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Sample records for newly discovered breast

  1. Two Newly Discovered Plants in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Chuan Hsu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Two herbs are newly discovered in Taiwan. Limnophila fragrans (G. Forst. Seem. (Scrophulariaceae, native in SE Asia, is recognized from southern lowlands. Anagallis minima (L. E. H. L. Krause (Primulaceae, native in N America and Europe, was found from northern mountainous region at low altitudes. In this study, descriptions, line drawings, color photos and a distribution map of the two species are provided.

  2. Newly discovered insect RNA viruses in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yang; Wang, ZhaoWei; Liu, YongXiang; Qi, Nan; Si, Jie; Xiang, Xue; Xia, XiaoLing; Hu, YuanYang; Zhou, Xi

    2013-08-01

    Insects are a group of arthropods and the largest group of animals on Earth, with over one million species described to date. Like other life forms, insects suffer from viruses that cause disease and death. Viruses that are pathogenic to beneficial insects cause dramatic economic losses on agriculture. In contrast, viruses that are pathogenic to insect pests can be exploited as attractive biological control agents. All of these factors have led to an explosion in the amount of research into insect viruses in recent years, generating impressive quantities of information on the molecular and cellular biology of these viruses. Due to the wide variety of insect viruses, a better understanding of these viruses will expand our overall knowledge of their virology. Here, we review studies of several newly discovered RNA insect viruses in China.

  3. Michael Maier--nine newly discovered letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenke, Nils; Roudet, Nicolas; Tilton, Hereward

    2014-02-01

    The authors provide a transcription, translation, and evaluation of nine newly discovered letters from the alchemist Michael Maier (1568-1622) to Gebhardt Johann von Alvensleben (1576-1631), a noble landholder in the vicinity of Magdeburg. Stemming from the final year of his life, this correspondence casts new light on Maier's biography, detailing his efforts to secure patronage amid the financial crisis of the early Thirty Years' War. While his ill-fated quest to perfect potable gold continued to form the central focus of his patronage suits, Maier also offered his services in several arts that he had condemned in his printed works, namely astrology and "supernatural" magic. Remarks concerning his previously unknown acquaintance with Heinrich Khunrath call for a re-evaluation of Maier's negotiation of the discursive boundaries between Lutheran orthodoxy and Paracelsianism. The letters also reveal Maier's substantial contribution to a work previously ascribed solely to the English alchemist Francis Anthony.

  4. Newly Discovered Native Orchids of Taiwan (III

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    Tsan-Piao Lin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In this report, 10 new native orchids (Brachycorythis peitawuensis, Bulbophyllum electrinum var. calvum, Bulbophyllum kuanwuensis var. luchuensis, Bulbophyllum kuanwuensis var. rutilum, Cheirostylis rubrifolius, Corybas puniceus, Erythrodes blumei var. aggregatus, Nervilia tahanshanensis, Oberonia pumilum var. rotundum, and Tainia caterva, two newly recorded species (Vexillabium nakaianum and Chiloschista parishii and three new names (Bulbophyllum electrnum var. sui, Corybas taliensis and Flickingeria parietiformis are presented. Description and figures are also provided.

  5. Possible origin of Saturn's newly discovered outer ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moehlmann, D.

    1986-01-01

    Within a planetogonic model the self-gravitationally caused formation of pre-planetary and pre-satellite rings from an earlier thin disk is reported. The theoretically derived orbital radii of these rings are compared with the orbital levels in the planetary system and the satellite systems of Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus. From this comparison it is concluded that at the radial position of Saturn's newly discovered outer ring an early pre-satellite ring of more or less evolved satellites could have existed. These satellites should have been disturbed in their evolution by the gravitation of the neighbouring massive satellite Titan. The comparison also may indicate similarities between the asteroidal belt and the newly discovered outer ring of Saturn

  6. Newly discovered hepatitis C virus minicores circulate in human blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Francis J.; El‐Shamy, Ahmed; Doyle, Erin H.; Klepper, Arielle; Muerhoff, A. Scott

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the most prevalent causes of chronic blood‐borne infections worldwide. Despite developments of highly effective treatments, most infected individuals are unaware of their infection. Approximately 75% of infections are in low‐ and middle‐income countries; therefore, continuing research in HCV molecular virology and the development of vaccines and affordable diagnostics is required to reduce the global burden. Various intracellular forms of the HCV nucleocapsid (core) protein are produced in cell culture; these comprise the conventional p21 core and the newly discovered shorter isoforms (minicores). Minicores lack the N‐terminus of p21 core. This study was conducted to determine if minicores are secreted in cell culture and more importantly if they circulate in the blood of individuals infected with HCV. We also developed a new monoclonal antibody that detects minicores targeting a C‐terminal region common to p21 core and minicores. Direct evidence of minicores requires western blot analysis to distinguish the detection of p21 core from minicores. However, the sensitivity for western blot detection of HCV proteins from blood is nil without their prior purification/enrichment from blood. Therefore, we developed a purification method based on a heparin/Mn+2 precipitation of apolipoprotein B‐containing lipoproteins because HCV is thought to circulate as a hybrid lipoviral particle. Minicores are secreted in culture when cells are grown in the presence of human serum. The heparin/Mn+2 precipitate from HCV‐infected cell culture supernatants and from the blood of 4 patients with high‐titer genotype‐1 HCV contained minicores. Conclusion: Minicores are major newly discovered HCV proteins that are secreted and circulate in blood during natural infections. Minicore proteins have translational potential as targets in diagnostic assays and in vaccine development. (Hepatology Communications 2018;2:21–28) PMID:29404509

  7. The Spy VI child : A newly discovered Neandertal infant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Bayle, Priscilla; Rougier, Helene; Maureille, Bruno; Higham, Thomas; van der Plicht, Johannes; De Clerck, Nora; Semal, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Spy cave (Jemeppe-sur-Sambre Belgium) is reputed for the two adult Neandertal individuals discovered in situ in 1886 Recent reassessment of the Spy collections has allowed direct radiocarbon dating of these individuals The sorting of all of the faunal collections has also led to the discovery of the

  8. NLRC5: a newly discovered MHC class I transactivator (CITA)

    OpenAIRE

    Meissner, Torsten B.; Li, Amy; Kobayashi, Koichi S.

    2011-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II are crucial for the function of the human adaptive immune system. An NLR protein, CIITA (MHC class II transactivator), is a master regulator of MHC class II gene expression as well as of some of the genes involved in MHC class II antigen presentation. It has recently been discovered that another member of the NLR protein family, NLRC5, transcriptionally activates MHC class I genes, and thus acts as “CITA” (MHC class I transactivator)...

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: newly discovered planets from WASP-South (Turner+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, O. D.; Anderson, D. R.; Cameron, A. Collier; Delrez, L.; Evans, D. F.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Segransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.

    2017-02-01

    Lightcurves and radial velocity data of three newly discovered planets from the WASP-South survey. Discovery data come from the WASP-South telescope (SAAO, South Africa) with follow-up lightcurves from the TRAPPIST telescope and EulerCam on the Swiss telescope (La Silla, Chile). Radial velocity data are from the CORALIE spectrograph on the Swiss telescope. (6 data files).

  10. Understanding newly discovered oscillation modes in magnetically shielded Hall thrusters utilizing state of the art high speed diagnostics.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — I propose to investigate the newly discovered oscillation modes specific to Magnetically Shied (MS) Hall Effect Thrusters (HET). Although HETs are classified as a...

  11. Newly discovered Neanderthal remains from Shanidar Cave, Iraqi Kurdistan, and their attribution to Shanidar 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, Emma; Mirazón Lahr, Marta; Crivellaro, Federica; Farr, Lucy; Reynolds, Tim; Hunt, Chris O; Barker, Graeme

    2017-10-01

    The Neanderthal remains from Shanidar Cave, excavated between 1951 and 1960, have played a central role in debates concerning diverse aspects of Neanderthal morphology and behavior. In 2015 and 2016, renewed excavations at the site uncovered hominin remains from the immediate area where the partial skeleton of Shanidar 5 was found in 1960. Shanidar 5 was a robust adult male estimated to have been aged over 40 years at the time of death. Comparisons of photographs from the previous and recent excavations indicate that the old and new remains were directly adjacent to one another, while the disturbed arrangement and partial crushing of the new fossils is consistent with descriptions and photographs of the older discoveries. The newly discovered bones include fragments of several vertebrae, a left hamate, part of the proximal left femur, a heavily crushed partial pelvis, and the distal half of the right tibia and fibula and associated talus and navicular. All these elements were previously missing from Shanidar 5, and morphological and metric data are consistent with the new elements belonging to this individual. A newly discovered partial left pubic symphysis indicates an age at death of 40-50 years, also consistent with the age of Shanidar 5 estimated previously. Thus, the combined evidence strongly suggests that the new finds can be attributed to Shanidar 5. Ongoing analyses of associated samples, including for sediment morphology, palynology, and dating, will therefore offer new evidence as to how this individual was deposited in the cave and permit new analyses of the skeleton itself and broader discussion of Neanderthal morphology and variation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. First Photometric Investigation of the Newly Discovered W UMa-type Binary Star MR Com

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, S.-B.; Liu, N.-P.; Liao, W.-P.; He, J.-J.; Liu, L.; Zhu, L.-Y.; Wang, J.-J.; Zhao, E.-G.

    2013-08-01

    By analyzing multi-color light curves of the newly discovered W UMa-type binary, MR Com, we discovered that it is a shallow-contact binary with a degree of contact factor of f = 10.0% ± 2.1%. Photometric solutions reveal that MR Com is a W-type system with a mass ratio of q = 3.9 where the less massive component is about 90 K hotter than the more massive one. By investigating all of the available times of minimum light, we found that the general trend of the Observed-Calculated (O - C) curve shows a downward parabolic variation while it undergoes a cyclic variation with a small amplitude of 0.0031 days and a period of 10.1 yr. The downward parabolic change corresponds to a long-term decrease in the orbital period at a rate of \\dot{P}=-5.3\\times {10^{-7}} days yr-1 that may be caused by a combination of a mass transfer and an angular momentum loss (AML) via magnetic braking. Among the 16 shallow-contact systems with a decreasing orbital period, MR Com has the lowest mass ratio (e.g., 1/q = 0.26). The shallow-contact configuration, the low-mass ratio, and the long-term period decrease all suggest that systems similar to MR Com are on the AML-controlled stage of the evolutionary scheme proposed by Qian. They will oscillate around a critical mass ratio and evolve into a deep contact with a higher mass ratio. The small-amplitude cyclic change in the O - C curve was analyzed for the light-travel time effect via the presence of an extremely cool stellar companion.

  13. FIRST PHOTOMETRIC INVESTIGATION OF THE NEWLY DISCOVERED W UMa-TYPE BINARY STAR MR Com

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, S.-B.; Liu, N.-P.; Liao, W.-P.; He, J.-J.; Liu, L.; Zhu, L.-Y.; Wang, J.-J.; Zhao, E.-G., E-mail: qsb@ynao.ac.cn [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), P.O. Box 110, 650011 Kunming (China)

    2013-08-01

    By analyzing multi-color light curves of the newly discovered W UMa-type binary, MR Com, we discovered that it is a shallow-contact binary with a degree of contact factor of f = 10.0% {+-} 2.1%. Photometric solutions reveal that MR Com is a W-type system with a mass ratio of q = 3.9 where the less massive component is about 90 K hotter than the more massive one. By investigating all of the available times of minimum light, we found that the general trend of the Observed-Calculated (O - C) curve shows a downward parabolic variation while it undergoes a cyclic variation with a small amplitude of 0.0031 days and a period of 10.1 yr. The downward parabolic change corresponds to a long-term decrease in the orbital period at a rate of P-dot = -5.3 x 10{sup -7} days yr{sup -1} that may be caused by a combination of a mass transfer and an angular momentum loss (AML) via magnetic braking. Among the 16 shallow-contact systems with a decreasing orbital period, MR Com has the lowest mass ratio (e.g., 1/q = 0.26). The shallow-contact configuration, the low-mass ratio, and the long-term period decrease all suggest that systems similar to MR Com are on the AML-controlled stage of the evolutionary scheme proposed by Qian. They will oscillate around a critical mass ratio and evolve into a deep contact with a higher mass ratio. The small-amplitude cyclic change in the O - C curve was analyzed for the light-travel time effect via the presence of an extremely cool stellar companion.

  14. Permeability modification by in-situ gelation with a newly discovered biopolymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vossoughi, S.; Buller, C.S. (Kansas Univ., Lawrence, KS (United States))

    1991-11-01

    This paper reports that, in a typical gelled polymer process, a polymer reacts with a metal ion to yield a 3D crosslinked system. The success of the process depends on monitoring a large number of variables, including the concentrations of the metal ions, polymer, and reducing agent. Controlling these variables in field-scale tests is extremely difficult, if not impossible. Devising a process with fewer variables is therefore desirable. The in-situ gelation process in this paper uses a newly discovered biopolymer produced by Cellulomonas flavigena Strain KU. The bacteria produce the biopolymer when cultured in a simple salts medium containing any one of the variety of hexoses, pentoses, disaccharides, or such inexpensive substrates as starch or molasses as the carbon and energy sources for growth. The polymer produced remains associated with the producer bacteria, causing them to aggregate and to settle out from the growth medium. The polymer is extracted from the bacteria easily by suspension in dilute alkali. Upon neutralization of such extracts, the polymer precipitates as a hydrogel. The gelation process is reversible, and the hydrogels are stable at high temperatures. A linear coreflood was performed to reveal the feasibility of using the microbial polymer for the in-situ gelation process. The core initially was waterflooded and then flushed with acid. The subsequent injection of an alkaline solution of the polymer resulted in in-situ formation of hydrogels.

  15. A Left Handed Compliment: A newly discovered, early nineteenth-century lithograph by John Lewis Marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, I C; Snowman, Janet

    2010-01-01

    A newly discovered, early nineteenth-century lithograph by John Lewis Marks (b. ca. 1795-1796, d. ca. 1857-1861), entitled A Left Handed Compliment, is described. In this humorous print a young boy is using his left hand to draw the face of an elderly woman who is his grandmother, and she is shocked at the boy's suggestion that he will, “just see if I can't touch off your old Phizog left handed”. The source of the joke about the left-handed compliment is obscure, but more than likely it is sexual in origin. Glued to the verso of the print are early versions of two prints by Robert Seymour (1798-1836), the illustrator of Dickens' Pickwick Papers, suggesting a possible link between Marks and Seymour. From the hatch patterns on the Seymour engravings, it appears that Seymour may himself have been left-handed and perhaps therefore the butt of the joke. An alternative possibility is that Phizog is a reference to Dickens' later illustrator whose pseudonym was Phiz. It is also just conceivable that the young boy is Marks's own young son, Jacob. The print can be placed in the context of a scatological English vernacular humour that extends from Shakespeare through to Donald McGill and into the present day.

  16. The Revolution Continues: Newly Discovered Systems Expand the CRISPR-Cas Toolkit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Karthik; Babu, Kesavan; Sundaresan, Ramya; Rajan, Rakhi; Sashital, Dipali G

    2017-10-05

    CRISPR-Cas systems defend prokaryotes against bacteriophages and mobile genetic elements and serve as the basis for revolutionary tools for genetic engineering. Class 2 CRISPR-Cas systems use single Cas endonucleases paired with guide RNAs to cleave complementary nucleic acid targets, enabling programmable sequence-specific targeting with minimal machinery. Recent discoveries of previously unidentified CRISPR-Cas systems have uncovered a deep reservoir of potential biotechnological tools beyond the well-characterized Type II Cas9 systems. Here we review the current mechanistic understanding of newly discovered single-protein Cas endonucleases. Comparison of these Cas effectors reveals substantial mechanistic diversity, underscoring the phylogenetic divergence of related CRISPR-Cas systems. This diversity has enabled further expansion of CRISPR-Cas biotechnological toolkits, with wide-ranging applications from genome editing to diagnostic tools based on various Cas endonuclease activities. These advances highlight the exciting prospects for future tools based on the continually expanding set of CRISPR-Cas systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Newly discovered ebola virus associated with hemorrhagic fever outbreak in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan S Towner

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 30 years, Zaire and Sudan ebolaviruses have been responsible for large hemorrhagic fever (HF outbreaks with case fatalities ranging from 53% to 90%, while a third species, Côte d'Ivoire ebolavirus, caused a single non-fatal HF case. In November 2007, HF cases were reported in Bundibugyo District, Western Uganda. Laboratory investigation of the initial 29 suspect-case blood specimens by classic methods (antigen capture, IgM and IgG ELISA and a recently developed random-primed pyrosequencing approach quickly identified this to be an Ebola HF outbreak associated with a newly discovered ebolavirus species (Bundibugyo ebolavirus distantly related to the Côte d'Ivoire ebolavirus found in western Africa. Due to the sequence divergence of this new virus relative to all previously recognized ebolaviruses, these findings have important implications for design of future diagnostic assays to monitor Ebola HF disease in humans and animals, and ongoing efforts to develop effective antivirals and vaccines.

  18. Chapare virus, a newly discovered arenavirus isolated from a fatal hemorrhagic fever case in Bolivia.

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    Simon Delgado

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A small focus of hemorrhagic fever (HF cases occurred near Cochabamba, Bolivia, in December 2003 and January 2004. Specimens were available from only one fatal case, which had a clinical course that included fever, headache, arthralgia, myalgia, and vomiting with subsequent deterioration and multiple hemorrhagic signs. A non-cytopathic virus was isolated from two of the patient serum samples, and identified as an arenavirus by IFA staining with a rabbit polyvalent antiserum raised against South American arenaviruses known to be associated with HF (Guanarito, Machupo, and Sabiá. RT-PCR analysis and subsequent analysis of the complete virus S and L RNA segment sequences identified the virus as a member of the New World Clade B arenaviruses, which includes all the pathogenic South American arenaviruses. The virus was shown to be most closely related to Sabiá virus, but with 26% and 30% nucleotide difference in the S and L segments, and 26%, 28%, 15% and 22% amino acid differences for the L, Z, N, and GP proteins, respectively, indicating the virus represents a newly discovered arenavirus, for which we propose the name Chapare virus. In conclusion, two different arenaviruses, Machupo and Chapare, can be associated with severe HF cases in Bolivia.

  19. NEWLY DISCOVERED GLOBAL TEMPERATURE STRUCTURES IN THE QUIET SUN AT SOLAR MINIMUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Zhenguang; Frazin, Richard A.; Landi, Enrico; Manchester, Ward B.; Gombosi, Tamas I. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Vasquez, Alberto M. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, CONICET-University of Buenos Aires, Ciudad de Buenos Aires, CC 67-Suc 28 (Argentina)

    2012-08-20

    Magnetic loops are building blocks of the closed-field corona. While active region loops are readily seen in images taken at EUV and X-ray wavelengths, quiet-Sun (QS) loops are seldom identifiable and are therefore difficult to study on an individual basis. The first analysis of solar minimum (Carrington Rotation 2077) QS coronal loops utilizing a novel technique called the Michigan Loop Diagnostic Technique (MLDT) is presented. This technique combines Differential Emission Measure Tomography and a potential field source surface (PFSS) model, and consists of tracing PFSS field lines through the tomographic grid on which the local differential emission measure is determined. As a result, the electron temperature T{sub e} and density N{sub e} at each point along each individual field line can be obtained. Using data from STEREO/EUVI and SOHO/MDI, the MLDT identifies two types of QS loops in the corona: so-called up loops in which the temperature increases with height and so-called down loops in which the temperature decreases with height. Up loops are expected, however, down loops are a surprise, and furthermore, they are ubiquitous in the low-latitude corona. Up loops dominate the QS at higher latitudes. The MLDT allows independent determination of the empirical pressure and density scale heights, and the differences between the two remain to be explained. The down loops appear to be a newly discovered property of the solar minimum corona that may shed light on the physics of coronal heating. The results are shown to be robust to the calibration uncertainties of the EUVI instrument.

  20. Newly discovered population of Bumpy Glassfrog, Centrolene heloderma (Duellman, 1981), with discussion of threats to population persistence

    OpenAIRE

    Krynak,Katherine; Wessels,Dana G.; Imba,Segundo M.; Lyons,Jane A.; Guayasamin,Juan

    2018-01-01

    Since 2011, the Bumpy Glassfrog, Centrolene heloderma (Duellman, 1981) was known only from a single location in the Mindo region of Ecuador. We report a newly discovered population located in the area of La Sierra, along Río Alambi, a stream system used heavily for aquaculture of rainbow trout (Oncorhyncus mykiss). Threats to population persistence include anthropogenic habitat disturbances such as agriculture and aquaculture, and Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis infection. To improve conservat...

  1. Tuppiap Qeqertaa (Tobias Island): a newly discovered island off northeast Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, O.; Mikkelsen, N.; Forsberg, René

    2006-01-01

    The small island of Tuppiap Qeqertaa, formerly known as Tobias circle divide or Tobias Island, is situated 80 km off the northeast Greenland coast. The island was discovered in 1993 and is approximately 2 km long and 1.5 km wide. Most of the island is covered by an ice cap that rises to 35 in abo...

  2. Preparing for TESS: Precision Ground-based Light-curves of Newly Discovered Transiting Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiting; Stefansson, Gudmundur; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Monson, Andy; Hebb, Leslie; Wisniewski, John; Huehnerhoff, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS), to be launched in early 2018, is expected to catalog a myriad of transiting exoplanet candidates ranging from Earth-sized to gas giants, orbiting a diverse range of stellar types in the solar neighborhood. In particular, TESS will find small planets orbiting the closest and brightest stars, and will enable detailed atmospheric characterizations of planets with current and future telescopes. In the TESS era, ground-based follow-up resources will play a critical role in validating and confirming the planetary nature of the candidates TESS will discover. Along with confirming the planetary nature of exoplanet transits, high precision ground-based transit observations allow us to put further constraints on exoplanet orbital parameters and transit timing variations. In this talk, we present new observations of transiting exoplanets recently discovered by the K2 mission, using the optical diffuser on the 3.5m ARC Telescope at Apache Point Observatory. These include observations of the mini-Neptunes K2-28b and K2-104b orbiting early-to-mid M-dwarfs. In addition, other recent transit observations performed using the robotic 30cm telescope at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile will be presented.

  3. Genomic Analyses Reveal Demographic History and Temperate Adaptation of the Newly Discovered Honey Bee Subspecies Apis mellifera sinisxinyuan n. ssp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Liu, Zhiguang; Pan, Qi; Chen, Xiao; Wang, Huihua; Guo, Haikun; Liu, Shidong; Lu, Hongfeng; Tian, Shilin; Li, Ruiqiang; Shi, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Studying the genetic signatures of climate-driven selection can produce insights into local adaptation and the potential impacts of climate change on populations. The honey bee (Apis mellifera) is an interesting species to study local adaptation because it originated in tropical/subtropical climatic regions and subsequently spread into temperate regions. However, little is known about the genetic basis of its adaptation to temperate climates. Here, we resequenced the whole genomes of ten individual bees from a newly discovered population in temperate China and downloaded resequenced data from 35 individuals from other populations. We found that the new population is an undescribed subspecies in the M-lineage of A. mellifera (Apis mellifera sinisxinyuan). Analyses of population history show that long-term global temperature has strongly influenced the demographic history of A. m. sinisxinyuan and its divergence from other subspecies. Further analyses comparing temperate and tropical populations identified several candidate genes related to fat body and the Hippo signaling pathway that are potentially involved in adaptation to temperate climates. Our results provide insights into the demographic history of the newly discovered A. m. sinisxinyuan, as well as the genetic basis of adaptation of A. mellifera to temperate climates at the genomic level. These findings will facilitate the selective breeding of A. mellifera to improve the survival of overwintering colonies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  4. Anatomy and histology of the newly discovered adipose sac structure within the labia majora: international original research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrzenski, Adam; Krajewski, Pawel; Davis, Kern

    2016-09-01

    To determine whether there is any new anatomical structure present within the labia majora. A case serial study was executed on eleven consecutive fresh human female cadavers. Stratum-by-stratum dissections of the labia majora were performed. Twenty-two anatomic dissections of labia majora were completed. Eosin and Hematoxylin agents were used to stain newly discovered adipose sac's tissues of the labia majora and the cylinder-like structures, which cover condensed adipose tissues. The histology of these two structures was compared. All dissected labia majora demonstrated the presence of the anatomic existence of the adipose sac structure. Just under the dermis of the labia majora, the adipose sac was located, which was filled with lobules containing condensed fatty tissues in the form of cylinders. The histological investigation established that the well-organized fibro-connective-adipose tissues represented the adipose sac. The absence of descriptions of the adipose sac within the labia majora in traditional anatomic and gynecologic textbooks was noted. In this study group, the newly discovered adipose sac is consistently present within the anatomical structure of the labia majora. The well-organized fibro-connective-adipose tissue represents microscopic characteristic features of the adipose sac.

  5. Newly discovered portraits of rulers and the dating of the oldest frescoes in Lipljan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojvodić Dragan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available On the façade of the church of the Presentation of the Virgin, in Lipljan, the damaged depictions of two rulers were discovered under a more recent layer of fresco mortar. The depictions can be identified as portraits of the Serbian king and the emperor Stefan Dušan (1331-1355 and his wife Jelena. That provides the basis for the more reliable dating of the original wall painting in the interior of the church. For their part, the stylistic characteristics of that expressionistic painting suggest that the original Lipljan frescoes came into being around the mid-fourteenth century. Probably, they were executed by the same workshop that did the frescoes in the Church of St. Peter near Unjemir in Metohia, not very far from Lipljan.

  6. G306.3-0.9: A Newly Discovered Young Galactic Supernova Remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Mark T.; Loi, Syheh T.; Murphy, Tara; Miller, Jon M.; Maitra, Dipankar; Gueltekin, Kayhan; Gehrels, Neil; Kennea, Jamie A.; Siegel, Michael H.; Gelbord, Jonathan; hide

    2013-01-01

    We present X-ray and radio observations of the new Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) G306.3-0.9, recently discovered by Swift. Chandra imaging reveals a complex morphology, dominated by a bright shock. The X-ray spectrum is broadly consistent with a young SNR in the Sedov phase, implying an age of 2500 yr for a distance of 8 kpc, plausibly identifying this as one of the 20 youngest Galactic SNRs. Australia Telescope Compact Array imaging reveals a prominent ridge of radio emission that correlates with the X-ray emission. We find a flux density of 160 mJy at 1 GHz, which is the lowest radio flux recorded for a Galactic SNR to date. The remnant is also detected at 24µm, indicating the presence of irradiated warm dust. The data reveal no compelling evidence for the presence of a compact stellar remnant.

  7. Tuppiap Qeqertaa (Tobias Island): a newly discovered island off northeast Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, O.; Mikkelsen, N.; Forsberg, René

    2006-01-01

    The small island of Tuppiap Qeqertaa, formerly known as Tobias circle divide or Tobias Island, is situated 80 km off the northeast Greenland coast. The island was discovered in 1993 and is approximately 2 km long and 1.5 km wide. Most of the island is covered by an ice cap that rises to 35 in above...... sea level, as determined by airborne laser scanning. High-quality geodetic GPS measurements determine the position of a small cairn erected on the island to 79 degrees 20'34.48" N, 15 degrees 46'31.23" W. Minor parts of the island are ice free, with small hills of gravel. Late Holocene shells...... of marine bivalves have been found and were presumably brought up by ice floe push. Shell fragments of southern extralimital marine invertebrates point to the presence of pre-Holocene deposits. Three species of moss are the only land plants that have been found on the island....

  8. The newly-discovered epigraphic monuments from Sočanica - Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milin Milena L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the autumn of 2000 the Roman site of Municipium Dardanorum yielded several funerary stelae bearing epitaphs. Most had been deliberately broken along the longer or shorter axis and built into the bases of the columns forming a colonnade on the forum. In addition, the basilica holds an ara (No 10 and a fragment of an inscription (No 9 discovered by E. Čerškov (Cat. nos 26 and 38. I wish to express my gratitude to a colleague of mine, the archaeologist G. Kovaljov, for notifying me about this find and kindly conceding the publication of the inscriptions to me. The stelae were poorly carved and all alike in appearance, showing a large rosette in the pediment (upper field and an epitaph (unusually tall letters, 5 to 7 cm within the simple-bordered lower field. All the persons mentioned in the epitaphs come from lower social layers – slaves, vernae, liberti (with the exception of one Roman citizen, a M. Ulpius Apollinaris, No 3. Their names are often Greek, such as Eutychus (Nos 1 and 7, T(heofas, or Alexander (No 8, while Trite (No 2 is likely to be native. Ravius (gentile ? here occurs for the first time in Upper Moesia (No 5. To judge by the gentile names and formulas (h.s.e., f.c most inscriptions date from the second century AD.

  9. Mantle peridotite in newly discovered far-inland subduction complex, southwest Arizona: Initial report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haxel, Gordon B.; Jacobson, Carl E.; Wittke, James H.

    2015-01-01

    The latest Cretaceous to early Palaeogene Orocopia Schist and related units are generally considered a low-angle subduction complex that underlies much of southern California and Arizona. A recently discovered exposure of Orocopia Schist at Cemetery Ridge west of Phoenix, Arizona, lies exceptionally far inland from the continental margin. Unexpectedly, this body of Orocopia Schist contains numerous blocks, as large as ~300 m, of variably serpentinized mantle peridotite. These are unique; elsewhere in the Orocopia and related schists, peridotite is rare and completely serpentinized. Peridotite and metaperidotite at Cemetery Ridge are of three principal types: (1) serpentinite and tremolite serpentinite, derived from dunite; (2) partially serpentinized harzburgite and olivine orthopyroxenite (collectively, harzburgite); and (3) granoblastic or schistose metasomatic rocks, derived from serpentinite, made largely of actinolite, calcic plagioclase, hercynite, and chlorite. In the serpentinite, paucity of relict olivine, relatively abundant magnetite (5%), and elevated Fe3+/Fe indicate advanced serpentinization. Harzburgite contains abundant orthopyroxene, only slightly serpentinized, and minor to moderate (1–15%) relict olivine. Mantle tectonite fabric is locally preserved. Several petrographic and geochemical characteristics of the peridotite at Cemetery Ridge are ambiguously similar to either abyssal or mantle-wedge (suprasubduction) peridotites and serpentinites. Least ambiguous are orthopyroxene compositions. Orthopyroxene is distinctively depleted in Al2O3, Cr2O3, and CaO, indicating mantle-wedge affinities. Initial interpretation of field and petrologic data suggests that the peridotite blocks in the Orocopia Schist subduction complex at Cemetery Ridge may be derived from the leading corner or edge of a mantle wedge, presumably in (pre-San Andreas fault) southwest California. However, derivation from a subducting plate is not precluded.

  10. A newly discovered neurotoxin ADTIQ associated with hyperglycemia and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bingjie; Lin, Fankai; Ullah, Kaleem; Peng, Lei; Ding, Wei; Dai, Rongji; Qing, Hong; Deng, Yulin

    2015-04-10

    Diabetes is associated with an increased risk of Parkinson's disease (PD). Number of studies have suggested that methylglyoxal (MGO) induced by diabetes is related to PD. However, very little is known about its molecular mechanism. On other hand, 1-acetyl-6, 7- dihydroxyl-1, 2, 3, 4- Tetrahydroisoquinoline(ADTIQ) is a dopamine (DA)-derived tetrahydroisoquinoline (TIQ), a novel endogenous neurotoxins, which was first discovered in frozen Parkinson's disease human brain tissue. While ADTIQ precursor methylglyoxal was also found in diabetic patients related to the glucose metabolism and diabetic patients. LC-MS/MS, 1H NMR and infrared spectroscopy identified the structure of ADTIQ. The Annexin V-FITC/PI, MTT and western blot analysis were used to measure the neurotoxicity of ADTIQ. The levels of ADTIQ and methylglyoxal were detected by LC-MS/MS. Here we report the chemical synthesis of ADTIQ, demonstrate its biosynthesis in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line and investigate its role in the pathogenesis of PD. In addition, a significant increase in the level of ADTIQ was detected in the brains of transgenic mice expressing mutant forms (A53T or A30P) of α-synuclein. ADTIQ also reduced the cell viability and induced mitochondrial apoptosis in dopaminergic cells, suggesting that ADTIQ acts as an endogenous neurotoxin and potentially involved in the pathogenesis of PD. Methylglyoxal, a major byproduct of glucose metabolism and abnormalities in glucose metabolism could influence the levels of ADTIQ. Consistent with the hypothesis, increased levels of ADTIQ and methylglyoxal were detected in the striatum of diabetic rats and SH-SY5Y cells cultured in the presence of high glucose concentrations. Increased levels of ADTIQ could be related with Hyperglycemia and death of dopaminergic neurons. The increased levels of ADTIQ could be a reason of dopamine neuron dysfunction in diabetes. Therefore, ADTIQ may play a key role in increasing the risk for PD in patients with diabetes

  11. HERSCHEL OBSERVATIONS OF A NEWLY DISCOVERED UX Ori STAR IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Sargent, B.; Boyer, M. L.; Meixner, M.; Roman-Duval, J.; Sewilo, M.

    2010-01-01

    The LMC star, SSTISAGE1C J050756.44-703453.9, was first noticed during a survey of EROS-2 light curves for stars with large irregular brightness variations typical of the R Coronae Borealis (RCB) class. However, the visible spectrum showing emission lines including the Balmer and Paschen series as well as many Fe II lines is emphatically not that of an RCB star. This star has all of the characteristics of a typical UX Ori star. It has a spectral type of approximately A2 and has excited an H II region in its vicinity. However, if it is an LMC member, then it is very luminous for a Herbig Ae/Be star. It shows irregular drops in brightness of up to 2 mag, and displays the reddening and 'blueing' typical of this class of stars. Its spectrum, showing a combination of emission and absorption lines, is typical of a UX Ori star that is in a decline caused by obscuration from the circumstellar dust. SSTISAGE1C J050756.44-703453.9 has a strong IR excess and significant emission is present out to 500 μm. Monte Carlo radiative transfer modeling of the spectral energy distribution requires that SSTISAGE1C J050756.44-703453.9 have both a dusty disk as well as a large extended diffuse envelope to fit both the mid- and far-IR dust emission. This star is a new member of the UX Ori subclass of the Herbig Ae/Be stars and only the second such star to be discovered in the LMC.

  12. Walther Flemming on histology in medicine 1878: a newly discovered letter to his father.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Paul A; Zacharias, Helmut

    2009-04-01

    Histology is a child of the 19th century, and its status in medicine was long in doubt. Was "microscopic anatomy" to be viewed as a refinement of the traditional discipline or as a technically complex subject of doubtful practical value? This was one of the questions that faced the commission charged with reforming examinations in German medical schools in 1878. One of its members, Carl Friedrich Flemming [1799-1880], was able to refer this matter to an acknowledged expert, his son Walther Flemming, who was Professor of Anatomy and Histology at the University of Kiel. Walther's views are contained in a letter that was recently discovered among Carl Friedrich's papers held in the State Library of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern in Schwerin. To the best of our knowledge, this letter is the only surviving piece of personal correspondence from the hand of Walther Flemming, one of the most distinguished biologists of his time. The original text, together with an annotated English translation, is published here for the first time. The letter throws new light on Flemming's attitudes to medical education, and also illuminates his relationship with his father, himself a figure of considerable stature in psychiatric medicine in 19th-century Germany. The younger Flemming [1843-1905], an acknowledged master of microscopy, made his most distinguished contributions to the field we now call cell biology. In addition to the terms chromatin and mitosis, we owe to him the first comprehensive account of the latter, as well as the fundamental insight that meiosis involves two successive divisions.

  13. Lysis of bacterial cells in the process of bacteriophage release – canonical and newly discovered mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wioleta M. Woźnica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The release of phage progeny from an infected bacterium is necessary for the spread of infection. Only helical phages are secreted from a cell without causing its destruction. The release of remaining phages is correlated with bacterial lysis and death. Thus, the understanding of phage lytic functions is crucial for their use in the fight with bacterial pathogens. Bacteriophages with small RNA or DNA genomes encode single proteins which are called amurins and cause lysis by the inhibition of cell wall synthesis. Bacteriophages of double-stranded DNA genomes, which dominate in the environment, encode enzymes that are called endolysins and contribute to lysis by the cleavage of cell wall peptydoglycan. Endolysins that do not contain signal sequences cannot pass the cytoplasmic membrane by themselves. Their access to peptidoglycan is provided by membrane proteins – holins, which can form in the membrane large pores, that are called “holes”. Some endolysins do not require holins for their transport, owing to the presence of the so called SAR sequence at their N-terminus. It enables their transport through the membrane by the bacterial sec system. However, it is not cleaved off, and thus these endolysins remain trapped in the membrane in an inactive form. Their release, which is correlated with the activation, occurs as a result of membrane depolarization and depends on proteins that are called pinholins. Pinholins form in membrane pores that are too small for the passage of endolysins but sufficient for membrane depolarization. Proteins that are called antiholins regulate the timing of lysis, through the blockage of holins action until the end of phage morphogenesis. Additionally, newly identified lytic proteins, spanins, participate in the release of progeny phages from Gram-negative bacteria cells. They cause the destruction of outer cell membrane by its spanning with the cytoplasmic membrane. This is possible after the endolysin

  14. Multiperiodicity in the newly discovered mid-late Be star V2104 Cygni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uytterhoeven, K.; Poretti, E.; Rodríguez, E.; De Cat, P.; Mathias, P.; Telting, J. H.; Costa, V.; Miglio, A.

    2007-08-01

    Aims:We obtained the first long, homogenous time-series of V2104 Cyg, consisting of 679 datapoints, with the uvbyβ photometers of the Sierra Nevada and San Pedro Mártir Observatories. Our aim was to detect and subsequently interpret the intrinsic frequencies of this previously unstudied variable star, which turned out to be a Be star. We evaluate its place among the variable B stars on the upper Main Sequence. To obtain additional information on physical parameters we collected a few spectra with the Elodie and FIES instruments. Methods: We searched for frequencies in the uvby passbands using 2 different frequency analysis methods and used the S/N > 4 criterion to select the significant periodicities. We obtained an estimate of the physical parameters of the underlying B star of spectral type between B5 and B7, by correcting for the presence of a circumstellar disk using a formalism based on the strength of the Hα line emission. Results: We detected 3 independent frequencies with amplitudes below 0.01 mag, ν1 = 4.7126 d-1 , ν2 = 2.2342 d-1 and ν3 = 4.671 d-1 , and discovered that V2104 Cyg is a Be star. The fast rotation (vsin i = 290±10 km s-1, and 27°< i < 45°) hampered the investigation of the associated pulsational parameters ell. Conclusions: The most plausible explanation for the observed variability of this mid-late type Be star is a non-radial pulsation model. Based on observations obtained at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional San Pedro Mártir (Mexico), Observatorio de Sierra Nevada (Spain) and Observatoire de Haute Provence (France), and on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias. Full Fig. 1 is only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  15. Mineralogy and Physico-Chemical Data of Two Newly Discovered Halloysite in China and Their Contrasts with Some Typical Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Ouyang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We report in this article the systematical acquisition of physico-chemical parameters for two newly discovered halloysite (Hal minerals from Shiyan and Tongling in China. As the comparative reference, the data from Hal in Linfen, Chenxi, and the salt lake in Australia (samples were abbreviated as Hal-AU, Hal-SY, Hal-LF, Hal-CX and Hal-TL, respectively were also investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electronic microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, differential scanning calorimetry-thermogravimetry (DSC-TG, X-ray fluorescence, surface zeta potential measurements and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms. The newly found minerals were probably formed in hydrothermal leaching and sedimentary circumstances. The Hal-SY contains 7 Å-halloysite and dickite, while Hal-TL contains 10 Å-halloysite with some alunite (similar with Hal-CX. Other impurities found in the samples include quartz, gibbsite, iron oxide and anatase. All of them showed tubular morphology with diameter in the range of 30–90 nm and a length of 300–2500 nm, while the Hal-SY has the largest inner diameter to about 150 nm. Specific surface areas varied from 26.0~59.0 m2·g−1. In addition, maximum CEC (cation exchange capacity of the newly found Hal was about 40 cmol/kg, while that of Hal-AU was relatively low (8 cmol/kg due to the sedimentary nature of Salt Lake circumstances. The surface charge was predominantly negative over most of the relevant pH range (>2.0. It can be concluded that the different morphology and impurity content of halloysite will greatly affect the surface area, pore volume, and cationic exchange capacity (CEC of the minerals.

  16. A newly discovered Bordetella species carries a transcriptionally active CRISPR-Cas with a small Cas9 endonuclease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Yury V; Shariat, Nikki; Register, Karen B; Linz, Bodo; Rivera, Israel; Hu, Kai; Dudley, Edward G; Harvill, Eric T

    2015-10-26

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated genes (cas) are widely distributed among bacteria. These systems provide adaptive immunity against mobile genetic elements specified by the spacer sequences stored within the CRISPR. The CRISPR-Cas system has been identified using Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) against other sequenced and annotated genomes and confirmed via CRISPRfinder program. Using Polymerase Chain Reactions (PCR) and Sanger DNA sequencing, we discovered CRISPRs in additional bacterial isolates of the same species of Bordetella. Transcriptional activity and processing of the CRISPR have been assessed via RT-PCR. Here we describe a novel Type II-C CRISPR and its associated genes-cas1, cas2, and cas9-in several isolates of a newly discovered Bordetella species. The CRISPR-cas locus, which is absent in all other Bordetella species, has a significantly lower GC-content than the genome-wide average, suggesting acquisition of this locus via horizontal gene transfer from a currently unknown source. The CRISPR array is transcribed and processed into mature CRISPR RNAs (crRNA), some of which have homology to prophages found in closely related species B. hinzii. Expression of the CRISPR-Cas system and processing of crRNAs with perfect homology to prophages present in closely related species, but absent in that containing this CRISPR-Cas system, suggest it provides protection against phage predation. The 3,117-bp cas9 endonuclease gene from this novel CRISPR-Cas system is 990 bp smaller than that of Streptococcus pyogenes, the 4,017-bp allele currently used for genome editing, and which may make it a useful tool in various CRISPR-Cas technologies.

  17. Examining the diversity and distribution of microbial communities from newly discovered methane seeps along the Cascadia Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabrook, S.; Thurber, A. R.; Embley, R. W.; Raineault, N.; Baumberger, T.; Merle, S. G.

    2016-12-01

    Methane seeps provide biogeochemical and microbial heterogeneity in deep-sea habitats. In June of 2016 the E/V Nautilus, exploring for methane seeps along the Cascadia continental margin, discovered over 450 bubble streams, indicative of active seepage, and collected biological samples at 6 of the resulting newly discovered seeps. These seeps covered a range of depths, latitudes, habitat types and biogeochemical environments and included: Juan de Fuca (150m), Astoria canyon (800m and 500m), Nehalem Bank (185m), Heceta SW (1200m), SW Coquille Bank (600m), and Klamath Knoll seep (700m). Geologic environment types included continental shelf, canyons and slopes, and these sites spanned the zone of hydrate stability and the Oxygen Minimum Zone. A range of seep-specific habitat were found and sampled including: reduced sediments, microbial mats, methane hydrates, clam beds (Calyptogena spp.), Siboglinidae tubeworm assemblages and sparse assemblages of stalked barnacles. Here, we present an initial characterization of the microbial communities collected via push cores by a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) at the six aforementioned sites. With high throughput amplicon sequencing of the V4-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene, we characterize the diversity and microbial composition of the seep sites sampled. This characterization is furthered with digital drop PCR of the pmoA gene (involved with aerobic methanotrophy) to allow for a comparison of the community composition with functional gene abundance of critical microbial processes. These data will be placed in the greater biogeochemical context of the region, including direct comparison with paired gas-tight sampling at key locations. The results of these analyses will provide the first microbial description of this broad range of seep ecosystems along the Cascadia Margin adding to our overall understanding of microbial diversity, the dominant physiological processes at seep ecosystems, and the connection between community

  18. Understanding the spectral and timing behaviour of a newly discovered transient X-ray pulsar Swift J0243.6+6124

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaisawal, Gaurava K.; Naik, Sachindra; Chenevez, Jérôme

    2018-01-01

    We present the results obtained from timing and spectral studies of the newly discovered accreting X-ray binary pulsar Swift J0243.6+6124 using Nuclear Spectroscopy Telescope Array observation in 2017 October at a flux level of ~280 mCrab. Pulsations at 9.854 23(5) s were detected in the X...

  19. High pH microbial ecosystems in a newly discovered, ephemeral, serpentinizing fluid seep at Yanartaş (Chimaera, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Arcy Renee Meyer-Dombard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas seeps emanating from ophiolites at Yanartaş (Chimaera, Turkey, have been documented for thousands of years. Active serpentinization produces hydrogen and a range of carbon gases that may provide fuel for life. Here we report a newly discovered, ephemeral fluid seep emanating from a small gas vent at Yanartaş. Fluids and biofilms were sampled at the source and points downstream. We describe site conditions, and provide microbiological data in the form of enrichment cultures, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of solids, and PCR screens of nitrogen cycle genes. Source fluids are pH 11.95, with a Ca:Mg of ~200, and sediments under the ignited gas seep measure 60°C. Collectively, these data suggest the fluid is the product of active serpentinization at depth. Source sediments are primarily calcite and alteration products (chlorite and montmorillonite. Downstream, biofilms are mixed with montmorillonite. SEM shows biofilms distributed homogeneously with carbonates. Organic carbon accounts for 60% of the total carbon at the source, decreasing downstream to <15% as inorganic carbon precipitates. δ13C ratios of the organic carbon fraction of solids are depleted (−25 to −28 ‰ relative to the carbonates (−11 to −20‰. We conclude that heterotrophic processes are dominant throughout the surface ecosystem, and carbon fixation may be key down channel. δ15N ratios ~ 3‰, and absence of nifH in extracted DNA suggest that nitrogen fixation is not occurring in sediments. However, the presence of narG and nirS at most locations and in enrichments indicates genomic potential for nitrate and nitrite reduction. This small seep with shallow run-off is likely ephemeral, but abundant preserved microterracettes in the outflow and the surrounding area suggest it has been present for some time. This site and others like it present an opportunity for investigations of preserved deep biosphere signatures, and

  20. Psychological distress among women with newly diagnosed breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Birgitte; Bistrup, Pernille Envold; Johansen, Christoffer

    2012-01-01

    thermometer' to measure psychological distress and the accompanying 'problem list' to identify related problems. Logistic regression models with 95% confidence intervals were used to estimate the associations between psychological distress, age, social support and domains on the problem list. RESULTS......PURPOSE: Psychological distress is common in the cancer continuum. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of distress and to investigate the related problems and the characteristics of women with breast cancer who experienced psychological distress at the time of diagnosis. METHODS: We...

  1. Newly diagnosed breast cancer in a patient receiving imatinib mesylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaygusuz-Atagunduz, Isik; Toptas, Tayfur; Yumuk, Fulden; Firatli-Tuglular, Tulin; Bayik, Mahmut

    2014-01-01

    Imatinib mesylate is the standard treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Despite imatinib is being used in the treatment of other malignancies as well, its potential role on de novo tumor growth is not known. Secondary malignancies are rarely seen in patients with CML and particularly in those receiving imatinib. Here, we present a CML patient taking imatinib therapy that was diagnosed to have breast cancer and received adjuvant chemo-and radiotherapy with imatinib. We tried to explain co-occurrence of these rare events by probable pathogenetic mechanisms.

  2. Insights into methane dynamics from analysis of authigenic carbonates and chemosynthetic mussels at newly-discovered Atlantic Margin seeps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, Nancy G.; Sahy, Diana; Ruppel, Carolyn D.; Roark, E. Brendan; Condon, Dan; Brooke, Sandra; Ross, Steve W.; Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.

    2016-01-01

    The recent discovery of active methane venting along the US northern and mid-Atlantic margin represents a new source of global methane not previously accounted for in carbon budgets from this region. However, uncertainty remains as to the origin and history of methane seepage along this tectonically inactive passive margin. Here we present the first isotopic analyses of authigenic carbonates and methanotrophic deep-sea mussels, Bathymodiolus   sp., and the first direct constraints on the timing of past methane emission, based on samples collected at the upper slope Baltimore Canyon (∼385 m water depth) and deepwater Norfolk (∼1600 m) seep fields within the area of newly-discovered venting. The authigenic carbonates at both sites were dominated by aragonite, with an average  signature of −47‰, a value consistent with microbially driven anaerobic oxidation of methane-rich fluids occurring at or near the sediment–water interface. Authigenic carbonate U and Sr isotope data further support the inference of carbonate precipitation from seawater-derived fluids rather than from formation fluids from deep aquifers. Carbonate stable and radiocarbon ( and ) isotope values from living Bathymodiolus   sp. specimens are lighter than those of seawater dissolved inorganic carbon, highlighting the influence of fossil carbon from methane on carbonate precipitation. U–Th dates on authigenic carbonates suggest seepage at Baltimore Canyon between 14.7±0.6 ka to 15.7±1.6 ka, and at the Norfolk seep field between 1.0±0.7 ka to 3.3±1.3 ka, providing constraint on the longevity of methane efflux at these sites. The age of the brecciated authigenic carbonates and the occurrence of pockmarks at the Baltimore Canyon upper slope could suggest a link between sediment delivery during Pleistocene sea-level lowstand, accumulation of pore fluid overpressure from sediment compaction, and release of overpressure through subsequent venting. Calculations show that

  3. Geology and geochemistry of newly discovered Tertiary carbonatite occurrences near Villa Ahumada area, Basin and Range province, Chihuahua, northern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandigam, Ravi Chenchu

    This study targets some newly discovered carbonatite occurrences located in the eastern Mexican Basin and Range province, a few kilometers to the east of Villa Ahumada, Chihuahua. The region containing these occurrences experienced compression related to subduction of the Farallon plate until about 32 Ma that was followed by Basin and Range extension. Geological mapping (1:5,000 scale), petrography, study of drill hole cuttings and satellite images, and major and trace element chemical analyses were utilized to understand the intrusive style of the carbonatites, their mineralogy and petrogenesis. The carbonatites, named Yuca, Mariana and El Indio, collectively intrude limestones, granitic intrusives and subduction-related tuffs and lavas mainly as a stock, breccias and dikes. The Yuca carbonatite was emplaced as a 900-m diameter stock, 500 x 350 m breccia body, numerous dikes and networks of fracture fillings. Crosscutting field relationships at Yuca suggest at least two stages of carbonatite emplacement. At Mariana, carbonatite was emplaced as a 750 x 350 m breccia. Four out of nine reverse circulation drill holes penetrated and bottomed in the breccia at an average depth of about 300 m At El Indio, carbonatite was emplaced as a 20 m diameter breccia pipe and a 1m thick sill. Major minerals present are calcite, Fe-rich calcite and hematite. Sporadic presence of fluorite is common. At Mariana, two generations of grossular-rich garnets associated with limestones and granite porphyry respectively are recognized. It is inferred that garnets in granite porphyry represent metasomatic alteration due to the emplacement of carbonatite breccia. Parental magmas of Yuca carbonatites have undergone differentiation under low fO2 conditions during which they were progressively enriched in iron. The carbonatite compositional types recognized based on major element data, in the sequence of least to most highly differentiated, are (1) magnesio-, (2) calcio- and (3

  4. Newly discovered breast cancer susceptibility loci on 3p24 and 17q23.2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Shahana; Thomas, Gilles; Ghoussaini, Maya

    2009-01-01

    strong evidence for additional susceptibility loci on 3p (rs4973768: per-allele OR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.08-1.13, P = 4.1 x 10(-23)) and 17q (rs6504950: per-allele OR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.92-0.97, P = 1.4 x 10(-8)). Potential causative genes include SLC4A7 and NEK10 on 3p and COX11 on 17q....

  5. Data base on physical observations of near-Earth asteroids and establishment of a network to coordinate observations of newly discovered near-Earth asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, D. R.; Chapman, C. R.; Campins, H.

    1990-01-01

    This program consists of two tasks: (1) development of a data base of physical observations of near-earth asteroids and establishment of a network to coordinate observations of newly discovered earth-approaching asteroids; and (2) a simulation of the surface of low-activity comets. Significant progress was made on task one and, and task two was completed during the period covered by this progress report.

  6. Newly Discovered Silicate Features in the Spectra of Young Warm Debris Disks: Probing Terrestrial Regions of Planetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballering, N.; Rieke, G.

    2014-03-01

    vary. The total mass of dust in each belt was expressed through the coefficients C2 and C3. The dust was assumed to consist of amorphous olivine (MgFeSiO4). Model Fν = C1•Bν(Tstar) + C2•Fν,belt(rin1,rout1,rexp1,amin1) + C3•Fν,belt(rin2,rout2,rexp2,amin2) We found previously undiscovered emission features in the spectra of several targets, listed below. Our model fits to these systems confirmed that these spectral signatures can arise from realistic disk models, and that this dust is located in the terrestrial regions of these systems. This is a subset of the full sample of warm disks with newly discovered spectral features to be published in Ballering et al. (2014). • HIP 26966 (HD 38206), a 30 Myr old A0 star. • HIP 41081 (HD 71043), a 30 Myr old A0 star. • HIP 2578 (HD 3003), a 30 Myr old A0 star. • HIP 66068 (HD 117665), a 20 Myr old A1/A2 star. • HIP 78641 (HD 143675), a 20 Myr old A5 star. • HIP 26395 (HD 37306), a 10 Myr old A2 star. • HIP 71271 (HD 127750), a 20 Myr old A0 star. • HIP 58220 (HD 103703), a 20 Myr old F3 star.

  7. Newly Synthesized Doxorubicin Complexes with Selected Metals—Synthesis, Structure and Anti-Breast Cancer Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Agata Jabłońska-Trypuć; Grzegorz Świderski; Rafał Krętowski; Włodzimierz Lewandowski

    2017-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is very effective chemotherapeutic agent, however it has several major drawbacks. Therefore the motivation for developing novel drug complexes as anticancer agents with different mechanism of action has arisen. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of newly synthesized DOX complexes with selected metals (Mg, Mn, Co, Ni, Fe, Cu, Zn) on apoptosis, cell cycle, viability, proliferation and cytotoxicity in the breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Complexation of DO...

  8. Sensitivity and specificity of the Distress Thermometer for depression in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegel, Mark T; Collins, E Dale; Kearing, Stephen; Gillock, Karen L; Moore, Caroline P; Ahles, Tim A

    2008-06-01

    Receiving a new diagnosis of breast cancer is a distressing experience that may precipitate an episode of major depressive disorder. Efficient screening methods for detecting depression in the oncology setting are needed. This study evaluated the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) of the single-item Distress Thermometer (DT) for detecting depression in women newly diagnosed with Stage I-III breast cancer. We assessed 321 patients (of 345 consecutive patients) at the time of their pre-surgical consultation at a Comprehensive Breast Cancer Program. Patients were administered the DT along with the Patient Health Questionnaire 9-Item Depression Module (PHQ-9) as a gold standard diagnostic assessment of depression status. Mean DT scores (11-point scale, 0-10) were significantly higher for depressed versus non-depressed patients (8.1 versus 4.4). In ROC analyses the DT showed strong discriminatory power relative to the PHQ-9-derived diagnosis of depression, with an area under the curve of 0.87. Patient age, education, marital status and stage of disease resulted in similar operating characteristics. A score of 7 represented the optimal trade-off between sensitivity (0.81) and specificity (0.85) characteristics for detecting depression. The single-item DT performs satisfactorily relative to the PHQ-9 for detecting depression in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. A cutoff score of 7 on the DT possesses the optimal sensitivity and specificity characteristics. The strength of these findings suggests that a careful psychosocial evaluation should follow a positive screen.

