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Sample records for newly divergent lineages

  1. Evidence of multiple divergent mitochondrial lineages within the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On this basis, the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) was used to reconstruct the phylogeny of Bicoxidens and reveal divergent lineages within the genus. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses recovered a paraphyletic Bicoxidens phylogram with divergent lineages present in three species ...

  2. Constrained body shape among highly genetically divergent allopatric lineages of the supralittoral isopod Ligia occidentalis (Oniscidea).

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    Santamaria, Carlos A; Mateos, Mariana; DeWitt, Thomas J; Hurtado, Luis A

    2016-03-01

    Multiple highly divergent lineages have been identified within Ligia occidentalis sensu lato, a rocky supralittoral isopod distributed along a ~3000 km latitudinal gradient that encompasses several proposed marine biogeographic provinces and ecoregions in the eastern Pacific. Highly divergent lineages have nonoverlapping geographic distributions, with distributional limits that generally correspond with sharp environmental changes. Crossbreeding experiments suggest postmating reproductive barriers exist among some of them, and surveys of mitochondrial and nuclear gene markers do not show evidence of hybridization. Populations are highly isolated, some of which appear to be very small; thus, the effects of drift are expected to reduce the efficiency of selection. Large genetic divergences among lineages, marked environmental differences in their ranges, reproductive isolation, and/or high isolation of populations may have resulted in morphological differences in L. occidentalis, not detected yet by traditional taxonomy. We used landmark-based geometric morphometric analyses to test for differences in body shape among highly divergent lineages of L. occidentalis, and among populations within these lineages. We analyzed a total of 492 individuals from 53 coastal localities from the southern California Bight to Central Mexico, including the Gulf of California. We conducted discriminant function analyses (DFAs) on body shape morphometrics to assess morphological variation among genetically differentiated lineages and their populations. We also tested for associations between phylogeny and morphological variation, and whether genetic divergence is correlated to multivariate morphological divergence. We detected significant differences in body shape among highly divergent lineages, and among populations within these lineages. Nonetheless, neither lineages nor populations can be discriminated on the basis of body shape, because correct classification rates of cross

  3. Homologous Recombination between Genetically Divergent Campylobacter fetus Lineages Supports Host-Associated Speciation

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    Duim, Birgitta; van der Graaf-van Bloois, Linda; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Zomer, Aldert L

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Homologous recombination is a major driver of bacterial speciation. Genetic divergence and host association are important factors influencing homologous recombination. Here, we study these factors for Campylobacter fetus, which shows a distinct intraspecific host dichotomy. Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus (Cff) and venerealis are associated with mammals, whereas C. fetus subsp. testudinum (Cft) is associated with reptiles. Recombination between these genetically divergent C. fetus lineages is extremely rare. Previously it was impossible to show whether this barrier to recombination was determined by the differential host preferences, by the genetic divergence between both lineages or by other factors influencing recombination, such as restriction-modification, CRISPR/Cas, and transformation systems. Fortuitously, a distinct C. fetus lineage (ST69) was found, which was highly related to mammal-associated C. fetus, yet isolated from a chelonian. The whole genome sequences of two C. fetus ST69 isolates were compared with those of mammal- and reptile-associated C. fetus strains for phylogenetic and recombination analysis. In total, 5.1–5.5% of the core genome of both ST69 isolates showed signs of recombination. Of the predicted recombination regions, 80.4% were most closely related to Cft, 14.3% to Cff, and 5.6% to C. iguaniorum. Recombination from C. fetus ST69 to Cft was also detected, but to a lesser extent and only in chelonian-associated Cft strains. This study shows that despite substantial genetic divergence no absolute barrier to homologous recombination exists between two distinct C. fetus lineages when occurring in the same host type, which provides valuable insights in bacterial speciation and evolution. PMID:29608720

  4. Lineage divergence and historical gene flow in the Chinese horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus sinicus.

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    Xiuguang Mao

    Full Text Available Closely related taxa living in sympatry provide good opportunities to investigate the origin of barriers to gene flow as well as the extent of reproductive isolation. The only two recognized subspecies of the Chinese rufous horseshoe bat Rhinolophus sinicus are characterized by unusual relative distributions in which R. s. septentrionalis is restricted to a small area within the much wider range of its sister taxon R. s. sinicus. To determine the history of lineage divergence and gene flow between these taxa, we applied phylogenetic, demographic and coalescent analyses to multi-locus datasets. MtDNA gene genealogies and microsatellite-based clustering together revealed three divergent lineages of sinicus, corresponding to Central China, East China and the offshore Hainan Island. However, the central lineage of sinicus showed a closer relationship with septentrionalis than with other lineages of R. s. sinicus, in contrary to morphological data. Paraphyly of sinicus could result from either past asymmetric mtDNA introgression between these two taxa, or could suggest septentrionalis evolved in situ from its more widespread sister subspecies. To test between these hypotheses, we applied coalescent-based phylogenetic reconstruction and Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC. We found that septentrionalis is likely to be the ancestral taxon and therefore a recent origin of this subspecies can be ruled out. On the other hand, we found a clear signature of asymmetric mtDNA gene flow from septentrionalis into central populations of sinicus yet no nuclear gene flow, thus strongly pointing to historical mtDNA introgression. We suggest that the observed deeply divergent lineages within R. sinicus probably evolved in isolation in separate Pleistocene refugia, although their close phylogeographic correspondence with distinct eco-environmental zones suggests that divergent selection might also have promoted broad patterns of population genetic structure.

  5. Cryptic lineage diversity, body size divergence, and sympatry in a species complex of Australian lizards (Gehyra).

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    Moritz, Craig C; Pratt, Renae C; Bank, Sarah; Bourke, Gayleen; Bragg, Jason G; Doughty, Paul; Keogh, J Scott; Laver, Rebecca J; Potter, Sally; Teasdale, Luisa C; Tedeschi, Leonardo G; Oliver, Paul M

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the joint evolutionary and ecological underpinnings of sympatry among close relatives remains a key challenge in biology. This problem can be addressed through joint phylogenomic and phenotypic analysis of complexes of closely related lineages within, and across, species and hence representing the speciation continuum. For a complex of tropical geckos from northern Australia-Gehyra nana and close relatives-we combine mtDNA phylogeography, exon-capture sequencing, and morphological data to resolve independently evolving lineages and infer their divergence history and patterns of morphological evolution. Gehyra nana is found to include nine divergent lineages and is paraphyletic with four other species from the Kimberley region of north-west Australia. Across these 13 taxa, 12 of which are restricted to rocky habitats, several lineages overlap geographically, including on the diverse Kimberley islands. Morphological evolution is dominated by body size shifts, and both body size and shape have evolved gradually across the group. However, larger body size shifts are observed among overlapping taxa than among closely related parapatric lineages of G. nana, and sympatric lineages are more divergent than expected at random. Whether elevated body size differences among sympatric lineages are due to ecological sorting or character displacement remains to be determined. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  6. Little Divergence Among Mitochondrial Lineages of Prochilodus (Teleostei, Characiformes

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    Bruno F. Melo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Evidence that migration prevents population structure among Neotropical characiform fishes has been reported recently but the effects upon species diversification remain unclear. Migratory species of Prochilodus have complex species boundaries and intrincate taxonomy representing a good model to address such questions. Here, we analyzed 147 specimens through barcode sequences covering all species of Prochilodus across a broad geographic area of South America. Species delimitation and population genetic methods revealed very little genetic divergence among mitochondrial lineages suggesting that extensive gene flow resulted likely from the highly migratory behavior, natural hybridization or recent radiation prevent accumulation of genetic disparity among lineages. Our results clearly delimit eight genetic lineages in which four of them contain a single species and four contain more than one morphologically problematic taxon including a trans-Andean species pair and species of the P. nigricans group. Information about biogeographic distribution of haplotypes presented here might contribute to further research on the population genetics and taxonomy of Prochilodus.

  7. The influence of life-history strategy on genetic differentiation and lineage divergence in darters (Percidae: Etheostomatinae).

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    Fluker, Brook L; Kuhajda, Bernard R; Harris, Phillip M

    2014-11-01

    Recent studies determined that darters with specialized breeding strategies can exhibit deep lineage divergence over fine geographic scales without apparent physical barriers to gene flow. However, the extent to which intrinsic characteristics interact with extrinsic factors to influence population divergence and lineage diversification in darters is not well understood. This study employed comparative phylogeographic and population genetic methods to investigate the influence of life history on gene flow, dispersal ability, and lineage divergence in two sympatric sister darters with differing breeding strategies. Our results revealed highly disparate phylogeographic histories, patterns of genetic structure, and dispersal abilities between the two species suggesting that life history may contribute to lineage diversification in darters, especially by limiting dispersal among large river courses. Both species also showed striking differences in demographic history, indicating that extrinsic factors differentially affected each species during the Pleistocene. Collectively, our results indicate that intrinsic and extrinsic factors have influenced levels of gene flow among populations within both species examined. However, we suggest that life-history strategy may play a more important role in lineage diversification in darters than previously appreciated, a finding that has potentially important implications for understanding diversification of the rich North American freshwater fish fauna. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  8. Ecological and genetic divergence between two lineages of Middle American túngara frogs Physalaemus (= Engystomops pustulosus

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    Ron Santiago R

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uncovering how populations of a species differ genetically and ecologically is important for understanding evolutionary processes. Here we combine population genetic methods (microsatellites with phylogenetic information (mtDNA to define genetic population clusters of the wide-spread Neotropical túngara frog (Physalaemus pustulosus. We measure gene flow and migration within and between population clusters and compare genetic diversity between population clusters. By applying ecological niche modeling we determine whether the two most divergent genetic groups of the túngara frog (1 inhabit different habitats, and (2 are separated geographically by unsuitable habitat across a gap in the distribution. Results Most population structure is captured by dividing all sample localities into two allopatric genetic lineages. The Northern genetic lineage (NW Costa Rica is genetically homogenous while the Southern lineage (SW Costa Rica and Panama is sub-divided into three population clusters by both microsatellite and mtDNA analyses. Gene flow is higher within the Northern lineage than within the Southern lineage, perhaps due to increased landscape heterogeneity in the South. Niche modeling reveals differences in suitable habitat between the Northern and Southern lineages: the Northern lineage inhabits dry/pine-oak forests, while the Southern lineage is confined to tropical moist forests. Both lineages seem to have had little movement across the distribution gap, which persisted during the last glacial maximum. The lack of movement was more pronounced for the Southern lineage than for the Northern lineage. Conclusions This study confirms the finding of previous studies that túngara frogs diverged into two allopatric genetic lineages north and south of the gap in the distribution in central Costa Rica several million years ago. The allopatric distribution is attributed to unsuitable habitat and probably other unknown ecological factors

  9. Yellow Rust Epidemics Worldwide Were Caused by Pathogen Races from Divergent Genetic Lineages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sajid; Rodriguez-Algaba, Julian; Thach, Tine; Sørensen, Chris K.; Hansen, Jens G.; Lassen, Poul; Nazari, Kumarse; Hodson, David P.; Justesen, Annemarie F.; Hovmøller, Mogens S.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated whether the recent worldwide epidemics of wheat yellow rust were driven by races of few clonal lineage(s) or populations of divergent races. Race phenotyping of 887 genetically diverse Puccinia striiformis isolates sampled in 35 countries during 2009–2015 revealed that these epidemics were often driven by races from few but highly divergent genetic lineages. PstS1 was predominant in North America; PstS2 in West Asia and North Africa; and both PstS1 and PstS2 in East Africa. PstS4 was prevalent in Northern Europe on triticale; PstS5 and PstS9 were prevalent in Central Asia; whereas PstS6 was prevalent in epidemics in East Africa. PstS7, PstS8 and PstS10 represented three genetic lineages prevalent in Europe. Races from other lineages were in low frequencies. Virulence to Yr9 and Yr27 was common in epidemics in Africa and Asia, while virulence to Yr17 and Yr32 were prevalent in Europe, corresponding to widely deployed resistance genes. The highest diversity was observed in South Asian populations, where frequent recombination has been reported, and no particular race was predominant in this area. The results are discussed in light of the role of invasions in shaping pathogen population across geographical regions. The results emphasized the lack of predictability of emergence of new races with high epidemic potential, which stresses the need for additional investments in population biology and surveillance activities of pathogens on global food crops, and assessments of disease vulnerability of host varieties prior to their deployment at larger scales. PMID:28676811

  10. Yellow Rust Epidemics Worldwide Were Caused by Pathogen Races from Divergent Genetic Lineages

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    Sajid Ali

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether the recent worldwide epidemics of wheat yellow rust were driven by races of few clonal lineage(s or populations of divergent races. Race phenotyping of 887 genetically diverse Puccinia striiformis isolates sampled in 35 countries during 2009–2015 revealed that these epidemics were often driven by races from few but highly divergent genetic lineages. PstS1 was predominant in North America; PstS2 in West Asia and North Africa; and both PstS1 and PstS2 in East Africa. PstS4 was prevalent in Northern Europe on triticale; PstS5 and PstS9 were prevalent in Central Asia; whereas PstS6 was prevalent in epidemics in East Africa. PstS7, PstS8 and PstS10 represented three genetic lineages prevalent in Europe. Races from other lineages were in low frequencies. Virulence to Yr9 and Yr27 was common in epidemics in Africa and Asia, while virulence to Yr17 and Yr32 were prevalent in Europe, corresponding to widely deployed resistance genes. The highest diversity was observed in South Asian populations, where frequent recombination has been reported, and no particular race was predominant in this area. The results are discussed in light of the role of invasions in shaping pathogen population across geographical regions. The results emphasized the lack of predictability of emergence of new races with high epidemic potential, which stresses the need for additional investments in population biology and surveillance activities of pathogens on global food crops, and assessments of disease vulnerability of host varieties prior to their deployment at larger scales.

  11. Multigene analyses resolve early diverging lineages in the Rhodymeniophycidae (Florideophyceae, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Gary W; Filloramo, Gina; Dixon, Kyatt; Le Gall, Line; Maggs, Christine A; Kraft, Gerald T

    2016-08-01

    Multigene phylogenetic analyses were directed at resolving the earliest divergences in the red algal subclass Rhodymeniophycidae. The inclusion of key taxa (new to science and/or previously lacking molecular data), additional sequence data (SSU, LSU, EF2, rbcL, COI-5P), and phylogenetic analyses removing the most variable sites (site stripping) have provided resolution for the first time at these deep nodes. The earliest diverging lineage within the subclass was the enigmatic Catenellopsis oligarthra from New Zealand (Catenellopsidaceae), which is here placed in the Catenellopsidales ord. nov. In our analyses, Atractophora hypnoides was not allied with the other included Bonnemaisoniales, but resolved as sister to the Peyssonneliales, and is here assigned to Atractophoraceae fam. nov. in the Atractophorales ord. nov. Inclusion of Acrothesaurum gemellifilum gen. et sp. nov. from Tasmania has greatly improved our understanding of the Acrosymphytales, to which we assign three families, the Acrosymphytaceae, Acrothesauraceae fam. nov. and Schimmelmanniaceae fam. nov. © 2016 Phycological Society of America.

  12. A Molecular Assessment of Phylogenetic Relationships and LineageDiversification Within the Family Salamandridae (Amphibia, Caudata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisrock, David W.; Papenfuss, Theodore J.; Macey, J. Robert; Litvinchuk, Spartak N.; Polymeni, Rosa; Ugurtas, Ismail H.; Zhao, Ermi; Larson, Allan

    2005-08-08

    Phylogenetic relationships among species of the salamanderfamily Salamandridae are investigated using nearly 3000 nucleotide basesof newly reported mitochondrial DNA sequence data from the mtDNA genicregion spanning the genes tRNALeu-COI. This study uses nearlycomprehensive species-level sampling to provide the first completephylogeny for the Salamandridae. Deep phylogenetic relationships amongthe three most divergent lineages in the family Salamandrina terdigitata,a clade comprising the "True" salamanders, and a clade comprising allnewts except S. terdigitata are difficult to resolve. However, mostrelationships within the latter two lineages are resolved with robustlevels of branch support. The genera Euproctus and Triturus arestatistically shown to be nonmonophyletic, instead each contains adiverse set of lineages positioned within the large newt clade. The genusParamesotriton is also resolve as a nonmonophyletic group, with the newlydescribed species P. laoensis constituting a divergent lineage placed ina sister position to clade containing all Pachytriton species and allremaining Paramesotriton species. Sequence divergences between P.laoensis and other Paramesotriton species are as great as those comparingP. laoensis and species of the genera Cynops and Pachytriton. Analyses oflineage diversification across the Salamandridae indicate that, despiteits exceptional diversity, lineage accumulation appears to have beenconstant across time, indicating that it does not represent a truespecies radiation.

  13. Yellow Rust Epidemics Worldwide Were Caused by Pathogen Races from Divergent Genetic Lineages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Sajid; Rodriguez Algaba, Julian; Thach, Tine

    2017-01-01

    population across geographical regions. The results emphasized the lack of predictability of emergence of new races with high epidemic potential, which stresses the need for additional investments in population biology and surveillance activities of pathogens on global food crops, and assessments of disease...... that these epidemics were often driven by races from few but highly divergent genetic lineages. PstS1 was predominant in North America; PstS2 in West Asia and North Africa; and both PstS1 and PstS2 in East Africa. PstS4 was prevalent in Northern Europe on triticale; PstS5 and PstS9 were prevalent in Central Asia......; whereas PstS6 was prevalent in epidemics in East Africa. PstS7, PstS8 and PstS10 represented three genetic lineages prevalent in Europe. Races from other lineages were in low frequencies. Virulence to Yr9 and Yr27 was common in epidemics in Africa and Asia, while virulence to Yr17 and Yr32 were prevalent...

  14. At the end of the line: independent overwater colonizations of the Solomon Islands by a hyperdiverse trans-Wallacean lizard lineage (Cyrtodactylus: Gekkota: Squamata)

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    Oliver, Paul M.; Travers, Scott L; Richmond, Jonathan Q.; Pikacha, Patrick; Fisher, Robert N.

    2018-01-01

    The islands of East Melanesia have generated key insights into speciation processes and community assembly. However, when and how these islands began to form, emerge and accumulate endemic taxa remains poorly understood. Here, we show that two divergent lineages within the world’s most diverse genus of geckos (Cyrtodactylus) occur in the Solomon Islands. One large-bodied species is nested within a radiation from far eastern New Guinea, with inferred colonization, spread and diversification since the late Miocene. In contrast, a newly sampled and relatively small species with a restricted distribution on Guadalcanal Island is a relict that diverged from extant congeners around the early to mid-Miocene. Similar Miocene divergences from extralimital relatives have been inferred for other endemic bird, bat and lizard lineages in East Melanesia. In contrast, across all lineages (including divergent relictual lineages), there is little evidence for endemic in situ diversification within East Melanesia predating the Pliocene (especially in the Solomon Islands). While some East Melanesian endemic lineages may have origins on progenitor islands during the Miocene or even earlier, current evidence suggests the in situ diversification and assembly of extant biological communities commenced around the end of the Miocene.

  15. Divergence time estimates and the evolution of major lineages in the florideophyte red algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eun Chan; Boo, Sung Min; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Saunders, Gary W.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Fredericq, Suzanne; Graf, Louis; Yoon, Hwan Su

    2016-01-01

    The Florideophyceae is the most abundant and taxonomically diverse class of red algae (Rhodophyta). However, many aspects of the systematics and divergence times of the group remain unresolved. Using a seven-gene concatenated dataset (nuclear EF2, LSU and SSU rRNAs, mitochondrial cox1, and plastid rbcL, psaA and psbA genes), we generated a robust phylogeny of red algae to provide an evolutionary timeline for florideophyte diversification. Our relaxed molecular clock analysis suggests that the Florideophyceae diverged approximately 943 (817–1,049) million years ago (Ma). The major divergences in this class involved the emergence of Hildenbrandiophycidae [ca. 781 (681–879) Ma], Nemaliophycidae [ca. 661 (597–736) Ma], Corallinophycidae [ca. 579 (543–617) Ma], and the split of Ahnfeltiophycidae and Rhodymeniophycidae [ca. 508 (442–580) Ma]. Within these clades, extant diversity reflects largely Phanerozoic diversification. Divergences within Florideophyceae were accompanied by evolutionary changes in the carposporophyte stage, leading to a successful strategy for maximizing spore production from each fertilization event. Our research provides robust estimates for the divergence times of major lineages within the Florideophyceae. This timeline was used to interpret the emergence of key morphological innovations that characterize these multicellular red algae. PMID:26892537

  16. Distributions of Mutational Effects and the Estimation of Directional Selection in Divergent Lineages of Arabidopsis thaliana.

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    Park, Briton; Rutter, Matthew T; Fenster, Charles B; Symonds, V Vaughan; Ungerer, Mark C; Townsend, Jeffrey P

    2017-08-01

    Mutations are crucial to evolution, providing the ultimate source of variation on which natural selection acts. Due to their key role, the distribution of mutational effects on quantitative traits is a key component to any inference regarding historical selection on phenotypic traits. In this paper, we expand on a previously developed test for selection that could be conducted assuming a Gaussian mutation effect distribution by developing approaches to also incorporate any of a family of heavy-tailed Laplace distributions of mutational effects. We apply the test to detect directional natural selection on five traits along the divergence of Columbia and Landsberg lineages of Arabidopsis thaliana , constituting the first test for natural selection in any organism using quantitative trait locus and mutation accumulation data to quantify the intensity of directional selection on a phenotypic trait. We demonstrate that the results of the test for selection can depend on the mutation effect distribution specified. Using the distributions exhibiting the best fit to mutation accumulation data, we infer that natural directional selection caused divergence in the rosette diameter and trichome density traits of the Columbia and Landsberg lineages. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  17. Historical biogeography and diversification of truffles in the Tuberaceae and their newly identified Southern hemisphere sister lineage

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    Gregory Bonito; Matthew E. Smith; Michael Nowak; Rosanne A. Healy; Gonzalo Guevara; Efren Cazares; Akihiko Kinoshita; Eduardo R. Nouhra; Laura S. Dominguez; Leho Tedersoo; Claude Murat; Yun Wang; Baldomero Arroyo Moreno; Donald H. Pfister; Kazuhide Nara; Alessandra Zambonelli; James M. Trappe; Rytas. Vilgalys

    2013-01-01

    In this study we reassessed the biogeography and origin of the Tuberaceae and their relatives using multiple loci and a global sampling of taxa. Multiple independent transitions from an aboveground to a belowground truffie fruiting body form have occurred in the Tuberaceae and in its newly recognized sister lineage...

  18. The little shrimp that could: phylogeography of the circumtropical Stenopus hispidus (Crustacea: Decapoda), reveals divergent Atlantic and Pacific lineages

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    Iacchei, Matthew; Coleman, Richard R.; Gaither, Michelle R.; Browne, William E.; Bowen, Brian W.; Toonen, Robert J.

    2018-01-01

    The banded coral shrimp, Stenopus hispidus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Stenopodidea) is a popular marine ornamental species with a circumtropical distribution. The planktonic larval stage lasts ∼120–253 days, indicating considerable dispersal potential, but few studies have investigated genetic connectivity on a global scale in marine invertebrates. To resolve patterns of divergence and phylogeography of S. hispidus, we surveyed 525 bp of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) from 198 individuals sampled at 10 locations across ∼27,000 km of the species range. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that S. hispidus has a Western Atlantic lineage and a widely distributed Indo-Pacific lineage, separated by sequence divergence of 2.1%. Genetic diversity is much higher in the Western Atlantic (h = 0.929; π = 0.004) relative to the Indo-Pacific (h = 0.105; π Indo-Pacific population expanded more recently (95% HPD (highest posterior density) = 60,000–400,000 yr) than the Western Atlantic population (95% HPD = 300,000–760,000 yr). Divergence of the Western Atlantic and Pacific lineages is estimated at 710,000–1.8 million years ago, which does not readily align with commonly implicated colonization events between the ocean basins. The estimated age of populations contradicts the prevailing dispersal route for tropical marine biodiversity (Indo-Pacific to Atlantic) with the oldest and most diverse population in the Atlantic, and a recent population expansion with a single common haplotype shared throughout the vast Indian and Pacific oceans. In contrast to the circumtropical fishes, this diminutive reef shrimp challenges our understanding of conventional dispersal capabilities of marine species. PMID:29527409

  19. Phylogenetic Analysis, Lineage-Specific Expansion and Functional Divergence of seed dormancy 4-Like Genes in Plants.

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    Saminathan Subburaj

    Full Text Available The rice gene seed dormancy 4 (OsSdr4 functions in seed dormancy and is a major factor associated with pre-harvest sprouting (PHS. Although previous studies of this protein family were reported for rice and other species, knowledge of the evolution of genes homologous to OsSdr4 in plants remains inadequate. Fifty four Sdr4-like (hereafter designated Sdr4L genes were identified in nine plant lineages including 36 species. Phylogenetic analysis placed these genes in eight subfamilies (I-VIII. Genes from the same lineage clustered together, supported by analysis of conserved motifs and exon-intron patterns. Segmental duplications were present in both dicot and monocot clusters, while tandemly duplicated genes occurred only in monocot clusters indicating that both tandem and segmental duplications contributed to expansion of the grass I and II subfamilies. Estimation of the approximate ages of the duplication events indicated that ancestral Sdr4 genes evolved from a common angiosperm ancestor, about 160 million years ago (MYA. Moreover, diversification of Sdr4L genes in mono and dicot plants was mainly associated with genome-wide duplication and speciation events. Functional divergence was observed in all subfamily pairs, except IV/VIIIa. Further analysis indicated that functional constraints between subfamily pairs I/II, I/VIIIb, II/VI, II/VIIIb, II/IV, and VI/VIIIb were statistically significant. Site and branch-site model analyses of positive selection suggested that these genes were under strong adaptive selection pressure. Critical amino acids detected for both functional divergence and positive selection were mostly located in the loops, pointing to functional importance of these regions in this protein family. In addition, differential expression studies by transcriptome atlas of 11 Sdr4L genes showed that the duplicated genes may have undergone divergence in expression between plant species. Our findings showed that Sdr4L genes are

  20. Historical biogeography and diversification of truffles in the Tuberaceae and their newly identified southern hemisphere sister lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonito, Gregory; Smith, Matthew E; Nowak, Michael; Healy, Rosanne A; Guevara, Gonzalo; Cázares, Efren; Kinoshita, Akihiko; Nouhra, Eduardo R; Domínguez, Laura S; Tedersoo, Leho; Murat, Claude; Wang, Yun; Moreno, Baldomero Arroyo; Pfister, Donald H; Nara, Kazuhide; Zambonelli, Alessandra; Trappe, James M; Vilgalys, Rytas

    2013-01-01

    Truffles have evolved from epigeous (aboveground) ancestors in nearly every major lineage of fleshy fungi. Because accelerated rates of morphological evolution accompany the transition to the truffle form, closely related epigeous ancestors remain unknown for most truffle lineages. This is the case for the quintessential truffle genus Tuber, which includes species with socio-economic importance and esteemed culinary attributes. Ecologically, Tuber spp. form obligate mycorrhizal symbioses with diverse species of plant hosts including pines, oaks, poplars, orchids, and commercially important trees such as hazelnut and pecan. Unfortunately, limited geographic sampling and inconclusive phylogenetic relationships have obscured our understanding of their origin, biogeography, and diversification. To address this problem, we present a global sampling of Tuberaceae based on DNA sequence data from four loci for phylogenetic inference and molecular dating. Our well-resolved Tuberaceae phylogeny shows high levels of regional and continental endemism. We also identify a previously unknown epigeous member of the Tuberaceae--the South American cup-fungus Nothojafnea thaxteri (E.K. Cash) Gamundí. Phylogenetic resolution was further improved through the inclusion of a previously unrecognized Southern hemisphere sister group of the Tuberaceae. This morphologically diverse assemblage of species includes truffle (e.g. Gymnohydnotrya spp.) and non-truffle forms that are endemic to Australia and South America. Southern hemisphere taxa appear to have diverged more recently than the Northern hemisphere lineages. Our analysis of the Tuberaceae suggests that Tuber evolved from an epigeous ancestor. Molecular dating estimates Tuberaceae divergence in the late Jurassic (~156 million years ago), with subsequent radiations in the Cretaceous and Paleogene. Intra-continental diversification, limited long-distance dispersal, and ecological adaptations help to explain patterns of truffle

  1. Historical biogeography and diversification of truffles in the Tuberaceae and their newly identified southern hemisphere sister lineage.

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    Gregory Bonito

    Full Text Available Truffles have evolved from epigeous (aboveground ancestors in nearly every major lineage of fleshy fungi. Because accelerated rates of morphological evolution accompany the transition to the truffle form, closely related epigeous ancestors remain unknown for most truffle lineages. This is the case for the quintessential truffle genus Tuber, which includes species with socio-economic importance and esteemed culinary attributes. Ecologically, Tuber spp. form obligate mycorrhizal symbioses with diverse species of plant hosts including pines, oaks, poplars, orchids, and commercially important trees such as hazelnut and pecan. Unfortunately, limited geographic sampling and inconclusive phylogenetic relationships have obscured our understanding of their origin, biogeography, and diversification. To address this problem, we present a global sampling of Tuberaceae based on DNA sequence data from four loci for phylogenetic inference and molecular dating. Our well-resolved Tuberaceae phylogeny shows high levels of regional and continental endemism. We also identify a previously unknown epigeous member of the Tuberaceae--the South American cup-fungus Nothojafnea thaxteri (E.K. Cash Gamundí. Phylogenetic resolution was further improved through the inclusion of a previously unrecognized Southern hemisphere sister group of the Tuberaceae. This morphologically diverse assemblage of species includes truffle (e.g. Gymnohydnotrya spp. and non-truffle forms that are endemic to Australia and South America. Southern hemisphere taxa appear to have diverged more recently than the Northern hemisphere lineages. Our analysis of the Tuberaceae suggests that Tuber evolved from an epigeous ancestor. Molecular dating estimates Tuberaceae divergence in the late Jurassic (~156 million years ago, with subsequent radiations in the Cretaceous and Paleogene. Intra-continental diversification, limited long-distance dispersal, and ecological adaptations help to explain patterns of

  2. Molecular phylogenetics of the genus Costularia (Schoeneae, Cyperaceae) reveals multiple distinct evolutionary lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larridon, Isabel; Bauters, Kenneth; Semmouri, Ilias; Viljoen, Jan-Adriaan; Prychid, Christina J; Muasya, A Muthama; Bruhl, Jeremy J; Wilson, Karen L; Senterre, Bruno; Goetghebeur, Paul

    2018-04-19

    We investigated the monophyly of Costularia (25 species), a genus of tribe Schoeneae (Cyperaceae) that illustrates a remarkable distribution pattern from southeastern Africa, over Madagascar, the Mascarenes and Seychelles, to Malesia and New Caledonia. A further species, Tetraria borneensis, has been suggested to belong to Costularia. Relationships and divergence times were inferred using an existing four marker phylogeny of Cyperaceae tribe Schoeneae expanded with newly generated sequence data mainly for Costularia s.l. species. Phylogenetic reconstruction was executed using Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood approaches. Divergence times were estimated using a relaxed molecular clock model, calibrated with fossil data. Based on our results, Tetraria borneensis is not related to the species of Costularia. Costularia s.l. is composed of four distinct evolutionary lineages. Two lineages, one including the type species, are part of the Oreobolus clade, i.e. a much reduced genus Costularia restricted to southeastern Africa, Madagascar, the Mascarenes and Seychelles, and a small endemic genus from New Caledonia for which a new genus Chamaedendron is erected based on Costularia subgenus Chamaedendron. The other two lineages are part of the Tricostularia clade, i.e. a separate single-species lineage from the Seychelles for which a new genus (Xyroschoenus) is described, and Costularia subgenus Lophoschoenus. For the latter, more research is needed to test whether they are congeneric with the species placed in the reticulate-sheathed Tetraria clade. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mito-nuclear discord in six congeneric lineages of Holarctic ducks (genus Anas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jeffrey L; Winker, Kevin; Millam, Kendra C; Lavretsky, Philip; Kulikova, Irina; Wilson, Robert E; Zhuravlev, Yuri N; McCracken, Kevin G

    2014-06-01

    Many species have Holarctic distributions that extend across Europe, Asia and North America. Most genetics research on these species has examined only mitochondrial (mt) DNA, which has revealed wide variance in divergence between Old World (OW) and New World (NW) populations, ranging from shallow, unstructured genealogies to deeply divergent lineages. In this study, we sequenced 20 nuclear introns to test for concordant patterns of OW-NW differentiation between mtDNA and nuclear (nu) DNA for six lineages of Holarctic ducks (genus Anas). Genetic differentiation for both marker types varied widely among these lineages (idiosyncratic population histories), but mtDNA and nuDNA divergence within lineages was not significantly correlated. Moreover, compared with the association between mtDNA and nuDNA divergence observed among different species, OW-NW nuDNA differentiation was generally lower than mtDNA divergence, at least for lineages with deeply divergent mtDNA. Furthermore, coalescent estimates indicated significantly higher rates of gene flow for nuDNA than mtDNA for four of the six lineages. Thus, Holarctic ducks show prominent mito-nuclear discord between OW and NW populations, and we reject differences in sorting rates as the sole cause of the within-species discord. Male-mediated intercontinental gene flow is likely a leading contributor to this discord, although selection could also cause increased mtDNA divergence relative to weak nuDNA differentiation. The population genetics of these ducks contribute to growing evidence that mtDNA can be an unreliable indicator of stage of speciation and that more holistic approaches are needed for species delimitation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Does niche divergence accompany allopatric divergence in Aphelocoma jays as predicted under ecological speciation? Insights from tests with niche models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, John E; Zellmer, Amanda J; Knowles, L Lacey

    2010-05-01

    The role of ecology in the origin of species has been the subject of long-standing interest to evolutionary biologists. New sources of spatially explicit ecological data allow for large-scale tests of whether speciation is associated with niche divergence or whether closely related species tend to be similar ecologically (niche conservatism). Because of the confounding effects of spatial autocorrelation of environmental variables, we generate null expectations for niche divergence for both an ecological-niche modeling and a multivariate approach to address the question: do allopatrically distributed taxa occupy similar niches? In a classic system for the study of niche evolution--the Aphelocoma jays--we show that there is little evidence for niche divergence among Mexican Jay (A. ultramarina) lineages in the process of speciation, contrary to previous results. In contrast, Aphelocoma species that exist in partial sympatry in some regions show evidence for niche divergence. Our approach is widely applicable to the many cases of allopatric lineages in the beginning stages of speciation. These results do not support an ecological speciation model for Mexican Jay lineages because, in most cases, the allopatric environments they occupy are not significantly more divergent than expected under a null model.

  5. Comparative phylogeography reveals deep lineages and regional evolutionary hotspots in the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Dustin A.; Vandergast, Amy G.; Barr, Kelly R.; Inman, Richard D.; Esque, Todd C.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: We explored lineage diversification within desert-dwelling fauna. Our goals were (1) to determine whether phylogenetic lineages and population expansions were consistent with younger Pleistocene climate fluctuation hypotheses or much older events predicted by pre-Pleistocene vicariance hypotheses, (2) to assess concordance in spatial patterns of genetic divergence and diversity among species and (3) to identify regional evolutionary hotspots of divergence and diversity and assess their conservation status. Location: Mojave, Colorado, and Sonoran Deserts, USA. Methods: We analysed previously published gene sequence data for twelve species. We used Bayesian gene tree methods to estimate lineages and divergence times. Within each lineage, we tested for population expansion and age of expansion using coalescent approaches. We mapped interpopulation genetic divergence and intra-population genetic diversity in a GIS to identify hotspots of highest genetic divergence and diversity and to assess whether protected lands overlapped with evolutionary hotspots. Results: In seven of the 12 species, lineage divergence substantially predated the Pleistocene. Historical population expansion was found in eight species, but expansion events postdated the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in only four. For all species assessed, six hotspots of high genetic divergence and diversity were concentrated in the Colorado Desert, along the Colorado River and in the Mojave/Sonoran ecotone. At least some proportion of the land within each recovered hotspot was categorized as protected, yet four of the six also overlapped with major areas of human development. Main conclusions: Most of the species studied here diversified into distinct Mojave and Sonoran lineages prior to the LGM – supporting older diversification hypotheses. Several evolutionary hotspots were recovered but are not strategically paired with areas of protected land. Long-term preservation of species-level biodiversity would

  6. Deep phylogeographic divergence and cytonuclear discordance in the grasshopper Oedaleus decorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindler, Eveline; Arlettaz, Raphaël; Heckel, Gerald

    2012-11-01

    The grasshopper Oedaleus decorus is a thermophilic insect with a large, mostly south-Palaearctic distribution range, stretching from the Mediterranean regions in Europe to Central-Asia and China. In this study, we analyzed the extent of phylogenetic divergence and the recent evolutionary history of the species based on 274 specimens from 26 localities across the distribution range in Europe. Phylogenetic relationships were determined using sequences of two mitochondrial loci (ctr, ND2) with neighbour-joining and Bayesian methods. Additionally, genetic differentiation was analyzed based on mitochondrial DNA and 11 microsatellite markers using F-statistics, model-free multivariate and model-based Bayesian clustering approaches. Phylogenetic analyses detected consistently two highly divergent, allopatrically distributed lineages within O. decorus. The divergence among these Western and Eastern lineages meeting in the region of the Alps was similar to the divergence of each lineage to the sister species O. asiaticus. Genetic differentiation for ctr was extremely high between Western and Eastern grasshopper populations (F(ct)=0.95). Microsatellite markers detected much lower but nevertheless very significant genetic structure among population samples. The nuclear data also demonstrated a case of cytonuclear discordance because the affiliation with mitochondrial lineages was incongruent in Northern Italy. Taken together these results provide evidence of an ancient separation within Oedaleus and either historical introgression of mtDNA among lineages and/or ongoing sex-specific gene flow in this grasshopper. Our study stresses the importance of multilocus approaches for unravelling the history and status of taxa of uncertain evolutionary divergence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The first fossil of a bolbitidoid fern belongs to the early-divergent lineages of Elaphoglossum (Dryopteridaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lóriga, Josmaily; Schmidt, Alexander R; Moran, Robbin C; Feldberg, Kathrin; Schneider, Harald; Heinrichs, Jochen

    2014-09-01

    • Closing gaps in the fossil record and elucidating phylogenetic relationships of mostly incomplete fossils are major challenges in the reconstruction of the diversification of fern lineages through time. The cosmopolitan family Dryopteridaceae represents one of the most species-rich families of leptosporangiate ferns, yet its fossil record is sparse and poorly understood. Here, we describe a fern inclusion in Miocene Dominican amber and investigate its relationships to extant Dryopteridaceae.• The morphology of the fossil was compared with descriptions of extant ferns, resulting in it being tentatively assigned to the bolbitidoid fern genus Elaphoglossum. This assignment was confirmed by reconstructing the evolution of the morphological characters preserved in the inclusion on a molecular phylogeny of 158 extant bolbitidoid ferns. To assess the morphology-based assignment of the fossil to Elaphoglossum, we examined DNA-calibrated divergence time estimates against the age of the amber deposits from which it came.• The fossil belongs to Elaphoglossum and is the first of a bolbitidoid fern. Its assignment to a particular section of Elaphoglossum could not be determined; however, sects. Lepidoglossa, Polytrichia, and Setosa can be discounted because the fossil lacks subulate scales or scales with acicular marginal hairs. Thus, the fossil might belong to either sects. Amygdalifolia, Wrightiana, Elaphoglossum, or Squamipedia or to an extinct lineage.• The discovery of a Miocene Elaphoglossum fossil provides remarkable support to current molecular clock-based estimates of the diversification of these ferns. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  8. Functional divergence caused by ancient positive selection of a Drosophila hybrid incompatibility locus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Barbash

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Interspecific hybrid lethality and sterility are a consequence of divergent evolution between species and serve to maintain the discrete identities of species. The evolution of hybrid incompatibilities has been described in widely accepted models by Dobzhansky and Muller where lineage-specific functional divergence is the essential characteristic of hybrid incompatibility genes. Experimentally tractable models are required to identify and test candidate hybrid incompatibility genes. Several Drosophila melanogaster genes involved in hybrid incompatibility have been identified but none has yet been shown to have functionally diverged in accordance with the Dobzhansky-Muller model. By introducing transgenic copies of the X-linked Hybrid male rescue (Hmr gene into D. melanogaster from its sibling species D. simulans and D. mauritiana, we demonstrate that Hmr has functionally diverged to cause F1 hybrid incompatibility between these species. Consistent with the Dobzhansky-Muller model, we find that Hmr has diverged extensively in the D. melanogaster lineage, but we also find extensive divergence in the sibling-species lineage. Together, these findings implicate over 13% of the amino acids encoded by Hmr as candidates for causing hybrid incompatibility. The exceptional level of divergence at Hmr cannot be explained by neutral processes because we use phylogenetic methods and population genetic analyses to show that the elevated amino-acid divergence in both lineages is due to positive selection in the distant past-at least one million generations ago. Our findings suggest that multiple substitutions driven by natural selection may be a general phenomenon required to generate hybrid incompatibility alleles.

  9. Ecological opportunity and the adaptive diversification of lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellborn, Gary A; Langerhans, R Brian

    2015-01-01

    The tenet that ecological opportunity drives adaptive diversification has been central to theories of speciation since Darwin, yet no widely accepted definition or mechanistic framework for the concept currently exists. We propose a definition for ecological opportunity that provides an explicit mechanism for its action. In our formulation, ecological opportunity refers to environmental conditions that both permit the persistence of a lineage within a community, as well as generate divergent natural selection within that lineage. Thus, ecological opportunity arises from two fundamental elements: (1) niche availability, the ability of a population with a phenotype previously absent from a community to persist within that community and (2) niche discordance, the diversifying selection generated by the adaptive mismatch between a population's niche-related traits and the newly encountered ecological conditions. Evolutionary response to ecological opportunity is primarily governed by (1) spatiotemporal structure of ecological opportunity, which influences dynamics of selection and development of reproductive isolation and (2) diversification potential, the biological properties of a lineage that determine its capacity to diversify. Diversification under ecological opportunity proceeds as an increase in niche breadth, development of intraspecific ecotypes, speciation, and additional cycles of diversification that may themselves be triggered by speciation. Extensive ecological opportunity may exist in depauperate communities, but it is unclear whether ecological opportunity abates in species-rich communities. Because ecological opportunity should generally increase during times of rapid and multifarious environmental change, human activities may currently be generating elevated ecological opportunity - but so far little work has directly addressed this topic. Our framework highlights the need for greater synthesis of community ecology and evolutionary biology, unifying

  10. Sympatric speciation: perfume preferences of orchid bee lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Duncan E

    2008-12-09

    Female attraction to an environmentally derived mating signal released by male orchid bees may be tightly linked to shared olfactory preferences of both sexes. A change in perfume preference may have led to divergence of two morphologically distinct lineages.

  11. Unique mitochondrial DNA lineages in Irish stickleback populations: cryptic refugium or rapid recolonization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravinet, Mark; Harrod, Chris; Eizaguirre, Christophe; Prodöhl, Paulo A

    2014-06-01

    Repeated recolonization of freshwater environments following Pleistocene glaciations has played a major role in the evolution and adaptation of anadromous taxa. Located at the western fringe of Europe, Ireland and Britain were likely recolonized rapidly by anadromous fishes from the North Atlantic following the last glacial maximum (LGM). While the presence of unique mitochondrial haplotypes in Ireland suggests that a cryptic northern refugium may have played a role in recolonization, no explicit test of this hypothesis has been conducted. The three-spined stickleback is native and ubiquitous to aquatic ecosystems throughout Ireland, making it an excellent model species with which to examine the biogeographical history of anadromous fishes in the region. We used mitochondrial and microsatellite markers to examine the presence of divergent evolutionary lineages and to assess broad-scale patterns of geographical clustering among postglacially isolated populations. Our results confirm that Ireland is a region of secondary contact for divergent mitochondrial lineages and that endemic haplotypes occur in populations in Central and Southern Ireland. To test whether a putative Irish lineage arose from a cryptic Irish refugium, we used approximate Bayesian computation (ABC). However, we found no support for this hypothesis. Instead, the Irish lineage likely diverged from the European lineage as a result of postglacial isolation of freshwater populations by rising sea levels. These findings emphasize the need to rigorously test biogeographical hypothesis and contribute further evidence that postglacial processes may have shaped genetic diversity in temperate fauna.

  12. Putting scales into evolutionary time: the divergence of major scale insect lineages (Hemiptera) predates the radiation of modern angiosperm hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vea, Isabelle M.; Grimaldi, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The radiation of flowering plants in the mid-Cretaceous transformed landscapes and is widely believed to have fuelled the radiations of major groups of phytophagous insects. An excellent group to test this assertion is the scale insects (Coccomorpha: Hemiptera), with some 8,000 described Recent species and probably the most diverse fossil record of any phytophagous insect group preserved in amber. We used here a total-evidence approach (by tip-dating) employing 174 morphological characters of 73 Recent and 43 fossil taxa (48 families) and DNA sequences of three gene regions, to obtain divergence time estimates and compare the chronology of the most diverse lineage of scale insects, the neococcoid families, with the timing of the main angiosperm radiation. An estimated origin of the Coccomorpha occurred at the beginning of the Triassic, about 245 Ma [228–273], and of the neococcoids 60 million years later [210–165 Ma]. A total-evidence approach allows the integration of extinct scale insects into a phylogenetic framework, resulting in slightly younger median estimates than analyses using Recent taxa, calibrated with fossil ages only. From these estimates, we hypothesise that most major lineages of coccoids shifted from gymnosperms onto angiosperms when the latter became diverse and abundant in the mid- to Late Cretaceous. PMID:27000526

  13. Genetic surfing, not allopatric divergence, explains spatial sorting of mitochondrial haplotypes in venomous coralsnakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streicher, Jeffrey W; McEntee, Jay P; Drzich, Laura C; Card, Daren C; Schield, Drew R; Smart, Utpal; Parkinson, Christopher L; Jezkova, Tereza; Smith, Eric N; Castoe, Todd A

    2016-07-01

    Strong spatial sorting of genetic variation in contiguous populations is often explained by local adaptation or secondary contact following allopatric divergence. A third explanation, spatial sorting by stochastic effects of range expansion, has been considered less often though theoretical models suggest it should be widespread, if ephemeral. In a study designed to delimit species within a clade of venomous coralsnakes, we identified an unusual pattern within the Texas coral snake (Micrurus tener): strong spatial sorting of divergent mitochondrial (mtDNA) lineages over a portion of its range, but weak sorting of these lineages elsewhere. We tested three alternative hypotheses to explain this pattern-local adaptation, secondary contact following allopatric divergence, and range expansion. Collectively, near panmixia of nuclear DNA, the signal of range expansion associated sampling drift, expansion origins in the Gulf Coast of Mexico, and species distribution modeling suggest that the spatial sorting of divergent mtDNA lineages within M. tener has resulted from genetic surfing of standing mtDNA variation-not local adaptation or allopatric divergence. Our findings highlight the potential for the stochastic effects of recent range expansion to mislead estimations of population divergence made from mtDNA, which may be exacerbated in systems with low vagility, ancestral mtDNA polymorphism, and male-biased dispersal. © 2016 The Author(s).

  14. The mitochondrial genomes of Nuttalliella namaqua (Ixodoidea: Nuttalliellidae and Argas africolumbae (Ixodoidae: Argasidae: estimation of divergence dates for the major tick lineages and reconstruction of ancestral blood-feeding characters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben J Mans

    Full Text Available Ixodida are composed of hard (Ixodidae, soft (Argasidae and the monotypic Nuttalliellidae (Nuttalliella namaqua tick families. Nuclear 18S rRNA analysis suggested that N. namaqua was the closest extant relative to the last common ancestral tick lineage. The mitochondrial genomes of N. namaqua and Argas africolumbae were determined using next generation sequencing and de novo assembly to investigate this further. The latter was included since previous estimates on the divergence times of argasids lacked data for this major genus. Mitochondrial gene order for both was identical to that of the Argasidae and Prostriata. Bayesian analysis of the COI, Cytb, ND1, ND2 and ND4 genes confirmed the monophyly of ticks, the basal position of N. namaqua to the other tick families and the accepted systematic relationships of the other tick genera. Molecular clock estimates were derived for the divergence of the major tick lineages and supported previous estimates on the origins of ticks in the Carboniferous. N. namaqua larvae fed successfully on lizards and mice in a prolonged manner similar to many argasids and all ixodids. Excess blood meal-derived water was secreted via the salivary glands, similar to ixodids. We propose that this prolonged larval feeding style eventually gave rise to the long feeding periods that typify the single larval, nymphal and adult stages of ixodid ticks and the associated secretion of water via the salivary glands. Ancestral reconstruction of characters involved in blood-feeding indicates that most of the characteristics unique to either hard or soft tick families were present in the ancestral tick lineage.

  15. Uncovering the mutation-fixation correlation in short lineages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallender Eric J

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We recently reported a highly unexpected positive correlation between the fixation probability of nonsynonymous mutations (estimated by ω and neutral mutation rate (estimated by Ks in mammalian lineages. However, this positive correlation was observed for lineages with relatively long divergence time such as the human-mouse lineage, and was not found for very short lineages such as the human-chimpanzee lineage. It was previously unclear how to interpret this discrepancy. It may indicate that the positive correlation between ω and Ks in long lineages is a false finding. Alternatively, it may reflect a biologically meaningful difference between various lineages. Finally, the lack of positive correlation in short lineages may be the result of methodological artifacts. Results Here we show that a strong positive correlation can indeed be seen in short lineages when a method was introduced to correct for the inherently high levels of stochastic noise in the use of Ks as an estimator of neutral mutation rate. Thus, the previously noted lack of positive correlation between ω and Ks in short lineages is due to stochastic noise in Ks that makes it a far less reliable estimator of neutral mutation rate in short lineages as compared to long lineages. Conclusion A positive correlation between ω and Ks can be observed in all mammalian lineages for which large amounts of sequence data are available, including very short lineages. It confirms the authenticity of this highly unexpected correlation, and argues that the correction likely applies broadly across all mammals and perhaps even non-mammalian species.

  16. Divergence and gene flow in the globally distributed blue-winged ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Joel; Wilson, Robert E.; McCracken, Kevin G.; Cumming, Graeme; Joseph, Leo; Guay, Patrick-Jean; Peters, Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    The ability to disperse over long distances can result in a high propensity for colonizing new geographic regions, including uninhabited continents, and lead to lineage diversification via allopatric speciation. However, high vagility can also result in gene flow between otherwise allopatric populations, and in some cases, parapatric or divergence-with-gene-flow models might be more applicable to widely distributed lineages. Here, we use five nuclear introns and the mitochondrial control region along with Bayesian models of isolation with migration to examine divergence, gene flow, and phylogenetic relationships within a cosmopolitan lineage comprising six species, the blue-winged ducks (genus Anas), which inhabit all continents except Antarctica. We found two primary sub-lineages, the globally-distributed shoveler group and the New World blue-winged/cinnamon teal group. The blue-winged/cinnamon sub-lineage is composed of sister taxa from North America and South America, and taxa with parapatric distributions are characterized by low to moderate levels of gene flow. In contrast, our data support strict allopatry for most comparisons within the shovelers. However, we found evidence of gene flow from the migratory, Holarctic northern shoveler (A. clypeata) and the more sedentary, African Cape shoveler (A. smithii) into the Australasian shoveler (A. rhynchotis), although we could not reject strict allopatry. Given the diverse mechanisms of speciation within this complex, the shovelers and blue-winged/cinnamon teals can serve as an effective model system for examining how the genome diverges under different evolutionary processes and how genetic variation is partitioned among highly dispersive taxa.

  17. Climatic niche evolution is faster in sympatric than allopatric lineages of the butterfly genus Pyrgus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitteloud, Camille; Arrigo, Nils; Suchan, Tomasz; Mastretta-Yanes, Alicia; Vila, Roger; Dincă, Vlad; Hernández-Roldán, Juan; Brockmann, Ernst; Chittaro, Yannick; Kleckova, Irena; Fumagalli, Luca; Buerki, Sven; Pellissier, Loïc; Alvarez, Nadir

    2017-04-12

    Understanding how speciation relates to ecological divergence has long fascinated biologists. It is assumed that ecological divergence is essential to sympatric speciation, as a mechanism to avoid competition and eventually lead to reproductive isolation, while divergence in allopatry is not necessarily associated with niche differentiation. The impact of the spatial context of divergence on the evolutionary rates of abiotic dimensions of the ecological niche has rarely been explored for an entire clade. Here, we compare the magnitude of climatic niche shifts between sympatric versus allopatric divergence of lineages in butterflies. By combining next-generation sequencing, parametric biogeography and ecological niche analyses applied to a genus-wide phylogeny of Palaearctic Pyrgus butterflies, we compare evolutionary rates along eight climatic dimensions across sister lineages that diverged in large-scale sympatry versus allopatry. In order to examine the possible effects of the spatial scale at which sympatry is defined, we considered three sets of biogeographic assignments, ranging from narrow to broad definition. Our findings suggest higher rates of niche evolution along all climatic dimensions for sister lineages that diverge in sympatry, when using a narrow delineation of biogeographic areas. This result contrasts with significantly lower rates of climatic niche evolution found in cases of allopatric speciation, despite the biogeographic regions defined here being characterized by significantly different climates. Higher rates in allopatry are retrieved when biogeographic areas are too widely defined-in such a case allopatric events may be recorded as sympatric. Our results reveal the macro-evolutionary significance of abiotic niche differentiation involved in speciation processes within biogeographic regions, and illustrate the importance of the spatial scale chosen to define areas when applying parametric biogeographic analyses. © 2017 The Author(s).

  18. Is mitochondrial DNA divergence of near easter crested newts, Triturus karelinii group, reflected by differentiation of skull shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanovic, A.; Uzum, N.; Wielstra, B.M.; Olgun, K.; Litvinchuk, S.N.; Kalezic, M.L.; Arntzen, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    The Eurasian Triturus karelinii group of crested newts comprises three distinct, geographically coherent mitochondrial DNA lineages, designated as the eastern, central and western lineage. These three lineages are genetically as diverged as other, morphologically well-differentiated crested newt

  19. Lineage diversification and hybridization in the Cayratia japonica-Cayratia tenuifolia species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Naoko; Ikeda, Hajime; Yi, Ting-shuang; Takabe-Ito, Eriko; Okada, Hiroshi; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2014-06-01

    The Cayratia japonica-Cayratia tenuifolia species complex (Vitaceae) is distributed from temperate to tropical East Asia, Southeast Asia, India, and Australia. The spatiotemporal diversification history of this complex was assessed through phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses. Maximum parsimony, neighbor-joining, and maximum likelihood methods were used to analyze sequences of one nuclear (AS1) and two plastid regions (trnL-F and trnC-petN). Bayesian dating analysis was conducted to estimate the divergence times of clades. The likelihood method LAGRANGE was used to infer ancestral areas. The Asian C. japonica and C. tenuifolia should be treated as an unresolved complex, and Australian C. japonica is distinct from the Asian C. japonica-C. tenuifolia species complex and should be treated as separate taxa. The Asian C. japonica-C. tenuifolia species complex was estimated to have diverged from its closest relatives during the Late Eocene (35.1 million years ago [Ma], 95% highest posterior densities [HPD]=23.3-47.3Ma) and most likely first diverged in mid-continental Asia. This complex was first divided into a northern clade and a southern clade during the middle Oligocene (27.3Ma; 95% HPD=17.4-38.1Ma), which is consistent with a large southeastward extrusion of the Indochina region relative to South China along the Red River. Each of the northern and southern clades then further diverged into multiple subclades through a series of dispersal and divergence events following significant geological and climatic changes in East and Southeast Asia during the Miocene. Multiple inter-lineage hybridizations among four lineages were inferred to have occurred following this diversification process, which caused some Asian lineages to be morphologically cryptic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification of a Divergent Lineage Porcine Pestivirus in Nursing Piglets with Congenital Tremors and Reproduction of Disease following Experimental Inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, Bailey L; Arruda, Paulo H; Magstadt, Drew R; Schwartz, Kent J; Dohlman, Tyler; Schleining, Jennifer A; Patterson, Abby R; Visek, Callie A; Victoria, Joseph G

    2016-01-01

    Congenital tremors is a sporadic disease of neonatal pigs characterized by action-related repetitive myoclonus. A majority of outbreaks of congenital tremors have been attributed to an unidentified virus. The objectives of this project were to 1) detect potential pathogen(s) in samples from piglets with congenital tremors and 2) develop an infection model to reproduce disease. Using next-generation sequencing, a divergent lineage pestivirus was detected in piglets with congenital tremors. The virus was originally most closely related to a bat pestivirus but is now more closely related to a recently published novel porcine pestivirus provisionally named atypical porcine pestivirus. A quantitative real-time PCR detected the virus in samples from neonatal piglets with congenital tremors from two separate farms, but not in samples from unaffected piglets from the same farm. To fulfill the second objective, pregnant sows were inoculated with either serum containing the pestivirus or PBS (control) by intravenous and intranasal routes simultaneously with direct inoculation of fetal amniotic vesicles by ultrasound-guided surgical technique. Inoculations were performed at either 45 or 62 days of gestation. All sows inoculated with the novel pestivirus farrowed piglets affected with congenital tremors while PBS-inoculated control piglets were unaffected. Tremor severity for each piglet was scored from videos taken 0, 1 and 2 days post-farrowing. Tremor severity remained relatively constant from 0 to 2 days post-farrowing for a majority of piglets. The prevalence of congenital tremors in pestivirus-inoculated litters ranged from 57% (4 out of 7 affected piglets) to 100% (10 out of 10 affected piglets). The virus was consistently detected by PCR in tissues from piglets with congenital tremors but was not detected in control piglets. Samples positive by PCR in greater than 90% of piglets sampled included brainstem (37 out of 41), mesenteric lymph node (37 out of 41

  1. Identification of a Divergent Lineage Porcine Pestivirus in Nursing Piglets with Congenital Tremors and Reproduction of Disease following Experimental Inoculation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey L Arruda

    Full Text Available Congenital tremors is a sporadic disease of neonatal pigs characterized by action-related repetitive myoclonus. A majority of outbreaks of congenital tremors have been attributed to an unidentified virus. The objectives of this project were to 1 detect potential pathogen(s in samples from piglets with congenital tremors and 2 develop an infection model to reproduce disease. Using next-generation sequencing, a divergent lineage pestivirus was detected in piglets with congenital tremors. The virus was originally most closely related to a bat pestivirus but is now more closely related to a recently published novel porcine pestivirus provisionally named atypical porcine pestivirus. A quantitative real-time PCR detected the virus in samples from neonatal piglets with congenital tremors from two separate farms, but not in samples from unaffected piglets from the same farm. To fulfill the second objective, pregnant sows were inoculated with either serum containing the pestivirus or PBS (control by intravenous and intranasal routes simultaneously with direct inoculation of fetal amniotic vesicles by ultrasound-guided surgical technique. Inoculations were performed at either 45 or 62 days of gestation. All sows inoculated with the novel pestivirus farrowed piglets affected with congenital tremors while PBS-inoculated control piglets were unaffected. Tremor severity for each piglet was scored from videos taken 0, 1 and 2 days post-farrowing. Tremor severity remained relatively constant from 0 to 2 days post-farrowing for a majority of piglets. The prevalence of congenital tremors in pestivirus-inoculated litters ranged from 57% (4 out of 7 affected piglets to 100% (10 out of 10 affected piglets. The virus was consistently detected by PCR in tissues from piglets with congenital tremors but was not detected in control piglets. Samples positive by PCR in greater than 90% of piglets sampled included brainstem (37 out of 41, mesenteric lymph node (37 out of 41

  2. Signatures of natural selection among lineages and habitats in Oncorhynchus mykiss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Limborg, Morten; Blankenship, S.; Young, S.

    2012-01-01

    lineage. Overall patterns of variation affirmed clear distinctions between lineages and in most instances, isolation by distance within them. Evidence for divergent selection at eight candidate loci included significant landscape correlations, particularly with temperature. High diversity of two...... nonsynonymous mutations within the peptide-binding region of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II (DAB) gene provided signatures of balancing selection. Weak signals for potential selection between sympatric resident and anadromous populations were revealed from genome scans and allele frequency...

  3. Divergent Evolutionary Patterns of NAC Transcription Factors Are Associated with Diversification and Gene Duplications in Angiosperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Jin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available NAC (NAM/ATAF/CUC proteins constitute one of the biggest plant-specific transcription factor (TF families and have crucial roles in diverse developmental programs during plant growth. Phylogenetic analyses have revealed both conserved and lineage-specific NAC subfamilies, among which various origins and distinct features were observed. It is reasonable to hypothesize that there should be divergent evolutionary patterns of NAC TFs both between dicots and monocots, and among NAC subfamilies. In this study, we compared the gene duplication and loss, evolutionary rate, and selective pattern among non-lineage specific NAC subfamilies, as well as those between dicots and monocots, through genome-wide analyses of sequence and functional data in six dicot and five grass lineages. The number of genes gained in the dicot lineages was much larger than that in the grass lineages, while fewer gene losses were observed in the grass than that in the dicots. We revealed (1 uneven constitution of Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs and contrasting birth/death rates among subfamilies, and (2 two distinct evolutionary scenarios of NAC TFs between dicots and grasses. Our results demonstrated that relaxed selection, resulting from concerted gene duplications, may have permitted substitutions responsible for functional divergence of NAC genes into new lineages. The underlying mechanism of distinct evolutionary fates of NAC TFs shed lights on how evolutionary divergence contributes to differences in establishing NAC gene subfamilies and thus impacts the distinct features between dicots and grasses.

  4. Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus Mitochondrial Population Genomics Reveals Structure, Divergence, and Evidence for Heteroplasmy.

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    Yvette A Halley

    Full Text Available Herein, we evaluated the concordance of population inferences and conclusions resulting from the analysis of short mitochondrial fragments (i.e., partial or complete D-Loop nucleotide sequences versus complete mitogenome sequences for 53 bobwhites representing six ecoregions across TX and OK (USA. Median joining (MJ haplotype networks demonstrated that analyses performed using small mitochondrial fragments were insufficient for estimating the true (i.e., complete mitogenome haplotype structure, corresponding levels of divergence, and maternal population history of our samples. Notably, discordant demographic inferences were observed when mismatch distributions of partial (i.e., partial D-Loop versus complete mitogenome sequences were compared, with the reduction in mitochondrial genomic information content observed to encourage spurious inferences in our samples. A probabilistic approach to variant prediction for the complete bobwhite mitogenomes revealed 344 segregating sites corresponding to 347 total mutations, including 49 putative nonsynonymous single nucleotide variants (SNVs distributed across 12 protein coding genes. Evidence of gross heteroplasmy was observed for 13 bobwhites, with 10 of the 13 heteroplasmies involving one moderate to high frequency SNV. Haplotype network and phylogenetic analyses for the complete bobwhite mitogenome sequences revealed two divergent maternal lineages (dXY = 0.00731; FST = 0.849; P < 0.05, thereby supporting the potential for two putative subspecies. However, the diverged lineage (n = 103 variants almost exclusively involved bobwhites geographically classified as Colinus virginianus texanus, which is discordant with the expectations of previous geographic subspecies designations. Tests of adaptive evolution for functional divergence (MKT, frequency distribution tests (D, FS and phylogenetic analyses (RAxML provide no evidence for positive selection or hybridization with the sympatric scaled quail

  5. Genetics, morphology and ecology reveal a cryptic pika lineage in the Sikkim Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahal, Nishma; Lissovsky, Andrey A; Lin, Zhenzhen; Solari, Katherine; Hadly, Elizabeth A; Zhan, Xiangjiang; Ramakrishnan, Uma

    2017-01-01

    Asian pika species are morphologically ∼similar and have overlapping ranges. This leads to uncertainty and species misidentification in the field. Phylogenetic analyses of such misidentified samples leads to taxonomic ambiguity. The ecology of many pika species remains understudied, particularly in the Himalaya, where sympatric species could be separated by elevation and/or substrate. We sampled, measured, and acquired genetic data from pikas in the Sikkim Himalaya. Our analyses revealed a cryptic lineage, Ochotona sikimaria, previously reported as a subspecies of O. thibetana. The results support the elevation of this lineage to the species level, as it is genetically divergent from O. thibetana, as well as sister species, O. cansus (endemic to central China) and O. curzoniae (endemic to the Tibetan plateau). The Sikkim lineage diverged from its sister species' about 1.7-0.8myrago, coincident with uplift events in the Himalaya. Our results add to the recent spate of cryptic diversity identified from the eastern Himalaya and highlight the need for further study within the Ochotonidae. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mechanisms of peripheral phylogeographic divergence in the indo-Pacific: lessons from the spiny lobster Panulirus homarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhadi, Ahmad; Jeffs, Andrew G; Farahmand, Hamid; Rejiniemon, Thankappan Sarasam; Smith, Greg; Lavery, Shane D

    2017-08-18

    There is increasing recognition of the concordance between marine biogeographic and phylogeographic boundaries. However, it is still unclear how population-level divergence translates into species-level divergence, and what are the principal factors that first initiate that divergence, and then maintain reproductive isolation. This study examines the likely forces driving population and lineage divergences in the broadly-distributed Indo-Pacific spiny lobster Panulirus homarus, which has peripheral divergent lineages in the west and east. The study focuses particularly on the West Indian Ocean, which is emerging as a region of unexpected diversity. Mitochondrial control region (mtCR) and COI sequences as well as genotypes of 9 microsatellite loci were examined in 410 individuals from 17 locations grouped into 7 regions from South Africa in the west, and eastward across to Taiwan and the Marquesas Islands. Phylogenetic and population-level analyses were used to test the significance and timing of divergences and describe the genetic relationships among populations. Analyses of the mtCR revealed high levels of divergence among the seven regions (Ф ST  = 0.594, P Indo-Pacific that helps drive some of the regions' recognized biogeographic boundaries.

  7. Misregulation of spermatogenesis genes in Drosophila hybrids is lineage-specific and driven by the combined effects of sterility and fast male regulatory divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, S; Civetta, A

    2014-09-01

    Hybrid male sterility is a common outcome of crosses between different species. Gene expression studies have found that a number of spermatogenesis genes are differentially expressed in sterile hybrid males, compared with parental species. Late-stage sperm development genes are particularly likely to be misexpressed, with fewer early-stage genes affected. Thus, a link has been posited between misexpression and sterility. A more recent alternative explanation for hybrid gene misexpression has been that it is independent of sterility and driven by divergent evolution of male-specific regulatory elements between species (faster male hypothesis). The faster male hypothesis predicts that misregulation of spermatogenesis genes should be independent of sterility and approximately the same in both hybrids, whereas sterility should only affect gene expression in sterile hybrids. To test the faster male hypothesis vs. the effect of sterility on gene misexpression, we analyse spermatogenesis gene expression in different species pairs of the Drosophila phylogeny, where hybrid male sterility occurs in only one direction of the interspecies cross (i.e. unidirectional sterility). We find significant differences among genes in misexpression with effects that are lineage-specific and caused by sterility or fast male regulatory divergence. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  8. Signatures of seaway closures and founder dispersal in the phylogeny of a circumglobally distributed seahorse lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teske, Peter R; Hamilton, Healy; Matthee, Conrad A; Barker, Nigel P

    2007-08-15

    The importance of vicariance events on the establishment of phylogeographic patterns in the marine environment is well documented, and generally accepted as an important cause of cladogenesis. Founder dispersal (i.e. long-distance dispersal followed by founder effect speciation) is also frequently invoked as a cause of genetic divergence among lineages, but its role has long been challenged by vicariance biogeographers. Founder dispersal is likely to be common in species that colonize remote habitats by means of rafting (e.g. seahorses), as long-distance dispersal events are likely to be rare and subsequent additional recruitment from the source habitat is unlikely. In the present study, the relative importance of vicariance and founder dispersal as causes of cladogenesis in a circumglobally distributed seahorse lineage was investigated using molecular dating. A phylogeny was reconstructed using sequence data from mitochondrial and nuclear markers, and the well-documented closure of the Central American seaway was used as a primary calibration point to test whether other bifurcations in the phylogeny could also have been the result of vicariance events. The feasibility of three other vicariance events was explored: a) the closure of the Indonesian Seaway, resulting in sister lineages associated with the Indian Ocean and West Pacific, respectively; b) the closure of the Tethyan Seaway, resulting in sister lineages associated with the Indo-Pacific and Atlantic Ocean, respectively, and c) continental break-up during the Mesozoic followed by spreading of the Atlantic Ocean, resulting in pairs of lineages with amphi-Atlantic distribution patterns. Comparisons of pairwise genetic distances among the seahorse species hypothesized to have diverged as a result of the closure of the Central American Seaway with those of published teleost sequences having the same distribution patterns show that the seahorses were among the last to diverge. This suggests that their

  9. Signatures of seaway closures and founder dispersal in the phylogeny of a circumglobally distributed seahorse lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthee Conrad A

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of vicariance events on the establishment of phylogeographic patterns in the marine environment is well documented, and generally accepted as an important cause of cladogenesis. Founder dispersal (i.e. long-distance dispersal followed by founder effect speciation is also frequently invoked as a cause of genetic divergence among lineages, but its role has long been challenged by vicariance biogeographers. Founder dispersal is likely to be common in species that colonize remote habitats by means of rafting (e.g. seahorses, as long-distance dispersal events are likely to be rare and subsequent additional recruitment from the source habitat is unlikely. In the present study, the relative importance of vicariance and founder dispersal as causes of cladogenesis in a circumglobally distributed seahorse lineage was investigated using molecular dating. A phylogeny was reconstructed using sequence data from mitochondrial and nuclear markers, and the well-documented closure of the Central American seaway was used as a primary calibration point to test whether other bifurcations in the phylogeny could also have been the result of vicariance events. The feasibility of three other vicariance events was explored: a the closure of the Indonesian Seaway, resulting in sister lineages associated with the Indian Ocean and West Pacific, respectively; b the closure of the Tethyan Seaway, resulting in sister lineages associated with the Indo-Pacific and Atlantic Ocean, respectively, and c continental break-up during the Mesozoic followed by spreading of the Atlantic Ocean, resulting in pairs of lineages with amphi-Atlantic distribution patterns. Results Comparisons of pairwise genetic distances among the seahorse species hypothesized to have diverged as a result of the closure of the Central American Seaway with those of published teleost sequences having the same distribution patterns show that the seahorses were among the last to

  10. Speciation on oceanic islands: rapid adaptive divergence vs. cryptic speciation in a Guadalupe Island songbird (Aves: Junco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixandre, Pau; Hernández Montoya, Julio; Milá, Borja

    2013-01-01

    The evolutionary divergence of island populations, and in particular the tempo and relative importance of neutral and selective factors, is of central interest to the study of speciation. The rate of phenotypic evolution upon island colonization can vary greatly among taxa, and cases of convergent evolution can further confound the inference of correct evolutionary histories. Given the potential lability of phenotypic characters, molecular dating of insular lineages analyzed in a phylogenetic framework provides a critical tool to test hypotheses of phenotypic divergence since colonization. The Guadalupe junco is the only insular form of the polymorphic dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis), and shares eye and plumage color with continental morphs, yet presents an enlarged bill and reduced body size. Here we use variation in mtDNA sequence, morphological traits and song variables to test whether the Guadalupe junco evolved rapidly following a recent colonization by a mainland form of the dark-eyed junco, or instead represents a well-differentiated "cryptic" lineage adapted to the insular environment through long-term isolation, with plumage coloration a result of evolutionary convergence. We found high mtDNA divergence of the island lineage with respect to both continental J. hyemalis and J. phaeonotus, representing a history of isolation of about 600,000 years. The island lineage was also significantly differentiated in morphological and male song variables. Moreover, and contrary to predictions regarding diversity loss on small oceanic islands, we document relatively high levels of both haplotypic and song-unit diversity on Guadalupe Island despite long-term isolation in a very small geographic area. In contrast to prevailing taxonomy, the Guadalupe junco is an old, well-differentiated evolutionary lineage, whose similarity to mainland juncos in plumage and eye color is due to evolutionary convergence. Our findings confirm the role of remote islands in driving

  11. Demographic histories of adaptively diverged riparian and non-riparian species of Ainsliaea (Asteraceae) inferred from coalescent analyses using multiple nuclear loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, Yuki; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2012-12-28

    Understanding demographic histories, such as divergence time, patterns of gene flow, and population size changes, in ecologically diverging lineages provide implications for the process and maintenance of population differentiation by ecological adaptation. This study addressed the demographic histories in two independently derived lineages of flood-resistant riparian plants and their non-riparian relatives [Ainsliaea linearis (riparian) and A. apiculata (non-riparian); A. oblonga (riparian) and A. macroclinidioides (non-riparian); Asteraceae] using an isolation-with-migration (IM) model based on variation at 10 nuclear DNA loci. The highest posterior probabilities of the divergence time parameters were estimated to be ca. 25,000 years ago for A. linearis and A. apiculata and ca. 9000 years ago for A. oblonga and A. macroclinidioides, although the confidence intervals of the parameters had broad ranges. The likelihood ratio tests detected evidence of historical gene flow between both riparian/non-riparian species pairs. The riparian populations showed lower levels of genetic diversity and a significant reduction in effective population sizes compared to the non-riparian populations and their ancestral populations. This study showed the recent origins of flood-resistant riparian plants, which are remarkable examples of plant ecological adaptation. The recent divergence and genetic signatures of historical gene flow among riparian/non-riparian species implied that they underwent morphological and ecological differentiation within short evolutionary timescales and have maintained their species boundaries in the face of gene flow. Comparative analyses of adaptive divergence in two sets of riparian/non-riparian lineages suggested that strong natural selection by flooding had frequently reduced the genetic diversity and size of riparian populations through genetic drift, possibly leading to fixation of adaptive traits in riparian populations. The two sets of riparian

  12. Divergence time estimates of mammals from molecular clocks and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    2009-10-30

    Oct 30, 2009 ... In the last decade and a half, mammalian phylogeny and lineage divergence .... not the sudden availability of ecological niches following the KTB mass .... fish fauna, ostracods, and palynofossils (Singh et al. 2006;. Prasad et al. ... tendons and hence the functional adaptations of the animal during its life and ...

