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Sample records for newly diagnosed hiv-positive

  1. HIV diagnosis, linkage to HIV care, and HIV risk behaviors among newly diagnosed HIV-positive female sex workers in Kigali, Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braunstein, Sarah L.; Umulisa, Marie-Michèle; Veldhuijzen, Nienke J.; Kestelyn, Evelyne; Ingabire, Chantal M.; Nyinawabega, Jeanine; van de Wijgert, Janneke H. H. M.; Nash, Denis

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate linkage-to-care, sexual behavior change, and psychosocial experiences among newly HIV-diagnosed female sex workers (FSWs) in Rwanda. FSWs (n = 800) with unknown serostatus were screened for HIV during 2007/2008. Women testing HIV positive (n = 192) were referred to care and asked to

  2. Clinical and immunological status of a newly diagnosed HIV positive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical and the immune status of newly HIV diagnosed patients, in Marrakech city and its neighboring area, in Morocco. Methods: We performed a retrospective study on 235 patients who have been previously confirmed for HIV infection, and underwent a CD4 T cells using flow cytometry ...

  3. Methamphetamine use among newly diagnosed HIV-positive young men in North Carolina, United States, from 2000 to 2005.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B Hurt

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine (MA is a new arrival to the Southeastern United States (US. Incidence of HIV is also increasing regionally, but data are limited regarding any association between this trend and MA use. We examined behavioral data from North Carolina (NC residents newly diagnosed with HIV, collected by the Department of Health between 2000-2005.Among 1,460 newly diagnosed HIV-positive young men, an increasing trend was seen from 2000-2005 in MA use (p = 0.01, total n = 20. In bivariate analyses, users of MA had significantly greater odds of reporting other substance use, including alcohol, powder or crack cocaine, marijuana, and methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy". They were also more likely to have reported sexual activity while traveling outside NC; sex with anonymous partners; and previous HIV testing. In a predictive model, MA use had a negative association with nonwhite race, and strong positive associations with powder cocaine, "ecstasy," or intravenous drug use and being a university student.Similar to trends seen in more urban parts of the US, MA use among newly diagnosed, HIV-positive young men is increasing in NC. These data are among the first to demonstrate this relationship in a region with a burgeoning epidemic of MA use. Opportunities exist for MA-related HIV risk-reduction interventions whenever young men intersect the healthcare system.

  4. Timing of entry to care by newly diagnosed HIV cases before and after the 2010 New York State HIV testing law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Daniel E; Bian, Fuqin; Anderson, Bridget J; Smith, Lou C

    2015-01-01

    Prompt entry to care after HIV diagnosis benefits the infected individual and reduces the likelihood of further transmission of the virus. The New York State HIV Testing Law of 2010 requires diagnosing providers to refer persons newly diagnosed with HIV to follow-up medical care. This study used routinely collected HIV-related laboratory data from the New York State HIV surveillance system to assess whether the fraction of newly diagnosed cases entering care within 90 days of diagnosis increased after the implementation of the law. Laboratory data on 23,302 newly diagnosed cases showed that entry to care within 90 days rose steadily from 72.0% in 2007 to 85.4% in 2012. The rise was observed across all race/ethnic groups, ages, transmission risk groups, sexes, and regions of residence. Logistic regression analyses of entry to care pre-law and post-law, controlling for demographic characteristics, transmission risk, and geographic area, indicate that percentage of newly diagnosed cases entering care within 90 days grew more rapidly in the post-law period. This is consistent with a positive effect of the law on entry to care.

  5. HIV-1 molecular epidemiology among newly diagnosed HIV-1 individuals in Hebei, a low HIV prevalence province in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinli; Kang, Xianjiang; Liu, Yongjian; Cui, Ze; Guo, Wei; Zhao, Cuiying; Li, Yan; Chen, Suliang; Li, Jingyun; Zhang, Yuqi; Zhao, Hongru

    2017-01-01

    New human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) diagnoses are increasing rapidly in Hebei. The aim of this study presents the most extensive HIV-1 molecular epidemiology investigation in Hebei province in China thus far. We have carried out the most extensive systematic cross-sectional study based on newly diagnosed HIV-1 positive individuals in 2013, and characterized the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 based on full length gag-partial pol gene sequences in the whole of Hebei. Nine HIV-1 genotypes based on full length gag-partial pol gene sequence were identified among 610 newly diagnosed naïve individuals. The four main genotypes were circulating recombinant form (CRF)01_AE (53.4%), CRF07_BC (23.4%), subtype B (15.9%), and unique recombinant forms URFs (4.9%). Within 1 year, three new genotypes (subtype A1, CRF55_01B, CRF65_cpx), unknown before in Hebei, were first found among men who have sex with men (MSM). All nine genotypes were identified in the sexually contracted HIV-1 population. Among 30 URFs, six recombinant patterns were revealed, including CRF01_AE/BC (40.0%), CRF01_AE/B (23.3%), B/C (16.7%), CRF01_AE/C (13.3%), CRF01_AE/B/A2 (3.3%) and CRF01_AE/BC/A2 (3.3%), plus two potential CRFs. This study elucidated the complicated characteristics of HIV-1 molecular epidemiology in a low HIV-1 prevalence northern province of China and revealed the high level of HIV-1 genetic diversity. All nine HIV-1 genotypes circulating in Hebei have spread out of their initial risk groups into the general population through sexual contact, especially through MSM. This highlights the urgency of HIV prevention and control in China.

  6. HIV-1 molecular epidemiology among newly diagnosed HIV-1 individuals in Hebei, a low HIV prevalence province in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinli Lu

    Full Text Available New human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 diagnoses are increasing rapidly in Hebei. The aim of this study presents the most extensive HIV-1 molecular epidemiology investigation in Hebei province in China thus far. We have carried out the most extensive systematic cross-sectional study based on newly diagnosed HIV-1 positive individuals in 2013, and characterized the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 based on full length gag-partial pol gene sequences in the whole of Hebei. Nine HIV-1 genotypes based on full length gag-partial pol gene sequence were identified among 610 newly diagnosed naïve individuals. The four main genotypes were circulating recombinant form (CRF01_AE (53.4%, CRF07_BC (23.4%, subtype B (15.9%, and unique recombinant forms URFs (4.9%. Within 1 year, three new genotypes (subtype A1, CRF55_01B, CRF65_cpx, unknown before in Hebei, were first found among men who have sex with men (MSM. All nine genotypes were identified in the sexually contracted HIV-1 population. Among 30 URFs, six recombinant patterns were revealed, including CRF01_AE/BC (40.0%, CRF01_AE/B (23.3%, B/C (16.7%, CRF01_AE/C (13.3%, CRF01_AE/B/A2 (3.3% and CRF01_AE/BC/A2 (3.3%, plus two potential CRFs. This study elucidated the complicated characteristics of HIV-1 molecular epidemiology in a low HIV-1 prevalence northern province of China and revealed the high level of HIV-1 genetic diversity. All nine HIV-1 genotypes circulating in Hebei have spread out of their initial risk groups into the general population through sexual contact, especially through MSM. This highlights the urgency of HIV prevention and control in China.

  7. Linkage to HIV care, postpartum depression, and HIV-related stigma in newly diagnosed pregnant women living with HIV in Kenya: a longitudinal observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Bulent; Stringer, Kristi L; Onono, Maricianah; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Weiser, Sheri D; Cohen, Craig R; Turan, Janet M

    2014-12-03

    While studies have suggested that depression and HIV-related stigma may impede access to care, a growing body of literature also suggests that access to HIV care itself may help to decrease internalized HIV-related stigma and symptoms of depression in the general population of persons living with HIV. However, this has not been investigated in postpartum women living with HIV. Furthermore, linkage to care itself may have additional impacts on postpartum depression beyond the effects of antiretroviral therapy. We examined associations between linkage to HIV care, postpartum depression, and internalized stigma in a population with a high risk of depression: newly diagnosed HIV-positive pregnant women. In this prospective observational study, data were obtained from 135 HIV-positive women from eight antenatal clinics in the rural Nyanza Province of Kenya at their first antenatal visit (prior to testing HIV-positive for the first time) and subsequently at 6 weeks after giving birth. At 6 weeks postpartum, women who had not linked to HIV care after testing positive at their first antenatal visit had higher levels of depression and internalized stigma, compared to women who had linked to care. Internalized stigma mediated the effect of linkage to care on depression. Furthermore, participants who had both linked to HIV care and initiated antiretroviral therapy reported the lowest levels of depressive symptoms. These results provide further support for current efforts to ensure that women who are newly diagnosed with HIV during pregnancy become linked to HIV care as early as possible, with important benefits for both physical and mental health.

  8. Prevalence of drug resistance mutations and non-B subtypes in newly diagnosed HIV-1 patients in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Louise B; Christensen, Marianne B; Gerstoft, Jan

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor the prevalence of drug resistance mutations in newly diagnosed HIV-1 positive individuals in Denmark. In addition we assessed the prevalence of non-B subtypes based on phylogenetic analysis of the pol gene. Plasma samples from 104 newly diagnosed HIV-1 positive...... patients were obtained in the year 2000. The entire protease gene and 320 amino acids of the reverse transcriptase gene were genotyped. Sequences were obtained from 97 patients. No subjects displayed primary resistance mutations in the protease gene, whereas all carried 1 or more secondary mutations....... Resistance mutations in the RT-gene associated with NRTI-resistance were found in 1 patient, who was infected with zidovudine resistant HIV-1 harbouring the M41L mutation in combination with T215S and L210S. The T215S mutation has been showed to be associated with reversion of zidovudine resistance. The T215...

  9. Changes in immunological status among newly-diagnosed HIV-infected in Denmark 1995-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoegh, S.; Lohse, N.; Hansen, A.B.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The incidence of new HIV diagnoses in Denmark has remained stable since 1991, but it has increased among the subgroup of homosexual men in recent years. This may reflect an actual increase in newly infected, e.g. as a result of increased risk behaviour, or it may reflect increased HIV....... MATERIALS AND METHODS: Observational study based on the Danish HIV Cohort Study, which includes all adults seen at Danish HIV clinics since 1995. RESULTS: From 2000 to 2004 the number of newly-infected homosexual men increased (from 69 to 123), particularly in persons under 30 years (from 5 to 42......). The median CD4 cell count at the time of diagnosis increased in this group (median 19.1 cells/microL per year [95% CI: 3.7-11.3]), while it remained stable among heterosexually infected. The number of newly-diagnosed homosexually infected under 30 years with a CD4 cell count over 400 cells/microL increased...

  10. Intellectual Impairment in Patients with Newly Diagnosed HIV Infection in Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taofiki A. Sunmonu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurocognitive impairment is a detrimental complication of HIV infection. Here, we characterized the intellectual performance of patients with newly diagnosed HIV infection in southwestern Nigeria. We conducted a prospective study at Owo Federal Medical Center by using the adapted Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS. The raw scores were converted to standardized scores (z-scores and correlated with clinical and laboratory findings. Fifty-eight HIV positive patients were recruited; 72% were in WHO stages 3 and 4. We detected a high rate of intellectual impairment in HIV positive patients and controls (63.8% and 10%, resp.; P<0.001. HIV positive patients performed worse throughout the subtests of both verbal and performance intelligence quotients. Presence of opportunistic infections was associated with worse performance in the similarities and digit symbol tests and performance and full scale scores. Lower body weight correlated with poor performance in different WAIS subtests. The high rate of advanced disease stage warrants measures aimed at earlier diagnosis and treatment. Assessment of neurocognitive performance at diagnosis may offer the opportunity to improve functioning in daily life and counteract disease progression.

  11. Clinical and immunological status of a newly diagnosed HIV positive population, in Marrakech, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admou, B; Elharti, E; Oumzil, H; Addebbous, A; Amine, M; Zahlane, K; Soraa, N; Zougaghi, L; Haouach, K; Tassi, N; Aajly, L; Chabaa, L; El Aouad, R

    2010-12-01

    To evaluate the clinical and the immune status of newly HIV diagnosed patients, in Marrakech city and its neighboring area, in Morocco. We performed a retrospective study on 235 patients who have been previously confirmed for HIV infection, and underwent a CD4 T cells using flow cytometry (FacsCount, Becton Dickinson®). The mean age of patients was 34,3 ± 8,4 years (range: 14-55), with a male predominance (sex-ratio M/F=1.4). On basis of clinical data of the patients, 62% (n=146) of them were categorized as "category C", 18.4% (n=43) as "category B", and 19.6% (n=46) as "category A" according to CDC (Center for Disease Control) HIV classification. Among all of them, 60.4% (n=142) had less than 200 CD4T cells, 26% (n=61) had between 200 and 499 CD4T cells, and only 13.6% (n=32) showed a number of CD4T cells less or equal to 500/mm(3). The results of this study reflect a significant delay in the diagnosis of HIV infected patients. Therefore, this delay may compromise timely management of HIV infected individuals and enhances propagation of the epidemic in our country. These data confirm the need for intensifying prevention efforts among high-risk population. Moreover, continuing education in HIV/AIDS among healthcare providers should be reinforced.

  12. Concomitant HIV infection in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RESEARCH ... To compare the presenting features of HIV-positive patients diagnosed with MM ..... Especially since recent publications are showing trends of .... 18. Agrawal S, Deshpande A. A unique presentation of multiple myeloma in an ...

  13. Suicide Attempt in a Recently Diagnosed HIV Positive Subject: Is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suicide Attempt in a Recently Diagnosed HIV Positive Subject: Is Pre and Post Counseling Still Being Adequately Practiced? ... A case of attempted suicide in a recently diagnosed HIV positive subject without adequate counseling is reported. Subject ... Key Words: Suicide Attempt, HIV/AIDS, Pre and Post test Counseling.

  14. A cross-sectional study of leukopenia and thrombocytopenia among Chinese adults with newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yinzhong; Wang, Jiangrong; Wang, Zhenyan; Shen, Jiayin; Tangkai Qi; Song, Wei; Tang, Yang; Liu, Li; Zhang, Renfang; Zeng, Yi; Lu, Hongzhou

    2015-04-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence and risk factors of leukopenia and thrombocytopenia among Chinese adults with newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS. One thousand nine hundred and forty-eight newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients were enrolled between 2009 and 2010. Serum samples obtained from each individual were collected for complete blood count. Factors associated with the presence of leukopenia and thrombocytopenia were analyzed by multiple logistic regression. The overall prevalence of leukopenia and of thrombocytopenia was 33.2% and 15.6%, respectively. The prevalence of leukopenia was higher among females than among males (39.4% versus 31.2%). The prevalence of leukopenia increased with decreasing CD4 count (8.2%, 26.5%, 33.4%, and 41.5% among patients with CD4 count of ≥ 350, 200-349, 50-199, and risk of leukopenia, and that lower CD4 count, and HIV transmission by blood were significantly associated with an increased risk of thrombocytopenia. The study reflects that leukopenia and thrombocytopenia are common among Chinese adults with newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS; and lower CD4 count is associated with an increased risk of both leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. We propose that a routine assessment of these parameters is necessary for timely and adequate clinical management.

  15. Suicidal Ideation, Resilience, and Healthcare Implications for Newly Diagnosed HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex with Men in China: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haochu; Tucker, Joseph; Holroyd, Eleanor; Zhang, Jie; Jiang, Baofa

    2017-05-01

    Globally, suicidal ideation and behavior have been widely reported among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Knowledge gaps exist regarding the longer life and resilience-related experiences of people living with HIV (PLWH). Specifically, there is a dearth of data about the interaction of perceived risk and resilient factors resulting in a wide spectrum of intentional suicidal ideation outcomes in a Chinese cultural context. This qualitative research drew from a larger ethnographic study of newly diagnosed HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in Mainland China. Interviews were conducted with 31 MSM within 6 months of diagnosis of HIV infection. Initial suicidal ideation was commonly reported with participants subsequently feeling more resilient to these thoughts through gaining a greater understanding of their prognosis and treatment. Post-HIV diagnosis, some participants reported forming new relationships and receiving increased support from their partners, friends, peers, families, and community-based organizations. At follow-up, these participants generally reported suicidal ideation had declined. However, participants who continued to express suicidal ideation perceived extended pressure from their families' expectations for them to engage in heterosexual marriages and parenthood. Furthermore, these men reported ongoing hardships in their daily life, unemployment, lack of social support, and isolation. Among this Mainland Chinese cohort of HIV-positive MSM, suicidal ideation may be a transient phenomenon experienced initially following HIV diagnosis that resolves with increased and specific familial, social, and service-based support. It is crucial to identify the causes of stress and social suffering associated with HIV diagnosis in order to reduce suicidal ideation. In China, action is needed to develop routine mental health screening and to increase services that support PLWH. Important services mechanism to accomplish this are

  16. HIV-1 genetic diversity and its distribution characteristics among newly diagnosed HIV-1 individuals in Hebei province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinli; Zhao, Cuiying; Wang, Wei; Nie, Chenxi; Zhang, Yuqi; Zhao, Hongru; Chen, Suliang; Cui, Ze

    2016-01-01

    Since the first HIV-1 case in 1989, Hebei province has presented a clearly rising trend of HIV-1 prevalence, and HIV-1 genetic diversity has become the vital barrier to HIV prevention and control in this area. To obtain detailed information of HIV-1 spread in different populations and in different areas of Hebei, a cross-sectional HIV-1 molecular epidemiological investigation was performed across the province. Blood samples of 154 newly diagnosed HIV-1 individuals were collected from ten prefectures in Hebei using stratified sampling. Partial gag and env genes were amplified and sequenced. HIV-1 genotypes were identified by phylogenetic tree analyses. Among the 139 subjects genotyped, six HIV-1 subtypes were identified successfully, including subtype B (41.0 %), CRF01_AE (40.3 %), CRF07_BC (11.5 %), CRF08_BC (4.3 %), unique recombinant forms (URFs) (1.4 %) and subtype C (1.4 %). Subtype B was identified as the most frequent subtype. Two URF recombination patterns were the same as CRF01_AE/B. HIV-1 genotype distribution showed a significant statistical difference in different demographic characteristics, such as source (P  0.05). The differences in HIV-1 genotype distribution were closely associated with transmission routes. Particularly, all six subtype strains were found in heterosexuals, showing that HIV-1 has spread from the high-risk populations to the general populations in Hebei, China. In addition, CRF01_AE instead of subtype B has become the major strain of HIV-1 infection among homosexuals. Our study revealed HIV-1 evolution and genotype distribution by investigating newly diagnosed HIV-1 individuals in Hebei, China. This study provides important information to enhance the strategic plan for HIV prevention and control in China.

  17. Molecular epidemiological analysis of env and pol sequences in newly diagnosed HIV type 1-infected, untreated patients in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezei, Mária; Ay, Eva; Koroknai, Anita; Tóth, Renáta; Balázs, Andrea; Bakos, Agnes; Gyori, Zoltán; Bánáti, Ferenc; Marschalkó, Márta; Kárpáti, Sarolta; Minárovits, János

    2011-11-01

    The aim of our study was to monitor the diversity of HIV-1 strains circulating in Hungary and investigate the prevalence of resistance-associated mutations to reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease (PR) inhibitors in newly diagnosed, drug-naive patients. A total of 30 HIV-1-infected patients without prior antiretroviral treatment diagnosed during the period 2008-2010 were included into this study. Viral subtypes and the presence of RT, PR resistance-associated mutations were established by sequencing. Classification of HIV-1 strains showed that 29 (96.6%) patients were infected with subtype B viruses and one patient (3.3%) with subtype A virus. The prevalence of HIV-1 strains with transmitted drug resistance mutations in newly diagnosed individuals was 16.6% (5/30). This study showed that HIV-1 subtype B is still highly predominant in Hungary and documented a relatively high transmission rate of drug resistance in our country.

  18. Trends on epidemiological, virological, and clinical features among newly diagnosed HIV-1 persons in Northwest Spain over the last 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernas, B; Mena, A; Cañizares, A; Grandal, M; Castro-Iglesias, A; Pértega, S; Pedreira, J D; Poveda, E

    2015-08-01

    To describe temporal trend and characteristics of newly HIV-diagnosed patients in a medical care area in Northwest Spain over the last 10 years. All newly diagnosed patients for HIV-infection from 2004 to 2013 at a reference medical care area in Northwest of Spain were identified. Epidemiological, virological, immunological, and clinical data, as well as HIV genotype and drug resistance information were recorded. A total of 565 newly HIV-diagnosed patients were identified. The number of new cases increased in the last 5 years (66 cases/year). Overall, 53.1% had a median CD4 counts study period was 3.7%, but a decreased to 2.6% was observed in the last 5 years. The most prevalent TDR mutations were: T215 revertants (1.5%), K219QENR (1.2%), for NRTIs; K103N (1.9%), for NNRTIs; L90M (0.3%), for PIs. Overall, 73.2% of patients started antiretroviral treatment and 9.9% of patients died during follow-up. The number of newly HIV diagnosed patients increased since year 2009. There is a high prevalence of late diagnosis (53%) and 33% had an AIDS defining criteria. Interestingly, the most prevalent non-B subtype in our population was F (25.8%). These findings support the need to facilitate the access for HIV testing to reduce the rate of late HIV diagnosis, improve the clinical outcome and prevent HIV transmission. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Depressive symptoms and their impact on health-seeking behaviors in newly-diagnosed HIV-infected patients in Durban, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Avila, Lynn; Regan, Susan; Giddy, Janet; Chetty, Senica; Ross, Douglas; Katz, Jeffrey N; Freedberg, Kenneth A; Walensky, Rochelle P; Losina, Elena; Bassett, Ingrid V

    2012-11-01

    We evaluated the prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms prior to HIV diagnosis and determined the effect of these symptoms on seeking HIV care at an urban and rural clinic in Durban, South Africa. Adults were administered a questionnaire which included the 5-item Mental Health Index (MHI-5) before HIV testing. We determined the depressive symptoms among HIV-infected subjects. Of 1,545 newly-diagnosed HIV-infected subjects, 55% had depressive symptoms by MHI-5 score. Enrolling at the urban clinic and decreasing functional activity score were associated with depressive symptoms. Subjects with depressive symptoms who were referred for HIV testing by a healthcare provider were less likely to obtain a CD4 count than those without depressive symptoms who self-referred for testing. Depressive symptoms were common among newly-diagnosed HIV-infected participants and impacted CD4 uptake. Depression screening at the time of HIV diagnosis is critical for improving linkage to mental health and HIV services in South Africa.

  20. Stigma Reduction in Adolescents and Young Adults Newly Diagnosed with HIV: Findings from the Project ACCEPT Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Harper, Gary W.; Lemos, Diana; Hosek, Sybil G.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the influence of a group-based behavioral intervention for adolescents and young adults newly diagnosed with HIV (Project ACCEPT) on four dimensions of HIV-related stigma—personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, negative self-image, and concern with public attitudes about people with HIV—as measured by the Berger HIV Stigma Scale. Stigma was addressed in a holistic manner during the intervention by providing HIV/AIDS-related information, facilitating the acquisition of...

  1. The impact of structured support groups for pregnant South African women recently diagnosed HIV positive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundell, Jonathan P; Visser, Maretha J; Makin, Jennifer D; Kershaw, Trace S; Forsyth, Brian W C; Jeffery, Bridget; Sikkema, Kathleen J

    2011-08-31

    The authors of this study evaluated a structured 10-session psychosocial support group intervention for newly HIV-diagnosed pregnant South African women. Participants were expected to display increases in HIV disclosure, self-esteem, active coping and positive social support, and decreases in depression, avoidant coping, and negative social support. Three hundred sixty-one pregnant HIV-infected women were recruited from four antenatal clinics in Tshwane townships from April 2005 to September 2006. Using a quasi-experimental design, assessments were conducted at baseline and two and eight months post-intervention. A series of random effects regression analyses were conducted, with the three assessment points treated as a random effect of time. At both follow-ups, the rate of disclosure in the intervention group was significantly higher than that of the comparison group (p<0.001). Compared to the comparison group at the first follow-up, the intervention group displayed higher levels of active coping (t=2.68, p<0.05) and lower levels of avoidant coping (t=-2.02, p<0.05), and those who attended at least half of the intervention sessions exhibited improved self-esteem (t=2.11, p<0.05). Group interventions tailored for newly HIV positive pregnant women, implemented in resource-limited settings, may accelerate the process of adjusting to one's HIV status, but may not have sustainable benefits over time.

  2. Screening for asymptomatic lymphogranuloma venereum co-infection in men who have sex with men newly diagnosed with HIV, hepatitis C or syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallawela, Sns; Bradshaw, D; Hodson, L; Rehill, K; Wong, F; Rockwood, N; Gedela, K; Hardie, J; Price, H; Alexander, S; McLean, K; Dean, G; Smith, A; Sullivan, A K

    2016-07-01

    Patients diagnosed with lymphogranuloma venereum have high rates of co-infection with HIV, syphilis and hepatitis C. The aim of this enhanced surveillance was to screen all men who have sex with men (MSM) newly diagnosed with HIV, syphilis or hepatitis C for co-infection with asymptomatic lymphogranuloma venereum as part of the recommended sexual health screen. Of the 145 patients screened, 21 patients were diagnosed with rectal Chlamydia trachomatis, one with both rectal and urethral chlamydia and six with urethral chlamydia. One rectal chlamydia-positive sample, when tested, was equivocal for lymphogranuloma venereum. Our data suggested that there was not a pool of asymptomatic lymphogranuloma venereum infection in MSM recently diagnosed with HIV, hepatitis C and syphilis. However, there have been recent reports of an increased incidence of asymptomatic lymphogranuloma venereum, raising the question whether lymphogranuloma venereum should be screened for in high risk asymptomatic MSM. The prevalence of asymptomatic rectal chlamydia infections was 19%. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Depression and HIV Serostatus Disclosure to Sexual Partners Among Newly HIV-Diagnosed Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abler, Laurie; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Watt, Melissa H; Hansen, Nathan B; Wilson, Patrick A; Kochman, Arlene

    2015-10-01

    HIV disclosure to sexual partners facilitates joint decision-making and risk reduction strategies for safer sex behaviors, but disclosure may be impacted by depression symptoms. Disclosure is also associated with disclosure self-efficacy, which in turn may also be influenced by depressive symptoms. This study examined the relationship between depression and HIV disclosure to partners following diagnosis among men who have sex with men (MSM), mediated by disclosure self-efficacy. Newly HIV-diagnosed MSM (n=92) who reported sexual activity after diagnosis completed an assessment soon after diagnosis which measured depressive symptoms, and another assessment within 3 months of diagnosis that measured disclosure self-efficacy and disclosure. Over one-third of the sample reported elevated depressive symptoms soon after diagnosis and equal proportions (one-third each) disclosed to none, some, or all partners in the 3 months after diagnosis. Depressive symptoms were negatively associated with disclosure self-efficacy and disclosure to partners, while disclosure self-efficacy was positively associated with disclosure. Disclosure self-efficacy partially mediated the relationship between depression and disclosure, accounting for 33% of the total effect. These findings highlight the importance of addressing depression that follows diagnosis to enhance subsequent disclosure to sexual partners.

  4. Transmitted drug resistance and type of infection in newly diagnosed HIV-1 individuals in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Wendy; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela; Morales, Sonia; Monterroso, Edgar; Paredes, Mayte; Dobbs, Trudy; Parekh, Bharat S; Albert, Jan; Rivera, Ivette Lorenzana de

    2010-12-01

    Transmitted drug resistance (TDR) reduces the efficacy of antiretroviral treatment and is a public health concern. To gain insight in the epidemiology of TDR in Honduras by evaluating the amount of TDR in a representative sample of newly diagnosed individuals and by determining whether these are recent or established infections. Two hundred treatment-naïve, newly diagnosed HIV-positive individuals representing different population groups (general population, Garifunas ethnic group, female sex workers and men who have sex with men) and different geographic regions were enrolled during April 2004-April 2007. The HIV-1 pol gene was sequenced to identify drug-resistant mutations and TDR was scored as recommended by the WHO. Specimens were classified as recent or established infections using the BED assay. Among 200 samples analyzed from Honduran patients the prevalence of TDR was 7% (95% CI: 3.9-11.5%), 5% for non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), 3% for nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and 0.5% for protease inhibitors (PIs). Testing of these samples with the BED assay revealed that 12% of the specimens were associated with recent infections. TDR was significantly more common in specimens with recent infection (21%) than established infection (5%) (p=0.016). The prevalence of TDR in Honduras was moderate (7%). The percentage of specimens who were recently infected was low (12%), suggesting that late HIV diagnosis is common. The TDR prevalence was higher in recent than in established infections, which may indicate that TDR is increasing over time. The higher prevalence of NNRTI and NRTI mutations as compared to PI mutations is probably due to a broader and longer use of these drugs in Honduras. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Relationship of Stigma and Depression Among Newly HIV-Diagnosed Chinese Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jun; Wang, Lijuan; Kipp, Aaron M; Qian, Han-Zhu; Yin, Lu; Ruan, Yuhua; Shao, Yiming; Lu, Hongyan; Vermund, Sten H

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between HIV stigma and depression among newly diagnosed HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). We measured HIV-related stigma and current depression using standard scales among 367 Chinese MSM who had been diagnosed very recently with HIV infection, analyzing key associations with multivariable ordinal logistic regression. Current depression prevalence was 36 %. Median scores for felt, vicarious, and internalized stigma were 17, 2, and 5, respectively, each on a 0-30 scale. A one-point increase in the total stigma score was associated with a 4 % increase in the odds of current depression [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.04, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.05]. Internalized stigma had the strongest association with depression (aOR = 1.09, 95 % CI 1.07-1.12). Effective interventions to address coping with HIV-related stigma immediately following HIV-diagnosis might help reduce depression, improve long-term mental health, and improve engagement in their care.

  6. Depressive Symptoms and Their Impact on Health-seeking Behaviors in Newly-diagnosed HIV-infected Patients in Durban, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez-Avila, Lynn; Regan, Susan; Giddy, Janet; Chetty, Senica; Ross, Douglas; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Walensky, Rochelle P.; Losina, Elena; Bassett, Ingrid V.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms prior to HIV diagnosis and determined the effect of these symptoms on seeking HIV care at an urban and rural clinic in Durban, South Africa. Adults were administered a questionnaire which included the 5-item Mental Health Index (MHI-5) before HIV testing. We determined the depressive symptoms among HIV-infected subjects. Of 1,545 newly-diagnosed HIV-infected subjects, 55% had depressive symptoms by MHI-5 score. Enrolling at the...

  7. Avoidant Coping Mediates the Relationship Between Self-Efficacy for HIV Disclosure and Depression Symptoms Among Men Who Have Sex with Men Newly Diagnosed with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherenack, Emily M; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Watt, Melissa H; Hansen, Nathan B; Wilson, Patrick A

    2018-01-25

    HIV diagnosis presents a critical opportunity to reduce secondary transmission, improve engagement in care, and enhance overall well-being. To develop relevant interventions, research is needed on the psychosocial experiences of newly diagnosed individuals. This study examined avoidant coping, self-efficacy for HIV disclosure decisions, and depression among 92 newly diagnosed men who have sex with men who reported recent sexual risk behavior. It was hypothesized that avoidant coping would mediate the relationship between self-efficacy and depression. Cross-sectional surveys were collected from participants 3 months after HIV diagnosis. To test for mediation, multiple linear regressions were conducted while controlling for HIV disclosure to sexual partners. Self-efficacy for HIV disclosure decisions showed a negative linear relationship to depression symptoms, and 99% of this relationship was mediated by avoidant coping. The index of mediation of self-efficacy on depression indicated a small-to-medium effect. Higher self-efficacy was related to less avoidant coping, and less avoidant coping was related to decreased depression symptoms, all else held constant. These findings highlight the role of avoidant coping in explaining the relationship between self-efficacy for HIV disclosure decisions and depression.

  8. Delay in seeking care for tuberculosis symptoms among adults newly diagnosed with HIV in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwira, L G; Dowdy, D W; Khundi, M; Barnes, G L; Nkhoma, A; Choko, A T; Murowa, M; Chaisson, R E; Corbett, E L; Fielding, K

    2018-03-01

    Ten primary health clinics in rural Thyolo District, Malawi. Tuberculosis (TB) is a common initial presentation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We investigated the time from TB symptom onset to HIV diagnosis to describe TB health-seeking behaviour in adults newly diagnosed with HIV. We asked adults (18 years) about the presence and duration of TB symptoms at the time of receiving a new HIV diagnosis. Associations with delayed health seeking (defined as >30 and >90 days from the onset of TB symptoms) were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression. TB symptoms were reported by 416 of 1265 participants (33%), of whom 36% (150/416) had been symptomatic for >30 days before HIV testing. Most participants (260/416, 63%) were below the poverty line (US$0.41 per household member per day). Patients who first sought care from informal providers had an increased odds of delay of >30 days (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.6, 95%CI 0.9-2.8) or 90 days (aOR 2.0, 95%CI 1.1-3.8). Delayed health seeking for TB-related symptoms was common. Poverty was ubiquitous, but had no clear relationship to diagnostic delay. HIV-positive individuals who first sought care from informal providers were more likely to experience diagnostic delays for TB symptoms.

  9. Cognitive functions in newly diagnosed patients with HIV infection in a tertiary health facility: Assessment using community screening interview for dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A. Sumonu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Neurocognitive dysfunction is a detrimental complication of HIV infection. In this study we attempt to characterize the pattern of cognitive dysfunction in a sample of Nigerian patients with newly diagnosed HIV infection. Methods: We conducted a prospective study in which 50 patients with newly diagnosed HIV infection were studied along with 50 normal control subjects. The participants were evaluated with the medical history, general, physical and neurological examination. Laboratory evaluation and chest X-Ray were done for all patients. The Community Screening Interview for Dementia (CSID questionnaire was administered to all the study participants. Results: About 70% of the patients were in advanced disease stage. The mean age (SD of the patients and controls in years were 36.44±8.22 and 35.40±11.53 respectively. More than half (56% of the patients had secondary level of education (12years of education. About 20% of the patients had severe neurocognitive impairment while 48% had minor neurocognitive disorder. The patients with HIV infection performed poorly in the domains of language, memory, orientation, attention/calculation and praxis relative to controls (p0.05 but the presence of opportunistic infections had negative impact on the performances on orientation and total CSID scores in the patients with HIV infection (p<0.05. Conclusion: Patients with newly diagnosed HIV infection have poor cognitive functions when compared to normal controls and some presence of opportunistic infections in the patient is a significant risk factor for cognitive impairment. Keywords: Human immunodeficiency virus infection, Cognitive functions, Dementia, Nigeria

  10. Diagnosed HIV Infection in Transgender Adults and Adolescents: Results from the National HIV Surveillance System, 2009-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Hollie; Babu, Aruna Surendera; Wiewel, Ellen Weiss; Opoku, Jenevieve; Crepaz, Nicole

    2017-09-01

    Publications on diagnosed HIV infection among transgender people have been limited to state- or local-level data. We analyzed data from the National HIV Surveillance System and present results from the first national-level analysis of transgender people with diagnosed HIV infection. From 2009 to 2014, HIV surveillance jurisdictions from 45 states plus the District of Columbia identified and reported at least one case of newly diagnosed HIV infection for transgender people; jurisdictions from 5 states reported no cases for transgender people. Of 2351 transgender people with newly diagnosed HIV infection during 2009-2014, 84.0% were transgender women (male-to-female), 15.4% were transgender men (female-to-male), and 0.7% were additional gender identity (e.g., gender queer, bi-gender). Over half of both transgender women (50.8%; 1002/1974) and men (58.4%; 211/361) with newly diagnosed HIV infection were non-Hispanic black/African American. Improvements in data collection methods and quality are needed to gain a better understanding of HIV burden among transgender people.

  11. Disclosure of newly diagnosed HIV infection and condom use at first sex after diagnosis: a study of young Black men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Richard A; Mena, Leandro; Arnold, Trisha

    2017-08-01

    Background The first purpose of the present study was to determine whether young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) disclose their newly diagnosed HIV infection to a male or female partner, and to determine whether this disclosure is related to condom use; the second was to identify correlates of disclosing newly diagnosed HIV infection to male sex partners, including a measure of partner-related barriers to condom use. A sample of 125 HIV-infected YBMSM (age 15-29 years) provided cross-sectional data used for both study purposes. Recruitment occurred in a mid-size city in the southern US experiencing inordinately high prevalence and incidence rates of HIV among YBMSM. Significance was defined by an α level of <0.05. Eighty-eight YBMSM (70.4%) indicated disclosing their newly diagnosed HIV status to the first male partner they had sex with after being diagnosed. Of these, nine (9.1%) reported that condoms were not used during ensuing sex with that partner. However, of the men not disclosing, 27.0% reported not using condoms for ensuing sex (P=0.009). Similar findings were observed relative to sex with females (P=0.057). Regarding the second study purpose, in addition to a protective effect of advancing age, men scoring at or above the median on a measure of partner-related barriers to condom use were 2.4-fold more likely to not disclose compared with men scoring below the median (P=0.04). For YBMSM, a beneficial counselling objective relative to disclosing newly diagnosed HIV may be to help men resolve perceptions of partner-related barriers to condom use.

  12. Stigma reduction in adolescents and young adults newly diagnosed with HIV: findings from the Project ACCEPT intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Gary W; Lemos, Diana; Hosek, Sybil G

    2014-10-01

    This article describes the influence of a group-based behavioral intervention for adolescents and young adults newly diagnosed with HIV (Project ACCEPT) on four dimensions of HIV-related stigma-personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, negative self-image, and concern with public attitudes about people with HIV-as measured by the Berger HIV Stigma Scale. Stigma was addressed in a holistic manner during the intervention by providing HIV/AIDS-related information, facilitating the acquisition of coping skills, and providing contact with other youth living with HIV in order to improve social support. Fifty youth (28 male, 22 female; mean age=19.24 years) newly diagnosed with HIV from four geographically diverse clinics participated in a one-group pretest-posttest design study whereby they received the intervention over a 12-week period, and completed assessments at baseline, post-intervention, and 3-month follow-up. Results from the combined sample (males and females) revealed overall reductions in stigma in three dimensions: personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, and negative self-image, although only the combined-sample effects for negative self-image were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Gender-specific analyses revealed that the intervention reduced stigma for males across all four dimensions of stigma, with all effects being maintained to some degree at the 3-month follow-up. Only personalized stigma demonstrated a decrease for females, although this effect was not maintained at the 3-month follow-up; while the other three types of stigma increased at post-intervention and 3-month follow-up. Findings are discussed in terms of gender specific outcomes and the need for a different type of intervention to reduce stigma for young women.

  13. Peer counselling versus standard-of-care on reducing high-risk behaviours among newly diagnosed HIV-positive men who have sex with men in Beijing, China: a randomized intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Vermund, Sten H; Ruan, Yuhua; Liu, Hongjie; Rivet Amico, K; Simoni, Jane M; Shepherd, Bryan E; Shao, Yiming; Qian, Han-Zhu

    2018-02-01

    Reducing high-risk behaviours (i.e. multiple partnership, condomless anal/vaginal sex, alcohol use before sex, illicit drug use) after HIV diagnosis is critical for curtailing HIV transmission. We designed an intervention to explore peer- counselling in reducing high-risk behaviours among newly diagnosed HIV-positive Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM). We randomized 367 newly diagnosed HIV-positive men to either standard-of-care (SOC; n = 183) or peer-counselling intervention (n = 184), and followed them for 12 months (visit at 0-, 3-, 6-, 9- and 12-month). SOC participants received counselling on high-risk behaviour reduction by clinic staff. Intervention participants received both SOC and peer counselling. A generalized estimating equation was used to compare pre-post diagnosis high-risk behaviour change; logistic regression was used to assess the likelihood of practicing high-risk behaviours between intervention and SOC participants. Both intent-to-treat and per-protocol (full-dosage) approaches were used for the analyses. For pre- and post-diagnosis comparisons, multiple partnership fell from 50% to 16% (p peer counselling was more likely to reduce insertive anal sex (AOR = 0.65; 95% CI: 0.45 to 0.94), condomless anal sex (AOR = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.10 to 0.64) and illicit drug use (AOR = 0.32; 95% CI: 0.16 to 0.64). In the per-protocol analysis, peer counselling was associated with a lower likelihood of using illicit drug (OR = 0.23; 95% CI: 0.07 to 0.81) and having condomless vaginal sex with women (OR = 0.12; 95% CI: 0.07 to 0.98). We observed a 14 to 43% decrease in the prevalence of selected high-risk behaviours after HIV diagnosis. Peer counselling had a greater impact in reducing condomless anal sex with men, illicit drug use and condomless vaginal sex with women over time. Future studies with exclusive peer-counselling arm are necessary to test its efficacy and effectiveness among Chinese MSM. Clinical Trial Number: NCT01904877. © 2018

  14. Stigma Reduction in Adolescents and Young Adults Newly Diagnosed with HIV: Findings from the Project ACCEPT Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Diana; Hosek, Sybil G.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This article describes the influence of a group-based behavioral intervention for adolescents and young adults newly diagnosed with HIV (Project ACCEPT) on four dimensions of HIV-related stigma—personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, negative self-image, and concern with public attitudes about people with HIV—as measured by the Berger HIV Stigma Scale. Stigma was addressed in a holistic manner during the intervention by providing HIV/AIDS-related information, facilitating the acquisition of coping skills, and providing contact with other youth living with HIV in order to improve social support. Fifty youth (28 male, 22 female; mean age=19.24 years) newly diagnosed with HIV from four geographically diverse clinics participated in a one-group pretest-posttest design study whereby they received the intervention over a 12-week period, and completed assessments at baseline, post-intervention, and 3-month follow-up. Results from the combined sample (males and females) revealed overall reductions in stigma in three dimensions: personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, and negative self-image, although only the combined-sample effects for negative self-image were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Gender-specific analyses revealed that the intervention reduced stigma for males across all four dimensions of stigma, with all effects being maintained to some degree at the 3-month follow-up. Only personalized stigma demonstrated a decrease for females, although this effect was not maintained at the 3-month follow-up; while the other three types of stigma increased at post-intervention and 3-month follow-up. Findings are discussed in terms of gender specific outcomes and the need for a different type of intervention to reduce stigma for young women. PMID:25216106

  15. Randomized controlled trial of a positive affect intervention to reduce stress in people newly diagnosed with HIV; protocol and design for the IRISS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moskowitz JT

    2014-09-01

    currently few established interventions for people who are newly diagnosed with HIV. We present the design and methods for a randomized trial in which we test the efficacy of one such skills-based intervention that targets positive affect as a novel mechanism of change. The proposed research builds on observational findings of the important unique functions of positive affect. We aim to determine whether a five-session theory- and evidence-based intervention designed to teach skills for increasing the frequency and intensity of daily positive affect does so, and whether this intervention has beneficial effects on subsequent psychological well-being, health behaviors, and physical health up to 15 months after diagnosis with HIV. This is a randomized controlled trial in a sample of adults recruited within 12 weeks of testing positive for HIV. The control group is attention-matched, and follow up assessments will be conducted immediately post intervention (approximately 5 months post diagnosis and at 10 and 15 months post diagnosis. This study is an important next step in research concerning the adaptive functions of positive affect for people coping with HIV or other health-related life stress. Keywords: positive affect, HIV diagnosis, stress, coping, RCT, intervention, physical health

  16. Stigma, Subsistence, Intimacy, Face, Filial Piety, and Mental Health Problems Among Newly HIV-Diagnosed Men Who Have Sex With Men in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haochu Howard; Holroyd, Eleanor; Lau, Joseph; Li, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    High rates of mental health problems among people living with HIV (PLWH) have been widely reported in the literature; however, an understanding of the socioecological contexts of these presentations remains limited, particularly in China. In order to explore potential socioecological factors associated with mental health problems among newly diagnosed HIV-infected migrant men who have sex with men (MSM), we employed a life profile approach conducting semi-structured in-depth interviews with 31 newly diagnosed HIV-infected MSM residing in a city in Southern China. Participants' life profile accounts outlined their concerns, including internalized stigma, subsistence living, difficulties finding a lover or a stable partner, loss of face, and deviation from filial piety. We contend that targeted interventions should address socio-ecological issues such as migrant adversities, social suffering, and cultural trauma when providing culturally based mental health services for this marginalized population within the context of Chinese society. Copyright © 2015 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevalence and predictors of chronic kidney disease in newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus patients in Owerri, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E N Anyabolu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection is a common cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study aims at identifying the prevalence and predictors of CKD in newly diagnosed HIV patients in Owerri, South East Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional study consisting of 393 newly diagnosed HIV-seropositive subjects and 136 age- and sex-matched seronegative subjects as controls. CKD was defined as 24-hour urine protein (24-HUP ≥0.3 g and/or glomerular filtration rate (GFR < 60 ml/min. Subjects were recruited from the HIV clinic and the Medical Outpatient Department of Federal Medical Centre, Owerri. Clinical and anthropometric data were collected. Relevant investigations were performed, including HIV screening and relevant urine and blood investigations. The mean age of the HIV subjects was 38.84 ± 10.65 years. CKD was present in 86 (22.9% HIV subjects and 11 (8.l % controls. Low waist circumference (WC, high serum creatinine, high spot urine protein/creatinine ratio (SUPCR, high 24-HUP/creatinine Ratio (24-HUPCR, high 24-HUP/osmolality Ratio (24-HUPOR predicted CKD in HIV subjects. CKD prevalence is high (22.9% among newly diagnosed HIV patients in South East Nigeria. The predictors of CKD included WC, serum creatinine, SUPCR, 24-HUPCR, and 24-HUPOR.

  18. HIV screening among newly diagnosed TB patients: a cross sectional study in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Suzanne; Mejía, Fernando; Rojas, Marlene; Seas, Carlos; Van der Stuyft, Patrick; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Otero, Larissa

    2018-03-20

    Since 2006, the Peruvian National TB program (NTP) recommends voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) for all tuberculosis (TB) patients. Responding to the differential burden of both diseases in Peru, TB is managed in peripheral health facilities while HIV is managed in referral centers. This study aims to determine the coverage of HIV screening among TB patients and the characteristics of persons not screened. From March 2010 to December 2011 we enrolled new smear-positive pulmonary TB adults in 34 health facilities in a district in Lima. NTP staff offered VCT to all TB patients. Patients with an HIV positive result were referred for confirmation tests and management. We interviewed patients to collect their demographic and clinical characteristics and registered if patients opted in or out of the screening. Of the 1295 enrolled TB patients, nine had a known HIV diagnosis. Of the remaining, 76.1% (979) were screened for HIV. Among the 23.9% (307) not screened, 38.4% (118) opted out of the screening. TB patients at one of the health care facilities of the higher areas of the district (OR = 3.38, CI 95% 2.17-5.28 for the highest area and OR = 2.82, CI 95% 1.78-4.49 for the high area) as well as those reporting illegal drug consumption (OR = 1.65, CI 95% 1.15-2.37) were more likely not to be screened. Twenty-four were HIV positive (1.9% of all patients 1295, or 2.4% of those screened). Of 15 patients diagnosed with HIV during the TB episode, ten were enrolled in an HIV program. The median time between the result of the HIV screening and the first consultation at the HIV program was 82 days (IQR, 32-414). The median time between the result of the HIV screening and antiretroviral initiation was 148.5 days (IQR 32-500). An acceptable proportion of TB patients were screened for HIV in Lima. Referral systems of HIV positive patients should be strengthened for timely ART initiation.

  19. The comparison of the performance of two screening strategies identifying newly-diagnosed HIV during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, Kees; Smit, Colette; van der Flier, Michiel; de Wolf, Frank

    2011-10-01

    In the Netherlands, a non-selective opt-out instead of a selective opt-in antenatal HIV screening strategy was implemented in 2004. In case of infection, screening was followed by prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT). We compared the performance of the two strategies in terms of detection of new cases of HIV and vertical transmission. HIV-infected pregnant women were identified retrospectively from the Dutch HIV cohort ATHENA January 2000 to January 2008. Apart from demographic, virological and immunological data, the date of HIV infection in relation to the index pregnancy was established. Separately, all infants diagnosed with HIV born following implementation of the screening program were identified by a questionnaire via the paediatric HIV centres. 162/481 (33.7%) HIV-positive pregnant women were diagnosed with HIV before 2004 and 172/214 (80.3%) after January 2004. Multivariate analysis showed an 8-fold (95% confidence interval 5.47-11.87) increase in the odds of HIV detection during pregnancy after the national introduction of the opt-out strategy. Still, three children born during a 5-year period after July 2004 were infected due to de novo infection in pregnancy. Implementation of a nation-wide screening strategy based upon non-selective opt-out screening followed by effective PMTCT appeared to detect more HIV-infected women for the first time in pregnancy and to reduce vertical transmission of HIV substantially. Nonetheless, still few children are infected because of maternal infection after the first trimester. We propose the introduction of partner screening on HIV as part of the antenatal screening strategy.

  20. [Molecular epidemiological characteristics of HIV-1 strains isolated from newly diagnosed MSM subjects (2006-2010) in Beijing, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jing-Rong; Zang, Wan-Chun; Su, Xue-Li; Lu, Hong-Yan; Hao, Ming-Qiang; Xin, Ruo-Lei; Chen, Guo-Min; He, Xiong; Zeng, Yi

    2014-03-01

    This study aims to analyze the molecular epidemiological characteristics of HIV-1 strains prevailing among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Beijing, China. The pol gene fragments from 250 newly diagnosed HIV-1-infected MSM individuals during 2006-2010 in Beijing were amplified by RT-nested PCR, sequenced, and phylogenetically analyzed. HIV-1 pol gene from 189 individuals were amplified and analyzed; 81 (42. 9%), 3 (1. 6%), 2 (1.0%), 88 (46. 6%), and 15 (7.9%) individuals were infected with HIV-1 subtypes B, B', C, CRF01_AE, and CRF07_BC, respectively. The subtypes B and CRF01_AE could both be grouped into two clusters, and CRFO7_BC strains shared high homology and were presumed to originate from a common ancestor. The HIV-1 circulating in MSM in Beijing had a lower genetic diversity than in heterosexuals. The HIV-1 epidemic (2006-2010) in MSM in Beijing was actually a rapid spread of HIV-1 CRF01 AE and B, or rather native strains of the two viruses.

  1. HIV sero.prevalence among adult with newly diagnosed pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: New patients registered with the DOTS clinic meeting TB case definition, diagnosed based on findings suggestive of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) on clinical and radiological examination (chest X.ray), and sputum testing for AFB (acid fast bacilli) were offered provider initiated HIV counseling and ...

  2. Positive benefits: preventive impact of post-exposure prophylaxis awareness among those with diagnosed HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, C

    2008-04-01

    To consider the extent to which those presenting for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) after sexual risk had been encouraged to do so by their PEP-aware partners with (diagnosed) HIV. Thirty men who had completed the 2005 UK Gay Men's Sex Survey who said they had ever tried to get PEP took part in a 30 minute telephone interview. Fifteen men in the sample described a sexual exposure incident where they had knowledge that their partner was diagnosed with having HIV. Of these, only five knew about their partner's HIV diagnosis prior to sexual contact. The remaining 10 sought PEP because their sexual partner revealed his positive status following potential sexual exposure. Our analysis revealed that word of mouth from friends, sexual partners and health professionals played a key role in men's knowledge about the existence of PEP. It is important for HIV and sexual health specialists to ensure that PEP information is not only targeted at those who are tested negative for HIV or are untested but also to people with diagnosed HIV.

  3. No relationship between late HIV diagnosis and social deprivation in newly diagnosed patients in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzin, L; Yazdanpanah, Y; Huleux, T; Cotte, L; Pugliese, P; Allavena, C; Reynes, J; Poizot-Martin, I; Bani-Sadr, F; Delpierre, C

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether there is a relationship between social deprivation and time of HIV diagnosis in France. Prospectively collected data from a multicentre database were used in the study. Patients with a first HIV diagnosis between 1 January 2014 and 31 December 2015 were selected from the database. Deprivation was measured using the European Deprivation Index (EDI), which is an ecological index constructed from the address of residence and based on the smallest geographical census unit, in which individuals are classified so as to be comparable with national quintiles. Time of diagnosis was classified as being at an early, intermediate, late, or advanced stage of disease. Age, gender, distance from home to HIV centre, most probable route of infection, and hepatitis B or C coinfection were considered in the analysis. Because of a strong interaction between gender and most probable route of infection, we constructed a 'population' variable: men who have sex with men (MSM), heterosexual men and women. Of 1421 newly diagnosed patients, 44% were diagnosed either late or at an advanced stage of disease, and 46.3% were in the highest deprivation quintile. Using multivariate logistic regression, 'population' [odds ratio (OR) 0.62 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.48-0.78) for MSM compared with women] and age [OR 1.39 (95% CI 1.07-1.80), 1.72 (1.32-2.23) and 1.86 (1.40-2.47) for the second, third and fourth quartiles, respectively, compared with the first quartile] were found to be related to late diagnosis. EDI level was not related to late HIV diagnosis. 'Population' seems to be more relevant than EDI to define evidence-based interventions to limit late diagnosis. © 2017 British HIV Association.