  9. Resilience and Associated Factors among Mainland Chinese Women Newly Diagnosed with Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zijing; Liu, Ye; Li, Xuelian; Li, Xiaohan

    2016-01-01

    Resilience is the individual's ability to bounce back from trauma. It has been studied for some time in the U.S., but few studies in China have addressed this important construct. In mainland China, relatively little is known about the resilience of patients in clinical settings, especially among patients with breast cancer. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the level of resilience and identify predictors of resilience among mainland Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with 213 mainland Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer between November 2014 and June 2015. Participants were assessed with the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS), Medical Coping Modes Questionnaire (MCMQ, including 3 subscales: confrontation, avoidance, and acceptance-resignation), Herth Hope Index (HHI), and demographic and disease-related information. Descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses and multiple stepwise regression were conducted to explore predictors for resilience. The average score for CD-RISC was 60.97, ranging from 37 to 69. Resilience was positively associated with educational level, family income, time span after diagnosis, social support, confrontation, avoidance, and hope. However, resilience was negatively associated with age, body mass index (BMI), and acceptance-resignation. Multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that hope (β = 0.343, Presilience and explained 50.1% of the total variance in resilience. Women with newly diagnosed breast cancer from mainland China demonstrated particularly low resilience level, which was predicted by hope educational level, avoidance, confrontation, and age.

  10. Resilience and Associated Factors among Mainland Chinese Women Newly Diagnosed with Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zijing Wu

    Full Text Available Resilience is the individual's ability to bounce back from trauma. It has been studied for some time in the U.S., but few studies in China have addressed this important construct. In mainland China, relatively little is known about the resilience of patients in clinical settings, especially among patients with breast cancer. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the level of resilience and identify predictors of resilience among mainland Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer.A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with 213 mainland Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer between November 2014 and June 2015. Participants were assessed with the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC, Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS, Medical Coping Modes Questionnaire (MCMQ, including 3 subscales: confrontation, avoidance, and acceptance-resignation, Herth Hope Index (HHI, and demographic and disease-related information. Descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses and multiple stepwise regression were conducted to explore predictors for resilience.The average score for CD-RISC was 60.97, ranging from 37 to 69. Resilience was positively associated with educational level, family income, time span after diagnosis, social support, confrontation, avoidance, and hope. However, resilience was negatively associated with age, body mass index (BMI, and acceptance-resignation. Multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that hope (β = 0.343, P<0.001, educational level of junior college or above (β = 0.272, P<0.001, educational level of high school (β = 0.235, P<0.001, avoidance (β = 0.220, P<0.001, confrontation (β = 0.187, P = 0.001, and age (β = -0.108, P = 0.037 significantly affected resilience and explained 50.1% of the total variance in resilience.Women with newly diagnosed breast cancer from mainland China demonstrated particularly low resilience level, which was predicted by hope educational level, avoidance, confrontation

  11. Kanyawara Virus: A Novel Rhabdovirus Infecting Newly Discovered Nycteribiid Bat Flies Infesting Previously Unknown Pteropodid Bats in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Tony L; Bennett, Andrew J; Kityo, Robert; Kuhn, Jens H; Chapman, Colin A

    2017-07-13

    Bats are natural reservoir hosts of highly virulent pathogens such as Marburg virus, Nipah virus, and SARS coronavirus. However, little is known about the role of bat ectoparasites in transmitting and maintaining such viruses. The intricate relationship between bats and their ectoparasites suggests that ectoparasites might serve as viral vectors, but evidence to date is scant. Bat flies, in particular, are highly specialized obligate hematophagous ectoparasites that incidentally bite humans. Using next-generation sequencing, we discovered a novel ledantevirus (mononegaviral family Rhabdoviridae, genus Ledantevirus) in nycteribiid bat flies infesting pteropodid bats in western Uganda. Mitochondrial DNA analyses revealed that both the bat flies and their bat hosts belong to putative new species. The coding-complete genome of the new virus, named Kanyawara virus (KYAV), is only distantly related to that of its closest known relative, Mount Elgon bat virus, and was found at high titers in bat flies but not in blood or on mucosal surfaces of host bats. Viral genome analysis indicates unusually low CpG dinucleotide depletion in KYAV compared to other ledanteviruses and rhabdovirus groups, with KYAV displaying values similar to rhabdoviruses of arthropods. Our findings highlight the possibility of a yet-to-be-discovered diversity of potentially pathogenic viruses in bat ectoparasites.

  12. Comparative effectiveness of positron emission mammography and MRI in the contralateral breast of women with newly diagnosed breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Wendie A; Madsen, Kathleen S; Schilling, Kathy; Tartar, Marie; Pisano, Etta D; Larsen, Linda Hovanessian; Narayanan, Deepa; Kalinyak, Judith E

    2012-01-01

    The objective of our study was to compare the performance of positron emission mammography (PEM) with that of MRI in the evaluation of the contralateral breast of women with newly diagnosed cancer. Four hundred seventy-two women with newly diagnosed breast cancer offered breast-conserving surgery from September 2006 through November 2008 consented to participate in a multicenter protocol. Participants underwent contrast-enhanced breast MRI and 18F-FDG PEM in randomized order, and the examinations were interpreted independently. The performance characteristics of the imaging modalities were compared using the McNemar test and generalized estimating equations. A retrospective blinded review of PEM images was performed by four experienced observers to understand the reasons for false-negatives. Three hundred sixty-seven women (median age, 58 years; age range, 26-93 years) eligible for analysis completed the appropriate follow-up for study inclusion. Fifteen women (4.1%) were found to have contralateral cancer (11 invasive [mean tumor size, 12 mm; median, 10 mm; range, 1-22 mm] and four ductal carcinoma in situ). Of the 15 cases, both PEM and MRI showed three (20%), only MRI showed 11 (73%), and one (6.7%) was found at prophylactic mastectomy. MRI sensitivity at 14 of 15 (93%; 95% CI, 66-94) was higher than PEM at three of 15 (20%; 95% CI, 5.3-46) (pPEM, three additional cancers were seen prospectively but were considered probably benign and two other cancers were visible in retrospect at the site. Of 352 contralateral breasts without cancer, findings were negative or benign on PEM for 335 (95.2%; 95% CI, 92.2-97.0), which is more than MRI at 315 (89.5%; 95% CI, 85.7-92.4; p=0.002). The positive predictive value (PPV) of PEM-prompted biopsies (3/14 [21%]) was not significantly different from the PPV of MRI (15/54 [28%], p=0.58). On blinded retrospective PEM review of the 15 contralateral cancers, PEM findings for 11 (73%) were considered suspicious. Contralateral

  13. The effects of individually tailored nurse navigation for patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Birgitte Goldschmidt; Dunn-Henriksen, Anne Katrine; Kroman, Niels

    2017-01-01

    AIM: Our aim was to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of an individual, nurse-navigator intervention for relieving distress, anxiety, depression and health-related quality of life in women who have been treated for breast cancer (BC) and are experiencing moderate-to-severe psychological...... and physical symptoms. METHODS: Fifty women with newly diagnosed BC who reported distress (score ≥7 on distress thermometer) before surgery were included consecutively in a pilot study and randomized 1:1 to the intervention or the control group. The intervention comprised repeated screening with patient...... reported outcome measures and nurse navigation. A total of 66 women who were not distressed (score

  14. The Prevalence in Canada of Drug-Resistant Tubercle Bacilli in Newly Discovered Untreated Patients with Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, A. Riley

    1966-01-01

    During the period February 1963 to September 1964, the incidence of strains of tubercle bacilli excreted by newly diagnosed, previously untreated patients with tuberculosis in Canada that were resistant to the major antituberculosis drugs, viz. streptomycin, para-aminosalicylic acid and isoniazid, was 4.8%. Resistance to a single drug (3.8%) was observed more commonly than was resistance to two drugs (0.9%) or to all three drugs (0.3%), and the drug most frequently involved in this regard was streptomycin (1.8%). Data for the province of Ontario were almost the same as those for Canada. These data are compared with results of surveys in other countries and it is concluded that while drug-resistant tubercle bacilli do not constitute a major problem in Canada at present, awareness of this potential hazard should be maintained. PMID:20328514

  15. E/V Nautilus Detection of Isolated Features in the Eastern Pacific Ocean: Newly Discovered Calderas and Methane Seeps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raineault, N.; Irish, O.; Lubetkin, M.

    2016-02-01

    The E/V Nautilus mapped over 80,000 km2 of the seafloor in the Gulf of Mexico and Eastern Pacific Ocean during its 2015 expedition. The Nautilus used its Kongsberg EM302 multibeam system to map the seafloor prior to remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dives, both for scientific purposes (site selection) and navigational safety. The Nautilus also routinely maps during transits to identify previously un-mapped or unresolved seafloor features. During its transit from the Galapagos Islands to the California Borderland, the Nautilus mapped 44,695 km2 of seafloor. Isolated features on the seafloor and in the water-column, such as calderas and methane seeps, were detected during this data collection effort. Operating at a frequency of 30 kHz in waters ranging from 1000-5500 m, we discovered caldera features off the coast of Central America. Since seamounts are known hotspots of biodiversity, locating new ones may enrich our understanding of seamounts as "stepping stones" for species distribution and ocean current pathways. Satellite altimetry datasets prior to this data either did not discern these calderas or recognized the presence of a bathymetric high without great detail. This new multibeam bathymetry data, gridded at 50 m, gives a precise look at these seamounts that range in elevation from 350 to 1400 m from abyssal depth. The largest of the calderas is circular in shape and is 10,000 m in length and 5,000 m in width, with a distinct circular depression at the center of its highest point, 1,400 m above the surrounding abyssal depth. In the California Borderland region, located between San Diego and Los Angeles, four new seeps were discovered in water depths from 400-1,020 m. ROV exploration of these seeps revealed vent communities. Altogether, these discoveries reinforce how little we know about the global ocean, indicate the presence of isolated deep-sea ecosystems that support biologically diverse communities, and will impact our understanding of seafloor habitat.

  16. Rapid forest clearing in a Myanmar proposed national park threatens two newly discovered species of geckos (Gekkonidae: Cyrtodactylus.

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    Grant M Connette

    Full Text Available Myanmar's recent transition from military rule towards a more democratic government has largely ended decades of political and economic isolation. Although Myanmar remains heavily forested, increased development in recent years has been accompanied by exceptionally high rates of forest loss. In this study, we document the rapid progression of deforestation in and around the proposed Lenya National Park, which includes some of the largest remaining areas of lowland evergreen rainforest in mainland Southeast Asia. The globally unique forests in this area are rich in biodiversity and remain a critical stronghold for many threatened and endangered species, including large charismatic fauna such as tiger and Asian elephant. We also conducted a rapid assessment survey of the herpetofauna of the proposed national park, which resulted in the discovery of two new species of bent-toed geckos, genus Cyrtodactylus. We describe these new species, C. lenya sp. nov. and C. payarhtanensis sp. nov., which were found in association with karst (i.e., limestone rock formations within mature lowland wet evergreen forest. The two species were discovered less than 35 km apart and are each known from only a single locality. Because of the isolated nature of the karst formations in the proposed Lenya National Park, these geckos likely have geographical ranges restricted to the proposed protected area and are threatened by approaching deforestation. Although lowland evergreen rainforest has vanished from most of continental Southeast Asia, Myanmar can still take decisive action to preserve one of the most biodiverse places on Earth.

  17. Newly discovered fragments of frescoes in the Church of Saint Ana above Perast, the Boka Kotorska bay

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    Đorđević Ivan M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Several years ago, during the reconstruction and refurbishment of the Church of Saint Ana above Perast, the original layer of frescoes was discovered in this church, which is otherwise known for the wall paintings by Tripo Kokolja (beginning of the XVIII century. Since this church is also known as indicated in the paper, by the name of Saint Veneranda, or Saint Paraskevi, the point that was discussed first of all, was the change in the dedication of the church. On the basis of an analysis of the architecture it was argued that this was one of the oldest shrines in Perast, dating from the mid-XV century. Fragments of frescoes were then analysed, which made it possible to conclude beyond a doubt that Saint Paraskevi was painted on the triumphal arch, on the southern side, and above her, the Crucifixion. The placement of this scene in the main place in the temple resulted from the fact that the Church of Saint Ana was located at the end of the Way of the Cross (Via Crucis, in Perast. All this indicates that the educated population of Perast knew exactly how to create the sacral topography of a town. Finally, it seems that the paper proves, persuasively enough, that the wall paintings in Saint Ana are the work of Lovro Marinov Dobričević, a painter of Kotor and Dubrovnik from the middle and the latter half of the XV century.

  18. Rapid forest clearing in a Myanmar proposed national park threatens two newly discovered species of geckos (Gekkonidae: Cyrtodactylus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connette, Grant M; Oswald, Patrick; Thura, Myint Kyaw; LaJeunesse Connette, Katherine J; Grindley, Mark E; Songer, Melissa; Zug, George R; Mulcahy, Daniel G

    2017-01-01

    Myanmar's recent transition from military rule towards a more democratic government has largely ended decades of political and economic isolation. Although Myanmar remains heavily forested, increased development in recent years has been accompanied by exceptionally high rates of forest loss. In this study, we document the rapid progression of deforestation in and around the proposed Lenya National Park, which includes some of the largest remaining areas of lowland evergreen rainforest in mainland Southeast Asia. The globally unique forests in this area are rich in biodiversity and remain a critical stronghold for many threatened and endangered species, including large charismatic fauna such as tiger and Asian elephant. We also conducted a rapid assessment survey of the herpetofauna of the proposed national park, which resulted in the discovery of two new species of bent-toed geckos, genus Cyrtodactylus. We describe these new species, C. lenya sp. nov. and C. payarhtanensis sp. nov., which were found in association with karst (i.e., limestone) rock formations within mature lowland wet evergreen forest. The two species were discovered less than 35 km apart and are each known from only a single locality. Because of the isolated nature of the karst formations in the proposed Lenya National Park, these geckos likely have geographical ranges restricted to the proposed protected area and are threatened by approaching deforestation. Although lowland evergreen rainforest has vanished from most of continental Southeast Asia, Myanmar can still take decisive action to preserve one of the most biodiverse places on Earth.

  19. Sulfonamide inhibition studies of the β-carbonic anhydrase from the newly discovered bacterium Enterobacter sp. B13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eminoğlu, Ayşenur; Vullo, Daniela; Aşık, Aycan; Çolak, Dilşat Nigar; Çanakçı, Sabriye; Beldüz, Ali Osman; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2016-04-01

    The genome of the newly identified bacterium Enterobacter sp. B13 encodes for a β-class carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1), EspCA. This enzyme was recently cloned, and characterized kinetically by this group (J. Enzyme Inhib. Med. Chem. 2016, 31). Here we report an inhibition study with sulfonamides and sulfamates of this enzyme. The best EspCA inhibitors were some sulfanylated sulfonamides with elongated molecules, metanilamide, 4-aminoalkyl-benzenesulfonamides, acetazolamide, and deacetylated methazolamide (KIs in the range of 58.7-96.5nM). Clinically used agents such as methazolamide, ethoxzolamide, dorzolamide, brinzolamide, benzolamide, zonisamide, sulthiame, sulpiride, topiramate and valdecoxib were slightly less effective inhibitors (KIs in the range of 103-138nM). Saccharin, celecoxib, dichlorophenamide and many simple benzenesulfonamides were even less effective as EspCA inhibitors, with KIs in the range of 384-938nM. Identification of effective inhibitors of this bacterial enzyme may lead to pharmacological tools useful for understanding the physiological role(s) of the β-class CAs in bacterial pathogenicity/virulence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Coping Profiles Differentiate Psychological Adjustment in Chinese Women Newly Diagnosed With Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingyan; Li, Shichen; Wang, Yuping; Yi, Jinyao; Yang, Yanjie; He, Jincai; Zhu, Xiongzhao

    2017-06-01

    The study aimed to explore latent profiles of coping in Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer and examine the differences of psychological distress, demographic, and medical characteristics across profiles. Latent profile analysis was used to identify 3 classes of copers based on data from 618 Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer who completed questionnaires assessing their coping strategies and psychological distress. "Adaptive coper," reporting most use of adaptive cognitive coping strategies, behaviors of acceptance and shifting attention, and least use of maladaptive cognitive coping strategies, had the best psychological adjustment. "Negative coper," characterized by most use of maladaptive cognitive coping strategies, least use of adaptive cognitive coping strategies except "putting in perspective," and median levels of medical coping behaviors, had the worst psychological adjustment. "Inconsistent coper," with great use of all cognitive coping strategies, and most behaviors of fighting against the disease, and fewest behaviors of attention shift, had relatively high levels of psychological distress. Younger age, less education, shorter time since diagnosis, widowed, living in rural areas, and undergoing chemotherapy are possible markers for patients with less adaptive coping patterns. Interventions should be developed according to the different coping profiles of patients, and the key group to target is "negative copers," who may benefit from cognitive behavioral approaches that combine emotion, cognition and behavior, which could help them more effectively appraise and cope with stressful events.

  1. Analysis of Metabolic Pathways and Fluxes in a Newly Discovered Thermophilic and Ethanol-Tolerant Geobacillus Strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Yinjie J.; Sapra, Rajat; Joyner, Dominique; Hazen, Terry C.; Myers, Samuel; Reichmuth, David; Blanch, Harvey; Keasling, Jay D.

    2009-01-20

    A recently discovered thermophilic bacterium, Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius M10EXG, ferments a range of C5 (e.g., xylose) and C6 sugars (e.g., glucose) and istolerant to high ethanol concentrations (10percent, v/v). We have investigated the central metabolism of this bacterium using both in vitro enzyme assays and 13C-based flux analysis to provide insights into the physiological properties of this extremophile and explore its metabolism for bio-ethanol or other bioprocess applications. Our findings show that glucose metabolism in G. thermoglucosidasius M10EXG proceeds via glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, and the TCA cycle; the Entner?Doudoroff pathway and transhydrogenase activity were not detected. Anaplerotic reactions (including the glyoxylate shunt, pyruvate carboxylase, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase) were active, but fluxes through those pathways could not be accuratelydetermined using amino acid labeling. When growth conditions were switched from aerobic to micro-aerobic conditions, fluxes (based on a normalized glucose uptake rate of 100 units (g DCW)-1 h-1) through the TCA cycle and oxidative pentose phosphate pathway were reduced from 64+-3 to 25+-2 and from 30+-2 to 19+-2, respectively. The carbon flux under micro-aerobic growth was directed formate. Under fully anerobic conditions, G. thermoglucosidasius M10EXG used a mixed acid fermentation process and exhibited a maximum ethanol yield of 0.38+-0.07 mol mol-1 glucose. In silico flux balance modeling demonstrates that lactate and acetate production from G. thermoglucosidasius M10EXG reduces the maximum ethanol yieldby approximately threefold, thus indicating that both pathways should be modified to maximize ethanol production.

  2. Comparison of pharmacokinetics of newly discovered aromatase inhibitors by a cassette microdosing approach in healthy Japanese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuhara, Hiroyuki; Takashima, Tadayuki; Fujii, Hisako; Takashima, Tsutomu; Tanaka, Masaaki; Ishii, Akira; Tazawa, Shusaku; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Kayo; Tokai, Hidekichi; Yano, Tsuneo; Kataoka, Makoto; Inano, Akihiro; Yoshida, Suguru; Hosoya, Takamitsu; Sugiyama, Yuichi; Yamashita, Shinji; Hojo, Taisuke; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the pharmacokinetics of our newly developed aromatase inhibitors (cetrozole and TMD-322) in healthy subjects by a cassette microdose strategy. A cocktail of cetrozole and TMD-322 was administered intravenously or orally (1.98 μg for each drug) to six healthy volunteers in a crossover fashion. Anastrozole (1.98 μg) was also included in the oral cocktail. Total body clearance and bioavailability were 12.1 ± 7.1 mL/min/kg and 34.9 ± 32.3% for cetrozole, and 16.8 ± 3.5 mL/min/kg and 18.4 ± 12.2% for TMD-322, respectively. The area under the plasma concentration-time curves of cetrozole and TMD-322 after oral administration was markedly lower than that of anastrozole because of their high hepatic clearance. Two subjects out of six exhibited 4- and 17-fold larger exposure of cetrozole than the others following intravenous and oral administration, respectively. Such variation was not observed for TMD-322 and anastrozole. Extensive metabolism of cetrozole and TMD-322 was observed in the CYP2C19 expression system among the test CYP isoforms (CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4). We report the first clinical investigation of our aromatase inhibitors by a cassette microdose strategy in healthy Japanese subjects. This strategy offers an optional approach for candidate selection as a phase zero study in drug development. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Racial disparities in functional disability among older women with newly diagnosed nonmetastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu, Cynthia; Schluchter, Mark; Koroukian, Siran M; Mazhuvanchery, Suzanne; Berger, Nathan A

    2013-11-01

    This study sought to assess racial differences in functional disability among older women with nonmetastatic breast cancer. In this cross-sectional study, between April 2008 and December 2012, women aged ≥ 65 years with newly diagnosed stage I through III breast cancer were recruited from ambulatory oncology clinics at an academic center. Prior to receiving any adjuvant treatment, participants completed a comprehensive geriatric assessment. The primary outcome was functional disability, defined as dependency in any basic or instrumental activity of daily living, categorized as "yes" or "no." Logistic regression analyses were undertaken. The study enrolled 190 women whose mean age was 75.0 years at diagnosis (standard deviation = 7.0, range = 65-93 years). Thirty-two percent were African American (AA), and 39% had functional disability. Controlling for age, participants with functional disability were more likely to be AA (versus non-Hispanic white), odds ratio = 4.19, 95% confidence interval = 2.12-8.27. Fifty-nine percent of the racial difference in functional disability was explained by a higher prevalence of lower income and education among AAs. In addition, the higher prevalence of chronic medical conditions and obesity among AAs, after accounting for socioeconomic factors, further explained 40% of the black-white difference in functional disability. Among older women with newly diagnosed nonmetastatic breast cancer, functional disability is highly prevalent, and AAs are disproportionately affected. Interventions to optimize the functional status of at-risk individuals, particularly AAs, during and after cancer treatment may improve treatment tolerance and overall survival outcomes. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  4. Racial Disparities in Functional Disability among Older Women with Newly Diagnosed Non-metastatic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu, Cynthia; Schluchter, Mark; Koroukian, Siran M.; Mazhuvanchery, Suzanne; Berger, Nathan A.

    2013-01-01

    Background To assess racial differences in functional disability among older women with non-metastatic breast cancer. Methods This is a cross-sectional study. Between April 2008 and December 2012, women aged ≥65 years with newly diagnosed stage I–III breast cancer were recruited from ambulatory oncology clinics at an academic center. Prior to receiving any adjuvant treatment participants completed a comprehensive geriatric assessment. The primary outcome was functional disability, defined as dependency in any Basic or Instrumental Activity of Daily Living, Yes or No. Logistic regression analyses were undertaken. Results We enrolled 190 women whose mean age was 75.0 years at diagnosis (SD=7.0, range 65–93 years). Thirty-two percent were African-American (AA), and 39 percent had functional disability. Controlling for age, participants with functional disability were more likely to be AA [versus (vs.) non-Hispanic White], Odds ratio (OR) = 4.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) =2.12–8.27. Fifty-nine percent of the racial difference in functional disability was explained by a higher prevalence of lower income and education among AA. Additionally, the higher prevalence of chronic medical conditions and obesity among AA, after accounting for socioeconomic factors, further explained 40% of the Black-White difference in functional disability. Conclusion Among older women with newly diagnosed non-metastatic breast cancer, functional disability is highly prevalent and African-Americans are disproportionately affected. Interventions to optimize the functional status of at-risk individuals, particularly African-Americans, during and after cancer treatment may improve treatment tolerance and overall survival outcomes. PMID:24114615

  5. Maar-diatreme volcanism relating to the pyroclastic sequence of a newly discovered high-alumina basalt in the Maroa Volcanic Centre, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kósik, S.; Németh, K.; Procter, J. N.; Zellmer, G. F.

    2017-07-01

    Diatreme sequences have previously been described from drill holes within the Taupo Volcanic Zone. The newly discovered Te Hukui Basalt exhibits deep excavation of country rocks that do not appear elsewhere at the surface. The basalt is characterized by proximal deposition of pyroclastic deposits relating to phreatomagmatism. The geochemical composition classifies these rocks as high-alumina basalts. They erupted along the Orakeikorako Fault at the same location where rhyolitic activity of Puketerata occurred at a later point in time. The petrological characteristics of the basalts indicate the mixing of mafic melt with crystalline mush relating to more evolved magmas. The new basaltic occurrence supports frequent mafic recharge of shallow magma reservoirs, inducing basaltic eruptions, in this case the mafic magma intruding into highly crystallized mush zones. This may explain why basaltic eruptions mostly occur on the edge of the central extensional part of the Taupo Volcanic Zone.

  6. Biomarker modulation following short-term vorinostat in women with newly diagnosed primary breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, Vered; Jacobs, Lisa K; Fackler, Maryjo; Tsangaris, Theodore N; Rudek, Michelle A; Higgins, Michaela; Lange, Julie; Cheng, Zandra; Slater, Shannon A; Jeter, Stacie C; Powers, Penny; Briest, Susanne; Chao, Calvin; Yoshizawa, Carl; Sugar, Elizabeth; Espinoza-Delgado, Igor; Sukumar, Saraswati; Gabrielson, Edward; Davidson, Nancy E

    2013-07-15

    Agents that target the epigenome show activity in breast cancer models. In preclinical studies, the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat induces cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis, and differentiation. We evaluated biomarker modulation in breast cancer tissues obtained from women with newly diagnosed invasive disease who received vorinostat and those who did not. Tumor specimens were collected from 25 women who received up to 6 doses of oral vorinostat 300 mg twice daily and from 25 untreated controls in a nonrandomized study. Candidate gene expression was analyzed by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) using the Oncotype DX 21-gene assay, and by immunohistochemistry for Ki-67 and cleaved caspase-3. Matched samples from treated women were analyzed for gene methylation by quantitative multiplex methylation-specific PCR (QM-MSP). Wilcoxon nonparametric tests were used to compare changes in quantitative gene expression levels pre- and post-vorinostat with changes in expression in untreated controls, and changes in gene methylation between pre- and post-vorinostat samples. Vorinostat was well tolerated and there were no study-related delays in treatment. Compared with untreated controls, there were statistically significant decreases in the expression of proliferation-associated genes Ki-67 (P = 0.003), STK15 (P = 0.005), and Cyclin B1 (P = 0.03) following vorinostat, but not in other genes by the Oncotype DX assay, or in expression of Ki-67 or cleaved caspase-3 by immunohistochemistry. Changes in methylation were not observed. Short-term vorinostat administration is associated with a significant decrease in expression of proliferation-associated genes in untreated breast cancers. This demonstration of biologic activity supports investigation of vorinostat in combination with other agents for the management of breast cancer.

  7. Mouse Models of Breast Cancer: Platforms for Discovering Precision Imaging Diagnostics and Future Cancer Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, H Charles; Buck, Jason R; Cook, Rebecca S

    2016-02-01

    Representing an enormous health care and socioeconomic challenge, breast cancer is the second most common cancer in the world and the second most common cause of cancer-related death. Although many of the challenges associated with preventing, treating, and ultimately curing breast cancer are addressable in the laboratory, successful translation of groundbreaking research to clinical populations remains an important barrier. Particularly when compared with research on other types of solid tumors, breast cancer research is hampered by a lack of tractable in vivo model systems that accurately recapitulate the relevant clinical features of the disease. A primary objective of this article was to provide a generalizable overview of the types of in vivo model systems, with an emphasis primarily on murine models, that are widely deployed in preclinical breast cancer research. Major opportunities to advance precision cancer medicine facilitated by molecular imaging of preclinical breast cancer models are discussed. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  8. Unmet information needs and limited health literacy in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients over the course of cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbach, Sarah Maria; Ernstmann, Nicole; Kowalski, Christoph; Pfaff, Holger; Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; Wesselmann, Simone; Enders, Anna

    2016-09-01

    To investigate unmet information needs in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients over the course of cancer treatment and its association with health literacy. We present results from a prospective, multicenter cohort study (PIAT). Newly diagnosed breast cancer patients (N=1060) were surveyed directly after breast cancer surgery, 10 and 40 weeks later. Pooled linear regression modeling was employed analyzing changes in unmet information needs over time and its association with health literacy. Unmet information needs on side effects and medication and medical examination results and treatment options were high and increased during the first 10 weeks after breast cancer surgery. Considering health promotion and social issues, unmet information needs started high and decreased during post-treatment. Patients with limited health literacy had higher unmet information needs. Our results indicate a mismatch in information provision and breast cancer patients' information needs. Patients with limited health literacy may be at a distinct disadvantage in having their information needs met over the course of breast cancer treatment. Strategies are needed to reduce unmet information needs in breast cancer patients considering treatment-phase and health literacy and thereby enable them to better cope with their diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Newly Synthesized Doxorubicin Complexes with Selected Metals—Synthesis, Structure and Anti-Breast Cancer Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Jabłońska-Trypuć

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Doxorubicin (DOX is very effective chemotherapeutic agent, however it has several major drawbacks. Therefore the motivation for developing novel drug complexes as anticancer agents with different mechanism of action has arisen. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of newly synthesized DOX complexes with selected metals (Mg, Mn, Co, Ni, Fe, Cu, Zn on apoptosis, cell cycle, viability, proliferation and cytotoxicity in the breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Complexation of DOX with metals has likewise been the subject of our research. The current work showed that the tested bivalent metals at a given pH condition formed metal:DOX complexes in a ratio of 2:1, while iron complexes with DOX in a ratio of 3:1. The studies also showed that selected metal-DOX complexes (Mg-DOX, Mn-DOX, Ni-DOX at 0.5 µM concentration significantly decreased cell viability and proliferation, however they increased caspase 7 activity. Results also indicated that studied metal-DOX complexes showed high cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cells. Therefore they were chosen for cell cycle check-points and apoptosis/necrosis analysis studied by flow cytometry. Obtained results suggest that doxorubicin complexed by specified metals can be considered as a potential anti-breast cancer agent, which is characterized by a higher efficacy than a parent drug.

  10. Newly Synthesized Doxorubicin Complexes with Selected Metals-Synthesis, Structure and Anti-Breast Cancer Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabłońska-Trypuć, Agata; Świderski, Grzegorz; Krętowski, Rafał; Lewandowski, Włodzimierz

    2017-07-04

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is very effective chemotherapeutic agent, however it has several major drawbacks. Therefore the motivation for developing novel drug complexes as anticancer agents with different mechanism of action has arisen. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of newly synthesized DOX complexes with selected metals (Mg, Mn, Co, Ni, Fe, Cu, Zn) on apoptosis, cell cycle, viability, proliferation and cytotoxicity in the breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Complexation of DOX with metals has likewise been the subject of our research. The current work showed that the tested bivalent metals at a given pH condition formed metal:DOX complexes in a ratio of 2:1, while iron complexes with DOX in a ratio of 3:1. The studies also showed that selected metal-DOX complexes (Mg-DOX, Mn-DOX, Ni-DOX) at 0.5 µM concentration significantly decreased cell viability and proliferation, however they increased caspase 7 activity. Results also indicated that studied metal-DOX complexes showed high cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cells. Therefore they were chosen for cell cycle check-points and apoptosis/necrosis analysis studied by flow cytometry. Obtained results suggest that doxorubicin complexed by specified metals can be considered as a potential anti-breast cancer agent, which is characterized by a higher efficacy than a parent drug.

  11. Beliefs in Chemotherapy and Knowledge of Cancer and Treatment Among African American Women With Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yun; Sereika, Susan M; Bender, Catherine M; Brufsky, Adam M; Rosenzweig, Margaret Q

    2016-03-01

    To examine beliefs regarding the necessity of chemotherapy and knowledge of breast cancer and its treatment in African American women with newly diagnosed breast cancer, and to explore factors associated with women's beliefs and knowledge.
. Descriptive, cross-sectional study.
. Six urban cancer centers in Western Pennsylvania and Eastern Ohio.
. 101 African American women with newly diagnosed breast cancer. 
. Secondary analysis using baseline data collected from participants in a randomized, controlled trial at their first medical oncology visit before the first cycle of chemotherapy.
. Belief in chemotherapy, knowledge of cancer and recommended treatment, self-efficacy, healthcare system distrust, interpersonal processes of care, symptom distress, and quality of life.
. African American women endorsed the necessity of chemotherapy. Most women did not know their tumor size, hormone receptors, specific therapy, or why chemotherapy was recommended to them. Women who perceived better interpersonal communication with physicians, less self-efficacy, or were less involved in their own treatment decision making held stronger beliefs about the necessity of chemotherapy. Women without financial difficulty or having stronger social functioning had more knowledge of their cancer and recommended chemotherapy. 
. African American women with newly diagnosed breast cancer generally agreed with the necessity of chemotherapy. Knowledge of breast cancer, treatment, and risk reduction through adjuvant therapy was limited.
. Oncology nurses could help advocate for tailored educational programs to support informed decision making regarding chemotherapy acceptance for African American women.

  12. Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer: Comparison of Contrast-enhanced Spectral Mammography and Breast MR Imaging in the Evaluation of Extent of Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Felker, Stephanie A; Tekchandani, Leena; Thomas, Mariam; Gupta, Esha; Andrews-Tang, Denise; Roth, Antoinette; Sayre, James; Rahbar, Guita

    2017-11-01

    Purpose To compare the diagnostic performances of contrast material-enhanced spectral mammography and breast magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the detection of index and secondary cancers in women with newly diagnosed breast cancer by using histologic or imaging follow-up as the standard of reference. Materials and Methods This institutional review board-approved, HIPAA-compliant, retrospective study included 52 women who underwent breast MR imaging and contrast-enhanced spectral mammography for newly diagnosed unilateral breast cancer between March 2014 and October 2015. Of those 52 patients, 46 were referred for contrast-enhanced spectral mammography and targeted ultrasonography because they had additional suspicious lesions at MR imaging. In six of the 52 patients, breast cancer had been diagnosed at an outside institution. These patients were referred for contrast-enhanced spectral mammography and targeted US as part of diagnostic imaging. Images from contrast-enhanced spectral mammography were analyzed by two fellowship-trained breast imagers with 2.5 years of experience with contrast-enhanced spectral mammography. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value were calculated for both imaging modalities and compared by using the Bennett statistic. Results Fifty-two women with 120 breast lesions were included for analysis (mean age, 50 years; range, 29-73 years). Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography had similar sensitivity to MR imaging (94% [66 of 70 lesions] vs 99% [69 of 70 lesions]), a significantly higher PPV than MR imaging (93% [66 of 71 lesions] vs 60% [69 of 115 lesions]), and fewer false-positive findings than MR imaging (five vs 45) (P mammography depicted 11 of the 11 secondary cancers (100%) and MR imaging depicted 10 (91%). Conclusion Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography is potentially as sensitive as MR imaging in the evaluation of extent of disease in newly diagnosed breast cancer, with a higher

  13. Help Seeking Behavior of Women with Self-Discovered Breast Cancer Symptoms: A Meta-Ethnographic Synthesis of Patient Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakbazan, Zohreh; Taghipour, Ali; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Mohammadi, Eesa

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective Patient delay makes a critical contribution to late diagnosis and poor survival in cases of breast cancer. Identifying the factors that influence patient delay could provide information for adopting strategies that shorten this delay. The aim of this meta-ethnography was to synthesize existing qualitative evidence in order to gain a new understanding of help seeking behavior in women with self-discovered breast cancer symptoms and to determine the factors that influence patient delay. Methods The design was a meta-ethnography approach. A systematic search of the articles was performed in different databases including Elsevier, PubMed, ProQuest and SCOPUS. Qualitative studies with a focus on help seeking behaviors in women with self-discovered breast cancer symptoms and patient delay, published in the English language between 1990 and 2013 were included. The quality appraisal of the articles was carried out using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme qualitative research checklist and 13 articles met the inclusion criteria. The synthesis was conducted according to Noblit and Hare’s meta-ethnographic approach (1988), through reciprocal translational analysis and lines-of-argument. Findings The synthesis led to identification of eight repeated key concepts including: symptom detection, initial symptom interpretation, symptom monitoring, social interaction, emotional reaction, priority of medical help, appraisal of health services and personal-environmental factors. Symptom interpretation is identified as the important step of the help seeking process and which changed across the process through active monitoring of their symptoms, social interactions and emotional reactions. The perceived seriousness of the situation, priority to receive medical attention, perceived inaccessibility and unacceptability of the health care system influenced women’s decision-making about utilizing health services. Conclusion Help seeking processes are

  14. Barriers to early presentation of self-discovered breast cancer in Singapore and Malaysia: a qualitative multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jennifer N W; Potrata, Barbara; Simonella, Leonardo; Ng, Celene W Q; Aw, Tar-Ching; Dahlui, Maznah; Hartman, Mikael; Mazlan, Rifhan; Taib, Nur Aishah

    2015-12-21

    To explore and compare barriers to early presentation of self-discovered breast cancer in Singapore and Malaysia. A qualitative interview study with thematic analysis of transcripts. 67 patients with self-discovered breast symptoms were included in the analysis. Of these, 36% were of Malay ethnicity, 39% were Chinese and 25% Indian, with an average age of 58 years (range 24-82 years). The number of women diagnosed at early stages of cancer almost equalled those at advanced stages. Approximately three-quarters presented with a painless lump, one-quarter experienced a painful lump and 10% had atypical symptoms. University hospital setting in Singapore and Malaysia. Patients revealed barriers to early presentation not previously reported: the poor quality of online website information about breast symptoms, financial issues and the negative influence of relatives in both countries, while perceived poor quality of care and services in state-run hospitals and misdiagnosis by healthcare professionals were reported in Malaysia. The pattern of presentation by ethnicity remained unchanged where more Malay delayed help-seeking and had more advanced cancer compared to Chinese and Indian patients. There are few differences in the pattern of presentation and in the reported barriers to seek medical care after symptom discovery between Singapore and Malaysia despite their differing economic status. Strategies to reduce delayed presentation are: a need to improve knowledge of disease, symptoms and causes, quality of care and services, and quality of online information; and addressing fear of diagnosis, treatment and hospitalisation, with more effort focused on the Malay ethnic group. Training is needed to avoid missed diagnoses and other factors contributing to delay among health professionals. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. The effects of journaling for women with newly diagnosed breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Susan; Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Langrock, Adela; Compas, Bruce

    2005-12-01

    Forty-three women newly diagnosed with breast cancer participated in this study, which examined the role of expressive journal writing characteristics on mood over the course of a 12-week support group. Writing was analyzed using the linguistic inquiry and word count program. Writing characteristics that were examined included: average word count, number of journal entries, positive and negative emotion words, the ratio of positive to negative words, and the use of cognitive mechanism words (i.e. insight and causal words). Regression analyses revealed that increased levels of anxiety and depression, post-intervention, were predicted by the prevalence of negative emotion in writing. Unique variance in mood (anxiety and depression) was accounted for by expression of negative emotion (7 and 6%, respectively). These relationships were significant (pjournaling so that appropriate recommendations for writing (e.g. focus, timing, amount) can be offered to patients who might choose to utilize this approach for coping with the stresses of cancer diagnosis and treatment. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Determining the native/non-native status of newly discovered terrestrial and freshwater species in Antarctica - current knowledge, methodology and management action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Kevin A; Convey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Continental Antarctic terrestrial and freshwater environments currently have few established non-native species compared to the sub-Antarctic islands and other terrestrial ecosystems on Earth. This is due to a unique combination of factors including Antarctica's remoteness, harsh climate, physical geography and brief history of human activity. However, recent increases in national operator and tourism activities increase the risk of non-native propagules reaching Antarctica, while climate change may make successful establishment more likely. The frequency and probability of human-assisted transfer mechanisms appear to far outweigh those of natural propagule introductions by wind, water, birds and marine mammals. A dilemma for scientists and environmental managers, which is exacerbated by a poor baseline knowledge of Antarctic biodiversity, is how to determine the native/non-native status of a newly discovered species which could be (a) a previously undiscovered long-term native species, (b) a recent natural colonist or (c) a human-mediated introduction. A correct diagnosis is crucial as the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty dictates dramatically different management responses depending on native/non-native status: native species and recent natural colonists should be protected and conserved, while non-native introductions should be eradicated or controlled. We review current knowledge on how available evidence should be used to differentiate between native and non-native species, and discuss and recommend issues that should be considered by scientists and managers upon discovery of a species apparently new to the Antarctic region. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of preoperative BRCA1/2 testing on surgical decision making in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Siddhartha; Jinna, Sruthi; Pereira-Rodrigues, Otavio; Reeves, Ashley; Campian, Sarah; Sufka, Amy; Zakalik, Dana

    2018-03-02

    The utility and benefit of integrating germ-line genetic testing into the management of newly diagnosed breast cancer is not fully understood. This study evaluates the impact of preoperative genetic testing on surgical decision making in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer. Women with newly diagnosed breast cancer were classified into preoperative or postoperative genetic testing group, depending on whether they received their genetic testing results prior to or after their first surgery. Demographics, tumor characteristics, surgical treatment, and results of genetic testing were retrospectively collected. A total of 997 patients were evaluated, 531 (53.3%) in the preoperative genetic testing group and 466 (46.7%) in the postoperative group. Majority (87.2%) of BRCA-positive women in the preoperative group underwent bilateral mastectomy as first surgery. Majority (70.6%) of BRCA-positive women in postoperative group underwent partial mastectomy as first surgery prior to receiving their genetic testing result. Nearly half (41.2%) of these women in the postoperative group with partial mastectomy underwent bilateral mastectomy after receiving their BRCA-positive result. Time from diagnosis to first surgery was longer in the preoperative genetic testing group. Younger age, bilateral cancer, BRCA1/2-positive results, and preoperative genetic testing were significant predictors of bilateral mastectomy at first surgery. Preoperative genetic testing impacts initial surgical treatment in BRCA1/2-positive patients and reduces the need for additional surgeries. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Authigenic carbonates from newly discovered active cold seeps on the northwestern slope of the South China Sea: Constraints on fluid sources, formation environments, and seepage dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qianyong; Hu, Yu; Feng, Dong; Peckmann, Jörn; Chen, Linying; Yang, Shengxiong; Liang, Jinqiang; Tao, Jun; Chen, Duofu

    2017-06-01

    Authigenic carbonates recovered from two newly discovered active cold seeps on the northwestern slope of the South China Sea have been studied using petrography, mineralogy, stable carbon and oxygen isotopic, as well as trace element compositions, together with AMS 14C ages of shells of seep-dwelling bivalves to unravel fluid sources, formation conditions, and seepage dynamics. The two seeps (ROV1 and ROV2), referred to as 'Haima seeps' herein, are approximately 7 kilometers apart, and are typified by abundant carbonate rocks represented bycrusts and nodules. Aragonite and high-Mg calcite are the main carbonate minerals. Based on low δ13Ccarbonate values ranging from -43.0‰ to -27.5‰ (V-PDB) methane is apparently the predominant carbon source of seep carbonates. The corresponding δ18O values, varying from 2.5‰ to 5.8‰ (V-PDB), mostly are higher than calculated values representing precipitation in equilibrium with seawater (2.5‰ to 3.8‰), which probably reflects past destabilization of locally abundant gas hydrates. In addition, we found that carbonates with bivalve shells are generally aragonite-dominated, and bear no barium enrichment but uranium enrichments, reflecting shallow formation depths close to the seafloor. In contrast, carbonate crusts without bivalve shells and nodules contain more calcite, and are characterized by major molybdenum enrichment and different degrees of barium enrichment, agreeing with precipitation at greater depth under strictly anoxic conditions. AMS 14C ages suggest that a major episode of carbonate precipitation occurred between 6.1 ka and 5.1 ka BP at the Haima seeps, followed by a possibly subordinate episode from approximately 3.9 ka to 2.9 ka BP. The common occurrence of dead bivalves at both sites indicates that chemosynthesis-based communities flourished to a greater extent in the past, probably reflecting a decline of seepage activity in recent times. Overall, these results confirm that authigenic carbonates from

  19. The Volatile Composition of newly-discovered C/2017 E4 (Lovejoy) before its dissolutionas revealed by iSHELL at NASA/IRTF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggi, Sara; Villanueva, Geronimo Luis; Mumma, Michael J.; Paganini, Lucas

    2017-10-01

    In April 2017, we acquired comprehensive high-resolution spectra of newly-discovered comet C/2017 E4 (Lovejoy) as it approached perihelion, and before its disintegration. We detected many cometary emission lines across 4 customized instrument settings (L1-b, L3, Lp1-b and M1) in the (1 - 5) μm range, using iSHELL - the new near-IR high resolution immersion echelle spectrograph on NASA/IRTF (Mauna Kea, Hawaii).In M1, near 5μm, we detected multiple ro-vibrational lines of H2O, CO and the (X-X) system of CN; the latter data constitute a complete survey of CN at these wavelengths. We derived quantitative abundances for CN and addressed its origin by comparing with quantitative production rates for HCN. The ability to quantify both primary and product species eliminates systematic error that may be introduced when measurements are acquired with different astronomical techniques and instruments.In L1, around 3 μm, we detected fluorescence emission from HCN, C2H2, and water, prompt emission from OH, and many other features. Methane, ethane and methanol were detected both in L3 and Lp1 settings. These species are relevant to astrobiology, owing to questions regarding the origin of pre-biotic organics and water on terrestrial planets.The many water emission lines detected in L1-b (and M1) provided an opportunity to retrieve independent measures of rotational temperature for ortho- and para-H2O, thereby reducing systematic uncertainty in the derived ortho-para ratio and nuclear spin temperature. Deuterated species were also sought and results will be presented.The bright Oort cloud comet E4 Lovejoy combined with the new capabilities of iSHELL provided unique results. The individual iSHELL settings cover very wide spectral range with very high accuracy, eliminating many sources of systematic errors when retrieving molecular abundances; future comparisons amongst comets will clarify the nature and meaning of cosmogonic indicators based on composition.Acknowledgments NASA

  20. Discovering mammography-based machine learning classifiers for breast cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Pollán, Raúl; Guevara-López, Miguel Angel; Suárez-Ortega, Cesar; Díaz-Herrero, Guillermo; Franco-Valiente, Jose Miguel; Rubio-Del-Solar, Manuel; González-de-Posada, Naimy; Vaz, Mario Augusto Pires; Loureiro, Joana; Ramos, Isabel

    2012-08-01

    This work explores the design of mammography-based machine learning classifiers (MLC) and proposes a new method to build MLC for breast cancer diagnosis. We massively evaluated MLC configurations to classify features vectors extracted from segmented regions (pathological lesion or normal tissue) on craniocaudal (CC) and/or mediolateral oblique (MLO) mammography image views, providing BI-RADS diagnosis. Previously, appropriate combinations of image processing and normalization techniques were applied to reduce image artifacts and increase mammograms details. The method can be used under different data acquisition circumstances and exploits computer clusters to select well performing MLC configurations. We evaluated 286 cases extracted from the repository owned by HSJ-FMUP, where specialized radiologists segmented regions on CC and/or MLO images (biopsies provided the golden standard). Around 20,000 MLC configurations were evaluated, obtaining classifiers achieving an area under the ROC curve of 0.996 when combining features vectors extracted from CC and MLO views of the same case.

  1. The Experience of a Newly Set up Breast Clinic in a Resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    commonest condition with 27% of this being fibroadenomas. Twenty two percent of patients had malignant disease with 79% presenting in stage 3 and 4. Challenges encountered included lack of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Conclusion: Breast disease in resource limited facilities is sizeable and centralized breast ...

  2. TH1 and TH2 cytokine data in insulin secretagogues users newly diagnosed with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary A.P. Wintrob

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Stimulation of insulin production by insulin secretagogue use may impact T helper cells’ cytokine production. This dataset presents the relationship between baseline insulin secretagogues use in women diagnosed with breast cancer and type 2 diabetes mellitus, the T-helper 1 and 2 produced cytokine profiles at the time of breast cancer diagnosis, and subsequent cancer outcomes. A Pearson correlation analysis evaluating the relationship between T-helper cytokines stratified by of insulin secretagogues use and controls is also provided.

  3. Impact of selective use of breast MRI on surgical decision-making in women with newly diagnosed operable breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Meagan E; McKessar, Merran; Snook, Kylie; Burgess, Ian; Spillane, Andrew J

    2017-04-01

    This study evaluated the impact of breast MRI on surgical planning in selected cases of breast malignancy (invasive cancer or DCIS). MRI was used when there was ambiguity on clinical and/or conventional imaging assessment. Consecutive women with breast malignancy undergoing breast MRI were included. Clinical, mammogram and ultrasound findings and surgical plan before and after MRI were recorded. MRI findings and histopathology results were documented and the impact of MRI on treatment planning was evaluated. MRI was performed in 181/1416 (12.8%) cases (invasive cancer 155/1219 (12.7%), DCIS 26/197 (13.2%)). Indications for MRI were: clinically dense breast tissue difficult to assess (n = 66; 36.5%), discordant clinical/conventional imaging assessment (n = 61; 33.7%), invasive lobular carcinoma in clinically dense breast tissue (n = 22; 12.2%), palpable/mass-forming DCIS (n = 11; 6.1%); other (n = 19; 10.5%). The recall rate for assessment of additional lesions was 35% (63/181). Additional biopsy-proven malignancy was found in 11/29 (37.9%) ipsilateral breast recalls and 8/34 (23.5%) contralateral breast recalls. MRI detected contralateral malignancy (unsuspected on conventional imaging) in 5/179 (2.8%). The additional information from MRI changed management in 69/181 (38.1%), with more unilateral surgery (wider excision or mastectomy) in 53/181 (29.3%), change to bilateral surgery in 12/181 (6.6%), less surgery in 4/181 (2.2%). Clinical examination estimated histological size within 20 mm in 57%, conventional imaging in 55% and MRI in 71%. MRI was most likely to show concordance with histopathology in the 'discordant assessment' and 'invasive lobular' groups and less likely for 'challenging clinically dense breast tissue.' MRI changed management in 69/181 (38.1%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Using internet images to gather distributional data for a newly discovered Caloptilia species (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) specializing on Chinese tallow in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese tallow tree (Triadica sebifera (L.), Euphorbiaceae) is a noxious and highly invasive species that was deliberately introduced to GA in 1772. In early 2009, an unfamiliar caterpillar was independently discovered feeding on T. sebifera trees in Gainesville, FL and Slidell, LA. Adult moths were...

  5. Genetic counselling and testing for inherited gene mutations in newly diagnosed patients with breast cancer: a review of the existing literature and a proposed research agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Meiser, Bettina; Tucker, Kathy; Friedlander, Michael; Barlow-Stewart, Kristine; Lobb, Elizabeth; Saunders, Christobel; Mitchell, Gillian

    2008-01-01

    Many women newly diagnosed with breast cancer and with a strong family history of breast cancer are referred to a family cancer service for genetic counselling and for consideration of genetic testing for germline mutations in cancer predisposition genes following completion of their cancer treatment. However, there is growing evidence that mutation status may influence treatment recommendations, and that there may be benefits in having 'treatment-focused genetic counselling and testing' avai...

  6. Incidence of depression and anxiety among women newly diagnosed with breast or genital organ cancer in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Louis; Kalder, Matthias; Kostev, Karel

    2017-10-01

    To analyze the incidence of depression and anxiety among women newly diagnosed with breast or genital organ cancer (BC or GOC) in Germany. A total of 29 366 women initially diagnosed with BC or GOC between 2005 and 2014 were available for analysis. The main outcome measure was the incidence of depression and anxiety among women newly diagnosed with BC or GOC within 5 years after the first cancer diagnosis in German gynecologist practices. Demographic and clinical data included age, type of cancer, and presence of metastases at diagnosis. The incidence rate of depression and anxiety per 100 person-years was calculated. We performed a multivariate regression model to analyze the association between depression and the variables of interest. In total, 7994 women were diagnosed with depression/anxiety (81.3% had BC and 18.7% had GOC). The incidence of depression and anxiety was 8.8 per 100 person-years in women with BC. In individuals with GOC, the incidence of depression/anxiety was 5.9 per 100 person-years. Breast cancer was associated with a 1.41-fold increase in the risk of developing depression or anxiety as compared with GOC. Patients with metastases also had a higher risk of being depressed and anxious than others (odds ratio = 1.40). Finally, women in the age groups of 41 to 50, 51 to 60, and 61 to 70 years were at a higher risk of depression/anxiety than women in the age group of 71 to 80 years (odds ratios equal to 1.50, 1.38, and 1.22). Women diagnosed with BC were at a higher risk of developing depression or anxiety than women with GOC. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. AN AUDIT OF PROVIDER DELAY IN NEWLY DIAGNOSED BREAST CANCER IN A CENTRAL REFERRAL HOSPITAL IN JOHANNESBURG, SOUTH AFRICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, D G; Rayne, S

    2017-06-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide and accounts for an increasing burden of disease in South Africa. One of the factors identified in improving outcome in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer is decreased time from recognition of a breast symptom to initiation of primary therapy. A total of 257 patients from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2014 were included in the study. Patient records were examined and date intervals for each patient were recorded from initial presentation to primary therapy. The Results were compared to a standard of 90% of patients reaching primary therapy within 60 days. Median delay (interquartile range) to primary therapy was 49 days (33-80d). The primary chemotherapy group had a median delay of 48 days (30-71d), the primary endocrine therapy group had a 28 days (22-41d) delay, and the primary surgery group had a delay of 73.5 days (39.8-113.5d). The addition of diagnostic surgery to the treatment plan added 37 days to the primary chemotherapy group and 38 days to the primary surgery group. Notably, 101 patients (39.29%) had a delay greater than 60 days. The centre did not achieve the standard of 90% of patients reaching primary therapy within 60 days. Specifically, 36.8% of patients in the primary chemotherapy group, 58.3% of patients in the primary surgery group and 11.5% of patients in the primary endocrine therapy group did not reach the target. The delay was most pronounced in the group of patients undergoing primary surgery, with a median time to surgery greater than the target time of 60 days. Factors affecting delay to primary surgery warrant further investigation.

