet an adequate
Groen, Arend J.; Walsh, Steven Thomas
Many see emerging technologies as a solution vector for the global challenges of the twenty-first century. Today's emerging technologies include: computational sciences; nanotechnology; micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS); bio-fuels; mobile technologies and a host of others. Yet an adequate
Full Text Available Adaptation to climate change has gained a prominent place next to mitigation on global, national and local policy agendas. However, while an abundance of adaptation strategies, plans and programmes have been developed, progress in turning these into action has been slow. The development of a sound knowledge basis to support adaptation globally is suggested to accelerate progress, but has lagged behind. The emphasis in both current and newly proposed programmes is very much on practice-oriented research with strong stakeholder participation. This paper supports such practice-oriented research, but argues that this is insufficient to support adaptation policy and practice in a productive manner. We argue that there is not only a need for science for adaptation, but also a science of adaptation. The paper argues that participatory, practice-oriented research is indeed essential, but has to be complemented by and connected to more fundamental inquiry and concept development, which takes into account knowledge that has been developed in disciplinary sciences and on issues other than climate change adaptation. At the same time, the level and method of participation in science for adaptation should be determined on the basis of the specific project context and goals. More emphasis on science of adaptation can lead to improved understanding of the conditions for successful science for adaptation.
This is a presentation at a workshop in Chicago on emerging air monitoring technologies, hosted by a local nonprofit. The audience is composed of a mixture of technical backgrounds. This presentation will be part of an opening panel and the goal is to give an overview of the state of science on emerging air sensor technology. This is a presentation at a workshop in Chicago on emerging air monitoring technologies, hosted by a local nonprofit. The audience is composed of a mixture of technical backgrounds. This presentation will be part of an opening panel and the goal is to give an overview of the state of science on emerging air sensor technology.
Johnson, Andrew; Kuglitsch, Rebecca; Bresnahan, Megan
This study used participatory and service design methods to identify emerging research needs and existing perceptions of library services among science and engineering faculty, post-graduate, and graduate student researchers based at a satellite campus at the University of Colorado Boulder. These methods, and the results of the study, allowed us…
In this paper, I will argue that there is an important connection between two questions concerning how certain features of the macro world emerge from the laws and processes of fundamental microphysics and suggest an approach to answering these questions. The approach involves a kind of emergence but quite different from ‘top-down’ emergence discussed at the conference, for which an earlier version of this paper was written. The two questions are (i) How do ‘the arrows of time’ emerge from mi...
Talbert, W.L. Jr.; Bunker, M.E.
The current status and future promise of ISOL systems are discussed, with emphasis on newly conceived experimental capabilities and interests. In addition to studies of nuclear structure using traditional or new on-line approaches, such as on-line nuclear orientation, the possibilities for studies with accelerated radioactive beams that have direct application to basic problems in materials science and astrophysics as well as to nuclear theory are pointed out. 43 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab
Krepec, T.; Hong, H.
There is a new important development in automotive technology in recent years which is aimed towards more efficient and less polluting vehicles. This is one of the goals of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) launched in 1993 by the USA Government in cooperation with the three big auto makers Chrysler, Ford and General Motors. The objective is to achieve 80 miles per gallon of gasoline by a mid size sedan, i.e. to triple the existing mileage and to reduce proportionally the emissions. Similar activity was undertaken in Europe with the goal of a 3 liter/100 km car, and also in Japan. The recent demonstration results are confirming the feasibility of such a car in the near future. This is creating new opportunity for hydrogen fueled cars where the hydrogen storage limitations could be overcome with an acceptable size of hydrogen tank and additional energy from the electric battery. Such hybrid hydrogen electric vehicle would be a zero emission vehicle. Still, the commercialization of such a car, which would also provide the customer with adequate performance, drive ability and comfort, requires several advanced solutions which are already emerging from the R and D work initiated by the PNGV. (author)
Data was obtained with the Science Laboratory Environment Questionnaire, administered on 338 third year science students. Four factors were found to influence students' perception of their science laboratory environment. Two distinct material environments emerged, which have not been reported in the literature.
Bayliss-Pratt, Lisa; Morley, Mary; Bagley, Liz; Alderson, Steven
The Francis report highlighted the importance of strong leadership from health professionals but it is unclear how prepared those who are newly qualified feel to take on a leadership role. We aimed to assess the confidence of newly qualified health professionals working in the West Midlands in the different competencies of the NHS Leadership Framework. Most respondents felt confident in their abilities to demonstrate personal qualities and work with others, but less so at managing or improving services or setting direction.
A series of presentations from EPA's Board of Science Councilors review in April 2005 and the Science Forum in May 2005 are being made available to the Regional Planning Organization conference on June 9-10, 2005. Attendees will be able to review the materials during the confere...
Chandrasena, Wanasinghe Durayalage
This research comprises three inter-related synergistic studies. Study 1 aims to develop a psychometrically sound tool to measure secondary students' science self-concepts, motivation, and aspirations in biology, chemistry, earth and environmental methodology to explicate students' and teachers' views, practices, and personal experiences, to identify the barriers to undertaking science for secondary students and to provide rich insights into the relations of secondary students' science self-concepts and motivation with their aspirations and achievement. Study 3 will detect additional issues that may not necessarily be identifiable from the quantitative findings of Study 2. The psychometric properties of the newly developed instrument demonstrated that students' science self-concepts were domain specific, while science motivation and science aspirations were not. Students' self-concepts in general science, chemistry, and physics were stronger for males than females. Students' self-concepts in general science and biology became stronger for students in higher years of secondary schooling. Students' science motivation did not vary across gender and year levels. Though students' science aspirations did not vary across gender, they became stronger with age. In general, students' science self-concepts and science motivation were positively related to science aspirations and science achievement. Specifically, students' year level, biology self-concept, and physics self concept predicted their science and career aspirations. Biology self-concept predicted teacher ratings of students' achievement, and students' general science self-concepts predicted their achievement according to students' ratings. Students' year level and intrinsic motivation in science were predictors of their science aspirations, and intrinsic motivation was a greater significant predictor of students' achievement, according to student ratings. Based upon students' and teachers' perceptions, the
Wilder, M.; Varady, R. G.; Pineda Pablos, N.; Browning-Aiken, A.; Diaz Caravantes, R.; Garfin, G.
Since 1992, Mexico has developed a new set of water management institutions to usher in a ‘new culture of water’ that focuses on decentralized governance and formalized participation of local water users. Reforms to the national water legislation in April 2004 regionalized the governance of water and highlighted the importance of river basin councils as a mechanism for integrated management of major watersheds across Mexico. As a result of the dramatic national water policy reforms, water service delivery in Mexico has been decentralized to the state and municipal level, resulting in a critical new role for municipal governments charged with this important function. A network of river basin councils accompanied and sub-basin councils has been developed to undertake watershed planning. Decentralization and local participation policies embody numerous significant goals and promises, including greater efficiency, more financial accountability, fostering the beginnings of a sense of local stewardship of precious resources, and enhanced environmental sustainability. This paper examines the implications of municipalized water services and emerging river basin councils for utilization of climate knowledge and climate science. We analyze whether these changes open new windows of opportunity for meaningful use of climate science (e.g., forecasts; models). How effectively are municipal water managers and river basin councils utilizing climate knowledge and climate science, and for what purposes? Are there ways to improve the fit between the needs of water managers and river basin councils and the science that is currently available? What is the role of local participation in water policy making in urban settings and river basin councils? The study found overall that the promises and potential for effective utilization of climate science/knowledge to enhance sustainability exists, but is not yet being adequately realized. Binational efforts to develop climate science and
Zhang, Joy Yueyue
China is one among many other countries that have recognised the necessity in aligning national scientific progress with that of global development. As China is striding along the path of scientific development with determination and initial success, a key concern confronted by international scientific community is how China, a rising scientific power, will transform existing global scientific atlas. Based on a project carried out in six Chinese cities between 2006 to 2009, this paper mainly employs Ulrich Beck's cosmopolitan theory in examining China's life sciences' development in the last decade to investigate how Chinese stakeholders have developed a (cosmopolitan) sensibility to rival ways of scientific reasoning, and in what way, Chinese stakeholders have contributed to the cosmopolitanization of science.
Computational science research components were vital parts of the SciDAC-1 accelerator project and are continuing to play a critical role in newly-funded SciDAC-2 accelerator project, the Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation (ComPASS). Recent advances and achievements in the area of computational science research in support of petascale electromagnetic modeling for accelerator design analysis are presented, which include shape determination of superconducting RF cavities, mesh-based multilevel preconditioner in solving highly-indefinite linear systems, moving window using h- or p- refinement for time-domain short-range wakefield calculations, and improved scalable application I/O
Schwartz, Maurice L.; Slesnick, Irwin L.
Describes the rationale and structure of a newly developed earth science program for elementary school children (K-3). The activities involve pre-operational and concrete operational stages, progressing from one to the other. Children show sustained interest and enthusiasm as they investigate landforms, the moon, fossils, and weather phenomena.…
This article briefly reviews our current understanding of the evolution of magnetic fields in neutron stars, which basically defines the evolutionary pathways between different observational classes of neutron stars. The emphasis here is on the evolution in binary systems and the newly emergent classes of millisecond pulsars ...
The introspectometer was a "hypothetical machine" Robert K. Merton introduced in the course of a 1956 how-to manual describing an actual research technique, the focused interview. This technique, in turn, formed the basis of wartime morale research and consumer behavior studies as well as perhaps the most ubiquitous social science tool, the focus group. This essay explores a new perspective on Cold War social science made possible by comparing two kinds of apparatuses: one real, the other imaginary. Even as Merton explored the nightmare potential of such machines, he suggested that the clear aim of social science was to build them or their functional equivalent: recording machines to access a person's experiential stream of reality, with the ability to turn this stream into real-time data. In this way, the introspectometer marks and symbolizes a broader entry during the Cold War of science-fiction-style aspirations into methodological prescriptions and procedural manuals. This essay considers the growth of the genre of methodological visions and revisions, painstakingly argued and absorbed, but punctuated by sci-fi aims to transform "the human" and build newly penetrating machines. It also considers the place of the nearly real-, and the artificial "near-substitute" as part of an experimental urge that animated these sciences.
Significant progress has been made in recent years in the development of new, solid-state laser sources. This talk will present an overview of some of the new developments in solid-state lasers, and their application toward lidar/DIAL measurements of the atmosphere. Newly emerging lasers such as Ho:YAG, Tm:YAG, OPO, and Ti:Sapphire will be covered, along with the spectroscopic parameters required for differential operational modes of atmospheric remote sensing including Doppler-Windshear lidar, Tunable laser detection of water/CO2, and broad linewidth OPO's for open path detection of pollutant hydrocarbon gases. Additional considerations of emerging laser technology for lidar/DIAL will also be covered.
This report summarises the findings of a project evaluating the safety and efficiency of eleven herbicides for controlling weeds in newly plated willow short rotation coppices, and provides growers with information on post-emergence herbicide options, control of problem weeds, and emergency treatments. Weed germination, crop safety, and the encouraging results obtained using Reflex T and Impuls are discussed. It is suggested that a Technical Register of herbicide applications with contributions by growers and advisers should be considered by the British Biogen trade industry body.
Diabetes mellitus can be a frightening experience for newly diagnosed patients. The aim of this study was to determine and describe the problems faced by newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus patients at primary healthcare facilities at Mopani district, Limpopo Province. A qualitative, descriptive and contextual research ...
In the late 1970s politicians and civil servants were acutely aware of the chronic decline of the manufacturing sector as a source of employment in Britain. At a time of fear of mass unemployment, sources of new work were urgently sought. Biotechnology had been promoted by visionaries since the early twentieth century. With oil prices soaring, its potential to produce substitutes for petroleum derivatives seemed newly attractive. At the beginning of 1976, John Bu'Lock at Manchester brought the attention of the new President of the Royal Society, Lord Todd, to the developments in enzyme and fermentation technologies. Both the Society and government began to take biotechnology seriously. In 1979 the Society organized a groundbreaking meeting, 'New horizons in industrial microbiology'. In parallel, John Ashworth, the chief scientist of the government think-tank the Central Policy Review Staff, prompted by American developments in genetic engineering, its commercial exploitation and regional development, led thinking among government officials. The Spinks enquiry into biotechnology was consequently formed in 1979 as a collaborative enterprise of the Advisory Council for Applied Research and Development, the Advisory Board for the Research Councils and the Royal Society. The recommendations for far-reaching collaboration between research councils, government and industry were not fully implemented. However, even the limited implementation led to new models of science that would be significant in the emergence of a reconstruction of science.
Wulff, W.; Cheng, H.S.; Lekach, S.V.; Mallen, A.N.; Stritar, A.
The purpose of computer-assisted emergency response in nuclear power plants, and the requirements for achieving such a response, are presented. An important requirement is the attainment of realistic high-speed plant simulations at the reactor site. Currently pursued development programs for plant simulations are reviewed. Five modeling principles are established and a criterion is presented for selecting numerical procedures and efficient computer hardware to achieve high-speed simulations. A newly developed technology for high-speed power plant simulation is described and results are presented. It is shown that simulation speeds ten times greater than real-time process-speeds are possible, and that plant instrumentation can be made part of the computational loop in a small, on-site minicomputer. Additional technical issues are presented which must still be resolved before the newly developed technology can be implemented in a nuclear power plant
Layland, Eric K; Hill, Brian J; Nelson, Larry J
During a period of newly attained freedom preceding commitments expected in adulthood, emerging adults are faced with the major task of identity development. Leisure provides a context with relative freedom wherein emerging adults explore new experiences and access opportunities not always available in more constrained environments like work and school. In this case study of 40 emerging adults from 18 countries ( M age =23.14 years), qualitative interviews were used to investigate the role of leisure as a context for identity development. Results indicate five major themes for leisure-based identity development in emerging adulthood: discovering identity, forming identity, defining identity, positioning identity, and forgoing opportunities. These themes support leisure as an additional context wherein emerging adults may flourish on the pathway toward adulthood. Access to both novel and familiar leisure provide a context for emerging adults to actively direct their identity development through decisions made in leisure time.
Layland, Eric K.; Hill, Brian J.; Nelson, Larry J.
During a period of newly attained freedom preceding commitments expected in adulthood, emerging adults are faced with the major task of identity development. Leisure provides a context with relative freedom wherein emerging adults explore new experiences and access opportunities not always available in more constrained environments like work and school. In this case study of 40 emerging adults from 18 countries (Mage=23.14 years), qualitative interviews were used to investigate the role of leisure as a context for identity development. Results indicate five major themes for leisure-based identity development in emerging adulthood: discovering identity, forming identity, defining identity, positioning identity, and forgoing opportunities. These themes support leisure as an additional context wherein emerging adults may flourish on the pathway toward adulthood. Access to both novel and familiar leisure provide a context for emerging adults to actively direct their identity development through decisions made in leisure time. PMID:29276528
Voldbjerg, Siri Lygum; Grønkjaer, Mette; Wiechula, Rick
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore which knowledge sources newly graduated nurses' use in clinical decision-making and why and how they are used. BACKGROUND: In spite of an increased educational focus on skills and competencies within evidence based practice newly graduated nurses' ability to use...... approaches to strengthen the knowledgebase used in clinical decision-making. DESIGN AND METHODS: Ethnographic study using participant-observation and individual semi-structured interviews of nine Danish newly graduated nurses in medical and surgical hospital settings. RESULTS: Newly graduates use...... in clinical decision-making. If newly graduates are to be supported in an articulate and reflective use of a variety of sources, they have to be allocated to experienced nurses who model a reflective, articulate and balanced use of knowledge sources. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....
Underrepresentation of women and minorities in the science, technology, and engineering (STEM) fields is a perennial concern for researchers and policy-makers. Many causes of this problem have been identified. Less is known about what constitutes effective methods for increasing women's participation in STEM. This study examines the role that identity formation plays in encouraging girls to pursue STEM education and careers utilizing data from a cohort-based, informal science enrichment program that targets middle-school-aged girls. A Mixed-methods design was employed to examine girls' science interests, efficacy, attitudes, and identity---referred to as affinities. Quantitative data were collected before and after program participation using science affinity scales. Qualitative data included observations, focus groups, and individual interviews. This study builds on past research conducted on the same program. The study is presented in three components: fidelity of implementation, participant affinities, and science identity theory building. Quantitative and qualitative measures reveal that the program was implemented with high fidelity. Participants had high initial affinities for science as compared to a contrast group. Analysis of qualitative data of science affinities revealed several themes in girls' attitudes, experiences, and intentions toward science. Emergent themes discussed include girls' preferences and interests in science, gender and science efficacy, attitudes toward science, and elements of science identities. Archetypes of emergent science identities developed in this study (expert, experimenter, and inventor) inform different ways in which girls engage with and envision science study and careers. Implications for best practice in fostering science engagement and identities in middle-school-aged girls include the importance of hands-on science activities, the need for enthusiastic relatable role models, and an emphasis on deep understanding of
Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Muths, Erin L.; Katz, Rachel A.; Canessa, Stefano; Adams, Michael J.; Ballard, Jennifer R.; Berger, Lee; Briggs, Cheryl J.; Coleman, Jeremy; Gray, Matthew J.; Harris, M. Camille; Harris, Reid N.; Hossack, Blake R.; Huyvaert, Kathryn P.; Kolby, Jonathan E.; Lips, Karen R.; Lovich, Robert E.; McCallum, Hamish I.; Mendelson, Joseph R.; Nanjappa, Priya; Olson, Deanna H.; Powers, Jenny G.; Richgels, Katherine L. D.; Russell, Robin E.; Schmidt, Benedikt R.; Spitzen-van der Sluijs, Annemarieke; Watry, Mary Kay; Woodhams, Douglas C.; White, C. LeAnn
Despite calls for improved responses to emerging infectious diseases in wildlife, management is seldom considered until a disease has been detected in affected populations. Reactive approaches may limit the potential for control and increase total response costs. An alternative, proactive management framework can identify immediate actions that reduce future impacts even before a disease is detected, and plan subsequent actions that are conditional on disease emergence. We identify four main obstacles to developing proactive management strategies for the newly discovered salamander pathogen Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal). Given that uncertainty is a hallmark of wildlife disease management and that associated decisions are often complicated by multiple competing objectives, we advocate using decision analysis to create and evaluate trade-offs between proactive (pre-emergence) and reactive (post-emergence) management options. Policy makers and natural resource agency personnel can apply principles from decision analysis to improve strategies for countering emerging infectious diseases.
Barbosa, Eudes; Aburjaile, Flavia F; Ramos, Rommel Tj
and annotation will not be undertaken. It is important to know what is lost when we settle for a draft genome and to determine the "scientific value" of a newly sequenced genome. This review addresses the expected impact of newly sequenced genomes on antibacterial discovery and vaccinology. Also, it discusses...... heightened expectations that NGS would boost antibacterial discovery and vaccine development. Although many possible drug and vaccine targets have been discovered, the success rate of genome-based analysis has remained below expectations. Furthermore, NGS has had consequences for genome quality, resulting...
Darch, P. T.; Borgman, C.
As earth scientists seek to study known phenomena in new ways, and to study new phenomena, they often develop new technologies and new methods such as embedded network sensing, or reapply extant technologies, such as seafloor drilling. Emergent domains are often highly multidisciplinary as researchers from many backgrounds converge on new research questions. They may adapt existing methods, or develop methods de novo. As a result, emerging domains tend to be methodologically heterogeneous. As these domains mature, pressure to standardize methods increases. Standardization promotes trust, reliability, accuracy, and reproducibility, and simplifies data management. However, for standardization to occur, researchers must be able to assess which of the competing methods produces the highest quality data. The exploratory nature of emerging domains discourages standardization. Because competing methods originate in different disciplinary backgrounds, their scientific credibility is difficult to compare. Instead of direct comparison, researchers attempt to conduct meta-analyses. Scientists compare datasets produced by different methods to assess their consistency and efficiency. This paper presents findings from a long-term qualitative case study of research on the deep subseafloor biosphere, an emergent domain. A diverse community converged on the study of microbes in the seafloor and those microbes' interactions with the physical environments they inhabit. Data on this problem are scarce, leading to calls for standardization as a means to acquire and analyze greater volumes of data. Lacking consistent methods, scientists attempted to conduct meta-analyses to determine the most promising methods on which to standardize. Among the factors that inhibited meta-analyses were disparate approaches to metadata and to curating data. Datasets may be deposited in a variety of databases or kept on individual scientists' servers. Associated metadata may be inconsistent or hard to
Andersen, Lise Geisler; Baker, Jennifer L; Sørensen, Thorkild I A
Prevalence of obesity is the result of preceding incidence of newly developed obesity and persistence of obesity. We investigated whether increasing incidence and/or persistence during childhood drove the prevalence of childhood obesity during the emerging epidemic....
Keske, Kristina Palmer
The purpose of this interpretive case study was to elucidate the conceptions of the nature of science held by seven elementary science teachers. The constructivist paradigm provided the philosophical and methodological foundation for the study. Interviews were employed to collect data from the participants about their formal and informal experiences with science. In addition, the participants contributed their perspectives on four aspects of the nature of science: what is science; who is a scientist; what are the methods of science; and how is scientific knowledge constructed. Data analysis not only revealed these teachers' views of science, but also provided insights into how they viewed science teaching. Four themes emerged from the data. The first theme developed around the participants' portrayals of the content of science, with participant views falling on a continuum of limited to universal application of science as procedure. The second theme dealt with the participants' views of the absolute nature of scientific knowledge. Participants' perceptions of the tentative nature of science teaching provided the basis for the third theme concerning the need for absolutes in practice. The fourth theme drew parallels between participants' views of science and science teaching, with two participants demonstrating a consistency in beliefs about knowledge construction across contexts. This study revealed both personal and contextual factors which impacted how the participants saw science and science teaching. Many of the participants' memories of formal science revolved around the memorization of content and were viewed negatively. All the participants had limited formal training in science. Of the seven participants, only two had chosen to be science teachers at the beginning of their careers. The participants' limited formal experiences with science provided little time for exploration into historical, philosophical, and sociological studies of science, a necessary
Tamer A Sharafeldin
Full Text Available Newly emergent turkey arthritis reoviruses (TARV were isolated from tendons of lame 15-week-old tom turkeys that occasionally had ruptured leg tendons. Experimentally, these TARVs induced remarkable tenosynovitis in gastrocnemius tendons of turkey poults. The current study aimed to characterize the location and the extent of virus replication as well as the cytokine response induced by TARV during the first two weeks of infection. One-week-old male turkeys were inoculated orally with TARV (O'Neil strain. Copy numbers of viral genes were estimated in intestines, internal organs and tendons at ½, 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 14 days Post inoculation (dpi. Cytokine profile was measured in intestines, spleen and leg tendons at 0, 4, 7 and 14 dpi. Viral copy number peaked in jejunum, cecum and bursa of Fabricius at 4 dpi. Copy numbers increased dramatically in leg tendons at 7 and 14 dpi while minimal copies were detected in internal organs and blood during the same period. Virus was detected in cloacal swabs at 1-2 dpi, and peaked at 14 dpi indicating enterotropism of the virus and its early shedding in feces. Elevation of IFN-α and IFN-β was observed in intestines at 7 dpi as well as a prominent T helper-1 response (IFN-γ at 7 and 14 dpi. IFN-γ and IL-6 were elevated in gastrocnemius tendons at 14 dpi. Elevation of antiviral cytokines in intestines occurred at 7dpi when a significant decline of viral replication in intestines was observed. T helper-1 response in intestines and leg tendons was the dominant T-helper response. These results suggest the possible correlation between viral replication and cytokine response in early infection of TARV in turkeys. Our findings provide novel insights which help elucidate viral pathogenesis in turkey tendons infected with TARV.
Wong, Chan-Yuan; Fatimah Mohamad, Zeeda; Keng, Zi-Xiang; Ariff Azizan, Suzana
This paper focuses on selected Asian emerging economies. The study employs publications and patents as proxies for science and technology, and its analysis is divided into three main parts: production trends, catching-up trends and patterns of convergence. The findings resulted in four salient points to be considered by policy makers: (1) ASEAN-4 lagged significantly behind the more advanced economies (Korea, Taiwan and China) even though their performance was identical in the early 1990s. China has forged ahead in terms of scientific publications and patents production, but lags behind in patents quality; (2) compared to the world average, the region as a whole has high potential to forge ahead in low carbon energy scientific production. (3) Advanced economies in Asia kicked off their low carbon energy science and technology development more from technological rather than scientific production, with no straightforward co-evolution between the two competencies. This demonstrates the need for a strong science-based technological foundation and a high level of dynamism for low carbon energy technology development; and (4) the economies demonstrated contrasting development trends in their focus between the supply and demand sides of energy technology development. The performance of the advanced economies is higher in ‘demand-side’ low carbon energy innovations
Zhang, Yibo; Sun, Jingyong; Mi, Chenrong; Li, Wenhui; Zhao, Shengyuan; Wang, Qun; Shi, Dake; Liu, Luo; Ding, Bingyu; Chang, Yung-Fu; Guo, Hongxiong; Guo, XiaoKui; Li, Qingtian; Zhu, Yongzhang
Here, we present the first report of one suspected dead case and two confirmed rapid-onset fatal infections caused by a newly emerging hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae ST86 strain of serotype K2. The three cases occurred in a surgery ward during 2013 in Shanghai, China. A combination of multilocus sequence typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, phenotypic and PCR tests for detecting virulence factors (VFs) was used to identify the isolates as K2 ST86 strains with common VFs, including Aerobactin and rmpA. Furthermore, the two K2 ST86 strains additionally harbored a distinct VF kfu (responsible for iron uptake system), which commonly existed in invasive K1 strains only. Thus, the unusual presence of both K1 and K2 VFs in the lethal ST86 strain might further enhance its hypervirulence and cause rapid onset of a life-threatening infection. Nevertheless, despite the administration of a combined antibiotic treatment, these three patients all died within 24 h of acute onset, thereby highlighting that the importance of early diagnosis to determine whether the ST86 strains harbor key K2 VF and unusual K1 kfu and whether patients should receive a timely and targeted antibiotic therapy to prevent ST86 induced fatal pneumonia. Finally, even though these patients are clinically improved, keeping on with oral antibiotic treatment for additional 2-3 weeks will be also vital for successfully preventing hvKP reinfection or relapse.