  4. CD4+ T cell count, HIV-1 viral loads and demographic variables of newly identified patients with HIV infection in Wuhan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Man-Qing; Tang, Li; Kong, Wen-Hua; Zhu, Ze-Rong; Peng, Jin-Song; Wang, Xia; Yao, Zhong-Zhao; Schilling, Robert; Zhou, Wang

    2013-10-01

    In China, the rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing is increasing among men who have sex with men. The purpose of the present study was to describe HIV-related biomarkers and selected demographic variables of persons with newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS, among men who have sex with men in particular, in Wuhan China. Demographic indicators, and CD4+ T cell counts and HIV-1 viral load were collected from individuals newly identified as HIV-1 antibody positive during 2011. Of 176 enrolled patients, 132 (75.0%) were men who have sex with men. This group was significantly younger and had higher CD4+ T cell counts than patients who were likely infected through heterosexual contact. Most men who have sex with men (56.6%) were discovered by initiative investigation. Among heterosexual patients CD4+ T cell counts and HIV-1 viral load were significantly correlated; among the group of men who have sex with men, no such association was found. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Nilotinib versus imatinib for newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saglio, Giuseppe; Kim, Dong-Wook; Issaragrisil, Surapol

    2010-01-01

    Nilotinib has been shown to be a more potent inhibitor of BCR-ABL than imatinib. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of nilotinib, as compared with imatinib, in patients with newly diagnosed Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in the chronic phase.......Nilotinib has been shown to be a more potent inhibitor of BCR-ABL than imatinib. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of nilotinib, as compared with imatinib, in patients with newly diagnosed Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in the chronic phase....

  6. Epidemiological Profile of Newly Diagnosed HIV-Infected Patients in Northern Paris: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senard, Olivia; Burdet, Charles; Visseaux, Benoit; Charpentier, Charlotte; Le Gac, Sylvie; Julia, Zélie; Lariven, Sylvie; Descamps, Diane; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Yeni, Patrick; Joly, Véronique

    2017-01-01

    In attempt to identify the factors associated with delayed diagnosis during HIV infection, we studied retrospectively the epidemiological profile of HIV-infected patients diagnosed between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2013 and followed in our clinical center in Paris. Data were compared to those obtained at the same site during the year 2003. One hundred eighty-six patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria: 49 (26%) had a CD4 count HIV diagnosis (45% vs. 3%), had been infected more often through heterosexual contact (69% vs. 44%), had less frequently past HIV testing (23% vs. 63%), and tended to live in less favorable conditions. A higher proportion of these patients initiated antiretroviral therapy in the 3 months following diagnosis (93.9% vs. 48.1%). Compared to data obtained in 161 patients in 2003, the proportions of advanced patients were similar between the two periods (26% vs. 22%). There was a significant increase from year 2003 to the 2012-2013 period in the proportion of men who have sex with men (MSM) (50% vs. 27%) and in the percentage of patients infected with HIV-1 subtype B (48% vs. 27%) and with positive syphilis serology (22% vs. 8%). Our data show that (1) HIV screening should be extended to populations with the following characteristics: older age, heterosexuality, and low socioeconomic level, and (2) HIV transmission continues to progress in MSM, arguing for the value of preexposure prophylaxis.

  7. HIV/AIDS - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV - Newly diagnosed with HIV, part 5 - English MP3 Children and HIV - Newly diagnosed with HIV, part 5 - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) MP3 Children and HIV - Newly diagnosed with HIV, part ...

  8. High Prevalence of HIV Drug Resistance Among Newly Diagnosed Infants Aged <18 Months: Results From a Nationwide Surveillance in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inzaule, Seth C; Osi, Samuels J; Akinbiyi, Gbenga; Emeka, Asadu; Khamofu, Hadiza; Mpazanje, Rex; Ilesanmi, Oluwafunke; Ndembi, Nicaise; Odafe, Solomon; Sigaloff, Kim C E; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F; Akanmu, Sulaimon

    2018-01-01

    WHO recommends protease-inhibitor-based first-line regimen in infants because of risk of drug resistance from failed prophylaxis used in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT). However, cost and logistics impede implementation in sub-Saharan Africa, and >75% of children still receive nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based regimen (NNRTI) used in PMTCT. We assessed the national pretreatment drug resistance prevalence of HIV-infected children aged resistance surveillance protocol. We used remnant dried blood spots collected between June 2014 and July 2015 from 15 early infant diagnosis facilities spread across all the 6 geopolitical regions of Nigeria. Sampling was through a probability proportional-to-size approach. HIV drug resistance was determined by population-based sequencing. Overall, in 48% of infants (205 of 430) drug resistance mutations (DRM) were detected, conferring resistance to predominantly NNRTIs (45%). NRTI and multiclass NRTI/NNRTI resistance were present at 22% and 20%, respectively, while resistance to protease inhibitors was at 2%. Among 204 infants with exposure to drugs for PMTCT, 57% had DRMs, conferring NNRTI resistance in 54% and multiclass NRTI/NNRTI resistance in 29%. DRMs were also detected in 34% of 132 PMTCT unexposed infants. A high frequency of PDR, mainly NNRTI-associated, was observed in a nationwide surveillance among newly diagnosed HIV-infected children in Nigeria. PDR prevalence was equally high in PMTCT-unexposed infants. Our results support the use of protease inhibitor-based first-line regimens in HIV-infected young children regardless of PMTCT history and underscore the need to accelerate implementation of the newly disseminated guideline in Nigeria.

  9. HIV testing in nonhealthcare facilities among adolescent MSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marano, Mariette R; Stein, Renee; Williams, Weston O; Wang, Guoshen; Xu, Songli; Uhl, Gary; Cheng, Qi; Rasberry, Catherine N

    2017-07-01

    To describe the extent to which Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-funded HIV testing in nonhealthcare facilities reaches adolescent MSM, identifies new HIV infections, and links those newly diagnosed to medical care. We describe HIV testing, newly diagnosed positivity, and linkage to medical care for adolescent MSM who received a CDC-funded HIV test in a nonhealthcare facility in 2015. We assess outcomes by race/ethnicity, HIV-related risk behaviors, and US geographical region. Of the 703 890 CDC-funded HIV testing events conducted in nonhealthcare facilities in 2015, 6848 (0.9%) were provided to adolescent MSM aged 13-19 years. Among those tested, 1.8% were newly diagnosed with HIV, compared with 0.7% among total tests provided in nonhealthcare facilities regardless of age and sex. The odds of testing positive among black adolescent MSM were nearly four times that of white adolescent MSM in multivariable analysis (odds ratio = 3.97, P adolescent MSM newly diagnosed with HIV, 67% were linked to HIV medical care. Linkage was lower among black (59%) and Hispanic/Latino adolescent MSM (71%) compared with white adolescent MSM (88%). CDC-funded nonhealthcare facilities can reach and provide HIV tests to adolescent MSM and identify new HIV infections; however, given the low rate of HIV testing overall and high engagement in HIV-related risk behaviors, there are opportunities to increase access to HIV testing and linkage to care for HIV-positive adolescent MSM. Efforts are needed to identify and address the barriers that prevent black and Hispanic/Latino adolescent MSM from being linked to HIV medical care in a timely manner.

  10. Living with HIV/AIDS - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV - Newly diagnosed with HIV, part 5 - English MP3 Children and HIV - Newly diagnosed with HIV, part 5 - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) MP3 Children and HIV - Newly diagnosed with HIV, part ...

  11. Immunoparesis in newly diagnosed Multiple Myeloma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorrig, Rasmus; Klausen, Tobias W.; Salomo, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Immunoparesis (hypogammaglobulinemia) is associated to an unfavorable prognosis in newly diagnosed Multiple myeloma (MM) patients. However, this finding has not been validated in an unselected population-based cohort. We analyzed 2558 newly diagnosed MM patients in the Danish Multiple Myeloma...

  12. Depressive scores in newly diagnosed HIV-infected and HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Prevalence rates of HIV infection in KwaZulu-Natal are high, with a significant amount of those infected being women of reproductive age. A diagnosis of HIV infection has been associated with an increased risk for the development of depression. Antenatal depression is a serious health concern, having the ...

  13. Barriers to Care and 1-Year Mortality Among Newly Diagnosed HIV-Infected People in Durban, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Ingrid V; Coleman, Sharon M; Giddy, Janet; Bogart, Laura M; Chaisson, Christine E; Ross, Douglas; Flash, Moses J E; Govender, Tessa; Walensky, Rochelle P; Freedberg, Kenneth A; Losina, Elena

    2017-04-01

    Prompt entry into HIV care is often hindered by personal and structural barriers. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of self-perceived barriers to health care on 1-year mortality among newly diagnosed HIV-infected individuals in Durban, South Africa. Before HIV testing at 4 outpatient sites, adults (≥18 years) were surveyed regarding perceived barriers to care including (1) service delivery, (2) financial, (3) personal health perception, (4) logistical, and (5) structural. We assessed deaths via phone calls and the South African National Population Register. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards models to determine the association between number of perceived barriers and death within 1 year. One thousand eight hundred ninety-nine HIV-infected participants enrolled. Median age was 33 years (interquartile range: 27-41 years), 49% were females, and median CD4 count was 192/μL (interquartile range: 72-346/μL). One thousand fifty-seven participants (56%) reported no, 370 (20%) reported 1-3, and 460 (24%) reported >3 barriers to care. By 1 year, 250 [13%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 12% to 15%] participants died. Adjusting for age, sex, education, baseline CD4 count, distance to clinic, and tuberculosis status, participants with 1-3 barriers (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.06 to 2.08) and >3 barriers (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.35 to 2.43) had higher 1-year mortality risk compared with those without barriers. HIV-infected individuals in South Africa who reported perceived barriers to medical care at diagnosis were more likely to die within 1 year. Targeted structural interventions, such as extended clinic hours, travel vouchers, and streamlined clinic operations, may improve linkage to care and antiretroviral therapy initiation for these people.

  14. Characteristics and Outcome of Patients Diagnosed With HIV at Older Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Ilan; Guri, Keren Mahlab; Elbirt, Daniel; Bezalel, Shira Rosenberg; Maldarelli, Frank; Mor, Orna; Grossman, Zehava; Sthoeger, Zev M

    2016-01-01

    To characterize the clinical, virological, and immunological status at presentation as well as the outcome of patients diagnosed with HIV above the age of 50. A retrospective study of 418 patients newly diagnosed with HIV in 1 Israeli center, between the years 2004 and 2013. Patients with new HIV diagnosis ≥ 50 years of age defined as "older' and < 50 defined as "younger.' Patients were evaluated every 1 to 3 months (mean follow-up 53 ± 33 months). Patients with < 2 CD4/viral-load measurements or with < 1 year of follow-up were excluded. Time of HIV infection was estimated by HIV sequence ambiguity assay. Ambiguity index ≤ 0.43 indicated recent (≤ 1 year) HIV infection. Eighty nine (21%) patients were diagnosed with HIV at an older age. Those older patients presented with significant lower CD4 cell counts and higher viral-load compared with the younger patients. At the end of the study, the older patients had higher mortality rate (21% vs 3.5%; P < 0.001) and lower CD4 cell counts (381 ± 228 vs 483 ± 26 cells/μL; P < 0.001) compared with the younger patients. This difference was also observed between older and younger patients with similar CD4 cell counts and viral load at the time of HIV diagnosis and among patients with a recent (≤ 1 year) HIV infection. One-fifth of HIV patients are diagnosed at older age (≥ 50 years). Those older patients have less favorable outcome compared with the younger patients. This point to the need of educational and screening programs within older populations and for a closer follow-up of older HIV patients.

  15. The Experiences of Newly Diagnosed Men Who Have Sex with Men Entering the HIV Care Cascade in Lima, Peru, 2015-2016: A Qualitative Analysis of Counselor-Participant Text Message Exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayona, Erik; Menacho, Luis; Segura, Eddy R; Mburu, Gitau; Roman, Fernando; Tristan, Consuelo; Bromley, Elizabeth; Cabello, Robinson

    2017-06-01

    Mobile phone technology (mHealth) is a promising tool that has been used to improve HIV care in high-risk populations worldwide. Understanding patient perspectives of newly diagnosed men who have sex with men (MSM) in Lima, Peru during linkage and engagement in the HIV care continuum can help close the gaps in care following initial HIV diagnosis and ensure retention in continuous care. From June 2015 to March 2016, as part of a randomized controlled trial, 40 MSM participants were linked to care with an mHealth intervention within 3 months of HIV diagnosis at Via Libre clinic. For 12 weeks, participants agreed to receive weekly predetermined, standardized short message service (SMS), WhatsApp©, and/or Facebook© messages from an assigned HIV counselor. Text messaging was bi-directional, meaning participants could also send messages to their counselor at any time. In this qualitative study, we coded and thematically analyzed 947 SMS, 918 WhatsApp, and 2,694 Facebook bi-directional messages. Mean age of participants was 29.8 years (20-50); with 70 percent reporting some post-high school education and 73 percent self-identifying as homosexual. We identified six recurring themes that emerged from the data: (a) mental health symptoms; (b) coping behaviors; (c) interpersonal support; (d) physical symptoms; (e) HIV knowledge; and (f) care coordination. Participants sent text messages describing depressive symptoms and seeking mental health services during this initial stage of HIV care. For newly diagnosed MSM entering the HIV care continuum, a bi-directional mHealth intervention provided support to facilitate care while eliciting deeply personal mental and emotional states. Future interventions could benefit from using mHealth interventions as ancillary support for clinicians.

  16. Sex Partner Meeting Places Over Time Among Newly HIV-Diagnosed Men Who Have Sex With Men in Baltimore, Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Jacky M; Reilly, Meredith L; Perin, Jamie; Schumacher, Christina; Sharma, Megha; Safi, Amelia Greiner; Fields, Errol L; Muvva, Ravikiran; Nganga-Good, Carolyn; Chaulk, Patrick

    2015-10-01

    Sex partner meeting places may be important locales to access men who have sex with men (MSM) and implement targeted HIV control strategies. These locales may change over time, but temporal evaluations have not been performed. The objectives of this study were to describe the frequency of report of MSM sex partner meeting places over time and to compare frequently reported meeting places in the past 5 years and past year among newly HIV-diagnosed MSM in Baltimore City, Maryland. Public health HIV surveillance data including partner services information were obtained for this study from the Baltimore City Health Department from May 2009 to June 2014. A total of 869 sex partner meeting places were reported, including 306 unique places. Bars/clubs (31%) and Internet-based sites (38%) were the most frequently reported meeting place types. Over the 5-year period, the percentage of bars/clubs decreased over time and the percentage of Internet-based sites increased over time. Among bars/clubs, 4 of 5 of those most frequently reported in the past 5 years were also most frequently reported in the most recent year. Among Internet-based sites, 3 of 5 of those most frequently reported in the past 5 years were also in the top 5 most frequently reported in the past year. This study provides a richer understanding of sex partner meeting places reported by MSM over time and information to health departments on types of places to access a population at high risk for HIV transmission.

  17. Decision tree for accurate infection timing in individuals newly diagnosed with HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhofstede, Chris; Fransen, Katrien; Van Den Heuvel, Annelies; Van Laethem, Kristel; Ruelle, Jean; Vancutsem, Ellen; Stoffels, Karolien; Van den Wijngaert, Sigi; Delforge, Marie-Luce; Vaira, Dolores; Hebberecht, Laura; Schauvliege, Marlies; Mortier, Virginie; Dauwe, Kenny; Callens, Steven

    2017-11-29

    There is today no gold standard method to accurately define the time passed since infection at HIV diagnosis. Infection timing and incidence measurement is however essential to better monitor the dynamics of local epidemics and the effect of prevention initiatives. Three methods for infection timing were evaluated using 237 serial samples from documented seroconversions and 566 cross sectional samples from newly diagnosed patients: identification of antibodies against the HIV p31 protein in INNO-LIA, SediaTM BED CEIA and SediaTM LAg-Avidity EIA. A multi-assay decision tree for infection timing was developed. Clear differences in recency window between BED CEIA, LAg-Avidity EIA and p31 antibody presence were observed with a switch from recent to long term infection a median of 169.5, 108.0 and 64.5 days after collection of the pre-seroconversion sample respectively. BED showed high reliability for identification of long term infections while LAg-Avidity is highly accurate for identification of recent infections. Using BED as initial assay to identify the long term infections and LAg-Avidity as a confirmatory assay for those classified as recent infection by BED, explores the strengths of both while reduces the workload. The short recency window of p31 antibodies allows to discriminate very early from early infections based on this marker. BED recent infection results not confirmed by LAg-Avidity are considered to reflect a period more distant from the infection time. False recency predictions in this group can be minimized by elimination of patients with a CD4 count of less than 100 cells/mm3 or without no p31 antibodies. For 566 cross sectional sample the outcome of the decision tree confirmed the infection timing based on the results of all 3 markers but reduced the overall cost from 13.2 USD to 5.2 USD per sample. A step-wise multi assay decision tree allows accurate timing of the HIV infection at diagnosis at affordable effort and cost and can be an important

  18. TO EVALUATE PREVALENCE OF DIABETES AND HIV IN NEWLY-DIAGNOSED MULTIDRUGRESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS PATIENTS ADMITTED FOR PRETREATMENT EVALUATION IN DOTS PLUS CENTRE, THANJAVUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namasivayam Kuppusamy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND More than 9 million people fall sick with tuberculosis every year in the world. People with weak immune system as a result of disease like diabetes and HIV are at high risk of developing MDR-TB infection. Proper monitoring and evaluation are needed to control MDR-TB in HIV and diabetes patients. The aim of the study is to find the prevalence of diabetes and HIV among MDR-TB patients admitted for pretreatment evaluation in Dots Plus Centre, Thanjavur Medical College, Tamilnadu. MATERIALS AND METHODS The medical records with datas of 96 patients with MDR-TB who are having diabetes and HIV infection were examined. These cases were diagnosed and registered during January 2015 to December 2015. These patients had drug resistant to first line antituberculosis drugs (isoniazid and rifampicin. Duration of diabetes and HIV infection were noted. Age were categorised in to four groups- 20-29 years, 30-39 years, 40-49 years and above 50 years. The potential risk of association of diabetes, HIV or both with MDR-TB was evaluated by univariate conditional logistic regression model. RESULTS Out of 96 newly-diagnosed MDR-TB patients, prevalence of diabetes is about 34.37%, out of which (84.84% were males and (15.15% were females. Out of 34.37%, 38.54% of patients had controlled diabetes, 61.45% patients had uncontrolled diabetes. Nearly, more than half of diabetes patient falls under uncontrolled diabetes. More number of male patients had diabetes with MDR-TB when compared to females. 10.4% of these persons got oral hypoglycaemic agent and 6.3% got insulin as treatment for diabetes. 1% had irregular treatment with poor compliance. Prevalence of HIV is about 4.16% out of which 75% were males and 25% were females. One patient had both diabetes and HIV with MDR tuberculosis. CONCLUSION In our retrospective study, prevalence of diabetes in MDR-TB patients were more common in males than in females, most of them were in the age groups of 40 years and above

  19. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in newly diagnosed patients with Human immunodeficiency virus in Ilorin, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayokunle, Dada Samuel; Olusegun, Olanrewaju Timothy; Ademola, Aderibigbe; Adindu, Chijioke; Olaitan, Rafiu Mojeed; Oladimeji, Ajayi Akande

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) the causative agent of Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is an important cause of renal diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. There is paucity of studies on the burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) among patients with HIV/AIDS in the North-Central zone of Nigeria. This is a cross-sectional study of 227 newly-diagnosed, antiretroviral naïve patients with HIV/AIDS seen at the HIV clinic of the Medical Out-patient Department (MOPD) of University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH). They were matched with 108 control group. Laboratory investigations were performed for the participants. CKD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 30 mg/g. There were 100 (44%) males among the patients and 47 (43.5%) among the control group. The mean ages of the patients and controls were 40.3 ± 10.3 years and 41.8 ± 9.5 years respectively. CKD was observed in 108 (47.6%) among the patients and 18 (16.7%) of the controls (p = 0.01). The median CD4 T-cell count was significantly lower in patients with CKD. Ninety-three (41.0%) of the patients had dipstick proteinuria of > 2 +. The median albumin creatinine ratio (ACR) was significantly higher among the HIV-positive patients (272.3 mg/g) compared with the HIV-negative controls (27.22 mg/g) p = 0.01. The CD4 T-cell count correlates positively with eGFR (r = 0.463, p = 0.001) and negatively with ACR (r = -0.806, p = 0.001). CKD is very common among patients with HIV/AIDS in Ilorin. Screening and early intervention for CKD should be part of the protocols in the management of these patients.

  20. Coping strategies among patients with newly diagnosed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson Larsson, Birgitta; Nordin, Karin; Askmark, Håkan; Nygren, Ingela

    2014-11-01

    To prospectively identify different coping strategies among newly diagnosed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients and whether they change over time and to determine whether physical function, psychological well-being, age and gender correlated with the use of different coping strategies. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a fatal disease with impact on both physical function and psychological well-being. Different coping strategies are used to manage symptoms and disease progression, but knowledge about coping in newly diagnosed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients is scarce. This was a prospective study with a longitudinal and descriptive design. A total of 33 patients were included and evaluation was made at two time points, one to three months and six months after diagnosis. Patients were asked to complete the Motor Neuron Disease Coping Scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Physical function was estimated using the revised Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale. The most commonly used strategies were support and independence. Avoidance/venting and information seeking were seldom used at both time points. The use of information seeking decreased between the two time points. Men did not differ from women, but patients ≤64 years used positive action more often than older patients. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale was positively correlated with positive action at time point 1, but not at time point 2. Patients' psychological well-being was correlated with the use of different coping strategies. Support and independence were the most used coping strategies, and the use of different strategies changed over time. Psychological well-being was correlated with different coping strategies in newly diagnosed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients. The knowledge about coping strategies in early stage of the disease may help the nurses to improve and develop the care and support for these patients. © 2014 John Wiley

  1. Problems faced by newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus patients at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetes mellitus can be a frightening experience for newly diagnosed patients. The aim of this study was to determine and describe the problems faced by newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus patients at primary healthcare facilities at Mopani district, Limpopo Province. A qualitative, descriptive and contextual research ...

  2. A Minority of Patients Newly Diagnosed with AIDS Are Started on Antiretroviral Therapy at the Time of Diagnosis in a Large Public Hospital in the Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Neela D; Colasanti, Jonathan; Khoubian, Jonathan J; Huang, Yijian; Armstrong, Wendy S; Del Rio, Carlos

    Prompt antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation after AIDS diagnosis, in the absence of certain opportunistic infections such as tuberculosis and cryptococcal meningitis, delays disease progression and death, but system barriers to inpatient ART initiation at large hospitals in the era of modern ART have been less studied. We reviewed hospitalizations for persons newly diagnosed with AIDS at Grady Memorial Hospital in Atlanta, Georgia in 2011 and 2012. Individual- and system-level variables were collected. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) for ART initiation prior to discharge. With Georgia Department of Health surveillance data, we estimated time to first clinic visit, ART initiation, and viral suppression. In the study population (n = 81), ART was initiated prior to discharge in 10 (12%) patients. Shorter hospital stay was significantly associated with lack of ART initiation at the time of HIV diagnosis (8 versus 24 days, OR: 1.14, 95% confidence interval: 1.04-1.25). Reducing barriers to ART initiation for newly diagnosed HIV-positive patients with short hospital stays may improve time to viral suppression.

  3. Declaración de los nuevos diagnósticos de infección por el VIH en Cataluña: Implementación y resultados Reporting of newly diagnosed HIV infections in Catalonia. Barcelona. Spain: Implementation and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo Romaguera

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Describir los resultados de la notificación de nuevos diagnósticos de infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (NDIVIH en Cataluña (2001-2003, y comparar las características de la epidemia como resultado de la utilización de este nuevo sistema de información junto con el Registro de casos de sida de Cataluña, con las halladas únicamente en el Registro de casos de sida. Métodos: Datos de las notificaciones de NDIVIH y de casos de sida entre 2001 y 2003 en Cataluña. Resultados: Entre los NDIVIH (n = 1.765, la vía de transmisión más frecuente fue las relaciones heterosexuales (46,8%, seguida de las relaciones homosexuales entre varones (26,7% y el uso de drogas por vía parenteral (19,9%. Entre los 1.210 casos de sida, la forma de transmisión más frecuente fue el uso de drogas por vía parenteral (42,2%, seguida de relaciones heterosexuales (34,5% y de las relaciones homosexuales entre varones (18,0%. La diferencia de utilizar una o 2 fuentes de información respecto a la variable vía de transmisión de la infección fue estadísticamente significativa. Conclusiones: El sistema de información basado en los datos sobre NDIVIH es viable, ha sido útil para conseguir los objetivos previstos en el sistema de vigilancia epidemiológica del VIH y proporciona información más precisa que el Registro de sida para describir los actuales patrones de transmisión del virus. La exhaustividad del nuevo sistema de información podría mejorar mediante la incorporación del diagnóstico de infección al sistema de enfermedades de declaración obligatoria.Objectives: To describe newly diagnosed HIV infections from the HIV Reporting System in Catalonia (2001-2003, and to compare the characteristics of the epidemic based on the use of the HIV Reporting System and the Catalonian AIDS Registry versus those based on the Catalonian AIDS Registry alone. Methods: Data were collected from newly diagnosed HIV infections and AIDS

  4. Nursing Care of HIV-Positive Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ben; Martinsen, Bente

    2015-01-01

    to improve quality of life after being diagnosed with HIV, a sharp distinction between HIV and AIDS and a religious and spiritually coping. Identifying the emotional challenges women living with HIV face in their daily lives may help nurses obtain a clearer understanding and greater knowledge of how...... to provide HIV-positive women with effective care that empower and support these women in managing their chronic disease. However to ensure that nurses have the proper tools for effective care for women living with HIV European studies are essentials in relation to what emotional challenges these women...

  5. Induced abortion among HIV-positive women in Northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Tine; Rasch, Vibeke; Nguyen Thi, Thuy Hanh

    2010-01-01

    an abortion after being diagnosed as HIV-positive, exploring their reflections, concerns and dilemmas. The results show that the HIV-positive pregnant women sought to balance their desires for a child with their worries of being unable to fulfill their responsibilities as mothers. Even while strongly desiring...

  6. Assessment for markers of nephropathy in newly diagnosed type 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess for markers of nephropathy in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetics, using blood pressure levels, endogenous creatinine clearance and urinary protein excretion as markers of renal disease. Study design: Ninety newly diagnosed type 2 diabetics were studied within 6 weeks of diagnosis. They were in ...

  7. [Status of marriage and HIV transmission between couples in newly reported HIV cases before diagnosis was made, among men who have sex with men in China, 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Han, J; Xu, J; Tang, H L; Mao, Y R

    2017-06-10

    Objective: To analyze the status of marriage and HIV transmission between couples in newly reported HIV cases before diagnoses were made, among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. Methods: Baseline and follow-up information related to newly reported cases in 2014 were collected from the Chinese HIV/AIDS Comprehensive Response Information Management System. Infected MSM who were older than 22 years of age were included in this study. HIV cases were divided into sero-concordant or sero-discordant group, according to the HIV status of the couple who were tested 180 days post-diagnosis. Multivariate logistic regression method was used to analyze the potential factors associated with HIV transmission between couples before diagnosis was made. Results: A total of 5 081 (22.7 % ) of the HIV infected MSM who had couples, were included in this study. A total of 3 715 cases had their couples tested 180 days after the diagnosis was made. 7.6 % (282) had positive couples. Results from the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that factors as: older than 60 ( OR =2.64, 95 % CI : 1.50-4.65) years of age, being minorities ( OR =1.93, 95 % CI : 1.13-3.29), having CD(4)(+)T cells less than 500 cells/μl (<200: OR =2.91, 95 %CI : 1.82-4.65; 200-349: OR =1.98, 95 %CI : 1.22-3.23; 350-500: OR =1.69, 95 %CI : 1.00-2.86), with self-reported unsafe behaviors ( OR =1.92, 95 % CI : 1.44-2.58) etc. , were more likely to transmit HIV to their couples before the diagnosis was made. Conclusion: Behavior interventions and early HIV testing should be promoted, especially among those MSM who had couples, to avoid inter-spousal transmission.

  8. The big imitator strikes again: a case report of neurosyphilis in a patient with newly diagnosed HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, Sévérine; Kenyon, Chris; Léonard, Nicolas; Vlieghe, Erika

    2017-10-01

    Neurosyphilis is the result of an infection of the central nervous system caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum. Its clinical presentation includes meningovascular syphilis, tabes dorsalis, and dementia paralytica, resulting in a wide range of symptoms such as psychosis, Parkinsonism, and depression. A 49-year-old male was admitted to a psychiatric hospital because of social withdrawal and self-neglect, indicative of a major depression. A routine HIV-test was positive and resulted in an admission to the Antwerp University Hospital. Clinical examination showed Argyll Robertson pupils, a wide-based gait, absence of vibration sense in the lower limbs, and a MMSE-score of 25/30. Blood analysis revealed a CD4+ count of 99 cells/μL and a HIV viral load of 2,13 × 10 5 copies/mL plasma. A serum TPHA (T. pallidum hemagglutination assay) titre of 1/20480 and RPR (rapid plasma reagin) titre of 1/128 were detected. TPHA and RPR titre in the cerebrospinal fluid were, respectively, 1/10240 and 1/4. A brain MRI showed diffuse cortical atrophy and lesions in the white matter compatible with HIV-encephalopathy. The diagnoses of advanced HIV-infection and late neurosyphilis were made. HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy) and high-dose IV penicillin G were started. In all patients with new-onset dementia or untreatable psychosis, neurosyphilis should always be considered. Argyll Robertson pupils are regarded as pathognomonic of neurosyphilis. The management of neurosyphilis includes high-dose IV benzyl penicillin for 10 to 14 days. Close follow-up including a lumbar puncture after 6 months is warranted to ensure treatment recovery.

  9. Prevalence and determinants of unplanned pregnancy in HIV-positive and HIV-negative pregnant women in Cape Town, South Africa: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyun, Victoria; Brittain, Kirsty; Phillips, Tamsin K; le Roux, Stanzi; McIntyre, James A; Zerbe, Allison; Petro, Greg; Abrams, Elaine J; Myer, Landon

    2018-04-03

    Prevention of unplanned pregnancy is a crucial aspect of preventing mother-to-child HIV transmission. There are few data investigating how HIV status and use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) may influence pregnancy planning in high HIV burden settings. Our objective was to examine the prevalence and determinants of unplanned pregnancy among HIV-positive and HIV-negative women in Cape Town, South Africa. Cross-sectional analysis. Single primary-level antenatal care clinic in Cape Town, South Africa. HIV-positive and HIV-negative pregnant women, booking for antenatal care from March 2013 to August 2015, were included. Unplanned pregnancy was measured at the first antenatal care visit using the London Measure of Unplanned Pregnancy (LMUP). Analyses examined LMUP scores across four groups of participants defined by their HIV status, awareness of their HIV status prior to the current pregnancy and/or whether they were using antiretroviral therapy (ART) prior to the current pregnancy. Among 2105 pregnant women (1512 HIV positive; 593 HIV negative), median age was 28 years, 43% were married/cohabiting and 20% were nulliparous. Levels of unplanned pregnancy were significantly higher in HIV-positive versus HIV-negative women (50% vs 33%, p<0.001); and highest in women who were known HIV positive but not on ART (53%). After adjusting for age, parity and marital status, unplanned pregnancy was most common among women newly diagnosed and women who were known HIV positive but not on ART (compared with HIV-negative women, adjusted OR (aOR): 1.43; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.94 and aOR: 1.57; 95% CI 1.13 to 2.15, respectively). Increased parity and younger age (<24 years) were also associated with unplanned pregnancy (aOR: 1.42; 95% CI 1.25 to 1.60 and aOR: 1.83; 95% CI 1.23 to 2.74, respectively). We observed high levels of unplanned pregnancy among HIV-positive women, particularly among those not on ART, suggesting ongoing missed opportunities for improved family planning and

  10. Care of HIV-exposed and HIV-infected neonates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, further reduction in MTCT may be possible if newborns at high risk of acquiring HIV ... infants of breastfeeding mothers with newly diagnosed HIV infection, dual NVP/ .... birth HIV DNA PCR testing for HIV-exposed low birth weight.

  11. Exercise recommendations in patients with newly diagnosed fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Brad; Spencer, Horace; Kortebein, Patrick

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate exercise recommendations in patients newly diagnosed with fibromyalgia. A retrospective chart review. A public university rheumatology clinic. Patients newly diagnosed with fibromyalgia (N = 122). Frequency and type of exercise recommendations. The mean (standard deviation) age of these patients with fibromyalgia was 45 ± 12 years; 91% were women. Exercise was recommended as part of the documented treatment plan in 47% of these patients (57/122); only 3 patients had a documented contraindication for exercise. Aquatic exercise was most frequently recommended (56% [32/57]), followed by combined aquatic-aerobic exercise (26% [15/57]), and, infrequently, aerobic exercise only (5% [3/57]); only 7% of these patients (4/57) were referred for physical therapy. The primary method of communication was verbal discussion (94% [54/57]). Although there is well-documented evidence that exercise is beneficial for patients with fibromyalgia, we found that less than half of patients with newly diagnosed fibromyalgia in our study were provided recommendations to initiate an exercise program as part of their treatment plan. Further investigation of these findings are warranted, including evaluation of other university and community rheumatology practices as well as that of other physicians caring for patients with fibromyalgia. However, our findings indicate that there appears to be an opportunity to provide more specific and practical education regarding the implementation of an exercise regimen for patients with newly diagnosed fibromyalgia. Physiatrists may be particularly well suited to manage the exercise component of patients with fibromyalgia because of their specialized training in exercise prescription. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. HIV positive patient with GBS-like syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Samantha J; Black, Heather; Thomson, Emma C; Gunson, Rory N

    2017-08-01

    Introduction. Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) is an acute demyelinating polyneuropathy which can occur post-infection. Criteria of diagnosis of GBS include areflexia with progressive bilateral weakness in arms and legs. GBS can lead to severe respiratory and cardiac complications. The fatality rate can be up to 5 % in patients, depending on the severity of the symptoms. HIV can cause a range of neurological disorders including, on rare occasions, GBS. GBS can occur at any stage of HIV infection, highlighting the complexity of diagnosis of GBS within HIV patients. Case presentation. A 57 year old female with lumbar back pain radiating to the legs, poor mobility and tiredness, with reports of a viral-like illness four days previously, was initially diagnosed with a lower respiratory tract infection and discharged. Seventeen days later the patient was readmitted to hospital with progressive lower and upper limb weakness, areflexia and sensory loss. She was diagnosed with GBS and was unexpectedly discovered to be HIV-positive. HIV avidity was low indicating a recently acquired HIV infection. The patient was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin for five days for the GBS and commenced antriretrovirals for HIV. The patient was discharge from hospital 53 days after admission with walking aids and regular physiotherapy follow-up. . This case highlighted the need for all clinicians to be aware that patients with symptoms of GBS, regardless of clinical history should be offered an HIV test. GBS can be the first sign a patient is HIV-positive.

  13. PAS positivity of erythroid precursor cells is associated with a poor prognosis in newly diagnosed myelodysplastic syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Kenta; Shiga, Shuichi; Kawabata, Hiroshi; Takaori-Kondo, Akifumi; Ichiyama, Satoshi; Kamikubo, Yasuhiko

    2018-07-01

    Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a group of clonal stem cell disorders characterized by hematopoietic insufficiency. The accurate risk stratification of patients with MDS is essential for selection of appropriate therapies. We herein conducted a retrospective cohort study to examine the prognostic value of periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) reaction-positive erythroblasts in MDS patients. We examined the PAS positivity of the bone marrow erythroblasts of 144 patients newly diagnosed with MDS; 26 (18.1%) of them had PAS-positive erythroblasts, whereas 118 (81.9%) did not. The PAS-positive group showed significantly poorer karyotypes as defined in the revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R) and higher scores in age-adjusted IPSS-R (IPSS-RA) than the PAS-negative group. Overall survival (OS) and leukemia-free survival (LFS) were also significantly shorter in the PAS-positive group than in the PAS-negative group. Similar results were obtained when only high- and very high risk groups were analyzed using IPSS-RA. This retrospective study suggested that the PAS positivity of erythroblasts is an additional prognostic factor combined with other risk scores for OS and LFS in MDS, and our results may contribute to improved clinical decision-making and rapid risk stratification.

  14. Diabetes education and self-management for ongoing and newly diagnosed (DESMOND)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, T. Chas; Carey, Marian E.; Cradock, Sue

    2006-01-01

    diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes changes key illness beliefs and that these changes predict quality of life and metabolic control at 3-month follow-up. Practice implications: Newly diagnosed individuals are open to attending self-management programs and, if the program is theoretically driven, can......Objective: To determine the effects of a structured education program on illness beliefs, quality of life and physical activity in people newly diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes. Methods: Individuals attending a diabetes education and self-management for ongoing and newly diagnosed (DESMOND) program...... in 12 Primary Care Trusts completed questionnaire booklets assessing illness beliefs and quality of life at baseline and 3-month follow-up, metabolic control being assessed through assay of HbA1c. Results: Two hundred and thirty-six individuals attended the structured self-management education sessions...

  15. Assessing Timely Presentation to Care Among People Diagnosed with HIV During Hospital Admission: A Population-Based Study in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Claire E; Shoemaker, Esther S; Raboud, Janet; Mark, Amy E; Bayoumi, Ahmed M; Burchell, Ann N; Loutfy, Mona; Rourke, Sean B; Liddy, Clare E; Rosenes, Ron; Rogers, Timothy; Antoniou, Tony

    2018-03-13

    Timely presentation to care for people newly diagnosed with HIV is critical to optimize health outcomes and reduce onward HIV transmission. Studies describing presentation to care following diagnosis during a hospital admission are lacking. We sought to assess the timeliness of presentation to care and to identify factors associated with delayed presentation. We conducted a population-level study using health administrative databases. Participants were all individuals older than 16 and newly diagnosed with HIV during hospital admission in Ontario, Canada, between April 1, 2007 and March 31, 2015. We used modified Poisson regression models to derive relative risk ratios for the association between sociodemographic and clinical variables and the presentation to out-patient HIV care by 90 days following hospital discharge. Among 372 patients who received a primary HIV diagnosis in hospital, 83.6% presented to care by 90 days. Following multivariable analysis, we did not find associations between patient sociodemographic or clinical characteristics and presentation to care by 90 days. In a secondary analysis of 483 patients diagnosed during hospitalization but for whom HIV was not recorded as the principal reason for admission, 73.1% presented to care by 90 days. Following multivariable adjustment, we found immigrants from countries with generalized HIV epidemics (RR 1.265, 95% CI 1.133-1.413) were more likely to present to care, whereas timely presentation was less likely for people with a mental health diagnosis (RR 0.817, 95% CI 0.742-0.898) and women (RR 0.748, 95% CI 0.559-1.001). Future work should evaluate mechanisms to facilitate presentation to care among these populations.

  16. The Prevalence of Transmitted Drug Resistance in Newly Diagnosed HIV-Infected Individuals in Croatia: The Role of Transmission Clusters of Men Who Have Sex with Men Carrying the T215S Surveillance Drug Resistance Mutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grgic, Ivana; Lunar, Maja M.; Poljak, Mario; Vince, Adriana; Vrakela, Ivana Baca; Planinic, Ana; Seme, Katja; Begovac, Josip

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in newly diagnosed and treatment-naive HIV-infected patients from Croatia and evaluate a possible contribution of transmission clusters to the spread of resistant virus. The study enrolled treatment-naive HIV-infected patients that entered clinical care at the Croatian Reference Center for HIV/AIDS between 2006 and 2008. The protease gene and a part of the reverse transcriptase gene of the HIV-1 genome were sequenced by using the Trugene HIV-1 Genotyping System. The prevalence of transmitted drug resistance was analyzed by using the surveillance drug resistance mutations (SDRM) list recommended by the WHO in 2009. We report findings for 118 of 180 eligible patients (65.6% coverage). SDRM were detected in 26 of 118 patients (22.0%) who were infected with subtype B and belonged mostly to the men having sex with men (MSM). The majority of patients with primary resistance carried SDRM associated with resistance to nucleoside analogues reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs, 23 of 118 patients, 19.5%). The most frequently found NRTI SDRM was T215S (17 of 118 patients, 14.4%). SDRM associated with resistance to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors were detected in three (2.5%) patients and primary resistance to protease inhibitors was not detected. Non-B subtypes were detected in 13/118 patients (11%). A total of 12 transmission pairs and eight distinct transmission clusters were identified with the largest cluster harboring sequences from 19 patients; among them all but two were carrying the T215S mutation. This study showed a high prevalence of TDR in newly diagnosed MSM from Croatia and is an important contribution concerning the relationship between local transmission clusters and the spread of resistant virus. PMID:22906365

  17. Clinical heterogeneity in newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Bart; Speelman, Johannes D.; de Haan, Rob J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine clinical heterogeneity in newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease using cluster analysis and to describe the subgroups in terms of impairment, disability, perceived quality of life, and use of dopaminergic therapy. METHODS: We conducted a k-means cluster analysis in a prospective

  18. A Pilot of a Brief Positive Parenting Program on Children Newly Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zand, Debra H; Bultas, Margaret W; McMillin, Stephen Edward; Halloran, Donna; White, Taryn; McNamara, Donnamarie; Pierce, Katherine J

    2017-12-14

    Disruptive behaviors can be of comparable or greater concern to parents than the core symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Provision of effective interventions to address these behaviors within the first year of initial diagnosis holds great potential for improving the child's, parents', and family's functioning. We piloted a four-session, manualized, positive parenting program on 21 parents of newly diagnosed children ages 2 through 12 years using a mixed methods design. Seventy-five percent of parents completed four sessions, with 100% reporting high levels of service satisfaction. Preliminary results indicated clinically and statistically significant reductions in child maladaptive behaviors, as well as improvements in parental and family functioning. Practitioners and parents identified several potential implementation adaptations, including additional sessions to focus on ASD education and real-time parent-child interactions. Taken as a whole, these data suggest that a brief positive parenting intervention may be a feasible way to improve child, parent, and family functioning during the first year of ASD diagnosis. Findings point to the need for additional research to determine treatment efficacy and to assist with the identification of moderators and mediators of effects. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  19. Multiple strategies to identify HIV-positive black men who have sex with men and transgender women in New York City: a cross-sectional analysis of recruitment results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Julie; Mannheimer, Sharon B; Hirsch-Moverman, Yael; Hayes-Larson, Eleanor; Colson, Paul W; Ortega, Hugo; El-Sadr, Wafaa M

    2018-03-01

    Black men who have sex with men and transgender women are at high risk for HIV infection, but are more likely to be unaware of their infection or not in care for diagnosed HIV compared to other races. Respondent driven sampling has been advanced as a method to reach stigmatized and hidden populations for HIV testing. We compared strategies to recruit black, substance-using men who have sex with men and transgender women to identify newly diagnosed HIV infection, or those previously diagnosed but not in care. The STAR (Seek, Test, and Retain) study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01790360) used several recruitment strategies to identify black, substance-using men who have sex with men and transgender women with undiagnosed HIV infection or with previously diagnosed HIV infection but who were not in HIV care. Respondent-driven sampling, community-based recruitment and online advertising were used to recruit participants. Incentivized peer referral was integrated into all recruitment strategies. Participants completed interviewer-administered questionnaires and HIV testing. Demographic and HIV risk-related characteristics and recruitment strategy were summarized and stratified by HIV status. Associations were tested using Pearson's chi-squared, Fisher's exact, and Wilcoxon rank sum tests. Factors associated with HIV-positive diagnosis at p recruitment strategies, respondent driven sampling was least effective in identifying HIV-positive participants. Integrating multiple recruitment strategies yielded a large sample of black men who have sex with men and transgender women at substantial risk for HIV. Respondent-driven sampling was less effective than other strategies at identifying men who have sex with men and transgender women with HIV. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of the International AIDS Society published by John Wiley & sons Ltd on behalf of the International AIDS Society.

  20. Serum lipid profile of newly diagnosed hypertensive patients in nnewi, South-East Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuji, Charles U; Omejua, Emeka G; Onwubuya, Emmanuel I; Ahaneku, Gladys I

    2012-01-01

    Abnormalities in serum lipid and lipoprotein levels are recognized major modifiable cardiovascular disease and essential hypertension risk factors. The objective of this study was to examine the serum lipid patterns of newly diagnosed hypertensive patients attending a tertiary healthcare centre in South East Nigeria. Methods. Two hundred and fifty newly diagnosed adult hypertensive patients and an equal number of age- and sex-matched controls without hypertension were consecutively recruited from the Medical and General Outpatient Clinics of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi. Result. 126 males and 124 females were in each of the two groups. Mean age was comparable in both groups. Hypertensives had significantly higher mean systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, and fasting blood sugar than the controls. The mean TC, TG, and LDL-C were significantly higher among the hypertensives. The mean HDL-C was comparable; P = 0.8. Among the hypertensive subjects, there was statistically significant positive correlation between BMI and TC; LDL-C and TG; WC and TG; FBS and TC; LDL-C and TG. HDL-C showed a statistically significant inverse correlation with WHR in hypertensives. Conclusion. This study showed that lipid abnormalities are highly prevalent among newly diagnosed hypertensives in South-East Nigeria.

  1. Anti-HCV antibody among newly diagnosed HIV patients in Ughelli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) share common routes of infection and ... drug users (IDU)7. HCV occurrence among people living with HIV has long been reported. This is of great medical impor- tance as 80% HCV infection are ..... before transfusion or organ transplantation.

  2. Persistent Cryptococcal Brain Infection despite Prolonged Immunorecovery in an HIV-Positive Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Wingfield

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. HIV-positive people starting combined antiretroviral therapy may develop immune reconstitution to latent or treated opportunistic infections. Immune reconstitution to cerebral Cryptococcus is poorly understood and can be fatal. Case Presentation. A 33-year-old Zimbabwean female presented with cryptococcal meningitis and newly diagnosed HIV with a CD4 count of 51 cells/μL (4%. She was treated with amphotericin and flucytosine. Combined antiretroviral therapy was started four weeks later and she showed early improvement. However, over the ensuing 18 months, her clinical course was marked by periodic worsening with symptoms resembling cryptococcal meningitis despite having achieved CD4 counts ≥400 cells/μL. Although initially treated for relapsing cryptococcal immune reconstitution syndrome, a brain biopsy taken 17 months after initial presentation showed budding Cryptococci. Conclusion. This unusually protracted case highlights the difficulties in differentiating relapsing cryptococcal meningitis from immune reconstitution and raises questions concerning the optimum timing of initiation of combined antiretroviral therapy in such patients.

  3. Correlates of facility delivery for rural HIV-positive pregnant women enrolled in the MoMent Nigeria prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam-Agudu, Nadia A; Isah, Christopher; Fan-Osuala, Chinenye; Erekaha, Salome; Ramadhani, Habib O; Anaba, Udochisom; Adeyemi, Olusegun A; Manji-Obadiah, Grace; Lee, Daniel; Cornelius, Llewellyn J; Charurat, Manhattan

    2017-07-14

    Low rates of maternal healthcare service utilization, including facility delivery, may impede progress in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) and in reducing maternal and infant mortality. The MoMent (Mother Mentor) study investigated the impact of structured peer support on early infant diagnosis presentation and postpartum maternal retention in PMTCT care in rural Nigeria. This paper describes baseline characteristics and correlates of facility delivery among MoMent study participants. HIV-positive pregnant women were recruited at 20 rural Primary Healthcare Centers matched by antenatal care clinic volume, client HIV prevalence, and PMTCT service staffing. Baseline and delivery data were collected by participant interviews and medical record abstraction. Multivariate logistic regression with generalized estimating equation analysis was used to evaluate for correlates of facility delivery including exposure to structured (closely supervised Mentor Mother, intervention) vs unstructured (routine, control) peer support. Of 497 women enrolled, 352 (71%) were between 21 and 30 years old, 319 (64%) were Christian, 245 (49%) had received secondary or higher education, 402 (81%) were multigravidae and 299 (60%) newly HIV-diagnosed. Delivery data was available for 445 (90%) participants, and 276 (62%) of these women delivered at a health facility. Facility delivery did not differ by type of peer support; however, it was positively associated with secondary or greater education (aOR 1.9, CI 1.1-3.2) and Christian affiliation (OR 1.4, CI 1.0-2.0) and negatively associated with primigravidity (OR 0.5; 0.3-0.9) and new HIV diagnosis (OR 0.6, CI 0.4-0.9). Primary-level or lesser-educated HIV-infected pregnant women and those newly-diagnosed and primigravid should be prioritized for interventions to improve facility delivery rates and ultimately, healthy outcomes. Incremental gains in facility delivery from structured peer support appear limited

  4. TUBERCULOSIS AND HIV COINFECTION: A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE The aim of the present study is to record the clinical, radiological profile of pulmonary and extra pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB in HIV positive patients. To win the battle against AIDS we have to fight against TB. Unlike HIV/AIDS, TB is completely curable in the vast majority of cases. MATERIALS AND METHODS This prospective study was conducted in the department of pulmonary medicine, Gadag institute of medical sciences, Gadag. All newly diagnosed HIV patients during the study period were included and screened for TB. HIV infection was confirmed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay using two different antigens and a rapid test as recommended by NACO. RESULTS Among 370 newly diagnosed HIV positive patients, 113(30.54% patients were diagnosed to have TB. Most common affected age group was 31-40years with a mean age of 38.08 years. Unprotected heterosexual contact was the most common mode of HIV transmission. Fever, weight loss and cough were the commonest symptoms at presentation. Pulmonary TB was diagnosed in 85(22.97% patients, EPTB in 21(5.67% and disseminated TB in 7(1.8% patients. Among the EPTB patients, 2(9.5% patients had extra thoracic lymphadenopathy. Cervical lymph node was the commonest lymph node involved. 14(66.66% patients had pleural effusion, 3(14.28% had abdominal TB, 1(4.76% had tubercular meningitis and 1(4.76% patient had TB testis. CONCLUSION The prevalence of HIV–TB co-infection was high. Moreover, HIV positive patients need early diagnosis and treatment of active TB. However large sample size prospective studies are needed to correlate the clinical and CD4 count with the occurrence of different types of tuberculosis.

  5. Chest Radiographic Findings in Newly Diagnosed Pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five hundred newly diagnosed cases of Pulmonary Tuberculosis were treated with directly observed short-course treatment and 100 of them had chest radiographic examination done. The various chest radiographic patterns in the 100 subjects were studied and included: Fluffy exudative changes 80(80%), fibrosis 70(70%) ...

  6. Cervical Screening within HIV Care: Findings from an HIV-Positive Cohort in Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Heather; Thorne, Claire; Semenenko, Igor; Malyuta, Ruslan; Tereschenko, Rostislav; Adeyanova, Irina; Kulakovskaya, Elena; Ostrovskaya, Lyudmila; Kvasha, Liliana; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Townsend, Claire L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction HIV-positive women have an increased risk of invasive cervical cancer but cytologic screening is effective in reducing incidence. Little is known about cervical screening coverage or the prevalence of abnormal cytology among HIV-positive women in Ukraine, which has the most severe HIV epidemic in Europe. Methods Poisson regression models were fitted to data from 1120 women enrolled at three sites of the Ukraine Cohort Study of HIV-infected Childbearing Women to investigate factors associated with receiving cervical screening as part of HIV care. All women had been diagnosed as HIV-positive before or during their most recent pregnancy. Prevalence of cervical abnormalities (high/low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions) among women who had been screened was estimated, and associated factors explored. Results Overall, 30% (337/1120) of women had received a cervical screening test as part of HIV care at study enrolment (median 10 months postpartum), a third (115/334) of whom had been tested >12 months previously. In adjusted analyses, women diagnosed as HIV-positive during (vs before) their most recent pregnancy were significantly less likely to have a screening test reported, on adjusting for other potential risk factors (adjusted prevalence ratio (APR) 0.62, 95% CI 0.51–0.75 p<0.01 for 1st/2nd trimester diagnosis and APR 0.42, 95% CI 0.28–0.63 p<0.01 for 3rd trimester/intrapartum diagnosis). Among those with a cervical screening result reported at any time (including follow-up), 21% (68/325) had a finding of cervical abnormality. In adjusted analyses, Herpes simplex virus 2 seropositivity and a recent diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis were associated with an increased risk of abnormal cervical cytology (APR 1.83 95% CI 1.07–3.11 and APR 3.49 95% CI 2.11–5.76 respectively). Conclusions In this high risk population, cervical screening coverage as part of HIV care was low and could be improved by an organised cervical screening programme for HIV-positive

  7. HIV Trends in the United States: Diagnoses and Estimated Incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, H Irene; Song, Ruiguang; Tang, Tian; An, Qian; Prejean, Joseph; Dietz, Patricia; Hernandez, Angela L; Green, Timothy; Harris, Norma; McCray, Eugene; Mermin, Jonathan

    2017-02-03

    The best indicator of the impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention programs is the incidence of infection; however, HIV is a chronic infection and HIV diagnoses may include infections that occurred years before diagnosis. Alternative methods to estimate incidence use diagnoses, stage of disease, and laboratory assays of infection recency. Using a consistent, accurate method would allow for timely interpretation of HIV trends. The objective of our study was to assess the recent progress toward reducing HIV infections in the United States overall and among selected population segments with available incidence estimation methods. Data on cases of HIV infection reported to national surveillance for 2008-2013 were used to compare trends in HIV diagnoses, unadjusted and adjusted for reporting delay, and model-based incidence for the US population aged ≥13 years. Incidence was estimated using a biomarker for recency of infection (stratified extrapolation approach) and 2 back-calculation models (CD4 and Bayesian hierarchical models). HIV testing trends were determined from behavioral surveys for persons aged ≥18 years. Analyses were stratified by sex, race or ethnicity (black, Hispanic or Latino, and white), and transmission category (men who have sex with men, MSM). On average, HIV diagnoses decreased 4.0% per year from 48,309 in 2008 to 39,270 in 2013 (Pyear (Pyears, overall, the percentage of persons who ever had received an HIV test or had had a test within the past year remained stable; among MSM testing increased. For women, all 3 incidence models corroborated the decreasing trend in HIV diagnoses, and HIV diagnoses and 2 incidence models indicated decreases among blacks and whites. The CD4 and Bayesian hierarchical models, but not the stratified extrapolation approach, indicated decreases in incidence among MSM. HIV diagnoses and CD4 and Bayesian hierarchical model estimates indicated decreases in HIV incidence overall, among both sexes and all

  8. Stable incidence of HIV diagnoses among Danish MSM despite increased engagement in unsafe sex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowan, Susan Alice; Gerstoft, Jan; Haff, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    Since introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the prevalence of Danish HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) has increased substantially. In contrast, the incidence of MSM diagnosed with HIV has not increased, and this paradox has been the focus of intensive debate....