  8. {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT for systemic staging of newly diagnosed triple-negative breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulaner, Gary A.; Castillo, Raychel; Riedl, Christopher C.; Jochelson, Maxine S. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Weill Cornell Medical College, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Goldman, Debra A.; Goenen, Mithat [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, New York, NY (United States); Wills, Jonathan [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Information Systems, New York, NY (United States); Pinker-Domenig, Katja [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States)

    2016-10-15

    National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines recommend {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT, in addition to standard staging procedures, for systemic staging of newly diagnosed stage III breast cancer patients. However, factors in addition to stage may influence PET/CT utility. As breast cancers that are negative for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor (triple-negative breast cancer, or TNBC) are more aggressive and metastasize earlier than other breast cancers, we hypothesized that receptor expression may be one such factor. This study assesses {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT for systemic staging of newly diagnosed TNBC. In this Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective study, our Healthcare Information System was screened for patients with TNBC who underwent {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT in 2007-2013 prior to systemic or radiation therapy. Initial stage was determined from mammography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and/or surgery, if performed prior to {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT. {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT was evaluated to identify unsuspected extra-axillary regional nodal and distant metastases, as well as unsuspected synchronous malignancies. Kaplan Meier survival estimates were calculated for initial stage IIB patients stratified by whether or not stage 4 disease was detected by {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT. A total of 232 patients with TNBC met inclusion criteria. {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT revealed unsuspected distant metastases in 30 (13 %): 0/23 initial stage I, 4/82 (5 %) stage IIA, 13/87 (15 %) stage IIB, 4/23 (17 %) stage IIIA, 8/14 (57 %) stage IIIB, and 1/3 (33 %) stage IIIC. Twenty-six of 30 patients upstaged to IV by {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT were confirmed by pathology, with the remaining four patients confirmed by follow-up imaging. In addition, seven unsuspected synchronous malignancies were identified in six patients. Initial stage 2B patients who were upstaged to 4 by {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT had significantly shorter survival compared to

  9. The Discovery and Properties of a Newly Discovered Compact Lensing Cluster CLIO at z=0.42: A unique JWST target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conselice, Christopher; Griffiths, Alex; Alpaslan, Mehmet; Frye, Brenda; Zitrin, Adi; Diego, Jose; Yan, Haojing; Ma, Zhiyuan; Barone-Nugent, Robert; Bhatawdekar, Rachana; Driver, Simon; Robotham, Aaron; Windhorst, Rogier; Wyithe, Stuart

    2018-01-01

    We present the results of a new study of a unique compact lensing cluster we name CLIO at redshift z = 0.42, discovered through the GAMA survey using spectroscopic redshifts. Compact and massive clusters such as this are understudied, but provide a unique prospective on dark matter distributions and for finding background lensed high-z galaxies. The CLIO cluster was identied for follow up observations due to its almost unique combination of high mass and dark matter halo concentration, as well as having observed lensing arcs from ground based imaging. Using deep FORS2 and Spitzer imaging in combination with MUSE optical spectroscopy we identify 89 cluster members and background sources out to z = 5.79. We describe the physical state of this cluster, finding a strong correlation between environment and galaxy spectral type. We furthermore measure the total mass of CLIO to be 4$\\times 10^{14}$ solar masses . We build and present an initial strong-lensing model for this cluster, and measure a relatively low intracluster light (ICL) fraction of ~7%. Due to its strong potential for lensing background galaxies and its low ICL, the CLIO cluster will be a target for our 110 hour JWST `Webb Medium-Deep Field' (WMDF) GTO program.

  10. The effects of individually tailored nurse navigation for patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Birgitte Goldschmidt; Dunn-Henriksen, Anne Katrine; Kroman, Niels

    2017-01-01

    AIM: Our aim was to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of an individual, nurse-navigator intervention for relieving distress, anxiety, depression and health-related quality of life in women who have been treated for breast cancer (BC) and are experiencing moderate-to-severe psychological...... and the secondary outcomes were anxiety, depression, health-related quality of life and feasibility of the intervention. RESULTS: Women in the intervention group reported significantly greater satisfaction with treatment and rehabilitation and lower levels of distress (mean 2.7 vs. 5.1, p.... 7.8, p = .02) and depression (mean 2.2 vs. 4.4, p = .04) after 12 months compared to the control group. No significant effects were seen on health-related quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: The study shows promising feasibility of the individually tailored nurse-navigation intervention and while...

  11. Newly Discovered Hydrothermal Plumes Along the Furious Fifties, South East Indian Ridge (SEIR; 128°E-140°E)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulart, C.; Chavagnac, V.; Briais, A.; Revillon, S.; Donval, J. P.; Guyader, V.

    2015-12-01

    We report on the first evidence for hydrothermal activity along the intermediate-spreading South-East Indian Ridge (SEIR) between Australia and Antarctica (128°E-140°E), discovered during the STORM cruise of R/V L'Atalante. This section of the SEIR is located east of the low-magma Australian-Antarctic Discordance (AAD), where the ridge has the morphology of a slow-spreading mid-ocean ridge despite its intermediate spreading rate of 75 mm/yr. The axial depth decreases eastward, reflecting an eastward increase in magma budget.Using in-situ geochemical tracers based on optical backscatter, temperature, redox potential sensor and in situ mass spectrometer (ISMS) anomalies, we establish the existence of several distinct hydrothermal plumes within the water column along the 500 nautical miles ridge section. At one site, the combination of near-bottom temperature anomalies of 0.1°C together with strong dissolved methane and dissolved carbon dioxide anomalies revealed by the ISMS provides the precise location of an active vent in the Deep Southern Indian Ocean off Tasmania. Hydrothermal venting along the 128°E-140°E section of the SEIR appears to be significant, an observation consistent with the global link between spreading rate and plume occurrence (Baker and German, 2004). Moreover, the plume incidence increases westward and, in the eastern part, hydrothermal venting seems to be less significant, suggesting a possible influence of the high magma budget, as observed in mid-ocean ridge sections affected by hotspots. Future investigation will focus on the direct identification of venting sources and the study of hydrothermal circulation within the specific settings of the AAD. The observation of new venting sites at the frontier between Pacific and Indian Oceans may also provide new insights on the biogeography (diversity and distribution) of hydrothermal fauna. Baker, E. T., and C. R. German (2004), On the global distribution of hydrothermal vent fields, in Mid

  12. Characteristics of newly diagnosed women with breast cancer: a comparison with the recommendations of the WCRF/AICR Second Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccatto, V; Cesa, C; Kunradi Vieira, F G; Altenburg de Assis, Ma A; Crippa, C G; Faria Di Pietro, P

    2012-01-01

    The Second Expert Report, Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspective from World Cancer Research Fund/ American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR), features general and special recommendations for cancer prevention. To evaluate nutritional and lifestyle characteristics of newly diagnosed women with breast cancer according to WCRF/AICR Second Report recommendations. This is a cross-sectional study with a sample of 133 women. Diet data were obtained from a food frequency questionnaire and anthropometric data by standard procedures. The characteristics of study population were evaluated in comparison with the recommendations of the WCRF/AICR Second Report. Mean age of participants was 51.6 ± 10.98 (range 28-78) years; 35% was obese and 51% had waist circumference higher than the maximum cut-off value. Regarding life style, 80% of participants were sedentary, 89% reported diet presenting energy density higher than 125 kcal/100 g, 51% reported consumption of fruits and vegetables lower than 400 g/day, and 47% reported high consumption of red or processed meat (≥ 500 g per week). Just 3% related consumption of alcoholic beverages above the recommendation (15 g/day), 82% presented the intake of sodium lower than the limit recommended (2.4 g/day), and the use of dietary supplements was reported by 11% of the subjects. Finally 51% of women reported breast feeding for less than 6 months. Inadequacies were observed related to behavior factors that can result in weight gain, such as inadequate physical activity and high energy density diet.

  13. Newly Discovered Native Orchids of Taiwan (IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsan-Piao Lin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this report, four new species (Lecanorchis latens sp. nov., Liparis liangzuensis sp. nov., Malaxis shampoae sp. nov., and Spiranthes nivea sp. nov., and one new record (Hancockia uniflora are presented. Descriptions and figures are also provided.

  14. Newly discovered native orchids of Taiwan (X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsan-Piao LIN

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This report presents three new orchids of Taiwan, i.e., Habenaria alishanensis T.P. Lin & D.M. Huang, Neottia cinsbuensis T.P. Lin & D.M. Huang, and Nephelaphyllum tenuiflorum Blume.

  15. Investigation of gene-environment interactions between 47 newly identified breast cancer susceptibility loci and environmental risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolph, Anja; Milne, Roger L; Truong, Thérèse

    2015-01-01

    A large genotyping project within the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) recently identified 41 associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and overall breast cancer (BC) risk. We investigated whether the effects of these 41 SNPs, as well as six SNPs associated...

  16. Preliminary results using a newly developed projection method to visualize vascular anatomy prior to DIEP flap breast reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummelink, S.; Hofer, S.; Hameeteman, M.; Hoogeveen, Y.; Slump, Cornelis H.; Ulrich, D.J.O.; Schultze Kool, L.J.

    Introduction: In a deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap breast reconstruction, computed tomography angiography (CTA) is currently considered as the gold standard in preoperative imaging for this procedure. Unidirectional Doppler ultrasound (US) is frequently used; however, this method

  17. Preliminary results using a newly developed projection method to visualize vascular anatomy prior to DIEP flap breast reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummelink, S.L.; Hameeteman, M.; Hoogeveen, Y.L.; Slump, C.H.; Ulrich, D.J.O.; Schultze Kool, L.J.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In a deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap breast reconstruction, computed tomography angiography (CTA) is currently considered as the gold standard in preoperative imaging for this procedure. Unidirectional Doppler ultrasound (US) is frequently used; however, this method

  18. TH1 and TH2 cytokines dataset in insulin users with diabetes mellitus and newly diagnosed breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary A.P. Wintrob

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Exogenous insulin use may interfere with the T helper cells’ cytokine production. This dataset presents the relationship between pre-existing use of injectable insulin in women diagnosed with breast cancer and type 2 diabetes mellitus, the T-helper 1 and 2 produced cytokine profiles at the time of breast cancer diagnosis, and subsequent cancer outcomes. A Pearson correlation analysis evaluating the relationship between T-helper cytokines stratified by of insulin use and controls is also provided.

  19. A comparison of the information needs of women newly diagnosed with breast cancer in Malaysia and the United kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Raja Lexshimi Raja; Beaver, Kinta; Barnett, Tony; Ismail, Nik Safiah Nik

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about the information needs of women with breast cancer in non-Western societies. This study examined the priority information needs of 100 women with breast cancer in Malaysia and compared the findings to previous work involving 150 women diagnosed with breast cancer in the United Kingdom. The study used a valid and reliable measure, the Information Needs Questionnaire (INQ). The INQ contained 9 items of information related to physical, psychological, and social care, used successfully in Canada and the United Kingdom. The INQ was shown to have cross-cultural relevance and sensitivity. For Malaysian women, information about likelihood of cure, sexual attractiveness, and spread of disease were the most important information needs. For UK women, similar priorities were evident, apart from the item on sexual attractiveness, which was ranked much lower by women in the United Kingdom. The cultural similarities and differences that emerged from this study have implications for nurses in the cancer field caring for people from a diversity of cultural backgrounds. Breast care nurses are not a feature of the Malaysian healthcare system, although the findings from this study support the view that specialist nurses have a vital role to play in meeting the psychosocial needs of women with breast cancer in non-Western societies.

  20. {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT for systemic staging of patients with newly diagnosed ER-positive and HER2-positive breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulaner, Gary A.; Castillo, Raychel [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Weill Cornell Medical College, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Wills, Jonathan [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Information Systems, New York, NY (United States); Goenen, Mithat; Goldman, Debra A. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, New York, NY (United States)

    2017-08-15

    This study assesses {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT for patients with newly diagnosed estrogen receptor-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor-negative (ER+/HER2-) and human epidermal growth factor receptor-positive (HER2+) breast cancer. In this Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective study, our Healthcare Information System was screened for patients with ER+/HER2- and HER2+ breast cancer who underwent {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT prior to systemic or radiation therapy. The initial stage was determined from mammography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and/or surgery.{sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT was evaluated to identify unsuspected extra-axillary regional nodal and distant metastases. The proportion of patients upstaged overall and stratified by stage and receptor phenotypes was calculated along with confidence intervals (CI). A total of 238 patients with ER+/HER2- and 245 patients with HER2+ who met inclusion criteria were evaluated. For patients with ER+/HER2-breast cancer, {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT revealed unsuspected distant metastases in 3/71 (4%) initial stage IIA, 13/95 (14%) stage IIB, and 15/57 (26%) stage III. For patients with HER2+ breast cancer, {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT revealed unsuspected distant metastases in 3/72 (4%) initial stage IIA, 13/93 (14%) stage IIB, and 13/59 (22%) stage III. The overall upstaging rate for IIB was 14% (95% confidence interval (CI): 9-20%). {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT revealed distant metastases in 14% (95% CI: 9-20%) of patients with stage IIB ER+/HER2- and HER2+ breast cancer, which is similar to upstaging rates previously seen in patients with stage IIB triple-negative breast cancer (15%, 95% CI: 9-24%). The detection of unsuspected distant metastases in these patients alters treatment and prognosis. NCCN guidelines should consider adding patients with stage IIB breast cancer for consideration of systemic staging with {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT at the time of initial diagnosis. (orig.)

  1. Bathymetric influence on dissolved methane in hydrothermal plumes revealed by concentration and stable carbon isotope measurements at newly discovered venting sites on the Central Indian Ridge (11-13°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Ok-Rye; Son, Seung Kyu; Baker, Edward T.; Son, Juwon; Kim, Mi Jin; Barcelona, Michael J.; Kim, Moonkoo

    2014-09-01

    Methane is a useful tracer for studying hydrothermal discharge, especially where the source fluids are of low temperature and lack metal precipitates. However, the dual origins of deep-sea methane, both chemical and biological, complicate the interpretation of methane observations. Here, we use both the concentration and stable carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) of dissolved methane to trace hydrothermal plumes and identify the source and behavior of methane at two sites of newly discovered hydrothermal activity on the Central Indian Ridge (11-13°S). At both sites, methane and optical anomalies between 2500 and 3500 m at all stations indicate active hydrothermal discharge. We compared methane concentrations and δ13C at three stations, two (CTIR110136 and CTIR110208) with the most prominent anomalies at each site, and a third (CTIR110140) with near-background methane values. At stations CTIR110136 and CTIR110208, the concentration and δ13C of methane in distinct plumes ranged from 3.3 to 42.3 nmol kg-1 and -30.0 to -15.4‰, respectively, compared to deep-water values of 0.5 to 1.2 nmol kg-1 and -35.1 to -28.9‰ at the station with a near-background distal plume (CTIR110140). δ13C was highest in the center of the plumes at CTIR110136 (-15.4‰) and CTIR110208 (-17.8‰). From the plume values we estimate that the δ13C of methane in the hydrothermal fluids at these stations was approximately -19‰ and thus the methane was most likely derived from magmatic outgassing or the chemical synthesis of inorganic matter. We used the relationship between δ13C and methane concentration to examine the behavior of methane at the plume stations. In the CTIR110208 plume, simple physical mixing was likely the major process controlling the methane profile. In the CTIR110136 plume we interpret a more complicated relationship as resulting from microbial oxidation as well as physical mixing. We argue that this difference in methane behavior between the two areas stems from a

  2. Discovering Wavelets

    CERN Document Server

    Aboufadel, Edward

    1999-01-01

    An accessible and practical introduction to wavelets. With applications in image processing, audio restoration, seismology, and elsewhere, wavelets have been the subject of growing excitement and interest over the past several years. Unfortunately, most books on wavelets are accessible primarily to research mathematicians. Discovering Wavelets presents basic and advanced concepts of wavelets in a way that is accessible to anyone with only a fundamental knowledge of linear algebra. The basic concepts of wavelet theory are introduced in the context of an explanation of how the FBI uses wavelets

  3. Imaging for metastatic disease in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer: are doctor's perceptions in keeping with the guidelines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simos, Demetrios; Hutton, Brian; Graham, Ian D; Arnaout, Angel; Caudrelier, Jean-Michel; Clemons, Mark

    2015-02-01

    Despite multiple guidelines advocating against routine radiological evaluation for metastases in women with early stage breast cancer, imaging is still frequently overused. The objective of this study was to assess doctor's views on imaging guidelines, and an attempt to establish why personal and local clinical practice patterns regarding imaging may differ from current guidelines. Canadian doctors who treat breast cancer were invited by email to complete an online survey developed by members of the research team. Responses were received from 173 physicians (26% response rate). Most (82%) indicated awareness of at least one published imaging guideline. Sixty per cent indicated that they had read the recommendations of the 2012 American Society of Clinical Oncology 'Top 5' list for choosing wisely in oncology imaging and, of those, 81% agreed with it. However, most indicated that this recommendation has not influenced them to order less imaging. Over 95% of doctors identified suspicious history, physical examination findings and inflammatory breast cancer as important factors for performing imaging. The majority did not feel that patient demand, fear of litigation or ease of access to imaging influenced their ordering for imaging. The majority of breast cancer doctors are aware of and generally agree that guidelines pertaining to staging imaging for early breast cancer are reflective of evidence. Despite this, adherence is variable and factors such as local practice patterns and disease biology may play a role. Alternative strategies, beyond simply publishing recommendations, are therefore required if there is to be a sustained change in doctor behaviour. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Changes Over Time in the Utilization of Disease-Related Internet Information in Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer Patients 2007 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahana, Eva; Kuhr, Kathrin; Ansmann, Lena; Pfaff, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Background As the number of people with Internet access rises, so does the use of the Internet as a potentially valuable source for health information. Insight into patient use of this information and its correlates over time may reveal changes in the digital divide based on patient age and education. Existing research has focused on patient characteristics that predict Internet information use and research on treatment context is rare. Objective This study aims to (1) present data on the proportion of newly diagnosed breast cancer patients treated in German breast centers from 2007 to 2013 who used the Internet for information on their disease, (2) look into correlations between Internet utilization and sociodemographic characteristics and if these change over time, and (3) determine if use of Internet information varies with the hospitals in which the patients were initially treated. Methods Data about utilization of the Internet for breast cancer–specific health information was obtained in a postal survey of breast cancer patients that is conducted annually in Germany with a steady response rate of 87% of consenting patients. Data from the survey were combined with data obtained by hospital personnel (eg, cancer stage and type of surgery). Data from 27,491 patients from 7 consecutive annual surveys were analyzed for this paper using multilevel regression modeling to account for clustering of patients in specific hospitals. Results Breast cancer patients seeking disease-specific information on the Internet increased significantly from 26.96% (853/3164) in 2007 to 37.21% (1485/3991) in 2013. Similar patterns of demographic correlates were found for all 7 cohorts. Older patients (≥70 years) and patients with digital divide based on age and education. Conclusions Use of the Internet for health information is on the rise among breast cancer patients. The strong age- and education-related differences raise the question of how relevant information can be adequately

  5. Rapid genetic counseling and testing in newly diagnosed breast cancer: Patients' and health professionals' attitudes, experiences, and evaluation of effects on treatment decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wevers, Marijke R; Aaronson, Neil K; Bleiker, Eveline M A; Hahn, Daniela E E; Brouwer, Titia; van Dalen, Thijs; Theunissen, Evert B; van Ooijen, Bart; de Roos, Marnix A; Borgstein, Paul J; Vrouenraets, Bart C; Vriens, Eline; Bouma, Wim H; Rijna, Herman; Vente, Johannes P; Kuenen, Marianne A; van der Sanden-Melis, Jacoline; Witkamp, Arjen J; Rutgers, Emiel J Th; Verhoef, Senno; Ausems, Margreet G E M

    2017-12-01

    Rapid genetic counseling and testing (RGCT) in newly diagnosed high-risk breast cancer (BC) patients may influence surgical treatment decisions. To successfully integrate RGCT in practice, knowledge of professionals', and patients' attitudes toward RGCT is essential. Between 2008 and 2010, we performed a randomized clinical trial evaluating the impact of RGCT. Attitudes toward and experience with RGCT were assessed in 265 patients (at diagnosis, 6- and 12-month follow-up) and 29 medical professionals (before and after the recruitment period). At 6-month follow-up, more patients who had been offered RGCT felt they had been actively involved in treatment decision-making than patients who had been offered usual care (67% vs 48%, P = 0.06). Patients who received DNA-test results before primary surgery reported more often that RGCT influenced treatment decisions than those who received results afterwards (P genetic counseling and testing (GCT) should preferably take place between diagnosis and surgery. Most professionals (72%) agreed that RGCT should be routinely offered to eligible patients. Most patients (74%) and professionals (85%) considered surgeons the most appropriate source for referral. RGCT is viewed as helpful for newly diagnosed high-risk BC patients in choosing their primary surgery and should be offered routinely by surgeons. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Discovering Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    R. Andersen, J.; Antipin, O.; Azuelos, G.

    2011-01-01

    We provide a pedagogical introduction to extensions of the Standard Model in which the Higgs is composite. These extensions are known as models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking or, in brief, Technicolor. Material covered includes: motivations for Technicolor, the construction of underly...... the relevant experimental benchmarks for Vanilla, Running, Walking, and Custodial Technicolor, and a natural fourth family of leptons, by laying out the framework to discover these models at the Large Hadron Collider....... of underlying gauge theories leading to minimal models of Technicolor, the comparison with electroweak precision data, the low energy effective theory, the spectrum of the states common to most of the Technicolor models, the decays of the composite particles and the experimental signals at the Large Hadron...... Collider. The level of the presentation is aimed at readers familiar with the Standard Model but who have little or no prior exposure to Technicolor. Several extensions of the Standard Model featuring a composite Higgs can be reduced to the effective Lagrangian introduced in the text. We establish...

  7. Evaluation of a specialized oncology nursing supportive care intervention in newly diagnosed breast and colorectal cancer patients following surgery: a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Jonathan; Bainbridge, Daryl; Whelan, Timothy J; Brazil, Kevin; Parpia, Sameer; Wiernikowski, Jennifer; Schiff, Susan; Rodin, Gary; Sergeant, Myles; Howell, Doris

    2017-11-30

    Better coordination of supportive services during the early phases of cancer care has been proposed to improve the care experience of patients. We conducted a randomized trial to test a community-based nurse-led coordination of care intervention in cancer patients. Surgical practices were cluster randomized to a control group involving usual care practices or a standardized nursing intervention consisting of an in-person supportive care assessment with ongoing support to meet identified needs, including linkage to community services. Newly diagnosed breast and colorectal cancer patients within 7 days of cancer surgery were eligible. The primary outcome was the patient-reported outcome (PRO) of continuity of care (CCCQ) measured at 3 weeks. Secondary outcomes included unmet supportive care needs (SCNS), quality of life (EORTC QLQ-C30), health resource utilization, and level of uncertainty with care trajectory (MUIS) at 3 and/or 8 weeks. A total of 121 breast and 72 colorectal patients were randomized through 28 surgical practices. There was a small improvement in the informational domain of continuity of care (difference 0.29 p = 0.05) and a trend to less emergency room use (15.8 vs 7.1%) (p = 0.07). There were no significant differences between groups on unmet need, quality of life, or uncertainty. We did not find substantial gaps in the PROs measured immediately following surgery for breast and colorectal cancer patients. The results of this study support a more targeted approach based on need and inform future research focused on improving navigation during the initial phases of cancer treatment. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00182234. SONICS-Effectiveness of Specialist Oncology Nursing.

  8. Behavioral and psychosocial effects of rapid genetic counseling and testing in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients: Design of a multicenter randomized clinical trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wevers, Marijke R; Rutgers, Emiel JTh; Aaronson, Neil K; Ausems, Margreet GEM; Verhoef, Senno; Bleiker, Eveline MA; Hahn, Daniela EE; Hogervorst, Frans BL; Luijt, Rob B van der; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis B; Hillegersberg, Richard van

    2011-01-01

    It has been estimated that between 5% and 10% of women diagnosed with breast cancer have a hereditary form of the disease, primarily caused by a BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation. Such women have an increased risk of developing a new primary breast and/or ovarian tumor, and may therefore opt for preventive surgery (e.g., bilateral mastectomy, oophorectomy). It is common practice to offer high-risk patients genetic counseling and DNA testing after their primary treatment, with genetic test results being available within 4-6 months. However, some non-commercial laboratories can currently generate test results within 3 to 6 weeks, and thus make it possible to provide rapid genetic counseling and testing (RGCT) prior to primary treatment. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of RGCT on treatment decisions and on psychosocial health. In this randomized controlled trial, 255 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients with at least a 10% risk of carrying a BRCA gene mutation are being recruited from 12 hospitals in the Netherlands. Participants are randomized in a 2:1 ratio to either a RGCT intervention group (the offer of RGCT directly following diagnosis with tests results available before surgical treatment) or to a usual care control group. The primary behavioral outcome is the uptake of direct bilateral mastectomy or delayed prophylactic contralateral mastectomy. Psychosocial outcomes include cancer risk perception, cancer-related worry and distress, health-related quality of life, decisional satisfaction and the perceived need for and use of additional decisional counseling and psychosocial support. Data are collected via medical chart audits and self-report questionnaires administered prior to randomization, and at 6 month and at 12 month follow-up. This trial will provide essential information on the impact of RGCT on the choice of primary surgical treatment among women with breast cancer with an increased risk of hereditary cancer. This study will also provide

  9. Periodontal Health in Women With Early-Stage Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Newly on Aromatase Inhibitors: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taichman, L Susan; Inglehart, Marita R; Giannobile, William V; Braun, Thomas; Kolenic, Giselle; Van Poznak, Catherine

    2015-07-01

    Aromatase inhibitor (AI) use results in low estrogen levels, which in turn affect bone mineral density (BMD). Periodontitis, alveolar bone loss, and tooth loss are associated with low BMD. The goal of this study is to assess the prevalence of periodontitis and perceived oral health and evaluate salivary biomarkers in postmenopausal women who are survivors of early-stage (I to IIIA) breast cancer (BCa) and receive adjuvant AI therapy. Participants included 58 postmenopausal women: 29 with BCa on AIs and 29 controls without BCa diagnoses. Baseline periodontal status was assessed with: 1) periodontal probing depth (PD); 2) bleeding on probing (BOP); and 3) attachment loss (AL). Demographic and dental utilization information was gathered by questionnaire. Linear regression modeling was used to analyze the outcomes. No differences were found in mean PD or number of teeth. The AI group had significantly more sites with BOP (27.8 versus 16.7; P = 0.02), higher worst-site AL (5.2 versus 4.0 mm; P tobacco use, dental insurance, and previous radiation and chemotherapy exposure demonstrated that AI use increased AL by >2 mm (95% confidence interval, 0.46 to 3.92). Median salivary osteocalcin and tumor necrosis factor-α levels were significantly higher in the AI group than the control group. This first investigation of the periodontal status of women initiating adjuvant AI therapy identifies this population as having an increased risk for periodontitis.

  10. Initial Results of a Prospective Clinical Trial of 18F-Fluciclovine PET/CT in Newly Diagnosed Invasive Ductal and Invasive Lobular Breast Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulaner, Gary A; Goldman, Debra A; Gönen, Mithat; Pham, Hanh; Castillo, Raychel; Lyashchenko, Serge K; Lewis, Jason S; Dang, Chau

    2016-09-01

    (18)F-labeled 1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid ((18)F-fluciclovine) is a leucine analog PET/CT radiotracer that depicts amino acid transport into cells. Amino acid transport proteins have been shown to be upregulated in breast malignancies by microarray and immunohistochemical analysis, so we hypothesized that (18)F-fluciclovine may provide a novel method of visualizing breast cancer and now report a prospective clinical trial of (18)F-fluciclovine PET/CT in newly diagnosed advanced local invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC). Twenty-seven women with a new diagnosis of locally advanced IDC (n = 19) or ILC (n = 8) underwent PET/CT of the chest after intravenous administration of 370 MBq of (18)F-fluciclovine. The SUVmax, SUVmean, metabolic tumor volume, and total lesion avidity were obtained for the primary breast tumor, axillary lymph nodes, and extraaxillary lymph nodes. Sites of previously unsuspected malignancy were recorded and confirmed by pathology. Results of (18)F-fluciclovine PET/CT were compared with those of (18)F-FDG PET/CT, when available, using the concordance correlation coefficient. All locally advanced breast cancers were (18)F-fluciclovine-avid. Of 21 patients with pathologically proven axillary nodal metastases, (18)F-fluciclovine-avid axillary nodes were seen in 20. (18)F-fluciclovine detected pathologically proven extraaxillary nodal metastases in 3 patients, including 2 previously unsuspected internal mammary nodes. Fourteen patients underwent (18)F-FDG PET/CT for comparison with (18)F-fluciclovine. Concordance for metabolic tumor volume between (18)F-fluciclovine and (18)F-FDG was strong (concordance correlation coefficient, 0.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.73-0.96), but concordance for SUVmax was weak (concordance correlation coefficient, 0.04; 95% confidence interval, -0.16-0.24). In patients with both modalities available (n = 14), primary ILCs (n = 4) demonstrated (18)F-fluciclovine avidity

  11. The magnapinnidae, a newly discovered family of oceanic Squid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The funnel cartilage of the netcollected juvenile is oval and the buccal connectives to Arms IV are ventral. Although some characters indicate a likely relationship with the chiroteuthid/mastigoteuthid group of families, the brachial crown differs from that found in any known family. Based upon these three specimens and the ...

  12. Newly discovered IRAS QSO close to the Galactic plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, M.A.; Kirhakos, S.D.; Yahil, A.

    1988-01-01

    CCD observations of the IRAS QSO candidate I09149-6206 performed at CTIO during December 1987 are reported, including 564-806-nm spectroscopy obtained with the 1.5-m telescope and direct UVBRI imaging obtained with the 0.91-m telescope. The data are presented in tables and graphs and characterized in detail. It is found that the source is surrounded by a faint fuzz with low surface brightness and strong forbidden O III lines. Parameters determined include redshift z = 0.0571, Galactic latitude -9.2 deg, V magnitude 13.55, Galactic reddening E(B-V) = about 0.23, and absolute V magnitude about -24.87. 33 references

  13. Lipids in newly discovered subclinical and clinical hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Snežana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a positive correlation between the levels of TSH and cholesterol levels, while levels between TSH levels triglicrerida negative correlation with the clinical and subclinical form of reduced thyroid function.

  14. Young Debris Disks With Newly Discovered Emission Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballering, N.

    2014-04-01

    We analyzed the Spitzer/IRS spectra of young A and F stars that host debris disks with previously unidentified silicate emission features. Such features probe small, warm dust grains in the inner regions of these young systems where terrestrial planet formation may be proceeding (Lisse et al. 2009). For most systems, these regions are too near their host star to be directly seen with high-contrast imaging and too warm to be imaged with submillimeter interferometers. Mid-infrared excess spectra - originating from the thermal emission of the debris disk dust - remain the best data to constrain the properties of the debris in these regions. For each target, we fit physically-motivated model spectra to the data. Typical spectra of unresolved debris disks are featureless and suffer severe degeneracies between the dust location and the grain properties; however, spectra with solid-state emission features provide significantly more information, allowing for a more accurate determination of the dust size, composition, and location (e.g. Chen et al. 2006; Olofsson et al. 2012). Our results shed light on the dynamic properties occurring in the terrestrial regions of these systems. For instance, the sizes of the smallest grains and the nature of the grain size distribution reveal whether the dust originates from steady-state collisional cascades or from stochastic collisions. The properties of the dust grains - such as their crystalline or amorphous structure - can inform us of grain processing mechanisms in the disk. The location of this debris illuminates where terrestrial planet forming activity is occurring. We used results from the Beta Pictoris - which has a well-resolved debris disk with emission features (Li et al. 2012) - to place our results in context. References: Chen et al. 2006, ApJS, 166, 351 Li et al. 2012, ApJ, 759, 81 Lisse et al. 2009, ApJ, 701, 2019 Olofsson et al. 2012, A&A, 542, A90

  15. Levels of Glycosylated Haemoglobin in newly discovered Sudanese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (D.M) is one of the most known chronic illnesses in the world. The exposure of blood to variable concentrations of glucose gives rise to variable levels of Haemoglobin (Hb) glycation, a non-enzymatic reaction. This phenomenon had led to the concept of measurement of glycosylated Hb as an ...

  16. The performance of computer-aided detection when analyzing prior mammograms of newly detected breast cancers with special focus on the time interval from initial imaging to detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malich, Ansgar [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Suedharz-Hospital Nordhausen, Dr.-R.-Koch-Street 38, 99734 Nordhausen (Germany)], E-mail: ansgar.malich@gmx.de; Schmidt, Sabine [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Bachstrasse 18, 07740 Jena (Germany); Fischer, Dorothee R. [Institute of diagnostic, interventional and pediatric Radiology, CH-3010 Bern (Switzerland); Facius, Mirjam; Kaiser, Werner A. [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Bachstrasse 18, 07740 Jena (Germany)

    2009-03-15

    Purpose: The clinical role of CAD systems to detect breast cancer, which have not been on cancer containing mammograms not detected by the radiologist was proven retrospectively. Methods: All patients from 1992 to 2005 with a histologically verified malignant breast lesion and a mammogram at our department, were analyzed in retrospect focussing on the time of detection of the malignant lesion. All prior mammograms were analyzed by CAD (CADx, USA). The resulting CAD printout was matched with the cancer containing images yielding to the radiological diagnosis of breast cancer. CAD performance, sensitivity as well as the association of CAD and radiological features were analyzed. Results: 278 mammograms fulfilled the inclusion criteria. 111 cases showed a retrospectively visible lesion (71 masses, 23 single microcalcification clusters, 16 masses with microcalcifications, in one case two microcalcification clusters). 54/87 masses and 34/41 microcalcifications were detected by CAD. Detection rates varied from 9/20 (ACR 1) to 5/7 (ACR 4) (45% vs. 71%). The detection of microcalcifications was not influenced by breast tissue density. Conclusion: CAD might be useful in an earlier detection of subtle breast cancer cases, which might remain otherwise undetected.

  17. Breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, G.G.

    1985-01-01

    The treatment of malignant disease of the breast arouses more controversy and emotion than that of any other form of malignant disease. Many clinical trials have been carried out and others are still in progress. In addition, research work continues in regard to other aspects of the disease, such as epidemiology, population screening, and endocrine factors; yet little is really known about the true biological nature of carcinoma of the breast. A vast amount of literature has accumulated on the treatment of ''operable'' carcinoma of the breast, but it is not proposed to discuss here the merits or demerits of the various suggested treatments. Instead this chapter will be confined to the practical management of carcinoma of the breast as seen from the point of view of radiotherapist. For this reason greater attention will be paid to the radiotherapy techniques as practised at the Christie Hospital

  18. Impact of rapid genetic counselling and testing on the decision to undergo immediate or delayed prophylactic mastectomy in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients: findings from a randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wevers, M R; Aaronson, N K; Verhoef, S; Bleiker, E M A; Hahn, D E E; Kuenen, M A; van der Sanden-Melis, J; Brouwer, T; Hogervorst, F B L; van der Luijt, R B; Valdimarsdottir, H B; van Dalen, T; Theunissen, E B M; van Ooijen, B; de Roos, M A; Borgstein, P J; Vrouenraets, B C; Vriens, E; Bouma, W H; Rijna, H; Vente, J P; Witkamp, A J; Rutgers, E J T; Ausems, M G E M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Female breast cancer patients with a BRCA1/2 mutation have an increased risk of contralateral breast cancer. We investigated the effect of rapid genetic counselling and testing (RGCT) on choice of surgery. Methods: Newly diagnosed breast cancer patients with at least a 10% risk of a BRCA1/2 mutation were randomised to an intervention group (offer of RGCT) or a control group (usual care; ratio 2 : 1). Primary study outcomes were uptake of direct bilateral mastectomy (BLM) and delayed contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM). Results: Between 2008 and 2010, we recruited 265 women. On the basis of intention-to-treat analyses, no significant group differences were observed in percentage of patients opting for a direct BLM (14.6% for the RGCT group vs 9.2% for the control group; odds ratio (OR) 2.31; confidence interval (CI) 0.92–5.81; P=0.08) or for a delayed CPM (4.5% for the RGCT group vs 5.7% for the control group; OR 0.89; CI 0.27–2.90; P=0.84). Per-protocol analysis indicated that patients who received DNA test results before surgery (59 out of 178 women in the RGCT group) opted for direct BLM significantly more often than patients who received usual care (22% vs 9.2% OR 3.09, CI 1.15–8.31, P=0.03). Interpretation: Although the large majority of patients in the intervention group underwent rapid genetic counselling, only a minority received DNA test results before surgery. This may explain why offering RGCT yielded only marginally significant differences in uptake of BLM. As patients who received DNA test results before surgery were more likely to undergo BLM, we hypothesise that when DNA test results are made routinely available pre-surgery, they will have a more significant role in surgical treatment decisions. PMID:24423928

  19. Preoperative Panel Testing for Hereditary Cancer Syndromes Does Not Significantly Impact Time to Surgery for Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer Patients Compared with BRCA1/2 Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Amy E; Hussain, Lala; Ho, Ching; Dunki-Jacobs, Erik; Lee, David; Tameron, Ashley; Huelsman, Karen; Rice, Courtney; Wexelman, Barbara A

    2017-10-01

    This study seeks to determine whether there is a delay in time to surgery in breast cancer patients with panel tests compared with traditional BRCA testing. This study was a retrospective review of women diagnosed with breast cancer who underwent genetic evaluation from our institution's Genetic Counselor Database from January 2013 to August 2015. Patients were excluded if they were male, clinical information was unavailable, the patient underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy, had a diagnosis of recurrent breast cancer during time of study, or had postoperative genetics evaluation. Included in the study were 138 patients. The time from diagnosis to surgery for BRCA1/2 tested patients was 43.5 days compared with 51.0 days in the panel group (p = 0.186). Turnaround time for genetic testing decreased during the period studied and was approximately 6 days longer for panel testing than BRCA testing. It took 12.2 days for BRCA results and 18.9 days for the panel results (p testing in 2014 and 2015 was 12.4 and 10.5 days respectively, whereas panel testing was 20.5 and 18.2 days (p ≤ 0.001). Of the variables included in multivariable linear regression, only mastectomy significantly contributed to time to surgery (p testing did not delay time to surgery compared with BRCA testing alone. The use of panel testing has increased over time, and lab turnaround time has decreased. Mastectomy was the only clinical variable contributing to longer time to surgery.

  20. Accuracy of 3 T versus 1.5 T breast MRI for pre-operative assessment of extent of disease in newly diagnosed DCIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahbar, Habib, E-mail: hrahbar@uw.edu; DeMartini, Wendy B.; Lee, Amie Y.; Partridge, Savannah C.; Peacock, Sue; Lehman, Constance D.

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •We compared sizes of known ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) on pre-operative breast MRI at 3 T and 1.5 T with final pathology sizes. •DCIS sizes on 3 T MRI correlated better with pathologic sizes than 1.5 T MRI. •Imaging features of DCIS, including morphology and kinetics, were similar at 3 T and 1.5 T MRI. -- Abstract: Objectives: While 3 T breast magnetic resonance imaging has increased in use over the past decade, there is little data comparing its use for assessing ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) versus 1.5 T. We sought to compare the accuracies of DCIS extent of disease measures on pre-operative 3 T versus 1.5 T MRI. Methods: This institutional review board-approved prospective study included 20 patients with ductal carcinoma in situ diagnosed by core needle biopsy (CNB) who underwent pre-operative breast MRI at both 3 T (resolution = 0.5 mm × 0.5 mm × 1.3 mm) and 1.5 T (0.85 mm × 0.85 mm × 1.6 mm). All patients provided informed consent, and the study was HIPPA compliant. Lesion sizes and imaging characteristics (morphologic and kinetic enhancement) were recorded for the 3 T and 1.5 T examinations. Lesion size measures at both field strengths were correlated to final pathology, and imaging characteristics also were compared. Results: Of the initial cohort of 20 patients with CNB-diagnosed DCIS, 19 underwent definitive surgery. Median DCIS sizes of these 19 patients were 6 mm (range: 0–67 mm) on 3 T, 13 mm (0–60 mm) on 1.5 T, and 6 mm (0–55 mm) on surgical pathology. Size correlation between MRI and pathology was higher for 3 T (Spearman's ρ = 0.66, p = 0.002) than 1.5 T (ρ = 0.36, p = 0.13). In 10 women in which a residual area of suspicious enhancement was identified on both field strengths, there was agreement of morphologic description (NME vs. mass) in nine, and no significant difference in dynamic contrast enhanced kinetics at 3 T compared to 1.5 T. Conclusions: Pre-operative breast MRI at 3 T provided higher

  1. Breast cancer and spaceflight: risk and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Yael R; Bacal, Kira; Jones, Jeffrey A; Hamilton, Douglas R

    2007-04-01

    Spaceflight exposes astronauts to a host of environmental factors which could increase their risk for cancer. Epidemiological studies have shown an increased incidence of breast cancer in female commercial flight attendants, with occupational risk factors as one of the proposed mechanisms for the higher incidence in this cohort. Since female astronauts are exposed to similar occupational conditions as flight attendants, they too may be at an increased risk for breast cancer. With the planning of exploration class missions to the Moon and to Mars it is important to assess and minimize the risk for breast malignancy, and to have a well-defined protocol for the diagnosis and treatment of a breast mass discovered during a mission. Risk factors for development of breast cancer in the female astronaut include ionizing radiation, disrupted melatonin homeostasis secondary to circadian shifting, chemical exposure, and changes in immune function. Preflight, in-flight, and postflight screening and management modalities include imaging and fine needle aspiration (FNA). Employing such a strategy may provide a viable management approach in the case of a newly diagnosed breast mass inflight.

  2. Students Discover Unique Planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Three undergraduate students, from Leiden University in the Netherlands, have discovered an extrasolar planet. The extraordinary find, which turned up during their research project, is about five times as massive as Jupiter. This is also the first planet discovered orbiting a fast-rotating hot star. Omega Centauri ESO PR Photo 45a/08 A planet around a hot star The students were testing a method of investigating the light fluctuations of thousands of stars in the OGLE database in an automated way. The brightness of one of the stars was found to decrease for two hours every 2.5 days by about one percent. Follow-up observations, taken with ESO's Very Large Telescope in Chile, confirmed that this phenomenon is caused by a planet passing in front of the star, blocking part of the starlight at regular intervals. According to Ignas Snellen, supervisor of the research project, the discovery was a complete surprise. "The project was actually meant to teach the students how to develop search algorithms. But they did so well that there was time to test their algorithm on a so far unexplored database. At some point they came into my office and showed me this light curve. I was completely taken aback!" The students, Meta de Hoon, Remco van der Burg, and Francis Vuijsje, are very enthusiastic. "It is exciting not just to find a planet, but to find one as unusual as this one; it turns out to be the first planet discovered around a fast rotating star, and it's also the hottest star found with a planet," says Meta. "The computer needed more than a thousand hours to do all the calculations," continues Remco. The planet is given the prosaic name OGLE2-TR-L9b. "But amongst ourselves we call it ReMeFra-1, after Remco, Meta, and myself," says Francis. The planet was discovered by looking at the brightness variations of about 15 700 stars, which had been observed by the OGLE survey once or twice per night for about four years between 1997 and 2000. Because the data had been made public

  3. Discovering Phonemes of Bidayuh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jecky Misieng

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There are generally three views of the notion of a phoneme. The structuralist view of the phoneme focuses on this language phenomenon as a phonetic reality. In discovering phonemes of a language, phonologists who hold this view will look for minimal contrasting pairs as a way to determine contrasting sounds of that language. They will also look for allophones or two sounds of the same phoneme which may appear in complementary distribution. This paper will discuss the possible application of the structuralist approach to analyzing the phonemes of a dialect of Bidayuh, one of the Malayo-Polynesian languages spoken in the northern region of Borneo.

  4. Discovering system requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahill, A.T.; Bentz, B. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Systems and Industrial Engineering; Dean, F.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Cost and schedule overruns are often caused by poor requirements that are produced by people who do not understand the requirements process. This report provides a high-level overview of the system requirements process, explaining types, sources, and characteristics of good requirements. System requirements, however, are seldom stated by the customer. Therefore, this report shows ways to help you work with your customer to discover the system requirements. It also explains terminology commonly used in the requirements development field, such as verification, validation, technical performance measures, and the various design reviews.

  5. Discovering hidden viral piracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eddo; Kliger, Yossef

    2005-12-01

    Viruses and developers of anti-inflammatory therapies share a common interest in proteins that manipulate the immune response. Large double-stranded DNA viruses acquire host proteins to evade host defense mechanisms. Hence, viral pirated proteins may have a therapeutic potential. Although dozens of viral piracy events have already been identified, we hypothesized that sequence divergence impedes the discovery of many others. We developed a method to assess the number of viral/human homologs and discovered that at least 917 highly diverged homologs are hidden in low-similarity alignment hits that are usually ignored. However, these low-similarity homologs are masked by many false alignment hits. We therefore applied a filtering method to increase the proportion of viral/human homologous proteins. The homologous proteins we found may facilitate functional annotation of viral and human proteins. Furthermore, some of these proteins play a key role in immune modulation and are therefore therapeutic protein candidates.

  6. Discovering genes underlying QTL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanavichit, Apichart [Kasetsart University, Kamphaengsaen, Nakorn Pathom (Thailand)

    2002-02-01

    A map-based approach has allowed scientists to discover few genes at a time. In addition, the reproductive barrier between cultivated rice and wild relatives has prevented us from utilizing the germ plasm by a map-based approach. Most genetic traits important to agriculture or human diseases are manifested as observable, quantitative phenotypes called Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL). In many instances, the complexity of the phenotype/genotype interaction and the general lack of clearly identifiable gene products render the direct molecular cloning approach ineffective, thus additional strategies like genome mapping are required to identify the QTL in question. Genome mapping requires no prior knowledge of the gene function, but utilizes statistical methods to identify the most likely gene location. To completely characterize genes of interest, the initially mapped region of a gene location will have to be narrowed down to a size that is suitable for cloning and sequencing. Strategies for gene identification within the critical region have to be applied after the sequencing of a potentially large clone or set of clones that contains this gene(s). Tremendous success of positional cloning has been shown for cloning many genes responsible for human diseases, including cystic fibrosis and muscular dystrophy as well as plant disease resistance genes. Genome and QTL mapping, positional cloning: the pre-genomics era, comparative approaches to gene identification, and positional cloning: the genomics era are discussed in the report. (M. Suetake)

  7. Discovering genes underlying QTL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanavichit, Apichart

    2002-01-01

    A map-based approach has allowed scientists to discover few genes at a time. In addition, the reproductive barrier between cultivated rice and wild relatives has prevented us from utilizing the germ plasm by a map-based approach. Most genetic traits important to agriculture or human diseases are manifested as observable, quantitative phenotypes called Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL). In many instances, the complexity of the phenotype/genotype interaction and the general lack of clearly identifiable gene products render the direct molecular cloning approach ineffective, thus additional strategies like genome mapping are required to identify the QTL in question. Genome mapping requires no prior knowledge of the gene function, but utilizes statistical methods to identify the most likely gene location. To completely characterize genes of interest, the initially mapped region of a gene location will have to be narrowed down to a size that is suitable for cloning and sequencing. Strategies for gene identification within the critical region have to be applied after the sequencing of a potentially large clone or set of clones that contains this gene(s). Tremendous success of positional cloning has been shown for cloning many genes responsible for human diseases, including cystic fibrosis and muscular dystrophy as well as plant disease resistance genes. Genome and QTL mapping, positional cloning: the pre-genomics era, comparative approaches to gene identification, and positional cloning: the genomics era are discussed in the report. (M. Suetake)

  8. Chandra Discovers Cosmic Cannonball

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    One of the fastest moving stars ever seen has been discovered with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This cosmic cannonball is challenging theories to explain its blistering speed. Astronomers used Chandra to observe a neutron star, known as RX J0822-4300, over a period of about five years. During that span, three Chandra observations clearly show the neutron star moving away from the center of the Puppis A supernova remnant. This remnant is the stellar debris field created during the same explosion in which the neutron star was created about 3700 years ago. Chandra X-ray Image of RX J0822-4300 in Puppis A Chandra X-ray Image of RX J0822-4300 in Puppis A By combining how far it has moved across the sky with its distance from Earth, astronomers determined the neutron star is moving at over 3 million miles per hour. At this rate, RX J0822-4300 is destined to escape from the Milky Way after millions of years, even though it has only traveled about 20 light years so far. "This star is moving at 3 million miles an hour, but it's so far away that the apparent motion we see in five years is less than the height of the numerals in the date on a penny, seen from the length of a football field," said Frank Winkler of Middlebury College in Vermont. "It's remarkable, and a real testament to the power of Chandra, that such a tiny motion can be measured." Labeled Image of RX J0822-4300 in Puppis A Labeled Image of RX J0822-4300 in Puppis A "Just after it was born, this neutron star got a one-way ticket out of the Galaxy," said co-author Robert Petre of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. "Astronomers have seen other stars being flung out of the Milky Way, but few as fast as this." So-called hypervelocity stars have been previously discovered shooting out of the Milky Way with speeds around one million miles per hour. One key difference between RX J0822-4300 and these other reported galactic escapees is the source of their speed. The hypervelocity stars are

  9. Lightest exoplanet yet discovered

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Well-known exoplanet researcher Michel Mayor today announced the discovery of the lightest exoplanet found so far. The planet, "e", in the famous system Gliese 581, is only about twice the mass of our Earth. The team also refined the orbit of the planet Gliese 581 d, first discovered in 2007, placing it well within the habitable zone, where liquid water oceans could exist. These amazing discoveries are the outcome of more than four years of observations using the most successful low-mass-exoplanet hunter in the world, the HARPS spectrograph attached to the 3.6-metre ESO telescope at La Silla, Chile. ESO PR Photo 15a/09 Artist's impression of Gliese 581 e ESO PR Photo 15b/09 A planet in the habitable zone ESO PR Video 15a/09 ESOcast 6 ESO PR Video 15b/09 VNR A-roll ESO PR Video 15c/09 Zoom-in on Gliese 581 e ESO PR Video 15d/09 Artist's impression of Gliese 581 e ESO PR Video 15e/09 Artist's impression of Gliese 581 d ESO PR Video 15f/09 Artist's impression of Gliese 581 system ESO PR Video 15g/09 The radial velocity method ESO PR Video 15h/09 Statement in English ESO PR Video 15i/09 Statement in French ESO PR Video 15j/09 La Silla Observatory "The holy grail of current exoplanet research is the detection of a rocky, Earth-like planet in the ‘habitable zone' -- a region around the host star with the right conditions for water to be liquid on a planet's surface", says Michel Mayor from the Geneva Observatory, who led the European team to this stunning breakthrough. Planet Gliese 581 e orbits its host star - located only 20.5 light-years away in the constellation Libra ("the Scales") -- in just 3.15 days. "With only 1.9 Earth-masses, it is the least massive exoplanet ever detected and is, very likely, a rocky planet", says co-author Xavier Bonfils from Grenoble Observatory. Being so close to its host star, the planet is not in the habitable zone. But another planet in this system appears to be. From previous observations -- also obtained with the HARPS spectrograph

  10. HER2 Genetic Link to Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    When researchers discovered the HER2 gene's importance to breast cancer growth, this led to the development of trastuzumab and other treatments that have improved survival for women with HER2-positive breast cancer.

  11. Discovering Potential Correlations via Hypercontractivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeji; Gao, Weihao; Kannan, Sreeram; Oh, Sewoong; Viswanath, Pramod

    2017-11-01

    Discovering a correlation from one variable to another variable is of fundamental scientific and practical interest. While existing correlation measures are suitable for discovering average correlation, they fail to discover hidden or potential correlations. To bridge this gap, (i) we postulate a set of natural axioms that we expect a measure of potential correlation to satisfy; (ii) we show that the rate of information bottleneck, i.e., the hypercontractivity coefficient, satisfies all the proposed axioms; (iii) we provide a novel estimator to estimate the hypercontractivity coefficient from samples; and (iv) we provide numerical experiments demonstrating that this proposed estimator discovers potential correlations among various indicators of WHO datasets, is robust in discovering gene interactions from gene expression time series data, and is statistically more powerful than the estimators for other correlation measures in binary hypothesis testing of canonical examples of potential correlations.

  12. Roles of lncRNA in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yin; Sharma, Sambad; Watabe, Kounosuke

    2017-01-01

    Recent systematic genomic studies have revealed a broad spectrum of lncRNAs that are involved in a variety of diseases, including tumor progression, by regulating gene expression at epigenetic, transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. However, their exact mechanisms of action are yet to be clarified. In breast cancer research, several lncRNAs are identified as tumor driving oncogenic lncRNAs and few are identified as tumor suppressive lncRNAs. They are involved in cell growth, apoptosis, cell migration and invasiveness as well as cancer cell stemness. Therefore, this new class of RNAs may serve as biomarkers for diagnostic and prognostic purpose and also as potential therapeutic targets. This review summarizes the current information about lncRNAs that are particularly involved in breast cancer progression and also discusses the potential translational application of these newly discovered nucleic acids. PMID:25961689

  13. Discovering Hands - México

    OpenAIRE

    Salamanca Cárdenas, Daniela; Castelblanco Domínguez, Junio Andrés; Aguilar Ardila, Laura Andrea

    2016-01-01

    El modelo de Discovering Hands ha sido reconocido internacionalmente como un proyecto innovador que se ha expandido por diferentes países del mundo, como Austria, y se ha empezado a estudiar la propuesta en países como República Checa, India y Colombia. (Discovering Hands, 2016). Esto se debe a que no solo mejora el tratamiento de cáncer de mama, sino que también reduce los costos totales de tratamiento de la enfermedad y aumenta la fuerza laborar de los países donde esté presente. Al represe...

  14. Practicing on Newly Dead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jewel Abraham

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A newly dead cadaver simulation is practiced on the physical remains of the dead before the onset of rigor mortis. This technique has potential benefits for providing real-life in-situ experience for novice providers in health care practices. Evolving ethical views in health care brings into question some of the ethical aspects associated with newly dead cadaver simulation in terms of justification for practice, autonomy, consent, and the need of disclosure. A clear statement of policies and procedures on newly dead cadaver simulation has yet to be implemented. Although there are benefits and disadvantages to an in-situ cadaver simulation, such practices should not be carried out in secrecy as there is no compelling evidence that suggests such training as imperative. Secrecy in these practices is a violation of honor code of nursing ethics. As health care providers, practitioners are obliged to be ethically honest and trustworthy to their patients. The author explores the ethical aspects of using newly dead cadaver simulation in training novice nursing providers to gain competency in various lifesaving skills, which otherwise cannot be practiced on a living individual. The author explores multiple views on cadaver simulation in relation to ethical theories and practices such as consent and disclosure to family.

  15. Discovering evolution equations with applications

    CERN Document Server

    McKibben, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Most existing books on evolution equations tend either to cover a particular class of equations in too much depth for beginners or focus on a very specific research direction. Thus, the field can be daunting for newcomers to the field who need access to preliminary material and behind-the-scenes detail. Taking an applications-oriented, conversational approach, Discovering Evolution Equations with Applications: Volume 2-Stochastic Equations provides an introductory understanding of stochastic evolution equations. The text begins with hands-on introductions to the essentials of real and stochast

  16. Who discovered the sylvian fissure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collice, Massimo; Collice, Rosa; Riva, Alessandro

    2008-10-01

    Cerebral convolutions were unknown until the 17th century. A constant sulcus was not recognized until the mid-1600s; it was named "the fissure of Sylvius," after the person who had always been considered as the one who discovered it. It is commonly asserted that the first description of the lateral scissure was made by Caspar Bartholin, who attributed its discovery to Sylvius. However, this was not actually the case, as Caspar Bartholin died in 1629, whereas Sylvius started studying medicine in 1632. The description could have been made either by Caspar Bartholin's son Thomas or by Sylvius himself. Irrespective of the description's author, the key to the history of the lateral fissure is that it was first identified by Fabrici d'Acquapendente in 1600, 40 years before Sylvius' description. In one of the 300 colored plates (Tabulae Pictae) by Fabrici, the lateral fissure is perfectly depicted, as are the temporal convolutions. Therefore, even if it was an accidental discovery, Fabrici should be the one noted as having discovered the fissure. This article ends with a short history of the plates. They were painted in oil on paper and were thought to further a great work, the Theatrum Totius Animalis Fabricae, which was begun in 1591 and never completed or published. Only the colored illustrations of this project remain. These plates were forgotten for more than 200 years, until they were rediscovered by Giuseppe Sterzi in 1909. They are among the best examples of anatomic iconography in terms of innovation, accuracy, and artistic accomplishment.