Buck, Gayle A.
The science teacher educators at a midwestern university set a goal to establish a collaborative relationship between themselves and representatives from the College of Arts & Sciences for the purpose of developing a middle childhood science education program. The coming together of these two faculties provided a unique opportunity to explore the issues and experiences that emerge as such a collaborative relationship is formed. In order to gain a holistic perspective of the collaboration, a phenomenological case study design and methods were utilized. The study took a qualitative approach to allow the experiences and issues to emerge in a naturalistic manner. The question, 'What are the issues and experiences that emerge as science teacher educators and science faculty attempt to form a collaborative relationship for the purpose of developing a middle childhood science teacher program?' was answered by gathering a wealth of data. These data were collected by means of semi-structured interviews, observations and written document reviews. An overall picture was painted of the case by means of heuristic, phenomenological, and issues analyses. The researcher followed Moustakas' Phases of Heuristic Research to answer the questions 'What does science mean to me?' and 'What are my beliefs about the issues guiding this case?' prior to completing the phenomenological analysis. The phenomenological analysis followed Moustakas' 'Modification of the Van Kaam Methods of Analysis of Phenomenological Data'. This inquiry showed that the participants in this study came to the collaboration for many different reasons and ideas about the purpose for such a relationship. The participants also had very different ideas about how such a relationship should be conducted. These differences combined to create some issues that affected the development of curriculum and instruction. The issues involved the lack of (a) mutual respect for the work of the partners, (b) understanding about the
S. & Sorenson, John H. Communication of Emergency Public Warnings: A Social Science Perspective and State-of-the Art Assessment. Oak Ridge National...that reduces the likelihood of loss of life can be valued through actuarial processes but also has value for which there is no accounting. While...in its use and adoption. A computer science professor at the University of California–Berkeley describes one of the lessons learned from this
Willcockson, Irmgard U.; Phelps, Cynthia L.
Felt problem Technology integration continues to be a challenge for health science faculty. While students expect emerging technologies to be used in the classroom, faculty members desire a strategic process to incorporate technology for the students' benefit. Our solution We have developed a model that provides faculty a strategy for integrating emerging technologies into the classroom. The model is grounded in student learning and may be applied to any technology. We present the model alongside examples from faculty who have used it to incorporate technology into their health sciences classrooms. PMID:20165698
Uematsu, Hitoshi; Kakuta, Akio; Yasuda, Makoto [Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization, Policy Planning and Coordination Department, Tokyo (Japan); Funahashi, Toshihiro [Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization, Nuclear Emergency Response and Prepardness Department, Tokyo (Japan)
This investigation was carried out on organization and a role of nuclear regulatory body in the U.S., France, Germany, the U.K., Korea and Canada. In addition, nuclear emergency preparedness in these countries was investigated. A summary of this investigation is shown below. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission in the U.S. and the Nuclear Safety Authority in France have respectively headquarters and regional offices. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has 4 regional offices and the Nuclear Safety Authority has 11 regional office. These regional offices are responsible primarily for the inspection of nuclear facilities. In Germany, the Federal Ministry of the Environment has delegated its regulatory authority to state governments, and the relevant department of each state government is in charge of inspection, oversight and approval of nuclear installations. In addition, in Korea, the U.S., and the U.K., the resident inspectors placed in each nuclear facility have the directed nuclear facilities. Meanwhile, Korea had changed its nuclear regulatory regime during this study period. The Nuclear Safety and Security Commission was newly established and took over from the Nuclear Safety Division of the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology. Regarding nuclear emergency preparedness system, it is secured that the public will be protected at the national level. And also the responding scheme and roles of regulatory agencies, operators, and the relevant ministries and agencies are identified. In addition, the licensee's responsibilities are defined. In France, existing organizations such as government organizations, governor who is appointed by the government and licensees respond to nuclear emergency. In Korea and the U.K., an emergency organization which consists of existing organizations are established and coped with nuclear emergency. In the U.S., Germany and Canada that have a federal system, the roles of state governments and the federal government are identified
Rosenman, Elizabeth D; Branzetti, Jeremy B; Fernandez, Rosemarie
Team leadership is a critical skill for emergency medicine physicians that directly affects team performance and the quality of patient care. There exists a robust body of team science research supporting team leadership conceptual models and behavioral skill sets. However, to date, this work has not been widely incorporated into health care team leadership education. This narrative review has 3 aims: (1) to synthesize the team science literature and to translate important concepts and models to health care team leadership; (2) to describe how team leadership is currently represented in the health care literature and in the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Milestones for emergency medicine; and (3) to propose a novel, evidence-based framework for the assessment of team leadership in emergency medicine. We conducted a narrative review of the team science and health care literature. We summarized our findings and identified a list of team leadership behaviors that were then used to create a framework for team leadership assessment. Current health care team leadership measurement tools do not incorporate evidence-based models of leadership concepts from other established domains. The emergency medicine milestones include several team leadership behaviors as part of a larger resident evaluation program. However, they do not offer a comprehensive or cohesive representation of the team leadership construct. Despite the importance of team leadership to patient care, there is no standardized approach to team leadership assessment in emergency medicine. Based on the results of our review, we propose a novel team leadership assessment framework that is supported by the team science literature.
health concepts have emerged parallel to the evolution of ideas in science such as the germ theory of disease ... emergence of newer technology has thrown up new conceptual challenges. .... Epidemiological research as it is practiced lacks.
The objective of the project was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a range of herbicides and mixtures of herbicides, with both contact and residual activity, for the post-emergence control of weeds in newly planted willow short rotation coppice (SRC). This report provides growers and advisers of short rotation coppice with important (but still limited) information on how to achieve improved weed control of problem weeds increasingly prevalent in SRC fields. This may provide guidance towards often-essential emergency treatments when the crop establishment is under considerable pressure and the potential safety, or otherwise, of certain weed-specific herbicides. (author)
Landman, William Henry; Bates, Steven Odum; Bonnema, Bruce Edward; Palmer, Stanley Leland; Podgorney, Anna Kristine; Walsh, Stephanie
This report identifies and evaluates three options for treating newly generated liquid waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The three options are: (a) treat the waste using processing facilities designed for treating sodium-bearing waste, (b) treat the waste using subcontractor-supplied mobile systems, or (c) treat the waste using a special facility designed and constructed for that purpose. In studying these options, engineers concluded that the best approach is to store the newly generated liquid waste until a sodium-bearing waste treatment facility is available and then to co-process the stored inventory of the newly generated waste with the sodium-bearing waste. After the sodium-bearing waste facility completes its mission, two paths are available. The newly generated liquid waste could be treated using the subcontractor-supplied system or the sodium-bearing waste facility or a portion of it. The final decision depends on the design of the sodium-bearing waste treatment facility, which will be completed in coming years.
Capobianco, Brenda M.; Yu, Ji H.; French, Brian F.
The integration of engineering concepts and practices into elementary science education has become an emerging concern for science educators and practitioners, alike. Moreover, how children, specifically preadolescents (grades 1-5), engage in engineering design-based learning activities may help science educators and researchers learn more about…
Aziz-Alaoui, M. A
Emergence and complexity refer to the appearance of higher-level properties and behaviours of a system that obviously comes from the collective dynamics of that system's components. These properties are not directly deductable from the lower-level motion of that system. Emergent properties are properties of the "whole'' that are not possessed by any of the individual parts making up that whole. Such phenomena exist in various domains and can be described, using complexity concepts and thematic knowledges. This book highlights complexity modelling through dynamical or behavioral systems. The pluridisciplinary purposes, developped along the chapters, are enable to design links between a wide-range of fundamental and applicative Sciences. Developing such links - instead of focusing on specific and narrow researches - is characteristic of the Science of Complexity that we try to promote by this contribution.
Mileti, D.S. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (USA)); Sorensen, J.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))
More than 200 studies of warning systems and warning response were reviewed for this social science perspective and state-of-the-art assessment of communication of emergency public warnings. The major findings are as follows. First, variations in the nature and content of warnings have a large impact on whether or not the public heeds the warning. Relevant factors include the warning source; warning channel; the consistency, credibility, accuracy, and understandability of the message; and the warning frequency. Second, characteristics of the population receiving the warning affect warning response. These include social characteristics such as gender, ethnicity and age, social setting characteristics such as stage of life or family context, psychological characteristics such as fatalism or risk perception, and knowledge characteristics such as experience or training. Third, many current myths about public response to emergency warning are at odds with knowledge derived from field investigations. Some of these myths include the keep it simple'' notion, the cry wolf'' syndrome, public panic and hysteria, and those concerning public willingness to respond to warnings. Finally, different methods of warning the public are not equally effective at providing an alert and notification in different physical and social settings. Most systems can provide a warning given three or more hours of available warning time. Special systems such as tone-alert radios are needed to provide rapid warning. 235 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.
What is good science? What goal--if any--is the proper end of scientific activity? Is there a legitimating authority that scientists mayclaim? Howserious athreat are the anti-science movements? These questions have long been debated but, as Gerald Holton points out, every era must offer its own responses. This book examines these questions not in the abstract but shows their historic roots and the answers emerging from the scientific and political controversies of this century. Employing the case-study method and the concept of scientific thematathat he has pioneered, Holton displays the broad scope of his insight into the workings of science: from the influence of Ernst Mach on twentiethcentury physicists, biologists, psychologists, and other thinkers to the rhetorical strategies used in the work of Albert Einstein, Niels Bohr, and others; from the bickering between Thomas Jefferson and the U.S. Congress over the proper form of federal sponsorship of scientific research to philosophical debates since Oswald...
Srinivas, Pothur R.; Philbert, Martin; Vu, Tania Q.; Huang, Qingrong; Kokini, Josef L.; Saos, Etta; Chen, Hongda; Peterson, Charles M.; Friedl, Karl E.; McDade-Ngutter, Crystal; Hubbard, Van; Starke-Reed, Pamela; Miller, Nancy; Betz, Joseph M.; Dwyer, Johanna; Milner, John; Ross, Sharon A.
The tantalizing potential of nanotechnology is to fabricate and combine nanoscale approaches and building blocks to make useful tools and, ultimately, interventions for medical science, including nutritional science, at the scale of ∼1–100 nm. In the past few years, tools and techniques that facilitate studies and interventions in the nanoscale range have become widely available and have drawn widespread attention. Recently, investigators in the food and nutrition sciences have been applying the tools of nanotechnology in their research. The Experimental Biology 2009 symposium entitled “Nanotechnology Research: Applications in Nutritional Sciences” was organized to highlight emerging applications of nanotechnology to the food and nutrition sciences, as well as to suggest ways for further integration of these emerging technologies into nutrition research. Speakers focused on topics that included the problems and possibilities of introducing nanoparticles in clinical or nutrition settings, nanotechnology applications for increasing bioavailability of bioactive food components in new food products, nanotechnology opportunities in food science, as well as emerging safety and regulatory issues in this area, and the basic research applications such as the use of quantum dots to visualize cellular processes and protein-protein interactions. The session highlighted several emerging areas of potential utility in nutrition research. Nutrition scientists are encouraged to leverage ongoing efforts in nanomedicine through collaborations. These efforts could facilitate exploration of previously inaccessible cellular compartments and intracellular pathways and thus uncover strategies for new prevention and therapeutic modalities. PMID:19939997
The essay reviews the literature, mostly historical, on the relationship between science and film-making, with a focus on the science documentary. It then discusses the circumstances of the emergence of the wildlife making-of documentary genre. The thesis examined here is that since the early days of cinema, film-making has evolved from being subordinate to science, to being an equal partner in the production of knowledge, controlled by non-scientists. © The Author(s) 2015.
Scientists and professionals from multiple governmental agencies recently gathered at NCI at Frederick for a forum on newly emerging infectious diseases, threats to public health, and ongoing efforts to study high-risk pathogens. During the one-day event, which was sponsored by the National Interagency Confederation for Biological Research’s Scientific Interaction Subcommittee, nine speakers from four agencies shared their research and their agencies’ endeavors to address current and future biological threats.
Nakada, Hiroshi; Numata, Yasuko; Sakae, Toshiro; Tamaki, Hiroyuki; Kato, Takao
There have been many studies reporting that newly formed bone around implants is spongy bone. However, although the morphology is reported as being like spongy bone, it is difficult to discriminate whether the bone quality of newly formed bone appears similar to osteoid or cortical bone; therefore, evaluation of bone quality is required. The aims of this study were to measure the bone mineral density (BMD) values of newly formed bone around implants after 4, 8, 16, 24 and 48 weeks, to represent these values on three-dimensional color mapping (3Dmap), and to evaluate the change in bone quality associated with newly formed bone around implants. The animal experimental protocol of this study was approved by the Ethics Committee for Animal Experiments of our University. This experiment used 20 surface treatment implants (Ti-6Al-4V alloy: 3.1 mm in diameter and 30.0 mm in length) by grit-blasting. They were embedded into surgically created flaws in femurs of 20 New Zealand white rabbits (16 weeks old, male). The rabbits were sacrificed with an ear intravenous overdose of pentobarbital sodium under general anesthesia each period, and the femurs were resected. We measured BMD of newly formed bone around implants and cortical bone using Micro-CT, and the BMD distribution map of 3Dmap (TRI/3D Bon BMD, Ratoc System Engineering). The BMD of cortical bone was 1,026.3±44.3 mg/cm 3 at 4 weeks, 1,023.8±40.9 mg/cm 3 at 8 weeks, 1,048.2±45.6 mg/cm 3 at 16 weeks, 1,067.2±60.2 mg/cm 3 at 24 weeks, and 1,069.3±50.7 mg/cm 3 at 48 weeks after implantation, showing a non-significant increase each period. The BMD of newly formed bone around implants was 296.8±25.6 mg/cm 3 at 4 weeks, 525.0±72.4 mg/cm 3 at 8 weeks, 691.2±26.0 mg/cm 3 at 16 weeks, 776.9±27.7 mg/cm 3 at 24 weeks, and 845.2±23.1 mg/cm 3 at 48 weeks after implantation, showing a significant increase after each period. It was revealed that the color scale of newly formed bone was Low level at 4 weeks, and then it
Full Text Available This paper deals with the relationship between science and education in historiography, questioning the separation between the two activities, and highlighting the role of education to scientific activity. First, it distinguishes the largely accepted needs of historical contextualization from the epistemological problem, related to the place of history education in the history of science. It defends that the history of science education is not foreign to the history of science. It criticizes Chevallard’s notion of didactic transposition for reinforcing the gap between scientific knowledge and teaching knowledge. Finally, it argues that the sciences are in permanent reconstruction and that scientific knowledge is not tied to socio-cultural contexts from which it emerged.
Danbjørg, Dorthe Boe; Birkelund, Regner
This paper reports the findings from a study of newly qualified nurses and which subjects the nurses regarded as the most important in order to be able to live up to the requirements of clinical practice, and how they experience their potential for developing practical and moral skills, after the decrease in practical training. A qualitative approach guided the research process and the analysis of the data. The data was collected by participant observation and qualitative interviews with four nurses as informants. The conclusions made in this study are based on the statements and the observations of the newly qualified nurses. Our findings are discussed in relation to the Aristotelian concept and other relevant literature. The main message is that the newly qualified nurses did not feel equipped when they finished their training. This could be interpreted as a direct consequence of the decrease in practical training. Our study also underlines that the way nursing theory is perceived and taught is problematic. The interviews revealed that the nurses think that nursing theories should be applied directly in practice. This misunderstanding is probably also applicable to the teachers of the theories. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Roudier, Pierre; Ritchie, Alistair; Hedley, Carolyn; Medyckyj-Scott, David
The last 15 years have seen the rapid development of a wide range of information technologies. Those developments have been impacting all fields of science, at every step of the scientific method: data collection, data analysis, inference, science communication and outreach. The rate at which data is being generated is increasing exponentially, giving opportunities to improve our understanding of soils. Parallel developments in computing hardware and methods, such as machine learning, open ways to not only harness the '”data deluge”, but also offer a new way to generate knowledge. Finally, emerging data and information delivery protocols are leveraging the outreach power of the World Wide Web to disseminate scientific data and information, and increase their use and understanding outside the boundaries of a given scientific field. However, the nature of this data is mostly new to soil science, and requires adaptation to its diversity and volume. In particular, the integration of the significant amount of legacy soil data collected throughout decades of soil science can be problematic when all necessary metadata is not available. Likewise, knowledge accumulated by our scientific field needs to be acknowledged by - rather than opposed to - numerical methods. While the introduction of this set of emerging technologies is enabling soil science from different points of view, its successful implementation depends on the ability of soil scientists to act as knowledge brokers and support numerical methods.
Voldbjerg, Siri Lygum; Grønkjaer, Mette; Sørensen, Erik Elgaard; Hall, Elisabeth O C
To advance evidence on newly graduated nurses' use of knowledge sources. Clinical decisions need to be evidence-based and understanding the knowledge sources that newly graduated nurses use will inform both education and practice. Qualitative studies on newly graduated nurses' use of knowledge sources are increasing though generated from scattered healthcare contexts. Therefore, a metasynthesis of qualitative research on what knowledge sources new graduates use in decision-making was conducted. Meta-ethnography. Nineteen reports, representing 17 studies, published from 2000-2014 were identified from iterative searches in relevant databases from May 2013-May 2014. Included reports were appraised for quality and Noblit and Hare's meta-ethnography guided the interpretation and synthesis of data. Newly graduated nurses' use of knowledge sources during their first 2-year postgraduation were interpreted in the main theme 'self and others as knowledge sources,' with two subthemes 'doing and following' and 'knowing and doing,' each with several elucidating categories. The metasynthesis revealed a line of argument among the report findings underscoring progression in knowledge use and perception of competence and confidence among newly graduated nurses. The transition phase, feeling of confidence and ability to use critical thinking and reflection, has a great impact on knowledge sources incorporated in clinical decisions. The synthesis accentuates that for use of newly graduated nurses' qualifications and skills in evidence-based practice, clinical practice needs to provide a supportive environment which nurtures critical thinking and questions and articulates use of multiple knowledge sources. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ralph, F. Martin; Dettinger, Michael; Lavers, David A.; Gorodetskaya, Irina; Martin, Andrew; Viale, Maximilliano; White, Allen; Oakley, Nina; Rutz, Jonathan; Spackman, J. Ryan; Wernli, Heini; Cordeira, Jason
Recent advances in atmospheric sciences and hydrology have identified the key role of atmo-spheric rivers (ARs) in determining the distribution of strong precipitation events in the midlatitudes. The growth of the subject is evident in the increase in scientific publications that discuss ARs (Fig. 1a). Combined with related phenomena, that is, warm conveyor belts (WCBs) and tropical moisture exports (TMEs), the frequency, position, and strength of ARs determine the occurrence of floods, droughts, and water resources in many parts of the world. A conference at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in La Jolla, California, recently gathered over 100 experts in atmospheric, hydrologic, oceanic, and polar science; ecology; water management; and civil engineering to assess the state of AR science and to explore the need for new information. This first International Atmospheric Rivers Conference (IARC) allowed for much needed introductions and interactions across fields and regions, for example, participants came from five continents, and studies covered ARs in six continents and Greenland (Fig. 1b). IARC also fostered discussions of the status and future of AR science, and attendees strongly supported the idea of holding another IARC at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the summer of 2018.
Nanotechnology is an emerging field in science and technology, which can be applied to synthesize new materials at the nanoscale level. The present investigation aimed at comparing the synthesis, characterization andin vitro anticancer efficacy of synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles using leaves extract of Bauhinia ...
Tebes, Jacob Kraemer
Embedded in community science are implicit theories on the nature of reality (ontology), the justification of knowledge claims (epistemology), and how knowledge is constructed (methodology). These implicit theories influence the conceptualization and practice of research, and open up or constrain its possibilities. The purpose of this paper is to make some of these theories explicit, trace their intellectual history, and propose a shift in the way research in the social and behavioral sciences, and community science in particular, is conceptualized and practiced. After describing the influence and decline of logical empiricism, the underlying philosophical framework for science for the past century, I summarize contemporary views in the philosophy of science that are alternatives to logical empiricism. These include contextualism, normative naturalism, and scientific realism, and propose that a modified version of contextualism, known as perspectivism, affords the philosophical framework for an emerging community science. I then discuss the implications of perspectivism for community science in the form of four propositions to guide the practice of research.
What is the impact of open access on science communication? How can scientists effectively engage and interact with the public? What role can science communication have when scientific controversies arise? Practising science communication in the information age is a collection of newly-commissioned chapters by leading scholars and practitioners of science communication. It considers how scientists communicate with each other as part of their professional practice, critically evaluating how this forms the basis of the documenting of scientific knowledge, and investigating how open access publication and open review are influencing current practices. It also explores how science communication can play a crucial role when science is disputed, investigating the role of expertise in the formation of scientific controversy and consensus. The volume provides a theoretically informed review of contemporary trends and issues that are engaging practitioners of science communication, focusing on issues such as the norms...
Clarke, M L
The focus of this paper is to provide a brief discussion on the quantum measurement process, by reviewing select examples highlighting recent progress towards its understanding. The areas explored include an outline of the measurement problem, the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics, quantum to classical transition, types of measurement (including weak and projective measurements) and newly emerging interpretations of quantum mechanics (decoherence theory, objective reality, quantum Darwinism and quantum Bayesianism). (paper)
Choi, Young Hun; Jae, Hwan Jun; Shin, Cheong Il; Song, Su Jin; Cha, Won Cheol; Na, Dong Gyu
The purpose of this study was to assess the clinician satisfaction of a newly introduced around-the-clock radiology coverage system for the emergency department. Seventeen emergency physicians (8 board certified physicians, 9 residents) were invited to fill out a survey pertaining to the newly introduced radiology coverage system for the emergency department. The questionnaire included 10 questions covering three major topics. The first topic related to the around-the-clock radiology coverage by two full-time radiology residents. The second topic focused on the preliminary interpretations of radiology residents. The last topic included the interpretation assistance system by board-certified radiologists. The answers to each question were assessed using a scoring system of 1 to 5. The mean satisfaction score of the around-the-clock radiology coverage system by the two full-time radiology residents was 4.6 (range 3-5). The mean score for the preliminary interpretation system by the radiology residents was 4.8 (range 4-5). The score for the reliability of the preliminary versus the final interpretation was 4.1 (range 4-5). Lastly, the mean score for the interpretation assistance system by board-certified radiologists was 4.9 (range 4-5). The results of this study indicate a high satisfaction rating among clinicians' of the new around-the-clock radiology coverage system for the emergency department
Rosenman, Elizabeth D.; Branzetti, Jeremy B.; Fernandez, Rosemarie
Background Team leadership is a critical skill for emergency medicine physicians that directly affects team performance and the quality of patient care. There exists a robust body of team science research supporting team leadership conceptual models and behavioral skill sets. However, to date, this work has not been widely incorporated into health care team leadership education. Objective This narrative review has 3 aims: (1) to synthesize the team science literature and to translate important concepts and models to health care team leadership; (2) to describe how team leadership is currently represented in the health care literature and in the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Milestones for emergency medicine; and (3) to propose a novel, evidence-based framework for the assessment of team leadership in emergency medicine. Methods We conducted a narrative review of the team science and health care literature. We summarized our findings and identified a list of team leadership behaviors that were then used to create a framework for team leadership assessment. Results Current health care team leadership measurement tools do not incorporate evidence-based models of leadership concepts from other established domains. The emergency medicine milestones include several team leadership behaviors as part of a larger resident evaluation program. However, they do not offer a comprehensive or cohesive representation of the team leadership construct. Conclusions Despite the importance of team leadership to patient care, there is no standardized approach to team leadership assessment in emergency medicine. Based on the results of our review, we propose a novel team leadership assessment framework that is supported by the team science literature. PMID:27413434
Chudler, Eric H.; Bergsman, Kristen Clapper
Neural engineering is an emerging field of high relevance to students, teachers, and the general public. This feature presents online resources that educators and scientists can use to introduce students to neural engineering and to integrate core ideas from the life sciences, physical sciences, social sciences, computer science, and engineering…
Aker, Leanna B.
Researchers and educational practitioners have long been concerned with declines in science engagement reported by students as they transition into the middle school setting. Though the operationalization of engagement is still nascent, an emerging consensus on a three-faceted model of student engagement has recently emerged in the research literature (Fredricks, Blumenfeld, & Paris, 2004). Thus, a synthesis of existing primary research of early adolescents' science engagement under this emerging conceptualization was warranted. The results of this meta-analysis indicate that instructional methods, class characteristics and competence predictors had the strongest relationship with self-reported science engagement in early adolescence. These predictors also show the strongest relationship with affective and cognitive engagement sub-types. Though affective and cognitive engagement were well represented in primary studies, behavioral engagement was underrepresented in student self-reports.
Usually newly employed nurses find adjusting to a work setting a challenging experience. Their successful adaptation to their work situation is greatly influenced by the socialisation process inherent in the organisational culture. The newly employed nurse often finds that the norms are unclear, confusing and restrictive.
Borne, K. D.
The emergence of e-Science over the past decade as a paradigm for Internet-based science was an inevitable evolution of science that built upon the web protocols and access patterns that were prevalent at that time, including Web Services, XML-based information exchange, machine-to-machine communication, service registries, the Grid, and distributed data. We now see a major shift in web behavior patterns to social networks, user-provided content (e.g., tags and annotations), ubiquitous devices, user-centric experiences, and user-led activities. The inevitable accrual of these social networking patterns and protocols by scientists and science projects leads to U-Science as a new paradigm for online scientific research (i.e., ubiquitous, user-led, untethered, You-centered science). U-Science applications include components from semantic e-science (ontologies, taxonomies, folksonomies, tagging, annotations, and classification systems), which is much more than Web 2.0-based science (Wikis, blogs, and online environments like Second Life). Among the best examples of U-Science are Citizen Science projects, including Galaxy Zoo, Stardust@Home, Project Budburst, Volksdata, CoCoRaHS (the Community Collaborative Rain, Hail and Snow network), and projects utilizing Volunteer Geographic Information (VGI). There are also scientist-led projects for scientists that engage a wider community in building knowledge through user-provided content. Among the semantic-based U-Science projects for scientists are those that specifically enable user-based annotation of scientific results in databases. These include the Heliophysics Knowledgebase, BioDAS, WikiProteins, The Entity Describer, and eventually AstroDAS. Such collaborative tagging of scientific data addresses several petascale data challenges for scientists: how to find the most relevant data, how to reuse those data, how to integrate data from multiple sources, how to mine and discover new knowledge in large databases, how to
Dart, Eli; Rotman, Lauren; Tierney, Brian; Hester, Mary; Zurawski, Jason
The ever-increasing scale of scientific data has become a significant challenge for researchers that rely on networks to interact with remote computing systems and transfer results to collaborators worldwide. Despite the availability of high-capacity connections, scientists struggle with inadequate cyberinfrastructure that cripples data transfer performance, and impedes scientific progress. The Science DMZ paradigm comprises a proven set of network design patterns that collectively address these problems for scientists. We explain the Science DMZ model, including network architecture, system configuration, cybersecurity, and performance tools, that creates an optimized network environment for science. We describe use cases from universities, supercomputing centers and research laboratories, highlighting the effectiveness of the Science DMZ model in diverse operational settings. In all, the Science DMZ model is a solid platform that supports any science workflow, and flexibly accommodates emerging network technologies. As a result, the Science DMZ vastly improves collaboration, accelerating scientific discovery.