  13. [Differences on geographic distribution of rabies virus lineages in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q; Li, M L; Chen, Y; Wang, B; Tao, X Y; Zhu, W Y

    2018-04-10

    Objective: To study the lineages of rabies virus and the epidemic characteristics in different provincial populations of China, to provide information for the development of control and prevention measures in each respective provinces. Methods: Full length N and G genes and full-genome of epidemic strains of rabies virus collected in China were downloaded from GenBank and combined with newly sequenced strains by our lab. Each strain was classified under six lineages of China rabies by constructing phylogenetic trees based on the N or G sequences. Numbers of strains and lineages in each province were counted and compared. Results: Six lineages (China Ⅰ-Ⅵ) were prevalent in China, with 4 found in Yunnan and Hunan. In 6 provinces, including Henan and Fujian, 3 lineages were found. In 8 provinces, including Shanghai and Jiangxi, 2 lineages were found Only 1 lineage, were found in Beijing, Tianjin and other 12 provinces. the China Ⅰ, was the dominant one in 25 provinces. In recent years, China Ⅲ had been found in wild animals and spread over livestock in Inner Mongolia and Xinjiang areas. Qinghai and Tibet had been influenced by China Ⅳ, which also been found in wild animals of Inner Mongolia and Heilongjiang. Conclusion: There had been obvious differences in lineages and strain numbers of rabies virus identified in different provinces in China.

  14. Broad phylogenomic sampling and the sister lineage of land plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth E Timme

    Full Text Available The tremendous diversity of land plants all descended from a single charophyte green alga that colonized the land somewhere between 430 and 470 million years ago. Six orders of charophyte green algae, in addition to embryophytes, comprise the Streptophyta s.l. Previous studies have focused on reconstructing the phylogeny of organisms tied to this key colonization event, but wildly conflicting results have sparked a contentious debate over which lineage gave rise to land plants. The dominant view has been that 'stoneworts,' or Charales, are the sister lineage, but an alternative hypothesis supports the Zygnematales (often referred to as "pond scum" as the sister lineage. In this paper, we provide a well-supported, 160-nuclear-gene phylogenomic analysis supporting the Zygnematales as the closest living relative to land plants. Our study makes two key contributions to the field: 1 the use of an unbiased method to collect a large set of orthologs from deeply diverging species and 2 the use of these data in determining the sister lineage to land plants. We anticipate this updated phylogeny not only will hugely impact lesson plans in introductory biology courses, but also will provide a solid phylogenetic tree for future green-lineage research, whether it be related to plants or green algae.

  15. Patterns of divergence across the geographic and genomic landscape of a butterfly hybrid zone associated with a climatic gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    The process of speciation is impacted by the interaction between the genomic architecture of diverging lineages and the environmental context they occupy. Yet, while climate can have a significant impact on this interaction, its role in determining the patterns of geographic and genomic divergence i...

  16. Speciation on oceanic islands: rapid adaptive divergence vs. cryptic speciation in a Guadalupe Island songbird (Aves: Junco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau Aleixandre

    Full Text Available The evolutionary divergence of island populations, and in particular the tempo and relative importance of neutral and selective factors, is of central interest to the study of speciation. The rate of phenotypic evolution upon island colonization can vary greatly among taxa, and cases of convergent evolution can further confound the inference of correct evolutionary histories. Given the potential lability of phenotypic characters, molecular dating of insular lineages analyzed in a phylogenetic framework provides a critical tool to test hypotheses of phenotypic divergence since colonization. The Guadalupe junco is the only insular form of the polymorphic dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis, and shares eye and plumage color with continental morphs, yet presents an enlarged bill and reduced body size. Here we use variation in mtDNA sequence, morphological traits and song variables to test whether the Guadalupe junco evolved rapidly following a recent colonization by a mainland form of the dark-eyed junco, or instead represents a well-differentiated "cryptic" lineage adapted to the insular environment through long-term isolation, with plumage coloration a result of evolutionary convergence. We found high mtDNA divergence of the island lineage with respect to both continental J. hyemalis and J. phaeonotus, representing a history of isolation of about 600,000 years. The island lineage was also significantly differentiated in morphological and male song variables. Moreover, and contrary to predictions regarding diversity loss on small oceanic islands, we document relatively high levels of both haplotypic and song-unit diversity on Guadalupe Island despite long-term isolation in a very small geographic area. In contrast to prevailing taxonomy, the Guadalupe junco is an old, well-differentiated evolutionary lineage, whose similarity to mainland juncos in plumage and eye color is due to evolutionary convergence. Our findings confirm the role of remote islands

  17. The fusion protein signal-peptide-coding region of canine distemper virus: a useful tool for phylogenetic reconstruction and lineage identification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Sarute

    Full Text Available Canine distemper virus (CDV; Paramyxoviridae, Morbillivirus is the etiologic agent of a multisystemic infectious disease affecting all terrestrial carnivore families with high incidence and mortality in domestic dogs. Sequence analysis of the hemagglutinin (H gene has been widely employed to characterize field strains, permitting the identification of nine CDV lineages worldwide. Recently, it has been established that the sequences of the fusion protein signal-peptide (Fsp coding region are extremely variable, suggesting that analysis of its sequence might be useful for strain characterization studies. However, the divergence of Fsp sequences among worldwide strains and its phylogenetic resolution has not yet been evaluated. We constructed datasets containing the Fsp-coding region and H gene sequences of the same strains belonging to eight CDV lineages. Both datasets were used to evaluate their phylogenetic resolution. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that both datasets clustered the same strains into eight different branches, corresponding to CDV lineages. The inter-lineage amino acid divergence was fourfold greater for the Fsp peptide than for the H protein. The likelihood mapping revealed that both datasets display strong phylogenetic signals in the region of well-resolved topologies. These features indicate that Fsp-coding region sequence analysis is suitable for evolutionary studies as it allows for straightforward identification of CDV lineages.

  18. The fusion protein signal-peptide-coding region of canine distemper virus: a useful tool for phylogenetic reconstruction and lineage identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarute, Nicolás; Calderón, Marina Gallo; Pérez, Ruben; La Torre, José; Hernández, Martín; Francia, Lourdes; Panzera, Yanina

    2013-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV; Paramyxoviridae, Morbillivirus) is the etiologic agent of a multisystemic infectious disease affecting all terrestrial carnivore families with high incidence and mortality in domestic dogs. Sequence analysis of the hemagglutinin (H) gene has been widely employed to characterize field strains, permitting the identification of nine CDV lineages worldwide. Recently, it has been established that the sequences of the fusion protein signal-peptide (Fsp) coding region are extremely variable, suggesting that analysis of its sequence might be useful for strain characterization studies. However, the divergence of Fsp sequences among worldwide strains and its phylogenetic resolution has not yet been evaluated. We constructed datasets containing the Fsp-coding region and H gene sequences of the same strains belonging to eight CDV lineages. Both datasets were used to evaluate their phylogenetic resolution. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that both datasets clustered the same strains into eight different branches, corresponding to CDV lineages. The inter-lineage amino acid divergence was fourfold greater for the Fsp peptide than for the H protein. The likelihood mapping revealed that both datasets display strong phylogenetic signals in the region of well-resolved topologies. These features indicate that Fsp-coding region sequence analysis is suitable for evolutionary studies as it allows for straightforward identification of CDV lineages.

  19. The Korarchaeota: Archaeal orphans representing an ancestral lineage of life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkins, James G.; Kunin, Victor; Anderson, Iain; Barry, Kerrie; Goltsman, Eugene; Lapidus, Alla; Hedlund, Brian; Hugenholtz, Phil; Kyrpides, Nikos; Graham, David; Keller, Martin; Wanner, Gerhard; Richardson, Paul; Stetter, Karl O.

    2007-05-01

    Based on conserved cellular properties, all life on Earth can be grouped into different phyla which belong to the primary domains Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. However, tracing back their evolutionary relationships has been impeded by horizontal gene transfer and gene loss. Within the Archaea, the kingdoms Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota exhibit a profound divergence. In order to elucidate the evolution of these two major kingdoms, representatives of more deeply diverged lineages would be required. Based on their environmental small subunit ribosomal (ss RNA) sequences, the Korarchaeota had been originally suggested to have an ancestral relationship to all known Archaea although this assessment has been refuted. Here we describe the cultivation and initial characterization of the first member of the Korarchaeota, highly unusual, ultrathin filamentous cells about 0.16 {micro}m in diameter. A complete genome sequence obtained from enrichment cultures revealed an unprecedented combination of signature genes which were thought to be characteristic of either the Crenarchaeota, Euryarchaeota, or Eukarya. Cell division appears to be mediated through a FtsZ-dependent mechanism which is highly conserved throughout the Bacteria and Euryarchaeota. An rpb8 subunit of the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase was identified which is absent from other Archaea and has been described as a eukaryotic signature gene. In addition, the representative organism possesses a ribosome structure typical for members of the Crenarchaeota. Based on its gene complement, this lineage likely diverged near the separation of the two major kingdoms of Archaea. Further investigations of these unique organisms may shed additional light onto the evolution of extant life.

  20. Historical Biogeography and Diversification of Truffles in the Tuberaceae and Their Newly Identified Southern Hemisphere Sister Lineage.

    OpenAIRE

    Bonito, Gregory; Smith, Matthew E.; Nowak, Michael; Healy, Rosanne A.; Guevara, Gonzalo; Cázares, Efren; Kinoshita, Akihiko; Nouhra, Eduardo Ramon; Dominguez, Laura Susana; Tedersoo, Leho; Murat, Claude; Wang, Yun; Arroyo Moreno, Baldomero; Pfister, Donald H.; Nara, Kazuhide

    2015-01-01

    Truffles have evolved from epigeous (aboveground) ancestors in nearly every major lineage of fleshy fungi. Because accelerated rates of morphological evolution accompany the transition to the truffle form, closely related epigeous ancestors remain unknown for most truffle lineages. This is the case for the quintessential truffle genus Tuber, which includes species with socio-economic importance and esteemed culinary attributes. Ecologically, Tuber spp. form obligate mycorrhizal symbioses ...

  1. Molecular characterisation of dengue virus type 1 reveals lineage replacement during circulation in Brazilian territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ribeiro Carneiro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is the most important arbovirus infection found in tropical regions around the world. Dispersal of the vector and an increase in migratory flow between countries have led to large epidemics and severe clinical outcomes, such as dengue haemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. This study analysed the genetic variability of the dengue virus serotype 1 (DENV-1 in Brazil with regard to the full-length structural genes C/prM/M/E among 34 strains isolated during epidemics that occurred in the country between 1994-2011. Virus phylogeny and time of divergence were also evaluated with only the E gene of the strains isolated from 1994-2008. An analysis of amino acid differences between these strains and the French Guiana strain (FGA/89 revealed the presence of important nonsynonymous substitutions in the amino acid sequences, including residues E297 (Met→Thr and E338 (Ser→Leu. A phylogenetic analysis of E proteins comparing the studied isolates and other strains selected from the GenBank database showed that the Brazilian DENV-1 strains since 1982 belonged to genotype V. This analysis also showed that different introductions of strains from the 1990s represented lineage replacement, with the identification of three lineages that cluster all isolates from the Americas. An analysis of the divergence time of DENV-1 indicated that the lineage circulating in Brazil emerged from an ancestral lineage that originated approximately 44.35 years ago.

  2. Molecular characterisation of dengue virus type 1 reveals lineage replacement during circulation in Brazilian territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Adriana Ribeiro; Cruz, Ana Cecília Ribeiro; Vallinoto, Marcelo; Melo, Diego de Vasconcelos; Ramos, Rommel Thiago J; Medeiros, Daniele Barbosa Almeida; Silva, Eliana Vieira Pinto da; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2012-09-01

    Dengue fever is the most important arbovirus infection found in tropical regions around the world. Dispersal of the vector and an increase in migratory flow between countries have led to large epidemics and severe clinical outcomes, such as dengue haemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. This study analysed the genetic variability of the dengue virus serotype 1 (DENV-1) in Brazil with regard to the full-length structural genes C/prM/M/E among 34 strains isolated during epidemics that occurred in the country between 1994-2011. Virus phylogeny and time of divergence were also evaluated with only the E gene of the strains isolated from 1994-2008. An analysis of amino acid differences between these strains and the French Guiana strain (FGA/89) revealed the presence of important nonsynonymous substitutions in the amino acid sequences, including residues E297 (Met→Thr) and E338 (Ser→Leu). A phylogenetic analysis of E proteins comparing the studied isolates and other strains selected from the GenBank database showed that the Brazilian DENV-1 strains since 1982 belonged to genotype V. This analysis also showed that different introductions of strains from the 1990s represented lineage replacement, with the identification of three lineages that cluster all isolates from the Americas. An analysis of the divergence time of DENV-1 indicated that the lineage circulating in Brazil emerged from an ancestral lineage that originated approximately 44.35 years ago.

  3. Genetic characterization of Betacoronavirus lineage C viruses in bats reveals marked sequence divergence in the spike protein of pipistrellus bat coronavirus HKU5 in Japanese pipistrelle: implications for the origin of the novel Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Susanna K P; Li, Kenneth S M; Tsang, Alan K L; Lam, Carol S F; Ahmed, Shakeel; Chen, Honglin; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Woo, Patrick C Y; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2013-08-01

    While the novel Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is closely related to Tylonycteris bat CoV HKU4 (Ty-BatCoV HKU4) and Pipistrellus bat CoV HKU5 (Pi-BatCoV HKU5) in bats from Hong Kong, and other potential lineage C betacoronaviruses in bats from Africa, Europe, and America, its animal origin remains obscure. To better understand the role of bats in its origin, we examined the molecular epidemiology and evolution of lineage C betacoronaviruses among bats. Ty-BatCoV HKU4 and Pi-BatCoV HKU5 were detected in 29% and 25% of alimentary samples from lesser bamboo bat (Tylonycteris pachypus) and Japanese pipistrelle (Pipistrellus abramus), respectively. Sequencing of their RNA polymerase (RdRp), spike (S), and nucleocapsid (N) genes revealed that MERS-CoV is more closely related to Pi-BatCoV HKU5 in RdRp (92.1% to 92.3% amino acid [aa] identity) but is more closely related to Ty-BatCoV HKU4 in S (66.8% to 67.4% aa identity) and N (71.9% to 72.3% aa identity). Although both viruses were under purifying selection, the S of Pi-BatCoV HKU5 displayed marked sequence polymorphisms and more positively selected sites than that of Ty-BatCoV HKU4, suggesting that Pi-BatCoV HKU5 may generate variants to occupy new ecological niches along with its host in diverse habitats. Molecular clock analysis showed that they diverged from a common ancestor with MERS-CoV at least several centuries ago. Although MERS-CoV may have diverged from potential lineage C betacoronaviruses in European bats more recently, these bat viruses were unlikely to be the direct ancestor of MERS-CoV. Intensive surveillance for lineage C betaCoVs in Pipistrellus and related bats with diverse habitats and other animals in the Middle East may fill the evolutionary gap.

  4. Co-infection and cross-species transmission of divergent Hepatocystis lineages in a wild African primate community★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Mary I.; Ghai, Ria R.; Hyeroba, Hyeroba; Weny, Geoffrey; Tumukunde, Alex; Chapman, Colin A.; Wiseman, Roger W.; Dinis, Jorge; Steeil, James; Greiner, Ellis C.; Friedrich, Thomas C.; O’Connor, David H.; Goldberg, Tony L.

    2013-01-01

    Hemoparasites of the apicomplexan family Plasmodiidae include the etiological agents of malaria, as well as a suite of non-human primate parasites from which the human malaria agents evolved. Despite the significance of these parasites for global health, little information is available about their ecology in multi-host communities. Primates were investigated in Kibale National Park, Uganda, where ecological relationships among host species are well characterized. Blood samples were examined for parasites of the genera Plasmodium and Hepatocystis using microscopy and PCR targeting the parasite mitochondrial cytochrome b gene, followed by Sanger sequencing. To assess co-infection, “deep sequencing” of a variable region within cytochrome b was performed. Out of nine black-and-white colobus (Colobus guereza), one blue guenon (Cercopithecus mitis), five grey-cheeked mangabeys (Lophocebus albigena), 23 olive baboons (Papio anubis), 52 red colobus (Procolobus rufomitratus) and 12 red-tailed guenons (Cercopithecus ascanius), 79 infections (77.5%) were found, all of which were Hepatocystis spp. Sanger sequencing revealed 25 different parasite haplotypes that sorted phylogenetically into six species-specific but morphologically similar lineages. “Deep sequencing” revealed mixed-lineage co-infections in baboons and red colobus (41.7% and 64.7% of individuals, respectively) but not in other host species. One lineage infecting red colobus also infected baboons, but always as the minor variant, suggesting directional cross-species transmission. Hepatocystis parasites in this primate community are a diverse assemblage of cryptic lineages, some of which co-infect hosts and at least one of which can cross primate species barriers. PMID:23603520

  5. Identification of two invasive Cacopsylla chinensis (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) lineages based on two mitochondrial sequences and restriction fragment length polymorphism of cytochrome oxidase I amplicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsien-Chung; Yang, Man-Miao; Yeh, Wen-Bin

    2008-08-01

    The occurrence of pear decline, a disease found in some pear (Pyrus spp.) orchards of Taiwan in recent years, is accompanied by an outbreak of Cacopsylla chinensis (Yang & Li). Two major morphological forms (summer and winter forms) with a variety of intermediate body color and two phylogenetic lineages of this psyllid have been described. The work herein used sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and 16S rDNA regions to delineate the genetic differentiation of this color-variable insect and to elucidate their relationship. Sequence divergence and phylogenetic analysis have shown that C. chinensis individuals could be divided into two lineages with 3.3 and 2.3% divergence of COI and 16S rDNA, respectively. All specimens from China were found to belong to lineage I. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of COI with restriction enzymes AcuI, AseI, BccI, and FokI on 263 specimens of six populations from Taiwan produced two digestion patterns, which are in agreement with the two lineages described above. Both patterns could be found in each population, with most individuals belonging to lineage I and 5-21% of the individuals belonging to lineage II. Because these two lineages included summer as well as winter morphological forms, the lineage differentiation is apparently not related to morphological characters of this psyllid. Because the invasive records are not in favor of a sympatric differentiation, this psyllid is more likely introduced as different populations from countries in temperate regions.

  6. Divergent H7 immunogens offer protection from H7N9 virus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krammer, Florian; Albrecht, Randy A; Tan, Gene S; Margine, Irina; Hai, Rong; Schmolke, Mirco; Runstadler, Jonathan; Andrews, Sarah F; Wilson, Patrick C; Cox, Rebecca J; Treanor, John J; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Palese, Peter

    2014-04-01

    The emergence of avian H7N9 viruses in humans in China has renewed concerns about influenza pandemics emerging from Asia. Vaccines are still the best countermeasure against emerging influenza virus infections, but the process from the identification of vaccine seed strains to the distribution of the final product can take several months. In the case of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, a vaccine was not available before the first pandemic wave hit and therefore came too late to reduce influenza morbidity. H7 vaccines based on divergent isolates of the Eurasian and North American lineages have been tested in clinical trials, and seed strains and reagents are already available and can potentially be used initially to curtail influenza-induced disease until a more appropriately matched H7N9 vaccine is ready. In a challenge experiment in the mouse model, we assessed the efficacy of both inactivated virus and recombinant hemagglutinin vaccines made from seed strains that are divergent from H7N9 from each of the two major H7 lineages. Furthermore, we analyzed the cross-reactive responses of sera from human subjects vaccinated with heterologous North American and Eurasian lineage H7 vaccines to H7N9. Vaccinations with inactivated virus and recombinant hemagglutinin protein preparations from both lineages raised hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies against H7N9 viruses and protected mice from stringent viral challenges. Similar cross-reactivity was observed in sera of human subjects from a clinical trial with a divergent H7 vaccine. Existing H7 vaccine candidates based on divergent strains could be used as a first line of defense against an H7N9 pandemic. In addition, this also suggests that H7N9 vaccines that are currently under development might be stockpiled and used for divergent avian H7 strains that emerge in the future. Sporadic human infections with H7N9 viruses started being reported in China in the early spring of 2013. Despite a significant drop in the number of

  7. A trans-Amazonian screening of mtDNA reveals deep intraspecific divergence in forest birds and suggests a vast underestimation of species diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja Milá

    Full Text Available The Amazonian avifauna remains severely understudied relative to that of the temperate zone, and its species richness is thought to be underestimated by current taxonomy. Recent molecular systematic studies using mtDNA sequence reveal that traditionally accepted species-level taxa often conceal genetically divergent subspecific lineages found to represent new species upon close taxonomic scrutiny, suggesting that intraspecific mtDNA variation could be useful in species discovery. Surveys of mtDNA variation in Holarctic species have revealed patterns of variation that are largely congruent with species boundaries. However, little information exists on intraspecific divergence in most Amazonian species. Here we screen intraspecific mtDNA genetic variation in 41 Amazonian forest understory species belonging to 36 genera and 17 families in 6 orders, using 758 individual samples from Ecuador and French Guiana. For 13 of these species, we also analyzed trans-Andean populations from the Ecuadorian Chocó. A consistent pattern of deep intraspecific divergence among trans-Amazonian haplogroups was found for 33 of the 41 taxa, and genetic differentiation and genetic diversity among them was highly variable, suggesting a complex range of evolutionary histories. Mean sequence divergence within families was the same as that found in North American birds (13%, yet mean intraspecific divergence in Neotropical species was an order of magnitude larger (2.13% vs. 0.23%, with mean distance between intraspecific lineages reaching 3.56%. We found no clear relationship between genetic distances and differentiation in plumage color. Our results identify numerous genetically and phenotypically divergent lineages which may result in new species-level designations upon closer taxonomic scrutiny and thorough sampling, although lineages in the tropical region could be older than those in the temperate zone without necessarily representing separate species. In

  8. Divergence of the phytochrome gene family predates angiosperm evolution and suggests that Selaginella and Equisetum arose prior to Psilotum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolukisaoglu, H U; Marx, S; Wiegmann, C; Hanelt, S; Schneider-Poetsch, H A

    1995-09-01

    Thirty-two partial phytochrome sequences from algae, mosses, ferns, gymnosperms, and angiosperms (11 of them newly released ones from our laboratory) were analyzed by distance and character-state approaches (PHYLIP, TREECON, PAUP). In addition, 12 full-length sequences were analyzed. Despite low bootstrap values at individual internal nodes, the inferred trees (neighbor-joining, Fitch, maximum parsimony) generally showed similar branching orders consistent with other molecular data. Lower plants formed two distinct groups. One basal group consisted of Selaginella, Equisetum, and mosses; the other consisted of a monophyletic cluster of frond-bearing pteridophytes. Psilotum was a member of the latter group and hence perhaps was not, as sometimes suggested, a close relative of the first vascular plants. The results further suggest that phytochrome gene duplication giving rise to a- and b- and later to c-types may have taken place within seedfern genomes. Distance matrices dated the separation of mono- and dicotyledons back to about 260 million years before the present (Myr B.P.) and the separation of Metasequoia and Picea to a fossil record-compatible value of 230 Myr B.P. The Ephedra sequence clustered with the c- or a-type and Metasequoia and Picea sequences clustered with the b-type lineage. The "paleoherb" Nymphaea branched off from the c-type lineage prior to the divergence of mono- and dicotyledons on the a- and b-type branches. Sequences of Piper (another "paleoherb") created problems in that they branched off from different phytochrome lineages at nodes contradicting distance from the inferred trees' origin.

  9. Divergent Host Plant Adaptation Drives the Evolution of Sexual Isolation in the Grasshopper Hesperotettix viridis (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in the Absence of Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    The beginning stages of lineage divergence can be difficult to detect, as correlations between altered genotypic and phenotypic attributes are often weak early in the process. Shifts in host plant use and divergence in mating signals can lead to sexual isolation and ultimately speciation. To underst...

  10. Phylogenetic divergences of the true bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera), with emphasis on the aquatic lineages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yan-hui; Cui, Ying; Rédei, Dávid

    2016-01-01

    Heteroptera are among the most diverse hemimetabolous insects. Seven infraorders have been recognized within this suborder of Hemiptera. Apart from the well-established sister-group relationship between Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha (= Terheteroptera), the two terminal lineages, the relationsh...

  11. Pisolithus tinctorius, Fungal Extremophile and Modern Analog to an Early Earth Environment; An Unlikely Harbor for Deeply Diverging and Novel Chemoautrophic Microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullings, K. C.; Lauzon, C.; Marinkovich, N.; Truong, T.

    2014-12-01

    Endosymbioses have given rise to some of the most important innovations in Earth's history. Indeed, ecological facilitation has been pivotal to the creation of higher order complexity, and in driving evolutionary transitions at every level of organization from cellular organelles to multicellularity. In this study we address a newly discovered endosymbiosis between prokaryotes and a eukaryote growing with no apparent external energy source in soils associated with acid-sulfate hydrothermal springs. Hydrothermal sites are relevant to origin of life because they provide a chemical and energetic environment that may have provided energy for pre-biotic synthesis in the absence of photosynthesis through chemoautotrophy. Pisolithus (genus, picture 1 below) is a terrestrial fungal extremophile that can grow in thermally altered soils of acid-thermal hot springs at extreme low pH and elevated temperature, thriving in conditions that are beyond the threshold of survivability for most other organisms. Fruiting bodies of this fungus accumulate elemental sulfur into the spore producing tissues (gleba) of the fruiting body. The gleba is encased in a thick peridium, or shell. Further, Pisolithus is capable of enzymatic conversion of elemental S to sulfate. The fruiting bodies are rich in hydrocarbons, contain water through much of their development and are also likely to contain CO2 from fungal cellular respiration. Further, our data indicate the presence of anaerobic zones within. Thus, the internal environment of Pisolithus contains many conditions relevant to early Earth environments in which life is thought to have originated. We used 16S rDNA sequences to test the hypothesis that Pisolithus individuals contain novel and/or ancient microbial lineages. Our data reveal lineages comprised of novel relatives of known aerobic and anaerobic chemoautrophic Bacteria (85-90% BLAST search matches), several deeply divergent and novel Bacterial lineages, and a newly discovered lineage

  12. Cryptic lineage differentiation among Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in the northwest Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, H W I; Nishida, S; Welch, A J; Moura, A E; Tanabe, S; Kiani, M S; Culloch, R; Möller, L; Natoli, A; Ponnampalam, L S; Minton, G; Gore, M; Collins, T; Willson, A; Baldwin, R; Hoelzel, A R

    2018-05-01

    Phylogeography can provide insight into the potential for speciation and identify geographic regions and evolutionary processes associated with species richness and evolutionary endemism. In the marine environment, highly mobile species sometimes show structured patterns of diversity, but the processes isolating populations and promoting differentiation are often unclear. The Delphinidae (oceanic dolphins) are a striking case in point and, in particular, bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops spp.). Understanding the radiation of species in this genus is likely to provide broader inference about the processes that determine patterns of biogeography and speciation, because both fine-scale structure over a range of kilometers and relative panmixia over an oceanic range are known for Tursiops populations. In our study, novel Tursiops spp. sequences from the northwest Indian Ocean (including mitogenomes and two nuDNA loci) are included in a worldwide Tursiops spp. phylogeographic analysis. We discover a new 'aduncus' type lineage in the Arabian Sea (off India, Pakistan and Oman) that diverged from the Australasian lineage ∼261 Ka. Effective management of coastal dolphins in the region will need to consider this new lineage as an evolutionarily significant unit. We propose that the establishment of this lineage could have been in response to climate change during the Pleistocene and show data supporting hypotheses for multiple divergence events, including vicariance across the Indo-Pacific barrier and in the northwest Indian Ocean. These data provide valuable transferable inference on the potential mechanisms for population and species differentiation across this geographic range. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Phylogenetic diversification patterns and divergence times in ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Harpalinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ober, Karen A; Heider, Thomas N

    2010-08-27

    Harpalinae is a species rich clade of carabid beetles with many unusual morphological forms and ecological interactions. How this diversity evolved has been difficult to reconstruct, perhaps because harpalines underwent a rapid burst of diversification early in their evolutionary history. Here we investigate the tempo of evolution in harpalines using molecular divergence dating techniques and explore the rates of lineage accumulation in harpalines and their sister group. According to molecular divergence date estimates, harpalines originated in the mid Cretaceous but did not diversify extensively until the late Cretaceous or early Paleogene about 32 million years after their origin. In a relatively small window of time, harpalines underwent rapid speciation. Harpalines have a relative high net diversification rate and increased cladogenesis in some regions of the clade. We did not see a significant decrease in diversification rate through time in the MCCR test, but a model of diversification with two shift points to lower diversification rates fit the harpaline lineage accumulation through time the best. Our results indicate harpalines are significantly more diverse and have higher diversification than their sistergroup. Instead of an immediate burst of explosive diversification, harpalines may have had a long "fuse" before major lineages diversified during the early Paleogene when other taxa such as mammals, birds, and some flowering plants were also rapidly diversifying.

  14. Phylogenetic diversification patterns and divergence times in ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Harpalinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ober Karen A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Harpalinae is a species rich clade of carabid beetles with many unusual morphological forms and ecological interactions. How this diversity evolved has been difficult to reconstruct, perhaps because harpalines underwent a rapid burst of diversification early in their evolutionary history. Here we investigate the tempo of evolution in harpalines using molecular divergence dating techniques and explore the rates of lineage accumulation in harpalines and their sister group. Results According to molecular divergence date estimates, harpalines originated in the mid Cretaceous but did not diversify extensively until the late Cretaceous or early Paleogene about 32 million years after their origin. In a relatively small window of time, harpalines underwent rapid speciation. Harpalines have a relative high net diversification rate and increased cladogenesis in some regions of the clade. We did not see a significant decrease in diversification rate through time in the MCCR test, but a model of diversification with two shift points to lower diversification rates fit the harpaline lineage accumulation through time the best. Conclusions Our results indicate harpalines are significantly more diverse and have higher diversification than their sistergroup. Instead of an immediate burst of explosive diversification, harpalines may have had a long "fuse" before major lineages diversified during the early Paleogene when other taxa such as mammals, birds, and some flowering plants were also rapidly diversifying.

  15. Genetic divergence in nuclear genomes between populations of Fagus crenata along the Japan Sea and Pacific sides of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraoka, Koichi; Tomaru, Nobuhiro

    2009-05-01

    Genetic diversity and structure in Fagus crenata were studied by analyzing 14 nuclear microsatellite loci in 23 populations distributed throughout the species' range. Although population differentiation was very low (F (ST) = 0.027; R (ST) = 0.041), both neighbor-joining tree and Bayesian clustering analyses provided clear evidence of genetic divergence between populations along the Japan Sea (Japan Sea lineage) and Pacific (Pacific lineage) sides of Japan, indicating that physical barriers to migration and gene flow, notably the mountain ranges separating the populations along the Japan Sea and Pacific sides, have promoted genetic divergence between these populations. The two lineages of the nuclear genome are generally consistent with those of the chloroplast genome detected in a previous study, with several discrepancies between the two genomes. Within-population genetic diversity was generally very high (average H (E) = 0.839), but decreased in a clinal fashion from southwest to northeast, largely among populations of the Japan Sea lineage. This geographical gradient may have resulted from the late-glacial and postglacial recolonization to the northeast, which led to a loss of within-population genetic diversity due to cumulative founder effects.

  16. Phylogenetics and differentiation of Salmonella Newport lineages by whole genome sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojie Cao

    Full Text Available Salmonella Newport has ranked in the top three Salmonella serotypes associated with foodborne outbreaks from 1995 to 2011 in the United States. In the current study, we selected 26 S. Newport strains isolated from diverse sources and geographic locations and then conducted 454 shotgun pyrosequencing procedures to obtain 16-24 × coverage of high quality draft genomes for each strain. Comparative genomic analysis of 28 S. Newport strains (including 2 reference genomes and 15 outgroup genomes identified more than 140,000 informative SNPs. A resulting phylogenetic tree consisted of four sublineages and indicated that S. Newport had a clear geographic structure. Strains from Asia were divergent from those from the Americas. Our findings demonstrated that analysis using whole genome sequencing data resulted in a more accurate picture of phylogeny compared to that using single genes or small sets of genes. We selected loci around the mutS gene of S. Newport to differentiate distinct lineages, including those between invH and mutS genes at the 3' end of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 (SPI-1, ste fimbrial operon, and Clustered, Regularly Interspaced, Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR associated-proteins (cas. These genes in the outgroup genomes held high similarity with either S. Newport Lineage II or III at the same loci. S. Newport Lineages II and III have different evolutionary histories in this region and our data demonstrated genetic flow and homologous recombination events around mutS. The findings suggested that S. Newport Lineages II and III diverged early in the serotype evolution and have evolved largely independently. Moreover, we identified genes that could delineate sublineages within the phylogenetic tree and that could be used as potential biomarkers for trace-back investigations during outbreaks. Thus, whole genome sequencing data enabled us to better understand the genetic background of pathogenicity and evolutionary history of S

  17. Parapatric genetic divergence among deep evolutionary lineages in the Mediterranean green crab, Carcinus aestuarii (Brachyura, Portunoidea, Carcinidae), accounts for a sharp phylogeographic break in the Eastern Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deli, Temim; Kalkan, Evrim; Karhan, Selahattin Ünsal; Uzunova, Sonya; Keikhosravi, Alireza; Bilgin, Raşit; Schubart, Christoph D

    2018-04-11

    Recently, population genetic studies of Mediterranean marine species highlighted patterns of genetic divergence and phylogeographic breaks, due to the interplay between impacts of Pleistocene climate shifts and contemporary hydrographical barriers. These factors markedly shaped the distribution of marine organisms and their genetic makeup. The present study is part of an ongoing effort to understand the phylogeography and evolutionary history of the highly dispersive Mediterranean green crab, Carcinus aestuarii (Nardo, 1847), across the Mediterranean Sea. Recently, marked divergence between two highly separated haplogroups (genetic types I and II) of C. aestuarii was discerned across the Siculo-Tunisian Strait, suggesting an Early Pleistocene vicariant event. In order to better identify phylogeographic patterns in this species, a total of 263 individuals from 22 Mediterranean locations were analysed by comparing a 587 basepair region of the mitochondrial gene Cox1 (cytochrome oxidase subunit 1). The examined dataset is composed of both newly generated sequences (76) and previously investigated ones (187). Our results unveiled the occurrence of a highly divergent haplogroup (genetic type III) in the most north-eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea. Divergence between the most distinct type III and the common ancestor of both types I and II corresponds to the Early Pleistocene and coincides with the historical episode of separation between types I and II. Our results also revealed strong genetic divergence among adjacent regions (separating the Aegean and Marmara seas from the remaining distribution zone) and confirmed a sharp phylogeographic break across the Eastern Mediterranean. The recorded parapatric genetic divergence, with the potential existence of a contact zone between both groups in the Ionian Sea and notable differences in the demographic history, suggest the likely impact of paleoclimatic events, as well as past and contemporary oceanographic processes

  18. Rates of genomic divergence in humans, chimpanzees and their lice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kevin P; Allen, Julie M; Olds, Brett P; Mugisha, Lawrence; Reed, David L; Paige, Ken N; Pittendrigh, Barry R

    2014-02-22

    The rate of DNA mutation and divergence is highly variable across the tree of life. However, the reasons underlying this variation are not well understood. Comparing the rates of genetic changes between hosts and parasite lineages that diverged at the same time is one way to begin to understand differences in genetic mutation and substitution rates. Such studies have indicated that the rate of genetic divergence in parasites is often faster than that of their hosts when comparing single genes. However, the variation in this relative rate of molecular evolution across different genes in the genome is unknown. We compared the rate of DNA sequence divergence between humans, chimpanzees and their ectoparasitic lice for 1534 protein-coding genes across their genomes. The rate of DNA substitution in these orthologous genes was on average 14 times faster for lice than for humans and chimpanzees. In addition, these rates were positively correlated across genes. Because this correlation only occurred for substitutions that changed the amino acid, this pattern is probably produced by similar functional constraints across the same genes in humans, chimpanzees and their ectoparasites.

  19. Draft genome sequences of Phytophthora kernoviae and Phytophthora ramorum lineage EU2 from Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Sambles

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Newly discovered Phytophthora species include invasive pathogens that threaten trees and shrubs. We present draft genome assemblies for three isolates of Phytophthora kernoviae and one isolate of the EU2 lineage of Phytophthora ramorum, collected from outbreak sites in Scotland.

  20. Speciation in rapidly diverging systems: lessons from Lake Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danley, P D; Kocher, T D

    2001-05-01

    Rapid evolutionary radiations provide insight into the fundamental processes involved in species formation. Here we examine the diversification of one such group, the cichlid fishes of Lake Malawi, which have radiated from a single ancestor into more than 400 species over the past 700 000 years. The phylogenetic history of this group suggests: (i) that their divergence has proceeded in three major bursts of cladogenesis; and (ii) that different selective forces have dominated each cladogenic event. The first episode resulted in the divergence of two major lineages, the sand- and rock-dwellers, each adapted to a major benthic macrohabitat. Among the rock-dwellers, competition for trophic resources then drove a second burst of cladogenesis, which resulted in the differentiation of trophic morphology. The third episode of cladogenesis is associated with differentiation of male nuptial colouration, most likely in response to divergent sexual selection. We discuss models of speciation in relation to this observed pattern. We advocate a model, divergence with gene flow, which reconciles the disparate selective forces responsible for the diversification of this group and suggest that the nonadaptive nature of the tertiary episode has significantly contributed to the extraordinary species richness of this group.

  1. Chloroplast Genome Evolution in Early Diverged Leptosporangiate Ferns

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyoung Tae; Chung, Myong Gi; Kim, Ki-Joong

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the chloroplast (cp) genome sequences from three early diverged leptosporangiate ferns were completed and analyzed in order to understand the evolution of the genome of the fern lineages. The complete cp genome sequence of Osmunda cinnamomea (Osmundales) was 142,812 base pairs (bp). The cp genome structure was similar to that of eusporangiate ferns. The gene/intron losses that frequently occurred in the cp genome of leptosporangiate ferns were not found in the cp genome of O. c...

  2. Extensive shared polymorphism at non-MHC immune genes in recently diverged North American prairie grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minias, Piotr; Bateson, Zachary W.; Whittingham, Linda A.; Johnson, Jeff A.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Dunn, Peter O.

    2018-01-01

    Gene polymorphisms shared between recently diverged species are thought to be widespread and most commonly reflect introgression from hybridization or retention of ancestral polymorphism through incomplete lineage sorting. Shared genetic diversity resulting from incomplete lineage sorting is usually maintained for a relatively short period of time, but under strong balancing selection it may persist for millions of years beyond species divergence (balanced trans-species polymorphism), as in the case of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes. However, balancing selection is much less likely to act on non-MHC immune genes. The aim of this study was to investigate the patterns of shared polymorphism and selection at non-MHC immune genes in five grouse species from Centrocercus and Tympanuchus genera. For this purpose, we genotyped five non-MHC immune genes that do not interact directly with pathogens, but are involved in signaling and regulate immune cell growth. In contrast to previous studies with MHC, we found no evidence for balancing selection or balanced trans-species polymorphism among the non-MHC immune genes. No haplotypes were shared between genera and in most cases more similar allelic variants sorted by genus. Between species within genera, however, we found extensive shared polymorphism, which was most likely attributable to introgression or incomplete lineage sorting following recent divergence and large ancestral effective population size (i.e., weak genetic drift). Our study suggests that North American prairie grouse may have attained relatively low degree of reciprocal monophyly at nuclear loci and reinforces the rarity of balancing selection in non-MHC immune genes.

  3. Phylogenetic and paleobotanical evidence for late Miocene diversification of the Tertiary subtropical lineage of ivies (Hedera L., Araliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcárcel, V; Guzmán, B; Medina, N G; Vargas, P; Wen, J

    2017-06-22

    Hedera (ivies) is one of the few temperate genera of the primarily tropical Asian Palmate group of the Araliaceae, which extends its range out of Asia to Europe and the Mediterranean basin. Phylogenetic and phylogeographic results suggested Asia as the center of origin and the western Mediterranean region as one of the secondary centers of diversification. The bird-dispersed fleshy fruits of ivies suggest frequent dispersal over long distances (e.g. Macaronesian archipelagos), although reducing the impact of geographic barriers to gene flow in mainland species. Genetic isolation associated with geographic barriers and independent polyploidization events have been postulated as the main driving forces of diversification. In this study we aim to evaluate past and present diversification patterns in Hedera within a geographic and temporal framework to clarify the biogeographic history of the genus. Phylogenetic (biogeographic, time divergence and diversification) and phylogeographic (coalescence) analyses using four DNA regions (nrITS, trnH-psbA, trnT-trnL, rpl32) revealed a complex spatial pattern of lineage divergence. Scarce geographic limitation to gene flow and limited diversification are observed during the early-mid Miocene, followed by a diversification rate increase related to geographic divergence from the Tortonian/Messinian. Genetic and palaeobotanical evidence points the origin of the Hedera clade in Asia, followed by a gradual E-W Asian extinction and the progressive E-W Mediterranean colonization. The temporal framework for the E Asia - W Mediterranean westward colonization herein reported is congruent with the fossil record. Subsequent range expansion in Europe and back colonization to Asia is also inferred. Uneven diversification among geographic areas occurred from the Tortonian/Messinian onwards with limited diversification in the newly colonized European and Asian regions. Eastern and western Mediterranean regions acted as refugia for Miocene and

  4. Chloroplast genome evolution in early diverged leptosporangiate ferns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoung Tae; Chung, Myong Gi; Kim, Ki-Joong

    2014-05-01

    In this study, the chloroplast (cp) genome sequences from three early diverged leptosporangiate ferns were completed and analyzed in order to understand the evolution of the genome of the fern lineages. The complete cp genome sequence of Osmunda cinnamomea (Osmundales) was 142,812 base pairs (bp). The cp genome structure was similar to that of eusporangiate ferns. The gene/intron losses that frequently occurred in the cp genome of leptosporangiate ferns were not found in the cp genome of O. cinnamomea. In addition, putative RNA editing sites in the cp genome were rare in O. cinnamomea, even though the sites were frequently predicted to be present in leptosporangiate ferns. The complete cp genome sequence of Diplopterygium glaucum (Gleicheniales) was 151,007 bp and has a 9.7 kb inversion between the trnL-CAA and trnVGCA genes when compared to O. cinnamomea. Several repeated sequences were detected around the inversion break points. The complete cp genome sequence of Lygodium japonicum (Schizaeales) was 157,142 bp and a deletion of the rpoC1 intron was detected. This intron loss was shared by all of the studied species of the genus Lygodium. The GC contents and the effective numbers of codons (ENCs) in ferns varied significantly when compared to seed plants. The ENC values of the early diverged leptosporangiate ferns showed intermediate levels between eusporangiate and core leptosporangiate ferns. However, our phylogenetic tree based on all of the cp gene sequences clearly indicated that the cp genome similarity between O. cinnamomea (Osmundales) and eusporangiate ferns are symplesiomorphies, rather than synapomorphies. Therefore, our data is in agreement with the view that Osmundales is a distinct early diverged lineage in the leptosporangiate ferns.

  5. Change of niche in guanaco (Lama guanicoe): the effects of climate change on habitat suitability and lineage conservatism in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Andrea G; Alò, Dominique; González, Benito A; Samaniego, Horacio

    2018-01-01

    The main goal of this contribution was to define the ecological niche of the guanaco ( Lama guanicoe ), to describe potential distributional changes, and to assess the relative importance of niche conservatism and divergence processes between the two lineages described for the species ( L.g. cacsilensis and L.g. guanicoe ). We used maximum entropy to model lineage's climate niche from 3,321 locations throughout continental Chile, and developed future niche models under climate change for two extreme greenhouse gas emission scenarios (RCP2.6 and RCP8.5). We evaluated changes of the environmental niche and future distribution of the largest mammal in the Southern Cone of South America. Evaluation of niche conservatism and divergence were based on identity and background similarity tests. We show that: (a) the current geographic distribution of lineages is associated with different climatic requirements that are related to the geographic areas where these lineages are located; (b) future distribution models predict a decrease in the distribution surface under both scenarios; (c) a 3% decrease of areal protection is expected if the current distribution of protected areas is maintained, and this is expected to occur at the expense of a large reduction of high quality habitats under the best scenario; (d) current and future distribution ranges of guanaco mostly adhere to phylogenetic niche divergence hypotheses between lineages. Associating environmental variables with species ecological niche seems to be an important aspect of unveiling the particularities of, both evolutionary patterns and ecological features that species face in a changing environment. We report specific descriptions of how these patterns may play out under the most extreme climate change predictions and provide a grim outlook of the future potential distribution of guanaco in Chile. From an ecological perspective, while a slightly smaller distribution area is expected, this may come with an important

  6. Evolution of two distinct phylogenetic lineages of the emerging human pathogen Mycobacterium ulcerans

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    Portaels Francoise

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative genomics has greatly improved our understanding of the evolution of pathogenic mycobacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Here we have used data from a genome microarray analysis to explore insertion-deletion (InDel polymorphism among a diverse strain collection of Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causative agent of the devastating skin disease, Buruli ulcer. Detailed analysis of large sequence polymorphisms in twelve regions of difference (RDs, comprising irreversible genetic markers, enabled us to refine the phylogenetic succession within M. ulcerans, to define features of a hypothetical M. ulcerans most recent common ancestor and to confirm its origin from Mycobacterium marinum. Results M. ulcerans has evolved into five InDel haplotypes that separate into two distinct lineages: (i the "classical" lineage including the most pathogenic genotypes – those that come from Africa, Australia and South East Asia; and (ii an "ancestral" M. ulcerans lineage comprising strains from Asia (China/Japan, South America and Mexico. The ancestral lineage is genetically closer to the progenitor M. marinum in both RD composition and DNA sequence identity, whereas the classical lineage has undergone major genomic rearrangements. Conclusion Results of the InDel analysis are in complete accord with recent multi-locus sequence analysis and indicate that M. ulcerans has passed through at least two major evolutionary bottlenecks since divergence from M. marinum. The classical lineage shows more pronounced reductive evolution than the ancestral lineage, suggesting that there may be differences in the ecology between the two lineages. These findings improve the understanding of the adaptive evolution and virulence of M. ulcerans and pathogenic mycobacteria in general and will facilitate the development of new tools for improved diagnostics and molecular epidemiology.

  7. Selection and geographic isolation influence hummingbird speciation: genetic, acoustic and morphological divergence in the wedge-tailed sabrewing (Campylopterus curvipennis

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    Ornelas Juan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mesoamerica is one of the most threatened biodiversity hotspots in the world, yet we are far from understanding the geologic history and the processes driving population divergence and speciation for most endemic taxa. In species with highly differentiated populations selective and/or neutral factors can induce rapid changes to traits involved in mate choice, promoting reproductive isolation between allopatric populations that can eventually lead to speciation. We present the results of genetic differentiation, and explore drift and selection effects in promoting acoustic and morphological divergence among populations of Campylopterus curvipennis, a lekking hummingbird with an extraordinary vocal variability across Mesoamerica. Results Analyses of two mitochondrial genes and ten microsatellite loci genotyped for 160 individuals revealed the presence of three lineages with no contemporary gene flow: C. c. curvipennis, C. c. excellens, and C. c. pampa disjunctly distributed in the Sierra Madre Oriental, the Tuxtlas region and the Yucatan Peninsula, respectively. Sequence mtDNA and microsatellite data were congruent with two diversification events: an old vicariance event at the Isthmus of Tehuantepec (c. 1.4 Ma, and a more recent Pleistocene split, isolating populations in the Tuxtlas region. Hummingbirds of the excellens group were larger, and those of the pampa group had shorter bills, and lineages that have been isolated the longest shared fewer syllables and differed in spectral and temporal traits of a shared syllable. Coalescent simulations showed that fixation of song types has occurred faster than expected under neutrality but the null hypothesis that morphological divergence resulted from drift was not rejected. Conclusions Our phylogeographic analyses uncovered the presence of three Mesoamerican wedge-tailed sabrewing lineages, which diverged at different time scales. These results highlight the importance of the

  8. Remarkable ancient divergences amongst neglected lorisiform primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekaris, K. Anne‐Isola; Perkin, Andrew; Bearder, Simon K.; Pimley, Elizabeth R.; Schulze, Helga; Streicher, Ulrike; Nadler, Tilo; Kitchener, Andrew; Zischler, Hans; Zinner, Dietmar; Roos, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Lorisiform primates (Primates: Strepsirrhini: Lorisiformes) represent almost 10% of the living primate species and are widely distributed in sub‐Saharan Africa and South/South‐East Asia; however, their taxonomy, evolutionary history, and biogeography are still poorly understood. In this study we report the largest molecular phylogeny in terms of the number of represented taxa. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene for 86 lorisiform specimens, including ∼80% of all the species currently recognized. Our results support the monophyly of the Galagidae, but a common ancestry of the Lorisinae and Perodicticinae (family Lorisidae) was not recovered. These three lineages have early origins, with the Galagidae and the Lorisinae diverging in the Oligocene at about 30 Mya and the Perodicticinae emerging in the early Miocene. Our mitochondrial phylogeny agrees with recent studies based on nuclear data, and supports Euoticus as the oldest galagid lineage and the polyphyletic status of Galagoides. Moreover, we have elucidated phylogenetic relationships for several species never included before in a molecular phylogeny. The results obtained in this study suggest that lorisiform diversity remains substantially underestimated and that previously unnoticed cryptic diversity might be present within many lineages, thus urgently requiring a comprehensive taxonomic revision of this primate group. © 2015 The Linnean Society of London PMID:26900177

  9. Riverscape genetics identifies replicated ecological divergence across an Amazonian ecotone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Georgina M; Landguth, Erin L; Beheregaray, Luciano B

    2014-07-01

    Ecological speciation involves the evolution of reproductive isolation and niche divergence in the absence of a physical barrier to gene flow. The process is one of the most controversial topics of the speciation debate, particularly in tropical regions. Here, we investigate ecologically based divergence across an Amazonian ecotone in the electric fish, Steatogenys elegans. We combine phylogenetics, genome scans, and population genetics with a recently developed individual-based evolutionary landscape genetics approach that incorporates selection. This framework is used to assess the relative contributions of geography and divergent natural selection between environments as biodiversity drivers. We report on two closely related and sympatric lineages that exemplify how divergent selection across a major Amazonian aquatic ecotone (i.e., between rivers with markedly different hydrochemical properties) may result in replicated ecologically mediated speciation. The results link selection across an ecological gradient with reproductive isolation and we propose that assortative mating based on water color may be driving the divergence. Divergence resulting from ecologically driven selection highlights the importance of considering environmental heterogeneity in studies of speciation in tropical regions. Furthermore, we show that framing ecological speciation in a spatially explicit evolutionary landscape genetics framework provides an important first step in exploring a wide range of the potential effects of spatial dependence in natural selection. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  10. Divergência genética entre linhagens de matrizes de corte por meio de análise de agrupamento Genetic divergence in meat-type hens using cluster analysis

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    Marcos Yamaki

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar a divergência genética de três linhagens de matrizes de corte do Programa de Melhoramento Genético da UFV. Foram avaliados dados de 270 aves, 90 de cada linhagem, para estudo das características dias para o primeiro ovo (DPPO, taxa de postura da 22ª à 56ª semana (TP, peso médio individual na 32ª (PMI1, 40ª (PMI2, 48ª (PMI3, 56ª (PMI4 e 64ª semanas de idade (PMI5; e peso médio do ovo, obtido pela média da pesagem de três ovos na 32ª (PMO1, 40ª (PMO2, 48ª (PMO3, 56ª (PMO4 e 64ª semanas de idade (PMO5. Para avaliar a divergência, foram utilizados dois métodos: hierárquico do vizinho mais próximo e otimização de Tocher. Pelo método hierárquico do vizinho mais próximo, utilizando-se a distância de Mahalanobis ao quadrado (D² como medida de dissimilaridade, formou-se um único grupo. Pelo método de otimização de Tocher, foram formados dois grupos, comprovando que os dois métodos foram discordantes na avaliação da divergência genética de linhas de aves de corte. As características que apresentaram as contribuições relativas mais expressivas para a divergência foram, respectivamente, PMO1 (25,71%, DDPO (21,76%, PMI4 (17,65% e PMI2 (13,04%.Genetic divergence among three lineages of meat-type hens from the Genetic Breeding Program of the Universidade Federal de Viçosa was evaluated for the following traits: days at first egg (DPPO, egg production rate (TP from 22nd to 56th week, body weight on the 32nd (PMI1, on 40th (PMI2, at 48th (PMI3, at 56th (PMI4 and at the 64th week (PMI5, egg weight on the 32nd (PMO1, on 40th (PMO2, at 48th (PMO3, at 56th (PMO4 and at the 64th week (PMO5. Traits were measured on 270 hens (90 of each lineage and two different methods were used to evaluate genetic divergence. For the single linkage hierarchical method, using the squared Mahalanobis distance (D² as the dissimilarity measure, only one single group was formed. When

  11. Decoupled leaf and root carbon economics is a key component in the ecological diversity and evolutionary divergence of deciduous and evergreen lineages of genus Rhododendron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Juliana S; Burns, Jean H; Nicholson, Jaynell; Rogers, Louisa; Valverde-Barrantes, Oscar

    2017-06-01

    We explored trait-trait and trait-climate relationships for 27 Rhododendron species while accounting for phylogenetic relationships and within-species variation to investigate whether leaf and root traits are coordinated across environments and over evolutionary time, as part of a whole-plant economics spectrum. We examined specific leaf area (SLA) and four root traits: specific root length (SRL), specific root tip abundance (SRTA), first order diameter, and link average length, for plants growing in a cold, seasonal climate (Kirtland, Ohio) and a warmer, less seasonal climate (Federal Way, Washington) in the United States. We estimated a phylogeny and species' climate of origin, determined phylogenetic signal on mean traits and within-species variation, and used phylogenetically informed analysis to compare trait-trait and trait-climate relationships for deciduous and evergreen lineages. Mean SLA and within-species variation in SRL were more similar between close relatives than expected by chance. SLA and root traits differed according to climate of origin and across growth environments, though SLA differed within- and among-species less than roots. A negative SRL-SRTA correlation indicates investment in foraging scale vs. precision as a fundamental trade-off defining the root economic spectrum. Also, the deciduous clade exhibited a strong negative relationship between SLA and SRL, while evergreen clades showed a weaker positive or no relationship. Our work suggests that natural selection has shaped relationships between above- and belowground traits in genus Rhododendron and that leaf and root traits may evolve independently. Morphological decoupling may help explain habitat diversity among Rhododendron species, as well as the changes accompanying the divergence of deciduous and evergreen lineages. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  12. Genetic structure and divergence in populations of Lutzomyia cruciata, a phlebotomine sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vector of Leishmania mexicana in southeastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pech-May, Angélica; Marina, Carlos F; Vázquez-Domínguez, Ella; Berzunza-Cruz, Miriam; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A; Narváez-Zapata, José A; Moo-Llanes, David; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Ramsey, Janine M; Becker, Ingeborg

    2013-06-01

    The low dispersal capacity of sand flies could lead to population isolation due to geographic barriers, climate variation, or to population fragmentation associated with specific local habitats due to landscape modification. The phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia cruciata has a wide distribution throughout Mexico and is a vector of Leishmania mexicana in the southeast. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity, structure, and divergence within and among populations of Lu. cruciata in the state of Chiapas, and to infer the intra-specific phylogeny using the 3' end of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. We analyzed 62 sequences from four Lu. cruciata populations and found 26 haplotypes, high genetic differentiation and restricted gene flow among populations (Fst=0.416, Nm=0.701, p<0.001). The highest diversity values were recorded in populations from Loma Bonita and Guadalupe Miramar. Three lineages (100% bootstrap and 7% overall divergence) were identified using a maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis which showed high genetic divergence (17.2-22.7%). A minimum spanning haplotype network also supported separation into three lineages. Genetic structure and divergence within and among Lu. cruciata populations are hence affected by geographic heterogeneity and evolutionary background. Data obtained in the present study suggest that Lu. cruciata in the state of Chiapas consists of at least three lineages. Such findings may have implications for vector capacity and hence for vector control strategies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Divergence of RNA polymerase α subunits in angiosperm plastid genomes is mediated by genomic rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazier, J Chris; Ruhlman, Tracey A; Weng, Mao-Lun; Rehman, Sumaiyah K; Sabir, Jamal S M; Jansen, Robert K

    2016-04-18

    Genes for the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase (PEP) persist in the plastid genomes of all photosynthetic angiosperms. However, three unrelated lineages (Annonaceae, Passifloraceae and Geraniaceae) have been identified with unusually divergent open reading frames (ORFs) in the conserved region of rpoA, the gene encoding the PEP α subunit. We used sequence-based approaches to evaluate whether these genes retain function. Both gene sequences and complete plastid genome sequences were assembled and analyzed from each of the three angiosperm families. Multiple lines of evidence indicated that the rpoA sequences are likely functional despite retaining as low as 30% nucleotide sequence identity with rpoA genes from outgroups in the same angiosperm order. The ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions indicated that these genes are under purifying selection, and bioinformatic prediction of conserved domains indicated that functional domains are preserved. One of the lineages (Pelargonium, Geraniaceae) contains species with multiple rpoA-like ORFs that show evidence of ongoing inter-paralog gene conversion. The plastid genomes containing these divergent rpoA genes have experienced extensive structural rearrangement, including large expansions of the inverted repeat. We propose that illegitimate recombination, not positive selection, has driven the divergence of rpoA.

  14. Molecular evolution of avian reovirus: evidence for genetic diversity and reassortment of the S-class genome segments and multiple cocirculating lineages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hung J.; Lee, Long H.; Hsu, Hsiao W.; Kuo, Liam C.; Liao, Ming H.

    2003-01-01

    Nucleotide sequences of the S-class genome segments of 17 field-isolates and vaccine strains of avian reovirus (ARV) isolated over a 23-year period from different hosts, pathotypes, and geographic locations were examined and analyzed to define phylogenetic profiles and evolutionary mechanism. The S1 genome segment showed noticeably higher divergence than the other S-class genes. The σC-encoding gene has evolved into six distinct lineages. In contrast, the other S-class genes showed less divergence than that of the σC-encoding gene and have evolved into two to three major distinct lineages, respectively. Comparative sequence analysis provided evidence indicating extensive sequence divergence between ARV and other orthoreoviruses. The evolutionary trees of each gene were distinct, suggesting that these genes evolve in an independent manner. Furthermore, variable topologies were the result of frequent genetic reassortment among multiple cocirculating lineages. Results showed genetic diversity correlated more closely with date of isolation and geographic sites than with host species and pathotypes. This is the first evidence demonstrating genetic variability among circulating ARVs through a combination of evolutionary mechanisms involving multiple cocirculating lineages and genetic reassortment. The evolutionary rates and patterns of base substitutions were examined. The evolutionary rate for the σC-encoding gene and σC protein was higher than for the other S-class genes and other family of viruses. With the exception of the σC-encoding gene, which nonsynonymous substitutions predominate over synonymous, the evolutionary process of the other S-class genes can be explained by the neutral theory of molecular evolution. Results revealed that synonymous substitutions predominate over nonsynonymous in the S-class genes, even though genetic diversity and substitution rates vary among the viruses

  15. Detection of Inter-lineage Natural Recombination in Avian Paramyxovirus Serotype 1 using Simplified Deep Sequencing Platform

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    Dilan Amila Satharasinghe

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease virus (NDV is a prototype member of avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1, which causes severe and contagious disease in the commercial poultry and wild birds. Despite extensive vaccination programs and other control measures, the disease remains endemic around the globe especially in Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. Being a single serotype, genotype II based vaccines remained most acceptable means of immunization. However, the evidence is emerging on failures of vaccines mainly due to evolving nature of the virus and higher genetic gaps between vaccine and field strains of APMV-1. Most of the epidemiological and genetic characterizations of APMVs are based on conventional methods, which are prone to mask the diverse population of viruses in complex samples. In this study, we report the application of a simple, robust, and less resource-demanding methodology for the whole genome sequencing of NDV, using next-generation sequencing on the Illumina MiSeq platform. Using this platform, we sequenced full genomes of five virulent Malaysian NDV strains collected during 2004-2013. All isolates clustered within highly prevalent lineage 5 (specifically in lineage 5a; however, a significantly greater genetic divergence was observed in isolates collected from 2004 to 2011. Interestingly, genetic characterization of one isolate collected in 2013 (IBS025/13 shown natural recombination between lineage 2 and lineage 5. In the event of recombination, the isolate (IBS025/13 carried nucleocapsid protein consist of 55-1801 nucleotides (nts and near-complete phosphoprotein (1804-3254 nts genes of lineage 2 whereas surface glycoproteins (fusion, hemagglutinin-neuraminidase and large polymerase of lineage 5. Additionally, the recombinant virus has a genome size of 15,186 nts which is characteristics for the old genotypes I to IV isolated from 1930 to 1960. Taken together, we report the occurrence of a natural recombination in circulating strains

  16. Detection of Inter-Lineage Natural Recombination in Avian Paramyxovirus Serotype 1 Using Simplified Deep Sequencing Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satharasinghe, Dilan A; Murulitharan, Kavitha; Tan, Sheau W; Yeap, Swee K; Munir, Muhammad; Ideris, Aini; Omar, Abdul R

    2016-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a prototype member of avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1), which causes severe and contagious disease in the commercial poultry and wild birds. Despite extensive vaccination programs and other control measures, the disease remains endemic around the globe especially in Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. Being a single serotype, genotype II based vaccines remained most acceptable means of immunization. However, the evidence is emerging on failures of vaccines mainly due to evolving nature of the virus and higher genetic gaps between vaccine and field strains of APMV-1. Most of the epidemiological and genetic characterizations of APMVs are based on conventional methods, which are prone to mask the diverse population of viruses in complex samples. In this study, we report the application of a simple, robust, and less resource-demanding methodology for the whole genome sequencing of NDV, using next-generation sequencing (NGS) on the Illumina MiSeq platform. Using this platform, we sequenced full genomes of five virulent Malaysian NDV strains collected during 2004-2013. All isolates clustered within highly prevalent lineage 5 (specifically in lineage 5a); however, a significantly greater genetic divergence was observed in isolates collected from 2004 to 2011. Interestingly, genetic characterization of one isolate collected in 2013 (IBS025/13) shown natural recombination between lineage 2 and lineage 5. In the event of recombination, the isolate (IBS025/13) carried nucleocapsid protein consist of 55-1801 nucleotides (nts) and near-complete phosphoprotein (1804-3254 nts) genes of lineage 2 whereas surface glycoproteins (fusion, hemagglutinin-neuraminidase) and large polymerase of lineage 5. Additionally, the recombinant virus has a genome size of 15,186 nts which is characteristics for the old genotypes I-IV isolated from 1930 to 1960. Taken together, we report the occurrence of a natural recombination in circulating strains of NDV in

  17. PHF6 regulates phenotypic plasticity through chromatin organization within lineage-specific genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Feliciano, Yadira M; Bartlebaugh, Jordan M E; Liu, Yunpeng; Sánchez-Rivera, Francisco J; Bhutkar, Arjun; Weintraub, Abraham S; Buenrostro, Jason D; Cheng, Christine S; Regev, Aviv; Jacks, Tyler E; Young, Richard A; Hemann, Michael T

    2017-05-15

    Developmental and lineage plasticity have been observed in numerous malignancies and have been correlated with tumor progression and drug resistance. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that enable such plasticity to occur. Here, we describe the function of the plant homeodomain finger protein 6 (PHF6) in leukemia and define its role in regulating chromatin accessibility to lineage-specific transcription factors. We show that loss of Phf6 in B-cell leukemia results in systematic changes in gene expression via alteration of the chromatin landscape at the transcriptional start sites of B-cell- and T-cell-specific factors. Additionally, Phf6 KO cells show significant down-regulation of genes involved in the development and function of normal B cells, show up-regulation of genes involved in T-cell signaling, and give rise to mixed-lineage lymphoma in vivo. Engagement of divergent transcriptional programs results in phenotypic plasticity that leads to altered disease presentation in vivo, tolerance of aberrant oncogenic signaling, and differential sensitivity to frontline and targeted therapies. These findings suggest that active maintenance of a precise chromatin landscape is essential for sustaining proper leukemia cell identity and that loss of a single factor (PHF6) can cause focal changes in chromatin accessibility and nucleosome positioning that render cells susceptible to lineage transition. © 2017 Soto-Feliciano et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  18. Persistence of the single lineage of transmissible 'social cancer' in an asexual ant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobata, S; Sasaki, T; Mori, H; Hasegawa, E; Shimada, M; Tsuji, K

    2011-02-01

    How cooperation can arise and persist, given the threat of cheating phenotypes, is a central problem in evolutionary biology, but the actual significance of cheating in natural populations is still poorly understood. Theories of social evolution predict that cheater lineages are evolutionarily short-lived. However, an exception comes from obligate socially parasitic species, some of which thought to have arisen as cheaters within cooperator colonies and then diverged through sympatric speciation. This process requires the cheater lineage to persist by avoiding rapid extinction that would result from the fact that the cheaters inflict fitness cost on their host. We examined whether this prerequisite is fulfilled, by estimating the persistence time of cheaters in a field population of the parthenogenetic ant Pristomyrmex punctatus. Population genetic analysis found that the cheaters belong to one monophyletic lineage which we infer has persisted for 200-9200 generations. We show that the cheaters migrate and are thus horizontally transmitted between colonies, a trait allowing the lineage to avoid rapid extinction with its host colony. Although horizontal transmission of disruptive cheaters has the potential to induce extinction of the entire population, such collapse is likely averted when there is spatially restricted migration in a structured population, a scenario that matches the observed isolation by distance pattern that we found. We compare our result with other examples of disruptive and horizontally transmissible cheater lineages in nature. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Predictors for reproductive isolation in a ring species complex following genetic and ecological divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ricardo J; Monahan, William B; Wake, David B

    2011-07-06

    Reproductive isolation (RI) is widely accepted as an important "check point" in the diversification process, since it defines irreversible evolutionary trajectories. Much less consensus exists about the processes that might drive RI. Here, we employ a formal quantitative analysis of genetic interactions at several stages of divergence within the ring species complex Ensatina eschscholtzii in order to assess the relative contribution of genetic and ecological divergence for the development of RI. By augmenting previous genetic datasets and adding new ecological data, we quantify levels of genetic and ecological divergence between populations and test how they correlate with a restriction of genetic admixture upon secondary contact. Our results indicate that the isolated effect of ecological divergence between parental populations does not result in reproductively isolated taxa, even when genetic transitions between parental taxa are narrow. Instead, processes associated with overall genetic divergence are the best predictors of reproductive isolation, and when parental taxa diverge in nuclear markers we observe a complete cessation of hybridization, even to sympatric occurrence of distinct evolutionary lineages. Although every parental population has diverged in mitochondrial DNA, its degree of divergence does not predict the extent of RI. These results show that in Ensatina, the evolutionary outcomes of ecological divergence differ from those of genetic divergence. While evident properties of taxa may emerge via ecological divergence, such as adaptation to local environment, RI is likely to be a byproduct of processes that contribute to overall genetic divergence, such as time in geographic isolation, rather than being a direct outcome of local adaptation.

  20. Plastid Phylogenomic Analyses Resolve Tofieldiaceae as the Root of the Early Diverging Monocot Order Alismatales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yang; Ma, Peng-Fei; Li, Hong-Tao; Yang, Jun-Bo; Wang, Hong; Li, De-Zhu

    2016-04-06

    The predominantly aquatic order Alismatales, which includes approximately 4,500 species within Araceae, Tofieldiaceae, and the core alismatid families, is a key group in investigating the origin and early diversification of monocots. Despite their importance, phylogenetic ambiguity regarding the root of the Alismatales tree precludes answering questions about the early evolution of the order. Here, we sequenced the first complete plastid genomes from three key families in this order:Potamogeton perfoliatus(Potamogetonaceae),Sagittaria lichuanensis(Alismataceae), andTofieldia thibetica(Tofieldiaceae). Each family possesses the typical quadripartite structure, with plastid genome sizes of 156,226, 179,007, and 155,512 bp, respectively. Among them, the plastid genome ofS. lichuanensisis the largest in monocots and the second largest in angiosperms. Like other sequenced Alismatales plastid genomes, all three families generally encode the same 113 genes with similar structure and arrangement. However, we detected 2.4 and 6 kb inversions in the plastid genomes ofSagittariaandPotamogeton, respectively. Further, we assembled a 79 plastid protein-coding gene sequence data matrix of 22 taxa that included the three newly generated plastid genomes plus 19 previously reported ones, which together represent all primary lineages of monocots and outgroups. In plastid phylogenomic analyses using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference, we show both strong support for Acorales as sister to the remaining monocots and monophyly of Alismatales. More importantly, Tofieldiaceae was resolved as the most basal lineage within Alismatales. These results provide new insights into the evolution of Alismatales as well as the early-diverging monocots as a whole. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  1. Change of niche in guanaco (Lama guanicoe: the effects of climate change on habitat suitability and lineage conservatism in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea G. Castillo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The main goal of this contribution was to define the ecological niche of the guanaco (Lama guanicoe, to describe potential distributional changes, and to assess the relative importance of niche conservatism and divergence processes between the two lineages described for the species (L.g. cacsilensis and L.g. guanicoe. Methods We used maximum entropy to model lineage’s climate niche from 3,321 locations throughout continental Chile, and developed future niche models under climate change for two extreme greenhouse gas emission scenarios (RCP2.6 and RCP8.5. We evaluated changes of the environmental niche and future distribution of the largest mammal in the Southern Cone of South America. Evaluation of niche conservatism and divergence were based on identity and background similarity tests. Results We show that: (a the current geographic distribution of lineages is associated with different climatic requirements that are related to the geographic areas where these lineages are located; (b future distribution models predict a decrease in the distribution surface under both scenarios; (c a 3% decrease of areal protection is expected if the current distribution of protected areas is maintained, and this is expected to occur at the expense of a large reduction of high quality habitats under the best scenario; (d current and future distribution ranges of guanaco mostly adhere to phylogenetic niche divergence hypotheses between lineages. Discussion Associating environmental variables with species ecological niche seems to be an important aspect of unveiling the particularities of, both evolutionary patterns and ecological features that species face in a changing environment. We report specific descriptions of how these patterns may play out under the most extreme climate change predictions and provide a grim outlook of the future potential distribution of guanaco in Chile. From an ecological perspective, while a slightly smaller distribution

  2. Evolution of pygmy angelfishes: Recent divergences, introgression, and the usefulness of color in taxonomy

    KAUST Repository

    Gaither, Michelle R.