  17. A rapid genetic counselling and testing in newly diagnosed breast cancer is associated with high rate of risk-reducing mastectomy in BRCA1/2-positive Italian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortesi, L; Razzaboni, E; Toss, A; De Matteis, E; Marchi, I; Medici, V; Tazzioli, G; Andreotti, A; De Santis, G; Pignatti, M; Federico, M

    2014-01-01

    Risk-reducing mastectomy (RRM) decreases breast cancer (BC) risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers by up to 95%, but the Italian attitude towards this procedure is reluctant. This is an observational study with retrospective design, using quantitative and qualitative research methods, aimed at evaluating the attitude towards RRM by rapid genetic counselling and testing (RGCT), at the time of BC diagnosis, compared with traditional genetic counselling and testing (TGCT), after previous BC surgery. Secondary aims were to investigate patient satisfaction after RRM and the rate of occult tumour in healthy breasts. A total of 1168 patients were evaluated: 1058 received TGCT, whereas 110 underwent RGCT. In TGCT, among 1058 patients, 209 (19.7%) mutation carriers were identified, with the rate of RRM being 4.7% (10 of 209). Conversely in RGCT, among 110 patients, 36 resulted positive, of which, 15 (41.7%) underwent bilateral mastectomy at the BC surgery time, showing an overall good satisfaction, measured by interpretative phenomenological analysis 12 months after the intervention. Our study shows that RGCT in patients with a hereditary profile is associated with a high rate of RRM at the BC surgery time, this being the pathway offered within a multidisciplinary organization.

  18. Denying humanness to others: a newly discovered mechanism by which violent video games increase aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitemeyer, Tobias; McLatchie, Neil

    2011-05-01

    Past research has provided abundant evidence that playing violent video games increases aggressive behavior. So far, these effects have been explained mainly as the result of priming existing knowledge structures. The research reported here examined the role of denying humanness to other people in accounting for the effect that playing a violent video game has on aggressive behavior. In two experiments, we found that playing violent video games increased dehumanization, which in turn evoked aggressive behavior. Thus, it appears that video-game-induced aggressive behavior is triggered when victimizers perceive the victim to be less human.

  19. Newly discovered natural hosts of tomato chlorosis virus in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV) is an emerging whitefly-transmitted crinivirus. ToCV was detected in field-grown and greenhouse tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants in Costa Rica in 2007, causing symptoms of severe yellowing and foliar chlorosis. To identify alternative hosts that may serve as viru...

  20. Allbutt of Leeds and Duchenne de Boulogne: Newly discovered insights on Duchenne by a British neuropsychiatrist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, E H; Broussolle, E

    2018-02-01

    It is well-established that Guillaume-Benjamin-Amand Duchenne de Boulogne (1806-1875), and Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) were the founding fathers of Parisian and French neurology during the second half of the 19th century, although much more is known about Charcot than about his "master" Duchenne. In Britain, Thomas Clifford Allbutt (1836-1925) was Leeds' most distinguished physician of the 19th century, eventually becoming Regius Professor of Physic at Cambridge. Allbutt's 1860-1861 year of postgraduate study in Paris and his friendship with Duchenne profoundly influenced his own contributions to nervous system and mental diseases, partly in collaboration with his colleague James Crichton-Browne (1840-1938) at the nearby West Riding Lunatic Asylum in Wakefield, Yorkshire. The present report briefly recalls the careers of Duchenne and Allbutt, and also presents a unique account by Allbutt of Duchenne in action at the height of his powers, investigating and defining the previously uncharted field of neuromuscular diseases with the aid of his localized electrization techniques. This account is discussed in relation to: Duchenne's personality and pioneering neurological achievements; the origins of French neurology; and the development of Anglo-French neurological relationships during the 19th century. Interestingly, both Duchenne and Crichton-Browne separately made important and much-appreciated contributions to the third major book by Charles Darwin (1809-1882), The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, published in 1872. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Mixed vitiligo of Blaschko lines: a newly discovered presentation of vitiligo responsive to combination treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacevic, Maja; Stanimirovic, Andrija; Vucic, Majda; Goren, Andy; Situm, Mirna; Lukinovic Skudar, Vesna; Lotti, Torello

    2016-07-01

    Vitiligo, depigmenting disorder of the skin and mucous membranes, affects up to 1% of the population worldwide. It is classified into four major types: segmental, non-segmental, mixed, and unclassified type. Non-segmental vitiligo refers to non-dermatomal distribution of lesions, while dermatomal distribution of lesions is present in patients with segmental vitiligo. Segmental vitiligo can also follow Blaschko lines - pathways of epidermal cell migration and proliferation during the development of the fetus. Here, we present patient with segmental and non-segmental vitiligo following Blaschko lines with excellent therapeutic response to combined therapy. Prior to our report, a case of segmental and non-segmental vitiligo followed by Blaschko lines was never described, therefore we suggest the term "mixed vitiligo of Blaschko lines" to describe this entity. This is also a rare case in which 90% repigmentation was achieved in patient with segmental and nonsegmental vitiligo following Blaschko lines in only 2 months of combined therapy. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Genome characterisation of the newly discovered avian influenza A H5N7 virus subtype combination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bragstad, K.; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik; Handberg, K.J.

    2007-01-01

    In Denmark, in 2003, a previously unknown subtype combination of avian influenza A virus, H5N7 (A/Mallard/Denmark/64650/03), was isolated from a flock of 12,000 mallards. The H5N7 subtype combination might be a reassortant between recent European avian influenza A H5, H7, and a third subtype....../Duck/Hong Kong/3096/99 (H6N2) and A/WDk/ST/1737/2000 (H6N8), respectively. All genes of the H5N7 strain were of avian origin, and no further evidence of pathogenicity to humans has been found....

  3. Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by a Newly Discovered Enteric Bacterium, Leclercia adecarboxylata

    OpenAIRE

    Sarma, Priyangshu Manab; Bhattacharya, Dhruva; Krishnan, S.; Lal, Banwari

    2004-01-01

    A bacterial strain, PS4040, capable of degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for use as the sole carbon source was isolated from oily-sludge-contaminated soil. The 16S rRNA gene showed 98.8% homology to that of Leclercia adecarboxylata. Comparative molecular typing with the clinical strain of L. adecarboxylata revealed that there were few comigrating and few distinct amplimers among them.

  4. Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by a Newly Discovered Enteric Bacterium, Leclercia adecarboxylata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Priyangshu Manab; Bhattacharya, Dhruva; Krishnan, S.; Lal, Banwari

    2004-01-01

    A bacterial strain, PS4040, capable of degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for use as the sole carbon source was isolated from oily-sludge-contaminated soil. The 16S rRNA gene showed 98.8% homology to that of Leclercia adecarboxylata. Comparative molecular typing with the clinical strain of L. adecarboxylata revealed that there were few comigrating and few distinct amplimers among them. PMID:15128584

  5. Investigation of newly discovered lobate scarps: Implications for the tectonic and thermal evolution of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jaclyn D.; Hurtado, José M.; Hiesinger, Harald; van der Bogert, Carolyn H.; Bernhardt, Hannes

    2017-12-01

    Using observations of lunar scarps in Apollo Panoramic Camera photos, Binder and Gunga (1985) tested competing models for the initial thermal state of the Moon, i.e., whether it was initially completely molten or if the molten portion was limited to a global magma ocean. Binder and Gunga (1985) favored the concept of an initially molten Moon that had entered into a late-stage epoch of global tectonism. Since the start of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission, thousands of new small lobate scarps have been identified across the lunar surface with high-resolution images from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC). As such, we selected spatially random scarps and reevaluated the fault dynamical calculations presented by Binder and Gunga (1985). Additionally, we examined the geometry and properties of these fault scarps and place better constraints on the amount of scarp-related crustal shortening. We found that these low angle thrust faults (∼23˚) have an average relief of ∼40 m and average depths of 951 m. Using crater size-frequency distribution (CSFD) measurements, we derived absolute model ages for the scarp surfaces proximal to the trace of the fault and found that the last slip event occurred in the last ∼132 Ma. Along with young model ages, lunar lobate scarps exhibit a youthful appearance with their crisp morphologies which is indicative of late-stage horizontal shortening. In conclusion, interior secular cooling and tidal stresses cause global contraction of the Moon.

  6. Chronology of newly-discovered Paleolithic artifact assemblages in Lantian (Shaanxi province), central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Haixin; Lu, Huayu; Wang, Shejiang; Ahmad, Khobaib; Sun, Wenfeng; Zhang, Hongyan; Yi, Shuangwen; Li, Yongxiang; Wang, Xianyan

    2016-11-01

    The Homo erectus cranium, mandible and hundreds of associated lithic artifacts found in Lantian (central China) in the 1960s demonstrate that the area was important for hominin habitation during the early to middle Pleistocene. However, the region, which was not adequately researched until the early 2000s, still poses several questions regarding hominin behavior and lithic technology development. In this study, three loess-paleosol sequences (the Jijiawan, Ganyu and Diaozhai sites), from which in situ stone artifacts were recovered, are investigated and dated by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL), magnetostratigraphy and stratigraphic correlation. The results demonstrate that the artifacts are located within paleosol layers S4 (correlative with marine oxygen isotope stage (MIS) 11), S3 (MIS 9), S2 (MIS 7), and S1 (MIS 5); and within loess layer L1 (MIS 2-4). The main stone-knapping technique used was direct hard hammer percussion. In addition, the technological features of the stone tools found at these sites exhibit little variation, indicating the presence of a long-established, stable technology in the Lantian area. Our observations show that the ancient humans lived episodically on the terraces of the Bahe River from the early Pleistocene, indicating a long history of hominin occupation of the region.

  7. Characterization of a newly discovered symbiont of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Xiao-Li; Yang, Jiao; Zchori-Fein, Einat; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a species complex containing >28 cryptic species, some of which are important crop pests worldwide. Like many other sap-sucking insects, whiteflies harbor an obligatory symbiont, "Candidatus Portiera aleyrodidarum," and a number of secondary symbionts. So far, six genera of secondary symbionts have been identified in B. tabaci. In this study, we report and describe the finding of an additional bacterium in the indigenous B. tabaci cryptic species China 1 (formerly known as B. tabaci biotype ZHJ3). Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA and gltA genes showed that the bacterium belongs to the Alphaproteobacteria subdivision of the Proteobacteria and has a close relationship with human pathogens of the genus Orientia. Consequently, we temporarily named it Orientia-like organism (OLO). OLO was found in six of eight wild populations of B. tabaci China 1, with the infection rate ranging from 46.2% to 76.8%. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of B. tabaci China 1 in nymphs and adults revealed that OLOs are confined to the bacteriome and co-occur with "Ca. Portiera aleyrodidarum." The vertical transmission of OLO was demonstrated by detection of OLO at the anterior pole end of the oocytes through FISH. Quantitative PCR analysis of population dynamics suggested a complex interaction between "Ca. Portiera aleyrodidarum" and OLO. Based on these results, we propose "Candidatus Hemipteriphilus asiaticus" for the classification of this symbiont from B. tabaci.

  8. Dynamical modeling validation of parent bodies associated with newly discovered CMN meteor showers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šegon, D.; Vaubaillon, J.; Gural, P.S.; Vida, D.; Andreić, Z.; Korlević, K.; Skokić, Ivica

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 598, February (2017), A15/1-A15/13 E-ISSN 1432-0746 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : meteorites * meteors * meteoroids Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy , Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 5.014, year: 2016

  9. Lyman-alpha spectral properties of five newly discovered Lyman continuum emitters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Verhamme, A.; Orlitová, Ivana; Schaerer, D.; Izotov, Y.I.; Worseck, G.; Thuan, T.X.; Guseva, N.G.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 597, January (2017), A13/1-A13/13 E-ISSN 1432-0746 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-20666P Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : radiative transfer * dark ages * reionization Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy , Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 5.014, year: 2016

  10. Morphometrics parallel genetics in a newly discovered and endangered taxon of Galápagos tortoise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ylenia Chiari

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Galápagos tortoises represent the only surviving lineage of giant tortoises that exhibit two different types of shell morphology. The taxonomy of Galápagos tortoises was initially based mainly on diagnostic morphological characters of the shell, but has been clarified by molecular studies indicating that most islands harbor monophyletic lineages, with the exception of Isabela and Santa Cruz. On Santa Cruz there is strong genetic differentiation between the two tortoise populations (Cerro Fatal and La Reserva exhibiting domed shell morphology. Here we integrate nuclear microsatellite and mitochondrial data with statistical analyses of shell shape morphology to evaluate whether the genetic distinction and variability of the two domed tortoise populations is paralleled by differences in shell shape. Based on our results, morphometric analyses support the genetic distinction of the two populations and also reveal that the level of genetic variation is associated with morphological shell shape variation in both populations. The Cerro Fatal population possesses lower levels of morphological and genetic variation compared to the La Reserva population. Because the turtle shell is a complex heritable trait, our results suggest that, for the Cerro Fatal population, non-neutral loci have probably experienced a parallel decrease in variability as that observed for the genetic data.

  11. Newly discovered tachykinins raise new questions about their peripheral roles and the tachykinin nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patacchini, Riccardo; Lecci, Alessandro; Holzer, Peter; Maggi, Carlo Alberto

    2004-01-01

    The tachykinin family has recently been extended by the discovery of a third tachykinin gene encoding previously unknown mammalian tachykinins (hemokinin 1, endokinin A and endokinin B) that have a widespread peripheral distribution and a tachykinin NK(1) receptor selectivity. This and the identification of other tachykinin-like peptides such as C14TKL-1 and virokinin raise many questions about the roles played by tachykinins in peripheral tissues and render terms such as 'neurokinins' and 'SP receptor' inappropriate.

  12. The Role of Newly Discovered Exotoxin (S Toxin) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    sacrificed by cervic SPurified toxin A wee used to immuniss rabbits and a dislocation and blood was obtained by cardiac punc. sheop as previously described...net ADP-ribosylation of elongation factor 2 (7, 8/). This mechanism rate of Na reabsorption (18). The composition of the serosal is similar to~ that...of the I. has been shown to The mucosal addition of diphtheria toxin to bladders in approximate the .na of the net C1 and HCO3 reabsorption (17, Na

  13. Selective flower abortion maintains moth cooperation in a newly discovered pollination mutualism.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goto, R.; Okamoto, T.; Kiers, E.T.; Kawakita, A.; Kato, M.

    2010-01-01

    The evolutionary stability of mutualisms is enhanced when partners possess mechanisms to prevent overexploitation by one another. In obligate pollination-seed consumption mutualisms, selective abortion of flowers containing excessive eggs represents one such mechanism, but empirical tests have long

  14. Verification of the anatomy and newly discovered histology of the G-spot complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrzenski, A; Krajewski, P; Ganjei-Azar, P; Wasiutynski, A J; Scheinberg, M N; Tarka, S; Fudalej, M

    2014-10-01

    To expand the anatomical investigations of the G-spot and to assess the G-spot's characteristic histological and immunohistochemical features. An observational study. International multicentre. Eight consecutive fresh human female cadavers. Anterior vaginal wall dissections were executed and G-spot microdissections were performed. All specimens were stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E). The tissues of two women were selected at random for immunohistochemical staining. The primary outcome measure was to document the anatomy of the G-spot. The secondary outcome measures were to identify the histology of the G-spot and to determine whether histological samples stained with H&E are sufficient to identify the G-spot. The anatomical existence of the G-spot was identified in all women and was in a diagonal plane. In seven (87.5%) and one (12.5%) of the women the G-spot complex was found on the left or right side, respectively. The G-spot was intimately fused with vessels, creating a complex. A large tangled vein-like vascular structure resembled an arteriovenous malformation and there were a few smaller feeding arteries. A band-like structure protruded from the tail of the G-spot. The size of the G-spot varied. Histologically, the G-spot was determined as a neurovascular complex structure. The neural component contained abundant peripheral nerve bundles and a nerve ganglion. The vascular component comprised large vein-like vessels and smaller feeding arteries. Circular and longitudinal muscles covered the G-complex. The anatomy of the G-spot complex was confirmed. The histology of the G-spot presents as neurovascular tissues with a nerve ganglion. H&E staining is sufficient for the identification of the G-spot complex. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  15. A Homo habilis maxilla and other newly-discovered hominid fossils from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, R J

    2012-08-01

    In 1995, a 1.8 million year old hominid maxilla with complete dentition (OH 65) was excavated from Bed I in the western part of Olduvai Gorge. The molar crowns are small relative to the long flaring roots, and the root of the canine is very long and straight. The broad maxilla with wide U-shaped palate and the form of the tooth roots closely match those of KNM-ER 1470 which, in its parietal size and morphology, matches the type specimen of Homo habilis, OH 7. Thus, OH 65 and KNM-ER 1470 group with OH 7 as representatives of H. habilis while some other Olduvai specimens, such as OH 13 and OH 24, have more in common in terms of morphology and brain size with Australopithecus africanus. Between 1995 and 2007, the OLAPP team has recovered teeth of eight other hominid individuals from various parts of Olduvai Gorge. These have been identified as belonging to H. habilis, Paranthropus boisei, and Australopithecus cf. africanus. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Historical Evidence for the Birth of the Newly Discovered Pulsar PSR J1833 1034

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen-Ru; Li, Min; Zhao, Yi

    2006-10-01

    Stimulated by the recent discovery of PSR J1833 1034 in SNR G21.5 0.9 and its age parameters presented by two groups of discovery, we demonstrate that the PSR J1833 1034 was born 2053 years ago from a supernova explosion, the BC 48 guest star observed in the Western Han (Early Han) Dynasty by ancient Chinese. Based on a detailed analysis of the Chinese ancient record of the BC 48 guest star and the new detected physical parameters of PSR J1833 1034, agreements on the visual position, age and distance between PSR J1833 1034 and the BC 48 guest star are obtained. The initial period P0 of PSR J1833 1034 is now derived from its historical and current observed data without any other extra assumption on P0 itself, except that the factor Pdot P is a constant in its evolution until now.

  17. The De Long Trough: a newly discovered glacial trough on the East Siberian continental margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O'Regan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ice sheets extending over parts of the East Siberian continental shelf have been proposed for the last glacial period and during the larger Pleistocene glaciations. The sparse data available over this sector of the Arctic Ocean have left the timing, extent and even existence of these ice sheets largely unresolved. Here we present new geophysical mapping and sediment coring data from the East Siberian shelf and slope collected during the 2014 SWERUS-C3 expedition (SWERUS-C3: Swedish – Russian – US Arctic Ocean Investigation of Climate-Cryosphere-Carbon Interactions. The multibeam bathymetry and chirp sub-bottom profiles reveal a set of glacial landforms that include grounding zone formations along the outer continental shelf, seaward of which lies a  >  65 m thick sequence of glacio-genic debris flows. The glacial landforms are interpreted to lie at the seaward end of a glacial trough – the first to be reported on the East Siberian margin, here referred to as the De Long Trough because of its location due north of the De Long Islands. Stratigraphy and dating of sediment cores show that a drape of acoustically laminated sediments covering the glacial deposits is older than ∼ 50 cal kyr BP. This provides direct evidence for extensive glacial activity on the Siberian shelf that predates the Last Glacial Maximum and most likely occurred during the Saalian (Marine Isotope Stage (MIS 6.

  18. A newly discovered young massive star cluster at the far end of the Galactic Bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Ben; de La Fuente, Diego; Najarro, Francisco; Hinton, Jim A.; Trombley, Christine; Figer, Donald F.; Puga, Elena

    2012-01-01

    We present a near-infrared study of the candidate star cluster Mercer 81, located at the centre of the G338.4+0.1 H II region and close to the TeV gamma-ray source HESS 1640-465. Using Hubble Space Telescope/NICMOS imaging and VLT/ISAAC spectroscopy, we have detected a compact and highly reddened cluster of stars, although the bright stars in the centre of the field are in fact foreground objects. The cluster contains nine stars with strong Pα emission, one of which we identify as a Wolf-Rayet (WR) star, as well as an A-type supergiant. The line-of-sight extinction is very large, AV˜ 45, illustrating the challenges of locating young star clusters in the Galactic plane. From a quantitative analysis of the WR star, we argue for a cluster age of 3.7? Myr, and, assuming that all emission-line stars are WR stars, a cluster mass of ≳104 M⊙. A kinematic analysis of the cluster's surrounding H II region shows that the cluster is located in the Galactic disc at a distance of 11 ± 2 kpc. This places the cluster close to where the far end of the Bar intersects the Norma spiral arm. This cluster, as well as the nearby cluster [DBS2003]179, represents the first detections of active star cluster formation at this side of the Bar, in contrast to the near side which is well known to have recently undergone a ˜106 M⊙ starburst episode.

  19. Newly discovered deep-branching marine plastid lineages are numerically rare but globally distributed

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Choi, C.J.; Bachy, C.; Jaeger, G.S.; Poirier, C.; Sudek, L.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Mahadevan, A.; Giovannoni, S.J.; Worden, A.Z.

    stream_size 13484 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Curr_Biol_27_R15.pdf.txt stream_source_info Curr_Biol_27_R15.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Current Biology % P la st...Cryptophyt 1/60/90 0.96/ 72/80 0.92/ 50/80 1/65/55 1/65/92 C0912-2 CN207-155S3Ac8La CN207-155S3Ab030 EF574856 (1/2) (1/2) Glaucophyt Viridiplant Red alg ARL Stramenopile Haptophytes (Pavlovophycea Rappemonad Cyanobacteria DPL DPL 1/89/97 Aillustrated were...

  20. Filifactor alocis: The Newly Discovered Kid on the Block with Special Talents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruni, W; Chioma, O; Fletcher, H M

    2014-08-01

    Infection-induced periodontal disease has been primarily focused on a small group of periodontal pathogens. A paradigm shift, based on data emerging from the oral microbiome project, now suggests the involvement of as-yet-unculturable and fastidious organisms. Collectively, these studies have demonstrated that there are changes in the periodontal status associated with shifts in the composition of the bacterial community in the periodontal pocket. In addition, it is likely that the emerging new pathogens may play a more significant role in the disease. One of the organisms previously unrecognized is Filifactor alocis. While this Gram-positive anaerobic rod has been identified in peri-implantitis, in endodontic infections, and in patients with localized aggressive periodontitis, its presence is now observed at significantly higher levels in patients with adult periodontitis or refractory periodontitis. Its colonization properties and its potential virulence attributes support the proposal that F. alocis should be included as a diagnostic indicator of periodontal disease. Moreover, these emerging characteristics would be consistent with the polymicrobial synergy and dysbiosis (PSD) periodontal pathogenesis model. Here, unique characteristics of F. alocis are discussed. F. alocis has specific factors that can modulate multiple changes in the microbial community and host cell proteome. It is likely that such variations at the molecular level are responsible for the functional changes required to mediate the pathogenic process. © International & American Associations for Dental Research.

  1. Newly discovered populations of the Ethiopian endemic and endangered Afrixalus clarkei Largen, implications for conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Mertens, Jan; Jocqu?, Merlijn; Geeraert, Lore; Beenhouwer, Matthias De

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Knowledge of the Ethiopian amphibian fauna is limited and Southwest Ethiopia remains understudied. This part of Ethiopia, where most of the country?s remaining natural forest is situated, is known to harbour the only populations of Afrixalus clarkei (Largen), an endemic banana frog, worldwide. This species is under great threat of extinction and is therefore classified as endangered on the IUCN red list. We surveyed different potential habitats for this species outside its known rang...

  2. Zonulin, a newly discovered modulator of intestinal permeability, and its expression in coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasano, A; Not, T; Wang, W; Uzzau, S; Berti, I; Tommasini, A; Goldblum, S E

    2000-04-29

    We identified zonulin, a novel human protein analogue to the Vibrio cholerae derived Zonula occludens toxin, which induces tight junction disassembly and a subsequent increase in intestinal permeability in non-human primate intestinal epithelia. Zonulin expression was raised in intestinal tissues during the acute phase of coeliac disease, a clinical condition in which tight junctions are opened and permeability is increased.

  3. Newly discovered failure mode in high energy density, energy storage capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boicourt, G.P.; Kemp, E.L.

    1978-07-01

    High energy density pulse capacitors, typified by the 10-kV, 170-μF unit, have become widely used in recent years. These units primarily were designed for lower cost and higher energy per unit volume. The life characteristics of these units have never been determined fully, but they have already been shown capable of lives much longer than originally expected. The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is now conducting an extended program to determine the long-term capabilities of these capacitors. This program is aimed not only at finding the statistical parameters of the failure distribution but also at determining the physical failure modes characteristic of such units. Recently, a new failure mode was found. This failure mode has prevented test samples of polypropylene-paper-dioctyl phthalate units from actually reaching the true potential life of the insulation. In this report, the new failure mechanism is examined and suggestions are made that could eliminate the failure mode

  4. Wootz Crucible Steel: A Newly Discovered Production Site in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharad Srinivasan

    1994-11-01

    Full Text Available During the course of field investigations of copper mining and smelting in South India, the author of this paper came across a previously unrecorded archaeometallurgical site in Mel-siruvalur, South Arcot district, Tamil Nadu, which investigations have confinned was a production centre for wootz crucible steel in the Deccan. The find of this production centre supports the idea that wootz steel production was relatiYely widespread in South India, and extends the known horizons of this technology further.

  5. Swift follow-up of the newly discovered burster millisecond pulsar IGR J17511-3057

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozzo, E.; Ferrigno, C.; Kuulkers, E.

    2009-01-01

    Following the discovery of the new hard X-ray transient IGR J17511-3057 by INTEGRAL (Atel #2196) and its classification as a millisecond pulsar by RXTE (Atel #2197), a Swift ToO was performed. Swift/XRT observed IGR J17511-3057 on 2009-09-13 at 19:53:31 for a total exposure time of 4 ks. The firs...

  6. SDSS J102111.02+491330.4: A Newly discovered gravitationally lensed quasar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pindor, Bart; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Gregg, Michael D.; Becker, Robert H.; Inada, Naohisa; Oguri, Masamune; Hall, Patrick B.; Johnston, David E.; Richards, Gordon T.; Schneider, Donald P.; Turner, Edwin L.; Brasi, Guido; Hinz, Philip M.; Kenworthy, Matthew A.; Miller, Doug; Barentine, J.C.; Brewington, Howard J.; Brinkmann, J.; Harvanek,; Kleinman, S.J.; Krzesinski, Jurek; /Toronto U., Astron. Dept. /Arizona U., Astron. Dept. - Steward Observ. /UC, Davis /LLNL, Livermore /Tokyo U., Inst. Astron. /Tokyo U.

    2005-09-01

    We report follow-up observations of two gravitational lens candidates identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) dataset. We have confirmed that SDSS J102111.02+491330.4 is a previously unknown gravitationally lensed quasar. This lens system exhibits two images of a z = 1.72 quasar, with an image separation of 1.14'' {+-} 0.04''. Optical and near-IR imaging of the system reveals the presence of the lensing galaxy between the two quasar images. Observations of SDSS J112012.12+671116.0 indicate that it is more likely a binary quasar than a gravitational lens. This system has two quasars at a redshift of z = 1.49, with an angular separation of 1.49'' {+-} 0.02''. However, the two quasars have markedly different SEDs and no lens galaxy is apparent in optical and near-IR images of this system. We also present a list of 31 SDSS lens candidates which follow-up observations have confirmed are not gravitational lenses.

  7. Vitamin A Status of Patients with Breast Cancer Attending University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was conducted to determine the vitamin A status of newly diagnosed patients with breast cancer at the University College Hospital, Ibadan. Subjects/Methods: The vitamin A status of thirty newly diagnosed female patients with breast cancer was assessed through the use of food frequency questionnaire ...

  8. Lactoferrin- Endothelin-1 Axis Contributes to the Development and Invasiveness of Triple Negative Breast Cancer Phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Ngoc-Han; Nair, Vasudha; Reddy, Divijendra Natha Sirigiri; Mudvari, Prakriti; Ohshiro, Kazufumi; Ghanta, Krishna Sumanth; Pakala, Suresh B.; Li, Da-Qiang; Costa, Luis; Lipton, Allan; Badwe, Rajendra A.; Fuqua, Suzanne; Wallon, Margaretha; Prendergast, George C.; Kumar, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterized by the lack of expression of ERα, PR and HER-2 receptors and the pathway(s) responsible for this downregulation and thus aggressiveness, remains unknown. Here we discovered that lactoferrin (Lf) efficiently downregulates the levels of ERα, PR and HER-2 receptors in a proteasome-dependent manner in breast cancer cells, and accounts for the loss of responsiveness to ER- or HER-2- targeted therapies. Further we found that Lf increases migration and invasiveness of both non-TNBC and TNBC cell lines. We discovered that Lf directly stimulates the transcription of endothelin-1 (ET-1), a secreted pro-invasive polypeptide that acts through a specific receptor ET(A)R, leading to secretion of bioactive ET-1 peptide. Interestingly, a therapeutic ET-1 receptor antagonist drug completely blocked Lf-dependent motility and invasiveness of breast cancer cells. Physiologic significance of this newly discovered Lf-ET-1 axis in the manifestation of TNBC phenotypes is revealed by elevated plasma and tissue Lf and ET-1 levels in TNBC patients as compared to those in ER+ cases. These findings describe the first physiologically relevant polypeptide as a functional determinant of downregulating all three therapeutic receptors in breast cancer which utilizes another secreted ET-1 system to confer invasiveness. Results presented here provide proof-of-principle evidence in support of therapeutic effectiveness of ET-1 receptor antagonist to completely block the Lf-induced motility and invasiveness of the TNBC as well as non-TBNC cells, and thus, opening a remarkable opportunity to treat TNBC by targeting the Lf-ET-1 axis using an approved developmental drug. PMID:22006997

  9. Astronomers Discover Fastest-Spinning Pulsar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope have discovered the fastest-spinning neutron star ever found, a 20-mile-diameter superdense pulsar whirling faster than the blades of a kitchen blender. Their work yields important new information about the nature of one of the most exotic forms of matter known in the Universe. Pulsar Graphic Pulsars Are Spinning Neutron Stars CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on image for larger version) "We believe that the matter in neutron stars is denser than an atomic nucleus, but it is unclear by how much. Our observations of such a rapidly rotating star set a hard upper limit on its size, and hence on how dense the star can be.," said Jason Hessels, a graduate student at McGill University in Montreal. Hessels and his colleagues presented their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Washington, DC. Pulsars are spinning neutron stars that sling "lighthouse beams" of radio waves or light around as they spin. A neutron star is what is left after a massive star explodes at the end of its "normal" life. With no nuclear fuel left to produce energy to offset the stellar remnant's weight, its material is compressed to extreme densities. The pressure squeezes together most of its protons and electrons to form neutrons; hence, the name "neutron star." "Neutron stars are incredible laboratories for learning about the physics of the fundamental particles of nature, and this pulsar has given us an important new limit," explained Scott Ransom, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory and one of Hessels' collaborators on this work. The scientists discovered the pulsar, named PSR J1748-2446ad, in a globular cluster of stars called Terzan 5, located some 28,000 light-years from Earth in the constellation Sagittarius. The newly-discovered pulsar is spinning 716 times per second, or at 716 Hertz (Hz), readily beating the previous record of 642 Hz from a pulsar

  10. Breast Tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tissue can appear abnormal. In breast tomosynthesis, the x-ray tube moves in an arc over the compressed breast ... motion. Your breast will remain compressed while the x-ray tube moves from one side of your breast to ...

  11. Breast pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain - breast; Mastalgia; Mastodynia; Breast tenderness ... There are many possible causes for breast pain. For example, changes in the level of of hormones during menstruation or pregnancy often cause breast pain. Some swelling and tenderness just before ...

  12. Evaluation of Breast Cancer Awareness among Women Presenting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: This study has revealed low breast cancer awareness among women presenting with newly diagnosed breast disease at the Universitas Hospital, and hence low rates of self- and clinical examinations of the breast and low mammographic screening rates. This may be attributed to a general lack of awareness of ...

  13. Evaluation of breast cancer awareness among women presenting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: This study has revealed low breast cancer awareness among women presenting with newly diagnosed breast disease at the Universitas Hospital, and hence low rates of self- and clinical examinations of the breast and low mammographic screening rates. This may be attributed to a general lack of awareness of ...

  14. Understanding Prostate Cancer: Newly Diagnosed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vs Cancer Contact Us Newly Diagnosed with Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Basics About the Prostate Risk Factors Prostate ... when my.. Donors Patient Stories About the Prostate Cancer Foundation The Prostate Cancer Foundation (PCF) is the world’s leading philanthropic ...

  15. Scientists Discover Sugar in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-01

    . Glycolaldehyde is a simpler molecular cousin to table sugar, the scientists say. The sugar molecule was detected in a large cloud of gas and dust some 26,000 light-years away, near the center of our Galaxy. Such clouds, often many light-years across, are the material from which new stars are formed. Though very rarified by Earth standards, these interstellar clouds are the sites of complex chemical reactions that occur over hundreds of thousands or millions of years. So far, about 120 different molecules have been discovered in these clouds. Most of these molecules contain a small number of atoms, and only a few molecules with eight or more atoms have been found in interstellar clouds. The 12 Meter Telescope "Finding glycolaldehyde in one of these interstellar clouds means that such molecules can be formed even in very rarified conditions," said Hollis. "We don't yet understand how it could be formed there," he added. "A combination of more astronomical observations and theoretical chemistry work will be required to resolve the mystery of how this molecule is formed in space." "We hope this discovery inspires renewed efforts to find even more kinds of molecules, so that, with a better idea of the total picture, we may be able to deduce the details of the prebiotic chemistry taking place in interstellar clouds," Hollis said. The discovery was made by detecting faint radio emission from the sugar molecules in the interstellar cloud. Molecules rotate end-for-end, and as they change from one rotational energy state to another, they emit radio waves at precise frequencies. The "family" of radio frequencies emitted by a particular molecule forms a unique "fingerprint" that scientists can use to identify that molecule. The scientists identified glycolaldehyde by detecting six frequencies of radio emission in what is termed the millimeter-wavelength region of the electromagnetic spectrum -- a region between more-familiar microwaves and infrared radiation. The NRAO 12 Meter Telescope

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging - guided vacuum-assisted breast biopsy: an initial experience in a community hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, P.; Enis, S.; Pinyard, J.

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness in diagnosing mammographically and sonographically occult breast lesions by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guided vacuum-assisted breast biopsy in patients who presented to a community-based hospital with a newly established breast MRI program. The records of 142 consecutive patients, median age of 55 years, who had undergone MRI-guided biopsy at our institution between July 2006 and July 2007 were reviewed. From these patients, 197 mammographically and sonographically occult lesions were biopsied at the time of discovery. The pathology was then reviewed and correlated with the MRI findings. Cancer was present and subsequently discovered in 8% of the previously occult lesions (16/197) or 11% of the women studied (16/142). Of the cancerous lesions, 56% were invasive carcinomas (9/16) and 44% were ductal carcinomas in situ (7/16). Fourteen percent of the discovered lesions (28/197) were defined as high risk and included atypical ductal hyperplasia, atypical lobular hyperplasia, lobular carcinoma in situ, and radial scar. In total, occult cancerous and high-risk lesions were discovered in 22% of the found lesions (44/197) or 31% of the women who underwent MRI-guided biopsy (44/142). This study demonstrated that detection of cancerous and high-risk lesions can be significantly increased when an MRI-guided biopsy program is introduced at a community-based hospital. We believe that as radiologists gain confidence in imaging and histologic correlation, community-based hospitals can achieve similar rates of occult lesion diagnosis as those found in data emerging from academic institutions. (author)

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging - guided vacuum-assisted breast biopsy: an initial experience in a community hospital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, P.; Enis, S.; Pinyard, J., E-mail: jpinyard@gmail.com [Morristown Memorial Hospital, The Carol W. and Julius A. Rippel Breast Center, The Carol G. Simon Cancer Centre, Morristown, New Jersey (United States)

    2009-10-15

    To evaluate the effectiveness in diagnosing mammographically and sonographically occult breast lesions by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guided vacuum-assisted breast biopsy in patients who presented to a community-based hospital with a newly established breast MRI program. The records of 142 consecutive patients, median age of 55 years, who had undergone MRI-guided biopsy at our institution between July 2006 and July 2007 were reviewed. From these patients, 197 mammographically and sonographically occult lesions were biopsied at the time of discovery. The pathology was then reviewed and correlated with the MRI findings. Cancer was present and subsequently discovered in 8% of the previously occult lesions (16/197) or 11% of the women studied (16/142). Of the cancerous lesions, 56% were invasive carcinomas (9/16) and 44% were ductal carcinomas in situ (7/16). Fourteen percent of the discovered lesions (28/197) were defined as high risk and included atypical ductal hyperplasia, atypical lobular hyperplasia, lobular carcinoma in situ, and radial scar. In total, occult cancerous and high-risk lesions were discovered in 22% of the found lesions (44/197) or 31% of the women who underwent MRI-guided biopsy (44/142). This study demonstrated that detection of cancerous and high-risk lesions can be significantly increased when an MRI-guided biopsy program is introduced at a community-based hospital. We believe that as radiologists gain confidence in imaging and histologic correlation, community-based hospitals can achieve similar rates of occult lesion diagnosis as those found in data emerging from academic institutions. (author)

  18. Decision mining revisited - Discovering overlapping rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mannhardt, Felix; De Leoni, Massimiliano; Reijers, Hajo A.; Van Der Aalst, Wil M P

    2016-01-01

    Decision mining enriches process models with rules underlying decisions in processes using historical process execution data. Choices between multiple activities are specified through rules defined over process data. Existing decision mining methods focus on discovering mutually-exclusive rules,

  19. The exposed breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingman, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    The skin and lungs are two tissues that are frequently bombarded with cancer-initiating factors, such as ultraviolet rays from the sun and smoke and pollutants in the air we breathe. Yet breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in Australian women, affecting one in eight before the age of 85. It is more common than skin melanoma and lung cancer. Why, then, does the breast so commonly get cancer when it is not a tissue that is particularly exposed to the environmental agents that increase cancer risk in other major organs? Is there something unique about this tissue that makes it particularly susceptible? The breast undergoes cellular changes over the course of the monthly menstrual cycle, and and these changes affect cancer susceptibility. Rising levels of the hormones oestrogen and progesterone occur immediately after the egg is released from the ovary, and these hormones cause the breast cells to divide and change to accommodate further development if pregnancy occurs. If the woman becomes pregnant, the cells in the breast continue to develop and become the milk-producing structures required to feed a newborn baby. But if pregnancy does not occur there is a drop in progesterone, which triggers the death of the newly developed breast cells. This occurs at the same time women have their period. Then the cycle starts again, and continues every month until menopause, unless the woman becomes pregnant.

  20. Radiation-induced breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finnerty, N.A.; Buzdar, A.U.; Blumenschein, G.R.

    1984-01-01

    Between 1975 and 1983, sixteen patients with a history of irradiation at an early age to the head, neck, or chest areas for a variety of conditions in whom breast cancer subsequently developed were seen at out institute. The median latent period between the irradiation and the development of breast cancer was 420 months. The distribution of patients by stage of the disease and the median age at diagnosis of this subgroup was similar to the breast cancer observed in the general population. The subsequent course of this disease was also similar to the breast cancer observed in the general population. A substantial number of women have been exposed to irradiation at a young age, and these women are at a higher risk of having breast cancer develop. These women should be closely observed to discover the disease in an early curable stage

  1. Impact on Clinical Management of After-Hours Emergent or Urgent Breast Ultrasonography in Patients with Clinically Suspected Breast Abscesses

    OpenAIRE

    Tanya W. Moseley; Ashley Stanley; Wei Wei; Jay R. Parikh

    2018-01-01

    Newly diagnosed breast abscesses are generally treated as a medical emergency that may necessitate immediate interventional treatment. At our institution, there is no in-house after-hours coverage for breast ultrasonography. We could find no peer-reviewed studies on the cost-effectiveness or clinical management impact of on-call ultrasound technologist coverage for imaging of breast abscesses. The purposes of this study were to determine the incidence of breast abscess in patients with clinic...

  2. Breast lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sag again. Alternative Names Mastopexy; Breast lift with reduction; Breast lift with augmentation Patient Instructions Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge References Higdon KK, Grotting JC. Mastopexy. In: Neligan PC, ed. Plastic Surgery . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013: ...

  3. Fibroadenoma - breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast lump - fibroadenoma; Breast lump - noncancerous; Breast lump - benign ... The cause of fibroadenomas is not known. They may be related to hormones. Girls who are going through puberty and women who are ...

  4. Breast Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bumps, and discharges (fluids that are not breast milk). If you have a breast lump, pain, discharge or skin irritation, see your health care provider. Minor and serious breast problems have similar ...

  5. Breast Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Procedures Implants and Prosthetics Breast Implants Breast Implants Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Breast implants are medical devices that are implanted under the ...

  6. Fertility preservation in young women with breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemp, Jennifer R; Kim, S Samuel; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2012-01-01

    When a young woman is diagnosed with breast cancer, there is often a sense of urgency by the patient and her providers to initiate treatment. This article provides guidelines for incorporating the discussion of fertility preservation with newly diagnosed young women with breast cancer.......When a young woman is diagnosed with breast cancer, there is often a sense of urgency by the patient and her providers to initiate treatment. This article provides guidelines for incorporating the discussion of fertility preservation with newly diagnosed young women with breast cancer....

  7. Breast Mass in a Rubens Painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeri, Davide; Lippi, Donatella; Castello, Manuel Francisco; Weisz, George M

    2016-04-19

    Deformity of the breast and axilla observed in famous paintings is a fascinating field for the medico-artists. The attempt of a retrospective diagnosis of breast tumors is highly challenging. This paper deals with a Rubens painting portraying the heroine Judith with a visible but previously unreported left breast mass. Though speculative, the present medico-artistic diagnosis is of a tumor likely to be of benign nature. It is of interest that the present case is the sixth breast disease discovered in Rubens's works.

  8. Mistakes the newly promoted make.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, M M

    1999-01-01

    Many newly promoted managers make identical mistakes, most of them preventable. Physician executives who are thinking of taking on a bigger job should consider the following eight mistakes: (1) misreading top management's agenda, (2) micromanaging your successor, (3) not updating technical skills, (4) assuming customs and taboos are negotiable, (5) not rewriting your job description to mirror your new role, (6) not mentally moving from management to leadership, (7) not adjusting to relationships, and (8) not identifying a likely successor.

  9. Brief preoperative smoking cessation counselling in relation to breast cancer surgery: a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thordis; Esbensen, Bente Appel; Samuelsen, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To describe how women smokers with newly diagnosed breast cancer experienced brief preoperative smoking cessation intervention in relation to breast cancer surgery. BACKGROUND: Preoperative smoking cessation intervention is relevant for short- and long-term risk reduction in newly diagnosed ...

  10. The discovered preference hypothesis - an empirical test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundhede, Thomas; Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    Using stated preference methods for valuation of non-market goods is known to be vulnerable to a range of biases. Some authors claim that these so-called anomalies in effect render the methods useless for the purpose. However, the Discovered Preference Hypothesis, as put forth by Plott [31], offe...

  11. Did Viking discover life on Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, H. P.

    1999-01-01

    A major argument in the claim that life had been discovered during the Viking mission to Mars is that the results obtained in the Labeled Release (LR) experiment are analogous to those observed with terrestrial microorganisms. This assertion is critically examined and found to be implausible.

  12. Discovering Science through Art-Based Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Art and science are intrinsically linked; the essence of art and science is discovery. Both artists and scientists work in a systematic but creative way--knowledge and understanding are built up through pieces of art or a series of labs. In the classroom, integrating science and visual art can provide students with the latitude to think, discover,…

  13. Discovering English with the Sketch Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, James

    2014-01-01

    "Discovering English with the Sketch Engine" is the title of a new book (Thomas, 2014) which introduces the use of corpora in language study, teaching, writing and translating. It focuses on using the Sketch Engine to identify patterns of normal usage in many aspects of English ranging from morphology to discourse and pragmatics. This…

  14. Dense Breasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may lose breast density as a result of hormonal changes experienced during menopause. However, some younger women may have fatty breasts while some elderly women have dense breasts. Much of what determines a woman's ... and hormonal factors also affect a woman's breast density. About ...

  15. Targeting breast cancer outcomes-what about the primary relatives?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Johnston, Alison

    2017-07-01

    Up to 65% of newly diagnosed breast cancer patients had not been screened correctly before diagnosis resulting in increased stage of cancer at presentation. This study assessed whether their primary relatives are, in turn, assessed appropriately.

  16. The Effects of Brief Psychotherapy of Coping with Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCaul, Kevin

    1997-01-01

    .... Our novel approach tested the effects of brief psychotherapy provided by phone. The final sample included 61 women newly diagnosed with breast cancer who were randomly assigned to either the phone treatment or a "standard treatment" condition...

  17. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ of the Breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS of the breast represents a complex, heterogeneous pathologic condition in which malignant epithelial cells are confined within the ducts of the breast without evidence of invasion. The increased use of screening mammography has led to a significant shift in the diagnosis of DCIS, accounting for approximately 27% of all newly diagnosed cases of breast cancer in 2011, with an overall increase in incidence. As the incidence of DCIS increases, the treatment options continue to evolve. Consistent pathologic evaluation is crucial in optimizing treatment recommendations. Surgical treatment options include breast-conserving surgery (BCS and mastectomy. Postoperative radiation therapy in combination with breast-conserving surgery is considered the standard of care with demonstrated decrease in local recurrence with the addition of radiation therapy. The role of endocrine therapy is currently being evaluated. The optimization of diagnostic imaging, treatment with regard to pathological risk assessment, and the role of partial breast irradiation continue to evolve.

  18. The expression level of HJURP has an independent prognostic impact and predicts the sensitivity to radiotherapy in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhi; Huang, Ge; Sadanandam, Anguraj; Gu, Shenda; Lenburg, Marc E; Pai, Melody; Bayani, Nora; Blakely, Eleanor A; Gray, Joe W; Mao, Jian-Hua

    2010-01-01

    HJURP (Holliday Junction Recognition Protein) is a newly discovered gene reported to function at centromeres and to interact with CENPA. However its role in tumor development remains largely unknown. The goal of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of HJURP in breast cancer and its correlation with radiotherapeutic outcome. We measured HJURP expression level in human breast cancer cell lines and primary breast cancers by Western blot and/or by Affymetrix Microarray; and determined its associations with clinical variables using standard statistical methods. Validation was performed with the use of published microarray data. We assessed cell growth and apoptosis of breast cancer cells after radiation using high-content image analysis. HJURP was expressed at higher level in breast cancer than in normal breast tissue. HJURP mRNA levels were significantly associated with estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), Scarff-Bloom-Richardson (SBR) grade, age and Ki67 proliferation indices, but not with pathologic stage, ERBB2, tumor size, or lymph node status. Higher HJURP mRNA levels significantly decreased disease-free and overall survival. HJURP mRNA levels predicted the prognosis better than Ki67 proliferation indices. In a multivariate Cox proportional-hazard regression, including clinical variables as covariates, HJURP mRNA levels remained an independent prognostic factor for disease-free and overall survival. In addition HJURP mRNA levels were an independent prognostic factor over molecular subtypes (normal like, luminal, Erbb2 and basal). Poor clinical outcomes among patients with high HJURP expression were validated in five additional breast cancer cohorts. Furthermore, the patients with high HJURP levels were much more sensitive to radiotherapy. In vitro studies in breast cancer cell lines showed that cells with high HJURP levels were more sensitive to radiation treatment and had a higher rate of apoptosis than those with low levels

  19. The expression level of HJURP has an independent prognostic impact and predicts the sensitivity to radiotherapy in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Zhi; Huang, Ge; Sadanandam, Anguraj; Gu, Shenda; Lenburg, Marc E.; Pai, Melody; Bayani, Nora; Blakely, Eleanor A.; Gray, Joe W.; Mao, Jian-Hua

    2010-01-01

    HJURP (Holliday Junction Recognition Protein) is a newly discovered gene reported to function at centromeres and to interact with CENPA. However its role in tumor development remains largely unknown. The goal of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of HJURP in breast cancer and its correlation with radiotherapeutic outcome. We measured HJURP expression level in human breast cancer cell lines and primary breast cancers by Western blot and/or by Affymetrix Microarray; and determined its associations with clinical variables using standard statistical methods. Validation was performed with the use of published microarray data. We assessed cell growth and apoptosis of breast cancer cells after radiation using high-content image analysis. HJURP was expressed at higher level in breast cancer than in normal breast tissue. HJURP mRNA levels were significantly associated with estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), Scarff-Bloom-Richardson (SBR) grade, age and Ki67 proliferation indices, but not with pathologic stage, ERBB2, tumor size, or lymph node status. Higher HJURP mRNA levels significantly decreased disease-free and overall survival. HJURP mRNA levels predicted the prognosis better than Ki67 proliferation indices. In a multivariate Cox proportional-hazard regression, including clinical variables as covariates, HJURP mRNA levels remained an independent prognostic factor for disease-free and overall survival. In addition HJURP mRNA levels were an independent prognostic factor over molecular subtypes (normal like, luminal, Erbb2 and basal). Poor clinical outcomes among patients with high HJURP expression were validated in five additional breast cancer cohorts. Furthermore, the patients with high HJURP levels were much more sensitive to radiotherapy. In vitro studies in breast cancer cell lines showed that cells with high HJURP levels were more sensitive to radiation treatment and had a higher rate of apoptosis than those with low levels

  20. The expression level of HJURP has an independent prognostic impact and predicts the sensitivity to radiotherapy in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Zhi; Huang, Ge; Sadanandam, Anguraj; Gu, Shenda; Lenburg, Marc E; Pai, Melody; Bayani, Nora; Blakely, Eleanor A; Gray, Joe W; Mao, Jian-Hua

    2010-06-25

    Introduction: HJURP (Holliday Junction Recognition Protein) is a newly discovered gene reported to function at centromeres and to interact with CENPA. However its role in tumor development remains largely unknown. The goal of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of HJURP in breast cancer and its correlation with radiotherapeutic outcome. Methods: We measured HJURP expression level in human breast cancer cell lines and primary breast cancers by Western blot and/or by Affymetrix Microarray; and determined its associations with clinical variables using standard statistical methods. Validation was performed with the use of published microarray data. We assessed cell growth and apoptosis of breast cancer cells after radiation using high-content image analysis. Results: HJURP was expressed at higher level in breast cancer than in normal breast tissue. HJURP mRNA levels were significantly associated with estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), Scarff-Bloom-Richardson (SBR) grade, age and Ki67 proliferation indices, but not with pathologic stage, ERBB2, tumor size, or lymph node status. Higher HJURP mRNA levels significantly decreased disease-free and overall survival. HJURP mRNA levels predicted the prognosis better than Ki67 proliferation indices. In a multivariate Cox proportional-hazard regression, including clinical variables as covariates, HJURP mRNA levels remained an independent prognostic factor for disease-free and overall survival. In addition HJURP mRNA levels were an independent prognostic factor over molecular subtypes (normal like, luminal, Erbb2 and basal). Poor clinical outcomes among patients with high HJURP expression werevalidated in five additional breast cancer cohorts. Furthermore, the patients with high HJURP levels were much more sensitive to radiotherapy. In vitro studies in breast cancer cell lines showed that cells with high HJURP levels were more sensitive to radiation treatment and had a higher rate of apoptosis

  1. Discovering Recurrent Image Semantics from Class Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Jesse S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Supervised statistical learning has become a critical means to design and learn visual concepts (e.g., faces, foliage, buildings, etc. in content-based indexing systems. The drawback of this approach is the need of manual labeling of regions. While several automatic image annotation methods proposed recently are very promising, they usually rely on the availability and analysis of associated text descriptions. In this paper, we propose a hybrid learning framework to discover local semantic regions and generate their samples for training of local detectors with minimal human intervention. A multiscale segmentation-free framework is proposed to embed the soft presence of discovered semantic regions and local class patterns in an image independently for indexing and matching. Based on 2400 heterogeneous consumer images with 16 semantic queries, both similarity matching based on individual index and integrated similarity matching have outperformed a feature fusion approach by 26% and 37% in average precisions, respectively.

  2. Discovering More Accurate Frequent Web Usage Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Bayir, Murat Ali; Toroslu, Ismail Hakki; Cosar, Ahmet; Fidan, Guven

    2008-01-01

    Web usage mining is a type of web mining, which exploits data mining techniques to discover valuable information from navigation behavior of World Wide Web users. As in classical data mining, data preparation and pattern discovery are the main issues in web usage mining. The first phase of web usage mining is the data processing phase, which includes the session reconstruction operation from server logs. Session reconstruction success directly affects the quality of the frequent patterns disc...

  3. A case control study of breast cancer risk and exposure to injectable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    breast cancer. Design. A population-based case-control study of breast cancer risk in relation to the use of IPes among coloured and black women. Setting. The Western Cape, including the Cape metropole and surrounding rural areas. Study subjects. All coloured and black women with newly diagnosed breast cancer, ...

  4. Representative breast size of reference female; and reply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristy, M.; Kramer, R.; Williams, G.; Drexler, G.

    1982-01-01

    Cristy disagrees with Kramer and Drexler on the representative breast size of a reference adult female - and after reviewing the literature suggests a representative size of 190-200 ml for one breast in a young adult female. Kramer and Drexler reply that after carrying out a series of Monte Carlo calculations on a mathematical MIRD-5 phantom, exposed to external photon irradiation, to discover the influence of breast-size on dose equivalents to the breast a representative size of (260-270)cm 3 and weight of (250-265)gm per breast is more appropriate, taking all data into account. (U.K.)

  5. More Far-Side Deep Moonquake Nests Discovered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Y.; Jackson, John A.; Jackson, Katherine G.

    2004-01-01

    As reported last year, we started to reanalyze the seismic data acquired from 1969 to 1977 with a network of stations established on the Moon during the Apollo mission. The reason for the reanalysis was because recent advances in computer technology make it possible to employ much more sophisticated analysis techniques than was possible previously. The primary objective of the reanalysis was to search for deep moonquakes on the far side of the Moon and, if found, to use them to infer the structure of the Moon's deep interior, including a possible central core. The first step was to identify any new deep moonquakes that escaped our earlier search by applying a combination of waveform cross-correlation and single-link cluster analysis, and then to see if any of them are from previously unknown nests of deep moonquakes. We positively identified 7245 deep moonquakes, more than a five-fold increase from the previous 1360. We also found at least 88 previously unknown deep-moonquake nests. The question was whether any of these newly discovered nets were on the far side of the Moon, and we now report that our analysis of the data indicates that some of them are indeed on the far side.

  6. Breast Gangrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husasin Irfan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast gangrene is rare in surgical practice. Gangrene of breast can be idiopathic or secondary to some causative factor. Antibiotics and debridement are used for management. Acute inflammatory infiltrate, severe necrosis of breast tissue, necrotizing arteritis, and venous thrombosis is observed on histopathology. The aim of was to study patients who had breast gangrene. Methods A prospective study of 10 patients who had breast gangrene over a period of 6 years were analyzed Results All the patients in the study group were female. Total of 10 patients were encountered who had breast gangrene. Six patients presented with breast gangrene on the right breast whereas four had on left breast. Out of 10 patients, three had breast abscess after teeth bite followed by gangrene, one had iatrogenic trauma by needle aspiration of erythematous area of breast under septic conditions. Four had history of application of belladonna on cutaneous breast abscess and had then gangrene. All were lactating female. Amongst the rest two were elderly, one of which was a diabetic who had gangrene of breast and had no application of belladonna. All except one had debridement under cover of broad spectrum antibiotics. Three patients had grafting to cover the raw area. Conclusion Breast gangrene occurs rarely. Etiology is variable and mutifactorial. Teeth bite while lactation and the iatrogenic trauma by needle aspiration of breast abscess under unsterlised conditions could be causative. Uncontrolled diabetes can be one more causative factor for the breast gangrene. Belladonna application as a topical agent could be inciting factor. Sometimes gangrene of breast can be idiopathic. Treatment is antibiotics and debridement.