The international emergency management and engineering conference 1995: Proceedings. Globalization of emergency management and engineering: National and international issues concerning research and applications
Sullivan, J.D. [ed.] [Optimal Systems, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States); Wybo, J.L. [ed.] [Ecole des Mines de Paris (France); Buisson, L. [ed.] [CEMAGREF, Saint-Martin d`Heres (France). Div. Nivologie
This conference was held May 9--12, 1995 in Nice, France. The purpose of this conference was to provide a forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information to cope more effectively with emergencies. Attention is focused on advance technology from both a managerial and a scientific viewpoint. Interests include computers and communication systems as well as the social science and management aspects involved in emergency management and engineering. The major sections are: Management and Social Sciences; Training; Natural Disasters; Nuclear Hazards; Chemical Hazards; Research; and Applications. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.
Callahan, Brendan E.; Dopico, Eduardo
Reading the interesting article Discerning selective traditions in science education by Per Sund , which is published in this issue of CSSE, allows us to open the discussion on procedures for teaching science today. Clearly there is overlap between the teaching of science and other areas of knowledge. However, we must constantly develop new methods to teach and differentiate between science education and teaching science in response to the changing needs of our students, and we must analyze what role teachers and teacher educators play in both. We must continually examine the methods and concepts involved in developing pedagogical content knowledge in science teachers. Otherwise, the possibility that these routines, based on subjective traditions, prevent emerging processes of educational innovation. Modern science is an enormous field of knowledge in its own right, which is made more expansive when examined within the context of its place in society. We propose the need to design educative interactions around situations that involve science and society. Science education must provide students with all four dimensions of the cognitive process: factual knowledge, conceptual knowledge, procedural knowledge, and metacognitive knowledge. We can observe in classrooms at all levels of education that students understand the concepts better when they have the opportunity to apply the scientific knowledge in a personally relevant way. When students find value in practical exercises and they are provided opportunities to reinterpret their experiences, greater learning gains are achieved. In this sense, a key aspect of educational innovation is the change in teaching methodology. We need new tools to respond to new problems. A shift in teacher education is needed to realize the rewards of situating science questions in a societal context and opening classroom doors to active methodologies in science education to promote meaningful learning through meaningful teaching.
Tur, T.J.; Priest, E.R.
The energetics of a current sheet that forms between newly emerging flux and an ambient field are considered. As more and more flux emerges, so the sheet rises in the solar atmosphere. The various contributions to the thermal energy balance in the sheet approximated and the resulting equation solved for the internal temperature of the sheet. It is found that, for certain choices of the ambient magnetic field strength and velocity, the internal temperature increases until, when the sheet reaches some critical height, no neighbouring equilibrium state exists. The temperature than increases rapidly, seeking a hotter branch of the solution curve. During this dynamic heating the threshold temperature for the onset of plasma microinstabilities may be attained. It is suggested that this may be a suitable trigger mechanism for the recently proposed 'emerging flux' model of a solar flare. (Auth.)
Objective: To assess for markers of nephropathy in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetics, using blood pressure levels, endogenous creatinine clearance and urinary protein excretion as markers of renal disease. Study design: Ninety newly diagnosed type 2 diabetics were studied within 6 weeks of diagnosis. They were in ...
Full Text Available Emergence is a term used in many contexts in current science; it has become fashionable. It has a traditional usage in philosophy that started in 1875 and was expanded by J. S. Mill (earlier, under a different term and C. D. Broad. It is this form of emergence that I am concerned with here. I distinguish it from uses like ‘computational emergence,’ which can be reduced to combinations of program steps, or its application to merely surprising new features that appear in complex combinations of parts. I will be concerned specifically with ontological emergence that has the logical properties required by Mill and Broad (though there might be some quibbling about the details of their views. I restrict myself to dynamical systems that are embodied in processes. Everything that we can interact with through sensation or action is either dynamical or can be understood in dynamical terms, so this covers all comprehensible forms of emergence in the strong (nonreducible sense I use. I will give general dynamical conditions that underlie the logical conditions traditionally assigned to emergence in nature.The advantage of this is that, though we cannot test logical conditions directly, we can test dynamical conditions. This gives us an empirical and realistic form of emergence, contrary those who say it is a matter of perspective.
Full Text Available Clusters are important for regional economies and emergent clusters are in a key position, as a means of adding more diversification to the current economic activity by involving new technologies and industries. Science-based industries may be the most promising in this regard since they are encouraged to develop and enhance the economic imaginaries of territories under the umbrella of radical innovations or in the name of broadening the current economic model based on mostly traditional industries. Regenerative medicine (RM could be an example of these so-called emergent clusters. Regenerative medicine is highly dependent on academic research, which means that local territories must fund the research in this field and, hence, they expect some returns as well. As territories do not typically have existing industries specifically in RM, these industries must emerge or expand from existing ones. Regenerative medicine involves a wide spectrum of different technologies and industries that are likely to form a cluster and benefit from it if successfully developed. The first aim of this paper is to show how some obstacles eventually impede the proper development of these emergent clusters. The second aim is to shed light on how innovations emerge in the cluster and what are the main implications for the territory. In this study, existing literature is used in order to describe the technology market and commercial aspects of the RM sector. Empirically this study is based on the emergent RM cluster in the region of Tampere in Finland. Analysis of 24 conducted interviews helps to contextualize the emergence of the RM cluster in Tampere, where academia is both the booster and the driver of the emergent RM cluster. Commercialization of research in the RM field is one of the goals at the university, even though there are no commercial outcomes yet available. This study contributes to the understanding of emergent cluster development in science
Mercer-smith, Janet A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wallace, Terry C [Los Alamos National Laboratory
The Laboratory provides science solution to the mission areas of nuclear deterrence, global security, and energy security. The capabilities support the Laboratory's vision as the premier national security science laboratory. The strength of LANL's science is at the core of the Laboratory. The Laboratory addresses important science questions for stockpile stewardship, emerging threats, and energy. The underpinning science vitality to support mission areas is supported through the Post Doc program, the fundamental science program in LDRD, collaborations fostered through the Institutes, and the LANL user facilities. LANL fosters the strategy of Science that Matters through investments, people, and facilities.
formal evaluation scheduled – Case Studies, Eight Examples: Tissue Engineering, Cold Fusion, RF Metamaterials, DNA Microarrays, Genetic Algorithms, RNAi...emerging capabilities Case Studies, Eight Examples: • Tissue Engineering, Cold Fusion, RF Metamaterials, DNA Microarrays, Genetic Algorithms...Evidence Quality (i.e., the rubric ) and deliver comprehensible evidential support for nomination • Demonstrate proof-of-concept nomination for Chinese
The Reactor Emergency Action Level Monitor (REALM) Expert System is designed to provide assistance in the identification of a nuclear power plant emergency situation and the determination of its severity. REALM has been developed to operate in a real-time processing environment. REALM embodies a hybrid architecture utilizing both rule-based reasoning and object-oriented programming techniques borrowed from the Artificial Intelligence discipline of Computer Sciences. The rulebase consists of event-based rules and symptom-based rules. The symptom-based rules go beyond the current EAL structure to address the more problematic scenarios and entail a more symbolic representation of the plant information. The results to date have been encouraging that expert system technology can provide improved emergency decision-making capability in nuclear power plants
Wang, Yawei; Pan, Yuanyuan
Emerging persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have widely aroused public concern in recent years. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride/perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (POSF/PFOS) had been newly listed in Stockholm Convention in 2009, and short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) were listed as candidate POPs. Bohai Sea is located in the arms of numbers of industrial cities, the semienclosed location of which makes it an ideal sink of emerging pollutants. In the present paper, latest contamination status of emerging POPs in Bohai Sea was reviewed. According to the literature data, Bohai Sea areas are not heavily contaminated by emerging POPs (PBDE: 0.01–720 ng/g; perfluorinated compounds: 0.1–304 ng/g; SCCPs: 64.9–5510 ng/g; HBCDs: nd-634 ng/g). Therefore, humans are not likely to be under serious risk of emerging POPs exposure through consuming seafood from Bohai Sea. However, the ubiquitous occurrence of emerging POPs in Bohai Sea region might indicate that more work should be done to expand the knowledge about potential risk of emerging POPs pollution. PMID:24688410
Full Text Available Emerging persistent organic pollutants (POPs have widely aroused public concern in recent years. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs and perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride/perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (POSF/PFOS had been newly listed in Stockholm Convention in 2009, and short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs were listed as candidate POPs. Bohai Sea is located in the arms of numbers of industrial cities, the semienclosed location of which makes it an ideal sink of emerging pollutants. In the present paper, latest contamination status of emerging POPs in Bohai Sea was reviewed. According to the literature data, Bohai Sea areas are not heavily contaminated by emerging POPs (PBDE: 0.01–720 ng/g; perfluorinated compounds: 0.1–304 ng/g; SCCPs: 64.9–5510 ng/g; HBCDs: nd-634 ng/g. Therefore, humans are not likely to be under serious risk of emerging POPs exposure through consuming seafood from Bohai Sea. However, the ubiquitous occurrence of emerging POPs in Bohai Sea region might indicate that more work should be done to expand the knowledge about potential risk of emerging POPs pollution.
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank... Tank Flammability § 26.39 Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability. (a) Applicability: This... Series 767 Series (b) Any fuel tank meeting all of the criteria stated in paragraphs (b)(1), (b)(2) and...
Kidd, Ian James
This article offers a sympathetic interpretation of Paul Feyerabend's remarks on science and education. I present a formative episode in the development of his educational ideas--the "Berkeley experience"--and describe how it affected his views on the place of science within modern education. It emerges that Feyerabend arrived at a…
C.F. Mela (Carl); J.M.T. Roos (Jason); Y. Deng (Yanhui)
textabstractThis paper considers the history of keywords used in Marketing Science to develop insights on the evolution of marketing science. Several findings emerge. First, "pricing" and "game theory" are the most ubiquitous words. More generally, the three C's and four P's predominate, suggesting
Horton, Cristi C.; Peterson, Tarla Rai; Banerjee, Paulami
Abstract Conservation policy sits at the nexus of natural science and politics. On the one hand, conservation scientists strive to maintain scientific credibility by emphasizing that their research findings are the result of disinterested observations of reality. On the other hand, conservation scientists are committed to conservation even if they do not advocate a particular policy. The professional conservation literature offers guidance on negotiating the relationship between scientific objectivity and political advocacy without damaging conservation science's credibility. The value of this guidance, however, may be restricted by limited recognition of credibility's multidimensionality and emergent nature: it emerges through perceptions of expertise, goodwill, and trustworthiness. We used content analysis of the literature to determine how credibility is framed in conservation science as it relates to apparent contradictions between science and advocacy. Credibility typically was framed as a static entity lacking dimensionality. Authors identified expertise or trustworthiness as important, but rarely mentioned goodwill. They usually did not identify expertise, goodwill, or trustworthiness as dimensions of credibility or recognize interactions among these 3 dimensions of credibility. This oversimplification may limit the ability of conservation scientists to contribute to biodiversity conservation. Accounting for the emergent quality and multidimensionality of credibility should enable conservation scientists to advance biodiversity conservation more effectively. PMID:26041036
This book analyses the emergence of a transformed Big Science in Europe and the United States, using both historical and sociological perspectives. It shows how technology-intensive natural sciences grew to a prominent position in Western societies during the post-World War II era, and how their development cohered with both technological and social developments. At the helm of post-war science are large-scale projects, primarily in physics, which receive substantial funds from the public purse. Big Science Transformed shows how these projects, popularly called 'Big Science', have become symbols of progress. It analyses changes to the political and sociological frameworks surrounding publicly-funding science, and their impact on a number of new accelerator and reactor-based facilities that have come to prominence in materials science and the life sciences. Interdisciplinary in scope, this book will be of great interest to historians, sociologists and philosophers of science.
Full Text Available Chrysosplenium japonicum (Maxim. Makino (Saxifragaceae is newly recorded from northeastern Taiwan. Description, color photos and a key to the Chrysosplenium species in Taiwan are provided.
Sara sarmast; Batool Pouraboli; Sakineh Miri; batool Tirgari
This is correlational descriptive study that the number of 121 nurses working in emergency affiliated with the University of Medical Sciences were studied by census method, the total of 108 completed questionnaires were returned. The instruments included demographic characteristics questionnaire, California critical thinking and the Rosenberg self-esteem. The collected data were entered into SPSS software with version 20, and using descriptive statistic methods, correlation analysis was perfo...
dos Santos, Renato P.
Big Data already passed out of hype, is now a field that deserves serious academic investigation, and natural scientists should also become familiar with Analytics. On the other hand, there is little empirical evidence that any science taught in school is helping people to lead happier, more prosperous, or more politically well-informed lives. In…
Full Text Available The ever-increasing scale of scientific data has become a significant challenge for researchers that rely on networks to interact with remote computing systems and transfer results to collaborators worldwide. Despite the availability of high-capacity connections, scientists struggle with inadequate cyberinfrastructure that cripples data transfer performance, and impedes scientific progress. The Science DMZ paradigm comprises a proven set of network design patterns that collectively address these problems for scientists. We explain the Science DMZ model, including network architecture, system configuration, cybersecurity, and performance tools, that creates an optimized network environment for science. We describe use cases from universities, supercomputing centers and research laboratories, highlighting the effectiveness of the Science DMZ model in diverse operational settings. In all, the Science DMZ model is a solid platform that supports any science workflow, and flexibly accommodates emerging network technologies. As a result, the Science DMZ vastly improves collaboration, accelerating scientific discovery.
Lang, Tim; Barling, David
It is well known that food has a considerable environmental impact. Less attention has been given to mapping and analysing the emergence of policy responses. This paper contributes to that process. It summarises emerging policy development on nutrition and sustainability, and explores difficulties in their integration. The paper describes some policy thinking at national, European and international levels of governance. It points to the existence of particular policy hotspots such as meat and dairy, sustainable diets and waste. Understanding the environmental impact of food systems challenges nutrition science to draw upon traditions of thinking which have recently been fragmented. These perspectives (life sciences, social and environmental) are all required if policy engagement and clarification is to occur. Sustainability issues offer opportunities for nutrition science and scientists to play a more central role in the policy analysis of future food systems. The task of revising current nutrition policy advice to become sustainable diet advice needs to begin at national and international levels.
Gomez-Guillamon, Maria; Eskemose Andersen, Jørgen; Contreras, Jorge Lobos
Introduced by scientific articles conserning architecture and human rights in light of cultures, emergencies, social equality and sustainability, democracy, economy, artistic development and science into architecture. Concluding in definition of needs for new roles, processes and education of arc......, Architettura di Alghero in Italy, Architecture and Design of Kocaeli University in Turkey, University of Aguascalientes in Mexico, Architectura y Urbanismo of University of Chile and Escuela de Architectura of Universidad Austral in Chile....
Ludwig, K. A.; Machlis, G. E.; Applegate, D.
This presentation will describe the history, mission, and current activities of the newly formed Department of the Interior (DOI) Strategic Sciences Group (SSG), with a focus on its response to Hurricane Sandy and lessons learned from using scenario building to support decision making. There have been several environmental crises of national significance in recent years, including Hurricane Katrina (2005), large-scale California wildfires (2007-2008), the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (2010), and Hurricane Sandy (2012). Such events are complex because of their impacts on the ecology, economy, and people of the affected locations. In these and other environmental disasters, the DOI has had significant responsibilities to protect people and resources and to engage in emergency response, recovery, and restoration efforts. In recognition of the increasingly critical role of strategic science in responding to such complex events, the DOI established the SSG by Secretarial Order in 2012. Its purpose is to provide the DOI with science-based assessments and interdisciplinary scenarios of environmental crises affecting Departmental resources; rapidly assemble interdisciplinary teams of scientists from government, academia, and non-governmental organizations to conduct such work; and provide results to DOI leadership as usable knowledge to support decision making. March 2013 was the SSG's first deployment since its formation. The SSG's charge was to support DOI's participation on the Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Task Force by developing scenarios of Hurricane Sandy's environmental, economic, and social consequences in the New York/New Jersey area and potential interventions that could improve regional resilience to future major storms. Over the course of one week, the SSG Sandy team (Operational Group Sandy) identified 13 first-tier consequences and 17 interventions. The SSG briefed DOI leadership, Task Force representatives, and other policy makers in both Washington, DC and
Ekström, Louise; Idvall, Ewa
This paper presents a study that explores how newly qualified registered nurses experience their leadership role in the ward-based nursing care team. A nurse's clinical leadership affects the quality of care provided. Newly qualified nurses experience difficulties during the transition period from student to qualified professional and find it challenging to lead nursing care. Twelve nurses were interviewed and the transcribed texts analysed using qualitative content analysis to assess both manifest and latent content. Five themes were identified: feeling stranded; forming well-functioning teams; learning to lead; having the courage, strength, and desire to lead; and ensuring appropriate care. The findings indicate that many factors limit nurses' leadership but some circumstances are supportive. The leadership prerequisites for newly registered nurses need to improve, emphasizing different ways to create a supportive atmosphere that promotes professional development and job satisfaction. To increase nurse retention and promote quality of care, nurse managers need to clarify expectations and guide and support newly qualified nurses in a planned way. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Feller, Stephan M
Can trustworthy science flourish in countries suffering from dictatorship? This is an increasingly relevant question. Many commercial publishers want to maximise their profits (as is to be expected in a capitalistic system) and are pushing into non-democratic countries with rapid economic growth like China. But how much can we trust the papers coming from countries with dictatorial regimes?
Hutchings, Jeffrey A; Stenseth, Nils Chr
There are various ways to construct good processes for soliciting and understanding science. Our critique of advisory models finds that a well-supported chief science advisor (CSA) best ensures the provision of deliberative, informal, and emergency advice to government. Alternatively, bias, increasingly manifest as science-based advocacy, can hinder communication, diminish credibility, and distort scientific evidence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brown, Cassandra L; Beninger, Richard J
Passionate love is associated with increased activity in dopamine-rich regions of the brain. Increased dopamine in these regions is associated with a greater tendency to learn from reward in trial-and-error learning tasks. This study examined the prediction that individuals who were newly in love would be better at responding to reward (positive feedback). In test trials, people who were newly in love selected positive outcomes significantly more often than their single (not in love) counterparts but were no better at the task overall. This suggests that people who are newly in love show a bias toward responding to positive feedback, which may reflect a general bias towards reward-seeking.
Eaton, Weston; Wright, Wynne; Whyte, Kyle; Gasteyer, Stephen P.; Gehrke, Pat J.
Universities' increasing applications of science and technology to address a wide array of societal problems may serve to thwart democratic engagement strategies. For emerging technologies, such challenges are particularly salient, as knowledge is incomplete and application and impact are uncertain or contested. Insights from science and…
Ambrosiadou, V; Compton, T; Panchal, T; Polovina, S
This is a multidisciplinary inter-departmental/faculty project between the departments of computer science, electronic, communications and electrical engineering and nursing and paramedic sciences. The objective is to develop a web based multimedia front end to existing simulations of cardiac emergency scenaria. It will be used firstly in the teaching of nurses. The University of Hertfordshire is the only University in Britain using simulations of cardiac emergency scenaria for nurse and paramedic science education and therefore this project will add the multimedia dimension in distributed courses over the web and will assess the improvement in the educational process. The use of network and multimedia technologies, provide interactive learning, immediate feedback to students' responses, individually tailored instructions, objective testing and entertaining delivery. The end product of this project will serve as interactive material to enhance experiential learning for nursing students using the simulations of cardiac emergency scenaria. The emergency treatment simulations have been developed using VisSim and may be compiled as C code. The objective of the project is to provide a web based user friendly multimedia interface in order to demonstrate the way in which patients may be managed in critical situations by applying advanced technological equipment and drug administration. Then the user will be able to better appreciate the concepts involved by running the VisSim simulations. The evaluation group for the proposed software will be the Department of Nursing and Paramedic Sciences About 200 nurses use simulations every year for training purposes as part of their course requirements.
Dennehy, John J
The cross-species transmission of viruses into new host populations, termed virus emergence, is a significant issue in public health, agriculture, wildlife management, and related fields. Virus emergence requires overlap between host populations, alterations in virus genetics to permit infection of new hosts, and adaptation to novel hosts such that between-host transmission is sustainable, all of which are the purview of the fields of ecology and evolution. A firm understanding of the ecology of viruses and how they evolve is required for understanding how and why viruses emerge. In this paper, I address the evolutionary mechanisms of virus emergence and how they relate to virus ecology. I argue that, while virus acquisition of the ability to infect new hosts is not difficult, limited evolutionary trajectories to sustained virus between-host transmission and the combined effects of mutational meltdown, bottlenecking, demographic stochasticity, density dependence, and genetic erosion in ecological sinks limit most emergence events to dead-end spillover infections. Despite the relative rarity of pandemic emerging viruses, the potential of viruses to search evolutionary space and find means to spread epidemically and the consequences of pandemic viruses that do emerge necessitate sustained attention to virus research, surveillance, prophylaxis, and treatment. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.
Science as a second language: Analysis of Emergent Bilinguals performance and the impact of English language proficiency and first language characteristics on the Colorado measures of academic success for science
Bruno, Joanna K.
In an age when communication is highly important and states across the nation, including Colorado, have adopted Common Core State Standards, the need for academic language is even more important than ever. The language of science has been compared to a second language in that it uses specific discourse patterns, semantic rules, and a very specific vocabulary. There is a need for educators to better understand how language impacts academic achievement, specifically concerning Emergent Bilinguals (EBs). Research has identified the need to study the role language plays in content assessments and the impact they have on EBs performance (Abedi, 2008b; Abedi, Hofestter & Lord, 2004; Abedi & Lord, 2001). Since language is the means through which content knowledge is assessed, it is important to analyze this aspect of learning. A review of literature identified the need to create more reliable and valid content assessments for EBs (Abedi, 2008b) and to further study the impact of English proficiency on EBs performance on standardized assessments (Solorzano, 2008; Wolf, & Leon, 2009). This study contributes to the literature by analyzing EBs performance on a state-level science content assessment, taking into consideration English language proficiency, receptive versus productive elements of language, and students' home language. This study further contributes by discussing the relationship between language proficiency, and the different strands of science (physical, life, and earth) on the state science assessment. Finally, this study demonstrates that home language, English language proficiency, and receptive and productive elements of language are predictive of EBs' achievement on the CMAS for science, overall and by strand. It is the blending of the social (listening and speaking) with the academic (reading and writing) that is also important and possibly more important.
Wojdak, Jeremy; Guinan, Judy; Wirgau, Joseph; Kugler, Charles; Hammond, Georgia; Small, Christine; Manyara, Charles; Singer, Frederick; Watts, Chester; Bodo, Bethany; Baldwin, Andrew
The authors sought to better approximate the practice of "real" science in our classrooms by having students study a newly built storm-water remediation wetland on campus. The wetland was meant to gather and clean storm water running off of student parking lots--thus students had ownership in the problem and potential solution. Participating…
Retra, Kim; van Hoorn, Peter; van Gogh, Marcel; Maas, Joep; Rozendal, Inge; Dekker, Jan; de Esch, lwan; Bossink, Bart; van der Sijde, Peter
This article is concerned with the emergence of the science-business (SB) profession and the role of the SB professional (SBP) in both academia and business. Transferring science to markets can take a variety of routes depending on the stage of development and the people and skill sets involved. An SBP may co-develop opportunities for exploitation…
Thakur, N.L.; Jain, R.; Natalio, F.; Hamer, B.; Thakur, A.N.; Muller, W.E.G.
An appreciation of the potential applications of molecular biology is of growing importance in many areas of life sciences, including marine biology. During the past two decades, the development of sophisticated molecular technologies...
Hamada, S; Ezaki, S; Hayashi, K; Toko, K; Yamafuji, K
Stable electrochemical patterns appear spontaneously around roots of higher plants and are closely related to growth. An electric potential pattern accompanied by lateral root emergence was measured along the surface of the primary root of adzuki bean (Phaseolus angularis) over 21 h using a microelectrode manipulated by a newly developed apparatus. The electric potential became lower at the point where a lateral root emerged. This change preceded the emergence of the lateral root by about 10 h. A theory is presented for calculating two-dimensional patterns of electric potential and electric current density around the primary root (and a lateral root) using only data on the one-dimensional electric potential measured near the surface of the primary root. The development of the lateral root inside the primary root is associated with the influx of electric current of about 0.7 muA.cm(-2) at the surface.
Chang, Hyoung Eun; Cho, Sung-Hyun
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of workplace violence toward newly licensed nurses and the relationship between workplace violence and job outcomes. Methods: An online survey was conducted of newly licensed registered nurses who had obtained their license in 2012 or 2013 in South Korea and had been working for 5–12 months after first being employed. The sample consisted of 312 nurses working in hospitals or clinics. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire...