    2014-05-01

    The pygmy angelfishes (genus Centropyge, family Pomacanthidae) are brightly colored species that occupy reef habitats in every tropical ocean. Some species are rarely observed because they occur below conventional scuba depths. Their striking coloration can command thousands of U.S. dollars in the aquarium trade, and closely related species are often distinguished only by coloration. These factors have impeded phylogenetic resolution, and every phylogeographic survey to date has reported discordance between coloration, taxonomy, and genetic partitions. Here we report a phylogenetic survey of 29 of the 34 recognized species (N= 94 plus 23 outgroups), based on two mtDNA and three nuclear loci, totaling 2272. bp. The resulting ML and Baysian trees are highly concordant and indicate that the genus Centropyge is paraphyletic, consistent with a previous analysis of the family Pomacanthidae. Two recognized genera (Apolemichthys and Genicanthus) nest within Centropyge, and two subgenera (Xiphypops and Paracentropyge) comprise monophyletic lineages that should be elevated to genus level. Based on an age estimate of 38. Ma for the family Pomacanthidae, Centropyge diverged from the closest extant genus Pygoplites about 33. Ma, three deep lineages within Centropyge diverged about 18-28. Ma, and four species complexes diverged 3-12. Ma. However, in 11 of 13 cases, putative species in these complexes are indistinguishable based on morphology and genetics, being defined solely by coloration. These cases indicate either emerging species or excessive taxonomic splitting based on brightly colored variants. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  3. Phylogeny and chronology of the major lineages of New World hystricognath rodents: insights on the biogeography of the Eocene/Oligocene arrival of mammals in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voloch, Carolina M; Vilela, Julio F; Loss-Oliveira, Leticia; Schrago, Carlos G

    2013-04-22

    The hystricognath rodents of the New World, the Caviomorpha, are a diverse lineage with a long evolutionary history, and their representation in South American fossil record begins with their occurrence in Eocene deposits from Peru. Debates regarding the origin and diversification of this group represent longstanding issues in mammalian evolution because early hystricognaths, as well as Platyrrhini primates, appeared when South American was an isolated landmass, which raised the possibility of a synchronous arrival of these mammalian groups. Thus, an immediate biogeographic problem is posed by the study of caviomorph origins. This problem has motivated the analysis of hystricognath evolution with molecular dating techniques that relied essentially on nuclear data. However, questions remain about the phylogeny and chronology of the major caviomorph lineages. To enhance the understanding of the evolution of the Hystricognathi in the New World, we sequenced new mitochondrial genomes of caviomorphs and performed a combined analysis with nuclear genes. Our analysis supports the existence of two major caviomorph lineages: the (Chinchilloidea + Octodontoidea) and the (Cavioidea + Erethizontoidea), which diverged in the late Eocene. The Caviomorpha/phiomorph divergence also occurred at approximately 43 Ma. We inferred that all family-level divergences of New World hystricognaths occurred in the early Miocene. The molecular estimates presented in this study, inferred from the combined analysis of mitochondrial genomes and nuclear data, are in complete agreement with the recently proposed paleontological scenario of Caviomorpha evolution. A comparison with recent studies on New World primate diversification indicate that although the hypothesis that both lineages arrived synchronously in the Neotropics cannot be discarded, the times elapsed since the most recent common ancestor of the extant representatives of both groups are different.

  4. Selection from parasites favours immunogenetic diversity but not divergence among locally adapted host populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobler, M; Plath, M; Riesch, R; Schlupp, I; Grasse, A; Munimanda, G K; Setzer, C; Penn, D J; Moodley, Y

    2014-05-01

    The unprecedented polymorphism in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes is thought to be maintained by balancing selection from parasites. However, do parasites also drive divergence at MHC loci between host populations, or do the effects of balancing selection maintain similarities among populations? We examined MHC variation in populations of the livebearing fish Poecilia mexicana and characterized their parasite communities. Poecilia mexicana populations in the Cueva del Azufre system are locally adapted to darkness and the presence of toxic hydrogen sulphide, representing highly divergent ecotypes or incipient species. Parasite communities differed significantly across populations, and populations with higher parasite loads had higher levels of diversity at class II MHC genes. However, despite different parasite communities, marked divergence in adaptive traits and in neutral genetic markers, we found MHC alleles to be remarkably similar among host populations. Our findings indicate that balancing selection from parasites maintains immunogenetic diversity of hosts, but this process does not promote MHC divergence in this system. On the contrary, we suggest that balancing selection on immunogenetic loci may outweigh divergent selection causing divergence, thereby hindering host divergence and speciation. Our findings support the hypothesis that balancing selection maintains MHC similarities among lineages during and after speciation (trans-species evolution). © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  5. Mouse prenatal platelet-forming lineages share a core transcriptional program but divergent dependence on MPL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Kathryn S; Sargeant, Tobias J; Dawson, Caleb A; Josefsson, Emma C; Hilton, Douglas J; Alexander, Warren S; Taoudi, Samir

    2015-08-06

    The thrombopoietic environment of the neonate is established during prenatal life; therefore, a comprehensive understanding of platelet-forming cell development during embryogenesis is critical to understanding the etiology of early-onset thrombocytopenia. The recent discovery that the first platelet-forming cells of the conceptus are not megakaryocytes (MKs) but diploid platelet-forming cells (DPFCs) revealed a previously unappreciated complexity in thrombopoiesis. This raises important questions, including the following. When do conventional MKs appear? Do pathogenic genetic lesions of adult MKs affect DPFCs? What role does myeloproliferative leukemia virus (MPL), a key regulator of adult megakaryopoiesis, play in prenatal platelet-forming lineages? We performed a comprehensive study to determine the spatial and temporal appearance of prenatal platelet-forming lineages. We demonstrate that DPFCs originate in the yolk sac and then rapidly migrate to other extra- and intraembryonic tissues. Using gene disruption models of Gata1 and Nfe2, we demonstrate that perturbing essential adult MK genes causes an analogous phenotype in the early embryo before the onset of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell-driven (definitive) hematopoiesis. Finally, we present the surprising finding that DPFC and MK commitment from their respective precursors is MPL independent in vivo but that completion of MK differentiation and establishment of the prenatal platelet mass is dependent on MPL expression. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  6. Genome-wide patterns of differentiation and spatially varying selection between postglacial recolonization lineages of Populus alba (Salicaceae), a widespread forest tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stölting, Kai N; Paris, Margot; Meier, Cécile; Heinze, Berthold; Castiglione, Stefano; Bartha, Denes; Lexer, Christian

    2015-08-01

    Studying the divergence continuum in plants is relevant to fundamental and applied biology because of the potential to reveal functionally important genetic variation. In this context, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) provides the necessary rigour for uncovering footprints of selection. We resequenced populations of two divergent phylogeographic lineages of Populus alba (n = 48), thoroughly characterized by microsatellites (n = 317), and scanned their genomes for regions of unusually high allelic differentiation and reduced diversity using > 1.7 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from WGS. Results were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. On average, 9134 high-differentiation (≥ 4 standard deviations) outlier SNPs were uncovered between populations, 848 of which were shared by ≥ three replicate comparisons. Annotation revealed that 545 of these were located in 437 predicted genes. Twelve percent of differentiation outlier genome regions exhibited significantly reduced genetic diversity. Gene ontology (GO) searches were successful for 327 high-differentiation genes, and these were enriched for 63 GO terms. Our results provide a snapshot of the roles of 'hard selective sweeps' vs divergent selection of standing genetic variation in distinct postglacial recolonization lineages of P. alba. Thus, this study adds to our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the origin of functionally relevant variation in temperate trees. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Optimizing and accelerating the assignation of lineages in Mycobacterium tuberculosis using novel alternative single-tube assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Carcelén

    Full Text Available The assignation of lineages in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB provides valuable information for evolutionary and phylogeographic studies and makes for more accurate knowledge of the distribution of this pathogen worldwide. Differences in virulence have also been found for certain lineages. MTB isolates were initially assigned to lineages based on data obtained from genotyping techniques, such as spoligotyping or MIRU-VNTR analysis, some of which are more suitable for molecular epidemiology studies. However, since these methods are subject to a certain degree of homoplasy, other criteria have been chosen to assign lineages. These are based on targeting robust and specific SNPs for each lineage. Here, we propose two newly designed multiplex targeting methods-both of which are single-tube tests-to optimize the assignation of the six main lineages in MTB. The first method is based on ASO-PCR and offers an inexpensive and easy-to-implement assay for laboratories with limited resources. The other, which is based on SNaPshot, enables more refined standardized assignation of lineages for laboratories with better resources. Both methods performed well when assigning lineages from cultured isolates from a control panel, a test panel, and a problem panel from an unrelated population, Mexico, which included isolates in which standard genotyping was not able to classify lineages. Both tests were also able to assign lineages from stored isolates, without the need for subculture or purification of DNA, and even directly from clinical specimens with a medium-high bacilli burden. Our assays could broaden the contexts where information on lineages can be acquired, thus enabling us to quickly update data from retrospective collections and to merge data with those obtained at the time of diagnosis of a new TB case.

  8. Lake Tanganyika--a 'melting pot' of ancient and young cichlid lineages (Teleostei: Cichlidae?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane D Weiss

    Full Text Available A long history of research focused on the East Africa cichlid radiations (EAR revealed discrepancies between mtDNA and nuclear phylogenies, suggesting that interspecific hybridisation may have been significant during the radiation of these fishes. The approximately 250 cichlid species of Lake Tanganyika have their roots in a monophyletic African cichlid assemblage, but controversies remain about the precise phylogenetic origin and placement of different lineages and consequently about L. Tanganyika colonization scenarios. 3312 AFLP loci and the mitochondrial ND2 gene were genotyped for 91 species representing almost all major lacustrine and riverine haplotilapiine east African cichlid lineages with a focus on L. Tanganyika endemics. Explicitly testing for the possibility of ancient hybridisation events, a comprehensive phylogenetic network hypothesis is proposed for the origin and diversification of L. Tanganyika cichlids. Inference of discordant phylogenetic signal strongly suggests that the genomes of two endemic L. Tanganyika tribes, Eretmodini and Tropheini, are composed of an ancient mixture of riverine and lacustrine lineages. For the first time a strong monophyly signal of all non-haplochromine mouthbrooding species endemic to L. Tanganyika ("ancient mouthbrooders" was detected. Further, in the genomes of early diverging L. Tanganyika endemics Trematocarini, Bathybatini, Hemibatini and Boulengerochromis genetic components of other lineages belonging to the East African Radiation appear to be present. In combination with recent palaeo-geological results showing that tectonic activity in the L. Tanganyika region resulted in highly dynamic and heterogeneous landscape evolution over the Neogene and Pleistocene, the novel phylogenetic data render a single lacustrine basin as the geographical cradle of the endemic L. Tanganyika cichlid lineages unlikely. Instead a scenario of a pre-rift origin of several independent L. Tanganyika precursor

  9. Pliocene-Pleistocene lineage diversifications in the Eastern Indigo Snake (Drymarchon couperi) in the Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysko, Kenneth L; Nuñez, Leroy P; Lippi, Catherine A; Smith, Daniel J; Granatosky, Michael C

    2016-05-01

    Indigo Snakes (Drymarchon; with five currently recognized species) occur from northern Argentina, northward to the United States in southern Texas and eastward in disjunct populations in Florida and Georgia. Based on this known allopatry and a difference in supralabial morphology the two United States taxa previously considered as subspecies within D. corais (Boie 1827), the Western Indigo Snake, D. melanurus erebennus (Cope 1860), and Eastern Indigo Snake, D. couperi (Holbrook 1842), are currently recognized as separate species. Drymarchon couperi is a Federally-designated Threatened species by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service under the Endangered Species Act, and currently being incorporated into a translocation program. This, combined with its disjunct distribution makes it a prime candidate for studying speciation and genetic divergence. In this study, we (1) test the hypothesis that D. m. erebennus and D. couperi are distinct lineages by analyzing 2411 base pairs (bp) of two mitochondrial (mtDNA) loci and one single copy nuclear (scnDNA) locus; (2) estimate the timing of speciation using a relaxed phylogenetics method to determine if Milankovitch cycles during the Pleistocene might have had an influence on lineage diversifications; (3) examine historical population demography to determine if identified lineages have undergone population declines, expansions, or remained stable during the most recent Milankovitch cycles; and (4) use this information to assist in an effective and scientifically sound translocation program. Our molecular data support the initial hypothesis that D. melanurus and D. couperi should be recognized as distinct species, but further illustrate that D. couperi is split into two distinct genetic lineages that correspond to historical biogeography and sea level changes in peninsular Florida. These two well-supported genetic lineages (herein termed Atlantic and Gulf lineages) illustrate a common biogeographic distributional break

  10. LCGbase: A Comprehensive Database for Lineage-Based Co-regulated Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dapeng; Zhang, Yubin; Fan, Zhonghua; Liu, Guiming; Yu, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Animal genes of different lineages, such as vertebrates and arthropods, are well-organized and blended into dynamic chromosomal structures that represent a primary regulatory mechanism for body development and cellular differentiation. The majority of genes in a genome are actually clustered, which are evolutionarily stable to different extents and biologically meaningful when evaluated among genomes within and across lineages. Until now, many questions concerning gene organization, such as what is the minimal number of genes in a cluster and what is the driving force leading to gene co-regulation, remain to be addressed. Here, we provide a user-friendly database-LCGbase (a comprehensive database for lineage-based co-regulated genes)-hosting information on evolutionary dynamics of gene clustering and ordering within animal kingdoms in two different lineages: vertebrates and arthropods. The database is constructed on a web-based Linux-Apache-MySQL-PHP framework and effective interactive user-inquiry service. Compared to other gene annotation databases with similar purposes, our database has three comprehensible advantages. First, our database is inclusive, including all high-quality genome assemblies of vertebrates and representative arthropod species. Second, it is human-centric since we map all gene clusters from other genomes in an order of lineage-ranks (such as primates, mammals, warm-blooded, and reptiles) onto human genome and start the database from well-defined gene pairs (a minimal cluster where the two adjacent genes are oriented as co-directional, convergent, and divergent pairs) to large gene clusters. Furthermore, users can search for any adjacent genes and their detailed annotations. Third, the database provides flexible parameter definitions, such as the distance of transcription start sites between two adjacent genes, which is extendable to genes that flanking the cluster across species. We also provide useful tools for sequence alignment, gene

  11. Genomic Analyses Reveal Demographic History and Temperate Adaptation of the Newly Discovered Honey Bee Subspecies Apis mellifera sinisxinyuan n. ssp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Liu, Zhiguang; Pan, Qi; Chen, Xiao; Wang, Huihua; Guo, Haikun; Liu, Shidong; Lu, Hongfeng; Tian, Shilin; Li, Ruiqiang; Shi, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Studying the genetic signatures of climate-driven selection can produce insights into local adaptation and the potential impacts of climate change on populations. The honey bee (Apis mellifera) is an interesting species to study local adaptation because it originated in tropical/subtropical climatic regions and subsequently spread into temperate regions. However, little is known about the genetic basis of its adaptation to temperate climates. Here, we resequenced the whole genomes of ten individual bees from a newly discovered population in temperate China and downloaded resequenced data from 35 individuals from other populations. We found that the new population is an undescribed subspecies in the M-lineage of A. mellifera (Apis mellifera sinisxinyuan). Analyses of population history show that long-term global temperature has strongly influenced the demographic history of A. m. sinisxinyuan and its divergence from other subspecies. Further analyses comparing temperate and tropical populations identified several candidate genes related to fat body and the Hippo signaling pathway that are potentially involved in adaptation to temperate climates. Our results provide insights into the demographic history of the newly discovered A. m. sinisxinyuan, as well as the genetic basis of adaptation of A. mellifera to temperate climates at the genomic level. These findings will facilitate the selective breeding of A. mellifera to improve the survival of overwintering colonies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  12. Divergence of RNA polymerase ? subunits in angiosperm plastid genomes is mediated by genomic rearrangement

    OpenAIRE

    Blazier, J. Chris; Ruhlman, Tracey A.; Weng, Mao-Lun; Rehman, Sumaiyah K.; Sabir, Jamal S. M.; Jansen, Robert K.

    2016-01-01

    Genes for the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase (PEP) persist in the plastid genomes of all photosynthetic angiosperms. However, three unrelated lineages (Annonaceae, Passifloraceae and Geraniaceae) have been identified with unusually divergent open reading frames (ORFs) in the conserved region of rpoA, the gene encoding the PEP ? subunit. We used sequence-based approaches to evaluate whether these genes retain function. Both gene sequences and complete plastid genome sequences were assembled an...

  13. Comparing the Dictyostelium and Entamoeba genomes reveals an ancient split in the Conosa lineage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Song

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The Amoebozoa are a sister clade to the fungi and the animals, but are poorly sampled for completely sequenced genomes. The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum and amitochondriate pathogen Entamoeba histolytica are the first Amoebozoa with genomes completely sequenced. Both organisms are classified under the Conosa subphylum. To identify Amoebozoa-specific genomic elements, we compared these two genomes to each other and to other eukaryotic genomes. An expanded phylogenetic tree built from the complete predicted proteomes of 23 eukaryotes places the two amoebae in the same lineage, although the divergence is estimated to be greater than that between animals and fungi, and probably happened shortly after the Amoebozoa split from the opisthokont lineage. Most of the 1,500 orthologous gene families shared between the two amoebae are also shared with plant, animal, and fungal genomes. We found that only 42 gene families are distinct to the amoeba lineage; among these are a large number of proteins that contain repeats of the FNIP domain, and a putative transcription factor essential for proper cell type differentiation in D. discoideum. These Amoebozoa-specific genes may be useful in the design of novel diagnostics and therapies for amoebal pathologies.

  14. Complete avian malaria parasite genomes reveal features associated with lineage-specific evolution in birds and mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhme, Ulrike; Otto, Thomas D.; Cotton, James A.; Steinbiss, Sascha; Sanders, Mandy; Oyola, Samuel O.; Nicot, Antoine; Gandon, Sylvain; Patra, Kailash P.; Herd, Colin; Bushell, Ellen; Modrzynska, Katarzyna K.; Billker, Oliver; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Rivero, Ana; Newbold, Chris I.; Berriman, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Avian malaria parasites are prevalent around the world and infect a wide diversity of bird species. Here, we report the sequencing and analysis of high-quality draft genome sequences for two avian malaria species, Plasmodium relictum and Plasmodium gallinaceum. We identify 50 genes that are specific to avian malaria, located in an otherwise conserved core of the genome that shares gene synteny with all other sequenced malaria genomes. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the avian malaria species form an outgroup to the mammalian Plasmodium species, and using amino acid divergence between species, we estimate the avian- and mammalian-infective lineages diverged in the order of 10 million years ago. Consistent with their phylogenetic position, we identify orthologs of genes that had previously appeared to be restricted to the clades of parasites containing Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, the species with the greatest impact on human health. From these orthologs, we explore differential diversifying selection across the genus and show that the avian lineage is remarkable in the extent to which invasion-related genes are evolving. The subtelomeres of the P. relictum and P. gallinaceum genomes contain several novel gene families, including an expanded surf multigene family. We also identify an expansion of reticulocyte binding protein homologs in P. relictum, and within these proteins, we detect distinct regions that are specific to nonhuman primate, humans, rodent, and avian hosts. For the first time in the Plasmodium lineage, we find evidence of transposable elements, including several hundred fragments of LTR-retrotransposons in both species and an apparently complete LTR-retrotransposon in the genome of P. gallinaceum. PMID:29500236

  15. Evolution and genome specialization of Brucella suis biovar 2 Iberian lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana Cristina; Tenreiro, Rogério; de Sá, Maria Inácia Corrêa; Dias, Ricardo

    2017-09-12

    Swine brucellosis caused by B. suis biovar 2 is an emergent disease in domestic pigs in Europe. The emergence of this pathogen has been linked to the increase of extensive pig farms and the high density of infected wild boars (Sus scrofa). In Portugal and Spain, the majority of strains share specific molecular characteristics, which allowed establishing an Iberian clonal lineage. However, several strains isolated from wild boars in the North-East region of Spain are similar to strains isolated in different Central European countries. Comparative analysis of five newly fully sequenced B. suis biovar 2 strains belonging to the main circulating clones in Iberian Peninsula, with publicly available Brucella spp. genomes, revealed that strains from Iberian clonal lineage share 74% similarity with those reference genomes. Besides the 210 kb translocation event present in all biovar 2 strains, an inversion with 944 kb was presented in chromosome I of strains from the Iberian clone. At left and right crossover points, the inversion disrupted a TRAP dicarboxylate transporter, DctM subunit, and an integral membrane protein TerC. The gene dctM is well conserved in Brucella spp. except in strains from the Iberian clonal lineage. Intraspecies comparative analysis also exposed a number of biovar-, haplotype- and strain-specific insertion-deletion (INDELs) events and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that could explain differences in virulence and host specificities. Most discriminative mutations were associated to membrane related molecules (29%) and enzymes involved in catabolism processes (20%). Molecular identification of both B. suis biovar 2 clonal lineages could be easily achieved using the target-PCR procedures established in this work for the evaluated INDELs. Whole-genome analyses supports that the B. suis biovar 2 Iberian clonal lineage evolved from the Central-European lineage and suggests that the genomic specialization of this pathogen in the Iberian Peninsula

  16. Plastid phylogenomics of the cool-season grass subfamily: clarification of relationships among early-diverging tribes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Jeffery M; Wysocki, William P; Barrett, Craig F; Soreng, Robert J; Davis, Jerrold I; Clark, Lynn G; Kelchner, Scot A; Pires, J Chris; Edger, Patrick P; Mayfield, Dustin R; Duvall, Melvin R

    2015-05-04

    Whole plastid genomes are being sequenced rapidly from across the green plant tree of life, and phylogenetic analyses of these are increasing resolution and support for relationships that have varied among or been unresolved in earlier single- and multi-gene studies. Pooideae, the cool-season grass lineage, is the largest of the 12 grass subfamilies and includes important temperate cereals, turf grasses and forage species. Although numerous studies of the phylogeny of the subfamily have been undertaken, relationships among some 'early-diverging' tribes conflict among studies, and some relationships among subtribes of Poeae have not yet been resolved. To address these issues, we newly sequenced 25 whole plastomes, which showed rearrangements typical of Poaceae. These plastomes represent 9 tribes and 11 subtribes of Pooideae, and were analysed with 20 existing plastomes for the subfamily. Maximum likelihood (ML), maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian inference (BI) robustly resolve most deep relationships in the subfamily. Complete plastome data provide increased nodal support compared with protein-coding data alone at nodes that are not maximally supported. Following the divergence of Brachyelytrum, Phaenospermateae, Brylkinieae-Meliceae and Ampelodesmeae-Stipeae are the successive sister groups of the rest of the subfamily. Ampelodesmeae are nested within Stipeae in the plastome trees, consistent with its hybrid origin between a phaenospermatoid and a stipoid grass (the maternal parent). The core Pooideae are strongly supported and include Brachypodieae, a Bromeae-Triticeae clade and Poeae. Within Poeae, a novel sister group relationship between Phalaridinae and Torreyochloinae is found, and the relative branching order of this clade and Aveninae, with respect to an Agrostidinae-Brizinae clade, are discordant between MP and ML/BI trees. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses strongly support Airinae and Holcinae as the successive sister groups of a Dactylidinae

  17. Lineage-specific responses of microbial communities to environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngblut, Nicholas D; Shade, Ashley; Read, Jordan S; McMahon, Katherine D; Whitaker, Rachel J

    2013-01-01

    A great challenge facing microbial ecology is how to define ecologically relevant taxonomic units. To address this challenge, we investigated how changing the definition of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) influences the perception of ecological patterns in microbial communities as they respond to a dramatic environmental change. We used pyrosequenced tags of the bacterial V2 16S rRNA region, as well as clone libraries constructed from the cytochrome oxidase C gene ccoN, to provide additional taxonomic resolution for the common freshwater genus Polynucleobacter. At the most highly resolved taxonomic scale, we show that distinct genotypes associated with the abundant Polynucleobacter lineages exhibit divergent spatial patterns and dramatic changes over time, while the also abundant Actinobacteria OTUs are highly coherent. This clearly demonstrates that different bacterial lineages demand different taxonomic definitions to capture ecological patterns. Based on the temporal distribution of highly resolved taxa in the hypolimnion, we demonstrate that change in the population structure of a single genotype can provide additional insight into the mechanisms of community-level responses. These results highlight the importance and feasibility of examining ecological change in microbial communities across taxonomic scales while also providing valuable insight into the ecological characteristics of ecologically coherent groups in this system.

  18. The mitochondrial lineage U8a reveals a Paleolithic settlement in the Basque country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larruga José M

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is customary, in population genetics studies, to consider Basques as the direct descendants of the Paleolithic Europeans. However, until now there has been no irrefutable genetic proof to support this supposition. Even studies based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA, an ideal molecule for constructing datable maternal genealogies, have failed to achieve this. It could be that incoming gene flow has replaced the Basque ancient lineages but it could also be that these lineages have not been detected due to a lack of resolution of the Basque mtDNA genealogies. To assess this possibility we analyzed here the mtDNA of a large sample of autochthonous Basques using mtDNA genomic sequencing for those lineages that could not be unequivocally classified by diagnostic RFLP analysis and control region (HVSI and HVSII sequencing. Results We show that Basques have the most ancestral phylogeny in Europe for the rare mitochondrial subhaplogroup U8a. Divergence times situate the Basque origin of this lineage in the Upper Palaeolithic. Most probably, their primitive founders came from West Asia. The lack of U8a lineages in Africa points to an European and not a North African route of entrance. Phylogeographic analysis suggest that U8a had two expansion periods in Europe, the first, from a south-western area including the Iberian peninsula and Mediterranean France before 30,000 years ago, and the second, from Central Europe around 15,000–10,000 years ago. Conclusion It has been demonstrated, for the first time, that Basques show the oldest lineages in Europe for subhaplogroup U8a. Coalescence times for these lineages suggest their presence in the Basque country since the Upper Paleolithic. The European U8 phylogeography is congruent with the supposition that Basques could have participated in demographic re-expansions to repopulate central Europe in the last interglacial periods.

  19. Separate introns gained within short and long soluble peridinin-chlorophyll a-protein genes during radiation of Symbiodinium (Dinophyceae) clade A and B lineages - PLoS One

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we document introns in two Symbiodinium clades that were most likely gained following divergence of this genus from other peridinin-containing dinoflagellate lineages. Soluble peridinin-chlorophyll a-proteins (sPCP) occur in short and long forms in different species, and all...

  20. Two highly divergent lineages of exfoliative toxin B-encoding plasmids revealed in impetigo strains of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botka, Tibor; Růžičková, Vladislava; Svobodová, Karla; Pantůček, Roman; Petráš, Petr; Čejková, Darina; Doškař, Jiří

    2017-09-01

    Exfoliative toxin B (ETB) encoded by some large plasmids plays a crucial role in epidermolytic diseases caused by Staphylococcus aureus. We have found as yet unknown types of etb gene-positive plasmids isolated from a set of impetigo strains implicated in outbreaks of pemphigus neonatorum in Czech maternity hospitals. Plasmids from the strains of clonal complex CC121 were related to archetypal plasmid pETB TY4 . Sharing a 33-kb core sequence including virulence genes for ETB, EDIN C, and lantibiotics, they were assigned to a stand-alone lineage, named pETB TY4 -based plasmids. Differing from each other in the content of variable DNA regions, they formed four sequence types. In addition to them, a novel unique plasmid pETB608 isolated from a strain of ST130 was described. Carrying conjugative cluster genes, as well as new variants of etb and edinA genes, pETB608 could be regarded as a source of a new lineage of ETB plasmids. We have designed a helpful detection assay, which facilitates the precise identification of the all described types of ETB plasmids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Finite Divergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Edberg; Pandya, P. K.; Chaochen, Zhou

    1995-01-01

    the framework of duration calculus. Axioms and proof rules are given. Patterns of occurrence of divergence are classified into dense divergence, accumulative divergence and discrete divergence by appropriate axioms. Induction rules are given for reasoning about discrete divergence...

  2. The evolution of jaw protrusion mechanics is tightly coupled to bentho-pelagic divergence in damselfishes (Pomacentridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, W James; Carter, Casey B; Conith, Andrew J; Rice, Aaron N; Westneat, Mark W

    2017-02-15

    Most species-rich lineages of aquatic organisms have undergone divergence between forms that feed from the substrate (benthic feeding) and forms that feed from the water column (pelagic feeding). Changes in trophic niche are frequently accompanied by changes in skull mechanics, and multiple fish lineages have evolved highly specialized biomechanical configurations that allow them to protrude their upper jaws toward the prey during feeding. Damselfishes (family Pomacentridae) are an example of a species-rich lineage with multiple trophic morphologies and feeding ecologies. We sought to determine whether bentho-pelagic divergence in the damselfishes is tightly coupled to changes in jaw protrusion ability. Using high-speed video recordings and kinematic analysis, we examined feeding performance in 10 species that include three examples of convergence on herbivory, three examples of convergence on omnivory and two examples of convergence on planktivory. We also utilized morphometrics to characterize the feeding morphology of an additional 40 species that represent all 29 damselfish genera. Comparative phylogenetic analyses were then used to examine the evolution of trophic morphology and biomechanical performance. We find that pelagic-feeding damselfishes (planktivores) are strongly differentiated from extensively benthic-feeding species (omnivores and herbivores) by their jaw protrusion ability, upper jaw morphology and the functional integration of upper jaw protrusion with lower jaw abduction. Most aspects of cranial form and function that separate these two ecological groups have evolved in correlation with each other and the evolution of the functional morphology of feeding in damselfishes has involved repeated convergence in form, function and ecology. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Comparative genomics of Bacillus anthracis from the wool industry highlights polymorphisms of lineage A.Br.Vollum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derzelle, Sylviane; Aguilar-Bultet, Lisandra; Frey, Joachim

    2016-12-01

    With the advent of affordable next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, major progress has been made in the understanding of the population structure and evolution of the B. anthracis species. Here we report the use of whole genome sequencing and computer-based comparative analyses to characterize six strains belonging to the A.Br.Vollum lineage. These strains were isolated in Switzerland, in 1981, during iterative cases of anthrax involving workers in a textile plant processing cashmere wool from the Indian subcontinent. We took advantage of the hundreds of currently available B. anthracis genomes in public databases, to investigate the genetic diversity existing within the A.Br.Vollum lineage and to position the six Swiss isolates into the worldwide B. anthracis phylogeny. Thirty additional genomes related to the A.Br.Vollum group were identified by whole-genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis, including two strains forming a new evolutionary branch at the basis of the A.Br.Vollum lineage. This new phylogenetic lineage (termed A.Br.H9401) splits off the branch leading to the A.Br.Vollum group soon after its divergence to the other lineages of the major A clade (i.e. 6 SNPs). The available dataset of A.Br.Vollum genomes were resolved into 2 distinct groups. Isolates from the Swiss wool processing facility clustered together with two strains from Pakistan and one strain of unknown origin isolated from yarn. They were clearly differentiated (69 SNPs) from the twenty-five other A.Br.Vollum strains located on the branch leading to the terminal reference strain A0488 of the lineage. Novel analytic assays specific to these new subgroups were developed for the purpose of rapid molecular epidemiology. Whole genome SNP surveys greatly expand upon our knowledge on the sub-structure of the A.Br.Vollum lineage. Possible origin and route of spread of this lineage worldwide are discussed. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

  4. A divergent Cardinium found in daddy long-legs (Arachnida: Opiliones).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jin; Masters, Amber; Avery, Amanda; Werren, John H

    2010-11-01

    Recent studies indicate that a newly described bacterial endosymbiont, Cardinium, is widespread in arthropods and induces different reproductive manipulations in hosts. In this study, we used a portion of the 16S rRNA gene of the Cardinium to screen 16 Opilionid species from the suborder Palptores. We found the incidence of Cardinium in these Opiliones was significantly higher than in other pooled arthropods (31.2% versus 7.2%, P=0.007). Phylogenetic analyses using maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian analysis revealed two distinct clades in Opiliones. One is a divergent monophyletic clade with strong support that has so far not been found in other arthropods, and a second one contains Cardinium both from Opiliones and other arthropods. There is not complete concordance of the Cardinium strains with host phylogeny, suggesting some horizontal movement of the bacteria among Opiliones. Although the divergence in the sequenced 16S rRNA region between the Cardinium infecting Opiliones and Cardinium from other arthropods is greater than among Cardinium found in other arthropods, all are monophyletic with respect to the outgroup bacteria (endosymbionts of Acanthamoeba). Based on high pairwise genetic distances, deep branch, and a distinct phylogenetic grouping, we conclude that some Opiliones harbor a newly discovered Cardinium clade. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparative genomics of Thermus thermophilus and Deinococcus radiodurans: divergent routes of adaptation to thermophily and radiation resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daly Michael J

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thermus thermophilus and Deinococcus radiodurans belong to a distinct bacterial clade but have remarkably different phenotypes. T. thermophilus is a thermophile, which is relatively sensitive to ionizing radiation and desiccation, whereas D. radiodurans is a mesophile, which is highly radiation- and desiccation-resistant. Here we present an in-depth comparison of the genomes of these two related but differently adapted bacteria. Results By reconstructing the evolution of Thermus and Deinococcus after the divergence from their common ancestor, we demonstrate a high level of post-divergence gene flux in both lineages. Various aspects of the adaptation to high temperature in Thermus can be attributed to horizontal gene transfer from archaea and thermophilic bacteria; many of the horizontally transferred genes are located on the single megaplasmid of Thermus. In addition, the Thermus lineage has lost a set of genes that are still present in Deinococcus and many other mesophilic bacteria but are not common among thermophiles. By contrast, Deinococcus seems to have acquired numerous genes related to stress response systems from various bacteria. A comparison of the distribution of orthologous genes among the four partitions of the Deinococcus genome and the two partitions of the Thermus genome reveals homology between the Thermus megaplasmid (pTT27 and Deinococcus megaplasmid (DR177. Conclusion After the radiation from their common ancestor, the Thermus and Deinococcus lineages have taken divergent paths toward their distinct lifestyles. In addition to extensive gene loss, Thermus seems to have acquired numerous genes from thermophiles, which likely was the decisive contribution to its thermophilic adaptation. By contrast, Deinococcus lost few genes but seems to have acquired many bacterial genes that apparently enhanced its ability to survive different kinds of environmental stresses. Notwithstanding the accumulation of

  6. Bermuda as an evolutionary life raft for an ancient lineage of endangered lizards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C Brandley

    Full Text Available Oceanic islands are well known for harboring diverse species assemblages and are frequently the basis of research on adaptive radiation and neoendemism. However, a commonly overlooked role of some islands is their function in preserving ancient lineages that have become extinct everywhere else (paleoendemism. The island archipelago of Bermuda is home to a single species of extant terrestrial vertebrate, the endemic skink Plestiodon (formerly Eumeces longirostris. The presence of this species is surprising because Bermuda is an isolated, relatively young oceanic island approximately 1000 km from the eastern United States. Here, we apply Bayesian phylogenetic analyses using a relaxed molecular clock to demonstrate that the island of Bermuda, although no older than two million years, is home to the only extant representative of one of the earliest mainland North American Plestiodon lineages, which diverged from its closest living relatives 11.5 to 19.8 million years ago. This implies that, within a short geological time frame, mainland North American ancestors of P. longirostris colonized the recently emergent Bermuda and the entire lineage subsequently vanished from the mainland. Thus, our analyses reveal that Bermuda is an example of a "life raft" preserving millions of years of unique evolutionary history, now at the brink of extinction. Threats such as habitat destruction, littering, and non-native species have severely reduced the population size of this highly endangered lizard.

  7. Molecular systematics and biogeography of lowland antpittas (Aves, Grallariidae): The role of vicariance and dispersal in the diversification of a widespread Neotropical lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Lincoln; Bravo, Gustavo A; Aristizábal, Natalia; Cuervo, Andrés M; Aleixo, Alexandre

    2018-03-01

    We infer phylogenetic relationships, divergence times, and the diversification history of the avian Neotropical antpitta genera Hylopezus and Myrmothera (Grallariidae), based on sequence data (3,139 base pairs) from two mitochondrial (ND2 and ND3) and three nuclear nuclear introns (TGFB2, MUSK and FGB-I5) from 142 individuals of the 12 currently recognized species in Hylopezus and Myrmothera and 5 outgroup species. Phylogenetic analyses recovered 19 lineages clustered into two major clades, both distributed in Central and South America. Hylopezus nattereri, previously considered a subspecies of H. ochroleucus, was consistently recovered as the most divergent lineage within the Grallaricula/Hylopezus/Myrmothera clade. Ancestral range estimation suggested that modern lowland antpittas probably originated in the Amazonian Sedimentary basin during the middle Miocene, and that most lineages within the Hylopezus/Myrmothera clade appeared in the Plio-Pleistocene. However, the rate of diversification in the Hylopezus/Myrmothera clade appeared to have remained constant through time, with no major shifts over the 20 million years. Although the timing when most modern lineages of the Hylopezus/Myrmothera clade coincides with a period of intense landscape changes in the Neotropics (Plio-Pleistocene), the absence of any significant shifts in diversification rates over the last 20 million years challenges the view that there is a strict causal relationship between intensification of landscape changes and cladogenesis. The relative old age of the Hylopezus/Myrmothera clade coupled with an important role ascribed to dispersal for its diversification, favor an alternative scenario whereby long-term persistence and dispersal across an ever-changing landscape might explain constant rates of cladogenesis through time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Accelerated diversification is related to life history and locomotion in a hyperdiverse lineage of microbial eukaryotes (Diatoms, Bacillariophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakov, Teofil; Beaulieu, Jeremy M; Alverson, Andrew J

    2018-04-06

    Patterns of species richness are commonly linked to life history strategies. In diatoms, an exceptionally diverse lineage of photosynthetic heterokonts important for global photosynthesis and burial of atmospheric carbon, lineages with different locomotory and reproductive traits differ dramatically in species richness, but any potential association between life history strategy and diversification has not been tested in a phylogenetic framework. We constructed a time-calibrated, 11-gene, 1151-taxon phylogeny of diatoms - the most inclusive diatom species tree to date. We used this phylogeny, together with a comprehensive inventory of first-last occurrences of Cenozoic fossil diatoms, to estimate ranges of expected species richness, diversification and its variation through time and across lineages. Diversification rates varied with life history traits. Although anisogamous lineages diversified faster than oogamous ones, this increase was restricted to a nested clade with active motility in the vegetative cells. We propose that the evolution of motility in vegetative cells, following an earlier transition from oogamy to anisogamy, facilitated outcrossing and improved utilization of habitat complexity, ultimately leading to enhanced opportunity for adaptive divergence across a variety of novel habitats. Together, these contributed to a species radiation that gave rise to the majority of present-day diatom diversity. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. The genomic distribution of intraspecific and interspecific sequence divergence of human segmental duplications relative to human/chimpanzee chromosomal rearrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eichler Evan E

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that chromosomal rearrangements harbor the molecular footprint of the biological phenomena which they induce, in the form, for instance, of changes in the sequence divergence rates of linked genes. So far, all the studies of these potential associations have focused on the relationship between structural changes and the rates of evolution of single-copy DNA and have tried to exclude segmental duplications (SDs. This is paradoxical, since SDs are one of the primary forces driving the evolution of structure and function in our genomes and have been linked not only with novel genes acquiring new functions, but also with overall higher DNA sequence divergence and major chromosomal rearrangements. Results Here we take the opposite view and focus on SDs. We analyze several of the features of SDs, including the rates of intraspecific divergence between paralogous copies of human SDs and of interspecific divergence between human SDs and chimpanzee DNA. We study how divergence measures relate to chromosomal rearrangements, while considering other factors that affect evolutionary rates in single copy DNA. Conclusion We find that interspecific SD divergence behaves similarly to divergence of single-copy DNA. In contrast, old and recent paralogous copies of SDs do present different patterns of intraspecific divergence. Also, we show that some relatively recent SDs accumulate in regions that carry inversions in sister lineages.

  10. Local divergence and curvature divergence in first order optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafusire, Cosmas; Krüger, Tjaart P. J.

    2018-06-01

    The far-field divergence of a light beam propagating through a first order optical system is presented as a square root of the sum of the squares of the local divergence and the curvature divergence. The local divergence is defined as the ratio of the beam parameter product to the beam width whilst the curvature divergence is a ratio of the space-angular moment also to the beam width. It is established that the beam’s focusing parameter can be defined as a ratio of the local divergence to the curvature divergence. The relationships between the two divergences and other second moment-based beam parameters are presented. Their various mathematical properties are presented such as their evolution through first order systems. The efficacy of the model in the analysis of high power continuous wave laser-based welding systems is briefly discussed.

  11. Origin of Pest Lineages of the Colorado Potato Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzo, Victor M; Chen, Yolanda H; Schoville, Sean D; Wang, Cong; Hawthorne, David J

    2018-04-02

    Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say [Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae]) is a pest of potato throughout the Northern Hemisphere, but little is known about the beetle's origins as a pest. We sampled the beetle from uncultivated Solanum host plants in Mexico, and from pest and non-pest populations in the United States and used mitochondrial DNA and nuclear loci to examine three hypotheses on the origin of the pest lineages: 1) the pest beetles originated from Mexican populations, 2) they descended from hybridization between previously divergent populations, or 3) they descended from populations that are native to the Plains states in the United States. Mitochondrial haplotypes of non-pest populations from Mexico and Arizona differed substantially from beetles collected from the southern plains and potato fields in the United States, indicating that beetles from Mexico and Arizona did not contribute to founding the pest lineages. Similar results were observed for AFLP and microsatellite data . In contrast, non-pest populations from the states of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, and Texas were genetically similar to U.S. pest populations, indicating that they contributed to the founding of the pest lineages. Most of the pest populations do not show a significant reduction in genetic diversity compared to the plains populations in the United States. We conclude that genetically heterogeneous beetle populations expanded onto potato from native Solanum hosts. This mode of host range expansion may have contributed to the abundant genetic diversity of contemporary populations, perhaps contributing to the rapid evolution of climate tolerance, host range, and insecticide resistance.

  12. Comparative performance of double-digest RAD sequencing across divergent arachnid lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Mercedes; Starrett, James; Derkarabetian, Shahan; Richart, Casey H; Cabrero, Allan; Hedin, Marshal

    2017-05-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies now allow researchers of non-model systems to perform genome-based studies without the requirement of a (often unavailable) closely related genomic reference. We evaluated the role of restriction endonuclease (RE) selection in double-digest restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq) by generating reduced representation genome-wide data using four different RE combinations. Our expectation was that RE selections targeting longer, more complex restriction sites would recover fewer loci than RE with shorter, less complex sites. We sequenced a diverse sample of non-model arachnids, including five congeneric pairs of harvestmen (Opiliones) and four pairs of spiders (Araneae). Sample pairs consisted of either conspecifics or closely related congeneric taxa, and in total 26 sample pair analyses were tested. Sequence demultiplexing, read clustering and variant calling were performed in the pyRAD program. The 6-base pair cutter EcoRI combined with methylated site-specific 4-base pair cutter MspI produced, on average, the greatest numbers of intra-individual loci and shared loci per sample pair. As expected, the number of shared loci recovered for a sample pair covaried with the degree of genetic divergence, estimated with cytochrome oxidase I sequences, although this relationship was non-linear. Our comparative results will prove useful in guiding protocol selection for ddRADseq experiments on many arachnid taxa where reference genomes, even from closely related species, are unavailable. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Population expanding with the phalanx model and lineages split by environmental heterogeneity: a case study of Primula obconica in subtropical China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Fei Yan

    Full Text Available Current and historical events have both affected the current distribution patterns and intraspecific divergence of plants. While numerous studies have focused on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP, the impacts of such events on the flora of subtropical China remain poorly understood. Subtropical China is famous for its highly complex topography and the limited impact from glaciation during the Pleistocene; this may have resulted in a different genetic legacy for species in this region compared to fully glaciated areas.We used plastid and nuclear DNA sequence data and distribution modeling to analyze the divergence patterns and demographic history of Primula obconica Hance, a widespread herbaceous montane species in subtropical China. The phylogenetic analysis revealed two major lineages (lineage A and lineage B, representing a west-east split into the Yunnan and Eastern groups, and the Sichuan and Central groups, respectively. The Eastern and Central groups comprised relatively new derived haplotypes. Nested Clade Analysis and Bayesian Skyline Plot analyses both indicated that P. obconica mainly experienced a gradual expansion of populations. In addition, the simulated distribution of P. obconica during the Last Glacial Maximum was slightly larger than its present-day distribution.Our results are the first to identify a west-east migration of P. obconica. The gradual expansion pattern and a larger potential distribution range in cold periods detected for P. obconica indicate that the population expansion of this species is consistent with the phalanx model. In addition, the current patterns of genetic differentiation have persisted as a result of the extensive environmental heterogeneity that exists in subtropical China.

  14. DNA barcoding of recently diverged species: relative performance of matching methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin van Velzen

    Full Text Available Recently diverged species are challenging for identification, yet they are frequently of special interest scientifically as well as from a regulatory perspective. DNA barcoding has proven instrumental in species identification, especially in insects and vertebrates, but for the identification of recently diverged species it has been reported to be problematic in some cases. Problems are mostly due to incomplete lineage sorting or simply lack of a 'barcode gap' and probably related to large effective population size and/or low mutation rate. Our objective was to compare six methods in their ability to correctly identify recently diverged species with DNA barcodes: neighbor joining and parsimony (both tree-based, nearest neighbor and BLAST (similarity-based, and the diagnostic methods DNA-BAR, and BLOG. We analyzed simulated data assuming three different effective population sizes as well as three selected empirical data sets from published studies. Results show, as expected, that success rates are significantly lower for recently diverged species (∼75% than for older species (∼97% (P<0.00001. Similarity-based and diagnostic methods significantly outperform tree-based methods, when applied to simulated DNA barcode data (P<0.00001. The diagnostic method BLOG had highest correct query identification rate based on simulated (86.2% as well as empirical data (93.1%, indicating that it is a consistently better method overall. Another advantage of BLOG is that it offers species-level information that can be used outside the realm of DNA barcoding, for instance in species description or molecular detection assays. Even though we can confirm that identification success based on DNA barcoding is generally high in our data, recently diverged species remain difficult to identify. Nevertheless, our results contribute to improved solutions for their accurate identification.

  15. Homo sapiens-Specific Binding Site Variants within Brain Exclusive Enhancers Are Subject to Accelerated Divergence across Human Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehra, Rabail; Abbasi, Amir Ali

    2018-03-01

    Empirical assessments of human accelerated noncoding DNA frgaments have delineated presence of many cis-regulatory elements. Enhancers make up an important category of such accelerated cis-regulatory elements that efficiently control the spatiotemporal expression of many developmental genes. Establishing plausible reasons for accelerated enhancer sequence divergence in Homo sapiens has been termed significant in various previously published studies. This acceleration by including closely related primates and archaic human data has the potential to open up evolutionary avenues for deducing present-day brain structure. This study relied on empirically confirmed brain exclusive enhancers to avoid any misjudgments about their regulatory status and categorized among them a subset of enhancers with an exceptionally accelerated rate of lineage specific divergence in humans. In this assorted set, 13 distinct transcription factor binding sites were located that possessed unique existence in humans. Three of 13 such sites belonging to transcription factors SOX2, RUNX1/3, and FOS/JUND possessed single nucleotide variants that made them unique to H. sapiens upon comparisons with Neandertal and Denisovan orthologous sequences. These variants modifying the binding sites in modern human lineage were further substantiated as single nucleotide polymorphisms via exploiting 1000 Genomes Project Phase3 data. Long range haplotype based tests laid out evidence of positive selection to be governing in African population on two of the modern human motif modifying alleles with strongest results for SOX2 binding site. In sum, our study acknowledges acceleration in noncoding regulatory landscape of the genome and highlights functional parts within it to have undergone accelerated divergence in present-day human population.

  16. Biome specificity of distinct genetic lineages within the four-striped mouse Rhabdomys pumilio (Rodentia: Muridae) from southern Africa with implications for taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit, Nina; van Vuuren, Bettine Jansen; Matthee, Sonja; Matthee, Conrad A

    2012-10-01

    Within southern Africa, a link between past climatic changes and faunal diversification has been hypothesized for a diversity of taxa. To test the hypothesis that evolutionary divergences may be correlated to vegetation changes (induced by changes in climate), we selected the widely distributed four-striped mouse, Rhabdomys, as a model. Two species are currently recognized, the mesic-adapted R. dilectus and arid-adapted R. pumilio. However, the morphology-based taxonomy and the distribution boundaries of previously described subspecies remain poorly defined. The current study, which spans seven biomes, focuses on the spatial genetic structure of the arid-adapted R. pumilio (521 specimens from 31 localities), but also includes limited sampling of the mesic-adapted R. dilectus (33 specimens from 10 localities) to act as a reference for interspecific variation within the genus. The mitochondrial COI gene and four nuclear introns (Eef1a1, MGF, SPTBN1, Bfib7) were used for the construction of gene trees. Mitochondrial DNA analyses indicate that Rhabdomys consists of four reciprocally monophyletic, geographically structured clades, with three distinct lineages present within the arid-adapted R. pumilio. These monophyletic lineages differ by at least 7.9% (±0.3) and these results are partly confirmed by a multilocus network of the combined nuclear intron dataset. Ecological niche modeling in MaxEnt supports a strong correlation between regional biomes and the distribution of distinct evolutionary lineages of Rhabdomys. A Bayesian relaxed molecular clock suggests that the geographic clades diverged between 3.09 and 4.30Ma, supporting the hypothesis that the radiation within the genus coincides with paleoclimatic changes (and the establishment of the biomes) characterizing the Miocene-Pliocene boundary. Marked genetic divergence at the mitochondrial DNA level, coupled with strong nuclear and mtDNA signals of non-monophyly of R. pumilio, support the notion that a taxonomic

  17. Phylogeographic structure in long-tailed voles (Rodentia: Arvicolinae) belies the complex Pleistocene history of isolation, divergence, and recolonization of Northwest North America's fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Yadéeh E; Cook, Joseph A

    2016-09-01

    Quaternary climate fluctuations restructured biodiversity across North American high latitudes through repeated episodes of range contraction, population isolation and divergence, and subsequent expansion. Identifying how species responded to changing environmental conditions not only allows us to explore the mode and tempo of evolution in northern taxa, but also provides a basis for forecasting future biotic response across the highly variable topography of western North America. Using a multilocus approach under a Bayesian coalescent framework, we investigated the phylogeography of a wide-ranging mammal, the long-tailed vole, Microtus longicaudus . We focused on populations along the North Pacific Coast to refine our understanding of diversification by exploring the potentially compounding roles of multiple glacial refugia and more recent fragmentation of an extensive coastal archipelago. Through a combination of genetic data and species distribution models (SDMs), we found that historical climate variability influenced contemporary genetic structure, with multiple isolated locations of persistence (refugia) producing multiple divergent lineages (Beringian or northern, southeast Alaska or coastal, and southern or continental) during glacial advances. These vole lineages all occur along the North Pacific Coast where the confluence of numerous independent lineages in other species has produced overlapping zones of secondary contact, collectively a suture zone. Finally, we detected high levels of neoendemism due to complex island geography that developed in the last 10,000 years with the rising sea levels of the Holocene.

  18. The Tetramerium lineage (Acanthaceae: Justicieae) does not support the Pleistocene Arc hypothesis for South American seasonally dry forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côrtes, Ana Luiza A; Rapini, Alessandro; Daniel, Thomas F

    2015-06-01

    The Tetramerium lineage (Acanthaceae) presents a striking ecological structuring in South America, with groups concentrated in moist forests or in seasonally dry forests. In this study, we investigate the circumscription and relationships of the South American genera as a basis for better understanding historic interactions between dry and moist biomes in the Neotropics. We dated the ancestral distribution of the Tetramerium lineage based on one nuclear and four plastid DNA regions. Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference analyses were performed for this study using 104 terminals. Phylogenetic divergences were dated using a relaxed molecular clock approach and ancestral distributions obtained from dispersal-vicariance analyses. The genera Pachystachys, Schaueria, and Thyrsacanthus are nonmonophyletic. A dry forest lineage dispersed from North America to South America and reached the southwestern part of the continent between the end of the Miocene and beginning of the Pleistocene. This period coincides with the segregation between Amazonian and Atlantic moist forests that established the geographic structure currently found in the group. The South American genera Pachystachys, Schaueria, and Thyrsacanthus need to be recircumscribed. The congruence among biogeographical events found for the Tetramerium lineage suggests that the dry forest centers currently dispersed throughout South America are relatively old remnants, probably isolated since the Neogene, much earlier than the Last Glacial Maximum postulated by the Pleistocene Arc hypothesis. In addition to exploring the Pleistocene Arc hypothesis, this research also informs evolution in a lineage with numerous geographically restricted and threatened species. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  19. Multilocus phylogeny and statistical biogeography clarify the evolutionary history of major lineages of turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Anieli G; Sterli, Juliana; Moreira, Filipe R R; Schrago, Carlos G

    2017-08-01

    Despite their complex evolutionary history and the rich fossil record, the higher level phylogeny and historical biogeography of living turtles have not been investigated in a comprehensive and statistical framework. To tackle these issues, we assembled a large molecular dataset, maximizing both taxonomic and gene sampling. As different models provide alternative biogeographical scenarios, we have explicitly tested such hypotheses in order to reconstruct a robust biogeographical history of Testudines. We scanned publicly available databases for nucleotide sequences and composed a dataset comprising 13 loci for 294 living species of Testudines, which accounts for all living genera and 85% of their extant species diversity. Phylogenetic relationships and species divergence times were estimated using a thorough evaluation of fossil information as calibration priors. We then carried out the analysis of historical biogeography of Testudines in a fully statistical framework. Our study recovered the first large-scale phylogeny of turtles with well-supported relationships following the topology proposed by phylogenomic works. Our dating result consistently indicated that the origin of the main clades, Pleurodira and Cryptodira, occurred in the early Jurassic. The phylogenetic and historical biogeographical inferences permitted us to clarify how geological events affected the evolutionary dynamics of crown turtles. For instance, our analyses support the hypothesis that the breakup of Pangaea would have driven the divergence between the cryptodiran and pleurodiran lineages. The reticulated pattern in the ancestral distribution of the cryptodiran lineage suggests a complex biogeographic history for the clade, which was supposedly related to the complex paleogeographic history of Laurasia. On the other hand, the biogeographical history of Pleurodira indicated a tight correlation with the paleogeography of the Gondwanan landmasses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  20. Next-generation sequencing reveals phylogeographic structure and a species tree for recent bird divergences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCormack, John E.; Maley, James M.; Hird, Sarah M.

    2012-01-01

    divergence in four phylogenetically diverse avian systems using a method for quick and cost-effective generation of primary DNA sequence data using pyrosequencing. NGS data were processed using an analytical pipeline that reduces many reads into two called alleles per locus per individual. Using single...... throughout the genome. Using eight loci found in Zonotrichia and Junco lineages, we were also able to generate a species tree of these sparrow sister genera, demonstrating the potential of this method for generating data amenable to coalescent-based analysis. We discuss improvements that should enhance...

  1. Alternative haplotypes of antigen processing genes in zebrafish diverged early in vertebrate evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Sean C.; Hernandez, Kyle M.; Wcisel, Dustin J.; Kettleborough, Ross N.; Stemple, Derek L.; Andrade, Jorge; de Jong, Jill L. O.

    2016-01-01

    Antigen processing and presentation genes found within the MHC are among the most highly polymorphic genes of vertebrate genomes, providing populations with diverse immune responses to a wide array of pathogens. Here, we describe transcriptome, exome, and whole-genome sequencing of clonal zebrafish, uncovering the most extensive diversity within the antigen processing and presentation genes of any species yet examined. Our CG2 clonal zebrafish assembly provides genomic context within a remarkably divergent haplotype of the core MHC region on chromosome 19 for six expressed genes not found in the zebrafish reference genome: mhc1uga, proteasome-β 9b (psmb9b), psmb8f, and previously unknown genes psmb13b, tap2d, and tap2e. We identify ancient lineages for Psmb13 within a proteasome branch previously thought to be monomorphic and provide evidence of substantial lineage diversity within each of three major trifurcations of catalytic-type proteasome subunits in vertebrates: Psmb5/Psmb8/Psmb11, Psmb6/Psmb9/Psmb12, and Psmb7/Psmb10/Psmb13. Strikingly, nearby tap2 and MHC class I genes also retain ancient sequence lineages, indicating that alternative lineages may have been preserved throughout the entire MHC pathway since early diversification of the adaptive immune system ∼500 Mya. Furthermore, polymorphisms within the three MHC pathway steps (antigen cleavage, transport, and presentation) are each predicted to alter peptide specificity. Lastly, comparative analysis shows that antigen processing gene diversity is far more extensive than previously realized (with ancient coelacanth psmb8 lineages, shark psmb13, and tap2t and psmb10 outside the teleost MHC), implying distinct immune functions and conserved roles in shaping MHC pathway evolution throughout vertebrates. PMID:27493218

  2. Functional conservation and divergence of four ginger AP1/AGL9 MADS-box genes revealed by analysis of their expression and protein-protein interaction, and ectopic expression of AhFUL gene in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiumei Li

    Full Text Available Alpinia genus are known generally as ginger-lilies for showy flowers in the ginger family, Zingiberaceae, and their floral morphology diverges from typical monocotyledon flowers. However, little is known about the functions of ginger MADS-box genes in floral identity. In this study, four AP1/AGL9 MADS-box genes were cloned from Alpinia hainanensis, and protein-protein interactions (PPIs and roles of the four genes in floral homeotic conversion and in floral evolution are surveyed for the first time. AhFUL is clustered to the AP1 lineage, AhSEP4 and AhSEP3b to the SEP lineage, and AhAGL6-like to the AGL6 lineage. The four genes showed conserved and divergent expression patterns, and their encoded proteins were localized in the nucleus. Seven combinations of PPI (AhFUL-AhSEP4, AhFUL-AhAGL6-like, AhFUL-AhSEP3b, AhSEP4-AhAGL6-like, AhSEP4-AhSEP3b, AhAGL6-like-AhSEP3b, and AhSEP3b-AhSEP3b were detected, and the PPI patterns in the AP1/AGL9 lineage revealed that five of the 10 possible combinations are conserved and three are variable, while conclusions cannot yet be made regarding the other two. Ectopic expression of AhFUL in Arabidopsis thaliana led to early flowering and floral organ homeotic conversion to sepal-like or leaf-like. Therefore, we conclude that the four A. hainanensis AP1/AGL9 genes show functional conservation and divergence in the floral identity from other MADS-box genes.

  3. A new "American" subgroup of African-lineage Chikungunya virus detected in and isolated from mosquitoes collected in Haiti, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sarah Keller; Mavian, Carla; Salemi, Marco; Morris, John Glenn; Elbadry, Maha A; Okech, Bernard A; Lednicky, John A; Dunford, James C

    2018-01-01

    As part of on-going arboviral surveillance activity in a semi-rural region in Haiti, Chikungunya virus (CHIKV)-positive mosquito pools were identified in 2014 (the peak of the Caribbean Asian-clade epidemic), and again in 2016 by RT-PCR. In 2014, CHIKV was only identified in Aedes aegypti (11 positive pools/124 screened). In contrast, in sampling in 2016, CHIKV was not identified in Ae. aegypti, but, rather, in (a) a female Aedes albopictus pool, and (b) a female Culex quinquefasciatus pool. Genomic sequence analyses indicated that the CHIKV viruses in the 2016 mosquito pools were from the East-Central-South African (ECSA) lineage, rather than the Asian lineage. In phylogenetic studies, these ECSA lineage strains form a new ECSA subgroup (subgroup IIa) together with Brazilian ECSA lineage strains from an isolated human outbreak in 2014, and a mosquito pool in 2016. Additional analyses date the most recent common ancestor of the ECSA IIa subgroup around May 2007, and the 2016 Haitian CHIKV genomes around December 2015. Known CHIKV mutations associated with improved Ae. albopictus vector competence were not identified. Isolation of this newly identified lineage from Ae. albopictus is of concern, as this vector has a broader geographic range than Ae. aegypti, especially in temperate areas of North America, and stresses the importance for continued vector surveillance.

  4. Multi-species sequence comparison reveals dynamic evolution of the elastin gene that has involved purifying selection and lineage-specific insertions/deletions

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    Green Eric D

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The elastin gene (ELN is implicated as a factor in both supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS and Williams Beuren Syndrome (WBS, two diseases involving pronounced complications in mental or physical development. Although the complete spectrum of functional roles of the processed gene product remains to be established, these roles are inferred to be analogous in human and mouse. This view is supported by genomic sequence comparison, in which there are no large-scale differences in the ~1.8 Mb sequence block encompassing the common region deleted in WBS, with the exception of an overall reversed physical orientation between human and mouse. Results Conserved synteny around ELN does not translate to a high level of conservation in the gene itself. In fact, ELN orthologs in mammals show more sequence divergence than expected for a gene with a critical role in development. The pattern of divergence is non-conventional due to an unusually high ratio of gaps to substitutions. Specifically, multi-sequence alignments of eight mammalian sequences reveal numerous non-aligning regions caused by species-specific insertions and deletions, in spite of the fact that the vast majority of aligning sites appear to be conserved and undergoing purifying selection. Conclusions The pattern of lineage-specific, in-frame insertions/deletions in the coding exons of ELN orthologous genes is unusual and has led to unique features of the gene in each lineage. These differences may indicate that the gene has a slightly different functional mechanism in mammalian lineages, or that the corresponding regions are functionally inert. Identified regions that undergo purifying selection reflect a functional importance associated with evolutionary pressure to retain those features.

  5. Lineage-Restricted Mammary Stem Cells Sustain the Development, Homeostasis, and Regeneration of the Estrogen Receptor Positive Lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Keymeulen, Alexandra; Fioramonti, Marco; Centonze, Alessia; Bouvencourt, Gaëlle; Achouri, Younes; Blanpain, Cédric

    2017-08-15

    The mammary gland (MG) is composed of different cell lineages, including the basal and the luminal cells (LCs) that are maintained by distinct stem cell (SC) populations. LCs can be subdivided into estrogen receptor (ER) + and ER - cells. LCs act as the cancer cell of origin in different types of mammary tumors. It remains unclear whether the heterogeneity found in luminal-derived mammary tumors arises from a pre-existing heterogeneity within LCs. To investigate LC heterogeneity, we used lineage tracing to assess whether the ER + lineage is maintained by multipotent SCs or by lineage-restricted SCs. To this end, we generated doxycycline-inducible ER-rtTA mice that allowed us to perform genetic lineage tracing of ER + LCs and study their fate and long-term maintenance. Our results show that ER + cells are maintained by lineage-restricted SCs that exclusively contribute to the expansion of the ER + lineage during puberty and their maintenance during adult life. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Species delimitation in the Gehyra nana (Squamata: Gekkonidae) complex: cryptic and divergent morphological evolution in the Australian Monsoonal Tropics, with the description of four new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Paul; Bourke, Gayleen; Tedeschi, Leonardo G; Pratt, Renae C; Oliver, Paul M; Palmer, Russell A; Moritz, Craig

    2018-04-04

    Recent advances in molecular genetic techniques and increased fine scale sampling in the Australian Monsoonal Tropics (AMT) have provided new impetus to reassess species boundaries in the Gehyra nana species complex, a clade of small-bodied, saxicolous geckos which are widely distributed across northern Australia. A recent phylogenomic analysis revealed eight deeply divergent lineages that occur as a series of overlapping distributions across the AMT and which, as a whole, are paraphyletic with four previously described species. Several of these lineages currently included in G. nana are phenotypically distinct, while others are highly conservative morphologically. Here we use an integrated approach to explore species delimitation in this complex. We redefine G. nana as a widespread taxon with complex genetic structure across the Kimberley of Western Australia and Top End of the Northern Territory, including a lineage with mtDNA introgressed from the larger-bodied G. multiporosa. We describe four new species with more restricted distributions within the G. nana complex. The new species are phylogenetically divergent and morphologically diagnosable, and include the relatively cryptic G. paranana sp. nov. from the western Northern Territory, the large-bodied G. pseudopunctata sp. nov. from the southern Kimberley ranges, G. granulum sp. nov., a small-bodied form with granules on the proximal lamellae from the north-west and southern Kimberley ranges and the small-bodied G. pluraporosa sp. nov. restricted to the northern Kimberley. Our revision largely stabilises the taxonomy of the G. nana complex, although further analyses of species limits among the remaining mostly parapatric lineages of G. nana sensu stricto are warranted.

  7. The emergence of lobsters: phylogenetic relationships, morphological evolution and divergence time comparisons of an ancient group (decapoda: achelata, astacidea, glypheidea, polychelida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken-Grissom, Heather D; Ahyong, Shane T; Wilkinson, Richard D; Feldmann, Rodney M; Schweitzer, Carrie E; Breinholt, Jesse W; Bendall, Matthew; Palero, Ferran; Chan, Tin-Yam; Felder, Darryl L; Robles, Rafael; Chu, Ka-Hou; Tsang, Ling-Ming; Kim, Dohyup; Martin, Joel W; Crandall, Keith A

    2014-07-01

    Lobsters are a ubiquitous and economically important group of decapod crustaceans that include the infraorders Polychelida, Glypheidea, Astacidea and Achelata. They include familiar forms such as the spiny, slipper, clawed lobsters and crayfish and unfamiliar forms such as the deep-sea and "living fossil" species. The high degree of morphological diversity among these infraorders has led to a dynamic classification and conflicting hypotheses of evolutionary relationships. In this study, we estimated phylogenetic relationships among the major groups of all lobster families and 94% of the genera using six genes (mitochondrial and nuclear) and 195 morphological characters across 173 species of lobsters for the most comprehensive sampling to date. Lobsters were recovered as a non-monophyletic assemblage in the combined (molecular + morphology) analysis. All families were monophyletic, with the exception of Cambaridae, and 7 of 79 genera were recovered as poly- or paraphyletic. A rich fossil history coupled with dense taxon coverage allowed us to estimate and compare divergence times and origins of major lineages using two drastically different approaches. Age priors were constructed and/or included based on fossil age information or fossil discovery, age, and extant species count data. Results from the two approaches were largely congruent across deep to shallow taxonomic divergences across major lineages. The origin of the first lobster-like decapod (Polychelida) was estimated in the Devonian (∼409-372 Ma) with all infraorders present in the Carboniferous (∼353-318 Ma). Fossil calibration subsampling studies examined the influence of sampling density (number of fossils) and placement (deep, middle, and shallow) on divergence time estimates. Results from our study suggest including at least 1 fossil per 10 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in divergence dating analyses. [Dating; decapods; divergence; lobsters; molecular; morphology; phylogenetics.]. © The

  8. Surface ocean metabarcoding confirms limited diversity in planktonic foraminifera but reveals unknown hyper-abundant lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morard, Raphaël; Garet-Delmas, Marie-José; Mahé, Frédéric; Romac, Sarah; Poulain, Julie; Kucera, Michal; de Vargas, Colomban

    2018-02-07

    Since the advent of DNA metabarcoding surveys, the planktonic realm is considered a treasure trove of diversity, inhabited by a small number of abundant taxa, and a hugely diverse and taxonomically uncharacterized consortium of rare species. Here we assess if the apparent underestimation of plankton diversity applies universally. We target planktonic foraminifera, a group of protists whose known morphological diversity is limited, taxonomically resolved and linked to ribosomal DNA barcodes. We generated a pyrosequencing dataset of ~100,000 partial 18S rRNA foraminiferal sequences from 32 size fractioned photic-zone plankton samples collected at 8 stations in the Indian and Atlantic Oceans during the Tara Oceans expedition (2009-2012). We identified 69 genetic types belonging to 41 morphotaxa in our metabarcoding dataset. The diversity saturated at local and regional scale as well as in the three size fractions and the two depths sampled indicating that the diversity of foraminifera is modest and finite. The large majority of the newly discovered lineages occur in the small size fraction, neglected by classical taxonomy. These unknown lineages dominate the bulk [>0.8 µm] size fraction, implying that a considerable part of the planktonic foraminifera community biomass has its origin in unknown lineages.

  9. Whole Genome Analysis of Two Novel Type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Viruses with Complex Genome Recombination between Lineage 8, 3, and 1 Strains Identified in Southwestern China

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    Long Zhou

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Recombination among porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses (PRRSVs is thought to contribute to the emergence of new PRRSV variants. In this study, two newly emerged PRRSV strains, designated SCcd16 and SCya17, are isolated from lung tissues of piglets in Southwestern China. Genome comparative analysis reveals that SCcd16/SCya17 exhibit 93.1%/93.2%, 86.9%/87.0%, 85.3%/85.7%, and 83.6%/82.0% nucleotide similarity to PRRSVs JXA1, VR-2332, QYYZ and NADC30, respectively. They only exhibit 44.8%/45.1% sequence identity with LV (PRRSV-1, indicating that both emergent strains belong to the PRRSV-2 genotype. Genomic sequence alignment shows that SCcd16 and SCya17 have the same discontinuous 30-amino acid (aa deletion in Nsp2 of the highly pathogenic Chinese PRRSV strain JXA1, when compared to strain VR-2332. Notably, SCya17 shows a unique 5-nt deletion in its 3’-UTR. Phylogenetic analysis shows that both of the isolates are classified in the QYYZ-like lineage based on ORF5 genotyping, whereas they appear to constitute an inter-lineage between JXA1-like and QYYZ-like lineages based on their genomic sequences. Furthermore, recombination analyses reveal that the two newly emerged PRRSV isolates share the same novel recombination pattern. They have both likely originated from multiple recombination events between lineage 8 (JXA1-like, lineage 1 (NADC30-like, and lineage 3 (QYYZ-like strains that have circulated in China recently. The genomic data from SCcd16 and SCya17 indicate that there is on going evolution of PRRSV field strains through genetic recombination, leading to outbreaks in the pig populations in Southwestern China.

  10. Early Pleistocene lineages of Bagre bagre (Linnaeus, 1766 (Siluriformes: Ariidae, from the Atlantic coast of South America, with insights into the demography and biogeography of the species

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    Wemerson C. da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Coastal and marine environments are characterized by a lack of evident physical barriers or geographic isolation, and it may be difficult to understand how divergence can arise and be sustained in marine environments. The identification of 'soft' barriers is a crucial step towards the understanding of gene flow in marine environments. The marine catfishes of the family Ariidae are a demersal group with restricted migratory behavior, no pelagic larval stages, and mechanisms of larval retention, representing a potentially useful model for the understanding of historical processes of allopatric speciation in the marine environment. In the present study, two lineages of the Coco sea catfish, Bagre bagre , were recognized from their complete segregation at both mitochondrial and morphological levels. One lineage is distributed between Venezuela and the northern coast of Brazil, including the semiarid northeast coast, while the second lineage is found on the eastern coast of Brazil, including the humid northeast coast. Based on distribution area, habitats preference, and genetic variability, inferences are made in relation to biogeography and demography of lineages in Atlantic coast of South America.

  11. 3-dimensional examination of the adult mouse subventricular zone reveals lineage-specific microdomains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azim, Kasum; Fiorelli, Roberto; Zweifel, Stefan; Hurtado-Chong, Anahi; Yoshikawa, Kazuaki; Slomianka, Lutz; Raineteau, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle is populated by heterogeneous populations of stem and progenitor cells that, depending on their exact location, are biased to acquire specific neuronal fates. This newly described heterogeneity of SVZ stem and progenitor cells underlines the necessity to develop methods for the accurate quantification of SVZ stem and progenitor subpopulations. In this study, we provide 3-dimensional topographical maps of slow cycling "stem" cells and progenitors based on their unique cell cycle properties. These maps revealed that both cell populations are present throughout the lateral ventricle wall as well as in discrete regions of the dorsal wall. Immunodetection of transcription factors expressed in defined progenitor populations further reveals that divergent lineages have clear regional enrichments in the rostro-caudal as well as in the dorso-ventral span of the lateral ventricle. Thus, progenitors expressing Tbr2 and Dlx2 were confined to dorsal and dorso-lateral regions of the lateral ventricle, respectively, while Mash1+ progenitors were more homogeneously distributed. All cell populations were enriched in the rostral-most region of the lateral ventricle. This diversity and uneven distribution greatly impede the accurate quantification of SVZ progenitor populations. This is illustrated by measuring the coefficient of error of estimates obtained by using increasing section sampling interval. Based on our empirical data, we provide such estimates for all progenitor populations investigated in this study. These can be used in future studies as guidelines to judge if the precision obtained with a sampling scheme is sufficient to detect statistically significant differences between experimental groups if a biological effect is present. Altogether, our study underlines the need to consider the SVZ of the lateral ventricle as a complex 3D structure and define methods to accurately assess neural

  12. Evolutionary dynamics of endogenous feline leukemia virus proliferation among species of the domestic cat lineage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polani, Sagi; Roca, Alfred L.; Rosensteel, Bryan B.; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Bar-Gal, Gila Kahila

    2010-01-01

    Endogenous feline leukemia viruses (enFeLVs) occur in the germ lines of the domestic cat and related wild species (genus Felis). We sequenced the long terminal repeats and part of the env region of enFeLVs in domestic cats and five wild species. A total of 305 enFeLV sequences were generated across 17 individuals, demonstrating considerable diversity within two major clades. Distinct proliferations of enFeLVs occurred before and after the black-footed cat diverged from the other species. Diversity of enFeLVs was limited for the sand cat and jungle cat suggesting that proliferation of enFeLVs occurred within these species after they diverged. Relationships among enFeLVs were congruent with host species relationships except for the jungle cat, which carried only enFeLVs from a lineage that recently invaded the germline (enFeLV-AGTT). Comparison of wildcat and domestic cat enFeLVs indicated that a distinctive germ line invasion of enFeLVs has not occurred since the cat was domesticated.