  7. Breast Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radiate to the breast. Fatty acid imbalance. An imbalance of fatty acids within the cells may affect the sensitivity of breast tissue to circulating hormones. Medication use. Certain hormonal medications, including some infertility treatments and oral birth ...

  8. Breast Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ends. What you can expect Begin with a visual examination of your breasts Sit or stand shirtless ... to the next section. If you have a disability that makes it difficult to examine your breasts ...

  9. Breast Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Before Treatment Following Your Treatment Plan Managing Side Effects and Supportive Care Managing Pain Quality of Life Survival and Risk of Recurrence Breast Cancer Recurrence Unique Issues for Young Women Treatment During Pregnancy Treatment for Breast Cancer in ...

  10. Breast ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as: Cysts, which are, fluid-filled sacs Fibroadenomas , which are, noncancerous solid growths Lipomas, which are, noncancerous fatty lumps that can occur anywhere in the body, including the breasts Breast cancers can also be seen with ultrasound. ...

  11. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks that ... who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested for the genes. ...

  12. Breast lymphoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixteen patients presenting with lymphoma involving the breast are described. Seven fulfilled the criteria for primary breast lymphoma, while the other 9 had evidence. (sometimes only detected after extensive staging procedures) of concurrent lymphomatous involvement outside the breast. Histological diagnoses of the so- ...

  13. Discovering Data in the Virtual Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Tom; Hinshaw, D.; Rogers, A.; Wallace, G.

    2013-01-01

    We present the VAO Data Discovery Tool, a web-based application for discovering data from thousands of astronomical collections and archives around the world. Using protocols defined by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA), the Data Discovery Tool can search those widely distributed resources and present the results in a single unified web page. A powerful filtering mechanism allows the user to quickly narrow the initial results to a short list of likely applicable data. Guidance on choosing appropriate data sets is provided by a variety of integrated displays, including an interactive data table, basic histograms and scatter plots, and an all-sky browser/visualizer with observation and catalog overlays. Data discovered through the tool can be downloaded or exported directly to other VO-aware tools for further analysis. The VAO Data Discovery Tool is being developed as a joint effort between the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST) and the Virtual Astronomical Observatory (VAO). MAST is a NASA funded project to support and provide to the astronomical community a variety of astronomical data archives, and is located at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI). The VAO was established as a partnership of the Associated Universities, Inc. and the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. The VAO is sponsored by the National Science Foundation and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  14. The Universe for all to discover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Gil, A.; Ballesteros, F.; Espinós, H.; Fernández-Soto, A.; Lanzara, M.; Moya, M. J.; Navarro, J.

    2015-05-01

    In the title of this paper, we have changed the slogan of the International Year of Astronomy, ``The Universe yours to discover" to ``The Universe for all to discover" in order to emphasize the need to think about broader audiences when we plan astronomical activities at school or during outreach events. The strategy we propose follows what is known as the Universal Design for Learning (UDL). UDL allows to reach to the general public as well as to audiences which might be regarded as ``special" because they have some disability. It has been shown that everybody has a preferred style of learning (some remember better what they see, others what they hear or what they touch) and therefore, everybody is more or less able under the different styles of learning. Through this talk I am going to outline some of the principles of the UDL that can be applied in the teaching and communication of Astronomy, along with an example of its implementation in the project ``A Touch of the Universe".

  15. The newly discovered insect order mantophasmatodea contains a novel member of the adipokinetic hormone family of peptides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gäde, G.; Marco, H. G.; Šimek, Petr; Marais, E.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 330, č. 2 (2005), s. 598-603 ISSN 0006-291X Grant - others:National Research Foundation(ZA) 2053806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : insects * mantophasmatodea * AKH/RPCH Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.000, year: 2005

  16. THE NEWLY DISCOVERED PULSATING LOW-MASS WHITE DWARFS: AN EXTENSION OF THE ZZ CETI INSTABILITY STRIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Grootel, V.; Dupret, M.-A. [Institut d' Astrophysique et de Geophysique de l' Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout 17, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Fontaine, G.; Brassard, P., E-mail: valerie.vangrootel@ulg.ac.be [Departement de Physique, Universite de Montreal, Succ. Centre-Ville, C.P. 6128, Montreal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2013-01-01

    In light of the exciting discovery of g-mode pulsations in extremely low-mass, He-core DA white dwarfs, we report on the results of a detailed stability survey aimed at explaining the existence of these new pulsators as well as their location in the spectroscopic Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. To this aim, we calculated some 28 evolutionary sequences of DA models with various masses and chemical layering. These models are characterized by the so-called ML2/{alpha} = 1.0 convective efficiency and take into account the important feedback effect of convection on the atmospheric structure. We pulsated the models with the nonadiabatic code MAD, which incorporates a detailed treatment of time-dependent convection. On the other hand, given the failure of all nonadiabatic codes, including MAD, to account properly for the red edge of the strip, we resurrect the idea that the red edge is due to energy leakage through the atmosphere. We thus estimated the location of that edge by requiring that the thermal timescale in the driving region-located at the base of the H convection zone-be equal to the critical period beyond which l = 1 g-modes cease to exist. Using this approach, we find that our theoretical ZZ Ceti instability strip accounts remarkably well for the boundaries of the empirical strip, including the low-gravity, low-temperature regime where the three new pulsators are found. We also account for the relatively long periods observed in these stars, and thus conclude that they are true ZZ Ceti stars, but with low masses.

  17. Acute Renal Infarction Presenting with Acute Abdominal Pain Secondary to Newly Discovered Atrial Fibrillation: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif Ali Eltawansy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an 85-year-old female with known history of recurrent diverticulitis presented with abdominal pain. It was believed that the patient again needed to be treated for another diverticulitis and was started on the routine treatment. The initial CT scan of abdomen showed renal infarcts bilaterally that were confirmed by a CT with and without intravenous contrast secondary to unknown cause. An ECG found accidentally that the patient was in atrial fibrillation, which was the attributed factor to the renal infarctions. Subsequently, the patient was started on the appropriate anticoagulation and discharged.

  18. A molecular characterization of a newly discovered megafaunal fossil site in North Canterbury, South Island, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allentoft, M.E.; Scofield, R.P.; Oskam, C.L.; Hale, M.L.; Holdaway, R.N.; Bunce, M.

    2012-01-01

    In January 2008 an assemblage of large fossil bones was unearthed in a field near Waikari, North Canterbury, South Island, New Zealand. We describe this new fossil site, Rosslea, and provide an inventory of the excavated material. The bones were generally well preserved although stained deep brown, typical of peat preservation. Eight Rosslea bones were 14 C AMS dated and median calibrated ages ranged from 7839 to 1482 years BP. Ancient DNA was isolated from 14 bones and a single piece of eggshell. Genetic species identifications based on mitochondrial DNA matched those based on morphology, confirming that three species of extinct moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes) were present. Also, remains of an extinct South Island Adzebill (Aptornis defossor) were identified. The species composition in the Rosslea assemblage proved typical for the time and region but comparative analyses revealed that each of five major fossil deposits in the area displayed a significantly different relative abundance of moa taxa, despite their proximity and relative contemporaneity (all contain Holocene moa bones). Lastly, indications of DNA damage and failed attempts to amplify nuclear DNA indicated that DNA preservation at Rosslea was relatively poor compared to the preservation known from adjacent deposits. (author). 50 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. The diversity of ant-associated black yeasts: insights into a newly discovered world of symbiotic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voglmayr, Hermann; Mayer, Veronika; Maschwitz, Ulrich; Moog, Joachim; Djieto-Lordon, Champlain; Blatrix, Rumsaïs

    2011-10-01

    Based on pure culture studies and DNA phylogenetic analyses, black yeasts (Chaetothyriales, Ascomycota) are shown to be widely distributed and important components of numerous plant-ant-fungus networks, independently acquired by several ant lineages in the Old and New World. Data from ITS and LSU nu rDNA demonstrate that a high biodiversity of fungal species is involved. There are two common ant-fungus symbioses involving black yeasts: (1) on the carton walls of ant nests and galleries, and (2) the fungal mats growing within non-pathogenic naturally hollow structures (so-called domatia) provided by myrmecophytic plants as nesting space for ants (ant-plant symbiosis). Most carton- and domatia-inhabiting fungi stem from different phylogenetic lineages within Chaetothyriales, and almost all of the fungi isolated are still undescribed. Despite being closely related, carton and domatia fungi are shown to differ markedly in their morphology and ecology, indicating that they play different roles in these associations. The carton fungi appear to improve the stability of the carton, and several species are commonly observed to co-occur on the same carton. Carton fungi commonly have dark-walled monilioid hyphae, colouring the carton blackish and apparently preventing other fungi from invading the carton. Despite the simultaneous presence of usually several species of fungi, forming complex associations on the carton, little overlap is observed between carton fungi from different ant species, even those that co-occur in nature, indicating at least some host specificity of fungi. Most fungi present on carton belong to Chaetothyriales, but in a few samples, Capnodiales are also an important component. Carton fungi are difficult to assign to anamorph genera, as most lack conidiation. The domatia fungi are more specific. In domatia, usually only one or two fungal species co-occur, producing a dense layer on living host plant tissue in domatia. They have hyaline or light brown thin-walled hyphae, and are commonly sporulating. In both carton and domatia, the fungal species seem to be specific to each ant-plant symbiosis. Representative examples of carton and domatia ant-fungus symbioses are illustrated. We discuss hypotheses on the ecological significance of the Chaetothyriales associated with ants. Copyright © 2010 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A newly discovered manuscript atlas of nautical maps in the Institute of Manuscript of V. Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hordieiev A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article characterizes medieval manuscript portolan charts, emphasizing their uniqueness in the world. We describe a discovery of a valuable manuscript nautical maps atlas made by Grazioso Benincasa in 1474. The atlas was found in the Institute of Manuscript of V. Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine, in the archive of Saint Volodymyr University, among the manuscripts of a librarian collection. We submit two descriptions of the atlas: one made by a director of Saint Volodymyr University library V. A. Kordt in 1899 and our own description of the manuscript. The latter includes archeographic, codicological and heraldic data, which enable us to reconstruct the history of Benincasa’s atlas existence. It has ex-libris bearing evidence of the fact that the manuscript came to the library of Saint Volodymyr University from the library of a Polish nobleman, state, political and military figure of Rzeczpospolita Michał Jerzy Wandalin Mniszech. In the paper we have also reconstructed Grazioso Benincasa’s biography, given the table of his famous maps and atlases (with titles, dates and current location and provided the bibliography relevant to the subject of our research

  1. WASP-120 b, WASP-122 b, AND WASP-123 b: Three Newly Discovered Planets from the WASP-South Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, O. D.; Anderson, D. R.; Collier Cameron, A.; Delrez, L.; Evans, D. F.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Ségransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.

    2016-06-01

    We present the discovery by the WASP-South survey of three planets transiting moderately bright stars (V ≈ 11). WASP-120 b is a massive (4.85 M Jup) planet in a 3.6-day orbit that we find likely to be eccentric (e={0.059}-0.018+0.025) around an F5 star. WASP-122 b is a hot Jupiter (1.28 M Jup, 1.74 R Jup) in a 1.7-day orbit about a G4 star. Our predicted transit depth variation caused by the atmosphere of WASP-122 b suggests it is well suited to characterization. WASP-123 b is a hot Jupiter (0.90 M Jup, 1.32 R Jup) in a 3.0-day orbit around an old (˜7 Gyr) G5 star.

  2. A newly discovered population of the Balkan spiny loach Sabanejewia balcanica (Karaman, 1922) in the River Jihlava, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Halačka, Karel; Muška, Milan; Mendel, Jan; Vetešník, Lukáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 3 (2017), s. 163-166 ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-12580S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : loaches * rare native species * sequence analysis * NATURA 2000 Subject RIV: EG - Zoology; EG - Zoology (BC-A) OBOR OECD: Zoology; Zoology (BC-A) Impact factor: 0.739, year: 2016

  3. Newly discovered cataclysmic variables from the INT/WFC photometric Halpha survey of the northern Galactic plane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witham, A.R.; Knigge, C.; Aungwerojwit, A.; Drew, J.E.; Gänsicke, B.T.; Greimel, R.; Groot, P.J.; Roelofs, G.H.A.; Steeghs, D.; Woudt, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    We report the discovery of 11 new cataclysmic variable (CV) candidates by the Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) Photometric Halpha Survey of the northern Galactic plane (IPHAS). Three of the systems have been the subject of further follow-up observations. For the CV candidates IPHAS J013031.90+622132.4

  4. Unusual proliferation arrest and transcriptional control properties of a newly discovered E2F family member, E2F-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaubatz, S; Wood, J G; Livingston, D M

    1998-08-04

    E2F transcription factors play an important role in the regulation of cell cycle progression. We report here the cloning and characterization of an additional member of this family, E2F-6. E2F-6 lacks pocket protein binding and transactivation domains, and it is a potent transcriptional repressor that contains a modular repression domain at its carboxyl terminus. Overproduction of E2F-6 had no specific effect on cell cycle progression in asynchronously growing Saos2 and NIH 3T3 cells, but it inhibited entry into S phase of NIH 3T3 cells stimulated to exit G0. Taken together, these data suggest that E2F-6 can regulate a subset of E2F-dependent genes whose products are required for entry into the cell cycle but not for normal cell cycle progression.

  5. A newly discovered ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 correlated with the cryogenic autolysis of Volvariella volvacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ming; Wang, Hong; Chen, Mingjie; Bao, Dapeng; Zhu, Qiuming; Tan, Qi

    2016-05-25

    In Volvariella volvacea, a species of edible mushroom, cryogenic autolysis is a typical part of abnormal metabolism. Previous functional annotation cluster analyses of cold-induced gene expression profiles have shown that the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 (UBE2), rather than the cyclin-like F-box domain alone, forms the functional cluster. In this study, analysis of gene expression profiling showed that only one type of UBE2 in V. volvacea (UBEV2) was significantly up-regulated. Further quantitative real-time PCR analysis confirmed that the expression of UBEV2 was significantly up-regulated (Pautolysis. The specific distribution of UBEV2 in recently diverged herb decay fungi indicated that UBEV2 was not evolutionarily correlated with early diverging fungi. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that UBEV2 was generated by horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from the ancestry of Selaginella moellendorffii UBE2. Further relative time estimation and detection of natural selection showed that there has been recent positive selection after HGT in UBEV2. Molecular modeling and logo analysis showed that the cysteine-cysteine motif is the characteristic of the UBEV2 family. These observations indicate that UBEV2 is a new type of UBE2 correlated with the cryogenic autolysis of V. volvacea. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. High affinity for the rat brain sodium channel of newly discovered hydroxybenzoate saxitoxin analogues from the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Lyndon; Negri, Andrew; Quilliam, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The paralytic shellfish poison family has been recently extended by the discovery of several analogues possessing a hydoxybenzoate moiety instead of the carbamoyl group one finds in saxitoxin, the parent molecule of this toxin family. We have investigated the potency of these new analogues on a representative isoform of the pharmacological target of these toxins, the voltage gated sodium channel. These toxins were found to have K1's in the low nanomolar range, only slightly less potent than saxitoxin. The hydroxybenzoate group may increase the lipophilicity of these toxins and improve their ability to pass through epithelia and therefore its uptake and elimination in both intoxication victims and animals that bioaccumulate paralytic shellfish toxins.

  7. Zanthoxylum gilletii (Rutaceae) - a mainly Guineo-Congolian forest tree with a newly discovered disjunction to western Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Vollesen, Kaj

    2010-01-01

    Regnskovstræet Zanthoxylum gilletii, der hovedsageligt kendes fra lavlansregnskov i Congo-bækkenet og Vestafrika, er fundet i riverin skov i det vestlige Etiopien. Den disjunkte udbredelse bekræfter den forbindelse, der tidligere er konstateret mellen det vestlige Etiopien og regnskovs- og savann...... savanneområder i det vestlige Afrika. Fundet er et supplemen til en monografi over skovtræerne på Afrikas Horn, der er udgivet af Ib Friis i 1992....

  8. American pikas (Ochotona princeps) in northwestern Nevada: A newly discovered population at a low-elevation site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beever, E.A.; Wilkening, J.L.; McIvor, D.E.; Weber, S.S.; Brussard, P.F.

    2008-01-01

    The central tenet of island biogeography theory - that species assemblages on islands are functions of island area, isolation from mainlands, and vicariance - has been altered by the demonstrable effects that rapid climate change is imposing on insular faunas, at least in isolated mountaintops. Although populations of American pikas (Ochotona princeps) continue to suffer extirpations, and although the lower bounds of the pika's elevational distribution are shifting upslope across the Great Basin, we report here on the new discovery of a low-elevation population of pikas in a mountain range from which they had not been reported previously. This discovery, particularly in the context of relatively rapid ecological change, highlights the importance of seeking out original sources of information and performing spatially extensive fieldwork. Results presented here further illustrate that although thermal influences appear to be the single strongest determinant of pika distribution currently, such influences interact with a number of other factors to determine persistence.

  9. Permanent Draft Genome of Strain ESFC-1: Ecological Genomics of a Newly Discovered Lineage of Filamentous Diazotrophic Cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everroad, R. Craig; Stuart, Rhona K.; Bebout, Brad M.; Detweiler, Angela M.; Lee, Jackson Zan; Woebken, Dagmar; Bebout, Leslie E.; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The nonheterocystous filamentous cyanobacterium, strain ESFC-1, is a recently described member of the order Oscillatoriales within the Cyanobacteria. ESFC-1 has been shown to be a major diazotroph in the intertidal microbial mat system at Elkhorn Slough, CA, USA. Based on phylogenetic analyses of the 16S RNA gene, ESFC-1 appears to belong to a unique, genus-level divergence; the draft genome sequence of this strain has now been determined. Here we report features of this genome as they relate to the ecological functions and capabilities of strain ESFC-1. The 5,632,035 bp genome sequence encodes 4914 protein-coding genes and 92 RNA genes. One striking feature of this cyanobacterium is the apparent lack of either uptake or bi-directional hydrogenases typically expected within a diazotroph. Additionally, a large genomic island is found that contains numerous low GC-content genes and genes related to extracellular polysaccharide production and cell wall synthesis and maintenance.

  10. A newly discovered Bordetella species carries a transcriptionally active CRISPR-Cas with a small Cas9 endonuclease

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cas9 endonuclease of the Type II-a clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), of Streptococcus pyogenes (SpCas9) has been adapted as a widely used tool for genome editing and genome engineering. Herein, we describe a gene encoding a novel Cas9 ortholog (BpsuCas9) and th...

  11. Quantification of Newly Discovered Anti-Cancer Drug Enzalutamide in Bulk and Synthetic Mixture by Stability Indicating TLC method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhalotiya, Usmangani K; Prajapati, Dharmendra J; Prajapati, Minesh D; Patel, Jalpa U; Desai, Jaineel

    2017-10-27

    Objective A impressionable, discriminatory and precise stability indicating high performance thin layer chromatographic method has been developed and validated for the estimation of of Enzalutamide in bulk and synthetic mixture. Method The method engaged HPTLC aluminium plates pre-coated with silica gel 60F-254 as the stationary phase while the solvent system was ethyl acetate: toluene (4.5:5.5, v/v). The Rf value of enzalutamide was detected to be 0. 39 ± 0. 005 and the densitometric analysis were carried out in absorbance mode at 246 nm. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots presented a virtuous linear relationship for enzalutamide over a concentration range of 20 - 1000ng/band. Results The limit of detection and limit of quantification for enzalutamide was found to be 9.05 and 27.43ng/band. Enzalutamide was imperilled to acid and alkali hydrolysis, chemical oxidation, dry heat degradation and photolytic degradation. The degraded product peaks were well resolved from the pure drug peak with substantial difference in their Rf values. Conclusion Stressed samples were assayed using developed TLC technique. Suggested method was validated with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision and robustness. The method was successfully applied to the estimation of enzalutamide in synthetic mixture. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. The crystal structure of paarite, the newly discovered 56 Å derivative of the bismuthinite-aikinite solid-solution series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makovicky, Emil; Topa, Dan; Balic-Zunic, Tonci

    2001-01-01

    geologi, paarite, Cu1.7Pb1.7Bi6.3S12, bismuthinite-aikinite derivative, crystal structure, sulfosalt, Felbertal, scheelite deposit, Austria......geologi, paarite, Cu1.7Pb1.7Bi6.3S12, bismuthinite-aikinite derivative, crystal structure, sulfosalt, Felbertal, scheelite deposit, Austria...

  13. Where Is My Food? Brazilian Flower Fly Steals Prey from Carnivorous Sundews in a Newly Discovered Plant-Animal Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischmann, Andreas; Rivadavia, Fernando; Gonella, Paulo M; Pérez-Bañón, Celeste; Mengual, Ximo; Rojo, Santos

    2016-01-01

    A new interaction between insects and carnivorous plants is reported from Brazil. Larvae of the predatory flower fly Toxomerus basalis (Diptera: Syrphidae: Syrphinae) have been found scavenging on the sticky leaves of several carnivorous sundew species (Drosera, Droseraceae) in Minas Gerais and São Paulo states, SE Brazil. This syrphid apparently spends its whole larval stage feeding on prey trapped by Drosera leaves. The nature of this plant-animal relationship is discussed, as well as the Drosera species involved, and locations where T. basalis was observed. 180 years after the discovery of this flower fly species, its biology now has been revealed. This is (1) the first record of kleptoparasitism in the Syrphidae, (2) a new larval feeding mode for this family, and (3) the first report of a dipteran that shows a kleptoparasitic relationship with a carnivorous plant with adhesive flypaper traps. The first descriptions of the third instar larva and puparium of T. basalis based on Scanning Electron Microscope analysis are provided.

  14. Where Is My Food? Brazilian Flower Fly Steals Prey from Carnivorous Sundews in a Newly Discovered Plant-Animal Interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Fleischmann

    Full Text Available A new interaction between insects and carnivorous plants is reported from Brazil. Larvae of the predatory flower fly Toxomerus basalis (Diptera: Syrphidae: Syrphinae have been found scavenging on the sticky leaves of several carnivorous sundew species (Drosera, Droseraceae in Minas Gerais and São Paulo states, SE Brazil. This syrphid apparently spends its whole larval stage feeding on prey trapped by Drosera leaves. The nature of this plant-animal relationship is discussed, as well as the Drosera species involved, and locations where T. basalis was observed. 180 years after the discovery of this flower fly species, its biology now has been revealed. This is (1 the first record of kleptoparasitism in the Syrphidae, (2 a new larval feeding mode for this family, and (3 the first report of a dipteran that shows a kleptoparasitic relationship with a carnivorous plant with adhesive flypaper traps. The first descriptions of the third instar larva and puparium of T. basalis based on Scanning Electron Microscope analysis are provided.

  15. CYTOPATHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BREAST CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Dakovic

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Continual increasing of breast cancer in young women, its rare discovery in the early stage (stage I, as well as high mortality from this disease, are the facts that explain why the breast cancer is a target for many scientists. Thanks to the Greek scientist Papanicolaou and his report (l928, a successful battle with the most frequent carcinoma in women - PVU carcinoma, has begun.With the development of exfoliative, brushing and fine needle aspiration cytological methods, the impressive results have been achieved. While cytologic methods are used more and more in the breast oncopathology worldwide, up to this moment their applications have been rare in our country, which is one more reason for this study reason more for this study.By using the exfoliative and fine needle aspiration cytology, 50 patients were examined. The following cells were discovered: foamy macrophages, lipoprotein background, mastitis, eritrocytes, ductal tumorous papilles, apocrine metaplasia and ductal carcinomas. Furthermore, cytological caracteristics of the breast cancers and both advantages and limitations of the cytologic methods were pointed out. It was concluded that, using cytological methods, discovery of both precancerous breast lesions and breast cancer was possible in the earli stage. Also, sufficient knowledge of histopathology was necessary for correct interpretation of cytological results because of frequent mimicry in oncologic pathology.

  16. Discovering Multidimensional Structure in Relational Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mikael Rune; Holmgren, Thomas; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2004-01-01

    tools are available. In this paper we present an approach for the automatic construction of multidimensional OLAP database schemas from existing relational OLTP databases, enabling easy OLAP design and analysis for most existing data sources. This is achieved through a set of practical and effective......On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) systems based on multidimensional databases are essential elements of decision support. However, most existing data is stored in “ordinary” relational OLTP databases, i.e., data has to be (re-) modeled as multidimensional cubes before the advantages of OLAP...... algorithms for discovering multidimensional schemas from relational databases. The algorithms take a wide range of available metadata into account in the discovery process, including functional and inclusion dependencies, and key and cardinality information....

  17. Discovering new information in bibliographic databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Hudomalj

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Databases contain information that can usually not be revealed by standard query systems. For that purpose, the methods for knowledge discovery from databases can be applied, which enable the user to browse aggregated data, discover trends, produce online reports, explore possible new associations within the data etc. Such methods are successfully employed in various fields, such as banking, insurance and telecommunications, while they are seldom used in libraries. The article reviews the development of query systems for bibliographic databases, including some early attempts to apply modern knowledge discovery methods. Analytical databases are described in more detail, since they usually serve as the basis for knowledge discovery. Data mining approaches are presented, since they are a central step in the knowledge discovery process. The key role of librarians who can play a key part in developing systems for finding new information in existing bibliographic databases is stressed.

  18. Discovering, Indexing and Interlinking Information Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celli, Fabrizio; Keizer, Johannes; Jaques, Yves; Konstantopoulos, Stasinos; Vudragović, Dušan

    2015-01-01

    The social media revolution is having a dramatic effect on the world of scientific publication. Scientists now publish their research interests, theories and outcomes across numerous channels, including personal blogs and other thematic web spaces where ideas, activities and partial results are discussed. Accordingly, information systems that facilitate access to scientific literature must learn to cope with this valuable and varied data, evolving to make this research easily discoverable and available to end users. In this paper we describe the incremental process of discovering web resources in the domain of agricultural science and technology. Making use of Linked Open Data methodologies, we interlink a wide array of custom-crawled resources with the AGRIS bibliographic database in order to enrich the user experience of the AGRIS website. We also discuss the SemaGrow Stack, a query federation and data integration infrastructure used to estimate the semantic distance between crawled web resources and AGRIS.

  19. Discovering Sentinel Rules for Business Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelfart, Morten; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    This paper proposes the concept of sentinel rules for multi-dimensional data that warns users when measure data concerning the external environment changes. For instance, a surge in negative blogging about a company could trigger a sentinel rule warning that revenue will decrease within two months, so a new course of action can be taken. Hereby, we expand the window of opportunity for organizations and facilitate successful navigation even though the world behaves chaotically. Since sentinel rules are at the schema level as opposed to the data level, and operate on data changes as opposed to absolute data values, we are able to discover strong and useful sentinel rules that would otherwise be hidden when using sequential pattern mining or correlation techniques. We present a method for sentinel rule discovery and an implementation of this method that scales linearly on large data volumes.

  20. Discovering the Library with Google Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Brenner

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Libraries need to provide attractive and exciting discovery tools to draw patrons to the valuable resources in their catalogs. The authors conducted a pilot project to explore the free version of Google Earth as such a discover tool for Portland State Library’s digital collection of urban planning documents. They created eye-catching placemarks with links to parts of this collection, as well as to other pertinent materials like books, images, and historical background information. The detailed how-to-do part of this article is preceded by a discussion about discovery of library materials and followed by possible applications of this Google Earth project.

  1. Discovering Self: Childbearing Adolescents' Maternal Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintosh, Janelle; Callister, Lynn Clark

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy and motherhood have long been a topic of interest for many healthcare professionals. However, there are limited data on how childbearing adolescents incorporate motherhood identity into their sense of self. The purpose of this study was to explore how childbearing adolescents perceive motherhood as becoming part of their personal identity. This qualitative study using ethnographic data collection involved 7 months of observation, interaction, and interviews. Data were collected from nine expectant adolescents during in-depth interviews. All participants were patients at a teen mother and child clinic staffed by certified nurse midwives and a pediatrician. Narrative content analysis revealed the overall theme of discovering self, with three major themes: confirming the pregnancy, the loss of my body, and imagining my child in my arms. Adolescent mothers may need assistance to construct their maternal identity in order to strengthen self-perceptions and improve maternal/child outcomes.

  2. Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... from starting. Risk-reducing surgery . General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  3. Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  4. Stages of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  5. Breast Pain in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of breast pain). Surgery from a biopsy, breast reduction (making your breasts smaller), or a mastectomy (removing ... breasts. A breast sonogram. This painless test uses sound waves to make a picture of the lump. ...

  6. Breast reconstruction - implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast implants surgery; Mastectomy - breast reconstruction with implants; Breast cancer - breast reconstruction with implants ... to close the skin flaps. Breast reconstruction with implants is usually done in two stages, or surgeries. ...

  7. Breast cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammogram - breast cancer screening; Breast exam - breast cancer screening; MRI - breast cancer screening ... performed to screen women to detect early breast cancer when it is more likely to be cured. ...

  8. Immunoparesis in newly diagnosed Multiple Myeloma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørrig, Rasmus; Klausen, Tobias W; Salomo, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Immunoparesis (hypogammaglobulinemia) is associated to an unfavorable prognosis in newly diagnosed Multiple myeloma (MM) patients. However, this finding has not been validated in an unselected population-based cohort. We analyzed 2558 newly diagnosed MM patients in the Danish Multiple Myeloma...

  9. Competence developmental needs of newly appointed nurse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Competence developmental needs of newly appointed nurse educators during the mentoring process. E Seekoe ... The results indicated that the newly appointed nurse educator's lacks mentoring in areas such as teaching, research, community engagement, interpersonal relations and work ethics. Mentoring seemed to be ...

  10. Newly Homeless Youth Typically Return Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milburn, Norweeta G.; Rosenthal, Doreen; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Mallett, Shelley; Batterham, Philip; Rice, Eric; Solorio, Rosa

    2007-01-01

    165 newly homeless adolescents from Melbourne, Australia and 261 from Los Angeles, United States were surveyed and followed for two years. Most newly homeless adolescents returned home (70% U.S., 47% Australia) for significant amounts of time (39% U.S., 17% Australia more than 12 months) within two years of becoming homeless. PMID:17531769

  11. Newly Homeless Youth Typically Return Home

    OpenAIRE

    Milburn, Norweeta G.; Rosenthal, Doreen; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Mallett, Shelley; Batterham, Philip; Rice, Eric; Solorio, Rosa

    2007-01-01

    165 newly homeless adolescents from Melbourne, Australia and 261 from Los Angeles, United States were surveyed and followed for two years. Most newly homeless adolescents returned home (70% U.S., 47% Australia) for significant amounts of time (39% U.S., 17% Australia more than 12 months) within two years of becoming homeless.

  12. Immunoparesis in newly diagnosed Multiple Myeloma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørrig, Rasmus; Klausen, Tobias W.; Salomo, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Immunoparesis (hypogammaglobulinemia) is associated to an unfavorable prognosis in newly diagnosed Multiple myeloma (MM) patients. However, this finding has not been validated in an unselected population-based cohort. We analyzed 2558 newly diagnosed MM patients in the Danish Multiple Myeloma Reg...

  13. Anxiety and depression in breast cancer patients at low risk of recurrence compared with the general population: a valid comparison?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenvold, M.; Fayers, P. M.; Sprangers, M. A.; Bjorner, J. B.; Klee, M. C.; Aaronson, N. K.; Bech, P.; Mouridsen, H. T.

    1999-01-01

    Breast cancer and its treatment have been associated with psychological morbidity. In this study our aim was to quantify the excess anxiety and depression resulting from breast cancer. We compared 538 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients at low risk of recurrence (87.0% responded) to 872 women

  14. An introduction to microwave imaging for breast cancer detection

    CERN Document Server

    Conceição, Raquel Cruz; O'Halloran, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This book collates past and current research on one of the most promising emerging modalities for breast cancer detection. Readers will discover how, as a standalone technology or in conjunction with another modality, microwave imaging has the potential to provide reliable, safe and comfortable breast exams at low cost. Current breast imaging modalities include X- ray, Ultrasound, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Positron Emission Tomography. Each of these methods suffers from limitations, including poor sensitivity or specificity, high cost, patient discomfort, and exposure to potentially harmful ionising radiation. Microwave breast imaging is based on a contrast in the dielectric properties of breast tissue that exists at microwave frequencies. The book begins by considering the anatomy and dielectric properties of the breast, contrasting historical and recent studies. Next, radar-based breast imaging algorithms are discussed, encompassing both early-stage artefact removal, and data independent and adaptive ...

  15. Imminent science what remains to be discovered

    CERN Document Server

    Bignami, Giovanni F

    2014-01-01

    This is not science fiction. It’s a voyage on the arrow of time to the coming fifty years. The legendary palindromic character Mr. Qfwfq from Italo Calvino’s collection of short stories, The Cosmicomics, will go with us – he who knows all the answers but will give out no hints. He will help us to discover the innovations that will have changed our lives by 2062, when, riding astride Halley’s Comet, our omniscient extraterrestrial will return to visit us.In this book, we shall learn how astronomers will devote themselves to the study of the mysterious force of dark energy, which makes up some three-quarters of the Universe. We shall also delve deeply into the study of our Earth, to exploit the immense thermal energy that lies beneath our feet. We shall solve another enigma in today’s science: the origin of life. We shall come to understand how to develop direct contacts between our brains and the rest of the world. We shall learn about the future of genetics, the reason for the longevity of Methusela...

  16. Discovering the Ancient Maya from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, T. L.

    2008-01-01

    The Pet6n region of northern Guatemala contains some of the most significant Mayan archeological sites in Latin America. It was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared. Remote sensing technology is helping to locate and map ancient Maya sites that are threatened today by accelerating deforestation and looting. Thematic Mapper, IKONOS, and QuickBird satellite, and airborne STAR-3i and AIRSAR radar data, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, are successfully detecting ancient Maya features such as sites, roadways, canals, and water reservoirs. Satellite imagery is also being used to map the bajos, which are seasonally flooded swamps that cover over 40% of the land surface. Through the use of various airborne and satellite sensor systems we have been able to detect and map ancient causeways, temples, reservoirs, and land forms, and locate these features on the ground through GPS technology. Recently, we have discovered that there is a strong relationship between a tropical forest vegetation signature in satellite imagery and the location of archeological sites. We believe that the use of limestone and lime plasters in ancient Maya construction affects the moisture, nutrition, and plant species of the surface vegetation. We have mapped these vegetation signatures in the imagery and verified through field survey that they are indicative of archeological sites. Through the use of remote sensing and GIS technology it is possible to identify unrecorded archeological features in a dense tropical forest environment and monitor these cultural features for their protection.

  17. Discovering Alzheimer Genetic Biomarkers Using Bayesian Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayroz F. Sherif

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs contribute most of the genetic variation to the human genome. SNPs associate with many complex and common diseases like Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Discovering SNP biomarkers at different loci can improve early diagnosis and treatment of these diseases. Bayesian network provides a comprehensible and modular framework for representing interactions between genes or single SNPs. Here, different Bayesian network structure learning algorithms have been applied in whole genome sequencing (WGS data for detecting the causal AD SNPs and gene-SNP interactions. We focused on polymorphisms in the top ten genes associated with AD and identified by genome-wide association (GWA studies. New SNP biomarkers were observed to be significantly associated with Alzheimer’s disease. These SNPs are rs7530069, rs113464261, rs114506298, rs73504429, rs7929589, rs76306710, and rs668134. The obtained results demonstrated the effectiveness of using BN for identifying AD causal SNPs with acceptable accuracy. The results guarantee that the SNP set detected by Markov blanket based methods has a strong association with AD disease and achieves better performance than both naïve Bayes and tree augmented naïve Bayes. Minimal augmented Markov blanket reaches accuracy of 66.13% and sensitivity of 88.87% versus 61.58% and 59.43% in naïve Bayes, respectively.

  18. Translating Others, Discovering Himself: Beckett as Translator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Gribben

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the work of Samuel Beckett in the light of his early work as a translator of the works of other writers.  In his translations for Negro: An Anthology (1934, the Anthology of Mexican Poetry (1958, or commissioned translations for journals such as “This Quarter”, early pre-figurings of Beckett’s own thematic and linguistic concerns abound.  Rarely viewed as more than acts of raising money for himself, Beckett’s acts of translation, examined chronologically, demonstrate a writer discovering his craft, and developing his unique voice, unencumbered by the expectations of originality.  This essay posits that Beckett’s works, with their distinctive voice and characterisation, owe much to the global perspective he gained through translating across cultural, continental divides, as well as experimenting with form, which became a staple of Beckett’s own work.  Without formal training or theoretical grounding in translation, Beckett utilises the act of translation as a means of finding himself, revisiting it as a means of shaping his own unique literary voice.

  19. CORNELL: CLEO discovers B meson penguins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The CLEO collaboration at Cornell's CESR electron-positron storage ring has discovered a rare type of B meson decay in which only a high energy photon and a K* meson are produced. These decays provide the first unambiguous evidence for an alternative route for heavy quark decay that has been given the whimsical name ''penguin diagram''. In the mid-1970s penguin diagrams were proposed to explain the puzzling strangeness quantum number selection rules in the decay of K mesons. At the same time it was realized that penguin diagrams could also be important in the CP violation seen in neutral K meson decay. CP violation, an asymmetry between matter and antimatter, is an essential ingredient in understanding why there is much more matter than antimatter in the universe. CP violation introduces a definite direction to the arrow of time, which could otherwise point equally forwards or backwards. In addition, penguin decays are very sensitive to some extensions of the Standard Model of weak decay. Although penguin diagrams were first proposed to explain an effect in K meson decay, the K system gives no unique signature for them, and verification of penguin processes meant looking elsewhere. In the Standard Model, quarks decay under the influence of the weak force, emitting a W boson. Since the W is charged, the charge of the initial quark differs from that of the final quark, so the charge of the quark changes as well as its flavour

  20. Cancer Recognition and Screening for Common Breast Disorders and Malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohon, Constance

    2017-06-01

    Breast cancer is predicted to be the most common newly diagnosed cancer in women in 2016. Screening mammography is the most commonly used method for the detection of breast cancer in women of average risk. A genetic risk assessment is recommended for women with a greater than 20% to 25% chance of having a predisposition to breast and ovarian cancer. Evaluation of a breast mass begins with a detailed history, assessment for cancer risk, and physical examination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The role of bisphosphonates in breast cancer: Direct effects of bisphosphonates on breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senaratne, Siddhika G; Colston, Kay W

    2002-01-01

    In addition to inhibiting bone resorption, bisphosphonates have also been shown to exhibit antitumour effects. In vitro, bisphosphonates inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in cultured human breast cancer cells. In addition, bisphosphonate treatment interferes with breast cancer cell adhesion to bone matrix, and inhibits cell migration and invasion. The combination of bisphosphonates with other anticancer drugs such as the taxoids markedly enhances these effects. These newly recognized direct actions of bisphosphonates on breast cancer cells indicate that these agents may have a greater role to play in treatment of patients suffering from cancers with a propensity to metastasize to bone. PMID:11879555

  2. Anti-breast cancer activity of some novel quinoline derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorab, Mostafa M; Alsaid, Mansour S

    2015-09-01

    To discover new bioactive lead compounds for medicinal purposes, 2-cyano-3-(4-substituted)-N-(quinolin-3-yl) acrylamide derivatives 2-24, chromenes 25, 26 and benzochromenes 27, 28 were synthesized. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by elemental analyses, IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopies. In addition, the structure of compound 1 was confirmed through X-ray crystallography. All the newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against the breast cancer cell line MCF7. The corresponding 2-cyano-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-N-(quinolin-3-yl) acrylamide (15), 3-oxo-N-(quinolin-3-yl)-3H-benzol[f] chromene-2-carboxamide (27), 2-cyano-3-(4-fluorophenyl-N-(quinolin-3-yl) acrylamide (7), 2-cyano-5-(4-(dimethyl-amino) phenyl)-N-(quinolin-3-yl) penta-2,4-dienamide (19) exhibited higher activity compared to doxorubicin (with IC50 value of 47.9 μmol L-1) as a reference drug, with IC50 values of 29.8, 39.0, 40.0, 40.4 μmol L-1, resp. Also, quinoline acrylamides containing 2,3,4-trimethoxyphenyl 17, 2-chlorophenyl 10, benzo[d][1,3]dioxol 12, 2-methoxynaphthalen 22, 2,4-dichlorophenyl 18 and quinoline carrying a chromene-3-carboxamide moiety 25 were nearly as active as doxorubicin, while quinoline acrylamides incorporating unsubstituted phenyl 2, p-tolyl 3, 2,4-dienamide 8, 3-nitrophenyl 13, 4-nitrophenyl 14, 3,4-dimethoxyphenyl 16 and chromene 26 exhibited a moderate activity. In addition, quinoline with acetamide 1, 4-hydroxyphenyl 4, 4-dimethylaminophenyl 9, 4-chlorophenyl 11, 3-bromophenyl 20, 4-bromophenyl 21 and 3-thienyl moiety 24 showed less activity than doxorubicin. On the other hand, quinoline having 2-methoxyphenyl 5, 4-methoxyphenyl 6, 4-metho xynaphthalene 23 and chromene-2-carboxamide 28 showed no activity.

  3. Discovering biological progression underlying microarray samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Qiu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In biological systems that undergo processes such as differentiation, a clear concept of progression exists. We present a novel computational approach, called Sample Progression Discovery (SPD, to discover patterns of biological progression underlying microarray gene expression data. SPD assumes that individual samples of a microarray dataset are related by an unknown biological process (i.e., differentiation, development, cell cycle, disease progression, and that each sample represents one unknown point along the progression of that process. SPD aims to organize the samples in a manner that reveals the underlying progression and to simultaneously identify subsets of genes that are responsible for that progression. We demonstrate the performance of SPD on a variety of microarray datasets that were generated by sampling a biological process at different points along its progression, without providing SPD any information of the underlying process. When applied to a cell cycle time series microarray dataset, SPD was not provided any prior knowledge of samples' time order or of which genes are cell-cycle regulated, yet SPD recovered the correct time order and identified many genes that have been associated with the cell cycle. When applied to B-cell differentiation data, SPD recovered the correct order of stages of normal B-cell differentiation and the linkage between preB-ALL tumor cells with their cell origin preB. When applied to mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation data, SPD uncovered a landscape of ESC differentiation into various lineages and genes that represent both generic and lineage specific processes. When applied to a prostate cancer microarray dataset, SPD identified gene modules that reflect a progression consistent with disease stages. SPD may be best viewed as a novel tool for synthesizing biological hypotheses because it provides a likely biological progression underlying a microarray dataset and, perhaps more importantly, the

  4. ROSAT Discovers Unique, Distant Cluster of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Brightest X-ray Cluster Acts as Strong Gravitational Lens Based on exciting new data obtained with the ROSAT X-ray satellite and a ground-based telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory, a team of European astronomers [2] has just discovered a very distant cluster of galaxies with unique properties. It emits the strongest X-ray emission of any cluster ever observed by ROSAT and is accompanied by two extraordinarily luminous arcs that represent the gravitationally deflected images of even more distant objects. The combination of these unusual characteristics makes this cluster, now known as RXJ1347.5-1145, a most interesting object for further cosmological studies. DISCOVERY AND FOLLOW-UP OBSERVATIONS This strange cluster of galaxies was discovered during the All Sky Survey with the ROSAT X-ray satellite as a moderately intense X-ray source in the constellation of Virgo. It could not be identified with any already known object and additional ground-based observations were therefore soon after performed with the Max-Planck-Society/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla observatory in Chile. These observations took place within a large--scale redshift survey of X-ray clusters of galaxies detected by the ROSAT All Sky Survey, a so-called ``ESO Key Programme'' led by astronomers from the Max-Planck-Institut fur Extraterrestrische Physik and the Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera. The main aim of this programme is to identify cluster X-ray sources, to determine the distance to the X-ray emitting clusters and to investigate their overall properties. These observations permitted to measure the redshift of the RXJ1347.5-1145 cluster as z = 0.45, i.e. it moves away from us with a velocity (about 106,000 km/sec) equal to about one-third of the velocity of light. This is an effect of the general expansion of the universe and it allows to determine the distance as about 5,000 million light-years (assuming a Hubble constant of 75 km/sec/Mpc). In other words, we see these

  5. THE MOST LUMINOUS GALAXIES DISCOVERED BY WISE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Chao-Wei; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Stern, Daniel; Moustakas, Leonidas A. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Wu, Jingwen; Wright, Edward L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Assef, Roberto J. [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad deIngeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército Libertador 441, Santiago (Chile); Blain, Andrew W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, 1 University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Bridge, Carrie R.; Sayers, Jack [Division of Physics, Math, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Benford, Dominic J.; Leisawitz, David T. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Cutri, Roc M.; Masci, Frank J.; Yan, Lin [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Griffith, Roger L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Jarrett, Thomas H. [Astronomy Department, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Lonsdale, Carol J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Petty, Sara M. [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Stanford, S. Adam, E-mail: Chao-Wei.Tsai@jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Physics, University of California Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); and others

    2015-06-01

    We present 20 Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)-selected galaxies with bolometric luminosities L{sub bol} > 10{sup 14} L{sub ☉}, including five with infrared luminosities L{sub IR} ≡ L{sub (rest} {sub 8–1000} {sub μm)} > 10{sup 14} L{sub ☉}. These “extremely luminous infrared galaxies,” or ELIRGs, were discovered using the “W1W2-dropout” selection criteria which requires marginal or non-detections at 3.4 and 4.6 μm (W1 and W2, respectively) but strong detections at 12 and 22 μm in the WISE survey. Their spectral energy distributions are dominated by emission at rest-frame 4–10 μm, suggesting that hot dust with T{sub d} ∼ 450 K is responsible for the high luminosities. These galaxies are likely powered by highly obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and there is no evidence suggesting these systems are beamed or lensed. We compare this WISE-selected sample with 116 optically selected quasars that reach the same L{sub bol} level, corresponding to the most luminous unobscured quasars in the literature. We find that the rest-frame 5.8 and 7.8 μm luminosities of the WISE-selected ELIRGs can be 30%–80% higher than that of the unobscured quasars. The existence of AGNs with L{sub bol} > 10{sup 14} L{sub ☉} at z > 3 suggests that these supermassive black holes are born with large mass, or have very rapid mass assembly. For black hole seed masses ∼10{sup 3} M{sub ☉}, either sustained super-Eddington accretion is needed, or the radiative efficiency must be <15%, implying a black hole with slow spin, possibly due to chaotic accretion.

  6. Impact on Clinical Management of After-Hours Emergent or Urgent Breast Ultrasonography in Patients with Clinically Suspected Breast Abscesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya W. Moseley

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Newly diagnosed breast abscesses are generally treated as a medical emergency that may necessitate immediate interventional treatment. At our institution, there is no in-house after-hours coverage for breast ultrasonography. We could find no peer-reviewed studies on the cost-effectiveness or clinical management impact of on-call ultrasound technologist coverage for imaging of breast abscesses. The purposes of this study were to determine the incidence of breast abscess in patients with clinical findings highly suggestive of abscess, identify clinical factors associated with breast abscess in such patients, and determine the impact of after-hours emergent or urgent breast ultrasonography on the clinical management of breast abscesses in both outpatients and inpatients. We retrospectively reviewed 100 after-hours breast ultrasound studies performed at our tertiary care center from 2011 to 2015 for evaluation of a suspected breast abscess. Only 26% of our patients with clinically suspected abscess ultimately had a confirmed abscess. Factors associated with breast abscess were a palpable abnormality and a history of breast surgery within the eight weeks before presentation. After-hours diagnosis of an abscess was associated with after-hours clinical intervention. Of the 74 patients in whom after-hours ultrasound imaging showed no evidence of abscess, only three patients underwent after-hours drainage. Our findings support overnight and weekend breast ultrasound coverage in large tertiary care centers.

  7. Impact on Clinical Management of After-Hours Emergent or Urgent Breast Ultrasonography in Patients with Clinically Suspected Breast Abscesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Tanya W; Stanley, Ashley; Wei, Wei; Parikh, Jay R

    2018-02-23

    Newly diagnosed breast abscesses are generally treated as a medical emergency that may necessitate immediate interventional treatment. At our institution, there is no in-house after-hours coverage for breast ultrasonography. We could find no peer-reviewed studies on the cost-effectiveness or clinical management impact of on-call ultrasound technologist coverage for imaging of breast abscesses. The purposes of this study were to determine the incidence of breast abscess in patients with clinical findings highly suggestive of abscess, identify clinical factors associated with breast abscess in such patients, and determine the impact of after-hours emergent or urgent breast ultrasonography on the clinical management of breast abscesses in both outpatients and inpatients. We retrospectively reviewed 100 after-hours breast ultrasound studies performed at our tertiary care center from 2011 to 2015 for evaluation of a suspected breast abscess. Only 26% of our patients with clinically suspected abscess ultimately had a confirmed abscess. Factors associated with breast abscess were a palpable abnormality and a history of breast surgery within the eight weeks before presentation. After-hours diagnosis of an abscess was associated with after-hours clinical intervention. Of the 74 patients in whom after-hours ultrasound imaging showed no evidence of abscess, only three patients underwent after-hours drainage. Our findings support overnight and weekend breast ultrasound coverage in large tertiary care centers.

  8. Breast asymmetry and predisposition to breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Scutt, Diane; Lancaster, Gillian A; Manning, John T

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: It has been shown in our previous work that breast asymmetry is related to several of the known risk factors for breast cancer, and that patients with diagnosed breast cancer have more breast volume asymmetry, as measured from mammograms, than age-matched healthy women. METHODS: In the present study, we compared the breast asymmetry of women who were free of breast disease at time of mammography, but who had subsequently developed breast cancer, with that of age-matched healthy ...

  9. Habenaria kilimanjari newly recorded for Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Bytebier

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The orchid flora of Namibia is depauperate and as a result is poorly studied. Objectives: To further document the orchid flora of Namibia. Method: New herbarium collections were studied and the relevant published literature consulted. Results: Habenaria kilimanjari is newly recorded for Namibia. Conclusion: The newly recorded species increases our understanding of the orchid diversity in Namibia and underlines the need for continued botanical inventory work.

  10. Value of a newly sequenced bacterial genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbosa, Eudes; Aburjaile, Flavia F; Ramos, Rommel Tj

    2014-01-01

    and annotation will not be undertaken. It is important to know what is lost when we settle for a draft genome and to determine the "scientific value" of a newly sequenced genome. This review addresses the expected impact of newly sequenced genomes on antibacterial discovery and vaccinology. Also, it discusses...... the factors that could be leading to the increase in the number of draft deposits and the consequent loss of relevant biological information....

  11. Mechanism of c-Src Synergy with the EGFR In Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tice, David

    1999-01-01

    ... on tumorigenicity and growth of breast tumor cells. Furthermore, we have discovered a mechanism of c-Src synergy with the EGFR and located specific points at which the pathway can be interdicted...

  12. Breast-feeding communIty practIces In a Black

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-01-01

    feeding among rural and urban Blacks, to determine whether the number of women providing early supplementary feeding has increased over a 4-year period, and to discover groups at particular risk of failure to breast-feed.

  13. (Very) Early technology assessment and translation of predictive biomarkers in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miquel-Cases, Anna; Schouten, Philip C; Steuten, Lotte M G; Retèl, Valesca P; Linn, Sabine C; van Harten, Wim H

    Predictive biomarkers can guide treatment decisions in breast cancer. Many studies are undertaken to discover and translate these biomarkers, yet few biomarkers make it to practice. Before use in clinical decision making, predictive biomarkers need to demonstrate analytical validity, clinical

  14. (Very) Early technology assessment and translation of predictive biomarkers in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miquel-Cases, Anna; Schouten, Philip C.; Steuten, Lotte M.G.; Retèl, Valesca P.; Linn, Sabine C.; van Harten, Wim H.

    2017-01-01

    Predictive biomarkers can guide treatment decisions in breast cancer. Many studies are undertaken to discover and translate these biomarkers, yet few biomarkers make it to practice. Before use in clinical decision making, predictive biomarkers need to demonstrate analytical validity, clinical

  15. Breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Masayoshi

    1992-01-01

    More than 20-year follow-up of A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki has a crucial role in determining the relationship of radiation to the occurrence of breast cancer. In 1967, Wanebo et al have first reported 27 cases of breast cancer during the period 1950-1966 among the Adult Health Study population of A-bomb survivors. Since then, follow-up surveys for breast cancer have been made using the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort, and the incidence of breast cancer has increased year by year; that is breast cancer was identified in 231 cases by the first LSS series (1950-1969), 360 cases by the second LSS series (1950-1974), 564 cases by the third LSS series (1950-1980), and 816 cases in the fourth LSS series (1950-1085). The third LSS series have revealed a high risk for radiation-induced breast cancer in women aged 10 or less at the time of exposure (ATE). Both relative and absolute risks are found to be decreased with increasing ages ATE. Based on the above-mentioned findings and other studies on persons exposed medical radiation, radiation-induced breast cancer is characterized by the following: (1) the incidence of breast cancer is linearly increased with increasing radiation doses; (2) both relative and absolute risks for breast cancer are high in younger persons ATE; (3) age distribution of breast cancer in proximally exposed A-bomb survivors is the same as that in both distally A-bomb survivors and non-exposed persons, and there is no difference in histology between the former and latter groups. Thus, immature mammary gland cells before the age of puberty are found to be most radiosensitive. (N.K.)