In order to adequately perform its many diverse tasks as a scholars' society and as the German National Academy of Sciences, the Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher Leopoldina needs to view itself in a historical context. This can only happen as part of a culture of remembrance which fosters the memory of the Leopoldina's past and subjects this to a critical analysis in the context of the history of science and academies. The newly founded Leopoldina Study Center for the History of Science and Science Academies is to be a forum that pursues established forms of historical research at the Leopoldina, organizes new scientific projects, and presents its findings to the public. The aim is to involve as many Leopoldina members as possible from all of its disciplines, as well as to collaborate with national and international partners.
Can trustworthy science flourish in countries suffering from dictatorship? This is an increasingly relevant question. Many commercial publishers want to maximise their profits (as is to be expected in a capitalistic system) and are pushing into non-democratic countries with rapid economic growth like China. But how much can we trust the papers coming from countries with dictatorial regimes? PMID:22916710
Feller Stephan M
Full Text Available Abstract Can trustworthy science flourish in countries suffering from dictatorship? This is an increasingly relevant question. Many commercial publishers want to maximise their profits (as is to be expected in a capitalistic system and are pushing into non-democratic countries with rapid economic growth like China. But how much can we trust the papers coming from countries with dictatorial regimes?
Full Text Available To Muslims, the Qur’an should serve as the model of thinking. It is a model which should become the paradigm. The advancement of science based on the paradigm of the Qur’an will obviously enrich science. This paradigm will subsequently trigger the emergence of alternative science. We understand that normative premises of the Qur’an can be formulated into empirical and rational theories. The transcendental structure of the Qur’an is an idea which is normative and philosophical in nature, and it can be formulated into a theoretical paradigm, and provide a framework for the development of empirical and rational science, based on the pragmatic needs of humans as the vicegerent on earth. Kuntowijoyo (2006 argued that the development of theories of Islamic science is intended for the welfare of the Muslims.
The Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review (EASSRR) is a bi-annual journal published by the Organization for Social Science Research in Eastern Africa (OSSREA). Since the publication of its maiden ... Emerging regions in Ethiopia: are they catching up with the rest of Ethiopia? EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL ...
Österblom, Henrik; Jouffray, Jean-Baptiste; Folke, Carl; Rockström, Johan
The ocean represents a fundamental source of micronutrients and protein for a growing world population. Seafood is a highly traded and sought after commodity on international markets, and is critically dependent on healthy marine ecosystems. A global trend of wild stocks being overfished and in decline, as well as multiple sustainability challenges associated with a rapid growth of aquaculture, represent key concerns in relation to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Existing efforts aimed to improve the sustainability of seafood production have generated important progress, primarily at the local and national levels, but have yet to effectively address the global challenges associated with the ocean. This study highlights the importance of transnational corporations in enabling transformative change, and thereby contributes to advancing the limited understanding of large-scale private actors within the sustainability science literature. We describe how we engaged with large seafood producers to coproduce a global science-business initiative for ocean stewardship. We suggest that this initiative is improving the prospects for transformative change by providing novel links between science and business, between wild-capture fisheries and aquaculture, and across geographical space. We argue that scientists can play an important role in facilitating change by connecting knowledge to action among global actors, while recognizing risks associated with such engagement. The methods developed through this case study contribute to identifying key competences in sustainability science and hold promises for other sectors as well.
An important part of the science of complexity is the study of emergent properties arising through dynamical processes in various types of natural and artificial systems. This is the aim of this book, which is the outcome of a discussion meeting within the first European conference on complex systems. It presents multidisciplinary approaches for getting representations of complex systems and using different methods to extract emergent structures. This carefully edited book studies emergent features such as self organization, synchronization, opening on stability and robustness properties. Invariant techniques are presented which can express global emergent properties in dynamical and in temporal evolution systems. This book demonstrates how artificial systems such as a distributed platform can be used for simulation used to search emergent placement during simulation execution.
Science in film, and usual equivalents such as science on film or science on screen, refer to the cinematographic representation, staging, and enactment of actors, information, and processes involved in any aspect or dimension of science and its history. Of course, boundaries are blurry, and films shot as research tools or documentation also display science on screen. Nonetheless, they generally count as scientific film, and science in and on film or screen tend to designate productions whose purpose is entertainment and education. Moreover, these two purposes are often combined, and inherently concern empirical, methodological, and conceptual challenges associated with popularization, science communication, and the public understanding of science. It is in these areas that the notion of the deficit model emerged to designate a point of view and a mode of understanding, as well as a set of practical and theoretical problems about the relationship between science and the public.
Cozzolino, Mario; Tomlinson, James; Walsh, Liron; Bellasi, Antonio
Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT), a common, serious, and progressive complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD), is characterized by elevated serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), parathyroid gland hyperplasia, and mineral metabolism abnormalities. These disturbances may result in CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD), which is associated with poor quality of life and short life expectancy. The goal of SHPT treatment is to maintain PTH, calcium, and phosphorus within accepted targeted ranges. This review highlights the pathogenesis of SHPT and current SHPT therapeutic approaches, including the use of low-phosphate diets, phosphate binders, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol) and its analogs, calcimimetics, and parathyroidectomy in addition to discussing emerging drugs in development for SHPT. Numerous studies indicate that mineral abnormalities occur early in the course of CKD, are prevalent by the time patients enter dialysis, and foreshadow a risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Several newly developed compounds may potentially overcome the limitations of current SHPT therapies. If emerging therapies can reduce PTH, normalize mineral metabolism, promote treatment adherence, and reduce the risk of side effects, they may provide the requisite features for improving long-term outcomes in patients with SHPT receiving dialysis and reduce the risks of CKD-MBD.
Chantawannakul, Panuwan; Ramsey, Samuel; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Khongphinitbunjong, Kitiphong; Phokasem, Patcharin
The risk of transmission of honey bee parasites has increased substantially as a result of trade globalization and technical developments in transportation efficacy. Great concern over honey bee decline has accelerated research on newly emerging bee pests and parasites. These organisms are likely to emerge from Asia as it is the only region where all 10 honey bee species co-occur. Varroa destructor, an ectoparasitic mite, is a classic example of a pest that has shifted from A. cerana, a cavity nesting Asian honey bee to A. mellifera, the European honey bee. In this review, we will describe the potential risks to global apiculture of the global expansion of Tropilaelaps mercedesae, originally a parasite of the open-air nesting Asian giant honey bee, compared to the impact of V. destructor. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
From 1995-2007, U.S. science students in grade four scored higher than the scaled TIMSS average, but their scores did not improve over this time. Moreover, in the area of physical science, the U.S. scored significantly lower than several Asian countries, as well as Russia, England, and Latvia (TIMSS). Methods to enhance student achievement in science are still being sought. An approach to utilizing playground equipment as a teaching tool for a variety of physics concepts was developed as a physical science teaching method. This program established an appropriate set of experiments, coordinated the effort with local school districts, and implemented a brief pilot study to test the teaching methodology. The program assigned undergraduate middle school science education majors to teach small groups of fourth grade students. The experimental group used the newly developed ``Playground Physics'' methodology while the control group used traditional approaches. Follow up activities will include an expansion of the duration and the scope of the program.
Wilson, Brad; Spencer, Horace; Kortebein, Patrick
To evaluate exercise recommendations in patients newly diagnosed with fibromyalgia. A retrospective chart review. A public university rheumatology clinic. Patients newly diagnosed with fibromyalgia (N = 122). Frequency and type of exercise recommendations. The mean (standard deviation) age of these patients with fibromyalgia was 45 ± 12 years; 91% were women. Exercise was recommended as part of the documented treatment plan in 47% of these patients (57/122); only 3 patients had a documented contraindication for exercise. Aquatic exercise was most frequently recommended (56% [32/57]), followed by combined aquatic-aerobic exercise (26% [15/57]), and, infrequently, aerobic exercise only (5% [3/57]); only 7% of these patients (4/57) were referred for physical therapy. The primary method of communication was verbal discussion (94% [54/57]). Although there is well-documented evidence that exercise is beneficial for patients with fibromyalgia, we found that less than half of patients with newly diagnosed fibromyalgia in our study were provided recommendations to initiate an exercise program as part of their treatment plan. Further investigation of these findings are warranted, including evaluation of other university and community rheumatology practices as well as that of other physicians caring for patients with fibromyalgia. However, our findings indicate that there appears to be an opportunity to provide more specific and practical education regarding the implementation of an exercise regimen for patients with newly diagnosed fibromyalgia. Physiatrists may be particularly well suited to manage the exercise component of patients with fibromyalgia because of their specialized training in exercise prescription. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Brodzik, Krzysztof; Faber, Joanna; Łomankiewicz, Damian; Gołda-Kopek, Anna
The in-vehicle volatile organic compounds (VOCs) concentrations gains the attention of both car producers and users. In the present study, an attempt was made to determine if analysis of air samples collected from an unconditioned car cabin can be used as a quality control measure. The VOCs composition of in-vehicle air was analyzed by means of active sampling on Carbograph 1TD and Tenax TA sorbents, followed by thermal desorption and simultaneous analysis on flame ionization and mass detector (TD-GC/FID-MS). Nine newly produced cars of the same brand and model were chosen for this study. Within these, four of the vehicles were equipped with identical interior materials and five others differed in terms of upholstery and the presence of a sunroof; one car was convertible. The sampling event took place outside of the car assembly plant and the cars tested left the assembly line no later than 24 hr before the sampling took place. More than 250 compounds were present in the samples collected; the identification of more than 160 was confirmed by comparative mass spectra analysis and 80 were confirmed by both comparison with single/multiple compounds standards and mass spectra analysis. In general, aliphatic hydrocarbons represented more than 60% of the total VOCs (TVOC) determined. Depending on the vehicle, the concentration of aromatic hydrocarbons varied from 12% to 27% of total VOCs. The very short period between car production and sampling of the in-vehicle air permits the assumption that the entire TVOC originates from off-gassing of interior materials. The results of this study expand the knowledge of in-vehicle pollution by presenting information about car cabin air quality immediately after car production. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Debell, R. M.
A recent study has demonstrated that the numbers of emerging infectious diseases has risen dramatically since 1940. Two processes are responsible: microbial adaptation that results in human infection and human exposure to newly adapted microbes that occurs for several reasons including increased human intrusion into tropical forests, lack of access to health care, population growth and changes in demographics, inadequate and deteriorating public health infrastructure, misuse of antimicrobial drugs, urbanization and crowding, modern travel, and increased trade and expanded markets for imported foods. For more than 40 years, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been almost impossible to treat. In a recent worldwide study, 54.3 percent of emerging bacterial infections resulted from drug adaptation resistance. Serious diarrheal infections caused by Escherichia coli O157:H7 have become frequent in the U.S. From May 27th to July 1st, 2008, 49 infections occurred in the U.S., and 27 were hospitalized. From its inception in 2003, SARS has resulted in more than 8000 cases and 774 deaths. In 1999, West Nile virus appeared initially in New York City. By 2004 this virus was found in birds and mosquitoes in 48 states and by 2007 in the U.S., there were 3,630 cases including 124 deaths. Before December 1st, 1981, no one ever heard of HIV. It is estimated that 25 million people have died of AIDS. Each emergent disease has its own history of recognition, spread, and severity. Through this review, the future of emergent disease is characterized as highly dependent upon the convergence of human exposures in a modern world and microbial adaptation.(author)
Das Gupta, M.K.
Professor S.K. Mitra, the initiator of post graduate studies in radio-electronics and the pioneer of radio research in India realized the far-reaching importance of the then emerging science of radio astronomy, as early as mid-forties. The exposition of the subject has been dedicated to the memory of esteemed Professor S.K. Mitra. The article is divided into three broad heads, namely (i)the emergence of radioastronomy-achievements made so far, (ii)some major contributions made by the Indian scientists working abroad in the fifties, and (iii) the emergence of radio astronomy in India and its present status. (author). 55 refs
S.T.A. Pickett; Christopher G. Boone; Brian P. McGrath; M.L. Cadenasso; Daniel L. Childers; Laura A. Ogden; Melissa McHale; J. Morgan. Grove
There is growing urgency to enhance the sustainability of existing and emerging cities. The science of ecology, especially as it interacts with disciplines in the social sciences and urban design, has contributions to make to the sustainable transformation of urban systems. Not all possible urban transformations may lead toward sustainability. Ecological science helps...
Saglio, Giuseppe; Kim, Dong-Wook; Issaragrisil, Surapol
Nilotinib has been shown to be a more potent inhibitor of BCR-ABL than imatinib. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of nilotinib, as compared with imatinib, in patients with newly diagnosed Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in the chronic phase.......Nilotinib has been shown to be a more potent inhibitor of BCR-ABL than imatinib. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of nilotinib, as compared with imatinib, in patients with newly diagnosed Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in the chronic phase....
Spector, J. Michael
Two recent publications report the emerging technologies that are likely to have a significant impact on learning and instruction: (a) New Media Consortium's "2011 Horizon Report" (Johnson, Smith, Willis, Levine & Haywood, 2011), and (b) "A Roadmap for Education Technology" funded by the National Science Foundation in…
"Coming from complexity science, the term emergence describes the dynamic and unpredictable ways through which change unfolds in organizations," writes Shane Safir in this article about how teacher leaders can transform a school's climate and culture. Using Berkeley High School in California as an example, Safir explains how successful…
ZhangQin－Zheng; YeQing－Fu; 等
By using 15N tracer method,transformation of organic N,which wqas newly added to red soil treated with different cultural practices,was studied under thelaboratory incubation condition.The experimental results showed that the transformation of N from newly added organic matter and soil native pool during incubation was influenced by cultural practice treatment beforeincubation.Fallow was favorable to the mineralization of newly added organic N and soil N compared with the planting wheat treatment.Planting wheat greatly increased the loss of soil N.Application of fertilizers stimulated the mineralization of newly added organic N and application of organic matter reduced the mineralization,but stimulated microbialtransformation of newly adde4d organic N.
Tanev, Stoyan; Droll, Andrew; Khan, Shahzad
In this article, we describe our efforts to adapt and validate a web search and analytics tool – the Gnowit Cognitive Insight Engine – to evaluate the growth and competitive potential of new technology startups and existing firms in the newly emerging precision medicine sector. The results are ba...
English, Lars Q
The main purpose of this book is to introduce a broader audience to emergence by illustrating how discoveries in the physical sciences have informed the ways we think about it. In a nutshell, emergence asserts that non-reductive behavior arises at higher levels of organization and complexity. As physicist Philip Anderson put it, “more is different.” Along the text's conversational tour through the terrain of quantum physics, phase transitions, nonlinear and statistical physics, networks and complexity, the author highlights the various philosophical nuances that arise in encounters with emergence. The final part of the book zooms out to reflect on some larger lessons that emergence affords us. One of those larger lessons is the realization that the great diversity of theories and models, and the great variety of independent explanatory frameworks, will always be with us in the sciences and beyond. There is no “Theory of Everything” just around the corner waiting to be discovered. One of the main b...
The EU as a context for science lessons may be given scant attention but EU decision-making is a vital factor in everyday life. Lessons on the emergence of soil science with Charles Darwin's simple scientific experiments can be linked with competence through action, inclusion and argumentations in science lessons. Decisions about an EU Soil…
Orchard, B.J.; Harvego, L.A.; Carlson, T.L.; Grant, R.P.
The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is a multipurpose national laboratory delivering specialized science and engineering solutions for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sponsorship of INL was formally transferred to the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology (NE) by Secretary Spencer Abraham in July 2002. The move to NE, and designation as the DOE lead nuclear energy laboratory for reactor technology, supports the nation's expanding nuclear energy initiatives, placing INL at the center of work to develop advanced Generation IV nuclear energy systems; nuclear energy/hydrogen coproduction technology; advanced nuclear energy fuel cycle technologies; and providing national security answers to national infrastructure needs. As a result of the Laboratory's NE mission, INL generates both contact-handled and remote-handled transuranic (TRU) waste from ongoing operations. Generation rates are relatively small and fluctuate based on specific programs and project activities being conducted; however, the Laboratory will continue to generate TRU waste well into the future in association with the NE mission. Currently, plans and capabilities are being established to transfer INL's contact-handled TRU waste to the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Plant (AMWTP) for certification and disposal to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Remote-handled TRU waste is currently placed in storage at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC). In an effort to minimize future liabilities associated with the INL NE mission, INL is evaluating and assessing options for the management and disposition of all its TRU waste on a real-time basis at time of generation. This paper summarizes near-term activities to minimize future re handling of INL's TRU waste, as well as, potential complications associated with the long-term disposition of newly-generated TRU waste. Potential complications impacting the disposition of INL newly-generated TRU waste include, but are not limited to: (1
Full Text Available Wei-kang Xing,1 Chuan Shao,2 Zhen-yu Qi,1 Chao Yang,1 Zhong Wang1 1Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, 2Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Clinical Medical College of North Sichuan Medical College, Nanchong, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China Background: Standard treatment for high-grade glioma (HGG includes surgery followed by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. Insertion of carmustine wafers into the resection cavity as a treatment for malignant glioma is currently a controversial topic among neurosurgeons. Our meta-analysis focused on whether carmustine wafer treatment could significantly benefit the survival of patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM.Method: We searched the PubMed and Web of Science databases without any restrictions on language using the keywords “Gliadel wafers”, “carmustine wafers”, “BCNU wafers”, or “interstitial chemotherapy” in newly diagnosed GBM for the period from January 1990 to March 2015. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs and cohort studies/clinical trials that compared treatments designed with and without carmustine wafers and which reported overall survival or hazard ratio (HR or survival curves were included in this study. Moreover, the statistical analysis was conducted by the STATA 12.0 software.Results: Six studies including two RCTs and four cohort studies, enrolling a total of 513 patients (223 with and 290 without carmustine wafers, matched the selection criteria. Carmustine wafers showed a strong advantage when pooling all the included studies (HR =0.63, 95% confidence interval (CI =0.49–0.81; P=0.019. However, the two RCTs did not show a statistical increase in survival in the group with carmustine wafer compared to the group without it (HR =0.51, 95% CI =0.18–1.41; P=0.426, while the cohort studies demonstrated a significant survival increase (HR =0.59, 95% CI =0.44–0.79; P<0.0001.Conclusion
Geoffrey L. Ream
Full Text Available This study explored the relationship between video gaming and age during childhood, adolescence, and emerging adulthood. It also examined whether “role incompatibility,” the theory that normative levels of substance use decrease through young adulthood as newly acquired adult roles create competing demands, generalizes to video gaming. Emerging adult video gamers (n=702 recruited from video gaming contexts in New York City completed a computer-assisted personal interview and life-history calendar. All four video gaming indicators—days/week played, school/work day play, nonschool/work day play, and problem play—had significant curvilinear relationships with age. The “shape” of video gaming’s relationship with age is, therefore, similar to that of substance use, but video gaming appears to peak earlier in life than substance use, that is, in late adolescence rather than emerging adulthood. Of the four video gaming indicators, role incompatibility only significantly affected school/work day play, the dimension with the clearest potential to interfere with life obligations.
Ream, Geoffrey L; Elliott, Luther C; Dunlap, Eloise
This study explored the relationship between video gaming and age during childhood, adolescence, and emerging adulthood. It also examined whether "role incompatibility," the theory that normative levels of substance use decrease through young adulthood as newly acquired adult roles create competing demands, generalizes to video gaming. Emerging adult video gamers (n = 702) recruited from video gaming contexts in New York City completed a computer-assisted personal interview and life-history calendar. All four video gaming indicators-days/week played, school/work day play, nonschool/work day play, and problem play-had significant curvilinear relationships with age. The "shape" of video gaming's relationship with age is, therefore, similar to that of substance use, but video gaming appears to peak earlier in life than substance use, that is, in late adolescence rather than emerging adulthood. Of the four video gaming indicators, role incompatibility only significantly affected school/work day play, the dimension with the clearest potential to interfere with life obligations.
Chook, Jack Bee; Ong, Lai Yee; Takebe, Yutaka; Chan, Kok Gan; Choo, Martin; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Tee, Kok Keng
A molecular genotyping assay for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) circulating in Southeast Asia is difficult to design because of the high level of genetic diversity. We developed a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to detect subtype B, CRF01_AE, CRF33_01B, and three newly described circulating recombinant forms, (CRFs) (CRF53_01B, CRF54_01B, and CRF58_01B). A total of 785 reference genomes were used for subtype-specific primers and TaqMan probes design targeting the gag, pol, and env genes. The performance of this assay was compared and evaluated with direct sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. A total of 180 HIV-infected subjects from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were screened and 171 samples were successfully genotyped, in agreement with the phylogenetic data. The HIV-1 genotype distribution was as follows: subtype B (16.7%); CRF01_AE (52.8%); CRF33_01B (24.4%); CRF53_01B (1.1%); CRF54_01B (0.6%); and CRF01_AE/B unique recombinant forms (4.4%). The overall accuracy of the genotyping assay was over 95.0%, in which the sensitivities for subtype B, CRF01_AE, and CRF33_01B detection were 100%, 100%, and 97.7%, respectively. The specificity of genotyping was 100%, inter-subtype specificities were > 95% and the limit of detection of 10(3) copies/mL for plasma. The newly developed real-time PCR assay offers a rapid and cost-effective alternative for large-scale molecular epidemiological surveillance for HIV-1. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Khalil, Samir Assaad; Megallaa, Magdy Helmy; Rohoma, Kamel Hemida; Guindy, Myriam AbouSeif; Zaki, Adel; Hassanein, Mohamed; Malaty, Amin Helmy; Ismael, Hanaa Mohamed; Kharboush, Ibrahim Fahmy; El Kafash, Dalal Nasr-Eldein; Sallam, Hassan Nooman; Desouky, Iman Abdelkareem
In Egypt, data on the prevalence of chronic diabetic complications, which are essential for the adjustment of policies and practices related to diabetes care, are scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the frequency of chronic complications of diabetes; namely neuropathy, diabetic kidney disease (DKD), retinopathy and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in newly-diagnosed versus known type 2 diabetic patients. This is a cross-sectional study that is based on a previous household survey conducted on a representative sample of the population of Alexandria, Egypt. This study included 506 consecutive subjects with type 2 diabetes; 323 patients with previously known T2DM and 183 patients with newly diagnosed T2DM (discovered during the survey). For each participant, a focused history was taken. Comprehensive clinical examination was done including fundus examination, foot examination and assessment of ankle brachial index. Laboratory tests included HbAlc, lipids profile, serum creatinine and urinary albumin creatinine ratio (UACR). Peripheral neuropathy was detected in 20% of the studied patients; 29.4% of known patients and 3.3% of newly diagnosed patients (pDiabetic kidney disease was detected in 33.2% of the studied patients; 46.1% of known patients and 10.4% of newly diagnosed patients (pDiabetic retinopathy was detected in 34.6% of the studied patients; 48.3% of known patients and 10.4% of newly diagnosed patients (pdiabetes, the presence of any of the studied complications (neuropathy, diabetic kidney disease, retinopathy or PAD) was significantly associated with the presence of all other complications (pdiabetes, the presence of diabetic kidney disease was significantly associated with the presence of retinopathy (pdiabetes at the time of diagnosis. Finally, these results should be considered as a call for action for the health care planners and providers in our region to plan for early screening for diabetes and its complications to reduce the
Park, Sang Hyun; Lee, Young Min; Jeong, Seung Young [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
GAL(generic action level)s were derived using cost-benefit methods. But the factors used to derive GALs, such as Gross National Product (GNP) and cost of foodstuff, have been changed for last 10 years. Moreover the standards did not consider exposure situation change from emergency exposure to existing exposure situation. In this study, two ways to revise existing standards for foodstuff control were considered; 1st, revision of GAL, 2nd, newly derived reference level. In this study, two methods to revise food control criteria following nuclear emergency were suggested. GAL based on recent GNI and cost of foodstuff would be revised and decreased up to 30 % than existing criteria. DRLs reflecting exposure situation and consumption pattern were smaller than existing criteria for group 1 nuclides. The approach considered in the study would be applied to set up domestic criteria for food control during and following nuclear or radiological emergency.
Park, Sang Hyun; Lee, Young Min; Jeong, Seung Young
GAL(generic action level)s were derived using cost-benefit methods. But the factors used to derive GALs, such as Gross National Product (GNP) and cost of foodstuff, have been changed for last 10 years. Moreover the standards did not consider exposure situation change from emergency exposure to existing exposure situation. In this study, two ways to revise existing standards for foodstuff control were considered; 1st, revision of GAL, 2nd, newly derived reference level. In this study, two methods to revise food control criteria following nuclear emergency were suggested. GAL based on recent GNI and cost of foodstuff would be revised and decreased up to 30 % than existing criteria. DRLs reflecting exposure situation and consumption pattern were smaller than existing criteria for group 1 nuclides. The approach considered in the study would be applied to set up domestic criteria for food control during and following nuclear or radiological emergency
McCaffrey, M. S.; Wise, S. B.; Buhr, S. M.
With the release of the Essential Principles of Climate Science Literacy: A Guide for Individuals and Communities in the Spring of 2009, an important step toward an shared educational and communication framework about climate science was achieved. Designed as a living document, reviewed and endorsed by the thirteen federal agencies in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (now U.S. Global Change Research Program), the Essential Principles of Climate Literacy complement other Earth system literacy efforts. A variety of emerging efforts have begun to build on the framework using a variety of cyberlearning tools, including an online Climate Literacy course developed by Education and Outreach group at CIRES, the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, and the Independent Learning program of the Continuing Education Division at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The online course, piloted during the Summer of 2009 with formal classroom teachers and informal science educators, made use of the online Climate Literacy Handbook, which was developed by CIRES Education and Outreach and the Encyclopedia of Earth, which is supported by the National Council for Science and the Environment and hosted by Boston University. This paper will explore challenges and opportunities in the use of cyberlearning tools to support climate literacy efforts, highlight the development of the online course and handbook, and note related emerging cyberlearning platforms and programs for climate literacy, including related efforts by the Climate Literacy Network, the NASA Global Climate Change Education programs, the National STEM Education Distributed Learning (NSDL) and AAAS Project 2061.