  13. Divergência genética entre progênies de café robusta Genetic divergence among robusta coffe progenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milana Gonçalves Ivoglo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a divergência genética de 21 progênies de meios-irmãos - 19 do grupo Congolês e duas do grupo Guineano - de introduções do germoplasma de café robusta (Coffea canephora do IAC. O estudo baseou-se em análises multivariadas de 14 características morfo-agronômicas, com o propósito de selecionar as progênies mais divergentes, visando à definição de população-base para posterior seleção e produção de híbridos. Avaliou-se também a importância das características discriminantes para análises de divergência, visando ao descarte das variáveis, segundo suas contribuições relativas. O experimento foi plantado e desenvolvido em campo experimental localizado no Pólo Regional do Nordeste Paulista, Mococa (SP, em blocos casualizados, com 21 tratamentos e 24 repetições. O agrupamento dos genótipos foi realizado com base nos métodos de Tocher e UPGMA. A matriz de dissimilaridade genética foi obtida por meio da distância generalizada de Mahalanobis, que serviu de base para a formação dos grupos. Os métodos empregados foram eficientes em detectar ampla variabilidade genética entre as progênies avaliadas. Vários grupos dissimilares foram identificados. As progênies IAC 2262, IAC 2290, IAC 2286, IAC 2292 e IAC 2291 são indicadas para compor programas de intercruzamentos, por terem sido consideradas as mais promissoras na obtenção de populações segregantes ou híbridos heteróticos. As características que menos contribuíram para a divergência genética foram, hierarquicamente: diâmetro da copa antes da poda, altura da planta antes da poda e área foliar.It was studied genetic divergence of 21 half-sib progenies, being 19 of the Congolês group and two of the Guineano group, introductions of germoplasma robust (Coffea canephora, based in 14 morpho-agronomic traits and multivariate procedures. It's aims to select the lineages most divergent for definition of population-base for posterior reciprocal

  14. Recent reticulate evolution in the ecologically dominant lineage of coccolithophores

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    El Mahdi eBendif

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The coccolithophore family Noëlaerhabdaceae contains a number of taxa that are very abundant in modern oceans, including the cosmopolitan bloom-forming Emiliania huxleyi. Introgressive hybridization has been suggested to account for incongruences between nuclear, mitochondrial and plastidial phylogenies of morphospecies within this lineage, but the number of species cultured to date remains rather limited. Here, we present the characterization of 5 new Noëlaerhabdaceae culture strains isolated from samples collected in the south-east Pacific Ocean. These were analyzed morphologically using scanning electron microscopy and phylogenetically by sequencing 5 marker genes (nuclear 18S and 28S rDNA, plastidial tufA, and mitochondrial cox1 and cox3 genes. Morphologically, one of these strains corresponded to Gephyrocapsa ericsonii and the four others to Reticulofenestra parvula. Ribosomal gene sequences were near identical between these new strains, but divergent from G. oceanica, G. muellerae and E. huxleyi. In contrast to the clear distinction in ribosomal phylogenies, sequences from other genomic compartments clustered with those of E. huxleyi strains with which they share an ecological range (i.e. warm temperate to tropical waters. These data provide strong support for the hypothesis of past (and potentially ongoing introgressive hybridization within this ecologically important lineage and for the transfer of R. parvula to Gephyrocapsa. These results have important implications for understanding the role of hybridization in speciation in vast ocean meta-populations of phytoplankton.

  15. Comparative Genomics of Campylobacter fetus from Reptiles and Mammals Reveals Divergent Evolution in Host-Associated Lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Miller, William G; Yee, Emma; Zomer, Aldert L; van der Graaf-van Bloois, Linda; Fitzgerald, Collette; Forbes, Ken J; Méric, Guillaume; Sheppard, Samuel K; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Duim, Birgitta

    2016-07-02

    Campylobacter fetus currently comprises three recognized subspecies, which display distinct host association. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and C fetus subsp. venerealis are both associated with endothermic mammals, primarily ruminants, whereas C fetus subsp. testudinum is primarily associated with ectothermic reptiles. Both C. fetus subsp. testudinum and C. fetus subsp. fetus have been associated with severe infections, often with a systemic component, in immunocompromised humans. To study the genetic factors associated with the distinct host dichotomy in C. fetus, whole-genome sequencing and comparison of mammal- and reptile-associated C fetus was performed. The genomes of C fetus subsp. testudinum isolated from either reptiles or humans were compared with elucidate the genetic factors associated with pathogenicity in humans. Genomic comparisons showed conservation of gene content and organization among C fetus subspecies, but a clear distinction between mammal- and reptile-associated C fetus was observed. Several genomic regions appeared to be subspecies specific, including a putative tricarballylate catabolism pathway, exclusively present in C fetus subsp. testudinum strains. Within C fetus subsp. testudinum, sapA, sapB, and sapAB type strains were observed. The recombinant locus iamABC (mlaFED) was exclusively associated with invasive C fetus subsp. testudinum strains isolated from humans. A phylogenetic reconstruction was consistent with divergent evolution in host-associated strains and the existence of a barrier to lateral gene transfer between mammal- and reptile-associated C fetus Overall, this study shows that reptile-associated C fetus subsp. testudinum is genetically divergent from mammal-associated C fetus subspecies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  16. Sex chromosome turnover contributes to genomic divergence between incipient stickleback species.

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    Kohta Yoshida

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sex chromosomes turn over rapidly in some taxonomic groups, where closely related species have different sex chromosomes. Although there are many examples of sex chromosome turnover, we know little about the functional roles of sex chromosome turnover in phenotypic diversification and genomic evolution. The sympatric pair of Japanese threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus provides an excellent system to address these questions: the Japan Sea species has a neo-sex chromosome system resulting from a fusion between an ancestral Y chromosome and an autosome, while the sympatric Pacific Ocean species has a simple XY sex chromosome system. Furthermore, previous quantitative trait locus (QTL mapping demonstrated that the Japan Sea neo-X chromosome contributes to phenotypic divergence and reproductive isolation between these sympatric species. To investigate the genomic basis for the accumulation of genes important for speciation on the neo-X chromosome, we conducted whole genome sequencing of males and females of both the Japan Sea and the Pacific Ocean species. No substantial degeneration has yet occurred on the neo-Y chromosome, but the nucleotide sequence of the neo-X and the neo-Y has started to diverge, particularly at regions near the fusion. The neo-sex chromosomes also harbor an excess of genes with sex-biased expression. Furthermore, genes on the neo-X chromosome showed higher non-synonymous substitution rates than autosomal genes in the Japan Sea lineage. Genomic regions of higher sequence divergence between species, genes with divergent expression between species, and QTL for inter-species phenotypic differences were found not only at the regions near the fusion site, but also at other regions along the neo-X chromosome. Neo-sex chromosomes can therefore accumulate substitutions causing species differences even in the absence of substantial neo-Y degeneration.

  17. The Past Sure is Tense: On Interpreting Phylogenetic Divergence Time Estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joseph W; Smith, Stephen A

    2018-03-01

    Divergence time estimation-the calibration of a phylogeny to geological time-is an integral first step in modeling the tempo of biological evolution (traits and lineages). However, despite increasingly sophisticated methods to infer divergence times from molecular genetic sequences, the estimated age of many nodes across the tree of life contrast significantly and consistently with timeframes conveyed by the fossil record. This is perhaps best exemplified by crown angiosperms, where molecular clock (Triassic) estimates predate the oldest (Early Cretaceous) undisputed angiosperm fossils by tens of millions of years or more. While the incompleteness of the fossil record is a common concern, issues of data limitation and model inadequacy are viable (if underexplored) alternative explanations. In this vein, Beaulieu et al. (2015) convincingly demonstrated how methods of divergence time inference can be misled by both (i) extreme state-dependent molecular substitution rate heterogeneity and (ii) biased sampling of representative major lineages. These results demonstrate the impact of (potentially common) model violations. Here, we suggest another potential challenge: that the configuration of the statistical inference problem (i.e., the parameters, their relationships, and associated priors) alone may preclude the reconstruction of the paleontological timeframe for the crown age of angiosperms. We demonstrate, through sampling from the joint prior (formed by combining the tree (diversification) prior with the calibration densities specified for fossil-calibrated nodes) that with no data present at all, that an Early Cretaceous crown angiosperms is rejected (i.e., has essentially zero probability). More worrisome, however, is that for the 24 nodes calibrated by fossils, almost all have indistinguishable marginal prior and posterior age distributions when employing routine lognormal fossil calibration priors. These results indicate that there is inadequate information in

  18. Genomic divergences among cattle, dog and human estimated from large-scale alignments of genomic sequences

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    Shade Larry L

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately 11 Mb of finished high quality genomic sequences were sampled from cattle, dog and human to estimate genomic divergences and their regional variation among these lineages. Results Optimal three-way multi-species global sequence alignments for 84 cattle clones or loci (each >50 kb of genomic sequence were constructed using the human and dog genome assemblies as references. Genomic divergences and substitution rates were examined for each clone and for various sequence classes under different functional constraints. Analysis of these alignments revealed that the overall genomic divergences are relatively constant (0.32–0.37 change/site for pairwise comparisons among cattle, dog and human; however substitution rates vary across genomic regions and among different sequence classes. A neutral mutation rate (2.0–2.2 × 10(-9 change/site/year was derived from ancestral repetitive sequences, whereas the substitution rate in coding sequences (1.1 × 10(-9 change/site/year was approximately half of the overall rate (1.9–2.0 × 10(-9 change/site/year. Relative rate tests also indicated that cattle have a significantly faster rate of substitution as compared to dog and that this difference is about 6%. Conclusion This analysis provides a large-scale and unbiased assessment of genomic divergences and regional variation of substitution rates among cattle, dog and human. It is expected that these data will serve as a baseline for future mammalian molecular evolution studies.

  19. Resolved phylogeny and biogeography of the root pathogen Armillaria and its gasteroid relative, Guyanagaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Rachel A; Wilson, Andrew W; Séné, Olivier; Henkel, Terry W; Aime, M Catherine

    2017-01-25

    Armillaria is a globally distributed mushroom-forming genus composed primarily of plant pathogens. Species in this genus are prolific producers of rhizomorphs, or vegetative structures, which, when found, are often associated with infection. Because of their importance as plant pathogens, understanding the evolutionary origins of this genus and how it gained a worldwide distribution is of interest. The first gasteroid fungus with close affinities to Armillaria-Guyanagaster necrorhizus-was described from the Neotropical rainforests of Guyana. In this study, we conducted phylogenetic analyses to fully resolve the relationship of G. necrorhizus with Armillaria. Data sets containing Guyanagaster from two collecting localities, along with a global sampling of 21 Armillaria species-including newly collected specimens from Guyana and Africa-at six loci (28S, EF1α, RPB2, TUB, actin-1 and gpd) were used. Three loci-28S, EF1α and RPB2-were analyzed in a partitioned nucleotide data set to infer divergence dates and ancestral range estimations for well-supported, monophyletic lineages. The six-locus phylogenetic analysis resolves Guyanagaster as the earliest diverging lineage in the armillarioid clade. The next lineage to diverge is that composed of species in Armillaria subgenus Desarmillaria. This subgenus is elevated to genus level to accommodate the exannulate mushroom-forming armillarioid species. The final lineage to diverge is that composed of annulate mushroom-forming armillarioid species, in what is now Armillaria sensu stricto. The molecular clock analysis and ancestral range estimation suggest the most recent common ancestor to the armillarioid lineage arose 51 million years ago in Eurasia. A new species, Guyanagaster lucianii sp. nov. from Guyana, is described. The armillarioid lineage evolved in Eurasia during the height of tropical rainforest expansion about 51 million years ago, a time marked by a warm and wet global climate. Species of Guyanagaster and

  20. Morphological and genetic evidence for multiple evolutionary distinct lineages in the endangered and commercially exploited red lined torpedo barbs endemic to the Western Ghats of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Lijo; Philip, Siby; Dahanukar, Neelesh; Anvar Ali, Palakkaparambil Hamsa; Tharian, Josin; Raghavan, Rajeev; Antunes, Agostinho

    2013-01-01

    Red lined torpedo barbs (RLTBS) (Cyprinidae: Puntius) endemic to the Western Ghats Hotspot of India, are popular and highly priced freshwater aquarium fishes. Two decades of indiscriminate exploitation for the pet trade, restricted range, fragmented populations and continuing decline in quality of habitats has resulted in their 'Endangered' listing. Here, we tested whether the isolated RLTB populations demonstrated considerable variation qualifying to be considered as distinct conservation targets. Multivariate morphometric analysis using 24 size-adjusted characters delineated all allopatric populations. Similarly, the species-tree highlighted a phylogeny with 12 distinct RLTB lineages corresponding to each of the different riverine populations. However, coalescence-based methods using mitochondrial DNA markers identified only eight evolutionarily distinct lineages. Divergence time analysis points to recent separation of the populations, owing to the geographical isolation, more than 5 million years ago, after the lineages were split into two ancestral stocks in the Paleocene, on north and south of a major geographical gap in the Western Ghats. Our results revealing the existence of eight evolutionarily distinct RLTB lineages calls for the re-determination of conservation targets for these cryptic and endangered taxa.

  1. Morphological and genetic evidence for multiple evolutionary distinct lineages in the endangered and commercially exploited red lined torpedo barbs endemic to the Western Ghats of India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijo John

    Full Text Available Red lined torpedo barbs (RLTBS (Cyprinidae: Puntius endemic to the Western Ghats Hotspot of India, are popular and highly priced freshwater aquarium fishes. Two decades of indiscriminate exploitation for the pet trade, restricted range, fragmented populations and continuing decline in quality of habitats has resulted in their 'Endangered' listing. Here, we tested whether the isolated RLTB populations demonstrated considerable variation qualifying to be considered as distinct conservation targets. Multivariate morphometric analysis using 24 size-adjusted characters delineated all allopatric populations. Similarly, the species-tree highlighted a phylogeny with 12 distinct RLTB lineages corresponding to each of the different riverine populations. However, coalescence-based methods using mitochondrial DNA markers identified only eight evolutionarily distinct lineages. Divergence time analysis points to recent separation of the populations, owing to the geographical isolation, more than 5 million years ago, after the lineages were split into two ancestral stocks in the Paleocene, on north and south of a major geographical gap in the Western Ghats. Our results revealing the existence of eight evolutionarily distinct RLTB lineages calls for the re-determination of conservation targets for these cryptic and endangered taxa.

  2. Insect symbiosis: derivation of yeast-like endosymbionts within an entomopathogenic filamentous lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, S O; Noda, H; Blackwell, M

    2001-06-01

    Yeast-like endosymbionts (YLSs) of insects often are restricted to specific hosts and are essential to the host's survival. For example, in planthoppers (Homoptera: Delphacidae), endosymbionts function in sterol utilization and nitrogen recycling for the hosts. Our study, designed to investigate evolutionary changes in the YLS lineage involved in the planthopper association, strongly suggests an origin of the YLSs from within the filamentous ascomycetes (Euascomycetes), not the true yeasts (Saccharomycetes), as their morphology might indicate. During divergence of the planthopper YLSs, dramatic changes would have occurred in the insect-fungus interaction and the fungal morphology that have previously been undescribed in filamentous ascomycetes. Phylogenetic trees were based on individual and combined data sets of 2.6 kb of the nuclear small- and large-subunit ribosomal RNA genes for YLSs from three rice planthoppers (Laodelphax striatellus, Nilaparvata lugens, and Sogatella furcifera) compared with 56 other fungi. Parsimony analysis placed the planthopper YLSs within Cordyceps (Euascomycetes: Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), a genus of filamentous insects and a few fungal pathogenic ascomycetes. Another YLS species restricted to the aphid Hamiltonaphis styraci (Homoptera: Aphididae) was a sister taxon to the planthopper YLSS: Filamentous insect pathogens (Metarhizium and Beauveria) specific to the same species of insect hosts as the YLSs also formed lineages within the Clavicipitaceae, but these were distinct from the clade comprising YLS species. Trees constrained to include the YLSs in families of the Hypocreales other than the Clavicipitaceae were rejected by the Kishino-Hasegawa test. In addition, the results of this study support a hypothesis of two independent origins of insect-associated YLSs from among filamentous ascomycetes: the planthopper YLSs in the Clavicipitaceae and the YLSs associated with anobiid beetles (Symbiotaphrina species). Several lineages of

  3. Dental remains of cebid platyrrhines from the earliest late Miocene of Western Amazonia, Peru: Macroevolutionary implications on the extant capuchin and marmoset lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marivaux, Laurent; Adnet, Sylvain; Altamirano-Sierra, Ali J; Pujos, François; Ramdarshan, Anusha; Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo; Tejada-Lara, Julia V; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier

    2016-11-01

    Undoubted fossil Cebidae have so far been primarily documented from the late middle Miocene of Colombia, the late Miocene of Brazilian Amazonia, the early Miocene of Peruvian Amazonia, and very recently from the earliest Miocene of Panama. The evolutionary history of cebids is far from being well-documented, with notably a complete blank in the record of callitrichine stem lineages until and after the late middle Miocene (Laventan SALMA). Further documenting their evolutionary history is therefore of primary importance. Recent field efforts in Peruvian Amazonia (Contamana area, Loreto Department) have allowed for the discovery of an early late Miocene (ca. 11 Ma; Mayoan SALMA) fossil primate-bearing locality (CTA-43; Pebas Formation). In this study, we analyze the primate material, which consists of five isolated teeth documenting two distinct Cebidae: Cebus sp., a medium-sized capuchin (Cebinae), and Cebuella sp., a tiny marmoset (Callitrichinae). Although limited, this new fossil material of platyrrhines contributes to documenting the post-Laventan evolutionary history of cebids, and besides testifies to the earliest occurrences of the modern Cebuella and Cebus/Sapajus lineages in the Neotropics. Regarding the evolutionary history of callitrichine marmosets, the discovery of an 11 Ma-old fossil representative of the modern Cebuella pushes back by at least 6 Ma the age of the Mico/Cebuella divergence currently proposed by molecular biologists (i.e., ca. 4.5 Ma). This also extends back to > 11 Ma BP the divergence between Callithrix and the common ancestor (CA) of Mico/Cebuella, as well as the divergence between the CA of marmosets and Callimico (Goeldi's callitrichine). This discovery from Peruvian Amazonia implies a deep evolutionary root of the Cebuella lineage in the northwestern part of South America (the modern western Amazon basin), slightly before the recession of the Pebas mega-wetland system (PMWS), ca. 10.5 Ma, and well-before the subsequent

  4. Systematic revision of the marbled velvet geckos (Oedura marmorata species complex, Diplodactylidae) from the Australian arid and semi-arid zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Paul M; Doughty, Paul

    2016-03-08

    Lizards restricted to rocky habitats often comprise numerous deeply divergent lineages, reflecting the disjunct nature of their preferred habitat and the capacity of rocky habitats to function as evolutionary refugia. Here we review the systematics and diversity of the predominantly saxicoline Australian marbled velvet geckos (genus Oedura) in the Australian arid and semi-arid zones using newly-gathered morphological data and previously published genetic data. Earlier work showed that four largely allopatric and genetically divergent lineages are present: Western (Pilbara and Gascoyne regions), Gulf (west and south of the Gulf of Carpentaria), Central (central ranges) and Eastern (Cooper and Darling Basins). None of these four populations are conspecific with true O. marmorata, a seperate species complex that is restricted to the Top End region of the Northern Territory. Top End forms share a short, bulbous tail whereas the other four lineages treated here possess a long, tapering tail. Morphological differences among the arid and semi-arid lineages include smaller body size, tapering lamellae and a shorter tail for the Gulf population, and a partially divided rostral scale in the Western population compared to the Central and Eastern populations. Accordingly, we resurrect O. cincta de Vis from synonymy for the Central and Eastern lineages, and regard this species as being comprised of two evolutionary significant units. We also describe the Gulf and Western lineages as new species: Oedura bella sp. nov. and O. fimbria sp. nov., respectively. We note that a predominantly arboreal lineage (the Eastern lineage of O. cincta) is more widely distributed than the other lineages and is phylogenetically nested within a saxicoline clade, but tends to have a deeper head and shorter limbs, consistent with morphological variation observed in other lizard radiations including both saxicoline and arboreal taxa.

  5. Ecological divergence in the yellow-bellied kingsnake (Lampropeltis calligaster) at two North American biodiversity hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvy, A D; Burbrink, F T

    2017-01-01

    Several biogeographic barriers in the Eastern Nearctic appear to reduce gene flow among populations of many species in predictable ways, however these patterns used to infer process of divergence may be deceiving if alternative modes of diversification are not considered. By using a multilocus statistical phylogeographic approach to examine diversity within a North American snake, Lampropeltis calligaster, we find that mode and timing of speciation near the Mississippi River embayment and peninsular Florida, two main biodiversity hotspots in eastern North America, challenge previously held notions of strict vicariance as the causal factor behind patterns of divergence seen among taxa at these locations. We found three species inhabiting distinct ecological niches with divergences dating to the mid- and early-Pleistocene with subsequently stable or increasing effective population sizes, further supporting the idea that the Pleistocene was an important driver of diversification in North America. Our results lead to a revised hypothesis that ecological divergence has occurred in this group across environments associated with the Mississippi River and at the Florida peninsula. Importantly, in their western distributions, we show that species divergence is associated with the ecological transition from distinct forested habitats to grasslands, rather than the nearby Mississippi River, a barrier often implicated for many other organisms. Additionally, we stress the importance of examining each delimited lineage with respect to conservation, since ecological niche models suggest that by the end of the century changes in climate may negatively alter habitat suitability and, barring adaptation, substantially reduce the suitable range of two of the three species we identified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Nuclear genomic sequences reveal that polar bears are an old and distinct bear lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailer, Frank; Kutschera, Verena E; Hallström, Björn M; Klassert, Denise; Fain, Steven R; Leonard, Jennifer A; Arnason, Ulfur; Janke, Axel

    2012-04-20

    Recent studies have shown that the polar bear matriline (mitochondrial DNA) evolved from a brown bear lineage since the late Pleistocene, potentially indicating rapid speciation and adaption to arctic conditions. Here, we present a high-resolution data set from multiple independent loci across the nuclear genomes of a broad sample of polar, brown, and black bears. Bayesian coalescent analyses place polar bears outside the brown bear clade and date the divergence much earlier, in the middle Pleistocene, about 600 (338 to 934) thousand years ago. This provides more time for polar bear evolution and confirms previous suggestions that polar bears carry introgressed brown bear mitochondrial DNA due to past hybridization. Our results highlight that multilocus genomic analyses are crucial for an accurate understanding of evolutionary history.

  7. mRNA export in the apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii: emerging divergent components of a crucial pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, Andréa Rodrigues; Cabezas-Cruz, Alexjandro; Gissot, Mathieu

    2018-01-25

    Control of gene expression is crucial for parasite survival and is the result of a series of processes that are regulated to permit fine-tuning of gene expression in response to biological changes during the life-cycle of apicomplexan parasites. Control of mRNA nuclear export is a key process in eukaryotic cells but is poorly understood in apicomplexan parasites. Here, we review recent knowledge regarding this process with an emphasis on T. gondii. We describe the presence of divergent orthologs and discuss structural and functional differences in export factors between apicomplexans and other eukaryotic lineages. Undoubtedly, the use of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in high throughput screenings associated with the discovery of mRNA nuclear export complexes by proteomic analysis will contribute to identify these divergent factors. Ligand-based or structure-based strategies may be applied to investigate the potential use of these proteins as targets for new antiprotozoal agents.

  8. Four new bat species (Rhinolophus hildebrandtii complex) reflect Plio-Pleistocene divergence of dwarfs and giants across an Afromontane archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Peter J; Stoffberg, Samantha; Monadjem, Ara; Schoeman, Martinus Corrie; Bayliss, Julian; Cotterill, Fenton P D

    2012-01-01

    Gigantism and dwarfism evolve in vertebrates restricted to islands. We describe four new species in the Rhinolophus hildebrandtii species-complex of horseshoe bats, whose evolution has entailed adaptive shifts in body size. We postulate that vicissitudes of palaeoenvironments resulted in gigantism and dwarfism in habitat islands fragmented across eastern and southern Africa. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences recovered two clades of R. hildebrandtii senso lato which are paraphyletic with respect to a third lineage (R. eloquens). Lineages differ by 7.7 to 9.0% in cytochrome b sequences. Clade 1 includes R. hildebrandtii sensu stricto from the east African highlands and three additional vicariants that speciated across an Afromontane archipelago through the Plio-Pleistocene, extending from the Kenyan Highlands through the Eastern Arc, northern Mozambique and the Zambezi Escarpment to the eastern Great Escarpment of South Africa. Clade 2 comprises one species confined to lowland savanna habitats (Mozambique and Zimbabwe). A third clade comprises R. eloquens from East Africa. Speciation within Clade 1 is associated with fixed differences in echolocation call frequency, and cranial shape and size in populations isolated since the late Pliocene (ca 3.74 Mya). Relative to the intermediate-sized savanna population (Clade 2), these island-populations within Clade 1 are characterised by either gigantism (South African eastern Great Escarpment and Mts Mabu and Inago in Mozambique) or dwarfism (Lutope-Ngolangola Gorge, Zimbabwe and Soutpansberg Mountains, South Africa). Sympatry between divergent clades (Clade 1 and Clade 2) at Lutope-Ngolangola Gorge (NW Zimbabwe) is attributed to recent range expansions. We propose an "Allometric Speciation Hypothesis", which attributes the evolution of this species complex of bats to divergence in constant frequency (CF) sonar calls. The origin of species-specific peak frequencies (overall range = 32 to 46 kHz) represents the

  9. Adaptive divergence with gene flow in incipient speciation of Miscanthus floridulus / sinensis complex (Poaceae)

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Chao-Li; Ho, Chuan-Wen; Chiang, Yu-Chung; Shigemoto, Yasumasa; Hsu, Tsai-Wen; Hwang, Chi-Chuan; Ge, Xue-Jun; Chen, Charles; Wu, Tai-Han; Chou, Chang-Hung; Huang, Hao-Jen; Gojobori, Takashi; Osada, Naoki; Chiang, Tzen-Yuh

    2014-01-01

    Young incipient species provide ideal materials for untangling the process of ecological speciation in the presence of gene flow. The Miscanthus floridulus/sinensis complex exhibits diverse phenotypic and ecological differences despite recent divergence (approximately 1.59million years ago). To elucidate the process of genetic differentiation during early stages of ecological speciation, we analyzed genomic divergence in the Miscanthus complex using 72 randomly selected genes from a newly assembled transcriptome. In this study, rampant gene flow was detected between species, estimated as M=3.36x10(-9) to 1.20x10(-6), resulting in contradicting phylogenies across loci. Nevertheless, beast analyses revealed the species identity and the effects of extrinsic cohesive forces that counteracted the non-stop introgression. As expected, early in speciation with gene flow, only 3-13 loci were highly diverged; two to five outliers (approximately 2.78-6.94% of the genome) were characterized by strong linkage disequilibrium, and asymmetrically distributed among ecotypes, indicating footprints of diversifying selection. In conclusion, ecological speciation of incipient species of Miscanthus probably followed the parapatric model, whereas allopatric speciation cannot be completely ruled out, especially between the geographically isolated northern and southern M.sinensis, for which no significant gene flow across oceanic barriers was detected. Divergence between local ecotypes in early-stage speciation began at a few genomic regions under the influence of natural selection and divergence hitchhiking that overcame gene flow.

  10. Adaptive divergence with gene flow in incipient speciation of Miscanthus floridulus / sinensis complex (Poaceae)

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Chao-Li

    2014-11-11

    Young incipient species provide ideal materials for untangling the process of ecological speciation in the presence of gene flow. The Miscanthus floridulus/sinensis complex exhibits diverse phenotypic and ecological differences despite recent divergence (approximately 1.59million years ago). To elucidate the process of genetic differentiation during early stages of ecological speciation, we analyzed genomic divergence in the Miscanthus complex using 72 randomly selected genes from a newly assembled transcriptome. In this study, rampant gene flow was detected between species, estimated as M=3.36x10(-9) to 1.20x10(-6), resulting in contradicting phylogenies across loci. Nevertheless, beast analyses revealed the species identity and the effects of extrinsic cohesive forces that counteracted the non-stop introgression. As expected, early in speciation with gene flow, only 3-13 loci were highly diverged; two to five outliers (approximately 2.78-6.94% of the genome) were characterized by strong linkage disequilibrium, and asymmetrically distributed among ecotypes, indicating footprints of diversifying selection. In conclusion, ecological speciation of incipient species of Miscanthus probably followed the parapatric model, whereas allopatric speciation cannot be completely ruled out, especially between the geographically isolated northern and southern M.sinensis, for which no significant gene flow across oceanic barriers was detected. Divergence between local ecotypes in early-stage speciation began at a few genomic regions under the influence of natural selection and divergence hitchhiking that overcame gene flow.

  11. Phylogenetic Analyses of Armillaria Reveal at Least 15 Phylogenetic Lineages in China, Seven of Which Are Associated with Cultivated Gastrodia elata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Guo

    Full Text Available Fungal species of Armillaria, which can act as plant pathogens and/or symbionts of the Chinese traditional medicinal herb Gastrodia elata ("Tianma", are ecologically and economically important and have consequently attracted the attention of mycologists. However, their taxonomy has been highly dependent on morphological characterization and mating tests. In this study, we phylogenetically analyzed Chinese Armillaria samples using the sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region, translation elongation factor-1 alpha gene and beta-tubulin gene. Our data revealed at least 15 phylogenetic lineages of Armillaria from China, of which seven were newly discovered and two were recorded from China for the first time. Fourteen Chinese biological species of Armillaria, which were previously defined based on mating tests, could be assigned to the 15 phylogenetic lineages identified herein. Seven of the 15 phylogenetic lineages were found to be disjunctively distributed in different continents of the Northern Hemisphere, while eight were revealed to be endemic to certain continents. In addition, we found that seven phylogenetic lineages of Armillaria were used for the cultivation of Tianma, only two of which had been recorded to be associated with Tianma previously. We also illustrated that G. elata f. glauca ("Brown Tianma" and G. elata f. elata ("Red Tianma", two cultivars of Tianma grown in different regions of China, form symbiotic relationships with different phylogenetic lineages of Armillaria. These findings should aid the development of Tianma cultivation in China.

  12. Lineage specific recombination rates and microevolution in Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nightingale Kendra K

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bacterium Listeria monocytogenes is a saprotroph as well as an opportunistic human foodborne pathogen, which has previously been shown to consist of at least two widespread lineages (termed lineages I and II and an uncommon lineage (lineage III. While some L. monocytogenes strains show evidence for considerable diversification by homologous recombination, our understanding of the contribution of recombination to L. monocytogenes evolution is still limited. We therefore used STRUCTURE and ClonalFrame, two programs that model the effect of recombination, to make inferences about the population structure and different aspects of the recombination process in L. monocytogenes. Analyses were performed using sequences for seven loci (including the house-keeping genes gap, prs, purM and ribC, the stress response gene sigB, and the virulence genes actA and inlA for 195 L. monocytogenes isolates. Results Sequence analyses with ClonalFrame and the Sawyer's test showed that recombination is more prevalent in lineage II than lineage I and is most frequent in two house-keeping genes (ribC and purM and the two virulence genes (actA and inlA. The relative occurrence of recombination versus point mutation is about six times higher in lineage II than in lineage I, which causes a higher genetic variability in lineage II. Unlike lineage I, lineage II represents a genetically heterogeneous population with a relatively high proportion (30% average of genetic material imported from external sources. Phylograms, constructed with correcting for recombination, as well as Tajima's D data suggest that both lineages I and II have suffered a population bottleneck. Conclusion Our study shows that evolutionary lineages within a single bacterial species can differ considerably in the relative contributions of recombination to genetic diversification. Accounting for recombination in phylogenetic studies is critical, and new evolutionary models that

  13. Diverging Cohesion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charron, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    – which we define here as a combination of impartial bureaucratic practices, corruption and the rule of law – limits, and in some cases reverses the tendency towards greater divergence linked to trade. Countries with high levels of state capacity – that is, those that have greater government effectiveness......, stronger rule of law and lower corruption – experience lower levels of divergence, as they have the mechanisms to counterbalance the strong centripetal forces linked to openness. This claim is tested on countries that have experienced relatively high levels of increases in levels of economic and political......Why do increases in globalisation in the face of European expansion lead to sharp levels of regional divergences in wealth in some countries but not in others? The central crux of this paper is that convergence/divergence trends in European states are conditioned by ‘state capacity’. State capacity...

  14. Acute leukemias of ambiguous lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béné, Marie C; Porwit, Anna

    2012-02-01

    The 2008 edition of the WHO Classification of Tumors of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues recognizes a special category called "leukemias of ambiguous lineage." The vast majority of these rare leukemias are classified as mixed phenotype acute leukemia (MPAL), although acute undifferentiated leukemias and natural killer lymphoblastic leukemias are also included. The major immunophenotypic markers used by the WHO 2008 to determine the lineage for these proliferations are myeloperoxidase, CD19, and cytoplasmic CD3. However, extensive immunophenotyping is necessary to confirm that the cells indeed belong to 2 different lineages or coexpress differentiation antigens of more than 1 lineage. Specific subsets of MPAL are defined by chromosomal anomalies such as the t(9;22) Philadelphia chromosome BCR-ABL1 or involvement of the MLL gene on chromosome 11q23. Other MPAL are divided into B/myeloid NOS, T/myeloid NOS, B/T NOS, and B/T/myeloid NOS. MPAL are usually of dire prognosis, respond variably to chemotherapy of acute lymphoblastic or acute myeloblastic type, and benefit most from rapid allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

  15. Macroevolutionary diversification with limited niche disparity in a species-rich lineage of cold-climate lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reaney, Ashley M; Saldarriaga-Córdoba, Mónica; Pincheira-Donoso, Daniel

    2018-02-06

    Life diversifies via adaptive radiation when natural selection drives the evolution of ecologically distinct species mediated by their access to novel niche space, or via non-adaptive radiation when new species diversify while retaining ancestral niches. However, while cases of adaptive radiation are widely documented, examples of non-adaptively radiating lineages remain rarely observed. A prolific cold-climate lizard radiation from South America (Phymaturus), sister to a hyper-diverse adaptive radiation (Liolaemus), has extensively diversified phylogenetically and geographically, but with exceptionally minimal ecological and life-history diversification. This lineage, therefore, may offer unique opportunities to investigate the non-adaptive basis of diversification, and in combination with Liolaemus, to cover the whole spectrum of modes of diversification predicted by theory, from adaptive to non-adaptive. Using phylogenetic macroevolutionary modelling performed on a newly created 58-species molecular tree, we establish the tempo and mode of diversification in the Phymaturus radiation. Lineage accumulation in Phymaturus opposes a density-dependent (or 'niche-filling') process of diversification. Concurrently, we found that body size diversification is better described by an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck evolutionary model, suggesting stabilizing selection as the mechanism underlying niche conservatism (i.e., maintaining two fundamental size peaks), and which has predominantly evolved around two major adaptive peaks on a 'Simpsonian' adaptive landscape. Lineage diversification of the Phymaturus genus does not conform to an adaptive radiation, as it is characterised by a constant rate of species accumulation during the clade's history. Their strict habitat requirements (rocky outcrops), predominantly invariant herbivory, and especially the constant viviparous reproduction across species have likely limited their opportunities for adaptive diversifications throughout novel

  16. Niche divergence builds the case for ecological speciation in skinks of the Plestiodon skiltonianus species complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wogan, Guinevere O.U.; Richmond, Jonathan Q.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptation to different thermal environments has the potential to cause evolutionary changes that are sufficient to drive ecological speciation. Here, we examine whether climate-based niche divergence in lizards of the Plestiodon skiltonianus species complex is consistent with the outcomes of such a process. Previous work on this group shows that a mechanical sexual barrier has evolved between species that differ mainly in body size and that the barrier may be a by-product of selection for increased body size in lineages that have invaded xeric environments; however, baseline information on niche divergence among members of the group is lacking. We quantified the climatic niche using mechanistic physiological and correlative niche models and then estimated niche differences among species using ordination techniques and tests of niche overlap and equivalency. Our results show that the thermal niches of size-divergent, reproductively isolated morphospecies are significantly differentiated and that precipitation may have been as important as temperature in causing increased shifts in body size in xeric habitats. While these findings alone do not demonstrate thermal adaptation or identify the cause of speciation, their integration with earlier genetic and behavioral studies provides a useful test of phenotype–environment associations that further support the case for ecological speciation in these lizards.

  17. Selaginella moellendoffii telomeres: conserved and unique features in an ancient land plant lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene V Shakirov

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Telomeres, the essential terminal regions of linear eukaryotic chromosomes, consist of G-rich DNA repeats bound by a plethora of associated proteins. While the general pathways of telomere maintenance are evolutionarily conserved, individual telomere complex components show remarkable variation between eukaryotic lineages and even within closely related species. The recent genome sequencing of the lycophyte Selaginella moellendoffii and the availability of an ever-increasing number of flowering plant genomes provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the molecular and functional evolution of telomere components from the early evolving non-seed plants to the more developmentally advanced angiosperms. Here we analyzed telomere sequence in S. moellendorffii and found it to consist of TTTAGGG repeats, typical of most plants. Telomere tracts in S. moellendorffii range from 1-5.5 kb, closely resembling Arabidopsis thaliana. We identified several S. moellendorffii genes encoding sequence homologues of proteins involved in telomere maintenance in other organisms, including CST complex components and the telomere-binding proteins POT1 and TRFL. Notable sequence similarities and differences were uncovered among the telomere-related genes in some of the plant lineages. Taken together, the data indicate that comparative analysis of the telomere complex in early diverging land plants such as S. moellendorffii and green algae will yield important insights into the evolution of telomeres and their protein constituents.

  18. Identification of a PVL-negative SCCmec-IVa sub-lineage of the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus CC80 lineage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edslev, Sofie Marie; Westh, Henrik Torkil; Andersen, Paal Skytt

    2018-01-01

    of the CC80 S. aureus lineage was conducted from whole-genome sequences of 217 isolates (23 MSSA and 194 MRSA) from 22 countries. All isolates were further genetically characterized in regard to resistance determinants and PVL carriage, and epidemiological data was obtained for selected isolates. RESULTS....... CONCLUSIONS: This study reports the emergence of a novel CC80 CA-MRSA sub-lineage, showing that the CC80 lineage is more diverse than previously assumed....

  19. Diversification in the Andes: age and origins of South American Heliotropium lineages (Heliotropiaceae, Boraginales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebert, Federico; Hilger, Hartmut H; Weigend, Maximilian

    2011-10-01

    The uplift of the Andes was a major factor for plant diversification in South America and had significant effects on the climatic patterns at the continental scale. It was crucial for the formation of the arid environments in south-eastern and western South America. However, both the timing of the major stages of the Andean uplift and the onset of aridity in western South America remain controversial. In this paper we examine the hypothesis that the Andean South American groups of Heliotropium originated and diversified in response to Andean orogeny during the late Miocene and a the subsequent development of aridity. To this end, we estimate divergence times and likely biogeographical origins of the major clades in the phylogeny of Heliotropium, using both Bayesian and likelihood methods. Divergence times of all Andean clades in Heliotropium are estimated to be of late Miocene or Pliocene ages. At least three independent Andean diversification events can be recognized within Heliotropium. Timing of the diversification in the Andean lineages Heliotropium sects.Heliothamnus, Cochranea, Heliotrophytum, Hypsogenia, Plagiomeris, Platygyne clearly correspond to a rapid, late Miocene uplift of the Andes and a Pliocene development of arid environments in South America. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Conserved and divergent expression patterns of markers of axial development in reptilian embryos: Chinese soft-shell turtle and Madagascar ground gecko.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Michio; Kajikawa, Eriko; Kurokawa, Daisuke; Noro, Miyuki; Iwai, Tatsuhiro; Yonemura, Shigenobu; Kobayashi, Kensaku; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Aizawa, Shinichi

    2016-07-01

    The processes of development leading up to gastrulation have been markedly altered during the evolution of amniotes, and it is uncertain how the mechanisms of axis formation are conserved and diverged between mouse and chick embryos. To assess the conservation and divergence of these mechanisms, this study examined gene expression patterns during the axis formation process in Chinese soft-shell turtle and Madagascar ground gecko preovipositional embryos. The data suggest that NODAL signaling, similarly to avian embryos but in contrast to eutherian embryos, does not have a role in epiblast and hypoblast development in reptilian embryos. The posterior marginal epiblast (PME) is the initial molecular landmark of axis formation in reptilian embryos prior to primitive plate development. Ontogenetically, PME may be the precursor of the primitive plate, and phylogenetically, Koller's sickle and posterior marginal zone in avian development may have been derived from the PME. Most of the genes expressed in the mouse anterior visceral endoderm (AVE genes), especially signaling antagonist genes, are not expressed in the hypoblast of turtle and gecko embryos, though they are expressed in the avian hypoblast. This study proposes that AVE gene expression in the hypoblast and the visceral endoderm could have been independently established in avian and eutherian lineages, similar to the primitive streak that has been independently acquired in these lineages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Neopolyploidy and diversification in Heuchera grossulariifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Benjamin P; Nuismer, Scott L

    2011-06-01

    Newly formed polyploid lineages must contend with several obstacles to avoid extinction, including minority cytotype exclusion, competition, and inbreeding depression. If polyploidization results in immediate divergence of phenotypic characters these hurdles may be reduced and establishment made more likely. In addition, if polyploidization alters the phenotypic and genotypic associations between traits, that is, the P and G matrices, polyploids may be able to explore novel evolutionary paths, facilitating their divergence and successful establishment. Here, we report results from a study of the perennial plant Heuchera grossulariifolia in which the phenotypic divergence and changes in phenotypic and genotypic covariance matrices caused by neopolyploidization have been estimated. Our results reveal that polyploidization causes immediate divergence for traits relevant to establishment and results in significant changes in the structure of the phenotypic covariance matrix. In contrast, our results do not provide evidence that polyploidization results in immediate and substantial shifts in the genetic covariance matrix. © 2010 The Author(s). Evolution© 2010 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  2. Corrected placement of Mus-Rattus fossil calibration forces precision in the molecular tree of rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuri; Hawkins, Melissa T R; McDonough, Molly M; Jacobs, Louis L; Flynn, Lawrence J

    2015-09-28

    Time calibration derived from the fossil record is essential for molecular phylogenetic and evolutionary studies. Fossil mice and rats, discovered in the Siwalik Group of Pakistan, have served as one of the best-known fossil calibration points in molecular phylogenic studies. Although these fossils have been widely used as the 12 Ma date for the Mus/Rattus split or a more basal split, conclusive paleontological evidence for the nodal assignments has been absent. This study analyzes newly recognized characters that demonstrate lineage separation in the fossil record of Siwalik murines and examines the most reasonable nodal placement of the diverging lineages in a molecular phylogenetic tree by ancestral state reconstruction. Our specimen-based approach strongly indicates that Siwalik murines of the Karnimata clade are fossil members of the Arvicanthini-Otomyini-Millardini clade, which excludes Rattus and its relatives. Combining the new interpretation with the widely accepted hypothesis that the Progonomys clade includes Mus, the lineage separation event in the Siwalik fossil record represents the Mus/Arvicanthis split. Our test analysis on Bayesian age estimates shows that this new calibration point provides more accurate estimates of murine divergence than previous applications. Thus, we define this fossil calibration point and refine two other fossil-based points for molecular dating.

  3. Instruction of hematopoietic lineage choice by cytokine signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endele, Max; Etzrodt, Martin; Schroeder, Timm, E-mail: timm.schroeder@bsse.ethz.ch

    2014-12-10

    Hematopoiesis is the cumulative consequence of finely tuned signaling pathways activated through extrinsic factors, such as local niche signals and systemic hematopoietic cytokines. Whether extrinsic factors actively instruct the lineage choice of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells or are only selectively allowing survival and proliferation of already intrinsically lineage-committed cells has been debated over decades. Recent results demonstrated that cytokines can instruct lineage choice. However, the precise function of individual cytokine-triggered signaling molecules in inducing cellular events like proliferation, lineage choice, and differentiation remains largely elusive. Signal transduction pathways activated by different cytokine receptors are highly overlapping, but support the production of distinct hematopoietic lineages. Cellular context, signaling dynamics, and the crosstalk of different signaling pathways determine the cellular response of a given extrinsic signal. New tools to manipulate and continuously quantify signaling events at the single cell level are therefore required to thoroughly interrogate how dynamic signaling networks yield a specific cellular response. - Highlights: • Recent studies provided definite proof for lineage-instructive action of cytokines. • Signaling pathways involved in hematopoietic lineage instruction remain elusive. • New tools are emerging to quantitatively study dynamic signaling networks over time.

  4. Empirical and Bayesian approaches to fossil-only divergence times: A study across three reptile clades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Alan H; Pritchard, Adam C; Matzke, Nicholas J

    2017-01-01

    Estimating divergence times on phylogenies is critical in paleontological and neontological studies. Chronostratigraphically-constrained fossils are the only direct evidence of absolute timing of species divergence. Strict temporal calibration of fossil-only phylogenies provides minimum divergence estimates, and various methods have been proposed to estimate divergences beyond these minimum values. We explore the utility of simultaneous estimation of tree topology and divergence times using BEAST tip-dating on datasets consisting only of fossils by using relaxed morphological clocks and birth-death tree priors that include serial sampling (BDSS) at a constant rate through time. We compare BEAST results to those from the traditional maximum parsimony (MP) and undated Bayesian inference (BI) methods. Three overlapping datasets were used that span 250 million years of archosauromorph evolution leading to crocodylians. The first dataset focuses on early Sauria (31 taxa, 240 chars.), the second on early Archosauria (76 taxa, 400 chars.) and the third on Crocodyliformes (101 taxa, 340 chars.). For each dataset three time-calibrated trees (timetrees) were calculated: a minimum-age timetree with node ages based on earliest occurrences in the fossil record; a 'smoothed' timetree using a range of time added to the root that is then averaged over zero-length internodes; and a tip-dated timetree. Comparisons within datasets show that the smoothed and tip-dated timetrees provide similar estimates. Only near the root node do BEAST estimates fall outside the smoothed timetree range. The BEAST model is not able to overcome limited sampling to correctly estimate divergences considerably older than sampled fossil occurrence dates. Conversely, the smoothed timetrees consistently provide node-ages far older than the strict dates or BEAST estimates for morphologically conservative sister-taxa when they sit on long ghost lineages. In this latter case, the relaxed-clock model appears to

  5. Empirical and Bayesian approaches to fossil-only divergence times: A study across three reptile clades.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan H Turner

    Full Text Available Estimating divergence times on phylogenies is critical in paleontological and neontological studies. Chronostratigraphically-constrained fossils are the only direct evidence of absolute timing of species divergence. Strict temporal calibration of fossil-only phylogenies provides minimum divergence estimates, and various methods have been proposed to estimate divergences beyond these minimum values. We explore the utility of simultaneous estimation of tree topology and divergence times using BEAST tip-dating on datasets consisting only of fossils by using relaxed morphological clocks and birth-death tree priors that include serial sampling (BDSS at a constant rate through time. We compare BEAST results to those from the traditional maximum parsimony (MP and undated Bayesian inference (BI methods. Three overlapping datasets were used that span 250 million years of archosauromorph evolution leading to crocodylians. The first dataset focuses on early Sauria (31 taxa, 240 chars., the second on early Archosauria (76 taxa, 400 chars. and the third on Crocodyliformes (101 taxa, 340 chars.. For each dataset three time-calibrated trees (timetrees were calculated: a minimum-age timetree with node ages based on earliest occurrences in the fossil record; a 'smoothed' timetree using a range of time added to the root that is then averaged over zero-length internodes; and a tip-dated timetree. Comparisons within datasets show that the smoothed and tip-dated timetrees provide similar estimates. Only near the root node do BEAST estimates fall outside the smoothed timetree range. The BEAST model is not able to overcome limited sampling to correctly estimate divergences considerably older than sampled fossil occurrence dates. Conversely, the smoothed timetrees consistently provide node-ages far older than the strict dates or BEAST estimates for morphologically conservative sister-taxa when they sit on long ghost lineages. In this latter case, the relaxed

  6. The Molecular Epidemiology and Evolution of Murray Valley Encephalitis Virus: Recent Emergence of Distinct Sub-lineages of the Dominant Genotype 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David T Williams

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent increased activity of the mosquito-borne Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV in Australia has renewed concerns regarding its potential to spread and cause disease.To better understand the genetic relationships between earlier and more recent circulating strains, patterns of virus movement, as well as the molecular basis of MVEV evolution, complete pre-membrane (prM and Envelope (Env genes were sequenced from sixty-six MVEV strains from different regions of the Australasian region, isolated over a sixty year period (1951-2011. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that, of the four recognized genotypes, only G1 and G2 are contemporary. G1 viruses were dominant over the sampling period and found across the known geographic range of MVEV. Two distinct sub-lineages of G1 were observed (1A and 1B. Although G1B strains have been isolated from across mainland Australia, Australian G1A strains have not been detected outside northwest Australia. Similarly, G2 is comprised of only Western Australian isolates from mosquitoes, suggesting G1B and G2 viruses have geographic or ecological restrictions. No evidence of recombination was found and a single amino acid substitution in the Env protein (S332G was found to be under positive selection, while several others were found to be under directional evolution. Evolutionary analyses indicated that extant genotypes of MVEV began to diverge from a common ancestor approximately 200 years ago. G2 was the first genotype to diverge, followed by G3 and G4, and finally G1, from which subtypes G1A and G1B diverged between 1964 and 1994.The results of this study provides new insights into the genetic diversity and evolution of MVEV. The demonstration of co-circulation of all contemporary genetic lineages of MVEV in northwestern Australia, supports the contention that this region is the enzootic focus for this virus.

  7. 3-dimensional examination of the adult mouse subventricular zone reveals lineage-specific microdomains.

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    Kasum Azim

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that the subventricular zone (SVZ of the lateral ventricle is populated by heterogeneous populations of stem and progenitor cells that, depending on their exact location, are biased to acquire specific neuronal fates. This newly described heterogeneity of SVZ stem and progenitor cells underlines the necessity to develop methods for the accurate quantification of SVZ stem and progenitor subpopulations. In this study, we provide 3-dimensional topographical maps of slow cycling "stem" cells and progenitors based on their unique cell cycle properties. These maps revealed that both cell populations are present throughout the lateral ventricle wall as well as in discrete regions of the dorsal wall. Immunodetection of transcription factors expressed in defined progenitor populations further reveals that divergent lineages have clear regional enrichments in the rostro-caudal as well as in the dorso-ventral span of the lateral ventricle. Thus, progenitors expressing Tbr2 and Dlx2 were confined to dorsal and dorso-lateral regions of the lateral ventricle, respectively, while Mash1+ progenitors were more homogeneously distributed. All cell populations were enriched in the rostral-most region of the lateral ventricle. This diversity and uneven distribution greatly impede the accurate quantification of SVZ progenitor populations. This is illustrated by measuring the coefficient of error of estimates obtained by using increasing section sampling interval. Based on our empirical data, we provide such estimates for all progenitor populations investigated in this study. These can be used in future studies as guidelines to judge if the precision obtained with a sampling scheme is sufficient to detect statistically significant differences between experimental groups if a biological effect is present. Altogether, our study underlines the need to consider the SVZ of the lateral ventricle as a complex 3D structure and define methods to

  8. Quantum skew divergence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audenaert, Koenraad M. R., E-mail: koenraad.audenaert@rhul.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham TW20 0EX, United Kingdom and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Ghent, S9, Krijgslaan 281, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2014-11-15

    In this paper, we study the quantum generalisation of the skew divergence, which is a dissimilarity measure between distributions introduced by Lee in the context of natural language processing. We provide an in-depth study of the quantum skew divergence, including its relation to other state distinguishability measures. Finally, we present a number of important applications: new continuity inequalities for the quantum Jensen-Shannon divergence and the Holevo information, and a new and short proof of Bravyi's Small Incremental Mixing conjecture.

  9. On Hölder Projective Divergences

    KAUST Repository

    Nielsen, Frank

    2017-03-16

    We describe a framework to build distances by measuring the tightness of inequalities and introduce the notion of proper statistical divergences and improper pseudo-divergences. We then consider the Holder ordinary and reverse inequalities and present two novel classes of Holder divergences and pseudo-divergences that both encapsulate the special case of the Cauchy-Schwarz divergence. We report closed-form formulas for those statistical dissimilarities when considering distributions belonging to the same exponential family provided that the natural parameter space is a cone (e.g., multivariate Gaussians) or affine (e.g., categorical distributions). Those new classes of Holder distances are invariant to rescaling and thus do not require distributions to be normalized. Finally, we show how to compute statistical Holder centroids with respect to those divergences and carry out center-based clustering toy experiments on a set of Gaussian distributions which demonstrate empirically that symmetrized Holder divergences outperform the symmetric Cauchy-Schwarz divergence.

  10. On Hölder Projective Divergences

    KAUST Repository

    Nielsen, Frank; Sun, Ke; Marchand-Maillet, Stephane

    2017-01-01

    We describe a framework to build distances by measuring the tightness of inequalities and introduce the notion of proper statistical divergences and improper pseudo-divergences. We then consider the Holder ordinary and reverse inequalities and present two novel classes of Holder divergences and pseudo-divergences that both encapsulate the special case of the Cauchy-Schwarz divergence. We report closed-form formulas for those statistical dissimilarities when considering distributions belonging to the same exponential family provided that the natural parameter space is a cone (e.g., multivariate Gaussians) or affine (e.g., categorical distributions). Those new classes of Holder distances are invariant to rescaling and thus do not require distributions to be normalized. Finally, we show how to compute statistical Holder centroids with respect to those divergences and carry out center-based clustering toy experiments on a set of Gaussian distributions which demonstrate empirically that symmetrized Holder divergences outperform the symmetric Cauchy-Schwarz divergence.

  11. Malware Lineage in the Wild

    OpenAIRE

    Haq, Irfan Ul; Chica, Sergio; Caballero, Juan; Jha, Somesh

    2017-01-01

    Malware lineage studies the evolutionary relationships among malware and has important applications for malware analysis. A persistent limitation of prior malware lineage approaches is to consider every input sample a separate malware version. This is problematic since a majority of malware are packed and the packing process produces many polymorphic variants (i.e., executables with different file hash) of the same malware version. Thus, many samples correspond to the same malware version and...

  12. Lineage Selection and the Maintenance of Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vienne, Damien M.; Giraud, Tatiana; Gouyon, Pierre-Henri

    2013-01-01

    Sex predominates in eukaryotes, despite its short-term disadvantage when compared to asexuality. Myriad models have suggested that short-term advantages of sex may be sufficient to counterbalance its twofold costs. However, despite decades of experimental work seeking such evidence, no evolutionary mechanism has yet achieved broad recognition as explanation for the maintenance of sex. We explore here, through lineage-selection models, the conditions favouring the maintenance of sex. In the first model, we allowed the rate of transition to asexuality to evolve, to determine whether lineage selection favoured species with the strongest constraints preventing the loss of sex. In the second model, we simulated more explicitly the mechanisms underlying the higher extinction rates of asexual lineages than of their sexual counterparts. We linked extinction rates to the ecological and/or genetic features of lineages, thereby providing a formalisation of the only figure included in Darwin's “The origin of species”. Our results reinforce the view that the long-term advantages of sex and lineage selection may provide the most satisfactory explanations for the maintenance of sex in eukaryotes, which is still poorly recognized, and provide figures and a simulation website for training and educational purposes. Short-term benefits may play a role, but it is also essential to take into account the selection of lineages for a thorough understanding of the maintenance of sex. PMID:23825582

  13. Identification and Characterization of Mouse Otic Sensory Lineage Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron H. Hartman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate embryogenesis gives rise to all cell types of an organism through the development of many unique lineages derived from the three primordial germ layers. The otic sensory lineage arises from the otic vesicle, a structure formed through invagination of placodal non-neural ectoderm. This developmental lineage possesses unique differentiation potential, giving rise to otic sensory cell populations including hair cells, supporting cells, and ganglion neurons of the auditory and vestibular organs. Here we present a systematic approach to identify transcriptional features that distinguish the otic sensory lineage (from early otic progenitors to otic sensory populations from other major lineages of vertebrate development. We used a microarray approach to analyze otic sensory lineage populations including microdissected otic vesicles (embryonic day 10.5 as well as isolated neonatal cochlear hair cells and supporting cells at postnatal day 3. Non-otic tissue samples including periotic tissues and whole embryos with otic regions removed were used as reference populations to evaluate otic specificity. Otic populations shared transcriptome-wide correlations in expression profiles that distinguish members of this lineage from non-otic populations. We further analyzed the microarray data using comparative and dimension reduction methods to identify individual genes that are specifically expressed in the otic sensory lineage. This analysis identified and ranked top otic sensory lineage-specific transcripts including Fbxo2, Col9a2, and Oc90, and additional novel otic lineage markers. To validate these results we performed expression analysis on select genes using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Fbxo2 showed the most striking pattern of specificity to the otic sensory lineage, including robust expression in the early otic vesicle and sustained expression in prosensory progenitors and auditory and vestibular hair cells and supporting

  14. Ecological divergence of a novel group of Chloroflexus strains along a geothermal gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltzer, Michael L; Miller, Scott R

    2013-02-01

    Environmental gradients are expected to promote the diversification and coexistence of ecological specialists adapted to local conditions. Consistent with this view, genera of phototrophic microorganisms in alkaline geothermal systems generally appear to consist of anciently divergent populations which have specialized on different temperature habitats. At White Creek (Lower Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park), however, a novel, 16S rRNA-defined lineage of the filamentous anoxygenic phototroph Chloroflexus (OTU 10, phylum Chloroflexi) occupies a much wider thermal niche than other 16S rRNA-defined groups of phototrophic bacteria. This suggests that Chloroflexus OTU 10 is either an ecological generalist or, alternatively, a group of cryptic thermal specialists which have recently diverged. To distinguish between these alternatives, we first isolated laboratory strains of Chloroflexus OTU 10 from along the White Creek temperature gradient. These strains are identical for partial gene sequences encoding the 16S rRNA and malonyl coenzyme A (CoA) reductase. However, strains isolated from upstream and downstream samples could be distinguished based on sequence variation at pcs, which encodes the propionyl-CoA synthase of the 3-hydroxypropionate pathway of carbon fixation used by the genus Chloroflexus. We next demonstrated that strains have diverged in temperature range for growth. Specifically, we obtained evidence for a positive correlation between thermal niche breadth and temperature optimum, with strains isolated from lower temperatures exhibiting greater thermal specialization than the most thermotolerant strain. The study has implications for our understanding of both the process of niche diversification of microorganisms and how diversity is organized in these hot spring communities.

  15. The $16,819 pay gap for newly trained physicians: the unexplained trend of men earning more than women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Sasso, Anthony T; Richards, Michael R; Chou, Chiu-Fang; Gerber, Susan E

    2011-02-01

    Prior research has suggested that gender differences in physicians' salaries can be accounted for by the tendency of women to enter primary care fields and work fewer hours. However, in examining starting salaries by gender of physicians leaving residency programs in New York State during 1999-2008, we found a significant gender gap that cannot be explained by specialty choice, practice setting, work hours, or other characteristics. The unexplained trend toward diverging salaries appears to be a recent development that is growing over time. In 2008, male physicians newly trained in New York State made on average $16,819 more than newly trained female physicians, compared to a $3,600 difference in 1999.

  16. String perturbation theory diverges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, D.J.; Periwal, V.

    1988-01-01

    We prove that perturbation theory for the bosonic string diverges for arbitrary values of the coupling constant and is not Borel summable. This divergence is independent of the existence of the infinities that occur in the theory due to the presence of tachyons and dilaton tadpoles. We discuss the physical implications of such a divergence

  17. Lineage fusion in Galápagos giant tortoises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrick, Ryan C; Benavides, Edgar; Russello, Michael A; Hyseni, Chaz; Edwards, Danielle L; Gibbs, James P; Tapia, Washington; Ciofi, Claudio; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2014-11-01

    Although many classic radiations on islands are thought to be the result of repeated lineage splitting, the role of past fusion is rarely known because during these events, purebreds are rapidly replaced by a swarm of admixed individuals. Here, we capture lineage fusion in action in a Galápagos giant tortoise species, Chelonoidis becki, from Wolf Volcano (Isabela Island). The long generation time of Galápagos tortoises and dense sampling (841 individuals) of genetic and demographic data were integral in detecting and characterizing this phenomenon. In C. becki, we identified two genetically distinct, morphologically cryptic lineages. Historical reconstructions show that they colonized Wolf Volcano from Santiago Island in two temporally separated events, the first estimated to have occurred ~199 000 years ago. Following arrival of the second wave of colonists, both lineages coexisted for approximately ~53 000 years. Within that time, they began fusing back together, as microsatellite data reveal widespread introgressive hybridization. Interestingly, greater mate selectivity seems to be exhibited by purebred females of one of the lineages. Forward-in-time simulations predict rapid extinction of the early arriving lineage. This study provides a rare example of reticulate evolution in action and underscores the power of population genetics for understanding the past, present and future consequences of evolutionary phenomena associated with lineage fusion. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Lineage-specific late pleistocene expansion of an endemic subtropical gossamer-wing damselfly, Euphaea formosa, in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Jen-Pan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pleistocene glacial oscillations have significantly affected the historical population dynamics of temperate taxa. However, the general effects of recent climatic changes on the evolutionary history and genetic structure of extant subtropical species remain poorly understood. In the present study, phylogeographic and historical demographic analyses based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences were used. The aim was to investigate whether Pleistocene climatic cycles, paleo-drainages or mountain vicariance of Taiwan shaped the evolutionary diversification of a subtropical gossamer-wing damselfly, Euphaea formosa. Results E. formosa populations originated in the middle Pleistocene period (0.3 Mya and consisted of two evolutionarily independent lineages. It is likely that they derived from the Pleistocene paleo-drainages of northern and southern Minjiang, or alternatively by divergence within Taiwan. The ancestral North-central lineage colonized northwestern Taiwan first and maintained a slowly growing population throughout much of the early to middle Pleistocene period. The ancestral widespread lineage reached central-southern Taiwan and experienced a spatial and demographic expansion into eastern Taiwan. This expansion began approximately 30,000 years ago in the Holocene interglacial period. The ancestral southern expansion into eastern Taiwan indicates that the central mountain range (CMR formed a barrier to east-west expansion. However, E. formosa populations in the three major biogeographic regions (East, South, and North-Central exhibit no significant genetic partitions, suggesting that river drainages and mountains did not form strong geographical barriers against gene flow among extant populations. Conclusions The present study implies that the antiquity of E. formosa's colonization is associated with its high dispersal ability and larval tolerance to the late Pleistocene dry grasslands. The effect of late Pleistocene

  19. The origin of widespread species in a poor dispersing lineage (diving beetle genus Deronectes

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    David García-Vázquez

    2016-09-01

    lineages with more restricted distributions around the Western and Central Mediterranean. The analysis of Wolbachia showed a high prevalence of infection among Deronectes, especially in the D. aubei group, where all sequenced populations were infected with the only exception of the Cantabrian Mountains, the westernmost area of distribution of the lineage. In this group there was a phylogenetic incongruence between the mitochondrial and the nuclear sequence, although no clear pattern links this discordance to the Wolbachia infection. Our results suggest that, in different glacial cycles, populations that happened to be at the edge of the newly deglaciated areas took advantage of the optimal ecological conditions to expand their ranges to central and northern Europe. Once this favourable ecological window ended populations become isolated, resulting in the presence of closely related but distinct species in the Mediterranean peninsulas.

  20. Four new bat species (Rhinolophus hildebrandtii complex reflect Plio-Pleistocene divergence of dwarfs and giants across an Afromontane archipelago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Taylor

    Full Text Available Gigantism and dwarfism evolve in vertebrates restricted to islands. We describe four new species in the Rhinolophus hildebrandtii species-complex of horseshoe bats, whose evolution has entailed adaptive shifts in body size. We postulate that vicissitudes of palaeoenvironments resulted in gigantism and dwarfism in habitat islands fragmented across eastern and southern Africa. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences recovered two clades of R. hildebrandtii senso lato which are paraphyletic with respect to a third lineage (R. eloquens. Lineages differ by 7.7 to 9.0% in cytochrome b sequences. Clade 1 includes R. hildebrandtii sensu stricto from the east African highlands and three additional vicariants that speciated across an Afromontane archipelago through the Plio-Pleistocene, extending from the Kenyan Highlands through the Eastern Arc, northern Mozambique and the Zambezi Escarpment to the eastern Great Escarpment of South Africa. Clade 2 comprises one species confined to lowland savanna habitats (Mozambique and Zimbabwe. A third clade comprises R. eloquens from East Africa. Speciation within Clade 1 is associated with fixed differences in echolocation call frequency, and cranial shape and size in populations isolated since the late Pliocene (ca 3.74 Mya. Relative to the intermediate-sized savanna population (Clade 2, these island-populations within Clade 1 are characterised by either gigantism (South African eastern Great Escarpment and Mts Mabu and Inago in Mozambique or dwarfism (Lutope-Ngolangola Gorge, Zimbabwe and Soutpansberg Mountains, South Africa. Sympatry between divergent clades (Clade 1 and Clade 2 at Lutope-Ngolangola Gorge (NW Zimbabwe is attributed to recent range expansions. We propose an "Allometric Speciation Hypothesis", which attributes the evolution of this species complex of bats to divergence in constant frequency (CF sonar calls. The origin of species-specific peak frequencies (overall range = 32 to 46 kHz represents the

  1. Contrasting microsatellite diversity in the evolutionary lineages of Phytophthora lateralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vettraino, AnnaMaria; Brasier, Clive M; Webber, Joan F; Hansen, Everett M; Green, Sarah; Robin, Cecile; Tomassini, Alessia; Bruni, Natalia; Vannini, Andrea

    2017-02-01

    Following recent discovery of Phytophthora lateralis on native Chamaecyparis obtusa in Taiwan, four phenotypically distinct lineages were discriminated: the Taiwan J (TWJ) and Taiwan K (TWK) in Taiwan, the Pacific Northwest (PNW) in North America and Europe and the UK in west Scotland. Across the four lineages, we analysed 88 isolates from multiple sites for microsatellite diversity. Twenty-one multilocus genotypes (MLGs) were resolved with high levels of diversity of the TWK and PNW lineages. No alleles were shared between the PNW and the Taiwanese lineages. TWK was heterozygous at three loci, whereas TWJ isolates were homozygous apart from one isolate, which exhibited a unique allele also present in the TWK lineage. PNW lineage was heterozygous at three loci. The evidence suggests its origin may be a yet unknown Asian source. North American and European PNW isolates shared all their alleles and also a dominant MLG, consistent with a previous proposal that this lineage is a recent introduction into Europe from North America. The UK lineage was monomorphic and homozygous at all loci. It shared its alleles with the PNW and the TWJ and TWK lineages, hence a possible origin in a recent hybridisation event between a Taiwan lineage and PNW cannot be ruled out. Copyright © 2016 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A multilocus phylogeny reveals deep lineages within African galagids (Primates: Galagidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Bushbabies (Galagidae) are among the most morphologically cryptic of all primates and their diversity and relationships are some of the most longstanding problems in primatology. Our knowledge of galagid evolutionary history has been limited by a lack of appropriate molecular data and a paucity of fossils. Most phylogenetic studies have produced conflicting results for many clades, and even the relationships among genera remain uncertain. To clarify galagid evolutionary history, we assembled the largest molecular dataset for galagos to date by sequencing 27 independent loci. We inferred phylogenetic relationships using concatenated maximum-likelihood and Bayesian analyses, and also coalescent-based species tree methods to account for gene tree heterogeneity due to incomplete lineage sorting. Results The genus Euoticus was identified as sister taxon to the rest of the galagids and the genus Galagoides was not recovered as monophyletic, suggesting that a new generic name for the Zanzibar complex is required. Despite the amount of genetic data collected in this study, the monophyly of the family Lorisidae remained poorly supported, probably due to the short internode between the Lorisidae/Galagidae split and the origin of the African and Asian lorisid clades. One major result was the relatively old origin for the most recent common ancestor of all living galagids soon after the Eocene-Oligocene boundary. Conclusions Using a multilocus approach, our results suggest an early origin for the crown Galagidae, soon after the Eocene-Oligocene boundary, making Euoticus one of the oldest lineages within extant Primates. This result also implies that one – or possibly more – stem radiations diverged in the Late Eocene and persisted for several million years alongside members of the crown group. PMID:24694188

  3. Ecological and Genetic Divergences with Gene Flow of Two Sister Species (Leucomeris decora and Nouelia insignis) Driving by Climatic Transition in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yujuan; Yin, Genshen; Pan, Yuezhi; Gong, Xun

    2018-01-01

    Understanding of the processes of divergence and speciation is a major task for biodiversity researches and may offer clearer insight into mechanisms generating biological diversity. Here, we employ an integrative approach to explore genetic and ecological differentiation of Leucomeris decora and Nouelia insignis distributed allopatrically along the two sides of the biogeographic boundary 'Tanaka Line' in Southwest China. We addressed these questions using ten low-copy nuclear genes and nine plastid DNA regions sequenced among individuals sampled from 28 populations across their geographic ranges in China. Phylogenetic, coalescent-based population genetic analyses, approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) framework and ecological niche models (ENMs) were conducted. We identified a closer phylogenetic relationship in maternal lineage of L. decora with N. insignis than that between L . decora and congeneric Leucomeris spectabilis . A deep divergence between the two species was observed and occurred at the boundary between later Pliocene and early Pleistocene. However, the evidence of significant chloroplast DNA gene flow was also detected between the marginal populations of L. decora and N. insignis . Niche models and statistical analyses showed significant ecological differentiation, and two nuclear loci among the ten nuclear genes may be under divergent selection. These integrative results imply that the role of climatic shift from Pliocene to Pleistocene may be the prominent factor for the divergence of L . decora and N . insignis , and population expansion after divergence may have given rise to chloroplast DNA introgression. The divergence was maintained by differential selection despite in the face of gene flow.

  4. [Identification of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing lineage in Ecuador].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Patricia; Calvopiña, Karina; Herrera, Diana; Rojas, Carlos; Pérez-Lago, Laura; Grijalva, Marcelo; Guna, Remedios; García-de Viedma, Darío

    2017-06-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing lineage isolates are considered to be especially virulent, transmissible and prone to acquire resistances. Beijing strains have been reported worldwide, but studies in Latin America are still scarce. The only multinational study performed in the region indicated a heterogeneous distribution for this lineage, which was absent in Chile, Colombia and Ecuador, although further studies found the lineage in Chile and Colombia. To search for the presence of the Beijing lineage in Ecuador, the only country in the region where it remains unreported. We obtained a convenience sample (2006-2012) from two hospitals covering different populations. The isolates were genotyped using 24-MIRU-VNTR. Lineages were assigned by comparing their patterns to those in the MIRU-VNTRplus platform. Isolates belonging to the Beijing lineage were confirmed by allele-specific PCR. We identified the first Beijing isolate in Ecuador in an unexpected epidemiological scenario: A patient was infected in the Andean region, in a population with low mobility and far from the borders of the neighboring countries where Beijing strains had been previously reported. This is the first report of the presence of the Beijing lineage in Ecuador in an unusual epidemiological context that deserves special attention.

  5. Divergent Cumulative Cultural Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Marriott, Chris; Chebib, Jobran

    2016-01-01

    Divergent cumulative cultural evolution occurs when the cultural evolutionary trajectory diverges from the biological evolutionary trajectory. We consider the conditions under which divergent cumulative cultural evolution can occur. We hypothesize that two conditions are necessary. First that genetic and cultural information are stored separately in the agent. Second cultural information must be transferred horizontally between agents of different generations. We implement a model with these ...