  16. The Impact of Discovering Life beyond Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: astrobiology and society Steven J. Dick; Part I. Motivations and Approaches. How Do We Frame the Problems of Discovery and Impact?: Introduction; 1. Current approaches to finding life beyond earth, and what happens if we do Seth Shostak; 2. The philosophy of astrobiology: the Copernican and Darwinian presuppositions Iris Fry; 3. History, discovery, analogy: three approaches to the impact of discovering life beyond earth Steven J. Dick; 4. Silent impact: why the discovery of extraterrestrial life should be silent Clément Vidal; Part II. Transcending Anthropocentrism. How Do We Move beyond our Own Preconceptions of Life, Intelligence and Culture?: Introduction; 5. The landscape of life Dirk Schulze-Makuch; 6. The landscape of intelligence Lori Marino; 7. Universal biology: assessing universality from a single example Carlos Mariscal; 8. Equating culture, civilization, and moral development in imagining extraterrestrial intelligence: anthropocentric assumptions? John Traphagan; 9. Communicating with the other: infinity, geometry, and universal math and science Douglas Vakoch; Part III. Philosophical, Theological, and Moral Impact. How Do We Comprehend the Cultural Challenges Raised by Discovery?: Introduction; 10. Life, intelligence and the pursuit of value in cosmic evolution Mark Lupisella; 11. 'Klaatu barada nikto' - or, do they really think like us? Michael Ruse; 12. Alien minds Susan Schneider; 13. The moral subject of astrobiology: guideposts for exploring our ethical and political responsibilities towards extraterrestrial life Elspeth Wilson and Carol Cleland; 14. Astrobiology and theology Robin Lovin; 15. Would you baptize an extraterrestrial? Guy Consolmagno, SJ; Part IV. Practical Considerations: How Should Society Prepare for Discovery - and Non-Discovery?: Introduction; 16. Is there anything new about astrobiology and society? Jane Maienschein; 17. Evaluating preparedness for the discovery of extraterrestrial life: considering potential

  17. Discovering Extrasolar Planets with Microlensing Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambsganss, J.

    2016-06-01

    An astronomical survey is commonly understood as a mapping of a large region of the sky, either photometrically (possibly in various filters/wavelength ranges) or spectroscopically. Often, catalogs of objects are produced/provided as the main product or a by-product. However, with the advent of large CCD cameras and dedicated telescopes with wide-field imaging capabilities, it became possible in the early 1990s, to map the same region of the sky over and over again. In principle, such data sets could be combined to get very deep stacked images of the regions of interest. However, I will report on a completely different use of such repeated maps: Exploring the time domain for particular kinds of stellar variability, namely microlens-induced magnifications in search of exoplanets. Such a time-domain microlensing survey was originally proposed by Bohdan Paczynski in 1986 in order to search for dark matter objects in the Galactic halo. Only a few years later three teams started this endeavour. I will report on the history and current state of gravitational microlensing surveys. By now, routinely 100 million stars in the Galactic Bulge are monitored a few times per week by so-called survey teams. All stars with constant apparent brightness and those following known variability patterns are filtered out in order to detect the roughly 2000 microlensing events per year which are produced by stellar lenses. These microlensing events are identified "online" while still in their early phases and then monitored with much higher cadence by so-called follow-up teams. The most interesting of such events are those produced by a star-plus-planet lens. By now of order 30 exoplanets have been discovered by these combined microlensing surveys. Microlensing searches for extrasolar planets are complementary to other exoplanet search techniques. There are two particular advantages: The microlensing method is sensitive down to Earth-mass planets even with ground-based telecopes, and it

  18. Scientix in our school- discovering STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcu, Cornelia

    2017-04-01

    My name is Cornelia Melcu and I am a primary school teacher in Brasov. Additionally, I am a teacher trainer of Preparatory Class Curriculum, Google Application in Education Course and European Projects Course and a mentor to new teachers and students in university. I am an eTwinning, Scientix and ESERO ambassador too. During the last three school years my school was involved in several STEM projects, part of Scientix community. The main goal of those projects was to develop basic STEM skills of our students based on project work integrated into the curriculum. Open the Gates to the Universe (http://gatestotheuniverse.blogspot.ro; https://twinspace.etwinning.net/12520/home) is an eTwinning project for primary school students started on September 2015 and finished on September 2016. Some of our partners were from the Mediterranean area. The students discovered different aspects of space science and astronomy working on international groups. They explored some aspects of Science included in their curriculum using resources from ESERO, ROEDUSEIS and Space Awareness (e.g. Calculate with Rosetta, Writing the travel diary, Build Rosetta, How to become an astronaut, etc.) The project was a great opportunity to apply integrated learning methods for developing competencies which are a part of the primary school curriculum in Romania. In Language and Communication classes the students talked about their partners living places and their traditions and habits. They learnt some basic words in their partners language related to the weather. They created stories- both in Romanian and English; they described life in space and astronomical phenomena. They talked to the other partners during the several online meetings we organized and wrote short stories in English. In Mathematics and Science they found out about the Milky Way, the Solar System, the weather, famous astronauts and astronomers. They calculated, solved problems, made experiments and explained specific natural phenomena

  19. PSLQ: An Algorithm to Discover Integer Relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, J. M.

    2009-04-03

    Let x = (x{sub 1}, x{sub 2} {hor_ellipsis}, x{sub n}) be a vector of real or complex numbers. x is said to possess an integer relation if there exist integers a{sub i}, not all zero, such that a{sub 1}x{sub 1} + a{sub 2}x{sub 2} + {hor_ellipsis} + a{sub n}x{sub n} = 0. By an integer relation algorithm, we mean a practical computational scheme that can recover the vector of integers ai, if it exists, or can produce bounds within which no integer relation exists. As we will see in the examples below, an integer relation algorithm can be used to recognize a computed constant in terms of a formula involving known constants, or to discover an underlying relation between quantities that can be computed to high precision. At the present time, the most effective algorithm for integer relation detection is the 'PSLQ' algorithm of mathematician-sculptor Helaman Ferguson [10, 4]. Some efficient 'multi-level' implementations of PSLQ, as well as a variant of PSLQ that is well-suited for highly parallel computer systems, are given in [4]. PSLQ constructs a sequence of integer-valued matrices B{sub n} that reduces the vector y = xB{sub n}, until either the relation is found (as one of the columns of B{sub n}), or else precision is exhausted. At the same time, PSLQ generates a steadily growing bound on the size of any possible relation. When a relation is found, the size of smallest entry of the vector y abruptly drops to roughly 'epsilon' (i.e. 10{sup -p}, where p is the number of digits of precision). The size of this drop can be viewed as a 'confidence level' that the relation is real and not merely a numerical artifact - a drop of 20 or more orders of magnitude almost always indicates a real relation. Very high precision arithmetic must be used in PSLQ. If one wishes to recover a relation of length n, with coefficients of maximum size d digits, then the input vector x must be specified to at least nd digits, and one must employ nd

  20. Breast augmentation surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care - open Images Breast lift (mastopexy) - series Breast reduction (mammoplasty) - series Breast augmentation - series References Maxwell GP, Gabriel A. Breast augmentation. In: Neligan PC, ed. Plastic Surgery . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013: ...

  1. Types of Breast Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Devices Consumer Products Breast Pumps Types of Breast Pumps Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... used for feeding a baby. Types of Breast Pumps There are three basic types of breast pumps: ...

  2. Breast pain (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breast pain is from hormonal fluctuations from menstruation, pregnancy, puberty, menopause, and breastfeeding. Breast pain can also be associated with fibrocystic breast disease, but it is a very unusual symptom of breast cancer.

  3. Breast reconstruction - natural tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After a mastectomy , some women choose to have cosmetic surgery to remake their breast. This type of surgery ... cancer - breast reconstruction with natural tissue Patient Instructions Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge Mastectomy and breast reconstruction - what to ask ...

  4. Breast cancer correlates in a cohort of breast screening program participants in Riyadh, KSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Amri, F.; Saeedi, M.Y.; Al-Tahan, F.M.; Alomary, S.A.; Kassim, K.A.; Ali, A.M.; Mostafa Arafa, M.; Ibrahim, A.K.; Ali, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is the first cancer among females in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, accounting for 27.4% of all newly diagnosed female cancers in 2010. There are several risk factors affecting the incidence of breast cancer where some factors influence the risk more than the others. Aim: We aimed to identify the different risk factors related to breast cancer among females participating in the breast-screening program in Riyadh, KSA. Methods: Based on data from phase-I of the breast-screening program, a case-control study was conducted on women living in Riyadh, KSA. A sample of 349 women (58 cases and 290 controls) was recruited to examine the different breast cancer correlates. Multivariate regression model was built to investigate the most important risk factors. Results: The mean age of cases was 48.5 ± 7.1 years. Age at marriage, number of pregnancy, age at menopause, oral contraceptive pills, breast feeding and family history of breast cancer in first-degree relative were identified as the most important correlates among the studied cohort. Conclusions: The findings of the current work suggested that age at marriage, age at menopause ≥50 years, and 1st degree family history of breast cancer were risk factors for breast cancer, while, age at menopause<50 years, number of pregnancies and practicing breast feeding were protective factors against breast cancer. There was no effect of body mass index or physical inactivity. Further studies are needed to explore the hereditary, familial and genetic background risk factors in Saudi population.

  5. Understanding the breast cancer experience: a qualitative study of Malaysian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Azlina; Ab Hadi, Imi Sairi; Mahamood, Zainal; Ahmad, Zulkifli; Keng, Soon Lean

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common and leading cause of cancer mortality among Malaysian women. Despite good survival rates, the diagnosis of cancer still invokes the feeling of stress, fear and uncertainty. Because very little is known about the experiences of Malaysian women with breast cancer, a qualitative study using semi- structured interviews to explore the lived experience of newly diagnosed breast cancer. Using a purposive sampling method, 20 Malaysian women newly diagnosed with breast cancer, including Malays (n=10) and Chinese (n=10) were recruited in two main public hospitals in Kelantan. Similarities and divergence in women's experience were identified through thematic analysis of interview transcripts. Three themes emerged from the data: uncertainty experience of the illness, transition process and fatalistic view of breast cancer. In many ways, these findings were parallel with previous studies, suggesting that the experience of breast cancer is to a certain extent similar among women newly diagnosed with breast cancer. This study adds to the sparse literature concerning the experience of illness following breast cancer diagnosis among the Malays and Chinese. More importantly, this study addressed areas that were previously lacking, specifically in depth information on breast cancer experience from a developing country with a multi-ethnic population. The results of this investigation provide preliminary information to healthcare professionals on the impact of illness and cultural influence on survivorship to plan for appropriate education and supportive programme in order to meet the needs of breast cancer women more effectively.

  6. The practical skills of newly qualified nurses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danbjørg, Dorthe Boe; Birkelund, Regner

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the findings from a study of newly qualified nurses and which subjects the nurses regarded as the most important in order to be able to live up to the requirements of clinical practice, and how they experience their potential for developing practical and moral skills, after...... the decrease in practical training. A qualitative approach guided the research process and the analysis of the data. The data was collected by participant observation and qualitative interviews with four nurses as informants. The conclusions made in this study are based on the statements and the observations...... of the newly qualified nurses. Our findings are discussed in relation to the Aristotelian concept and other relevant literature. The main message is that the newly qualified nurses did not feel equipped when they finished their training. This could be interpreted as a direct consequence of the decrease...

  7. Ultrasound - Breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... interpret on mammograms. In breasts that are dense, meaning there is a lot of ducts, glands, fibrous ... and processes the sounds and creates graphs or color pictures that represent the flow of blood through ...

  8. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... modulators and aromatase inhibitors, reduce the risk of breast cancer in women with a high risk of the disease. These medications carry a risk of side effects, so doctors reserve these medications for women who ...

  9. Breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, L.; Krygier, G.; Castillo, C.

    2009-01-01

    This article is about the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of breast cancer. Positive diagnosis is based on clinical mammary exam, mammography, mammary ultrasonography, and histological study. Before the chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment are evaluated the risks

  10. [THE EFFECT OF PREGNANCY ON BREAST CANCER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matalon, Shelly Tartakover; Shochet, Gali Epstein; Drucker, Liat; Lishner, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Cancer and pregnancy coincide in about one in 1,000 pregnancies. One of the most common malignancies associated with pregnancy is breast cancer. Women with pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) have a higher likelihood of being diagnosed with metastatic disease and estrogen receptor (ER) negative tumors than do non-pregnant women. Controversies exist regarding the effect of pregnancy on breast cancer prognosis. Some researchers suggest that pregnancy does not affect breast cancer prognosis, whereas others claim the opposite. Although PABC is usually discovered in an advanced stage, breast cancer metastasis on the placenta is a rare event. During cancer progression, the surrounding microenvironment co-evolves into an activated state through continuous communication with the malignant cells, thereby promoting tumor growth. The effect of pregnancy and placental environment on breast cancer biology is the issue of this review. Placental and cancer cells implantation processes share similar molecular pathways. This suggests that placental factors may affect breast cancer cells biology. Previously, we analyzed the effect of first trimester human placenta on breast cancer cells. Breast cancer cells were co-cultured with placental explants during their implantation on matrigel substrate. We found that the placenta reduced ER expression on the cancer cells and induced their migration and invasion abilities. As a result of it, breast cancer cells migrated away from the placental implantation sites. Hormonal pathways were involved in these phenomena. These results may explain the high incidence of metastases during pregnancy in on the one hand and the rarity of metastases on the placenta on the other hand.

  11. The association of dietary pattern and breast cancer in Jiangsu, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Shurong; Qian, Yun; Huang, Xingyu; Yu, Hao; Yang, Jie; Han, Renqiang; Su, Jian; Du, Wencong; Zhou, Jinyi; Dong, Meihua; Yu, Xiaojin; Duijnhoven, Van Fränzel J.B.; Kampman, Ellen; Wu, Ming

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine the association of breast cancer with dietary patterns among Chinese women. A population-based case-control study was conducted in Jiangsu, China. Newly diagnosed primary breast cancer patients were recruited as cases (n = 818). Controls (n = 935), selected from the

  12. Down-staging of breast cancer in the pre-screening era ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We aimed to investigate the stage of breast cancer at first diagnosis and assess possible determinants of late-stage presentation. A consecutive series of women with newly diagnosed breast cancer at Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital (CHBAH), Soweto, South Africa were analysed. We retrospectively reviewed ...

  13. Morphological predictors of BRCA1 germline mutations in young women with breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Southey, M. C.; Ramus, S. J.; Dowty, J. G.; Smith, L. D.; Tesoriero, A. A.; Wong, E. E. M.; Dite, G. S.; Jenkins, M. A.; Byrnes, G. B.; Winship, I.; Phillips, K-A; Giles, G. G.; Hopper, J. L.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Knowing a young woman with newly diagnosed breast cancer has a germline BRCA1 mutation informs her clinical management and that of her relatives. We sought an optimal strategy for identifying carriers using family history, breast cancer morphology and hormone receptor status data.

  14. 3T MRI of the breast with computer aided diagnosis, can it help to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study aimed to check the sensitivity of multiple newly developed 3T MRI breast sequences using CAD software, in pre sampling diagnosis of breast cancer, in an attempt to minimize unnecessary invasive sampling or surgical procedures. Patients and methods: This was a prospective study, included 120 ...

  15. Doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide with concurrent versus sequential docetaxel as neoadjuvant treatment in patients with breast cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriens, B.E.; Aarts, M.J.; Vries, B. de; Gastel, S.M. van; Wals, J.; Smilde, T.J.; Warmerdam, L.J. van; Boer, M. de; Spronsen, D.J. van; Borm, G.F.; Tjan-Heijnen, V.C.; Stienen, J.J.C.; Hermens, R.P.M.G.; Wennekes, L.; Schans, S.A. van de; Dekker, H.M.; Blijlevens, N.M.A.; Maazen, R.W.M. van der; Adang, E.M.M.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Ottevanger, P.B.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND: This study was designed to determine whether delivering neo-adjuvant chemotherapy at a higher dose in a shorter period of time improves outcome of breast cancer patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Women with newly diagnosed breast cancer were randomly assigned to neoadjuvant

  16. A Genetic Interaction Screen for Breast Cancer Progression Driver Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    phenotypes in the future. We have stably labeled these cell lines with both the green fluorescent protein ( GFP ) and the the red fluorescent protein (RFP...different breast cancer cells that are tagged with flurocent proteins , we have discovered that breast cells of different genotypes could promote invasion...v-Ras cells and that the protein levels of p53 and p21 are also increased (Fig. 7A). These data indicate that Grik3 affects tumorigenesis by

  17. Breast Milk Hormones and Their Protective Effect on Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Savino; Stefania A. Liguori; Maria F. Fissore; Roberto Oggero

    2009-01-01

    Data accumulated over recent years have significantly advanced our understanding of growth factors, cytokines, and hormones in breast milk. Here we deal with leptin, adiponectin, IGF-I, ghrelin, and the more recently discovered hormones, obestatin, and resistin, which are present in breast milk and involved in food intake regulation and energy balance. Little is known about these compounds in infant milk formulas. Nutrition in infancy has been implicated in the long-term tendency to obesity, ...

  18. Breast Milk Hormones and Their Protective Effect on Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Fissore MariaF; Liguori StefaniaA; Savino Francesco; Oggero Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Data accumulated over recent years have significantly advanced our understanding of growth factors, cytokines, and hormones in breast milk. Here we deal with leptin, adiponectin, IGF-I, ghrelin, and the more recently discovered hormones, obestatin, and resistin, which are present in breast milk and involved in food intake regulation and energy balance. Little is known about these compounds in infant milk formulas. Nutrition in infancy has been implicated in the long-term tendency to obesity,...

  19. Chest Radiographic Findings in Newly Diagnosed Pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five hundred newly diagnosed cases of Pulmonary Tuberculosis were treated with directly observed short-course treatment and 100 of them had chest radiographic examination done. The various chest radiographic patterns in the 100 subjects were studied and included: Fluffy exudative changes 80(80%), fibrosis 70(70%) ...

  20. Clinical heterogeneity in newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Bart; Speelman, Johannes D.; de Haan, Rob J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine clinical heterogeneity in newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease using cluster analysis and to describe the subgroups in terms of impairment, disability, perceived quality of life, and use of dopaminergic therapy. METHODS: We conducted a k-means cluster analysis in a prospective

  1. Meeting and activating the newly unemployed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotger, Gabriel Pons

    Exposing newly unemployed workers to intensive activation aims to enhancing individual employment through its effects on search incentives and skills. However if the incentive effect is missing, activation may reduce the job search activity of many employable individuals by locking them in a time...... activation, contrary to job search meetings, reduces employment and increases sickness benefit claims....

  2. Newly graduated nurses' use of knowledge sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldbjerg, Siri Lygum; Grønkjaer, Mette; Sørensen, Erik Elgaard

    2016-01-01

    underscoring progression in knowledge use and perception of competence and confidence among newly graduated nurses. CONCLUSION: The transition phase, feeling of confidence and ability to use critical thinking and reflection, has a great impact on knowledge sources incorporated in clinical decisions...

  3. Establishment probability in newly founded populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusset Markus

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Establishment success in newly founded populations relies on reaching the established phase, which is defined by characteristic fluctuations of the population’s state variables. Stochastic population models can be used to quantify the establishment probability of newly founded populations; however, so far no simple but robust method for doing so existed. To determine a critical initial number of individuals that need to be released to reach the established phase, we used a novel application of the “Wissel plot”, where –ln(1 – P0(t is plotted against time t. This plot is based on the equation P0t=1–c1e–ω1t, which relates the probability of extinction by time t, P0(t, to two constants: c1 describes the probability of a newly founded population to reach the established phase, whereas ω1 describes the population’s probability of extinction per short time interval once established. Results For illustration, we applied the method to a previously developed stochastic population model of the endangered African wild dog (Lycaon pictus. A newly founded population reaches the established phase if the intercept of the (extrapolated linear parts of the “Wissel plot” with the y-axis, which is –ln(c1, is negative. For wild dogs in our model, this is the case if a critical initial number of four packs, consisting of eight individuals each, are released. Conclusions The method we present to quantify the establishment probability of newly founded populations is generic and inferences thus are transferable to other systems across the field of conservation biology. In contrast to other methods, our approach disaggregates the components of a population’s viability by distinguishing establishment from persistence.

  4. Newly elected IAEA Board of Governors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The document gives information about the election of 11 Member States to the IAEA Board of Governors, the 35-member policy-making body, during the 45th regular session of the IAEA's General Conference (17-21 September 2001, Austria Center, Vienna). The newly elected Member States are: Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Chile, Colombia, Islamic Republic of Iran, Kuwait, Morocco, Philippines, Romania, Spain, and Turkey. The other 24 Member States of the Board are also given

  5. Newly elected IAEA Board of Governors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The document gives information about the election of 11 Member States to the IAEA Board of Governors, the 35-member policy-making body, during the 44th regular session of the IAEA's General Conference (18 - 22 September 2000, Austria Center, Vienna). The newly elected Member States are: Argentina, Egypt, Ghana, Ireland, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Mexico, Pakistan, Peru, Switzerland, Thailand, Ukraine. The other 24 Member States of the Board are also given

  6. Three Newly Naturalized Plants in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jer Jung

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Three newly naturalized plants are reported in this paper. Hypochaeris microcephala (Sch. Bip. Cabrera var. albiflora (Kuntze Cabrera (Asteraceae is naturalized in urban areas of northern Taiwan. Indigofera pseudo-tinctoria Matsum. (Leguminosae is naturalized in low elevations of northern and southern Taiwan and in middle elevations of central Taiwan. Lamium purpureum L. (Laminaceae has become naturalized locally in middle elevations of central Taiwan. Descriptions, illustrations and color photos of these plants are provided.

  7. Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Its Impact on the Surgical Treatment of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Tsina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast MRI focuses on the detection of multifocality, multicentricity, and bilaterality of newly diagnosed breast cancer. A retrospective study was carried out on 833 patients that were diagnosed and treated for breast cancer between January 2002 and December 2011. Patients were divided into two groups: those that had a presurgery breast MRI and those that did not. The two groups were compared on the basis of the several parameters. The aim of the study was to determine whether the use of MRI in breast cancer screening changes the initial treatment decision. In 18% of the patients, MRI revealed a multifocal or a multicentric unilateral breast cancer, a bilateral tumour, or a larger cancer than initially diagnosed. Most of these patients underwent a second-look breast ultrasound, with or without an additional biopsy. The percentage of mastectomies did not increase as a result of an MRI exam. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was used more often and the percentage of reoperations decreased when an MRI was performed.

  8. Breast Cancer Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    FACTS FOR LIFE Breast Cancer Surgery The goal of breast cancer surgery is to remove the whole tumor from the breast. Some lymph nodes ... might still be in the body. Types of breast cancer surgery There are two types of breast cancer ...

  9. Performance analysis of a dedicated breast MR-HIFU system for tumor ablation in breast cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckers, R.; Merckel, L. G.; de Senneville, B. Denis; Schubert, G.; Köhler, M.; Knuttel, F. M.; Mali, W. P. Th M.; Moonen, C. T. W.; van den Bosch, M. A. A. J.; Bartels, L. W.

    2015-07-01

    MR-guided HIFU ablation is a promising technique for the non-invasive treatment of breast cancer. A phase I study was performed to assess the safety and treatment accuracy and precision of MR-HIFU ablation in breast cancer patients (n=10 ) using a newly developed MR-HIFU platform dedicated to applications in the breast. In this paper a technical analysis of the performance of the dedicated breast MR-HIFU system during breast tumors ablation is described. The main points of investigation were the spatial targeting accuracy and precision of the system and the performance of real-time respiration-corrected MR thermometry. The mean targeting accuracy was in the range of 2.4-2.6 mm, whereas the mean targeting precision was in the range of 1.5-1.8 mm. To correct for respiration-induced magnetic field fluctuations during MR temperature mapping a look-up-table (LUT)-based correction method was used. An optimized procedural sedation protocol in combination with the LUT-based correction method allowed for precise MR thermometry during the ablation procedure (temperature standard deviation muscle) was detected. The newly developed dedicated breast MR-HIFU system allows for safe, accurate and precise ablation of breast tumors.

  10. [Granular cell tumor of the male breast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadiri, Youssef; Boufettal, Houssine; Samouh, Naïma; Benayad, Samira; Karkouri, Mehdi; Zamiati, Soumaya; Kadiri, Bouchaïb

    2013-04-01

    The granular cell tumor of the breast (TCGS) is a rare benign tumor, which grows from Schwann cells. It can be confused with a cancerous tumor clinically and radiologically. Only the histological appearance can make the diagnosis. We report a case of TCGS in a man, discovered as a result of self-examination of a breast lump. The authors emphasize the problem of differential diagnosis with breast cancer: clinically, a hard lump with an occasional skin retraction or a fixity to the deep plane; radiologically a stellar opaque appearance with irregular contours, sonographically unspecific, and even macroscopically during surgery, this lesion having morphological characteristics which need histologic examination and even immunohistochemistry in order to exclude a malignant tumor. They are cured by wide local excision and have generally a good prognosis. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  11. Breast feeding practices in the Black community | Ross | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    feeding among rural and urban Blacks, to determine whether the number of women providing early supplementary feeding has increased over a 4-year period, and to discover groups at particular risk of failure to breast-feed optimally. Women ...

  12. Breast Augmentation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-04-13

    Apr 13, 1974 ... Previous articles'·3 detailed the technique and the indi- cations for breast augmentation. This article deals ... or subcutaneous mastectomy are excluded. In this series, a Dow-Corning, Dacron-backed, ..... is not considered a major procedure, or in any way difficult to perform, judgement is all-important, and ...

  13. Breast reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007405.htm Breast reduction To use the sharing features on this page, please enable ... discharge Images Mammoplasty References Fisher J, Higdon KK. Reduction mammaplasty. In: Neligan PC, ed. Plastic Surgery . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013: ...

  14. Breast cancer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Cancer specialists will soon be able to compare mammograms with computerized images of breast cancer from across Europe, in a bid to improve diagnosis and treatment....The new project, known as MammoGrid, brings together computer and medical imaging experts, cancer specialists, radiologists and epidemiologists from Bristol, Oxford, Cambridge, France and Italy" (1 page).

  15. Breast Calcifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and require no further testing or follow-up. Microcalcifications. These show up as fine, white specks, similar to grains of salt. They're usually noncancerous, but certain patterns can be an early sign of cancer. If breast calcifications appear suspicious on your initial mammogram, you ...

  16. Stress and Coping Mechanisms Among Breast Cancer Patients and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy of women worldwide accounting for 23% of all newly diagnosed cancer cases. It is also the leading cause of cancer mortality, representing 14.1%. In Zambia, it is second to cervical cancer and its incidence is steadily increasing. A diagnosis of cancer regardless of ...

  17. Treatment Option Overview (Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  18. General Information about Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  19. Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy An ultrasound-guided breast biopsy uses ... of Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy? What is Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy? Lumps or abnormalities in the breast ...

  20. Breast Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  1. Recurrent Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... therapy you may have received after your first breast cancer diagnosis was intended to kill any cancer cells that ... age 35 at the time of their original breast cancer diagnosis, face a higher risk of recurrent breast cancer. ...

  2. Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although breast cancer is much more common in women, men can get it too. It happens most often to men between ... 60 and 70. Breast lumps usually aren't cancer. However, most men with breast cancer have lumps. ...

  3. Breast Reduction Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast reduction surgery might also help improve your self-image and your ability to participate in physical activities. ... under the breasts Nerve pain Restricted activity Poor self-image related to large breasts Difficulty fitting into bras ...

  4. Perspective Insight into Future Potential Fusion Gene Transcript Biomarker Candidates in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryong Nam Kim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Next generation sequencing has accelerated the discovery of a variety of new fusion gene types in clinical breast cancer samples by analyzing cancer genomes and transcriptomes. Although previous studies have focused on a few clinically validated oncogenic fusion genes as diagnostic and therapeutic targets in breast cancer, a perspective consideration has not been given thus far for a plethora of breast cancer fusion genes, which are being newly identified at an overwhelmingly increasing pace. In this perspective review, we discuss diverse fusion gene types recently identified in a variety of breast cancer subtypes, including breast clinical cancer samples in TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas database. This perspective review will confer fresh and promising guidance onto breast cancer surgeons, clinical oncologists, and tumor biologists in determining research directions for seeking and developing novel fusion gene biomarkers for breast cancer diagnostics and therapeutic treatment in upcoming years.

  5. Perspective Insight into Future Potential Fusion Gene Transcript Biomarker Candidates in Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ryong Nam; Moon, Hyeong-Gon; Han, Wonshik; Noh, Dong-Young

    2018-02-07

    Next generation sequencing has accelerated the discovery of a variety of new fusion gene types in clinical breast cancer samples by analyzing cancer genomes and transcriptomes. Although previous studies have focused on a few clinically validated oncogenic fusion genes as diagnostic and therapeutic targets in breast cancer, a perspective consideration has not been given thus far for a plethora of breast cancer fusion genes, which are being newly identified at an overwhelmingly increasing pace. In this perspective review, we discuss diverse fusion gene types recently identified in a variety of breast cancer subtypes, including breast clinical cancer samples in TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) database. This perspective review will confer fresh and promising guidance onto breast cancer surgeons, clinical oncologists, and tumor biologists in determining research directions for seeking and developing novel fusion gene biomarkers for breast cancer diagnostics and therapeutic treatment in upcoming years.

  6. Breast cancer in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Iris; Lindsay, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Pregnancy-associated breast cancer is defined as breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy or in the first postpartum year. Breast cancer is one of the more common malignancies to occur during pregnancy and, as more women delay childbearing, the incidence of breast cancer in pregnancy is expected to increase. This article provides an overview of diagnosis, staging, and treatment of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. Recommendations for management of breast cancer in pregnancy are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The association of dietary pattern and breast cancer in Jiangsu, China: A population-based case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, S.; Qian, Y.; Huang, X.; Yu, H.; Yang, J.; Han, R.; Su, J.; Du, W.; Zhou, J; Dong, M.; Yu, X.; Duijnhoven, F.; Kampman, E.; Wu, M.

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine the association of breast cancer with dietary patterns among Chinese women. A population-based case-control study was conducted in Jiangsu, China. Newly diagnosed primary breast cancer patients were recruited as cases (n = 818). Controls (n = 935), selected from the

  8. Changes in Female Support Network Systems and Adaptation after Breast Cancer Diagnosis: Differences between Older and Younger Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Sato; Palmquist, Aunchalee E. L.; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Singletary, S. Eva; Koehly, Laura M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluates the changes in social networks of older and younger breast cancer patients over a 6-month period following their first diagnosis and how such modifications are associated with changes in the patients' mood state. Design and Methods: Newly diagnosed breast cancer patients were interviewed shortly after their diagnosis…

  9. Improved survival for sequentially as opposed to concurrently delivered neoadjuvant chemotherapy in non-metastatic breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriens, B.; Vriens, I.J.H.; Aarts, M.J.; Gastel, S.M. van; Berkmortel, F.W.P.J. van den; Smilde, T.J.; Warmerdam, L.J. van; Spronsen, D.J. van; Peer, P.G.M.; Boer, M den; Tjan-Heijnen, V.C.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The INTENS study was designed to determine whether delivering neoadjuvant chemotherapy at a higher dose in a shorter period of time improves outcome of breast cancer patients. METHODS: Women with newly diagnosed breast cancer were randomly assigned to neoadjuvant chemotherapy consisting of

  10. Critical thinking dispositions among newly graduated nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangensteen, Sigrid; Johansson, Inger S; Björkström, Monica E; Nordström, Gun

    2010-01-01

    wangensteen s., johansson i.s., björkström m.e. & nordström g. (2010) Critical thinking dispositions among newly graduated nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing66(10), 2170–2181. Aim The aim of the study was to describe critical thinking dispositions among newly graduated nurses in Norway, and to study whether background data had any impact on critical thinking dispositions. Background Competence in critical thinking is one of the expectations of nursing education. Critical thinkers are described as well-informed, inquisitive, open-minded and orderly in complex matters. Critical thinking competence has thus been designated as an outcome for judging the quality of nursing education programmes and for the development of clinical judgement. The ability to think critically is also described as reducing the research–practice gap and fostering evidence-based nursing. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed. The data were collected between October 2006 and April 2007 using the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory. The response rate was 33% (n= 618). Pearson’s chi-square tests were used to analyse the data. Results Nearly 80% of the respondents reported a positive disposition towards critical thinking. The highest mean score was on the Inquisitiveness subscale and the lowest on the Truth-seeking subscale. A statistically significant higher proportion of nurses with high critical thinking scores were found among those older than 30 years, those with university education prior to nursing education, and those working in community health care. Conclusion Nurse leaders and nurse teachers should encourage and nurture critical thinking among newly graduated nurses and nursing students. The low Truth-seeking scores found may be a result of traditional teaching strategies in nursing education and might indicate a need for more student-active learning models. PMID:20384637

  11. Fibroadenoma in supernumerary breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroglu, A

    2007-01-01

    The presence of supernumerary breast (or polymastia) is not uncommon; however, reports of fibroadenoma in supernumerary breast tissue are rare. The present article reports a case of fibroadenoma developing in the supernumerary breast located below the normal left pectoral breast in a 26-year-old woman. Clinical and ultrasonographic examination of both pectoral breasts revealed no abnormalities but a mass was found in the third breast. The patient underwent resection of the supernumerary breast and the histopathological examination showed an intracanalicular type of fibroadenoma within the breast tissue.

  12. Newly introduced sample preparation techniques: towards miniaturization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rosaria

    2014-01-01

    Sampling and sample preparation are of crucial importance in an analytical procedure, representing quite often a source of errors. The technique chosen for the isolation of analytes greatly affects the success of a chemical determination. On the other hand, growing concerns about environmental and human safety, along with the introduction of international regulations for quality control, have moved the interest of scientists towards specific needs. Newly introduced sample preparation techniques are challenged to meet new criteria: (i) miniaturization, (ii) higher sensitivity and selectivity, and (iii) automation. In this survey, the most recent techniques introduced in the field of sample preparation will be described and discussed, along with many examples of applications.

  13. Newly democratic Mongolia offering exploration contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penttila, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Mongolia, formerly the Mongolian People's Republic, is working to open its exploration prospects to international operators as it emerges as the world's 15th largest independent nation. The country, about the same size as Alaska with a population of 2 million, held its first free election in July 1990. The newly elected government drafted a constitution that took effect Feb. 12, 1992. The document modifies the previous government's structures to eliminate bureaucracy and allows for political pluralism. At the same time, the government is formulating energy policies, state oil company structure, and resource development philosophy

  14. Unsupervised statistical learning in newly hatched chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santolin, Chiara; Rosa-Salva, Orsola; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Regolin, Lucia

    2016-12-05

    The ability to extract probabilistic information from visual inputs has been reported in human adults and infants (reviewed in [1,2]), and in adults of non-human species, though only under supervised (conditioning) procedures [3]. Here, we report spontaneous sensitivity to the probabilistic structure underlying sequences of visual stimuli in newly hatched domestic chicks using filial imprinting, suggesting that statistical learning may be fully operating at the onset of life in precocial avian species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. MICRO-STRUCTURAL INVESTIGATION OF SOME ARTIFACTS DISCOVERED AT POROLISSUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUNTEANU Mihai

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available the paper presents the investigation of two fragments of roman bronze artefacts, discovered during archaeological works performed at Porolissum, an important military and economical point on the northern limes of Dacia Province. One of the analyzed fragments (Mi1 was taken from a consistent fragment of a Roman bronze statue, while the second (Mi2 was among a lot of small metal pieces, discovered in the same investigated area. Using highly sophisticated micro-structural analysing techniques – X-Ray diffraction, the paper investigates the possibility that the Mi2 fragment may have belonged to the same statue from which the sample Mi1 was taken

  16. The Magic of Mathematics Discovering the Spell of Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Pappas, Theoni

    2011-01-01

    Delves into the world of ideas, explores the spell mathematics casts on our lives, and helps you discover mathematics where you least expect it. Be spellbound by the mathematical designs found in nature. Learn how knots may untie the mysteries of life. Be mesmerized by the computer revolution. Discover how the hidden forces of mathematics hold architectural structures together connect your telephone calls help airplanes get off the ground solve the mysteries of the living cell. See how some artists use a mathematical palette in their works and how many writers draw upon the wealth of its ideas

  17. Ontology Building Using Classification Rules and Discovered Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorskis Henrihs

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Building an ontology is a difficult and time-consuming task. In order to make this task easier and faster, some automatic methods can be employed. This paper examines the feasibility of using rules and concepts discovered during the classification tree building process in the C4.5 algorithm, in a completely automated way, for the purposes of building an ontology from data. By building the ontology directly from continuous data, concepts and relations can be discovered without specific knowledge about the domain. This paper also examines how this method reproduces the classification capabilities of the classification three within an ontology using concepts and class expression axioms.

  18. Diverse, Biologically Relevant, and Targetable Gene Rearrangements in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer and Other Malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Timothy M; Lehmann, Brian D; Beeler, J Scott; Li, Chung-I; Li, Zhu; Jin, Hailing; Stricker, Thomas P; Shyr, Yu; Pietenpol, Jennifer A

    2016-08-15

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and other molecularly heterogeneous malignancies present a significant clinical challenge due to a lack of high-frequency "driver" alterations amenable to therapeutic intervention. These cancers often exhibit genomic instability, resulting in chromosomal rearrangements that affect the structure and expression of protein-coding genes. However, identification of these rearrangements remains technically challenging. Using a newly developed approach that quantitatively predicts gene rearrangements in tumor-derived genetic material, we identified and characterized a novel oncogenic fusion involving the MER proto-oncogene tyrosine kinase (MERTK) and discovered a clinical occurrence and cell line model of the targetable FGFR3-TACC3 fusion in TNBC. Expanding our analysis to other malignancies, we identified a diverse array of novel and known hybrid transcripts, including rearrangements between noncoding regions and clinically relevant genes such as ALK, CSF1R, and CD274/PD-L1 The over 1,000 genetic alterations we identified highlight the importance of considering noncoding gene rearrangement partners, and the targetable gene fusions identified in TNBC demonstrate the need to advance gene fusion detection for molecularly heterogeneous cancers. Cancer Res; 76(16); 4850-60. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. Human breast tissue disposition and bioactivity of limonene in women with early stage breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jessica A.; Lang, Julie E.; Ley, Michele; Nagle, Ray; Hsu, Chiu-Hsieh; Thompson, Patricia A; Cordova, Catherine; Waer, Amy; Chow, H.-H. Sherry

    2013-01-01

    Limonene is a bioactive food component found in citrus peel oil that has demonstrated chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activities in preclinical studies. We conducted an open label pilot clinical study to determine the human breast tissue disposition of limonene and its associated bioactivity. We recruited forty-three women with newly diagnosed operable breast cancer electing to undergo surgical excision to take 2 grams of limonene daily for 2 – 6 weeks before surgery. Blood and breast tissue were collected to determine drug/metabolite concentrations and limonene-induced changes in systemic and tissue biomarkers of breast cancer risk or carcinogenesis. Limonene was found to preferentially concentrate in the breast tissue, reaching high tissue concentration (mean=41.3 μg/g tissue) while the major active circulating metabolite, perillic acid, did not concentrate in the breast tissue. Limonene intervention resulted in a 22% reduction in cyclin D1 expression (P=0.002) in tumor tissue but minimal changes in tissue Ki67 and cleaved caspase 3 expression. No significant changes in serum leptin, adiponectin, TGF-β1, IGFBP-3 and IL-6 levels were observed following limonene intervention. There was a small but statistically significant post-intervention increase in IGF-1 levels. We conclude that limonene distributed extensively to human breast tissue and reduced breast tumor cyclin D1 expression that may lead to cell cycle arrest and reduced cell proliferation. Further placebo-controlled clinical trials and translational research are warranted to establish limonene’s role for breast cancer prevention or treatment. PMID:23554130

  20. Human breast tissue disposition and bioactivity of limonene in women with early-stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jessica A; Lang, Julie E; Ley, Michele; Nagle, Ray; Hsu, Chiu-Hsieh; Thompson, Patricia A; Cordova, Catherine; Waer, Amy; Chow, H-H Sherry

    2013-06-01

    Limonene is a bioactive food component found in citrus peel oil that has shown chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activities in preclinical studies. We conducted an open-label pilot clinical study to determine the human breast tissue disposition of limonene and its associated bioactivity. We recruited 43 women with newly diagnosed operable breast cancer electing to undergo surgical excision to take 2 grams of limonene daily for two to six weeks before surgery. Blood and breast tissue were collected to determine drug/metabolite concentrations and limonene-induced changes in systemic and tissue biomarkers of breast cancer risk or carcinogenesis. Limonene was found to preferentially concentrate in the breast tissue, reaching high tissue concentration (mean = 41.3 μg/g tissue), whereas the major active circulating metabolite, perillic acid, did not concentrate in the breast tissue. Limonene intervention resulted in a 22% reduction in cyclin D1 expression (P = 0.002) in tumor tissue but minimal changes in tissue Ki67 and cleaved caspase-3 expression. No significant changes in serum leptin, adiponectin, TGF-β1, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were observed following limonene intervention. There was a small but statistically significant postintervention increase in insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels. We conclude that limonene distributed extensively to human breast tissue and reduced breast tumor cyclin D1 expression that may lead to cell-cycle arrest and reduced cell proliferation. Furthermore, placebo-controlled clinical trials and translational research are warranted to establish limonene's role for breast cancer prevention or treatment.

  1. Mammographic density and the risk of breast cancer in Japanese women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, C; Matsubara, T; Fujita, H; Nagao, Y; Shibuya, C; Kashiki, Y; Shimizu, H

    2005-01-01

    Using an automated method for detecting mammographic mass, the authors evaluated the relation between quantitatively measured density and the risk of breast cancer in a case–control study among Japanese women. The case subjects were 146 women newly diagnosed and histologically confirmed with breast cancer at a general hospital. A total of 659 control women were selected from those who attended a breast cancer mass screening at this hospital. Significantly increased odds ratios (ORs) of breast cancer were observed for breast densities of 25–49 and 50–74%, but not for densities of 75–100% as compared with 0% in premenopausal women after controlling for covariates (ORs=4.0, 4.3, and 1.4, respectively). In postmenopausal women, ORs were significantly increased for breast densities of 25–50% (OR=3.0) and 50–100% (OR=4.2). Total breast area was significantly associated with the risk of breast cancer independent of density percent or dense area in postmenopausal women. These data suggested that mammographic density was associated with the risk of breast cancer in Japanese women as is the case in Caucasian women. However, the associations of the risk of breast cancer with breast size and a high breast density greater than 75%, needs to be confirmed in future studies. PMID:15956963

  2. Angiomotin and angiomotin like proteins, their expression and correlation with angiogenesis and clinical outcome in human breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Wen G; Watkins, Gareth; Douglas-Jones, Anthony; Holmgren, Lars; Mansel, Robert E

    2006-01-01

    Angiomotin is a newly discovered molecule that regulates the migration and tubule formation of endothelial cells. It therefore has been implicated in the control of angiogenesis under physiological and pathological conditions. This study examined the expression of angiomotin and its analogues, angiomotin-like 1 (L1) and -like 2 (L2) in breast tumour tissues, and analysed their correlation with angiogenesis and clinical outcomes. Human breast tissues (normal n = 32 and tumours n = 120) were used. The levels of expression of angiomotin, L1 and L2 were determined using reverse transcription PCR. Microvessels were stained using antibodies against PECAM, von Willebrand factor (factor 8, or vWF) and VE-cadherin. The transcript levels of angiomotin and its analogues were assessed against the clinical and pathological background, including long term survival (120 months). Breast cancer tissues expressed significantly higher levels of angiomotin transcript, compared with normal mammary tissues (33.1 ± 11 in normal versus 86.5 ± 13.7 in tumour tissues, p = 0.003). Both L1 and L2 were seen at marginally higher levels in tumour than normal tissues but the difference was not statistically significant. Levels of angiomotin were at significantly higher levels in grade 2 and grade 3 tumours compared with grade 1 (p < 0.01 and p = 0.05 respectively). The levels of angiomotin in tumours from patients who had metastatic disease were also significantly higher than those patients who remained disease free (p = 0.03). Multivariate analysis indicated that angiomotin transcript was an independent prognostic factor (p = 0.031). No significant correlations were seen between angiomotin-L1 and L2 with the clinical outcome. Furthermore, high levels of angiomotin transcript were associated with shorter overall survival (p < 0.05). There was a high degree of correlation between levels of vW factor and that of angiomotin (p < 0.05), but not angiomotin-L1 and angiomotin-L2. Angiomotin, a

  3. The role of infections and coinfections with newly identified and emerging respiratory viruses in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debiaggi Maurizia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acute respiratory infections are a major cause of morbidity in children both in developed and developing countries. A wide range of respiratory viruses, including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, influenza A and B viruses, parainfluenza viruses (PIVs, adenovirus, rhinovirus (HRV, have repeatedly been detected in acute lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI in children in the past decades. However, in the last ten years thanks to progress in molecular technologies, newly discovered viruses have been identified including human Metapneumovirus (hMPV, coronaviruses NL63 (HcoV-NL63 and HKU1 (HcoV-HKU1, human Bocavirus (HBoV, new enterovirus (HEV, parechovirus (HpeV and rhinovirus (HRV strains, polyomaviruses WU (WUPyV and KI (KIPyV and the pandemic H1N1v influenza A virus. These discoveries have heavily modified previous knowledge on respiratory infections mainly highlighting that pediatric population is exposed to a variety of viruses with similar seasonal patterns. In this context establishing a causal link between a newly identified virus and the disease as well as an association between mixed infections and an increase in disease severity can be challenging. This review will present an overview of newly recognized as well as the main emerging respiratory viruses and seek to focus on the their contribution to infection and co-infection in LRTIs in childhood.

  4. How did Cantor Discover Set Theory and Topology?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 11. How did Cantor Discover Set Theory and Topology? S M Srivastava. General Article Volume 19 Issue 11 November 2014 pp 977-999. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  5. Discover Summer School: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgerson, David; Torgerson, Carole; Jefferson, Laura; Buckley, Hannah; Ainsworth, Hannah; Heaps, Clare; Mitchell, Natasha

    2014-01-01

    The Discover Summer School was a four-week programme which aimed to improve the reading and writing skills of children during the summer between Year 6 and Year 7. The programme was targeted at pupils who had been predicted to achieve below Level 4b in English by the end of Key Stage 2. Pupils meeting the eligibility criteria for the study, and…

  6. Discover 4-H Clubs: The Essential Resource for 4-H

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacArthur, Stacey; Nelson, Cindy; Brower, Naomi; Memmott, Margie; Peterson, Gaelynn

    2016-01-01

    Obstacles facing new 4-H volunteers include time constraints and difficulty finding project-specific information, resources, and opportunities available for club members. As a solution to these obstacles and an aid for assisting volunteers in becoming confident in delivering information to youth, content experts produced Discover 4-H Clubs, a…

  7. New Pulsars Discovered in Arecibo Drift-Scan Searches

    OpenAIRE

    McLaughlin, M. A.; Lorimer, D. R.; Champion, D. J.; Xilouris, K.; Arzoumanian, Z.; Backer, D. C.; Cordes, J. M.; Lommen, A. N.; Fruchter, A. S.

    2003-01-01

    We report on new pulsars discovered in Arecibo drift-scan data. Processing of 2200 square degrees of data has resulted in the detection of 41 known and 12 new pulsars. New pulsars include two millisecond pulsars, one solitary and one binary recycled pulsar, and one pulsar with very unusual pulse profile morphology and complex drifting subpulse behavior.

  8. Let Students Discover an Important Physical Property of a Slinky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gash, Philip

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a simple experiment that lets first-year physics and engineering students discover an important physical property of a Slinky. The restoring force for the fundamental oscillation frequency is provided only by those coils between the support and the Slinky center of mass.

  9. Re-discovering indigenous knowledge – Ulwazi Lwemveli for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, the imperative to re-discover and re-store IK cannot be underestimated since building on this knowledge is particularly effective in helping to reach those living in rural communities. This knowledge is often the main asset they control, and certainly one with which they are more familiar. The case studies discussed ...

  10. Discovering How a Communicative Notion Is Expressed in English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Graeme D.

    A study to develop a methodology for discovering how one important notion or semantic category, "frequency of occurrence," is expressed in words, phrases, or other linguistic devices in academic English began with a search for devices expressing that notion, by analyzing text from a news magazine, a New Zealand geography textbook, and a…

  11. Scientists discover planetary system similar to our own

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    'An international team of scientists has discovered a planet and star that may share the same relationship as Jupiter and our Sun, the closest comparison that researchers have found since they began their search for extra-solar planets nearly a decade ago' (1 page).

  12. US NSF: scientists discover planetary system similar to our own

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    An international team of scientists has discovered a planet and star that may share the same relationship as Jupiter and our Sun, the closest comparison that researchers have found since they began their search for extra-solar planets nearly a decade ago (1 page).

  13. Internal Structure of DISCOVER: A Performance-based Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarouphim, Ketty M.

    2000-01-01

    A study involving 257 Navajo and Mexican-American elementary students investigated the internal structure of the DISCOVER assessment, a performance-based assessment grounded in Gardner's theory of multiple intelligence. Results showed low interrating correlations among the five assessment activities, indicating students gifted in one intelligence…

  14. Discovering Hidden Analogies in an Online Humanities Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cory, Kenneth A.

    1999-01-01

    Drawing upon an efficacious method for discovering previously unknown causes of medical syndromes and searching in the Humanities Index, an illuminating new humanities analogy between the epistemological ideas of Robert Frost and the ancient Greek philosopher Carneades was found by constructing a search statement in which proper names were coupled…

  15. How to Discover the Rogers–Ramanujan Identities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Ramanujan, q-series, basic hy- pergeometric series, Rogers–. Ramanujan identities. Gaurav Bhatnagar heads the team in Educomp. Solutions Ltd that develops multimedia learning materials for teachers to use in schools. He is interested in q-series, and thinking about how. Ramanujan could possibly discover his amazing.

  16. How Einstein Discovered the Special Theory of Relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 2. How Einstein Discovered the Special Theory of Relativity. Sriranjan Banerji. General Article Volume 11 Issue 2 February 2006 pp 27-42. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  17. REVIEW: Discovering Statistics Using SPSS for Windows ANDY FIELD (2000)

    OpenAIRE

    SHARMA, Reviewed By Ashok

    2002-01-01

    The book "Discovering Statistics Using SPSS for Windows" is exactly that! Since it calculates amazingly fast, in the recent years, the computer has become the most useful and helpful tool for the researchers in almost every field of knowledge - be it open and distance education, psychology, sociology, management or else.

  18. A new screening method for discovering antibacterial agents from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since high-throughput screening (HTS) that selects antibacterial agents according to targets in vitro rather than whole-cell have not proven effective in the discovery of new antibiotics; new approaches for discovering the next generation of antibiotics are urgently needed. Filamentous fungi are an important source for many ...

  19. Astronomers Discover Most Massive Neutron Star Yet Known

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Green Bank Telescope (GBT) have discovered the most massive neutron star yet found, a discovery with strong and wide-ranging impacts across several fields of physics and astrophysics. "This neutron star is twice as massive as our Sun. This is surprising, and that much mass means that several theoretical models for the internal composition of neutron stars now are ruled out," said Paul Demorest, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). "This mass measurement also has implications for our understanding of all matter at extremely high densities and many details of nuclear physics," he added. Neutron stars are the superdense "corpses" of massive stars that have exploded as supernovae. With all their mass packed into a sphere the size of a small city, their protons and electrons are crushed together into neutrons. A neutron star can be several times more dense than an atomic nucleus, and a thimbleful of neutron-star material would weigh more than 500 million tons. This tremendous density makes neutron stars an ideal natural "laboratory" for studying the most dense and exotic states of matter known to physics. The scientists used an effect of Albert Einstein's theory of General Relativity to measure the mass of the neutron star and its orbiting companion, a white dwarf star. The neutron star is a pulsar, emitting lighthouse-like beams of radio waves that sweep through space as it rotates. This pulsar, called PSR J1614-2230, spins 317 times per second, and the companion completes an orbit in just under nine days. The pair, some 3,000 light-years distant, are in an orbit seen almost exactly edge-on from Earth. That orientation was the key to making the mass measurement. As the orbit carries the white dwarf directly in front of the pulsar, the radio waves from the pulsar that reach Earth must travel very close to the white dwarf. This close passage causes them to be delayed in their arrival by the distortion of

  20. Breast biopsy - ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the breast to the nipple. Most breast cancers are of this type. Lobular carcinoma starts in parts of the breast called ... March 14, 2017. Torrente J, Brem RF. Minimally invasive image-guided ... B. Cancer of the breast. In: Niederhuber JE, Armitage JO, ...

  1. Breast Cancer -- Male

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer in Men Breast Cancer in Men This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer in Men. Use the menu below to choose ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer in Men Introduction Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  2. Breast Cancer Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer Breast Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the Overview/ ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer Introduction Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  3. Breast cancer in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in situ - male; Intraductal carcinoma - male; Inflammatory breast cancer - male; Paget disease of the nipple - male; Breast cancer - male ... The cause of breast cancer in men is not clear. But there are risk factors that make breast cancer more likely in men: Exposure to ...

  4. Critical thinking dispositions among newly graduated nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangensteen, Sigrid; Johansson, Inger S; Björkström, Monica E; Nordström, Gun

    2010-10-01

    The aim of the study was to describe critical thinking dispositions among newly graduated nurses in Norway, and to study whether background data had any impact on critical thinking dispositions. Competence in critical thinking is one of the expectations of nursing education. Critical thinkers are described as well-informed, inquisitive, open-minded and orderly in complex matters. Critical thinking competence has thus been designated as an outcome for judging the quality of nursing education programmes and for the development of clinical judgement. The ability to think critically is also described as reducing the research-practice gap and fostering evidence-based nursing. A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed. The data were collected between October 2006 and April 2007 using the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory. The response rate was 33% (n = 618). Pearson's chi-square tests were used to analyse the data. Nearly 80% of the respondents reported a positive disposition towards critical thinking. The highest mean score was on the Inquisitiveness subscale and the lowest on the Truth-seeking subscale. A statistically significant higher proportion of nurses with high critical thinking scores were found among those older than 30 years, those with university education prior to nursing education, and those working in community health care. Nurse leaders and nurse teachers should encourage and nurture critical thinking among newly graduated nurses and nursing students. The low Truth-seeking scores found may be a result of traditional teaching strategies in nursing education and might indicate a need for more student-active learning models. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Oral Bisphosphonates and Improved Survival of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennert, Gad; Pinchev, Mila; Gronich, Naomi; Saliba, Walid; Flugelman, Anath; Lavi, Idit; Goldberg, Hadassah; Fried, Georgeta; Steiner, Mariana; Bitterman, Arie; Landsman, Keren; Rennert, Hedy S

    2017-04-01

    Purpose: Bisphosphonates are used for treatment or prevention of osteoporosis and of bone metastases. The use of oral bisphosphonates was suggested to be associated with reduced risk of developing breast cancer, and their positive influence on breast cancer survival was only demonstrated with third-generation bisphosphonates. We studied the association of use of oral bisphosphonates after breast cancer diagnosis on overall and breast cancer survival. Experimental Design: A nested case-control analysis was performed using data from the population-based Breast Cancer in Northern Israel Study (BCINIS). Participants were postmenopausal women with newly diagnosed breast cancer insured by Clalit. Use of second-generation bisphosphonates (alendronate and/or risedronate) was identified using computerized prescription records. The analysis was restricted to women who did not use bisphosphonates prior to diagnosis. Results: In a cohort of 3,731 postmenopausal women with breast cancer, followed up for an average of 70 months, there were 799 cases of death which were matched to 15,915 control periods of living breast cancer cases. Use of bisphosphonates after diagnosis for at least 18 months was significantly more common among survivors than among their matched controls who died, adjusted for tumor stage/grade (overall survival: OR = 0.63, 0.41-0.96, P = 0.03; breast cancer-specific survival: OR = 0.28, 0.09-0.91, P = 0.035). A similar advantageous effect, but statistically underpowered, was found in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, ER-negative, and HER2neu-positive tumors. Conclusions: The use of oral bisphosphonates, by postmenopausal, probably osteoporotic, women initiated after diagnosis of breast cancer was associated with a significant improvement in overall and breast-specific odds of survival. Clin Cancer Res; 23(7); 1684-9. ©2016 AACR . ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. Radiotherapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boljesikova, E.; Ligacova, A.

    2012-01-01

    Radiotherapy plays an important role in the treatment of breast carcinoma, reduces local recurrences about 20% (after breast conserving surgery or mastectomy), reduces 15 y mortality for cancer about 5%. The irradiation volumes can cover whole breast ± boost, partial breast, chest wall and regional lymph nodes. In contribution are analysed indications of radiotherapy, radiation techniques with focus on new trends, altered fractionation, partial breast irradiation and toxicity. (author)

  7. Hereditary Breast Cancer: The Era of New Susceptibility Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskevi Apostolou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among females. 5%–10% of breast cancer cases are hereditary and are caused by pathogenic mutations in the considered reference BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. As sequencing technologies evolve, more susceptible genes have been discovered and BRCA1 and BRCA2 predisposition seems to be only a part of the story. These new findings include rare germline mutations in other high penetrant genes, the most important of which include TP53 mutations in Li-Fraumeni syndrome, STK11 mutations in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, and PTEN mutations in Cowden syndrome. Furthermore, more frequent, but less penetrant, mutations have been identified in families with breast cancer clustering, in moderate or low penetrant genes, such as CHEK2, ATM, PALB2, and BRIP1. This paper will summarize all current data on new findings in breast cancer susceptibility genes.