Introduction: what this book is about and why you might want to read it; Prologue: three orphans share a common paternity: professional science communication, popular journalism, and literary fiction are not as separate as they seem; Part I. Professional Science Communication: 1. Spreading the word: the endless struggle to publish professional science; 2. Walk like an Egyptian: the alien feeling of professional science writing; 3. The future's bright? Professional science communication in the age of the internet; 4. Counting the horse's teeth: professional standards in science's barter economy; 5. Separating the wheat from the chaff: peer review on trial; Part II. Science for the Public: What Science Do People Need and How Might They Get It?: 6. The Public Understanding of Science (PUS) movement and its problems; 7. Public engagement with science and technology (PEST): fine principle, difficult practice; 8. Citizen scientists? Democratic input into science policy; 9. Teaching and learning science in schools: implications for popular science communication; Part III. Popular Science Communication: The Press and Broadcasting: 10. What every scientist should know about mass media; 11. What every scientist should know about journalists; 12. The influence of new media; 13. How the media represents science; 14. How should science journalists behave?; Part IV. The Origins of Science in Cultural Context: Five Historic Dramas: 15. A terrible storm in Wittenberg: natural knowledge through sorcery and evil; 16. A terrible storm in the Mediterranean: controlling nature with white magic and religion; 17. Thieving magpies: the subtle art of false projecting; 18. Foolish virtuosi: natural philosophy emerges as a distinct discipline but many cannot take it seriously; 19. Is scientific knowledge 'true' or should it just be 'truthfully' deployed?; Part V. Science in Literature: 20. Science and the Gothic: the three big nineteenth-century monster stories; 21. Science fiction: serious
Within a planetogonic model the self-gravitationally caused formation of pre-planetary and pre-satellite rings from an earlier thin disk is reported. The theoretically derived orbital radii of these rings are compared with the orbital levels in the planetary system and the satellite systems of Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus. From this comparison it is concluded that at the radial position of Saturn's newly discovered outer ring an early pre-satellite ring of more or less evolved satellites could have existed. These satellites should have been disturbed in their evolution by the gravitation of the neighbouring massive satellite Titan. The comparison also may indicate similarities between the asteroidal belt and the newly discovered outer ring of Saturn
Salgado de Souza, Ricardo; Gallego Arias Pecorari, Vanessa; Lauria Dib, Luciano
The present study assessed the level of dentists' knowledge regarding oral cancer in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. A questionnaire was used to compare the level of knowledge among newly graduated and senior clinicians. A total of 20,154 e-mails were correctly delivered to the dentists registered in the database of the Regional Dentistry Council of São Paulo, and 477 (2.36%) responses were received. This sample consisted of 84 newly graduated clinicians and 105 senior clinicians. For the statistical analysis, the chi-square test and the logistic regression analysis were performed with α = 0.05, and the results were described herein. According to their knowledge level, the results were statistically different between the groups, since 19% of the newly graduated clinicians were evaluated with knowledge grade A (excellent) in comparison to 6.7% of the senior clinicians. In spite of the results indicated that newly graduated clinicians' knowledge regarding oral cancer was 2.1 times higher, 34.5% of the professionals in this group had regular or poor knowledge on the subject, and several questions relating to clinical characteristics and risk factors indicated that there still exist some knowledge gaps, demonstrating that there is a need for further studies and information activities addressing oral cancer. PMID:29666649
coverage of domestic mainstream media on new and emerging technology: in the case of GMO and Nanotechnology (in Chinese)," 5th Chinese Science and...case of GMO and Nanotechnology (in Chinese)." 5th Chinese Science and Technology Policy and Management Annual Conference. Feder, Barnaby J. 2003
of school science. Classrooms together with the new technological tools that are being used are places that fabricate and (re)align how young people see themselves in science and form their subjectivity in relation to society’s core values and rationalities and are embodied in primary science education...... in science classrooms. The findings suggest that digital tools used in classrooms expand not only the means of teaching and learning science but represent spaces for the emergence, negotiation and struggle of different forms of subjectivities.......It has been repeatedly argued that young people need to acquire science knowledge, skills and competencies, so that future economies can maintain social welfare, economic growth and international competitiveness. However, the attainment of understanding in science is not the only importance...
Rotger, Gabriel Pons
-demanding activity. As intensive activation is usually accompanied by intensive search monitoring, it is important to disentangling the contribution of the costly activation programs from that of caseworker meetings. Using Danish data for the period 2010-13, the paper shows that requiring newly unemployed intensive...... activation, contrary to job search meetings, reduces employment and increases sickness benefit claims....
Mejlgaard, Niels; Bloch, Carter Walter
This paper introduces a special section of Science and Public Policy on science in society in Europe. Based on extensive data collected for the Monitoring Policy and Research Activities on Science in Society in Europe (MASIS) project, contributions to this special section explore pertinent issues...... related to the location, role and responsibility of science across EU member states and associated countries. By developing analytical typologies and classifying countries, the collection of papers provides a novel and detailed picture of Europe. It reveals considerable variation regarding...... the interactions of science and society at the national level, and it offers a platform for international learning. The identification of patterns and trends concerning the place of science in society may also feed into emerging European discussions about ‘responsible research and innovation’....
Howe, B. M.; Butler, R.; Joint Task Force, U.
The subsea telecommunications cable industry is approaching a prospective new era: deploying SMART subsea cable systems (SMART = Science Monitoring And Reliable Telecommunication). The current global, commercial cable infrastructure consists of 1 Gm of cable, being refreshed now and expanding in the future. The SMART concept is to add a small external sensor package along the cable system at its optical repeaters to transmit important real-time environmental data via a dedicated wavelength or overhead channel in the transmission system, avoiding any impact on the commercial traffic. These small, reliable, existing sensors would precisely measure temperature, pressure and three-axis acceleration across the world's ocean floor over an extended period of time, being deployed using standard cable-laying procedures on new or refurbished cables, but not requiring maintenance through the 2-3 decade life of the cable systems. The game-changing factor is the urgent international need for ocean environmental data related to mitigating climate and sea-level change and improving tsunami and slope failure hazard warnings. Societal costs incurred by these are reaching billions of dollars and hundreds of thousands of deaths. Pressures for new and urgent public policies are evident from the 5th IPCC Assessment, USA-China agreement on limiting greenhouse gas emissions, clear evidence for rapid global warming, 21st Session of the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC (December 2015, Paris), and the scale of the costs of inaction. To support revised public policies and actions, decision-makers, industry leaders, and the public are seeking key scientific data, which will necessitate new sources of funding. Hence, the emergence of new SMART cable systems offered by the subsea telecommunications industry will provide new market opportunities, engage additional non-traditional users, and make profound societal contributions. The Joint Task Force (JTF) on SMART Subsea Cable Systems
A forwarding system could prove beneficial as an addition to an electronic communication-and-control system that automatically modifies the switching of traffic lights to give priority to emergency vehicles. A system to which the forwarding system could be added could be any of a variety of emergency traffic-signal-preemption systems: these include systems now used in some municipalities as well as advanced developmental systems described in several NASA Tech Briefs articles in recent years. Because of a variety of physical and design limitations, emergency traffic-signal- preemption systems now in use are often limited in range to only one intersection at a time: in a typical system, only the next, closest intersection is preempted for an emergency vehicle. Simulations of gridlock have shown that such systems offer minimal advantages and can even cause additional delays. In analogy to what happens in fluid dynamics, the forwarding system insures that flow at a given location is sustained by guaranteeing downstream flow along the predicted route (typically a main artery) and intersecting routes (typically, side streets). In simplest terms, the forwarding system starts by taking note of any preemption issued by the preemption system to which it has been added. The forwarding system predicts which other intersections could be encountered by the emergency vehicle downstream of the newly preempted intersection. The system then forwards preemption triggers to those intersections. Beyond affording a right of way for the emergency vehicle at every intersection that lies ahead along any likely route from the current position of the vehicle, the forwarding system also affords the benefit of clearing congested roads far ahead of the vehicle. In a metropolitan environment with heavy road traffic, forwarding of preemption triggers could greatly enhance the performance of a pre-existing preemption system.
Finley, Fred N.; Nam, Younkeyong; Oughton, John
Earth Systems Science (ESS) is emerging rapidly as a discipline and is being used to replace the older earth science education that has been taught as unrelated disciplines--geology, meteorology, astronomy, and oceanography. ESS is complex and is based on the idea that the earth can be understood as a set of interacting natural and social systems.…
Møller Moltke Martiny, Kristian; Pedersen, David Budtz; Hansted, Allan Alfred Birkegaard
In this article, we present three challenges to the emerging Open Science (OS) movement: the challenge of communication, collaboration and cultivation of scientific research. We argue that to address these challenges OS needs to include other forms of data than what can be captured in a text...... and extend into a fully-fledged Open Media movement engaging with new media and non-traditional formats of science communication. We discuss two cases where experiments with open media have driven new collaborations between scientists and documentarists. We use the cases to illustrate different advantages...
Saber, Deborah A; Anglade, Debbie; Schirle, Lori M
This study explored traditional and accelerated Bachelor of Science nursing students' expectations of nursing work and the workforce. Role transition difficulty is blamed for much of the 15-60% newly licensed registered nurse turnover in their first 3 years of employment. This qualitative study consisted of 14 focus groups (n = 98) to determine Bachelor of Science nursing students' expectations of work as newly licensed registered nurses. Two overriding themes for accelerated and traditional students emerged: stressors and coping strategies. Students believe four stressors will affect their progression into the newly licensed registered nurse role and have developed coping strategies. This study suggests that students have experienced stressors in the clinical environment and anticipate them in the newly licensed registered nurse role. During transition, strategies such as 'fitting in' and 'staying safe' will be employed to ensure work success. Younger generations value a healthy work-life balance and a positive working environment. These nurses will not tolerate positions that do not align with their values. With the aging of citizens in the USA and the predicted nursing shortage, nursing management needs to employ strategies to retain newly licensed registered nurses. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 8. Electronic Commerce - Emerging Applications and Some Legal Issues. V Rajaraman. Series Article Volume 6 Issue 8 August ... Author Affiliations. V Rajaraman1. IBM Professor of Information Technology JNCASR Bangalore 560 064, India.
...] Emerging Infectious Diseases: Evaluation to Implementation for Transfusion and Transplantation Safety and... public workshops entitled ``Emerging Infectious Diseases: Evaluation to Implementation for Transfusion... Office of Science and Public Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institutes of...
Börner, Katy; Besselaar, Peter
Models of science dynamics aim to capture the structure and evolution of science. They are developed in an emerging research area in which scholars, scientific institutions and scientific communications become themselves basic objects of research. In order to understand phenomena as diverse as the structure of evolving co-authorship networks or citation diffusion patterns, different models have been developed. They include conceptual models based on historical and ethnographic observations, mathematical descriptions of measurable phenomena, and computational algorithms. Despite its evident importance, the mathematical modeling of science still lacks a unifying framework and a comprehensive research agenda. This book aims to fill this gap, reviewing and describing major threads in the mathematical modeling of science dynamics for a wider academic and professional audience. The model classes presented here cover stochastic and statistical models, game-theoretic approaches, agent-based simulations, population-dy...
Winkley, K; Upsher, R; Keij, S M; Chamley, M; Ismail, K; Forbes, A
To determine healthcare professionals' (HCP) views of group structured education for people with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes. This was a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews to ascertain primary care HCPs' views and experiences of education for people with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes. A thematic framework method was applied to analyse the data. Participants were HCPs (N = 22) from 15 general practices in three south London boroughs. All but one HCP viewed diabetes education favourably and all identified that low attendance was a problem. Three key themes emerged from the qualitative data: (1) benefits of diabetes education, including the group mode of delivery, improved patient interactions, saving HCPs' time and improved patient outcomes; (2) factors limiting uptake of education, including patient-level problems such as access and the appropriateness of the programme for certain groups, and difficulties communicating the benefits to patients and integration of education management plans into ongoing diabetes care; and (3) suggestions for improvement, including strategies to improve attendance at education with more localized and targeted marketing and enhanced programme content including follow-up sessions and support for people with pre-existing psychological issues. Most HCPs valued diabetes education and all highlighted the lack of provision for people with different levels of health literacy. Because there was wide variation in terms of the level of knowledge regarding the education on offer, future studies may want to focus on how to help HCPs encourage their patients to attend. © 2018 Diabetes UK.
Post, Bart; Speelman, Johannes D.; de Haan, Rob J.
OBJECTIVE: To determine clinical heterogeneity in newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease using cluster analysis and to describe the subgroups in terms of impairment, disability, perceived quality of life, and use of dopaminergic therapy. METHODS: We conducted a k-means cluster analysis in a prospective
Puechmaille, Sébastien J; Frick, Winifred F; Kunz, Thomas H; Racey, Paul A; Voigt, Christian C; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Teeling, Emma C
White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a newly emergent disease that potentially threatens all temperate bat species. A recently identified fungus, Geomyces destructans, is the most likely causative agent of this disease. Until 2009, WNS and G. destructans were exclusively known from North America, but recent studies have confirmed this fungus is also present in Europe. We assembled an international WNS consortium of 67 scientists from 29 countries and identified the most important research and conservation priorities to assess the risk of WNS to European bats. Here, we review what is known about WNS and G. destructans and detail the conservation and research recommendations aimed at understanding and containing this emerging infectious disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tumor-treating fields (TTFields) are a new technology used for cancer treatment consisting of battery-powered, insulated electromagnetic transducers that are placed on the scalp. This wearable, adhesive device is a certified physician-prescribed therapy for patients with glioblastoma multiforme, a type of primary brain cancer. TTFields are being used concomitantly with temozolomide (Temodar®) in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma and as a monotherapy in patients with recurrent glioblastoma after radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Nursing professionals caring for patients using this emerging technology should be able to educate patients regarding proper use of TTFields and monitor for side effects. .
Scheufele, Dietram A
This essay examines the societal dynamics surrounding modern science. It first discusses a number of challenges facing any effort to communicate science in social environments: lay publics with varying levels of preparedness for fully understanding new scientific breakthroughs; the deterioration of traditional media infrastructures; and an increasingly complex set of emerging technologies that are surrounded by a host of ethical, legal, and social considerations. Based on this overview, I discuss four areas in which empirical social science helps clarify intuitive but sometimes faulty assumptions about the social-level mechanisms of science communication and outline an agenda for bench and social scientists--driven by current social-scientific research in the field of science communication--to guide more effective communication efforts at the societal level in the future.
Full Text Available China has shown a rapid economic development in recent decades, and several drivers of this change are known to enhance biological invasions, a major cause of biodiversity loss. Here we review the current state of research on plant invasions in China by analyzing papers referenced in the ISI Web of Knowledge. Since 2001, the number of papers has increased exponentially, indicating that plant invasions in China are an emerging hot topic in invasion science. The analyzed papers cover a broad range of methodological approaches and research topics. While more that 250 invasive plant species with negative impacts have been reported from China, only a few species have been considered in more than a handful of papers (in order of decreasing number of references: Spartina alterniflora, Ageratina adenophora, Mikania micrantha, Alternanthera philoxeroides, Solidago canadensis, Eichhornia crassipes. Yet this selection might rather reflect the location of research teams than the most invasive plant species in China. Considering the previous achievements in China found in our analysis research in plant invasions could be expanded by (1 compiling comprehensive lists of non-native plant species at the provincial and national scales and to include species that are native to one part of China but non-native to others in these lists; (2 strengthening pathways studies (primary introduction to the country, secondary releases within the country to enhance prevention and management; and (3 assessing impacts of invasive species at different spatial scales (habitats, regions and in relation to conservation resources.
Water security and emergent environmental risks are among the most significant societal concerns. They are highly interlinked to other global risks such as those related to climate, human health, food, human migration, biodiversity loss, urban sustainability, etc. Emergent risks result from the confluence of unanticipated interactions from evolving interdependencies between complex systems, such as those embedded in the water cycle. They are associated with the novelty of dynamical possibilities that have significant potential consequences to human and ecological systems, and not with probabilities based on historical precedence. To ensure water security we need to be able to anticipate the likelihood of risk possibilities as they present the prospect of the most impact through cascade of vulnerabilities. They arise due to a confluence of nonstationary drivers that include growing population, climate change, demographic shifts, urban growth, and economic expansion, among others, which create novel interdependencies leading to a potential of cascading network effects. Hydrocomplexity aims to address water security and emergent risks through the development of science, methods, and practices with the potential to foster a "Blue Revolution" akin to the Green revolution for food security. It blends both hard infrastructure based solution with soft knowledge driven solutions to increase the range of planning and design, management, mitigation and adaptation strategies. It provides a conceptual and synthetic framework to enable us to integrate discovery science and engineering, observational and information science, computational and communication systems, and social and institutional approaches to address consequential water and environmental challenges.
Bhagirath S. Chauhan
Full Text Available In modern agriculture, with more emphasis on high input systems, weed problems are likely to increase and become more complex. With heightened awareness of adverse effects of herbicide residues on human health and environment and the evolution of herbicide-resistant weed biotypes, a significant focus within weed science has now shifted to the development of eco-friendly technologies with reduced reliance on herbicides. Further, with the large-scale adoption of herbicide-resistant crops, and uncertain climatic optima under climate change, the problems for weed science have become multi-faceted. To handle these complex weed problems, a holistic line of action with multi-disciplinary approaches is required, including adjustments to technology, management practices, and legislation. Improved knowledge of weed ecology, biology, genetics, and molecular biology is essential for developing sustainable weed control practices. Additionally, judicious use of advanced technologies, such as site-specific weed management systems and decision support modeling, will play a significant role in reducing costs associated with weed control. Further, effective linkages between farmers and weed researchers will be necessary to facilitate the adoption of technological developments. To meet these challenges, priorities in research need to be determined and the education system for weed science needs to be reoriented. In respect of the latter imperative, closer collaboration between weed scientists and other disciplines can help in defining and solving the complex weed management challenges of the 21st century. This consensus will provide more versatile and diverse approaches to innovative teaching and training practices, which will be needed to prepare future weed science graduates who are capable of handling the anticipated challenges of weed science facing in contemporary agriculture. To build this capacity, mobilizing additional funding for both weed research and
McClure, Kimberley A; McGuire, Katherine L; Chapan, Denis M
Policy on officer-involved shootings is critically reviewed and errors in applying scientific knowledge identified. Identifying and evaluating the most relevant science to a field-based problem is challenging. Law enforcement administrators with a clear understanding of valid science and application are in a better position to utilize scientific knowledge for the benefit of their organizations and officers. A recommended framework is proposed for considering the validity of science and its application. Valid science emerges via hypothesis testing, replication, extension and marked by peer review, known error rates, and general acceptance in its field of origin. Valid application of behavioral science requires an understanding of the methodology employed, measures used, and participants recruited to determine whether the science is ready for application. Fostering a science-practitioner partnership and an organizational culture that embraces quality, empirically based policy, and practices improves science-to-practice translation. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
In this study, the author developed a model to describe academic self-concept (ASC) in science and validated an instrument for its measurement. Unlike previous models of science ASC, which envisage science as a homogenous single global construct, this model took a multidimensional view by conceiving science self-concept as possessing distinctive facets including conceptual and procedural elements. In the first part of the study, data were collected from 1,483 students attending eight secondary schools in England, through the use of a newly devised Secondary Self-Concept Science Instrument, and structural equation modeling was employed to test and validate a model. In the second part of the study, the data were analysed within the new self-concept framework to examine learners' ASC profiles across the domains of science, with particular attention paid to age- and gender-related differences. The study found that the proposed science self-concept model exhibited robust measures of fit and construct validity, which were shown to be invariant across gender and age subgroups. The self-concept profiles were heterogeneous in nature with the component relating to self-concept in physics, being surprisingly positive in comparison to other aspects of science. This outcome is in stark contrast to data reported elsewhere and raises important issues about the nature of young learners' self-conceptions about science. The paper concludes with an analysis of the potential utility of the self-concept measurement instrument as a pedagogical device for science educators and learners of science.
Kampourakis, Kostas; McComas, William F.
Recently, the nature of science (NOS) has become recognized as an important element within the K-12 science curriculum. Despite differences in the ultimate lists of recommended aspects, a consensus is emerging on what specific NOS elements should be the focus of science instruction and inform textbook writers and curriculum developers. In this…
Pachocka, Lucyna Małgorzata; Urbanik, Anna
The treatment of intestinal stoma is often a difficult experience for patients and results in numerous problems in the physical, psychological and social aspects. Therefore, post-operative care of the patient with the newly appointed stoma should be taken by therapeutic team consisting of doctors, nurses, physiotherapists, dieticians, psychologists and social workers. Appropriate nutritional education of patients aims to improve their quality of life and to prevent from unpleasant ailments formed after the operation. The specific type of stoma may decide about certain dietary recommendations. The presented work provides a practical dietary recommendations for patients with newly appointed stoma.
Forde, Dana; Lum, Lydia; Nealy, Michelle J.; Pluviose, David; Roach, Ronald; Rogers, Ibram; Rolo, Mark Anthony; Seymour, Add, Jr., Valdata, Patricia; Watson, Jamal
This year's crop of "Emerging Scholars"--The Class of 2008--includes a math biologist who was only the second woman to receive the Alfred P. Sloan Fellowship in math; a geneticist who recently became one of 20 winners of the National Science Foundation's Presidential Early Career Awards for Scientists and Engineers; and an extensively published…
Ogino, Shuji; Lochhead, Paul; Chan, Andrew T; Nishihara, Reiko; Cho, Eunyoung; Wolpin, Brian M; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A; Meissner, Alexander; Schernhammer, Eva S; Fuchs, Charles S; Giovannucci, Edward
Epigenetics acts as an interface between environmental/exogenous factors, cellular responses, and pathological processes. Aberrant epigenetic signatures are a hallmark of complex multifactorial diseases (including neoplasms and malignancies such as leukemias, lymphomas, sarcomas, and breast, lung, prostate, liver, and colorectal cancers). Epigenetic signatures (DNA methylation, mRNA and microRNA expression, etc) may serve as biomarkers for risk stratification, early detection, and disease classification, as well as targets for therapy and chemoprevention. In particular, DNA methylation assays are widely applied to formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded archival tissue specimens as clinical pathology tests. To better understand the interplay between etiological factors, cellular molecular characteristics, and disease evolution, the field of 'molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE)' has emerged as an interdisciplinary integration of 'molecular pathology' and 'epidemiology'. In contrast to traditional epidemiological research including genome-wide association studies (GWAS), MPE is founded on the unique disease principle, that is, each disease process results from unique profiles of exposomes, epigenomes, transcriptomes, proteomes, metabolomes, microbiomes, and interactomes in relation to the macroenvironment and tissue microenvironment. MPE may represent a logical evolution of GWAS, termed 'GWAS-MPE approach'. Although epigenome-wide association study attracts increasing attention, currently, it has a fundamental problem in that each cell within one individual has a unique, time-varying epigenome. Having a similar conceptual framework to systems biology, the holistic MPE approach enables us to link potential etiological factors to specific molecular pathology, and gain novel pathogenic insights on causality. The widespread application of epigenome (eg, methylome) analyses will enhance our understanding of disease heterogeneity, epigenotypes (CpG island methylator
Tian-Chuan Hsu; Jia-Jung Lin; Shih-Wen Chung
Two herbs are newly discovered in Taiwan. Limnophila fragrans (G. Forst.) Seem. (Scrophulariaceae), native in SE Asia, is recognized from southern lowlands. Anagallis minima (L.) E. H. L. Krause (Primulaceae), native in N America and Europe, was found from northern mountainous region at low altitudes. In this study, descriptions, line drawings, color photos and a distribution map of the two species are provided.
Gauthier, G. Robin; Hill, Patricia Wonch; McQuillan, Julia; Spiegel, Amy N.; Diamond, Judy
In the United States, girls and boys have similar science achievement, yet fewer girls aspire to science careers than boys. This paradox emerges in middle school, when peers begin to play a stronger role in shaping adolescent identities. We use complete network data from a single middle school and theories of gender, identity, and social distance to explore how friendship patterns might influence this gender and science paradox. Three patterns highlight the social dimensions of gendered science persistence: (1) boys and girls do not differ in self-perceived science potential and science career aspirations; (2) consistent with gender-based norms, both middle school boys and girls report that the majority of their female friends are not science kinds of people; and (3) youth with gender-inconsistent science aspirations are more likely to be friends with each other than youth with gender normative science aspirations. Together, this evidence suggests that friendship dynamics contribute to gendered patterns in science career aspirations. PMID:28491465
D'Onofrio, Gail; Jauch, Edward; Jagoda, Andrew; Allen, Michael H; Anglin, Deirdre; Barsan, William G; Berger, Rachel P; Bobrow, Bentley J; Boudreaux, Edwin D; Bushnell, Cheryl; Chan, Yu-Feng; Currier, Glenn; Eggly, Susan; Ichord, Rebecca; Larkin, Gregory L; Laskowitz, Daniel; Neumar, Robert W; Newman-Toker, David E; Quinn, James; Shear, Katherine; Todd, Knox H; Zatzick, Douglas
The Institute of Medicine Committee on the Future of Emergency Care in the United States Health System (2003) identified a need to enhance the research base for emergency care. As a result, a National Institutes of Health (NIH) Task Force on Research in Emergency Medicine was formed to enhance NIH support for emergency care research. Members of the NIH Task Force and academic leaders in emergency care participated in 3 Roundtable discussions to prioritize current opportunities for enhancing and conducting emergency care research. We identify key research questions essential to advancing the science of emergency care and discuss the barriers and strategies to advance research by exploring the collaboration between NIH and the emergency care community. Experts from emergency medicine, neurology, psychiatry, and public health assembled to review critical areas in need of investigation, current gaps in knowledge, barriers, and opportunities. Neurologic emergencies included cerebral resuscitation, pain, stroke, syncope, traumatic brain injury, and pregnancy. Mental health topics included suicide, agitation and delirium, substances, posttraumatic stress, violence, and bereavement. Presentations and group discussion firmly established the need for translational research to bring basic science concepts into the clinical arena. A coordinated continuum of the health care system that ensures rapid identification and stabilization and extends through discharge is necessary to maximize overall patient outcomes. There is a paucity of well-designed, focused research on diagnostic testing, clinical decisionmaking, and treatments in the emergency setting. Barriers include the limited number of experienced researchers in emergency medicine, limited dedicated research funding, and difficulties of conducting research in chaotic emergency environments stressed by crowding and limited resources. Several themes emerged during the course of the roundtable discussion, including the need
Schupp, Harald T; Kirmse, Ursula; Schmälzle, Ralf; Flaisch, Tobias; Renner, Britta
Emotional cues can guide selective attention processes. However, emotional stimuli can both activate long-term memory representations reflecting general world knowledge and engage newly formed memory representations representing specific knowledge from the immediate past. Here, the self-completion feature of associative memory was utilized to assess the regulation of attention processes by newly-formed emotional memory. First, new memory representations were formed by presenting pictures depicting a person either in an erotic pose or as a portrait. Afterwards, to activate newly-built memory traces, edited pictures were presented showing only the head region of the person. ERP recordings revealed the emotional regulation of attention by newly-formed memories. Specifically, edited pictures from the erotic compared to the portrait category elicited an early posterior negativity and late positive potential, similar to the findings observed for the original pictures. A control condition showed that the effect was dependent on newly-formed memory traces. Given the large number of new memories formed each day, they presumably make an important contribution to the regulation of attention in everyday life.