  6. The earliest settlers' antiquity and evolutionary history of Indian populations: evidence from M2 mtDNA lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotal M

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The "out of Africa" model postulating single "southern route" dispersal posits arrival of "Anatomically Modern Human" to Indian subcontinent around 66–70 thousand years before present (kyBP. However the contributions and legacy of these earliest settlers in contemporary Indian populations, owing to the complex past population dynamics and later migrations has been an issue of controversy. The high frequency of mitochondrial lineage "M2" consistent with its greater age and distribution suggests that it may represent the phylogenetic signature of earliest settlers. Accordingly, we attempted to re-evaluate the impact and contribution of earliest settlers in shaping the genetic diversity and structure of contemporary Indian populations; using our newly sequenced 72 and 4 published complete mitochondrial genomes of this lineage. Results The M2 lineage, harbouring two deep rooting subclades M2a and M2b encompasses approximately one tenth of the mtDNA pool of studied tribes. The phylogeographic spread and diversity indices of M2 and its subclades among the tribes of different geographic regions and linguistic phyla were investigated in detail. Further the reconstructed demographic history of M2 lineage as a surrogate of earliest settlers' component revealed that the demographic events with pronounced regional variations had played pivotal role in shaping the complex net of populations phylogenetic relationship in Indian subcontinent. Conclusion Our results suggest that tribes of southern and eastern region along with Dravidian and Austro-Asiatic speakers of central India are the modern representatives of earliest settlers of subcontinent. The Last Glacial Maximum aridity and post LGM population growth mechanised some sort of homogeneity and redistribution of earliest settlers' component in India. The demic diffusion of agriculture and associated technologies around 3 kyBP, which might have marginalized hunter-gatherer, is

  7. Circulation of influenza B lineages in northern Viet Nam, 2007-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thi Thanh; Pham, Thu Hang; Pham, Thi Hien; Nguyen, Le Khanh Hang; Nguyen, Co Thach; Hoang, Vu Mai Phuong; Tran, Thu Huong; Nguyen, Vu Son; Ngo, Huong Giang; Le, Quynh Mai

    2015-01-01

    Influenza B viruses circulate throughout Viet Nam, and their activities vary by region. There have been two antigenically distinct lineages of influenza B viruses co-circulating in the past 20 years; however, only one lineage is selected as a component of contemporary trivalent seasonal influenza vaccines. To improve the understanding of circulating influenza B lineages and influenza vaccine mismatches, we report the virus lineages circulating in northern Viet Nam over an eight-year period (2007-2014). Lineages of 331 influenza B viruses were characterized by haemagglutination inhibition assay against standard reference ferret (Yamagata) and sheep (Victoria) antisera. Sequence analysis of the haemagglutinin gene was performed in 64 selected influenza B isolates. The proportion of influenza B lineages changed by year. The Yamagata lineage predominated in 2007, 2008 and 2012; the Victoria lineage predominated in 2009-2014 except 2012. The two lineages showed continuous evolution over time. The Northern Hemisphere's influenza vaccine components were mismatched with the predominant circulating viruses in 2007, 2009 and 2014. The seasonality of influenza B activity is more variable in tropical and subtropical regions than in temperate zones. Our data showed a common co-circulation of both influenza B lineages in northern Viet Nam, and it was difficult to predict which one was the predominant lineage. Quadrivalent influenza vaccines containing both lineages may improve the effectiveness of influenza vaccine programmes in the future.

  8. Ancient geographical barriers drive differentiation among Sonneratia caseolaris populations and recent divergence from S. lanceolata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchen Yang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Glacial vicariance is thought to influence population dynamics and speciation of many marine organisms. Mangroves, a plant group inhabiting intertidal zones, were also profoundly influenced by Pleistocene glaciations. In this study, we investigated phylogeographic patterns of a widespread mangrove species Sonneratia caseolaris and a narrowly distributed, closely related species S. lanceolata to infer their divergence histories and related it to historical geological events. We sequenced two chloroplast fragments and five nuclear genes for one population of S. lanceolata and 12 populations of S. caseolaris across the Indo-West Pacific (IWP region to evaluate genetic differentiation and divergence time among them. Phylogenetic analysis based on sequences of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (nrITS and a nuclear gene rpl9 for all Sonneratia species indicate that S. lanceolata individuals are nested within S. caseolaris. We found strong genetic structure among geographic regions (South China Sea, the Indian Ocean and eastern Australia inhabited by S. caseolaris. We estimated that divergence between the Indo-Malesia and Australasia populations occurred 4.035 million years ago (MYA, prior to the onset of Pleistocene. BARRIERS analysis suggested that complex geographic features in the IWP region had largely shaped the phylogeographic patterns of S. caseolaris. Furthermore, haplotype analyses provided convincing evidence for secondary contact of the South China Sea (SCS and the Indian Ocean lineages at the Indo-Pacific boundary. Demographic history inference under isolation and migration (IM model detected substantial gene flow from the Sri Lanka populations to the populations in the Java Island. Moreover, multi-locus sequence analysis indicated that S. lanceolata was most closely related to the Indian Ocean populations of S. caseolaris and the divergence time between them was 2.057 MYA, coinciding with the onset of the Pleistocene

  9. Allotetraploid origin and divergence in Eleusine (Chloridoideae, Poaceae): evidence from low-copy nuclear gene phylogenies and a plastid gene chronogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Triplett, Jimmy K; Wen, Jun; Peterson, Paul M

    2011-11-01

    Eleusine (Poaceae) is a small genus of the subfamily Chloridoideae exhibiting considerable morphological and ecological diversity in East Africa and the Americas. The interspecific phylogenetic relationships of Eleusine are investigated in order to identify its allotetraploid origin, and a chronogram is estimated to infer temporal relationships between palaeoenvironment changes and divergence of Eleusine in East Africa. Two low-copy nuclear (LCN) markers, Pepc4 and EF-1α, were analysed using parsimony, likelihood and Bayesian approaches. A chronogram of Eleusine was inferred from a combined data set of six plastid DNA markers (ndhA intron, ndhF, rps16-trnK, rps16 intron, rps3, and rpl32-trnL) using the Bayesian dating method. The monophyly of Eleusine is strongly supported by sequence data from two LCN markers. In the cpDNA phylogeny, three tetraploid species (E. africana, E. coracana and E. kigeziensis) share a common ancestor with the E. indica-E. tristachya clade, which is considered a source of maternal parents for allotetraploids. Two homoeologous loci are isolated from three tetraploid species in the Pepc4 phylogeny, and the maternal parents receive further support. The A-type EF-1α sequences possess three characters, i.e. a large number of variations of intron 2; clade E-A distantly diverged from clade E-B and other diploid species; and seven deletions in intron 2, implying a possible derivation through a gene duplication event. The crown age of Eleusine and the allotetraploid lineage are 3·89 million years ago (mya) and 1·40 mya, respectively. The molecular data support independent allotetraploid origins for E. kigeziensis and the E. africana-E. coracana clade. Both events may have involved diploids E. indica and E. tristachya as the maternal parents, but the paternal parents remain unidentified. The habitat-specific hypothesis is proposed to explain the divergence of Eleusine and its allotetraploid lineage.

  10. Cell lineage branching as a strategy for proliferative control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzi, Gentian; Lander, Arthur D; Khammash, Mustafa

    2015-02-19

    How tissue and organ sizes are specified is one of the great unsolved mysteries in biology. Experiments and mathematical modeling implicate feedback control of cell lineage progression, but a broad understanding of what lineage feedback accomplishes is lacking. By exploring the possible effects of various biologically relevant disturbances on the dynamic and steady state behaviors of stem cell lineages, we find that the simplest and most frequently studied form of lineage feedback - which we term renewal control - suffers from several serious drawbacks. These reflect fundamental performance limits dictated by universal conservation-type laws, and are independent of parameter choice. Here we show that introducing lineage branches can circumvent all such limitations, permitting effective attenuation of a wide range of perturbations. The type of feedback that achieves such performance - which we term fate control - involves promotion of lineage branching at the expense of both renewal and (primary) differentiation. We discuss the evidence that feedback of just this type occurs in vivo, and plays a role in tissue growth control. Regulated lineage branching is an effective strategy for dealing with disturbances in stem cell systems. The existence of this strategy provides a dynamics-based justification for feedback control of cell fate in vivo.

  11. k-Means Clustering with Hölder Divergences

    KAUST Repository

    Nielsen, Frank

    2017-10-24

    We introduced two novel classes of Hölder divergences and Hölder pseudo-divergences that are both invariant to rescaling, and that both encapsulate the Cauchy-Schwarz divergence and the skew Bhattacharyya divergences. We review the elementary concepts of those parametric divergences, and perform a clustering analysis on two synthetic datasets. It is shown experimentally that the symmetrized Hölder divergences consistently outperform significantly the Cauchy-Schwarz divergence in clustering tasks.

  12. k-Means Clustering with Hölder Divergences

    KAUST Repository

    Nielsen, Frank; Sun, Ke; Marchand-Maillet, Sté phane

    2017-01-01

    We introduced two novel classes of Hölder divergences and Hölder pseudo-divergences that are both invariant to rescaling, and that both encapsulate the Cauchy-Schwarz divergence and the skew Bhattacharyya divergences. We review the elementary concepts of those parametric divergences, and perform a clustering analysis on two synthetic datasets. It is shown experimentally that the symmetrized Hölder divergences consistently outperform significantly the Cauchy-Schwarz divergence in clustering tasks.

  13. Hyperreal Numbers for Infinite Divergent Series

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlett, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Treating divergent series properly has been an ongoing issue in mathematics. However, many of the problems in divergent series stem from the fact that divergent series were discovered prior to having a number system which could handle them. The infinities that resulted from divergent series led to contradictions within the real number system, but these contradictions are largely alleviated with the hyperreal number system. Hyperreal numbers provide a framework for dealing with divergent serie...

  14. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of diploid Leucaena (Leguminosae; Mimosoideae) reveal cryptic species diversity and patterns of divergent allopatric speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajulu, Rajanikanth; Hughes, Colin E; Bailey, C Donovan

    2011-12-01

    Leucaena comprises 17 diploid species, five tetraploid species, and a complex series of hybrids whose evolutionary histories have been influenced by human seed translocation, cultivation, and subsequent spontaneous hybridization. Here we investigated patterns of evolutionary divergence among diploid Leucaena through comprehensively sampled multilocus phylogenetic and population genetic approaches to address species delimitation, interspecific relationships, hybridization, and the predominant mode of speciation among diploids. Parsimony- and maximum-likelihood-based phylogenetic approaches were applied to 59 accessions sequenced for six SCAR-based nuclear loci, nrDNA ITS, and four cpDNA regions. Population genetic comparisons included 1215 AFLP loci representing 42 populations and 424 individuals. Phylogenetic results provided a well-resolved hypothesis of divergent species relationships, recovering previously recognized clades of diploids as well as newly resolved relationships. Phylogenetic and population genetic assessments identified two cryptic species that are consistent with geography and morphology. Findings from this study highlight the importance and utility of multilocus data in the recovery of complex evolutionary histories. The results are consistent with allopatric divergence representing the predominant mode of speciation among diploid Leucaena. These findings contrast with the potential hybrid origin of several tetraploid species and highlight the importance of human translocation of seed to the origin of these tetraploids. The recognition of one previously unrecognized species (L. cruziana) and the elevation of another taxon (L. collinsii subsp. zacapana) to specific status (L. zacapana) is consistent with a growing number of newly diagnosed species from neotropical seasonally dry forests, suggesting these communities harbor greater species diversity than previously recognized.

  15. The divergence theorem for divergence measure vectorfields on sets with fractal boundaries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šilhavý, Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 5 (2009), s. 445-455 ISSN 1081-2865 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : divergence measure vectorfields * fractal s * divergence theorem Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.065, year: 2009

  16. The Patchwork Divergence Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Dray, Tevian; Hellaby, Charles

    1994-01-01

    The divergence theorem in its usual form applies only to suitably smooth vector fields. For vector fields which are merely piecewise smooth, as is natural at a boundary between regions with different physical properties, one must patch together the divergence theorem applied separately in each region. We give an elegant derivation of the resulting "patchwork divergence theorem" which is independent of the metric signature in either region, and which is thus valid if the signature changes. (PA...

  17. Divergence and Conservative Evolution of XTNX Genes in Land Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Mei Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Toll-interleukin-1 receptor (TIR and Nucleotide-binding site (NBS domains are two major components of the TIR-NBS-leucine-rich repeat family plant disease resistance genes. Extensive functional and evolutionary studies have been performed on these genes; however, the characterization of a small group of genes that are composed of atypical TIR and NBS domains, namely XTNX genes, is limited. The present study investigated this specific gene family by conducting genome-wide analyses of 59 green plant genomes. A total of 143 XTNX genes were identified in 51 of the 52 land plant genomes, whereas no XTNX gene was detected in any green algae genomes, which indicated that XTNX genes originated upon emergence of land plants. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the ancestral XTNX gene underwent two rounds of ancient duplications in land plants, which resulted in the formation of clades I/II and clades IIa/IIb successively. Although clades I and IIb have evolved conservatively in angiosperms, the motif composition difference and sequence divergence at the amino acid level suggest that functional divergence may have occurred since the separation of the two clades. In contrast, several features of the clade IIa genes, including the absence in the majority of dicots, the long branches in the tree, the frequent loss of ancestral motifs, and the loss of expression in all detected tissues of Zea mays, all suggest that the genes in this lineage might have undergone pseudogenization. This study highlights that XTNX genes are a gene family originated anciently in land plants and underwent specific conservative pattern in evolution.

  18. Ancient lineage, young troglobites: recent colonization of caves by Nesticella spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Li, Shuqiang

    2013-09-04

    The evolution and origin of cave organisms is a recurring issue in evolutionary studies, but analyses are often hindered by the inaccessibility of caves, morphological convergence, and complex colonization processes. Here we investigated the evolutionary history of Nesticella cave spiders, which are mainly distributed in the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, China. With comprehensive sampling and phylogenetic and coalescent-based analyses, we investigated the tempo and mode of diversification and the origins of these troglobites. We also aimed to determine which factors have influenced the diversification of this little-known group. Coalescent-based species delimitation validated the 18 species recognized by morphological inspection and also suggested the existence of cryptic lineages. Divergence time estimates suggested that Nesticella cave spiders in the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau constituted a monophyletic troglobite clade that originated in the middle Miocene (11.1-18.6 Ma). Although the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau clade was composed exclusively of troglobite species, suggesting an ancient common subterranean ancestor, we favor multiple, independent cave colonizations during the Pleistocene over a single ancient cave colonization event to explain the origin of these cave faunas. The diversification of plateau Nesticella has been greatly influenced by the sequential uplift of the plateau and likely reflects multiple cave colonizations over time by epigean ancestors during Pleistocene glacial advances. We concluded that plateau cave Nesticella represent an ancient group of spiders, but with young troglobite lineages that invaded caves only recently. The absence of extant epigean relatives and nearly complete isolation among caves supported their relict status. Our work highlights the importance of comprehensive sampling for studies of subterranean diversity and the evolution of cave organisms. The existence of potentially cryptic species and the relict status of Nesticella

  19. Diversity rankings among bacterial lineages in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Noha H; Elshahed, Mostafa S

    2009-03-01

    We used rarefaction curve analysis and diversity ordering-based approaches to rank the 11 most frequently encountered bacterial lineages in soil according to diversity in 5 previously reported 16S rRNA gene clone libraries derived from agricultural, undisturbed tall grass prairie and forest soils (n=26,140, 28 328, 31 818, 13 001 and 53 533). The Planctomycetes, Firmicutes and the delta-Proteobacteria were consistently ranked among the most diverse lineages in all data sets, whereas the Verrucomicrobia, Gemmatimonadetes and beta-Proteobacteria were consistently ranked among the least diverse. On the other hand, the rankings of alpha-Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Chloroflexi varied widely in different soil clone libraries. In general, lineages exhibiting largest differences in diversity rankings also exhibited the largest difference in relative abundance in the data sets examined. Within these lineages, a positive correlation between relative abundance and diversity was observed within the Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and Chloroflexi, and a negative diversity-abundance correlation was observed within the Bacteroidetes. The ecological and evolutionary implications of these results are discussed.

  20. Ecotype diversification of an abundant Roseobacter lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ying; Zhang, Yao; Hollibaugh, James T; Luo, Haiwei

    2017-04-01

    The Roseobacter DC5-80-3 cluster (also known as the RCA clade) is among the most abundant bacterial lineages in temperate and polar oceans. Previous studies revealed two phylotypes within this cluster that are distinctly distributed in the Antarctic and other ocean provinces. Here, we report a nearly complete genome co-assembly of three closely related single cells co-occurring in the Antarctic, and compare it to the available genomes of the other phylotype from ocean regions where iron is more accessible but phosphorus and nitrogen are less. The Antarctic phylotype exclusively contains an operon structure consisting of a dicitrate transporter fecBCDE and an upstream regulator likely for iron uptake, whereas the other phylotype consistently carry a high-affinity phosphate pst transporter and the phoB-phoR regulatory system, a high-affinity ammonium amtB transporter, urea and taurine utilization systems. Moreover, the Antarctic phylotype uses proteorhodopsin to acquire light, whereas the other uses bacteriochlorophyll-a and the sulfur-oxidizing sox cluster for energy acquisition. This is potentially an iron-saving strategy for the Antarctic phylotype because only the latter two pathways have iron-requiring cytochromes. Therefore, the two DC5-80-3 phylotypes, while diverging by only 1.1% in their 16S rRNA genes, have evolved systematic differences in metabolism to support their distinct ecologies. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. On infrared divergences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parisi, G.

    1979-01-01

    The structure of infrared divergences is studied in superrenormalizable interactions. It is conjectured that there is an extension of the Bogoliubov-Parasiuk-Hepp theorem which copes also with infrared divergences. The consequences of this conjecture on the singularities of the Borel transform in a massless asymptotic free field theory are discussed. The application of these ideas to gauge theories is briefly discussed. (Auth.)

  2. String loop divergences and effective lagrangians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischler, W.; Klebanov, I.; Susskind, L.

    1988-01-01

    We isolate logarithmic divergences from bosonic string amplitudes on a disc. These divergences are compared with 'tadpole' divergences in the effective field theory, with a covariant cosmological term implied by the counting of string coupling constants. We find an inconsistency between the two. This might be a problem in eliminating divergences from the bosonic string. (orig.)

  3. Intraspecific ecological niche divergence and reproductive shifts foster cytotype displacement and provide ecological opportunity to polyploids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunarathne, Piyal; Schedler, Mara; Martínez, Eric J; Honfi, Ana I; Novichkova, Anastasiia; Hojsgaard, Diego

    2018-05-11

    Niche divergence between polyploids and their lower ploidy progenitors is one of the primary mechanisms fostering polyploid establishment and adaptive divergence. However, within-species chromosomal and reproductive variability have usually been neglected in community ecology and biodiversity analyses even though they have been recognized to play a role in the adaptive diversification of lineages. We used Paspalum intermedium, a grass species with diverging genetic systems (diploidy vs. autopolyploidy, allogamy vs. autogamy and sexuality vs. apomixis), to recognize the causality of biogeographic patterns, adaptation and ecological flexibility of cytotypes. Chromosome counts and flow cytometry were used to characterize within-species genetic systems diversity. Environmental niche modelling was used to evaluate intraspecific ecological attributes associated with environmental and climatic factors and to assess correlations among ploidy, reproductive modes and ecological conditions ruling species' population dynamics, range expansion, adaptation and evolutionary history. Two dominant cytotypes non-randomly distributed along local and regional geographical scales displayed niche differentiation, a directional shift in niche optima and signs of disruptive selection on ploidy-related ecological aptitudes for the exploitation of environmental resources. Ecologically specialized allogamous sexual diploids were found in northern areas associated with higher temperature, humidity and productivity, while generalist autogamous apomictic tetraploids occurred in southern areas, occupying colder and less productive environments. Four localities with a documented shift in ploidy and four mixed populations in a zone of ecological transition revealed an uneven replacement between cytotypes. Polyploidy and contrasting reproductive traits between cytotypes have promoted shifts in niche optima, and increased ecological tolerance and niche divergence. Ecologically specialized diploids

  4. Floral and mating system divergence in secondary sympatry: testing an alternative hypothesis to reinforcement in Clarkia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe Runquist, Ryan D.; Moeller, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Reproductive character displacement (RCD) is often an important signature of reinforcement when partially cross-compatible taxa meet in secondary sympatry. In this study, floral evolution is examined during the Holocene range expansion of Clarkia xantiana subsp. parviflora from eastern Pleistocene refugia to a western zone of sympatry with its sister taxon, subsp. xantiana. Floral divergence between the two taxa is greater in sympatry than allopatry. The goal was to test an alternative hypothesis to reinforcement – that floral divergence of sympatric genotypes is simply a by-product of adaptation to pollination environments that differ between the allopatric and sympatric portions of the subspecies' range. Methods Floral trait data from two common garden studies were used to examine floral divergence between sympatric and allopatric regions and among phylogeographically defined lineages. In natural populations of C. x. parviflora, the magnitude of pollen limitation and reproductive assurance were quantified across its west-to-east range. Potted sympatric and allopatric genotypes were also reciprocally translocated between geographical regions to distinguish between the effects of floral phenotype versus contrasting pollinator environments on reproductive ecology. Key Results Sympatric populations are considerably smaller flowered with reduced herkogamy. Pollen limitation and the reproductive assurance value of selfing are greater in sympatric than in allopatric populations. Most significantly, reciprocal translocation experiments showed these differences in reproductive ecology cannot be attributed to contrasting pollinator environments between the sympatric and allopatric regions, but instead reflect the effects of flower size on pollinator attraction. Conclusions Floral evolution occurred during the westward range expansion of parviflora, particularly in the zone of sympatry with xantiana. No evidence was found that strongly reduced flower

  5. Floral and mating system divergence in secondary sympatry: testing an alternative hypothesis to reinforcement in Clarkia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe Runquist, Ryan D; Moeller, David A

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive character displacement (RCD) is often an important signature of reinforcement when partially cross-compatible taxa meet in secondary sympatry. In this study, floral evolution is examined during the Holocene range expansion of Clarkia xantiana subsp. parviflora from eastern Pleistocene refugia to a western zone of sympatry with its sister taxon, subsp. xantiana. Floral divergence between the two taxa is greater in sympatry than allopatry. The goal was to test an alternative hypothesis to reinforcement - that floral divergence of sympatric genotypes is simply a by-product of adaptation to pollination environments that differ between the allopatric and sympatric portions of the subspecies' range. Floral trait data from two common garden studies were used to examine floral divergence between sympatric and allopatric regions and among phylogeographically defined lineages. In natural populations of C. x. parviflora, the magnitude of pollen limitation and reproductive assurance were quantified across its west-to-east range. Potted sympatric and allopatric genotypes were also reciprocally translocated between geographical regions to distinguish between the effects of floral phenotype versus contrasting pollinator environments on reproductive ecology. Sympatric populations are considerably smaller flowered with reduced herkogamy. Pollen limitation and the reproductive assurance value of selfing are greater in sympatric than in allopatric populations. Most significantly, reciprocal translocation experiments showed these differences in reproductive ecology cannot be attributed to contrasting pollinator environments between the sympatric and allopatric regions, but instead reflect the effects of flower size on pollinator attraction. Floral evolution occurred during the westward range expansion of parviflora, particularly in the zone of sympatry with xantiana. No evidence was found that strongly reduced flower size in sympatric parviflora (and RCD between

  6. An Exon-Based Comparative Variant Analysis Pipeline to Study the Scale and Role of Frameshift and Nonsense Mutation in the Human-Chimpanzee Divergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GongXin Yu

    2009-01-01

    important biological processes such as T cell lineage development, the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases, and antigen induced cell death. A “less-is-more” model was previously established to illustrate the role of the gene inactivation and disruptions during human evolution. Here this analysis suggested a different model where the chimpanzee-specific exon-disrupting mutations may act as additional evolutionary force that drove the human-chimpanzee divergence. Finally, the analysis revealed a number of sequencing errors in the chimpanzee and human genome sequences and further illustrated that they could be corrected without resequencing.

  7. Statistical inference based on divergence measures

    CERN Document Server

    Pardo, Leandro

    2005-01-01

    The idea of using functionals of Information Theory, such as entropies or divergences, in statistical inference is not new. However, in spite of the fact that divergence statistics have become a very good alternative to the classical likelihood ratio test and the Pearson-type statistic in discrete models, many statisticians remain unaware of this powerful approach.Statistical Inference Based on Divergence Measures explores classical problems of statistical inference, such as estimation and hypothesis testing, on the basis of measures of entropy and divergence. The first two chapters form an overview, from a statistical perspective, of the most important measures of entropy and divergence and study their properties. The author then examines the statistical analysis of discrete multivariate data with emphasis is on problems in contingency tables and loglinear models using phi-divergence test statistics as well as minimum phi-divergence estimators. The final chapter looks at testing in general populations, prese...

  8. Cell lineage analysis of the mammalian female germline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yitzhak Reizel

    Full Text Available Fundamental aspects of embryonic and post-natal development, including maintenance of the mammalian female germline, are largely unknown. Here we employ a retrospective, phylogenetic-based method for reconstructing cell lineage trees utilizing somatic mutations accumulated in microsatellites, to study female germline dynamics in mice. Reconstructed cell lineage trees can be used to estimate lineage relationships between different cell types, as well as cell depth (number of cell divisions since the zygote. We show that, in the reconstructed mouse cell lineage trees, oocytes form clusters that are separate from hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells, both in young and old mice, indicating that these populations belong to distinct lineages. Furthermore, while cumulus cells sampled from different ovarian follicles are distinctly clustered on the reconstructed trees, oocytes from the left and right ovaries are not, suggesting a mixing of their progenitor pools. We also observed an increase in oocyte depth with mouse age, which can be explained either by depth-guided selection of oocytes for ovulation or by post-natal renewal. Overall, our study sheds light on substantial novel aspects of female germline preservation and development.

  9. Non-LTR R2 element evolutionary patterns: phylogenetic incongruences, rapid radiation and the maintenance of multiple lineages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Luchetti

    Full Text Available Retrotransposons of the R2 superclade specifically insert within the 28S ribosomal gene. They have been isolated from a variety of metazoan genomes and were found vertically inherited even if their phylogeny does not always agree with that of the host species. This was explained with the diversification/extinction of paralogous lineages, being proved the absence of horizontal transfer. We here analyze the widest available collection of R2 sequences, either newly isolated from recently sequenced genomes or drawn from public databases, in a phylogenetic framework. Results are congruent with previous analyses, but new important issues emerge. First, the N-terminal end of the R2-B clade protein, so far unknown, presents a new zinc fingers configuration. Second, the phylogenetic pattern is consistent with an ancient, rapid radiation of R2 lineages: being the estimated time of R2 origin (850-600 Million years ago placed just before the metazoan Cambrian explosion, the wide element diversity and the incongruence with the host phylogeny could be attributable to the sudden expansion of available niches represented by host's 28S ribosomal genes. Finally, we detect instances of coexisting multiple R2 lineages showing a non-random phylogenetic pattern, strongly similar to that of the "library" model known for tandem repeats: a collection of R2s were present in the ancestral genome and then differentially activated/repressed in the derived species. Models for activation/repression as well as mechanisms for sequence maintenance are also discussed within this framework.

  10. Three brown trout Salmo trutta lineages in Corsica described through allozyme variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrebi, P

    2015-01-01

    The brown trout Salmo trutta is represented by three lineages in Corsica: (1) an ancestral Corsican lineage, (2) a Mediterranean lineage and (3) a recently stocked domestic Atlantic S. trutta lineage (all are interfertile); the main focus of this study was the ancestral Corsican S. trutta, but the other lineages were also considered. A total of 38 samples captured between 1993 and 1998 were analysed, with nearly 1000 individuals considered overall. The Corsican ancestral lineage (Adriatic lineage according to the mitochondrial DNA control region nomenclature, AD) mostly inhabits streams in the southern half of the island; the Mediterranean lineage (ME) is present more in the north, especially in Golu River, but most populations are an admixture of these lineages and the domestic Atlantic S. trutta (AT). Locations where the Corsican ancestral S. trutta is dominant are now protected against stocking and sometimes fishing is also forbidden. The presence of the Corsican S. trutta is unique in France. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  11. Divergent thinking and constructing episodic simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addis, Donna Rose; Pan, Ling; Musicaro, Regina; Schacter, Daniel L

    2016-01-01

    Divergent thinking likely plays an important role in simulating autobiographical events. We investigated whether divergent thinking is differentially associated with the ability to construct detailed imagined future and imagined past events as opposed to recalling past events. We also examined whether age differences in divergent thinking might underlie the reduced episodic detail generated by older adults. The richness of episodic detail comprising autobiographical events in young and older adults was assessed using the Autobiographical Interview. Divergent thinking abilities were measured using the Alternative Uses Task. Divergent thinking was significantly associated with the amount of episodic detail for imagined future events. Moreover, while age was significantly associated with imagined episodic detail, this effect was strongly related to age-related changes in episodic retrieval rather than divergent thinking.

  12. Mitochondrial genome sequences reveal deep divergences among Anopheles punctulatus sibling species in Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logue Kyle

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the Anopheles punctulatus group (AP group are the primary vectors of human malaria in Papua New Guinea. The AP group includes 13 sibling species, most of them morphologically indistinguishable. Understanding why only certain species are able to transmit malaria requires a better comprehension of their evolutionary history. In particular, understanding relationships and divergence times among Anopheles species may enable assessing how malaria-related traits (e.g. blood feeding behaviours, vector competence have evolved. Methods DNA sequences of 14 mitochondrial (mt genomes from five AP sibling species and two species of the Anopheles dirus complex of Southeast Asia were sequenced. DNA sequences from all concatenated protein coding genes (10,770 bp were then analysed using a Bayesian approach to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships and date the divergence of the AP sibling species. Results Phylogenetic reconstruction using the concatenated DNA sequence of all mitochondrial protein coding genes indicates that the ancestors of the AP group arrived in Papua New Guinea 25 to 54 million years ago and rapidly diverged to form the current sibling species. Conclusion Through evaluation of newly described mt genome sequences, this study has revealed a divergence among members of the AP group in Papua New Guinea that would significantly predate the arrival of humans in this region, 50 thousand years ago. The divergence observed among the mtDNA sequences studied here may have resulted from reproductive isolation during historical changes in sea-level through glacial minima and maxima. This leads to a hypothesis that the AP sibling species have evolved independently for potentially thousands of generations. This suggests that the evolution of many phenotypes, such as insecticide resistance will arise independently in each of the AP sibling species studied here.

  13. Circulation of influenza B lineages in northern Viet Nam, 2007–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thi Thanh; Pham, Thu Hang; Pham, Thi Hien; Nguyen, Le Khanh Hang; Hoang, Vu Mai Phuong; Tran, Thu Huong; Nguyen, Vu Son; Ngo, Huong Giang

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Influenza B viruses circulate throughout Viet Nam, and their activities vary by region. There have been two antigenically distinct lineages of influenza B viruses co-circulating in the past 20 years; however, only one lineage is selected as a component of contemporary trivalent seasonal influenza vaccines. To improve the understanding of circulating influenza B lineages and influenza vaccine mismatches, we report the virus lineages circulating in northern Viet Nam over an eight-year period (2007–2014). Methods Lineages of 331 influenza B viruses were characterized by haemagglutination inhibition assay against standard reference ferret (Yamagata) and sheep (Victoria) antisera. Sequence analysis of the haemagglutinin gene was performed in 64 selected influenza B isolates. Results The proportion of influenza B lineages changed by year. The Yamagata lineage predominated in 2007, 2008 and 2012; the Victoria lineage predominated in 2009–2014 except 2012. The two lineages showed continuous evolution over time. The Northern Hemisphere’s influenza vaccine components were mismatched with the predominant circulating viruses in 2007, 2009 and 2014. Discussion The seasonality of influenza B activity is more variable in tropical and subtropical regions than in temperate zones. Our data showed a common co-circulation of both influenza B lineages in northern Viet Nam, and it was difficult to predict which one was the predominant lineage. Quadrivalent influenza vaccines containing both lineages may improve the effectiveness of influenza vaccine programmes in the future. PMID:26798557

  14. Monophyly of Archaeplastida supergroup and relationships among its lineages in the light of phylogenetic and phylogenomic studies. Are we close to a consensus?

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    Paweł Mackiewicz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the key evolutionary events on the scale of the biosphere was an endosymbiosis between a heterotrophic eukaryote and a cyanobacterium, resulting in a primary plastid. Such an organelle is characteristic of three eukaryotic lineages, glaucophytes, red algae and green plants. The three groups are usually united under the common name Archaeplastida or Plantae in modern taxonomic classifications, which indicates they are considered monophyletic. The methods generally used to verify this monophyly are phylogenetic analyses. In this article we review up-to-date results of such analyses and discussed their inconsistencies. Although phylogenies of plastid genes suggest a single primary endosymbiosis, which is assumed to mean a common origin of the Archaeplastida, different phylogenetic trees based on nuclear markers show monophyly, paraphyly, polyphyly or unresolved topologies of Archaeplastida hosts. The difficulties in reconstructing host cell relationships could result from stochastic and systematic biases in data sets, including different substitution rates and patterns, gene paralogy and horizontal/endosymbiotic gene transfer into eukaryotic lineages, which attract Archaeplastida in phylogenetic trees. Based on results to date, it is neither possible to confirm nor refute alternative evolutionary scenarios to a single primary endosymbiosis. Nevertheless, if trees supporting monophyly are considered, relationships inferred among Archaeplastida lineages can be discussed. Phylogenetic analyses based on nuclear genes clearly show the earlier divergence of glaucophytes from red algae and green plants. Plastid genes suggest a more complicated history, but at least some studies are congruent with this concept. Additional research involving more representatives of glaucophytes and many understudied lineages of Eukaryota can improve inferring phylogenetic relationships related to the Archaeplastida. In addition, alternative approaches not directly

  15. Mechanistically Distinct Pathways of Divergent Regulatory DNA Creation Contribute to Evolution of Human-Specific Genomic Regulatory Networks Driving Phenotypic Divergence of Homo sapiens.

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    Glinsky, Gennadi V

    2016-09-19

    Thousands of candidate human-specific regulatory sequences (HSRS) have been identified, supporting the hypothesis that unique to human phenotypes result from human-specific alterations of genomic regulatory networks. Collectively, a compendium of multiple diverse families of HSRS that are functionally and structurally divergent from Great Apes could be defined as the backbone of human-specific genomic regulatory networks. Here, the conservation patterns analysis of 18,364 candidate HSRS was carried out requiring that 100% of bases must remap during the alignments of human, chimpanzee, and bonobo sequences. A total of 5,535 candidate HSRS were identified that are: (i) highly conserved in Great Apes; (ii) evolved by the exaptation of highly conserved ancestral DNA; (iii) defined by either the acceleration of mutation rates on the human lineage or the functional divergence from non-human primates. The exaptation of highly conserved ancestral DNA pathway seems mechanistically distinct from the evolution of regulatory DNA segments driven by the species-specific expansion of transposable elements. Genome-wide proximity placement analysis of HSRS revealed that a small fraction of topologically associating domains (TADs) contain more than half of HSRS from four distinct families. TADs that are enriched for HSRS and termed rapidly evolving in humans TADs (revTADs) comprise 0.8-10.3% of 3,127 TADs in the hESC genome. RevTADs manifest distinct correlation patterns between placements of human accelerated regions, human-specific transcription factor-binding sites, and recombination rates. There is a significant enrichment within revTAD boundaries of hESC-enhancers, primate-specific CTCF-binding sites, human-specific RNAPII-binding sites, hCONDELs, and H3K4me3 peaks with human-specific enrichment at TSS in prefrontal cortex neurons (P sapiens is driven by the evolution of human-specific genomic regulatory networks via at least two mechanistically distinct pathways of creation of

  16. Anthropogenic habitat disturbance and ecological divergence between incipient species of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamdem, Colince; Tene Fossog, Billy; Simard, Frédéric; Etouna, Joachim; Ndo, Cyrille; Kengne, Pierre; Boussès, Philippe; Etoa, François-Xavier; Awono-Ambene, Parfait; Fontenille, Didier; Antonio-Nkondjio, Christophe; Besansky, Nora J; Costantini, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic habitat disturbance is a prime cause in the current trend of the Earth's reduction in biodiversity. Here we show that the human footprint on the Central African rainforest, which is resulting in deforestation and growth of densely populated urban agglomerates, is associated to ecological divergence and cryptic speciation leading to adaptive radiation within the major malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. In southern Cameroon, the frequency of two molecular forms--M and S--among which reproductive isolation is strong but still incomplete, was correlated to an index of urbanisation extracted from remotely sensed data, expressed as the proportion of built-up surface in each sampling unit. The two forms markedly segregated along an urbanisation gradient forming a bimodal cline of ∼6-km width: the S form was exclusive to the rural habitat, whereas only the M form was present in the core of densely urbanised settings, co-occurring at times in the same polluted larval habitats of the southern house mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus--a species association that was not historically recorded before. Our results indicate that when humans create novel habitats and ecological heterogeneities, they can provide evolutionary opportunities for rapid adaptive niche shifts associated with lineage divergence, whose consequences upon malaria transmission might be significant.

  17. Two hemocyte lineages exist in silkworm larval hematopoietic organ.

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    Nakahara, Yuichi; Kanamori, Yasushi; Kiuchi, Makoto; Kamimura, Manabu

    2010-07-28

    Insects have multiple hemocyte morphotypes with different functions as do vertebrates, however, their hematopoietic lineages are largely unexplored with the exception of Drosophila melanogaster. To study the hematopoietic lineage of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, we investigated in vivo and in vitro differentiation of hemocyte precursors in the hematopoietic organ (HPO) into the four mature hemocyte subsets, namely, plasmatocytes, granulocytes, oenocytoids, and spherulocytes. Five days after implantation of enzymatically-dispersed HPO cells from a GFP-expressing transgenic line into the hemocoel of normal larvae, differentiation into plasmatocytes, granulocytes and oenocytoids, but not spherulocytes, was observed. When the HPO cells were cultured in vitro, plasmatocytes appeared rapidly, and oenocytoids possessing prophenol oxidase activity appeared several days later. HPO cells were also able to differentiate into a small number of granulocytes, but not into spherulocytes. When functionally mature plasmatocytes were cultured in vitro, oenocytoids were observed 10 days later. These results suggest that the hemocyte precursors in HPO first differentiate into plasmatocytes, which further change into oenocytoids. From these results, we propose that B. mori hemocytes can be divided into two major lineages, a granulocyte lineage and a plasmatocyte-oenocytoid lineage. The origins of the spherulocytes could not be determined in this study. We construct a model for the hematopoietic lineages at the larval stage of B. mori.

  18. Genome-wide analysis of the human Alu Yb-lineage

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    Carter Anthony B

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Alu Yb-lineage is a 'young' primarily human-specific group of short interspersed element (SINE subfamilies that have integrated throughout the human genome. In this study, we have computationally screened the draft sequence of the human genome for Alu Yb-lineage subfamily members present on autosomal chromosomes. A total of 1,733 Yb Alu subfamily members have integrated into human autosomes. The average ages of Yb-lineage subfamilies, Yb7, Yb8 and Yb9, are estimated as 4.81, 2.39 and 2.32 million years, respectively. In order to determine the contribution of the Alu Yb-lineage to human genomic diversity, 1,202 loci were analysed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based assays, which amplify the genomic regions containing individual Yb-lineage subfamily members. Approximately 20 per cent of the Yb-lineage Alu elements are polymorphic for insertion presence/absence in the human genome. Fewer than 0.5 per cent of the Yb loci also demonstrate insertions at orthologous positions in non-human primate genomes. Genomic sequencing of these unusual loci demonstrates that each of the orthologous loci from non-human primate genomes contains older Y, Sg and Sx Alu family members that have been altered, through various mechanisms, into Yb8 sequences. These data suggest that Alu Yb-lineage subfamily members are largely restricted to the human genome. The high copy number, level of insertion polymorphism and estimated age indicate that members of the Alu Yb elements will be useful in a wide range of genetic analyses.

  19. Cryptic diversity and deep divergence in an upper Amazonian leaflitter frog, Eleutherodactylus ockendeni

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    Dávila José A

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The forests of the upper Amazon basin harbour some of the world's highest anuran species richness, but to date we have only the sparsest understanding of the distribution of genetic diversity within and among species in this region. To quantify region-wide genealogical patterns and to test for the presence of deep intraspecific divergences that have been documented in some other neotropical anurans, we developed a molecular phylogeny of the wide-spread terrestrial leaflitter frog Eleutherodactylus ockendeni (Leptodactylidae from 13 localities throughout its range in Ecuador using data from two mitochondrial genes (16S and cyt b; 1246 base pairs. We examined the relation between divergence of mtDNA and the nuclear genome, as sampled by five species-specific microsatellite loci, to evaluate indirectly whether lineages are reproductively isolated where they co-occur. Our extensive phylogeographic survey thus assesses the spatial distribution of E. ockendeni genetic diversity across eastern Ecuador. Results We identified three distinct and well-supported clades within the Ecuadorean range of E. ockendeni: an uplands clade spanning north to south, a northeastern and central lowlands clade, and a central and southeastern clade, which is basal. Clades are separated by 12% to 15% net corrected p-distance for cytochrome b, with comparatively low sequence divergence within clades. Clades marginally overlap in some geographic areas (e.g., Napo River basin but are reproductively isolated, evidenced by diagnostic differences in microsatellite PCR amplification profiles or DNA repeat number and coalescent analyses (in MDIV best modelled without migration. Using Bayesian (BEAST and net phylogenetic estimates, the Southeastern Clade diverged from the Upland/Lowland clades in the mid-Miocene or late Oligocene. Lowland and Upland clades speciated more recently, in the early or late Miocene. Conclusion Our findings uncover previously

  20. Multilocus phylogeography and systematic revision of North American water shrews (genus: Sorex)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Andrew G.; Panter, Nicholas; Cook, Joseph A.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Nagorsen, David W.

    2014-01-01

    North American water shrews, which have traditionally included Sorex alaskanus, S. bendirii, and S. palustris, are widely distributed through Nearctic boreal forests and adapted for life in semiaquatic environments. Molecular mitochondrial signatures for these species have recorded an evolutionary history with variable levels of regional divergence, suggesting a strong role of Quaternary environmental change in speciation processes. We expanded molecular analyses, including more-comprehensive rangewide sampling of specimens representing North American water shrew taxa, except S. alaskanus, and sequencing of 4 independent loci from the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. We investigated relative divergence of insular populations along the North Pacific Coast, and newly recognized diversity from southwestern montane locations, potentially representing refugial isolates. Congruent independent genealogies, lack of definitive evidence for contemporary gene flow, and high support from coalescent species trees indicated differentiation of 4 major geographic lineages over multiple glacial cycles of the late Quaternary, similar to a growing number of boreal taxa. Limited divergence of insular populations suggested colonization following the last glacial. Characterization of southwestern montane diversity will require further sampling but divergence over multiple loci is indicative of a relictual sky-island fauna. We have reviewed and revised North American water shrew taxonomy including the recognition of 3 species within what was previously known as S. palustris. The possibility of gene flow between most distantly related North American water shrew lineages coupled with unresolved early diversification of this group and other sibling species reflects a complex but potentially productive system for investigating speciation processes.

  1. Comparative genomics using microarrays reveals divergence and loss of virulence-associated genes in host-specific strains of the insect pathogen Metarhizium anisopliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sibao; Leclerque, Andreas; Pava-Ripoll, Monica; Fang, Weiguo; St Leger, Raymond J

    2009-06-01

    Many strains of Metarhizium anisopliae have broad host ranges, but others are specialists and adapted to particular hosts. Patterns of gene duplication, divergence, and deletion in three generalist and three specialist strains were investigated by heterologous hybridization of genomic DNA to genes from the generalist strain Ma2575. As expected, major life processes are highly conserved, presumably due to purifying selection. However, up to 7% of Ma2575 genes were highly divergent or absent in specialist strains. Many of these sequences are conserved in other fungal species, suggesting that there has been rapid evolution and loss in specialist Metarhizium genomes. Some poorly hybridizing genes in specialists were functionally coordinated, indicative of reductive evolution. These included several involved in toxin biosynthesis and sugar metabolism in root exudates, suggesting that specialists are losing genes required to live in alternative hosts or as saprophytes. Several components of mobile genetic elements were also highly divergent or lost in specialists. Exceptionally, the genome of the specialist cricket pathogen Ma443 contained extra insertion elements that might play a role in generating evolutionary novelty. This study throws light on the abundance of orphans in genomes, as 15% of orphan sequences were found to be rapidly evolving in the Ma2575 lineage.

  2. Multilocus phylogeny, divergence times, and a major role for the benthic-to-pelagic axis in the diversification of grunts (Haemulidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavera, Jose; Acero P, Arturo; Wainwright, Peter C

    2018-04-01

    We present a phylogenetic analysis with divergence time estimates, and an ecomorphological assessment of the role of the benthic-to-pelagic axis of diversification in the history of haemulid fishes. Phylogenetic analyses were performed on 97 grunt species based on sequence data collected from seven loci. Divergence time estimation indicates that Haemulidae originated during the mid Eocene (54.7-42.3 Ma) but that the major lineages were formed during the mid-Oligocene 30-25 Ma. We propose a new classification that reflects the phylogenetic history of grunts. Overall the pattern of morphological and functional diversification in grunts appears to be strongly linked with feeding ecology. Feeding traits and the first principal component of body shape strongly separate species that feed in benthic and pelagic habitats. The benthic-to-pelagic axis has been the major axis of ecomorphological diversification in this important group of tropical shoreline fishes, with about 13 transitions between feeding habitats that have had major consequences for head and body morphology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Two hemocyte lineages exist in silkworm larval hematopoietic organ.

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    Yuichi Nakahara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insects have multiple hemocyte morphotypes with different functions as do vertebrates, however, their hematopoietic lineages are largely unexplored with the exception of Drosophila melanogaster. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To study the hematopoietic lineage of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, we investigated in vivo and in vitro differentiation of hemocyte precursors in the hematopoietic organ (HPO into the four mature hemocyte subsets, namely, plasmatocytes, granulocytes, oenocytoids, and spherulocytes. Five days after implantation of enzymatically-dispersed HPO cells from a GFP-expressing transgenic line into the hemocoel of normal larvae, differentiation into plasmatocytes, granulocytes and oenocytoids, but not spherulocytes, was observed. When the HPO cells were cultured in vitro, plasmatocytes appeared rapidly, and oenocytoids possessing prophenol oxidase activity appeared several days later. HPO cells were also able to differentiate into a small number of granulocytes, but not into spherulocytes. When functionally mature plasmatocytes were cultured in vitro, oenocytoids were observed 10 days later. These results suggest that the hemocyte precursors in HPO first differentiate into plasmatocytes, which further change into oenocytoids. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: From these results, we propose that B. mori hemocytes can be divided into two major lineages, a granulocyte lineage and a plasmatocyte-oenocytoid lineage. The origins of the spherulocytes could not be determined in this study. We construct a model for the hematopoietic lineages at the larval stage of B. mori.

  4. Evolution of the MAGUK protein gene family in premetazoan lineages

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    Ruiz-Trillo Iñaki

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell-to-cell communication is a key process in multicellular organisms. In multicellular animals, scaffolding proteins belonging to the family of membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUK are involved in the regulation and formation of cell junctions. These MAGUK proteins were believed to be exclusive to Metazoa. However, a MAGUK gene was recently identified in an EST survey of Capsaspora owczarzaki, an unicellular organism that branches off near the metazoan clade. To further investigate the evolutionary history of MAGUK, we have undertook a broader search for this gene family using available genomic sequences of different opisthokont taxa. Results Our survey and phylogenetic analyses show that MAGUK proteins are present not only in Metazoa, but also in the choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis and in the protist Capsaspora owczarzaki. However, MAGUKs are absent from fungi, amoebozoans or any other eukaryote. The repertoire of MAGUKs in Placozoa and eumetazoan taxa (Cnidaria + Bilateria is quite similar, except for one class that is missing in Trichoplax, while Porifera have a simpler MAGUK repertoire. However, Vertebrata have undergone several independent duplications and exhibit two exclusive MAGUK classes. Three different MAGUK types are found in both M. brevicollis and C. owczarzaki: DLG, MPP and MAGI. Furthermore, M. brevicollis has suffered a lineage-specific diversification. Conclusions The diversification of the MAGUK protein gene family occurred, most probably, prior to the divergence between Metazoa+choanoflagellates and the Capsaspora+Ministeria clade. A MAGI-like, a DLG-like, and a MPP-like ancestral genes were already present in the unicellular ancestor of Metazoa, and new gene members have been incorporated through metazoan evolution within two major periods, one before the sponge-eumetazoan split and another within the vertebrate lineage. Moreover, choanoflagellates have suffered an independent MAGUK

  5. Bacillus anthracis in China and its relationship to worldwide lineages

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    Schupp James M

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The global pattern of distribution of 1033 B. anthracis isolates has previously been defined by a set of 12 conserved canonical single nucleotide polymorphisms (canSNP. These studies reinforced the presence of three major lineages and 12 sub-lineages and sub-groups of this anthrax-causing pathogen. Isolates that form the A lineage (unlike the B and C lineages have become widely dispersed throughout the world and form the basis for the geographical disposition of "modern" anthrax. An archival collection of 191 different B. anthracis isolates from China provides a glimpse into the possible role of Chinese trade and commerce in the spread of certain sub-lineages of this pathogen. Canonical single nucleotide polymorphism (canSNP and multiple locus VNTR analysis (MLVA typing has been used to examine this archival collection of isolates. Results The canSNP study indicates that there are 5 different sub-lineages/sub-groups in China out of 12 previously described world-wide canSNP genotypes. Three of these canSNP genotypes were only found in the western-most province of China, Xinjiang. These genotypes were A.Br.008/009, a sub-group that is spread across most of Europe and Asia; A.Br.Aust 94, a sub-lineage that is present in Europe and India, and A.Br.Vollum, a lineage that is also present in Europe. The remaining two canSNP genotypes are spread across the whole of China and belong to sub-group A.Br.001/002 and the A.Br.Ames sub-lineage, two closely related genotypes. MLVA typing adds resolution to the isolates in each canSNP genotype and diversity indices for the A.Br.008/009 and A.Br.001/002 sub-groups suggest that these represent older and established clades in China. Conclusion B. anthracis isolates were recovered from three canSNP sub-groups (A.Br.008/009, A.Br.Aust94, and A.Br.Vollum in the western most portion of the large Chinese province of Xinjiang. The city of Kashi in this province appears to have served as a crossroads

  6. Chained Kullback-Leibler Divergences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlichin, Dmitri S.; Weissman, Tsachy

    2017-01-01

    We define and characterize the “chained” Kullback-Leibler divergence minw D(p‖w) + D(w‖q) minimized over all intermediate distributions w and the analogous k-fold chained K-L divergence min D(p‖wk−1) + … + D(w2‖w1) + D(w1‖q) minimized over the entire path (w1,…,wk−1). This quantity arises in a large deviations analysis of a Markov chain on the set of types – the Wright-Fisher model of neutral genetic drift: a population with allele distribution q produces offspring with allele distribution w, which then produce offspring with allele distribution p, and so on. The chained divergences enjoy some of the same properties as the K-L divergence (like joint convexity in the arguments) and appear in k-step versions of some of the same settings as the K-L divergence (like information projections and a conditional limit theorem). We further characterize the optimal k-step “path” of distributions appearing in the definition and apply our findings in a large deviations analysis of the Wright-Fisher process. We make a connection to information geometry via the previously studied continuum limit, where the number of steps tends to infinity, and the limiting path is a geodesic in the Fisher information metric. Finally, we offer a thermodynamic interpretation of the chained divergence (as the rate of operation of an appropriately defined Maxwell’s demon) and we state some natural extensions and applications (a k-step mutual information and k-step maximum likelihood inference). We release code for computing the objects we study. PMID:29130024

  7. Cloning from stem cells: different lineages, different species, same story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oback, Björn

    2009-01-01

    Following nuclear transfer (NT), the most stringent measure of extensive donor cell reprogramming is development into viable offspring. This is referred to as cloning efficiency and quantified as the proportion of cloned embryos transferred into surrogate mothers that survive into adulthood. Cloning efficiency depends on the ability of the enucleated recipient cell to carry out the reprogramming reactions ('reprogramming ability') and the ability of the nuclear donor cell to be reprogrammed ('reprogrammability'). It has been postulated that reprogrammability of the somatic donor cell epigenome is inversely proportional to its differentiation status. In order to test this hypothesis, reprogrammability was compared between undifferentiated stem cells and their differentiated isogenic progeny. In the mouse, cells of divergent differentiation status from the neuronal, haematopoietic and skin epithelial lineage were tested. In cattle and deer, skeletal muscle and antler cells, respectively, were used as donors. No conclusive correlation between differentiation status and cloning efficiency was found, indicating that somatic donor cell type may not be the limiting factor for cloning success. This may reflect technical limitations of the NT-induced reprogramming assay. Alternatively, differentiation status and reprogrammability may be unrelated, making all cells equally difficult to reprogramme once they have left the ground state of pluripotency.

  8. Depletion of CpG Dinucleotides in Papillomaviruses and Polyomaviruses: A Role for Divergent Evolutionary Pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Mohita; Vivekanandan, Perumal

    2015-01-01

    Papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses are small ds-DNA viruses infecting a wide-range of vertebrate hosts. Evidence supporting co-evolution of the virus with the host does not fully explain the evolutionary path of papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses. Studies analyzing CpG dinucleotide frequencies in virus genomes have provided interesting insights on virus evolution. CpG dinucleotide depletion has not been extensively studied among papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses. We sought to analyze the relative abundance of dinucleotides and the relative roles of evolutionary pressures in papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses. We studied 127 full-length sequences from papillomaviruses and 56 full-length sequences from polyomaviruses. We analyzed the relative abundance of dinucleotides, effective codon number (ENC), differences in synonymous codon usage. We examined the association, if any, between the extent of CpG dinucleotide depletion and the evolutionary lineage of the infected host. We also investigated the contribution of mutational pressure and translational selection to the evolution of papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses. All papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses are CpG depleted. Interestingly, the evolutionary lineage of the infected host determines the extent of CpG depletion among papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses. CpG dinucleotide depletion was more pronounced among papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses infecting human and other mammals as compared to those infecting birds. Our findings demonstrate that CpG depletion among papillomaviruses is linked to mutational pressure; while CpG depletion among polyomaviruses is linked to translational selection. We also present evidence that suggests methylation of CpG dinucleotides may explain, at least in part, the depletion of CpG dinucleotides among papillomaviruses but not polyomaviruses. The extent of CpG depletion among papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses is linked to the evolutionary lineage of the infected host. Our

  9. Stem Cell Lineages: Between Cell and Organism

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    Melinda Bonnie Fagan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ontologies of living things are increasingly grounded on the concepts and practices of current life science. Biological development is a process, undergone by living things, which begins with a single cell and (in an important class of cases ends with formation of a multicellular organism. The process of development is thus prima facie central for ideas about biological individuality and organismality. However, recent accounts of these concepts do not engage developmental biology. This paper aims to fill the gap, proposing the lineage view of stem cells as an ontological framework for conceptualizing organismal development. This account is grounded on experimental practices of stem cell research, with emphasis on new techniques for generating biological organization in vitro. On the lineage view, a stem cell is the starting point of a cell lineage with a specific organismal source, time-interval of existence, and ‘tree topology’ of branch-points linking the stem to developmental termini. The concept of ‘enkapsis’ accommodates the cell-organism relation within the lineage view; this hierarchical notion is further explicated by considering the methods and results of stem cell experiments. Results of this examination include a (partial characterization of stem cells’ developmental versatility, and the context-dependence of developmental processes involving stem cells.

  10. Determining Lineage Pathways from Cellular Barcoding Experiments

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    Leïla Perié

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cellular barcoding and other single-cell lineage-tracing strategies form experimental methodologies for analysis of in vivo cell fate that have been instrumental in several significant recent discoveries. Due to the highly nonlinear nature of proliferation and differentiation, interrogation of the resulting data for evaluation of potential lineage pathways requires a new quantitative framework complete with appropriate statistical tests. Here, we develop such a framework, illustrating its utility by analyzing data from barcoded multipotent cells of the blood system. This application demonstrates that the data require additional paths beyond those found in the classical model, which leads us to propose that hematopoietic differentiation follows a loss of potential mechanism and to suggest further experiments to test this deduction. Our quantitative framework can evaluate the compatibility of lineage trees with barcoded data from any proliferating and differentiating cell system.

  11. Founding Amerindian mitochondrial DNA lineages in ancient Maya from Xcaret, Quintana Roo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Oliver, A; Márquez-Morfín, L; Jiménez, J C; Torre-Blanco, A

    2001-11-01

    Ancient DNA from the bone remains of 25 out of 28 pre-Columbian individuals from the Late Classic-Postclassic Maya site of Xcaret, Quintana Roo, was recovered, and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was amplified by using the polymerase chain reaction. The presence of the four founding Amerindian mtDNA lineages was investigated by restriction analysis and by direct sequencing in selected individuals. The mtDNA lineages A, B, and C were found in this population. Eighty-four percent of the individuals were lineage A, whereas lineages B and C were present at low frequencies, 4% and 8%, respectively. Lineage D was absent from our sample. One individual did not possess any of the four lineages. Six skeletons out of 7 dated from the Late Classic period were haplotype A, whereas 11 skeletons out of 16 dated from the Postclassic period were also haplotype A. The distribution of mtDNA lineages in the Xcaret population contrasts sharply with that found in ancient Maya from Copán, which lack lineages A and B. On the other hand, our results resemble more closely the frequencies of mtDNA lineages found in contemporary Maya from the Yucatán Peninsula and in other Native American contemporary populations of Mesoamerican origin. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Restingomyces, a new sequestrate genus from the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest that is phylogenetically related to early-diverging taxa in Trappeaceae (Phallales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulzbacher, Marcelo A; Grebenc, Tine; Cabral, Tiara S; Giachini, Admir J; Goto, Bruno T; Smith, Matthew E; Baseia, Iuri G

    2016-09-01

    Restingomyces reticulatus gen. et sp. nov. is a recently discovered false truffle species from Atlantic "restinga" rainforest in northeastern Brazil. Molecular and morphological characters separate this new sequestrate species from other described taxa in the order Phallales (Phallomycetidae, Basidiomycota). In our phylogenetic analysis based on nuc 28S rDNA and atp6, R. reticulatus forms a sister clade to Trappea darkeri and Phallobata alba, with the three taxa forming the earliest diverging lineage within Phallales. Morphological and molecular data warrant the recognition of the new genus and species, described here, and we also amend the taxonomic description for the family Trappeaceae. © 2016 by The Mycological Society of America.

  13. Genomic innovations, transcriptional plasticity and gene loss underlying the evolution and divergence of two highly polyphagous and invasive Helicoverpa pest species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearce, S L; Clarke, D F; East, P D

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa zea are major caterpillar pests of Old and New World agriculture, respectively. Both, particularly H. armigera, are extremely polyphagous, and H. armigera has developed resistance to many insecticides. Here we use comparative genomics, transcriptom......BACKGROUND: Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa zea are major caterpillar pests of Old and New World agriculture, respectively. Both, particularly H. armigera, are extremely polyphagous, and H. armigera has developed resistance to many insecticides. Here we use comparative genomics......, transcriptomics and resequencing to elucidate the genetic basis for their properties as pests. RESULTS: We find that, prior to their divergence about 1.5 Mya, the H. armigera/H. zea lineage had accumulated up to more than 100 more members of specific detoxification and digestion gene families and more than 100...... lacks certain genes and alleles conferring insecticide resistance found in H. armigera. Non-synonymous sites in the expanded gene families above are rapidly diverging, both between paralogues and between orthologues in the two species. Whole genome transcriptomic analyses of H. armigera larvae show...

  14. Luminal progenitors restrict their lineage potential during mammary gland development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodilla, Veronica; Dasti, Alessandro; Huyghe, Mathilde; Lafkas, Daniel; Laurent, Cécile; Reyal, Fabien; Fre, Silvia

    2015-02-01

    The hierarchical relationships between stem cells and progenitors that guide mammary gland morphogenesis are still poorly defined. While multipotent basal stem cells have been found within the myoepithelial compartment, the in vivo lineage potential of luminal progenitors is unclear. Here we used the expression of the Notch1 receptor, previously implicated in mammary gland development and tumorigenesis, to elucidate the hierarchical organization of mammary stem/progenitor cells by lineage tracing. We found that Notch1 expression identifies multipotent stem cells in the embryonic mammary bud, which progressively restrict their lineage potential during mammary ductal morphogenesis to exclusively generate an ERαneg luminal lineage postnatally. Importantly, our results show that Notch1-labelled cells represent the alveolar progenitors that expand during pregnancy and survive multiple successive involutions. This study reveals that postnatal luminal epithelial cells derive from distinct self-sustained lineages that may represent the cells of origin of different breast cancer subtypes.

  15. Molecular evolution of ependymin and the phylogenetic resolution of early divergences among euteleost fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortí, G; Meyer, A

    1996-04-01

    The rate and pattern of DNA evolution of ependymin, a single-copy gene coding for a highly expressed glycoprotein in the brain matrix of teleost fishes, is characterized and its phylogenetic utility for fish systematics is assessed. DNA sequences were determined from catfish, electric fish, and characiforms and compared with published ependymin sequences from cyprinids, salmon, pike, and herring. Among these groups, ependymin amino acid sequences were highly divergent (up to 60% sequence difference), but had surprisingly similar hydropathy profiles and invariant glycosylation sites, suggesting that functional properties of the proteins are conserved. Comparison of base composition at third codon positions and introns revealed AT-rich introns and GC-rich third codon positions, suggesting that the biased codon usage observed might not be due to mutational bias. Phylogenetic information content of third codon positions was surprisingly high and sufficient to recover the most basal nodes of the tree, in spite of the observation that pairwise distances (at third codon positions) were well above the presumed saturation level. This finding can be explained by the high proportion of phylogenetically informative nonsynonymous changes at third codon positions among these highly divergent proteins. Ependymin DNA sequences have established the first molecular evidence for the monophyly of a group containing salmonids and esociforms. In addition, ependymin suggests a sister group relationship of electric fish (Gymnotiformes) and Characiformes, constituting a significant departure from currently accepted classifications. However, relationships among characiform lineages were not completely resolved by ependymin sequences in spite of seemingly appropriate levels of variation among taxa and considerably low levels of homoplasy in the data (consistency index = 0.7). If the diversification of Characiformes took place in an "explosive" manner, over a relatively short period of time

  16. Collinearity, convergence and cancelling infrared divergences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavelle, Martin; McMullan, David

    2006-01-01

    The Lee-Nauenberg theorem is a fundamental quantum mechanical result which provides the standard theoretical response to the problem of collinear and infrared divergences. Its argument, that the divergences due to massless charged particles can be removed by summing over degenerate states, has been successfully applied to systems with final state degeneracies such as LEP processes. If there are massless particles in both the initial and final states, as will be the case at the LHC, the theorem requires the incorporation of disconnected diagrams which produce connected interference effects at the level of the cross-section. However, this aspect of the theory has never been fully tested in the calculation of a cross-section. We show through explicit examples that in such cases the theorem introduces a divergent series of diagrams and hence fails to cancel the infrared divergences. It is also demonstrated that the widespread practice of treating soft infrared divergences by the Bloch-Nordsieck method and handling collinear divergences by the Lee-Nauenberg method is not consistent in such cases

  17. Identifying selected regions from heterozygosity and divergence using a light-coverage genomic dataset from two human populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taras K Oleksyk

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available When a selective sweep occurs in the chromosomal region around a target gene in two populations that have recently separated, it produces three dramatic genomic consequences: 1 decreased multi-locus heterozygosity in the region; 2 elevated or diminished genetic divergence (F(ST of multiple polymorphic variants adjacent to the selected locus between the divergent populations, due to the alternative fixation of alleles; and 3 a consequent regional increase in the variance of F(ST (S(2F(ST for the same clustered variants, due to the increased alternative fixation of alleles in the loci surrounding the selection target. In the first part of our study, to search for potential targets of directional selection, we developed and validated a resampling-based computational approach; we then scanned an array of 31 different-sized moving windows of SNP variants (5-65 SNPs across the human genome in a set of European and African American population samples with 183,997 SNP loci after correcting for the recombination rate variation. The analysis revealed 180 regions of recent selection with very strong evidence in either population or both. In the second part of our study, we compared the newly discovered putative regions to those sites previously postulated in the literature, using methods based on inspecting patterns of linkage disequilibrium, population divergence and other methodologies. The newly found regions were cross-validated with those found in nine other studies that have searched for selection signals. Our study was replicated especially well in those regions confirmed by three or more studies. These validated regions were independently verified, using a combination of different methods and different databases in other studies, and should include fewer false positives. The main strength of our analysis method compared to others is that it does not require dense genotyping and therefore can be used with data from population-based genome SNP scans

  18. MLVA Based Classification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Lineages for a Robust Phylogeographic Snapshot of Its Worldwide Molecular Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Véronique; Zozio, Thierry; Sadikalay, Syndia; Viegas, Sofia; Streit, Elisabeth; Kallenius, Gunilla; Rastogi, Nalin

    2012-01-01

    Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) is useful to establish transmission routes and sources of infections for various microorganisms including Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC). The recently released SITVITWEB database contains 12-loci Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units – Variable Number of Tandem DNA Repeats (MIRU-VNTR) profiles and spoligotype patterns for thousands of MTC strains; it uses MIRU International Types (MIT) and Spoligotype International Types (SIT) to designate clustered patterns worldwide. Considering existing doubts on the ability of spoligotyping alone to reveal exact phylogenetic relationships between MTC strains, we developed a MLVA based classification for MTC genotypic lineages. We studied 6 different subsets of MTC isolates encompassing 7793 strains worldwide. Minimum spanning trees (MST) were constructed to identify major lineages, and the most common representative located as a central node was taken as the prototype defining different phylogenetic groups. A total of 7 major lineages with their respective prototypes were identified: Indo-Oceanic/MIT57, East Asian and African Indian/MIT17, Euro American/MIT116, West African-I/MIT934, West African-II/MIT664, M. bovis/MIT49, M.canettii/MIT60. Further MST subdivision identified an additional 34 sublineage MIT prototypes. The phylogenetic relationships among the 37 newly defined MIRU-VNTR lineages were inferred using a classification algorithm based on a bayesian approach. This information was used to construct an updated phylogenetic and phylogeographic snapshot of worldwide MTC diversity studied both at the regional, sub-regional, and country level according to the United Nations specifications. We also looked for IS6110 insertional events that are known to modify the results of the spoligotyping in specific circumstances, and showed that a fair portion of convergence leading to the currently observed bias in phylogenetic classification of strains may

  19. Permanent Draft Genome of Strain ESFC-1: Ecological Genomics of a Newly Discovered Lineage of Filamentous Diazotrophic Cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everroad, R. Craig; Stuart, Rhona K.; Bebout, Brad M.; Detweiler, Angela M.; Lee, Jackson Zan; Woebken, Dagmar; Bebout, Leslie E.; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The nonheterocystous filamentous cyanobacterium, strain ESFC-1, is a recently described member of the order Oscillatoriales within the Cyanobacteria. ESFC-1 has been shown to be a major diazotroph in the intertidal microbial mat system at Elkhorn Slough, CA, USA. Based on phylogenetic analyses of the 16S RNA gene, ESFC-1 appears to belong to a unique, genus-level divergence; the draft genome sequence of this strain has now been determined. Here we report features of this genome as they relate to the ecological functions and capabilities of strain ESFC-1. The 5,632,035 bp genome sequence encodes 4914 protein-coding genes and 92 RNA genes. One striking feature of this cyanobacterium is the apparent lack of either uptake or bi-directional hydrogenases typically expected within a diazotroph. Additionally, a large genomic island is found that contains numerous low GC-content genes and genes related to extracellular polysaccharide production and cell wall synthesis and maintenance.

  20. Protection of horses from West Nile virus Lineage 2 challenge following immunization with a whole, inactivated WNV lineage 1 vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Richard A; Bosco-Lauth, Angela; Syvrud, Kevin; Thomas, Anne; Meinert, Todd R; Ludlow, Deborah R; Cook, Corey; Salt, Jeremy; Ons, Ellen

    2014-09-22

    Over the last years West Nile virus (WNV) lineage 2 has spread from the African to the European continent. This study was conducted to demonstrate efficacy of an inactivated, lineage 1-based, WNV vaccine (Equip WNV) against intrathecal challenge of horses with a recent isolate of lineage 2 WNV. Twenty horses, sero-negative for WNV, were enrolled and were randomly allocated to one of two treatment groups: an unvaccinated control group (T01, n=10) and a group administered with Equip WNV (T02, n=10). Horses were vaccinated at Day 0 and 21 and were challenged at day 42 with WNV lineage 2, Nea Santa/Greece/2010. Personnel performing clinical observations were blinded to treatment allocation. Sixty percent of the controls had to be euthanized after challenge compared to none of the vaccinates. A significantly lower percentage of the vaccinated animals showed clinical disease (two different clinical observations present on the same day) on six different days of study and the percentage of days with clinical disease was significantly lower in the vaccinated group. A total of 80% of the non-vaccinated horses showed viremia while only one vaccinated animal was positive by virus isolation on a single occasion. Vaccinated animals started to develop antibodies against WNV lineage 2 from day 14 (2 weeks after the first vaccination) and at day 42 (the time of onset of immunity) they had all developed a strong antibody response. Histopathology scores for all unvaccinated animals ranged from mild to very severe in each of the tissues examined (cervical spinal cord, medulla and pons), whereas in vaccinated horses 8 of 10 animals had no lesions and 2 had minimal lesions in one tissue. In conclusion, Equip WNV significantly reduced the number of viremic horses, the duration and severity of clinical signs of disease and mortality following challenge with lineage 2 WNV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Drosophila type II neuroblast lineages keep Prospero levels low to generate large clones that contribute to the adult brain central complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drummond Michael L

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tissue homeostasis depends on the ability of stem cells to properly regulate self-renewal versus differentiation. Drosophila neural stem cells (neuroblasts are a model system to study self-renewal and differentiation. Recent work has identified two types of larval neuroblasts that have different self-renewal/differentiation properties. Type I neuroblasts bud off a series of small basal daughter cells (ganglion mother cells that each generate two neurons. Type II neuroblasts bud off small basal daughter cells called intermediate progenitors (INPs, with each INP generating 6 to 12 neurons. Type I neuroblasts and INPs have nuclear Asense and cytoplasmic Prospero, whereas type II neuroblasts lack both these transcription factors. Here we test whether Prospero distinguishes type I/II neuroblast identity or proliferation profile, using several newly characterized Gal4 lines. We misexpress prospero using the 19H09-Gal4 line (expressed in type II neuroblasts but no adjacent type I neuroblasts or 9D11-Gal4 line (expressed in INPs but not type II neuroblasts. We find that differential prospero expression does not distinguish type I and type II neuroblast identities, but Prospero regulates proliferation in both type I and type II neuroblast lineages. In addition, we use 9D11 lineage tracing to show that type II lineages generate both small-field and large-field neurons within the adult central complex, a brain region required for locomotion, flight, and visual pattern memory.

  2. Semantic search during divergent thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, Richard W

    2017-09-01

    Divergent thinking, as a method of examining creative cognition, has not been adequately analyzed in the context of modern cognitive theories. This article casts divergent thinking responding in the context of theories of memory search. First, it was argued that divergent thinking tasks are similar to semantic fluency tasks, but are more constrained, and less well structured. Next, response time distributions from 54 participants were analyzed for temporal and semantic clustering. Participants responded to two prompts from the alternative uses test: uses for a brick and uses for a bottle, for two minutes each. Participants' cumulative response curves were negatively accelerating, in line with theories of search of associative memory. However, results of analyses of semantic and temporal clustering suggested that clustering is less evident in alternative uses responding compared to semantic fluency tasks. This suggests either that divergent thinking responding does not involve an exhaustive search through a clustered memory trace, but rather that the process is more exploratory, yielding fewer overall responses that tend to drift away from close associates of the divergent thinking prompt. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Digestive peptidase evolution in holometabolous insects led to a divergent group of enzymes in Lepidoptera

    KAUST Repository

    Dias, Renata O.; Via, Allegra; Brandã o, Marcelo M.; Tramontano, Anna; Silva-Filho, Marcio C.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Trypsins and chymotrypsins are well-studied serine peptidases that cleave peptide bonds at the carboxyl side of basic and hydrophobic l-amino acids, respectively. These enzymes are largely responsible for the digestion of proteins. Three primary processes regulate the activity of these peptidases: secretion, precursor (zymogen) activation and substrate-binding site recognition. Here, we present a detailed phylogenetic analysis of trypsins and chymotrypsins in three orders of holometabolous insects and reveal divergent characteristics of Lepidoptera enzymes in comparison with those of Coleoptera and Diptera. In particular, trypsin subsite S1 was more hydrophilic in Lepidoptera than in Coleoptera and Diptera, whereas subsites S2-S4 were more hydrophobic, suggesting different substrate preferences. Furthermore, Lepidoptera displayed a lineage-specific trypsin group belonging only to the Noctuidae family. Evidence for facilitated trypsin auto-activation events were also observed in all the insect orders studied, with the characteristic zymogen activation motif complementary to the trypsin active site. In contrast, insect chymotrypsins did not seem to have a peculiar evolutionary history with respect to their mammal counterparts. Overall, our findings suggest that the need for fast digestion allowed holometabolous insects to evolve divergent groups of peptidases with high auto-activation rates, and highlight that the evolution of trypsins led to a most diverse group of enzymes in Lepidoptera.