  8. Breast Milk Hormones and Their Protective Effect on Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fissore MariaF

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Data accumulated over recent years have significantly advanced our understanding of growth factors, cytokines, and hormones in breast milk. Here we deal with leptin, adiponectin, IGF-I, ghrelin, and the more recently discovered hormones, obestatin, and resistin, which are present in breast milk and involved in food intake regulation and energy balance. Little is known about these compounds in infant milk formulas. Nutrition in infancy has been implicated in the long-term tendency to obesity, and a longer duration of breastfeeding appears to protect against its development. Diet-related differences in serum leptin and ghrelin values in infancy might explain anthropometric differences and differences in dietary habits between breast-fed and formula-fed infants also later in life. However, there are still gaps in our understanding of how hormones present in breast milk affect children. Here we examine the data related to hormones contained in mother's milk and their potential protective effect on subsequent obesity.

  9. Breast Milk Hormones and Their Protective Effect on Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Savino

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Data accumulated over recent years have significantly advanced our understanding of growth factors, cytokines, and hormones in breast milk. Here we deal with leptin, adiponectin, IGF-I, ghrelin, and the more recently discovered hormones, obestatin, and resistin, which are present in breast milk and involved in food intake regulation and energy balance. Little is known about these compounds in infant milk formulas. Nutrition in infancy has been implicated in the long-term tendency to obesity, and a longer duration of breastfeeding appears to protect against its development. Diet-related differences in serum leptin and ghrelin values in infancy might explain anthropometric differences and differences in dietary habits between breast-fed and formula-fed infants also later in life. However, there are still gaps in our understanding of how hormones present in breast milk affect children. Here we examine the data related to hormones contained in mother's milk and their potential protective effect on subsequent obesity.

  10. Analysis of whole Breast Radiotherapy Methods for Treatment of Early Stage Breast Cancer after Conserving Surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utehina, O.; Popovs, S.; Berzins, J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction. At present moment breast cancer in Latvia is at second place for whole population and at first place among women. In year 2004 there were 1012 new breast cancer cases discovered. There was growth in number of breast cancer patients from 58.6 per 100 000 inhabitants in 1995 to 80.4 per 100 000 inhabitants in 2004. This growth is primarily attributed to breast cancer screening program which is nowadays active in Latvia. Breast cancer is third death cause among cancers in Latvia, - in 1995 there where 27.4 deaths per 100 000 inhabitants and in 2004 - 36.2 deaths per 100 000 inhabitants. Due to screening program there is increasing number of patients with stage I and II breast cancer. In 2004 toe where 9884 women with breast cancer registered in Latvian Cancer Registry and among them 79 percent were presented as stage I or II. Breast conservative surgery with adjuvant radiotherapy as standard part of it plays great role in breast cancer treatment in our Center. In year 2004 there were 103 breast conservative surgeries performed in our Center. Radiotherapy is a standard part of treatment in modem breast saving operations for early stage breast cancer, At present, only whole breast postoperative irradiation is performed in Latvia. For selected group of patients this treatment can be substituted with other radiotherapy methods in order to reduce acute reactions and/or late toxicity, maintaining the same tumor control. Aim of this work is to show that during whole breast irradiation dose maximum and tissue volume which receives doses more than 105% from prescribed dose, is linked with size of treated volume (treated volume - tissue volume receiving > 95% from prescribed dose), which is strictly linked with breast volume. Because of this for large breast volumes there is higher complication probability performing whole breast irradiation, and it seems to be meaningful to use Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy or Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation for

  11. Metagenomic approach for discovering new pathogens in infection disease outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Giombini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Viruses represent the most abundant biological components on earth.They can be found in every environment, from deep layers of oceans to animal bodies.Although several viruses have been isolated and sequenced, in each environment there are millions of different types of viruses that have not been identified yet.The advent of nextgeneration sequencing technologies with their high throughput capabilities make possible to study in a single experiment all the community of microorganisms present in a particular sample “microbioma”.They made more feasible the application of the metagenomic approach, by which it is also possible to discover and identify new pathogens, that may pose a threat to public health.This paper summarizes the most recent applications of nextgeneration sequencing to discover new viral pathogens during the occurrence of infection disease outbreaks.

  12. MRI of the breast: does the internet accurately report its beneficial uses and limitations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekhlyudov, Larissa; Kiarsis, Keith; Elmore, Joann G

    2009-01-01

    As consumer use of the Internet for medical information grows, continuing evaluation of the medical content on the Internet is needed. We evaluated Internet sites describing breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), an emerging technology tool in breast cancer diagnosis and screening. We searched Google for sites describing breast MRI and abstracted the affiliation, content, media type, readability, and quality of 90 most popular unique sites. Over half (56%) of the sites were commercially sponsored. The content varied by site and included medical and procedural facts, information about clinical trials, grants and journal articles, as well as human interest stories. Most (82%) sites described potentially beneficial uses of breast MRI, such as further evaluation of newly diagnosed breast cancers (58%); screening women at high risk for breast cancer (54%); evaluation of abnormal breast findings (48%); screening women with dense breasts (48%) or implants (27%); and surveillance for breast cancer recurrences (24%). Approximately half (56%) of the sites described the limitations of breast MRI, most commonly false positive findings (44%) and costs (24%). Website quality, including the display of contact information, sponsorship, currency of information, authorship, and references varied. The reading level was close to high school graduate. Internet sites describing breast MRI were mostly commercially sponsored, more often described the potential beneficial uses of the procedure than its limitations, and were of variable quality and high reading level. With the lack of enforceable standards for display of medical information on the Internet, providers should encourage patients to direct their searches to the most credible sites.

  13. Discovering the quantum universe the role of particle colliders

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    What does "Quantum Universe" mean? To discover what the universe is made of and how it works is the challenge of particle physics. "Quantum Universe" defines the quest to explain the universe in terms of quantum physics, which governs the behavior of the microscopic, subatomic world. It describes a revolution in particle physics and a quantum leap in our understanding of the mystery and beauty of the universe.

  14. Re-discovering ancient wheat varieties as functional foods

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    With the gluten-free food market worth almost $1.6 bn in 2011, there is every reason for renewed interest in ancient grains. This resurgent interest is expressed in re-discovering ancient varieties as functional foods. In particular, people affected by celiac disease have to avoid all gluten in their diet and several ancient grains may offer an important alternative.

  15. Discovering health topics in social media using topic models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Paul

    Full Text Available By aggregating self-reported health statuses across millions of users, we seek to characterize the variety of health information discussed in Twitter. We describe a topic modeling framework for discovering health topics in Twitter, a social media website. This is an exploratory approach with the goal of understanding what health topics are commonly discussed in social media. This paper describes in detail a statistical topic model created for this purpose, the Ailment Topic Aspect Model (ATAM, as well as our system for filtering general Twitter data based on health keywords and supervised classification. We show how ATAM and other topic models can automatically infer health topics in 144 million Twitter messages from 2011 to 2013. ATAM discovered 13 coherent clusters of Twitter messages, some of which correlate with seasonal influenza (r = 0.689 and allergies (r = 0.810 temporal surveillance data, as well as exercise (r =  .534 and obesity (r =  -.631 related geographic survey data in the United States. These results demonstrate that it is possible to automatically discover topics that attain statistically significant correlations with ground truth data, despite using minimal human supervision and no historical data to train the model, in contrast to prior work. Additionally, these results demonstrate that a single general-purpose model can identify many different health topics in social media.

  16. Breasts and Bras (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Breasts and Bras KidsHealth / For Kids / Breasts and Bras What's in ... more likely to have larger breasts. Getting a Bra Once a girl has breasts, a bra is ...

  17. Stages of Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  18. Olaparib In Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-17

    Metastatic Breast Cancer; Invasive Breast Cancer; Somatic Mutation Breast Cancer (BRCA1); Somatic Mutation Breast Cancer (BRCA2); CHEK2 Gene Mutation; ATM Gene Mutation; PALB2 Gene Mutation; RAD51 Gene Mutation; BRIP1 Gene Mutation; NBN Gene Mutation

  19. Twist promotes reprogramming of glucose metabolism in breast cancer cells through PI3K/AKT and p53 signaling pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jie; Tang, Shifu; Zhang, Hailong; Zhu, Qing; Du, Yan-e; Zhou, Mingli; Wen, Siyang; Xu, Liyun; Tang, Xi; Cui, Xiaojiang; Liu, Manran

    2015-01-01

    Twist, a key regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), plays an important role in the development of a tumorigenic phenotype. Energy metabolism reprogramming (EMR), a newly discovered hallmark of cancer cells, potentiates cancer cell proliferation, survival, and invasion. Currently little is known about the effects of Twist on tumor EMR. In this study, we found that glucose consumption and lactate production were increased and mitochondrial mass was decreased in Twist-overexpressing MCF10A mammary epithelial cells compared with vector-expressing MCF10A cells. Moreover, these Twist-induced phenotypic changes were augmented by hypoxia. The expression of some glucose metabolism-related genes such as PKM2, LDHA, and G6PD was also found to be upregulated. Mechanistically, activated β1-integrin/FAK/PI3K/AKT/mTOR and suppressed P53 signaling were responsible for the observed EMR. Knockdown of Twist reversed the effects of Twist on EMR in Twist-overexpressing MCF10A cells and Twist-positive breast cancer cells. Furthermore, blockage of the β1-integrin/FAK/PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway by siRNA or specific chemical inhibitors, or rescue of p53 activation can partially reverse the switch of glucose metabolism and inhibit the migration of Twist-overexpressing MCF10A cells and Twist-positive breast cancer cells. Thus, our data suggest that Twist promotes reprogramming of glucose metabolism in MCF10A-Twist cells and Twist-positive breast cancer cells via activation of the β1-integrin/FAK/PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and inhibition of the p53 pathway. Our study provides new insight into EMR. PMID:26342198

  20. Breast development and anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Sonali; Moore, Richard G

    2011-03-01

    In this article, the development of the female breast, as well as the functional anatomy, blood supply, innervation and lymphatic drainage are described. A thorough understanding of the breast anatomy is an important adjunct to a meticulous clinical breast examination. Breast examination is a complex skill involving key maneuvers, including careful inspection and palpation. Clinical breast examination can provide an opportunity for the clinician to educate patients about their breast and about breast cancer, its symptoms, risk factors, early detection, and normal breast composition, and specifically variability. Clinical breast examination can help to detect some cancers not found by mammography, and clinicians should not override their examination findings if imaging is not supportive of the physical findings.

  1. Effect of depression before breast cancer diagnosis on mortality among postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaoyun; Margolis, Karen L; Hendryx, Michael; Reeves, Katherine; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Weitlauf, Julie; Danhauer, Suzanne C; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Caan, Bette; Qi, Lihong; Lane, Dorothy; Lavasani, Sayeh; Luo, Juhua

    2017-08-15

    Few previous studies investigating depression before the diagnosis of breast cancer and breast cancer-specific mortality have examined depression measured at more than 1 time point. This study investigated the effect of depression (combining depressive symptoms alone with antidepressant use) measured at 2 time points before the diagnosis of breast cancer on all-cause mortality and breast cancer-specific mortality among older postmenopausal women. A large prospective cohort, the Women's Health Initiative, was used. The study included 3095 women with incident breast cancer who had measures of depressive symptoms and antidepressant use before their diagnosis at the baseline and at year 3. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) between depression at the baseline, depression at year 3, and combinations of depression at these time points and all-cause mortality and breast cancer-specific mortality. Depression at year 3 before a breast cancer diagnosis was associated with higher all-cause mortality after adjustments for multiple covariates (HR, 1.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.78). There was no statistically significant association of baseline depression and all-cause mortality or breast cancer-specific mortality whether or not depression was also present at year 3. In women with late-stage (regional- or distant-stage) breast cancer, newly developed depression at year 3 was significantly associated with both all-cause mortality (HR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.13-3.56) and breast cancer-specific mortality (HR, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.24-4.70). Women with newly developed depression before the diagnosis of breast cancer had a modestly but significantly increased risk for death from any cause and for death from breast cancer at a late stage. Cancer 2017;123:3107-15. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  2. MR imaging examination of both breasts within 6 minutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, W.A.

    1989-01-01

    The authors are studying the utility of MR imaging in the detection of breast neoplasms. With a newly developed double breast coil and a three-dimensional FLASH sequence, both breasts can be measured in adjacent axial sections in a measurement time of 1.71 min. Immediately after the injection of 0.1 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA, the same three-dimensional sequence is repeated twice in order to get postcontrast breast images at two different time intervals. The total measurement time for both breasts does not exceed 6 min. After the dismissal of the patient, automatic image subtraction allows for quick analysis of lesions with a 1-minute enhancement more than 70%, indicating either carcinomas or hyaline fibroadenomas or proliferative dysplasias. Twenty five patients have been investigated with this three-dimensional contrast-enhanced MR examination. All five carcinomas were detected. If these results can be proved in the investigation of a larger number of patients, contrast-enhanced three-dimensional MR imaging of the breast with automatic image subtraction may be an important part of routine breast examinations

  3. Reduced parasympathetic tone in newly diagnosed essential hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar Goit

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: These findings suggest that HRV is reduced in subjects with newly diagnosed essential hypertension and the parasympathetic dysregulation is present in the early stage of essential hypertension.

  4. Breast fibroadenoma with pseudoangiomatous (PASH-like) stroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezic, Josko; Srbljin, Jelena

    2017-08-02

    Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) is a breast stromal change, histologically characterized by anastomosing, slit-like spaces lined by slender myofibroblasts and surrounded by dense collagenous stroma. Mass forming cases clinically and radiologically simulate fibroadenoma. A middle aged women presented with unpalpable breast nodule discovered on ultrasound examination. The ultrasound characteristics were typical for fibroadenoma, while fine-needle aspiration cytology was inconclusive. The histological examination of the lumpectomy specimen showed fibroadenoma with peculiar stromal alteration consistent with pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia. The presented case of fibroadenoma with pseudoangiomatous hyperplasia within its stroma demonstrates the relationship between these two entities not only clinically and radiologically, but also histologically.

  5. Updates on breast cancer genetics: Clinical implications of detecting syndromes of inherited increased susceptibility to breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobain, Erin F; Milliron, Kara J; Merajver, Sofia D

    2016-10-01

    Since the initial discovery that pathogenic germline alterations in BRCA 1/2 increase susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancer, many additional genes have now been discovered that also increase breast cancer risk. Given that several more genes have now been implicated in hereditary breast cancer syndromes, there is increased clinical use of multigene panel testing to evaluate patients with a suspected genetic predisposition to breast cancer. While this is most certainly a cost-effective approach, broader testing strategies have resulted in a higher likelihood of identifying moderate-penetrance genes, for which management guidelines regarding breast cancer risk reduction have not been firmly established. In addition, the testing of more genes has led to increased detection of variants of uncertain significance. We review the current knowledge regarding both high- and moderate-risk hereditary breast cancer syndromes, as well as additional genes implicated in hereditary breast cancer for which there is limited data. Furthermore, strategies for cancer risk reduction in mutation carriers as well as therapeutic implications for those patients who harbor pathogenic germline alterations are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Breast cancer screening in Korean woman with dense breast tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hee Jung [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Eun Sook [Dept. of Radiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Ann [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Asian women, including Korean, have a relatively higher incidence of dense breast tissue, compared with western women. Dense breast tissue has a lower sensitivity for the detection of breast cancer and a higher relative risk for breast cancer, compared with fatty breast tissue. Thus, there were limitations in the mammographic screening for women with dense breast tissue, and many studies for the supplemental screening methods. This review included appropriate screening methods for Korean women with dense breasts. We also reviewed the application and limitation of supplemental screening methods, including breast ultrasound, digital breast tomosynthesis, and breast magnetic resonance imaging; and furthermore investigated the guidelines, as well as the study results.

  7. Breast cancer screening in Korean woman with dense breast tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hee Jung; Ko, Eun Sook; Yi, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Asian women, including Korean, have a relatively higher incidence of dense breast tissue, compared with western women. Dense breast tissue has a lower sensitivity for the detection of breast cancer and a higher relative risk for breast cancer, compared with fatty breast tissue. Thus, there were limitations in the mammographic screening for women with dense breast tissue, and many studies for the supplemental screening methods. This review included appropriate screening methods for Korean women with dense breasts. We also reviewed the application and limitation of supplemental screening methods, including breast ultrasound, digital breast tomosynthesis, and breast magnetic resonance imaging; and furthermore investigated the guidelines, as well as the study results

  8. A newly identified tick-borne Borrelia species and relapsing fever in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisinza, William N; McCall, P J; Mitani, Harumi; Talbert, Alison; Fukunaga, Masahito

    2003-10-18

    Tick-borne relapsing fever caused by the spirochaete Borrelia duttonii is a common cause of serious illness in central Tanzania. Screening of Ornithodoros sp ticks from infested houses for the presence of B duttonii had detected a previously unidentified species of Borrelia. We investigated whether this species infected the human population in a central Tanzanian village, by use of blood slide examination and PCR. PCR was twice as sensitive in detection of infections, showing Borrelia sp in six (11%) of 54 children with fever, and in 13 (4%) of 307 otherwise healthy children. Genotyping Borrelia from 17 infections identified Borrelia duttonii and an unnamed species. Our findings show that the newly discovered species is a causal agent of tick-borne relapsing fever.

  9. The early course of newly diagnosed asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Pierre; Cai, Bing; Blais, Lucie; Suissa, Samy

    2002-01-01

    We describe the intensity of therapy for patients with newly diagnosed asthma and how it changed during subsequent years in relation to age, sex, and initial level of therapy. We examined a cohort of 13,671 patients in Saskatchewan, Canada, who were initially between the ages of 5 and 44 years. Patients were followed prospectively, and the intensity of asthma therapy was measured during successive 12-month periods. Based on the intensity of asthma drug therapy during the first year after entry into the cohort, 6661 patients (48.7%) were initially prescribed therapy judged to be appropriate for mild asthma, and 977 (7.1%) were dispensed medications in a manner suggesting their asthma was severe; the remaining 6033 (44.1%) were classified as receiving treatment of intermediate intensity. Among patients initially classified as receiving treatment appropriate for mild disease, only about 3% were dispensed medications that suggested that their asthma had become severe during up to 5 years of follow-up. Intensity of therapy waned in a substantial proportion of patients who were initially classified as having severe asthma, especially if they were initially younger than 15 years of age. Thirty-four per 100 patients initially younger than 15 years old were receiving medications appropriate for mild asthma, and 23 per 100 such patients received no medication for asthma during a 12-month period when followed up to 5 years. Patients with asthma who are initially treated with therapy appropriate for mild asthma are rarely treated later with therapy suggesting the advent of severe disease. Patients initially dispensed medications suggesting the presence of severe asthma often see the intensity of treatment wane over time.

  10. Tools and strategies for discovering novel enzymes and metabolic pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Gerlt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The number of entries in the sequence databases continues to increase exponentially – the UniProt database is increasing with a doubling time of ∼4 years (2% increase/month. Approximately 50% of the entries have uncertain, unknown, or incorrect function annotations because these are made by automated methods based on sequence homology. If the potential in complete genome sequences is to be realized, strategies and tools must be developed to facilitate experimental assignment of functions to uncharacterized proteins discovered in genome projects. The Enzyme Function Initiative (EFI; previously supported by U54GM093342 from the National Institutes of Health, now supported by P01GM118303 developed web tools for visualizing and analyzing (1 sequence and function space in protein families (EFI-EST and (2 genome neighbourhoods in microbial and fungal genomes (EFI-GNT to assist the design of experimental strategies for discovering the in vitro activities and in vivo metabolic functions of uncharacterized enzymes. The EFI developed an experimental platform for large-scale production of the solute binding proteins (SBPs for ABC, TRAP, and TCT transport systems and their screening with a physical ligand library to identify the identities of the ligands for these transport systems. Because the genes that encode transport systems are often co-located with the genes that encode the catabolic pathways for the transported solutes, the identity of the SBP ligand together with the EFI-EST and EFI-GNT web tools can be used to discover new enzyme functions and new metabolic pathways. This approach is demonstrated with the characterization of a novel pathway for ethanolamine catabolism.

  11. Aplicación del modelo Discovering Hands en Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Infante Rasch, Oriana; Urbina Hueso, Jhoan Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Discovering Hands (DH) es un proyecto que nace en Alemania en el 2006, liderado por el doctor Frank Hoffmann. El programa se desarrolla pensando en el importante problema de salud pública en el cual se ha convertido en el cáncer de mama, pues según la Organización Mundial de la Salud es el mayor causal de muerte en mujeres, tanto en países desarrollados como en vía de desarrollo, y en Alemania esta enfermedad acaba con la vida de aproximadamente 18.000 mujeres cada año. (The Global Journal, ...

  12. Very Bright CV discovered by MASTER-ICATE (Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffe, C.; Levato, H.; Mallamaci, C.; Lopez, C.; Lipunov, F. Podest V.; Denisenko, D.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kornilov, V.; Belinski, A.; Shatskiy, N.; Chazov, V.; Kuznetsov, A.; Yecheistov, V.; Yurkov, V.; Sergienko, Y.; Varda, D.; Sinyakov, E.; Gabovich, A.; Ivanov, K.; Yazev, S.; Budnev, N.; Konstantinov, E.; Chuvalaev, O.; Poleshchuk, V.; Gress, O.; Frolova, A.; Krushinsky, V.; Zalozhnih, I.; Popov, A.; Bourdanov, A.; Parkhomenko, A.; Tlatov, A.; Dormidontov, D.; Senik, V.; Podvorotny, P.; Shumkov, V.; Shurpakov, S.

    2013-06-01

    MASTER-ICATE very wide-field camera (d=72mm f/1.2 lens + 11 Mpix CCD) located near San Juan, Argentina has discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 14h 20m 23.5s -48d 55m 40s on the combined image (exposure 275 sec) taken on 2013-06-08.048 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 12.1m (limit 13.1m). There is no minor planet at this place. The OT is seen in more than 10 images starting from 2013-06-02.967 UT (275 sec exposure) when it was first detected at 12.4m.

  13. An approach for discovering keywords from Spanish tweets using Wikipedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel AYALA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Most approaches to keywords discovery when analyzing microblogging messages (among them those from Twitter are based on statistical and lexical information about the words that compose the text. The lack of context in the short messages can be problematic due to the low co-occurrence of words. In this paper, we present a new approach for keywords discovering from Spanish tweets based on the addition of context information using Wikipedia as a knowledge base. We present four different ways to use Wikipedia and two ways to rank the new keywords. We have tested these strategies using more than 60000 Spanish tweets, measuring performance and analyzing particularities of each strategy.

  14. Growing Self-Estemm and Discovering Intelligences through Oral Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochoa Dora Liliana

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available After having applied a needs analysis in an eleventh grade course of English, I could notice that there was a big lack of security and self-confidence in the students. They expressed in different data-gathering instruments their fear when speaking in front of the class. Also, they talked about their insecurity when pronouncing English and the need for more opportunities for developing speaking. Therefore, the implementation of an innovation in class was carried out in order to respond to the students¿ needs and make them discover their talents. The implementation was successful and students improved some areas of their communicative competence.

  15. Knots and surfaces a guide to discovering mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Farmer, David W

    1995-01-01

    In most mathematics textbooks, the most exciting part of mathematics-the process of invention and discovery-is completely hidden from the reader. The aim of Knots and Surfaces is to change all that. By means of a series of carefully selected tasks, this book leads readers to discover some real mathematics. There are no formulas to memorize; no procedures to follow. The book is a guide: its job is to start you in the right direction and to bring you back if you stray too far. Discovery is left to you. Suitable for a one-semester course at the beginning undergraduate level, there are no prerequi

  16. Two key polymorphisms in a newly discovered allele of the Vitis vinifera TPS24 gene are responsible for the production of the rotundone precursor α-guaiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drew, Damian Paul; Andersen, Trine Bundgaard; Sweetman, Crystal

    2016-01-01

    Rotundone was initially identified as a grape-derived compound responsible for the peppery aroma of Shiraz wine varieties. It has subsequently been found in black and white pepper and several other spices. Because of its potent aroma, the molecular basis for rotundone formation is of particular...... relevance to grape and wine scientists and industry. We have identified and functionally characterized in planta a sesquiterpene synthase, VvGuaS, from developing grape berries, and have demonstrated that it produces the precursor of rotundone, α-guaiene, as its main product. The VvGuaS enzyme is a novel...

  17. Preliminary stratigraphy and facies analysis of the Upper Cretaceous Kaguyak Formation, including a brief summary of newly discovered oil stain, upper Alaska Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartes, Marwan A.; Decker, Paul L.; Stanley, Richard G.; Herriott, Trystan M.; Helmold, Kenneth P.; Gillis, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys has an ongoing program aimed at evaluating the Mesozoic forearc stratigraphy, structure, and petroleum systems of lower Cook Inlet. Most of our field studies have focused on the Jurassic component of the petroleum system (this report). However, in late July and early August of 2012, we initiated a study of the stratigraphy and reservoir potential of the Upper Cretaceous Kaguyak Formation. The Kaguyak Formation is locally well exposed on the upper Alaska Peninsula (fig. 25) and was named by Keller and Reiser (1959) for a sequence of interbedded siltstone and sandstone of upper Campanian to Maastrichtian age that they estimated to be 1,450 m thick.Subsequent work by Detterman and Miller (1985) examined 900 m of section and interpreted the unit as the record of a prograding submarine fan.This interpretation of deep-water deposition contrasts with other Upper Cretaceous rocks exposed along the Alaska Peninsula and lower Cook Inlet that are generally described as nonmarine to shallow marine (Detterman and others, 1996; LePain and others, 2012).Based on foraminifera and palynomorphs from the COST No. 1 well, Magoon (1986) concluded that the Upper Cretaceous rocks were deposited in a variety of water depths and environments ranging from upper bathyal to nonmarine. During our recent fieldwork west and south of Fourpeaked Mountain, we similarly encountered markedly varying lithofacies in the Kaguyak Formation (fig. 25), and we also found oil-stained rocks that are consistent with the existence of an active petroleum system in Upper Cretaceous rocks on the upper Alaska Peninsula and in lower Cook Inlet. These field observations are summarized below.

  18. Study of the Microbial Diversity of a Newly Discovered East Antarctic Freshwater Lake, L27C, and of a Perennially Ice-Covered Lake Untersee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jonathan P.; Hoover, Richard B.; Andersen, Dale; Bej, Asim K.

    2010-01-01

    The microbial communities that reside within freshwater lakes of Schirmacher and Untersee Oases in East Antarctica must cope with extreme conditions that may include cold temperature, annual freeze-thaw cycles, exposure to UV radiation, especially during the austral summer months, low light beneath thick ice-cover, followed by seasonal darkness. The objective of this study was to assess the microbial biodiversity and distribution from samples taken from two freshwater lakes (L27C and Lake Untersee) that were collected during the Tawani 2008 International Antarctic Expedition that conducted research in this region of Antarctica. L27C is a small, previously unreported lake residing 2 km WNW of Maitri Station at Schirmacher Oasis. Biodiversity and distribution of microorganisms within the lake were studied using both culture-independent and culture-dependent methodologies based upon the analysis of eubacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences. Lake Untersee, a perennially ice-covered, ultra-oligotrophic, lake in the Otto-von-Gruber-Gebirge (Gruber Mountains) of central Dronning Maud Land was also sampled and the microbial diversity was analyzed by eubacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences derived from pure cultures. Direct culturing of water samples from each lake on separate R2A growth medium exhibited a variety of microorganisms including: Janthinobacterium, Hymenobacter, Sphingamonas, Subtercola, Deinococcus, Arthrobacter, Flavobacterium, Polaromonas, Rhodoferax and Duganella. The evaluation of samples from L27C through culture-independent methodology identified a rich microbial diversity consisting of six different phyla of bacteria. The culture-independent analysis also displayed the majority of bacteria (56%) belonged to the Class gamma-proteobacteria within the phylum Proteobacteria. Within the Class gamma-proteobacteria, Acinetobacter dominated (48%) the total microbial load. Overall, L27C exhibited 7 different phyla of bacteria and 20 different genera. Statistical analysis (Shannon-Weaver Diversity Index and Simpson Diversity Index) of the biodiversity of L27C displayed a moderately rich and diverse community. Investigations of the biodiversity and distribution of microorganisms in these lakes will help further our understanding of how the physical environment impact the structure and function within these microbially dominated ecosystems.

  19. Investigating the stratigraphy and palaeoenvironments for a suite of newly discovered mid-Cretaceous vertebrate fossil-localities in the Winton Formation, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Ryan T.; Roberts, Eric M.; Darlington, Vikie; Salisbury, Steven W.

    2017-08-01

    The Winton Formation of central Queensland is recognized as a quintessential source of mid-Cretaceous terrestrial faunas and floras in Australia. However, sedimentological investigations linking fossil assemblages and palaeoenvironments across this unit remain limited. The intent of this study was to interpret depositional environments and improve stratigraphic correlations between multiple fossil localities within the preserved Winton Formation in the Eromanga Basin, including Isisford, Lark Quarry, and Bladensburg National Park. Twenty-three facies and six repeated facies associations were documented, indicating a mosaic of marginal marine to inland alluvial depositional environments. These developed synchronously with the final regression of the Eromanga Seaway from central Australia during the late Albian-early Turonian. Investigations of regional- and local-scale structural features and outcrop, core and well analysis were combined with detrital zircon provenance signatures to help correlate stratigraphy and vertebrate faunas across the basin. Significant palaeoenvironmental differences exist between the lower and upper portions of the preserved Winton Formation, warranting informal subdivisions; a lower tidally influenced fluvial-deltaic member and an upper inland alluvial member. This work further demonstrates that the Isisford fauna is part of the lower member of the preserved Winton Formation; whereas, fossil localities around Winton, including Lark Quarry and Bladensburg National Park, are part of the upper member of the Winton Formation. These results permit a more meaningful framework for both regional and global comparisons of the Winton flora and fauna.

  20. The big squeeze: ecosystem change and contraction of habitat for newly discovered deep-water reefs off the U.S. West Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickes, L.; Etnoyer, P. J.; Lauermann, A.; Rosen, D.

    2016-02-01

    Cold-water reefs are fragile, complex ecosystems that extend into the bathyal depths of the ocean, creating three dimensional structure and habitat for a diversity of deep-water invertebrates and fishes. The cold waters of the California Current support a diverse assemblage of these corals at relatively shallow depths close to shore. At these depths and locations the communities face a multitude of stressors, including low carbonate saturations, hypoxia, changing temperature, and coastal pollution. The current study employed ROV surveys (n=588, 2003-2015) to document the distribution of deep-sea corals in the Southern California Bight, including the first description of a widespread reef-building coral in the naturally acidified waters off the U.S. West Coast. We provide empirical evidence of species survival in the corrosive waters (Ωarag 0.67-1.86), but find loss of reef integrity. Recent publications have implied acclimation, resistance, and resilience of cold-water reef-building corals to ocean acidification, but results of this study indicate a cost to skeletal framework development with a subsequent loss of coral habitat. While ocean acidification and declines in oxygen are expected to further impinge on Lophelia at depth (𝑥̅=190 m), surface warming and coastal polution may affect shallower populations and mesophotic reef assemblages, resulting in a contraction of available coral habitat. Recent observations of die offs of gorgonians and antipatharians from surveys in shallow (50 m) and deep water (500 m) provide compelling evidence of ongoing ecosystem changes. Concurrent losses in habitat quality in deep and mesophotic waters suggest that corals may be "squeezed" into a more restricted depth range. New monitoring efforts aim to characterize the health and condition of deep corals with respect to gradients in carbonate chemistry, coastal pollution and changing temperatures, to assess vulnerability and both current and future habitat suitability.

  1. Functional Expression. Ephrin Receptor Tropism, and Heterotypic Functionality of the Attachment and Fusion Glycoproteins of Cedar Virus, a Newly Discovered Henipavirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    the apparent absence of NiV disease episodes in Cambodia are due to differences in the virulence of NiV lineages is not currently known. 1.3...relationships to viruses and human health. This represents a renewed interest in work that was begun with the discovery of 25 rabies virus in bats in...develop detection methods that are specific enough to distinguish the highly virulent NiV and HeV from other circulating “henipa-like” viruses. Here

  2. Insights into Magmatic-Hydrothermal Processes in the Newly-Discovered Seafloor Massive Sulfide Deposits of the New Hebrides Arc-Backarc System, SW Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, M. O.; Hannington, M. D.; Haase, K. M.; Schwarz-Schampera, U.; McConachy, T.

    2014-12-01

    Magmatic processes leading to hydrothermal venting and the controls on the distribution of vents at two locations along the New Hebrides arc-backarc system are being revealed by new bathymetric data and geological maps interpreted from remotely operated vehicle dive videos. The Nifonea volcanic complex spans the width of the Vate Trough, a nascent backarc basin located ~50 km to the east of the New Hebrides arc. Hydrothermal activity occurs in the caldera at the summit of Nifonea at a water depth of ~1875 m. A NW-trending eruptive fissure cuts through the center of the caldera near the area of active venting. This fissure is associated with isolated pillow mounds and collapse features along its length, and is the source of extensive jumbled sheet flows that cover the caldera floor. Low-temperature, diffuse venting is widespread; active black smoker chimneys are localized on and around the pillow mounds, in clusters of ~20 x 20 m and growing directly on the flows. The impression is that the hydrothermal venting is young and not yet "organized," in large part because of the eruptive style dominated by collapsed sheet flows. The Tinakula seafloor massive sulfide (SMS) deposit is located in a much shallower (~1150 m), extended arc-backarc setting at the northern end of the New Hebrides arc, ~25 km from the arc front. Chimney fields occur along two corridors, and are associated with volcanic mounds and calderas. The eastern field occupies an area of ~1200 x 200 m, and the western sulfide field is ~500 x 100 m in size. The density of chimneys appears to be largely controlled by permeability of the volcanic facies, which are dominated by autoclastic and hyaloclastic breccias. Tinakula has been commercially drilled, offering insight into the third dimension of the system. This is one of the first studies of SMS deposits in the New Hebrides arc and fills a 'knowledge gap' in the occurrence of seafloor hydrothermal systems in arc-related settings of the Melanesian archipelago.

  3. Regulation of mitosis by the NIMA kinase involves TINA and its newly discovered partner, An-WDR8, at spindle pole bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Kuo-Fang; Osmani, Stephen A.

    2013-01-01

    The NIMA kinase is required for mitotic nuclear pore complex disassembly and potentially controls other mitotic-specific events. To investigate this possibility, we imaged NIMA–green fluorescent protein (GFP) using four-dimensional spinning disk confocal microscopy. At mitosis NIMA-GFP locates to spindle pole bodies (SPBs), which contain Cdk1/cyclin B, followed by Aurora, TINA, and the BimC kinesin. NIMA promotes NPC disassembly in a spatially regulated manner starting near SPBs. NIMA is also required for TINA, a NIMA-interacting protein, to locate to SPBs during initiation of mitosis, and TINA is then necessary for locating NIMA back to SPBs during mitotic progression. To help expand the NIMA-TINA pathway, we affinity purified TINA and found it to uniquely copurify with An-WDR8, a WD40-domain protein conserved from humans to plants. Like TINA, An-WDR8 accumulates within nuclei during G2 but disperses from nuclei before locating to mitotic SPBs. Without An-WDR8, TINA levels are greatly reduced, whereas TINA is necessary for mitotic targeting of An-WDR8. Finally, we show that TINA is required to anchor mitotic microtubules to SPBs and, in combination with An-WDR8, for successful mitosis. The findings provide new insights into SPB targeting and indicate that the mitotic microtubule-anchoring system at SPBs involves WDR8 in complex with TINA. PMID:24152731

  4. Petrographic studies on a newly discovered Indo-Arabian stone anchor from the Gulf of Kachchh, Gujarat: Implications for source area

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Mudholkar, A.; Khedekar, V.

    based on mean SOC content for a region or for a specific soil type, and the methods of SOC estimation were different in most cases. Consideration of spatial variation may result in accurate estimation of SOC stock of a farm and will also lead to a... and sequestration rates in maize–wheat–cowpea crop- ping system. Geoderma, 2008, 144, 370–378. 16. Walkley, A. and Black, I. A., An examination of Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter, and a proposed modi- fication of the chromic acid titration...

  5. Study on Reproductive Biology of Rhododendron longipedicellatum: A Newly Discovered and Special Threatened Plant Surviving in Limestone Habitat in Southeast Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiqiang Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhododendron longipedicellatum is a narrow endemic species and a subject of urgent demand in the domestic market and overseas. Its fascinating shapes, brilliantly gilvous flowers, and unusual flowering time endow this species with extremely high ornamental value. However, only five wild populations of R. longipedicellatum surviving in limestone habitat have been found through elaborate field investigation, and the number of the populations decreases further or is even confronted with risk of extinction due to the damage of human activities. To enhance the protection and utilization of R. longipedicellatum, this study systematically investigated several important aspects of reproductive biology, including floral syndrome, pollen viability and stigma receptivity, petal color reflectance, breeding system, and pollination biology. The results demonstrated that arched styles not only create obvious herkogamy that avoide self-pollination, but also effectively reduce rain damage to the intrinsic characteristics of the stigma surface secretions, promoting the female fitness of R. longipedicellatum in poor weather. Pollen viability maintained a high level over the flowering period. The reflectance spectrum of petals had two peaks at wavelengths of 360 and 580 nm. Tests of OCI, P/O and artificial pollination all indicated that R. longipedicellatum was self-compatible and that the breeding system was mixed mating. Geitonogamy mediated by Bombus braccatus was the primary pollination route in the natural environment, which suggested that the breeding system of R. longipedicellatum might be evolving from selfing to outcrossing. The pollination vector of R. longipedicellatum was very specific, in that only B. braccatus was confirmed to deliver pollen to the stigmas. Visitation frequency was influenced by the activity rhythms and resource requirements of the different castes (i.e., sex. B. braccatus workers were the most effective pollinators because of higher visitation frequency and more effective contribution to fruit production, whereas the presence of B. braccatus males might enhance pollen flow within the population to a certain extent. Finally, these findings not only provided a reliable theoretical basis for hybridization breeding of R. longipedicellatum as parents, but also laid a solid foundation for further molecular biology studies to more broadly reveal the mechanisms of its endangerment in the future.

  6. Characterization of A-11, a newly discovered X-chromosomal gene that is under both single-active-X control and tissue-specific control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadon, N.L.

    1987-01-01

    The A-11 transcript is present in fibroblasts, but is not normally expressed in B- or T-lymphoblastoid cells. The regulation of the A-11 loci on both the active and inactive X chromosomes is very easily perturbed. The A-11 locus on the fibroblast-derived inactive X in a hybrid cell is reactivated at a very high rate by 5-azacytidine, an inhibitor of DNA methylation, while the A-11 locus on the active X in B-lymphoblastoid cells is derepressed at a very high rate after gamma irradiation. The A-11 gene codes for a mature transcript of about 1.9 kb. The A-11 cDNA clone is incomplete, and contains 753 bases from the 3' end of the gene. A genomic clone that contains about 17 kb of human DNA and hybridizes to the A-11 cDNA was isolated. This clone contains at least the last exon of the A-11 gene, as determined by Northern blotting, nuclease protection experiments, and DNA sequencing. When the genomic clone is transferred into mouse cells. A-11 transcripts of both normal and abnormal sizes are produced, indicating that it is possible that the genomic clone contains the entire locus. However, at this time, the 5' end of the gene has not been located

  7. OPEN CLUSTERS IN THE MILKY WAY OUTER DISK: NEWLY DISCOVERED AND UNSTUDIED CLUSTERS IN THE SPITZER GLIMPSE-360, CYG-X, AND SMOG SURVEYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zasowski, G.; Beaton, R. L.; Hamm, K. K.; Majewski, S. R.; Patterson, R. J.; Babler, B.; Churchwell, E.; Meade, M.; Whitney, B. A.; Benjamin, R. A.; Watson, C.

    2013-01-01

    Open stellar clusters are extremely valuable probes of Galactic structure, star formation, kinematics, and chemical abundance patterns. Near-infrared (NIR) data have enabled the detection of hundreds of clusters hidden from optical surveys, and mid-infrared (MIR) data are poised to offer an even clearer view into the most heavily obscured parts of the Milky Way. We use new MIR images from the Spitzer GLIMPSE-360, Cyg-X, and SMOG surveys to visually identify a large number of open cluster candidates in the outer disk of the Milky Way (65° < l < 265°). Using NIR color-magnitude diagrams, stellar isochrones, and stellar reddening estimates, we derive cluster parameters (metallicity, distance, reddening) for those objects without previous identification and/or parameters in the literature. In total, we present coordinates and sizes of 20 previously unknown open cluster candidates; for 7 of these we also present metallicity, distance, and reddening values. In addition, we provide the first estimates of these values for nine clusters that had been previously cataloged. We compare our cluster sizes and other derived parameters to those in the open cluster catalog of Dias et al. and find strong similarities except for a higher mean reddening for our objects, which signifies our increased detection sensitivity in regions of high extinction. The results of this cluster search and analysis demonstrate the ability of MIR imaging and photometry to augment significantly the current census of open clusters in the Galaxy

  8. CeFunMO: A centrality based method for discovering functional motifs with application in biological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouhsar, Morteza; Razaghi-Moghadam, Zahra; Mousavian, Zaynab; Masoudi-Nejad, Ali

    2016-09-01

    Detecting functional motifs in biological networks is one of the challenging problems in systems biology. Given a multiset of colors as query and a list-colored graph (an undirected graph with a set of colors assigned to each of its vertices), the problem is reduced to finding connected subgraphs, which best cover the multiset of query. To solve this NP-complete problem, we propose a new color-based centrality measure for list-colored graphs. Based on this newly-defined measure of centrality, a novel polynomial time algorithm is developed to discover functional motifs in list-colored graphs, using a greedy strategy. This algorithm, called CeFunMO, has superior running time and acceptable accuracy in comparison with other well-known algorithms, such as RANGI and GraMoFoNe. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. In Vitro Apoptosis Triggering in the BT-474 Human Breast Cancer Cell Line by Lyophilised Camel's Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, Sidgi S A A; Al-Busaidi, Juma Zaid; Al-Qarni, Zahra A M; Rajapakse, S; Al-Bahlani, Shadia; Idris, Mohamed Ahmed; Sallam, Talal A

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is a global health concern and is a major cause of death among women. In Oman, it is the most common cancer in women, with an incidence rate of 15.6 per 100,000 Omani females. Various anticancer remedies have been discovered from natural products in the past and the search is continuing for additional examples. Cytotoxic natural compounds may have a major role in cancer therapy either in potentiating the effect of chemotherapy or reducing its harmful effects. Recently, a few studies have reported advantages of using crude camel milk in treating some forms of cancer. However, no adequate data are available on the lyophilised camel's milk responsibility for triggering apoptosis and oxidative stress associated with human breast cancer. The present study aimed to address the role of the lyophilised camel's milk in inducing proliferation repression of BT-474 and HEp-2 cells compared with the non-cancer HCC1937 BL cell line. Lyophilized camel's milk fundamentally repressed BT-474 cells growth and proliferation through the initiation of either the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways as indicated by both caspase-3 mRNA and its action level, and induction of death receptors in BT-474 but not the HEp-2 cell line. In addition, lyophilised camel's milk enhanced the expression of oxidative stress markers, heme-oxygenase-1 and reactive oxygen species production in BT-474 cells. Increase in caspase-3 mRNA levels by the lyophilised camel's milk was completely prevented by the actinomycin D, a transcriptional inhibitor. This suggests that lyophilized camel's milk increased newly synthesized RNA. Interestingly,it significantly (pcamel's milk might instigate apoptosis through initiation of an alternative apoptotic pathway.

  10. Changes to Your Breasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lumps to be cancer. Should I wear a bra? top Wearing a bra can help support and protect your breasts. If ... breasts start to grow, try wearing a sports bra with a snug fit for support. Are you ...

  11. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the other breast may consider a bilateral mastectomy, meaning both breasts are removed. This includes women with ... Fluorouracil (5-FU, Adrucil) Gemcitabine (Gemzar) Methotrexate (multiple brand names) Paclitaxel (Taxol) Protein-bound paclitaxel (Abraxane) Vinorelbine ( ...

  12. HEREDITARY BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Bit-Sava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary breast cancer occurs in 5–20 % of cases and it is associated with inherited mutations in particular genes, such as BRCA1 и BRCA2 in most cases. The CHEK2, PTEN, TP53, ATM, RAD51, BLM, PALB2, Nbs genes are associated with low and median risks ofdeveloping breast cancer. Molecular genetic studies identify germinal mutations underlying hereditary breast cancer. In most cases hereditary breast cancer refers to triple-negative phenotype, which is the most aggressive type of breast cancer, that does not express the genes for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2. The review presents the diagnostic and treatment methods of hereditary breast cancer. Clinical-morphological aspects allow the new diagnostic and treatment methods of hereditary breast cancer to be identified. Poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP inhibitors demonstrate the potential for effective treatment of BRCA-associated breast cancer.

  13. Breast cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000911.htm Breast cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... Once your health care team knows you have breast cancer , they will do more tests to stage it. ...

  14. Breast Cancer - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Expand Section Breast Biopsy - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Breast Cancer - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) Bilingual ...

  15. Breast radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - breast - discharge ... away around 4 to 6 weeks after the radiation treatment is over. You may notice changes in ... breast looks or feels (if you are getting radiation after a lumpectomy). These changes include: Soreness or ...

  16. Breast Lift (Mastopexy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your breast skin to stretch and lose elasticity. Gravity. Over time, gravity causes ligaments in the breasts to stretch and ... You'll likely need to avoid taking aspirin, anti-inflammatory drugs and herbal supplements, which can increase ...

  17. Breast Reconstruction with Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What you can expect Breast reconstruction begins with placement of a breast implant or tissue expander, either at the time of your mastectomy surgery (immediate reconstruction) or during a later procedure (delayed reconstruction). ...

  18. Breast enlargement in males

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be done to rule out certain diseases: Blood hormone level tests Breast ultrasound Liver and kidney function studies Mammogram TREATMENT Often no treatment is needed. Breast growth in newborns and young boys often goes away ...

  19. Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus in Newly Admitted Undergraduates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus was studied in newly admitted undergraduates of Olabisi Onabanjo University. A total of 2,421 apparently healthy young adults (undergraduates) were randomly selected from the newly admitted undergraduates who registered in a session (period of 9 months) in Olabisi Onabanjo ...

  20. The impact of organisational culture on the adaptation of newly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Usually newly employed nurses find adjusting to a work setting a challenging experience. Their successful adaptation to their work situation is greatly influenced by the socialisation process inherent in the organisational culture. The newly employed nurse often finds that the norms are unclear, confusing and restrictive.

  1. Successful enculturation: strategies for retaining newly hired nursing faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazza, Elizabeth A; Shellenbarger, Teresa

    2005-01-01

    Although the nursing faculty shortage negatively impacts student enrollment figures, it also facilitates career mobility of nursing faculty. To retain qualified faculty, nursing programs need to implement supportive programs that facilitate successful enculturation of the newly hired faculty member. The authors propose a series of supportive activities aimed at enculturation and subsequent retention of newly hired nursing faculty.

  2. Problems faced by newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus patients at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetes mellitus can be a frightening experience for newly diagnosed patients. The aim of this study was to determine and describe the problems faced by newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus patients at primary healthcare facilities at Mopani district, Limpopo Province. A qualitative, descriptive and contextual research ...

  3. Newly qualified midwives working experiences and challenges in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Minimal research was done on experiences of the newly qualified registered nurse and midwife during the compulsory community service years. The aim of this study was to describe the newly qualified registered nurses and midwives lived experiences of compulsory community service in public maternity care in Gauteng ...

  4. Assessment for markers of nephropathy in newly diagnosed type 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess for markers of nephropathy in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetics, using blood pressure levels, endogenous creatinine clearance and urinary protein excretion as markers of renal disease. Study design: Ninety newly diagnosed type 2 diabetics were studied within 6 weeks of diagnosis. They were in ...

  5. Breast Cancer and Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guluzar Arzu Turan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women and may accompany infertility. The relationship between infertility treatment and breast cancer has not yet been proven. However, estrogen exposure is well known to cause breast cancer. Recent advances in treatment options have provided young patients with breast cancer a chance of being mother [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(3.000: 317-323

  6. Tamoxifen for Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Karn

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the common cancers. Hormonal therapy along with surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and targeted therapy are vital modalities for the management of breast cancer. Tamoxifen has been the most widely used hormonal therapy for more than two decades. In this article we review the benefits, dose, duration and timing of Tamoxifen therapy in patients with breast cancer. Keywords: breast cancer, hormonal therapy, tamoxifen.

  7. [Breast cancer surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlastos, Georges; Berclaz, Gilles; Langer, Igor; Pittet-Cuenod, Brigitte; Delaloye, Jean-François

    2007-10-24

    Breast conserving surgery followed by radiation therapy is the treatment of choice for early breast cancer. For patients who choice or need a mastectomy, breast reconstruction provides an acceptable alternative. Breast cancer surgery has been evolving through minimally invasive approaches. Sentinel node biopsy has already remplaced axillary lymph node dissection in the evaluation of the axilla. Local ablation of the tumor may be a valuable alternative to surgery in the future.

  8. Discovering Plate Boundaries, a data rich classroom exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, D. S.; Henning, A. T.; Shipp, S.

    2002-12-01

    I have developed an exercise called "Discovering Plate Boundaries" that is getting increasing use in the Houston area, via teacher workshop sessions I give, and nationally through my web page and teacher workshops lead by colleagues. The exercise is based on 5 world maps containing earthquake, volcano, topography, satellite gravity, and seafloor age data. The novel aspect of the exercise is the "jigsaw" manner in which student groups access the maps and use them to discover, classify, and describe plate boundary types. The exercise is based only on observation and description, which makes it useful at a wide variety of levels; I have used it successfully in 5th grade classes, 8th grade classes, as well as in high school and earth science classes at Rice University. The exercise is based on a set of wall maps that are not consumed during the exercise. The consumables are inexpensive: two 11x17 in. B&W copies per student and some colored pencils. Because the exercise is not based on student access to the web, it is not dependent on classroom technology equipment. The exercise takes three 50 minute class periods to complete and involves the students in making presentations to one another in small groups as well as to the whole class. The students come away from the exercise with knowledge of the key features of each type of plate boundary and a sense of why each looks/acts the way it does.

  9. Discovering the cosmos with small spacecraft the American explorer program

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Explorer was the original American space program and Explorer 1 its first satellite, launched in 1958. Sixty years later, it is the longest continuously running space program in the world, demonstrating to the world how we can explore the cosmos with small spacecraft. Almost a hundred Explorers have already been launched.  Explorers have made some of the fundamental discoveries of the Space Age.Explorer 1 discovered Earth’s radiation belts. Later Explorers surveyed the Sun, the X-ray and ultraviolet universes, black holes, magnetars and gamma ray bursts. An Explorer found the remnant of the Big Bang. One Explorer chased and was the first to intercept a comet. The program went through a period of few launches during the crisis of funding for space science in the 1980s. However, with the era of ‘faster, cheaper, better,’ the program was reinvented, and new exiting missions began to take shape, like Swift and the asteroid hunter WISE.  Discovering the Cosmos with Small Spacecraft gives an account of ...

  10. Cooperative transcription factor associations discovered using regulatory variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karczewski, Konrad J; Tatonetti, Nicholas P; Landt, Stephen G; Yang, Xinqiong; Slifer, Teri; Altman, Russ B; Snyder, Michael

    2011-08-09

    Regulation of gene expression at the transcriptional level is achieved by complex interactions of transcription factors operating at their target genes. Dissecting the specific combination of factors that bind each target is a significant challenge. Here, we describe in detail the Allele Binding Cooperativity test, which uses variation in transcription factor binding among individuals to discover combinations of factors and their targets. We developed the ALPHABIT (a large-scale process to hunt for allele binding interacting transcription factors) pipeline, which includes statistical analysis of binding sites followed by experimental validation, and demonstrate that this method predicts transcription factors that associate with NFκB. Our method successfully identifies factors that have been known to work with NFκB (E2A, STAT1, IRF2), but whose global coassociation and sites of cooperative action were not known. In addition, we identify a unique coassociation (EBF1) that had not been reported previously. We present a general approach for discovering combinatorial models of regulation and advance our understanding of the genetic basis of variation in transcription factor binding.

  11. Novel virophages discovered in a freshwater lake in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaowen eGong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Virophages are small double-stranded DNA viruses that are parasites of giant DNA viruses that infect unicellular eukaryotes. Here we identify a novel group of virophages, named Dishui Lake virophages (DSLVs that were discovered in Dishui Lake (DSL: an artificial freshwater lake in Shanghai, China. Based on PCR and metagenomic analysis, the complete genome of DSLV1 was found to be circular and 28,788 base pairs in length, with a G+C content 43.2%, and 28 predicted open reading frames (ORFs. Fifteen of the DSLV1 ORFs have sequence similarity to known virophages. Two DSLV1 ORFs exhibited sequence similarity to that of prasinoviruses (Phycodnaviridae and chloroviruses (Phycodnaviridae, respectively, suggesting horizontal gene transfer occurred between these large algal DNA viruses and DSLV1. 46 other virophages-related contigs were also obtained, including six homologous major capsid protein (MCP gene. Phylogenetic analysis of these MCPs showed that DSLVs are closely related to OLV (Organic Lake virophage and YSLVs (Yellowstone Lake virophages, especially to YSLV3, except for YSLV7. These results indicate that freshwater ecotopes are the hotbed for discovering novel virophages as well as understanding their diversity and properties.

  12. Learning Faster by Discovering and Exploiting Object Similarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Janež

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we explore the question: “Is it possible to speed up the learning process of an autonomous agent by performing experiments in a more complex environment (i.e., an environment with a greater number of different objects?” To this end, we use a simple robotic domain, where the robot has to learn a qualitative model predicting the change in the robot's distance to an object. To quantify the environment's complexity, we defined cardinal complexity as the number of objects in the robot's world, and behavioural complexity as the number of objects' distinct behaviours. We propose Error reduction merging (ERM, a new learning method that automatically discovers similarities in the structure of the agent's environment. ERM identifies different types of objects solely from the data measured and merges the observations of objects that behave in the same or similar way in order to speed up the agent's learning. We performed a series of experiments in worlds of increasing complexity. The results in our simple domain indicate that ERM was capable of discovering structural similarities in the data which indeed made the learning faster, clearly superior to conventional learning. This observed trend occurred with various machine learning algorithms used inside the ERM method.

  13. Broccoli Sprout Extract in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-30

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Postmenopausal; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  14. Plasmacytoma of the Breast

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2015-10-04

    Oct 4, 2015 ... is equally essential (7,9,10). The possibility of diagnosing a breast extramedullary plasmacytoma is approximately. 0.01% (7,8,9). The clinical diagnosis of a breast plasmacytoma is difficult, if not impossible, because presentation mimics common breast lesions such as adenocarcinoma or a fibroadenoma.

  15. Breast Cancer (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Breast Cancer KidsHealth / For Kids / Breast Cancer What's in this ... for it when they are older. What Is Breast Cancer? The human body is made of tiny building ...

  16. Contralateral breast cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patients with family history of breast cancer is associated with a 15.4% probability of simultaneous ... second breast is the history of having had cancer in the opposite breast. 5' 15 The important factors that point to ... contralateral mirror image biopsy at the time of definitive surgery as a means of detecting an occult second ...