  9. Effectiveness of the diabetes education and self management for ongoing and newly diagnosed (DESMOND) programme for people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, M. J.; Heller, S.; Skinner, T. C.

    2008-01-01

    .001); directions of change were positive indicating greater understanding of diabetes. The intervention group had a lower depression score at 12 months: mean difference was -0.50 (95% confidence interval -0.96 to -0.04); P=0.032. A positive association was found between change in perceived personal responsibility....... Main outcome measures: Haemoglobin A1c levels, blood pressure, weight, blood lipid levels, smoking status, physical activity, quality of life, beliefs about illness, depression, and emotional impact of diabetes at baseline and up to 12 months. Main results: Haemoglobin A1c levels at 12 months had...... and weight loss at 12 months (β=0.12; P=0.008). Conclusion: A structured group education programme for patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes resulted in greater improvements in weight loss and smoking cessation and positive improvements in beliefs about illness but no difference in haemoglobin A 1c...

  10. 'He lacks his fatherhood': safer conception technologies and the biological imperative for fatherhood among recently-diagnosed Xhosa-speaking men living with HIV in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tonya N; Mantell, Joanne E; Nywagi, Ntobeko; Cishe, Nomazizi; Cooper, Diane

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores notions of fatherhood and their linkages to fertility desires and intentions among a treatment-naïve cohort of Xhosa-speaking male key informants living with HIV, aged 20-53 in Cape Town, South Africa. Analysis is based on an initial 27, and 20 follow-up, interviews with men who were part of a study that assessed the acceptability of safer conception and alternative parenting strategies among men and women newly diagnosed with HIV to inform an intervention. Grounded theory analysis revealed themes related to the cultural imperative of biologically-connected fatherhood. Certain safer-conception strategies aimed at minimising the risk of HIV transmission were perceived as threats to paternity. These findings suggest that understanding of social and cultural beliefs related to notions of paternity and fatherhood may inform the implementation of acceptable safer-conception options for HIV-positive men and their infected and uninfected female partners in a high-HIV prevalence, low-resource setting.

  11. PREVALENCE OF DIABETIC RETINOPATHY IN PATIENTS WITH NEWLY DIAGNOSED TYPE II DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bostak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is a common complication of type II diabetes mellitus and carries with it the threat of blindness. Accurate information regarding the incidence of diabetic retinopathy and associated risk factors is important in the prevention of its development and of the visual impairment caused by this complication. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in newly diagnosed patients with type II diabetes mellitus. We have also evaluated the association of diabetic retinopathy with clinical and biochemical variables. In a cross-sectional study, 152 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed type II diabetes mellitus were referred from two outpatient clinics in Tehran for ophthalmologic exam to detect retinopathy. Indirect ophthalmoscopy was performed and data regarding risk factors were extracted from routine medical records. Chi square and Mann Whitney U tests were used to analyze the data. The overall prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was 13.8 %( 21 cases: three cases with microaneurysm only, 10 with mild, 5 with moderate and 2 with severe non proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Only one patient had advanced proliferative retinopathy. The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was positively associated with age, duration of disease, fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, and systolic blood pressure. Diabetic retinopathy is common in newly diagnosed type II diabetes mellitus patients. Ophthalmologic consultation is essential at the time of diagnosis for all patients.

  12. [HIV infection and associated factors in HIV-antibody positive clients of female sex workers recently reported in Shaanxi province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, T; Chang, W H; Zhang, M Y

    2017-03-10

    Objective: To investigate the current status of HIV infection and the related factors in HIV antibody positive clients of female sex workers (FSWs) recently reported in Shaanxi province. Methods: The HIV/AIDS cases newly diagnosed in males living in Shaanxi from January 1th of 2013 to June 30th of 2014 were selected and those infected through " commercial heterosexual behavior" were identified. The information about their demographic characteristics, previous unprotected heterosexual sex and the sample sources were collected, and serum or plasma samples were collected from them and tested with BED-CEIA. The proportion of recent HIV infections and associated factors were investigated. Results: The proportion of recent HIV infection and HIV-antibody detection rate in 212 HIV antibody positive male clients of FSWs were 25.5% and 6.6% respectively. The cases who had the educational level of junior middle school or high middle school were wore likely to have long term HIV infections than those with lower educational level (a OR =0.28, 95 % CI : 0.08-0.93). Compared with patients identified by hospitals or sexually transmitted diseases clinics, recent HIV infections were more likely to be found through preoperative test or blood transfusion test (a OR =3.14, 95 % CI : 1.06-9.30) and blood donation test (a OR =4.19, 95 % CI :1.01-17.42). Compared with the cases who had commercial sex only in Xi' an or other province or both in Xi' an and other province, the cases who had commercial sex in other cities in Shaanxi were more likely to be infected recently (a OR =0.19, 95 %CI : 0.07-0.57). Compared with the cases had temporary heterosexual sex partner, those who had no temporary sex partners were more likely to be infected recently (a OR =9.03, 95 % CI : 3.00-27.18) ( P HIV infections among HIV antibody positive clients of FSWs was high and the HIV-antibody detection rate among them was low. The educational level, sample source, geographic area and temporary heterosexual

  13. “He lacks his fatherhood”: Safer conception technologies and the biological imperative for fatherhood among recently-diagnosed Xhosa-speaking men living with HIV in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tonya N.; Mantell, Joanne E.; Nywagi, Ntobeko; Cishe, Nomazizi; Cooper, Diane

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores notions of fatherhood and their linkages to fertility desires and intentions among a treatment-naïve cohort of Xhosa-speaking male key informants living with HIV aged 20-53 in Cape Town, South Africa. Analysis is based on an initial 27 and 20 follow up interviews with men who were part of a study that assessed the acceptability of safer conception and alternative parenting strategies among men and women newly diagnosed with HIV to inform an intervention. Grounded theory analysis revealed themes related to the cultural imperative of biologically-connected fatherhood. Certain safer conception strategies aimed at minimising the risk of HIV transmission were perceived as threats to paternity. These findings suggest that understanding of social and cultural beliefs related to notions of paternity and fatherhood may inform the implementation of acceptable safer conception options for HIV-positive men and their infected and uninfected female partners in a high HIV prevalence, low-resource setting. PMID:23862770

  14. Pregnancy intent among a sample of recently diagnosed HIV-positive women and men practicing unprotected sex in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantell, Joanne E; Exner, Theresa M; Cooper, Diane; Bai, Dan; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Hoffman, Susie; Myer, Landon; Moodley, Jennifer; Kelvin, Elizabeth A; Constant, Debbie; Jennings, Karen; Zweigenthal, Virginia; Stein, Zena A

    2014-12-01

    Sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services for HIV-positive women and men often neglect their fertility desires. We examined factors associated with pregnancy intent among recently diagnosed HIV-positive women (N = 106) and men (N = 91) who reported inconsistent condom use and were enrolled in an SRH intervention conducted in public sector HIV care clinics in Cape Town. Participants were recruited when receiving their first CD4 results at the clinic. All reported unprotected sex in the previous 3 months. Logistic regression identified predictors of pregnancy intent for the total sample and by gender. About three fifths of men and one fifth of women reported intent to conceive in the next 6 months. In the full-sample multiple regression analysis, men [adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 6.62)] and those whose main partner shared intent to conceive (AOR = 3.80) had significantly higher odds of pregnancy intent; those with more years of education (AOR = 0.81) and more biological children (AOR = 0.62) had lower odds of intending pregnancy. In gender-specific analyses, partner sharing pregnancy intent was positively associated with intent among both men (AOR = 3.53) and women (AOR = 13.24). Among men, odds were lower among those having more biological children (AOR = 0.71) and those unemployed (AOR = 0.30). Among women, relying on hormonal contraception was negatively associated with intent (AOR = 0.08), and main partner knowing her HIV status (AOR = 5.80) was positively associated with intent to conceive. Findings underscore the importance of providing integrated SRH services, and we discuss implications for clinical practice and care.

  15. Hiv og kontaktopsporing i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodkjær, Lotte Ørneborg; Østergaard, Lars; Frydenberg, Morten

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Counselling and partner notification play significant roles in the prevention of HIV. In Denmark, there is no overall strategy or monitoring concerning partner notification and the results of partner notification are unknown. The primary purposes of the study were to describe...... the present organisation and conditions concerning partner notification in Denmark. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Information about organizational factors was collected through a questionnaire and supplementary interviews. The study population was all consecutive, newly-diagnosed HIV positive persons in the period...... from 1 May 2005 to 1 June 2006. During this period 254 were diagnosed with HIV. RESULTS: The study showed significant differences in the organisation of partner notification. A total of 123 index cases were offered partner notification. The stated number of partners per index case was 2.4, and 1...

  16. Gaps along the HIV care continuum: findings among a population seeking sexual health care services in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathela, Preeti; Jamison, Kelly; Braunstein, Sarah L; Schillinger, Julia A; Tymejczyk, Olga; Nash, Denis

    2018-03-02

    Linkage/re-linkage to HIV care for virally unsuppressed persons with new sexually transmitted infections is critical for ending the HIV epidemic. We quantified HIV care continuum gaps, and viral suppression, among HIV-positive patients attending New York City (NYC) sexual health clinics (SHC). 1,649 HIV-positive patients and a 10% sample of 11,954 patients with unknown HIV status on clinic visit date (DOV) were matched against the NYC HIV registry. Using registry diagnosis dates, we categorized matched HIV-positive patients as "new-positives" (newly diagnosed on DOV), "recent-positives (diagnosed ≤90 days before DOV), "prevalent-positives" (diagnosed >90 days before DOV), and "unknown-positives" (previously diagnosed, but status unknown to clinic on DOV). We assessed HIV care continuum outcomes before and after DOV for new-positives, prevalent-positives, and unknown-positives using registry laboratory data. In addition to 1,626 known HIV-positive patients, 5% of the unknown sample (63/1,196) matched to the registry, signifying that about 630 additional HIV-positive patients attended SHCs. Of new-positives, 65% were linked to care after DOV. Of prevalent-positives, 66% were in care on DOV; 43% of the out-of-care were re-linked after DOV. Of unknown-positives, 40% were in care on DOV; 21% of the out-of-care re-linked after DOV. Viral suppression was achieved by: 88% of in-care unknown-positives, 76% in-care prevalent-positives, 50% new-positives, 42% out-of-care prevalent-positives, and 16% out-of-care unknown-positives. Many HIV-positive persons, including those with uncontrolled HIV infection, attend SHCs and potentially contribute to HIV spread. However, HIV status often is not known to staff, resulting in missed linkage/re-linkage to care opportunities. Better outcomes could be facilitated by real-time ascertainment of HIV status and HIV care status.

  17. Radiation therapy of newly diagnosed, advanced prostatic cancer and hormonally relapsed prostatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Minoru; Fujiwara, Kazuhisa; Hayakawa, Katsumi; Hida, Shuichi

    1994-01-01

    Ten patients with newly diagnosed, advanced prostatic cancer were treated with radiotherapy and hormone therapy to improve tumor control and survival. Eight patients with hormonally relapsed prostatic cancer were treated with radiotherapy to improve their quality of life. Local control of the tumor was achieved in 9 of 10 patients with newly diagnosed, advanced prostatic cancer. Five of eight patients with hormonally relapsed prostatic cancer obtained improved quality of life. Combined radiotherapy and hormone therapy were effective in the treatment of newly diagnosed, advanced prostatic cancer, and radiotherapy was useful for improving the quality of life of patients with hormonally relapsed prostatic cancer. (author)

  18. Retrivability in The Danish National Hospital Registry of HIV and hepatitis B and C coinfection diagnoses of patients managed in HIV centers 1995–2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sørensen Henrik T

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hospital-based discharge registries are used increasingly for longitudinal epidemiological studies of HIV. We examined completeness of registration of HIV infections and of chronic hepatitis B (HBV and hepatitis C (HCV coinfections in the Danish National Hospital Registry (DNHR covering all Danish hospitals. Methods The Danish HIV Cohort Study (DHCS encompasses all HIV-infected patients treated in Danish HIV clinics since 1 January 1995. All 2,033 Danish patients in DHCS diagnosed with HIV-1 during the 10-year period from 1 January 1995 to 31 December 2004 were included in the current analysis. We used the DHCS as a reference to examine the completeness of HIV and of HBV and HCV coinfections recorded in DNHR. Cox regression analysis was used to estimate hazard ratios of time to diagnosis of HIV in DNHR compared to DHCS. Results Of the 2,033 HIV patients in DHCS, a total of 2,006 (99% were registered with HIV in DNHR. Of these, 1,888 (93% were registered in DNHR within one year of their first positive HIV test. A CD4 = 100,000 copies/ml and being diagnosed after 1 January 2000, were associated with earlier registration in DNHR, both in crude and adjusted analyses. Thirty (23% HIV patients registered with chronic HBV (n = 129 in DHCS and 126 (48% of HIV patients with HCV (n = 264 in DHCS were registered with these diagnoses in the DNHR. Further 17 and 8 patients were registered with HBV and HCV respectively in DNHR, but not in DHCS. The positive predictive values of being registered with HBV and HCV in DHCS were thereby estimated to 0.88 and 0.97 and in DNHR to 0.32 and 0.54. Conclusion The study demonstrates that secondary data from national hospital databases may be reliable for identification of patients diagnosed with HIV infection. However, the predictive value of co-morbidity data may be low.

  19. Just Diagnosed: Next Steps After Testing Positive for HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... recommending an HIV regimen. Testing for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) Coinfection with another STD can cause HIV infection to advance faster and increase the risk of HIV transmission to a sexual partner. STD testing makes it possible to detect ...

  20. Neuropsychological and psychological interventions for people with newly diagnosed epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Cerian F; Makin, Selina M; Baker, Gus A

    2015-07-22

    Many people with epilepsy report experiencing psychological difficulties such as anxiety, depression and neuropsychological deficits including memory problems. Research has shown that these difficulties are often present not only for people with chronic epilepsy but also for people with newly diagnosed epilepsy. Despite this, there are very few published interventions that detail means to help people with newly diagnosed epilepsy manage these problems. To identify and assess possible psychological and neuropsychological interventions for adults with newly diagnosed epilepsy. We searched the following databases on 30 June 2015: the Cochrane Epilepsy Group Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (Ovid), SCOPUS, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). This review includes all randomised controlled trials, quasi-randomised controlled trials, prospective cohort controlled studies, and prospective before and after studies which include psychological or neuropsychological interventions for people with newly diagnosed epilepsy. We excluded studies that included people with epilepsy and any other psychological disorder or neurological condition. We excluded studies carried out which recruited only children. We used the standard methodological procedure expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Two authors independently completed data extraction and risk of bias analysis. The results of this were cross-checked and third author resolved any discrepancies. In the event of missing data, we contacted the study authors. Meta-analysis was not completed due to differences in the intervention and outcomes reported in the two studies. We included two randomised controlled trials assessing psychological interventions for people with newly diagnosed epilepsy. One study assessed a cognitive behavioural intervention (CBI) in an adolescent

  1. Molecular Phylogenetics of Transmitted Drug Resistance in Newly Diagnosed HIV Type 1 Individuals in Denmark, a Nation-Wide Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Audelin, Anne Margrethe; Gerstoft, Jan; Obel, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Highly active antiretroviral treatment is compromised by viral resistance mutations. Transmitted drug resistance (TDR) is therefore monitored closely, but follow-up studies of these patients are limited. Virus from 1405 individuals diagnosed with HIV-1 in Denmark between 2001 and 2009...... without resistance mutations. We observed no difference in progression of the infection between individuals infected with TDR and individuals infected with wild-type HIV-1. The prevalence of TDR is low in Denmark and transmission of dual-drug-resistant HIV-1 is infrequent. The TDR isolates were shown...... resulting in a prevalence of 6.1%, with no changes over time. The main resistance mutations were nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) mutation 215 revertants, as well as nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) mutation 103N/S and protease inhibitor (PI) mutations 90M and 85V...

  2. Molecular phylogenetics of transmitted drug resistance in newly diagnosed HIV Type 1 individuals in Denmark: a nation-wide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Audelin, Anne Margrethe; Gerstoft, Jan; Obel, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Highly active antiretroviral treatment is compromised by viral resistance mutations. Transmitted drug resistance (TDR) is therefore monitored closely, but follow-up studies of these patients are limited. Virus from 1405 individuals diagnosed with HIV-1 in Denmark between 2001 and 2009...... without resistance mutations. We observed no difference in progression of the infection between individuals infected with TDR and individuals infected with wild-type HIV-1. The prevalence of TDR is low in Denmark and transmission of dual-drug-resistant HIV-1 is infrequent. The TDR isolates were shown...... resulting in a prevalence of 6.1%, with no changes over time. The main resistance mutations were nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) mutation 215 revertants, as well as nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) mutation 103N/S and protease inhibitor (PI) mutations 90M and 85V...

  3. Subclassification of newly diagnosed glioblastomas through an immunohistochemical approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhan Conroy

    Full Text Available Molecular signatures in Glioblastoma (GBM have been described that correlate with clinical outcome and response to therapy. The Proneural (PN and Mesenchymal (MES signatures have been identified most consistently, but others including Classical (CLAS have also been reported. The molecular signatures have been detected by array techniques at RNA and DNA level, but these methods are costly and cannot take into account individual contributions of different cells within a tumor. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether subclasses of newly diagnosed GBMs could be assessed and assigned by application of standard pathology laboratory procedures. 123 newly diagnosed GBMs were analyzed for the tumor cell expression of 23 pre-identified proteins and EGFR amplification, together allowing for the subclassification of 65% of the tumors. Immunohistochemistry (IHC-based profiling was found to be analogous to transcription-based profiling using a 9-gene transcriptional signature for PN and MES subclasses. Based on these data a novel, minimal IHC-based scheme for subclass assignment for GBMs is proposed. Positive staining for IDH1R132H can be used for PN subclass assignment, high EGFR expression for the CLAS subtype and a combined high expression of PTEN, VIM and/or YKL40 for the MES subclass. The application of the proposed scheme was evaluated in an independent tumor set, which resulted in similar subclass assignment rates as those observed in the training set. The IHC-based subclassification scheme proposed in this study therefore could provide very useful in future studies for stratification of individual patient samples.

  4. Neurological manifestations in HIV positive patients in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoo Mohraz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the neurological complications among Iranian HIV-positive patients. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 428 patients diagnosed with HIV infection between 2006 and 2009 at Imam Khomeini hospital, Tehran, Iran. Demographic and clinical variables as well as laboratory tests were extracted and analyzed. Also, another 100 patients refereed to Voluntary Counseling and Testing center of the hospital were visited and evaluated for neurological complications. Results: Among the patients, neurologic manifestations were observed in 34 (7.94% patients. Twenty three percent of the patients received antiretroviral therapy. Identified causes included brain toxoplasmosis (14.7%, progressive multi-focal leuko encephalopathy (5.9%, HIV encephalopathy (5.9%, TB meningitis (5% and unknown etiologies (11.8%. Also, among 100 patients who were admitted and visited at the Voluntary Counseling and Testing center, no one was diagnosed for any neurological manifestations. Conclusions: According to our results, toxoplasmosis is the most frequent cause of neurological conditions among Iranian HIV infected patients and should be considered in any HIV/AIDS patient with neurological manifestations.

  5. Experiences of Batswana women diagnosed with both HIV/AIDS and cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Molefe

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The central phenomenon of interest to the authors was the experiences of Batswana women who have been diagnosed with both HIV/AIDS and cervical cancer. They wanted to know how these women and their families coped with the burden of the two ‘fatal’ diseases. This interest was brought about by the current surge in cervical cancer cases in the country, and the relationship between the two diseases. There is scant literature on the experiences of women with the dual diagnosis of HIV/AIDS and cervical cancer. The purpose of the study was to explore the experiences of Batswana women who are diagnosed with both HIV/AIDS and cervical cancer. The research question was ‘What are the experiences of Batswana women diagnosed with both HIV/AIDS and cervical cancer?’ A phenomenological descriptive qualitative research design was therefore appropriate to answer the research question. Semi-structured interviews and field notes were used to collect data. One-to-one interviews were conducted with six women diagnosed with the two diseases. Both convenience and purposive sampling techniques were used in selection of participants. The seven procedural steps proposed by Collaizi (1978 were utilized in data analysis as the study was based on the phenomenology approach. The findings revealed that HIV/AIDS and cervical cancer are chronic illnesses that can instill chronic emotional pain. Reactions to diagnosis with these diseases include pain, fear or intense sadness. Coping with these conditions can be facilitated by different strategies such as acceptance, having hope, support from others and positive thinking. Support can come from children, family members, informal or formal groups and health service providers.

  6. Hope, emotion regulation, and psychosocial well-being in patients newly diagnosed with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peh, Chao Xu; Kua, Ee Heok; Mahendran, Rathi

    2016-05-01

    Patients newly diagnosed with cancer are often confronted with feelings of uncertainty and life threat. A significant proportion may report impairments in psychosocial well-being. Previous studies examining protective psychological factors such as hope and emotion regulation (ER) have yet to investigate these processes concurrently within a common self-regulation framework and/or focus on newly diagnosed patients. The present study aimed to examine how hope and ER may relate to psychosocial outcomes of patients newly diagnosed with cancer. The present study used a cross-sectional design with self-report questionnaires. Participants were newly diagnosed patients (N = 101) recruited from three cancer therapy clinics in a hospital. Patients completed measures of hope, ER (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression), and psychosocial well-being (life satisfaction and negative affectivity). Findings showed that (1) hope and reappraisal, but not suppression, were associated with well-being and (2) the interaction between hope and reappraisal was associated with well-being; reappraisal was not associated with well-being in high hope patients, while high reappraisal was associated with better well-being in low hope patients. Individual differences in hope and reappraisal appeared to be associated with psychosocial outcomes in newly diagnosed cancer patients. Hopeful thinking appeared to benefit patients' psychosocial well-being. In addition, an interaction effect between hope and reappraisal suggested that reappraisal as an ER strategy may be particularly adaptive for patients with low hope.

  7. Delivering the diabetes education and self management for ongoing and newly diagnosed (DESMOND) programme for people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillett, M.; Dallosso, H. M.; Dixon, S.

    2010-01-01

    intervention is £82 (-£831 to £1010) and the mean incremental cost per QALY gained is £2092. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis indicated that the likelihood that the DESMOND programme is cost effective at a threshold of £20 000 per QALY is 66% using trial based intervention costs and 70% using "real world......Objectives: To assess the long term clinical and cost effectiveness of the diabetes education and self management for ongoing and newly diagnosed (DESMOND) intervention compared with usual care in people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Design: We undertook a cost-utility analysis that used...... data from a 12 month, multicentre, cluster randomised controlled trial and, using the Sheffield type 2 diabetes model, modelled long term outcomes in terms of use of therapies, incidence of complications, mortality, and associated effect on costs and health related quality of life. A further cost...

  8. Retrivability in The Danish National Hospital Registry of HIV and hepatitis B and C coinfection diagnoses of patients managed in HIV centers 1995-2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, N.; Reinholdt, H.; Omland, L.H.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hospital-based discharge registries are used increasingly for longitudinal epidemiological studies of HIV. We examined completeness of registration of HIV infections and of chronic hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) coinfections in the Danish National Hospital Registry (DNHR......) covering all Danish hospitals. METHODS: The Danish HIV Cohort Study (DHCS) encompasses all HIV-infected patients treated in Danish HIV clinics since 1 January 1995. All 2,033 Danish patients in DHCS diagnosed with HIV-1 during the 10-year period from 1 January 1995 to 31 December 2004 were included....... The positive predictive values of being registered with HBV and HCV in DHCS were thereby estimated to 0.88 and 0.97 and in DNHR to 0.32 and 0.54. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrates that secondary data from national hospital databases may be reliable for identification of patients diagnosed with HIV infection...

  9. Unveiling HIV dynamics among transgender women: a respondent driven sampling study in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Jalil, Emilia Moreira; Monteiro, Laylla; Velasque, Luciane; Moreira, Ronaldo I.; Garcia, Ana Cristina F.; Castro, Cristiane V.; Krüger, Alícia; Luz, Paula M.; Liu, Albert Y.; Farland, Willi Mc; Buchbinder, Susan; Veloso, Valdilea G.; Wilson, Erin C.

    2017-01-01

    Background The burden of HIV in transgender women (transwomen) in Brazil remains unknown. We aimed to estimate HIV prevalence among transwomen, and identify the factors associated with newly diagnosed HIV infections. Methods “Transcender” was a respondent driven sampling study of transwomen in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, conducted from August 2015 to January 2016. Twelve seeds were recruited from social movements and formative phase. Eligibility criteria were: self-identification as transwomen, being 18 years of age or older, living in Rio de Janeiro or metropolitan area, and having a valid peer recruitment coupon. Participants were categorized as HIV-negative, known HIV infected, or newly diagnosed as HIV infected. Predictors of newly diagnosed HIV infections were assessed by comparing the newly diagnosed with the HIV-negative. Population estimates were adjusted using the RDSII estimator. Findings In total, 345 eligible transwomen were enrolled. The study sample was young and diverse on gender identity. Population estimates of no prior HIV testing, HIV-infection and newly diagnosed as HIV-infected were 29·1%, 32·1% and 7·0%, respectively (based on n=60 with no prior testing, n=141 HIV-infected, n=40 newly diagnosed). Syphilis, rectal chlamydia and gonorrhea infection were diagnosed in 28·9%, 14·6%, and 13·5%, respectively. Newly diagnosed HIV infections were associated with black race (22·8; 95%CI 2·9–178·9), travesti (34·1; 95%CI 5·8–200·2) or transsexual woman (41·3; 95%CI 6·3–271·2) gender identity, history of sex work (30·7; 95%CI 3·5–267·3), and history of sniffing cocaine (4·4; 95%CI 1·4–14·1). Interpretation Our results suggest that transwomen bear the largest burden of HIV among any population at risk in Brazil. The high proportion of HIV diagnosis among young participants points to the need for tailored long-term health care and prevention services in order to curb the HIV epidemic and improve the quality-of-life of

  10. Clinical presentation and opportunistic infections in HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 dual seropositive patients in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan; Jespersen, Sanne; Katzenstein, Terese L

    2016-01-01

    HIV-2 is prevalent. In this study, we aimed to characterize the clinical presentations among HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 dual seropositive patients. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, newly diagnosed HIV patients attending the HIV outpatient clinic at Hospital Nacional Sim~ao Mendes in Guinea......-Bissau were enrolled. Demographical and clinical data were collected and compared between HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 dual seropositive patients. Results: A total of 169 patients (76% HIV-1, 17% HIV-2 and 6% HIV 1/2) were included in the study between 21 March 2012 and 14 December 2012. HIV-1 seropositive...... antigen. Conclusion: HIV-1 and HIV-1/2 seropositive patients have lower CD4 cell counts than HIV-2 seropositive patients when diagnosed with HIV with only minor clinical and demographic differences among groups. Few patients were diagnosed with TB and cryptococcal disease was not found to be a major...

  11. HIV testing and burden of HIV infection in black cancer patients in Johannesburg, South Africa: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengayi, Mazvita; Babb, Chantal; Egger, Matthias; Urban, Margaret I

    2015-03-18

    HIV infection is a known risk factor for cancer but little is known about HIV testing patterns and the burden of HIV infection in cancer patients. We did a cross-sectional analysis to identify predictors of prior HIV testing and to quantify the burden of HIV in black cancer patients in Johannesburg, South Africa. The Johannesburg Cancer Case-control Study (JCCCS) recruits newly-diagnosed black cancer patients attending public referral hospitals for oncology and radiation therapy in Johannesburg . All adult cancer patients enrolled into the JCCCS from November 2004 to December 2009 and interviewed on previous HIV testing were included in the analysis. Patients were independently tested for HIV-1 using a single ELISA test . The prevalence of prior HIV testing, of HIV infection and of undiagnosed HIV infection was calculated. Multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to identify factors associated with prior HIV testing. A total of 5436 cancer patients were tested for HIV of whom 1833[33.7% (95% CI=32.5-35.0)] were HIV-positive. Three-quarters of patients (4092 patients) had ever been tested for HIV. The total prevalence of undiagnosed HIV infection was 11.5% (10.7-12.4) with 34% (32.0-36.3) of the 1833 patients who tested HIV-positive unaware of their infection. Men >49 years [OR 0.49(0.39-0.63)] and those residing in rural areas [OR 0.61(0.39-0.97)] were less likely to have been previously tested for HIV. Men with at least a secondary education [OR 1.79(1.11-2.90)] and those interviewed in recent years [OR 4.13(2.62 - 6.52)] were likely to have prior testing. Women >49 years [OR 0.33(0.27-0.41)] were less likely to have been previously tested for HIV. In women, having children associated with previous HIV testing. In a study of newly diagnosed black cancer patients in Johannesburg, over a third of HIV-positive patients were unaware of their HIV status. In South Africa black cancer patients should be targeted for opt-out HIV testing.

  12. Online resources for persons recently diagnosed with HIV/AIDS: an analysis of HIV-related webpages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Keith J; Harwood, Eileen M; Courtenay-Quirk, Cari; McFarlane, Mary; Fisher, Holly; Dickenson, Tina; Kachur, Rachel; Rosser, B R Simon; O'Leary, Ann

    2010-07-01

    The Internet is a major source of HIV-related information and resources for persons recently diagnosed with HIV/AIDS (PRDHA). This study examined the types of HIV-related websites that appear as a result of HIV-related keyword searches and the extent to which website information targets PRDHA. The first page of HIV-related webpages from 18 keyword searches was coded. Among 137 webpages meeting inclusion criteria, 63% represented HIV-informational websites, 31% targeted HIV-positive individuals, and over half contained or provided access to HIV prevention, treatment, and transmission information. Thirty-three percent of webpages contained or provided access to PRDHA-targeted information, with a greater percentage of those webpages having mobile, non-English, and "Ask the Expert" features compared with non-PRDHA targeted webpages. Implications for PRDHA include the following: (1) they should explore HIV-related websites to gain insight into the credibility of the information contained on those sites; (2) PRDHA must be aware that HIV-related websites have the potential to elicit dated, emotionally distressing, or irrelevant information; and (3) to obtain information that relates to their demographic and situational profile, they may wish to use specific key terms (e.g., "HIV women") rather than attempting to navigate webpages that arise from general search terms (e.g., "HIV"). Recommendations for future development of online resources for PRDHA include providing HIV-relevant information in a stepwise fashion, providing demographically targeted HIV information, and greater utilization of mobile technology.

  13. Pregnancy complications in HIV-positive women: 11-year data from the Frankfurt HIV Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitter, A; Stücker, A U; Linde, R; Königs, C; Knecht, G; Herrmann, E; Schlößer, R; Louwen, F; Haberl, A

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess pregnancy complications in HIV-positive women and changes in the rates of such complications over 11 years in the Frankfurt HIV Cohort. There were 330 pregnancies in HIV-positive women between 1 January 2002 and 31 December 2012. The rate of pregnancy-related complications, such as gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), pre-eclampsia and preterm delivery, the mode of delivery and obstetric history were analysed. Maternal and neonatal morbidity/mortality as well as HIV mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) were evaluated. In our cohort, GDM was diagnosed in 38 of 330 women (11.4%). Five women (1.5%) developed pre-eclamspia or hypertension. In 16 women (4.8%), premature rupture of membranes (PROM) occurred and 46 women (13.7%) were admitted with preterm contractions. The preterm delivery rate was 36.5% (n = 122), and 26.9% of deliveries (n = 90) were between 34+0 and 36+6 weeks of gestation. Over the observation period, the percentage of women with undetectable HIV viral load (VL) increased significantly (P HIV Association.

  14. DISABILITIES OF HANDS, FEET AND EYES IN NEWLY-DIAGNOSED LEPROSY PATIENTS IN EASTERN NEPAL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHIPPER, A; LUBBERS, WJ; HOGEWEG, M; DESOLDENHOFF, R

    The objective of the study was to determine the magnitude of hand/feet/eye disabilities in newly diagnosed leprosy patients by examining all newly diagnosed leprosy patients who presented at the Eastern Leprosy Control Project (supported by The Netherlands Leprosy Relief Association), made up of a

  15. Assessment of sputum smear-positive but culture-negative results among newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mnyambwa NP

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nicholaus Peter Mnyambwa,1,2 Esther S Ngadaya,2 Godfather Kimaro,2 Dong-Jin Kim,1 Rudovick Kazwala,3 Pammla Petrucka,1,4 Sayoki G Mfinanga2 1School of Life Sciences and Bioengineering, Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, Arusha, Tanzania; 2National Institute for Medical Research, Muhimbili Medical Research Center, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; 3Department of Veterinary Medicine, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania; 4College of Nursing, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada Abstract: Diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB in technology-limited countries is widely achieved by smear microscopy, which has limited sensitivity and specificity. The frequency and clinical implication of smear-positive but culture-negative among presumptive TB patients remains unclear. A cross-sectional substudy was conducted which aimed to identify the proportion of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM infections among 94 “smear-positive culture-negative” patients diagnosed between January 2013 and June 2016 in selected health facilities in Tanzania. Out of 94 sputa, 25 (26.60% were GeneXpert® mycobacteria TB positive and 11/94 (11.70% repeat-culture positive; 5 were Capilia TB-Neo positive and confirmed by GenoType MTBC to be Mycobacterium tuberculosis/Mycobacterium canettii. The remaining 6 Capilia TB-Neo negative samples were genotyped by GenoType® CM/AS, identifying 3 (3.19% NTM, 2 Gram positive bacteria, and 1 isolate testing negative, together, making a total of 6/94 (6.38% confirmed false smear-positives. Twenty-eight (29.79% were confirmed TB cases, while 60 (63.83% remained unconfirmed cases. Out of 6 (6.38% patients who were HIV positive, 2 patients were possibly coinfected with mycobacteria. The isolation of NTM and other bacteria among smear-positive culture-negative samples and the presence of over two third of unconfirmed TB cases emphasize the need of both advanced differential TB diagnostic techniques and

  16. Correlation between bone scan findings and serum PSA level in prostate cancer patients in Bangladesh: both newly diagnosed and hormonally treated cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasmeen, S.; Nasreen, F.; Kabir, M.F.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The objective of the current study was to determine whether pre- treatment serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels can identify a group with low probability of osseous metastases and safely eliminate the need for bone scan as a routine part of the staging evaluation in Bangladeshi patients with newly diagnosed prostate carcinoma. Also, to find out a cut off value for serum PSA level for predicting positive bone scan in newly diagnosed Bangladeshi prostate cancer patients and to assess the role of PSA level in hormonally treated cases. Prostate cancer most commonly metastasizes to the bone. Bone scintigraphy is one of the best methods in detecting bone metastases, assessing the progression of the disease and response to therapy. For more than 30 yrs it has been known that bone scintigraphy is more sensitive than radiographic, clinical evaluation or chemical markers such as alkaline phosphatase or acid phosphatase in detection of early osseous metastatic prostate cancer. The introduction of PSA has dramatically changed the management of prostate cancer. Serum PSA level has proven to be a useful serum marker for detection of metastatic prostate cancer and it provides the best overall correlation. It also has considerable impact on bone scanning. Of special significance is the fact that patients who have a low PSA level in previously untreated carcinoma of prostate are extremely unlikely to have positive findings on a bone scan for metastases. The picture is different in patients who has received and responded to hormonal therapy. Bone scintigraphy appears to be extremely useful in patients whose PSA level begins to rise after surgical procedure. Patients, who were on anti- androgen therapy, even though they had visible metastatic disease on bone scans, had normal level of PSA Patients and methods: A total of 390 cases were studied. Some (n=242) were newly diagnosed without having any specific treatment other than surgery. Others (n=148) were old cases

  17. Diagnosing acute HIV infection: The performance of quantitative HIV-1 RNA testing (viral load) in the 2014 laboratory testing algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsiu; Cohen, Stephanie E; Westheimer, Emily; Gay, Cynthia L; Hall, Laura; Rose, Charles; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B; Gose, Severin; Fu, Jie; Peters, Philip J

    2017-08-01

    New recommendations for laboratory diagnosis of HIV infection in the United States were published in 2014. The updated testing algorithm includes a qualitative HIV-1 RNA assay to resolve discordant immunoassay results and to identify acute HIV-1 infection (AHI). The qualitative HIV-1 RNA assay is not widely available; therefore, we evaluated the performance of a more widely available quantitative HIV-1 RNA assay, viral load, for diagnosing AHI. We determined that quantitative viral loads consistently distinguished AHI from a false-positive immunoassay result. Among 100 study participants with AHI and a viral load result, the estimated geometric mean viral load was 1,377,793copies/mL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Management of Newly Diagnosed Atrial Fibrillation in an Outpatient Clinic Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrysoee, Lars; Strömberg, Anna; Brandes, Axel

    2018-01-01

    fibrillation is not a fatal disease in itself was very important for patients. At the same time, visiting the clinic was overwhelming, information was difficult to understand, and patients found it difficult to be involved in decision-making. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that patients were uncertain......AIMS: To gain in-depth knowledge of patients' experiences of the consultation processes at a multidisciplinary atrial fibrillation outpatient clinic in a university hospital in Denmark. BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation is the most common cardiac arrhythmia associated with morbidity and mortality...... if not diagnosed and treated as recommended. Patients with newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation preferably should be managed in an outpatient setting which includes medical examination, patient education and decision making on medical therapy. DESIGN: This is a qualitative study of 14 patients newly diagnosed...

  19. Drug resistant HIV: Behaviors and characteristics among Los Angeles men who have sex with men with new HIV diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamina M Gorbach

    Full Text Available Epidemiology of drug resistant HIV has focused on trends and less attention has been given to identification of factors, especially behaviors including substance use, in acquisition of drug-resistant HIV. From 2009 to 2012 The Metromates Study enrolled and followed for one year men who have sex with men (MSM seeking testing for HIV in a community clinic in Los Angeles assessing those testing positive for acute and recent HIV infection. Behavioral data were collected via Computer-Assisted Self-Interview from 125 classified as newly HIV infected and 91 as chronically infected (newly HIV-diagnosed; specimens were available and viable for resistance testing for 154 of the 216 HIV positives with new diagnoses. In this community clinic we found prevalence of resistance among MSM with new HIV-diagnosis was 19.5% (n = 30/154 with no difference by recency of HIV infection. Sexual partnership characteristics were associated with resistance; those who reported transgendered sex partners had a higher prevalence of resistance as compared to those who did not report transgendered sex partners (40% vs. 17%; p value = 0.04, while those who reported having a main partner had a lower prevalence of drug resistance (12% vs. 24%; p value = 0.07. In multivariable analyses adjusting for HIV recency and antiviral use, reporting a main partner decreased odds [adjusted odds ratio (AOR 0.34; 95% confidence interval (CI 0.13-0.87], reporting a transgendered partnered increased odds (AOR = 3.37; 95% CI 0.95-12.43; and being African American increased odds of drug resistance (AOR = 5.63, 95%CI 1.41-22.38. This suggests African American MSM and TG individuals in Los Angeles represent pockets of exceptional risk that will require special approaches to prevention and care to enhance their own health and reduce their likelihood to support transmission of drug resistance in the US.

  20. Identifying Malnutrition: Nutritional Status in Newly Diagnosed Patients With Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnasamy, Karthikayini; Li Yoong, Tang; Mei Chan, Chong; Peng Choong, Lau; Chinna, Karuthan

    2017-02-01

    Malnutrition is common among patients with cancer, but little attention is given to its risks and consequences. The aim of this study is to assess the nutritional status and identify the factors associated with malnutrition among newly diagnosed patients with cancer. Patients admitted with newly diagnosed cancer at a teaching hospital in Malaysia were recruited from January to April 2015. Nutritional status was assessed before treatment initiation, and patients were classified into three categories. A total of 132 pretreatment patients were recruited into the study. About half were severely malnourished. Patients with stage III cancer had the highest prevalence of severe malnourishment. Clinical parameters and disease characteristics were significantly associated with nutritional status. Demographic variables were also statistically significantly associated with severe nutritional status.

  1. Routine HIV screening in two health-care settings--New York City and New Orleans, 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xia; Dietz, Patricia M; Rodriguez, Vanessa; Lester, Deborah; Hernandez, Paloma; Moreno-Walton, Lisa; Johnson, Grant; Van Handel, Michelle M; Skarbinski, Jacek; Mattson, Christine L; Stratford, Dale; Belcher, Lisa; Branson, Bernard M

    2014-06-27

    Approximately 16% of the estimated 1.1 million persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the United States are unaware of their infection and thus unable to benefit from effective treatment that improves health and reduces transmission risk. Since 2006, CDC has recommended that health-care providers screen for HIV all patients aged 13-64 years unless prevalence of undiagnosed HIV infection in their patients has been documented to be New York City and the Interim Louisiana Hospital (ILH) in New Orleans. Data were provided by the two programs. UHP screened a monthly average of 986 patients for HIV during January 2011-September 2013. Of the 32,534 patients screened, 148 (0.45%) tested HIV-positive, of whom 147 (99%) received their test result and 43 (29%) were newly diagnosed. None of the 148 patients with HIV infection were previously receiving medical care, and 120 (81%) were linked to HIV medical care. The ILH emergency department (ED) and the urgent-care center (UCC) screened a monthly average of 1,323 patients from mid-March to December 2013. Of the 12,568 patients screened, 102 (0.81%) tested HIV-positive, of whom 100 (98%) received their test result, 77 (75%) were newly diagnosed, and five (5%) had acute HIV infection. Linkage to HIV medical care was successful for 67 (74%) of 91 patients not already in care. Routine HIV screening identified patients with new and previously diagnosed HIV infection and facilitated their linkage to medical care. The two HIV screening programs highlighted in this report can serve as models that could be adapted by other health-care settings.

  2. Resilience and Associated Factors among Mainland Chinese Women Newly Diagnosed with Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zijing; Liu, Ye; Li, Xuelian; Li, Xiaohan

    2016-01-01

    Resilience is the individual's ability to bounce back from trauma. It has been studied for some time in the U.S., but few studies in China have addressed this important construct. In mainland China, relatively little is known about the resilience of patients in clinical settings, especially among patients with breast cancer. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the level of resilience and identify predictors of resilience among mainland Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with 213 mainland Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer between November 2014 and June 2015. Participants were assessed with the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS), Medical Coping Modes Questionnaire (MCMQ, including 3 subscales: confrontation, avoidance, and acceptance-resignation), Herth Hope Index (HHI), and demographic and disease-related information. Descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses and multiple stepwise regression were conducted to explore predictors for resilience. The average score for CD-RISC was 60.97, ranging from 37 to 69. Resilience was positively associated with educational level, family income, time span after diagnosis, social support, confrontation, avoidance, and hope. However, resilience was negatively associated with age, body mass index (BMI), and acceptance-resignation. Multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that hope (β = 0.343, Pconfrontation (β = 0.187, P = 0.001), and age (β = -0.108, P = 0.037) significantly affected resilience and explained 50.1% of the total variance in resilience. Women with newly diagnosed breast cancer from mainland China demonstrated particularly low resilience level, which was predicted by hope educational level, avoidance, confrontation, and age.

  3. Hope pictured in drawings by women newly diagnosed with gynecological cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Kristianna; Hall, Elisabeth; Mogensen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: In mysterious ways, hope makes life meaningful even in chaotic and uncontrolled situations. When a woman is newly diagnosed with gynecologic cancer, hope is ineffable and needs exploring. Drawings help express ineffable phenomena. OBJECTIVE:: The aim of the study was to explore how...... women newly diagnosed with gynecologic cancer express the meaning of hope in drawings. METHOD:: Participants were 15 women who on the same day had received the diagnosis of gynecologic cancer. They were between 24 and 87 years (median, 52 years) with a variety of gynecologic cancer diagnoses. Data from...... 15 drawings and postdrawing interviews with the women were analyzed using visual and hermeneutic phenomenology. RESULTS:: Three themes emerged: hope as a spirit to move on, hope as energy through nature, and hope as a communion with families. CONCLUSION:: Hope as pictured in drawings often appears...

  4. Household HIV Testing Uptake among Contacts of TB Patients in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavindhran Velen

    Full Text Available In high HIV prevalence settings, offering HIV testing may be a reasonable part of contact tracing of index tuberculosis (TB patients. We evaluated the uptake of HIV counselling and testing (HCT among household contacts of index TB patients and the proportion of newly diagnosed HIV-infected persons linked into care as part of a household TB contact tracing study.We recruited index TB patients at public health clinics in two South African provinces to obtain consent for household contact tracing. During scheduled household visits we offered TB symptom screening to all household members and HCT to individuals ≥14years of age. Factors associated with HCT uptake were investigated using a random effects logistic regression model.Out of 1,887 listed household members ≥14 years old, 984 (52% were available during a household visit and offered HCT of which 108 (11% self-reported being HIV infected and did not undergo HCT. Of the remaining 876, a total of 304 agreed to HCT (35%; 26 (8.6% were newly diagnosed as HIV positive. In multivariable analysis, factors associated with uptake of HCT were prior testing (odds ratio 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-2.3 and another member in the household testing (odds ratio 2.4; 95% CI: 1.7-3.4. Within 3 months of testing HIV-positive, 35% reported initiating HIV care.HCT as a component of household TB contact tracing reached individuals without prior HIV testing, however uptake of HIV testing was poor. Strategies to improve HIV testing in household contacts should be evaluated.

  5. Clinical Staging of HIV Infection as a Surrogate for CD4 Count in HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    naive HIV-infected children. METHODS: Newly diagnosed HIV-infected children, antiretroviral-naïve attending a paediatric infectious diseases unit were enrolled. The clinical manifesta-tions, age, sex, and. WHO clinical stage of each patient were ...

  6. Hope in newly diagnosed cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggleby, Wendy; Ghosh, Sunita; Cooper, Dan; Dwernychuk, Lynne

    2013-11-01

    Hope is important to cancer patients as it helps them deal with their diagnosis. Little is known about hope in newly diagnosed cancer patients. Based on the Transcending Possibilities conceptual model of hope, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of hope with pain, energy, and psychological and demographic characteristics in newly diagnosed adult oncology outpatients. Data from 310 New Patient Assessment Forms from cancer outpatients' health records were collected. Health records from the first six months of 2009 were reviewed and data were collected on hope, energy, pain, depression, anxiety, feeling overwhelmed, and demographic variables. A generalized linear modeling approach was used to study the relationship of hope scores with these variables. Hypothesized variables and variables that were significant at the P = 0.01 level from the univariate analysis were entered into the multivariate model, with hope scores as the dependent variable. Hope scores were significantly negatively related to age (P = 0.02). More specifically, oncology patients who were 65 years of age or older had significantly less hope than those under the age of 65 years (P = 0.01). Gender (P = 0.009) also was a significant factor, with men having higher hope scores than women. No other variables were significant. Older adults comprise the majority of persons in Canada with cancer. The lower hope scores found in this age group compared with their younger counterparts underscore the importance of further research. This study provides a foundation for future research in this important area for oncology patients. Copyright © 2013 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Factors Associated with Newly Diagnosed Children with Diabetic Ketoacidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh Mirsadraee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Diabetes mellitus type 1 is one of the most prevalent endocrine diseases in pediatrics. Diabetic ketoacidosis is considered as one of the most threatening clinical pictures of DM1, especially if occurred as the first presentation of DM1 in children. Objectives The current study aimed to identify factors which may play a role in DKA onset in children. Methods This case-control study included all patients under 18 years old who referred to department of pediatrics endocrinology at Mashhad University Hospital (Imam Reza from January 2013 to December 2015 as newly diagnosed patients with DM1. Patients who fulfilled DKA criteria at diagnosis were considered as DKA group and those who referred with other presentations were considered as control group (non-DKA group. Data were analyzed by SPSS software ver. 16. Results During the study period, 97 (39.2% male newly diagnosed patients were included as DKA group. Accordingly 97 gender- and age-matched patients were added as non-DKA group. The most prevalent symptoms in both groups were polyuria (91.88% and polydipsia (88.66%. Fever and cold symptoms were significantly higher in the DKA group (P < 0.001 and P =0.005, respectively. Hemoglobin A1c level was significantly higher in the DKA group (P = 0.001, while body mass index was significantly lower in the DKA group (P = 0.045. Fever and father’s education level were the most important risk and protective factors in the DKA onset in newly diagnosed patients with DM1 (adjusted OR = 10.1, 95% CI = 2.9-35.3; P < 0.001 and adjusted OR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.3 - 0.9 and P = 0.019, respectively. Conclusions In conclusion, a recent febrile illness was found as the strongest risk factor and father’s education level as the main protective factor in the DKA to diagnose children with DM1. The study findings suggested that DKA is a severe form of DM1 instead of a neglected or misdiagnosed disease.

  8. Depression in patients with HIV is under-diagnosed: a cross-sectional study in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodkjaer, L; Laursen, T; Balle, N

    2009-01-01

    and to detect factors of importance for the development of depression. Methods In 2005, a population of 205 HIV-positive patients was included in a questionnaire-based study. The Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) was used to assess the prevalence and severity of depressive symptoms. Patients with a BDI......Background International studies suggesting that 20-37% of HIV-positive patients have diagnosable depression may underestimate the prevalence of this condition. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of depression among HIV-positive patients in an out-patient clinic in Denmark...... score of 20 or above were offered a clinical evaluation by a consultant psychiatrist. Results Symptoms of depression (BDI>14) were observed in 77 (38%) patients and symptoms of major depression (BDI>/=20) in 53 (26%). Eighteen patients subsequently started treatment with anti-depressants. In a reduced...

  9. HIV-positive patients in Pusan servitude : clinical and chest radiographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Young Keun; Kim, Kun Il

    2001-01-01

    To analyze the clinical and chest radiolographic findings of HIV-positive in Pusan survitude. We reviewed the medical records of 74 admission cases of 41 HIV-positive patients (38 mem and 3 women), confirmed in NIH and admitted to our hospital between May 1990 and September 1997. We evaluated the clinical findings including the pulmonary disease diagnosed at each admission, and using the pattern approach assessed the radiographic findings in 63 cases available among 74 admission cases. For statistical analysis the Pearson Chi-Square test was used, and the chest CT findings available in 19 cases among 17 patients were also evaluated. In all cases the mode of transmission was sexual contact, and they were more frequently contacted with foreigners (73%) than koreans (27%). During the follow-up period, pulmonary diseases were diagnosed in 52 (70%) of 74 admission cases. The diagnoses were pneumocystis cabrini pneumonia (PCP, n=15), pneumonia(n=15), pulmonary tuberculosis(n=15), combined infection with PCP and pulmonary tuberculosis(n=5), and combined infection with PCP and bacterial pneumonia(n=1). The count of CD4+ lymphocyte in 33 of 55 available admissions cases was less than 50 cells/mm?. In 28 patients(68%) who died, the time between confirmation of HIV-positive status to death ranged from 2 to 81 (mean, 39) months. Chest radiographs of 46 available admission cases (73%) showed the followingabnormal findings: interstitial opacities(n=26), consolidation(n=17), single or multiple nodules (n=9), hilar or mediastinal lymph node enlargement(n=10), pleural effusion(n=8), cyst(n=2), mass(n=1), and pericardial effusion(n=1). Diffuse ground glass opacity was observed in eight (89%) of nine PCP cases (p<0.05), and in cases of pulmonary tubercolosis, hilar or mediastinal lymph node enlargement was frequent (p<0.05). Pulmonary diseases in HIV-positive patients in Pusan servitude were diagnosed during follow-up in 70% of cases. The majority of these diseases were infectious

  10. HIV-positive patients in Pusan servitude : clinical and chest radiographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Young Keun; Kim, Kun Il [Pusan National Univ. College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-04-01

    To analyze the clinical and chest radiolographic findings of HIV-positive in Pusan survitude. We reviewed the medical records of 74 admission cases of 41 HIV-positive patients (38 mem and 3 women), confirmed in NIH and admitted to our hospital between May 1990 and September 1997. We evaluated the clinical findings including the pulmonary disease diagnosed at each admission, and using the pattern approach assessed the radiographic findings in 63 cases available among 74 admission cases. For statistical analysis the Pearson Chi-Square test was used, and the chest CT findings available in 19 cases among 17 patients were also evaluated. In all cases the mode of transmission was sexual contact, and they were more frequently contacted with foreigners (73%) than koreans (27%). During the follow-up period, pulmonary diseases were diagnosed in 52 (70%) of 74 admission cases. The diagnoses were pneumocystis cabrini pneumonia (PCP, n=15), pneumonia(n=15), pulmonary tuberculosis(n=15), combined infection with PCP and pulmonary tuberculosis(n=5), and combined infection with PCP and bacterial pneumonia(n=1). The count of CD4+ lymphocyte in 33 of 55 available admissions cases was less than 50 cells/mm?. In 28 patients(68%) who died, the time between confirmation of HIV-positive status to death ranged from 2 to 81 (mean, 39) months. Chest radiographs of 46 available admission cases (73%) showed the followingabnormal findings: interstitial opacities(n=26), consolidation(n=17), single or multiple nodules (n=9), hilar or mediastinal lymph node enlargement(n=10), pleural effusion(n=8), cyst(n=2), mass(n=1), and pericardial effusion(n=1). Diffuse ground glass opacity was observed in eight (89%) of nine PCP cases (p<0.05), and in cases of pulmonary tubercolosis, hilar or mediastinal lymph node enlargement was frequent (p<0.05). Pulmonary diseases in HIV-positive patients in Pusan servitude were diagnosed during follow-up in 70% of cases. The majority of these diseases were infectious

  11. Different Pathophysiological Phenotypes among Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stidsen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) can be considered a syndrome with several different pathophysiological mechanisms leading to hyperglycemia. Nonetheless, T2D is treated according to algorithms as if it was one disease entity. Methods: We investigated the prevalence of different pathophysiological phenotypes...... or secondary diabetes), classic obesity-associated insulin resistant diabetes ( f-P-C-peptide >= 568 pmol/l) and a normoinsulinopenic group (333 age of our new T2D patients was 61 years (range 21-95 years), 57% were men. We found that 3.0% newly diagnosed T2D patients...... suffered from LADA, 3.9% from secondary diabetes, 6.0% from steroid induced diabetes 5.9% had insulinopenic diabetes, whereas 56.7% presented the classic obesity-associated insulin-resistant phenotype. 24.6% was classified as normoinsulinopenic patients. Conclusion: We conclude that newly diagnosed T2D...