Schupp, Harald T.; Kirmse, Ursula; Schmälzle, Ralf; Flaisch, Tobias; Renner, Britta
Emotional cues can guide selective attention processes. However, emotional stimuli can both activate long-term memory representations reflecting general world knowledge and engage newly formed memory representations representing specific knowledge from the immediate past. Here, the self-completion feature of associative memory was utilized to assess the regulation of attention processes by newly-formed emotional memory. First, new memory representations were formed by presenting pictures depicting a person either in an erotic pose or as a portrait. Afterwards, to activate newly-built memory traces, edited pictures were presented showing only the head region of the person. ERP recordings revealed the emotional regulation of attention by newly-formed memories. Specifically, edited pictures from the erotic compared to the portrait category elicited an early posterior negativity and late positive potential, similar to the findings observed for the original pictures. A control condition showed that the effect was dependent on newly-formed memory traces. Given the large number of new memories formed each day, they presumably make an important contribution to the regulation of attention in everyday life. PMID:27321471
McDonald, Christine V.
There exists a general consensus in the science education literature around the goal of enhancing learners' views of nature of science (NOS). An extensive body of research in the field has highlighted the effectiveness of explicit NOS instructional approaches in improving learners' NOS views. Emerging research has suggested that engaging learners…
Full Text Available Objective: This study describes Arkansas pharmacists’ knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding emergency contraception. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a convenience sample of pharmacists prior to a continuing education lecture. The 16-item survey included multiple choice and true/false questions to assess knowledge in addition to Likert-type scale questions regarding attitudes and beliefs. Frequency and descriptive statistics were calculated for all variables.Results: Eighty-eight pharmacists completed the survey. A majority (73% knew that Plan B had been FDA-approved for nonprescription use yet 42% believed that it works by disrupting a newly implanted ovum. On a scale from 1-5 where 5=strongly agree, the mean item score was 3.2 for whether emergency contraception should be available for nonprescription use with counseling and 1.6 for nonprescription use without counseling. When asked what they would do if presented with a request for emergency contraception, 45.8% indicated they would dispense the drug, 22.9% would refer the patient to another pharmacist or pharmacy, 3.6% would refuse to dispense, and 27.7% were not sure. Almost half (48.6% did not believe they were competent instructing patients on the use of emergency contraception. Conclusions: The results show that pharmacists could benefit from additional training on emergency contraception.
Pennington, D. D.; Del Rio, N.; Fierro, C.; Gandara, A.; Garcia, A.; Garza, J.; Giandoni, M.; Ochoa, O.; Padilla, E.; Salamah, S.
The Virtual Learning Commons (VLC), funded by the National Science Foundation Office of Cyberinfrastructure CI-Team Program, is a combination of semantic, visualization, and social media tools that support knowledge sharing and innovation across research disciplines. The explosion of new scientific tools and techniques challenges the ability of researchers to be aware of emerging technologies that might benefit them. Even when aware, it can be difficult to understand enough about emerging technologies to become potential adopters or re-users. Often, emerging technologies have little documentation, especially about the context of their use. The VLC tackles this challenge by providing mechanisms for individuals and groups of researchers to collectively organize Web resources through social bookmarking, and engage each other around those collections in order to a) learn about potentially relevant technologies that are emerging; and b) get feedback from other researchers on innovative ideas and designs. Concurrently, developers of emerging technologies can learn about potential users and the issues they encounter, and they can analyze the impact of their tools on other projects. The VLC aims to support the 'fuzzy front end' of innovation, where novel ideas emerge and there is the greatest potential for impact on research design. It is during the fuzzy front end that conceptual collisions across disciplines and exposure to diverse perspectives provide opportunity for creative thinking that can lead to inventive outcomes. This presentation will discuss the innovation theories that have informed design of the VLC, and hypotheses about the flow of information in virtual settings that can enable the process of innovation. The presentation will include a brief demonstration of key capabilities within the VLC that enable learning about emerging technologies, including the technologies that are presented in this session.
Sesko, S.C.; Marchant, M.
The objective of this emergent study was to follow the cognitive and creative processes demonstrated by five art student participants as they integrated a developing knowledge of big science, as practiced at the Department of Energy`s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, into a personal and idiosyncratic visual, graphical, or multimedia product. The non-scientist participants involved in this process attended design classes sponsored by the Laboratory at the Art Center College of Design in California. The learning experience itself, and how the students arrived at their product, were the focus of the class and the research. The study was emergent in that we found no applicable literature on the use of art to portray a cognitive understanding of science. This lack of literature led us to the foundation literature on creativity and to the corpus of literature on public understanding of science. We believe that this study contributes to the literature on science education, art education, cognitive change, and public understanding of science. 20 refs., 11 figs.
Wipfli, Heather L; Berman, Micah; Hanson, Kacey; Kelder, Steven; Solis, Amy; Villanti, Andrea C; Ribeiro, Carla M P; Meissner, Helen I; Anderson, Roger
In 2013, the National Institutes of Health and the Food and Drug Administration funded a network of 14 Tobacco Centers of Regulatory Science (TCORS) with a mission that included research and training. A cross-TCORS Panel was established to define tobacco regulatory science (TRS) competencies to help harmonize and guide their emerging educational programs. The purpose of this paper is to describe the Panel's work to develop core TRS domains and competencies. The Panel developed the list of domains and competencies using a semistructured Delphi method divided into four phases occurring between November 2013 and August 2015. The final proposed list included a total of 51 competencies across six core domains and 28 competencies across five specialized domains. There is a need for continued discussion to establish the utility of the proposed set of competencies for emerging TRS curricula and to identify the best strategies for incorporating these competencies into TRS training programs. Given the field's broad multidisciplinary nature, further experience is needed to refine the core domains that should be covered in TRS training programs versus knowledge obtained in more specialized programs. Regulatory science to inform the regulation of tobacco products is an emerging field. The paper provides an initial list of core and specialized domains and competencies to be used in developing curricula for new and emerging training programs aimed at preparing a new cohort of scientists to conduct critical TRS research. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Gonca Oguz Gok
Full Text Available Post Second World War liberal economic order and its institutions have been challenged with the rapidly growing powerful economies of some Asian and Latin American countries in the last decade. Yet, there is ambiguity in international political economy field with regard to conceptualizing and categorizing these emerging economies. This study mainly aims to ravel out this obstacle by offering a new quantitative benchmarking framework. In other words, this study proposes a new evaluation criteria set for assessing emerging economies with combining testable domestic and systematic factors. Accordingly, this study presents the cross-country comparison by using quantitative benchmarking analysis between IBSA -India, Brazil and South Africa- and MIST -Mexico, Indonesia, South Korea and Turkey- countries over the period 2008- 2012. We compare these countries based on the criteria of economic growth, human development index, foreign direct investment, and official development assistance. This study also aims to evaluate the group performance of these newly emerging economies- namely the rise of IBSA and MIST countries-in a comparative perspective. In conclusion, the performance of these countries -from both group-of-country and individual-country perspectives- are discussed in light of the results
Dinesh, D S; Singh, A; Kumar, V; Kesari, S; Kumar, A J; Kishore, K; Roy, S P; Bhattacharya, S K; Das, P
Phlebotomus argentipes Annandale and Brunetti (Diptera: Psychodidae) is the vector for visceral leishmaniasis in India. The aspects of its biology such as feeding and man vector contact are associated with emergence periodicity of the adult. Hence, the present study was made to find out the actual emergence period of P. argentipes. Wild caught P. argentipes were confined in the rearing pots inside laboratory. The newly emerged adults were collected at hourly intervals and released in to separate polythene bags and were held at 4°C till death. Sand flies were segregated sex-wise after the death under a microscope. The emergence of adult was observed throughout the day. However, the male preferred dawn emergence and the female the dusk. Two peaks of emergence were found in a day; first one in the morning (0900h) and the second one in the evening (1800h). The ratio of both sexes was found to be about equal. The emergence of adult was found to be 77% out of total eggs laid, which was completed within 7-10 days from the 1st day of emergence under laboratory conditions (25°C to 31°C and 70% to 75% relative humidity). This study has important bearings to find out the actual time for personal protection against biting of sand flies to prevent the transmission of Kala-azar.
Pollen parameters estimates of genetic variability among newly selected Nigerian roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) genotypes. ... Estimates of some pollen parameters where used to assess the genetic diversity among ... HOW TO USE AJOL.
The term "terahertz" has been ubiquitous in the arena of technology over the past couple of years. New applications are emerging every day which are exploiting the promises of terahertz - its small wavelength; capability of penetrating dust, clouds, and fog; and possibility of having large instantaneous bandwidth for high-speed communication channels. Until very recently, space-based instruments for astrophysics, planetary science, and Earth science missions have been the primary motivator for the development of terahertz sensors, sources, and systems. However, in recent years the emerging areas such as imaging from space platforms, surveillance of person-borne hidden weapons or contraband from a safe stand-off distance and reconnaissance, medical imaging and DNA sequencing, and in the world high speed communications have been the driving force for this area of research.
Offiah, Gozie; Doherty, Eva
The transition from medical student to doctor is an important milestone. The discovery that their time is no longer their own and that the demands of their job are greater than the time they have available is extremely challenging. At a recent surgical boot camp training programme, 60 first-year surgical trainees who had just completed their internship were invited to reflect on the lessons learnt regarding effective time management and to recommend tips for their newly qualified colleagues. They were asked to identify clinical duties that were considered urgent and important using the time management matrix and the common time traps encountered by newly qualified doctors. The surgical trainees identified several practical tips that ranged from writing a priority list to working on relationships within the team. These tips are generic and so applicable to all newly qualified medial doctors. We hope that awareness of these tips from the outset as against learning them through experience will greatly assist newly qualified doctors. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Five hundred newly diagnosed cases of Pulmonary Tuberculosis were treated with directly observed short-course treatment and 100 of them had chest radiographic examination done. The various chest radiographic patterns in the 100 subjects were studied and included: Fluffy exudative changes 80(80%), fibrosis 70(70%) ...
Mendez, B. J.; Smith, D.; Shipp, S. S.; Schwerin, T. G.; Stockman, S. A.; Cooper, L. P.; Peticolas, L. M.
NASA is working with four newly-formed Science Education and Public Outreach Forums (SEPOFs) to increase the overall coherence of the Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) program. SEPOFs support the astrophysics, heliophysics, planetary and Earth science divisions of NASA SMD in three core areas: * E/PO Community Engagement and Development * E/PO Product and Project Activity Analysis * Science Education and Public Outreach Forum Coordination Committee Service. SEPOFs are collaborating with NASA and external science and education and outreach communities in E/PO on multiple levels ranging from the mission and non-mission E/PO project activity managers, project activity partners, and scientists and researchers, to front line agents such as naturalists/interpreters, teachers, and higher education faculty, to high level agents such as leadership at state education offices, local schools, higher education institutions, and professional societies. The overall goal for the SEPOFs is increased awareness, knowledge, and understanding of scientists, researchers, engineers, technologists, educators, product developers, and dissemination agents of best practices, existing NASA resources, and community expertise applicable to E/PO. By coordinating and supporting the NASA E/PO Community, the NASA/SEPOF partnerships will lead to more effective, sustainable, and efficient utilization of NASA science discoveries and learning experiences.
Mansur Kürsad Erkuran
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The patients applying to a emergency service may stay longer than necessary for diagnosis, monitoring and treatment. This can be due to the inadequacy of the treatment performed in emergency department or to the absence of the required unit in the hospital. In this study, we analyzed the waiting period of the patients who have not been hospitalized. METHODS: The patients applying to Bolu İzzet Baysal Public Hospital Emergency Unit between 24.11.2009 and 25.08.2011 have been studied regarding their application date, the season, and their waiting period in the emergency unit. The data have been analyzed using the statistics software Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, version 17.0 for Windows. The chi-square χ2 test has been used for the determination of the percentage distribution and significance and p<0,05 has been considered significant. RESULTS: 4215 patients applying to Bolu İzzet Baysal Public Hospital Emergency Unit between 24.11.2009 and 25.08.2011 and monitored without hospitalization have been studied. The patients mainly presented during spring (p<0.05. The application occurred more often between 20.00 PM – 23.59 PM (p<0.005. The mean duration of the accept-standby of the patients in emergency unit was 09±12 (minimum 0 minute, maximum 130 minutes. The patients waited 0,26 ±70 minutes in emergency unit examination (minimum 0 minute, maximum 1292 minutes. The total waiting time in emergency unit was 52 ±100 minutes (minimum 10, maximum 1435 minutes. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: In this study, we observed that the duration of the hospitalization in emergency unit is longer than the ideal duration.
The seventeenth century witnessed the replacement of an Aristotelian worldview by a mechanical one. It also witnessed the beginnings of significant experimental enquiry. Alerted by the fact that the methods involved in the latter, but not in the former, resemble those employed in later science, I argue the historical case that the emergence of the mechanical worldview and the emergence of science were not closely related and that it was the latter that was to develop into science as we have come to know it. The details are explored in the context of the philosophical and experimental work of Robert Boyle and the relationship between them. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
In April 1994 the National Research Council received a request from NASA that the NRC's Space Studies Board provide guidance on questions relating to the management of NASA's programs in the space sciences. The issues raised in the request closely reflect questions posed in the agency's fiscal year 1994 Senate appropriations report. These questions included the following: Should all the NASA space science programs be gathered into a 'National Institute for Space Science'? What other organizational changes might be made to improve the coordination and oversight of NASA space science programs? What processes should be used for establishing interdisciplinary science priorities based on scientific merit and other criteria, while ensuring opportunities for newer fields and disciplines to emerge? And what steps could be taken to improve utilization of advanced technologies in future space scienc missions? This report details the findings of the Committee on the Future of Space Science (FOSS) and its three task groups: the Task Group on Alternative Organizations, Task Group on Research Prioritization, and the Task Group on Technology.
Jackson, Julie Kay Cropper
This study examined how career scientists became interested in science. Eight practicing scientists were asked a focus question, "What sparked your interest in science?" Their responses recorded during personal interviews and reported in correspondence frame this qualitative study. Analysis of the data revealed a variety of influences. The influences were coded, arranged into lists, and grouped by theme. A total of 18 themes emerged from the data. Five of the emerging themes were common across all of the participants. They were the influence of a family member, the influence of a teacher, being naturally curious, being interested in science, and reading books, magazines, and/or encyclopedias. Five themes were common among 5 to 7 participants. These themes included visiting museums, having broad exposure, enjoyment of mathematics, enjoying being outside, and freedom to play and explore. Eight themes were common among 2 to 4 of the participants. They were financial incentive, influence of religion, participation in science fairs, influence of the manned space program, having a scientist in the family, having the opportunity to teach others, not seeing self as a scientist, and first generation college graduate. The emerging themes were compared and contrasted with historical and contemporary literature. Vocational psychology's leading career choice and development literature was also aligned with the emerging themes. Data from this study supports tenets of Trait and Factor Theory, Developmental Theory, and Social Learning Theory. Reported data also supports the proposed movement toward a unified theory of career choice and development. A combination of personality traits, developmental stages, self-efficacy, and learning experiences influenced the vocational decisions of the scientists who participated in this study. The study concludes with suggestions for sparking and sustaining interest in science that people responsible for preparing future scientists may find
Wood, Samantha M W; Wood, Justin N
How does face recognition emerge in the newborn brain? To address this question, we used an automated controlled-rearing method with a newborn animal model: the domestic chick (Gallus gallus). This automated method allowed us to examine chicks' face recognition abilities at the onset of both face experience and object experience. In the first week of life, newly hatched chicks were raised in controlled-rearing chambers that contained no objects other than a single virtual human face. In the second week of life, we used an automated forced-choice testing procedure to examine whether chicks could distinguish that familiar face from a variety of unfamiliar faces. Chicks successfully distinguished the familiar face from most of the unfamiliar faces-for example, chicks were sensitive to changes in the face's age, gender, and orientation (upright vs. inverted). Thus, chicks can build an accurate representation of the first face they see in their life. These results show that the initial state of face recognition is surprisingly powerful: Newborn visual systems can begin encoding and recognizing faces at the onset of vision. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Borne, K. D.
The discipline of data science is merging with multiple science disciplines to form new X-informatics research disciplines. They are almost too numerous to name, but they include geoinformatics, bioinformatics, cheminformatics, biodiversity informatics, ecoinformatics, materials informatics, and the emerging discipline of astroinformatics. Within any X-informatics discipline, the information granules are unique to that discipline -- e.g., gene sequences in bio, the sky object in astro, and the spatial object in geo (such as points, lines, and polygons in the vector model, and pixels in the raster model). Nevertheless the goals are similar: transparent data re-use across subdisciplines and within education settings, information and data integration and fusion, personalization of user interactions with the data collection, semantic search and retrieval, and knowledge discovery. The implementation of an X-informatics framework enables these semantic e-science research goals. We describe the concepts, challenges, and new developments associated with the new discipline of astroinformatics, and how geoinformatics provides valuable lessons learned and a model for practical semantic science within a traditional science discipline through the accretion of data science methodologies (such as formal metadata creation, data models, data mining, information retrieval, knowledge engineering, provenance, taxonomies, and ontologies). The emerging concept of data-as-a-service (DaaS) builds upon the concept of smart data (or data DNA) for intelligent data management, automated workflows, and intelligent processing. Smart data, defined through X-informatics, enables several practical semantic science use cases, including self-discovery, data intelligence, automatic recommendations, relevance analysis, dimension reduction, feature selection, constraint-based mining, interdisciplinary data re-use, knowledge-sharing, data use in education, and more. We describe these concepts within the
Kuokkanen, Liisa; Leino-Kilpi, Helena; Numminen, Olivia; Isoaho, Hannu; Flinkman, Mervi; Meretoja, Riitta
Although both nurse empowerment and competence are fundamental concepts of describing newly graduated nurses' professional development and job satisfaction, only few studies exist on the relationship between these concepts. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine how newly graduated nurses assess their empowerment and to clarify professional competence compared to other work-related factors. A descriptive, cross-sectional and correlational design was applied. The sample comprised newly graduated nurses (n = 318) in Finland. Empowerment was measured using the 19-item Qualities of an Empowered Nurse scale and the Nurse Competence Scale measured nurses' self-assessed generic competence. In addition to demographic data, the background data included employment sector (public/private), job satisfaction, intent to change/leave job, work schedule (shifts/business hours) and assessments of the quality of care in the workplace. The data were analysed statistically by using Spearman's correlation coefficient as well as the One-Way and Multivariate Analysis of Variance. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used to estimate the internal consistency. Newly graduated nurses perceived their level of empowerment and competence fairly high. The association between nurse empowerment and professional competence was statistically significant. Other variables correlating positively to empowerment included employment sector, age, job satisfaction, intent to change job, work schedule, and satisfaction with the quality of care in the work unit. The study indicates competence had the strongest effect on newly graduated nurses' empowerment. New graduates need support and career opportunities. In the future, nurses' further education and nurse managers' resources for supporting and empowering nurses should respond to the newly graduated nurses' requisites for attractive and meaningful work.
Micro- and Nanoelectronics: Emerging Device Challenges and Solutions presents a comprehensive overview of the current state of the art of micro- and nanoelectronics, covering the field from fundamental science and material properties to novel ways of making nanodevices. Containing contributions from experts in both industry and academia, this cutting-edge text:Discusses emerging silicon devices for CMOS technologies, fully depleted device architectures, characteristics, and scalingExplains the specifics of silicon compound devices (SiGe, SiC) and their unique propertiesExplores various options
Scientists from the EPA and USGS are collaborating on a research study to determine the presence of contaminants of emerging concern in treated and untreated drinking water collected from drinking water treatment plants.
Whitelegg, Elizabeth; Scanlon, Eileen; Smidt, Sam; Thomas, Jeff
How are recent policy changes affecting how scientists engage with the public? How are new technologies influencing how scientists disseminate their work and knowledge? How are new media platforms changing the way the public interact with scientific information? Investigating Science Communication in the Information Age is a collection of newly-commissioned chapters by leading science communication scholars. It addresses current theoretical, practical and policy developments in science communication, including recent calls for greater openness and transparency; and engagement and dialogue on the part of professional scientists with members of the public. It provides a timely and wide-ranging review of contemporary issues in science communication, focusing on two broad themes. The first theme critically reviews the recent dialogic turn and ascendant branding of 'public engagement with science' It addresses contemporary theoretical and conceptual issues facing science communication researchers, and draws on a r...
Full Text Available Since 2012, three organizations advancing the work of citizen science practitioners have arisen in different regions: The primarily US-based but globally open Citizen Science Association (CSA, the European Citizen Science Association (ECSA, and the Australian Citizen Science Association (ACSA. These associations are moving rapidly to establish themselves and to develop inter-association collaborations. We consider the factors driving this emergence and the significance of this trend for citizen science as a field of practice, as an area of scholarship, and for the culture of scientific research itself.
Full Text Available Two herbs are newly discovered in Taiwan. Limnophila fragrans (G. Forst. Seem. (Scrophulariaceae, native in SE Asia, is recognized from southern lowlands. Anagallis minima (L. E. H. L. Krause (Primulaceae, native in N America and Europe, was found from northern mountainous region at low altitudes. In this study, descriptions, line drawings, color photos and a distribution map of the two species are provided.
This article has two aims: first, to understand the co-production of climate science and the state, and second, to provide a test case for Pierre Bourdieu's field theory. To these ends, the article reconstructs the historical formation of a US climate science field, with an analytic focus on inter-field dynamics and heterogeneous networking practices. Drawing from primary- and secondary-source materials, the historical analysis focuses on relations between scientists and state actors from the 1930s to the 1960s. The account shows how actors with positions linking scientific and bureaucratic fields constructed critical nodes and 'hinges' that co-produced war-making and state expansion on the one hand, and a relatively autonomous climate science field on the other. The analysis explains the emergence of climate science by focusing on the WWII-era transformation of meteorology and oceanography into distinct disciplines, the emergence of 'basic' research as a central principle of post-war government, and the formation of a climate science field by the 1960s centered on computerized modeling and populated by an interdisciplinary scientific elite. The article concludes by indicating how these processes led to the subsequent development of climate change as a science-state conundrum that has reorganized the climate science field in recent decades.
Chad T Andicochea
Full Text Available Even with its broad spectrum and low cost, concern over chloramphenicol′s adverse effects limited its use in the United States during the 1980s. Reports from United Kingdom and China in the 1990s demonstrated a low incidence of blood dyscrasias with the topical preparation of chloramphenicol, and showed continued good efficacy and low cost. Today, topical chloramphenicol is being used by some groups within otolaryngology and ophthalmology in the United States. As a result, emergency physicians are once again considering chloramphenicol-induced side effects in patients presenting to the emergency department. To date, there have been no published reports associating chest pain, dyspnea with chloramphenicol use, and there has only been one report of fungal esophagitis associated with topical chloramphenicol. We present a 31-year-old woman, 4 months status post tympanoplasty with a modified radical canal wall down mastoidectomy due to a cholesteatoma involving the epitympanum who had a residual tympanic membrane defect. She presented to the emergency department with chest "burning", with no other symptoms shortly after starting treatment with an insufflated combination antibiotic containing chloramphenicol. After ruling out cardiopulmonary or vascular etiology, she was treated successfully with a gastrointestinal cocktail cocktail for presumed esophagitis secondary to newly prescribed chloramphenicol.
Scheufele, Dietram A.
This essay examines the societal dynamics surrounding modern science. It first discusses a number of challenges facing any effort to communicate science in social environments: lay publics with varying levels of preparedness for fully understanding new scientific breakthroughs; the deterioration of traditional media infrastructures; and an increasingly complex set of emerging technologies that are surrounded by a host of ethical, legal, and social considerations. Based on this overview, I discuss four areas in which empirical social science helps clarify intuitive but sometimes faulty assumptions about the social-level mechanisms of science communication and outline an agenda for bench and social scientists—driven by current social-scientific research in the field of science communication—to guide more effective communication efforts at the societal level in the future. PMID:23940341
Dunn, Lewis A.
Lewis A. Dunn, a former Assistant Director of the US Arms Control and Disarmament Agency and now a senior analyst with Science Applications International Corporation, looks to the future to offer "The Emerging Nuclear Suppliers: Some Guidelines for Policy ." Mr. Dunn notes that although most emerging suppliers are cautious, many are not party to existing nonproliferation treaties. He calls upon the nonproliferation community to continue the present policy of not supporting unsafeguarded nuclear activities. He suggests that the nonproliferation community work within existing standards and infrastructures of nuclear suppliers to convince emerging supplier nations of the merits of nuclear export control.
Skinner, T. Chas; Carey, Marian E.; Cradock, Sue
diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes changes key illness beliefs and that these changes predict quality of life and metabolic control at 3-month follow-up. Practice implications: Newly diagnosed individuals are open to attending self-management programs and, if the program is theoretically driven, can......Objective: To determine the effects of a structured education program on illness beliefs, quality of life and physical activity in people newly diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes. Methods: Individuals attending a diabetes education and self-management for ongoing and newly diagnosed (DESMOND) program...... in 12 Primary Care Trusts completed questionnaire booklets assessing illness beliefs and quality of life at baseline and 3-month follow-up, metabolic control being assessed through assay of HbA1c. Results: Two hundred and thirty-six individuals attended the structured self-management education sessions...