  4. Digestive peptidase evolution in holometabolous insects led to a divergent group of enzymes in Lepidoptera

    KAUST Repository

    Dias, Renata O.

    2015-03-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Trypsins and chymotrypsins are well-studied serine peptidases that cleave peptide bonds at the carboxyl side of basic and hydrophobic l-amino acids, respectively. These enzymes are largely responsible for the digestion of proteins. Three primary processes regulate the activity of these peptidases: secretion, precursor (zymogen) activation and substrate-binding site recognition. Here, we present a detailed phylogenetic analysis of trypsins and chymotrypsins in three orders of holometabolous insects and reveal divergent characteristics of Lepidoptera enzymes in comparison with those of Coleoptera and Diptera. In particular, trypsin subsite S1 was more hydrophilic in Lepidoptera than in Coleoptera and Diptera, whereas subsites S2-S4 were more hydrophobic, suggesting different substrate preferences. Furthermore, Lepidoptera displayed a lineage-specific trypsin group belonging only to the Noctuidae family. Evidence for facilitated trypsin auto-activation events were also observed in all the insect orders studied, with the characteristic zymogen activation motif complementary to the trypsin active site. In contrast, insect chymotrypsins did not seem to have a peculiar evolutionary history with respect to their mammal counterparts. Overall, our findings suggest that the need for fast digestion allowed holometabolous insects to evolve divergent groups of peptidases with high auto-activation rates, and highlight that the evolution of trypsins led to a most diverse group of enzymes in Lepidoptera.

  5. Phylogeography and genetic identification of the newly-discovered populations of torrent salamanders (Rhyacotriton cascade and R. variegatus) in the central Cascades (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, R.S.; Miller, Mark P.; Haig, Susan M.

    2006-01-01

    Newly discovered populations of Rhyacotritonidae were investigated for taxonomic identity, hybridization, and sympatry. Species in the genus Rhyacotriton have been historically difficult to identify using morphological characters. Mitochondrial (mtDNA) 16S ribosomal RNA sequences (491 bp) and allozymes (6 loci) were used to identify the distribution of populations occurring intermediate between the previously described ranges of R. variegatus and R. cascadae in the central Cascade Mountain region of Oregon. Allozyme and mitochondrial sequence data both indicated the presence of two distinct evolutionary lineages, with each lineage corresponding to the allopatric distribution of R. cascadae and R. variegatus. Results suggest the Willamette River acts as a phylogeographic barrier limiting the distribution of both species, although we cannot exclude the possibility that reproductive isolation also exists that reinforces species' distributions. This study extends the previously described geographical ranges of both R. cascadae and R. variegatus and defines an eastern range limit for R. variegatus conservation efforts.

  6. Association between Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineage and site of disease in Florida, 2009-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séraphin, Marie Nancy; Doggett, Richard; Johnston, Lori; Zabala, Jose; Gerace, Alexandra M; Lauzardo, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is characterized into four global lineages with strong geographical restriction. To date one study in the United States has investigated M. tuberculosis lineage association with tuberculosis (TB) disease presentation (extra-pulmonary versus pulmonary). We update this analysis using recent (2009-2015) data from the State of Florida to measure lineage association with pulmonary TB, the infectious form of the disease. M. tuberculosis lineage was assigned based on the spacer oligonucleotide typing (spoligotyping) patterns. TB disease site was defined as exclusively pulmonary or extra-pulmonary. We used ORs to measure the association between M. tuberculosis lineages and pulmonary compared to extra-pulmonary TB. The final multivariable model was adjusted for patient socio-demographics, HIV and diabetes status. We analyzed 3061 cases, 83.4% were infected with a Euro-American lineage, 8.4% Indo-Oceanic and 8.2% East-Asian lineage. The majority of the cases (86.0%) were exclusively pulmonary. Compared to the Indo-Oceanic lineage, infection with a Euro-American (AOR=1.87, 95% CI: 1.21, 2.91) or an East-Asian (AOR=2.11, 95% CI: 1.27, 3.50) lineage favored pulmonary disease compared to extra-pulmonary. In a sub-analysis among pulmonary cases, strain lineage was not associated with sputum smear positive status, indicating that the observed association with pulmonary disease is independent of host contagiousness. As an obligate pathogen, M. tuberculosis' fitness is directly correlated to its transmission potential. In this analysis, we show that M. tuberculosis lineage is associated with pulmonary disease presentation. This association may explain the predominance in a region of certain lineages compared to others. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Phylogeny and biogeography of highly diverged freshwater fish species (Leuciscinae, Cyprinidae, Teleostei) inferred from mitochondrial genome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imoto, Junichi M; Saitoh, Kenji; Sasaki, Takeshi; Yonezawa, Takahiro; Adachi, Jun; Kartavtsev, Yuri P; Miya, Masaki; Nishida, Mutsumi; Hanzawa, Naoto

    2013-02-10

    The distribution of freshwater taxa is a good biogeographic model to study pattern and process of vicariance and dispersal. The subfamily Leuciscinae (Cyprinidae, Teleostei) consists of many species distributed widely in Eurasia and North America. Leuciscinae have been divided into two phyletic groups, leuciscin and phoxinin. The phylogenetic relationships between major clades within the subfamily are poorly understood, largely because of the overwhelming diversity of the group. The origin of the Far Eastern phoxinin is an interesting question regarding the evolutionary history of Leuciscinae. Here we present phylogenetic analysis of 31 species of Leuciscinae and outgroups based on complete mitochondrial genome sequences to clarify the phylogenetic relationships and to infer the evolutionary history of the subfamily. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the Far Eastern phoxinin species comprised the monophyletic clades Tribolodon, Pseudaspius, Oreoleuciscus and Far Eastern Phoxinus. The Far Eastern phoxinin clade was independent of other Leuciscinae lineages and was closer to North American phoxinins than European leuciscins. All of our analysis also suggested that leuciscins and phoxinins each constituted monophyletic groups. Divergence time estimation suggested that Leuciscinae species diverged from outgroups such as Tincinae to be 83.3 million years ago (Mya) in the Late Cretaceous and leuciscin and phoxinin shared a common ancestor 70.7 Mya. Radiation of Leuciscinae lineages occurred during the Late Cretaceous to Paleocene. This period also witnessed the radiation of tetrapods. Reconstruction of ancestral areas indicates Leuciscinae species originated within Europe. Leuciscin species evolved in Europe and the ancestor of phoxinin was distributed in North America. The Far Eastern phoxinins would have dispersed from North America to Far East across the Beringia land bridge. The present study suggests important roles for the continental rearrangements during the

  8. Phylogeography and allopatric divergence of cypress species (Cupressus L.) in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and adjacent regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tingting; Abbott, Richard J; Milne, Richard I; Mao, Kangshan; Du, Fang K; Wu, Guili; Ciren, Zhaxi; Miehe, Georg; Liu, Jianquan

    2010-06-22

    Although allopatric speciation is viewed as the most common way in which species originate, allopatric divergence among a group of closely related species has rarely been examined at the population level through phylogeographic analysis. Here we report such a case study on eight putative cypress (Cupressus) species, which each have a mainly allopatric distribution in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and adjacent regions. The analysis involved sequencing three plastid DNA fragments (trnD-trnT, trnS-trnG and trnL-trnF) in 371 individuals sampled from populations at 66 localities. Both phylogenetic and network analyses showed that most DNA haplotypes recovered or haplotype-clustered lineages resolved were largely species-specific. Across all species, significant phylogeographic structure (N(ST) > G(ST), P allopatric divergence in Cupressus by restricting gene flow and fixing local, species-specific haplotypes in geographically isolated populations. The low levels of intraspecific diversity present in most species might stem from population bottlenecks brought about by recurrent periods of unfavorable climate and more recently by the negative impacts of human activities on species' distributions. Our findings shed new light on the importance of geographical isolation caused by the uplift of the QTP on the development of high plant species diversity in the QTP biodiversity hotspot.

  9. Linear energy divergences in Coulomb gauge QCD

    OpenAIRE

    Andrasi, A.

    2011-01-01

    The structure of linear energy divergences is analysed on the example of one graph to 3-loop order. Such dangerous divergences do cancel when all graphs are added, but next to leading divergences do not cancel out.

  10. Phylogenetic history demonstrates two different lineages of dengue type 1 virus in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendez Jairo A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue Fever is one of the most important viral re-emergent diseases affecting about 50 million people around the world especially in tropical and sub-tropical countries. In Colombia, the virus was first detected in the earliest 70's when the disease became a major public health concern. Since then, all four serotypes of the virus have been reported. Although most of the huge outbreaks reported in this country have involved dengue virus serotype 1 (DENV-1, there are not studies about its origin, genetic diversity and distribution. Results We used 224 bp corresponding to the carboxyl terminus of envelope (E gene from 74 Colombian isolates in order to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships and to estimate time divergences. Analyzed DENV-1 Colombian isolates belonged to the formerly defined genotype V. Only one virus isolate was clasified in the genotype I, likely representing a sole introduction that did not spread. The oldest strains were closely related to those detected for the first time in America in 1977 from the Caribbean and were detected for two years until their disappearance about six years later. Around 1987, a split up generated 2 lineages that have been evolving separately, although not major aminoacid changes in the analyzed region were found. Conclusion DENV-1 has been circulating since 1978 in Colombia. Yet, the phylogenetic relationships between strains isolated along the covered period of time suggests that viral strains detected in some years, although belonging to the same genotype V, have different recent origins corresponding to multiple re-introduction events of viral strains that were circulating in neighbor countries. Viral strains used in the present study did not form a monophyletic group, which is evidence of a polyphyletic origin. We report the rapid spread patterns and high evolution rate of the different DENV-1 lineages.

  11. Cell lineages of the embryo of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppe, U; Schierenberg, E; Cole, T; Krieg, C; Schmitt, D; Yoder, B; von Ehrenstein, G

    1978-01-01

    Embryogenesis of the free-living soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans produces a juvenile having about 550 cells at hatching. We have determined the lineages of 182 cells by tracing the divisions of individual cells in living embryos. An invariant pattern of cleavage divisions of the egg generates a set of stem cells. These stem cells are the founders of six stem cell lineages. Each lineage has its own clock--i.e., an autonomous rhythm of synchronous cell divisions. The rhythms are maintained in spite of extensive cellular rearrangement. The rate and the orientation of the cell divisions of the cell lineages are essentially invariant among individuals. Thus, the destiny of cells seems to depend primarily on their lineage history. The anterior position of the site of origin of the stem cells in the egg relates to the rate of the cell cycle clock, suggesting intracellular preprogramming of the uncleaved egg. We used a technique that allows normal embryogenesis, from the fertilized egg to hatching, outside the parent under a cover glass. Embryogenesis was followed microscopically with Nomarski interference optics and high-resolution video recording.

  12. Guises and disguises of quadratic divergences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherchiglia, A.L., E-mail: adriano@fisica.ufmg.br [Departamento de Física, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, P.O. BOX 702, 30.161-970, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Vieira, A.R., E-mail: arvieira@fisica.ufmg.br [Departamento de Física, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, P.O. BOX 702, 30.161-970, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Hiller, Brigitte, E-mail: brigitte@teor.fis.uc.pt [Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Baêta Scarpelli, A.P., E-mail: scarpelli.apbs@dpf.gov.br [Setor Técnico-Científico, Departamento de Polícia Federal, Rua Hugo D’Antola, 95 - Lapa, São Paulo (Brazil); Sampaio, Marcos, E-mail: marcos.sampaio@durham.ac.uk [Departamento de Física, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, P.O. BOX 702, 30.161-970, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Centre for Particle Theory, Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University, South Road Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    In this contribution, we present a new perspective on the control of quadratic divergences in quantum field theory, in general, and in the Higgs naturalness problem, in particular. Our discussion is essentially based on an approach where UV divergences are parameterized, after being reduced to basic divergent integrals (BDI) in one internal momentum, as functions of a cutoff and a renormalization group scale λ. We illustrate our proposal with well-known examples, such as the gluon vacuum self energy of QCD and the Higgs decay in two photons within this approach. We also discuss frameworks in effective low-energy QCD models, where quadratic divergences are indeed fundamental.

  13. Computer recognition of divergences in Feynman graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calmet, J

    1973-05-01

    The program described recognizes whether or not a graph is divergent. It determines the kind of the divergences found: vacuum polarizations, electron self energies and vertices. it does not consider infrared divergences. The programming language used is REDUCE. A LISP version is also available. The nature of the divergences and their counter terms was extensively used to write down this program, therefore it is limited to the case of quantum electrodynamics. (auth)

  14. Genetic divergence of common bean cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloso, J S; Silva, W; Pinheiro, L R; Dos Santos, J B; Fonseca, N S; Euzebio, M P

    2015-09-22

    The aim of this study was to evaluate genetic divergence in the 'Carioca' (beige with brown stripes) common bean cultivar used by different institutions and in 16 other common bean cultivars used in the Rede Cooperativa de Pesquisa de Feijão (Cooperative Network of Common Bean Research), by using simple sequence repeats associated with agronomic traits that are highly distributed in the common bean genome. We evaluated 22 polymorphic loci using bulks containing DNA from 30 plants. There was genetic divergence among the Carioca cultivar provided by the institutions. Nevertheless, there was lower divergence among them than among the other cultivars. The cultivar used by Instituto Agronômico do Paraná was the most divergent in relation to the Carioca samples. The least divergence was observed among the samples used by Universidade Federal de Lavras and by Embrapa Arroz e Feijão. Of all the cultivars, 'CNFP 10104' and 'BRSMG Realce' showed the greatest dissimilarity. The cultivars were separated in two groups of greatest similarity using the Structure software. Genetic variation among cultivars was greater than the variation within or between the groups formed. This fact, together with the high estimate of heterozygosity observed and the genetic divergence of the samples of the Carioca cultivar in relation to the original provided by Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, indicates a mixture of cultivars. The high divergence among cultivars provides potential for the utilization of this genetic variability in plant breeding.

  15. Where the lake meets the sea: strong reproductive isolation is associated with adaptive divergence between lake resident and anadromous three-spined sticklebacks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ravinet

    important foundation for future work investigating the dynamics of gene flow and adaptive divergence in this newly discovered stickleback contact zone.

  16. Properties of classical and quantum Jensen-Shannon divergence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Briët (Jop); P. Harremoës (Peter)

    2009-01-01

    htmlabstractJensen-Shannon divergence (JD) is a symmetrized and smoothed version of the most important divergence measure of information theory, Kullback divergence. As opposed to Kullback divergence it determines in a very direct way a metric; indeed, it is the square of a metric. We consider a

  17. mtDNA variation in the Yanomami: evidence for additional New World founding lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, R D; Merriwether, D A; Crews, D E; Ferrell, R E

    1996-07-01

    Native Americans have been classified into four founding haplogroups with as many as seven founding lineages based on mtDNA RFLPs and DNA sequence data. mtDNA analysis was completed for 83 Yanomami from eight villages in the Surucucu and Catrimani Plateau regions of Roraima in northwestern Brazil. Samples were typed for 15 polymorphic mtDNA sites (14 RFLP sites and 1 deletion site), and a subset was sequenced for both hypervariable regions of the mitochondrial D-loop. Substantial mitochondrial diversity was detected among the Yanomami, five of seven accepted founding haplotypes and three others were observed. Of the 83 samples, 4 (4.8%) were lineage B1, 1 (1.2%) was lineage B2, 31 (37.4%) were lineage C1, 29 (34.9%) were lineage C2, 2 (2.4%) were lineage D1, 6 (7.2%) were lineage D2, 7 (8.4%) were a haplotype we designated "X6," and 3 (3.6%) were a haplotype we designated "X7." Sequence analysis found 43 haplotypes in 50 samples. B2, X6, and X7 are previously unrecognized mitochondrial founding lineage types of Native Americans. The widespread distribution of these haplotypes in the New World and Asia provides support for declaring these lineages to be New World founding types.

  18. Molecular evolution of enterovirus 68 detected in the Philippines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadatsugu Imamura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Detection of Enterovirus 68 (EV68 has recently been increased. However, underlying evolutionary mechanism of this increasing trend is not fully understood. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 5,240 patients with acute respiratory infections in the Philippines from June 2009 to December 2011. EV68 was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting for 5' untranslated region (5'UTR, viral protein 1 (VP1, and VP4/VP2. Phylogenetic trees were generated using the obtained sequences. RESULTS: Of the 5,240 tested samples, 12 EV68 positive cases were detected between August and December in 2011 (detection rate, 0.23%. The detection rate was higher among inpatients than outpatients (p<0.0001. Among VP1 sequences detected from 7 patients in 2011, 5 in lineage 2 were diverged from those detected in the Philippines in 2008, however, 2 in lineage 3 were not diverged from strains detected in the Philippines in 2008 but closely associated with strains detected in the United States. Combined with our previous report, EV68 occurrences were observed twice in the Philippines within the last four years. CONCLUSIONS: EV68 detections might be occurring in cyclic patterns, and viruses might have been maintained in the community while some strains might have been newly introduced.

  19. Fast and scalable inference of multi-sample cancer lineages.

    KAUST Repository

    Popic, Victoria; Salari, Raheleh; Hajirasouliha, Iman; Kashef-Haghighi, Dorna; West, Robert B; Batzoglou, Serafim

    2015-01-01

    Somatic variants can be used as lineage markers for the phylogenetic reconstruction of cancer evolution. Since somatic phylogenetics is complicated by sample heterogeneity, novel specialized tree-building methods are required for cancer phylogeny reconstruction. We present LICHeE (Lineage Inference for Cancer Heterogeneity and Evolution), a novel method that automates the phylogenetic inference of cancer progression from multiple somatic samples. LICHeE uses variant allele frequencies of somatic single nucleotide variants obtained by deep sequencing to reconstruct multi-sample cell lineage trees and infer the subclonal composition of the samples. LICHeE is open source and available at http://viq854.github.io/lichee .

  20. Fast and scalable inference of multi-sample cancer lineages.

    KAUST Repository

    Popic, Victoria

    2015-05-06

    Somatic variants can be used as lineage markers for the phylogenetic reconstruction of cancer evolution. Since somatic phylogenetics is complicated by sample heterogeneity, novel specialized tree-building methods are required for cancer phylogeny reconstruction. We present LICHeE (Lineage Inference for Cancer Heterogeneity and Evolution), a novel method that automates the phylogenetic inference of cancer progression from multiple somatic samples. LICHeE uses variant allele frequencies of somatic single nucleotide variants obtained by deep sequencing to reconstruct multi-sample cell lineage trees and infer the subclonal composition of the samples. LICHeE is open source and available at http://viq854.github.io/lichee .

  1. Lineage Switching in Acute Leukemias: A Consequence of Stem Cell Plasticity?

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    Elisa Dorantes-Acosta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute leukemias are the most common cancer in childhood and characterized by the uncontrolled production of hematopoietic precursor cells of the lymphoid or myeloid series within the bone marrow. Even when a relatively high efficiency of therapeutic agents has increased the overall survival rates in the last years, factors such as cell lineage switching and the rise of mixed lineages at relapses often change the prognosis of the illness. During lineage switching, conversions from lymphoblastic leukemia to myeloid leukemia, or vice versa, are recorded. The central mechanisms involved in these phenomena remain undefined, but recent studies suggest that lineage commitment of plastic hematopoietic progenitors may be multidirectional and reversible upon specific signals provided by both intrinsic and environmental cues. In this paper, we focus on the current knowledge about cell heterogeneity and the lineage switch resulting from leukemic cells plasticity. A number of hypothetical mechanisms that may inspire changes in cell fate decisions are highlighted. Understanding the plasticity of leukemia initiating cells might be fundamental to unravel the pathogenesis of lineage switch in acute leukemias and will illuminate the importance of a flexible hematopoietic development.

  2. Jensen divergence based on Fisher’s information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez-Moreno, P; Zarzo, A; Dehesa, J S

    2012-01-01

    The measure of Jensen–Fisher divergence between probability distributions is introduced and its theoretical grounds set up. This quantity, in contrast to the remaining Jensen divergences, grasps the fluctuations of the probability distributions because it is controlled by the (local) Fisher information, which is a gradient functional of the distribution. So it is appropriate and informative when studying the similarity of distributions, mainly for those having oscillatory character. The new Jensen–Fisher divergence shares with the Jensen–Shannon divergence the following properties: non-negativity, additivity when applied to an arbitrary number of probability densities, symmetry under exchange of these densities, vanishing under certain conditions and definiteness even when these densities present non-common zeros. Moreover, the Jensen–Fisher divergence is shown to be expressed in terms of the relative Fisher information as the Jensen–Shannon divergence does in terms of the Kullback–Leibler or relative Shannon entropy. Finally, the Jensen–Shannon and Jensen–Fisher divergences are compared for the following three large, non-trivial and qualitatively different families of probability distributions: the sinusoidal, generalized gamma-like and Rakhmanov–Hermite distributions, which are closely related to the quantum-mechanical probability densities of numerous physical systems. (paper)

  3. Virulence Strategies of the Dominant USA300 Lineage of Community Associated Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurlow, Lance R.; Joshi, Gauri S.; Richardson, Anthony R.

    2014-01-01

    Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) poses a serious threat to worldwide health. Historically, MRSA clones have strictly been associated with hospital settings and most hospital-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) disease resulted from a limited number of virulent clones. Recently, MRSA has spread into the community causing disease in otherwise healthy people with no discernible contact with healthcare environments. These community-associated (CA-MRSA) are phylogenetically distinct from traditional HA-MRSA clones and CA-MRSA strains seem to exhibit hyper virulence and more efficient host:host transmission. Consequently, CA-MRSA clones belonging to the USA300 lineage have become dominant sources of MRSA infections in North America. The rise of this successful USA300 lineage represents an important step in the evolution of emerging pathogens and a great deal of effort has been exerted to understand how these clones evolved. Here we review much of the recent literature aimed at illuminating the source of USA300 success and broadly categorize these findings into three main categories: newly acquired virulence genes, altered expression of common virulence determinants and alterations in protein sequence that increase fitness. We argue that none of these evolutionary events alone account for the success of USA300, but rather their combination may be responsible for the rise and spread of CA-MRSA. PMID:22309135

  4. Trophoblast lineage cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ying; Wang, Kai; Chandramouli, Gadisetti V.R.; Knott, Jason G.; Leach, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Epithelial-like phenotype of trophoblast lineage cells derived from human iPS cells. •Trophoblast lineage cells derived from human iPS cells exhibit trophoblast function. •Trophoblasts from iPS cells provides a proof-of-concept in regenerative medicine. -- Abstract: Background: During implantation, the blastocyst trophectoderm attaches to the endometrial epithelium and continues to differentiate into all trophoblast subtypes, which are the major components of a placenta. Aberrant trophoblast proliferation and differentiation are associated with placental diseases. However, due to ethical and practical issues, there is almost no available cell or tissue source to study the molecular mechanism of human trophoblast differentiation, which further becomes a barrier to the study of the pathogenesis of trophoblast-associated diseases of pregnancy. In this study, our goal was to generate a proof-of-concept model for deriving trophoblast lineage cells from induced pluripotency stem (iPS) cells from human fibroblasts. In future studies the generation of trophoblast lineage cells from iPS cells established from patient’s placenta will be extremely useful for studying the pathogenesis of individual trophoblast-associated diseases and for drug testing. Methods and results: Combining iPS cell technology with BMP4 induction, we derived trophoblast lineage cells from human iPS cells. The gene expression profile of these trophoblast lineage cells was distinct from fibroblasts and iPS cells. These cells expressed markers of human trophoblasts. Furthermore, when these cells were differentiated they exhibited invasive capacity and placental hormone secretive capacity, suggesting extravillous trophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts. Conclusion: Trophoblast lineage cells can be successfully derived from human iPS cells, which provide a proof-of-concept tool to recapitulate pathogenesis of patient placental trophoblasts in vitro

  5. Trophoblast lineage cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ying, E-mail: ying.chen@hc.msu.edu [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Michigan State University, 333 Bostwick NE, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States); Wang, Kai; Chandramouli, Gadisetti V.R. [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Michigan State University, 333 Bostwick NE, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States); Knott, Jason G. [Developmental Epigenetics Laboratory, Department of Animal Science, Michigan State University (United States); Leach, Richard, E-mail: Richard.leach@hc.msu.edu [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Michigan State University, 333 Bostwick NE, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States); Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women’s Health, Spectrum Health Medical Group (United States)

    2013-07-12

    Highlights: •Epithelial-like phenotype of trophoblast lineage cells derived from human iPS cells. •Trophoblast lineage cells derived from human iPS cells exhibit trophoblast function. •Trophoblasts from iPS cells provides a proof-of-concept in regenerative medicine. -- Abstract: Background: During implantation, the blastocyst trophectoderm attaches to the endometrial epithelium and continues to differentiate into all trophoblast subtypes, which are the major components of a placenta. Aberrant trophoblast proliferation and differentiation are associated with placental diseases. However, due to ethical and practical issues, there is almost no available cell or tissue source to study the molecular mechanism of human trophoblast differentiation, which further becomes a barrier to the study of the pathogenesis of trophoblast-associated diseases of pregnancy. In this study, our goal was to generate a proof-of-concept model for deriving trophoblast lineage cells from induced pluripotency stem (iPS) cells from human fibroblasts. In future studies the generation of trophoblast lineage cells from iPS cells established from patient’s placenta will be extremely useful for studying the pathogenesis of individual trophoblast-associated diseases and for drug testing. Methods and results: Combining iPS cell technology with BMP4 induction, we derived trophoblast lineage cells from human iPS cells. The gene expression profile of these trophoblast lineage cells was distinct from fibroblasts and iPS cells. These cells expressed markers of human trophoblasts. Furthermore, when these cells were differentiated they exhibited invasive capacity and placental hormone secretive capacity, suggesting extravillous trophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts. Conclusion: Trophoblast lineage cells can be successfully derived from human iPS cells, which provide a proof-of-concept tool to recapitulate pathogenesis of patient placental trophoblasts in vitro.

  6. Lineage plasticity-mediated therapy resistance in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blee, Alexandra M; Huang, Haojie

    2018-06-12

    Therapy resistance is a significant challenge for prostate cancer treatment in clinic. Although targeted therapies such as androgen deprivation and androgen receptor (AR) inhibition are effective initially, tumor cells eventually evade these strategies through multiple mechanisms. Lineage reprogramming in response to hormone therapy represents a key mechanism that is increasingly observed. The studies in this area have revealed specific combinations of alterations present in adenocarcinomas that provide cells with the ability to transdifferentiate and perpetuate AR-independent tumor growth after androgen-based therapies. Interestingly, several master regulators have been identified that drive plasticity, some of which also play key roles during development and differentiation of the cell lineages in the normal prostate. Thus, further study of each AR-independent tumor type and understanding underlying mechanisms are warranted to develop combinational therapies that combat lineage plasticity in prostate cancer.

  7. Verbal and visual divergent thinking in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Nori, Raffaella; Piccardi, Laura

    2017-04-01

    According to the peak and decline model divergent thinking declines at a specific age (in or after middle age). However, if divergent thinking declines steadily in aging still has to be clarified. In order to explore the age-related changes in verbal and visual divergent thinking, in the present study a sample of 159 participants was divided in five age groups: young adults (18-35 years), middle-aged adults (36-55), young old (56-74), old (75-85) and the oldest-old (86-98). Two divergent thinking tasks were administered: the alternative uses for cardboard boxes, aimed at assessing verbal ideational fluency, flexibility and originality; the completion drawing task, aimed at assessing visual ideational fluency, flexibility and originality. Results showed that after peaking in the young adult group (20-35 years) all components of verbal and visual divergent thinking stabilized in the middle-aged adult group (36-55 years) and then started declining in the young old group (56-75). Interestingly, all components were found to be preserved after declining. Yet, verbal and visual divergent thinking were found at the same extent across age groups, with the exception of visual ideational fluency, that was higher in the young old group, the old group and the oldest-old group than verbal ideational fluency. These results support the idea that divergent thinking does not decline steadily in the elderly. Given that older people can preserve to some extent verbal and visual divergent thinking, these findings have important implications for active aging, that is, divergent thinking might be fostered in aging in order to prevent the cognitive decline.

  8. Evolutionary history and global spread of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merker, Matthias; Blin, Camille; Mona, Stefano; Duforet-Frebourg, Nicolas; Lecher, Sophie; Willery, Eve; Blum, Michael G B; Rüsch-Gerdes, Sabine; Mokrousov, Igor; Aleksic, Eman; Allix-Béguec, Caroline; Antierens, Annick; Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Ewa; Ballif, Marie; Barletta, Francesca; Beck, Hans Peter; Barry, Clifton E; Bonnet, Maryline; Borroni, Emanuele; Campos-Herrero, Isolina; Cirillo, Daniela; Cox, Helen; Crowe, Suzanne; Crudu, Valeriu; Diel, Roland; Drobniewski, Francis; Fauville-Dufaux, Maryse; Gagneux, Sébastien; Ghebremichael, Solomon; Hanekom, Madeleine; Hoffner, Sven; Jiao, Wei-wei; Kalon, Stobdan; Kohl, Thomas A; Kontsevaya, Irina; Lillebæk, Troels; Maeda, Shinji; Nikolayevskyy, Vladyslav; Rasmussen, Michael; Rastogi, Nalin; Samper, Sofia; Sanchez-Padilla, Elisabeth; Savic, Branislava; Shamputa, Isdore Chola; Shen, Adong; Sng, Li-Hwei; Stakenas, Petras; Toit, Kadri; Varaine, Francis; Vukovic, Dragana; Wahl, Céline; Warren, Robin; Supply, Philip; Niemann, Stefan; Wirth, Thierry

    2015-03-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains of the Beijing lineage are globally distributed and are associated with the massive spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis in Eurasia. Here we reconstructed the biogeographical structure and evolutionary history of this lineage by genetic analysis of 4,987 isolates from 99 countries and whole-genome sequencing of 110 representative isolates. We show that this lineage initially originated in the Far East, from where it radiated worldwide in several waves. We detected successive increases in population size for this pathogen over the last 200 years, practically coinciding with the Industrial Revolution, the First World War and HIV epidemics. Two MDR clones of this lineage started to spread throughout central Asia and Russia concomitantly with the collapse of the public health system in the former Soviet Union. Mutations identified in genes putatively under positive selection and associated with virulence might have favored the expansion of the most successful branches of the lineage.

  9. Quadratic divergences and dimensional regularisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jack, I.; Jones, D.R.T.

    1990-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of quadratic and quartic divergences in dimensionally regulated renormalisable theories. We perform explicit three-loop calculations for a general theory of scalars and fermions. We find that the higher-order quartic divergences are related to the lower-order ones by the renormalisation group β-functions. (orig.)

  10. Evolutionary history and global spread of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing lineage.

    OpenAIRE

    Merker Matthias; Blin Camille; Mona Stefano; Duforet-Frebourg Nicolas; Lecher Sophie; Willery Eve; Blum Michael G B; Rüsch-Gerdes Sabine; Mokrousov Igor; Aleksic Eman; Allix-Béguec Caroline; Antierens Annick; Augustynowicz-Kopec Ewa; Ballif Marie; Barletta Francesca

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains of the Beijing lineage are globally distributed and are associated with the massive spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis in Eurasia. Here we reconstructed the biogeographical structure and evolutionary history of this lineage by genetic analysis of 4,987 isolates from 99 countries and whole-genome sequencing of 110 representative isolates. We show that this lineage initially originated in the Far East, from where it radiat...

  11. So many genes, so little time: A practical approach to divergence-time estimation in the genomic era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen A; Brown, Joseph W; Walker, Joseph F

    2018-01-01

    Phylogenomic datasets have been successfully used to address questions involving evolutionary relationships, patterns of genome structure, signatures of selection, and gene and genome duplications. However, despite the recent explosion in genomic and transcriptomic data, the utility of these data sources for efficient divergence-time inference remains unexamined. Phylogenomic datasets pose two distinct problems for divergence-time estimation: (i) the volume of data makes inference of the entire dataset intractable, and (ii) the extent of underlying topological and rate heterogeneity across genes makes model mis-specification a real concern. "Gene shopping", wherein a phylogenomic dataset is winnowed to a set of genes with desirable properties, represents an alternative approach that holds promise in alleviating these issues. We implemented an approach for phylogenomic datasets (available in SortaDate) that filters genes by three criteria: (i) clock-likeness, (ii) reasonable tree length (i.e., discernible information content), and (iii) least topological conflict with a focal species tree (presumed to have already been inferred). Such a winnowing procedure ensures that errors associated with model (both clock and topology) mis-specification are minimized, therefore reducing error in divergence-time estimation. We demonstrated the efficacy of this approach through simulation and applied it to published animal (Aves, Diplopoda, and Hymenoptera) and plant (carnivorous Caryophyllales, broad Caryophyllales, and Vitales) phylogenomic datasets. By quantifying rate heterogeneity across both genes and lineages we found that every empirical dataset examined included genes with clock-like, or nearly clock-like, behavior. Moreover, many datasets had genes that were clock-like, exhibited reasonable evolutionary rates, and were mostly compatible with the species tree. We identified overlap in age estimates when analyzing these filtered genes under strict clock and uncorrelated

  12. First large-scale DNA barcoding assessment of reptiles in the biodiversity hotspot of Madagascar, based on newly designed COI primers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Zoltán T; Sonet, Gontran; Glaw, Frank; Vences, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    DNA barcoding of non-avian reptiles based on the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene is still in a very early stage, mainly due to technical problems. Using a newly developed set of reptile-specific primers for COI we present the first comprehensive study targeting the entire reptile fauna of the fourth-largest island in the world, the biodiversity hotspot of Madagascar. Representatives of the majority of Madagascan non-avian reptile species (including Squamata and Testudines) were sampled and successfully DNA barcoded. The new primer pair achieved a constantly high success rate (72.7-100%) for most squamates. More than 250 species of reptiles (out of the 393 described ones; representing around 64% of the known diversity of species) were barcoded. The average interspecific genetic distance within families ranged from a low of 13.4% in the Boidae to a high of 29.8% in the Gekkonidae. Using the average genetic divergence between sister species as a threshold, 41-48 new candidate (undescribed) species were identified. Simulations were used to evaluate the performance of DNA barcoding as a function of completeness of taxon sampling and fragment length. Compared with available multi-gene phylogenies, DNA barcoding correctly assigned most samples to species, genus and family with high confidence and the analysis of fewer taxa resulted in an increased number of well supported lineages. Shorter marker-lengths generally decreased the number of well supported nodes, but even mini-barcodes of 100 bp correctly assigned many samples to genus and family. The new protocols might help to promote DNA barcoding of reptiles and the established library of reference DNA barcodes will facilitate the molecular identification of Madagascan reptiles. Our results might be useful to easily recognize undescribed diversity (i.e. novel taxa), to resolve taxonomic problems, and to monitor the international pet trade without specialized expert knowledge.

  13. Criterion and Divergent Validity of the Sexual Minority Adolescent Stress Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy T. Goldbach

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sexual minority adolescents (SMA consistently report health disparities compared to their heterosexual counterparts, yet the underlying mechanisms of these negative health outcomes remain unclear. The predominant explanatory model is the minority stress theory; however, this model was developed largely with adults, and no valid and comprehensive measure of minority stress has been developed for adolescents. The present study validated a newly developed instrument to measure minority stress among racially and ethnically diverse SMA. A sample of 346 SMA aged 14–17 was recruited and surveyed between February 2015 and July 2016. The focal measure of interest was the 64-item, 11-factor Sexual Minority Adolescent Stress Inventory (SMASI developed in the initial phase of this study. Criterion validation measures included measures of depressive symptoms, suicidality and self-harm, youth problem behaviors, and substance use; the general Adolescent Stress Questionnaire (ASQ was included as a measure of divergent validity. Analyses included Pearson and tetrachoric correlations to establish criterion and divergent validity and structural equation modeling to assess the explanatory utility of the SMASI relative to the ASQ. SMASI scores were significantly associated with all outcomes but only moderately associated with the ASQ (r = −0.13 to 0.51. Analyses revealed significant associations of a latent minority stress variable with both proximal and distal health outcomes beyond the variation explained by general stress. Results show that the SMASI is the first instrument to validly measure minority stress among SMA.

  14. Resolution of deep eudicot phylogeny and their temporal diversification using nuclear genes from transcriptomic and genomic datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Liping; Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Qiang; Endress, Peter K; Huang, Jie; Ma, Hong

    2017-05-01

    Explosive diversification is widespread in eukaryotes, making it difficult to resolve phylogenetic relationships. Eudicots contain c. 75% of extant flowering plants, are important for human livelihood and terrestrial ecosystems, and have probably experienced explosive diversifications. The eudicot phylogenetic relationships, especially among those of the Pentapetalae, remain unresolved. Here, we present a highly supported eudicot phylogeny and diversification rate shifts using 31 newly generated transcriptomes and 88 other datasets covering 70% of eudicot orders. A highly supported eudicot phylogeny divided Pentapetalae into two groups: one with rosids, Saxifragales, Vitales and Santalales; the other containing asterids, Caryophyllales and Dilleniaceae, with uncertainty for Berberidopsidales. Molecular clock analysis estimated that crown eudicots originated c. 146 Ma, considerably earlier than earliest tricolpate pollen fossils and most other molecular clock estimates, and Pentapetalae sequentially diverged into eight major lineages within c. 15 Myr. Two identified increases of diversification rate are located in the stems leading to Pentapetalae and asterids, and lagged behind the gamma hexaploidization. The nuclear genes from newly generated transcriptomes revealed a well-resolved eudicot phylogeny, sequential separation of major core eudicot lineages and temporal mode of diversifications, providing new insights into the evolutionary trend of morphologies and contributions to the diversification of eudicots. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Highly variable rates of genome rearrangements between hemiascomycetous yeast lineages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Hemiascomycete yeasts cover an evolutionary span comparable to that of the entire phylum of chordates. Since this group currently contains the largest number of complete genome sequences it presents unique opportunities to understand the evolution of genome organization in eukaryotes. We inferred rates of genome instability on all branches of a phylogenetic tree for 11 species and calculated species-specific rates of genome rearrangements. We characterized all inversion events that occurred within synteny blocks between six representatives of the different lineages. We show that the rates of macro- and microrearrangements of gene order are correlated within individual lineages but are highly variable across different lineages. The most unstable genomes correspond to the pathogenic yeasts Candida albicans and Candida glabrata. Chromosomal maps have been intensively shuffled by numerous interchromosomal rearrangements, even between species that have retained a very high physical fraction of their genomes within small synteny blocks. Despite this intensive reshuffling of gene positions, essential genes, which cluster in low recombination regions in the genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, tend to remain syntenic during evolution. This work reveals that the high plasticity of eukaryotic genomes results from rearrangement rates that vary between lineages but also at different evolutionary times of a given lineage.

  16. Cancellation of soft and collinear divergences in noncommutative QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, B.; Zarei, M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the behavior of noncommutative IR divergences and will also discuss their cancellation in the physical cross sections. The commutative IR (soft) divergences existing in the nonplanar diagrams will be examined in order to prove an all-order cancellation of these divergences using the Weinberg's method. In noncommutative QED, collinear divergences due to triple photon splitting vertex, were encountered, which are shown to be canceled out by the noncommutative version of KLN theorem. This guarantees that there is no mixing between the Collinear, soft divergences and noncommutative IR divergences

  17. The evolutionary diversification of LSF and Grainyhead transcription factors preceded the radiation of basal animal lineages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaufman Les

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transcription factors of the LSF/Grainyhead (GRH family are characterized by the possession of a distinctive DNA-binding domain that bears no clear relationship to other known DNA-binding domains, with the possible exception of the p53 core domain. In triploblastic animals, the LSF and GRH subfamilies have diverged extensively with respect to their biological roles, general expression patterns, and mechanism of DNA binding. For example, Grainyhead (GRH homologs are expressed primarily in the epidermis, and they appear to play an ancient role in maintaining the epidermal barrier. By contrast, LSF homologs are more widely expressed, and they regulate general cellular functions such as cell cycle progression and survival in addition to cell-lineage specific gene expression. Results To illuminate the early evolution of this family and reconstruct the functional divergence of LSF and GRH, we compared homologs from 18 phylogenetically diverse taxa, including four basal animals (Nematostella vectensis, Vallicula multiformis, Trichoplax adhaerens, and Amphimedon queenslandica, a choanoflagellate (Monosiga brevicollis and several fungi. Phylogenetic and bioinformatic analyses of these sequences indicate that (1 the LSF/GRH gene family originated prior to the animal-fungal divergence, and (2 the functional diversification of the LSF and GRH subfamilies occurred prior to the divergence between sponges and eumetazoans. Aspects of the domain architecture of LSF/GRH proteins are well conserved between fungi, choanoflagellates, and metazoans, though within the Metazoa, the LSF and GRH families are clearly distinct. We failed to identify a convincing LSF/GRH homolog in the sequenced genomes of the algae Volvox carteri and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii or the amoebozoan Dictyostelium purpureum. Interestingly, the ancestral GRH locus has become split into two separate loci in the sea anemone Nematostella, with one locus encoding a DNA binding

  18. Divergent evolution in the cytoplasmic domains of PRLR and GHR genes in Artiodactyla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Meng-Hua

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prolactin receptor (PRLR and growth hormone receptor (GHR belong to the large superfamily of class 1 cytokine receptors. Both of them have been identified as candidate genes affecting key quantitative traits, like growth and reproduction in livestock. We have previously studied the molecular anatomy of the cytoplasmic domain of GHR in different cattle breeds and artiodactyl species. In this study we have analysed the corresponding cytoplasmic signalling region of PRLR. Results We sequenced PRLR gene exon 10, coding for the major part of the cytoplasmic domain, from cattle, American bison, European bison, yak, sheep, pig and wild boar individuals. We found different patterns of variation in the two receptors within and between ruminants and pigs. Pigs and bison species have no variation within GHR exon 10, but show high haplotype diversity for the PRLR exon 10. In cattle, PRLR shows lower diversity than GHR. The Bovinae PRLR haplotype network fits better the known phylogenetic relationships between the species than that of the GHR, where differences within cattle breeds are larger than between the different species in the subfamily. By comparison with the wild boar haplotypes, a high number of subsequent nonsynonymous substitutions seem to have accumulated in the pig PRLR exon 10 after domestication. Conclusion Both genes affect a multitude of traits that have been targets of selection after domestication. The genes seem to have responded differently to different selection pressures imposed by human artificial selection. The results suggest possible effects of selective sweeps in GHR before domestication in the pig lineage or species divergence in the Bison lineage. The PRLR results may be explained by strong directional selection in pigs or functional switching.

  19. Deciphering the recent phylogenetic expansion of the originally deeply rooted Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineage 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimer, Solomon A; Namouchi, Amine; Zegeye, Ephrem Debebe; Holm-Hansen, Carol; Norheim, Gunnstein; Abebe, Markos; Aseffa, Abraham; Tønjum, Tone

    2016-06-30

    A deeply rooted phylogenetic lineage of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) termed lineage 7 was discovered in Ethiopia. Whole genome sequencing of 30 lineage 7 strains from patients in Ethiopia was performed. Intra-lineage genome variation was defined and unique characteristics identified with a focus on genes involved in DNA repair, recombination and replication (3R genes). More than 800 mutations specific to M. tuberculosis lineage 7 strains were identified. The proportion of non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) in 3R genes was higher after the recent expansion of M. tuberculosis lineage 7 strain started. The proportion of nsSNPs in genes involved in inorganic ion transport and metabolism was significantly higher before the expansion began. A total of 22346 bp deletions were observed. Lineage 7 strains also exhibited a high number of mutations in genes involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism, transcription, energy production and conversion. We have identified unique genomic signatures of the lineage 7 strains. The high frequency of nsSNP in 3R genes after the phylogenetic expansion may have contributed to recent variability and adaptation. The abundance of mutations in genes involved in inorganic ion transport and metabolism before the expansion period may indicate an adaptive response of lineage 7 strains to enable survival, potentially under environmental stress exposure. As lineage 7 strains originally were phylogenetically deeply rooted, this may indicate fundamental adaptive genomic pathways affecting the fitness of M. tuberculosis as a species.

  20. Genome-Nuclear Lamina Interactions Regulate Cardiac Stem Cell Lineage Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poleshko, Andrey; Shah, Parisha P; Gupta, Mudit; Babu, Apoorva; Morley, Michael P; Manderfield, Lauren J; Ifkovits, Jamie L; Calderon, Damelys; Aghajanian, Haig; Sierra-Pagán, Javier E; Sun, Zheng; Wang, Qiaohong; Li, Li; Dubois, Nicole C; Morrisey, Edward E; Lazar, Mitchell A; Smith, Cheryl L; Epstein, Jonathan A; Jain, Rajan

    2017-10-19

    Progenitor cells differentiate into specialized cell types through coordinated expression of lineage-specific genes and modification of complex chromatin configurations. We demonstrate that a histone deacetylase (Hdac3) organizes heterochromatin at the nuclear lamina during cardiac progenitor lineage restriction. Specification of cardiomyocytes is associated with reorganization of peripheral heterochromatin, and independent of deacetylase activity, Hdac3 tethers peripheral heterochromatin containing lineage-relevant genes to the nuclear lamina. Deletion of Hdac3 in cardiac progenitor cells releases genomic regions from the nuclear periphery, leading to precocious cardiac gene expression and differentiation into cardiomyocytes; in contrast, restricting Hdac3 to the nuclear periphery rescues myogenesis in progenitors otherwise lacking Hdac3. Our results suggest that availability of genomic regions for activation by lineage-specific factors is regulated in part through dynamic chromatin-nuclear lamina interactions and that competence of a progenitor cell to respond to differentiation signals may depend upon coordinated movement of responding gene loci away from the nuclear periphery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. High Yield of Adult Oligodendrocyte Lineage Cells Obtained from Meningeal Biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sissi Dolci

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Oligodendrocyte loss can lead to cognitive and motor deficits. Current remyelinating therapeutic strategies imply either modulation of endogenous oligodendrocyte precursors or transplantation of in vitro expanded oligodendrocytes. Cell therapy, however, still lacks identification of an adequate source of oligodendrocyte present in adulthood and able to efficiently produce transplantable cells. Recently, a neural stem cell-like population has been identified in meninges. We developed a protocol to obtain high yield of oligodendrocyte lineage cells from one single biopsy of adult rat meningeal tissue. From 1 cm2 of adult rat spinal cord meninges, we efficiently expanded a homogenous culture of 10 millions of meningeal-derived oligodendrocyte lineage cells in a short period of time (approximately 4 weeks. Meningeal-derived oligodendrocyte lineage cells show typical mature oligodendrocyte morphology and express specific oligodendrocyte markers, such as galactosylceramidase and myelin basic protein. Moreover, when transplanted in a chemically demyelinated spinal cord model, meningeal-derived oligodendrocyte lineage cells display in vivo-remyelinating potential. This oligodendrocyte lineage cell population derives from an accessible and adult source, being therefore a promising candidate for autologous cell therapy of demyelinating diseases. In addition, the described method to differentiate meningeal-derived neural stem cells into oligodendrocyte lineage cells may represent a valid in vitro model to dissect oligodendrocyte differentiation and to screen for drugs capable to promote oligodendrocyte regeneration.

  2. Phylogenetic heritability of geographic range size in haematophagous ectoparasites: time of divergence and variation among continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnov, Boris R; Shenbrot, Georgy I; van der Mescht, Luther; Warburton, Elizabeth M; Khokhlova, Irina S

    2018-04-12

    To understand existence, patterns and mechanisms behind phylogenetic heritability in the geographic range size (GRS) of parasites, we measured phylogenetic signal (PS) in the sizes of both regional (within a region) and continental (within a continent) geographic ranges of fleas in five regions. We asked whether (a) GRS is phylogenetically heritable and (b) the manifestation of PS varies between regions. We also asked whether geographic variation in PS reflects the effects of the environment's spatiotemporal stability (e.g. glaciation disrupting geographic ranges) or is associated with time since divergence (accumulation differences among species over time). Support for the former hypothesis would be indicated by stronger PS in southern than in northern regions, whereas support for the latter hypothesis would be shown by stronger PS in regions with a large proportion of species belonging to the derived lineages than in regions with a large proportion of species belonging to the basal lineages. We detected significant PS in both regional and continental GRSs of fleas from Canada and in continental GRS of fleas from Mongolia. No PS was found in the GRS of fleas from Australia and Southern Africa. Venezuelan fleas demonstrated significant PS in regional GRS only. Local Indicators of Phylogenetic Association detected significant local positive autocorrelations of GRS in some clades even in regions in which PS has not been detected across the entire phylogeny. This was mainly characteristic of younger taxa.

  3. East-west genetic differentiation in Musk Ducks (Biziura lobata) of Australia suggests late Pleistocene divergence at the Nullarbor Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, P.-J.; Chesser, R.T.; Mulder, R.A.; Afton, A.D.; Paton, D.C.; McCracken, K.G.

    2010-01-01

    Musk Ducks (Biziura lobata) are endemic to Australia and occur as two geographically isolated populations separated by the Nullarbor Plain, a vast arid region in southern Australia. We studied genetic variation in Musk Duck populations at coarse (eastern versus western Australia) and fine scales (four sites within eastern Australia). We found significant genetic structure between eastern and western Australia in the mtDNA control region (??ST = 0. 747), one nuclear intron (??ST = 0.193) and eight microsatellite loci (FST = 0.035). In contrast, there was little genetic structure between Kangaroo Island and adjacent mainland regions within eastern Australia. One small population of Musk Ducks in Victoria (Lake Wendouree) differed from both Kangaroo Island and the remainder of mainland eastern Australia, possibly due to genetic drift exacerbated by inbreeding and small population size. The observed low pairwise distance between the eastern and western mtDNA lineages (0.36%) suggests that they diverged near the end of the Pleistocene, a period characterised by frequent shifts between wet and arid conditions in central Australia. Our genetic results corroborate the display call divergence and Mathews' (Austral Avian Record 2:83-107, 1914) subspecies classification, and confirm that eastern and western populations of Musk Duck are currently isolated from each other. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  4. Imaging retinal progenitor lineages in developing zebrafish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusuf, Patricia; Harris, William A; Poggi, Lucia

    2013-03-01

    In this protocol, we describe how to make and analyze four dimensional (4D) movies of retinal lineage in the zebrafish embryo in vivo. 4D consists of three spatial dimensions (3D) reconstructed from stacks of confocal planes plus one time dimension. Our imaging is performed on transgenic cells that express fluorescent proteins under the control of cell-specific promoters or on cells that transiently express such reporters in specific retinal cell progenitors. An important aspect of lineage tracing is the ability to follow individual cells as they undergo multiple cell divisions, final migration, and differentiation. This may mean many hours of 4D imaging, requiring that cells be kept healthy and maintained under conditions suitable for normal development. The longest movies we have made are ∼50 h. By analyzing these movies, we can see when a specific cell was born and who its sister was, allowing us to reconstruct its retinal lineages in vivo.

  5. Pancreas lineage allocation and specification are regulated by sphingosine-1-phosphate signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafimidis, Ioannis; Rodriguez-Aznar, Eva; Lesche, Mathias; Yoshioka, Kazuaki; Takuwa, Yoh; Dahl, Andreas; Pan, Duojia; Gavalas, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    During development, progenitor expansion, lineage allocation, and implementation of differentiation programs need to be tightly coordinated so that different cell types are generated in the correct numbers for appropriate tissue size and function. Pancreatic dysfunction results in some of the most debilitating and fatal diseases, including pancreatic cancer and diabetes. Several transcription factors regulating pancreas lineage specification have been identified, and Notch signalling has been implicated in lineage allocation, but it remains unclear how these processes are coordinated. Using a combination of genetic approaches, organotypic cultures of embryonic pancreata, and genomics, we found that sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1p), signalling through the G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) S1pr2, plays a key role in pancreas development linking lineage allocation and specification. S1pr2 signalling promotes progenitor survival as well as acinar and endocrine specification. S1pr2-mediated stabilisation of the yes-associated protein (YAP) is essential for endocrine specification, thus linking a regulator of progenitor growth with specification. YAP stabilisation and endocrine cell specification rely on Gαi subunits, revealing an unexpected specificity of selected GPCR intracellular signalling components. Finally, we found that S1pr2 signalling posttranscriptionally attenuates Notch signalling levels, thus regulating lineage allocation. Both S1pr2-mediated YAP stabilisation and Notch attenuation are necessary for the specification of the endocrine lineage. These findings identify S1p signalling as a novel key pathway coordinating cell survival, lineage allocation, and specification and linking these processes by regulating YAP levels and Notch signalling. Understanding lineage allocation and specification in the pancreas will shed light in the origins of pancreatic diseases and may suggest novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:28248965

  6. Two Hemocyte Lineages Exist in Silkworm Larval Hematopoietic Organ

    OpenAIRE

    Nakahara, Yuichi; Kanamori, Yasushi; Kiuchi, Makoto; Kamimura, Manabu

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Insects have multiple hemocyte morphotypes with different functions as do vertebrates, however, their hematopoietic lineages are largely unexplored with the exception of Drosophila melanogaster. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To study the hematopoietic lineage of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, we investigated in vivo and in vitro differentiation of hemocyte precursors in the hematopoietic organ (HPO) into the four mature hemocyte subsets, namely, plasmatocytes, granulocytes, oenocyto...

  7. Divergence Palsy due to Divalproex and Oxcarbazepine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, Marc Albert; Caplan, Louis R; Torun, Nurhan

    This case series is the first to describe divergence palsy as an adverse effect of antiepileptic drug use. Diplopia is a common adverse effect of antiepileptic drugs, but no explanatory motility deficit has ever been reported. We present 2 patients, 1 on oxcarbazepine and 1 on divalproex, each with a normal examination result between spells and divergency palsy when symptomatic. Discontinuation of the antiepileptic medication led to resolution of the episodes in both cases. Rechallenge with the offending agent after washout in one patient resulted in recurrence of diplopia and divergence palsy, both resolving after subsequent withdrawal of the antiepileptic. Antiepileptic drugs may cause divergence palsy.

  8. Beam divergence scaling in neutral beam injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, A.J.T.

    1976-01-01

    One of the main considerations in the design of neutral beam injectors is to monimize the divergence of the primary ion beam and hence maximize the beam transport and minimize the input of thermal gas. Experimental measurements of the divergence of a cylindrical ion beam are presented and these measurements are used to analyze the major components of ion beam divergence, namely: space charge expansion, gas-ion scattering, emittance and optical aberrations. The implication of these divergence components in the design of a neutral beam injector system is discussed and a method of maximizing the beam current is described for a given area of source plasma

  9. Response pattern's of immunoglobulins evaluation in different lineages of mice infected with T. cruzi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Andreia dos Santos

    2006-01-01

    The present work has employed different mice lineages (A/J, C57BL/6, B6AF1, BXA1 and BXA2) that were challenged with different doses of T. cruzi. The objective was to evaluate the pattern of immunoglobulins response presented by resistant and susceptible mice to T. cruzi as well as the lineages developed from the matting between them. So that evaluation was done by using lineages serums' sample, analyzed by ELISA's method. In agreement with the results observed all the lineages presented higher response to IgG2a and IgG2b, if compared with the titles to IgG1. IgG1 immunoglobulins involve a type Th2 pattern response which expressed allergic immunological responses, while IgG2 involves a pattern response Th1 that expresses cellular immunological response. The different lineages used in this research also presented different immunological response pattern by the infection with T. cruzi. Mice of the lineage C57BL/6 are resistant to the infection, while the animals of the lineage A/J are susceptible. The animals of the lineage B6AF1 are more resistant to the infection than their original parental C57BL/6. The immunological response developed by hybrid mice present traces of both susceptible and resistant parental A/J and C57BL/6, respectively. The animals of the lineage BXA1 can be considered resistant to the infection, but they don't present the same control as that presented by those of the lineages B6AF1 and C57BL/6. The animals of the lineage BXA2 can be considered susceptible to the infection, but they can control it for a long period, surviving like this, longer than the animals of the lineage A/J. In addition it was observed that the IgG2b immunoglobulins are very important to the resistance of mice to T. cruzi infection. (author)

  10. Escort entropies and divergences and related canonical distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bercher, J.-F.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss two families of two-parameter entropies and divergences, derived from the standard Renyi and Tsallis entropies and divergences. These divergences and entropies are found as divergences or entropies of escort distributions. Exploiting the nonnegativity of the divergences, we derive the expression of the canonical distribution associated to the new entropies and a observable given as an escort-mean value. We show that this canonical distribution extends, and smoothly connects, the results obtained in nonextensive thermodynamics for the standard and generalized mean value constraints. -- Highlights: → Two-parameter entropies are derived from q-entropies and escort distributions. → The related canonical distribution is derived. → This connects and extends known results in nonextensive statistics.

  11. Engineered Murine HSCs Reconstitute Multi-lineage Hematopoiesis and Adaptive Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Fen Lu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC transplantation is curative for malignant and genetic blood disorders, but is limited by donor availability and immune-mismatch. Deriving HSCs from patient-matched embryonic/induced-pluripotent stem cells (ESCs/iPSCs could address these limitations. Prior efforts in murine models exploited ectopic HoxB4 expression to drive self-renewal and enable multi-lineage reconstitution, yet fell short in delivering robust lymphoid engraftment. Here, by titrating exposure of HoxB4-ESC-HSC to Notch ligands, we report derivation of engineered HSCs that self-renew, repopulate multi-lineage hematopoiesis in primary and secondary engrafted mice, and endow adaptive immunity in immune-deficient recipients. Single-cell analysis shows that following engraftment in the bone marrow niche, these engineered HSCs further specify to a hybrid cell type, in which distinct gene regulatory networks of hematopoietic stem/progenitors and differentiated hematopoietic lineages are co-expressed. Our work demonstrates engineering of fully functional HSCs via modulation of genetic programs that govern self-renewal and lineage priming.

  12. Classification and Lineage Tracing of SH2 Domains Throughout Eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bernard A

    2017-01-01

    Today there exists a rapidly expanding number of sequenced genomes. Cataloging protein interaction domains such as the Src Homology 2 (SH2) domain across these various genomes can be accomplished with ease due to existing algorithms and predictions models. An evolutionary analysis of SH2 domains provides a step towards understanding how SH2 proteins integrated with existing signaling networks to position phosphotyrosine signaling as a crucial driver of robust cellular communication networks in metazoans. However organizing and tracing SH2 domain across organisms and understanding their evolutionary trajectory remains a challenge. This chapter describes several methodologies towards analyzing the evolutionary trajectory of SH2 domains including a global SH2 domain classification system, which facilitates annotation of new SH2 sequences essential for tracing the lineage of SH2 domains throughout eukaryote evolution. This classification utilizes a combination of sequence homology, protein domain architecture and the boundary positions between introns and exons within the SH2 domain or genes encoding these domains. Discrete SH2 families can then be traced across various genomes to provide insight into its origins. Furthermore, additional methods for examining potential mechanisms for divergence of SH2 domains from structural changes to alterations in the protein domain content and genome duplication will be discussed. Therefore a better understanding of SH2 domain evolution may enhance our insight into the emergence of phosphotyrosine signaling and the expansion of protein interaction domains.

  13. Newly Discovered Ebola Virus Associated with Hemorrhagic Fever Outbreak in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towner, Jonathan S.; Sealy, Tara K.; Khristova, Marina L.; Albariño, César G.; Conlan, Sean; Reeder, Serena A.; Quan, Phenix-Lan; Lipkin, W. Ian; Downing, Robert; Tappero, Jordan W.; Okware, Samuel; Lutwama, Julius; Bakamutumaho, Barnabas; Kayiwa, John; Comer, James A.; Rollin, Pierre E.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Nichol, Stuart T.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, Zaire and Sudan ebolaviruses have been responsible for large hemorrhagic fever (HF) outbreaks with case fatalities ranging from 53% to 90%, while a third species, Côte d'Ivoire ebolavirus, caused a single non-fatal HF case. In November 2007, HF cases were reported in Bundibugyo District, Western Uganda. Laboratory investigation of the initial 29 suspect-case blood specimens by classic methods (antigen capture, IgM and IgG ELISA) and a recently developed random-primed pyrosequencing approach quickly identified this to be an Ebola HF outbreak associated with a newly discovered ebolavirus species (Bundibugyo ebolavirus) distantly related to the Côte d'Ivoire ebolavirus found in western Africa. Due to the sequence divergence of this new virus relative to all previously recognized ebolaviruses, these findings have important implications for design of future diagnostic assays to monitor Ebola HF disease in humans and animals, and ongoing efforts to develop effective antivirals and vaccines. PMID:19023410

  14. The Revolution Continues: Newly Discovered Systems Expand the CRISPR-Cas Toolkit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Karthik; Babu, Kesavan; Sundaresan, Ramya; Rajan, Rakhi; Sashital, Dipali G

    2017-10-05

    CRISPR-Cas systems defend prokaryotes against bacteriophages and mobile genetic elements and serve as the basis for revolutionary tools for genetic engineering. Class 2 CRISPR-Cas systems use single Cas endonucleases paired with guide RNAs to cleave complementary nucleic acid targets, enabling programmable sequence-specific targeting with minimal machinery. Recent discoveries of previously unidentified CRISPR-Cas systems have uncovered a deep reservoir of potential biotechnological tools beyond the well-characterized Type II Cas9 systems. Here we review the current mechanistic understanding of newly discovered single-protein Cas endonucleases. Comparison of these Cas effectors reveals substantial mechanistic diversity, underscoring the phylogenetic divergence of related CRISPR-Cas systems. This diversity has enabled further expansion of CRISPR-Cas biotechnological toolkits, with wide-ranging applications from genome editing to diagnostic tools based on various Cas endonuclease activities. These advances highlight the exciting prospects for future tools based on the continually expanding set of CRISPR-Cas systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Carbon source utilization patterns of Bacillus simplex ecotypes do not reflect their adaptation to ecologically divergent slopes in 'Evolution Canyon', Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorski, Johannes; Pukall, Rüdiger; Stackebrandt, Erko

    2008-10-01

    The 'Evolution Canyons' I and II in Israel are model habitats to study adaptation and speciation of bacteria in the environment. These canyons represent similar ecological replicates, separated by 40 km, with a strongly sun-exposed and hot 'African' south-facing slope (SFS) vs. a cooler and mesic-lush 'European' north-facing slope (NFS). Previously, among 131 Bacillus simplex isolates, distinct genetic lineages (ecotypes), each specific for either SFS or NFS, were identified, suggesting a temperature-driven slope-specific adaptation. Here, we asked whether the ecological heterogeneity of SFS vs. NFS also affected carbon utilization abilities, as determined using the Biolog assay. Contrary to expectation, a correlation between substrate utilization patterns and the ecological origin of strains was not found. Rather, the patterns split according to the two major phylogenetic lineages each of which contain SFS and NFS ecotypes. We conclude that traits related to the general energy metabolism, as far as assessed here, are neither shaped by the major abiotic features of 'Evolution Canyon', namely solar radiation, temperature, and drought, nor by the soil characteristics. We further conclude that some traits diverge rather neutrally from each other, whereas other, more environmentally related traits are shaped by natural selection and show evolutionary convergence.

  16. Genomic patterns of nucleotide diversity in divergent populations of U.S. weedy rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsen Kenneth M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weedy rice (red rice, a conspecific weed of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L., is a significant problem throughout the world and an emerging threat in regions where it was previously absent. Despite belonging to the same species complex as domesticated rice and its wild relatives, the evolutionary origins of weedy rice remain unclear. We use genome-wide patterns of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP variation in a broad geographic sample of weedy, domesticated, and wild Oryza samples to infer the origin and demographic processes influencing U.S. weedy rice evolution. Results We find greater population structure than has been previously reported for U.S. weedy rice, and that the multiple, genetically divergent populations have separate origins. The two main U.S. weedy rice populations share genetic backgrounds with cultivated O. sativa varietal groups not grown commercially in the U.S., suggesting weed origins from domesticated ancestors. Hybridization between weedy groups and between weedy rice and local crops has also led to the evolution of distinct U.S. weedy rice populations. Demographic simulations indicate differences among the main weedy groups in the impact of bottlenecks on their establishment in the U.S., and in the timing of divergence from their cultivated relatives. Conclusions Unlike prior research, we did not find unambiguous evidence for U.S. weedy rice originating via hybridization between cultivated and wild Oryza species. Our results demonstrate the potential for weedy life-histories to evolve directly from within domesticated lineages. The diverse origins of U.S. weedy rice populations demonstrate the multiplicity of evolutionary forces that can influence the emergence of weeds from a single species complex.

  17. Assembly of a micro-hotspot of caenogastropod endemism in the southern Nevada desert, with a description of a new species of Tryonia (Truncatelloidea, Cochliopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershler, Robert; Liu, Hsiu-Ping; Simpson, Jeffrey S

    2015-01-01

    Newly obtained and previously published sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene were analyzed to examine the biogeographic assembly of the caenogastropod fauna (belonging to the families Assimineidae, Cochliopidae, and Hydrobiidae) of an isolated spring along the lower Colorado River in southern Nevada (Blue Point Spring). Based on available COI clock calibrations, the three lineages that comprise this fauna are 2.78-1.42 million years old, which is roughly coeval or slightly younger than the age of Blue Point Spring (inferred from local fossil spring deposits). Two of the lineages-endemic Pyrgulopsiscoloradensis and Assimineaaff.infima-are most closely related to snails in the Death Valley area (well to the west) and likely colonized Blue Point Spring by transport on birds. A single haplotype was detected in both of these snails, suggesting that they may have only recently colonized Blue Point Spring. The third lineage-endemic Tryoniainfernalis, newly described herein based on morphological and molecular evidence-is most closely related to a geographically proximal species in a lower Colorado River tributary (Tryoniaclathrata); the split between these taxa may be the product of vicariance (severance of a prior drainage connection) or a separate jump dispersal event. The considerable genetic diversity in Tryoniainfernalis (three haplotypes differing by 0.6% mean sequence divergence) suggests a possibly lengthy history of local differentiation. Our findings also identify Blue Point Spring as a new micro-hotspot of groundwater-dependent biodiversity in Nevada and will assist ongoing efforts to protect and conserve these imperiled ecosystems.

  18. Genetic diversity among populations of Antarctic springtails (Collembola) within the Mackay Glacier ecotone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beet, Clare R; Hogg, Ian D; Collins, Gemma E; Cowan, Don A; Wall, Diana H; Adams, Byron J

    2016-09-01

    Climate changes are likely to have major influences on the distribution and abundance of Antarctic terrestrial biota. To assess arthropod distribution and diversity within the Ross Sea region, we examined mitochondrial DNA (COI) sequences for three currently recognized species of springtail (Collembola) collected from sites in the vicinity, and to the north of, the Mackay Glacier (77°S). This area acts as a transition between two biogeographic regions (northern and southern Victoria Land). We found populations of highly divergent individuals (5%-11.3% intraspecific sequence divergence) for each of the three putative springtail species, suggesting the possibility of cryptic diversity. Based on molecular clock estimates, these divergent lineages are likely to have been isolated for 3-5 million years. It was during this time that the Western Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) was likely to have completely collapsed, potentially facilitating springtail dispersal via rafting on running waters and open seaways. The reformation of the WAIS would have isolated newly established populations, with subsequent dispersal restricted by glaciers and ice-covered areas. Given the currently limited distributions for these genetically divergent populations, any future changes in species' distributions can be easily tracked through the DNA barcoding of springtails from within the Mackay Glacier ecotone.

  19. Testing evolutionary hypotheses for phenotypic divergence using landscape genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, W Chris; Murphy, Melanie A

    2010-02-01

    Understanding the evolutionary causes of phenotypic variation among populations has long been a central theme in evolutionary biology. Several factors can influence phenotypic divergence, including geographic isolation, genetic drift, divergent natural or sexual selection, and phenotypic plasticity. But the relative importance of these factors in generating phenotypic divergence in nature is still a tantalizing and unresolved problem in evolutionary biology. The origin and maintenance of phenotypic divergence is also at the root of many ongoing debates in evolutionary biology, such as the extent to which gene flow constrains adaptive divergence (Garant et al. 2007) and the relative importance of genetic drift, natural selection, and sexual selection in initiating reproductive isolation and speciation (Coyne & Orr 2004). In this issue, Wang & Summers (2010) test the causes of one of the most fantastic examples of phenotypic divergence in nature: colour pattern divergence among populations of the strawberry poison frog (Dendrobates pumilio) in Panama and Costa Rica (Fig. 1). This study provides a beautiful example of the use of the emerging field of landscape genetics to differentiate among hypotheses for phenotypic divergence. Using landscape genetic analyses, Wang & Summers were able to reject the hypotheses that colour pattern divergence is due to isolation-by-distance (IBD) or landscape resistance. Instead, the hypothesis left standing is that colour divergence is due to divergent selection, in turn driving reproductive isolation among populations with different colour morphs. More generally, this study provides a wonderful example of how the emerging field of landscape genetics, which has primarily been applied to questions in conservation and ecology, now plays an essential role in evolutionary research.

  20. Treatment of divergent expansions in scattering theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gersten, A.; Malin, S.

    1978-01-01

    One of the biggest obstacles in applying quantum field theory to realistic scattering problems are the divergencies of pertubation expansions for large coupling constants and the divergencies of partial wave expansions for massless particles exchanges. There exist, however, methods of summation of the divergent expansions which can lead to significant application in physics. In this paper we treat the problem of summing such expansions using three methods: (i) a generalization of the Pade approximation to the multivariable case. The suggested definition is unique and preserves unitarity. (ii) The summation of divergent partial waves for arbitrary spins. (iii) A successful application of a series inversion to the 3 P 1 nucleon-nucleon phase shift up to 200 MeV. (orig./WL) [de

  1. Passion Fruit Chlorotic Mottle Virus: Molecular Characterization of a New Divergent Geminivirus in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenele, Rafaela S; Abreu, Rayane A; Lamas, Natalia S; Alves-Freitas, Dione M T; Vidal, Andreza H; Poppiel, Raul R; Melo, Fernando L; Lacorte, Cristiano; Martin, Darren P; Campos, Magnolia A; Varsani, Arvind; Ribeiro, Simone G

    2018-04-02

    Brazil is one of the major passion fruit producers worldwide. Viral diseases are among the most important constraints for passion fruit production. Here we identify and characterize a new passion fruit infecting-virus belonging to the family Geminiviridae : passion fruit chlorotic mottle virus (PCMoV). PCMoV is a divergent geminivirus unlike previously characterized passion fruit-infecting geminiviruses that belonged to the genus Begomovirus . Among the presently known geminiviruses, it is most closely related to, and shares ~62% genome-wide identity with citrus chlorotic dwarf associated virus (CCDaV) and camelia chlorotic dwarf associated virus (CaCDaV). The 3743 nt PCMoV genome encodes a capsid protein (CP) and replication-associated protein (Rep) that respectively share 56 and 60% amino acid identity with those encoded by CaCDaV. The CPs of PCMoV, CCDaV, and CaCDaV cluster with those of begomovirus whereas their Reps with those of becurtoviruses. Hence, these viruses likely represent a lineage of recombinant begomo-like and becurto-like ancestral viruses. Furthermore, PCMoV, CCDaV, and CaCDaV genomes are ~12-30% larger than monopartite geminiviruses and this is primarily due to the encoded movement protein (MP; 891-921 nt) and this MP is most closely related to that encoded by the DNA-B component of bipartite begomoviruses. Hence, PCMoV, CCDaV, and CaCDaV lineage of viruses may represent molecules in an intermediary step in the evolution of bipartite begomoviruses (~5.3 kb) from monopartite geminiviruses (~2.7-3 kb). An infectious clone of PCMoV systemically infected Nicotiana benthamina , Arabidopsis thaliana , and Passiflora edulis .