  12. Gynaecological surgery in the HIV-positive patient

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa approximately 5 500 women are newly infected with HIV and more than 3 000 die from AIDS-related illnesses. In this ... of triple antiretroviral therapy, women living with HIV can now enjoy longer life ... There is a paucity of literature about the rate of complications after .... p=0.08) than their HIV-negative controls.6.

  13. Resilience and Associated Factors among Mainland Chinese Women Newly Diagnosed with Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zijing Wu

    Full Text Available Resilience is the individual's ability to bounce back from trauma. It has been studied for some time in the U.S., but few studies in China have addressed this important construct. In mainland China, relatively little is known about the resilience of patients in clinical settings, especially among patients with breast cancer. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the level of resilience and identify predictors of resilience among mainland Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer.A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with 213 mainland Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer between November 2014 and June 2015. Participants were assessed with the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC, Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS, Medical Coping Modes Questionnaire (MCMQ, including 3 subscales: confrontation, avoidance, and acceptance-resignation, Herth Hope Index (HHI, and demographic and disease-related information. Descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses and multiple stepwise regression were conducted to explore predictors for resilience.The average score for CD-RISC was 60.97, ranging from 37 to 69. Resilience was positively associated with educational level, family income, time span after diagnosis, social support, confrontation, avoidance, and hope. However, resilience was negatively associated with age, body mass index (BMI, and acceptance-resignation. Multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that hope (β = 0.343, P<0.001, educational level of junior college or above (β = 0.272, P<0.001, educational level of high school (β = 0.235, P<0.001, avoidance (β = 0.220, P<0.001, confrontation (β = 0.187, P = 0.001, and age (β = -0.108, P = 0.037 significantly affected resilience and explained 50.1% of the total variance in resilience.Women with newly diagnosed breast cancer from mainland China demonstrated particularly low resilience level, which was predicted by hope educational level, avoidance, confrontation

  14. Higher incidence of hip fracture in newly diagnosed schizophrenic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Higher incidence of hip fracture in newly diagnosed schizophrenic patients in Taiwan. Hip fracture is a major public health concern due to its poor outcome and serious socioeconomic burden in older people (1). Evidence has shown that many factors are related to increased risk of hip fracture, but psychiatric diseases are ...

  15. Death Concerns among Individuals Newly Diagnosed with Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto, Rebecca; Therrien, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Confronting the reality of death is an important challenge for individuals facing life-threatening illness such as lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer death. Few studies, however, document the nature of death-related concerns in individuals newly diagnosed with lung cancer. The aims of this exploratory study were to examine unsolicited…

  16. Anti-HCV antibody among newly diagnosed HIV patients in Ughelli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ingly well above several other studies done in the past in Nigeria and other countries of ... Keywords: HIV, HCV, Hepatitis, co-infection, intravenous drug use. ... African Health Sciences Vol 15 Issue 3, September 2015. 728 .... drugs or men that sleep with men (0.0%). .... association of the receipt of a blood transfusion before.

  17. Factors associated with performing tuberculosis screening of HIV-positive patients in Ghana: LASSO-based predictor selection in a large public health data set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Mueller-Using

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study is to propose the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operators procedure (LASSO as an alternative to conventional variable selection models, as it allows for easy interpretation and handles multicollinearities. We developed a model on the basis of LASSO-selected parameters in order to link associated demographical, socio-economical, clinical and immunological factors to performing tuberculosis screening in HIV-positive patients in Ghana. Methods Applying the LASSO method and multivariate logistic regression analysis on a large public health data set, we selected relevant predictors related to tuberculosis screening. Results One Thousand Ninety Five patients infected with HIV were enrolled into this study with 691 (63.2 % of them having tuberculosis screening documented in their patient folders. Predictors found to be significantly associated with performance of tuberculosis screening can be classified into factors related to the clinician’s perception of the clinical state, as well as those related to PLHIV’s awareness. These factors include newly diagnosed HIV infections (n = 354 (32.42 %, aOR 1.84, current CD4+ T cell count (aOR 0.92, non-availability of HIV type (n = 787 (72.07 %, aOR 0.56, chronic cough (n = 32 (2.93 %, aOR 5.07, intake of co-trimoxazole (n = 271 (24.82 %, aOR 2.31, vitamin supplementation (n = 220 (20.15 %, aOR 2.64 as well as the use of mosquito bed nets (n = 613 (56.14 %, aOR 1.53. Conclusions Accelerated TB screening among newly diagnosed HIV-patients indicates that application of the WHO screening form for intensifying tuberculosis case finding among HIV-positive individuals in resource-limited settings is increasingly adopted. However, screening for TB in PLHIV is still impacted by clinician’s perception of patient’s health state and PLHIV’s health awareness. Education of staff, counselling of PLHIV and sufficient financing are

  18. Association of copeptin and cortisol in newly diagnosed multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowska-Bik, Agnieszka; Kochanowski, Jan; Uchman, Dorota; Litwiniuk, Anna; Kalisz, Malgorzata; Martynska, Lidia; Wolinska-Witort, Ewa; Baranowska, Boguslawa; Bik, Wojciech

    2015-05-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. Obesity may increase the risk of developing MS. The aim of this study was to evaluate copeptin and cortisol plasma levels in newly diagnosed untreated MS patients and to determine whether copeptin and cortisol are related to the patients' clinical statuses. We report that copeptin and cortisol were higher in overweight/obese MS patients. Positive correlations were observed between the two parameters. We conclude that alterations of copeptin and cortisol levels in multiple sclerosis patients may be related to adiposity. An increase in cortisol may also be associated with copeptin secretion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Patients with newly diagnosed Rheumatoid Arthritis are at increased risk of Diabetes Mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emamifar, Amir; Levin, Klaus; Jensen Hansen, Inger Marie

    2018-01-01

    -C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP) at the time of diagnosis and after 4 months (±1-2 months) of treatment initiation were extracted from Danbio Registry. To reveal the presence of DM, patients' electronic medical records were reviewed. The prevalence of DM in our patients was compared (using an age- and gender......-matched analysis) with that expected from Danish population. RESULTS: of 439 included patients, 60.1% were female, mean of age 64.6±15.0 years and RA disease duration 2.6±1.7 years. Prevalence of DM was 57/439 (12.9%), herein type II DM 52 (91.2%) and type I DM 5 (8.8%). Except for two patients, diagnosis of DM......AIMS: To reveal the prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) in patients with newly diagnosed Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) and evaluate the association between clinical characteristics of RA and DM as well as treatment response in newly diagnosed RA patients with DM. METHODS: Newly diagnosed, adult, RA...

  20. Nutrition and HIV-Positive Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, Kristen S.

    2003-01-01

    When an HIV-positive woman becomes pregnant, additional nutritional considerations are warranted. Compared to routine prenatal nutritional assessment and intervention, pregnant HIV-positive women have increased needs to promote a healthy outcome. This column contains information on HIV and pregnancy, nutrition and infection, and nutrition for HIV-positive pregnancy. This content can be integrated into childbirth education settings to improve care to women who are HIV-positive.

  1. Treating depression in HIV-positive patients affects adherence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-02

    Sep 2, 2012 ... reported that the number of people newly infected with HIV and the number .... and immunity. Subjects were ... of change in adherence as a response ..... retroviral drugs: Theorising contextual relationships. ... Drug-resistant HIV-1: The virus strikes back. ... persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

  2. Frequent screening for syphilis as part of HIV monitoring increases the detection of early asymptomatic syphilis among HIV-positive homosexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissessor, Melanie; Fairley, Christopher K; Leslie, David; Howley, Kerri; Chen, Marcus Y

    2010-10-01

    Syphilis continues to be a significant public health problem among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) internationally. This study aimed to determine whether the routine inclusion of syphilis serology with every blood test performed as part of HIV monitoring increases the detection of early asymptomatic syphilis among HIV-positive MSM. We examined the effect of this intervention, implemented in January 2007, on the detection of early asymptomatic syphilis among HIV-positive MSM attending the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Australia, and compared this with the previous clinic policy of annual syphilis screening. In the 18 months before and after the intervention, the median number of syphilis tests performed per man per year was 1 and 2, respectively. The proportion of MSM diagnosed with early syphilis who were asymptomatic was 21% (3 of 14) and 85% (41 of 48) for the 2 respective periods (P = 0.006). The time between the midpoint since last syphilis serology and diagnosis of syphilis was a median of 107 days (range 9-362) and 45 days (range 23-325) for the 2 periods, respectively (P = 0.018). The inclusion of routine syphilis serology with every blood test performed as part of HIV monitoring in HIV-positive MSM resulted in a large increase in the proportion of men diagnosed with early asymptomatic syphilis. This simple intervention probably also decreased the duration of infectiousness, enhancing syphilis control while also reducing morbidity.

  3. Sentinel surveillance of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance, acute infection and recent infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ha M Truong

    Full Text Available HIV-1 acute infection, recent infection and transmitted drug resistance screening was integrated into voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT services to enhance the existing surveillance program in San Francisco. This study describes newly-diagnosed HIV cases and characterizes correlates associated with infection.A consecutive sample of persons presenting for HIV VCT at the municipal sexually transmitted infections (STI clinic from 2004 to 2006 (N = 9,868 were evaluated by standard enzyme-linked immunoassays (EIA. HIV antibody-positive specimens were characterized as recent infections using a less-sensitive EIA. HIV-RNA pooled testing was performed on HIV antibody-negative specimens to identify acute infections. HIV antibody-positive and acute infection specimens were evaluated for drug resistance by sequence analysis. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to evaluate associations. The 380 newly-diagnosed HIV cases included 29 acute infections, 128 recent infections, and 47 drug-resistant cases, with no significant increases or decreases in prevalence over the three years studied. HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance prevalence was 11.0% in 2004, 13.4% in 2005 and 14.9% in 2006 (p = 0.36. Resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI was the most common pattern detected, present in 28 cases of resistance (59.6%. Among MSM, recent infection was associated with amphetamine use (AOR = 2.67; p<0.001, unprotected anal intercourse (AOR = 2.27; p<0.001, sex with a known HIV-infected partner (AOR = 1.64; p = 0.02, and history of gonorrhea (AOR = 1.62; p = 0.03.New HIV diagnoses, recent infections, acute infections and transmitted drug resistance prevalence remained stable between 2004 and 2006. Resistance to NNRTI comprised more than half of the drug-resistant cases, a worrisome finding given its role as the backbone of first-line antiretroviral therapy in San Francisco as well as worldwide. The integration of HIV-1 drug

  4. Nutrition and HIV-Positive Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Kristen S.

    2003-01-01

    When an HIV-positive woman becomes pregnant, additional nutritional considerations are warranted. Compared to routine prenatal nutritional assessment and intervention, pregnant HIV-positive women have increased needs to promote a healthy outcome. This column contains information on HIV and pregnancy, nutrition and infection, and nutrition for HIV-positive pregnancy. This content can be integrated into childbirth education settings to improve care to women who are HIV-positive. PMID:17273329

  5. STI patients are effective recruiters of undiagnosed cases of HIV: results of a social contact recruitment study in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Nora E; Kamanga, Gift; Pettifor, Audrey E; Bonongwe, Naomi; Mapanje, Clement; Rutstein, Sarah E; Ward, Michelle; Hoffman, Irving F; Martinson, Francis; Miller, William C

    2014-04-15

    Patients with newly diagnosed HIV may be part of social networks with elevated prevalence of undiagnosed HIV infection. Social network recruitment by persons with newly diagnosed HIV may efficiently identify undiagnosed cases of HIV infection. We assessed social network recruitment as a strategy for identifying undiagnosed cases of HIV infection. In a sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic in Lilongwe, Malawi, 3 groups of 45 "seeds" were enrolled: STI patients with newly diagnosed HIV, STI patients who were HIV-uninfected, and community controls. Seeds were asked to recruit up to 5 social "contacts" (sexual or nonsexual). Mean number of contacts recruited per group was calculated. HIV prevalence ratios (PRs) and number of contacts needed to test to identify 1 new case of HIV were compared between groups using generalized estimating equations with exchangeable correlation matrices. Mean number of contacts recruited was 1.3 for HIV-infected clinic seeds, 1.8 for HIV-uninfected clinic seeds, and 2.3 for community seeds. Contacts of HIV-infected clinic seeds had a higher HIV prevalence (PR: 3.2, 95% confidence interval: 1.3 to 7.8) than contacts of community seeds, but contacts of HIV-uninfected clinic seeds did not (PR: 1.1, 95% confidence interval: 0.4 to 3.3). Results were similar when restricted to nonsexual contacts. To identify 1 new case of HIV, it was necessary to test 8 contacts of HIV-infected clinic seeds, 10 contacts of HIV-uninfected clinic seeds, and 18 contacts of community seeds. Social contact recruitment by newly diagnosed STI patients efficiently led to new HIV diagnoses. Research to replicate findings and guide implementation is needed.

  6. Bone histomorphometry in children with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, JA; Koudstaal, J; Wiersema-Buist, J; Kamps, WA; Timens, W

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain insight into bone formation and resorption in children with newly diagnosed untreated acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In 23 consecutive children with ALL, a bone biopsy was taken from the crista iliaca posterior under ketamine anesthesia, together with

  7. Profile of Infections in Newly Diagnosed Patients with Acute Leukemia During the Induction Phase of Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayed, H.A.; Talaat, S.M.; El-Mahallawy, H.A.; Kaddah, A.M.; Ismael, H.T.

    2009-01-01

    Acute leukemia is the most common pediatric malignancy. Despite the significant progress in the treatment of infectious complications, infection-related morbidity and mortality continue to be of great importance. Prompt initiation of the appropriate empiric antibiotic treatment has improved infection outcome. The aim of the present study is to assess the type, frequency, and severity of infectious complications in a cohort of pediatric cancer patients treated at a single medical institution. We also aim to identify factors affecting bloodstream infections in newly diagnosed ALL and AML pediatric patients during the induction phase of treatment. Patients and Methods: This study was carried out at the Department of Pediatric Oncology, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, during the time period from January 1st to June 30th 2007. Inclusion criteria were pediatric age group (from 0-16 years), newly diagnosed acute leukemia, positive blood culture and documented site of infection. Data were analyzed using the SPSS package version 15. A p-value £0.05 was considered significant. Results: This is a retrospective study including 100 newly diagnosed cases of acute leukemia. Fifty-four patients had ALL, and 46 patients had AML. 348 infectious episodes were recorded. Blood stream infections (BSI) occurred once or twice in 32%, 3-4 episodes in 58%, and five or more episodes in 10% of the cases. Gram-positive cocci were the most frequently observed cause of BSI, accounting for 77.9% of the total isolates followed by Gram negative organisms seen in 18.9% and mixed infections in 8%. The majority of the episodes (n= 208, 58.4%) responded to first-line empirical antibiotic therapy. Conclusion: Clinical and laboratory risk factors could be identified and can help prediction of serious BSI.

  8. Tuberculous iliopsoas abscess in a HIV positive female patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elenkov, I.; Tomov, T.; Stefanov, P.; Genov, P.; Dineva, S.; Alexiev, I.; Nikolova, M.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with HIV can often present a diagnostic challenge and may have atypical presentations of more common diseases. This case demonstrates a HIV (+) patient with an advanced immunosuppression with tuberculosis complaining about 2 months before admission to the hospital of backache, anorexia and weight loss. On investigation she was found to have unilateral tuberculous psoas abscesses, diagnosed microbiologically and with a CT scan. Complex treatment (surgical, tuberculostatics, antiretroviral) was performed with a good effect. A review of the literature shows that this is a rare presentation of an already unusual problem, with subtle signs requiring a high index of clinical suspicion. However, with HIV-positive patients more likely to present with extrapulmonary tuberculosis, there is need for increased awareness of this diagnosis. (authors) Key words: HIV. TUBERCULOUS PSOAS ABSCESS

  9. [A pediatric case of HIV who diagnosed by virtue of disseminated cryptococcus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Manolya; Sütçü, Murat; Aktürk, Hacer; Hançerli Törün, Selda; Karagöz, Nurinisa; Beka, Hayati; Yekeler, Ensar; Ağaçfidan, Ali; Salman, Nuran; Somer, Ayper

    2016-07-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is an important opportunistic pathogen that causes serious mortality and morbidity in AIDS patients. Although its incidence has decreased with proper antiretroviral treatment (ART), it is still a major concern in areas with low socioeconomic HIV endemic countries with poor sources of therapy. In our country, pediatric HIV infection and so, HIV-related opportunistic infections are very rare. In order to pay attention to this unusual collaboration; herein, we presented a pediatric case who was diagnosed with HIV and disseminated cryptococcus infection concomitantly. A 6.5-year-old previously healthy girl has admitted to our hospital with the complaints of prolonged fever, cough and hemoptysis. On her physical examination she had oral candidiasis, generalized lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly. Laboratory findings were as follows; white blood cell count: 3170 µL (neutrophil: 2720 µL, lymphocyte: 366 µL), hemoglobin level: 7.8 gr/dl, hematocrit: 25.5% platelets: 170.000 µL, CRP: 15.2 mg/L and serum IgG level: 1865 mg/dl. Her anti-HIV test yielde,d positive result and confirmed by Western blot assay, together with a high viral load (HIV-RNA: 3.442.000 copies/ml). She was started ART (lamivudine, zidovudine and lopinavir/ritonavir combination) with the diagnosis of stage 3 HIV infection (AIDS). Posteroanterior chest radiograph showed mediastinal extension and nodular parenchyma. Since the patient was suspected to have pulmonary tuberculosis based on the clinical and radiological findings, empirical antituberculosis therapy was started. Because of the insistance of fever, three different blood specimens, bone marrow and gastric aspirates were collected for culture, in which all of them yielded C.neoformans growth. She was then diagnosed as disseminated cryptococcosis and treated with liposomal amphotericin B and fluconazole successfully. Although pediatric HIV infection is usually diagnosed secondary to maternal disease, it can rarely be

  10. Importance of circulating tumor cells in newly diagnosed colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalum, Guus; Stam, Gerrit-Jan; Scholten, Loes F.A.; Mastboom, Walter J.B.; Vermes, I.; Tibbe, Arjan G.J.; De Groot, Marco R.; Terstappen, Leonardus Wendelinus Mathias Marie

    2015-01-01

    Presence of circulating tumor cells (CTC) is associated with poor prognosis in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). The present study was conducted to determine if the presence of CTC prior to surgery and during follow‑up in patients with newly diagnosed non-metastatic CRC can identify

  11. EYE DISEASE IN NEWLY-DIAGNOSED LEPROSY PATIENTS IN EASTERN NEPAL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LUBBERS, WJ; SCHIPPER, A; HOGEWEG, M; DESOLDENHOFF, R

    To determine the magnitude of eye lesions in newly diagnosed leprosy patients we examined their eyes. The Eastern Leprosy Control Project was supported by The Netherlands Leprosy Relief Association; we used the regional clinic in Biratnagar and 5 mobile clinics in surrounding districts as our survey

  12. Correlates of HIV stigma in HIV-positive women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Anne C; Hart, Trevor A; Mohammed, Saira; Ivanova, Elena; Wong, Joanna; Loutfy, Mona R

    2010-06-01

    We examined the variables associated with HIV stigma in HIV-positive women currently living in Ontario, Canada. Based on previous literature, we predicted that variables of social marginalization (e.g., ethnicity, income, education), medical variables (e.g., higher CD4 count, lower viral load), and increased psychological distress would be associated with higher perceived HIV stigma among HIV-positive women. One hundred fifty-nine HIV-positive women between the ages of 18 and 52 in Ontario completed self-report measures of the aforementioned variables. Women were recruited through 28 AIDS service organizations, eight HIV clinics, and two community health centers. In multiple regression analyses, for women born in Canada, lower educational level and higher anxiety were associated with higher HIV stigma. For women born outside of Canada, having been judged by a physician in Canada for trying to become pregnant was associated with higher HIV stigma. For HIV-positive women born outside of Canada, negative judgment by a physician regarding intentions to become pregnant should be addressed to reduce perceived HIV stigma and vice versa. Health care providers should be trained in the provision of sensitive and effective health care for women living with HIV, especially when providing reproductive health care.

  13. Quality of life of elderly persons with newly diagnosed cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, B A; Osterlind, K; Roer, O

    2004-01-01

    The aim was to investigate quality of life (QoL) in elderly persons newly diagnosed with cancer (65+ years) in relation to age, contact with the health-care system, ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL), hope, social network and support, and to identify which factors were associated...... with low QoL. The sample consisted of 101 patients (75 women and 26 men) newly diagnosed with cancer. EORTC QLQ-C30, Nowotny's Hope Scale, Katz ADL and the Interview Schedule for Social Interaction (ISSI) were used. The analysis was carried out in four age groups and revealed no significant differences...... in QoL. Compared with the other age groups, those of a high age (80+ years) more often lived alone, used more home-help service and had a smaller social network. Factors associated with low QoL were 'no other incomes than retirement pension', 'low level of hope' and 'lung cancer'. In addition, 'being...

  14. Parental influences on sperm banking attempts among adolescent males newly diagnosed with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosky, James L; Flynn, Jessica S; Lehmann, Vicky; Russell, Kathryn M; Wang, Fang; Hardin, Robin N; Eddinger, Jasmine R; Zhang, Hui; Schenck, Lauren A-M; Schover, Leslie R

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the influence of parental sociodemographic, communication, and psychological factors on sperm collection attempts among at-risk adolescent males newly diagnosed with cancer. Prospective, single group, observational study design. Pediatric oncology centers. Parents (N = 144) of 122 newly diagnosed adolescent males at increased risk for infertility secondary to cancer therapy. Survey-based assessment of parent factors associated with adolescent collection attempts. Attempt of manual collection of sperm. Parental recommendation to bank sperm (odds ratio [OR] 3.72; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-11.76) and perceived self-efficacy to facilitate banking (OR 1.20; 95% CI 1.02-1.41) were associated with an increased likelihood of making a collection attempt. Parental recommendation to bank is a critical influence for sperm banking among adolescent males newly diagnosed with cancer. These findings highlight the importance of effective communication between parents, patients, and health-care teams when discussing preservation options. Parent perceptions of their ability to facilitate sperm banking at the time of diagnosis should also be targeted in future interventions. NCT01152268. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Optimal management of cervical cancer in HIV-positive patients: a systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ntekim, Atara; Campbell, Oladapo; Rothenbacher, Dietrich

    2015-01-01

    The clinical management of cervical cancer in HIV-positive patients has challenges mainly due to the concerns on immune status. At present, their mode of management is similar to HIV-seronegative patients involving the use of chemotherapy and radiotherapy concurrently as indicated. HIV infection, cancer, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy lower immunity through reduction in CD4 cell counts. At present there are no treatment guidelines for HIV-positive patients. This study was done to systematically review the literature on cervical cancer management in HIV-positive patients and treatment outcomes. A systematic literature search was done in the major databases to identify studies on the management of HIV-positive patients with cervical cancer. Identified studies were assessed for eligibility and inclusion in the review following the guidelines of The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews and CRD's (Centre for Reviews and Dissemination) guidance for undertaking reviews in health care. Eight eligible studies were identified from the literature. Three of them were prospective while five were retrospective studies. Notably, the average age at diagnosis of cervical cancer in HIV-positive patients was a decade lower than in seronegative patients. There was no difference in distribution of stages of disease at presentation between HIV-positive and negative patients. Mild acute toxicity (Grades 1 and 2) was higher in HIV-positive patients than in HIV-negative patients in hematopoietic system. In the grades 3 and 4 reactions, anemia was reported in 4% versus 2% while gastrointestinal reactions were reported in 5% versus 2% respectively. In general, patients who were started early on HAART had higher rates of treatment completion. The study supports the suggestion that HAART should be commenced early at cervical cancer diagnosis in HIV-positive patients diagnosed with cervical cancer to ensure less toxicity and better treatment compliance

  16. Urine-Based Nested PCR for the Diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A Comparative Study Between HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi Makiani, Mahin; Davoodian, Parivash; Baghershiroodi, Mahnaz; Nejatizadeh, Abdol Azim; Fakkhar, Farideh; Zangeneh, Mehrangiz; Jahangiri, Nadia

    2016-08-01

    While tuberculosis (TB) can be diagnosed by microscopy and culture, the sensitivity of Ziehl-Neelsen staining is variable and culture results require 4 - 8 weeks to be determined. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and its modifications, including nested PCR, might be promising methods for the rapid diagnosis of TB. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of nested PCR on urine samples of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and -negative patients with different manifestations of clinical TB. In a prospective study, three early-morning urine samples from 100 patients with pulmonary TB (PTB) or extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) were evaluated using a molecular target with insertion element IS6110, specific to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome, and nested PCR was performed. The results were analyzed with SPSS version 22. A total of 100 patients, including 74 (74%) with PTB and 26 (26%) with EPTB, were enrolled. Positive smears were seen in 38 patients (38%). Lymph nodes were the most commonly involved organ in 14 of the 26 (53.8%) EPTB patients (13.5%). Seven (23.1%) of the EPTB patients were HIV-positive. Urine PCR was positive in only 28 patients (28%). Seven HIV-positive patients with PTB showed positive urine PCR results. Moreover, PCR results were positive in only one of the seven HIV-positive subjects with EPTB. Positive PCR results were found in 20 of the 73 HIV-negative patients (27.4%) and in 8 of the 27 HIV-positive patients (29.6%). Therefore, there was no significant difference between the HIV-negative and HIV-positive patients for urine PCR (sensitivity 29.6%, specificity 72.6%; positive and negative predictive values 28% and 72%, respectively; P = 0.138). Nested PCR showed the same sensitivity in HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients. It can be applied as a rapid technique for the diagnosis of TB.

  17. Quality of life of elderly persons with newly diagnosed cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, B A; Osterlind, K; Roer, O

    2004-01-01

    The aim was to investigate quality of life (QoL) in elderly persons newly diagnosed with cancer (65+ years) in relation to age, contact with the health-care system, ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL), hope, social network and support, and to identify which factors were associated...

  18. Evaluation of HIV testing algorithms in Ethiopia: the role of the tie-breaker algorithm and weakly reacting test lines in contributing to a high rate of false positive HIV diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, Leslie; Siddiqui, M Ruby; Kliescikova, Jarmila; Pearce, Neil; Ariti, Cono; Muluneh, Libsework; Pirou, Erwan; Ritmeijer, Koert; Masiga, Johnson; Abebe, Almaz

    2015-02-03

    In Ethiopia a tiebreaker algorithm using 3 rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in series is used to diagnose HIV. Discordant results between the first 2 RDTs are resolved by a third 'tiebreaker' RDT. Médecins Sans Frontières uses an alternate serial algorithm of 2 RDTs followed by a confirmation test for all double positive RDT results. The primary objective was to compare the performance of the tiebreaker algorithm with a serial algorithm, and to evaluate the addition of a confirmation test to both algorithms. A secondary objective looked at the positive predictive value (PPV) of weakly reactive test lines. The study was conducted in two HIV testing sites in Ethiopia. Study participants were recruited sequentially until 200 positive samples were reached. Each sample was re-tested in the laboratory on the 3 RDTs and on a simple to use confirmation test, the Orgenics Immunocomb Combfirm® (OIC). The gold standard test was the Western Blot, with indeterminate results resolved by PCR testing. 2620 subjects were included with a HIV prevalence of 7.7%. Each of the 3 RDTs had an individual specificity of at least 99%. The serial algorithm with 2 RDTs had a single false positive result (1 out of 204) to give a PPV of 99.5% (95% CI 97.3%-100%). The tiebreaker algorithm resulted in 16 false positive results (PPV 92.7%, 95% CI: 88.4%-95.8%). Adding the OIC confirmation test to either algorithm eliminated the false positives. All the false positives had at least one weakly reactive test line in the algorithm. The PPV of weakly reacting RDTs was significantly lower than those with strongly positive test lines. The risk of false positive HIV diagnosis in a tiebreaker algorithm is significant. We recommend abandoning the tie-breaker algorithm in favour of WHO recommended serial or parallel algorithms, interpreting weakly reactive test lines as indeterminate results requiring further testing except in the setting of blood transfusion, and most importantly, adding a confirmation test

  19. Trends in HIV diagnoses and testing among U.S. adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, H Irene; Walker, Frances; Shah, Daxa; Belle, Eboni

    2012-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends routine HIV screening in health care settings. Using national surveillance data, we assessed trends in HIV diagnoses and testing frequency in youth aged 13-24 diagnosed with HIV in 2005-2008. Diagnosis rates increased among black (17.0% per year), Hispanic (13.5%), and white males (8.8%), with increases driven by men who have sex with men (MSM). A higher percentage of white males and MSM had previously been tested than their counterparts. No increases in diagnoses or differences in testing were observed among females. Intensified interventions are needed to reduce HIV infections and racial/ethnic disparities.

  20. The effects of journaling for women with newly diagnosed breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Susan; Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Langrock, Adela; Compas, Bruce

    2005-12-01

    Forty-three women newly diagnosed with breast cancer participated in this study, which examined the role of expressive journal writing characteristics on mood over the course of a 12-week support group. Writing was analyzed using the linguistic inquiry and word count program. Writing characteristics that were examined included: average word count, number of journal entries, positive and negative emotion words, the ratio of positive to negative words, and the use of cognitive mechanism words (i.e. insight and causal words). Regression analyses revealed that increased levels of anxiety and depression, post-intervention, were predicted by the prevalence of negative emotion in writing. Unique variance in mood (anxiety and depression) was accounted for by expression of negative emotion (7 and 6%, respectively). These relationships were significant (pjournaling so that appropriate recommendations for writing (e.g. focus, timing, amount) can be offered to patients who might choose to utilize this approach for coping with the stresses of cancer diagnosis and treatment. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. South African Breast Cancer and HIV Outcomes Study: Methods and Baseline Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Cubasch

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In low- and middle-income, HIV-endemic regions of sub-Saharan Africa, morbidity and mortality from the common epithelial cancers of the developed world are rising. Even among HIV-infected individuals, access to antiretroviral therapy has enhanced life expectancy, shifting the distribution of cancer diagnoses toward non–AIDS-defining malignancies, including breast cancer. Building on our prior research, we recently initiated the South African Breast Cancer and HIV Outcomes study. Methods: We will recruit a cohort of 3,000 women newly diagnosed with breast cancer at hospitals in high (average, 20% HIV prevalence areas, in Johannesburg, Durban, Pietermaritzburg, and Empangeni. At baseline, we will collect information on demographic, behavioral, clinical, and other factors related to access to health care. Every 3 months in year 1 and every 6 months thereafter, we will collect interview and chart data on treatment, symptoms, cancer progression, comorbidities, and other factors. We will compare survival rates of HIV-infected and uninfected women with newly diagnosed breast cancer and their likelihood of receiving suboptimal anticancer therapy. We will identify determinants of suboptimal therapy and context-specific modifiable factors that future interventions can target to improve outcomes. We will explore molecular mechanisms underlying potentially aggressive breast cancer in both HIV-infected and uninfected patients, as well as the roles of pathogens, states of immune activation, and inflammation in disease progression. Conclusion: Our goals are to contribute to development of evidence-based guidelines for the management of breast cancer in HIV-positive women and to improve outcomes for all patients with breast cancer in resource-constrained settings.

  2. Predictors of Delayed Entry into Medical Care of Children Diagnosed with HIV Infection: Data from an HIV Cohort Study in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Alvarez-Uria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Data about the attrition before entry into care of children diagnosed with HIV in low- or middle-income countries are scarce. The aim of this study is to describe the attrition before engagement in HIV medical care in 523 children who were diagnosed with HIV from 2007 to 2012 in a cohort study in India. The cumulative incidence of children who entered into care was 87.2% at one year, but most children who did not enter into care within one year were lost to followup. The mortality before entry into care was low (1.3% at one year and concentrated during the first three months after HIV diagnosis. Factors associated with delayed entry into care were being diagnosed after mother’s HIV diagnosis, belonging to scheduled castes, age 90 minutes from the HIV centre. Children whose parents were alive and were living in a rented house were at a higher risk of delayed entry into care than those who were living in an owned house. The results of this study can be used to improve the linkage between HIV testing and HIV care of children diagnosed with HIV in India.

  3. Unveiling of HIV dynamics among transgender women: a respondent-driven sampling study in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Jalil, Emilia M; Monteiro, Laylla; Velasque, Luciane; Moreira, Ronaldo I; Garcia, Ana Cristina F; Castro, Cristiane V; Krüger, Alícia; Luz, Paula M; Liu, Albert Y; McFarland, Willi; Buchbinder, Susan; Veloso, Valdilea G; Wilson, Erin C

    2017-04-01

    The burden of HIV in transgender women (transwomen) in Brazil remains unknown. We aimed to estimate HIV prevalence among transwomen in Rio de Janeiro and to identify predictors of newly diagnosed HIV infections. We recruited transwomen from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, by respondent-driven sampling. Eligibility criteria were self-identification as transwomen, being 18 years of age or older, living in Rio de Janeiro or its metropolitan area, and having a valid peer recruitment coupon. We recruited 12 seed participants from social movements and formative focus groups who then used peer recruitment coupons to refer subsequent peers to the study. We categorised participants as HIV negative, known HIV infected, or newly diagnosed as HIV infected. We assessed predictors of newly diagnosed HIV infections by comparing newly diagnosed with HIV-negative participants. We derived population estimates with the Respondent-Driven Sampling II estimator. Between Aug 1, 2015, and Jan 29, 2016, we enrolled 345 eligible transwomen. 29·1% (95% CI 23·2-35·4) of participants had no previous HIV testing (adjusted from 60 participants), 31·2% (18·8-43·6) had HIV infections (adjusted from 141 participants), and 7·0% (0·0-15·9) were newly diagnosed as HIV infected (adjusted from 40 participants). We diagnosed syphilis in 28·9% (18·0-39·8) of participants, rectal chlamydia in 14·6% (5·4-23·8), and gonorrhoea in 13·5% (3·2-23·8). Newly diagnosed HIV infections were associated with black race (odds ratio 22·8 [95% CI 2·9-178·9]; p=0·003), travesti (34·1 [5·8-200·2]; p=0·0001) or transsexual woman (41·3 [6·3-271·2]; p=0·0001) gender identity, history of sex work (30·7 [3·5-267·3]; p=0·002), and history of sniffing cocaine (4·4 [1·4-14·1]; p=0·01). Our results suggest that transwomen bear the largest burden of HIV among any population at risk in Brazil. The high proportion of HIV diagnosis among young participants points to the need for tailored long-term health

  4. Prevalence of human Papilloma Virus in HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients in the State of Bahia: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição Queiroz

    Full Text Available Human Papilloma Virus (HPV plays a central role in the development of cervical cancer. However, other coexisting factors, such as HIV infection, must be present for this to occur. We evaluated the prevalence of HPV in HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients in the city of Salvador , Bahia, Brazil, and determined the most prevalent types of HPV in these patients. Fifty-five cases were selected from among patients attending three institutions providing cervical pathology services in the city of Salvador. HIV testing (Elisa/WB, HPV-DNA testing by PCR, colposcopy, cytology and biopsy were carried out in all patients. The histopathological results were classified as follows: 11 cases were normal/negative for neoplasia, 15 were diagnosed as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 (CIN 1, 10 were CIN 2, 15 cases were CIN 3 and there were four cases of invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Among the 55 patients studied, 43 tested positive for HPV-DNA and 20 for HIV. All HIV-positive patients were positive for HPV-DNA. The most prevalent types of HPV were HPV 16, 52, 58, 53, 54, 33 and 51, and there was little difference between the groups of HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients with respect to the type of HPV encountered. The HIV-positive patients were found to be infected with a greater number of types of HPV than the HIV-negative patients. This study corroborates the existence of regional variations in the distribution of certain types of HPV, which is probably due to the particular ethnic constitution found in this region of Brazil.

  5. Evolving antithrombotic treatment patterns for patients with newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camm, A.J.; Accetta, G.; Ambrosio, G.; Atar, D.; Bassand, J.P.; Berge, E. van de; Cools, F.; Fitzmaurice, D.A.; Goldhaber, S.Z.; Goto, S.; Haas, S.; Kayani, G.; Koretsune, Y.; Mantovani, L.G.; Misselwitz, F.; Oh, S.; Turpie, A.G.G.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Kakkar, A.K.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We studied evolving antithrombotic therapy patterns in patients with newly diagnosed non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) and >/=1 additional stroke risk factor between 2010 and 2015. METHODS: 39 670 patients were prospectively enrolled in four sequential cohorts in the Global

  6. Locating People Diagnosed With HIV for Public Health Action: Utility of HIV Case Surveillance and Other Data Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Mabel; Mattson, Christine L; Scheer, Susan; Udeagu, Chi-Chi N; Buskin, Susan E; Hughes, Alison J; Jaenicke, Thomas; Wohl, Amy Rock; Prejean, Joseph; Wei, Stanley C

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) case surveillance and other health care databases are increasingly being used for public health action, which has the potential to optimize the health outcomes of people living with HIV (PLWH). However, often PLWH cannot be located based on the contact information available in these data sources. We assessed the accuracy of contact information for PLWH in HIV case surveillance and additional data sources and whether time since diagnosis was associated with accurate contact information in HIV case surveillance and successful contact. The Case Surveillance-Based Sampling (CSBS) project was a pilot HIV surveillance system that selected a random population-based sample of people diagnosed with HIV from HIV case surveillance registries in 5 state and metropolitan areas. From November 2012 through June 2014, CSBS staff members attempted to locate and interview 1800 sampled people and used 22 data sources to search for contact information. Among 1063 contacted PLWH, HIV case surveillance data provided accurate telephone number, address, or HIV care facility information for 239 (22%), 412 (39%), and 827 (78%) sampled people, respectively. CSBS staff members used additional data sources, such as support services and commercial people-search databases, to locate and contact PLWH with insufficient contact information in HIV case surveillance. PLWH diagnosed surveillance than were PLWH diagnosed ≥1 year ago ( P = .002), and the benefit from using additional data sources was greater for PLWH with more longstanding HIV infection ( P surveillance cannot provide accurate contact information, health departments can prioritize searching additional data sources, especially for people with more longstanding HIV infection.

  7. Baseline staging tests based on molecular subtype is necessary for newly diagnosed breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuesong; Sun, Lichun; Cong, Yingying; Zhang, Tingting; Lin, Qiushi; Meng, Qingwei; Pang, Hui; Zhao, Yanbin; Li, Yu; Cai, Li; Dong, Xiaoqun

    2014-03-17

    Bone scanning (BS), liver ultrasonography (LUS), and chest radiography (CXR) are commonly recommended for baseline staging in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate whether these tests are indicated for specific patient subpopulation based on clinical staging and molecular subtype. A retrospective study on 5406 patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer was conducted to identify differences in occurrence of metastasis based on clinical staging and molecular subtypes. All patients had been evaluated by BS, LUS and CXR at diagnosis. Complete information on clinical staging was available in 5184 patients. For stage I, II, and III, bone metastasis rate was 0%, 0.6% and 2.7%, respectively (P diagnosed breast cancer.

  8. Pregnancy and linkage to care among women diagnosed with HIV infection in 61 CDC-funded health departments in the United States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzHarris, Lauren F; Hollis, Natasha D; Nesheim, Steven R; Greenspan, Julia L; Dunbar, Erica K

    2017-07-01

    Timely linkage to HIV care (LTC) following an HIV diagnosis is especially important for pregnant women with HIV to prevent perinatal transmission and improve maternal health. However, limited data are available on LTC among U.S. pregnant women. Our analysis aimed to identify HIV diagnoses among childbearing age (CBA) women (15-44 years old) by pregnancy status and to compare LTC of HIV-infected pregnant women to HIV-infected non-pregnant women. We analyzed 2013 CDC-funded HIV testing data from 61 health departments and 151 directly funded community-based organizations among CBA women. LTC includes linkage at any time after an HIV diagnosis and within 90 days after HIV diagnosis. Pearson's chi-square was used to compare LTC of pregnant and non-pregnant women. Data were analyzed using SAS v9.3. Among the 1,379,860 HIV testing events among CBA women in 2013, 0.3% (n = 3690) were HIV-positive. Among all HIV-positive diagnoses with an available pregnancy status (n = 1987), 7%, (n = 138) were pregnant. Among women with pregnancy status data, LTC any time after an HIV-positive diagnosis was 73.2% for pregnant women and 60.7% for non-pregnant women. LTC within 90 days was 71.7% for pregnant women and 56.2% for non-pregnant women. Pregnancy was associated with LTC any time (p HIV were linked to care overall, and linked within 90 days. Pregnancy appears to facilitate better LTC, but improvements are needed for women overall and pregnant women specifically.

  9. Mandating the offer of HIV testing in New York: simulating the epidemic impact and resource needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Erika G; MacDonald, Roderick H; Smith, Lou C; Gordon, Daniel E; Tesoriero, James M; Laufer, Franklin N; Leung, Shu-Yin J; Rowe, Kirsten A; OʼConnell, Daniel A

    2015-01-01

    A 2010 New York law requires that patients aged 13-64 years be offered HIV testing in routine medical care settings. Past studies report the clinical outcomes, cost-effectiveness, and budget impact of expanded HIV testing nationally and within clinics but have not examined how state policies affect resource needs and epidemic outcomes. A system dynamics model of HIV testing and care was developed, where disease progression and transmission differ by awareness of HIV status, engagement in care, and disease stage. Data sources include HIV surveillance, Medicaid claims, and literature. The model projected how alternate implementation scenarios would change new infections, diagnoses, linkage to care, and living HIV cases over 10 years. Without the law, the model projects declining new infections, newly diagnosed cases, individuals newly linked to care, and fraction of undiagnosed cases (reductions of 62.8%, 59.7%, 54.1%, and 57.8%) and a slight increase in living diagnosed cases and individuals in care (2.2% and 6.1%). The law will further reduce new infections, diagnosed AIDS cases, and the fraction undiagnosed and initially increase and then decrease newly diagnosed cases. Outcomes were consistent across scenarios with different testing offer frequencies and implementation times but differed according to the level of implementation. A mandatory offer of HIV testing may increase diagnoses and avert infections but will not eliminate the epidemic. Despite declines in new infections, previously diagnosed cases will continue to need access to antiretroviral therapy, highlighting the importance of continued funding for HIV care.

  10. Hope as experienced in women newly diagnosed with gynaecological cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Kristianna; Mogensen, Ole; Hall, Elisabeth O C

    2009-01-01

    cancer diagnosis made the women oscillate between hope and hopelessness, between positive expectations of getting cured and frightening feelings of the disease taking over. Five major interrelated themes of hope were identified: hope of being cured, cared for and getting back to normal, hope as being...... at a gynaecological department of a Danish university hospital. The women, aged 24-87 (median 52yrs), were diagnosed with ovarian, endometrial, cervical and vulvar cancer. RESULTS: Hope was found to be connected to both diagnosis, cure, family life and life itself and closely tied to hopelessness. The newly received...... active and feeling well, hope as an internal power to maintain integration, hope as significant relationships and hope as fighting against hopelessness. Thus, hope was woven together with hopelessness in a mysterious way; it took command through inner strength and courage based on a trust in being cured...

  11. Pulmonary symptoms and diagnoses are associated with HIV in the MACS and WIHS cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingo, Matthew R; Balasubramani, Goundappa K; Rice, Thomas B; Kingsley, Lawrence; Kleerup, Eric C; Detels, Roger; Seaberg, Eric C; Greenblatt, Ruth M; Holman, Susan; Huang, Laurence; Sutton, Sarah H; Bertolet, Marnie; Morris, Alison

    2014-04-30

    Several lung diseases are increasingly recognized as comorbidities with HIV; however, few data exist related to the spectrum of respiratory symptoms, diagnostic testing, and diagnoses in the current HIV era. The objective of the study is to determine the impact of HIV on prevalence and incidence of respiratory disease in the current era of effective antiretroviral treatment. A pulmonary-specific questionnaire was administered yearly for three years to participants in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) and Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Adjusted prevalence ratios for respiratory symptoms, testing, or diagnoses and adjusted incidence rate ratios for diagnoses in HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected participants were determined. Risk factors for outcomes in HIV-infected individuals were modeled. Baseline pulmonary questionnaires were completed by 907 HIV-infected and 989 HIV-uninfected participants in the MACS cohort and by 1405 HIV-infected and 571 HIV-uninfected participants in the WIHS cohort. In MACS, dyspnea, cough, wheezing, sleep apnea, and incident chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were more common in HIV-infected participants. In WIHS, wheezing and sleep apnea were more common in HIV-infected participants. Smoking (MACS and WIHS) and greater body mass index (WIHS) were associated with more respiratory symptoms and diagnoses. While sputum studies, bronchoscopies, and chest computed tomography scans were more likely to be performed in HIV-infected participants, pulmonary function tests were no more common in HIV-infected individuals. Respiratory symptoms in HIV-infected individuals were associated with history of pneumonia, cardiovascular disease, or use of HAART. A diagnosis of asthma or COPD was associated with previous pneumonia. In these two cohorts, HIV is an independent risk factor for several respiratory symptoms and pulmonary diseases including COPD and sleep apnea. Despite a higher prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms

  12. Visual System Involvement in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigo, Alessandro; Calamuneri, Alessandro; Milardi, Demetrio; Mormina, Enricomaria; Rania, Laura; Postorino, Elisa; Marino, Silvia; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Anastasi, Giuseppe Pio; Ghilardi, Maria Felice; Aragona, Pasquale; Quartarone, Angelo; Gaeta, Michele

    2017-12-01

    Purpose To assess intracranial visual system changes of newly diagnosed Parkinson disease in drug-naïve patients. Materials and Methods Twenty patients with newly diagnosed Parkinson disease and 20 age-matched control subjects were recruited. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted imaging) was performed with a 3-T MR imager. White matter changes were assessed by exploring a white matter diffusion profile by means of diffusion-tensor imaging-based parameters and constrained spherical deconvolution-based connectivity analysis and by means of white matter voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Alterations in occipital gray matter were investigated by means of gray matter VBM. Morphologic analysis of the optic chiasm was based on manual measurement of regions of interest. Statistical testing included analysis of variance, t tests, and permutation tests. Results In the patients with Parkinson disease, significant alterations were found in optic radiation connectivity distribution, with decreased lateral geniculate nucleus V2 density (F, -8.28; P Parkinson disease and that the entire intracranial visual system can be involved. © RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  13. Fitness, daily activity and body composition in children with newly diagnosed, untreated asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahlkvist, S; Pedersen, S

    2009-01-01

    Background: Information about how the asthma disease affects the life style and health in children is sparse. Aim: To measure fitness, daily physical activity and body composition in children with newly diagnosed, untreated asthma and healthy controls, and to assess the association between...... the level of asthma control and these parameters. Methods: Daily physical activity measured using accelerometry, cardiovascular fitness and body composition (per cent fat, per cent lean tissue and bone mineral density) were measured in 57 children with newly diagnosed, untreated asthma and in 157 healthy...... fitness and daytime spent in intensive activity. Overweight children are physically less active than normal weight children....

  14. Socioeconomic disadvantage increasing risk for depression among recently diagnosed HIV patients in an urban area in Brazil: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomoto, Silmara Harumi; Longhi, Renata Marrona Praça; de Barros, Bruna Paes; Croda, Julio; Ziff, Edward Benjamin; Castelon Konkiewitz, Elisabete

    2015-01-01

    Depression is the most common psychiatric co-morbidity among people living with HIV (PLHIV), with prevalence rates ranging from 25% to 36%. Depression impacts negatively upon adherence and response to combined antiretroviral therapy (CART) and the transmission of HIV infection through increased sexually risky behavior. This cross-sectional study presents data from a reference HIV-outpatient service in Dourados (Brazil) that evaluated the association between depressive symptoms, health-related quality of life, and clinical, socioeconomic, and demographic factors in newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS patients. Using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the prevalence of depressive symptoms was 61% with a predominance of self-deprecating and cognitive-affective factors. Depressive symptoms were associated with lower income (p=0.019) and disadvantaged social class (p=0.005). Poorer quality of life was related to depressive symptoms (pmediating the risk of depression and poor quality of life of PLHIV. Possible explanations for this effect are discussed, including the possible role of stigma.

  15. Increased adolescent HIV testing with a hybrid mobile strategy in Uganda and Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadede, Kevin; Ruel, Theodore; Kabami, Jane; Ssemmondo, Emmanuel; Sang, Norton; Kwarisiima, Dalsone; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Cohen, Craig R; Liegler, Teri; Clark, Tamara D; Charlebois, Edwin D; Petersen, Maya L; Kamya, Moses R; Havlir, Diane V; Chamie, Gabriel

    2016-09-10

    We sought to increase adolescent HIV testing across rural communities in east Africa and identify predictors of undiagnosed HIV. Hybrid mobile testing. We enumerated 116 326 adolescents (10-24 years) in 32 communities of Uganda and Kenya ( NCT01864603): 98 694 (85%) reported stable (≥6 months of prior year) residence. In each community we performed hybrid testing: 2-week multidisease community health campaign that included HIV testing, followed by home-based testing of community health campaign nonparticipants. We measured adolescent HIV testing coverage and prevalence, and determined predictors of newly diagnosed HIV among HIV-infected adolescents using multivariable logistic regression. A total of 86 421 (88%) stable adolescents tested for HIV; coverage was 86, 90, and 88% in early (10-14), mid (15-17), and late (18-24) adolescents, respectively. Self-reported prior testing was 9, 26, and 55% in early, mid, and late adolescents tested, respectively. HIV prevalence among adolescents tested was 1.6 and 0.6% in Ugandan women and men, and 7.1 and 1.5% in Kenyan women and men, respectively. Prevalence increased in mid-adolescence for women and late adolescence for men. Among HIV-infected adolescents, 58% reported newly diagnosed HIV. In multivariate analysis of HIV-infected adolescents, predictors of newly diagnosed HIV included male sex [odds ratio (OR) = 1.97 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.42-2.73)], Ugandan residence [OR = 2.63 (95% CI: 2.08-3.31)], and single status [OR = 1.62 (95% CI: 1.23-2.14) vs. married)]. The SEARCH hybrid strategy tested 88% of stable adolescents for HIV, a substantial increase over the 28% reporting prior testing. The majority (57%) of HIV-infected adolescents were new diagnoses. Mobile HIV testing for adults should be leveraged to reach adolescents for HIV treatment and prevention.

  16. Latent tuberculosis in HIV positive, diagnosed by the M. tuberculosis specific interferon-gamma test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock, Inger; Ruhwald, Morten; Lundgren, Bettina

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although tuberculosis (TB) is a minor problem in Denmark, severe and complicated cases occur in HIV positive. Since the new M. tuberculosis specific test for latent TB, the QuantiFERON-TB In-Tube test (QFT-IT) became available the patients in our clinic have been screened...

  17. Clinical Prediction Model for Time in Therapeutic Range While on Warfarin in Newly Diagnosed Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brent A; Evans, Michael A; Honushefsky, Ashley M; Berger, Peter B

    2017-10-12

    Though warfarin has historically been the primary oral anticoagulant for stroke prevention in newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation (AF), several new direct oral anticoagulants may be preferred when anticoagulation control with warfarin is expected to be poor. This study developed a prediction model for time in therapeutic range (TTR) among newly diagnosed AF patients on newly initiated warfarin as a tool to assist decision making between warfarin and direct oral anticoagulants. This electronic medical record-based, retrospective study included newly diagnosed, nonvalvular AF patients with no recent warfarin exposure receiving primary care services through a large healthcare system in rural Pennsylvania. TTR was estimated as the percentage of time international normalized ratio measurements were between 2.0 and 3.0 during the first year following warfarin initiation. Candidate predictors of TTR were chosen from data elements collected during usual clinical care. A TTR prediction model was developed and temporally validated and its predictive performance was compared with the SAMe-TT 2 R 2 score (sex, age, medical history, treatment, tobacco, race) using R 2 and c-statistics. A total of 7877 newly diagnosed AF patients met study inclusion criteria. Median (interquartile range) TTR within the first year of starting warfarin was 51% (32, 67). Of 85 candidate predictors evaluated, 15 were included in the final validated model with an R 2 of 15.4%. The proposed model showed better predictive performance than the SAMe-TT 2 R 2 score ( R 2 =3.0%). The proposed prediction model may assist decision making on the proper mode of oral anticoagulant among newly diagnosed AF patients. However, predicting TTR on warfarin remains challenging. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  18. Diagnosing Dementia—Positive Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Diagnosing Dementia—Positive Signs Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of ... easy, affordable blood test that could accurately diagnose Alzheimer's disease (AD)—even before symptoms began to show? Researchers ...