Joel C Park, MD
Full Text Available Audience: This is an online social media curriculum aimed at the incoming Emergency Department (ED intern. This curriculum is designed to foster collaborative learning in preparation for the upcoming intern year. Introduction: Graduating medical students tend to have few clinical experiences at the end of their fourth year. For many students, their last ED rotation is six months or more before the start of their internship. In addition, the transition from being a medical student to an intern can be quite abrupt and jarring, with little time to adjust to the rigorous new clinical demands of internship. To ease this transition, the Slack channels provide an easy medium to share thoughts and ideas regarding clinical cases provided by the Emergency Medicine (EM faculty. After performing a PubMed, Google Scholar, and Medline search, we found that no interventions have been described utilizing social media for helping rising interns to transition from medical school to emergency medicine residency. Medical school curriculum varies widely, and medical students often struggle with this transition.1,2 Multiple authors have evaluated the use of pre-graduation or early internship boot camps as preparation for emergency medicine residencies, but to our knowledge, there is no existing curriculum that is designed specifically for the transition between medical school and internship.3,4,5 We designed a social media based curriculum that addressed several of the competencies targeted by these boot camp programs4 and based on Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME level 1 milestones in patient care. This curriculum provides an interactive, case-based learning platform for incoming residents prior to the start of residency. Using Slack, learners can post responses in real-time that can be seen by the entire group of incoming interns. The incoming interns will be able to interact with other users, either in a public or private forum, and
Climate Change: Science, Health and the Environment Howard Frumkin, MD, DrPH, Director of CDC's National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, discusses the science of climate change, the potential for shifts in the natural world to affect our wellbeing, and the challenges of emerging issues in environmental health.
Osowiec, Darlene A
Within the hypnosis field, there is a disparity between clinical and research worldviews. Clinical practitioners work with patients who are dealing with serious, often unique, real-world problems-lived experience. Researchers adhere to objective measurements, standardization, data, and statistics. Although there is overlap, an ongoing divergence can be counterproductive to the hypnosis field and to the larger professional and social contexts. The purpose of this article is: (1) to examine some of the major assumptions, the history, and the philosophy that undergird the definition of science, which was constructed in the mid-17th century; (2) to discover how science is a product of prevailing social forces and is undergoing a paradigm shift; and (3) to understand the more encompassing, holistic paradigm with implications for the hypnosis field.
Zhao, Kun; Lee, Calvin; Anda, Jaime; Wong, Gerard
For monotrichous bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, after cell division, one daughter cell inherits the old flagellum from its mother cell, and the other grows a new flagellum during or after cell division. It had been shown that the new flagellum grows at the distal pole of the dividing cell when the two daughter cells haven't completely separated. However, for those daughter cells who grow new flagella after division, it still remains unknown at which pole the new flagellum will grow. Here, by combining our newly developed bacteria family tree tracking techniques with genetic manipulation method, we showed that for the daughter cell who did not inherit the old flagellum, a new flagellum has about 90% chances to grow at the newly formed pole. We proposed a model for flagellation of P. aeruginosa.
Eisner, R. K.
This presentation will describe a collaborative dialogue process between earth scientists and emergency management officials that focused on translation of science into policy, building long term trust based relationships between sectors and unified presentation of hazards, risks and consequence management to public officials and the general public. The author will describe the structure and process of the California Earthquake Prediction Evaluation Council (CEPEC) in assessing the credibility of long and short term earthquake predictions, assessment of risk, and the formulation of public communication strategies and preparatory actions by government agencies. For nearly 4 decades, earth scientists, politically appointed state officials and emergency managers have engaged in ongoing discussions of the policy implications of research on potential seismic risk. Some discussions were scheduled and occurred over months, and others were ad hoc and occurred in the minutes between potential precursory incidents and possible large events. The effectiveness of this process was dependent on building respect for ones counterparts expertise, bias and responsibilities, clear communication of data, uncertainty and knowledge of the physical models assumed, history and probabilities; and the physical and political consequences of possible events; and the costs and economic and social disruption of alternative preparedness actions. But, the dialogue included political and social scientists, representatives of the print and broadcast media, political and management officials from federal, state and local governments. The presentation will provide an assessment of the effectiveness of the collaborative dialogue process and lessons on sustaining a long term partnership among the participating federal, state and local officials.
Møller Moltke Martiny, Kristian; Pedersen, David Budtz; Hansted, Allan Alfred Birkegaard
In this article, we present three challenges to the emerging Open Science (OS) movement: the challenge of communication, collaboration and cultivation of scientific research. We argue that to address these challenges OS needs to include other forms of data than what can be captured in a text...... and extend into a fully-fledged Open Media movement engaging with new media and non-traditional formats of science communication. We discuss two cases where experiments with open media have driven new collaborations between scientists and documentarists. We use the cases to illustrate different advantages...... of using open media to face the challenges of OS....
Khaskheli, M.; Baloch, S.
Objective: To determine the maternal health and fetal outcome in hepatitis C with obstetrical haemorrhagic emergencies. Study Design: An observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Unit-I, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences Hospital, Hyderabad, Sindh, from January 2009 to December 2010. Methodology: All the women admitted during the study period with different obstetrical haemorrhagic emergencies were included. On virology screening, hepatitis C screening was done on all. The women with non-haemorrhagic obstetrical emergencies were excluded. Studied variables included demographic characteristics, the nature of obstetrical emergency, haemorrhagic conditions and maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The data was analyzed on SPSS version 20. Results: More frequent obstetrical haemorrhagic emergencies were observed with hepatitis C positive in comparison with hepatitis C negative cases including post-partum haemorrhage in 292 (80.88%) and ante-partum haemorrhage in 69 (19.11%) cases. Associated morbidities seen were disseminated intravascular coagulation in 43 (11.91%) and shock in 29 (8.03%) cases with hepatitis C positive. Fetal still birth rate was 37 (10.24%) in hepatitis C positive cases. Conclusion: Frequency of maternal morbidity and mortality and perinatal mortality was high in obstetrical haemorrhagic emergencies with hepatitis C positive cases. (author)
Joseph, T Isaac; Girish, K L; Sathyan, Pradeesh; Kiran, M Shashi; Vidya, S
In an era where noninvasive and minimally invasive techniques are heralding medical innovations and health science technology, necrological analysis is not bereft of this wave. Virtopsy is virtual autopsy. It is a new-age complimentary documentation approach to identify and analyze the details of demise. Utilizing virtual autopsy for orofacial forensic examination is an emerging specialty which holds a plethora of potential for future trends in forensic science. Being a noninvasive technique, it is a rapid method which facilitates the medicolegal process and aids in the delivery of justice. The present article is an overview of this emerging methodology.
G. Robin Gauthier
Full Text Available In the United States, girls and boys have similar science achievement, yet fewer girls aspire to science careers than boys. This paradox emerges in middle school, when peers begin to play a stronger role in shaping adolescent identities. We use complete network data from a single middle school and theories of gender, identity, and social distance to explore how friendship patterns might influence this gender and science paradox. Three patterns highlight the social dimensions of gendered science persistence: (1 boys and girls do not differ in self-perceived science potential and science career aspirations; (2 consistent with gender-based norms, both middle school boys and girls report that the majority of their female friends are not science kinds of people; and (3 youth with gender-inconsistent science aspirations are more likely to be friends with each other than youth with gender normative science aspirations. Together, this evidence suggests that friendship dynamics contribute to gendered patterns in science career aspirations.
Full Text Available The clinical competence of newly registered nurses relating to the care of individual Clients, depends on their ability to correlate theoretical knowledge learned in the classroom with practice and the development of clinical skills. Its foundation lies in the ability to identify and solve problems that emanate from critical thinking, analytical reasoning and reflective practice. It is clear that the quality of clinical exposure plays a leading role in the development of nursing professionals. Nursing skills alone cannot ensure quality care of clients without the application of theory. Facilitation of this theory to practice therefore remains an essential component of nursing education. This study was aimed at identifying areas of incompetence of newly registered nurses (1998- 2001 in the clinical area by determining the newly registered nurses1 and professional nurses1 perceptions of the competence of the newly registered nurses. A quantitative, non-experimental, descriptive survey was used to collect the data regarding the clinical competence of newly registered nurses (1998-2001.
Choi, Yong Ho; Choi, Geun Sik; Han, Moon Hee; Lee, Han Soo; Lee, Chang Woo
In a nuclear emergency, protective actions for the public should be taken in time. It is internationally proposed that Generic Intervention Levels (GILs) and generic action levels, determined based on cost-benefit analyses, be used as the decision criteria for protective actions. Operational Intervention Levels (OILs) are directly or easily measurable quantities corresponding to these generic levels. To assess the necessity of protective actions in a nuclear emergency, it is important that the environmental monitoring data required for applying and revising OILs should be promptly produced. It is discussed what and how to do for this task in the course of the emergency response. For an emergency environmental monitoring to be performed effectively, a through preparedness has to be made including maintenance of the organization and equipments, establishment of various procedure manuals, development of a supporting computer system and periodical training and exercises. It is pointed out that Korean legal provisions concerning GILs and OILs need to be amended or newly established
Tuszynski, Jack A
Consciousness remains one of the major unsolved problems in science. How do the feelings and sensations making up conscious experience arise from the concerted actions of nerve cells and their associated synaptic and molecular processes? Can such feelings be explained by modern science, or is there an entirely different kind of explanation needed? And how can this seemingly intractable problem be approached experimentally? How do the operations of the conscious mind emerge out of the specific interactions involving billions of neurons? This book seeks answers to these questions on the underlying assumption that consciousness can be understood using the intellectual potential of modern physics and other sciences. There are a number of theories of consciousness, some based on classical physics while others require the use of quantum concepts. The latter ones have drawn criticism from the parts of the scientific establishment while simultaneously claiming that classical approaches are doomed to failure. The cont...
Medicine, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, 5Department of Obstetrics and ... Aim: The aim was to audit childbirth emergency referrals by trained TBAs to a ..... training of TBAs has been documented by previous African.
Burns, J P
The emerging field of complexity science offers an alternative leadership strategy for the chaotic, complex healthcare environment. A survey revealed that healthcare leaders intuitively support principles of complexity science. Leadership that uses complexity principles offers opportunities in the chaotic healthcare environment to focus less on prediction and control and more on fostering relationships and creating conditions in which complex adaptive systems can evolve to produce creative outcomes.
Avis, Mark; Mallik, Maggie; Fraser, Diane M
Transition experiences of newly qualified midwives were examined in depth during the third phase of a UK evaluation study of midwifery education. The fitness to practise and the retention of newly qualified nursing and midwifery graduates are pressing concerns for health care managers. The advantages of preceptorship are reported in the literature but the content and timing of schemes remain unclear. A semi-structured diary was kept for up to 6 months by 35 newly qualified midwives in 18 work sites covering all countries in the UK. The preceptor and supervisor of midwives for each newly qualified midwife completed short questionnaires about their preceptee's performance, and a further sub-sample of newly qualified midwives and preceptors participated in a semi-structured interview. Data were analysed to elicit aspects of newly qualified midwives transition experiences. Findings confirm that structured preceptorship schemes are not widely available. Newly qualified midwives primarily obtained transition support from members of the midwifery team. Although perceived as competent, there is no demarcation point in becoming confident to practise as a registered practitioner. Implications for managers include the importance of a supportive culture within clinical teams for successful transition and the introduction of structured preceptorship schemes facilitated by appropriate rotation patterns. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Chadwick, Mark B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory
Our mission as a DOE national security science laboratory is to develop and apply science, technology, and engineering solutions that: (1) Ensure the safety, security, and reliability of the US nuclear deterrent; (2) Protect against the nuclear threat; and (3) Solve Energy Security and other emerging national security challenges.
From hurricanes and other natural threats to oil spills and other manmade emergencies, the Delaware Estuary has experienced a variety of disasters over the years. The toll that these events take on the estuary and those who live on its shores depends largely upon the degree of emergency preparedness, speed of response, and effectiveness of recovery operations. In Emergency Response: How Do Emergency Management Officials Address Disasters in the Delaware Estuary, the latest addition to its Delaware Estuary Situation Report series, the University of Delaware Sea Grant College Program defines emergency management; examines the roles that the Coast Guard, Army Corps of Engineers, and Environmental Protection Agency play in an emergency; and reviews how each of these federal agencies operated during an actual disaster--the 1985 Grand Eagle oil spill. The report was written by Dr. Richard T. Sylves, a professor of political science at the University of Delaware. Sylves has been studying emergency management for the past 15 years, with special emphasis on oil spill preparedness and response in the Mid-Atlantic Region. The Delaware Estuary Situation Report is 12 pages long and contains maps and photographs, as well as a detailed account of response and recovery operations undertaken during the Grand Eagle oil spill. A comparison of the 1985 Grand Eagle spill and the 1989 Presidente Rivera spill also is included
Current research fields in science and technology were presented and discussed at the EKC2009, informing about the interests and directions of the scientists and engineers in EU countries and Korea. The Conference has emerged from the idea of bringing together EU and Korea to get to know each other better, especially in fields of science and technology.
The discipline of psychology as a science and the newly emerging field of international psychology are at a crossroads in terms of a conflict that has developed in their views. By means of comparative analysis, this article examines how the proponents of international psychology describe their area, how that description conflicts with the concept of psychology as a science, and what that conflict means for the development of psychology as an overall discipline. The analysis reveals weaknesses...
Animal welfare science is a relatively new scientific discipline. Originally heavily focused on animal behavior, it has emerged into a truly multi- and inter-disciplinary science, encompassing such sciences as behavior, physiology, pathology, immunology, endocrinology and neuroscience, and influence...
Turkka, Jaakko; Haatainen, Outi; Aksela, Maija
Numerous case studies suggest that integrating art and science education could engage students with creative projects and encourage students to express science in multitude of ways. However, little is known about art integration practices in everyday science teaching. With a qualitative e-survey, this study explores the art integration of science teachers (n = 66). A pedagogical model for science teachers' art integration emerged from a qualitative content analysis conducted on examples of art integration. In the model, art integration is characterised as integration through content and activities. Whilst the links in the content were facilitated either directly between concepts and ideas or indirectly through themes or artefacts, the integration through activity often connected an activity in one domain and a concept, idea or artefact in the other domain with the exception of some activities that could belong to both domains. Moreover, the examples of art integration in everyday classroom did not include expression of emotions often associated with art. In addition, quantitative part of the survey confirmed that integration is infrequent in all mapped areas. The findings of this study have implications for science teacher education that should offer opportunities for more consistent art integration.
Oct 10, 2015 ... in the eThekwini district of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa ... Rescue, Faculty of Health Sciences, Durban University of Technology, South Africa ... Emergency medical services (EMS) are sometimes required to respond to cases ...
Bright, Patricia R.; Buxton, Herbert T.; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Barber, Larry B.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Cross, Paul C.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Toccalino, Patricia L.; Winton, James R.
America has an abundance of natural resources. We have bountiful clean water, fertile soil, and unrivaled national parks, wildlife refuges, and public lands. These resources enrich our lives and preserve our health and wellbeing. These resources have been maintained because of our history of respect for their value and an enduring commitment to their vigilant protection. Awareness of the social, economic, and personal value of the health of our environment is increasing. The emergence of environmentally driven diseases caused by environmental exposure to contaminants and pathogens is a growing concern worldwide. New health threats and patterns of established threats are affected by both natural and anthropogenic changes to the environment. Human activities are key drivers of emerging (new and re-emerging) health threats. Societal demands for land and natural resources, a better quality of life, improved economic prosperity, and the environmental impacts associated with these demands will continue to increase. Natural earth processes, climate trends, and related climatic events will add to the environmental impact of human activities. These environmental drivers will influence exposure to disease agents, including viral, bacterial, prion, and fungal pathogens, parasites, natural earth materials, toxins and other biogenic compounds, and synthetic chemicals and substances. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) defines environmental health science broadly as the interdisciplinary study of relations among the quality of the physical environment, the health of the living environment, and human health. The interactions among these three spheres are driven by human activities, ecological processes, and natural earth processes; the interactions affect exposure to contaminants and pathogens and the severity of environmentally driven diseases in animals and people. This definition provides USGS with a framework for synthesizing natural science information from across the Bureau
of a newly developed CRDI single cylinder diesel engine. AVINASH ... In case of unit injector and unit pump systems, fuel injection pressure depends on ... nozzle hole diameters were effective in reducing smoke and PM emissions. However ...
High yield is a major ambition to tomato plant breeders and farmers. The purpose of the ... Tabora Region on the growth and yield of newly introduced tomato varieties. The tested ..... (1985). Evaluation of some American tomatocultivars grown.
This book highlights plasma science and technology-related research and development work at institutes and universities networked through Asian African Association for Plasma Training (AAAPT) which was established in 1988. The AAAPT, with 52 member institutes in 24 countries, promotes the initiation and intensification of plasma research and development through cooperation and technology sharing. With 13 chapters on fusion-relevant, laboratory and industrial plasmas for wide range of applications and basic research and a chapter on AAAPT network, it demonstrates how, with collaborations, high-quality, industrially relevant academic and scientific research on fusion, industrial and laboratory plasmas and plasma diagnostics can be successfully pursued in small research labs. These plasma sciences and technologies include pioneering breakthroughs and applications in (i) fusion relevant research in the quest for long-term, clean energy source development using high-temperature, high- density plasmas and (ii...
Harrison, Reema; McClean, Serwaa; Lawton, Rebecca; Wright, John; Kay, Clive
Mentorship is an increasingly popular innovation from business and industry that is being applied in health-care contexts. This paper explores the concept of mentorship for newly appointed physicians in their first substantive senior post, and specifically its utilization to enhance patient safety. Semi-structured face to face and telephone interviews with Medical Directors (n = 5), Deputy Medical Directors (n = 4), and Clinical Directors (n = 6) from 9 acute NHS Trusts in the Yorkshire and Humber region in the north of England. A focused thematic analysis was used. A number of beneficial outcomes were associated with mentorship for newly appointed physicians including greater personal and professional support, organizational commitment, and general well-being. Providing newly appointed senior physicians with support through mentorship was considered to enhance the safety of patient care. Mentorship may prevent or reduce active failures, be used to identify threats in the local working environment, and in the longer term, address latent threats to safety within the organization by encouraging a healthier safety culture. Offering mentorship to all newly appointed physicians in their first substantive post in health care may be a useful strategy to support the development of their clinical, professional, and personal skills in this transitional period that may also enhance the safety of patient care.
Full Text Available In this study, the relationship between energy consumption and financial development is investigated via Hatemi-J asymmetric causality test (2012 which is able to separate positive and negative shocks in analysis. In order to determine different dimensions of financial system, deposit money bank assets to GDP (dbagdp, financial system deposits to GDP (fdgdp and private credit to GDP (pcrdbgdp were used as three different indicators. As a result of this study on Newly Industrialized 7 Countries spanning the period 1971 till 2010, both positive and negative shocks existed for Malaysia and Mexico, causality from energy consumption to financial developments emerged for Philippines in only negative shocks. While two-way causality occurred for India, Turkey and Thailand, there was not for South Africa.
The document gives information about the election of 11 Member States to the IAEA Board of Governors, the 35-member policy-making body, during the 44th regular session of the IAEA's General Conference (18 - 22 September 2000, Austria Center, Vienna). The newly elected Member States are: Argentina, Egypt, Ghana, Ireland, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Mexico, Pakistan, Peru, Switzerland, Thailand, Ukraine. The other 24 Member States of the Board are also given
Ebbers, Margaretha Peetoom
This study is an examination of the discourse of six elementary teachers as they explored the possibilities of a metaphor for science instruction articulated by F. J. Rutherford. This metaphor suggests that the goal of elementary science education ought to be one of developing familiarity; similar to the familiarity one feels in one's neighborhood. Underpinning this research are sociocultural perspectives on the nature of science and the nature of learning. This study took place over 15 months and involved 3 phases. In Phase 1 the teachers met regularly as a discourse group to discuss the implications of the metaphor with respect to their teaching experience. Phase 2 emerged as an astronomy project with practicing scientists once the teachers recognized a need to increase personal comfort in a neighborhood of science. Phase 3 was a return by the discourse group to the metaphor to see if new understandings of science enriched earlier interpretations. Data were derived from all conversations and discussions which were audio taped and transcribed; as well as from the field notes, interviews, letters, journals and sketchbooks used during Phase 2. Themes emerged which indicated that as they progressed through the phases, the teachers began to increase their knowledge of the boundaries, their acquaintance with natural phenomena, their savvy (confidence and competence), their encounters with science processes and their membership in a science community. Over the 15 months the discourse of the teachers changed to include the building of communal scientific understanding, the discussion of events related to science and the sharing of science teaching ideas. The role of metaphor figured heavily in this process. It operated at three levels by providing an entry into the discourse for the participants, as an impetus for teacher change and by situating the research within the community of researchers. Implications for the role of metaphor in preservice teacher education and the
Eiji, U.; Kiyoshi, T.; Masao, O.; Shigeru, F.
Nuclear emergency planning and preparedness in Japan have been organized by both national and local governments based on the Disaster Countermeasures Basic Act. Off-site nuclear emergency exercises are classified into two types: national-government level exercises and local-government level exercises. National-government level exercises are carried out once a year by the competent national authorities. Among these authorities, the Science and Technology Agency (STA) fills a leading position in the Japanese nuclear emergency planning and preparedness. Local-government level exercises are carried out once a year or once in a few years by the local governments of the prefectures where nuclear facilities are located. Most of the off-site nuclear emergency exercises in Japan are performed by local-governments. The aim of these exercises is to reinforce the skills of the emergency staff. The national government (STA etc.) provides advices and assistance including financial support to the local-governments. Emergency exercises with the participation of residents have been carried out in some local-governments. As an example of local-government level exercises, an experience in Shizuoka prefecture (central part of Japan) is presented
Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of primary osteoporosis is higher in Japan than in USA and European countries. Recently, the importance of preventive medicine has been gradually recognized in the field of orthopaedic surgery with a concept that peak bone mass should be increased in childhood as much as possible for the prevention of osteoporosis. Under such background, we have developed a new bean snack with an aim to improve bone volume loss. In this study, we examined the effects of a newly developed snack on bone volume and density in osteoporosis model mice. Methods Orchiectomy (ORX and ovariectomy (OVX were performed for C57BL/6J mice of twelve-week-old (Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbar, ME, USA were used in this experiment. We prepared and given three types of powder diet e.g.: normal calcium diet (NCD, Ca: 0.9%, Clea Japan Co., Tokyo, Japan, low calcium diet (LCD, Ca: 0.63%, Clea Japan Co., and special diet (SCD, Ca: 0.9%. Eighteen weeks after surgery, all the animals were sacrified and prepared for histomorphometric analysis to quantify bone density and bone mineral content. Results As a result of histomorphometric examination, SCD was revealed to enhance bone volume irrespective of age and sex. The bone density was increased significantly in osteoporosis model mice fed the newly developmental snack as compared with the control mice. The bone mineral content was also enhanced significantly. These phenomena were revealed in both sexes. Conclusion It is shown that the newly developed bean snack is highly effective for the improvement of bone volume loss irrespective of sex. We demonstrated that newly developmental snack supplements may be a useful preventive measure for Japanese whose bone mineral density values are less than the ideal condition.
Ben-Ari, Yehezkel; Crepel, Valérie; Represa, Alfonso
Do temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) seizures in adults promote further seizures? Clinical and experimental data suggest that new synapses are formed after an initial episode of status epilepticus, however their contribution to the transformation of a naive network to an epileptogenic one has been debated. Recent experimental data show that newly formed aberrant excitatory synapses on the granule cells of the fascia dentate operate by means of kainate receptor-operated signals that are not present on naive granule cells. Therefore, genuine epileptic networks rely on signaling cascades that differentiate them from naive networks. Recurrent limbic seizures generated by the activation of kainate receptors and synapses in naive animals lead to the formation of novel synapses that facilitate the emergence of further seizures. This negative, vicious cycle illustrates the central role of reactive plasticity in neurological disorders.
C S Saimbi
In this study, the newly designed orthodontic tooth brush is compared with an ordinary tooth brush. Results of this study show that the newly designed orthodontic tooth brush is superior in its cleaning efficiency as compared to the ordinary tooth brush. The results show that plaque removing capacity of orthodontic tooth brush is nearly 95-99%.
Krøjgaard, Frede; Frederiksen, Lisbeth Angela Lunde
Keyword: Induction program, newly qualified teachers, NQT, retention, professional development In Contrary to many other countries in Europe Denmark does not have any kind of national program regarding teacher induction program (TIP) or support in general to newly qualified teachers what so ever...
Shinn, Terry; Sörlin, Sverker; Denationalizing science : the contexts of international scientific practice
Present trends indicate that in the years to come transnational science, whether basic or applied and involving persons, equipment or funding, will grow considerably. The main purpose of this volume is to try to understand the reasons for this denationalization of science, its historical contexts and its social forms. The Introduction to the volume sets out the socio-political, intellectual, and economic contexts for the nationalization and denationalization of the sciences, processes that have extended over four centuries. The articles examine the specific conditions that have given rise to the growth of transnational science in the 20th century. Among these are: the need for cognitive and technical standardization of scientific knowledge-products, pressure toward cost-sharing of large installations such as CERN, the voluntary and involuntary migration of scientists, and the global market for R&D products that has emerged at the end of the century. The volume raises many new questions for research by his...
Reviews the different approaches to multicultural science teaching that have emerged in the past decade, focusing on the Spanish-English two-way immersion classroom, which meets the needs of Spanish speakers learning English and introduces students to the idea of collaboration across languages and cultures. Two urban two-way immersion classrooms…
Mohammad Abuei Ardakan
Full Text Available The present paper offers a basic introduction to data clustering and demonstrates the application of clustering methods in drawing maps of science. All approaches towards classification and clustering of information are briefly discussed. Their application to the process of visualization of conceptual information and drawing of science maps are illustrated by reviewing similar researches in this field. By implementing aggregated hierarchical clustering algorithm, which is an algorithm based on complete-link method, the map for urban management science as an emerging, interdisciplinary scientific field is analyzed and reviewed.
Hacia una pedagogia Co-emergente, Transaccional y Transcultural: El Cuento Ultracorto de Cienca Ficcion en Ingles (Towards a Co-emerging Transactional and Transcultural Pedagogy: The Science Fiction Short Short Story in English).