  2. Lineage-Specific Expansion of the Chalcone Synthase Gene Family in Rosids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kattina Zavala

    Full Text Available Rosids are a monophyletic group that includes approximately 70,000 species in 140 families, and they are found in a variety of habitats and life forms. Many important crops such as fruit trees and legumes are rosids. The evolutionary success of this group may have been influenced by their ability to produce flavonoids, secondary metabolites that are synthetized through a branch of the phenylpropanoid pathway where chalcone synthase is a key enzyme. In this work, we studied the evolution of the chalcone synthase gene family in 12 species belonging to the rosid clade. Our results show that the last common ancestor of the rosid clade possessed six chalcone synthase gene lineages that were differentially retained during the evolutionary history of the group. In fact, of the six gene lineages that were present in the last common ancestor, 7 species retained 2 of them, whereas the other 5 only retained one gene lineage. We also show that one of the gene lineages was disproportionately expanded in species that belonged to the order Fabales (soybean, barrel medic and Lotus japonicas. Based on the available literature, we suggest that this gene lineage possesses stress-related biological functions (e.g., response to UV light, pathogen defense. We propose that the observed expansion of this clade was a result of a selective pressure to increase the amount of enzymes involved in the production of phenylpropanoid pathway-derived secondary metabolites, which is consistent with the hypothesis that suggested that lineage-specific expansions fuel plant adaptation.

  3. Convergence from divergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costin, Ovidiu; Dunne, Gerald V.

    2018-01-01

    We show how to convert divergent series, which typically occur in many applications in physics, into rapidly convergent inverse factorial series. This can be interpreted physically as a novel resummation of perturbative series. Being convergent, these new series allow rigorous extrapolation from an asymptotic region with a large parameter, to the opposite region where the parameter is small. We illustrate the method with various physical examples, and discuss how these convergent series relate to standard methods such as Borel summation, and also how they incorporate the physical Stokes phenomenon. We comment on the relation of these results to Dyson’s physical argument for the divergence of perturbation theory. This approach also leads naturally to a wide class of relations between bosonic and fermionic partition functions, and Klein-Gordon and Dirac determinants.

  4. Reduction of the divergence angle of an incident beam to enhance the demagnification factor of a two-stage acceleration lens in a gas ion nanobeam system of several tens of keV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Yasuyuki; Kojima, Takuji

    2018-04-01

    The demagnification factor of a two-stage acceleration lens in a gas ion nanobeam system that produces ion beams with energies in the order of 10 keV was enhanced in this study so that a hydrogen ion beam with a diameter of 115 nm could be produced. The reduction of the divergence angle of the incident beam into the two-stage acceleration lens is the effective method for enhancing the demagnification factor. The divergence angle has been gradually reduced by firstly introducing the preacceleration electrodes to control the divergence angle, namely divergence-angle-control electrodes, and secondly replacing an anode with a modified anode that possesses a Pierce electrode, both of which were in an ion source directly connected to the lens. In this study, the divergence angle of less than 3.6 × 10-4 rad that was previously used to produce a 160-nm hydrogen ion beam with the energy of 46 keV by the above procedure was numerically determined using an ion beam extraction simulation code. The determined minimum divergence angle of the incident ion beam was calculated to be 2.0 × 10-4 rad, which was about half of the previously obtained divergence angle; this was used to experimentally form a hydrogen beam with a diameter of 115 ± 10 nm and the energy of 47 keV. The demagnification factor was estimated to be 1,739 using the newly formed hydrogen beam, which was similar to the simulation result.

  5. Atmospheric horizontal divergence and diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castans, M.

    1981-01-01

    The action of horizontal divergence on diffusion near the ground is established through.a very simple flow model. The shape of the well-known Pasquill-Gifford-Turner curves, that apparently take account in some way of divergence, is justified. The possibility of explaining the discre--pancies between the conventional straight line model and experimental results, mainly under low-wind-speed satable conditions, is considered. Some hints for further research are made. (auth.)

  6. Spiralian phylogeny informs the evolution of microscopic lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laumer, Christopher E; Bekkouche, Nicolas; Kerbl, Alexandra; Goetz, Freya; Neves, Ricardo C; Sørensen, Martin V; Kristensen, Reinhardt M; Hejnol, Andreas; Dunn, Casey W; Giribet, Gonzalo; Worsaae, Katrine

    2015-08-03

    Despite rapid advances in the study of metazoan evolutionary history [1], phylogenomic analyses have so far neglected a number of microscopic lineages that possess a unique combination of characters and are thus informative for our understanding of morphological evolution. Chief among these lineages are the recently described animal groups Micrognathozoa and Loricifera, as well as the two interstitial "Problematica" Diurodrilus and Lobatocerebrum [2]. These genera show a certain resemblance to Annelida in their cuticle and gut [3, 4]; however, both lack primary annelid characters such as segmentation and chaetae [5]. Moreover, they show unique features such as an inverted body-wall musculature or a novel pharyngeal organ. This and their ciliated epidermis have led some to propose relationships with other microscopic spiralians, namely Platyhelminthes, Gastrotricha, and in the case of Diurodrilus, with Micrognathozoa [6, 7]-lineages that are grouped by some analyses into "Platyzoa," a clade whose status remains uncertain [1, 8-11]. Here, we assess the interrelationships among the meiofaunal and macrofaunal members of Spiralia using 402 orthologs mined from genome and transcriptome assemblies of 90 taxa. Lobatocerebrum and Diurodrilus are found to be deeply nested members of Annelida, and unequivocal support is found for Micrognathozoa as the sister group of Rotifera. Analyses using site-heterogeneous substitution models further recover a lophophorate clade and position Loricifera + Priapulida as sister group to the remaining Ecdysozoa. Finally, with several meiofaunal lineages branching off early in the diversification of Spiralia, the emerging concept of a microscopic, acoelomate, direct-developing ancestor of Spiralia is reviewed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Vicariance and Its Impact on the Molecular Ecology of a Chinese Ranid Frog Species-Complex (Odorrana schmackeri, Ranidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongmin Li

    Full Text Available Paleogeological events and Pleistocene climatic fluctuations have had profound influences on the genetic patterns and phylogeographic structure of species in southern China. In this study, we investigated the population genetic structure and Phylogeography of the Odorrana schmackeri species complex, mountain stream-dwelling odorous frogs, endemic to southern China. We obtained mitochondrial sequences (1,151bp of the complete ND2 gene and two flanking tRNAs of 511 individuals from 25 sites for phylogeographic analyses. Phylogenetic reconstruction revealed seven divergent evolutionary lineages, with mean pairwise (K2P sequence distances from 7.8% to 21.1%, except for a closer ND2 distance (3.4%. The complex geological history of southern China drove matrilineal divergence in the O. schmackeri species complex into highly structured geographical units. The first divergence between lineage A+B and other lineages (C-G had likely been influenced by the uplift of coastal mountains of Southeast China during the Mio-Pliocene period. The subsequent divergences between the lineages C-G may have followed the formation of the Three Gorges and the intensification of the East Asian summer monsoon during the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene. Demographic analyses indicated that major lineages A and C have been experienced recent population expansion (c. 0.045-0.245 Ma from multiple refugia prior to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM. Molecular analysis suggest that these seven lineages may represent seven different species, three described species and four cryptic species and should at least be separated into seven management units corresponding to these seven geographic lineages for conservation.

  8. Human Kin Investment as a Function of Genetic Relatedness and Lineage

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    Gregory D. Webster

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Two independent samples of students were asked to allocate fictional lotteries of varying dollar amounts to their blood relatives. In both studies, a reliable genetic relatedness by lineage interaction emerged, such that the genetic effect was a more positive predictor of percent of money allocated for relatives of a direct lineage (e.g., parents, grandparents than it was for peripheral relatives (e.g., siblings, aunts and uncles. In a third study, this interaction was replicated in an archival analysis of wills. The implications of accounting for differences in relatives' lineages in studies of kin investment are discussed.

  9. Ion divergence in magnetically insulated diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slutz, S.A.; Lemke, R.W.; Pointon, T.D.; Desjarlais, M.P.; Johnson, D.J.; Mehlhorn, T.A.; Filuk, A.; Bailey, J.

    1995-01-01

    Magnetically insulated ion diodes are being developed to drive inertial confinement fusion. Ion beam microdivergence must be reduced to achieve the very high beam intensities required to achieve this goal. Three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations indicate that instability induced fluctuations can produce significant ion divergence during acceleration. These simulations exhibit a fast growing mode early in time, which has been identified as the diocotron instability. The divergence generated by this mode is modest due to the relatively high frequency (>1GHz). Later, a low-frequency low-phase-velocity instability develops. This instability couples effectively to the ions, since the frequency is approximately the reciprocal of the ion transit time, and can generate unacceptably large ion divergences (>30 mrad). Linear stability theory reveals that this mode requires perturbations parallel to the applied magnetic field and is related to the modified two stream instability. Measurements of ion density fluctuations and energy-momentum correlations have confirmed that instabilities develop in ion diodes and contribute to the ion divergence. In addition, spectroscopic measurements indicate that the ions have a significant transverse temperature very close to the emission surface. Passive lithium fluoride (LiF) anodes have larger transverse beam temperatures than laser irradiated active sources. Calculations of source divergence expected from the roughness of LiF surfaces and the possible removal of this layer is presented

  10. CRX is a diagnostic marker of retinal and pineal lineage tumors.

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    Sandro Santagata

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available CRX is a homeobox transcription factor whose expression and function is critical to maintain retinal and pineal lineage cells and their progenitors. To determine the biologic and diagnostic potential of CRX in human tumors of the retina and pineal, we examined its expression in multiple settings.Using situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry we show that Crx RNA and protein expression are exquisitely lineage restricted to retinal and pineal cells during normal mouse and human development. Gene expression profiling analysis of a wide range of human cancers and cancer cell lines also supports that CRX RNA is highly lineage restricted in cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis of 22 retinoblastomas and 13 pineal parenchymal tumors demonstrated strong expression of CRX in over 95% of these tumors. Importantly, CRX was not detected in the majority of tumors considered in the differential diagnosis of pineal region tumors (n = 78. The notable exception was medulloblastoma, 40% of which exhibited CRX expression in a heterogeneous pattern readily distinguished from that seen in retino-pineal tumors.These findings describe new potential roles for CRX in human cancers and highlight the general utility of lineage restricted transcription factors in cancer biology. They also identify CRX as a sensitive and specific clinical marker and a potential lineage dependent therapeutic target in retinoblastoma and pineoblastoma.

  11. A methodology for distinguishing divergent cell fates within a common progenitor population: adenoma- and neuroendocrine-like cells are confounders of rat ileal epithelial cell (IEC-18 culture

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    Paxton Jessica B

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background IEC-18 cells are a non-transformed, immortal cell line derived from juvenile rat ileal crypt cells. They may have experimental advantages over tumor-derived gastrointestinal lineages, including preservation of phenotype, normal endocrine responses and retention of differentiation potential. However, their proclivity for spontaneous differentiation / transformation may be stereotypical and could represent a more profound experimental confounder than previously realized. We hypothesized that IEC-18 cells spontaneously diverge towards a uniform mixture of epigenetic fates, with corresponding phenotypes, rather than persist as a single progenitor lineage. Results IEC-18 cells were cultured for 72 hours in serum free media (SFM, with and without various insulin-like growth factor agonists to differentially boost the basal rate of proliferation. A strategy was employed to identify constitutive genes as markers of divergent fates through gene array analysis by cross-referencing fold-change trends for individual genes against crypt cell abundance in each treatment. We then confirmed the cell-specific phenotype by immunolocalization of proteins corresponding to those genes. The majority of IEC-18 cells in SFM alone had a loss in expression of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC gene at the mRNA and protein levels, consistent with adenoma-like transformation. In addition, a small subset of cells expressed the serotonin receptor 2A gene and had neuroendocrine-like morphology. Conclusions IEC-18 cells commonly undergo a change in cell fate prior to reaching confluence. The most common fate switch that we were able to detect correlates with a down regulation of the APC gene and transformation into an adenoma-like phenotype.

  12. TECHNOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF WHEAT LINEAGES CULTIVATED IN THE CERRADO MINEIRO

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    Raul Antônio Viana Madeira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Farmers need highly productive wheat cultivars in order to reach better profitability. However, this alone is not enough, because, in order to serve the mills, the food industry, and more specifically, the bakers, wheat cultivars must present minimum quality requirements that result in final products of superior quality. This study was conducted with the goals of performing the technological characterization of wheat flour five lineages developed for cultivation in the Cerrado Mineiro; compare the flours of these lineages with the wheat flour of two commercial wheat cultivars, and classify the wheat lineages according to current Brazilian legislation. A completely randomized design was conducted with seven treatments and three replicates. Moisture, protein and ashes content, and the rheological characteristics of the flours were determined. The EP066066 lineage as rated was basic wheat. The EP066055, EP064021, EP062043 and EP063065 were rated as bread wheat. Among the studied lineages, the wheat flour from the EP062043 stood from the others, presenting considerable gluten contents, good level of mixing tolerance, good stability and good gluten strength.

  13. Using Dendritic Heat Maps to Simultaneously Display Genotype Divergence with Phenotype Divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellom, Matthew; Raymond, Jason

    2016-01-01

    The advancement of techniques to visualize and analyze large-scale sequencing datasets is an area of active research and is rooted in traditional techniques such as heat maps and dendrograms. We introduce dendritic heat maps that display heat map results over aligned DNA sequence clusters for a range of clustering cutoffs. Dendritic heat maps aid in visualizing the effects of group differences on clustering hierarchy and relative abundance of sampled sequences. Here, we artificially generate two separate datasets with simplified mutation and population growth procedures with GC content group separation to use as example phenotypes. In this work, we use the term phenotype to represent any feature by which groups can be separated. These sequences were clustered in a fractional identity range of 0.75 to 1.0 using agglomerative minimum-, maximum-, and average-linkage algorithms, as well as a divisive centroid-based algorithm. We demonstrate that dendritic heat maps give freedom to scrutinize specific clustering levels across a range of cutoffs, track changes in phenotype inequity across multiple levels of sequence clustering specificity, and easily visualize how deeply rooted changes in phenotype inequity are in a dataset. As genotypes diverge in sample populations, clusters are shown to break apart into smaller clusters at higher identity cutoff levels, similar to a dendrogram. Phenotype divergence, which is shown as a heat map of relative abundance bin response, may or may not follow genotype divergences. This joined view highlights the relationship between genotype and phenotype divergence for treatment groups. We discuss the minimum-, maximum-, average-, and centroid-linkage algorithm approaches to building dendritic heat maps and make a case for the divisive "top-down" centroid-based clustering methodology as being the best option visualize the effects of changing factors on clustering hierarchy and relative abundance.

  14. Using Dendritic Heat Maps to Simultaneously Display Genotype Divergence with Phenotype Divergence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Kellom

    Full Text Available The advancement of techniques to visualize and analyze large-scale sequencing datasets is an area of active research and is rooted in traditional techniques such as heat maps and dendrograms. We introduce dendritic heat maps that display heat map results over aligned DNA sequence clusters for a range of clustering cutoffs. Dendritic heat maps aid in visualizing the effects of group differences on clustering hierarchy and relative abundance of sampled sequences. Here, we artificially generate two separate datasets with simplified mutation and population growth procedures with GC content group separation to use as example phenotypes. In this work, we use the term phenotype to represent any feature by which groups can be separated. These sequences were clustered in a fractional identity range of 0.75 to 1.0 using agglomerative minimum-, maximum-, and average-linkage algorithms, as well as a divisive centroid-based algorithm. We demonstrate that dendritic heat maps give freedom to scrutinize specific clustering levels across a range of cutoffs, track changes in phenotype inequity across multiple levels of sequence clustering specificity, and easily visualize how deeply rooted changes in phenotype inequity are in a dataset. As genotypes diverge in sample populations, clusters are shown to break apart into smaller clusters at higher identity cutoff levels, similar to a dendrogram. Phenotype divergence, which is shown as a heat map of relative abundance bin response, may or may not follow genotype divergences. This joined view highlights the relationship between genotype and phenotype divergence for treatment groups. We discuss the minimum-, maximum-, average-, and centroid-linkage algorithm approaches to building dendritic heat maps and make a case for the divisive "top-down" centroid-based clustering methodology as being the best option visualize the effects of changing factors on clustering hierarchy and relative abundance.

  15. The Three Lineages of the Diploid Hybrid Verticillium longisporum Differ in Virulence and Pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakazi, Fluturë; Inderbitzin, Patrik; Sandoya, German; Hayes, Ryan J; von Tiedemann, Andreas; Subbarao, Krishna V

    2015-05-01

    Verticillium longisporum is an economically important vascular pathogen of Brassicaceae crops in different parts of the world. V. longisporum is a diploid hybrid that consists of three different lineages, each of which originated from a separate hybridization event between two different sets of parental species. We used 20 isolates representing the three V. longisporum lineages and the relative V. dahliae, and performed pathogenicity tests on 11 different hosts, including artichoke, cabbage, cauliflower, cotton, eggplant, horseradish, lettuce, linseed, oilseed rape (canola), tomato, and watermelon. V. longisporum was overall more virulent on the Brassicaceae crops than V. dahliae, which was more virulent than V. longisporum across the non-Brassicaceae crops. There were differences in virulence between the three V. longisporum lineages. V. longisporum lineage A1/D1 was the most virulent lineage on oilseed rape, and V. longisporum lineage A1/D2 was the most virulent lineage on cabbage and horseradish. We also found that on the non-Brassicaceae hosts eggplant, tomato, lettuce, and watermelon, V. longisporum was more or equally virulent than V. dahliae. This suggests that V. longisporum may have a wider potential host range than currently appreciated.

  16. Expanding the Entamoeba Universe: New Hosts Yield Novel Ribosomal Lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Alison S; Busby, Eloise J; Levy, Abigail D; Komm, Natasha; Clark, C Graham

    2016-01-01

    Removing the requirement for cell culture has led to a substantial increase in the number of lineages of Entamoeba recognized as distinct. Surveying the range of potential host species for this parasite genus has barely been started and it is clear that additional sampling of the same host in different locations often identifies additional diversity. In this study, using small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequencing, we identify four new lineages of Entamoeba, including the first report of Entamoeba from an elephant, and extend the host range of some previously described lineages. In addition, examination of microbiome data from a number of host animals suggests that substantial Entamoeba diversity remains to be uncovered. © 2015 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2015 International Society of Protistologists.

  17. Transcriptome-wide patterns of divergence during allopatric evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ricardo J; Barreto, Felipe S; Pierce, N Tessa; Carneiro, Miguel; Burton, Ronald S

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies have revealed repeated patterns of genomic divergence associated with species formation. Such patterns suggest that natural selection tends to target a set of available genes, but is also indicative that closely related taxa share evolutionary constraints that limit genetic variability. Studying patterns of genomic divergence among populations within the same species may shed light on the underlying evolutionary processes. Here, we examine transcriptome-wide divergence and polymorphism in the marine copepod Tigriopus californicus, a species where allopatric evolution has led to replicate sets of populations with varying degrees of divergence and hybrid incompatibility. Our analyses suggest that relatively small effective population sizes have resulted in an exponential decline of shared polymorphisms during population divergence and also facilitated the fixation of slightly deleterious mutations within allopatric populations. Five interpopulation comparisons at three different stages of divergence show that nonsynonymous mutations tend to accumulate in a specific set of proteins. These include proteins with central roles in cellular metabolism, such as those encoded in mtDNA, but also include an additional set of proteins that repeatedly show signatures of positive selection during allopatric divergence. Although our results are consistent with a contribution of nonadaptive processes, such as genetic drift and gene expression levels, generating repeatable patterns of genomic divergence in closely related taxa, they also indicate that adaptive evolution targeting a specific set of genes contributes to this pattern. Our results yield insights into the predictability of evolution at the gene level. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Deep divergences and extensive phylogeographic structure in a clade of lowland tropical salamanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rovito Sean M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The complex geological history of Mesoamerica provides the opportunity to study the impact of multiple biogeographic barriers on population differentiation. We examine phylogeographic patterns in a clade of lowland salamanders (Bolitoglossa subgenus Nanotriton using two mitochondrial genes and one nuclear gene. We use several phylogeographic analyses to infer the history of this clade and test hypotheses regarding the geographic origin of species and location of genetic breaks within species. We compare our results to those for other taxa to determine if historical events impacted different species in a similar manner. Results Deep genetic divergence between species indicates that they are relatively old, and two of the three widespread species show strong phylogeographic structure. Comparison of mtDNA and nuclear gene trees shows no evidence of hybridization or introgression between species. Isolated populations of Bolitoglossa rufescens from Los Tuxtlas region constitute a separate lineage based on molecular data and morphology, and divergence between Los Tuxtlas and other areas appears to predate the arrival of B. rufescens in other areas west of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. The Isthmus appears responsible for Pliocene vicariance within B. rufescens, as has been shown for other taxa. The Motagua-Polochic fault system does not appear to have caused population vicariance, unlike in other systems. Conclusions Species of Nanotriton have responded to some major geological events in the same manner as other taxa, particularly in the case of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. The deep divergence of the Los Tuxtlas populations of B. rufescens from other populations highlights the contribution of this volcanic system to patterns of regional endemism, and morphological differences observed in the Los Tuxtlas populations suggests that they may represent an undescribed species of Bolitoglossa. The absence of phylogeographic structure in B

  19. T-lineage blast crisis of chronic myelogenous leukemia: simple record of 4 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartika W. Taroeno-Hariadi

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Blast crisis (BC transformation in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML can involve each differentiation lineage of the hematopoietic system, i.e. granulocyte, monocyte, erythrocyte, megakaryocyte, and lymphocyte lineage. The lymphoid blast crisis (BC leukemia cells usually belong to B-lineage, commonly having the phenotype of Pre-B stage of the B-lineage, in which cell-surface immunoglobulin (sIg is not yet expressed. In contrast, T-lineage BC of CML is extremely rare. The objective of this study is to describe the fenotype, fusion transcript of bcr-abl, TdT, and cytoplasmic CD3 in T-lineage BC CML cases. Case report study. This report shows a simple summary of 4 cases of T-lineage BC of CML which have been collected in the phenotypic and genotypic analysis study for 17 years (1987-2004. In all cases, the chromosomal analysis revealed the presence of t(9;22(q34;q11 at presentation. Cell surface analysis were done at diagnosis. Cases’ mononuclear cells stored as 10% DMSO were retrieved to be performed reverse transcription (RT PCR BCR-ABL multiplex to demonstrate the presence of the fusion transcript of bcr-abl. RT-PCR was also performed for detecting the expression of cytoplasmic CD3ε and terminal deoxynucleotydil transferase (TdT. The results of cell surface antigen (CSA at presentation showed that 1 case was CD7+, CD5-, and CD2-; 1 case CD7+, CD5+, and CD2-; and 2 cases CD7+, CD5+ and CD2+ indicating that all these T-lineage BC of CML cells show the phenotype of pre-(pro- thymic stage phenotype. In the present study, two cases showed b2a2, one e1a2, and one negative bcr-abl transcript. The RT-PCR revealed the presence of CD3ε mRNA in all cases, and TdT mRNA in only one case. These results can constitute a basis for the future analysis of T-lineage BC of CML from now on. (Med J Indones 2005; 14: 184-9Keywords: chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML, blastic crisis (BC, T-lineage, bcr-abl fusion gene, CDε, TdT

  20. Evidence of two distinct phylogenetic lineages of dog rabies virus circulating in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mey, Channa; Metlin, Artem; Duong, Veasna; Ong, Sivuth; In, Sotheary; Horwood, Paul F; Reynes, Jean-Marc; Bourhy, Hervé; Tarantola, Arnaud; Buchy, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    This first extensive retrospective study of the molecular epidemiology of dog rabies in Cambodia included 149 rabies virus (RABV) entire nucleoprotein sequences obtained from 1998-2011. The sequences were analyzed in conjunction with RABVs from other Asian countries. Phylogenetic reconstruction confirmed the South-East Asian phylogenetic clade comprising viruses from Cambodia, Vietnam, Thailand, Laos and Myanmar. The present study represents the first attempt to classify the phylogenetic lineages inside this clade, resulting in the confirmation that all the Cambodian viruses belonged to the South-East Asian (SEA) clade. Three distinct phylogenetic lineages in the region were established with the majority of viruses from Cambodia closely related to viruses from Thailand, Laos and Vietnam, forming the geographically widespread phylogenetic lineage SEA1. A South-East Asian lineage SEA2 comprised two viruses from Cambodia was identified, which shared a common ancestor with RABVs originating from Laos. Viruses from Myanmar formed separate phylogenetic lineages within the major SEA clade. Bayesian molecular clock analysis suggested that the time to most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of all Cambodian RABVs dated to around 1950. The TMRCA of the Cambodian SEA1 lineage was around 1964 and that of the SEA2 lineage was around 1953. The results identified three phylogenetically distinct and geographically separated lineages inside the earlier identified major SEA clade, covering at least five countries in the region. A greater understanding of the molecular epidemiology of rabies in South-East Asia is an important step to monitor progress on the efforts to control canine rabies in the region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Spatiotemporal dynamics of DENV-2 Asian-American genotype lineages in the Americas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiana Mir

    Full Text Available The Asian/American (AS/AM genotype of dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2 has been evolving in the Americas over the last 30 years, leading to several waves of dengue epidemics and to the emergence of different viral lineages in the region. In this study, we investigate the spatiotemporal dissemination pattern of the DENV-2 lineages at a regional level. We applied phylogenetic and phylogeographic analytical methods to a comprehensive data set of 582 DENV-2 E gene sequences of the AS/AM genotype isolated from 29 different American countries over a period of 30 years (1983 to 2012. Our study reveals that genetic diversity of DENV-2 AS/AM genotype circulating in the Americas mainly resulted from one single founder event and can be organized in at least four major lineages (I to IV, which emerged in the Caribbean region at the early 1980s and then spread and die out with different dynamics. Lineages I and II dominate the epidemics in the Caribbean region during the 1980s and early 1990 s, lineage III becomes the prevalent DENV-2 one in the Caribbean and South America during the 1990 s, whereas lineage IV dominates the epidemics in South and Central America during the 2000s. Suriname and Guyana seem to represent important entry points for DENV-2 from the Lesser Antilles to South America, whereas Venezuela, Brazil and Nicaragua were pointed as the main secondary hubs of dissemination to other mainland countries. Our study also indicates that DENV-2 AS/AM genotype was disseminated within South America following two main routes. The first route hits Venezuela and the western side of the Andes, while the second route mainly hits Brazil and the eastern side of the Andes. The phenomenon of DENV-2 lineage replacement across successive epidemic outbreaks was a common characteristic in all American countries, although the timing of lineage replacements greatly vary across locations.

  2. Divergent Thinking and Age-Related Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Di Giacomo, Dina; Passafiume, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    Aging can affect cognition in different ways. The extent to which aging affects divergent thinking is unclear. In this study, younger and older adults were compared at the performance on the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking in visual and verbal form. Results showed that older adults can think divergently as younger participants, although they…

  3. Two New Measures of Fuzzy Divergence and Their Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Parkash

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Several measures of directed divergence and their corresponding measures of fuzzy divergence are available in the exiting literature. Two new measures of fuzzy divergence have been developed and their desirable properties have been discussed.

  4. Some maternal lineages of domestic horses may have origins in East Asia revealed with further evidence of mitochondrial genomes and HVR-1 sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongying Ma

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives There are large populations of indigenous horse (Equus caballus in China and some other parts of East Asia. However, their matrilineal genetic diversity and origin remained poorly understood. Using a combination of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA and hypervariable region (HVR-1 sequences, we aim to investigate the origin of matrilineal inheritance in these domestic horses. Methods To investigate patterns of matrilineal inheritance in domestic horses, we conducted a phylogenetic study using 31 de novo mtDNA genomes together with 317 others from the GenBank. In terms of the updated phylogeny, a total of 5,180 horse mitochondrial HVR-1 sequences were analyzed. Results Eightteen haplogroups (Aw-Rw were uncovered from the analysis of the whole mitochondrial genomes. Most of which have a divergence time before the earliest domestication of wild horses (about 5,800 years ago and during the Upper Paleolithic (35–10 KYA. The distribution of some haplogroups shows geographic patterns. The Lw haplogroup contained a significantly higher proportion of European horses than the horses from other regions, while haplogroups Jw, Rw, and some maternal lineages of Cw, have a higher frequency in the horses from East Asia. The 5,180 sequences of horse mitochondrial HVR-1 form nine major haplogroups (A-I. We revealed a corresponding relationship between the haplotypes of HVR-1 and those of whole mitochondrial DNA sequences. The data of the HVR-1 sequences also suggests that Jw, Rw, and some haplotypes of Cw may have originated in East Asia while Lw probably formed in Europe. Conclusions Our study supports the hypothesis of the multiple origins of the maternal lineage of domestic horses and some maternal lineages of domestic horses may have originated from East Asia.

  5. Structure of rapidity divergences in multi-parton scattering soft factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirov, Alexey

    2018-04-01

    We discuss the structure of rapidity divergences that are presented in the soft factors of transverse momentum dependent (TMD) factorization theorems. To provide the discussion on the most general level we consider soft factors for multi-parton scattering. We show that the rapidity divergences are result of the gluon exchanges with the distant transverse plane, and are structurally equivalent to the ultraviolet divergences. It allows to formulate and to prove the renormalization theorem for rapidity divergences. The proof is made with the help the conformal transformation which maps rapidity divergences to ultraviolet divergences. The theorem is the systematic form of the factorization of rapidity divergences, which is required for the definition of TMD parton distributions. In particular, the definition of multi parton distributions is presented. The equivalence of ultraviolet and rapidity divergences leads to the exact relation between soft and rapidity anomalous dimensions. Using this relation we derive the rapidity anomalous dimension at the three-loop order.

  6. Profiling of gene duplication patterns of sequenced teleost genomes: evidence for rapid lineage-specific genome expansion mediated by recent tandem duplications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianguo; Peatman, Eric; Tang, Haibao; Lewis, Joshua; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2012-06-15

    Gene duplication has had a major impact on genome evolution. Localized (or tandem) duplication resulting from unequal crossing over and whole genome duplication are believed to be the two dominant mechanisms contributing to vertebrate genome evolution. While much scrutiny has been directed toward discerning patterns indicative of whole-genome duplication events in teleost species, less attention has been paid to the continuous nature of gene duplications and their impact on the size, gene content, functional diversity, and overall architecture of teleost genomes. Here, using a Markov clustering algorithm directed approach we catalogue and analyze patterns of gene duplication in the four model teleost species with chromosomal coordinates: zebrafish, medaka, stickleback, and Tetraodon. Our analyses based on set size, duplication type, synonymous substitution rate (Ks), and gene ontology emphasize shared and lineage-specific patterns of genome evolution via gene duplication. Most strikingly, our analyses highlight the extraordinary duplication and retention rate of recent duplicates in zebrafish and their likely role in the structural and functional expansion of the zebrafish genome. We find that the zebrafish genome is remarkable in its large number of duplicated genes, small duplicate set size, biased Ks distribution toward minimal mutational divergence, and proportion of tandem and intra-chromosomal duplicates when compared with the other teleost model genomes. The observed gene duplication patterns have played significant roles in shaping the architecture of teleost genomes and appear to have contributed to the recent functional diversification and divergence of important physiological processes in zebrafish. We have analyzed gene duplication patterns and duplication types among the available teleost genomes and found that a large number of genes were tandemly and intrachromosomally duplicated, suggesting their origin of independent and continuous duplication

  7. Polycomb enables primitive endoderm lineage priming in embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illingworth, Robert S; Hölzenspies, Jurriaan J; Roske, Fabian V

    2016-01-01

    Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), like the blastocyst from which they are derived, contain precursors of the epiblast (Epi) and primitive endoderm (PrEn) lineages. While transient in vivo, these precursor populations readily interconvert in vitro. We show that altered transcription is the driver...... polycomb with dynamic changes in transcription and stalled lineage commitment, allowing cells to explore alternative choices prior to a definitive decision....

  8. Analysis of complete nucleotide sequences of Angolan hepatitis B virus isolates reveals the existence of a separate lineage within genotype E.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara V Lago

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus genotype E (HBV/E is highly prevalent in Western Africa. In this work, 30 HBV/E isolates from HBsAg positive Angolans (staff and visitors of a private hospital in Luanda were genetically characterized: 16 of them were completely sequenced and the pre-S/S sequences of the remaining 14 were determined. A high proportion (12/30, 40% of subjects tested positive for both HBsAg and anti-HBs markers. Deduced amino acid sequences revealed the existence of specific substitutions and deletions in the B- and T-cell epitopes of the surface antigen (pre-S1- and pre-S2 regions of the virus isolates derived from 8/12 individuals with concurrent HBsAg/anti-HBs. Phylogenetic analysis performed with 231 HBV/E full-length sequences, including 16 from this study, showed that all isolates from Angola, Namibia and the Democratic Republic of Congo (n = 28 clustered in a separate lineage, divergent from the HBV/E isolates from nine other African countries, namely Cameroon, Central African Republic, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Guinea, Madagascar, Niger, Nigeria and Sudan, with a Bayesian posterior probability of 1. Five specific mutations, namely small S protein T57I, polymerase Q177H, G245W and M612L, and X protein V30L, were observed in 79-96% of the isolates of the separate lineage, compared to a frequency of 0-12% among the other HBV/E African isolates.

  9. Major genomic mitochondrial lineages delineate early human expansions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores Carlos

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phylogeographic distribution of human mitochondrial DNA variations allows a genetic approach to the study of modern Homo sapiens dispersals throughout the world from a female perspective. As a new contribution to this study we have phylogenetically analysed complete mitochondrial DNA(mtDNA sequences from 42 human lineages, representing major clades with known geographic assignation. Results We show the relative relationships among the 42 lineages and present more accurate temporal calibrations than have been previously possible to give new perspectives as how modern humans spread in the Old World. Conclusions The first detectable expansion occurred around 59,000–69,000 years ago from Africa, independently colonizing western Asia and India and, following this southern route, swiftly reaching east Asia. Within Africa, this expansion did not replace but mixed with older lineages detectable today only in Africa. Around 39,000–52,000 years ago, the western Asian branch spread radially, bringing Caucasians to North Africa and Europe, also reaching India, and expanding to north and east Asia. More recent migrations have entangled but not completely erased these primitive footprints of modern human expansions.

  10. Y-chromosome lineages in native South American population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Verea, A; Jaime, J C; Brión, M; Carracedo, A

    2010-04-01

    The present work tries to investigate the population structure and variation of the Amerindian indigenous populations living in Argentina. A total of 134 individuals from three ethnic groups (Kolla, Mapuche and Diaguitas) living in four different regions were collected and analysed for 26 Y-SNPs and 11 Y-STRs. Intra-population variability was analysed, looking for population substructure and neighbour populations were considered for genetic comparative analysis, in order to estimate the contribution of the Amerindian and the European pool, to the current population. We observe a high frequency of R1b1 and Q1a3a* Y-chromosome haplogroups, in the ethnic groups Mapuche, Diaguita and Kolla, characteristic of European and Native American populations, respectively. When we compare our native Argentinean population with other from the South America we also observe that frequency values for Amerindian lineages are relatively lower in our population. These results show a clear Amerindian genetic component but we observe a predominant European influence too, suggesting that typically European male lineages have given rise to the displacement of genuinely Amerindian male lineages in our South American population. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dated historical biogeography of the temperate Loliinae (Poaceae, Pooideae) grasses in the northern and southern hemispheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inda, Luis A; Segarra-Moragues, José Gabriel; Müller, Jochen; Peterson, Paul M; Catalán, Pilar

    2008-03-01

    Divergence times and biogeographical analyses have been conducted within the Loliinae, one of the largest subtribes of temperate grasses. New sequence data from representatives of the almost unexplored New World, New Zealand, and Eastern Asian centres were added to those of the panMediterranean region and used to reconstruct the phylogeny of the group and to calculate the times of lineage-splitting using Bayesian approaches. The traditional separation between broad-leaved and fine-leaved Festuca species was still maintained, though several new broad-leaved lineages fell within the fine-leaved clade or were placed in an unsupported intermediate position. A strong biogeographical signal was detected for several Asian-American, American, Neozeylandic, and Macaronesian clades with different affinities to both the broad and the fine-leaved Festuca. Bayesian estimates of divergence and dispersal-vicariance analyses indicate that the broad-leaved and fine-leaved Loliinae likely originated in the Miocene (13My) in the panMediterranean-SW Asian region and then expanded towards C and E Asia from where they colonized the New World. Further expansions in America (10-3.8My) showed a predominant migratory route from North to South (N Americathe AndesPatagonia). This late Tertiary scenario of successive colonizations and secondary polyploid radiations in the southern hemisphere from the northern hemisphere was accompanied by occasional transcontinental long-distance dispersal events between South America and New Zealand. Multiple Pliocene dispersal events (3.6-2.5My) from the near SW European and NW African continents gave rise to the Macaronesian Loliinae flora, while a more recent Pleistocene origin (2-1My) is hypothesized for the high polyploid lineages that successfully colonized newly deglaciated areas in both hemispheres.

  12. Molecular phylogeography of the brown bear (Ursus arctos) in Northeastern Asia based on analyses of complete mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Daisuke; Mano, Tsutomu; Abramov, Alexei V; Baryshnikov, Gennady F; Kosintsev, Pavel A; Vorobiev, Alexandr A; Raichev, Evgeny G; Tsunoda, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Yayoi; Murata, Koichi; Fukui, Daisuke; Masuda, Ryuichi

    2013-07-01

    To further elucidate the migration history of the brown bears (Ursus arctos) on Hokkaido Island, Japan, we analyzed the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of 35 brown bears from Hokkaido, the southern Kuril Islands (Etorofu and Kunashiri), Sakhalin Island, and the Eurasian Continent (continental Russia, Bulgaria, and Tibet), and those of four polar bears. Based on these sequences, we reconstructed the maternal phylogeny of the brown bear and estimated divergence times to investigate the timing of brown bear migrations, especially in northeastern Eurasia. Our gene tree showed the mtDNA haplotypes of all 73 brown and polar bears to be divided into eight divergent lineages. The brown bear on Hokkaido was divided into three lineages (central, eastern, and southern). The Sakhalin brown bear grouped with eastern European and western Alaskan brown bears. Etorofu and Kunashiri brown bears were closely related to eastern Hokkaido brown bears and could have diverged from the eastern Hokkaido lineage after formation of the channel between Hokkaido and the southern Kuril Islands. Tibetan brown bears diverged early in the eastern lineage. Southern Hokkaido brown bears were closely related to North American brown bears.

  13. One-loop divergences in the quantum theory of supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieuwenhuizen, P. van; Vermaseren, J.A.M.

    1976-01-01

    Supergravity does not lead to a finite quantum theory of gravitation when coupled to the spin 1, 1/2 matter multiplet. The S-matrix of photon-photon scattering diverges; its divergences are proportional to the square of the photon energy-momentum tensor, in agreement with electro-magnetic duality and chiral invariance. The graviton self-energy corrections are divergent in pure supergravity as well as in the coupled Maxwell-Einstein system and satisfy their Ward identity because the supersymmetry ghost field is commuting. The photon-graviton vertex corrections diverge, as expected from the non-invariance of the action under local scale transformations, and satisfy the equivalence principle at the quantum level. The photon self-energy is divergent. (Auth.)

  14. Synergy between Allopatry and Ecology in Population Differentiation and Speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Surget-Groba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The general diversity pattern of the Caribbean anole radiation has been described in detail; however, the actual mechanisms at the origin of their diversification remain controversial. In particular, the role of ecological speciation, and the relative importance of divergence in allopatry and in parapatry, is debated. We describe the genetic structure of anole populations across lineage contact zones and ecotones to investigate the effect of allopatric divergence, natural selection, and the combination of both factors on population differentiation. Allopatric divergence had no significant impact on differentiation across the lineage boundary, while a clear bimodality in genetic and morphological characters was observed across an ecotone within a single lineage. Critically, the strongest differentiation was observed when allopatry and ecology act together, leading to a sharp reduction in gene flow between two lineages inhabiting different habitats. We suggest that, for Caribbean anoles to reach full speciation, a synergistic combination of several historical and ecological factors may be requisite.

  15. Molecular detection of HIV-1 subtype B, CRF01_AE, CRF33_01B, and newly emerging recombinant lineages in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chook, Jack Bee; Ong, Lai Yee; Takebe, Yutaka; Chan, Kok Gan; Choo, Martin; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Tee, Kok Keng

    2015-03-01

    A molecular genotyping assay for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) circulating in Southeast Asia is difficult to design because of the high level of genetic diversity. We developed a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to detect subtype B, CRF01_AE, CRF33_01B, and three newly described circulating recombinant forms, (CRFs) (CRF53_01B, CRF54_01B, and CRF58_01B). A total of 785 reference genomes were used for subtype-specific primers and TaqMan probes design targeting the gag, pol, and env genes. The performance of this assay was compared and evaluated with direct sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. A total of 180 HIV-infected subjects from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were screened and 171 samples were successfully genotyped, in agreement with the phylogenetic data. The HIV-1 genotype distribution was as follows: subtype B (16.7%); CRF01_AE (52.8%); CRF33_01B (24.4%); CRF53_01B (1.1%); CRF54_01B (0.6%); and CRF01_AE/B unique recombinant forms (4.4%). The overall accuracy of the genotyping assay was over 95.0%, in which the sensitivities for subtype B, CRF01_AE, and CRF33_01B detection were 100%, 100%, and 97.7%, respectively. The specificity of genotyping was 100%, inter-subtype specificities were > 95% and the limit of detection of 10(3) copies/mL for plasma. The newly developed real-time PCR assay offers a rapid and cost-effective alternative for large-scale molecular epidemiological surveillance for HIV-1. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  16. Sandwiched Rényi divergence satisfies data processing inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beigi, Salman

    2013-01-01

    Sandwiched (quantum) α-Rényi divergence has been recently defined in the independent works of Wilde et al. [“Strong converse for the classical capacity of entanglement-breaking channels,” preprint http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1306.1586 (2013)] and Müller-Lennert et al. [“On quantum Rényi entropies: a new definition, some properties and several conjectures,” preprint http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1306.3142v1 (2013)]. This new quantum divergence has already found applications in quantum information theory. Here we further investigate properties of this new quantum divergence. In particular, we show that sandwiched α-Rényi divergence satisfies the data processing inequality for all values of α > 1. Moreover we prove that α-Holevo information, a variant of Holevo information defined in terms of sandwiched α-Rényi divergence, is super-additive. Our results are based on Hölder's inequality, the Riesz-Thorin theorem and ideas from the theory of complex interpolation. We also employ Sion's minimax theorem

  17. The fps/fes proto-oncogene regulates hematopoietic lineage output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangrar, Waheed; Gao, Yan; Zirngibl, Ralph A; Scott, Michelle L; Greer, Peter A

    2003-12-01

    The fps/fes proto-oncogene is abundantly expressed in myeloid cells, and the Fps/Fes cytoplasmic protein-tyrosine kinase is implicated in signaling downstream from hematopoietic cytokines, including interleukin-3 (IL-3), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and erythropoietin (EPO). Studies using leukemic cell lines have previously suggested that Fps/Fes contributes to granulomonocytic differentiation, and that it might play a more selective role in promoting survival and differentiation along the monocytic pathway. In this study we have used a genetic approach to explore the role of Fps/Fes in hematopoiesis. We used transgenic mice that tissue-specifically express a mutant human fps/fes transgene (fps(MF)) that was engineered to encode Fps/Fes kinase that is activated through N-terminal myristoylation (MFps). Hematopoietic function was assessed using lineage analysis, hematopoietic progenitor cell colony-forming assays, and biochemical approaches. fps(MF) transgenic mice displayed a skewed hematopoietic output reflected by increased numbers of circulating granulocytic and monocytic cells and a corresponding decrease in lymphoid cells. Bone marrow colony assays of progenitor cells revealed a significant increase in the number of both granulomonocytic and multi-lineage progenitors. A molecular analysis of signaling in mature monocytic cells showed that MFps promoted GM-CSF-induced STAT3, STAT5, and ERK1/2 activation. These observations support a role for Fps/Fes in signaling pathways that contribute to lineage determination at the level of multi-lineage hematopoietic progenitors as well as the more committed granulomonocytic progenitors.

  18. A snapshot of genetic lineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Ireland over a two-year period, 2010 and 2011.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzgibbon, M M

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem repeat typing alone was used to investigate the genetic lineages among 361 Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains circulating in Ireland over a two-year period, 2010 and 2011. The majority of isolates, 63% (229\\/361), belonged to lineage 4 (Euro-American), while lineages 1 (Indo-Oceanic), 2 (East-Asian) and 3 (East-African–Indian) represented 12% of isolates each (42\\/361, 45\\/361, and 45\\/361, respectively). Sub-lineages Beijing (lineage 2), East-African–Indian (lineage 1) and Delhi\\/central-Asian (lineage 3) predominated among foreign-born cases, while a higher proportion of Euro-American lineages were identified among cases born in Ireland. Eighteen molecular clusters involving 63 tuberculosis (TB) cases were identified across four sub-lineages of lineage 4. While the mean cluster size was 3.5 TB cases, the largest cluster (involving 12 Irish-born cases) was identified in the Latin American–Mediterranean sub-lineage. Clustering of isolates was higher among Irish-born TB cases (47 of 63 clustered cases), whereas only one cluster (3\\/63) involved solely foreign-born individuals. Four multidrug-resistant cases identified during this period represented lineages 2 and 4. This study provides the first insight into the structure of the M. tuberculosis population in Ireland.

  19. Molecular phylogeny of mitochondrial cytochrome b and 12S rRNA sequences in the Felidae: ocelot and domestic cat lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, R; Lopez, J V; Slattery, J P; Yuhki, N; O'Brien, S J

    1996-12-01

    Molecular phylogeny of the cat family Felidae is derived using two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome b and 12S rRNA. Phylogenetic methods of weighted maximum parsimony and minimum evolution estimated by neighbor-joining are employed to reconstruct topologies among 20 extant felid species. Sequence analyses of 363 bp of cytochrome b and 376 bp of the 12S rRNA genes yielded average pair-wise similarity values between felids ranging from 94 to 99% and from 85 to 99%, respectively. Phylogenetic reconstruction supports more recent, intralineage associations but fails to completely resolve interlineage relationships. Both genes produce a monophyletic group of Felis species but vary in the placement of the pallas cat. The ocelot lineage represents an early divergence within the Felidae, with strong associations between ocelot and margay, Geoffroy's cat and kodkod, and pampas cat and tigrina. Implications of the relative recency of felid evolution, presence of ancestral polymorphisms, and influence of outgroups in placement of the topological root are discussed.

  20. Lineage fate of ductular reactions in liver injury and carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jörs, Simone; Jeliazkova, Petia; Ringelhan, Marc; Thalhammer, Julian; Dürl, Stephanie; Ferrer, Jorge; Sander, Maike; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Schmid, Roland M; Siveke, Jens T; Geisler, Fabian

    2015-06-01

    Ductular reactions (DRs) are observed in virtually all forms of human liver disease; however, the histogenesis and function of DRs in liver injury are not entirely understood. It is widely believed that DRs contain bipotential liver progenitor cells (LPCs) that serve as an emergency cell pool to regenerate both cholangiocytes and hepatocytes and may eventually give rise to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we used a murine model that allows highly efficient and specific lineage labeling of the biliary compartment to analyze the histogenesis of DRs and their potential contribution to liver regeneration and carcinogenesis. In multiple experimental and genetic liver injury models, biliary cells were the predominant precursors of DRs but lacked substantial capacity to produce new hepatocytes, even when liver injuries were prolonged up to 12 months. Genetic modulation of NOTCH and/or WNT/β-catenin signaling within lineage-tagged DRs impaired DR expansion but failed to redirect DRs from biliary differentiation toward the hepatocyte lineage. Further, lineage-labeled DRs did not produce tumors in genetic and chemical HCC mouse models. In summary, we found no evidence in our system to support mouse biliary-derived DRs as an LPC pool to replenish hepatocytes in a quantitatively relevant way in injury or evidence that DRs give rise to HCCs.

  1. A Passerine Bird's evolution corroborates the geologic history of the island of New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiner, Kristy; Lemmon, Alan R; Mack, Andrew L; Fleischer, Robert C; Dumbacher, John P

    2011-05-06

    New Guinea is a biologically diverse island, with a unique geologic history and topography that has likely played a role in the evolution of species. Few island-wide studies, however, have examined the phylogeographic history of lowland species. The objective of this study was to examine patterns of phylogeographic variation of a common and widespread New Guinean bird species (Colluricincla megarhyncha). Specifically, we test the mechanisms hypothesized to cause geographic and genetic variation (e.g., vicariance, isolation by distance and founder-effect with dispersal). To accomplish this, we surveyed three regions of the mitochondrial genome and a nuclear intron and assessed differences among 23 of the 30 described subspecies from throughout their range. We found support for eight highly divergent lineages within C. megarhyncha. Genetic lineages were found within continuous lowland habitat or on smaller islands, but all individuals within clades were not necessarily structured by predicted biogeographic barriers. There was some evidence of isolation by distance and potential founder-effects. Mitochondrial DNA sequence divergence among lineages was at a level often observed among different species or even genera of birds (5-11%), suggesting lineages within regions have been isolated for long periods of time. When topographical barriers were associated with divergence patterns, the estimated divergence date for the clade coincided with the estimated time of barrier formation. We also found that dispersal distance and range size are positively correlated across lineages. Evidence from this research suggests that different phylogeographic mechanisms concurrently structure lineages of C. megarhyncha and are not mutually exclusive. These lineages are a result of evolutionary forces acting at different temporal and spatial scales concordant with New Guinea's geological history.

  2. A Passerine Bird's evolution corroborates the geologic history of the island of New Guinea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristy Deiner

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available New Guinea is a biologically diverse island, with a unique geologic history and topography that has likely played a role in the evolution of species. Few island-wide studies, however, have examined the phylogeographic history of lowland species. The objective of this study was to examine patterns of phylogeographic variation of a common and widespread New Guinean bird species (Colluricincla megarhyncha. Specifically, we test the mechanisms hypothesized to cause geographic and genetic variation (e.g., vicariance, isolation by distance and founder-effect with dispersal. To accomplish this, we surveyed three regions of the mitochondrial genome and a nuclear intron and assessed differences among 23 of the 30 described subspecies from throughout their range. We found support for eight highly divergent lineages within C. megarhyncha. Genetic lineages were found within continuous lowland habitat or on smaller islands, but all individuals within clades were not necessarily structured by predicted biogeographic barriers. There was some evidence of isolation by distance and potential founder-effects. Mitochondrial DNA sequence divergence among lineages was at a level often observed among different species or even genera of birds (5-11%, suggesting lineages within regions have been isolated for long periods of time. When topographical barriers were associated with divergence patterns, the estimated divergence date for the clade coincided with the estimated time of barrier formation. We also found that dispersal distance and range size are positively correlated across lineages. Evidence from this research suggests that different phylogeographic mechanisms concurrently structure lineages of C. megarhyncha and are not mutually exclusive. These lineages are a result of evolutionary forces acting at different temporal and spatial scales concordant with New Guinea's geological history.

  3. Adaptive Genetic Divergence Despite Significant Isolation-by-Distance in Populations of Taiwan Cow-Tail Fir (Keteleeria davidiana var. formosana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Kai-Ming; Chang, Chung-Te; Chung, Jeng-Der; Chiang, Yu-Chung; Hwang, Shih-Ying

    2018-01-01

    Double digest restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq) is a tool for delivering genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for non-model organisms useful in resolving fine-scale population structure and detecting signatures of selection. This study performs population genetic analysis, based on ddRADseq data, of a coniferous species, Keteleeria davidiana var. formosana , disjunctly distributed in northern and southern Taiwan, for investigation of population adaptive divergence in response to environmental heterogeneity. A total of 13,914 SNPs were detected and used to assess genetic diversity, F ST outlier detection, population genetic structure, and individual assignments of five populations (62 individuals) of K. davidiana var. formosana . Principal component analysis (PCA), individual assignments, and the neighbor-joining tree were successful in differentiating individuals between northern and southern populations of K. davidiana var. formosana , but apparent gene flow between the southern DW30 population and northern populations was also revealed. Fifteen of 23 highly differentiated SNPs identified were found to be strongly associated with environmental variables, suggesting isolation-by-environment (IBE). However, multiple matrix regression with randomization analysis revealed strong IBE as well as significant isolation-by-distance. Environmental impacts on divergence were found between populations of the North and South regions and also between the two southern neighboring populations. BLASTN annotation of the sequences flanking outlier SNPs gave significant hits for three of 23 markers that might have biological relevance to mitochondrial homeostasis involved in the survival of locally adapted lineages. Species delimitation between K. davidiana var. formosana and its ancestor, K. davidiana , was also examined (72 individuals). This study has produced highly informative population genomic data for the understanding of population

  4. Adaptive Genetic Divergence Despite Significant Isolation-by-Distance in Populations of Taiwan Cow-Tail Fir (Keteleeria davidiana var. formosana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Ming Shih

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Double digest restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq is a tool for delivering genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers for non-model organisms useful in resolving fine-scale population structure and detecting signatures of selection. This study performs population genetic analysis, based on ddRADseq data, of a coniferous species, Keteleeria davidiana var. formosana, disjunctly distributed in northern and southern Taiwan, for investigation of population adaptive divergence in response to environmental heterogeneity. A total of 13,914 SNPs were detected and used to assess genetic diversity, FST outlier detection, population genetic structure, and individual assignments of five populations (62 individuals of K. davidiana var. formosana. Principal component analysis (PCA, individual assignments, and the neighbor-joining tree were successful in differentiating individuals between northern and southern populations of K. davidiana var. formosana, but apparent gene flow between the southern DW30 population and northern populations was also revealed. Fifteen of 23 highly differentiated SNPs identified were found to be strongly associated with environmental variables, suggesting isolation-by-environment (IBE. However, multiple matrix regression with randomization analysis revealed strong IBE as well as significant isolation-by-distance. Environmental impacts on divergence were found between populations of the North and South regions and also between the two southern neighboring populations. BLASTN annotation of the sequences flanking outlier SNPs gave significant hits for three of 23 markers that might have biological relevance to mitochondrial homeostasis involved in the survival of locally adapted lineages. Species delimitation between K. davidiana var. formosana and its ancestor, K. davidiana, was also examined (72 individuals. This study has produced highly informative population genomic data for the understanding of

  5. Core and symbiotic genes reveal nine Mesorhizobium genospecies and three symbiotic lineages among the rhizobia nodulating Cicer canariense in its natural habitat (La Palma, Canary Islands).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas-Capote, Natalia; Pérez-Yépez, Juan; Martínez-Hidalgo, Pilar; Garzón-Machado, Víctor; Del Arco-Aguilar, Marcelino; Velázquez, Encarna; León-Barrios, Milagros

    2014-03-01

    Cicer canariense is a threatened perennial wild chickpea endemic to the Canary Islands. In this study, rhizobia that nodulate this species in its natural habitats on La Palma (Canary Islands) were characterised. The genetic diversity and phylogeny were estimated by RAPD profiles, 16S-RFLP analysis and sequencing of the rrs, recA, glnII and nodC genes. 16S-RFLP grouped the isolates within the Mesorhizobium genus and distinguished nine different ribotypes. Four branches included minority ribotypes (3-5 isolates), whereas another five contained the predominant ribotypes that clustered with reference strains of M. tianshanense/M. gobiense/M. metallidurans, M. caraganae, M. opportunistum, M. ciceri and M. tamadayense. The sequences confirmed the RFLP groupings but resolved additional internal divergence within the M. caraganae group and outlined several potential novel species. The RAPD profiles showed a high diversity at the infraspecific level, except in the M. ciceri group. The nodC phylogeny resolved three symbiotic lineages. A small group of isolates had sequences identical to those of symbiovar ciceri and were only detected in M. ciceri isolates. Another group of sequences represented a novel symbiotic lineage that was associated with two particular chromosomal backgrounds. However, nodC sequences closely related to symbiovar loti predominated in most isolates, and they were detected in several chromosomal backgrounds corresponding to up to nine Mesorhizobium lineages. The results indicated that C. canariense is a promiscuous legume that can be nodulated by several rhizobial species and symbiotypes, which means it will be important to determine the combination of core and symbiotic genes that produce the most effective symbiosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Bears in a forest of gene trees: phylogenetic inference is complicated by incomplete lineage sorting and gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschera, Verena E; Bidon, Tobias; Hailer, Frank; Rodi, Julia L; Fain, Steven R; Janke, Axel

    2014-08-01

    Ursine bears are a mammalian subfamily that comprises six morphologically and ecologically distinct extant species. Previous phylogenetic analyses of concatenated nuclear genes could not resolve all relationships among bears, and appeared to conflict with the mitochondrial phylogeny. Evolutionary processes such as incomplete lineage sorting and introgression can cause gene tree discordance and complicate phylogenetic inferences, but are not accounted for in phylogenetic analyses of concatenated data. We generated a high-resolution data set of autosomal introns from several individuals per species and of Y-chromosomal markers. Incorporating intraspecific variability in coalescence-based phylogenetic and gene flow estimation approaches, we traced the genealogical history of individual alleles. Considerable heterogeneity among nuclear loci and discordance between nuclear and mitochondrial phylogenies were found. A species tree with divergence time estimates indicated that ursine bears diversified within less than 2 My. Consistent with a complex branching order within a clade of Asian bear species, we identified unidirectional gene flow from Asian black into sloth bears. Moreover, gene flow detected from brown into American black bears can explain the conflicting placement of the American black bear in mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenies. These results highlight that both incomplete lineage sorting and introgression are prominent evolutionary forces even on time scales up to several million years. Complex evolutionary patterns are not adequately captured by strictly bifurcating models, and can only be fully understood when analyzing multiple independently inherited loci in a coalescence framework. Phylogenetic incongruence among gene trees hence needs to be recognized as a biologically meaningful signal. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  7. Glacial cycles as an allopatric speciation pump in north-eastern American freshwater fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    April, Julien; Hanner, Robert H; Dion-Côté, Anne-Marie; Bernatchez, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Allopatric speciation may be the principal mechanism generating new species. Yet, it remains difficult to judge the generality of this process because few studies have provided evidence that geographic isolation has triggered the development of reproductive isolation over multiple species of a regional fauna. Here, we first combine results from new empirical data sets (7 taxa) and published literature (9 taxa) to show that the eastern Great Lakes drainage represents a multispecies suture zone for glacial lineages of freshwater fishes with variable levels of genetic divergence. Second, we performed amplified fragment length polymorphism analyses among four pairs of lineages. Results indicate that lineages with relatively deep levels of mtDNA 5' COI (barcode) sequence divergence (>2%) developed strong reproductive barriers, while lineages with lower levels of divergence show weaker reproductive isolation when found in sympatry. This suggests that a threshold of 2% sequence divergence at mtDNA could be used as a first step to flag cryptic species in North American freshwater fishes. By describing different levels of divergence and reproductive isolation in different co-occurring fishes, we offer strong evidence that allopatric speciation has contributed significantly to the diversification of north-eastern American freshwater fishes and confirm that Pleistocene glacial cycles can be viewed as a 'speciation pump' that played a predominant role in generating biodiversity. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Is the diversification of Mediterranean Basin plant lineages coupled to karyotypic changes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, M; Balao, F; Martín-Bravo, S; Valente, L; Valcárcel, V

    2018-01-01

    The Mediterranean Basin region, home to 25,000 plant species, is included in the worldwide list of hotspots of biodiversity. Despite the indisputably important role of chromosome transitions in plant evolution and diversification, no reference study to date has dealt with the possible relationship between chromosome evolution and lineage diversification in the Mediterranean Basin. Here we study patterns of diversification, patterns of chromosome number transition (either polyploidy or dysploidy) and the relationship between the two for 14 Mediterranean Basin angiosperm lineages using previously published phylogenies. We found a mixed pattern, with half of the lineages displaying a change in chromosome transition rates after the onset of the Mediterranean climate (six increases, one decrease) and the other half (six) experiencing constant rates of chromosome transitions through time. We have also found a heterogeneous pattern regarding diversification rates, with lineages exhibiting moderate (five phylogenies) or low (six) initial diversification rates that either increased (six) or declined (five) through time. Our results reveal no clear link between diversification rates and chromosome number transition rates. By promoting the formation of new habitats and driving the extinction of many species, the Mediterranean onset and the posterior Quaternary climatic oscillations could have been key for the establishment of new chromosomal variants in some plant phylogenies but not in others. While the biodiversity of the Mediterranean Basin may be partly influenced by the chromosomal diversity of its lineages, this study concludes that lineage diversification in the region is largely decoupled from karyotypic evolution. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  9. Vibhakti Divergence between Sanskrit and Hindi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Preeti; Shukl, Devanand; Kulkarni, Amba

    Translation divergence at various levels between languages arises due to the different conventions followed by different languages for coding the information of grammatical relations. Though Sanskrit and Hindi belong to the same Indo-Aryan family and structurally as well as lexically Hindi inherits a lot from Sanskrit, yet divergences are observed at the level of function words such as vibhaktis. Pāṇini in his Aṣṭādhyāyī has assigned a default vibhakti to kārakas alongwith many scopes for exceptions. He handles these exceptions either by imposing a new kāraka role or by assigning a special vibhakti. However, these methods are not acceptable in Hindi in toto. Based on the nature of deviation, we propose seven cases of divergences in this paper.

  10. Virulence, sporulation, and elicitin production in three clonal lineages of Phytophthora ramorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora ramorum populations are clonal and consist of three lineages. Recent studies have shown that the clonal lineages may have varying degrees of aggressiveness on some host species, such as Quercus rubra. In this study, we examined virulence, sporulation and elicitin production of five P. ...

  11. Genotypic lineages and restriction fragment length polymorphism of canine distemper virus isolates in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtanakatikanon, Araya; Keawcharoen, Juthatip; Charoenvisal, Na Taya; Poovorawan, Yong; Prompetchara, Eakachai; Yamaguchi, Ryoji; Techangamsuwan, Somporn

    2013-09-27

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is known to cause multisystemic disease in all families of terrestrial carnivores. Attenuated live vaccines have been used to control CDV in a variety of species for many decades, yet a number of CDV infections in vaccinated dogs are still observed. The aims of this study were to investigate the genetic diversity of CDV lineages based on phosphoprotein (P), hemagglutinin (H) and fusion protein (F) genes and to develop the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique for effective differentiation among individual wild-type and vaccine lineages in Thailand. Four commercial vaccine products, thirteen conjunctival swabs and various tissues from 9 necropsied dogs suspected of having CDV infections were included. Virus isolation was performed using Vero cell expressing canine signaling lymphocyte activation molecules (Vero-DST cells). Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on 3 gene regions from the dog derived specimens and the vaccines were carried out, then RFLP analysis upon F-gene amplified fragments was developed. Nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic analysis were compared with other CDV lineages in Genbank. Phylogenetic relationships revealed that CDV field isolates were separated from the vaccine lineage and could be divided into two clusters; one of which belonged to the Asia-1 lineage and another, not related to any previous recognized lineages was proposed as 'Asia-4'. RFLP patterns demonstrating concordance with phylogenetic trees of the distemper virus allowed for differentiation between the Asia-1, Asia-4 and vaccine lineages. Thus, RFLP technique is able to effectively distinguish individual wild-type canine distemper virus from vaccine lineages in Thailand. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Tightly congruent bursts of lineage and phenotypic diversification identified in a continental ant radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Shauna L; Etienne, Rampal S; Powell, Scott

    2016-04-01

    Adaptive diversification is thought to be shaped by ecological opportunity. A prediction of this ecological process of diversification is that it should result in congruent bursts of lineage and phenotypic diversification, but few studies have found this expected association. Here, we study the relationship between rates of lineage diversification and body size evolution in the turtle ants, a diverse Neotropical clade. Using a near complete, time-calibrated phylogeny we investigated lineage diversification dynamics and body size disparity through model fitting analyses and estimation of per-lineage rates of cladogenesis and phenotypic evolution. We identify an exceptionally high degree of congruence between the high rates of lineage and body size diversification in a young clade undergoing renewed diversification in the ecologically distinct Chacoan biogeographical region of South America. It is likely that the region presented turtle ants with novel ecological opportunity, which facilitated a nested burst of diversification and phenotypic evolution within the group. Our results provide a compelling quantitative example of tight congruence between rates of lineage and phenotypic diversification, meeting the key predicted pattern of adaptive diversification shaped by ecological opportunity. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  13. Lexicographic presentation of grammatical divergence in Sesotho ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relying on existing insights from the field of theoretical lexicography this article gives an innovative application to the relation of divergence by introducing the notion of grammatical divergence. In bilingual dictionaries with English and Sesotho sa Leboa as language pair lexicographers are confronted with a real challenge ...

  14. Evidence for deep regulatory similarities in early developmental programs across highly diverged insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemian, Majid; Suryamohan, Kushal; Chen, Jia-Yu; Zhang, Yinan; Samee, Md Abul Hassan; Halfon, Marc S; Sinha, Saurabh

    2014-09-01

    Many genes familiar from Drosophila development, such as the so-called gap, pair-rule, and segment polarity genes, play important roles in the development of other insects and in many cases appear to be deployed in a similar fashion, despite the fact that Drosophila-like "long germband" development is highly derived and confined to a subset of insect families. Whether or not these similarities extend to the regulatory level is unknown. Identification of regulatory regions beyond the well-studied Drosophila has been challenging as even within the Diptera (flies, including mosquitoes) regulatory sequences have diverged past the point of recognition by standard alignment methods. Here, we demonstrate that methods we previously developed for computational cis-regulatory module (CRM) discovery in Drosophila can be used effectively in highly diverged (250-350 Myr) insect species including Anopheles gambiae, Tribolium castaneum, Apis mellifera, and Nasonia vitripennis. In Drosophila, we have successfully used small sets of known CRMs as "training data" to guide the search for other CRMs with related function. We show here that although species-specific CRM training data do not exist, training sets from Drosophila can facilitate CRM discovery in diverged insects. We validate in vivo over a dozen new CRMs, roughly doubling the number of known CRMs in the four non-Drosophila species. Given the growing wealth of Drosophila CRM annotation, these results suggest that extensive regulatory sequence annotation will be possible in newly sequenced insects without recourse to costly and labor-intensive genome-scale experiments. We develop a new method, Regulus, which computes a probabilistic score of similarity based on binding site composition (despite the absence of nucleotide-level sequence alignment), and demonstrate similarity between functionally related CRMs from orthologous loci. Our work represents an important step toward being able to trace the evolutionary history of gene

  15. Evidence for Deep Regulatory Similarities in Early Developmental Programs across Highly Diverged Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yinan; Samee, Md. Abul Hassan; Halfon, Marc S.; Sinha, Saurabh

    2014-01-01

    Many genes familiar from Drosophila development, such as the so-called gap, pair-rule, and segment polarity genes, play important roles in the development of other insects and in many cases appear to be deployed in a similar fashion, despite the fact that Drosophila-like “long germband” development is highly derived and confined to a subset of insect families. Whether or not these similarities extend to the regulatory level is unknown. Identification of regulatory regions beyond the well-studied Drosophila has been challenging as even within the Diptera (flies, including mosquitoes) regulatory sequences have diverged past the point of recognition by standard alignment methods. Here, we demonstrate that methods we previously developed for computational cis-regulatory module (CRM) discovery in Drosophila can be used effectively in highly diverged (250–350 Myr) insect species including Anopheles gambiae, Tribolium castaneum, Apis mellifera, and Nasonia vitripennis. In Drosophila, we have successfully used small sets of known CRMs as “training data” to guide the search for other CRMs with related function. We show here that although species-specific CRM training data do not exist, training sets from Drosophila can facilitate CRM discovery in diverged insects. We validate in vivo over a dozen new CRMs, roughly doubling the number of known CRMs in the four non-Drosophila species. Given the growing wealth of Drosophila CRM annotation, these results suggest that extensive regulatory sequence annotation will be possible in newly sequenced insects without recourse to costly and labor-intensive genome-scale experiments. We develop a new method, Regulus, which computes a probabilistic score of similarity based on binding site composition (despite the absence of nucleotide-level sequence alignment), and demonstrate similarity between functionally related CRMs from orthologous loci. Our work represents an important step toward being able to trace the evolutionary

  16. Variational divergence in wave scattering theory with Kirchhoffean trial functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, J. F.

    1986-01-01

    In a recent study of variational improvement of the Kirchhoff approximation for electromagnetic scattering by rough surfaces, a key ingredient in the variational principle was found to diverge for important configurations (e.g., backscatter) if the polarization had any vertical component. The cause and a cure of this divergence are discussed here. The divergence is demonstrated to occur for arbitrary perfectly conducting scatterers and its universal characterstics are determined, by means of a general divergence criterion that is derived. A variational cure for the divergence is prescribed, and it is tested successfully on a standard scattering model.

  17. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Lineage 4 comprises globally distributed and geographically restricted sublineages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscolla, Mireia; Liu, Qingyun; Trauner, Andrej; Fenner, Lukas; Rutaihwa, Liliana; Borrell, Sonia; Luo, Tao; Gao, Qian; Kato-Maeda, Midori; Ballif, Marie; Egger, Matthias; Macedo, Rita; Mardassi, Helmi; Moreno, Milagros; Tudo Vilanova, Griselda; Fyfe, Janet; Globan, Maria; Thomas, Jackson; Jamieson, Frances; Guthrie, Jennifer L.; Asante-Poku, Adwoa; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Wampande, Eddie; Ssengooba, Willy; Joloba, Moses; Henry Boom, W.; Basu, Indira; Bower, James; Saraiva, Margarida; Vaconcellos, Sidra E. G.; Suffys, Philip; Koch, Anastasia; Wilkinson, Robert; Gail-Bekker, Linda; Malla, Bijaya; Ley, Serej D.; Beck, Hans-Peter; de Jong, Bouke C.; Toit, Kadri; Sanchez-Padilla, Elisabeth; Bonnet, Maryline; Gil-Brusola, Ana; Frank, Matthias; Penlap Beng, Veronique N.; Eisenach, Kathleen; Alani, Issam; Wangui Ndung’u, Perpetual; Revathi, Gunturu; Gehre, Florian; Akter, Suriya; Ntoumi, Francine; Stewart-Isherwood, Lynsey; Ntinginya, Nyanda E.; Rachow, Andrea; Hoelscher, Michael; Cirillo, Daniela Maria; Skenders, Girts; Hoffner, Sven; Bakonyte, Daiva; Stakenas, Petras; Diel, Roland; Crudu, Valeriu; Moldovan, Olga; Al-Hajoj, Sahal; Otero, Larissa; Barletta, Francesca; Jane Carter, E.; Diero, Lameck; Supply, Philip; Comas, Iñaki; Niemann, Stefan; Gagneux, Sebastien

    2016-01-01

    Generalist and specialist species differ in the breadth of their ecological niche. Little is known about the niche width of obligate human pathogens. Here we analyzed a global collection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Lineage 4 clinical isolates, the most geographically widespread cause of human tuberculosis. We show that Lineage 4 comprises globally distributed and geographically restricted sublineages, suggesting a distinction between generalists and specialists. Population genomic analyses showed that while the majority of human T cell epitopes were conserved in all sublineages, the proportion of variable epitopes was higher in generalists. Our data further support a European origin for the most common generalist sublineage. Hence, the global success of Lineage 4 reflects distinct strategies adopted by different sublineages and the influence of human migration. PMID:27798628

  18. Comparative genomics and transcriptomics of lineages I, II, and III strains of Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hain Torsten

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen that causes infections with a high-mortality rate and has served as an invaluable model for intracellular parasitism. Here, we report complete genome sequences for two L. monocytogenes strains belonging to serotype 4a (L99 and 4b (CLIP80459, and transcriptomes of representative strains from lineages I, II, and III, thereby permitting in-depth comparison of genome- and transcriptome -based data from three lineages of L. monocytogenes. Lineage III, represented by the 4a L99 genome is known to contain strains less virulent for humans. Results The genome analysis of the weakly pathogenic L99 serotype 4a provides extensive evidence of virulence gene decay, including loss of several important surface proteins. The 4b CLIP80459 genome, unlike the previously sequenced 4b F2365 genome harbours an intact inlB invasion gene. These lineage I strains are characterized by the lack of prophage genes, as they share only a single prophage locus with other L. monocytogenes genomes 1/2a EGD-e and 4a L99. Comparative transcriptome analysis during intracellular growth uncovered adaptive expression level differences in lineages I, II and III of Listeria, notable amongst which was a strong intracellular induction of flagellar genes in strain 4a L99 compared to the other lineages. Furthermore, extensive differences between strains are manifest at levels of metabolic flux control and phosphorylated sugar uptake. Intriguingly, prophage gene expression was found to be a hallmark of intracellular gene expression. Deletion mutants in the single shared prophage locus of lineage II strain EGD-e 1/2a, the lma operon, revealed severe attenuation of virulence in a murine infection model. Conclusion Comparative genomics and transcriptome analysis of L. monocytogenes strains from three lineages implicate prophage genes in intracellular adaptation and indicate that gene loss and decay may have led to the emergence

  19. Exploiting Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans in Human Neurogenesis—Controlling Lineage Specification and Fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieh Yu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Unspecialized, self-renewing stem cells have extraordinary application to regenerative medicine due to their multilineage differentiation potential. Stem cell therapies through replenishing damaged or lost cells in the injured area is an attractive treatment of brain trauma and neurodegenerative neurological disorders. Several stem cell types have neurogenic potential including neural stem cells (NSCs, embryonic stem cells (ESCs, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. Currently, effective use of these cells is limited by our lack of understanding and ability to direct lineage commitment and differentiation of neural lineages. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs are ubiquitous proteins within the stem cell microenvironment or niche and are found localized on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix (ECM, where they interact with numerous signaling molecules. The glycosaminoglycan (GAG chains carried by HSPGs are heterogeneous carbohydrates comprised of repeating disaccharides with specific sulfation patterns that govern ligand interactions to numerous factors including the fibroblast growth factors (FGFs and wingless-type MMTV integration site family (Wnts. As such, HSPGs are plausible targets for guiding and controlling neural stem cell lineage fate. In this review, we provide an overview of HSPG family members syndecans and glypicans, and perlecan and their role in neurogenesis. We summarize the structural changes and subsequent functional implications of heparan sulfate as cells undergo neural lineage differentiation as well as outline the role of HSPG core protein expression throughout mammalian neural development and their function as cell receptors and co-receptors. Finally, we highlight suitable biomimetic approaches for exploiting the role of HSPGs in mammalian neurogenesis to control and tailor cell differentiation into specific lineages. An improved ability to control stem cell specific neural

  20. Quantifying Selective Pressures Driving Bacterial Evolution Using Lineage Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Guillaume; Kussell, Edo

    2015-01-01

    Organisms use a variety of strategies to adapt to their environments and maximize long-term growth potential, but quantitative characterization of the benefits conferred by the use of such strategies, as well as their impact on the whole population's rate of growth, remains challenging. Here, we use a path-integral framework that describes how selection acts on lineages—i.e., the life histories of individuals and their ancestors—to demonstrate that lineage-based measurements can be used to quantify the selective pressures acting on a population. We apply this analysis to Escherichia coli bacteria exposed to cyclical treatments of carbenicillin, an antibiotic that interferes with cell-wall synthesis and affects cells in an age-dependent manner. While the extensive characterization of the life history of thousands of cells is necessary to accurately extract the age-dependent selective pressures caused by carbenicillin, the same measurement can be recapitulated using lineage-based statistics of a single surviving cell. Population-wide evolutionary pressures can be extracted from the properties of the surviving lineages within a population, providing an alternative and efficient procedure to quantify the evolutionary forces acting on a population. Importantly, this approach is not limited to age-dependent selection, and the framework can be generalized to detect signatures of other trait-specific selection using lineage-based measurements. Our results establish a powerful way to study the evolutionary dynamics of life under selection and may be broadly useful in elucidating selective pressures driving the emergence of antibiotic resistance and the evolution of survival strategies in biological systems.