  19. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics and behaviours of individuals with newly diagnosed HIV infection: a multicentre study in north Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casari, S; Suligoi, B; Camoni, L; Pavan, A; Macchi, L; Capelli, M; Paraninfo, G; Compostella, S; Castelli, F; Carosi, G; Donato, F

    2012-12-01

    We aimed to investigate socio-demographic, clinical and epidemiological characteristics and behaviours of subjects with new HIV diagnosis. We carried out a multi-centre cross-sectional study comprising 17 infectious diseases units in the Lombardy Region, North Italy. All subjects with a first positive test for HIV infection examined in 2008-09 were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. 472 patients were enrolled (mean age 39.8 years, standard deviation [SD] 11.5), mostly males (78%), and born in Italy (77%). The most common routes of HIV transmission were heterosexual intercourse (49%) and sex among men who have sex with men (MSM) (40%). Never/sometimes use of a condom with occasional partners was associated with male gender, heterosexual transmission route, and with >10 sexual partners in their lifetime. 47% had previous HIV negative tests. Having had more than 2 previous HIV negative tests was associated with younger age, MSM transmission route, CD4+ lymphocyte count >350/microl and self-perception of risk. This study shows that there is a large portion of the adult population, especially heterosexual men aged 45 years and over, who are at high risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV infection and undergoing the HIV diagnostic test late, due to risk behaviours combined with a low perception of being at risk. Compared to people infected by heterosexual contacts, MSM show a greater awareness of being at risk of infection, but this knowledge has a low impact in reducing at-risk behaviours.

  20. MGMT inactivation and clinical response in newly diagnosed GBM patients treated with Gliadel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Rachel; Burger, Peter; Soudry, Ethan; Tyler, Betty; Chaichana, Kaisorn L; Weingart, Jon; Olivi, Alessandro; Gallia, Gary L; Sidransky, David; Quiñones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Ye, Xiaobu; Brem, Henry

    2015-12-01

    We examined the relationship between the O(6)-methylguanine-methyltransferase (MGMT) methylation status and clinical outcomes in newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients who were treated with Gliadel wafers (Eisai, Tokyo, Japan). MGMT promoter methylation has been associated with increased survival among patients with GBM who are treated with various alkylating agents. MGMT promoter methylation, in DNA from 122 of 160 newly diagnosed GBM patients treated with Gliadel, was determined by a quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction, and was correlated with overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS). The MGMT promoter was methylated in 40 (32.7%) of 122 patients. The median OS was 13.5 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 11.0-14.5) and RFS was 9.4 months (95% CI 7.8-10.2). After adjusting for age, Karnofsky performance score, extent of resection, temozolomide (TMZ) and radiation therapy (RT), the newly diagnosed GBM patients with MGMT methylation had a 15% reduced mortality risk, compared to patients with unmethylated MGMT (hazard ratio 0.85; 95% CI 0.56-1.31; p=0.46). The patients aged over 70 years with MGMT methylation had a significantly longer median OS of 13.5 months, compared to 7.6 months in patients with unmethylated MGMT (p=0.027). A significant difference was also found in older patients, with a median RFS of 13.1 versus 7.6 months for methylated and unmethylated MGMT groups, respectively (p=0.01). Methylation of the MGMT promoter in newly diagnosed GBM patients treated with Gliadel, RT and TMZ, was associated with significantly improved OS compared to the unmethylated population. In elderly patients, methylation of the MGMT promoter was associated with significantly better OS and RFS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Acute HIV Discovered During Routine HIV Screening With HIV Antigen-Antibody Combination Tests in 9 US Emergency Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Douglas A E; Giordano, Thomas P; Pasalar, Siavash; Jacobson, Kathleen R; Glick, Nancy R; Sha, Beverly E; Mammen, Priya E; Hunt, Bijou R; Todorovic, Tamara; Moreno-Walton, Lisa; Adomolga, Vincent; Feaster, Daniel J; Branson, Bernard M

    2018-01-05

    Newer combination HIV antigen-antibody tests allow detection of HIV sooner after infection than previous antibody-only immunoassays because, in addition to HIV-1 and -2 antibodies, they detect the HIV-1 p24 antigen, which appears before antibodies develop. We determine the yield of screening with HIV antigen-antibody tests and clinical presentations for new diagnoses of acute and established HIV infection across US emergency departments (EDs). This was a retrospective study of 9 EDs in 6 cities with HIV screening programs that integrated laboratory-based antigen-antibody tests between November 1, 2012, and December 31, 2015. Unique patients with newly diagnosed HIV infection were identified and classified as having either acute HIV infection or established HIV infection. Acute HIV infection was defined as a repeatedly reactive antigen-antibody test result, a negative HIV-1/HIV-2 antibody differentiation assay, or Western blot result, but detectable HIV ribonucleic acid (RNA); established HIV infection was defined as a repeatedly reactive antigen-antibody test result and a positive HIV-1/HIV-2 antibody differentiation assay or Western blot result. The primary outcomes were the number of new HIV diagnoses and proportion of patients with laboratory-defined acute HIV infection. Secondary outcomes compared reason for visit and the clinical presentation of acute HIV infection. In total, 214,524 patients were screened for HIV and 839 (0.4%) received a new diagnosis, of which 122 (14.5%) were acute HIV infection and 717 (85.5%) were established HIV infection. Compared with patients with established HIV infection, those with acute HIV infection were younger, had higher RNA and CD4 counts, and were more likely to have viral syndrome (41.8% versus 6.5%) or fever (14.3% versus 3.4%) as their reason for visit. Most patients with acute HIV infection displayed symptoms attributable to acute infection (median symptom count 5 [interquartile range 3 to 6]), with fever often

  2. Alterations found with computerized tomography in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruna, J.

    1989-01-01

    In 28 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients (insulin-independent), computerized tomography (CT) was used to determine the density of the pancreas and the kidneys, densities of the liver, spleen and blood in the abdominal aorta, and to investigate pathological changes in the tissues mentioned above. The results were correlated with laboratory findings. The following changes were found: decreased density of the pancreas (29.4 H) and the liver (49.1 H) and increased density of the spleen (56.3 H) and blood in the abdominal aorta (43.7 H). The decreased density of the pancreas appears to be connected with disorders of lipoprotein metabolism. The decreased liver density was related to increased energy intake by food and to overweight evaluated by Broc's index. Other CT findings in the newly diagnosed type 2 diabetics (changes in the size of the pancreas, and kidneys, kidney cysts, nephrolithiasis, sclerotic plaques on aorta) were not significant. (author). 2 tabs., 11 refs

  3. Radiological differences between HIV-positive and HIV-negative children with cholesteatoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, J K; Fagan, J J; Wojno, M; Manning, K; Harris, T

    2018-07-01

    HIV-positive children are possibly more prone to developing cholesteatoma. Chronic inflammation of the middle ear cleft may be more common in patients with HIV and this may predispose HIV-positive children to developing cholesteatoma. There are no studies that describe the radiological morphology of the middle ear cleft in HIV-positive compared to HIV-negative children with cholesteatoma. Compare the radiological differences of the middle ear cleft in HIV-positive and HIV-negative children with cholesteatoma. A retrospective, cross-sectional, observational analytical review of patients with cholesteatoma at our institute over a 6 year period. Forty patients were included in the study, 11 of whom had bilateral cholesteatoma and therefore 51 ears were eligible for our evaluation. HIV-positive patients had smaller (p=0.02) mastoid air cell systems (MACS). Forty percent of HIV-positive patients had sclerotic mastoids, whereas the rate was 3% in HIV-negative ears (p<0.02). Eighty-two percent of the HIV-positive patients had bilateral cholesteatoma compared to 7% of the control group (p<0.02). There was no difference between the 2 groups with regards to opacification of the middle ear cleft, bony erosion of middle ear structures, Eustachian tube obstruction or soft tissue occlusion of the post-nasal space. HIV-positive paediatric patients with cholesteatoma are more likely to have smaller, sclerotic mastoids compared to HIV-negative patients. They are significantly more likely to have bilateral cholesteatoma. This may have implications in terms of surveillance of HIV-positive children, as well as, an approach to management, recurrence and follow-up. HIV infection should be flagged as a risk factor for developing cholesteatoma. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Internet use among low-income persons recently diagnosed with HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayben, J K; Giordano, T P

    2007-10-01

    Patients are increasingly using the Internet to obtain health-related information, communicate with providers and access research. Use of the Internet to obtain health-related information by low-income patients recently diagnosed with HIV infection has not been examined. In 2005, we surveyed 126 low-income patients diagnosed with HIV infection within the last three years. Eighty-five percent of the patients wereInternet to access information about HIV, 52% had never used the Internet, 28% had never used it to obtain health-related information and only 18% had done so at least monthly for the last six months. Two-thirds of the population studied would need instruction on how to use the Internet. In multivariable regression, 2004 income > or =$15,000 predicted monthly Internet use to obtain health-related information. Older age, heterosexual intercourse as HIV risk factor and inadequate health literacy were independent predictors of needing instruction. The low-income population with HIV infection lags behind the general population in Internet access and may not benefit from Internet-dependent advances in health communication, including HIV-related interventions.

  5. Top Information Need Priorities of Older Adults Newly Diagnosed With Active Myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariman, Joseph D; Doorenbos, Ardith; Schepp, Karen G; Singhal, Seema; Berry, Donna L

    2015-01-01

    Prioritizing patients' information needs maximizes efficiency. This study examined the information sources and priorities in a sample of older adults newly diagnosed with symptomatic myeloma requiring immediate therapy. An association analysis of whether information needs were influenced by sociodemographic variables such as age, gender, education, marital status, and income was also conducted. The Information Needs Questionnaire (INQ) and an investigator-developed interview schedule were administered to 20 older adults diagnosed with symptomatic myeloma during a 30- to 45-minute semistructured interview. We found that older adults newly diagnosed with symptomatic myeloma have different priorities of information needs when compared with younger patients diagnosed with various types of cancer. The top three priorities related to treatment, prognosis, and self-care. Sociodemographic variables did not influence the priorities of information needs among older adults with symptomatic myeloma. The Internet, physicians, family, and friends were among the top sources of information. Advanced practitioners in oncology should support and identify interventions that can enhance patients' learning process from these sources. Well poised to assist patients in searching credible and reliable Internet sources, advanced practitioners in oncology can provide patient education about different treatments and the impact of such treatments on prognosis (e.g., overall survival and likelihood of cure).

  6. Ethical and Scientific Issues Surrounding Solid Organ Transplantation in Hiv-Positive Patients: Absence of Evidence Is Not Evidence of Absence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Christie

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available End-stage liver disease is emerging as a leading cause of death among HIV-positive patients. Historically, an HIV diagnosis was a contraindication for a liver transplant; however, because of the efficacy of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, HIV-positive patients have one-year, two-year, and three-year post-transplantation survival rates similar to that of HIV-negative patients. Based on this evidence, HIV-positive patients are now considered eligible for transplantation. However, newly emerging guidelines include the stipulation that HIV-positive patients must be on HAART to be placed on a waiting list for transplantation. The purpose of the present paper is to evaluate the scientific and ethical probity of requiring HIV-positive patients to be on HAART as a condition for being on a liver transplant waiting list. It is argued that the emphasis should be placed on the probability of post-transplantation HAART tolerance, and that concerns about pretransplantation HAART tolerance are of secondary importance.

  7. Shared decision making in the management of children with newly diagnosed immune thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Carolyn E; Boydell, Katherine M; Stasiulis, Elaine; Blanchette, Victor S; Llewellyn-Thomas, Hilary; Birken, Catherine S; Breakey, Vicky R; Parkin, Patricia C

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to examine the treatment decision-making process for children hospitalized with newly diagnosed immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Using focus groups, we studied children with ITP, parents of children with ITP, and health care professionals, inquiring about participants' experience with decision support and decision making in newly diagnosed ITP. Data were examined using thematic analysis. Themes that emerged from children were feelings of "anxiety, fear, and confusion"; the need to "understand information"; and "treatment choice," the experience of which was age dependent. For parents, "anxiety, fear, and confusion" was a dominant theme; "treatment choice" revealed that participants felt directed toward intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) for initial treatment. For health care professionals, "comfort level" highlighted factors contributing to professionals' comfort with offering options; "assumptions" were made about parental desire for participation in shared decision making (SDM) and parental acceptance of treatment options; "providing information" was informative regarding modes of facilitating SDM; and "treatment choice" revealed a discrepancy between current practice (directed toward IVIG) and the ideal of SDM. At our center, families of children with newly diagnosed ITP are not experiencing SDM. Our findings support the implementation of SDM to facilitate patient-centered care for the management of pediatric ITP.

  8. Correlation of serum prostate specific antigen levels and Tc-99m mdp bone scintigraphy in newly diagnosed patients with prostrate cancer (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauf, M.; Khan, S.M.; Khan, A.A.; Ahmad, S.; Knob, G.; Shah, S.; Khan, A.A.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the correlation between serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) level and bone scintigraphy in newly diagnosed untreated prostate cancer patients. The probability of a positive bone scan for metastases was analyzed for different threshold values of prostate specific antigen (PSA), acid phosphastase and alkaline phosphates. Fifty four newly diagnosed untreated prostate cancer patients (mean age, 67 years range, 41 to 94) were included in this study. In each case serum PSA, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase measurements were performed followed by whole body Technetium-99m MDP bone scan. The positive predictive value of serum PSA level for bone metastases at the threshold of 10 ng/ml was 70% whereas the same threshold level of PSA gave a negative predictive value of 100%. We used receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis to examine the power of predictive value of each serum test, in predicting the results of the bone scan. We also applied regression analysis for the assessment of correlation between the levels of tumor markers and the extent of bone pathology. It was concluded that bone scintigraphy seems to be unnecessary in evaluation of newly diagnosed untreated prostate cancer in patients with no clinical signs of bone pathology and serum PSA levels of equal to or less than 10 ng/ml. (author)

  9. PREVALENCE OF SLEEP DISORDERED BREATHING IN PATIENTS WITH NEWLY DIAGNOSED ACROMEGALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. A. Tsoy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obstructive sleep disordered breathing or obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is the most common respiratory impairment in acromegaly. OSA is bound up with heightened cardiovascular mortality. Aim: Тo study frequency, features, and structure of sleep disordered breathing in patients with newly diagnosed acromegaly and to elucidate the factors influencing their development. Materials and methods: 38 patients (10 men, 28 women, median age 53 (28-76 years, median body mass index (BMI 29 (19.9-44.3 kg/m² with newly diagnosed acromegaly were recruited into the study. All subjects underwent full polysomnography (Embla N7000, Natus, USA and Remlogica software (USA. Results: Sleep disordered breathing was found in 28 (73.7% patients. OSA was revealed in all cases, in 11 (39.3% subjects it was mixed. In 10 (35.7% patients OSA was mild, in 8 (28.6% moderate, and in 10 (35.7% severe. BMI (р<0.01, disease duration (р=0.003, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 level (р=0.04 were different in patients without OSA and patients with moderate-to-severe OSA. No difference was found in sex (р=0.4, age (р=0.064, and growth hormone level (р=0.6. Frequency of arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and other glucose metabolism impairments was the same in subjects without OSA and with severe-to-moderate OSA. Conclusion: All patients with newly diagnosed acromegaly should undergo polysomnography. BMI, disease duration, and IGF-1 level are significant risk factors for OSA development. Correlation OSA with arterial hypertension and glucose metabolism impairments needs to be further investigated.

  10. Latent tuberculosis in HIV positive, diagnosed by the M. tuberculosis specific interferon-gamma test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock, Inger; Ruhwald, Morten; Lundgren, Bettina

    2006-01-01

    Although tuberculosis (TB) is a minor problem in Denmark, severe and complicated cases occur in HIV positive. Since the new M. tuberculosis specific test for latent TB, the QuantiFERON-TB In-Tube test (QFT-IT) became available the patients in our clinic have been screened for the presence of latent...

  11. Serum Lipids and Diabetic Retinopathy in Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetic Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahana Shermin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetic retinopathy is the commonest and usually the first observable vascular complication of diabetes mellitus. Along with hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia is a contributing factor for the occurrence of diabetic retinopathy. It is postulated that dyslipidaemia results in formation of hard exudate by increasing blood viscosity and altering the fibrinolytic system. A case control study was carried out in the department of Biochemistry, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka during the period of January 2006 to December 2007 to evaluate the serum lipid profile in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic subjects with diabetic retinopathy. Materials and Methods: Total 85 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic subjects were included in this study, 40 were cases having retinopathy and 45 were age and sex matched controls without retinopathy. Serum triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C were compared between cases and controls. Unpaired t-test and chi-square test were done between groups as tests of significance. Results: All the parameters of lipid profile showed dyslipidaemic trend both in cases and controls. In the cases TG was significantly higher and HDL-C was significantly lower than that of controls (p < 0.05 whereas no significant difference was found between cases and controls with respect to serum TC and LDL-C. Conclusion: It can be concluded that high TG and low HDL-C are associated with diabetic retinopathy in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.

  12. HIV screening among TB patients and co-trimoxazole preventive therapy for TB/HIV patients in Addis Ababa: facility based descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denegetu, Amenu Wesen; Dolamo, Bethabile Lovely

    2014-01-01

    Collaborative TB/HIV management is essential to ensure that HIV positive TB patients are identified and treated appropriately, and to prevent tuberculosis (TB) in HIV positive patients. The purpose of this study was to assess HIV case finding among TB patients and Co-trimoxazole Preventive Therapy (CPT) for HIV/TB patients in Addis Ababa. A descriptive cross-sectional, facility-based survey was conducted between June and July 2011. Data was collected by interviewing 834 TB patients from ten health facilities in Addis Ababa. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to summarize and analyze findings. The proportion of TB patients who (self reported) were offered for HIV test, tested for HIV and tested HIV positive during their anti-TB treatment follow-up were; 87.4%, 69.4% and 20.2%; respectively. Eighty seven HIV positive patients were identified, who knew their status before diagnosed for the current TB disease, bringing the cumulative prevalence of HIV among TB patients to 24.5%. Hence, the proportion of TB patients who knew their HIV status becomes 79.9%. The study revealed that 43.6% of those newly identified HIV positives during anti-TB treatment follow-up were actually treated with CPT. However, the commutative proportion of HIV positive TB patients who were ever treated with CPT was 54.4%; both those treated before the current TB disease and during anti-TB treatment follow-up. HIV case finding among TB patients and provision of CPT for TB/HIV co-infected patients needs boosting. Hence, routine offering of HIV test and provision of CPT for PLHIV should be strengthened in-line with the national guidelines.

  13. Knowledge and self-care practices regarding diabetes among newly diagnosed type 2 diabetics in Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Farzana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Levels of knowledge about diabetes mellitus (DM among newly diagnosed diabetics in Bangladesh are unknown. This study assessed the relationship between knowledge and practices among newly diagnosed type 2 DM patients. Methods Newly diagnosed adults with type 2 diabetes (N = 508 were selected from 19 healthcare centers. Patients’ knowledge and self-care practices were assessed via interviewer-administered questionnaires using a cross-sectional design. Knowledge questions were divided into basic and technical sections. Knowledge scores were categorized as poor (mean + 1 SD. Chi square testing and multivariate logistic regression were conducted to examine the relationship between diabetes-related knowledge and self-care practices. Results Approximately 16%, 66%, and 18% of respondents had good, average, and poor (GAP basic knowledge respectively and 10%, 78%, and 12% of respondents had GAP technical knowledge, about DM. About 90% of respondents from both basic and technical GAP did not test their blood glucose regularly; a significant relationship existed between basic knowledge and glucose monitoring. Technical knowledge and foot care were significantly related, though 81% with good technical knowledge and about 70% from average and poor groups did not take care of their feet. Approximately 85%, 71%, and 52% of the GAP technical knowledge groups, consumed betel nuts; a significant relationship existed between technical knowledge and consumption of betel nuts. Around 88%, 92%, and 98% of GAP technical knowledge groups failed to follow dietary advice from a diabetes educator. About 26%, 42%, and 51% of GAP basic and technical sometimes ate meals at a fixed time (p Conclusions Newly diagnosed type 2 diabetics had similar levels of basic and technical knowledge of DM. Health education and motivation should create positive changes in diabetes-control-related self-care practices.

  14. Late diagnosis of positive HIV serology in pregnancy incidentally discovered by the widespread appearance of Kaposi's sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, D B; Itoua, C; Angoi, V; Gbary, E; Nguessan, K L P; Iloki, H; Boni, S

    2015-01-01

    The authors report a case of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) found in a pregnant woman. On discovery, the condition had spread throughout her body as is characteristic in some cases of individuals with HIV-positive serology. She was unaware of her HIV positive status. Her HIV infection had been diagnosed at the same time as KS at her last prenatal consultation. The newborn was delivered by an uncomplicated cesarean section. Appropriate treatment and multidisciplinary management after childbirth resulted in complete remission.

  15. Comparative Survival in Patients With Postresection Recurrent Versus Newly Diagnosed Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Treated With Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Xuwei; Xu Luying; Wang Li; Hayman, James A.; Chang, Andrew C.; Pickens, Allan; Cease, Kemp B.; Orringer, Mark B.; Kong, F.-M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the survival of postresection recurrent vs. newly diagnosed non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. Methods and Materials: The study population consisted of 661 consecutive patients with NSCLC registered in the radiation oncology databases at two medical centers in the United States between 1992 and 2004. Of the 661 patients, 54 had postresection recurrent NSCLC and 607 had newly diagnosed NSCLC. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression models were used for the survival analyses. Results: The distribution of relevant clinical factors between these two groups was similar. The median survival time and 5-year overall survival rates were 19.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.9-25.7) and 14.8% (95% confidence interval, 5.4-24.2%) vs. 12.2 months (95% CI, 10.8-13.6) and 11.0% (95% CI, 8.5-13.5%) for recurrent vs. newly diagnosed patients, respectively (p = .037). For Stage I-III patients, no significant difference was observed in the 5-year overall survival (p = .297) or progression-free survival (p = .935) between recurrent and newly diagnosed patients. For the 46 patients with Stage I-III recurrent disease, multivariate analysis showed that chemotherapy was a significant prognostic factor for 5-year progression-free survival (hazard ratio, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.224-0.914; p = .027). Conclusion: Our institutional data have shown that patients with postresection recurrent NSCLC achieved survival comparable to that of newly diagnosed NSCLC patients when they were both treated with radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. These findings suggest that patients with postresection recurrent NSCLC should be treated as aggressively as those with newly diagnosed disease.

  16. Aendringer i immunstatus blandt nydiagnosticerede hiv-inficerede i Danmark 1995-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høegh, Simon; Lohse, Nicolai; Hansen, Ann-Brit Eg

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The incidence of new HIV diagnoses in Denmark has remained stable since 1991, but it has increased among the subgroup of homosexual men in recent years. This may reflect an actual increase in newly infected, e.g. as a result of increased risk behaviour, or it may reflect increased HIV....... MATERIALS AND METHODS: Observational study based on the Danish HIV Cohort Study, which includes all adults seen at Danish HIV clinics since 1995. RESULTS: From 2000 to 2004 the number of newly-infected homosexual men increased (from 69 to 123), particularly in persons under 30 years (from 5 to 42......). The median CD4 cell count at the time of diagnosis increased in this group (median 19.1 cells/microL per year [95% CI: 3.7-11.3]), while it remained stable among heterosexually infected. The number of newly-diagnosed homosexually infected under 30 years with a CD4 cell count over 400 cells/microL increased...

  17. Time perspective and weight management behaviors in newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes: a mediational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Peter A; Fong, Geoffrey T; Cheng, Alice Y

    2012-12-01

    The primary objective of the current study was to examine the extent to which domain-specific time perspective predicts weight management behaviors (dietary behavior and physical activity) among those newly diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes. A secondary objective was to test potential mediators of the hypothesized effect (behavioral intention, self-efficacy and control beliefs). A total of 204 adults newly diagnosed (≤6 months) with Type 2 diabetes participated in the study, which included a baseline assessment of domain-general and domain-specific time perspective, as well as strength of intention to perform two weight-management behaviors (dietary choice and physical activity); both weight-management behaviors were assessed again at 6 month follow-up. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed a prospective association between domain-specific time perspective and uptake of weight management behaviors. Individuals with newly diagnosed T2DM possessing a future-oriented time perspective reported making less frequent fatty food choices and greater increases in physical activity over the 6-month follow-up interval. These effects were selectively mediated by intention strength, and not competing social cognitive variables. For both behaviors, the total effects and meditational models were robust to adjustments for demographics, body composition and disease variables. A future-oriented time perspective is prospectively associated with superior uptake of weight management behaviors among those with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes. The facilitating effect of future-oriented thinking appears to occur via enhanced strength of intentions to perform weight management behaviors.

  18. Leucocyte Telomere Shortening in relation to Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhelong Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to investigate the association between oxidative stress and telomere length shortening in the comorbid depression and diabetes. Therefore, 71 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2D and 52 subjects with normal glycemic level (control, Ctrl were enrolled. Depressive status was identified with the Depression Subscale of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D. Leukocyte telomere length ratio (T/S ratio was determined with quantitative PCR. Oxidative stress status was evaluated with 8-hydroxy-desoxyguanosine (8-OHdG assay kit. Some other biochemical blood testing was also performed. The data showed that T2D patients had higher proportion of depression evaluated by the HADS-D (x2=4.196, P=0.041. T/S ratio was significantly negatively correlated with 8-OHdG, HADS-D, age, HbA1c, FPG, and HOMA-IR. In addition, HADS-D was significantly positively correlated with HbA1c, FPG, HOMA-IR, and 8-OHdG. Both HADS-D and 8-OHdG were the major independent predictors for T/S ratio. This study indicates that oxidative stress contributes to both telomere length shortening and depression development in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients, while in depression status, some other mechanisms besides oxidative stress may also affect the telomere length.

  19. Asymmetric Dimethylarginine Plasma Levels and Endothelial Function in Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Perticone

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available It is now well established that major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD impact upon endothelial function by decreasing nitric oxide (NO bioavailability. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA, an endogenous analog of l-arginine, is able to inhibit the activity of endothelial-NO synthase, promoting endothelial dysfunction. Type 2 diabetes (T2D is characterized by a reduced endothelium-dependent vasodilation and increased ADMA levels and ADMA is strongly associated with micro- and macrovascular diabetic complications. However, there are not a lot of data about the role of ADMA on endothelial function in newly diagnosed T2D patients without cardiovascular (CV complications. For this aim, we have enrolled forty-five newly diagnosed T2D patients, evaluated by a oral glucose tolerance test, and thirty normal subjects. Endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilatation was investigated by intra-arterial infusion of increasing doses of acetylcholine (ACh and sodium nitroprusside. ADMA was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and insulin resistance (IR by HOMA. Newly diagnosed T2D patients showed higher ADMA and l-arginine mean values in comparison with normal subjects and a significantly reduced ACh-stimulated forearm blood flow (FBF. In T2D patients FBF was significantly and inversely correlated with ADMA (r = −0.524, p < 0.0001 and in a multivariate regression analysis, ADMA resulted the stronger predictor of FBF, explaining the 27.5% of variability (p < 0.0001. In conclusion, ADMA was strongly related to endothelial dysfunction also in patients with newly diagnosed T2D, without clinically manifest vascular complications. This field is of great interest for understanding the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of diabetic disease and its CV complications.

  20. Limited role for extended maintenance temozolomide for newly diagnosed glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramatzki, Dorothee; Kickingereder, Philipp; Hentschel, Bettina; Felsberg, Jörg; Herrlinger, Ulrich; Schackert, Gabriele; Tonn, Jörg-Christian; Westphal, Manfred; Sabel, Michael; Schlegel, Uwe; Wick, Wolfgang; Pietsch, Torsten; Reifenberger, Guido; Loeffler, Markus; Bendszus, Martin; Weller, Michael

    2017-04-11

    To explore an association with survival of modifying the current standard of care for patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma of surgery followed by radiotherapy plus concurrent and 6 cycles of maintenance temozolomide chemotherapy (TMZ/RT → TMZ) by extending TMZ beyond 6 cycles. The German Glioma Network cohort was screened for patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma who received TMZ/RT → TMZ and completed ≥6 cycles of maintenance chemotherapy without progression. Associations of clinical patient characteristics, molecular markers, and residual tumor determined by magnetic resonance imaging after 6 cycles of TMZ with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed with the log-rank test. Multivariate analyses using the Cox proportional hazards model were performed to assess associations of prolonged TMZ use with outcome. Sixty-one of 142 identified patients received at least 7 maintenance TMZ cycles (median 11, range 7-20). Patients with extended maintenance TMZ treatment had better PFS (20.5 months, 95% confidence interval [CI] 17.7-23.3, vs 17.2 months, 95% CI 10.2-24.2, p = 0.035) but not OS (32.6 months, 95% CI 28.9-36.4, vs 33.2 months, 95% CI 25.3-41.0, p = 0.126). However, there was no significant association of prolonged TMZ chemotherapy with PFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.8, 95% CI 0.4-1.6, p = 0.559) or OS (HR = 1.6, 95% CI 0.8-3.3, p = 0.218) adjusted for age, extent of resection, Karnofsky performance score, presence of residual tumor, O 6 -methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation status, or isocitrate dehydrogenase ( IDH ) mutation status. These data may not support the practice of prolonging maintenance TMZ chemotherapy beyond 6 cycles. This study provides Class III evidence that in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma, prolonged TMZ chemotherapy does not significantly increase PFS or OS. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  1. Use of surveillance data on HIV diagnoses with HIV-related symptoms to estimate the number of people living with undiagnosed HIV in need of antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodwick, Rebecca K; Nakagawa, Fumiyo; van Sighem, Ard; Sabin, Caroline A; Phillips, Andrew N

    2015-01-01

    It is important to have methods available to estimate the number of people who have undiagnosed HIV and are in need of antiretroviral therapy (ART). The method uses the concept that a predictable level of occurrence of AIDS or other HIV-related clinical symptoms which lead to presentation for care, and hence diagnosis of HIV, arises in undiagnosed people with a given CD4 count. The method requires surveillance data on numbers of new HIV diagnoses with HIV-related symptoms, and the CD4 count at diagnosis. The CD4 count-specific rate at which HIV-related symptoms develop are estimated from cohort data. 95% confidence intervals can be constructed using a simple simulation method. For example, if there were 13 HIV diagnoses with HIV-related symptoms made in one year with CD4 count at diagnosis between 150-199 cells/mm3, then since the CD4 count-specific rate of HIV-related symptoms is estimated as 0.216 per person-year, the estimated number of person years lived in people with undiagnosed HIV with CD4 count 150-199 cells/mm3 is 13/0.216 = 60 (95% confidence interval: 29-100), which is considered an estimate of the number of people living with undiagnosed HIV in this CD4 count stratum. The method is straightforward to implement within a short period once a surveillance system of all new HIV diagnoses, collecting data on HIV-related symptoms at diagnosis, is in place and is most suitable for estimating the number of undiagnosed people with CD4 count HIV-related symptoms at higher CD4 counts. A potential source of bias is under-diagnosis and under-reporting of diagnoses with HIV-related symptoms. Although this method has limitations as with all approaches, it is important for prompting increased efforts to identify undiagnosed people, particularly those with low CD4 count, and for informing levels of unmet need for ART.

  2. High mortality in HIV-infected children diagnosed in hospital underscores need for faster diagnostic turnaround time in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Anjuli; Slyker, Jennifer; Langat, Agnes; Inwani, Irene; Adhiambo, Judith; Benki-Nugent, Sarah; Tapia, Ken; Njuguna, Irene; Wamalwa, Dalton; John-Stewart, Grace

    2015-02-15

    Despite expanded programs for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT), HIV-infected infants may not be diagnosed until they are ill. Comparing HIV prevalence and outcomes in infants diagnosed in PMTCT programs to those in hospital settings may improve pediatric HIV diagnosis strategies. HIV-exposed infants turnaround time for tests were compared between PMTCT programs and hospital sites. Among the enrolled cohort, baseline characteristics, survival, and timing of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation were compared between infants diagnosed in PMTCT programs versus hospital. Among 1,923 HIV-exposed infants, HIV prevalence was higher among infants tested in hospital than PMTCT early infant diagnosis (EID) sites (41% vs. 11%, p 3 times as likely to die (HR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.3-7.6). Among HIV-exposed infants, hospital-based testing was more likely to detect an HIV-infected infant than PMTCT testing. Because young symptomatic infants diagnosed with HIV during hospitalization have very high mortality, every effort should be made to diagnose HIV infections before symptom onset. Systems to expedite turnaround time at PMTCT EID sites and to routinize inpatient pediatric HIV testing are necessary to improve pediatric HIV outcomes.

  3. Rate of new HIV diagnoses among Latinos living in Florida: disparities by country/region of birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Diana M; Trepka, Mary Jo; Fennie, Kristopher P; Maddox, Lorene M

    2015-01-01

    HIV incidence in the USA is three times higher for Latinos than for non-Latino whites. Latinos differ in educational attainment, poverty, insurance coverage, and health-care access, factors that affect HIV knowledge, risk behaviors, and testing. The purpose of this study was to identify differences in demographics, risk factors, and rate of new HIV diagnoses by birth country/region among Latinos in Florida to guide the targeting of primary and secondary prevention programs. Using Florida HIV/AIDS surveillance data from 2007 to 2011 and the American Community Survey, we compared demographic and risk factors, and calculated annual and five-year age-adjusted rates of new HIV diagnoses for 5801 Latinos by birth country/region. Compared to US-born Latinos, those born in Cuba and South America were significantly more likely to report the HIV transmission mode of MSM; those born in the Dominican Republic (DR) heterosexual transmission; and those born in Puerto Rico injection drug use. Mexican- and Central American-born Latinos were more likely to be diagnosed with AIDS within a month of HIV diagnosis. The rate of new HIV diagnoses among Latinos declined 33% from 2007 to 2011. HIV diagnoses over time decreased significantly for Latinos born in Mexico and increased nonsignificantly for those born in the DR. Although this study was limited to Latinos living in Florida, results suggest that tailoring HIV primary prevention and testing initiatives to specific Latino groups may be warranted.

  4. Evaluation of the 2007 WHO guideline to improve the diagnosis of tuberculosis in ambulatory HIV-positive adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koole, Olivier; Thai, Sopheak; Khun, Kim Eam; Pe, Reaksmey; van Griensven, Johan; Apers, Ludwig; Van den Ende, Jef; Mao, Tan Eang; Lynen, Lutgarde

    2011-04-06

    In 2007 WHO issued a guideline to improve the diagnosis of smear-negative and extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) in HIV-positive patients. This guideline relies heavily on the acceptance of HIV-testing and availability of chest X-rays. Cohort study of TB suspects in four tuberculosis (TB) clinics in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. We assessed the operational performance of the guideline, the incremental yield of investigations, and the diagnostic accuracy for smear-negative tuberculosis in HIV-positive patients using culture positivity as reference standard. 1,147 (68.9%) of 1,665 TB suspects presented with unknown HIV status, 1,124 (98.0%) agreed to be tested, 79 (7.0%) were HIV-positive. Compliance with the guideline for chest X-rays and sputum culture requests was 97.1% and 98.3% respectively. Only 35 of 79 HIV-positive patients (44.3%) with a chest X-ray suggestive of TB started TB treatment within 10 days. 105 of 442 HIV-positive TB suspects started TB treatment (56.2% smear-negative pulmonary TB (PTB), 28.6% smear-positive PTB, 15.2% EPTB). The median time to TB treatment initiation was 5 days (IQR: 2-13 days), ranging from 2 days (IQR: 1-11.5 days) for EPTB, over 2.5 days (IQR: 1-4 days) for smear-positive PTB to 9 days (IQR: 3-17 days) for smear-negative PTB. Among the 34 smear-negative TB patients with a confirmed diagnosis, the incremental yield of chest X-ray, clinical suspicion or abdominal ultrasound, and culture was 41.2%, 17.6% and 41.2% respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the algorithm to diagnose smear-negative TB in HIV-positive TB suspects was 58.8% (95%CI: 42.2%-73.6%) and 79.4% (95%CI: 74.8%-82.4%) respectively. Pending point-of-care rapid diagnostic tests for TB disease, diagnostic algorithms are needed. The diagnostic accuracy of the 2007 WHO guideline to diagnose smear-negative TB is acceptable. There is, however, reluctance to comply with the guideline in terms of immediate treatment initiation.

  5. The HIV care cascade in Switzerland: reaching the UNAIDS/WHO targets for patients diagnosed with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Philipp; Schmidt, Axel J; Cavassini, Matthias; Furrer, Hansjakob; Calmy, Alexandra; Battegay, Manuel; Bernasconi, Enos; Ledergerber, Bruno; Vernazza, Pietro

    2015-11-28

    To describe the HIV care cascade for Switzerland in the year 2012. Six levels were defined: (i) HIV-infected, (ii) HIV-diagnosed, (iii) linked to care, (iv) retained in care, (v) on antiretroviral treatment (ART), and (vi) with suppressed viral load. We used data from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS) complemented by a nationwide survey among SHCS physicians to estimate the number of HIV-patients not registered in the cohort. We also used Swiss ART sales data to estimate the number of patients treated outside the SHCS network. Based on the number of patients retained in care, we inferred the estimates for levels (i) to (iii) from previously published data. We estimate that (i) 15 200 HIV-infected individuals lived in Switzerland in 2012 (margins of uncertainty, 13 400-19 300). Of those, (ii) 12 300 (81%) were diagnosed, (iii) 12 200 (80%) linked, and (iv) 11 900 (79%) retained in care. Broadly based on SHCS network data, (v) 10 800 (71%) patients were receiving ART, and (vi) 10 400 (68%) had suppressed (Switzerland is substantially lower than previously reported, halving previous national HIV prevalence estimates to 0.2%. In Switzerland in 2012, 91% of patients in care were receiving ART, and 96% of patients on ART had suppressed viral load, meeting recent UNAIDS/WHO targets.

  6. Missed Testing Opportunities for HIV Screening and Early Diagnosis in an Urban Tertiary Care Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph DeRose

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Newark, New Jersey, is disproportionally affected by HIV with one of the highest prevalence rates in the United States. Rutgers New Jersey Medical School is a major healthcare provider to Newark’s underserved population and has implemented a HIV testing program that can diagnose and link newly diagnosed individuals to care. We conducted a retrospective chart review of all new patients seen in the Infectious Disease Practice from January 1, 2013, to December 31, 2014, to determine the proportion of patients with a missed testing opportunity (MTO (patients with a new HIV diagnosis with an encounter at the institution in the 1 year prior to their first appointment. 117 newly diagnosed patients were identified. 36 (31% had at least one MTO. A total of 34 (29% of newly diagnosed patients had AIDS at presentation and 17% had CD4 counts of 50 cells/μL (p value 0.5. The two most common locations of a missed testing opportunity were the hospital ED (45% and subspecialty clinics (37%. This study demonstrates that, even in a high prevalence institution with HIV counseling, testing, and referral service, HIV screening is lacking at multiple points of care and patients are missing opportunities for earlier diagnosis and treatment.

  7. [Analysis of HIV antibody positive cases in Peking University Hospital of Stomatology during 9 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jian-fen; Qiu, Juan; Shen, Shu-ming

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the prevalence and characteristics of HIV patients found in Peking University Hospital of Stomatology during 9 years, and provide management strategy for early diagnosis and control of HIV in Stomatology Hospital. A retrospective study of the HIV positive patients diagnosed by HIV antibody screening was carried out. The related information about these patients found in Peking University School of Stomatology during 2005-2013 was obtained from China Disease Control Information System. 68,562 patients accepted HIV antibody screening in Peking University Hospital of Stomatology during 2005-2013. Thirty one patients were found HIV antibody positive. The ratio of HIV antibody positive was about 0.045%, which was composed of 25 males and 6 females. 61.29% patients aged between 20-40 years, and their career was mainly commercial service with a education level of junior high school. The proportion of sexual route of transmission was about 74.91%, and 34.78% of them were male homosexuality. Most of the patients with HIV antibody positive were found in the out-patient clinic, especially in the department of oral mucosal diseases, accounting for 70.97%. HIV antibody positive rate in Peking University School of Stomatology was slightly lower than that in general hospitals. Medical staff should increase their awareness of AIDS prevention and control, for higher HIV risk departments, such as oral mucosal diseases and periodontal disease, efforts should be made to increase HIV screening, expand the scope of screening, and promote provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling.

  8. Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer: Comparison of Contrast-enhanced Spectral Mammography and Breast MR Imaging in the Evaluation of Extent of Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Felker, Stephanie A; Tekchandani, Leena; Thomas, Mariam; Gupta, Esha; Andrews-Tang, Denise; Roth, Antoinette; Sayre, James; Rahbar, Guita

    2017-11-01

    Purpose To compare the diagnostic performances of contrast material-enhanced spectral mammography and breast magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the detection of index and secondary cancers in women with newly diagnosed breast cancer by using histologic or imaging follow-up as the standard of reference. Materials and Methods This institutional review board-approved, HIPAA-compliant, retrospective study included 52 women who underwent breast MR imaging and contrast-enhanced spectral mammography for newly diagnosed unilateral breast cancer between March 2014 and October 2015. Of those 52 patients, 46 were referred for contrast-enhanced spectral mammography and targeted ultrasonography because they had additional suspicious lesions at MR imaging. In six of the 52 patients, breast cancer had been diagnosed at an outside institution. These patients were referred for contrast-enhanced spectral mammography and targeted US as part of diagnostic imaging. Images from contrast-enhanced spectral mammography were analyzed by two fellowship-trained breast imagers with 2.5 years of experience with contrast-enhanced spectral mammography. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value were calculated for both imaging modalities and compared by using the Bennett statistic. Results Fifty-two women with 120 breast lesions were included for analysis (mean age, 50 years; range, 29-73 years). Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography had similar sensitivity to MR imaging (94% [66 of 70 lesions] vs 99% [69 of 70 lesions]), a significantly higher PPV than MR imaging (93% [66 of 71 lesions] vs 60% [69 of 115 lesions]), and fewer false-positive findings than MR imaging (five vs 45) (P contrast-enhanced spectral mammography depicted 11 of the 11 secondary cancers (100%) and MR imaging depicted 10 (91%). Conclusion Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography is potentially as sensitive as MR imaging in the evaluation of extent of disease in newly diagnosed

  9. Linkage to HIV care, postpartum depression, and HIV-related stigma in newly diagnosed pregnant women living with HIV in Kenya: a longitudinal observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Turan, Bulent; Stringer, Kristi L; Onono, Maricianah; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Weiser, Sheri D; Cohen, Craig R; Turan, Janet M

    2014-01-01

    Background While studies have suggested that depression and HIV-related stigma may impede access to care, a growing body of literature also suggests that access to HIV care itself may help to decrease internalized HIV-related stigma and symptoms of depression in the general population of persons living with HIV. However, this has not been investigated in postpartum women living with HIV. Furthermore, linkage to care itself may have additional impacts on postpartum depression beyond the effect...

  10. A changing trend in the management of patients with newly diagnosed Crohn's disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Qasim, A

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic shift with rising incidence of Crohn\\'s disease (CD) has been reported in recent studies. AIMS: To determine disease behaviour and therapeutic interventions undertaken in newly diagnosed patients with CD. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with CD between January 2006 and June 2008 were included. Disease type, location, degree of involvement and type of therapeutic interventions were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 78 patients were included. Colonic, ileo-colonic, terminal ileal and isolated small bowel disease were present in 37, 27, 9 and 5 patients, respectively. Disease phenotype was inflammatory, stenosing and fistulising in 42, 30 and 6 patients, respectively. Surgery was required in 22 patients, including right hemicolectomy (n = 8), subtotal colectomy (n = 4), segmental colonic resection (n = 2), segmental small bowel resection (n = 2), appendectomy (n = 2) and perianal surgery (n = 4). Fourteen patients underwent surgery at the time of diagnosis. Laparoscopic surgery was performed in 14 patients. CONCLUSIONS: A significant proportion of newly diagnosed patients with CD underwent surgical intervention on their first admission to hospital. This may signify a changing trend in the management approach.

  11. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus in a group of patients newly diagnosed with active tuberculosis in Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia Costi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Porto Alegre is the Brazilian state capital with second highest incidence of tuberculosis (TB and the highest proportion of people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV among patients with TB. Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection increases the risk of anti-TB drug-induced hepatotoxicity, which may result in discontinuation of the therapy. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was (i to estimate prevalence of HCV and HIV in a group of patients newly diagnosed with active TB in a public reference hospital in Porto Alegre and (ii to compare demographic, behavioural, and clinical characteristics of patients in relation to their HCV infection status. METHODS One hundred and thirty-eight patients with TB were tested for anti-HCV antibody, HCV RNA, and anti-HIV1/2 antibody markers. HCV RNA from real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR-positive samples was submitted to reverse transcription and PCR amplification. The 5′ non-coding region of the HCV genome was sequenced, and genotypes of HCV isolates were determined. FINDINGS Anti-HCV antibody, HCV RNA, and anti-HIV antibodies were detected in 27 [20%; 95% confidence interval (CI, 13-26%], 17 (12%; 95% CI, 7-18%, and 34 (25%; 95% CI, 17-32% patients, respectively. HCV isolates belonged to genotypes 1 (n = 12 and 3 (n = 4. Some characteristics were significantly more frequent in patients infected with HCV. Among them, non-white individuals, alcoholics, users of illicit drugs, imprisoned individuals, and those with history of previous TB episode were more commonly infected with HCV (p < 0.05. MAIN CONCLUSIONS HCV screening, including detection of anti-HCV antibody and HCV RNA, will be important to improving the management of co-infected patients, given their increased risk of developing TB treatment-related hepatotoxicity.

  12. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus in a group of patients newly diagnosed with active tuberculosis in Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costi, Cintia; Grandi, Tarciana; Halon, Maria Laura; Silva, Márcia Susana Nunes; Silva, Cláudia Maria Dornelles da; Gregianini, Tatiana Schäffer; Possuelo, Lia Gonçalves; Jarczewski, Carla Adriane; Niel, Christian; Rossetti, Maria Lucia Rosa

    2017-04-01

    Porto Alegre is the Brazilian state capital with second highest incidence of tuberculosis (TB) and the highest proportion of people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among patients with TB. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection increases the risk of anti-TB drug-induced hepatotoxicity, which may result in discontinuation of the therapy. The aim of this study was (i) to estimate prevalence of HCV and HIV in a group of patients newly diagnosed with active TB in a public reference hospital in Porto Alegre and (ii) to compare demographic, behavioural, and clinical characteristics of patients in relation to their HCV infection status. One hundred and thirty-eight patients with TB were tested for anti-HCV antibody, HCV RNA, and anti-HIV1/2 antibody markers. HCV RNA from real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive samples was submitted to reverse transcription and PCR amplification. The 5' non-coding region of the HCV genome was sequenced, and genotypes of HCV isolates were determined. Anti-HCV antibody, HCV RNA, and anti-HIV antibodies were detected in 27 [20%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 13-26%], 17 (12%; 95% CI, 7-18%), and 34 (25%; 95% CI, 17-32%) patients, respectively. HCV isolates belonged to genotypes 1 (n = 12) and 3 (n = 4). Some characteristics were significantly more frequent in patients infected with HCV. Among them, non-white individuals, alcoholics, users of illicit drugs, imprisoned individuals, and those with history of previous TB episode were more commonly infected with HCV (p < 0.05). HCV screening, including detection of anti-HCV antibody and HCV RNA, will be important to improving the management of co-infected patients, given their increased risk of developing TB treatment-related hepatotoxicity.

  13. Anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis in an HIV positive patient: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo José Bellotto Monteiro

    Full Text Available We report on a case of a patient with HIV infection, diagnosed 18 months prior to the development of an anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis; this is probably the first report of such an association. A 30-year-old white man presented with elevation of serum creatinine (1.3 - 13.5 mg/dL within one month. At admission, the urinalysis showed proteinuria of 7.2 g/L and 8,000,000 erythrocytes/mL. Renal biopsy corresponded to a crescentic diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis mediated by anti-GBM, and serum testing for anti-GBM antibodies was positive; antinuclear antibodies (ANA and anti-neutrophilic cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA were also positive. The patient underwent hemodyalisis and was treated with plasmapheresis, cyclophosphamide and prednisone. The association described here is not casual, as crescentic glomerulonephritis is not common in HIV-positive patients, anti-GBM glomerulonephritis is rare and anti-GBM antibodies are frequently observed in HIV-positive subjects when compared to the overall population. Based on the current case and on the elevated frequency of the positivity for such antibodies in this group of patients, it is advisable to be aware of the eventual association between these two conditions and to promote an active search for anti-GBM antibodies and early diagnosis of eventual urinary abnormalities in HIV-positive subjects, considering the severity of anti-GBM glomerulonephritis.

  14. Brazilian dietary patterns and the dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet-relationship with metabolic syndrome and newly diagnosed diabetes in the ELSA-Brasil study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drehmer, Michele; Odegaard, Andrew O; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Duncan, Bruce B; Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; Matos, Sheila M Alvim; Molina, Maria Del Carmen B; Barreto, Sandhi M; Pereira, Mark A

    2017-01-01

    characterizing Brazilian fast foods and desserts, typically containing dairy products, with newly diagnosed diabetes, and for the DASH diet with metabolic syndrome, support previously demonstrated beneficial effects of dairy products in metabolism. The positive association with metabolic syndrome and newly diagnosed diabetes found for the pattern characterizing a typical Brazilian meal deserves further investigation, particularly since it is frequently accompanied by processed meat. Trial registration NCT02320461. Registered 18 December 2014.

  15. Recent infection testing algorithm (RITA) applied to new HIV diagnoses in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, 2009 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaizu, A; Murphy, G; Tosswill, J; DeAngelis, D; Charlett, A; Gill, O N; Ward, H; Lattimore, S; Simmons, Rd; Delpech, V

    2014-01-16

    In 2009, Public Health England (PHE) introduced the routine application of a recent infection testing algorithm (RITA) to new HIV diagnoses, where a positive RITA result indicates likely acquisition of infection in the previous six months. Laboratories submit serum specimens to PHE for testing using the HIV 1/2gO AxSYM assay modified for the determination of HIV antibody avidity. Results are classified according to avidity index and data on CD₄ count, antiretroviral treatment and the presence of an AIDS-defining illness. Between 2009 and 2011, 38.4% (6,966/18,134) of new HIV diagnoses in England, Wales and Northern Ireland were tested. Demographic characteristics of those tested were similar to all persons with diagnosed HIV. Overall, recent infection was 14.7% (1,022/6,966) and higher among men who have sex with men (MSM) (22.3%, 720/3,223) compared with heterosexual men and women (7.8%, 247/3,164). Higher proportions were among persons aged 15-24 years compared with those ≥50 years (MSM 31.2% (139/445) vs 13.6% (42/308); heterosexual men and women 17.3% (43/249) vs 6.2% (31/501)). Among heterosexual men and women, black Africans were least likely to have recent infection compared with whites (4.8%, 90/1,892 vs 13.3%, 97/728; adjusted odds ratio: 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4-0.9). Our results indicate evidence of ongoing HIV transmission during the study period, particularly among MSM.

  16. Early HIV Diagnosis Leads to Significantly Decreased Costs in the First 2 Years of HIV Care in an Urban Charity Hospital in New Orleans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Jason; Katz, Morgan; Pathmanathan, Ishani; Myers, Leann; Van Sickels, Nicholas; Seal, Paula Sereebutra; Richey, Lauren E

    We undertook a retrospective cohort study of patients with a positive HIV test in the emergency department who were then linked to care. Inpatient, outpatient, and emergency costs were collected for the first 2 years after HIV diagnosis. Fifty-six patients met the inclusion criteria; they were predominantly uninsured (73%) and African American (89%). The median total cost for a newly diagnosed patient over the first 2 years was US$36 808, driven predominantly by outpatient costs of US$17 512. Median inpatient and total costs were significantly different between the lowest (499 cells/mm 3 ) CD4 count categories (US$21 878 vs US$6607, P <.05; US$61 378 vs US$18 837, P <.05, respectively). Total costs were significantly different between viral load categories <100 000 HIV-RNA copies/mL and ≥100 000 HIV-RNA copies/mL (US$28 219 vs US$49 482, P <.05). Costs were significantly lower among patients diagnosed earlier in their disease. Decreased cost is another factor supporting early diagnosis and linkage to care for patients with HIV.

  17. Health-related quality of life of children with newly diagnosed specific learning disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karande, Sunil; Bhosrekar, Kirankumar; Kulkarni, Madhuri; Thakker, Arpita

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to measure health-related quality of life (HRQL) of children with newly diagnosed specific learning disability (SpLD) using the Child Health Questionnaire-Parent Form 50. We detected clinically significant deficits (effect size > or = -0.5) in 9 out of 12 domains: limitations in family activities, emotional impact on parents, social limitations as a result of emotional-behavioral problems, time impact on parents, general behavior, physical functioning, social limitations as a result of physical health, general health perceptions and mental health; and in both summary scores (psychosocial > physical). Multivariate analysis revealed having > or = 1 non-academic problem(s) (p or =1 non-academic problem(s) (p = 0.006) or first-born status (p = 0.035) predicted a poor physical summary score. HRQL is significantly compromised in children having newly diagnosed SpLD.