Zoreda, Margaret Lee
An outline of a "co-emergent" pedagogical perspective describes the conceptual framework for an advanced university-level English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) course. The course framework, which involves choosing and studying a brief science fiction story, allows for transcultural encounters via a transactional literary approach in which…
Agudo Villa, Teresa; Álvarez-Rodríguez, Esther; Caurel Sastre, Zaida; Martín Martínez, Alfonso; Merinero Palomares, Raúl; Alvarez Rodríguez, Virginia; Portero Sánchez, Isabel
To analyze the risk profile of patients with diabetes who seek care from hospital emergency departments and emergency department involvement in preventing cardiovascular complications in these patients. Cross-sectional analysis of case series from 2 Spanish hospital emergency departments. We included all patients with a history or final diagnosis of diabetes mellitus who were treated in the emergency department between November 1, 2010, and June 30, 2011. Each patient's cardiovascular risk profile was analyzed. The main outcome was the appropriate of prescribed treatment to prevent cardiovascular complications according to the 2012 guidelines of the American Diabetes Association on the patient's discharge from emergency care. A total of 298 patients were included; 275 (92%) had type II diabetes. Ninety percent of the series (269 patients) had at least 1 cardiovascular risk factor and 147 (49%) had prior target organ damage; target organ damage was newly diagnosed in 41 (14%). Fifty-eight percent (172 patients) were discharged home from the emergency department. Although 215 patients (72%) were not adhering to at least 1 previously prescribed preventive treatment and 30 (10%) were not adhering to any prescribed treatment, drug prescriptions were modified only in 1.1% to 3.3% of patients and no follow-up was recommended in 42 cases (24%). Although diabetic patients treated in emergency departments are at high risk for cardiovascular complications, their visit is not used to optimize preventive treatment for these complications or ensure appropriate follow-up.
This book integrates current advances in biology, economics of information and linguistics research through applications using agent-based modeling and social network analysis to develop scenarios of communication and language emergence in the social aspects of biological communications. The book presents a model of communication emergence that can be applied both to human and non-human living organism networks. The model is based on economic concepts and individual behavior fundamental for the study of trust and reputation networks in social science, particularly in economics; it is also based on the theory of the emergence of norms and historical path dependence that has been influential in institutional economics. Also included are mathematical models and code for agent-based models to explore various scenarios of language evolution, as well as a computer application that explores language and communication in biological versus social organisms, and the emergence of various meanings and grammars in human ...
Wangensteen, Sigrid; Johansson, Inger S; Björkström, Monica E; Nordström, Gun
wangensteen s., johansson i.s., björkström m.e. & nordström g. (2010) Critical thinking dispositions among newly graduated nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing66(10), 2170–2181. Aim The aim of the study was to describe critical thinking dispositions among newly graduated nurses in Norway, and to study whether background data had any impact on critical thinking dispositions. Background Competence in critical thinking is one of the expectations of nursing education. Critical thinkers are described as well-informed, inquisitive, open-minded and orderly in complex matters. Critical thinking competence has thus been designated as an outcome for judging the quality of nursing education programmes and for the development of clinical judgement. The ability to think critically is also described as reducing the research–practice gap and fostering evidence-based nursing. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed. The data were collected between October 2006 and April 2007 using the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory. The response rate was 33% (n= 618). Pearson’s chi-square tests were used to analyse the data. Results Nearly 80% of the respondents reported a positive disposition towards critical thinking. The highest mean score was on the Inquisitiveness subscale and the lowest on the Truth-seeking subscale. A statistically significant higher proportion of nurses with high critical thinking scores were found among those older than 30 years, those with university education prior to nursing education, and those working in community health care. Conclusion Nurse leaders and nurse teachers should encourage and nurture critical thinking among newly graduated nurses and nursing students. The low Truth-seeking scores found may be a result of traditional teaching strategies in nursing education and might indicate a need for more student-active learning models. PMID:20384637
The origin of population-scale coordination has puzzled philosophers and scientists for centuries. Recently, game theory, evolutionary approaches and complex systems science have provided quantitative insights on the mechanisms of social consensus. However, the literature is vast and widely scattered across fields, making it hard for the single researcher to navigate it. This short review aims to provide a compact overview of the main dimensions over which the debate has unfolded and to discuss some representative examples. It focuses on those situations in which consensus emerges `spontaneously' in the absence of centralized institutions and covers topics that include the macroscopic consequences of the different microscopic rules of behavioural contagion, the role of social networks and the mechanisms that prevent the formation of a consensus or alter it after it has emerged. Special attention is devoted to the recent wave of experiments on the emergence of consensus in social systems.
Khan, Muhammad M.
The research on stem cells is advancing knowledge about the development of an organism from a single cell and to how healthy cells replace damaged cells in adult organisms. Stem cell therapy is emerging rapidly nowadays as a technical tool for tissue repair and replacement. The purpose of this review to provide a framework of understanding for the challenges behind translating fundamental stem cell biology and its potential use into clinical therapies, also to give an overview on stem cell research to the scientists of Saudi Arabia in general. English language MEDLINE publications from 1980 through January 2007 for experimental, observational and clinical studies having relation with stem cells with different diseases were reviewed. Approximately 85 publications were reviewed based on the relevance, strength and quality of design and methods, 36 publications were selected for inclusion. Stem cells reside in a specific area of each tissue where they may remain undivided for several years until they are activated by disease or tissue injury. The embryonic stem cells are typically derived from four or five days old embryos and they are pluripotent. The adult tissues reported to contain stem cells brain, bone marrow, peripheral blood, blood vessels, skeletal muscle, skin and liver. The promise of stem cell therapies is an exciting one, but significant technical hurdles remain that will only be overcome through years of intensive research. (author)
The purpose of this paper is to suggest elements for a general emergency response system, employed at a national level, to detect, evaluate and assess the consequences of a radiological atmospheric release occurring within or outside of national boundaries. These elements are focused on the total aspect of emergency response ranging from providing an initial alarm to a total assessment of the environmental and health effects. Elements of the emergency response system are described in such a way that existing resources can be directly applied if appropriate; if not, newly developed or an expansion of existing resources can be employed. The major thrust of this paper is toward a philosophical discussion and general description of resources that would be required to implementation. If the major features of this proposal system are judged desirable for implementation, then the next level of detail can be added. The philosophy underlying this paper is preparedness - preparedness through planning, awareness and the application of technology. More specifically, it is establishment of reasonable guidelines including the definition of reference and protective action levels for public exposure to accidents involving nuclear material; education of the public, government officials and the news media; and the application of models and measurements coupled to computer systems to address a series of questions related to emergency planning, response and assessment. It is the role of a proven national emergency response system to provide reliable, quality-controlled information to decision makers for the management of environmental crises
Educational data science is an emerging transdisciplinary field formed from an amalgamation of data science and elements of biological, psychological and neuroscientific knowledge about learning, or learning science. This article conceptualises educational data science as a biopolitical strategy focused on the evaluation and management of the…
Cristina de Albuquerque Possas
Full Text Available The emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases and their rapid dissemination worldwide are challenging national health systems, particularly in developing countries affected by extreme poverty and environmental degradation. The expectations that new vaccines and drugs and global surveillance would help reverse these trends have been frustrated thus far by the complexity of the epidemiological transition, despite promising prospects for the near future in biomolecular research and genetic engineering. This impasse raises crucial issues concerning conceptual frameworks supporting priority-setting, risk anticipation, and the transfer of science and technology's results to society. This article discusses these issues and the limitations of social and economic sciences on the one hand and ecology on the other as the main theoretical references of the health sciences in confronting the complexity of these issues on their own. The tension between these historically dissociated paradigms is discussed and a transdisciplinary approach is proposed, that of social ecosystem health, incorporating these distinct perspectives into a comprehensive framework.
Kirch, Susan A.
In Science Education during Early Childhood: A Cultural- Historical Perspective, Wolff-Michael Roth, Maria Inês Mafra Goulart and Katerina Plakitsi explore the practical application of Vygotsky's relational ontological theory of human development to early childhood science teaching and teacher development. In this review, I interrogate how Roth et al. conceptualize "emergent curriculum" within the Eurocentric cultural-historical traditions of early childhood education that evolved primarily from the works of Vygotsky and Piaget and compare it to the conceptualizations from other prominent early childhood researchers and curriculum developers. I examine the implications of the authors' interpretation of emergence for early childhood science education and teacher preparation.
The document gives information about the election of 11 Member States to the IAEA Board of Governors, the 35-member policy-making body, during the 45th regular session of the IAEA's General Conference (17-21 September 2001, Austria Center, Vienna). The newly elected Member States are: Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Chile, Colombia, Islamic Republic of Iran, Kuwait, Morocco, Philippines, Romania, Spain, and Turkey. The other 24 Member States of the Board are also given
Forensic science uses the basic principles of all physical and natural science and have evolved many domain of its owns, like Anthropometry, fingerprint, Foot print, ballistics, documentation, Forensic Biology and Serology, Forensic Chemistry, Nuclear forensic science, Forensic Physic, Toxicology, Odontology, Forensic DNA, Cyber Forensic, Forensic Psychology, Forensic engineering etc., which provides a fool prove scientific aid to criminal justice administration. Nuclear forensic science is a fairly young discipline and only a small number of laboratories are active practitioners. However, the number of incidents of illicit trafficking reported and furthermore, the threat of nuclear terrorism calls for preparedness and for effective tools providing hints on the origin of the material and thus on the perpetrator. The determination of characteristic parameters is subject to ongoing research and development work in a number of nuclear measurement laboratories. Parameters like isotopic composition, chemical impurities, age of the material, macroscopic parameters and microstructure provide clues on the origin and on the intended use of the material. Today, nuclear forensics has reached a high degree of maturity and it is highly relevant in the areas of non-proliferation and of nuclear security. Continued development activities and strengthened international cooperation will be of key importance for the perfection of the discipline of nuclear forensics
Pavli, Androula; Maltezou, Helena
The number of migrants and refugees in Europe in the past few years has increased dramatically due to war, violence or prosecutions in their homeland. Migration may affect physical, mental and social health. The objective of this article is to assess migrants and refugees' health problems, and to recommend appropriate interventions. A PubMed search of published articles on health problems of newly arrived migrants and refugees was conducted from 2003 through 2016, focusing on the current refugee crisis in Europe. In addition to communicable diseases, such as respiratory, gastrointestinal and dermatologic infections, non-communicable diseases, including chronic conditions, mental and social problems, account for a significant morbidity burden in newly arrived migrants and refugees. Vaccine-preventable diseases are also of outmost importance. The appropriate management of newly arrived refugees and migrants' health problems is affected by barriers to access to health care including legal, communication, cultural and bureaucratic difficulties. There is diversity and lack of integration regarding health care provision across Europe due to policy differences between health care systems and social services. There is a notable burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases among newly arrived migrants and refugees. Provision of health care at reception and temporary centres should be integrated and provided by a multidisciplinary team Appropriate health care of migrants and refugees could greatly enhance their health and social status which will benefit also the host countries at large. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Examine emerging technologies and assess their potential to dramatically change the utility and impact of satellite data for GEOSS societal benefits • Investigate...
Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina; McConnell, Sherry; Schultheiss, Patricia; Bowen, Richard; Jones, Robert
This study used Bloom's Taxonomy in conjunction with new and emerging research paradigms, such as discourse analysis, to examine the outcomes of online science instruction in various biomedical science courses (i.e., histology, histopathology, physiology, microbiology, and farm animal anatomy). By combining quantitative and qualitative data, a…
Carlone, Heidi B.; Kimmel, Sue; Tschida, Christina
This is an ethnographic study of a newly created math, science, and technology elementary magnet school in a rural community fiercely committed to cultural preservation while facing unprecedented economic instability brought on by massive loss of manufacturing jobs. Our goal was to understand global- and community-level contexts that influenced…
The report presents the structure as well as the research projects of the newly established Ghana Space Science and Technology Institute of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission from January to December 2014. Research projects listed are in the areas of Astronomy and Astrophysics; Remote Sensing; Electronics and Instrumentation; and Satellite Communication.
The last few decades have witnessed a flowering of interest in the history of science in the British Empire. This essay aims to provide an overview of some of the most important work in this area, identifying interpretative shifts and emerging themes. In so doing, it raises some questions about the analytical framework in which colonial science has traditionally been viewed, highlighting interactions with indigenous scientific traditions and the use of network-based models to understand scientific relations within and beyond colonial contexts.
Weaver, W.J.; Brownell, L.F.
The Secretary of Energy has defined the mission for the Department. Her vision for the Department of Energy (DOE) is to promote environmental excellence, economic growth, and leadership in science and technology. The Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM), which is responsible for implementing an emergency management system for EM facilities and the transport of non-weapons-related radioactive materials, has addressed this mission through the establishment of six goals. This paper specifically discusses efforts to accomplish the last goal: Develop a stronger partnership between the DOE and its stakeholders. EM's Emergency Management Program supports strong partnerships with all interested parties. The EM Emergency Management Program provides the capability for preparedness in the event of an operational emergency at EM facilities, and it gives DOE the capability for preparedness in the event of an operational emergency involving DOE shipments of non-weapons-related radioactive and hazardous materials in transit. The Program is committed to plan, train, and provide material resources for the protection and safety of DOE workers, the public, and the environment. A great deal of stakeholder interaction is associated with the transport of DOE radioactive materials. To assure a communication link to other DOE program areas and interested stakeholders outside the DOE, the Emergency Management Program has committed extensive resources within the transportation program to promote and support EM's commitment to stakeholder involvement. The Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program (TEPP) develops and enhances integrated emergency preparedness in the area of transportation. TEPP coordinates programs across the DOE complex and supplies a DOE-wide unified approach to the public
Ziegler, C. R.; Burch, K.; Laniak, G.; Vega, A.; Harten, P.; Kremer, J.; Brookes, A.; Yuen, A.; Subramanian, B.
The United States Environmental Protection Agency's (US EPA) digital science "enterprise" plays a critical role in US EPA's efforts to achieve its mission to protect human health and the environment. This enterprise is an evolving cross-disciplinary research and development construct, with social and institutional dimensions. It has an active development community and produces a portfolio of digital science products including decision support tools, data repositories, Web interfaces, and more. Earth sciences and sustainable development organizations from around the world - including US government agencies - have achieved various levels of success in taking advantage of the rapidly-evolving digital age. Efficiency, transparency and ability to innovate are tied to an organization's digital maturity and related social characteristics. Concepts like participatory web, data and software interoperability, global technology transfer, ontological harmonization, big data, scaling, re-use and open science are no longer "new and emerging." They have emerged and - in some cases - are tied to US government directives. We assess maturity, describe future scenarios, discuss new initiatives and outline steps for better leveraging the information age to more effectively and efficiently achieve US EPA's mission. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the organizations for which they work and/or represent.
In the 1970s, when the social science history movement emerged in the United States, leading to the founding of the Social Science History Association, a simultaneous movement arose in which historians looked to cultural anthropology for inspiration. Although both movements involved historians turning to social sciences for theory and method, they reflected very different views of the nature of the historical enterprise. Cultural anthropology, most notably as preached by Clifford Geertz, became a means by which historians could find a theoretical basis in the social sciences for rejecting a scientific paradigm. This article examines this development while also exploring the complex ways cultural anthropology has embraced—and shunned—history in recent years. PMID:26549914
Amini, Afshin; Dindoost, Payam; Moghimi, Mehrdad; Kariman, Hamid; Shahrami, Ali; Dolatabadi, Ali Arhami; Ali-Mohammadi, Hossein; Alavai-Moghaddam, Mostafa; Derakhshanfar, Hojjat; Hatamabadi, HamidReza; Heidari, Kamran; Alamdari, Shahram; Meibodi, Mohammad Kalantar; Shojaee, Majid; Foroozanfar, Mohammad Mehdi; Hashemi, Behrooz; Sabzeghaba, Anita; Kabir, Ali
To assess the deficiencies and potential areas through a medical audit of the emergency departments, in six general hospitals affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences at Tehran, Iran, after preparing specific wards-based international standards. A checklist was completed for all hospitals which met our eligibility criteria mainly observation and interviews with head nurses and managers of the emergency medicine unit of the hospitals before (2003) and after (2008) the establishment of emergency departments there. Domains studied included staffing, education and continuing professional development (CPD), facility (design), equipment, ancillary services, medical records, manuals and references, research, administration, pre-hospital care, information systems, disaster planning, bench-marking and hospital accreditation. Education and CPD (p = 0.042), design and facility (p = 0.027), equipment (p = 0.028), and disaster (p = 0.026) had significantly improved after the establishment of emergency departments. Nearly all domains showed a positive change though it was non-significant in a few. In terms of observation, better improvement was seen in disaster, security, design, and research. According to the score for each domain compared to what it was in the earlier phase, better improvement was observed in hospital accreditation, information systems, security, disaster planning, and research. Security, disaster planning, research, design and facility had improved in hospitals that wave studied, while equipment, records, ancillary services, administration and bench-marking had the lowest improvement even after the establishment of emergency department, and, hence, needed specific attention.
Vázquez-Alonso, Ángel; García-Carmona, Antonio; Manassero-Mas, María Antonia; Bennàssar-Roig, Antoni
This study analyzes the beliefs about science-technology-society, and other Nature of Science (NOS) themes, of a large sample (613) of Spanish pre- and in-service secondary education teachers through their responses to 30 items of the Questionnaire of Opinions on Science, Technology and Society. The data were processed by means of a multiple response model to generate the belief indices used as the bases for subsequent quantitative and qualitative analyses. Other studies have reported a negative profile of teachers' understanding in this area, but the diagnosis emerging from the present work is more complex. There was a mix of appropriate beliefs coexisting with others that are inappropriate on the topics analyzed. The overall assessment, however, is negative since clearly teachers need to have a better understanding of these questions. There were scant differences between the pre- and in-service teachers, and hence no decisive evidence that the practice of teaching contributes to improving the in-service teachers' understanding. These results suggest there is an urgent need to bring the initial and continuing education of science teachers up to date to improve their understanding of these topics of science curricula, and thus improve the teaching of science.
Sim, Jenny; Radloff, Alex
Purpose: Deregulation, reduced operating costs, new ways of organising the professional workforce, increasing competition within the healthcare sector and increasing consumer expectations are factors that challenge any health profession. This paper, which forms part of the first author's doctoral study on continuing professional development in medical radiation science, details the journey of medical radiation science as a profession in Australia. Specifically, the paper examines the challenges confronting practitioners in their struggle to be recognised as a profession in its own right. Findings: The challenges facing medical radiation science practitioners included low professional self-esteem and apathy, which adversely affects their willingness and ability to continue learning and to assume increasing work responsibilities which are essential attributes of a health professional. Low self-esteem and apathy are also preventing practitioners from venturing beyond their comfort zone of daily workplace practices. This ultimately impacts on their ability to advance clinical practice in response to a constantly changing health care system. Conclusion: Despite the current difficulties confronting the profession, it is possible for practitioners to assume a more proactive role in moving the profession forward. As part of the solution to improving practitioners' low self-esteem and to rekindling their enthusiasm for the profession, the authors propose that continuing professional development programs should go beyond simply assisting practitioners in advancing clinical competence. They should also aim to empower practitioners to develop their reflective skills. Reflection is now widely promoted in healthcare professions as one of the means of enhancing clinical practice and improving healthcare delivery. To this end, educational designers should incorporate reflection into professional development programs as both a learning goal and a strategy. Helping practitioners to
Sim, Jenny [RMIT University, Medical Radiations, School of Medical Sciences, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia)], E-mail: email@example.com; Radloff, Alex [Central Queensland University, Rockhampton Campus, Bruce Highway, North Rockhampton, Queensland 4702 (Australia)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Purpose: Deregulation, reduced operating costs, new ways of organising the professional workforce, increasing competition within the healthcare sector and increasing consumer expectations are factors that challenge any health profession. This paper, which forms part of the first author's doctoral study on continuing professional development in medical radiation science, details the journey of medical radiation science as a profession in Australia. Specifically, the paper examines the challenges confronting practitioners in their struggle to be recognised as a profession in its own right. Findings: The challenges facing medical radiation science practitioners included low professional self-esteem and apathy, which adversely affects their willingness and ability to continue learning and to assume increasing work responsibilities which are essential attributes of a health professional. Low self-esteem and apathy are also preventing practitioners from venturing beyond their comfort zone of daily workplace practices. This ultimately impacts on their ability to advance clinical practice in response to a constantly changing health care system. Conclusion: Despite the current difficulties confronting the profession, it is possible for practitioners to assume a more proactive role in moving the profession forward. As part of the solution to improving practitioners' low self-esteem and to rekindling their enthusiasm for the profession, the authors propose that continuing professional development programs should go beyond simply assisting practitioners in advancing clinical competence. They should also aim to empower practitioners to develop their reflective skills. Reflection is now widely promoted in healthcare professions as one of the means of enhancing clinical practice and improving healthcare delivery. To this end, educational designers should incorporate reflection into professional development programs as both a learning goal and a strategy. Helping
Calisher, Charles H.; Holmes, Kathryn V.; Dominguez, Samuel R.; Schountz, Tony; Cryan, Paul M.
Emerging pathogens, many of them viruses, continue to surprise us, providing many newly recognized diseases to study and to try to control. Many of these emergent viruses are zoonotic, transmitted from reservoirs in wild or domestic animals to humans, either by insect vectors or by exposure to the droppings or tissues of such animals. One rich- but, until recently, underappreciated-source of emergent viruses is bats (Chiroptera, meaning "hand wing"). Accounting for 1,116, or nearly one fourth, of the 4,600 recognized species of mammals, bats are grouped into two suborders Megachiroptera, which contains a single family, Pteropodidae, consisting of 42 genera and 186 species, and Microchiroptera, which contains 17 families, 160 genera, and 930 species. Although bats are among the most abundant, diverse, and geographically dispersed orders of terrestrial mammals, research on these flying mammals historically focused more on their habits and outward characteristics than on their role in carrying microorganisms and transmitting pathogens to other species. Even in those cases where bats were known to carry particular pathogens, the microbiologists who studied those pathogens typically knew little about the bat hosts. Hence, investigators now are seeking to explain how variations of anatomy, physiology, ecology, and behavior influence the roles of bats as hosts for viral pathogens.
Duda, Kenneth A.; Abrams, Michael
Satellite images have been extremely useful in a variety of emergency response activities, including hurricane disasters. This article discusses the collaborative efforts of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Joint United States-Japan Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Science Team, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in responding to crisis situations by tasking the ASTER instrument and rapidly providing information to initial responders. Insight is provided on the characteristics of the ASTER systems, and specific details are presented regarding Hurricane Katrina support.
Worms, Jean-Claude; Lammer, Helmut; Barucci, Antonella
Abstract In 2005 the then ESA Directorate for Human Spaceflight, Microgravity and Exploration (D-HME) commissioned a study from the European Science Foundation's (ESF) European Space Sciences Committee (ESSC) to examine the science aspects of the Aurora Programme in preparation for the December......'s exploration programme, dubbed "Emergence and co-evolution of life with its planetary environments," focusing on those targets that can ultimately be reached by humans, i.e., Mars, the Moon, and Near Earth Objects. Mars was further recognized as the focus of that programme, with Mars sample return...
Glass, Rory J.
The purpose of this study was to identify the presence of students' tacit understandings as they apply to environmental science content, and to discover how these understandings emerge and are viewed and interpreted by teachers. Towards that end over ten hours of classroom video was recorded and analyzed, from both large urban and smaller urban classrooms. Additionally, interviews were conducted with 15 students and two teachers to gain insight into their thinking on an array of topics related to the environment and environmental reasoning. It was hypothesized that students' understandings and teachers' interpretations of them may be influenced by their personal experiences with the natural world. For that reason, demographic information and self-reports of experiences were used to determine the extent to which tacit understandings are influenced by environmental experiences, and whether tacit understandings differed significantly by gender. The results indicate that there are significant differences between students from larger and smaller urban school districts, and males and females, in their interpretation of various environmental scenes. The data suggests that at least some of these differences are directly related to the students' experiences. The data also suggests that teachers are well aware of the importance of these less formal understandings though they are not always able to integrate them into their instruction in a timely manner. It is argued here that science education must change its focus if it is going to meet the needs of a 21st Century citizenship, making it necessary to find ways to embrace the understandings that students bring with them to school; including those, perhaps even especially those, that are mainly tacit.
Suzuki, Minoru; Fujiwara, Kazuhisa; Hayakawa, Katsumi; Hida, Shuichi
Ten patients with newly diagnosed, advanced prostatic cancer were treated with radiotherapy and hormone therapy to improve tumor control and survival. Eight patients with hormonally relapsed prostatic cancer were treated with radiotherapy to improve their quality of life. Local control of the tumor was achieved in 9 of 10 patients with newly diagnosed, advanced prostatic cancer. Five of eight patients with hormonally relapsed prostatic cancer obtained improved quality of life. Combined radiotherapy and hormone therapy were effective in the treatment of newly diagnosed, advanced prostatic cancer, and radiotherapy was useful for improving the quality of life of patients with hormonally relapsed prostatic cancer. (author)
Full Text Available Three newly naturalized plants are reported in this paper. Hypochaeris microcephala (Sch. Bip. Cabrera var. albiflora (Kuntze Cabrera (Asteraceae is naturalized in urban areas of northern Taiwan. Indigofera pseudo-tinctoria Matsum. (Leguminosae is naturalized in low elevations of northern and southern Taiwan and in middle elevations of central Taiwan. Lamium purpureum L. (Laminaceae has become naturalized locally in middle elevations of central Taiwan. Descriptions, illustrations and color photos of these plants are provided.
Scheuch, Martin; Panhuber, Tanja; Winter, Silvia; Kelemen-Finan, Julia; Bardy-Durchhalter, Manfred; Kapelari, Suzanne
Citizen science is a rapidly growing emerging field in science and it is gaining importance in education. Therefore, this study was conducted to document the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of biology teachers who participated in a citizen science project involving observation of wild bees and identification of butterflies. In this paper,…
Mela, Carl; Roos, Jason; Deng, Yanhui
textabstractThis paper considers the history of keywords used in Marketing Science to develop insights on the evolution of marketing science. Several findings emerge. First, "pricing" and "game theory" are the most ubiquitous words. More generally, the three C's and four P's predominate, suggesting that keywords and common practical frameworks align. Various trends exist. Some words, like "pricing," remain popular over time. Others, like "game theory" and "hierarchical Bayes," have become mor...