  17. Is screening effective in detecting untreated psychiatric disorders among newly diagnosed breast cancer patients?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palmer, Steven C.; Taggi, Alison; DeMichele, Angela; Coyne, James C.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A key purpose of routine distress screening is to ensure that cancer patients receive appropriate mental health care. Most studies validating screening instruments overestimate the effectiveness of screening by not differentiating between patients with untreated disorders and patients

  18. Hydrothermal vent fields discovered in the southern Gulf of California clarify role of habitat in augmenting regional diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffredi, Shana K; Johnson, Shannon; Tunnicliffe, Verena; Caress, David; Clague, David; Escobar, Elva; Lundsten, Lonny; Paduan, Jennifer B; Rouse, Greg; Salcedo, Diana L; Soto, Luis A; Spelz-Madero, Ronald; Zierenberg, Robert; Vrijenhoek, Robert

    2017-07-26

    Hydrothermal vent communities are distributed along mid-ocean spreading ridges as isolated patches. While distance is a key factor influencing connectivity among sites, habitat characteristics are also critical. The Pescadero Basin (PB) and Alarcón Rise (AR) vent fields, recently discovered in the southern Gulf of California, are bounded by previously known vent localities (e.g. Guaymas Basin and 21° N East Pacific Rise); yet, the newly discovered vents differ markedly in substrata and vent fluid attributes. Out of 116 macrofaunal species observed or collected, only three species are shared among all four vent fields, while 73 occur at only one locality. Foundation species at basalt-hosted sulfide chimneys on the AR differ from the functional equivalents inhabiting sediment-hosted carbonate chimneys in the PB, only 75 km away. The dominant species of symbiont-hosting tubeworms and clams, and peripheral suspension-feeding taxa, differ between the sites. Notably, the PB vents host a limited and specialized fauna in which 17 of 26 species are unknown at other regional vents and many are new species. Rare sightings and captured larvae of the 'missing' species revealed that dispersal limitation is not responsible for differences in community composition at the neighbouring vent localities. Instead, larval recruitment-limiting habitat suitability probably favours species differentially. As scenarios develop to design conservation strategies around mining of seafloor sulfide deposits, these results illustrate that models encompassing habitat characteristics are needed to predict metacommunity structure. © 2017 The Authors.

  19. New approach to breast tumor detection based on fluorescence x-ray analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okuyama, Fumio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new technical approach to breast-tumor detection is proposed. The technique is based on fluorescence x-ray analysis, and can identify a miniature malignant tumor within the breast. The primary beam intensity needed in fluorescence x-ray analysis is on a lower order of magnitude than that used in mammography. Thus, the newly-proposed technique would enable detection of a still tiny breast cancer while dramatically lowering the radiation dose. Field-emission x-ray sources might be a key for translating this concept into a medical technique.

  20. Positron emission mammography in breast cancer presurgical planning: comparisons with magnetic resonance imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Schilling, Kathy; Narayanan, Deepa; Kalinyak, Judith E.; The, Juliette; Velasquez, Maria Victoria; Kahn, Simone; Saady, Matthew; Mahal, Ravinder; Chrystal, Larraine

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to compare the performance characteristics of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission mammography (PEM) with breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a presurgical imaging and planning option for index and ipsilateral lesions in patients with newly diagnosed, biopsy-proven breast cancer. Methods Two hundred and eight women >25 years of age (median age = 59.7 ± 14.1 years) with biopsy-proven primary breast cancer enrolled in this prospective, si...

  1. Inheritance of proliferative breast disease in breast cancer kindreds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skolnick, M.H.; Cannon-Albright, L.A.; Goldgar, D.E.; Ward, J.H.; Marshall, C.J.; Schumann, G.B.; Hogle, H.; McWhorter, W.P.; Wright, E.C.; Tran, T.D.; Bishop, D.T.; Kushner, J.P.; Eyre, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies have emphasized that genetic susceptibility to breast cancer is rare and is expressed primarily as premenopausal breast cancer, bilateral breast cancer, or both. Proliferative breast disease (PBD) is a significant risk factor for the development of breast cancer and appears to be a precursor lesion. PBD and breast cancer were studied in 103 women from 20 kindreds that were selected for the presence of two first degree relatives with breast cancer and in 31 control women. Physical examination, screening mammography, and four-quadrant fine-needle breast aspirates were performed. Cytologic analysis of breast aspirates revealed PBD in 35% of clinically normal female first degree relatives of breast cancer cases and in 13% of controls. Genetic analysis suggests that genetic susceptibility causes both PBD and breast cancer in these kindreds. This study supports the hypothesis that this susceptibility is responsible for a considerable portion of breast cancer, including unilateral and postmenopausal breast cancer

  2. Inflammatory breast cancer in accessory abdominal breast tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy C. Miles, MD, MPH

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Accessory breast tissue results from failure of the embryologic mammary ridge, also known as the milk line, to involute. As a result, ectopic breast tissue can develop anywhere along this ridge, which extends from the axilla—the most common location—to the groin. Primary breast cancer in accessory breast tissue is uncommon but has been reported in multiple prior studies. We present a rare case of inflammatory breast cancer presenting in upper abdominal accessory breast tissue in women with a personal history of ipsilateral breast cancer, and highlight the challenges of both diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer in accessory breast tissue.

  3. Breast self examination and breast cancer: Knowledge and practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    knowledge and practice of BSE and knowledge on breast cancer. Responses on awareness on breast cancer were weighed using a 3-point. Likert's scale. ... have shown no significant effect of regular BSE on breast cancer ... Table 1: Characteristics of women surveyed concerning breast self-examination and breast cancer.

  4. Breast is best.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    This pamphlet on breast feeding provides information on the Belagio Guidelines, an explanation of how breast feeding decreases fertility, and a description of how child spacing impacts on child survival. 10 steps to promote breast feeding are listed for hospitals: 1) have a policy that is communicated to all health care staff; 2) train all health care staff; 3) inform all pregnant women about the benefits and management of breast feeding; 4) help mothers initiate breast feeding within a half hour after birth; 5) demonstrate to mothers how to lactate and how to maintain lactation even when separated from their infants; 6) withhold any food or drink for infants unless medically indicated; 7) keep mothers and infants together during the first 24 hours; 8) encourage breast feeding on demand; 9) withhold use of pacifiers; and 10) establish breast feeding support groups for mothers released from the hospital. The Belagio Guidelines communicate the findings from prospective studies in 8 countries that maximum birth spacing is achieved when mothers fully breast feed infants. Full breast feeding means no supplemental food or liquid during the first 6 months after giving birth; the infant is fed solely on breast milk. Prolactin levels, luteinizing hormone, and the altered gonadotrophin-releasing hormone are currently considered responsible for suppression of ovulation. Even after return of menses breast feeding women have a reduced chance of pregnancy. Frequency of suckling is associated with gonadotrophin secretion and reduced fertility. Night time breast feeding is considered particularly important in delaying the return of fertility. Longer child spacing, as assisted by prolonged and full breast feeding, contributes to healthier infants. Breast feeding also contributes to improved maternal health and psychosocial benefits. Women should use breast feeding and lactational amenorrhea as a family planning method and as a means of empowering women. The return of menses

  5. Breast-Conserving Surgery Followed by Radiation Therapy With MRI-Detected Stage I or Stage II Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Male Breast Cancer; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  6. Docosahexaenoic Acid in Preventing Recurrence in Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-20

    Benign Breast Neoplasm; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Paget Disease of the Breast; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  7. Discovering Related Clinical Concepts Using Large Amounts of Clinical Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Kavita; Lloyd, Shane; Sarkar, Vikren

    2016-01-01

    The ability to find highly related clinical concepts is essential for many applications such as for hypothesis generation, query expansion for medical literature search, search results filtering, ICD-10 code filtering and many other applications. While manually constructed medical terminologies such as SNOMED CT can surface certain related concepts, these terminologies are inadequate as they depend on expertise of several subject matter experts making the terminology curation process open to geographic and language bias. In addition, these terminologies also provide no quantifiable evidence on how related the concepts are. In this work, we explore an unsupervised graphical approach to mine related concepts by leveraging the volume within large amounts of clinical notes. Our evaluation shows that we are able to use a data driven approach to discovering highly related concepts for various search terms including medications, symptoms and diseases.

  8. Discovering Related Clinical Concepts Using Large Amounts of Clinical Notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Ganesan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to find highly related clinical concepts is essential for many applications such as for hypothesis generation, query expansion for medical literature search, search results filtering, ICD-10 code filtering and many other applications. While manually constructed medical terminologies such as SNOMED CT can surface certain related concepts, these terminologies are inadequate as they depend on expertise of several subject matter experts making the terminology curation process open to geographic and language bias. In addition, these terminologies also provide no quantifiable evidence on how related the concepts are. In this work, we explore an unsupervised graphical approach to mine related concepts by leveraging the volume within large amounts of clinical notes. Our evaluation shows that we are able to use a data driven approach to discovering highly related concepts for various search terms including medications, symptoms and diseases.

  9. Communication Boot Camp: Discover the Speaker in You!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuraidah Binti Ali

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Learning can take place almost anywhere, and this is especially true for our undergraduates who wish to become public speakers. Besides university course and public speaking workshops on campus grounds, undergraduates are now looking for a different learning environment – communication boot camps!! This study presents a compilation of learners’ experience, fun-filled activities, insightful feedback and memorable boot camp moments as captured in camp photos and feedback surveys. It involves a total of thirty seven undergraduates who enrolled in a Communication Boot Camp at Janda Baik, Pahang. Results show that Communication Boot Camp is a successful strategy to groom public speakers with a positive correlation between camp success and camp objectives, particularly in reducing shyness, motivating participants to become public speakers and discovering their talent and skills. In short, the study adds to the promise of zest and delight in public speaking.

  10. How did Archimedes discover the law of buoyancy by experiment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroki, Hidetaka

    2016-03-01

    After Archimedes and Vitruvius era, for more than 2000 years, it has been believed that the displaced water measurement of golden crown is impossible, and at his Eureka moment, Archimedes discovered the law of buoyancy (Proposition 7 of his principles) and proved the theft of a goldsmith by weighing the golden crown in water. A previous study showed that a small amount of displaced water was able to be measured with enough accuracy by the introduced method. Archimedes measured the weight of displaced water. He did not find the law of buoyancy but rather specific gravity of things at the moment. After which, Archimedes continued to measure the specific gravity of various solids and fluids. Through these measurements, he reached the discovery of the law of buoyancy directly by experiment. In this paper, the process to the discovery of Archimedes' principle (Proposition 5) is presented.

  11. A new hard X-ray transient discovered by INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibaud, L.; Bazzano, A.; Bozzo, E.

    2011-01-01

    INTEGRAL discovered a new hard X-ray transient, IGR J17498-2921, during the observations performed from 2011-08-11 22:45 to 2011-08-12 05:54 UTC. The source is detected in the IBIS/ISGRI mosaic at a preliminary significance level of 11 and 9 sigma in the 20-40 keV and 40-80 keV energy bands......, respectively. The corresponding fluxes are 19+/-2 and 23+/-3 mCrab (68% c.l., only statistical). The best determined source position is at RA=17:49:49; DEC=-29:21:14 (J2000) with a 90% confinement radius of 2.3 arcmin. The IBIS/ISGRI spectrum (exposure time 15.9 ks) can be well described by a a power...

  12. Re-discovering Mendel: The Case of Carl Correns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Carl Erich Correns (1864-1933) is remembered in the annals of science as one of the three botanists who re-discovered Mendel's laws. He can also, however, be regarded as one of the founding figures of classical genetics in Germany. Between 1894 and 1899 he carried out the crossing experiments with corn and peas that led to the re-statement of Gregor Mendel's (1822-1884) results. Between 1900 and 1910, he explored the complications of these laws, including the coupling of factors due to their chromosomal location and the inheritance of sex, in a great number of plant species. In later years Correns became interested in and experimented on phenomena of extra-nuclear inheritance.

  13. Cassini discovers a kinematic spiral ring around Saturn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnoz, S; Porco, C C; Déau, E; Brahic, A; Spitale, J N; Bacques, G; Baillie, K

    2005-11-25

    Since the time of the Voyager flybys of Saturn in 1980-1981, Saturn's eccentric F ring has been known to be accompanied on either side by faint strands of material. New Cassini observations show that these strands, initially interpreted as concentric ring segments, are in fact connected and form a single one-arm trailing spiral winding at least three times around Saturn. The spiral rotates around Saturn with the orbital motion of its constituent particles. This structure is likely the result of differential orbital motion stretching an initial cloud of particles scattered from the dense core of the F ring. Different scenarios of formation, implying ringlet-satellite interactions, are explored. A recently discovered moon candidate, S/2004 S6, is on an orbit that crosses the F-ring core at the intersection of the spiral with the ring, which suggests a dynamical connection between S/2004 S6 and the spiral.

  14. Risk of appendicitis in patients with incidentally discovered appendicoliths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Sohaib; Chaudhry, Mustafa Belal Hafeez; Shahzad, Noman; Tariq, Marvi; Memon, Wasim Ahmed; Alvi, Abdul Rehman

    2018-01-01

    An appendicolith-related appendiceal obstruction leading to appendicitis is a commonly encountered surgical emergency that has clear evidence-based management plans. However, there is no consensus on management of asymptomatic patients when appendicoliths are found incidentally. The objective of this study was to determine the risk of appendicitis in patients with an incidental finding of the appendicolith. A retrospective matched cohort study of patients with appendicolith discovered incidentally on computed tomographic scan from January 2008 to December 2014 at our institution was completed. The size and position of the appendicolith were ascertained. The study group was matched by age and gender to a control group. Both groups were contacted and interviewed regarding development of appendicitis. In total, 111 patients with appendicolith were successfully contacted and included in the study. Mean age was found to be 38 ± 15 y with 36 (32%) of the study population being females. Mean length of appendix was 66 ± 16 mm, and mean width was 5.8 ± 0.9 mm. Mean size of the appendicolith was 3.6 ± 1.1 mm (1.4-7.8 mm). Fifty-eight percent of appendicoliths was located at the proximal end or whole of appendix, 31% at mid area, and 11% at the distal end of appendix. All patients of the study and control groups were contacted, and at a mean follow-up of 4.0 ± 1.7 y, there was no occurrence of acute appendicitis in either group. Patients with incidentally discovered appendicolith on radiological imaging did not develop appendicitis. Hence, the risk of developing acute appendicitis for these patients does not seem higher than the general population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Occult carcinoma discovered after simple hysterectomy treated with postoperative radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, Christopher H.; Schneider, Bernard F.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: Treatment of patients with occult carcinoma of the cervix discovered after simple hysterectomy is controversial. The purpose of this review is to examine our results with postoperative radiotherapy and to compare them to similar reports and to reports of treatment with radical parametrectomy. Methods and Materials: Between November 1979 and April:, 18 patients were treated with radiotherapy at the University of Virginia for invasive carcinoma of the cervix discovered after simple hysterectomy. Simple hysterectomy was performed in all 18 patients for a variety of indications. After surgery gross residual carcinoma remained in four patients; and microscopic disease was present at the surgical margins in two patients. The remaining patients had no evidence of residual disease. All 18 patients had postoperative radiotherapy with or without brachytherapy. The endpoints for this study were local control, survival, and treatment-related toxicity. Actuarial rates were calculated using the Life method. Results: Median follow-up for all 18 patients was 42 months (range 2-202 months). Both the 5 and the 10-year actuarial local control rates were 88%. Five and 10-year actuarial overall survival rates were both 93%. Two patients had both local and distant cancer recurrences. There were no recurrences among the six patients treated with external beam alone. The remaining patients are all alive without evidence of disease, including two patients who had gross residual disease after surgery, and one patient with both microscopic positive margin and a positive lymph node (the only patient to undergo lymph node sampling). There was no severe acute morbidity and only one patient had severe late morbidity. Conclusions: Invasive carcinoma found after simple hysterectomy may be treated safely and effectively with postoperative radiotherapy. Patients with known residual disease following surgery do poorly with either radiotherapy or reoperation, but treatment with radiotherapy

  16. Discovering opinion leaders for medical topics using news articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha; Peeler, Ryan; Topham, Philip

    2012-03-15

    Rapid identification of subject experts for medical topics helps in improving the implementation of discoveries by speeding the time to market drugs and aiding in clinical trial recruitment, etc. Identifying such people who influence opinion through social network analysis is gaining prominence. In this work, we explore how to combine named entity recognition from unstructured news articles with social network analysis to discover opinion leaders for a given medical topic. We employed a Conditional Random Field algorithm to extract three categories of entities from health-related new articles: Person, Organization and Location. We used the latter two to disambiguate polysemy and synonymy for the person names, used simple rules to identify the subject experts, and then applied social network analysis techniques to discover the opinion leaders among them based on their media presence. A network was created by linking each pair of subject experts who are mentioned together in an article. The social network analysis metrics (including centrality metrics such as Betweenness, Closeness, Degree and Eigenvector) are used for ranking the subject experts based on their power in information flow. We extracted 734,204 person mentions from 147,528 news articles related to obesity from January 1, 2007 through July 22, 2010. Of these, 147,879 mentions have been marked as subject experts. The F-score of extracting person names is 88.5%. More than 80% of the subject experts who rank among top 20 in at least one of the metrics could be considered as opinion leaders in obesity. The analysis of the network of subject experts with media presence revealed that an opinion leader might have fewer mentions in the news articles, but a high network centrality measure and vice-versa. Betweenness, Closeness and Degree centrality measures were shown to supplement frequency counts in the task of finding subject experts. Further, opinion leaders missed in scientific publication network analysis

  17. Discovering opinion leaders for medical topics using news articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonnalagadda Siddhartha

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid identification of subject experts for medical topics helps in improving the implementation of discoveries by speeding the time to market drugs and aiding in clinical trial recruitment, etc. Identifying such people who influence opinion through social network analysis is gaining prominence. In this work, we explore how to combine named entity recognition from unstructured news articles with social network analysis to discover opinion leaders for a given medical topic. Methods We employed a Conditional Random Field algorithm to extract three categories of entities from health-related new articles: Person, Organization and Location. We used the latter two to disambiguate polysemy and synonymy for the person names, used simple rules to identify the subject experts, and then applied social network analysis techniques to discover the opinion leaders among them based on their media presence. A network was created by linking each pair of subject experts who are mentioned together in an article. The social network analysis metrics (including centrality metrics such as Betweenness, Closeness, Degree and Eigenvector are used for ranking the subject experts based on their power in information flow. Results We extracted 734,204 person mentions from 147,528 news articles related to obesity from January 1, 2007 through July 22, 2010. Of these, 147,879 mentions have been marked as subject experts. The F-score of extracting person names is 88.5%. More than 80% of the subject experts who rank among top 20 in at least one of the metrics could be considered as opinion leaders in obesity. Conclusion The analysis of the network of subject experts with media presence revealed that an opinion leader might have fewer mentions in the news articles, but a high network centrality measure and vice-versa. Betweenness, Closeness and Degree centrality measures were shown to supplement frequency counts in the task of finding subject experts. Further

  18. Discovering the plates boundaries in the Mediterranean sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Maurizio

    2017-04-01

    During the 8th class the students learn geology. We analyze the earth's layers, the earthquakes, the volcanoes and other natural phenomena like subduction and orogeny. We start with a global study but our goal is to focus on the crust to discover the plates boundaries, particularly the boundary between Eurasian and African Plate in the Mediterranean sea. It's very simple for the students to discover all the information using the Internet or the science book, but I want to make with them an exploration of earth science with the help of the natural phenomena we studied during the year. We connect with Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia ( http://www.ingv.it/en/ ) where we can find a map with the earthquakes happened in the last years in Italy and in the Mediterranean sea and the list of the main volcanoes. In this way we can draw a map of the mediterranean plates and we can talk about the past and the future of the Mediterranean sea, Europe and Africa based on our maps and on the Alps orogeny. Using youtube we can have a confirm of our hypothesis about the future of the Mediterranean sea (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uGcDed4xVD4 ). A good observation for the students is given by the fact that we live in Europe but actually we stay on the African plate. The boundary is 5 km north of our school and we can go and visit the place where it is possible to see the different height of the two plates.

  19. Delayed breast implant reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Gitte B.; Hölmich, Lisbet R.; Steding-Jessen, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Studies of complications following reconstructive surgery with implants among women with breast cancer are needed. As the, to our knowledge, first prospective long-term study we evaluated the occurrence of complications following delayed breast reconstruction separately for one- and two......-stage procedures. From the Danish Registry for Plastic Surgery of the Breast, which has prospectively registered data for women undergoing breast implantations since 1999, we identified 559 women without a history of radiation therapy undergoing 592 delayed breast reconstructions following breast cancer during...... of reoperation was significantly higher following the one-stage procedure. For both procedures, the majority of reoperations were due to asymmetry or displacement of the implant. In conclusion, non-radiated one- and two-stage delayed breast implant reconstructions are associated with substantial risks...

  20. Phyllodes Tumors of the Breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abusalem, Osama Turki; Al-Masri, Anwar

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study all patients with phyllodes tumors of the breast which were diagnosed at King Hussien Medical Center and Prince Rashid Military Hospital between the 1st of may 2002 till January 2009. Methods: A total of 26 patients diagnosed to have phylloedes tumors were retrieved from the hospital records. All cases were analyzed and assessed in two main categories: demographical characteristics and histopathological parameters. The demographical characteristics included: sex and age of the patients, and tumor size while the histopathological aspects were divided into three subgroups: Benign, Borderline and Malignant tumors with its stromal components characteristics. All the histopathological reports for specimens sent by surgeons were reviewed by 2 senior pathologists. Statistical analysis was done by using Chi square and P-Value. Results: All our patients were females; their age range between 17-67 years, the mean patient age at presentation was 39 years. Out of the 26 patients diagnosed to have phyllodes tumor, 6 had breast-conserving therapy and 20 women had mastectomy. The types of Phyllodes tumors include: A-Benign phyllodes tumors (15 cases), B-Borderline phyllodes (7cases) and C-malignant phyllodes (4 cases). With significant values of benign tumors occurrence (pphyllodes tumors of the breast. The greatest dimension of the tumors ranged from 1 to 15 cm, with a mean of 5 cm. Approximately 73.1% of tumors were less or equal to 5 cm in the greatest dimension and 26.9% >5 cm. The duration of symptoms varied from one month to ten year.s Six patients had painful swellings, whereas in twenty patients the pain was absent. Four patients had recurrent tumors; the distinctive features of those with recurrent tumors were the histological findings of stromal over growth and the presence of positive resection margin. In our series, we found that three patients of those with recurrence discovered to have stromal over growth. While one only had a previous positive

  1. Identification and Characterization of Novel Drug Targets for Personalized Breast Cancer Nanomedicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Block, Ines; Müller, Carolin; Sdogati, Daniel

    Personalized cancer nanomedicine aims at the design of novel nanodrugs that would match the molecular fingerprint of an individual patient`s tumor. Expression profiling and next generation-sequencing data represent rich resources for discovering new starting points for such approaches. Here, we...... selected a set of 140 genes, which have been proposed to show potentially relevant alterations in breast cancer by genome-wide next-generation sequencing. We constructed a panel of isogenic breast cancer cell lines and systematically analyzed the normal and the mutant gene variants for their effects...... on breast cancer cells. After completing about half of the primary screen, several novel growth modulators for breast cancer were identified. To this end, we will present data on detailed follow-up analyses of two of these novel genes, which represent novel breast cancer tumor suppressors. At least one...

  2. Breast cancer risk polymorphisms and interaction with ionizing radiation among U.S. Radiologic Technologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Parveen; Doody, Michele M.; Alexander, Bruce H.; Yuenger, Jeff; Simon, Steven L.; Weinstock, Robert M.; Rosenstein, Marvin; Stovall, Marilyn; Abend, Michael; Preston, Dale L.; Pharoah, Paul; Struewing, Jeffery P.; Sigurdson, Alice J.

    2008-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies are discovering relationships between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and breast cancer, but the functions of these SNPs are unknown and environmental exposures are likely to be important. We assessed whether breast cancer risk SNPs interacted with ionizing radiation, a known breast carcinogen, among 859 cases and 1083 controls nested in the United States Radiologic Technologists cohort. Among eleven Breast Cancer Association Consortium risk SNPs, we found that the genotype-associated breast cancer risk varied significantly by radiation dose for rs2107425 in the H19 gene (pinteraction=0.001). H19 is a maternally expressed imprinted mRNA that is closely involved in regulating the IGF2 gene and could exert its influence by this or by some other radiation-related pathway. PMID:18708391

  3. Metachronous cancer of both breasts and radiation-induced carcinoma - a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinova, L.; Todorov, Y.; Terziev, I.

    1999-01-01

    A case of female patient presenting bilateral breast cancer, running a metachronous course and radiation-induced laiomyosarcoma is described. A right breast cancer is diagnosed and subjected to complex treatment (pre- and postoperative interstitial radiotherapy, amputation after Patey and chemotherapy course). After a 2-year interval, skin metastases are discovered necessitating ovariectomy, followed by repeated irradiation of the right chest wall with electron beams and polychemotherapy. Twelve years later, leiomyosarcoma involving the operative scar is diagnosed and after 2 years - cancer of the left breast. Proceeding from the results of complex breast cancer treatment, prolongation of the patient's survival in pathologically proved skin metastases is comprehensively discussed. The overall long-term survival is taken to be a precondition of the clinical development of a second primary breast cancer and radiation-induced sarcoma

  4. Benign breast lesions in Kano

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    malignant breast diseases. But the prevalence of breast cancer is increasing especially in communities that hitherto reported low incidence; a recent report from Ibadan cancer registry, showed that ... Table Relative frequency of breast lesions in Kano. Histological No. % of breast % of benign breast diagnosis lesions lesions.

  5. Breast abscesses after breast conserving therapy for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Kazuhisa [National Kyoto Hospital (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    Breast abscess after breast conserving therapy is a rare complication and the study of this cause has not been reported. A retrospective review of 190 patients undergoing breast conserving therapy in our institution revealed 4 patients with breast abscess (mean age, 50.6 years; range, 47-57 years and median follow up 4 months; 1-11 months). Risk factors which were common to all patients were: fine needle aspiration (FNA), surgical treatment; wide excision, adjuvant therapy; oral administration of tamoxifen (TAM), radiation therapy (RT) to ipsilateral whole breast; total dose of 50 Gy and skin desquamation by RT; level I or II. Other important risk factors in 3 patients were repeated aspirations of seroma post operatively and 2 patients received chemotherapy; CAF. Cultures from one abscess grew staphylococcus aureus, one grew staphylococcus epidermidis, and two were sterile. Breast abscess may be caused by a variety of factors and it is often difficult to specify the cause. This suggests that careful observation will be necessary to determine the cause. (author)

  6. Bubble composition of natural gas seeps discovered along the Cascadia Continental Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumberger, T.; Merle, S. G.; Embley, R. W.; Seabrook, S.; Raineault, N.; Lilley, M. D.; Evans, L. J.; Walker, S. L.; Lupton, J. E.

    2016-12-01

    Gas hydrates and gas-filled pockets present in sedimentary deposits have been recognized as large reservoirs for reduced carbon in the Earth's crust. This is particularly relevant in geological settings with high carbon input, such as continental margins. During expedition NA072 on the E/V Nautilus (operated by the Ocean Exploration Trust Inc.) in June 2016, the U.S. Cascadia Continental Margin (Washington, Oregon and northern California) was explored for gas seepage from sediments. During this expedition, over 400 bubble plumes at water depths ranging from 125 and 1640 m were newly discovered, and five of them were sampled for gas bubble composition using specially designed gas tight fluid samplers mounted on the Hercules remotely operated vehicle (ROV). These gas bubble samples were collected at four different depths, 494 m (rim of Astoria Canyon), 615 and 620 m (SW Coquille Bank), 849 m (floor of Astoria Canyon) and 1227 m (Heceta SW). At the two deeper sites, exposed hydrate was present in the same area where bubbles were seeping out from the seafloor. Other than the escaping gas bubbles, no other fluid flow was visible. However, the presence of bacterial mats point to diffuse fluid flow present in the affected area. In this study we present the results of the currently ongoing geochemical analysis of the gas bubbles released at the different sites and depths. Noble gas analysis, namely helium and neon, will give information about the source of the helium as well as about potential fractionation between helium and neon associated with gas hydrates. The characterization of these gas samples will also include total gas (CO2, H2, N2, O2, Ar, CH4 and other hydrocarbons) and stable isotope analysis (C and H). This dataset will reveal the chemical composition of the seeping bubbles as well as give information about the possible sources of the carbon contained in the seeping gas.

  7. DETAILED ABUNDANCES OF STARS WITH SMALL PLANETS DISCOVERED BY KEPLER. I. THE FIRST SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuler, Simon C.; Vaz, Zachary A. [University of Tampa, Tampa, FL, 33606 (United States); Santrich, Orlando J. Katime; Cunha, Katia; Smith, Verne V. [Observatório Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); King, Jeremy R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Teske, Johanna K. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Ghezzi, Luan [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Howell, Steve B. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Isaacson, Howard, E-mail: sschuler@ut.edu, E-mail: zachary.vaz@spartans.ut.edu, E-mail: osantrich@on.br, E-mail: kcunha@noao.edu, E-mail: vsmith@noao.edu, E-mail: jking2@clemson.edu, E-mail: jteske@carnegiescience.edu, E-mail: lghezzi@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: steve.b.howell@nasa.gov, E-mail: hisaacson@berkeley.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2015-12-10

    We present newly derived stellar parameters and the detailed abundances of 19 elements of seven stars with small planets discovered by NASA's Kepler Mission. Each star, save one, has at least one planet with a radius ≤1.6 R{sub ⊕}, suggesting a primarily rocky composition. The stellar parameters and abundances are derived from high signal-to-noise ratio, high-resolution echelle spectroscopy obtained with the 10 m Keck I telescope and High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer using standard spectroscopic techniques. The metallicities of the seven stars range from −0.32 to +0.13 dex, with an average metallicity that is subsolar, supporting previous suggestions that, unlike Jupiter-type giant planets, small planets do not form preferentially around metal-rich stars. The abundances of elements other than iron are in line with a population of Galactic disk stars, and despite our modest sample size, we find hints that the compositions of stars with small planets are similar to stars without known planets and with Neptune-size planets, but not to those of stars with giant planets. This suggests that the formation of small planets does not require exceptional host-star compositions and that small planets may be ubiquitous in the Galaxy. We compare our derived abundances (which have typical uncertainties of ≲0.04 dex) to the condensation temperature of the elements; a correlation between the two has been suggested as a possible signature of rocky planet formation. None of the stars demonstrate the putative rocky planet signature, despite at least three of the stars having rocky planets estimated to contain enough refractory material to produce the signature, if real. More detailed abundance analyses of stars known to host small planets are needed to verify our results and place ever more stringent constraints on planet formation models.

  8. DETAILED ABUNDANCES OF STARS WITH SMALL PLANETS DISCOVERED BY KEPLER. I. THE FIRST SAMPLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuler, Simon C.; Vaz, Zachary A.; Santrich, Orlando J. Katime; Cunha, Katia; Smith, Verne V.; King, Jeremy R.; Teske, Johanna K.; Ghezzi, Luan; Howell, Steve B.; Isaacson, Howard

    2015-01-01

    We present newly derived stellar parameters and the detailed abundances of 19 elements of seven stars with small planets discovered by NASA's Kepler Mission. Each star, save one, has at least one planet with a radius ≤1.6 R ⊕ , suggesting a primarily rocky composition. The stellar parameters and abundances are derived from high signal-to-noise ratio, high-resolution echelle spectroscopy obtained with the 10 m Keck I telescope and High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer using standard spectroscopic techniques. The metallicities of the seven stars range from −0.32 to +0.13 dex, with an average metallicity that is subsolar, supporting previous suggestions that, unlike Jupiter-type giant planets, small planets do not form preferentially around metal-rich stars. The abundances of elements other than iron are in line with a population of Galactic disk stars, and despite our modest sample size, we find hints that the compositions of stars with small planets are similar to stars without known planets and with Neptune-size planets, but not to those of stars with giant planets. This suggests that the formation of small planets does not require exceptional host-star compositions and that small planets may be ubiquitous in the Galaxy. We compare our derived abundances (which have typical uncertainties of ≲0.04 dex) to the condensation temperature of the elements; a correlation between the two has been suggested as a possible signature of rocky planet formation. None of the stars demonstrate the putative rocky planet signature, despite at least three of the stars having rocky planets estimated to contain enough refractory material to produce the signature, if real. More detailed abundance analyses of stars known to host small planets are needed to verify our results and place ever more stringent constraints on planet formation models

  9. Revision of fossil Metretopodidae (Insecta: Ephemeroptera) in Baltic amber-Part 3: Description of two new species of Siphloplecton Clemens, 1915, with notes on the re-discovered lectotype of Siphloplecton macrops (Pictet-Baraban & Hagen, 1856).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniczek, Arnold H; Godunko, Roman J

    2016-04-11

    In this contribution, we provide a complementary description of the re-discovered lectotype of Siphloplecton macrops (Pictet-Baraban & Hagen, 1856). Additionally, complementary descriptions of S. barabani Staniczek & Godunko, 2012 and S. picteti Staniczek & Godunko, 2012 based on new material are given. Two new species, S. sartorii sp. nov. and S. gattolliati sp. nov., are described from male imagines and attributed to two newly defined species groups within Siphloplecton.

  10. Pilot clinical trial of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission mammography in the surgical management of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafra, Lorraine; Cheng, Zandra; Uddo, Joseph; Lobrano, Mary B; Stein, William; Berg, Wendie A; Levine, Edward; Weinberg, Irving N; Narayanan, Deepa; Ross, Eric; Beylin, David; Yarnall, Stephen; Keen, Rochelle; Sawyer, Kristen; Van Geffen, Jack; Freimanis, Rita L; Staab, Edward; Adler, Lee P; Lovelace, Judy; Shen, Perry; Stewart, John; Dolinsky, Sergei

    2005-10-01

    High-resolution positron-emission mammography (PEM) is a new device, which allows the imaging of breast tissue. A prospective study was performed to assess the accuracy of PEM in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. In a prospective multicenter study, 44 women with confirmed breast cancers were imaged with a high-resolution PEM scanner (Naviscan PET Systems, Rockville, MD) with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose. The images were blindly evaluated and were compared with final pathology. The majority of the index lesions were seen on PEM (89%, 39/44). PEM detected 4 of 5 incidental breast cancers, 3 of which were not seen by any other imaging modalities. Of 19 patients undergoing breast-conserving surgery, PEM correctly predicted 6 of 8 (75%) patients with positive margins and 100% (11/11) with negative margins. The current PEM device shows promise in detecting breast malignancies and may assist in the planning of adequate partial mastectomy procedures to better ensure negative margins.

  11. Host microenvironment in breast cancer development: Epithelial–mesenchymal transition in breast cancer development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Thiery, Jean Paul

    2003-01-01

    The epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a developmental mechanism of crucial importance in establishing the body plan in many multicellular organisms. Several transduction pathways controlling the various steps of the morphological transition have been identified by molecular analyses of this process in cell lines and in vivo. The newly formed mesenchymal cells can exhibit locomotory and invasive phenotypes, suggesting that EMTs contribute to the progression of carcinoma. Diverse evidence indicates that EMT subprograms are involved in the appearance of different breast carcinoma types. Several normal and malignant breast cell lines are currently being analyzed to define key steps in EMT and to identify candidate genes. DNA profiling technology is also being applied to uncover pathways that lead to a metastatic phenotype

  12. Analysis of the Novel Fanconi Anemia Gene SLX4/FANCP in Familial Breast Cancer Cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Janine L.; van Mil, Saskia E.; Crossan, Gerry; Sabbaghian, Nelly; de Leeneer, Kim; Poppe, Bruce; Adank, Muriel; Gille, Hans; Verheul, Henk; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; de Winter, Johan P.; Claes, Kathleen; Tischkowitz, Marc; Waisfisz, Quinten

    2013-01-01

    SLX4/FANCP is a recently discovered novel disease gene for Fanconi anemia (FA), a rare recessive disorder characterized by chromosomal instability and increased cancer susceptibility. Three of the 15 FA genes are breast cancer susceptibility genes in heterozygous mutation carriers-BRCA2, PALB2, and

  13. FERAL : Network-based classifier with application to breast cancer outcome prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allahyar, A.; De Ridder, J.

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: Breast cancer outcome prediction based on gene expression profiles is an important strategy for personalize patient care. To improve performance and consistency of discovered markers of the initial molecular classifiers, network-based outcome prediction methods (NOPs) have been proposed.

  14. 3 CFR 8425 - Proclamation 8425 of September 30, 2009. National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... discover ways to prevent, detect, and treat this disease. For us to better understand how breast cancer... to have them. My Administration is committed to requiring insurance companies to cover mammograms... authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim October...

  15. Reproductive factors in relation to breast cancer: A hospital based case control study in Jammu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langer Bhavna

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: To Study the risk factors of Breast cancer , Setting:All the newly registered cases of Breast cancer in one year from Ist May 2004. Study Design:A Hospital based case control study. Methodology:Data was collected by a face to face interview using the prestructured Questionnaire after taking informed consent. Results: 100 cases of Breast Cancer and 100 controls were analyzed. Mean age of breast cancer cases was 50.20 ± 12.49 years. Income (p >0.39, Educational Status (p>0.35 Age at Marriage (p>0.36 Age at First pregnancy (p>0.32 Total No of live Birth (p>0.09 Duration of Breast Feeding (P>0.07 Showed no statistically significant relationship to the risk of Breast Cancer. Dietary History (p<0.001 Smoking History (p<0.04 Physical Activity (p<0.001 Age at Menarche (p<0.002 History of Breast Feeding (p<0.04 History of Abortion (p<0.003 were shown to be Statistically Significant to the risk of Breast Cancer . Conclusion : The risk factor which are often implicated in the risk of Breast Cancer may not hold true in our settings.

  16. Taste and smell perception and quality of life during and after systemic therapy for breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Y. C.; Boesveldt, S.; Kelfkens, C. S.; Posthuma, E. E.; van den Berg, M. M. G. A.; de Kruif, J. Th C. M.; Haringhuizen, A.; Sommeijer, D. W.; Buist, N.; Grosfeld, S.; de Graaf, C.; van Laarhoven, H. W. M.; Kampman, E.; Winkels, R. M.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess self-reported taste and smell perception after chemotherapy in breast cancer patients compared with women without cancer, and to assess whether taste and smell perception is associated with quality of life after the end of chemotherapy. We included 135 newly

  17. Breast Cancer Risk in American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Risk in American Women On This Page What ... risk of developing the disease. Personal history of breast cancer : Women who have had breast cancer are more ...

  18. Partial breast radiation therapy - external beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcinoma of the breast - partial radiation therapy; Partial external beam radiation - breast; Intensity-modulated radiation therapy - breast cancer; IMRT - breast cancer WBRT; Adjuvant partial breast - IMRT; APBI - IMRT; ...

  19. Molecular biology of breast cancer metastasis: Genetic regulation of human breast carcinoma metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, Danny R; Steeg, Patricia S; Rinker-Schaeffer, Carrie W

    2000-01-01

    The present is an overview of recent data that describes the genetic underpinnings of the suppression of cancer metastasis. Despite the explosion of new information about the genetics of cancer, only six human genes have thus far been shown to suppress metastasis functionally. Not all have been shown to be functional in breast carcinoma. Several additional genes inhibit various steps of the metastatic cascade, but do not necessarily block metastasis when tested using in vivo assays. The implications of this are discussed. Two recently discovered metastasis suppressor genes block proliferation of tumor cells at a secondary site, offering a new target for therapeutic intervention

  20. Accessing newly learned names and meanings in the native language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultén, Annika; Vihla, Minna; Laine, Matti; Salmelin, Riitta

    2009-03-01

    Ten healthy adults encountered pictures of unfamiliar archaic tools and successfully learned either their name, verbal definition of their usage, or both. Neural representation of the newly acquired information was probed with magnetoencephalography in an overt picture-naming task before and after learning, and in two categorization tasks after learning. Within 400 ms, activation proceeded from occipital through parietal to left temporal cortex, inferior frontal cortex (naming) and right temporal cortex (categorization). Comparison of naming of newly learned versus familiar pictures indicated that acquisition and maintenance of word forms are supported by the same neural network. Explicit access to newly learned phonology when such information was known strongly enhanced left temporal activation. By contrast, access to newly learned semantics had no comparable, direct neural effects. Both the behavioral learning pattern and neurophysiological results point to fundamentally different implementation of and access to phonological versus semantic features in processing pictured objects.

  1. Bonding performance of two newly developed self‑adhering ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-04-21

    rinse adhesive together with a low‑viscosity resin composite. This multistep application is complex and precise and contains many critical and. Bonding performance of two newly developed self‑adhering materials between ...

  2. Provision of training and support for newly qualified nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Aled; Benbow, Judith; Gidman, Rachel

    To evaluate nurses' and ward managers' experience of the Nurse Foundation Programme (NFP), with a view to improving future programmes. The NFP was introduced in 2008 to provide newly qualified nurses with standardised training and support during their first year post-training in Cardiff and Vale University Health Board. Anonymous evaluation forms were analysed and interviews with nurses and ward managers were undertaken. Evaluation form data were descriptively analysed, and interviews and free text comments were thematically analysed. The NFP was highly valued by attendees, offering timely knowledge and support for newly qualified nurses. Ward managers reported that the NFP made it easier to release time for newly qualified nurses to participate in training, while helping with skill mix decisions on the ward. The centrally planned and coordinated NFP was positively evaluated and led to a standardised approach to training and support for newly qualified nurses.

  3. Contralateral breast cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unnithan, Jaya; Macklis, Roger M.

    2001-01-01

    The use of breast-conserving treatment approaches for breast cancer has now become a standard option for early stage disease. Numerous randomized studies have shown medical equivalence when mastectomy is compared to lumpectomy followed by radiotherapy for the local management of this common problem. With an increased emphasis on patient involvement in the therapeutic decision making process, it is important to identify and quantify any unforeseen risks of the conservation approach. One concern that has been raised is the question of radiation- related contralateral breast cancer after breast radiotherapy. Although most studies do not show statistically significant evidence that patients treated with breast radiotherapy are at increased risk of developing contralateral breast cancer when compared to control groups treated with mastectomy alone, there are clear data showing the amount of scattered radiation absorbed by the contralateral breast during a routine course of breast radiotherapy is considerable (several Gy) and is therefore within the range where one might be concerned about radiogenic contralateral tumors. While radiation related risks of contralateral breast cancer appear to be small enough to be statistically insignificant for the majority of patients, there may exist a smaller subset which, for genetic or environmental reasons, is at special risk for scatter related second tumors. If such a group could be predicted, it would seem appropriate to offer either special counselling or special prevention procedures aimed at mitigating this second tumor risk. The use of genetic testing, detailed analysis of breast cancer family history, and the identification of patients who acquired their first breast cancer at a very early age may all be candidate screening procedures useful in identifying such at- risk groups. Since some risk mitigation strategies are convenient and easy to utilize, it makes sense to follow the classic 'ALARA' (as low as reasonably

  4. Data Recommender: An Alternative Way to Discover Open Scientific Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, J. F.; Devaraju, A.; Williams, G.; Hogan, D.; Davy, R.; Page, J.; Singh, D.; Peterson, N.

    2017-12-01

    Over the past few years, institutions and government agencies have adopted policies to openly release their data, which has resulted in huge amounts of open data becoming available on the web. When trying to discover the data, users face two challenges: an overload of choice and the limitations of the existing data search tools. On the one hand, there are too many datasets to choose from, and therefore, users need to spend considerable effort to find the datasets most relevant to their research. On the other hand, data portals commonly offer keyword and faceted search, which depend fully on the user queries to search and rank relevant datasets. Consequently, keyword and faceted search may return loosely related or irrelevant results, although the results may contain the same query. They may also return highly specific results that depend more on how well metadata was authored. They do not account well for variance in metadata due to variance in author styles and preferences. The top-ranked results may also come from the same data collection, and users are unlikely to discover new and interesting datasets. These search modes mainly suits users who can express their information needs in terms of the structure and terminology of the data portals, but may pose a challenge otherwise. The above challenges reflect that we need a solution that delivers the most relevant (i.e., similar and serendipitous) datasets to users, beyond the existing search functionalities on the portals. A recommender system is an information filtering system that presents users with relevant and interesting contents based on users' context and preferences. Delivering data recommendations to users can make data discovery easier, and as a result may enhance user engagement with the portal. We developed a hybrid data recommendation approach for the CSIRO Data Access Portal. The approach leverages existing recommendation techniques (e.g., content-based filtering and item co-occurrence) to produce

  5. Genetics Home Reference: breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Breast cancer Breast cancer Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Breast cancer is a disease in which certain cells in ...

  6. CDC Vital Signs: Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  7. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Menopause Map Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July 2010 Download PDFs English ... G. Komen Foundation What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  8. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... slow her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  9. Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... incidence of breast cancer subtypes by race/ethnicity, poverty, and state. Journal of the National Cancer Institute ... PubMed Abstract] Tamoxifen for early breast cancer: an overview of the randomised trials. Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ ...

  10. Breast Implants: Saline vs. Silicone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... differ in material and consistency, however. Saline breast implants Saline implants are filled with sterile salt water. ... of any age for breast reconstruction. Silicone breast implants Silicone implants are pre-filled with silicone gel — ...

  11. Breast prothesis leakage and malignant changes of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Lawati, Taha; Kutty, Rajyashree

    2009-04-01

    A breast implant is a prosthesis used to enhance the size of a woman's breasts. Silicon implants are most commonly used, but as with all surgical implants it has some complications. The question is whether it can induce breast cancer? During the last year, a case of reconstructed breast with prosthesis which leaked was presented. The aim of this report is to review current literature to evaluate whether there are reported correlations between breast cancer and breast implants. The conclusion derived from this report is that there is no available evidence directly correlating breast cancer to breast implants.

  12. Accelerated Radiation Therapy After Surgery in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-15

    Inflammatory Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  13. Oxalate induces breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellaro, Andrés M; Tonda, Alfredo; Cejas, Hugo H; Ferreyra, Héctor; Caputto, Beatriz L; Pucci, Oscar A; Gil, German A

    2015-10-22

    Microcalcifications can be the early and only presenting sign of breast cancer. One shared characteristic of breast cancer is the appearance of mammographic mammary microcalcifications that can routinely be used to detect breast cancer in its initial stages, which is of key importance due to the possibility that early detection allows the application of more conservative therapies for a better patient outcome. The mechanism by which mammary microcalcifications are formed is still largely unknown but breast cancers presenting microcalcifications are more often associated with a poorer prognosis. We combined Capillary Electrochromatography, histology, and gene expression (qRT-PCR) to analyze patient-matched normal breast tissue vs. breast tumor. Potential carcinogenicity of oxalate was tested by its inoculation into mice. All data were subjected to statistical analysis. To study the biological significance of oxalates within the breast tumor microenvironment, we measured oxalate concentration in both human breast tumor tissues and adjoining non-pathological breast tissues. We found that all tested breast tumor tissues contain a higher concentration of oxalates than their counterpart non-pathological breast tissue. Moreover, it was established that oxalate induces proliferation of breast cells and stimulates the expression of a pro-tumorigenic gene c-fos. Furthermore, oxalate generates highly malignant and undifferentiated tumors when it was injected into the mammary fatpad in female mice, but not when injected into their back, indicating that oxalate does not induce cancer formation in all types of tissues. Moreover, neither human kidney-epithelial cells nor mouse fibroblast cells proliferate when are treated with oxalate. We found that the chronic exposure of breast epithelial cells to oxalate promotes the transformation of breast cells from normal to tumor cells, inducing the expression of a proto-oncogen as c-fos and proliferation in breast cancer cells

  14. Oxalate induces breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellaro, Andrés M.; Tonda, Alfredo; Cejas, Hugo H.; Ferreyra, Héctor; Caputto, Beatriz L.; Pucci, Oscar A.; Gil, German A.

    2015-01-01

    Microcalcifications can be the early and only presenting sign of breast cancer. One shared characteristic of breast cancer is the appearance of mammographic mammary microcalcifications that can routinely be used to detect breast cancer in its initial stages, which is of key importance due to the possibility that early detection allows the application of more conservative therapies for a better patient outcome. The mechanism by which mammary microcalcifications are formed is still largely unknown but breast cancers presenting microcalcifications are more often associated with a poorer prognosis. We combined Capillary Electrochromatography, histology, and gene expression (qRT-PCR) to analyze patient-matched normal breast tissue vs. breast tumor. Potential carcinogenicity of oxalate was tested by its inoculation into mice. All data were subjected to statistical analysis. To study the biological significance of oxalates within the breast tumor microenvironment, we measured oxalate concentration in both human breast tumor tissues and adjoining non-pathological breast tissues. We found that all tested breast tumor tissues contain a higher concentration of oxalates than their counterpart non-pathological breast tissue. Moreover, it was established that oxalate induces proliferation of breast cells and stimulates the expression of a pro-tumorigenic gene c-fos. Furthermore, oxalate generates highly malignant and undifferentiated tumors when it was injected into the mammary fatpad in female mice, but not when injected into their back, indicating that oxalate does not induce cancer formation in all types of tissues. Moreover, neither human kidney-epithelial cells nor mouse fibroblast cells proliferate when are treated with oxalate. We found that the chronic exposure of breast epithelial cells to oxalate promotes the transformation of breast cells from normal to tumor cells, inducing the expression of a proto-oncogen as c-fos and proliferation in breast cancer cells

  15. Discovering EEG resting state alterations of semantic dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieder, Matthias; Koenig, Thomas; Kinoshita, Toshihiko; Utsunomiya, Keita; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Dierks, Thomas; Nishida, Keiichiro

    2016-05-01

    Diagnosis of semantic dementia relies on cost-intensive MRI or PET, although resting EEG markers of other dementias have been reported. Yet the view still holds that resting EEG in patients with semantic dementia is normal. However, studies using increasingly sophisticated EEG analysis methods have demonstrated that slightest alterations of functional brain states can be detected. We analyzed the common four resting EEG microstates (A, B, C, and D) of 8 patients with semantic dementia in comparison with 8 healthy controls and 8 patients with Alzheimer's disease. Topographical differences between the groups were found in microstate classes B and C, while microstate classes A and D were comparable. The data showed that the semantic dementia group had a peculiar microstate E, but the commonly found microstate C was lacking. Furthermore, the presence of microstate E was significantly correlated with lower MMSE and language scores. Alterations in resting EEG can be found in semantic dementia. Topographical shifts in microstate C might be related to semantic memory deficits. This is the first study that discovered resting state EEG abnormality in semantic dementia. The notion that resting EEG in this dementia subtype is normal has to be revised. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Discovering Patterns in Brain Signals Using Decision Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narusci S. Bastos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Even with emerging technologies, such as Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI systems, understanding how our brains work is a very difficult challenge. So we propose to use a data mining technique to help us in this task. As a case of study, we analyzed the brain’s behaviour of blind people and sighted people in a spatial activity. There is a common belief that blind people compensate their lack of vision using the other senses. If an object is given to sighted people and we asked them to identify this object, probably the sense of vision will be the most determinant one. If the same experiment was repeated with blind people, they will have to use other senses to identify the object. In this work, we propose a methodology that uses decision trees (DT to investigate the difference of how the brains of blind people and people with vision react against a spatial problem. We choose the DT algorithm because it can discover patterns in the brain signal, and its presentation is human interpretable. Our results show that using DT to analyze brain signals can help us to understand the brain’s behaviour.

  17. Discovering geothermal supercritical fluids: a new frontier for seismic exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piana Agostinetti, Nicola; Licciardi, Andrea; Piccinini, Davide; Mazzarini, Francesco; Musumeci, Giovanni; Saccorotti, Gilberto; Chiarabba, Claudio

    2017-11-06

    Exploiting supercritical geothermal resources represents a frontier for the next generation of geothermal electrical power plant, as the heat capacity of supercritical fluids (SCF),which directly impacts on energy production, is much higher than that of fluids at subcritical conditions. Reconnaissance and location of intensively permeable and productive horizons at depth is the present limit for the development of SCF geothermal plants. We use, for the first time, teleseismic converted waves (i.e. receiver function) for discovering those horizons in the crust. Thanks to the capability of receiver function to map buried anisotropic materials, the SCF-bearing horizon is seen as the 4km-depth abrupt termination of a shallow, thick, ultra-high (>30%) anisotropic rock volume, in the center of the Larderello geothermal field. The SCF-bearing horizon develops within the granites of the geothermal field, bounding at depth the vapor-filled heavily-fractured rock matrix that hosts the shallow steam-dominated geothermal reservoirs. The sharp termination at depth of the anisotropic behavior of granites, coinciding with a 2 km-thick stripe of seismicity and diffuse fracturing, points out the sudden change in compressibility of the fluid filling the fractures and is a key-evidence of deep fluids that locally traversed the supercritical conditions. The presence of SCF and fracture permeability in nominally ductile granitic rocks open new scenarios for the understanding of magmatic systems and for geothermal exploitation.

  18. Modern Approaches to Discovering New Hydroxynitrile Lyases for Biocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhi, Santosh Kumar

    2017-01-17

    Hydroxynitrile lyases (HNLs) have grown in importance from laboratory to industry due to their potential to catalyze stereoselective C-C bond-formation reactions in the synthesis of several chiral intermediates, such as enantiopure α-cyanohydrins, β-nitro alcohols, and their derivatives with multiple functional groups. With these wide applications, the demand for finding new HNLs has increased, and this has led to exploration not only of new HNLs but also of new ways to discover them. An exclusive review article on HNLs by Asano et al. in 2011 described the discovery of HNLs along with their applications. Since then many scientific advancements have been seen in this area. This article aims to highlight the modern HNL discovery approaches, based mainly on 1) genome mining, 2) use of INTMSAlign software, 3) rational design (based on a millipede HNL), 4) evolution of catalytic mechanisms, 5) protein engineering guided by catalytic mechanisms, and 6) screening of plants with cyanogen glycoside (CG) content. This description is followed by future prospects. Overall this review represents the present state and the future potential of HNL discovery approaches, and so might be hoped to be instrumental not only in exploration of new HNLs but also in the invention of methods for potential biotechnological applications. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Discovering Patterns in Brain Signals Using Decision Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Narusci S; Adamatti, Diana F; Billa, Cleo Z

    Even with emerging technologies, such as Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI) systems, understanding how our brains work is a very difficult challenge. So we propose to use a data mining technique to help us in this task. As a case of study, we analyzed the brain's behaviour of blind people and sighted people in a spatial activity. There is a common belief that blind people compensate their lack of vision using the other senses. If an object is given to sighted people and we asked them to identify this object, probably the sense of vision will be the most determinant one. If the same experiment was repeated with blind people, they will have to use other senses to identify the object. In this work, we propose a methodology that uses decision trees (DT) to investigate the difference of how the brains of blind people and people with vision react against a spatial problem. We choose the DT algorithm because it can discover patterns in the brain signal, and its presentation is human interpretable. Our results show that using DT to analyze brain signals can help us to understand the brain's behaviour.

  20. Systematic Serendipity: A Method to Discover the Anomalous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Daniel; Walkowicz, Lucianne

    2018-01-01

    One of the challenges in the era of big data astronomical surveys is identifying anomalous data, data that exhibits as-of-yet unobserved behavior. These data may result from systematic errors, extreme (or rare) forms of known phenomena, or, most interestingly, truly novel phenomena that has historically required a trained eye and often fortuitous circumstance to identify. We describe a method that uses machine clustering techniques to discover anomalous data in Kepler lightcurves, as a step towards systematizing the detection of novel phenomena in the era of LSST. As a proof of concept, we apply our anomaly detection method to Kepler data including Boyajian's Star (KIC 8462852). We examine quarters 4, 8, 11, and 16 of the Kepler data which contain Boyajian’s Star acting normally (quarters 4 and 11) and anomalously (quarters 8 and 16). We demonstrate that our method is capable of identifying Boyajian’s Star’s anomalous behavior in quarters of interest, and we further identify other anomalous light curves that exhibit a range of interesting variability.