  18. Primary aldosteronism among newly diagnosed and untreated hypertensive patients in a Swedish primary care area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdahl, Christina; Bergenfelz, Anders; Isaksson, Anders; Nerbrand, Christina; Valdemarsson, Stig

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of primary aldosteronism (PA) in newly diagnosed and untreated hypertensive patients in primary care using the aldosterone/renin ratio (ARR), and to assess clinical and biochemical characteristics in patients with high and normal ARR. Patient survey study. A total of 200 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed and untreated hypertension from six primary health care centres in Sweden were included. ARR was calculated from serum aldosterone and plasma renin concentrations. The cut-off level for ARR was 65. Patients with an increased ARR were considered for confirmatory testing with the fludrocortisone suppression test (FST), followed by adrenal computed tomographic radiology (CT) and adrenal venous sampling (AVS). Of 200 patients, 36 patients had an ARR > 65. Of these 36 patients, 11 patients had an incomplete aldosterone inhibition during FST. Three patients were diagnosed with an aldosterone producing adenoma (APA) and eight with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia (BHA). Except for moderately lower level of P-K in patients with an ARR > 65 and in patients with PA, there were no biochemical or clinical differences found among hypertensive patients with PA compared with patients without PA. Eleven of 200 evaluated patients (5.5%) were considered to have PA. The diagnosis of PA should therefore be considered in newly diagnosed hypertensive subjects and screening for the diagnosis is warranted.

  19. Osteoarticular tuberculosis in an HIV-positive patient: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela de Moraes Rêgo Guedes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors report a case of a 38-year-old HIV-positive woman, with subcutaneous nodules on the thoracic region with 3 months of evolution. Clinical, laboratory, and epidemiological features were evaluated and associated with apparent damage to the T11-T12 vertebrae, identification by imaging tests, positivity in a polymerase chain reaction-based test, and reactivity to the Mantoux tuberculin skin test (PPD-RT 23. The patient was diagnosed with osteoarticular tuberculosis and received treatment for a year, and clinical cure was achieved.

  20. CD4 cell counts in adults with newly diagnosed HIV infection in Barbados Recuentos de células CD4 en adultos con diagnóstico reciente de infección por VIH en Barbados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna R. Kilaru

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the absolute CD4 cell counts of all the newly diagnosed HIV-infected persons who presented at the Ladymeade Reference Unit (LRU, which serves as the national HIV/AIDS referral and treatment center for the country of Barbados. DESIGN AND METHODS: The study group was comprised of HIV-infected adults who had been diagnosed with HIV infection and referred to the LRU between January and December 2002. All the patients referred to the LRU had a CD4 cell count done at their first visit to the unit, as part of the routine workup to assess their disease status and need for antiretroviral therapy. RESULTS: Of the 106 newly diagnosed adults, 62 of them (58.5% were males, who had a median age at presentation of 40 years; the other 44 of them (41.5% were females, and their median age at presentation was 36 years. Nearly one-fifth (18.2% of the females were aged 16-25 years, whereas only 8.1% of the males were in this age group. The majority (57.6% of the study group were diagnosed because they presented with an HIV/AIDS-related illness. Overall, the median CD4 cell count at the time of diagnosis was 183/µL; 52 of 103 adults (50.5% with a newly diagnosed HIV infection had a CD4 cell count that was OBJETIVO: Evaluar los recuentos de células CD4 de toda persona con un diagnóstico reciente de infección por VIH que acudió a la Unidad de Remisión Ladymeade (URL, que es el centro nacional de Barbados para la remisión y el tratamiento de casos de infección por VIH y sida. MÉTODOS: El grupo de estudio se compuso de adultos con infección por VIH en quienes el diagnóstico y la remisión a la URL se habían hecho entre enero y diciembre de 2002. A todos los pacientes remitidos a la URL se les había efectuado un recuento de células CD4 en su primera consulta a la unidad como parte de la serie habitual de pruebas realizadas para determinar en qué estado se encontraba la enfermedad y si había necesidad de administrar antirretrov

  1. Late presentation to HIV care despite good access to health services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darling, Katharine Ea; Hachfeld, Anna; Cavassini, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    infection rates are rising, and diagnosing HIV early in the course of infection remains a challenge. Late presentation to care in HIV refers to individuals newly presenting for HIV care with a CD4 count below 350 cells/µl or with an acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining event. Late...

  2. Evaluation of the 2007 WHO guideline to improve the diagnosis of tuberculosis in ambulatory HIV-positive adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Koole

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2007 WHO issued a guideline to improve the diagnosis of smear-negative and extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB in HIV-positive patients. This guideline relies heavily on the acceptance of HIV-testing and availability of chest X-rays. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Cohort study of TB suspects in four tuberculosis (TB clinics in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. We assessed the operational performance of the guideline, the incremental yield of investigations, and the diagnostic accuracy for smear-negative tuberculosis in HIV-positive patients using culture positivity as reference standard. 1,147 (68.9% of 1,665 TB suspects presented with unknown HIV status, 1,124 (98.0% agreed to be tested, 79 (7.0% were HIV-positive. Compliance with the guideline for chest X-rays and sputum culture requests was 97.1% and 98.3% respectively. Only 35 of 79 HIV-positive patients (44.3% with a chest X-ray suggestive of TB started TB treatment within 10 days. 105 of 442 HIV-positive TB suspects started TB treatment (56.2% smear-negative pulmonary TB (PTB, 28.6% smear-positive PTB, 15.2% EPTB. The median time to TB treatment initiation was 5 days (IQR: 2-13 days, ranging from 2 days (IQR: 1-11.5 days for EPTB, over 2.5 days (IQR: 1-4 days for smear-positive PTB to 9 days (IQR: 3-17 days for smear-negative PTB. Among the 34 smear-negative TB patients with a confirmed diagnosis, the incremental yield of chest X-ray, clinical suspicion or abdominal ultrasound, and culture was 41.2%, 17.6% and 41.2% respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the algorithm to diagnose smear-negative TB in HIV-positive TB suspects was 58.8% (95%CI: 42.2%-73.6% and 79.4% (95%CI: 74.8%-82.4% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Pending point-of-care rapid diagnostic tests for TB disease, diagnostic algorithms are needed. The diagnostic accuracy of the 2007 WHO guideline to diagnose smear-negative TB is acceptable. There is, however, reluctance to comply with the guideline in terms of immediate treatment

  3. Integrating HIV Surveillance and Field Services: Data Quality and Care Continuum in King County, Washington, 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Julia E; Katz, David A; Bennett, Amy B; Buskin, Susan E; Dombrowski, Julia C; Hawes, Stephen E; Golden, Matthew R

    2017-12-01

    To assess how integration of HIV surveillance and field services might influence surveillance data and linkage to care metrics. We used HIV surveillance and field services data from King County, Washington, to assess potential impact of misclassification of prior diagnoses on numbers of new diagnoses. The relationship between partner services and linkage to care was evaluated with multivariable log-binomial regression models. Of the 2842 people who entered the King County HIV Surveillance System in 2010 to 2015, 52% were newly diagnosed, 41% had a confirmed prior diagnosis in another state, and 7% had an unconfirmed prior diagnosis. Twelve percent of those classified as newly diagnosed for purposes of national HIV surveillance self-reported a prior HIV diagnosis that was unconfirmed. Partner services recipients were more likely than nonrecipients to link to care within 30 days (adjusted risk ratio [RR] = 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 1.18) and 90 days (adjusted RR = 1.07; 95% CI = 1.01, 1.14) of diagnosis. Integration of HIV surveillance, partner services, and care linkage efforts may improve the accuracy of HIV surveillance data and facilitate timely linkage to care.

  4. Chorioamnionitis in pregnancy: a comparative study of HIV-positive and HIV-negative parturients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocheke, Amaka N; Agaba, Patricia A; Imade, Godwin E; Silas, Olugbenga A; Ajetunmobi, Olanrewaju I; Echejoh, Godwins; Ekere, Clement; Sendht, Ayuba; Bitrus, James; Agaba, Emmanuel I; Sagay, Atiene S

    2016-03-01

    Chorioamnionitis is an important risk factor for vertical transmission of HIV/AIDS. We compared the prevalence and correlates of histologic chorioamnionitis (HCA) in HIV-positive and HIV-negative pregnant women. HIV-positive and -negative parturients were interviewed, examined and had their placentas examined histologically for chorioamnionitis. Data regarding HIV were also retrieved from their hospital records. A total of 298 parturients (150 HIV positive and 148 HIV negative) were enrolled. The two groups were similar in socio-demographic and obstetric parameters except for age. The prevalence of HCA was 57.1% in HIV-positive women and 61.6% in HIV-negative women (p = 0.43). HCA staging was associated with the number of intrapartum vaginal examinations in HIV-positive subjects and nulliparity in HIV-negative subjects. The number of intrapartum vaginal examinations and coitus in the week prior to delivery significantly affected the grade of HCA in HIV-negative subjects. The prevalence of HCA in both HIV-positive and HIV-negative is high. Most variables did not affect the occurrence of HCA in both groups studied except number of intrapartum examinations, coitus in the preceding one week and nulliparity, which were related to severity of the disease. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. [Clinico-epidemiological characteristics of HIV-positive immigrants: study of 371 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llenas-García, Jara; Rubio, Rafael; Hernando, Asunción; Fiorante, Silvana; Maseda, Diego; Matarranz, Mariano; Costa, José Ramón; Alonso, Beatriz; Pulido, Federico

    2012-10-01

    The number of HIV-positive immigrants have increased in Spain in the last few years, and now represent a significant proportion of the epidemic. Our objective is to describe the clinico-epidemiological characteristics of HIV-positive immigrants seen in a specialist unit in Madrid. Retrospective study. Every patient born in a country other than Spain and attended an HIV Unit in Madrid between 1992 and 2009 was included. Of the 371 patients included, 53.1% were Latin Americans, 24.5% Sub-Saharan Africans, and 22.4% others), and 60% were males. Immigrants represented 0.3% of new patients in 1992 and rose to 49.2% in 2009. The principal reason for HIV testing had been pregnancy/delivery among women (32.7%) and having a category-B disease among men (17.4%). Sexual transmission accounted for 92% of patients. Tuberculosis was the principal AIDS-diagnosing illness. Respectively 90%, 7.7%, 60%, 26.7%, 96% and 95% of patients had an IgG for HAV, HCV, Toxoplasma, Treponema, CMV and VZV. VHB-Ags+: 5.4%; PPD+: 17%. At least one syphilis episode was recorded in 62% of the men who have sex with men (MSM). Prevalence of HLA-B5701 was 6%, 0.9% and 3.8% in Caucasians, Amerindians and Afro-Americans, respectively. Immigrants represent a significant proportion of new HIV-positive patients. It is a very heterogeneous group according to their clinical and epidemiological characteristics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  6. Left ventricular functions in children with newly diagnosed Graves' disease. A single-center study from Upper Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metwalley, Kotb Abbass; Farghaly, Hekma Saad; Abdelhamid, Abdelrahman

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the left ventricular (LV) functions in a cohort of children with Graves' disease (GD). This is a cross-sectional case-control study. It included 36 children with GD and 36 healthy children matched for age and gender. Thyroid hormones (TSH, FT4, and FT3) and anti-thyroid autoantibodies [anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO), thyrotropin receptor (TRAbs), and thyroglobulin antibodies] were measured. Conventional and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) echocardiographies were used to assess left ventricular systolic and diastolic functions. LV mass index (LVMI) and myocardial performance index (MPI) were also measured. Compared to healthy children, conventional echocardiography of patients with GD revealed higher LVMI (P = 0.001) indicating LV hypertrophy but normal LV functions while TDI revealed lower Em/Am ratio indicating LV diastolic dysfunction (P = 0.001). Significant correlations were reported between FT4 with LVMI (P = 0.05), Em/Am (P = 0.01), and MPI (P = 0.01). In multivariate analysis, a positive correlation was identified between FT4 with MPI (OR = 1.17; 95% CI = 1.09-1.15; P = 0.001). Children with newly diagnosed GD may have significant subclinical changes in LV structure and function (diastolic and global). TDI is more sensitive than conventional Doppler in detecting LV dysfunction. These findings highlight the importance of early monitoring of children with GD for left ventricular mass index and diastolic function. What is Known: • There is an increased risk for cardiac abnormalities in children with Graves' disease (GD). • Limited studies assessed left ventricular function in patients with GD. What is New: • Children with newly diagnosed GD may have significant subclinical changes in left ventricular structure and functions. • Children with newly diagnosed GD should be monitored for left ventricular mass index and diastolic function.

  7. Acceptance of referral for partners by clients testing positive for human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netsanet F

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetene Netsanet,1 Ayalew Dessie21IMA World Health SuddHealth Multi Donor Trust Fund-Basic Package of Health Services Project, Juba, South Sudan; 2United States Agency for International Development, Private Health Sector Program, Abt Associates Inc, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaBackground: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive individuals who do not disclose their HIV status to their partners are more likely to present late for HIV and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS care than those who have disclosed their HIV status to their partners. A major area of challenge with regards to HIV counseling for clients is disclosure of their HIV status to their partners. The main methods of partner notification are patient referral, provider referral, contract referral, and outreach assistance. The emphasis on a plausible and comprehensive partner referral strategy for widespread positive case detection in resource-limited countries needs to be thought out and developed.Methods: A qualitative study was conducted among newly HIV-positive clients to identify partners for notification and acceptance of referral by their partners. Health service providers working in HIV testing and counseling clinics were also provided with semistructured questionnaires in order to assess their view towards partner notification strategies for clients testing positive for HIV.Results: Fifteen newly diagnosed HIV-positive clients were counseled to provide referral slips to their partners. All clients agreed and took the referral card. However, only eight were willing and actually provided the card to their partners. Five of the eight partners of clients who tested HIV-positive and who were provided with referral cards responded to the referral and were tested for HIV. Three were positive and two were negative. Nine of 11 counselors did not agree to requesting partner locator information from HIV-positive clients for contractual referral and/or outreach assistance. The findings

  8. The context of HIV risk behaviours among HIV-positive injection drug users in Viet Nam: Moving toward effective harm reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Duong

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injection drug users represent the largest proportion of all HIV reported cases in Viet Nam. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of risk and risk behaviours among HIV-positive injection drug users, and their experiences related to safe injection and safe sex practices. Methods This study used multiple qualitative methods in data collection including in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and participant observation with HIV-positive injection drug users. Results The informants described a change in the sharing practices among injection drug users towards more precautions and what was considered 'low risk sharing', like sharing among seroconcordant partners and borrowing rather than lending. However risky practices like re-use of injection equipment and 'syringe pulling' i.e. the use of left-over drugs in particular, were frequently described and observed. Needle and syringe distribution programmes were in place but carrying needles and syringes and particularly drugs could result in being arrested and fined. Fear of rejection and of loss of intimacy made disclosure difficult and was perceived as a major obstacle for condom use among recently diagnosed HIV infected individuals. Conclusion HIV-positive injection drug users continue to practice HIV risk behaviours. The anti-drug law and the police crack-down policy appeared as critical factors hampering ongoing prevention efforts with needle and syringe distribution programmes in Viet Nam. Drastic policy measures are needed to reduce the very high HIV prevalence among injection drug users.

  9. Emotional suppression and depressive symptoms in women newly diagnosed with early breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingyan; Yang, Yanjie; He, Jincai; Yi, Jinyao; Wang, Yuping; Zhang, Jinqiang; Zhu, Xiongzhao

    2015-10-24

    Patients with breast cancer usually present varying levels of depressive symptoms. Emotional suppression, as a coping style, refers to an individual's ability to consciously control expression of negative emotions. Thus, emotional suppression is an important psychological factor related to depressive symptoms in patients with breast cancer. It has long been considered that compared to European and American women, Chinese women are more likely to ascribe to norms of negative emotion control for smooth social interaction. However, there is paucity of research focusing on emotional suppression among Chinese women with breast cancer. Thus the aims of the current study were (1) to investigate the incidence of depressive symptoms in women newly diagnosed with early breast cancer in Mainland China, and (2) to examine the relationships between emotional suppression and depressive symptoms in these patients. The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and the Chinese version of the Courtauld Emotional Control Scale (CECS) were used to assess the level of depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms and emotional suppression respectively in 247 women with early breast cancer and 362 healthy women. Analyses of variance were conducted to investigate group differences on depressive symptoms and emotional suppression. Bivariate correlations and Hierarchical regression analyses were performed to examine the effect of emotional suppression on depressive symptoms in participants after controlling the impact of group membership and anxiety level. (1) The incidence rates of clinical and severe depressive symptoms in patients were 36.4 and 36.0 % respectively. (2) Patients scored significantly higher than healthy women on CECS. (3) The scores on CECS were significantly associated with the total CES-D scores in all participants; Anger suppression significantly predicted the total CES-D scores. The majority of women newly diagnosed with

  10. Hypoactivation of reward motivational system in patients with newly diagnosed hypertension grade I-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftanas, L I; Brak, I V; Gilinskaya, O M; Korenek, V V; Pavlov, S V; Reva, N V

    2014-08-01

    In patients with newly diagnosed untreated grade I-II hypertension, EEG oscillations were recorded under conditions activation of the two basic motivational systems, defensive motivational system and positive reinforcement system, evoked by recall of personally meaningful emotional events. The 64-channel EEG and cardiovascular reactivity (beat-by-beat technology) were simultaneously recorded. At rest, hypertensive patients had significantly reduced platelet serotonin concentrations in comparison with healthy individuals. The patients experiencing emotional activation were characterized by significantly lower intensity of positive emotions associated with more pronounced suppression of EEG activity in the delta (2-4 Hz) and theta (ranges of frequency 4-6 and 6-8 Hz) oscillators in the parieto-occipital cortex (zones P and PO) in both hemispheres of the brain. The findings attest to insufficient function of the brain serotonin system and hypoactivation of the reward/reinforcement system in patients with primary hypertension.

  11. {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT for systemic staging of patients with newly diagnosed ER-positive and HER2-positive breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulaner, Gary A.; Castillo, Raychel [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Weill Cornell Medical College, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Wills, Jonathan [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Information Systems, New York, NY (United States); Goenen, Mithat; Goldman, Debra A. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, New York, NY (United States)

    2017-08-15

    This study assesses {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT for patients with newly diagnosed estrogen receptor-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor-negative (ER+/HER2-) and human epidermal growth factor receptor-positive (HER2+) breast cancer. In this Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective study, our Healthcare Information System was screened for patients with ER+/HER2- and HER2+ breast cancer who underwent {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT prior to systemic or radiation therapy. The initial stage was determined from mammography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and/or surgery.{sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT was evaluated to identify unsuspected extra-axillary regional nodal and distant metastases. The proportion of patients upstaged overall and stratified by stage and receptor phenotypes was calculated along with confidence intervals (CI). A total of 238 patients with ER+/HER2- and 245 patients with HER2+ who met inclusion criteria were evaluated. For patients with ER+/HER2-breast cancer, {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT revealed unsuspected distant metastases in 3/71 (4%) initial stage IIA, 13/95 (14%) stage IIB, and 15/57 (26%) stage III. For patients with HER2+ breast cancer, {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT revealed unsuspected distant metastases in 3/72 (4%) initial stage IIA, 13/93 (14%) stage IIB, and 13/59 (22%) stage III. The overall upstaging rate for IIB was 14% (95% confidence interval (CI): 9-20%). {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT revealed distant metastases in 14% (95% CI: 9-20%) of patients with stage IIB ER+/HER2- and HER2+ breast cancer, which is similar to upstaging rates previously seen in patients with stage IIB triple-negative breast cancer (15%, 95% CI: 9-24%). The detection of unsuspected distant metastases in these patients alters treatment and prognosis. NCCN guidelines should consider adding patients with stage IIB breast cancer for consideration of systemic staging with {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT at the time of initial diagnosis. (orig.)

  12. Using two on-going HIV studies to obtain clinical data from before, during and after pregnancy for HIV-positive women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huntington Susie E

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The UK Collaborative HIV Cohort (UK CHIC is an observational study that collates data on HIV-positive adults accessing HIV clinical care at (currently 13 large clinics in the UK but does not collect pregnancy specific data. The National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood (NSHPC collates data on HIV-positive women receiving antenatal care from every maternity unit in the UK and Ireland. Both studies collate pseudonymised data and neither dataset contains unique patient identifiers. A methodology was developed to find and match records for women reported to both studies thereby obtaining clinical and treatment data on pregnant HIV-positive women not available from either dataset alone. Results Women in UK CHIC receiving HIV-clinical care in 1996–2009, were found in the NSHPC dataset by initially ‘linking’ records with identical date-of-birth, linked records were then accepted as a genuine ‘match’, if they had further matching fields including CD4 test date. In total, 2063 women were found in both datasets, representing 23.1% of HIV-positive women with a pregnancy in the UK (n = 8932. Clinical data was available in UK CHIC following most pregnancies (92.0%, 2471/2685 pregnancies starting before 2009. There was bias towards matching women with repeat pregnancies (35.9% (741/2063 of women found in both datasets had a repeat pregnancy compared to 21.9% (1502/6869 of women in NSHPC only and matching women HIV diagnosed before their first reported pregnancy (54.8% (1131/2063 compared to 47.7% (3278/6869, respectively. Conclusions Through the use of demographic data and clinical dates, records from two independent studies were successfully matched, providing data not available from either study alone.

  13. Gene expression profiling for molecular classification of multiple myeloma in newly diagnosed patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broyl, Annemiek; Hose, Dirk; Lokhorst, Henk; de Knegt, Yvonne; Peeters, Justine; Jauch, Anna; Bertsch, Uta; Buijs, Arjan; Stevens-Kroef, Marian; Beverloo, H. Berna; Vellenga, Edo; Zweegman, Sonja; Kersten, Marie-Josée; van der Holt, Bronno; el Jarari, Laila; Mulligan, George; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; van Duin, Mark; Sonneveld, Pieter

    2010-01-01

    To identify molecularly defined subgroups in multiple myeloma, gene expression profiling was performed on purified CD138(+) plasma cells of 320 newly diagnosed myeloma patients included in the Dutch-Belgian/German HOVON-65/GMMG-HD4 trial. Hierarchical clustering identified 10 subgroups; 6

  14. Effect of Linezolid on Hematologic Recovery in Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients Following Induction Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedved, Adrienne N; DeFrates, Sean R; Hladnik, Lindsay M; Stockerl-Goldstein, Keith E

    2016-10-01

    Assess the effects of linezolid on hematologic outcomes in newly diagnosed patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) following induction chemotherapy. Single-center, retrospective, observational, cohort study. Large, tertiary care academic medical center. A total of 225 patients ≥ 18 years admitted between December 2010 and 2013 with newly diagnosed AML were assessed for inclusion. Patients were identified through the use of ICD-9 codes and chemotherapy ordered via the computerized physician order entry system. Sixty-eight patients met inclusion criteria and were grouped into two arms based on antimicrobial treatment: LZD group (linezolid plus gram-negative antimicrobial, n=21) or control group (vancomycin or daptomycin plus gram-negative antimicrobial, n=47). The LZD group received linezolid ≥ 72 hours. The control group received vancomycin or daptomycin ≥ 72 hours. If patients switched extended gram-positive therapy, they were included in the LZD group as long as they had received ≥ 72 hours of linezolid. The primary end point of time to neutrophil recovery was not statistically different (28 days for LZD group vs 26 days for control group; p=0.675). The preplanned subgroup analysis of patients who received ≥ 14 days of linezolid demonstrated statistically similar median times to neutrophil recovery (29 days for LZD group vs 26 days for control group; p=0.487). Total duration of extended gram-positive antimicrobial therapy was significantly longer in the LZD group (27 days vs 16 days; plinezolid for extended gram-positive antimicrobial coverage following induction chemotherapy. This study provides new insight with a primary focus on the effects of hematologic outcomes when using linezolid in a well-defined acute leukemia population. Further study is warranted with larger populations to assess the potential adverse effects linezolid may have in patients with acute leukemia. © 2016 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  15. Cost-effectiveness estimates for antenatal HIV testing in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozenbaum, M. H.; Verweel, G.; Folkerts, D. K. F.; Dronkers, F.; van den Hoek, J. A. R.; Hartwig, N. G.; de Groot, R.; Postma, M. J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides an estimation of the lifetime health-care cost of HIV-infected children and an update of the cost-effectiveness of universal HIV-screening of pregnant women in Amsterdam (The Netherlands). During 2003-2005, we collected data concerning the prevalence of newly diagnosed

  16. Healthcare Seeking Intention if Diagnosed with HIV Among Young MSM in Taiwan: A Theory-Based Comparison by Voluntary Counseling and Testing Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min-Jung; Huang, Jiun-Hau

    2018-05-28

    The number of HIV cases in Taiwan exceeded 30,000 in 2016. Per the UNAIDS 90-90-90 target, 81% of people living with HIV should receive medication. However, numerous previous studies focused on adherence rather than the initial healthcare seeking intention if diagnosed with HIV (HIV HSI). Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), anonymous online survey data were collected from December 2016 through February 2017 from 2709 young MSM (YMSM) ages 15-39. Multivariate logistic regression found the significant factors and strengths of associations with HIV HSI varied by their HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) experience. YMSM without VCT experience perceiving high support from salient others (AOR = 1.28) and high control under facilitating conditions (AOR = 2.73) had higher HIV HSI. YMSM with VCT experience perceiving high control under facilitating (AOR = 1.79) and constraining (AOR = 1.54) conditions had higher HIV HSI. Regardless of VCT experience, YMSM with positive attitudes toward positive healthcare seeking outcomes (AOR = 3.72-3.95) had highest HIV HSI, highlighting the importance of increasing positive outcome expectations in YMSM.

  17. Addressing Structural Barriers to HIV Care among Triply Diagnosed Adults: Project Bridge Oakland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Christina; Comfort, Megan; Lopez, Andrea M; Kral, Alex H; Murdoch, Owen; Lorvick, Jennifer

    2017-05-01

    People who are "triply diagnosed" with HIV, mental health issues, and substance-related disorders face tremendous barriers connecting to and remaining in HIV care. Authors of this article implemented Project Bridge Oakland (PBO), an intervention based on harm reduction and trauma-informed care, to help maintain continuity of care for triply diagnosed adults through cycles of criminal justice involvement. From August 2011 to December 2014, a clinical social worker and an HIV physician provided intensive case management for 19 clients living in Oakland, California. By working with clients across a multitude of community, clinic, and correctional spaces while maintaining a low threshold for services, the social worker was able to engage a severely marginalized population in HIV care. This article details the PBO strategies for assisting with a wide range of services needed for community stabilization, navigating criminal justice involvement, and establishing a therapeutic relationship through mundane practices such as eating and waiting for appointments. This article illustrates how programs aimed at stabilizing triply diagnosed clients in the community and connecting them to HIV care require coordination among providers, outreach to engage clients, ample time to work with them, and flexibility to account for the complexities of their day-to-day lives and experiences. © 2017 National Association of Social Workers.

  18. Accuracy of different thresholds for the anti-HIV avidity index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Galli

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance programs for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection are based on the reporting of newly diagnosed cases. In order to guarantee a more accurate estimate of the trends and behaviours of infected people, simple and reliable methods aimed at identifying recent (< 6 months HIV infections are needed. We evaluated the accuracy of the avidity index (AI of anti-HIV antibodies on 357 serum samples obtained from 127 subjects for whom an estimated date of seroconversion was calculated on the basis of the interval between the last negative and first positive anti-HIV test result.The ROC curve analysis performed at different thresholds of the AI showed that a cutoff of 0.80 (93.0% sensitivity and 98.5% specificity yields the best overall accuracy (95.8% and should be employed for surveillance purposes, whereas the application of the anti-HIV AI on individual cases is not recommended.

  19. HIV Incidence Estimates Using the Limiting Antigen Avidity EIA Assay at Testing Sites in Kiev City, Ukraine: 2013-2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Simmons

    Full Text Available To estimate HIV incidence and highlight the characteristics of persons at greatest risk of HIV in the Ukraine capital, Kiev.Residual samples from newly-diagnosed persons attending the Kiev City AIDS Centre were tested for evidence of recent HIV infection using an avidity assay. Questions on possible risk factors for HIV acquisition and testing history were introduced. All persons (≥16yrs presenting for an HIV test April'13-March'14 were included. Rates per 100,000 population were calculated using region-specific denominators.During the study period 6370 individuals tested for HIV. Of the 467 individuals newly-diagnosed with HIV, 21 had insufficient samples for LAg testing. Of the remaining 446, 39 (8.7% were classified as recent with an avidity index <1.5ODn, 10 were reclassified as long-standing as their viral load was <1000 copies/mL, resulting in 29 (6.5% recent HIV infections. The only independent predictor for a recent infection was probable route of exposure, with MSM more likely to present with a recent infection compared with heterosexual contact [Odds Ratio 8.86; 95%CI 2.65-29.60]. We estimated HIV incidence at 21.5 per 100,000 population, corresponding to 466 new infections. Using population estimates for MSM and PWID, incidence was estimated to be between 2289.6 and 6868.7/100,000 MSM, and 350.4 for PWID.A high proportion of persons newly-infected remain undiagnosed, with MSM disproportionally affected with one in four newly-HIV-diagnosed and one in three recently-HIV-infected. Our findings should be used for targeted public health interventions and health promotion.

  20. HIV Incidence Estimates Using the Limiting Antigen Avidity EIA Assay at Testing Sites in Kiev City, Ukraine: 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Ruth; Malyuta, Ruslan; Chentsova, Nelli; Karnets, Iryna; Murphy, Gary; Medoeva, Antonia; Kruglov, Yuri; Yurchenko, Alexander; Copas, Andrew; Porter, Kholoud

    2016-01-01

    To estimate HIV incidence and highlight the characteristics of persons at greatest risk of HIV in the Ukraine capital, Kiev. Residual samples from newly-diagnosed persons attending the Kiev City AIDS Centre were tested for evidence of recent HIV infection using an avidity assay. Questions on possible risk factors for HIV acquisition and testing history were introduced. All persons (≥16yrs) presenting for an HIV test April'13-March'14 were included. Rates per 100,000 population were calculated using region-specific denominators. During the study period 6370 individuals tested for HIV. Of the 467 individuals newly-diagnosed with HIV, 21 had insufficient samples for LAg testing. Of the remaining 446, 39 (8.7%) were classified as recent with an avidity index <1.5ODn, 10 were reclassified as long-standing as their viral load was <1000 copies/mL, resulting in 29 (6.5%) recent HIV infections. The only independent predictor for a recent infection was probable route of exposure, with MSM more likely to present with a recent infection compared with heterosexual contact [Odds Ratio 8.86; 95%CI 2.65-29.60]. We estimated HIV incidence at 21.5 per 100,000 population, corresponding to 466 new infections. Using population estimates for MSM and PWID, incidence was estimated to be between 2289.6 and 6868.7/100,000 MSM, and 350.4 for PWID. A high proportion of persons newly-infected remain undiagnosed, with MSM disproportionally affected with one in four newly-HIV-diagnosed and one in three recently-HIV-infected. Our findings should be used for targeted public health interventions and health promotion.

  1. HIV Incidence Estimates Using the Limiting Antigen Avidity EIA Assay at Testing Sites in Kiev City, Ukraine: 2013-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglov, Yuri; Yurchenko, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate HIV incidence and highlight the characteristics of persons at greatest risk of HIV in the Ukraine capital, Kiev. Method Residual samples from newly-diagnosed persons attending the Kiev City AIDS Centre were tested for evidence of recent HIV infection using an avidity assay. Questions on possible risk factors for HIV acquisition and testing history were introduced. All persons (≥16yrs) presenting for an HIV test April’13–March’14 were included. Rates per 100,000 population were calculated using region-specific denominators. Results During the study period 6370 individuals tested for HIV. Of the 467 individuals newly-diagnosed with HIV, 21 had insufficient samples for LAg testing. Of the remaining 446, 39 (8.7%) were classified as recent with an avidity index <1.5ODn, 10 were reclassified as long-standing as their viral load was <1000 copies/mL, resulting in 29 (6.5%) recent HIV infections. The only independent predictor for a recent infection was probable route of exposure, with MSM more likely to present with a recent infection compared with heterosexual contact [Odds Ratio 8.86; 95%CI 2.65–29.60]. We estimated HIV incidence at 21.5 per 100,000 population, corresponding to 466 new infections. Using population estimates for MSM and PWID, incidence was estimated to be between 2289.6 and 6868.7/100,000 MSM, and 350.4 for PWID. Conclusion A high proportion of persons newly-infected remain undiagnosed, with MSM disproportionally affected with one in four newly-HIV-diagnosed and one in three recently-HIV-infected. Our findings should be used for targeted public health interventions and health promotion. PMID:27276170

  2. Factors associated with late HIV diagnosis in North-East Scotland: a six-year retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, G; Okpo, E; Tonna, I; Fielding, S

    2016-10-01

    Late HIV diagnosis is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, increased risk of transmission, impaired response to antiretroviral therapy and increased health care costs. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with late HIV diagnosis in Grampian, North-East Scotland. A population based retrospective database analysis. All newly diagnosed HIV positive individuals in Grampian, North-East Scotland between 2009 and 2014 were included in the study. Participants were classified as having a late diagnosis if the CD4 cell count at presentation was less than 350 cells/mm 3 . Socio-economic and demographic factors were investigated in relation to outcome (late diagnosis) using Chi-squared and Mann-Whitney tests. CD4 cell count results were available for 111 (89.5%) of the 124 newly diagnosed individuals during the study period. The prevalence of late diagnosis was 53.2% (n = 59). Those infected via heterosexual mode of transmission had a 2.83 times higher odds of late diagnosis (OR 2.83 [95% CI: 1.10-7.32]) than men who have sex with men (MSM) and those with no previous HIV testing had a 5.46 increased odds of late diagnosis (OR 5.46 [95% CI: 1.89-15.81]) compared to those who had previously been tested. Missed opportunities for HIV diagnosis were identified in 16.3% (n = 15) of participants. Heterosexual individuals and those with no previous HIV testing were more likely to be diagnosed late. Targeted initiatives to increase perception of HIV risk and uptake of testing in these risk groups are recommended. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Detection of Acute and Early HIV-1 Infections in an HIV Hyper-Endemic Area with Limited Resources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simnikiwe H Mayaphi

    Full Text Available Two thirds of the world's new HIV infections are in sub-Saharan Africa. Acute HIV infection (AHI is the time of virus acquisition until the appearance of HIV antibodies. Early HIV infection, which includes AHI, is the interval between virus acquisition and establishment of viral load set-point. This study aimed to detect acute and early HIV infections in a hyper-endemic setting.This was a cross-sectional diagnostic study that enrolled individuals who had negative rapid HIV results in five clinics in South Africa. Pooled nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT was performed, followed by individual sample testing in positive pools. NAAT-positive participants were recalled to the clinics for confirmatory testing and appropriate management. HIV antibody, p24 antigen, Western Blot and avidity tests were performed for characterization of NAAT-positive samples.The study enrolled 6910 individuals with negative rapid HIV results. Median age was 27 years (interquartile range {IQR}: 23-31. NAAT was positive in 55 samples, resulting in 0.8% newly diagnosed HIV-infected individuals (95% confidence interval {CI}: 0.6-1.0. The negative predictive value for rapid HIV testing was 99.2% (95% CI: 99.0-99.4. Characterization of NAAT-positive samples revealed that 0.04% (95% CI: 0.000-0.001 had AHI, 0.3% (95% CI: 0.1-0.4 had early HIV infection, and 0.5% (95% CI: 0.5-0.7 had chronic HIV infection. Forty-seven (86% of NAAT-positive participants returned for follow-up at a median of 4 weeks (IQR: 2-8. Follow-up rapid tests were positive in 96% of these participants.NAAT demonstrated that a substantial number of HIV-infected individuals are misdiagnosed at South African points-of-care. Follow-up rapid tests done within a 4 week interval detected early and chronic HIV infections initially missed by rapid HIV testing. This may be a practical and affordable strategy for earlier detection of these infections in resource-constrained settings. Newer molecular tests that can

  4. Humanizing HIV/AIDS and its (re)stigmatizing effects: HIV public 'positive' speaking in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Mark; Sarangi, Srikant

    2009-01-01

    Social stigma has been inextricably linked with HIV and AIDS since the epidemic erupted in the early 1980s. The stigma that has built up around HIV and AIDS is generally regarded as having a negative impact on the quality of life of HIV-positive people and on general prevention efforts. Current attempts to combat HIV-related stigma focus on increasing the acceptance of HIV among the stigmatizing public and stigmatized individuals alike. In this, the global HIV-positive community is being increasingly called upon to ;humanize' the virus, not least through public displays of HIV 'positive' health and public ;positive' speaking. This article critically explores the constitutive effects and inherent power relations of HIV Positive Speakers' Bureaus (PSBs) as a platform for such a display. Adopting a post-structuralist discourse analytic approach, we explore accounts of positive-speaking and HIV health from HIV-related non-government organizations in India and in PSB training manuals. In particular, we highlight ways in which positive-speaking in India can be seen to have significant (re)stigmatizing effects by way of ambivalent and hyper-real configurations of HIV 'positive' identity and life.

  5. Depressive Symptoms, Disclosure, HIV-Related Stigma, and Coping Following HIV Testing Among Outpatients in Uganda: A Daily Process Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiene, Susan M; Dove, Meredith; Wanyenze, Rhoda K

    2018-05-01

    As efforts to end the HIV epidemic accelerate there is emphasis on reaching those living with undiagnosed HIV infection. Newly diagnosed individuals face a number of psychosocial challenges, yet we know little about depressive symptoms in the weeks immediately following diagnosis and how disclosure, coping, and other factors may affect short and longer-term depressive symptoms. Purposively sampled Ugandan outpatients completed structured interviews immediately prior to testing for HIV, daily for 28 days after receiving their test results, and at 3 and 6 months post-test. The sample included a total of 244 participants: 20 who tested HIV positive at baseline and who provided 342 daily data points, and 224 who tested HIV negative at baseline and who provided 4388 daily data points. We used linear mixed effects modeling to examine changes in depressive symptom scores over the 28 day daily interview period and predictors of depressive symptom scores and changes over time. Results from the mixed modeling revealed that while those diagnosed with HIV showed initially high depressive symptoms following diagnosis, their symptoms decreased significantly and on average fell below the cutoff for possible depression approximately 15 days after diagnosis. Among those who tested HIV-negative, on average their depressive symptoms were below the cutoff for possible depression and did not change over time. Among those diagnosed with HIV, disclosure, especially to a partner, on a particular day was associated with higher depressive symptoms that day. However, those who disclosed to their partner during the 28 days after diagnosis had significantly lower depression scores by the end of the 28 days as well as lower depression scores 3 and 6 months after diagnosis than did those who did not disclose to their partner during the 28 days after diagnosis. Scoring higher on HIV-related stigma on a particular day was associated with higher depressive symptoms that day and engaging

  6. Coverage of HIV prevention components among people with long-standing diagnosed HIV infection in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Jerry O; Creswell, Jacob; Guardado, Maria Elena; Lee, Janet C; Isabel Nieto, Ana; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2012-09-01

    There is scarce information on prevention coverage and management of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in people with HIV in resource-limited settings. Six hundred eighty nine sexually active people diagnosed with HIV ≥12 months before the study, including 110 men who have sex with men, 237 heterosexual men, and 342 women, were recruited from HIV support groups and hospitals in El Salvador and completed self-administered computer-assisted questionnaires and STI testing. Logistic models identified correlates of exposure to posttest counseling (POC) and subsequent prevention interventions (PIs). Past-year transmission risk factors included unprotected sex with noncommercial partners (28.7%), having multiple sex partners (76.4%), a casual sex partner (31.4%), selling (3.5%) and purchasing sex (6.4%), herpes simplex virus type 2 (86.3%), and treatable STIs (18.6%). Men who have sex with men reported more recent casual partners, sex work, and alcohol and drug use than other subgroups. POC (22.8%), PIs (31.3%), and access to advice and information regarding HIV at the point of HIV care (24.1%) were limited. Of subjects with past-year STI symptoms (N = 267), 44.1% had sought medical attention. In multivariate analysis, POC was negatively associated with multiple partners. PI was associated with self-initiated testing, treatable STIs, and female sex. Both outcomes were associated with HIV-related discrimination outside of the health services context. Coverage of POC, PIs, and treatment-seeking for STI symptoms was low among individuals with diagnosed HIV infection, although most were in regular contact with care and treatment. Prevention programs at testing and treatment sites should be intensified and should incorporate risk behavior screening to improve targeting.

  7. Lack of effect of intermittently administered sodium fusidate in patients with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus: the FUSIDM trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conget, I; Aguilera, E; Pellitero, S

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated in a double-blind study the effect of early treatment with the immunomodulatory drug fusidin in patients with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus.......We evaluated in a double-blind study the effect of early treatment with the immunomodulatory drug fusidin in patients with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus....

  8. Detection of HIV-RNA-positive monocytes in peripheral blood of HIV-positive patients by simultaneous flow cytometric analysis of intracellular HIV RNA and cellular immunophenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, B K; Mosiman, V L; Cantarero, L; Furtado, M; Bhattacharya, M; Goolsby, C

    1998-04-01

    Determinations of plasma HIV viral RNA copy numbers help to define the kinetics of HIV-1 infection in vivo and to monitor antiretroviral therapy. However, questions remain regarding the identity of various infected cell types contributing to this free virus pool and to the in vivo lifecycle of HIV during disease progression. Characterization of a novel fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay employing a pool of labeled oligonucleotide probes directed against HIV RNA was done followed by coupling of the FISH assay with simultaneous surface immunophenotyping to address these questions. In vitro characterizations of this assay using tumor necrosis factor-alpha stimulated and unstimulated ACH-2 cells demonstrated the ability to detect < 5% HIV RNA positive cells with a sensitivity of < 30 RNA copies per cell. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 39 HIV-seropositive patients on no, single, combination, or triple drug therapy and 8 HIV-seronegative patients were examined. The majority of HIV-positive patients (24/39) harbored monocytes positive for HIV RNA and a significantly higher fraction of patients with high plasma viral load carried positive monocytes (13/16) than did patients in the low plasma viral load group (11/23). These results demonstrate the effectiveness of a novel FISH assay for identifying and monitoring HIV-infected cell populations in the peripheral blood of HIV-positive patients. In addition, monocytes are a major source of cellular HIV virus in the peripheral blood of HIV patients, even with progression of disease.

  9. Risk of HIV or second syphilis infection in Danish men with newly acquired syphilis in the period 2000-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten; Katzenstein, Terese Lea; Gerstoft, Jan

    2013-01-01

    in men diagnosed with one of these sexually transmitted diseases indicate a high frequency of unsafe sex in the Danish MSM population. As one-third of the HIV-infected persons diagnosed with syphilis had high viral loads, our data support initiation of antiretroviral therapy in all HIV-infected MSM...... to reduce HIV transmission....

  10. Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis in HIV positive patients in Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Post, Frank A; Grint, Daniel; Efsen, Anne Marie Werlinrud

    2014-01-01

    Observational data from Eastern Europe on the management and outcome of multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) in HIV positive populations remain sparse in the English-language literature.We compared clinical characteristics and outcomes of 55 patients who were diagnosed with HIV and MDR TB...... in Eastern Europe between 2004 and 2006 to 89 patients whose Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were susceptible to isoniazid and rifampicin.Patients with HIV and MDR TB were young and predominantly male with high rates of intravenous drug use, imprisonment and hepatitis C co-infection. Eighty-four per cent...... of patients with MDR TB had no history of previous TB drug exposure suggesting that the majority of MDR TB resulted from transmission of drug-resistant M. tuberculosis. The use of non-standardized tuberculosis treatment was common, and the use of antiretroviral therapy infrequent. Compared to those...

  11. A 10-year population based study of 'opt-out' HIV testing of tuberculosis patients in Alberta, Canada: national implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Long

    Full Text Available Compliance with the recommendation that all tuberculosis (TB patients be tested for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV has not yet been achieved in Canada or globally.The experience of "opt-out" HIV testing of TB patients in the Province of Alberta, Canada is described over a 10-year period, 2003-2012. Testing rates are reported before and after the introduction of the "opt-out" approach. Risk factors for HIV seropositivity are described and demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics of TB patients who were newly diagnosed versus previously diagnosed with HIV are compared. Genotypic clusters, defined as groups of two or more cases whose isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis had identical DNA fingerprints over the 10-year period or within 2 years of one another, were analyzed for their ability to predict HIV co-infection.HIV testing rates were 26% before and 90% after the introduction of "opt-out" testing. During the "opt-out" testing years those 64 years of age at diagnosis were less likely to have been tested. In those tested the prevalence of HIV was 5.6%. In the age group 15-64 years, risk factors for HIV were: age (35-64 years, Canadian-born Aboriginal or foreign-born sub-Saharan African origin, and combined respiratory and non-respiratory disease. Compared to TB patients previously known to be HIV positive, TB patients newly discovered to be HIV positive had more advanced HIV disease (lower CD4 counts; higher viral loads at diagnosis. Large cluster size was associated with Aboriginal ancestry. Cluster size predicted HIV co-infection in Aboriginal peoples when clusters included all cases reported over 10 years but not when clusters included cases reported within 2 years of one another."Opt-out" HIV testing of TB patients is effective and well received. Universal HIV testing of TB patients (>80% of patients tested has immediate (patients and longer-term (TB/HIV program planning benefits.

  12. Circulating mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor is increased in newly diagnosed prediabetic and diabetic patients, and is associated with insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tong; Zhang, Fang; Yang, Qiu; Zhang, Yuwei; Liu, Qinhui; Jiang, Wei; Cao, Hongyi; Li, Daigang; Xie, Shugui; Tong, Nanwei; He, Jinhan

    2017-04-29

    Evidence has shown that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was involved in the progression to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and development of insulin resistance. Mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) is a novel secreted protein upregulated by ER stress. This study aimed to assess serum level of MANF in normal glucose tolerance (NGT) participants and newly diagnosed prediabetic and T2DM patients. A total of 257 participants with NGT, newly diagnosed prediabetes or T2DM were recruited from Yinchao and Hangtian communities of Chengdu, Sichuan, China. Serum MANF level was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The mean age for the 257 participants (147 females) was 62±8 years (range 44-78): 71 with NGT, 115 with newly diagnosed prediabetes and 71 with T2DM. Mean serum MANF level was significantly higher with newly diagnosed prediabetes and T2DM than NGT (2.89±1.09 and 3.03±1.73 vs 2.13±1.37 ng/mL, both pprediabetes patients. We concluded that serum MANF level was higher in patients with newly diagnosed prediabetes and T2DM than in NGT controls. MANF appears to be associated with Matsuda Index, QUICKI and HOMA-IR in prediabetes patients.

  13. Changes of β-cell function after short-term transient intensive insulin treatment in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Xiaoping; Zhuang Huiqin; Su Cainu; Xu Ning; Yin Dong; Hui Yuan; Wu Yan

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of short-term intensive insulin treatment on β-cell function in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients with apparently hyperglycemia, twenty-four newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients with FPG more than 12.0 mmol/L were treated by short-term transient intensive insulin in average 9.04-4.8 days. Their β-cell function was assessed by oral glucose tolerance test. The FPG, HbAlc and HOMA IR of patients were significantly decreased (P<0.01), while the insulin, the Area Under Curve (AUC) of insulin and HOMA β were significantly increased (P<0.01) after the treatment with insulin. Improvement of β-cell function can be induced by short-term intensive insulin treatment for newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients with apparently hyperglycemia. (authors)

  14. Factors influencing HIV-risk behaviors among HIV-positive urban African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plowden, Keith O; Fletcher, Audwin; Miller, J Lawrence

    2005-01-01

    Urban African Americans are disproportionately affected by HIV, the virus associated with AIDS. Although incidence and mortality appear to be decreasing in some populations, they continue to remain steady among inner-city African Americans. A major concern is the number of HIV-positive individuals who continue to practice high-risk behaviors. Understanding factors that increase risks is essential for the development and implementation of effective prevention initiatives. Following a constructionist epistemology, this study used ethnography to explore social and cultural factors that influence high-risk behaviors among inner-city HIV-positive African Americans. Leininger's culture care diversity and universality theory guided the study. Individual qualitative interviews were conducted with HIV-positive African Americans in the community to explore social and cultural factors that increase HIV-risky behaviors. For this study, family/kinship, economic, and education factors played a significant role in risky behaviors. Reducing HIV disparity among African Americans is dependent on designing appropriate interventions that enhance protective factors. Clinicians providing care to HIV-positive individuals can play a key role in reducing transmission by recognizing and incorporating these factors when designing effective prevention interventions.

  15. A STUDY TO CORRELATE HBA1C LEVELS AND LEFT VENTRICULAR DIASTOLIC DYSFUNCTION IN NEWLY DIAGNOSED TYPE II DIABETES MELLITUS

    OpenAIRE

    Vasanthi; Namitha; Jayanthi; Elangumanan; Mohamed; Uma Maheshwari; Pravin Selvam; Santhi

    2016-01-01

    AIM To assess the correlation of HBA1C levels with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetic patient. This prospective study was done at Department of General Medicine, OPD, Medical Wards, Stanley Medical College and Hospital, Chennai. RESULT The mean HBA1C levels were meaningfully more in Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction (LVDD) positive group compared to the LVDD negative group by 1.33%. This significant difference of 15% increase in...

  16. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound compared with computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography for diagnosing liver metastases in people with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Martin; Bjerre, Thomas Abramovitz; Grønbæk, Henning

    2016-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To compare the accuracy of CEUS, CECT, MRI, and 18F-FDG PET-CT for diagnosing liver metastases in people with newly-diagnosed colorectal cancer. Potential sources of heterogeneity We will investigate...

  17. Audiological manifestations in HIV-positive adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Gentile Matas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:To characterize the findings of behavioral hearing assessment in HIV-positive individuals who received and did not receive antiretroviral treatment.METHODS:This research was a cross-sectional study. The participants were 45 HIV-positive individuals (18 not exposed and 27 exposed to antiretroviral treatment and 30 control-group individuals. All subjects completed an audiological evaluation through pure-tone audiometry, speech audiometry, and high-frequency audiometry.RESULTS:The hearing thresholds obtained by pure-tone audiometry were different between groups. The group that had received antiretroviral treatment had higher thresholds for the frequencies ranging from 250 to 3000 Hz compared with the control group and the group not exposed to treatment. In the range of frequencies from 4000 through 8000 Hz, the HIV-positive groups presented with higher thresholds than did the control group. The hearing thresholds determined by high-frequency audiometry were different between groups, with higher thresholds in the HIV-positive groups.CONCLUSION:HIV-positive individuals presented poorer results in pure-tone and high-frequency audiometry, suggesting impairment of the peripheral auditory pathway. Individuals who received antiretroviral treatment presented poorer results on both tests compared with individuals not exposed to antiretroviral treatment.

  18. Audiological manifestations in HIV-positive adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matas, Carla Gentile; Angrisani, Rosanna Giaffredo; Magliaro, Fernanda Cristina Leite; Segurado, Aluisio Augusto Cotrim

    2014-07-01

    To characterize the findings of behavioral hearing assessment in HIV-positive individuals who received and did not receive antiretroviral treatment. This research was a cross-sectional study. The participants were 45 HIV-positive individuals (18 not exposed and 27 exposed to antiretroviral treatment) and 30 control-group individuals. All subjects completed an audiological evaluation through pure-tone audiometry, speech audiometry, and high-frequency audiometry. The hearing thresholds obtained by pure-tone audiometry were different between groups. The group that had received antiretroviral treatment had higher thresholds for the frequencies ranging from 250 to 3000 Hz compared with the control group and the group not exposed to treatment. In the range of frequencies from 4000 through 8000 Hz, the HIV-positive groups presented with higher thresholds than did the control group. The hearing thresholds determined by high-frequency audiometry were different between groups, with higher thresholds in the HIV-positive groups. HIV-positive individuals presented poorer results in pure-tone and high-frequency audiometry, suggesting impairment of the peripheral auditory pathway. Individuals who received antiretroviral treatment presented poorer results on both tests compared with individuals not exposed to antiretroviral treatment.

  19. HIV sero-positivity in recently admitted and long-term psychiatric in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV rapid testing, HIV ELISA, syphilis-RPR and TPHA testing were performed. Results: The HIV prevalence of 11% in the sample was significantly associated with 'gender-and-duration-of-admission' categories (p=0.003). No significant association between HIV infection and psychiatric diagnoses or intravenous drug use ...