  1. Pax7 lineage contributions to the mammalian neural crest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Murdoch

    Full Text Available Neural crest cells are vertebrate-specific multipotent cells that contribute to a variety of tissues including the peripheral nervous system, melanocytes, and craniofacial bones and cartilage. Abnormal development of the neural crest is associated with several human maladies including cleft/lip palate, aggressive cancers such as melanoma and neuroblastoma, and rare syndromes, like Waardenburg syndrome, a complex disorder involving hearing loss and pigment defects. We previously identified the transcription factor Pax7 as an early marker, and required component for neural crest development in chick embryos. In mammals, Pax7 is also thought to play a role in neural crest development, yet the precise contribution of Pax7 progenitors to the neural crest lineage has not been determined.Here we use Cre/loxP technology in double transgenic mice to fate map the Pax7 lineage in neural crest derivates. We find that Pax7 descendants contribute to multiple tissues including the cranial, cardiac and trunk neural crest, which in the cranial cartilage form a distinct regional pattern. The Pax7 lineage, like the Pax3 lineage, is additionally detected in some non-neural crest tissues, including a subset of the epithelial cells in specific organs.These results demonstrate a previously unappreciated widespread distribution of Pax7 descendants within and beyond the neural crest. They shed light regarding the regionally distinct phenotypes observed in Pax3 and Pax7 mutants, and provide a unique perspective into the potential roles of Pax7 during disease and development.

  2. Cell tracing reveals a dorsoventral lineage restriction plane in the mouse limb bud mesenchyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arques, Carlos G; Doohan, Roisin; Sharpe, James; Torres, Miguel

    2007-10-01

    Regionalization of embryonic fields into independent units of growth and patterning is a widespread strategy during metazoan development. Compartments represent a particular instance of this regionalization, in which unit coherence is maintained by cell lineage restriction between adjacent regions. Lineage compartments have been described during insect and vertebrate development. Two common characteristics of the compartments described so far are their occurrence in epithelial structures and the presence of signaling regions at compartment borders. Whereas Drosophila compartmental organization represents a background subdivision of embryonic fields that is not necessarily related to anatomical structures, vertebrate compartment borders described thus far coincide with, or anticipate, anatomical or cell-type discontinuities. Here, we describe a general method for clonal analysis in the mouse and use it to determine the topology of clone distribution along the three limb axes. We identify a lineage restriction boundary at the limb mesenchyme dorsoventral border that is unrelated to any anatomical discontinuity, and whose lineage restriction border is not obviously associated with any signaling center. This restriction is the first example in vertebrates of a mechanism of primordium subdivision unrelated to anatomical boundaries. Furthermore, this is the first lineage compartment described within a mesenchymal structure in any organism, suggesting that lineage restrictions are fundamental not only for epithelial structures, but also for mesenchymal field patterning. No lineage compartmentalization was found along the proximodistal or anteroposterior axes, indicating that patterning along these axes does not involve restriction of cell dispersion at specific axial positions.

  3. New Lineage of Lassa Virus, Togo, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmer, Shannon L.M.; Strecker, Thomas; Cadar, Daniel; Dienes, Hans-Peter; Faber, Kelly; Patel, Ketan; Brown, Shelley M.; Davis, William G.; Klena, John D.; Rollin, Pierre E.; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Noack, Bernd; Emmerich, Petra; Rieger, Toni; Wolff, Svenja; Fehling, Sarah Katharina; Eickmann, Markus; Mengel, Jan Philipp; Schultze, Tilman; Hain, Torsten; Ampofo, William; Bonney, Kofi; Aryeequaye, Juliana Naa Dedei; Ribner, Bruce; Varkey, Jay B.; Mehta, Aneesh K.; Lyon, G. Marshall; Kann, Gerrit; De Leuw, Philipp; Schuettfort, Gundolf; Stephan, Christoph; Wieland, Ulrike; Fries, Jochen W.U.; Kochanek, Matthias; Kraft, Colleen S.; Wolf, Timo; Nichol, Stuart T.; Becker, Stephan; Ströher, Ute

    2018-01-01

    We describe a strain of Lassa virus representing a putative new lineage that was isolated from a cluster of human infections with an epidemiologic link to Togo. This finding extends the known range of Lassa virus to Togo. PMID:29460758

  4. First Large-Scale DNA Barcoding Assessment of Reptiles in the Biodiversity Hotspot of Madagascar, Based on Newly Designed COI Primers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Zoltán T.; Sonet, Gontran; Glaw, Frank; Vences, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Background DNA barcoding of non-avian reptiles based on the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene is still in a very early stage, mainly due to technical problems. Using a newly developed set of reptile-specific primers for COI we present the first comprehensive study targeting the entire reptile fauna of the fourth-largest island in the world, the biodiversity hotspot of Madagascar. Methodology/Principal Findings Representatives of the majority of Madagascan non-avian reptile species (including Squamata and Testudines) were sampled and successfully DNA barcoded. The new primer pair achieved a constantly high success rate (72.7–100%) for most squamates. More than 250 species of reptiles (out of the 393 described ones; representing around 64% of the known diversity of species) were barcoded. The average interspecific genetic distance within families ranged from a low of 13.4% in the Boidae to a high of 29.8% in the Gekkonidae. Using the average genetic divergence between sister species as a threshold, 41–48 new candidate (undescribed) species were identified. Simulations were used to evaluate the performance of DNA barcoding as a function of completeness of taxon sampling and fragment length. Compared with available multi-gene phylogenies, DNA barcoding correctly assigned most samples to species, genus and family with high confidence and the analysis of fewer taxa resulted in an increased number of well supported lineages. Shorter marker-lengths generally decreased the number of well supported nodes, but even mini-barcodes of 100 bp correctly assigned many samples to genus and family. Conclusions/Significance The new protocols might help to promote DNA barcoding of reptiles and the established library of reference DNA barcodes will facilitate the molecular identification of Madagascan reptiles. Our results might be useful to easily recognize undescribed diversity (i.e. novel taxa), to resolve taxonomic problems, and to monitor the international pet trade

  5. Beam Angular Divergence Effects in Ion Implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horsky, T. N.; Hahto, S. K.; Bilbrough, D. G.; Jacobson, D. C.; Krull, W. A.; Goldberg, R. D.; Current, M. I.; Hamamoto, N.; Umisedo, S.

    2008-01-01

    An important difference between monomer ion beams and heavy molecular beams is a significant reduction in beam angular divergence and increased on-wafer angular accuracy for molecular beams. This advantage in beam quality stems from a reduction in space-charge effects within the beam. Such improved angular accuracy has been shown to have a significant impact on the quality and yield of transistor devices [1,12]. In this study, B 18 H x + beam current and angular divergence data collected on a hybrid scanned beam line that magnetically scans the beam across the wafer is presented. Angular divergence is kept below 0.5 deg from an effective boron energy of 200 eV to 3000 eV. Under these conditions, the beam current is shown analytically to be limited by space charge below about 1 keV, but by the matching of the beam emittance to the acceptance of the beam line above 1 keV. In addition, results of a beam transport model which includes variable space charge compensation are presented, in which a drift mode B 18 H x + beam is compared to an otherwise identical boron beam after deceleration. Deceleration is shown to introduce significant space-charge blow up resulting in a large on-wafer angular divergence. The divergence effects introduced by wafer charging are also discussed.

  6. Ezh2 represses the basal cell lineage during lung endoderm development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snitow, Melinda E; Li, Shanru; Morley, Michael P; Rathi, Komal; Lu, Min Min; Kadzik, Rachel S; Stewart, Kathleen M; Morrisey, Edward E

    2015-01-01

    The development of the lung epithelium is regulated in a stepwise fashion to generate numerous differentiated and stem cell lineages in the adult lung. How these different lineages are generated in a spatially and temporally restricted fashion remains poorly understood, although epigenetic regulation probably plays an important role. We show that the Polycomb repressive complex 2 component Ezh2 is highly expressed in early lung development but is gradually downregulated by late gestation. Deletion of Ezh2 in early lung endoderm progenitors leads to the ectopic and premature appearance of Trp63+ basal cells that extend the entire length of the airway. Loss of Ezh2 also leads to reduced secretory cell differentiation. In their place, morphologically similar cells develop that express a subset of basal cell genes, including keratin 5, but no longer express high levels of either Trp63 or of standard secretory cell markers. This suggests that Ezh2 regulates the phenotypic switch between basal cells and secretory cells. Together, these findings show that Ezh2 restricts the basal cell lineage during normal lung endoderm development to allow the proper patterning of epithelial lineages during lung formation. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Biogeography and ecology of the rare and abundant microbial lineages in deep-sea hydrothermal vents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rika E; Sogin, Mitchell L; Baross, John A

    2015-01-01

    Environmental gradients generate countless ecological niches in deep-sea hydrothermal vent systems, which foster diverse microbial communities. The majority of distinct microbial lineages in these communities occur in very low abundance. However, the ecological role and distribution of rare and abundant lineages, particularly in deep, hot subsurface environments, remain unclear. Here, we use 16S rRNA tag sequencing to describe biogeographic patterning and microbial community structure of both rare and abundant archaea and bacteria in hydrothermal vent systems. We show that while rare archaeal lineages and almost all bacterial lineages displayed geographically restricted community structuring patterns, the abundant lineages of archaeal communities displayed a much more cosmopolitan distribution. Finally, analysis of one high-volume, high-temperature fluid sample representative of the deep hot biosphere described a unique microbial community that differed from microbial populations in diffuse flow fluid or sulfide samples, yet the rare thermophilic archaeal groups showed similarities to those that occur in sulfides. These results suggest that while most archaeal and bacterial lineages in vents are rare and display a highly regional distribution, a small percentage of lineages, particularly within the archaeal domain, are successful at widespread dispersal and colonization. © FEMS 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Three reciprocally monophyletic mtDNA lineages elucidate the taxonomic status of Grant's gazelles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Eline Deidre; Arctander, Peter; Siegismund, Hans Redlef

    2008-01-01

    are discussed in reference to the four currently recognised subspecies. We suggest Grant's gazelles be raised to the superspecies Nanger (granti) comprising three taxonomic units corresponding to the three mtDNA lineages. There was no evidence of gene flow between the notata and granti lineages, despite...... their geographic proximity, suggesting reproductive isolation. These constitute evolutionary significant units within the adaptive evolutionary framework. Due to its restricted geographic distribution and genetic and morphological distinctiveness, we suggest the petersii lineage be raised to the species Nanger...

  9. Active learning for noisy oracle via density power divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogawa, Yasuhiro; Ueno, Tsuyoshi; Kawahara, Yoshinobu; Washio, Takashi

    2013-10-01

    The accuracy of active learning is critically influenced by the existence of noisy labels given by a noisy oracle. In this paper, we propose a novel pool-based active learning framework through robust measures based on density power divergence. By minimizing density power divergence, such as β-divergence and γ-divergence, one can estimate the model accurately even under the existence of noisy labels within data. Accordingly, we develop query selecting measures for pool-based active learning using these divergences. In addition, we propose an evaluation scheme for these measures based on asymptotic statistical analyses, which enables us to perform active learning by evaluating an estimation error directly. Experiments with benchmark datasets and real-world image datasets show that our active learning scheme performs better than several baseline methods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Decoding divergent series in nonparaxial optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Riccardo; Gori, Franco; Guattari, Giorgio; Santarsiero, Massimo

    2011-03-15

    A theoretical analysis aimed at investigating the divergent character of perturbative series involved in the study of free-space nonparaxial propagation of vectorial optical beams is proposed. Our analysis predicts a factorial divergence for such series and provides a theoretical framework within which the results of recently published numerical experiments concerning nonparaxial propagation of vectorial Gaussian beams find a meaningful interpretation in terms of the decoding operated on such series by the Weniger transformation.

  11. Divergence times and colonization of the Canary Islands by Gallotia lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Siobhan C; Carranza, Salvador; Brown, Richard P

    2010-08-01

    The Canary Islands have become a model region for evolutionary studies. We obtained 1.8 Kbp of mtDNA sequence from all known island forms of the endemic lizard genus Gallotia and from its sister taxon Psammodromus in order to reanalyze phylogenetic relationships within the archipelago, estimate lineage divergence times, and reconstruct the colonization history of this group. Well-supported phylogenies were obtained using maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference. Previous studies have been unable to establish the branching pattern at the base of the tree. We found evidence that G. stehlini (Gran Canaria) originated from the most basal Gallotia node and G. atlantica from the subsequent node. Divergence times were estimated under a global clock using Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods implemented by three different programs: BEAST, MCMCTREE, MULTIDIVTIME. Node constraints were derived from subaerial island appearance data and were incorporated into the analyses as soft or hard maximal bounds. Posterior node ages differed slightly between programs, possibly due to different priors on divergence times. The most eastern Canary Islands first emerged just over 20 mya and their colonization appears to have taken place relatively quickly, around 17-20 mya. The subsequent node is consistent with cladogenesis due to colonization of Gran Canaria from the eastern islands about 11-13 mya. The western islands appear to have been colonized by a dispersal event from Lanzarote/Fuerteventura in the east to either La Gomera or one of the ancient edifices that subsequently formed Tenerife in the west, about 9-10 mya. Within the western islands, the most recent node that is ancestral to both the G. intermedia/G. gomerana/G. simonyi and the G.galloti/G. caesaris clades is dated at about 5-6 mya. Subsequent dispersal events between ancient Tenerife islands and La Gomera are dated at around 3 mya in both clades, although the direction of dispersal cannot be determined. Finally, we

  12. Association between Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex phylogenetic lineage and acquired drug resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney M Yuen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Development of resistance to antituberculosis drugs during treatment (i.e., acquired resistance can lead to emergence of resistant strains and consequent poor clinical outcomes. However, it is unknown whether Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex species and lineage affects the likelihood of acquired resistance. METHODS: We analyzed data from the U.S. National Tuberculosis Surveillance System and National Tuberculosis Genotyping Service for tuberculosis cases during 2004-2011 with assigned species and lineage and both initial and final drug susceptibility test results. We determined univariate associations between species and lineage of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex bacteria and acquired resistance to isoniazid, rifamycins, fluoroquinolones, and second-line injectables. We used Poisson regression with backward elimination to generate multivariable models for acquired resistance to isoniazid and rifamycins. RESULTS: M. bovis was independently associated with acquired resistance to isoniazid (adjusted prevalence ratio = 8.46, 95% CI 2.96-24.14 adjusting for HIV status, and with acquired resistance to rifamycins (adjusted prevalence ratio = 4.53, 95% CI 1.29-15.90 adjusting for homelessness, HIV status, initial resistance to isoniazid, site of disease, and administration of therapy. East Asian lineage was associated with acquired resistance to fluoroquinolones (prevalence ratio = 6.10, 95% CI 1.56-23.83. CONCLUSIONS: We found an association between mycobacterial species and lineage and acquired drug resistance using U.S. surveillance data. Prospective clinical studies are needed to determine the clinical significance of these findings, including whether rapid genotyping of isolates at the outset of treatment may benefit patient management.

  13. Phenotypic Divergence in the Reproductive Traits of Marbled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overall, the results indicated some level of phenotypic divergence of the fish ... divergence cannot be partitioned between fishing mortality, genetic .... female fish was estimated from the egg counts ..... that greatly improved the quality of the.

  14. Recovering mitochondrial DNA lineages of extinct Amerindian nations in extant homopatric Brazilian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Vanessa F; Parra, Flavia C; Gonçalves-Dornelas, Higgor; Rodrigues-Carvalho, Claudia; Silva, Hilton P; Pena, Sergio Dj

    2010-12-01

    Brazilian Amerindians have experienced a drastic population decrease in the past 500 years. Indeed, many native groups from eastern Brazil have vanished. However, their mitochondrial mtDNA haplotypes, still persist in Brazilians, at least 50 million of whom carry Amerindian mitochondrial lineages. Our objective was to test whether, by analyzing extant rural populations from regions anciently occupied by specific Amerindian groups, we could identify potentially authentic mitochondrial lineages, a strategy we have named 'homopatric targeting'. We studied 173 individuals from Queixadinha, a small village located in a territory previously occupied by the now extinct Botocudo Amerindian nation. Pedigree analysis revealed 74 unrelated matrilineages, which were screened for Amerindian mtDNA lineages by restriction fragment length polymorphism. A cosmopolitan control group was composed of 100 individuals from surrounding cities. All Amerindian lineages identified had their hypervariable segment HVSI sequenced, yielding 13 Amerindian haplotypes in Queixadinha, nine of which were not present in available databanks or in the literature. Among these haplotypes, there was a significant excess of haplogroup C (70%) and absence of haplogroup A lineages, which were the most common in the control group. The novelty of the haplotypes and the excess of the C haplogroup suggested that we might indeed have identified Botocudo lineages. To validate our strategy, we studied teeth extracted from 14 ancient skulls of Botocudo Amerindians from the collection of the National Museum of Rio de Janeiro. We recovered mtDNA sequences from all the teeth, identifying only six different haplotypes (a low haplotypic diversity of 0.8352 ± 0.0617), one of which was present among the lineages observed in the extant individuals studied. These findings validate the technique of homopatric targeting as a useful new strategy to study the peopling and colonization of the New World, especially when direct

  15. Pathogenicity evaluation of twelve West Nile virus strains belonging to four lineages from five continents in a mouse model: discrimination between three pathogenicity categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ramírez, Elisa; Llorente, Francisco; Del Amo, Javier; Fall, Gamou; Sall, Amadou Alpha; Lubisi, Alison; Lecollinet, Sylvie; Vázquez, Ana; Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Ángel

    2017-04-01

    Rodent models have been used extensively to study West Nile virus (WNV) infection because they develop severe neurological symptoms similar to those observed in human WNV neuroinvasive disease. Most of this research has focused on old lineage (L) 1 strains, while information about pathogenicity is lacking for the most recent L1 and L2 strains, as well as for newly defined lineages. In this study, 4-week-old Swiss mice were inoculated with a collection of 12 WNV isolates, comprising 10 old and recent L1 and L2 strains, the putative L6 strain from Malaysia and the proposed L7 strain Koutango (KOU). The intraperitoneal inoculation of 10-fold dilutions of each strain allowed the characterization of the isolates in terms of LD50, median survival times, ID50, replication in neural and extraneural tissues and antibody production. Based on these results, we classified the isolates in three groups: high virulence (all L1a strains, recent L2 strains and KOU), moderate virulence (B956 strain) and low virulence (Kunjin and Malaysian isolates). We determined that the inoculation of a single dose of 1000 p.f.u. would be sufficient to classify WNV strains by pathotype. We confirmed the enhanced virulence of the KOU strain with a high capacity to cause rapid systemic infection. We also corroborated that differences in pathogenicity among strains do not correlate with phylogenetic lineage or geographic origin, and confirmed that recent European and African WNV strains belonging to L1 and L2 are highly virulent and do not differ in their pathotype profile compared to the prototype NY99 strain.

  16. A deeply branching thermophilic bacterium with an ancient acetyl-CoA pathway dominates a subsurface ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideto Takami

    Full Text Available A nearly complete genome sequence of Candidatus 'Acetothermum autotrophicum', a presently uncultivated bacterium in candidate division OP1, was revealed by metagenomic analysis of a subsurface thermophilic microbial mat community. Phylogenetic analysis based on the concatenated sequences of proteins common among 367 prokaryotes suggests that Ca. 'A. autotrophicum' is one of the earliest diverging bacterial lineages. It possesses a folate-dependent Wood-Ljungdahl (acetyl-CoA pathway of CO(2 fixation, is predicted to have an acetogenic lifestyle, and possesses the newly discovered archaeal-autotrophic type of bifunctional fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase/phosphatase. A phylogenetic analysis of the core gene cluster of the acethyl-CoA pathway, shared by acetogens, methanogens, some sulfur- and iron-reducers and dechlorinators, supports the hypothesis that the core gene cluster of Ca. 'A. autotrophicum' is a particularly ancient bacterial pathway. The habitat, physiology and phylogenetic position of Ca. 'A. autotrophicum' support the view that the first bacterial and archaeal lineages were H(2-dependent acetogens and methanogenes living in hydrothermal environments.

  17. A Deeply Branching Thermophilic Bacterium with an Ancient Acetyl-CoA Pathway Dominates a Subsurface Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takami, Hideto; Noguchi, Hideki; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Uchiyama, Ikuo; Toyoda, Atsushi; Nishi, Shinro; Chee, Gab-Joo; Arai, Wataru; Nunoura, Takuro; Itoh, Takehiko; Hattori, Masahira; Takai, Ken

    2012-01-01

    A nearly complete genome sequence of Candidatus ‘Acetothermum autotrophicum’, a presently uncultivated bacterium in candidate division OP1, was revealed by metagenomic analysis of a subsurface thermophilic microbial mat community. Phylogenetic analysis based on the concatenated sequences of proteins common among 367 prokaryotes suggests that Ca. ‘A. autotrophicum’ is one of the earliest diverging bacterial lineages. It possesses a folate-dependent Wood-Ljungdahl (acetyl-CoA) pathway of CO2 fixation, is predicted to have an acetogenic lifestyle, and possesses the newly discovered archaeal-autotrophic type of bifunctional fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase/phosphatase. A phylogenetic analysis of the core gene cluster of the acethyl-CoA pathway, shared by acetogens, methanogens, some sulfur- and iron-reducers and dechlorinators, supports the hypothesis that the core gene cluster of Ca. ‘A. autotrophicum’ is a particularly ancient bacterial pathway. The habitat, physiology and phylogenetic position of Ca. ‘A. autotrophicum’ support the view that the first bacterial and archaeal lineages were H2-dependent acetogens and methanogenes living in hydrothermal environments. PMID:22303444

  18. Practicing on Newly Dead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jewel Abraham

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A newly dead cadaver simulation is practiced on the physical remains of the dead before the onset of rigor mortis. This technique has potential benefits for providing real-life in-situ experience for novice providers in health care practices. Evolving ethical views in health care brings into question some of the ethical aspects associated with newly dead cadaver simulation in terms of justification for practice, autonomy, consent, and the need of disclosure. A clear statement of policies and procedures on newly dead cadaver simulation has yet to be implemented. Although there are benefits and disadvantages to an in-situ cadaver simulation, such practices should not be carried out in secrecy as there is no compelling evidence that suggests such training as imperative. Secrecy in these practices is a violation of honor code of nursing ethics. As health care providers, practitioners are obliged to be ethically honest and trustworthy to their patients. The author explores the ethical aspects of using newly dead cadaver simulation in training novice nursing providers to gain competency in various lifesaving skills, which otherwise cannot be practiced on a living individual. The author explores multiple views on cadaver simulation in relation to ethical theories and practices such as consent and disclosure to family.

  19. Extending the generality of leaf economic design principles in the cycads, an ancient lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-Jiang; Cao, Kun-Fang; Sack, Lawren; Li, Nan; Wei, Xue-Mei; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2015-04-01

    Cycads are the most ancient lineage of living seed plants, but the design of their leaves has received little study. We tested whether cycad leaves are governed by the same fundamental design principles previously established for ferns, conifers and angiosperms, and characterized the uniqueness of this relict lineage in foliar trait relationships. Leaf structure, photosynthesis, hydraulics and nutrient composition were studied in 33 cycad species from nine genera and three families growing in two botanical gardens. Cycads varied greatly in leaf structure and physiology. Similarly to other lineages, light-saturated photosynthetic rate per mass (Am ) was related negatively to leaf mass per area and positively to foliar concentrations of chlorophyll, nitrogen (N), phosphorus and iron, but unlike angiosperms, leaf photosynthetic rate was not associated with leaf hydraulic conductance. Cycads had lower photosynthetic N use efficiency and higher photosynthetic performance relative to hydraulic capacity compared with other lineages. These findings extend the relationships shown for foliar traits in angiosperms to the cycads. This functional convergence supports the modern synthetic understanding of leaf design, with common constraints operating across lineages, even as they highlight exceptional aspects of the biology of this key relict lineage. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Tracing the spatio-temporal dynamics of endangered fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) within baleen whale (Mysticeti) lineages: a mitogenomic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jihyun; Nam, Bo-Hye; Yoon, Joon; Kim, Eun Bae; Park, Jung Youn; Kim, Heebal; Yoon, Sook Hee

    2017-12-01

    To explore the spatio-temporal dynamics of endangered fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) within the baleen whale (Mysticeti) lineages, we analyzed 148 published mitochondrial genome sequences of baleen whales. We used a Bayesian coalescent approach as well as Bayesian inferences and maximum likelihood methods. The results showed that the fin whales had a single maternal origin, and that there is a significant correlation between geographic location and evolution of global fin whales. The most recent common female ancestor of this species lived approximately 9.88 million years ago (Mya). Here, North Pacific fin whales first appeared about 7.48 Mya, followed by a subsequent divergence in Southern Hemisphere approximately 6.63 Mya and North Atlantic about 4.42 Mya. Relatively recently, approximately 1.76 and 1.42 Mya, there were two additional occurrences of North Pacific populations; one originated from the Southern Hemisphere and the other from an uncertain location. The evolutionary rate of this species was 1.002 × 10 -3 substitutions/site/My. Our Bayesian skyline plot illustrates that the fin whale population has the rapid expansion event since ~ 2.5 Mya, during the Quaternary glaciation stage. Additionally, this study indicates that the fin whale has a sister group relationship with humpback whale (Meganoptera novaeangliae) within the baleen whale lineages. Of the 16 genomic regions, NADH5 showed the most powerful signal for baleen whale phylogenetics. Interestingly, fin whales have 16 species-specific amino acid residues in eight mitochondrial genes: NADH2, COX2, COX3, ATPase6, ATPase8, NADH4, NADH5, and Cytb.

  1. The physiological resilience of fern sporophytes and gametophytes: advances in water relations offer new insights into an old lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila ePittermann

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Ferns are some of the oldest vascular plants in existence and they are the second most diverse lineage of tracheophytes next to angiosperms. Recent efforts to understand fern success have fo-cused on the physiological capacity and stress tolerance of both the sporophyte and the gameto-phyte generations. In this review, we examine these insights through the lens of plant water rela-tions, focusing primarily on the form and function of xylem tissue in the sporophyte, as well as the tolerance to and recovery from drought and desiccation stress in both stages of the fern life cycle. The absence of secondary xylem in ferns is compensated by selection for efficient primary xylem composed of large, closely arranged tracheids with permeable pit membranes. Protection from drought-induced hydraulic failure appears to arise from a combination of pit membrane traits and the arrangement of vascular bundles. Features such as tracheid-based xylem and vari-ously sized megaphylls are shared between ferns and more derived lineages, and offer an oppor-tunity to compare convergent and divergent hydraulic strategies critical to the success of xylem-bearing plants. Fern gametophytes show a high degree of desiccation tolerance but new evidence shows that morphological attributes in the gametophytes may facilitate water retention, though little work has addressed the ecological significance of this variation. We conclude with an emergent hypothesis that selection acted on the physiology of both the sporophyte and gameto-phyte generations in a synchronous manner that is consistent with selection for drought tolerance in the epiphytic niche, and the increasingly diverse habitats of the mid to late Cenozoic.

  2. Differential trypanocidal activity of novel macrolide antibiotics; correlation to genetic lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, Carolina; Gonzalez Rubio, Maria Luisa; Seco, Elena Maria; Escudero, Leticia; Corvo, Laura; Soto, Manuel; Fresno, Manuel; Malpartida, Francisco; Bonay, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Here we report the systematic study of the anti-trypanocidal activity of some new products derived from S. diastatus on 14 different T. cruzi strains spanning the six genetic lineages of T. cruzi. As the traditional growth inhibition curves giving similar IC(50) showed great differences on antibiotic and lineage tested, we decided to preserve the wealth of information derived from each inhibition curve and used an algorithm related to potency of the drugs, combined in a matrix data set used to generate a cluster tree. The cluster thus generated based just on drug susceptibility data closely resembles the phylogenies of the lineages derived from genetic data and provides a novel approach to correlate genetic data with phenotypes related to pathogenesis of Chagas disease. Furthermore we provide clues on the drugs mechanism of action.

  3. Reticulate evolution and incomplete lineage sorting among the ponderosa pines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willyard, Ann; Cronn, Richard; Liston, Aaron

    2009-08-01

    Interspecific gene flow via hybridization may play a major role in evolution by creating reticulate rather than hierarchical lineages in plant species. Occasional diploid pine hybrids indicate the potential for introgression, but reticulation is hard to detect because ancestral polymorphism is still shared across many groups of pine species. Nucleotide sequences for 53 accessions from 17 species in subsection Ponderosae (Pinus) provide evidence for reticulate evolution. Two discordant patterns among independent low-copy nuclear gene trees and a chloroplast haplotype are better explained by introgression than incomplete lineage sorting or other causes of incongruence. Conflicting resolution of three monophyletic Pinus coulteri accessions is best explained by ancient introgression followed by a genetic bottleneck. More recent hybridization transferred a chloroplast from P. jeffreyi to a sympatric P. washoensis individual. We conclude that incomplete lineage sorting could account for other examples of non-monophyly, and caution against any analysis based on single-accession or single-locus sampling in Pinus.

  4. Taming infrared divergences in the effective potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elias-Miro, J. [IFAE, Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain). Dept. de Fisica; Espinosa, J.R. [IFAE, Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); ICREA, Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats, Barcelona (Spain); Konstandin, T. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-06-15

    The Higgs effective potential in the Standard Model (SM), calculated perturbatively, generically suffers from infrared (IR) divergences when the (field-dependent) tree-level mass of the Goldstone bosons goes to zero. Such divergences can affect both the potential and its first derivative and become worse with increasing loop order. In this paper we show that these IR divergences are spurious, we perform a simple resummation of all IR-problematic terms known (up to three loops) and explain how to extend the resummation to cure all such divergences to any order. The method is of general applicability and would work in scenarios other than the SM. Our discussion has some bearing on a scenario recently proposed as a mechanism for gauge mediation of scale breaking in the ultraviolet, in which it is claimed that the low-energy Higgs potential is non-standard. We argue that all non-decoupling effects from the heavy sector can be absorbed in the renormalization of low-energy parameters leading to a SM-like effective theory.

  5. Taming infrared divergences in the effective potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elias-Miro, J.; Konstandin, T.

    2014-06-01

    The Higgs effective potential in the Standard Model (SM), calculated perturbatively, generically suffers from infrared (IR) divergences when the (field-dependent) tree-level mass of the Goldstone bosons goes to zero. Such divergences can affect both the potential and its first derivative and become worse with increasing loop order. In this paper we show that these IR divergences are spurious, we perform a simple resummation of all IR-problematic terms known (up to three loops) and explain how to extend the resummation to cure all such divergences to any order. The method is of general applicability and would work in scenarios other than the SM. Our discussion has some bearing on a scenario recently proposed as a mechanism for gauge mediation of scale breaking in the ultraviolet, in which it is claimed that the low-energy Higgs potential is non-standard. We argue that all non-decoupling effects from the heavy sector can be absorbed in the renormalization of low-energy parameters leading to a SM-like effective theory.

  6. Pathology of fatal lineage 1 and 2 West Nile virus infections in horses in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June H. Williams

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Since 2007, West Nile virus (WNV has been reported in South African horses, causing severe neurological signs. All cases were of lineage 2, except for one case that clustered with lineage 1 viruses. In the present study, gross and microscopic lesions of six South African lineage 2-infected horses and the one lineage 1 case are described. Diagnoses were confirmed by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR of central nervous system (CNS tissue and one by RT-PCR of a brain virus isolate. The CNS of all cases was negative by RT-PCR or immunohistochemistry (IHC for African horse sickness (AHS, equine encephalosis virus, equine herpes viruses 1 and 4, other zoonotic flaviviruses, alphaviruses, and shunivirus, and either by immunofluorescence or IHC for rabies. Gross visceral lesions were nonspecific but often mimicked those of AHS. The CNS histopathology of WNV lineage 2 cases resembled the nonsuppurative polioencephalomyelitis reported in the Northern Hemisphere lineage 1 and recent Hungarian lineage 2 cases. Occasional meningitis, focal spinal ventral horn poliomalacia, dorsal and lateral horn poliomyelitis, leucomyelitis, asymmetrical ventral motor spinal neuritis and frequent olfactory region involvement were also seen. Lineage 2 cases displayed marked variations in CNS lesion severity, type and distribution, and suggested various viral entry routes into the CNS, based on findings in experimental mice and hamsters. Lineage 1 lesions were comparable to the milder lineage 2 cases. West Nile virus IHC on CNS sections with marked lesions from all cases elicited only two antigen-positive cells in the olfactory cortex of one case. The presence in the CNS of T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophage-monocytes was confirmed by cluster of differentiation (CD 3, CD20, multiple myeloma oncogene 1 (MUM1 and macrophage (MAC 387 IHC.

  7. Exact cancellation of quadratic divergences in top condensation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumhofer, A.

    1995-01-01

    We discuss the hierarchy problem and the corresponding quadratic divergences in the top mode Standard Model. Quadratic divergences appear at each order 1/N c since fermionic and bosonic contributions are of different order 1/N c . It is shown that the full dynamical system to all orders in 1/N c admits a solution, where the sum of all quadratic divergent contributions disappears. ((orig.))

  8. Mitochondrial Analysis of the Most Basal Canid Reveals Deep Divergence between Eastern and Western North American Gray Foxes (Urocyon spp.) and Ancient Roots in Pleistocene California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Natalie S; Statham, Mark J; Sacks, Benjamin N

    2015-01-01

    Pleistocene aridification in central North America caused many temperate forest-associated vertebrates to split into eastern and western lineages. Such divisions can be cryptic when Holocene expansions have closed the gaps between once-disjunct ranges or when local morphological variation obscures deeper regional divergences. We investigated such cryptic divergence in the gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), the most basal extant canid in the world. We also investigated the phylogeography of this species and its diminutive relative, the island fox (U. littoralis), in California. The California Floristic Province was a significant source of Pleistocene diversification for a wide range of taxa and, we hypothesized, for the gray fox as well. Alternatively, gray foxes in California potentially reflected a recent Holocene expansion from further south. We sequenced mitochondrial DNA from 169 gray foxes from the southeastern and southwestern United States and 11 island foxes from three of the Channel Islands. We estimated a 1.3% sequence divergence in the cytochrome b gene between eastern and western foxes and used coalescent simulations to date the divergence to approximately 500,000 years before present (YBP), which is comparable to that between recognized sister species within the Canidae. Gray fox samples collected from throughout California exhibited high haplotype diversity, phylogeographic structure, and genetic signatures of a late-Holocene population decline. Bayesian skyline analysis also indicated an earlier population increase dating to the early Wisconsin glaciation (~70,000 YBP) and a root height extending back to the previous interglacial (~100,000 YBP). Together these findings support California's role as a long-term Pleistocene refugium for western Urocyon. Lastly, based both on our results and re-interpretation of those of another study, we conclude that island foxes of the Channel Islands trace their origins to at least 3 distinct female founders from

  9. Evolutionary change in physiological phenotypes along the human lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vining, Alexander Q; Nunn, Charles L

    2016-01-01

    Research in evolutionary medicine provides many examples of how evolution has shaped human susceptibility to disease. Traits undergoing rapid evolutionary change may result in associated costs or reduce the energy available to other traits. We hypothesize that humans have experienced more such changes than other primates as a result of major evolutionary change along the human lineage. We investigated 41 physiological traits across 50 primate species to identify traits that have undergone marked evolutionary change along the human lineage. We analysed the data using two Bayesian phylogenetic comparative methods. One approach models trait covariation in non-human primates and predicts human phenotypes to identify whether humans are evolutionary outliers. The other approach models adaptive shifts under an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model of evolution to assess whether inferred shifts are more common on the human branch than on other primate lineages. We identified four traits with strong evidence for an evolutionary increase on the human lineage (amylase, haematocrit, phosphorus and monocytes) and one trait with strong evidence for decrease (neutrophilic bands). Humans exhibited more cases of distinct evolutionary change than other primates. Human physiology has undergone increased evolutionary change compared to other primates. Long distance running may have contributed to increases in haematocrit and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, while dietary changes are likely related to increases in amylase. In accordance with the pathogen load hypothesis, human monocyte levels were increased, but many other immune-related measures were not. Determining the mechanisms underlying conspicuous evolutionary change in these traits may provide new insights into human disease. The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Foundation for Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health.

  10. The fossil record and taphonomy of butterflies and moths (Insecta, Lepidoptera): implications for evolutionary diversity and divergence-time estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Jae-Cheon; Labandeira, Conrad C; Davis, Donald R

    2015-02-04

    It is conventionally accepted that the lepidopteran fossil record is significantly incomplete when compared to the fossil records of other, very diverse, extant insect orders. Such an assumption, however, has been based on cumulative diversity data rather than using alternative statistical approaches from actual specimen counts. We reviewed documented specimens of the lepidopteran fossil record, currently consisting of 4,593 known specimens that are comprised of 4,262 body fossils and 331 trace fossils. The temporal distribution of the lepidopteran fossil record shows significant bias towards the late Paleocene to middle Eocene time interval. Lepidopteran fossils also record major shifts in preservational style and number of represented localities at the Mesozoic stage and Cenozoic epoch level of temporal resolution. Only 985 of the total known fossil specimens (21.4%) were assigned to 23 of the 40 extant lepidopteran superfamilies. Absolute numbers and proportions of preservation types for identified fossils varied significantly across superfamilies. The secular increase of lepidopteran family-level diversity through geologic time significantly deviates from the general pattern of other hyperdiverse, ordinal-level lineages. Our statistical analyses of the lepidopteran fossil record show extreme biases in preservation type, age, and taxonomic composition. We highlight the scarcity of identified lepidopteran fossils and provide a correspondence between the latest lepidopteran divergence-time estimates and relevant fossil occurrences at the superfamily level. These findings provide caution in interpreting the lepidopteran fossil record through the modeling of evolutionary diversification and in determination of divergence time estimates.

  11. Total Bregman Divergence and its Applications to Shape Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meizhu; Vemuri, Baba C; Amari, Shun-Ichi; Nielsen, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Shape database search is ubiquitous in the world of biometric systems, CAD systems etc. Shape data in these domains is experiencing an explosive growth and usually requires search of whole shape databases to retrieve the best matches with accuracy and efficiency for a variety of tasks. In this paper, we present a novel divergence measure between any two given points in [Formula: see text] or two distribution functions. This divergence measures the orthogonal distance between the tangent to the convex function (used in the definition of the divergence) at one of its input arguments and its second argument. This is in contrast to the ordinate distance taken in the usual definition of the Bregman class of divergences [4]. We use this orthogonal distance to redefine the Bregman class of divergences and develop a new theory for estimating the center of a set of vectors as well as probability distribution functions. The new class of divergences are dubbed the total Bregman divergence (TBD). We present the l 1 -norm based TBD center that is dubbed the t-center which is then used as a cluster center of a class of shapes The t-center is weighted mean and this weight is small for noise and outliers. We present a shape retrieval scheme using TBD and the t-center for representing the classes of shapes from the MPEG-7 database and compare the results with other state-of-the-art methods in literature.

  12. There is no fitness but fitness, and the lineage is its bearer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Inclusive fitness has been the cornerstone of social evolution theory for more than a half-century and has matured as a mathematical theory in the past 20 years. Yet surprisingly for a theory so central to an entire field, some of its connections to evolutionary theory more broadly remain contentious or underappreciated. In this paper, we aim to emphasize the connection between inclusive fitness and modern evolutionary theory through the following fact: inclusive fitness is simply classical Darwinian fitness, averaged over social, environmental and demographic states that members of a gene lineage experience. Therefore, inclusive fitness is neither a generalization of classical fitness, nor does it belong exclusively to the individual. Rather, the lineage perspective emphasizes that evolutionary success is determined by the effect of selection on all biological and environmental contexts that a lineage may experience. We argue that this understanding of inclusive fitness based on gene lineages provides the most illuminating and accurate picture and avoids pitfalls in interpretation and empirical applications of inclusive fitness theory. PMID:26729925

  13. There is no fitness but fitness, and the lineage is its bearer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akçay, Erol; Van Cleve, Jeremy

    2016-02-05

    Inclusive fitness has been the cornerstone of social evolution theory for more than a half-century and has matured as a mathematical theory in the past 20 years. Yet surprisingly for a theory so central to an entire field, some of its connections to evolutionary theory more broadly remain contentious or underappreciated. In this paper, we aim to emphasize the connection between inclusive fitness and modern evolutionary theory through the following fact: inclusive fitness is simply classical Darwinian fitness, averaged over social, environmental and demographic states that members of a gene lineage experience. Therefore, inclusive fitness is neither a generalization of classical fitness, nor does it belong exclusively to the individual. Rather, the lineage perspective emphasizes that evolutionary success is determined by the effect of selection on all biological and environmental contexts that a lineage may experience. We argue that this understanding of inclusive fitness based on gene lineages provides the most illuminating and accurate picture and avoids pitfalls in interpretation and empirical applications of inclusive fitness theory. © 2016 The Author(s).

  14. Lineage tracing of genome-edited alleles reveals high fidelity axolotl limb regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Grant Parker; Sanor, Lucas D; Crews, Craig M

    2017-09-16

    Salamanders are unparalleled among tetrapods in their ability to regenerate many structures, including entire limbs, and the study of this ability may provide insights into human regenerative therapies. The complex structure of the limb poses challenges to the investigation of the cellular and molecular basis of its regeneration. Using CRISPR/Cas, we genetically labelled unique cell lineages within the developing axolotl embryo and tracked the frequency of each lineage within amputated and fully regenerated limbs. This allowed us, for the first time, to assess the contributions of multiple low frequency cell lineages to the regenerating limb at once. Our comparisons reveal that regenerated limbs are high fidelity replicas of the originals even after repeated amputations.

  15. Ascl1 (Mash1) lineage cells contribute to discrete cell populations in CNS architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Euiseok J.; Battiste, James; Nakagawa, Yasushi; Johnson, Jane E.

    2008-01-01

    Ascl1 (previously Mash1) is a bHLH transcription factor essential for neuronal differentiation and specification in the nervous system. Although it has been studied for its role in several neural lineages, the full complement of lineages arising from Ascl1 progenitor cells remains unknown. Using an inducible Cre-flox genetic fate mapping strategy, Ascl1 lineages were determined throughout the brain. Ascl1 is present in proliferating progenitor cells but these cells are actively differentiatin...

  16. Vorticity and divergence in the high-latitude upper thermosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayer, J.P.; Killeen, T.L.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements made from the Dynamics Explorer-2 satellite in November 1981 through January 1982 and November 1982 through January 1983 have been analyzed to determine the divergence and vertical component of vorticity of the high-latitude neutral wind field in the upper thermosphere for quiet (kp≤6) geomagnetic conditions and for both northern (winter) and southern (summer) hemispheres in the polar thermosphere and provides insight into the relative strengths of the different sources of momentum and energy responsible for driving the winds. The principal findings from this work include the following: The mean neutral wind pattern is dominated by rotational flow rather than by divergent flow, with a typical vorticity: divergence ratio of ∼ 2:1 for active conditions and ∼ 4:1 for quiet conditions. Comparison of the divergence and vorticity patterns for quiet and active conditions indicates that the divergent component of the neutral flow intensifies more significantly with increasing geomagnetic activity than does the rotational component

  17. A Separation between Divergence and Holevo Information for Ensembles

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Rahul; Nayak, Ashwin; Su, Yi

    2007-01-01

    The notion of divergence information of an ensemble of probability distributions was introduced by Jain, Radhakrishnan, and Sen in the context of the ``substate theorem''. Since then, divergence has been recognized as a more natural measure of information in several situations in quantum and classical communication. We construct ensembles of probability distributions for which divergence information may be significantly smaller than the more standard Holevo information. As a result, we establ...

  18. Differential trypanocidal activity of novel macrolide antibiotics; correlation to genetic lineage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Aquilino

    Full Text Available Here we report the systematic study of the anti-trypanocidal activity of some new products derived from S. diastatus on 14 different T. cruzi strains spanning the six genetic lineages of T. cruzi. As the traditional growth inhibition curves giving similar IC(50 showed great differences on antibiotic and lineage tested, we decided to preserve the wealth of information derived from each inhibition curve and used an algorithm related to potency of the drugs, combined in a matrix data set used to generate a cluster tree. The cluster thus generated based just on drug susceptibility data closely resembles the phylogenies of the lineages derived from genetic data and provides a novel approach to correlate genetic data with phenotypes related to pathogenesis of Chagas disease. Furthermore we provide clues on the drugs mechanism of action.

  19. Chromosomal barcoding as a tool for multiplexed phenotypic characterization of laboratory evolved lineages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Leonie Johanna; Porse, Andreas; Munck, Christian

    2018-01-01

    experiments can be automated in a high-throughput fashion. However, the characterization of the resulting lineages can become a time consuming task, when the performance of each lineage is evaluated individually. Here, we present a novel method for the markerless insertion of randomized genetic barcodes...

  20. Cytomegalovirus immune evasion of myeloid lineage cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Melanie M; Dağ, Franziska; Hengel, Hartmut; Messerle, Martin; Kalinke, Ulrich; Čičin-Šain, Luka

    2015-06-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) evades the immune system in many different ways, allowing the virus to grow and its progeny to spread in the face of an adverse environment. Mounting evidence about the antiviral role of myeloid immune cells has prompted the research of CMV immune evasion mechanisms targeting these cells. Several cells of the myeloid lineage, such as monocytes, dendritic cells and macrophages, play a role in viral control, but are also permissive for CMV and are naturally infected by it. Therefore, CMV evasion of myeloid cells involves mechanisms that qualitatively differ from the evasion of non-CMV-permissive immune cells of the lymphoid lineage. The evasion of myeloid cells includes effects in cis, where the virus modulates the immune signaling pathways within the infected myeloid cell, and those in trans, where the virus affects somatic cells targeted by cytokines released from myeloid cells. This review presents an overview of CMV strategies to modulate and evade the antiviral activity of myeloid cells in cis and in trans.

  1. Mesenchymal progenitor cells for the osteogenic lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Noriaki; Kronenberg, Henry M

    2015-09-01

    Mesenchymal progenitors of the osteogenic lineage provide the flexibility for bone to grow, maintain its function and homeostasis. Traditionally, colony-forming-unit fibroblasts (CFU-Fs) have been regarded as surrogates for mesenchymal progenitors; however, this definition cannot address the function of these progenitors in their native setting. Transgenic murine models including lineage-tracing technologies based on the cre-lox system have proven to be useful in delineating mesenchymal progenitors in their native environment. Although heterogeneity of cell populations of interest marked by a promoter-based approach complicates overall interpretation, an emerging complexity of mesenchymal progenitors has been revealed. Current literatures suggest two distinct types of bone progenitor cells; growth-associated mesenchymal progenitors contribute to explosive growth of bone in early life, whereas bone marrow mesenchymal progenitors contribute to the much slower remodeling process and response to injury that occurs mainly in adulthood. More detailed relationships of these progenitors need to be studied through further experimentation.

  2. Long-term live cell imaging and automated 4D analysis of drosophila neuroblast lineages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina C F Homem

    Full Text Available The developing Drosophila brain is a well-studied model system for neurogenesis and stem cell biology. In the Drosophila central brain, around 200 neural stem cells called neuroblasts undergo repeated rounds of asymmetric cell division. These divisions typically generate a larger self-renewing neuroblast and a smaller ganglion mother cell that undergoes one terminal division to create two differentiating neurons. Although single mitotic divisions of neuroblasts can easily be imaged in real time, the lack of long term imaging procedures has limited the use of neuroblast live imaging for lineage analysis. Here we describe a method that allows live imaging of cultured Drosophila neuroblasts over multiple cell cycles for up to 24 hours. We describe a 4D image analysis protocol that can be used to extract cell cycle times and growth rates from the resulting movies in an automated manner. We use it to perform lineage analysis in type II neuroblasts where clonal analysis has indicated the presence of a transit-amplifying population that potentiates the number of neurons. Indeed, our experiments verify type II lineages and provide quantitative parameters for all cell types in those lineages. As defects in type II neuroblast lineages can result in brain tumor formation, our lineage analysis method will allow more detailed and quantitative analysis of tumorigenesis and asymmetric cell division in the Drosophila brain.

  3. Occurrence of different Canine distemper virus lineages in Italian dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balboni, Andrea; De Lorenzo Dandola, Giorgia; Scagliarini, Alessandra; Prosperi, Santino; Battilani, Mara

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the sequence analysis of the H gene of 7 Canine distemper virus (CDV) strains identified in dogs in Italy between years 2002-2012. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the CDV strains belonged to 2 clusters: 6 viruses were identified as Arctic-like lineage and 1 as Europe 1 lineage. These data show a considerable prevalence of Arctic-like-CDVs in the analysed dogs. The dogs and the 3 viruses more recently identified showed 4 distinctive amino acid mutations compared to all other Arctic CDVs.

  4. Phylogenetic features of hemagglutin gene in canine distemper virus strains from different genetic lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Peng; Guo, Li; Wen, Yongjun; Yang, Yangling; Cheng, Shipeng

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the genotype of two Canine distemper virus (CDV) strains, namely, ZJJ-SD and ZJJ-LN, were investigated, based on the whole hemagglutinin (HA) gene. The CDV strains were obtained from two foxes in Shandong Province and Liaoning Province in 2011. Phylogenetic analyses were carried out for 260 CDV strains worldwide, and a statistical analysis was performed in the amino acid substitutions at positions 530 and 549 of the HA protein. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the two strains, ZJJ-SD and ZJJ-LN, belonged to the CDV Asia I lineage. Site 530 of HA protein was found to be relatively conserved within CDV lineages in different host species by combining the genetic sequence data with the published data from 260 CDV strains worldwide. The data analysis showed a bias toward the predicted substitution Y549H for the non-dog strains in Asia I and Europe lineages. The ratio of site 549 genetic drift in the HA gene were significantly different between dogs and non-dogs in the two lineages. The strain ZJJ-SD, from wild canid, has an Y549H substitution. It is one of three Y549H substitution for wild canids in Asia I lineages. Site 530 of HA protein was not immediately relative to CDV genetic drift from dogs to non-dogs. Statistical analysis indicated that non-dog strains have a high probability to contain Y549H than dog strains in Asia I and Europe lineages. Thus, site 549 is considered important in genetic drift from dogs to non-dogs, at least in Asia I and Europe lineages.

  5. How and why DNA barcodes underestimate the diversity of microbial eukaryotes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwenael Piganeau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Because many picoplanktonic eukaryotic species cannot currently be maintained in culture, direct sequencing of PCR-amplified 18S ribosomal gene DNA fragments from filtered sea-water has been successfully used to investigate the astounding diversity of these organisms. The recognition of many novel planktonic organisms is thus based solely on their 18S rDNA sequence. However, a species delimited by its 18S rDNA sequence might contain many cryptic species, which are highly differentiated in their protein coding sequences. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we investigate the issue of species identification from one gene to the whole genome sequence. Using 52 whole genome DNA sequences, we estimated the global genetic divergence in protein coding genes between organisms from different lineages and compared this to their ribosomal gene sequence divergences. We show that this relationship between proteome divergence and 18S divergence is lineage dependent. Unicellular lineages have especially low 18S divergences relative to their protein sequence divergences, suggesting that 18S ribosomal genes are too conservative to assess planktonic eukaryotic diversity. We provide an explanation for this lineage dependency, which suggests that most species with large effective population sizes will show far less divergence in 18S than protein coding sequences. CONCLUSIONS: There is therefore a trade-off between using genes that are easy to amplify in all species, but which by their nature are highly conserved and underestimate the true number of species, and using genes that give a better description of the number of species, but which are more difficult to amplify. We have shown that this trade-off differs between unicellular and multicellular organisms as a likely consequence of differences in effective population sizes. We anticipate that biodiversity of microbial eukaryotic species is underestimated and that numerous "cryptic species" will become

  6. What does natural selection lead to?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Changes in the course of time (within the same lineage, ancestors and descendants are seen to belong to different species). Diversity (lineages begin to diverge).

  7. Newly graduated nurses' use of knowledge sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldbjerg, Siri Lygum; Grønkjaer, Mette; Sørensen, Erik Elgaard

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To advance evidence on newly graduated nurses' use of knowledge sources. BACKGROUND: Clinical decisions need to be evidence-based and understanding the knowledge sources that newly graduated nurses use will inform both education and practice. Qualitative studies on newly graduated nurses' use...... underscoring progression in knowledge use and perception of competence and confidence among newly graduated nurses. CONCLUSION: The transition phase, feeling of confidence and ability to use critical thinking and reflection, has a great impact on knowledge sources incorporated in clinical decisions....... The synthesis accentuates that for use of newly graduated nurses' qualifications and skills in evidence-based practice, clinical practice needs to provide a supportive environment which nurtures critical thinking and questions and articulates use of multiple knowledge sources....

  8. Phylogeographic pattern and extensive mitochondrial DNA divergence disclose a species complex within the Chagas disease vector Triatoma dimidiata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando A Monteiro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Triatoma dimidiata is among the main vectors of Chagas disease in Latin America. However, and despite important advances, there is no consensus about the taxonomic status of phenotypically divergent T. dimidiata populations, which in most recent papers are regarded as subspecies. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: A total of 126 cyt b sequences (621 bp long were produced for specimens from across the species range. Forty-seven selected specimens representing the main cyt b clades observed (after a preliminary phylogenetic analysis were also sequenced for an ND4 fragment (554 bp long and concatenated with their respective cyt b sequences to produce a combined data set totalling 1175 bp/individual. Bayesian and Maximum-Likelihood phylogenetic analyses of both data sets (cyt b, and cyt b+ND4 disclosed four strongly divergent (all pairwise Kimura 2-parameter distances >0.08, monophyletic groups: Group I occurs from Southern Mexico through Central America into Colombia, with Ecuadorian specimens resembling Nicaraguan material; Group II includes samples from Western-Southwestern Mexico; Group III comprises specimens from the Yucatán peninsula; and Group IV consists of sylvatic samples from Belize. The closely-related, yet formally recognized species T. hegneri from the island of Cozumel falls within the divergence range of the T. dimidiata populations studied. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that Groups I-IV, as well as T. hegneri, should be regarded as separate species. In the Petén of Guatemala, representatives of Groups I, II, and III occur in sympatry; the absence of haplotypes with intermediate genetic distances, as shown by multimodal mismatch distribution plots, clearly indicates that reproductive barriers actively promote within-group cohesion. Some sylvatic specimens from Belize belong to a different species - likely the basal lineage of the T. dimidiata complex, originated ~8.25 Mya. The evidence presented here strongly supports the proposition

  9. Diverging expectations in buyer-seller relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman; Christensen, Poul Rind; Damgaard, Torben

    2009-01-01

    Many firms assume that outsourcing partnerships may allow them to strengthen their overall competitiveness. Lured by its intuitive appeal, several enter into such partnerships, only to realize that they represent a marginal rather than a magical solution to their quest for increasing market...... performance. We explore the proposed impact of diverging relationship norms on relationship expectations using data from an ongoing field study of Danish buyers and Chinese suppliers. We link these diverging expectations to the business practices of Danish buyers and Chinese and their institutional contexts...

  10. A general scenario of Hox gene inventory variation among major sarcopterygian lineages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Chaolin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hox genes are known to play a key role in shaping the body plan of metazoans. Evolutionary dynamics of these genes is therefore essential in explaining patterns of evolutionary diversity. Among extant sarcopterygians comprising both lobe-finned fishes and tetrapods, our knowledge of the Hox genes and clusters has largely been restricted in several model organisms such as frogs, birds and mammals. Some evolutionary gaps still exist, especially for those groups with derived body morphology or occupying key positions on the tree of life, hindering our understanding of how Hox gene inventory varied along the sarcopterygian lineage. Results We determined the Hox gene inventory for six sarcopterygian groups: lungfishes, caecilians, salamanders, snakes, turtles and crocodiles by comprehensive PCR survey and genome walking. Variable Hox genes in each of the six sarcopterygian group representatives, compared to the human Hox gene inventory, were further validated for their presence/absence by PCR survey in a number of related species representing a broad evolutionary coverage of the group. Turtles, crocodiles, birds and placental mammals possess the same 39 Hox genes. HoxD12 is absent in snakes, amphibians and probably lungfishes. HoxB13 is lost in frogs and caecilians. Lobe-finned fishes, amphibians and squamate reptiles possess HoxC3. HoxC1 is only present in caecilians and lobe-finned fishes. Similar to coelacanths, lungfishes also possess HoxA14, which is only found in lobe-finned fishes to date. Our Hox gene variation data favor the lungfish-tetrapod, turtle-archosaur and frog-salamander relationships and imply that the loss of HoxD12 is not directly related to digit reduction. Conclusions Our newly determined Hox inventory data provide a more complete scenario for evolutionary dynamics of Hox genes along the sarcopterygian lineage. Limbless, worm-like caecilians and snakes possess similar Hox gene inventories to animals with

  11. Divergence of gene body DNA methylation and evolution of plant duplicate genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    Full Text Available It has been shown that gene body DNA methylation is associated with gene expression. However, whether and how deviation of gene body DNA methylation between duplicate genes can influence their divergence remains largely unexplored. Here, we aim to elucidate the potential role of gene body DNA methylation in the fate of duplicate genes. We identified paralogous gene pairs from Arabidopsis and rice (Oryza sativa ssp. japonica genomes and reprocessed their single-base resolution methylome data. We show that methylation in paralogous genes nonlinearly correlates with several gene properties including exon number/gene length, expression level and mutation rate. Further, we demonstrated that divergence of methylation level and pattern in paralogs indeed positively correlate with their sequence and expression divergences. This result held even after controlling for other confounding factors known to influence the divergence of paralogs. We observed that methylation level divergence might be more relevant to the expression divergence of paralogs than methylation pattern divergence. Finally, we explored the mechanisms that might give rise to the divergence of gene body methylation in paralogs. We found that exonic methylation divergence more closely correlates with expression divergence than intronic methylation divergence. We show that genomic environments (e.g., flanked by transposable elements and repetitive sequences of paralogs generated by various duplication mechanisms are associated with the methylation divergence of paralogs. Overall, our results suggest that the changes in gene body DNA methylation could provide another avenue for duplicate genes to develop differential expression patterns and undergo different evolutionary fates in plant genomes.

  12. A genome survey sequencing of the Java mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus) adds new aspects to the evolution of lineage specific retrotransposons in Ruminantia (Cetartiodactyla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallus, S; Kumar, V; Bertelsen, M F; Janke, A; Nilsson, M A

    2015-10-25

    Ruminantia, the ruminating, hoofed mammals (cow, deer, giraffe and allies) are an unranked artiodactylan clade. Around 50-60 million years ago the BovB retrotransposon entered the ancestral ruminantian genome through horizontal gene transfer. A survey genome screen using 454-pyrosequencing of the Java mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus) and the lesser kudu (Tragelaphus imberbis) was done to investigate and to compare the landscape of transposable elements within Ruminantia. The family Tragulidae (mouse deer) is the only representative of Tragulina and phylogenetically important, because it represents the earliest divergence in Ruminantia. The data analyses show that, relative to other ruminantian species, the lesser kudu genome has seen an expansion of BovB Long INterspersed Elements (LINEs) and BovB related Short INterspersed Elements (SINEs) like BOVA2. In comparison the genome of Java mouse deer has fewer BovB elements than other ruminants, especially Bovinae, and has in addition a novel CHR-3 SINE most likely propagated by LINE-1. By contrast the other ruminants have low amounts of CHR SINEs but high numbers of actively propagating BovB-derived and BovB-propagated SINEs. The survey sequencing data suggest that the transposable element landscape in mouse deer (Tragulina) is unique among Ruminantia, suggesting a lineage specific evolutionary trajectory that does not involve BovB mediated retrotransposition. This shows that the genomic landscape of mobile genetic elements can rapidly change in any lineage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Pox neuro control of cell lineages that give rise to larval poly-innervated external sensory organs in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanrui; Boll, Werner; Noll, Markus

    2015-01-15

    The Pox neuro (Poxn) gene of Drosophila plays a crucial role in the development of poly-innervated external sensory (p-es) organs. However, how Poxn exerts this role has remained elusive. In this study, we have analyzed the cell lineages of all larval p-es organs, namely of the kölbchen, papilla 6, and hair 3. Surprisingly, these lineages are distinct from any previously reported cell lineages of sensory organs. Unlike the well-established lineage of mono-innervated external sensory (m-es) organs and a previously proposed model of the p-es lineage, we demonstrate that all wild-type p-es lineages exhibit the following features: the secondary precursor, pIIa, gives rise to all three support cells-socket, shaft, and sheath, whereas the other secondary precursor, pIIb, is neuronal and gives rise to all neurons. We further show that in one of the p-es lineages, that of papilla 6, one cell undergoes apoptosis. By contrast in Poxn null mutants, all p-es lineages have a reduced number of cells and their pattern of cell divisions is changed to that of an m-es organ, with the exception of a lineage in a minority of mutant kölbchen that retains a second bipolar neuron. Indeed, the role of Poxn in p-es lineages is consistent with the specification of the developmental potential of secondary precursors and the regulation of cell division but not apoptosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Asymptotic distributions of coalescence times and ancestral lineage numbers for populations with temporally varying size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua; Chen, Kun

    2013-07-01

    The distributions of coalescence times and ancestral lineage numbers play an essential role in coalescent modeling and ancestral inference. Both exact distributions of coalescence times and ancestral lineage numbers are expressed as the sum of alternating series, and the terms in the series become numerically intractable for large samples. More computationally attractive are their asymptotic distributions, which were derived in Griffiths (1984) for populations with constant size. In this article, we derive the asymptotic distributions of coalescence times and ancestral lineage numbers for populations with temporally varying size. For a sample of size n, denote by Tm the mth coalescent time, when m + 1 lineages coalesce into m lineages, and An(t) the number of ancestral lineages at time t back from the current generation. Similar to the results in Griffiths (1984), the number of ancestral lineages, An(t), and the coalescence times, Tm, are asymptotically normal, with the mean and variance of these distributions depending on the population size function, N(t). At the very early stage of the coalescent, when t → 0, the number of coalesced lineages n - An(t) follows a Poisson distribution, and as m → n, $$n\\left(n-1\\right){T}_{m}/2N\\left(0\\right)$$ follows a gamma distribution. We demonstrate the accuracy of the asymptotic approximations by comparing to both exact distributions and coalescent simulations. Several applications of the theoretical results are also shown: deriving statistics related to the properties of gene genealogies, such as the time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) and the total branch length (TBL) of the genealogy, and deriving the allele frequency spectrum for large genealogies. With the advent of genomic-level sequencing data for large samples, the asymptotic distributions are expected to have wide applications in theoretical and methodological development for population genetic inference.

  15. Lineage range estimation method reveals fine-scale endemism linked to Pleistocene stability in Australian rainforest herpetofauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosauer, Dan F; Catullo, Renee A; VanDerWal, Jeremy; Moussalli, Adnan; Moritz, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Areas of suitable habitat for species and communities have arisen, shifted, and disappeared with Pleistocene climate cycles, and through this shifting landscape, current biodiversity has found paths to the present. Evolutionary refugia, areas of relative habitat stability in this shifting landscape, support persistence of lineages through time, and are thus crucial to the accumulation and maintenance of biodiversity. Areas of endemism are indicative of refugial areas where diversity has persisted, and endemism of intraspecific lineages in particular is strongly associated with late-Pleistocene habitat stability. However, it remains a challenge to consistently estimate the geographic ranges of intraspecific lineages and thus infer phylogeographic endemism, because spatial sampling for genetic analyses is typically sparse relative to species records. We present a novel technique to model the geographic distribution of intraspecific lineages, which is informed by the ecological niche of a species and known locations of its constituent lineages. Our approach allows for the effects of isolation by unsuitable habitat, and captures uncertainty in the extent of lineage ranges. Applying this method to the arc of rainforest areas spanning 3500 km in eastern Australia, we estimated lineage endemism for 53 species of rainforest dependent herpetofauna with available phylogeographic data. We related endemism to the stability of rainforest habitat over the past 120,000 years and identified distinct concentrations of lineage endemism that can be considered putative refugia. These areas of lineage endemism are strongly related to historical stability of rainforest habitat, after controlling for the effects of current environment. In fact, a dynamic stability model that allows movement to track suitable habitat over time was the most important factor in explaining current patterns of endemism. The techniques presented here provide an objective, practical method for estimating

  16. Kullback–Leibler quantum divergence as an indicator of quantum chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalewska-Kudłaszyk, A.; Kalaga, J.K.; Leoński, W.; Cao Long, V.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss a system of a nonlinear Kerr-like oscillator externally pumped by ultra-short, coherent pulses. For such a system, we analyse the application of the Kullback–Leibler quantum divergence K[ρ||σ] to the detection of quantum chaotic behaviour. Defining linear and nonlinear quantum divergences, and calculating their power spectra, we show that these parameters are more suitable indicators of quantum chaos than the fidelity commonly discussed in the literature, and are useful for dealing with short time series. Moreover, the nonlinear divergence is more sensitive to chaotic bands and to boundaries of chaotic regions, compared to its linear counterpart. -- Highlights: ► A nonlinear Kerr-like oscillator pumped by ultra-short coherent pulses is discussed. ► The Kullback–Leibler quantum divergence is analysed as an detector of quantum chaos. ► Linear and nonlinear quantum divergences and their power spectra are applied. ► The divergences are more adequate chaos's indicators than those based on fidelity. ► Defined nonlinear parameters are useful for dealing with short time series.

  17. Determining the control networks regulating stem cell lineages in colonic crypts

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, J; Axelrod, DE; Komarova, NL

    2017-01-01

    The question of stem cell control is at the center of our understanding of tissue functioning, both in healthy and cancerous conditions. It is well accepted that cellular fate decisions (such as divisions, differentiation, apoptosis) are orchestrated by a network of regulatory signals emitted by different cell populations in the lineage and the surrounding tissue. The exact regulatory network that governs stem cell lineages in a given tissue is usually unknown. Here we propose an algorithm to...

  18. Defining the Minimal Factors Required for Erythropoiesis through Direct Lineage Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Capellera-Garcia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Erythroid cell commitment and differentiation proceed through activation of a lineage-restricted transcriptional network orchestrated by a group of well characterized genes. However, the minimal set of factors necessary for instructing red blood cell (RBC development remains undefined. We employed a screen for transcription factors allowing direct lineage reprograming from fibroblasts to induced erythroid progenitors/precursors (iEPs. We show that Gata1, Tal1, Lmo2, and c-Myc (GTLM can rapidly convert murine and human fibroblasts directly to iEPs. The transcriptional signature of murine iEPs resembled mainly that of primitive erythroid progenitors in the yolk sac, whereas addition of Klf1 or Myb to the GTLM cocktail resulted in iEPs with a more adult-type globin expression pattern. Our results demonstrate that direct lineage conversion is a suitable platform for defining and studying the core factors inducing the different waves of erythroid development.

  19. Effect of lineage-specific metabolic traits of Lactobacillus reuteri on sourdough microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaoxi B; Gänzle, Michael G

    2014-09-01

    This study determined the effects of specific metabolic traits of Lactobacillus reuteri on its competitiveness in sourdoughs. The competitiveness of lactobacilli in sourdough generally depends on their growth rate; acid resistance additionally contributes to competitiveness in sourdoughs with long fermentation times. Glycerol metabolism via glycerol dehydratase (gupCDE) accelerates growth by the regeneration of reduced cofactors; glutamate metabolism via glutamate decarboxylase (gadB) increases acid resistance by generating a proton motive force. Glycerol and glutamate metabolisms are lineage-specific traits in L. reuteri; therefore, this study employed glycerol dehydratase-positive sourdough isolates of human-adapted L. reuteri lineage I, glutamate decarboxylase-positive strains of rodent-adapted L. reuteri lineage II, as well as mutants with deletions in gadB or gupCDE. The competitivenesses of the strains were quantified by inoculation of wheat and sorghum sourdoughs with defined strains, followed by propagation of doughs with a 10% inoculum and 12-h or 72-h fermentation cycles. Lineage I L. reuteri strains dominated sourdoughs propagated with 12-h fermentation cycles; lineage II L. reuteri strains dominated sourdoughs propagated with 72-h fermentation cycles. L. reuteri 100-23ΔgadB was outcompeted by its wild-type strain in sourdoughs fermented with 72-h fermentation cycles; L. reuteri FUA3400ΔgupCDE was outcompeted by its wild-type strain in sourdoughs fermented with both 12-h and 72-h fermentation cycles. Competition experiments with isogenic pairs of strains resulted in a constant rate of strain displacement of the less competitive mutant strain. In conclusion, lineage-specific traits of L. reuteri determine the competitiveness of this species in sourdough fermentations. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Colonisation and diversification of the Zenaida Dove (Zenaida aurita) in the Antilles: phylogeography, contemporary gene flow and morphological divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monceau, Karine; Cézilly, Frank; Moreau, Jérôme; Motreuil, Sébastien; Wattier, Rémi

    2013-01-01

    Caribbean avifaunal biogeography has been mainly studied based on mitochondrial DNA. Here, we investigated both past and recent island differentiation and micro-evolutionary changes in the Zenaida Dove (Zenaida aurita) based on combined information from one mitochondrial (Cytochrome c Oxydase subunit I, COI) and 13 microsatellite markers and four morphological characters. This Caribbean endemic and abundant species has a large distribution, and two subspecies are supposed to occur: Z. a. zenaida in the Greater Antilles (GA) and Z. a. aurita in the Lesser Antilles (LA). Doves were sampled on two GA islands (Puerto Rico and the British Virgin Islands) and six LA islands (Saint Barthélemy, Guadeloupe, Les Saintes, Martinique, Saint Lucia and Barbados). Eleven COI haplotypes were observed that could be assembled in two distinct lineages, with six specific to GA, four to LA, the remaining one occurring in all islands. However, the level of divergence between those two