  20. Problems with sex among gay and bisexual men with diagnosed HIV in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Adam; Hickson, Ford; Keogh, Peter; Reid, David; Weatherburn, Peter

    2012-10-29

    A significant research literature exists that details the sexual health and sexual behaviour of gay and bisexual men who have diagnosed HIV. However, much of this research has focussed on HIV transmission risk behaviours among this group, rather than seeking to understand their sexual health and sexual well-being more broadly. There have been growing calls for interventions to support people with diagnosed HIV to achieve health and well-being, including sexual health and well-being. A detailed understanding of the problems people in this group face, and how they might be overcome, is required to facilitate such interventions. One thousand two hundred and seventeen gay and bisexual men with diagnosed HIV were recruited by convenience sampling through charitable AIDS service organisations, genitourinary medicine clinics and local authority agencies to complete a survey of their health and social care needs. Respondents were asked to report any problems they had with regards to sex during the 12 months prior to survey completion. They were also asked to describe what support might help them to overcome any problems they experienced. Overall, 70.5% of the gay and bisexual men with diagnosed HIV completing the survey reported one or more problems with sex within the previous 12 months. Most commonly reported problems include loss of libido (44.0%, n=540), poor self-image or low self confidence (43.9%, n=534), worries about passing HIV to potential sexual partners (37.3%, n=454), and fears of rejection from sexual partners (34.7%, n=422). Responses varied according to age, time since diagnosis, and whether or not the respondent was currently taking anti-retroviral therapy. Qualitative analysis of data relating to what support might help men overcome problems with sex indicate a need for therapeutic support to increase self esteem and confidence, clarity on criminalisation of HIV transmission, the tackling of HIV related stigma and help to achieve a higher quality (as

  1. Problems with sex among gay and bisexual men with diagnosed HIV in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourne Adam

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A significant research literature exists that details the sexual health and sexual behaviour of gay and bisexual men who have diagnosed HIV. However, much of this research has focussed on HIV transmission risk behaviours among this group, rather than seeking to understand their sexual health and sexual well-being more broadly. There have been growing calls for interventions to support people with diagnosed HIV to achieve health and well-being, including sexual health and well-being. A detailed understanding of the problems people in this group face, and how they might be overcome, is required to facilitate such interventions. Methods One thousand two hundred and seventeen gay and bisexual men with diagnosed HIV were recruited by convenience sampling through charitable AIDS service organisations, genitourinary medicine clinics and local authority agencies to complete a survey of their health and social care needs. Respondents were asked to report any problems they had with regards to sex during the 12 months prior to survey completion. They were also asked to describe what support might help them to overcome any problems they experienced. Results Overall, 70.5% of the gay and bisexual men with diagnosed HIV completing the survey reported one or more problems with sex within the previous 12 months. Most commonly reported problems include loss of libido (44.0%, n=540, poor self-image or low self confidence (43.9%, n=534, worries about passing HIV to potential sexual partners (37.3%, n=454, and fears of rejection from sexual partners (34.7%, n=422. Responses varied according to age, time since diagnosis, and whether or not the respondent was currently taking anti-retroviral therapy. Qualitative analysis of data relating to what support might help men overcome problems with sex indicate a need for therapeutic support to increase self esteem and confidence, clarity on criminalisation of HIV transmission, the tackling of HIV related

  2. Contributions to early HIV diagnosis among patients linked to care vary by testing venue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trott Alexander T

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Early HIV diagnosis reduces transmission and improves health outcomes; screening in non-traditional settings is increasingly advocated. We compared test venues by the number of new diagnoses successfully linked to the regional HIV treatment center and disease stage at diagnosis. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study using structured chart review of newly diagnosed HIV patients successfully referred to the region's only HIV treatment center from 1998 to 2003. Demographics, testing indication, risk profile, and initial CD4 count were recorded. Results There were 277 newly diagnosed patients meeting study criteria. Mean age was 33 years, 77% were male, and 46% were African-American. Median CD4 at diagnosis was 324. Diagnoses were earlier via partner testing at the HIV treatment center (N = 8, median CD4 648, p = 0.008 and with universal screening by the blood bank, military, and insurance companies (N = 13, median CD4 483, p = 0.05 than at other venues. Targeted testing by health care and public health entities based on patient request, risk profile, or patient condition lead to later diagnosis. Conclusion Test venues varied by the number of new diagnoses made and the stage of illness at diagnosis. To improve the rate of early diagnosis, scarce resources should be allocated to maximize the number of new diagnoses at screening venues where diagnoses are more likely to be early or alter testing strategies at test venues where diagnoses are traditionally made late. Efforts to improve early diagnosis should be coordinated longitudinally on a regional basis according to this conceptual paradigm.

  3. Some hematological parameters and the prognostic values of CD4, CD8 and total lymphocyte counts and CD4/CD8 cell count ratio in healthy HIV sero-negative, healthy HIV sero-positive and AIDS subjects in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blessing Didia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study attempts to determine normal values of CD4, CD8, CD4/CD8 ratio, total WBC and differential counts, hematocrit and total lymphocyte count (TLC in healthy HIV sero-negative and sero-positive subjects, and to assess the prognostic significance of these parameters in these subjects as compared to AIDS subjects.METHODS: A total of 300 subjects (147 M, 153 F aged between 17 and 71 years were recruited into the study. Subjects were separated according to sex and divided into three groups: Group A: healthy HIV sero-negative subjects; Group B: healthy HIV sero-positive newly diagnosed ART-naïve subjects; and Group C: AIDS subjects. CD4 and CD8 counts were determined by flow cytometry; hematocrit was determined using Hawksley micro-capillary tubes; total WBC and differential counts were determined manually with the improved Neubauer counting chamber; and TLC was obtained by multiplying the percentage of lymphocytes by the total WBC count.RESULTS: For male subjects, significant differences were found in CD4 count, CD4/CD8 count ratio, hematocrit, total WBC and TLC, whereas for female subjects, significant differences were found only in CD4 and CD4/CD8 count ratio in the three groups of subjects. In both sexes, however, these parameters were found to be highest in healthy HIV sero-negative subjects and lowest in AIDS subjects, with HIV sero-positive subjects having intermediate values. CONCLUSION: The results confirm previous reports that the CD4 count and CD4/CD8 count ratio are fairly reliable indicators of the progression of HIV infection. In addition, the results also apparently suggest that the prognostic value of CD8 count is limited and that of TLC possibly sex-dependent. The results could be of importance in our environment since previous reports have been relatively scarce.

  4. [HIV infection and immigration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge, Susana; Pérez-Molina, José A

    2016-01-01

    Migrants represent around one third of patients newly diagnosed with HIV in Spain and they constitute a population with higher vulnerability to its negative consequences due to the socio-cultural, economical, working, administrative and legal contexts. Migrants are diagnosed later, which worsens their individual prognosis and facilitates the maintenance of the HIV epidemic. In spite of the different barriers they experience to access healthcare in general, and HIV-related services in particular, access to antiretroviral treatment has been similar to that of the autochthonous population. However, benefits of treatment have been not, with women in general and men from Sub-Saharan Africa exhibiting the worse response to treatment. We need to proactively promote earlier diagnosis of HIV infection, the adoption of preventive measures to avoid new infections, and to deliver accessible, adapted and high-quality health-care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  5. Relationships of salivary cortisol and melatonin rhythms to sleep quality, emotion, and fatigue levels in patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Pei; Lin, Chia-Chin

    2017-08-01

    After being diagnosed with lung cancer, patients often experience sleep disturbance, anxiety, depression, and fatigue. These symptoms may occur because of changes in neurotransmitter secretion caused by tumors. This study investigated the correlation of cortisol and melatonin rhythms with sleep quality, anxiety, depression, and fatigue levels in patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer. We conducted a case-control study and recruited 40 patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer and 40 healthy adults. The patient group had a lower salivary melatonin level and flatter slope (p cortisol level and steeper slope (p cortisol slope (p = 0.005) and fatigue score (p = 0.032) predicted the sleep quality score (p = 0.011). Overall, the patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer had poorer sleep quality, higher depression levels, lower salivary melatonin levels, higher cortisol levels, and flatter melatonin and cortisol slopes than did the controls. The fatigue level and cortisol slope significantly predicted sleep quality. Therefore, the assessment of cortisol and melatonin rhythms and levels could provide crucial information that may be beneficial for managing symptoms in patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Selection of unadapted, pathogenic SHIVs encoding newly transmitted HIV-1 envelope proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Prete, Gregory Q; Ailers, Braiden; Moldt, Brian; Keele, Brandon F; Estes, Jacob D; Rodriguez, Anthony; Sampias, Marissa; Oswald, Kelli; Fast, Randy; Trubey, Charles M; Chertova, Elena; Smedley, Jeremy; LaBranche, Celia C; Montefiori, David C; Burton, Dennis R; Shaw, George M; Markowitz, Marty; Piatak, Michael; KewalRamani, Vineet N; Bieniasz, Paul D; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Hatziioannou, Theodora

    2014-09-10

    Infection of macaques with chimeric viruses based on SIVMAC but expressing the HIV-1 envelope (Env) glycoproteins (SHIVs) remains the most powerful model for evaluating prevention and therapeutic strategies against AIDS. Unfortunately, only a few SHIVs are currently available. Furthermore, their generation has required extensive adaptation of the HIV-1 Env sequences in macaques so they may not accurately represent HIV-1 Env proteins circulating in humans, potentially limiting their translational utility. We developed a strategy for generating large numbers of SHIV constructs expressing Env proteins from newly transmitted HIV-1 strains. By inoculating macaques with cocktails of multiple SHIV variants, we selected SHIVs that can replicate and cause AIDS-like disease in immunologically intact rhesus macaques without requiring animal-to-animal passage. One of these SHIVs could be transmitted mucosally. We demonstrate the utility of the SHIVs generated by this method for evaluating neutralizing antibody administration as a protection against mucosal SHIV challenge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Quantitative probabilistic functional diffusion mapping in newly diagnosed glioblastoma treated with radiochemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingson, Benjamin M; Cloughesy, Timothy F; Lai, Albert; Nghiemphu, Phioanh L; Liau, Linda M; Pope, Whitney B

    2013-03-01

    Functional diffusion mapping (fDM) is a cancer imaging technique that uses voxel-wise changes in apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) to evaluate response to treatment. Despite promising initial results, uncertainty in image registration remains the largest barrier to widespread clinical application. The current study introduces a probabilistic approach to fDM quantification to overcome some of these limitations. A total of 143 patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma who were undergoing standard radiochemotherapy were enrolled in this retrospective study. Traditional and probabilistic fDMs were calculated using ADC maps acquired before and after therapy. Probabilistic fDMs were calculated by applying random, finite translational, and rotational perturbations to both pre-and posttherapy ADC maps, then repeating calculation of fDMs reflecting changes after treatment, resulting in probabilistic fDMs showing the voxel-wise probability of fDM classification. Probabilistic fDMs were then compared with traditional fDMs in their ability to predict progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Probabilistic fDMs applied to patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma treated with radiochemotherapy demonstrated shortened PFS and OS among patients with a large volume of tumor with decreasing ADC evaluated at the posttreatment time with respect to the baseline scans. Alternatively, patients with a large volume of tumor with increasing ADC evaluated at the posttreatment time with respect to baseline scans were more likely to progress later and live longer. Probabilistic fDMs performed better than traditional fDMs at predicting 12-month PFS and 24-month OS with use of receiver-operator characteristic analysis. Univariate log-rank analysis on Kaplan-Meier data also revealed that probabilistic fDMs could better separate patients on the basis of PFS and OS, compared with traditional fDMs. Results suggest that probabilistic fDMs are a more predictive biomarker in

  8. HIV testing and counselling in Estonian prisons, 2012 to 2013: aims, processes and impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivimets, K; Uuskula, A

    2014-11-27

    We present data from an observational cohort study on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and control measures in prisons in Estonia to assess the potential for HIV transmission in this setting. HIV testing and retesting data from the Estonian prison health department were used to estimate HIV prevalence and incidence in prison. Since 2002, voluntary HIV counselling and testing has routinely been offered to all prisoners and has been part of the new prisoners health check. At the end of 2012, there were 3,289 prisoners in Estonia, including 170 women: 28.5% were drug users and 15.6% were infected with HIV. Of the HIV-positive inmates, 8.3% were newly diagnosed on prison entry. In 2012, 4,387 HIV tests (including retests) were performed in Estonian prisons. Among 1,756 initially HIV-negative prisoners who were in prison for more than one year and therefore tested for HIV twice within 12 months (at entry and annual testing), one new HIV infection was detected, an incidence of 0.067 per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.025–5.572). This analysis indicates low risk of HIV transmission in Estonian prisons. Implementation of HIV management interventions could impact positively on the health of prisoners and the communities to which they return.

  9. Regional differences in the incidence of tuberculosis among patients with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo Ram; Kang, Young Ae; Heo, Eun Young; Koo, Bo Kyung; Choi, Nam-Kyong; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Lee, Chang-Hoon

    2018-04-01

    There are regional differences in the burden of tuberculosis (TB). Although these differences might be explained by regional differences in the risk factors of TB, whether such risk factors are actually associated with the regional differences in the TB burden remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the risk factors of and regional differences in TB incidence. A cohort study applying nationwide claims database in Republic of Korea included patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in 2009. The main outcome was the incidence of TB defined based on the diagnostic codes combined with anti-tuberculosis treatment repeated within 90 days. Sixteen regions were categorized into 3 groups according to the age- and sex-standardized TB incidence rates. Multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for risk factors was performed to identify the determinants of the regional differences in TB incidence. Among 331 601 participants newly diagnosed with type 2 DM and with no history of previous TB, 1216 TB cases were observed. The regional TB incidence rates ranged between 2.3 and 5.9/1000 patients. Multivariate analyses did not identify any determinants of regional differences in the TB incidence among the various risk factors, including age, sex, health care utilization, co-morbidities, medication and treatment and complications of DM. Similarly, temperature, humidity and latent TB infection rate also did not affect the results. Although substantial regional differences in the TB incidence rate were observed among patients with newly diagnosed DM, no determinants of regional difference were identified among the risk factors. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Clinical characteristics and beta cell function in Chinese patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus with different levels of serum triglyceride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shuang; Zhou, Huan; Han, Tingting; Li, Yangxue; Zhang, Yao; Liu, Wei; Hu, Yaomin

    2015-04-29

    To explore clinical characteristics and beta cell function in Chinese patients with newly diagnosed drug naive type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with different levels of serum triglyceride (TG). Patients with newly diagnosed T2DM (n = 624) were enrolled and divided into different groups according to levels of serum TG. All patients underwent oral glucose tolerance tests and insulin releasing tests. Demographic data, lipid profiles, glucose levels, and insulin profiles were compared between different groups. Basic insulin secretion function index (homeostasis model assessment for beta cell function index, HOMA-β), modified beta cell function index (MBCI), glucose disposition indices (DI), and early insulin secretion function index (insulinogenic index, IGI) were used to evaluate the beta cell function. Patients of newly diagnosed T2DM with hypertriglyceridemia were younger, fatter and had worse lipid profiles, glucose profiles, and high insulin levels than those with normal TG. There is no difference in early phase insulin secretion among groups of newly diagnosed T2DM patients with different TG levels. The basal beta cell function (HOMA-β and MBCI) initially increased along rising TG levels and then decreased as the TG levels rose further. The insulin sensitivity was relatively high in patients with a low level of TG and low with a high level of TG. Hypertriglyceridemia influences clinical characteristics and β cell function of Chinese patients with newly diagnosed T2DM. A better management of dyslipidemia may, to some extent, reduce the effect of lipotoxicity, thereby improving glucose homeostasis in patients with newly diagnosed T2DM.

  11. Increased gluconeogenesis in youth with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Stephanie T; Hsia, Daniel S; Chacko, Shaji K; Rodriguez, Luisa M; Haymond, Morey W

    2015-03-01

    The role of increased gluconeogenesis as an important contributor to fasting hyperglycaemia at diabetes onset is not known. We evaluated the contribution of gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis to fasting hyperglycaemia in newly diagnosed youths with type 2 diabetes following an overnight fast. Basal rates (μmol kg(FFM) (-1) min(-1)) of gluconeogenesis ((2)H2O), glycogenolysis and glycerol production ([(2)H5] glycerol) were measured in 18 adolescents (nine treatment naive diabetic and nine normal-glucose-tolerant obese adolescents). Type 2 diabetes was associated with higher gluconeogenesis (9.2 ± 0.6 vs 7.0 ± 0.3 μmol kg(FFM) (-1) min(-1), p gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis and glucose production were higher in diabetic youth (p ≤ 0.02). Glycerol concentration (84 ± 6 vs 57 ± 6 μmol/l, p = 0.01) and glycerol production (5.0 ± 0.3 vs 3.6 ± 0.5 μmol kg(FFM) (-1) min(-1), p = 0.03) were 40% higher in youth with diabetes. The increased glycerol production could account for only ~1/3 of substrate needed for the increased gluconeogenesis in diabetic youth. Increased gluconeogenesis was a major contributor to fasting hyperglycaemia and hepatic insulin resistance in newly diagnosed untreated adolescents and was an early pathological feature of type 2 diabetes. Increased glycerol availability may represent a significant source of new carbon substrates for increased gluconeogenesis but would not account for all the carbons required to sustain the increased rates.

  12. Immune Recovery Syndrome in the HIV-positive patient: Radiological Findings of Paradoxical Reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, E.; Sanchez, M. A.; Torres, M.; Benito, J.; Avila, A.

    2004-01-01

    To describe immune recovery syndrome (IRS) and related radiological findings in HIV-positive patients. To alert radiologists to the ever-increasingly frequent appearance of paradoxical reactions (PR) in granulomatous diseases under antiretroviral treatment. We present a retrospective study of 9 adult HIV-positive patients who showed IRS, 6 cases of tuberculosis (TBC), 2 cases of atypical mycobacterium and a case of sarcoidosis. At the time of IRS/PR diagnosis, any suspicion of infectious activity was excluded through the use of appropriate microbiological tests. clinical and radiological characteristics of the above mentioned cases are analyze here. All patients experienced a clinical and/or radiological worsening of condition following variable periods of antiretroviral and/or anti-tuberculosis treatment, and coinciding with viral load decrease and CD4-T-lymphocyte recovery. Diagnosis of IRS/PR was clinical in five cases and radiological in four. In all but one case, antiretroviral treatment had at some time been previously administered. IRS/PR is a diagnosis of exclusion which must be included in the differential diagnosis of newly appearing lesions or worsening of already existing ones in HIV-positive patients that have recently begun antiretroviral and/or anti-tuberculosis treatment. Such should be done after excluding drug resistance, treatment non-adherence and intercurrent disease. (Author) 8 refs

  13. Potential for false positive HIV test results with the serial rapid HIV testing algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baveewo, Steven; Kamya, Moses R; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Fatch, Robin; Bangsberg, David R; Coates, Thomas; Hahn, Judith A; Wanyenze, Rhoda K

    2012-03-19

    Rapid HIV tests provide same-day results and are widely used in HIV testing programs in areas with limited personnel and laboratory infrastructure. The Uganda Ministry of Health currently recommends the serial rapid testing algorithm with Determine, STAT-PAK, and Uni-Gold for diagnosis of HIV infection. Using this algorithm, individuals who test positive on Determine, negative to STAT-PAK and positive to Uni-Gold are reported as HIV positive. We conducted further testing on this subgroup of samples using qualitative DNA PCR to assess the potential for false positive tests in this situation. Of the 3388 individuals who were tested, 984 were HIV positive on two consecutive tests, and 29 were considered positive by a tiebreaker (positive on Determine, negative on STAT-PAK, and positive on Uni-Gold). However, when the 29 samples were further tested using qualitative DNA PCR, 14 (48.2%) were HIV negative. Although this study was not primarily designed to assess the validity of rapid HIV tests and thus only a subset of the samples were retested, the findings show a potential for false positive HIV results in the subset of individuals who test positive when a tiebreaker test is used in serial testing. These findings highlight a need for confirmatory testing for this category of individuals.

  14. Does the presence of tumor-induced cortical bone destruction at CT have any prognostic value in newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Hugo J.A.; Nievelstein, Rutger A.J.; Kwee, Thomas C. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Klerk, John M.H. de [Meander Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Fijnheer, Rob [Meander Medical Center, Department of Hematology, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Heggelman, Ben G.F. [Meander Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Dubois, Stefan V. [Meander Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Amersfoort (Netherlands)

    2015-05-01

    To determine the prognostic value of tumor-induced cortical bone destruction at computed tomography (CT) in newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). This retrospective study included 105 patients with newly diagnosed DLBCL who had undergone CT and bone marrow biopsy (BMB) before R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, Oncovin, and prednisolone) chemo-immunotherapy. Cox regression analyses were used to determine the associations of cortical bone status at CT (absence vs. presence of tumor-induced cortical bone destruction), BMB findings (negative vs. positive for lymphomatous involvement), and dichotomized National Comprehensive Cancer Network International Prognostic Index (NCCN-IPI) strata (low risk vs. high risk) with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Univariate Cox regression analysis indicated that cortical bone status at CT was no significant predictor of either PFS or OS (p = 0.358 and p = 0.560, respectively), whereas BMB findings (p = 0.002 and p = 0.013, respectively) and dichotomized NCCN-IPI risk strata (p = 0.002 and p = 0.003, respectively) were significant predictors of both PFS and OS. In the multivariate Cox proportional hazards model, only the dichotomized NCCN-IPI score was an independent predictive factor of PFS and OS (p = 0.004 and p = 0.003, respectively). The presence of tumor-induced cortical bone destruction at CT was not found to have any prognostic implications in newly diagnosed DLBCL. (orig.)

  15. Atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude high grade squamous intraepithelial (ASC-H in HIV-positive women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelow Pam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: South Africa has very high rates of both HIV infection and cervical pathology. The management of ASC-H is colposcopy and directed biopsy, but with so many women diagnosed with HSIL and a dearth of colposcopy centres in South Africa, women with cytologic diagnosis of ASC-H may not be prioritized for colposcopy. The aim of this study was to determine if HIV-positive women with a cytologic diagnosis of ASC-H should undergo immediate colposcopy or whether colposcopy can be delayed, within the context of an underfunded health care setting with so many competing health needs. Materials and Methods: A computer database search was performed from the archives of an NGO-administered clinic that offers comprehensive HIV care. All women with a cytologic diagnosis of ASC-H on cervical smears from September 2005 until August 2009 were identified. Histologic follow up was sought in all patients. Results: A total of 2111 cervical smears were performed and 41 diagnosed as ASC-H (1.94%. No histologic follow up data was available in 15 cases. Follow up histologic results were as follows: three negative (11.5%, five koilocytosis and/ or CIN1 (19.2%, ten CIN2 (38.5% and eight CIN3 (30.8%. There were no cases of invasive carcinoma on follow up. Conclusion: The current appropriate management of HIV-positive women in low-resource settings with a diagnosis of ASC-H on cervical smear is colposcopy, despite the costs involved. In the future and if cost-effective in developing nations, use of novel markers may help select which HIV-positive women can be managed conservatively and which ones referred for more active treatment. More research in this regard is warranted.

  16. Factors Associated with Non-disclosure of HIV Status in a Cohort of Childbearing HIV-Positive Women in Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jane V; Bailey, Heather; Malyuta, Ruslan; Volokha, Alla; Thorne, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Ukraine has one of the largest populations of persons living with HIV in Europe. Data on 2019 HIV-positive married or cohabiting women enrolled in a postnatal cohort from 2007 to 2012 were analysed to investigate prevalence and factors associated with self-reported non-disclosure of HIV status. Median age at enrolment was 27.5 years, with two-thirds diagnosed during their most recent pregnancy. Almost all had received antenatal antiretroviral therapy and 24 % were taking it currently. One-tenth (n = 198) had not disclosed their HIV status to their partner and 1 in 20 (n = 93) had disclosed to no-one. Factors associated with non-disclosure were: unmarried status (AOR 2.99 (95 % CI 1.51-5.92), younger age at leaving full-time education (AOR 0.41 (95 % CI 0.19-0.88) for ≥19 years vs ≤16 years) and lack of knowledge of partner's HIV status (AOR 2.01 (95 % CI 1.09-3.66). Further work is needed to support disclosure in some groups and to explore relationships between disclosure and psychological factors in this setting, including depression, lack of support and perception of stigma.

  17. [Epidemiological characteristics of newly reported HIV infections in Chinese and Burmese residents, during 2012-2016 in Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J B; Chen, X C; Duan, X; Yang, J; Wang, Y K; Yang, T; Ye, R H; Yang, Y C; Yao, S T; Jiang, Y; Duan, S; He, N

    2017-10-10

    Objective: To understand the epidemiological characteristics of newly reported HIV infections in Chinese and Burmese residents during 2012-2016 in Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture of Yunnan province (Dehong) and to provide evidence for the development of related programs on prevention and control. Methods: All the HIV infections who were newly reported during 2012-2016 in Dehong, were recruited as the study subjects, with epidemiological characteristics of the cases analyzed by using the software SPSS 22.0. Results: A total of 5 692 HIV infections were newly reported between 2012 and 2016 (including 5 592 in this study), in which the Chinese patients accounted for 43.3 % (2 419) and the rest 56.7 % (3 173) were Burmese. Differences in age, gender and other social characteristics of these newly reported HIV infections were statistically significant between the Chinese and the Burmese (all p -values Chinese patients but through injecting drug use among the Burmese patients. Conclusions: Epidemiological characteristics of the newly reported HIV infections were different between the Chinese and the Burmese, between 2012 and 2016 in Dehong. Targeted prevention and control programs should be taken.

  18. Potential for false positive HIV test results with the serial rapid HIV testing algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baveewo Steven

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid HIV tests provide same-day results and are widely used in HIV testing programs in areas with limited personnel and laboratory infrastructure. The Uganda Ministry of Health currently recommends the serial rapid testing algorithm with Determine, STAT-PAK, and Uni-Gold for diagnosis of HIV infection. Using this algorithm, individuals who test positive on Determine, negative to STAT-PAK and positive to Uni-Gold are reported as HIV positive. We conducted further testing on this subgroup of samples using qualitative DNA PCR to assess the potential for false positive tests in this situation. Results Of the 3388 individuals who were tested, 984 were HIV positive on two consecutive tests, and 29 were considered positive by a tiebreaker (positive on Determine, negative on STAT-PAK, and positive on Uni-Gold. However, when the 29 samples were further tested using qualitative DNA PCR, 14 (48.2% were HIV negative. Conclusion Although this study was not primarily designed to assess the validity of rapid HIV tests and thus only a subset of the samples were retested, the findings show a potential for false positive HIV results in the subset of individuals who test positive when a tiebreaker test is used in serial testing. These findings highlight a need for confirmatory testing for this category of individuals.

  19. HIV-positive and HIV-negative consumers accept an instant soy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV-positive and HIV-negative consumers accept an instant soy maize porridge. ... Health SA Gesondheid ... The objective of this study was to assess consumer acceptability, preference and consumption intent of an instant soy ... as a food supplement for HIV subjects in a subsequent nutrition intervention trial, to improve

  20. Current integration of tuberculosis (TB and HIV services in South Africa, 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel C Chehab

    Full Text Available SETTING: Public Health Facilities in South Africa. OBJECTIVE: To assess the current integration of TB and HIV services in South Africa, 2011. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of 49 randomly selected health facilities in South Africa. Trained interviewers administered a standardized questionnaire to one staff member responsible for TB and HIV in each facility on aspects of TB/HIV policy, integration and recording and reporting. We calculated and compared descriptive statistics by province and facility type. RESULTS: Of the 49 health facilities 35 (71% provided isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT and 35 (71% offered antiretroviral therapy (ART. Among assessed sites in February 2011, 2,512 patients were newly diagnosed with HIV infection, of whom 1,913 (76% were screened for TB symptoms, and 616 of 1,332 (46% of those screened negative for TB were initiated on IPT. Of 1,072 patients newly registered with TB in February 2011, 144 (13% were already on ART prior to Tb clinical diagnosis, and 451 (42% were newly diagnosed with HIV infection. Of those, 84 (19% were initiated on ART. Primary health clinics were less likely to offer ART compared to district hospitals or community health centers (p<0.001. CONCLUSION: As of February 2011, integration of TB and HIV services is taking place in public medical facilities in South Africa. Among these services, IPT in people living with HIV and ART in TB patients are the least available.

  1. The Association Between Neighborhood Poverty and HIV Diagnoses Among Males and Females in New York City, 2010–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocour, Angelica; Kersanske, Laura S.; Bodach, Sara D.; Xia, Qiang; Braunstein, Sarah L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective We assessed the association of neighborhood poverty with HIV diagnosis rates for males and females in New York City. Methods We calculated annual HIV diagnosis rates by ZIP Code, sex, and neighborhood poverty level using 2010–2011 New York City (NYC) HIV surveillance data and data from the U.S. Census 2010 and American Community Survey 2007–2011. Neighborhood poverty levels were percentage of residents in a ZIP Code with incomes below the federal poverty threshold, categorized as 0%–poverty), 10%–poverty), 20%–poverty), and 30%–100% (very high poverty). We used sex-stratified negative binomial regression models to measure the association between neighborhood-level poverty and HIV diagnosis rates, controlling for neighborhood-level education, race/ethnicity, age, and percentage of men who have sex with men. Results In 2010–2011, 6,184 people were newly diagnosed with HIV. Median diagnosis rates per 100,000 population increased by neighborhood poverty level overall (13.7, 34.3, 50.6, and 75.6 for low-, medium-, high-, and very high-poverty ZIP Codes, respectively), for males, and for females. In regression models, higher neighborhood poverty remained associated with higher diagnosis rates among males (adjusted rate ratio [ARR] = 1.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.34, 1.97) and females (ARR=2.14, 95% CI 1.46, 3.14) for very high- vs. low-poverty ZIP Codes. Conclusion Living in very high- vs. low-poverty urban neighborhoods was associated with increased HIV diagnosis rates. After controlling for other factors, the association between poverty and diagnosis rates was stronger among females than among males. Alleviating poverty may help decrease HIV-related disparities. PMID:26957664

  2. People newly in love are more responsive to positive feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Cassandra L; Beninger, Richard J

    2012-06-01

    Passionate love is associated with increased activity in dopamine-rich regions of the brain. Increased dopamine in these regions is associated with a greater tendency to learn from reward in trial-and-error learning tasks. This study examined the prediction that individuals who were newly in love would be better at responding to reward (positive feedback). In test trials, people who were newly in love selected positive outcomes significantly more often than their single (not in love) counterparts but were no better at the task overall. This suggests that people who are newly in love show a bias toward responding to positive feedback, which may reflect a general bias towards reward-seeking.

  3. Characterization of HIV Transmission in South-East Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenigl, Martin; Chaillon, Antoine; Kessler, Harald H; Haas, Bernhard; Stelzl, Evelyn; Weninger, Karin; Little, Susan J; Mehta, Sanjay R

    2016-01-01

    To gain deeper insight into the epidemiology of HIV-1 transmission in South-East Austria we performed a retrospective analysis of 259 HIV-1 partial pol sequences obtained from unique individuals newly diagnosed with HIV infection in South-East Austria from 2008 through 2014. After quality filtering, putative transmission linkages were inferred when two sequences were ≤1.5% genetically different. Multiple linkages were resolved into putative transmission clusters. Further phylogenetic analyses were performed using BEAST v1.8.1. Finally, we investigated putative links between the 259 sequences from South-East Austria and all publicly available HIV polymerase sequences in the Los Alamos National Laboratory HIV sequence database. We found that 45.6% (118/259) of the sampled sequences were genetically linked with at least one other sequence from South-East Austria forming putative transmission clusters. Clustering individuals were more likely to be men who have sex with men (MSM; pAustria had at least one putative inferred linkage with sequences from a total of 69 other countries. In conclusion, analysis of HIV-1 sequences from newly diagnosed individuals residing in South-East Austria revealed a high degree of national and international clustering mainly within MSM. Interestingly, we found that a high number of heterosexual males clustered within MSM networks, suggesting either linkage between risk groups or misrepresentation of sexual risk behaviors by subjects.

  4. Being an HIV-positive mother: meanings for HIV-positive women and for professional nursing staff

    OpenAIRE

    Monticelli, Marisa; Santos, Evanguelia Kotzias Atherino dos; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To comprehend the meanings of being an HIV-positive mother for HIV-positive women and for professional nursing staff of shared in-patient maternity wards, and to identify similarities and contrasts present in these meanings. METHODS: This was a descriptive and comparative secondary analysis study of data from two previous larger studies conducted in Public Hospitals of the Greater Florianopolis Area, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Data was collected through observation and interviews. RE...

  5. Early repeated infections with Trichomonas vaginalis among HIV-positive and HIV-negative women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissinger, Patricia; Secor, W Evan; Leichliter, Jami S; Clark, Rebecca A; Schmidt, Norine; Curtin, Erink; Martin, David H

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine whether early repeated infections due to Trichomonas vaginalis among human immunuodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and HIV-negative women are reinfections, new infections, or cases of treatment failure. Women attending an HIV outpatient clinic and a family planning clinic in New Orleans, Louisiana, who had culture results positive for T. vaginalis were treated with 2 g of metronidazole under directly observed therapy. At 1 month, detailed sexual exposure and sexual partner treatment information was collected. Isolates from women who had clinical resistance (i.e., who tested positive for a third time after treatment at a higher dose) were tested for metronidazole susceptibility in vitro. Of 60 HIV-positive women with trichomoniasis, 11 (18.3%) were T. vaginalis positive 1 month after treatment. The 11 recurrences were classified as 3 probable reinfections (27%), 2 probable infections from a new sexual partner (18%), and 6 probable treatment failures (55%); 2 of the 6 patients who experienced probable treatment failure had isolates with mild resistance to metronidazole. Of 301 HIV-negative women, 24 (8.0%) were T. vaginalis positive 1 month after treatment. The 24 recurrences were classified as 2 probable reinfections (8%) and 22 probable treatment failures (92%); of the 22 patients who experienced probable treatment failure, 2 had strains with moderate resistance to metronidazole, and 1 had a strain with mild resistance to metronidazole. HIV-positive women were more likely to have sexual re-exposure than were HIV-negative women, although the rate of treatment failure was similar in both groups. High rates of treatment failure among both HIV-positive and HIV-negative women indicate that a 2-g dose of metronidazole may not be adequate for treatment of some women and that rescreening should be considered.

  6. Serum selenium is low in newly diagnosed Graves´disease: a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow Pedersen, Inge; Knudsen, Nils; Carle, Allan

    2013-01-01

    by a fluorimetric method. Patients with newly diagnosed Graves’ disease (GD) (n = 97) or autoimmune overt hypothyroidism (AIH) (n = 96), euthyroid subjects with high serum levels of thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO‐Ab) (TPO‐Ab > 1500 U/ml, n = 92) and random controls (n = 830). Differences in s‐Se values. S...

  7. Clinical and demographic profile of HIV/AIDS patients diagnosed at a tertiary care centre in Kashmir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir, M.A.; Ahmad, P.M.; Siddeque, M.A.; Sofi, F.A.; Ahmad, S.N.; Dar, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To study the clinical and demographic profile of HIV/AIDS patients diagnosed at a tertiary care centre. Methods: The study was conducted on a group of 1141 patients suspected of having HIV/AIDS on clinical grounds. Screening was done using different Elisa's as advised by NACO and those confirmed as HIV positive were studied for their clinical spectrum and different demographic parameters. Results: Out of 1141 patients tested, 26 proved to have HIV 1 infection with no case of HIV 2 detected. Mean age of presentation was 40.04 +- 7 years, main age group affected 31-40 years and a male: female ratio of 4.2:1 was observed. More than 42% were non Kashmiris with armed forces outnumbering all other occupational classes. Heterosexual transmission was the commonest with married out numbering unmarried. Fever, asthenia and weight loss were the predominant symptoms and pulmonary tuberculosis and oropharyngeal candidiasis commonest opportunistic infections. Conclusion: The clinical and demographic profile of HIV/AIDS patients in Kashmir is largely similar to the rest of India. Kashmir no longer stands immune to the menace of HIV/AIDS. With increasing globalization, frequent travel and change in social values the state is likely to witness an alarming rise in new cases unless a multi pronged approach is undertaken to control the spread. (author)

  8. Croatian Recommendations for Dialysis of HIV-Positive Patients

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    Gulin Marijana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection may be associated with renal impairment since about 0.4% of all HIV-positive patients develop end-stage renal disease. The share of patients with HIV infection in hemodialysis centers throughout the world ranges from 0.3% to as high as 38%. In Croatia, renal replacement therapy was needed by 1% of all the HIV-positive patients from 1985 until the end of 2014. Healthcare professionals (HP should be aware of the risks of occupational exposure to blood-borne infections in their daily work. Performing dialysis in HIV-positive patients increases the risk of exposure to HIV during the extracorporeal circulation of the infected blood. However, post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP with effective antiretroviral drugs significantly reduces the risk of infection after occupational exposure. On behalf of the Croatian Society of Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation, the authors of this paper have proposed recommendations for the management of HIVpositive patients on dialysis, which aim to prevent the transmission of HIV among patients and HPs. The important recommendations include the following: 1. when the need arises, it is necessary to provide HIV-positive patients with dialysis in the vicinity of their place of residence. 2. HIV-positive patients should be dialyzed with a separate hemodialysis machine in an isolated area. Alternatively, they can be dialyzed in an area for the hemodialysis of HCV-positive and/or HBVpositive patients. 3. Specialized and trained personnel should be provided during the hemodialysis procedure, together with strict compliance with the standard precautions for the prevention of blood-borne infections. 4. There should be a good and prompt cooperation with the National Referral Center for HIV infection.

  9. CTSH regulates β-cell function and disease progression in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fløyel, Tina; Brorsson, Caroline; Nielsen, Lotte B

    2014-01-01

    expression and increased insulin secretion. Additionally, islets from Ctsh(-/-) mice contained less insulin than islets from WT mice. Importantly, the TT genotype was associated with higher daily insulin dose and faster disease progression in newly diagnosed T1D patients, indicating agreement between...

  10. Efficacy of escalated imatinib combined with cytarabine in newly diagnosed patients with chronic myeloid leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deenik, Wendy; Janssen, Jeroen J. W. M.; van der Holt, Bronno; Verhoef, Gregor E. G.; Smit, Willem M.; Kersten, Marie José; Daenen, Simon M. G. J.; Verdonck, Leo F.; Ferrant, Augustin; Schattenberg, Anton V. M. B.; Sonneveld, Pieter; van Marwijk Kooy, Marinus; Wittebol, Shulamit; Willemze, Roelof; Wijermans, Pierre W.; Beverloo, H. Berna; Löwenberg, Bob; Valk, Peter J. M.; Ossenkoppele, Gert J.; Cornelissen, Jan J.

    2010-01-01

    In order to improve the molecular response rate and prevent resistance to treatment, combination therapy with different dosages of imatinib and cytarabine was studied in newly diagnosed patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in the HOVON-51 study. Having reported feasibility previously, we hereby

  11. Efficacy of escalated imatinib combined with cytarabine in newly diagnosed patients with chronic myeloid leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deenik, W.; Janssen, J.J.W.M.; van der Holt, B.; Verhoef, G.E.G.; Smit, W.M.; Kersten, M.J.; Daenen, S.M.G.J.; Verdouck, L.F.; Ferrant, A.; Schattenberg, A.V.M.B.; Sonneveld, P.; Kooy, M.V.M.; Wittebol, S.; Willemze, R.; Wijermans, P.W.; Beverloo, H.B.; Lowenberg, B.; Valk, P.J.M.; Ossenkoppele, G.J.; Cornelissen, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background In order to improve the molecular response rate and prevent resistance to treatment, combination therapy with different dosages of imatinib and cytarabine was studied in newly diagnosed patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in the HOVON-51 study. Design and Methods Having reported

  12. Efficacy of escalated imatinib combined with cytarabine in newly diagnosed patients with chronic myeloid leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deenik, Wendy; Janssen, Jeroen J. W. M.; van der Holt, Bronno; Verhoef, Gregor E. G.; Smit, Willem M.; Kersten, Marie Jose; Daenen, Simon M. G. J.; Verdouck, Leo F.; Ferrant, Augustin; Schattenberg, Anton V. M. B.; Sonneveld, Pieter; Kooy, Marinus van Marwijk; Wittebol, Shulamit; Willemze, Roelof; Wijermans, Pierre W.; Beverloo, H. Berna; Lowenberg, Bob; Valk, Peter J. M.; Ossenkoppele, Gert J.; Cornelissen, Jan J.

    Background In order to improve the molecular response rate and prevent resistance to treatment, combination therapy with different dosages of imatinib and cytarabine was studied in newly diagnosed patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in the HOVON-51 study. Design and Methods Having reported

  13. Asymptomatic HIV positive patient presenting with myelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatin Agrawal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide variety of disorders of diverse pathogenic mechanisms can trigger spinal cord dysfunction in HIV-1-infected patients. The most common such condition is HIV-1-associated myelopathy (HAM which characteristically seen during advanced HIV infection in patients with low CD4 cell counts and previous AIDS-defining diagnoses. Histologically seen in approximately 30% of AIDS patients, but only 10% have clinical symptoms related to the disease. We describe an unusual case of HAM in previously asymptomatic patient with relatively low CD4 cell count (78 cells/mm3. The patient unaware of her seropositive status presented with a clinically slowly progressive myelopathy with difficulty in walking without assistance. We discharged a patient on antiretroviral therapy. We also review the disorders reported to derange spinal cord function in previously asymptomatic HIV-1 infected patients with preserved counts.

  14. Antipsychotic medications and dental caries in newly diagnosed schizophrenia: A nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kai-Fang; Chou, Yu-Hsiang; Wen, Yen-Hsia; Hsieh, Kun-Pin; Tsai, Jui-Hsiu; Yang, Pinchen; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Lin, Chun-Hung Richard

    2016-11-30

    We investigated the association between antipsychotic medications and the risk of dental caries in patients with schizophrenia. We enroled a nationwide cohort of patients with newly diagnosed schizophrenia within 1 year of dental caries development. Exposure to antipsychotics and other medications was categorised according to their type and duration, and the association between exposure and dental caries was assessed through logistic regressions. Of the 3610 patients with newly diagnosed schizophrenia, 2149 (59.5%) exhibited an incidence of treated dental caries. Logistic regression analysis identified a younger age, female sex, high income, a 2-year history of dental caries, and exposure to first-generation antipsychotics, and antihypertensives as independent risk factors for treated dental caries in patients with schizophrenia. Hyposalivation, the adverse effect of first-generation antipsychotics and antihypertensives, was associated with an increased risk of treated dental caries. However, hypersalivation from first-generation antipsychotics for dental caries was associated with a protective factor. These findings suggest that clinicians should pay attention to the aforementioned risk factors for dental caries in patients with schizophrenia, particularly while prescribing first-generation antipsychotics and antihypertensives to such patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Rituximab and Dexamethasone vs Dexamethasone Monotherapy in Newly Diagnosed Patients with Primary Immune Thrombocytopenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudbrandsdottir, Sif; Birgens, Henrik Sverre; Frederiksen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we report the results from the largest cohort to date of newly diagnosed adult immune thrombocytopenia patients randomized to treatment with dexamethasone alone or in combination with rituximab. Eligible were patients with platelet counts ≤25×10(9)/L or ≤50×10(9)/L with bleeding sy...

  16. Objective measurements of activity patterns in people with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes demonstrate a sedentary lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichosz, S L; Fleischer, J; Hoeyem, P; Laugesen, E; Poulsen, P L; Christiansen, J S; Ejskjær, N; Hansen, T K

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate physical activity in people with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes using objective measures. We analysed data from a study aimed at assessing carotid femoral pulse wave velocity in which a piezoelectric accelerometer was worn by 100 people with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes and by 100 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Differences in physical activity patterns were investigated. Compared with the control group, the people with Type 2 diabetes spent significantly more time engaged in sedentary or lower level activities during the day, with a mean (sd) time of 926 (44) vs 898 (70) min, P sedentary lifestyle compared with well-matched controls. © 2013 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2013 Diabetes UK.

  17. Prognostic value of quantitative fluorodeoxyglucose measurements in newly diagnosed metastatic breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulaner, Gary A; Eaton, Anne; Morris, Patrick G; Lilienstein, Joshua; Jhaveri, Komal; Patil, Sujata; Fazio, Maurizio; Larson, Steven; Hudis, Clifford A; Jochelson, Maxine S

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of quantitative fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) measurements (maximum standardized uptake value [SUV max ], metabolic tumor volume [MTV], and total lesion glycolysis [TLG]) in patients with newly diagnosed metastatic breast cancer (MBC). An IRB-approved retrospective review was performed of patients who underwent FDG positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) from 1/02 to 12/08 within 60 days of diagnosis MBC. Patients with FDG-avid lesions without receiving chemotherapy in the prior 30 days were included. Target lesions in bone, lymph node (LN), liver, and lung were analyzed for SUV max , MTV, and TLG. Medical records were reviewed for patient characteristics and overall survival (OS). Cox regression was used to test associations between quantitative FDG measurements and OS. A total of 253 patients were identified with disease in bone (n = 150), LN (n = 162), liver (n = 48), and lung (n = 66) at the time of metastatic diagnosis. Higher SUV max tertile was associated with worse OS in bone metastases (highest vs. lowest tertile hazard ratio [HR] = 3.1, P < 0.01), but not in LN, liver or lung (all P > 0.1). Higher MTV tertile was associated with worse OS in LN (HR = 2.4, P < 0.01) and liver (HR = 3.0, P = 0.02) metastases, but not in bone (P = 0.22) or lung (P = 0.14). Higher TLG tertile was associated with worse OS in bone (HR = 2.2, P = 0.02), LN (HR = 2.3, P < 0.01), and liver (HR = 4.9, P < 0.01) metastases, but not in lung (P = 0.19). We conclude measures of FDG avidity are prognostic biomarkers in newly diagnosed MBC. SUV max and TLG were both predictors of survival in breast cancer patients with bone metastases. TLG may be a more informative biomarker of OS than SUV max for patients with LN and liver metastases. Measures of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) avidity are prognostic biomarkers in newly diagnosed metastatic breast cancer. Volumetric measurements, such as total lesion glycolysis (TLG

  18. Prevalence and characteristics of the metabolic syndrome among newly diagnosed hypertensive patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuji, Charles U.; Omejua, Emeka G.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease risk factors have a tendency to cluster. The presence of such a cluster in an individual has been designated the metabolic syndrome (MetS). There is a paucity of reports of the prevalence of MetS in hypertensive patients in south east Nigeria. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) among newly diagnosed hypertensive patients using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) criteria in a tertiary healthcare centre in South East Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A population of 250 consecutive newly diagnosed adult hypertensive patients (126 males and 124 females) was evaluated. Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were done using standardized techniques. After an overnight fast, blood samples were taken for glucose and lipid profile assays. The NCEP ATP III criteria were then applied for the diagnosis of MetS. Results: The prevalence of the MetS among the study population was 31.2%. The sex-specific prevalences were 15.1% and 47.6% among male and female patients respectively. A large number of the patients (40.4%) were at a high potential risk of developing the MetS as they already met 2 of the criteria. The MetS prevalence increased progressively from 14.3% through 23.8%, in the patients aged 24-33years and 34-43 years, respectively to a peak (40.4%) among those aged 44-53 years before declining in those aged 54-63 years (31.8%), 64-73 years (33.3%) and 74 years and above (20.6%). Central obesity was the most common component of the MetS being present in 50.4% of patients (28.6% of males and 72.6% of females). Of the other components, low HDL-C was present in 38.8% (26.2% of males and 51.6% of females), elevated FBS in 12.8% (6.3% of males and 19.4% of females) and elevated triglycerides in 8.8% (11.9% of males and 5.6% of females). Conclusion: The prevalence of the MetS is high among newly diagnosed hypertensive patients in Nnewi

  19. HIV-positive patients’ and their families’ comprehension of HIV- and AIDS-related information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gedina E. de Wet

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite acknowledgement of the importance of sharing HIV- and AIDS-related information with people living with HIV, it is still unclear as to what their actual comprehension is of this information. This research was part of a larger project, Tswaragano, conducted in the North-West Province, South Africa, which explored and described the competence, ability and strengths of the family of the HIV-positive patient during home support. This research focused on Potchefstroom in the North-West Province. This article focuses on research with the objective being to explore and describe the comprehension of HIV-positive patients and their families with regard to HIV- and AIDS-related information, and to formulate recommendations to improve their comprehension of this information. A quantitative, explorative and descriptive survey design was followed. Data were collected by means of questionnaires completed by HIV-positive patients (n = 79 and their family members (n = 34. Descriptive statistical analysis by means of frequency analysis was conducted. Ethical considerations and mechanisms to enhance validity and reliability are discussed. The results indicated that both HIV-positive respondents and their families face social and financial challenges due to unemployment and low income. A strength found in this research is that the majority of respondents are linked to a church, which can be a valuable platform to share information on HIV and AIDS. With regards to sharing, sources and comprehension of HIV- and AIDS-related information, it is apparent that respondents perceived that pre- and post-counselling provided an opportunity for information sharing, but that they need health care workers to spend more time with them, to be non-judgemental and to make more use of visual aids. It furthermore seems that the majority of HIV-positive respondents in this study did comprehend the need for and negotiate for safer sexual practices. It was concluded that

  20. HIV-positive patients’ and their families’ comprehension of HIV- and AIDS-related information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gedina E. de Wet

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite acknowledgement of the importance of sharing HIV- and AIDS-related information with people living with HIV, it is still unclear as to what their actual comprehension is of this information. This research was part of a larger project, Tswaragano, conducted in the North-West Province, South Africa, which explored and described the competence, ability and strengths of the family of the HIV-positive patient during home support. This research focused on Potchefstroom in the North-West Province. This article focuses on research with the objective being to explore and describe the comprehension of HIV-positive patients and their families with regard to HIV- and AIDS-related information, and to formulate recommendations to improve their comprehension of this information. A quantitative, explorative and descriptive survey design was followed. Data were collected by means of questionnaires completed by HIV-positive patients (n= 79 and their family members (n= 34. Descriptive statistical analysis by means of frequency analysis was conducted. Ethical considerations and mechanisms to enhance validity and reliability are discussed. The results indicated that both HIV-positive respondents and their families face social and financial challenges due to unemployment and low income. A strength found in this research is that the majority of respondents are linked to a church, which can be a valuable platform to share information on HIV and AIDS. With regards to sharing, sources and comprehension of HIV- and AIDS-related information, it is apparent that respondents perceived that pre- and post-counselling provided an opportunity for information sharing, but that they need health care workers to spend more time with them, to be non-judgemental and to make more use of visual aids. It furthermore seems that the majority of HIV-positive respondents in this study did comprehend the need for and negotiate for safer sexual practices. It was concluded that although

  1. The impact of bevacizumab treatment on survival and quality of life in newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Hans Skovgaard; Urup, Thomas; Michaelsen, Signe Regner

    2014-01-01

    in newly diagnosed GBM patients have been performed during recent years to test the hypothesis that newly diagnosed GBM patients should be treated with standard multimodality treatment, in combination with bevacizumab, in order to prolong life and maintain or improve quality of life. The results...... treatment is therefore to prolong life, with a maintenance or improvement of quality of life. GBM is a highly vascular tumor and overexpresses the vascular endothelial growth factor A, which promotes angiogenesis. Preclinical data have suggested that anti-angiogenic treatment efficiently inhibits tumor...... growth. Bevacizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor A, and treatment has shown impressive response rates in recurrent GBM. In addition, it has been shown that response is correlated to prolonged survival and improved quality of life. Several investigations...

  2. Preliminary evaluation of the impact of a Web-based HIV testing programme in Abruzzo Region on the prevention of late HIV presentation and associated mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ennio Polilli

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to analyze the efficacy of a Web-based testing programme in terms of the prevention of late HIV presentation. The clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed with HIV via the Web-based testing programme were compared to those of patients diagnosed in parallel via standard diagnostic care procedures. Methods: This study included the clinical and demographic data of newly diagnosed HIV patients enrolled at the study clinic between February 2014 and June 2017. These patients were diagnosed either via standard diagnostic procedures or as a result of the Web-based testing programme. Results: Eighty-eight new cases of HIV were consecutively enrolled; their mean age was 39.1 ± 13.0 years. Fifty-nine patients (67% were diagnosed through standard diagnostic procedures and 29 (33% patients came from the Web-based testing programme. Late presentation (62% vs. 34%, p = 0.01 and AIDS-defining conditions at presentation (13 vs. 1, p = 0.02 were significantly more frequent in the standard care group than in the Web-based group; four of 13 patients with AIDS diagnosed under standard diagnostic procedures died, versus none in the Web-based testing group (p < 0.001. Conclusions: Web-based recruitment for voluntary and free HIV testing helped to diagnose patients with less advanced HIV disease and no risk of death, from all at-risk groups, in comparison with standard care testing. Keywords: AIDS, HIV, Late presentation, Voluntary and free testing, HIV diagnosis, Sexually transmitted infections

  3. Potential years lost and life expectancy in adults with newly diagnosed epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granbichler, Claudia A; Zimmermann, Georg; Oberaigner, Willi; Kuchukhidze, Giorgi; Ndayisaba, Jean-Pierre; Taylor, Alexandra; Luef, Gerhard; Bathke, Arne C; Trinka, Eugen

    2017-11-01

    Studies using relative measures, such as standardized mortality ratios, have shown that patients with epilepsy have an increased mortality. Reports on more direct and absolute measure such as life expectancy are sparse. We report potential years lost and how life expectancy has changed over 40 years in a cohort of patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy. We analyzed life expectancy in a cohort of adult patients diagnosed with definite epilepsy between 1970 and 2010. Those with brain tumor as cause of epilepsy were excluded. By retrospective probabilistic record linkage, living or death status was derived from the national death registry. We estimated life expectancy by a Weibull regression model using gender, age at diagnosis, epilepsy etiology, and year of diagnosis as covariates at time of epilepsy diagnosis, and 5, 10, 15, and 20 years after diagnosis. Results were compared to the general population, and 95% confidence intervals are given. There were 249 deaths (105 women, age at death 19.0-104.0 years) in 1,112 patients (11,978.4 person-years, 474 women, 638 men). A substantial decrease in life expectancy was observed for only a few subgroups, strongly depending on epilepsy etiology and time of diagnosis: time of life lost was highest in patients with symptomatic epilepsy diagnosed between 1970 and 1980; the impact declined with increasing time from diagnosis. Over half of the analyzed subgroups did not differ significantly from the general population. This effect was reversed in the later decades, and life expectancy was prolonged in some subgroups, reaching a maximum in those with newly diagnosed idiopathic and cryptogenic epilepsy between 2001 and 2010. Life expectancy is reduced in symptomatic epilepsies. However, in other subgroups, a prolonged life expectancy was found, which has not been reported previously. Reasons may be manifold and call for further study. © 2017 The Authors. Epilepsia published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International

  4. Web-based stress management for newly diagnosed cancer patients (STREAM-1): a randomized, wait-list controlled intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossert, Astrid; Urech, Corinne; Alder, Judith; Gaab, Jens; Berger, Thomas; Hess, Viviane

    2016-11-03

    Being diagnosed with cancer causes major psychological distress, yet the majority of newly diagnosed cancer patients lack psychological support. Internet interventions overcome many barriers for seeking face-to-face support and allow for independence in time and place. We assess efficacy and feasibility of the first web-based stress management intervention (STREAM: STREss-Aktiv-Mindern) for newly diagnosed, German-speaking cancer patients. In a prospective, wait-list controlled trial 120 newly diagnosed cancer patients will be included within 12 weeks of starting anti-cancer treatment and randomized between an immediate (intervention group) or delayed (control group) 8-week, web-based intervention. The intervention consists of eight modules with weekly written feedback by a psychologist ("minimal-contact") based on well-established stress management manuals including downloadable audio-files and exercises. The aim of this study is to evaluate efficacy in terms of improvement in quality of life (FACT-F), as well as decrease in anxiety and depression (HADS), as compared to patients in the wait-list control group. A sample size of 120 patients allows demonstrating a clinically relevant difference of nine points in the FACT score after the intervention (T2) with a two-sided alpha of 0.05 and 80 % power. As this is the first online stress management intervention for German-speaking cancer patients, more descriptive outcomes are equally important to further refine the group of patients with the largest potential for benefit who then will be targeted more specifically in future trials. These descriptive endpoints include: patients' characteristics (type of cancer, type of treatment, socio-demographic factors), dropout rate and dropout reasons, adherence and satisfaction with the program. New technologies open new opportunities: minimal-contact psychological interventions are becoming standard of care in several psychological disorders, where their efficacy is often

  5. Admission characteristics, diagnoses and outcomes of HIV-infected patients registered in an ambulatory HIV-care programme in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siika, A M; Ayuo, P O; Sidle, Mwangi J E; Wools-Kaloustian, K; Kimaiyo, S N; Tierney, W M

    2008-11-01

    To determine admissions diagnosis and outcomes of HIV-infected patients attending AMPATH ambulatory HIV-care clinics. Prospective cohort study. Academic Model for Prevention and Treatment of HIV/ AIDS (AMPATH) ambulatory HIV-care clinic in western Kenya. Between January 2005 and December 2006, 495 HIV-infected patients enrolled in AMPATH were admitted. Median age at admission was 38 years (range: 19-74), 62% females, 375 (76%) initiated cART a median 56 days (range: 1-1288) before admission. Majority (53%) had pre-admission CD4 counts 200 cells/ml. Common admissions diagnoses were: tuberculosis (27%); pneumonia (15%); meningitis (11%); diarrhoea (11%); malaria (6%); severe anaemia (4%); and toxoplasmosis (3%). Deaths occurred in 147 (30%) patients who enrolled at AMPATH a median 44 days (range: 1-711) before admission and died a median 41 days (range: 1-713) after initiating cART. Tuberculosis (27%) and meningitis (14%) were the most common diagnoses in the deceased. Median admission duration was six days (range: 1-30) for deceased patients and eight days (range: 1-44) for survivors (P=0.0024). Deceased patients enrolled in AMPATH or initiated cART more recently, had lower CD4 counts and were more frequently lost to follow-up than survivors (P<0.05 for each comparison). Initiation of cART before admission and clinic appointment adherence were independent predictors of survival. Although high mortality rate is seen in HIV-infected in-patients, those initiating cART before admission were more likely to survive.

  6. Illness-behaviour, attitude, and knowledge in newly diagnosed diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, B E; Vesterdal Jørgensen, H; Sestoft, L

    1986-01-01

    Sixty-five consecutive patients with newly diagnosed type I diabetes, aged 15-52, were exposed to a systematic educational programme and followed up by three-monthly controls for two to four years. In order to identify psychic, social and behavioural factors associated with good metabolic control...... and appropriate adaptation to illness, they were clinically tested and filled in a questionnaire. The study shows that the illness and the therapeutic regime created few problems regarding practical circumstances of daily living, but there were a vast number of psychological problems: perceived disability......, fatigue, fear, anger, strain, bad conscience, and perceived discrimination. The patients assessed the treatment regimen they had been taught as fair, but still the majority reported inadequate compliance and problems in relation to compliance, especially regarding dietary restrictions. The educational...

  7. Aetiology and management of malnutrition in HIV-positive children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Anna M; Hall, Charles S; Martinez-Alier, Nuria

    2014-06-01

    Worldwide, more than 3 million children are infected with HIV and, without treatment, mortality among these children is extremely high. Both acute and chronic malnutrition are major problems for HIV-positive children living in resource-limited settings. Malnutrition on a background of HIV represents a separate clinical entity, with unique medical and social aetiological factors. Children with HIV have a higher daily calorie requirement than HIV-negative peers and also a higher requirement for micronutrients; furthermore, coinfection and chronic diarrhoea due to HIV enteropathy play a major role in HIV-associated malnutrition. Contributory factors include late presentation to medical services, unavailability of antiretroviral therapy, other issues surrounding healthcare provision and food insecurity in HIV-positive households. Treatment protocols for malnutrition have been greatly improved, yet there remains a discrepancy in mortality between HIV-positive and HIV-negative children. In this review, the aetiology, prevention and treatment of malnutrition in HIV-positive children are examined, with particular focus on resource-limited settings where this problem is most prevalent. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. The effect of partner HIV status on motivation to take antiretroviral and isoniazid preventive therapies: a conjoint analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hae-Young; Hanrahan, Colleen F; Dowdy, David W; Martinson, Neil; Golub, Jonathan; Bridges, John F P

    2018-03-29

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) and isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) are important to reduce morbidity and mortality among people newly diagnosed of HIV. The successful uptake of ART and IPT requires a comprehensive understanding of patients' motivation to take such therapies. Partners also play an important role in the decision to be initiated and retained in care. We quantified patients' motivation to take preventive therapies (ART and IPT) and compared by partner HIV status among people newly diagnosed of HIV. We enrolled and surveyed adults (≥18 years) with a recent HIV diagnosis (ART and 334 (79%) had a partner or spouse. Keeping themselves healthy for their family was the most important motivator to take preventive therapies (p motivation for ART and IPT initiation and adherence compared to individual health benefits. These messages should be emphasized to provide effective patient-centered care and counseling.

  9. Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis in HIV positive patients in Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Frank A; Grint, Daniel; Werlinrud, Anne Marie; Panteleev, Alexander; Riekstina, Vieja; Malashenkov, Evgeniy A; Skrahina, Alena; Duiculescu, Dan; Podlekareva, Daria; Karpov, Igor; Bondarenko, Vasiliy; Chentsova, Nelly; Lundgren, Jens; Mocroft, Amanda; Kirk, Ole; Miro, Jose M

    2014-03-01

    Observational data from Eastern Europe on the management and outcome of multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) in HIV positive populations remain sparse in the English-language literature. We compared clinical characteristics and outcomes of 55 patients who were diagnosed with HIV and MDR TB in Eastern Europe between 2004 and 2006 to 89 patients whose Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were susceptible to isoniazid and rifampicin. Patients with HIV and MDR TB were young and predominantly male with high rates of intravenous drug use, imprisonment and hepatitis C co-infection. Eighty-four per cent of patients with MDR TB had no history of previous TB drug exposure suggesting that the majority of MDR TB resulted from transmission of drug-resistant M. tuberculosis. The use of non-standardized tuberculosis treatment was common, and the use of antiretroviral therapy infrequent. Compared to those with susceptible tuberculosis, patients with MDR TB were less likely to achieve cure or complete tuberculosis treatment (21.8% vs. 62.9%, p < 0.0001), and they were more likely to die (65.5% vs. 27.0%, p < 0.0001). Our study documents suboptimal management and poor outcomes in HIV positive patients with MDR TB. Implementation of WHO guidelines, rapid TB diagnostics and TB drug susceptibility testing for all patients remain a priority in this region. Copyright © 2013 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Application of PET/CT in treatment response evaluation and recurrence prediction in patients with newly-diagnosed multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Liu, Junru; Huang, Beihui; Chen, Meilan; Diao, Xiangwen; Li, Juan

    2017-04-11

    Multiple myeloma (MM) causes osteolytic lesions which can be detected by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/Computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT). We prospectively involve 96 Newly diagnosed MM to take PET/CT scan at scheduled treatment time (figure 1), and 18F-FDG uptake of lesion was measured by SUVmax and T/Mmax. All MM patients took bortezomib based chemotherapy as induction and received ASCT and maintenance. All clinical features were analyzed with the PET/CT image changes, and some relationships between treatment response and FDG uptakes changes were found: Osteolytic lesions of MM uptakes higher FDG than healthy volunteers, and this trend is more obvious in extramedullary lesions. Compared to X-ray, PET/CT was more sensitive both in discoering bone as well as extramedullary lesions. In newly diagnosed MM, several adverse clinical factors were related to high FDG uptakes of bone lesions. Bone lesion FDG uptakes of MM with P53 mutation or with hypodiploidy and complex karyotype were also higher than those without such changes. In treatment response, PET/CT showed higher sensitivity in detecting tumor residual disease than immunofixation electrophoresis. But in relapse prediction, it might show false positive disease recurrences and the imaging changes might be influenced by infections and hemoglobulin levels. PET/CT is sensitive in discovering meduallary and extrameduallary lesions of MM, and the 18F-FDG uptake of lesions are related with clinical indictors and biological features of plasma cells. In evaluating treatment response and survival, PET/CT showed its superiority. But in predicting relapse or refractory, it may show false positive results.

  11. Psychological distress in newly diagnosed colorectal cancer patients following microsatellite instability testing for Lynch syndrome on the pathologist's initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsbergen, K M; Prins, J B; Brunner, H G; van Duijvendijk, P; Nagengast, F M; van Krieken, J H; Ligtenberg, M; Hoogerbrugge, N

    2012-06-01

    According to the Dutch Guideline on Hereditary Colorectal Cancer published in 2008, patients with recently diagnosed colorectal cancer (CRC) should undergo microsatellite instability (MSI) testing by a pathologist immediately after tumour resection if they are younger than 50 years, or if a second CRC has been diagnosed before the age of 70 years, owing to the high risk of Lynch syndrome (MIPA). The aim of the present MIPAPS study was to investigate general distress and cancer-specific distress following MSI testing. From March 2007 to September 2009, 400 patients who had been tested for MSI after newly diagnosed CRC were recruited from 30 Dutch hospitals. Levels of general distress (SCL-90) and cancer-specific distress (IES) were assessed immediately after MSI result disclosure (T1) and 6 months later (T2). Response rates were 23/77 (30%) in the MSI-positive patients and 58/323 (18%) in the MSI-negative patients. Levels of general distress and cancer-specific distress were moderate. In the MSI-positive group, 27% of the patients had high general distress at T1 versus 18% at T2 (p = 0.5), whereas in the MSI-negative group, these percentage were 14 and 18% (p = 0.6), respectively. At T1 and T2, cancer-specific distress rates in the MSI-positive group and MSI-negative group were 39 versus 27% (p = 0.3) and 38 versus 36% (p = 1.0), respectively. High levels of general distress were correlated with female gender, low social support and high perceived cancer risk. Moderate levels of distress were observed after MSI testing, similar to those found in other patients diagnosed with CRC. Immediately after result disclosure, high cancer-specific distress was observed in 40% of the MSI-positive patients.

  12. Breast Gangrene in an HIV-Positive Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatramani, V; Pillai, S; Marathe, S; Rege, SA; Hardikar, JV

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Breast gangrene has been reported as a complication following puerperal sepsis, breast surgery, nipple piercings, warfarin toxicity, etc. We report a case of primary breast gangrene in an HIV-positive individual which, to the best of our knowledge, is the first of its kind. Case report A 40-year-old previously healthy woman presented with fulminating left breast gangrene. She was detected to be HIV positive. Mastectomy was performed. The detailed management of the condition is discussed. Conclusion Severe necrotising infections may be initial manifestations of HIV infection and patients with such infections should be screened for HIV. PMID:19622255

  13. Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potential in HIV-Positive Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matas, Carla Gentile; Samelli, Alessandra Giannella; Angrisani, Rosanna Giaffredo; Magliaro, Fernanda Cristina Leite; Segurado, Aluísio C

    2015-10-20

    To characterize the findings of brainstem auditory evoked potential in HIV-positive individuals exposed and not exposed to antiretroviral treatment. This research was a cross-sectional, observational, and descriptive study. Forty-five HIV-positive individuals (18 not exposed and 27 exposed to the antiretroviral treatment - research groups I and II, respectively - and 30 control group individuals) were assessed through brainstem auditory evoked potential. There were no significant between-group differences regarding wave latencies. A higher percentage of altered brainstem auditory evoked potential was observed in the HIV-positive groups when compared to the control group. The most common alteration was in the low brainstem. HIV-positive individuals have a higher percentage of altered brainstem auditory evoked potential that suggests central auditory pathway impairment when compared to HIV-negative individuals. There was no significant difference between individuals exposed and not exposed to antiretroviral treatment.

  14. Circulating zonulin levels in newly diagnosed Chinese type 2 diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D; Zhang, L; Zheng, Y; Yue, F; Russell, R D; Zeng, Y

    2014-11-01

    Studies suggest that type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with increased gut permeability. Human zonulin is the only physiological mediator discovered to date that is known to regulate gut permeability reversibly by disassembling intestinal tight junctions. However, the relationship between zonulin and type 2 diabetes remains to be defined, and no Chinese population-based data were reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between serum zonulin levels and type 2 diabetes in a Chinese Han population. 143 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients, 124 patients with impaired glucose tolerance and 121 subjects with normal glucose tolerance were enrolled in this study. Serum zonulin was measured by ELISA. Patients with type 2 diabetes had higher serum zonulin levels than impaired or normal glucose tolerant subjects. Serum zonulin correlated with body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-C, fasting plasma glucose, 2h plasma glucose, HbA1c, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 6, HOMA-IR and QUICK index using correlation analysis (p zonulin levels were independently associated with insulin resistance (β = 0.024, p = 0.005). In logistic regression analysis, zonulin levels were an independent predictor of type 2 diabetes (OR = 1.080, p = 0.037). Serum zonulin levels are significantly elevated in newly diagnosed Chinese Type 2 diabetes patients, and are associated with dyslipidemia, inflammation and insulin resistance, indicating a potential role of zonulin in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes in Chinese. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Aendringer i immunstatus blandt nydiagnosticerede hiv-inficerede i Danmark 1995-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høegh, Simon; Lohse, Nicolai; Hansen, Ann-Brit Eg

    2008-01-01

    . MATERIALS AND METHODS: Observational study based on the Danish HIV Cohort Study, which includes all adults seen at Danish HIV clinics since 1995. RESULTS: From 2000 to 2004 the number of newly-infected homosexual men increased (from 69 to 123), particularly in persons under 30 years (from 5 to 42......INTRODUCTION: The incidence of new HIV diagnoses in Denmark has remained stable since 1991, but it has increased among the subgroup of homosexual men in recent years. This may reflect an actual increase in newly infected, e.g. as a result of increased risk behaviour, or it may reflect increased HIV...... testing. To clarify the causes of this increase we describe and analyse the development of HIV infection in Denmark in the period 1995-2005 with special emphasis on the route of transmission, immunological status at the time of diagnosis and the prevalence of patients at risk of transmitting HIV...

  16. Preliminary evaluation of the impact of a Web-based HIV testing programme in Abruzzo Region on the prevention of late HIV presentation and associated mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polilli, Ennio; Sozio, Federica; Di Stefano, Paola; Clerico, Luigi; Di Iorio, Giancarlo; Parruti, Giustino

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to analyze the efficacy of a Web-based testing programme in terms of the prevention of late HIV presentation. The clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed with HIV via the Web-based testing programme were compared to those of patients diagnosed in parallel via standard diagnostic care procedures. This study included the clinical and demographic data of newly diagnosed HIV patients enrolled at the study clinic between February 2014 and June 2017. These patients were diagnosed either via standard diagnostic procedures or as a result of the Web-based testing programme. Eighty-eight new cases of HIV were consecutively enrolled; their mean age was 39.1±13.0 years. Fifty-nine patients (67%) were diagnosed through standard diagnostic procedures and 29 (33%) patients came from the Web-based testing programme. Late presentation (62% vs. 34%, p=0.01) and AIDS-defining conditions at presentation (13 vs. 1, p=0.02) were significantly more frequent in the standard care group than in the Web-based group; four of 13 patients with AIDS diagnosed under standard diagnostic procedures died, versus none in the Web-based testing group (pWeb-based recruitment for voluntary and free HIV testing helped to diagnose patients with less advanced HIV disease and no risk of death, from all at-risk groups, in comparison with standard care testing. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. A prospective observational longitudinal study of new-onset seizures and newly diagnosed epilepsy in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredsø, N; Toft, Nils; Sabers, A.

    2017-01-01

    Seizures are common in dogs and can be caused by non-epileptic conditions or epilepsy. The clinical course of newly diagnosed epilepsy is sparsely documented. The objective of this study was to prospectively investigate causes for seizures (epileptic and non-epileptic) in a cohort of dogs with ne...

  18. HIV Prevalence and Antenatal Care Attendance among Pregnant Women in a Large Home-Based HIV Counseling and Testing Program in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndege, Samson; Washington, Sierra; Kaaria, Alice; Prudhomme-O'Meara, Wendy; Were, Edwin; Nyambura, Monica; Keter, Alfred K; Wachira, Juddy; Braitstein, Paula

    2016-01-01

    To describe the uptake of and factors associated with HIV prevalence among pregnant women in a large-scale home-based HIV counseling and testing (HBCT) program in western Kenya. In 2007, the Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare Program (AMPATH) initiated HBCT to all individuals aged ≥13 years and high-risk children HIV prevalence. There were 119,678 women eligible for analysis; median age 25 (interquartile range, IQR: 18-34) years. Of these, 7,396 (6.2%) were pregnant at the time of HBCT; 4,599 (62%) had ever previously tested for HIV and 2,995 (40.5%) had not yet attended ANC for their current pregnancy. Testing uptake among pregnant women was high (97%). HBCT newly identified 241 (3.3%) pregnant HIV-positive women and overall HIV prevalence among all pregnant women was 6.9%. HIV prevalence among those who had attended ANC in this pregnancy was 5.4% compared to 9.0% among those who had not. Pregnant women were more likely to newly test HIV-positive in HBCT if they had not attended ANC in the current pregnancy (AOR: 6.85, 95% CI: 4.49-10.44). Pregnant women who had never attended ANC were about 6 times more likely to newly test HIV-positive compared to those who had attended ANC, suggesting that the cascade of services for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission should optimally begin at the home and village level if elimination of perinatal HIV transmission is to be achieved.

  19. Respiratory health status is impaired in UK HIV-positive adults with virologically suppressed HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J; McGowan, J A; Chouial, H; Capocci, S; Smith, C; Ivens, D; Johnson, M; Sathia, L; Shah, R; Lampe, F C; Rodger, A; Lipman, M

    2017-09-01

    We sought to evaluate whether people living with HIV (PLWH) using effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) have worse respiratory health status than similar HIV-negative individuals. We recruited 197 HIV-positive and 93 HIV-negative adults from HIV and sexual health clinics. They completed a questionnaire regarding risk factors for respiratory illness. Respiratory health status was assessed using the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and the Medical Research Council (MRC) breathlessness scale. Subjects underwent spirometry without bronchodilation. PLWH had worse respiratory health status: the median SGRQ Total score was 12 [interquartile range (IQR) 6-25] in HIV-positive subjects vs. 6 (IQR 2-14) in HIV-negative subjects (P respiratory health appears more common in HIV-positive adults, and has a significant impact on health-related quality of life. © 2017 The Authors HIV Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British HIV Association.

  20. Diversity management: the treatment of HIV-positive employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Matthew H T; Ineson, Elizabeth M

    2012-01-01

    Socio-demographic dimensions such as age, gender, sexual orientation, race and ethnicity are commonly included in diversity studies. With a view to helping Asian hospitality managers to manage HIV-positive employees in their workplaces through diversity management (DM) theory, this research extends the boundaries of previous diversity studies by considering Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection as a diverse characteristic. Both quantitative and qualitative primary data were collected from purposively selected Asian hospitality managers through postal questionnaire and follow-up telephone interviews. Transformed raw data were analysed using summary statistics and template analysis. Asian hospitality managers agreed that DM would be appropriate in the management of HIV-positive employees and that it could generate substantial benefits for employees and employers. However, they believe that the successful adoption and implementation of DM is not easy; it requires training and, ideally, the recruitment of experienced directors. Nevertheless, Asian hospitality managers are confident that implementing DM to manage HIV-positive employees can enhance tolerance, improve understanding and promote equality. The purposive sampling technique and the small number of respondents have impacted the external validity of the study. However, this exploratory study initiates an equality discussion to include HIV-positive employees in DM discourse beyond antidiscrimination legislation. It also supplements the sparse literature addressing HIV-positive employees in the Asian hospitality workplace. Asian hospitality managers are advised to understand and employ DM to treat HIV-positive employees fairly to overcome hospitality workplace marginalisation, discrimination and stigmatisation.

  1. Contraception in HIV-positive female adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananworanich Jintanat

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sexual behavior of HIV-positive youths, whether infected perinatally, through risky behavior or other ways, is not substantially different from that of HIV-uninfected peers. Because of highly active antiretroviral therapy, increasing number of children, infected perinatally, are surviving into adolescence and are becoming sexually active and need reproductive health services. The objective of this article is to review the methods of contraception appropriate for HIV-positive adolescents with a special focus on hormonal contraceptives. Delaying the start of sexual life and the use of two methods thereafter, one of which is the male condom and the other a highly effective contraceptive method such as hormonal contraception or an intrauterine device, is currently the most effective option for those who desire simultaneous protection from both pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. Health care providers should be aware of the possible pharmacokinetic interactions between hormonal contraception and antiretrovirals. There is an urgent need for more information regarding metabolic outcomes of hormonal contraceptives, especially the effect of injectable progestins on bone metabolism, in HIV-positive adolescent girls.

  2. Mucocutaneous disorders in Hiv positive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar H

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty eight HIV positive patients were included in this study. They were evaluated for their mucocutaneous disorders, sexually transmitted diseases and other systemic disorders between 1994-95 in the department of Dermatology and STD Dr R M L Hospital of New Delhi. The heterosexual contact with commercial sex workers (CSWs was the most common route of HIV transmission. Chancroid, syphilis and genital warts were common STDs found in HIV positive patients. Oral thrush (67.9% was the commonest mucocutaneous disorder found in these patients followed by herpes zoster (25% and seborrhoeic dermatitis (21.4%. There was no unusual clinical presentation seen in mucocutaneous disorders and STDs.

  3. Clients' experiences of HIV positive status disclosure to sexual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to describe the experiences of HIV positive clients as they disclose their HIV positive status to their sexual partners. A qualitative descriptive and phenomenological design was used. Purposive sampling was used to select 15 HIV positive clients to participate in the study. Semi-structured ...

  4. Impulsivity, Sensation Seeking, and Risk-Taking Behaviors among HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Heroin Dependent Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koosha Paydary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to compare impulsivity and risky decision making among HIV-positive and negative heroin dependent persons. Methods. We compared different dimensions of impulsivity and risky decision making in two groups of 60 HIV-positive and 60 HIV-negative male heroin dependent persons. Each group was comprised of equal numbers of current (treatment seeker and former (abstinent heroin addicts. Data collection tools included Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART, Iowa Gambling Task (IGT, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS, and Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS. Results. In SSS, comprised of four subscales including thrill and adventure seeking (TAS, experience seeking (ES, disinhibition (DIS, and boredom susceptibility (BS, there was a borderline difference in DIS (P=0.08 as HIV-positive group scored higher than HIV-negative group. Also, ES and total score were significantly higher among HIV-positive patients. In BART, HIV-positive subjects scored higher in risk taking than HIV-negative subjects as reflected in higher Average Number of puffs in Successful Balloons (ANSB. In BIS, HIV-positive group scored significantly higher in cognitive impulsivity (CI (P=0.03 and nonplanning impulsivity (NPI (P=0.05 in comparison to HIV-negative group. Also, current heroin addicts scored significantly higher in NPI compared to former addict HIV-negative participants (P=0.015. IGT did not show any significant difference between groups. Conclusion. Higher levels of impulsivity and risk taking behaviors among HIV-positive heroin addicts will increase serious concerns regarding HIV transmission from this group to other opiate dependents and healthy people.

  5. Impulsivity, Sensation Seeking, and Risk-Taking Behaviors among HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Heroin Dependent Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paydary, Koosha; Mahin Torabi, Somayeh; SeyedAlinaghi, SeyedAhmad; Noori, Mehri; Noroozi, Alireza; Ameri, Sara; Ekhtiari, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to compare impulsivity and risky decision making among HIV-positive and negative heroin dependent persons. Methods. We compared different dimensions of impulsivity and risky decision making in two groups of 60 HIV-positive and 60 HIV-negative male heroin dependent persons. Each group was comprised of equal numbers of current (treatment seeker) and former (abstinent) heroin addicts. Data collection tools included Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS), and Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS). Results. In SSS, comprised of four subscales including thrill and adventure seeking (TAS), experience seeking (ES), disinhibition (DIS), and boredom susceptibility (BS), there was a borderline difference in DIS (P = 0.08) as HIV-positive group scored higher than HIV-negative group. Also, ES and total score were significantly higher among HIV-positive patients. In BART, HIV-positive subjects scored higher in risk taking than HIV-negative subjects as reflected in higher Average Number of puffs in Successful Balloons (ANSB). In BIS, HIV-positive group scored significantly higher in cognitive impulsivity (CI) (P = 0.03) and nonplanning impulsivity (NPI) (P = 0.05) in comparison to HIV-negative group. Also, current heroin addicts scored significantly higher in NPI compared to former addict HIV-negative participants (P = 0.015). IGT did not show any significant difference between groups. Conclusion. Higher levels of impulsivity and risk taking behaviors among HIV-positive heroin addicts will increase serious concerns regarding HIV transmission from this group to other opiate dependents and healthy people. PMID:27051528

  6. Motives and barriers to safer sex and regular STI testing among MSM soon after HIV diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijman, Titia; Zuure, Freke; Stolte, Ineke; Davidovich, Udi

    2017-03-07

    Understanding why some recently with HIV diagnosed men who have sex with men (MSM) choose for safer sex and regular STI testing, whereas others do not, is important for the development of interventions that aim to improve the sexual health of those newly infected. To gain insight into motives and barriers to condom use and regular STI testing among MSM soon after HIV diagnosis, 30 HIV-positive MSM participated in semi-structured qualitative interviews on sexual health behaviours in the first year after HIV diagnosis. Typical barriers to condom use soon after diagnosis were emotions such as anger, relief, and feelings of vulnerability. Additional barriers were related to pre-diagnosis patterns of sexual-social behaviour that were difficult to change, communication difficulties, and substance use. Barriers to STI testing revolved around perceptions of low STI risk, faulty beliefs, and burdensome testing procedures. The great diversity of motives and barriers to condom use and STI testing creates a challenge to accommodate newly infected men with information, motivation, and communication skills to match their personal needs. An adaptive, tailored intervention can be a promising tool of support.

  7. High prevalence of cachexia in newly diagnosed head and neck cancer patients: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager-Wittenaar, Harriët; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Dijkstra, Gerard; Bijzet, Johan; Langendijk, Johannes A; van der Laan, Bernard F A M; Roodenburg, Jan L N

    2017-03-01

    In patients with cancer, weight loss can be related to simple starvation, disturbed metabolism, or both. In patients with head and neck cancer (HNC), weight loss often is attributed to simple starvation because the obvious oral symptoms are known to hinder dietary intake. In this population, cachexia remains a relatively unexplored phenomenon. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of cachexia and precachexia in patients with newly diagnosed HNC. Fifty-nine patients with newly diagnosed HNC were asked to participate in the prospective cohort study, from which only baseline data were used in the analyses. Measurements were performed 1 wk before cancer treatment, that is, cachexia status by Fearon's cancer-specific framework, dietary intake, muscle mass, muscle strength, and biochemical markers (C-reactive protein, albumin, hemoglobin, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α) were assessed. Data of 26 patients were included in the analyses (59% participation rate). Forty-two percent of the patients (n = 12) were classified as cachectic and 15% (n = 4) as precachectic. Muscle mass depletion was significantly more frequent in cachectic patients (67%) than in noncachectic patients (14%; P = 0.014). No differences in inflammatory markers were observed between cachectic and noncachectic patients. This exploratory study suggested a high prevalence of cachexia (42%) in patients with newly diagnosed HNC. Although a large study is needed to further elucidate the role of cachexia in patients with HNC, the data presented here suggest that cachexia is a common problem in this patient population, which has therapeutic and prognostic implications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Exploring fertility decisions among pregnant HIV- positive women on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    making, and practices among HIV-positive pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at ... HIV/AIDS continues to be a major public health challenge, as it directly and ..... Community groups conduct nutrition education for HIV- positive people.

  9. Prevalence of HIV among MSM in Europe: comparison of self-reported diagnoses from a large scale internet survey and existing national estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Ulrich

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Country level comparisons of HIV prevalence among men having sex with men (MSM is challenging for a variety of reasons, including differences in the definition and measurement of the denominator group, recruitment strategies and the HIV detection methods. To assess their comparability, self-reported data on HIV diagnoses in a 2010 pan-European MSM internet survey (EMIS were compared with pre-existing estimates of HIV prevalence in MSM from a variety of European countries. Methods The first pan-European survey of MSM recruited more than 180,000 men from 38 countries across Europe and included questions on the year and result of last HIV test. HIV prevalence as measured in EMIS was compared with national estimates of HIV prevalence based on studies using biological measurements or modelling approaches to explore the degree of agreement between different methods. Existing estimates were taken from Dublin Declaration Monitoring Reports or UNAIDS country fact sheets, and were verified by contacting the nominated contact points for HIV surveillance in EU/EEA countries. Results The EMIS self-reported measurements of HIV prevalence were strongly correlated with existing estimates based on biological measurement and modelling studies using surveillance data (R2=0.70 resp. 0.72. In most countries HIV positive MSM appeared disproportionately likely to participate in EMIS, and prevalences as measured in EMIS are approximately twice the estimates based on existing estimates. Conclusions Comparison of diagnosed HIV prevalence as measured in EMIS with pre-existing estimates based on biological measurements using varied sampling frames (e.g. Respondent Driven Sampling, Time and Location Sampling demonstrates a high correlation and suggests similar selection biases from both types of studies. For comparison with modelled estimates the self-selection bias of the Internet survey with increased participation of men diagnosed with HIV has to be

  10. Prognostic value of regulatory T cells in newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahran, Asmaa M; Badrawy, Hosny; Ibrahim, Abeer

    2014-08-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a clonal disease, characterized by a reciprocal t(9, 22) that results in a chimeric BCR/ABL fusion gene. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) constitute the main cell population that enables cancer cells to evade immune surveillance. The purpose of our study was to investigate the level of Tregs in newly diagnosed CML patients and to correlate it with the patients' clinical, laboratory and molecular data. We also aimed to assess the effect of treatment using tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) on Treg levels. Tregs were characterized and quantified by flow cytometry in 63 newly diagnosed CML patients and 40 healthy controls. TKI was used in 45 patients with chronic phase CML, and the response to therapy was correlated with baseline Treg levels. The percentages of Tregs were significantly increased in CML patients compared to the controls. Treg numbers were significantly lower in patients with chronic phase CML versus the accelerated and blast phases, and were significantly lower in patients with complete molecular remission (CMR) compared to those patients without CMR. Tregs may play a role in the maintenance of CML. Moreover, the decrease of their levels in patients with CMR suggests that Tregs might have a clinical value in evaluating the effects of therapy.

  11. Characterization of natural polymorphic sites of the HIV-1 integrase before the introduction of HIV-1 integrase inhibitors in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meixenberger, Karolin; Pouran Yousef, Kaveh; Somogyi, Sybille; Fiedler, Stefan; Bartmeyer, Barbara; von Kleist, Max; Kücherer, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of our study was to analyze the occurrence and evolution of HIV-1 integrase polymorphisms during the HIV-1 epidemic in Germany prior to the introduction of the first integrase inhibitor raltegravir in 2007. Materials and Methods Plasma samples from drug-naïve HIV-1 infected individuals newly diagnosed between 1986 and 2006 were used to determine PCR-based population sequences of the HIV-1 integrase (amino acids 1–278). The HIV-1 subtype was determined using the REGA HIV-1 subtyping tool. We calculated the frequency of amino acids at each position of the HIV-1 integrase in 337 subtype B strains for the time periods 1986–1989, 1991–1994, 1995–1998, 1999–2002, and 2003–2006. Positions were defined as polymorphic if amino acid variation was >1% in any period. Logistic regression was used to identify trends in amino acid variation over time. Resistance-associated mutations were identified according to the IAS 2013 list and the HIVdb, ANRS and GRADE algorithms. Results Overall, 56.8% (158/278) amino acid positions were polymorphic and 15.8% (25/158) of these positions exhibited a significant trend in amino acid variation over time. Proportionately, most polymorphic positions (63.3%, 31/49) were detected in the N-terminal zinc finger domain of the HIV-1 integrase. Motifs and residues essential for HIV-1 integrase activity were little polymorphic, but within the minimal non-specific DNA binding region I220-D270 up to 18.1% amino acid variation was noticed, including four positions with significant amino acid variation over time (S230, D232, D256, A265). No major resistance mutations were identified, and minor resistance mutations were rarely observed without trend over time. E157Q considered by HIVdb, ANRS, and GRADE algorithms was the most frequent resistance-associated polymorphism with an overall prevalence of 2.4%. Conclusions Detailed knowledge of the evolutionary variation of HIV-1 integrase polymorphisms is important to understand

  12. Impact of ART on TB case fatality stratified by CD4 count for HIV-positive TB patients in Cape Town, South Africa (2009-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Richard; Caldwell, Judy; Middelkoop, Keren; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Wood, Robin

    2014-08-15

    To identify determinants of tuberculosis (TB) case fatality including the impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) at different CD4 thresholds for HIV-positive adult and adolescent TB patients. Through a retrospective analysis of the electronic TB database, we identified the HIV status of newly registered patients aged ≥15 years. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to determine the risk factors for TB case fatality in these patients. In 2009, 2010, and 2011, 25,841, 26,104, and 25,554 newly registered adult TB patients were treated in primary health care clinics in Cape Town, of whom 49.7%, 50.4%, and 50.9% were HIV positive. ART uptake increased over 3 years from 43% to 64.9%, and case fatality of the HIV-positive patients decreased from 7.0% to 5.8% (P ART had a substantial decrease in case fatality. The difference in case fatality between patients on ART and not on ART was most pronounced at low CD4 counts with the positive influence of ART noted up to a CD4 count threshold of 350 cells per cubic millimeter (P ART uptake, in 2011, 21% of the patients with CD4 counts ART during TB treatment. This study showed a relatively poor uptake of ART among severely immune-compromised TB patients. Patients with CD4 counts ART during TB treatment, and ART initiation should be prioritized for this category of patients.

  13. Alcohol and condom use among HIV-positive and HIV-negative female sex workers in Nagaland, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuken, Amenla; Kermode, Michelle; Saggurti, Niranjan; Armstrong, Greg; Medhi, Gajendra Kumar

    2013-09-01

    This study examines the relationship between alcohol use, HIV status, and condom use among female sex workers in Nagaland, India. We analyzed data from a cross-sectional survey undertaken in 2009, using descriptive and multivariate statistics. Out of 417 female sex workers, one-fifth used alcohol daily and one-tenth were HIV-positive. HIV-positive female sex workers were more likely than HIV-negative female sex workers to consume alcohol daily (30.2% vs. 18.0%). HIV-positive daily alcohol users reported lower condom use at last sex with regular clients compared to HIV-positive non-daily alcohol users (46.2% vs. 79.3%), a relationship not evident among HIV-negative female sex workers. There is a need to promote awareness of synergies between alcohol use and HIV, and to screen for problematic alcohol use among female sex workers in order to reduce the spread of HIV.

  14. The role of Gliadel wafers in the treatment of newly diagnosed GBM: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing WK

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Wei-kang Xing,1 Chuan Shao,2 Zhen-yu Qi,1 Chao Yang,1 Zhong Wang1 1Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, 2Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Clinical Medical College of North Sichuan Medical College, Nanchong, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China Background: Standard treatment for high-grade glioma (HGG includes surgery followed by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. Insertion of carmustine wafers into the resection cavity as a treatment for malignant glioma is currently a controversial topic among neurosurgeons. Our meta-analysis focused on whether carmustine wafer treatment could significantly benefit the survival of patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM.Method: We searched the PubMed and Web of Science databases without any restrictions on language using the keywords “Gliadel wafers”, “carmustine wafers”, “BCNU wafers”, or “interstitial chemotherapy” in newly diagnosed GBM for the period from January 1990 to March 2015. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs and cohort studies/clinical trials that compared treatments designed with and without carmustine wafers and which reported overall survival or hazard ratio (HR or survival curves were included in this study. Moreover, the statistical analysis was conducted by the STATA 12.0 software.Results: Six studies including two RCTs and four cohort studies, enrolling a total of 513 patients (223 with and 290 without carmustine wafers, matched the selection criteria. Carmustine wafers showed a strong advantage when pooling all the included studies (HR =0.63, 95% confidence interval (CI =0.49–0.81; P=0.019. However, the two RCTs did not show a statistical increase in survival in the group with carmustine wafer compared to the group without it (HR =0.51, 95% CI =0.18–1.41; P=0.426, while the cohort studies demonstrated a significant survival increase (HR =0.59, 95% CI =0.44–0.79; P<0.0001.Conclusion

  15. Newly diagnosed primary hypothyroidism applicant with massive pericardial effusion and acute renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ates I

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. While non-symptomatic pericardial effusion is seen in primary hypothyroidism, massive pericardial effusion is a very rare finding. In the literature, newly diagnosed primary hypothyroidism cases presenting with massive pericardial effusion or acute renal failure are present, but we did not encounter any case first presenting with combination of two signs. In this case report, primary hypothyroidism case that presenting with massive pericardial effusion and acute renal failure will be discussed.

  16. Characteristics and outcomes among older HIV-positive adults enrolled in HIV programs in four sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eduardo, Eduard; Lamb, Matthew R; Kandula, Sasi; Howard, Andrea; Mugisha, Veronicah; Kimanga, Davies; Kilama, Bonita; El-Sadr, Wafaa; Elul, Batya

    2014-01-01

    Limited information exists on adults ≥50 years receiving HIV care in sub-Saharan Africa. Using routinely-collected longitudinal patient-level data among 391,111 adults ≥15 years enrolling in HIV care from January 2005-December 2010 and 184,689 initiating ART, we compared characteristics and outcomes between older (≥50 years) and younger adults at 199 clinics in Kenya, Mozambique, Rwanda, and Tanzania. We calculated proportions over time of newly enrolled and active adults receiving HIV care and initiating ART who were ≥50 years; cumulative incidence of loss to follow-up (LTF) and recorded death one year after enrollment and ART initiation, and CD4+ response following ART initiation. From 2005-2010, the percentage of adults ≥50 years newly enrolled in HIV care remained stable at 10%, while the percentage of adults ≥50 years newly initiating ART (10% [2005]-12% [2010]), active in follow-up (10% [2005]-14% (2010]), and active on ART (10% [2005]-16% [2010]) significantly increased. One year after enrollment, older patients had significantly lower incidence of LTF (33.1% vs. 32.6%[40-49 years], 40.5%[25-39 years], and 56.3%[15-24 years]; p-valueages, with older adults experiencing less LTF than younger adults. Among 85,763 ART patients with baseline and follow-up CD4+ counts, adjusted average 12-month CD4+ response for older adults was 20.6 cells/mm3 lower than for adults 25-39 years of age (95% CI: 17.1-24.1). The proportion of patients who are ≥50 years has increased over time and been driven by aging of the existing patient population. Older patients experienced less LTF, higher recorded mortality and less robust CD4+ response after ART initiation. Increased programmatic attention on older adults receiving HIV care in sub-Saharan Africa is warranted.

  17. Update on HIV in Western Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakagawa, Fumiyo; Phillips, Andrew N; Lundgren, Jens D

    2014-01-01

    HIV infection in Western Europe is mainly concentrated among men who have sex with men, heterosexuals who acquired HIV from sub-Saharan African countries, and in people who inject drugs. The rate of newly diagnosed cases of HIV has remained roughly stable since 2004 whereas the number of people...... living with HIV has slowly increased due to new infections and the success of antiretroviral therapy in prolonging life. An ageing population is gradually emerging that will require additional care. There are large differences across countries in HIV testing rates, proportions of people who present...... to care with low CD4+ cell counts, accessibility to treatment and care, and rates of retention once in care. Improved collection of HIV surveillance data will benefit countries and help to understand their epidemic better. However, social inequalities experienced by people with HIV still remain in some...

  18. The increased effectiveness of HIV preventive intervention among men who have sex with men and of follow-up care for people living with HIV after 'task-shifting' to community-based organizations: a 'cash on service delivery' model in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hongjing; Zhang, Min; Zhao, Jinkou; Huan, Xiping; Ding, Jianping; Wu, Susu; Wang, Chenchen; Xu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Li; Xu, Fei; Yang, Haitao

    2014-01-01

    A large number of men who have sex with men (MSM) and people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) are underserved despite increased service availability from government facilities while many community based organizations (CBOs) are not involved. We aimed to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of the task shifting from government facilities to CBOs in China. HIV preventive intervention for MSM and follow-up care for PLHA were shifted from government facilities to CBOs. Based on 'cash on service delivery' model, 10 USD per MSM tested for HIV with results notified, 82 USD per newly HIV cases diagnosed, and 50 USD per PLHA received a defined package of follow-up care services, were paid to the CBOs. Cash payments were made biannually based on the verified results in the national web-based HIV/AIDS information system. After task shifting, CBOs gradually assumed preventive intervention for MSM and follow-up care for PLHA from 2008 to 2012. HIV testing coverage among MSM increased from 4.1% in 2008 to 22.7% in 2012. The baseline median CD4 counts of newly diagnosed HIV positive MSM increased from 309 to 397 cells/µL. HIV tests among MSM by CBOs accounted for less than 1% of the total HIV tests in Nanjing but the share of HIV cases detected by CBOs was 12.4% in 2008 and 43.6% in 2012. Unit cost per HIV case detected by CBOs was 47 times lower than that by government facilities. The coverage of CD4 tests and antiretroviral therapy increased from 71.1% and 78.6% in 2008 to 86.0% and 90.1% in 2012, respectively. It is feasible to shift essential HIV services from government facilities to CBOs, and to verify independently service results to adopt 'cash on service delivery' model. Services provided by CBOs are cost-effective, as compared with that by government facilities.

  19. The increased effectiveness of HIV preventive intervention among men who have sex with men and of follow-up care for people living with HIV after 'task-shifting' to community-based organizations: a 'cash on service delivery' model in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjing Yan

    Full Text Available A large number of men who have sex with men (MSM and people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA are underserved despite increased service availability from government facilities while many community based organizations (CBOs are not involved. We aimed to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of the task shifting from government facilities to CBOs in China.HIV preventive intervention for MSM and follow-up care for PLHA were shifted from government facilities to CBOs. Based on 'cash on service delivery' model, 10 USD per MSM tested for HIV with results notified, 82 USD per newly HIV cases diagnosed, and 50 USD per PLHA received a defined package of follow-up care services, were paid to the CBOs. Cash payments were made biannually based on the verified results in the national web-based HIV/AIDS information system.After task shifting, CBOs gradually assumed preventive intervention for MSM and follow-up care for PLHA from 2008 to 2012. HIV testing coverage among MSM increased from 4.1% in 2008 to 22.7% in 2012. The baseline median CD4 counts of newly diagnosed HIV positive MSM increased from 309 to 397 cells/µL. HIV tests among MSM by CBOs accounted for less than 1% of the total HIV tests in Nanjing but the share of HIV cases detected by CBOs was 12.4% in 2008 and 43.6% in 2012. Unit cost per HIV case detected by CBOs was 47 times lower than that by government facilities. The coverage of CD4 tests and antiretroviral therapy increased from 71.1% and 78.6% in 2008 to 86.0% and 90.1% in 2012, respectively.It is feasible to shift essential HIV services from government facilities to CBOs, and to verify independently service results to adopt 'cash on service delivery' model. Services provided by CBOs are cost-effective, as compared with that by government facilities.

  20. Association of Thiazolidinedione with a Lower Risk of Parkinson's Disease in a Population with Newly-Diagnosed Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsiu-Li; Lin, Hsiu-Chen; Tseng, Yuan-Fu; Chao, Jane Chen-Jui; Hsu, Chien-Yeh

    2018-06-11

    We investigated the association of thiazolidinedione and its dose effect with the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). This study enrolled 38,521 patients with newly-diagnosed DM between 2001 and 2013 and compared them to matched subjects without DM. The hazard ratios (HRs) for PD were compared between the thiazolidinedione-treated and non-thiazolidinedione-treated groups of the study cohort, and between subgroups who received different cumulative dosages of thiazolidinedione. We observed 544 (1.4%) patients with PD during the follow up of median duration of 6.2 years in patients with newly-diagnosed DM who had a higher risk for PD than patients without DM (HR = 1.150). In the study cohort, the risk of PD was significantly lower in the thiazolidinedione-treated group (HR = 0.399) compared to the non-thiazolidinedione-treated group. Thiazolidinedione reduced the risk of PD in a dose-dependent manner, with HRs ranging from 0.613 to 0.081 with defined daily doses of 0-90 to > 720, respectively. Thiazolidinedione use was associated with a significantly reduced risk of PD in patients with newly-diagnosed DM. Further studies to elucidate the common mechanism of PD and DM may provide novel therapies for these two diseases.

  1. The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori gastritis in newly diagnosed children with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roka, Kleoniki; Roubani, Aikaterini; Stefanaki, Kalliopi; Panayotou, Ioanna; Roma, Eleftheria; Chouliaras, Giorgos

    2014-10-01

    Recent studies have shown that patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are less likely to be infected with Helicobacter pylori compared with non-IBD patients. We aimed to study the prevalence of H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative gastritis in newly diagnosed children with IBD in comparison to those with non-IBD in Greece. All children who underwent first esophagogastroduodenal endoscopy between 2002 and 2011 were retrospectively included. Four groups were studied: patients with Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), IBD unclassified (IBDU), and non-IBD individuals (non-IBD). Helicobacter pylori infection was defined by positive culture or by positive histology and CLO test. Those children with negative or not available culture and only one positive test (histology or CLO) were further evaluated by urea breath test, and the positives were also included in the infected group. We studied 159 patients with IBD (66 CD, 34 UC, and 59 IBDU) and 1209 patients in non-IBD individuals. Helicobacter pylori gastritis was less frequent in the IBD group (3.8% vs 13.2% in the control group, p gastritis were 3.3 times more likely to belong in the IBD group compared with H. pylori-positive patients (p = .006). Occurrence of H. pylori gastritis is less frequent in children with IBD compared with controls. Our study confirms an inverse association between H. pylori and IBD. Future studies are needed to distinguish between a true protective role of H. pylori and a confounding effect due to previous antibiotic use in children with IBD. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Finding the HIV Positive Mother Symposium: HIV and its meanings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the prevalence of maternal HIV infection, HIV positive mothers have only recently become a focus of psychological-scientific investigation. ... to emerge from this literature will be presented with reference to the key themes of disclosure, incidence of psychiatric symptoms, coping and support and parenting efficacy.

  3. High HIV Prevalence, Suboptimal HIV Testing, and Low Knowledge of HIV-Positive Serostatus Among Injection Drug Users in St. Petersburg, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussova, Olga V.; Verevochkin, Sergei V.; Barbour, Russell; Heimer, Robert; Kozlov, Andrei P.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to estimate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence and testing patterns among injection drug users (IDUs) in St. Petersburg, Russia. HIV prevalence among 387 IDUs in the sample was 50%. Correlates of HIV-positive serostatus included unemployment, recent unsafe injections, and history/current sexually transmitted infection. Seventy-six percent had been HIV tested, but only 22% of those who did not report HIV-positive serostatus had been tested in the past 12 months and received their test result. Correlates of this measure included recent doctor visit and having been in prison or jail among men. Among the 193 HIV-infected participants, 36% were aware of their HIV-positive serostatus. HIV prevalence is high and continuing to increase in this population. Adequate coverage of HIV testing has not been achieved, resulting in poor knowledge of positive serostatus. Efforts are needed to better understand motivating and deterring factors for HIV testing in this setting. PMID:18843531

  4. The cascade of HIV care among refugees and nationals in Nakivale Refugee Settlement in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Laughlin, K N; Kasozi, J; Rabideau, D J; Parker, R A; Mulogo, E; Faustin, Z M; Greenwald, K E; Doraiswamy, S; Walensky, R P; Bassett, I V

    2017-08-01

    Refugees living in Uganda come from HIV-endemic countries, and many remain in refugee settlements for over a decade. Our objective was to evaluate the HIV care cascade in Nakivale Refugee Settlement and to assess correlates of linkage to care. We prospectively enrolled individuals accessing clinic-based HIV testing in Nakivale Refugee Settlement from March 2013 to July 2014. Newly HIV-diagnosed clients were followed for 3 months post-diagnosis. Clients underwent a baseline survey. The following outcomes were obtained from HIV clinic registers in Nakivale: clinic attendance ('linkage to HIV care'), CD4 testing, antiretroviral therapy (ART) eligibility, and ART initiation within 90 days of testing. Descriptive data were reported as frequency with 95% confidence interval (CI) or median with interquartile range (IQR). The impact of baseline variables on linkage to care was assessed with logistic regression models. Of 6850 adult clients tested for HIV, 276 (4%; CI: 3-5%) were diagnosed with HIV infection, 148 (54%; CI: 47-60%) of those were linked to HIV care, 54 (20%; CI: 15-25%) had a CD4 test, 22 (8%; CI: 5-12%) were eligible for ART, and 17 (6%; CI: 3-10%) initiated ART. The proportions of refugees and nationals at each step of the cascade were similar. We identified no significant predictors of linkage to care. Less than a quarter of newly HIV-diagnosed clients completed ART assessment, considerably lower than in other reports from sub-Saharan Africa. Understanding which factors hinder linkage to and engagement in care in the settlement will be important to inform interventions specific for this environment. © 2017 British HIV Association.

  5. Influenza vaccination of HIV-1-positive and HIV-1-negative former intravenous drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendola, A; Boschini, A; Colzani, D; Anselmi, G; Oltolina, A; Zucconi, R; Begnini, M; Besana, S; Tanzi, E; Zanetti, A R

    2001-12-01

    The immunogenicity of an anti-influenza vaccine was assessed in 409 former intravenous drug user volunteers and its effect on the levels of HIV-1 RNA, proviral DNA and on CD4+ lymphocyte counts in a subset HIV-1-positive subjects was measured. HIV-1-positive individuals (n = 72) were divided into three groups on the basis of their CD4+ lymphocyte counts, while the 337 HIV-1-negative participants were allocated into group four. Haemagglutination inhibiting (HI) responses varied from 45.8 to 70% in the HIV-1-positive subjects and were significantly higher in group four (80.7% responses to the H1N1 strain, 81.6% to the H3N2 strain, and 83% to the B strain). The percentage of subjects with HI protective antibody titres (> or = 1:40) increased significantly after vaccination, especially in HIV-1 uninfected subjects. Immunization caused no significant changes in CD4+ counts and in neither plasma HIV-1 RNA nor proviral DNA levels. Therefore, vaccination against influenza may benefit persons infected by HIV-1. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Performance of visual inspection with acetic acid and human papillomavirus testing for detection of high-grade cervical lesions in HIV positive and HIV negative Tanzanian women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dartell, Myassa Arkam; Rasch, Vibeke; Iftner, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this cross sectional study was to assess type distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) among HIV positive and HIV negative women who underwent cervical cancer screening, and to examine the ability of visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), the standard detection method in Tanzania......, and HPV-testing to detect cytologically diagnosed high grade lesions or cancer (HSIL+). Women from different areas in Tanzania were invited by public announcement to cervical cancer screening organized by Ocean Road Cancer Institute (Dar-es-Salaam). A total of 3,767 women were enrolled. Women underwent...

  7. The Increased Effectiveness of HIV Preventive Intervention among Men Who Have Sex with Men and of Follow-Up Care for People Living with HIV after ‘Task-Shifting’ to Community-Based Organizations: A ‘Cash on Service Delivery’ Model in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hongjing; Zhang, Min; Zhao, Jinkou; Huan, Xiping; Ding, Jianping; Wu, Susu; Wang, Chenchen; Xu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Li; Xu, Fei; Yang, Haitao

    2014-01-01

    Background A large number of men who have sex with men (MSM) and people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) are underserved despite increased service availability from government facilities while many community based organizations (CBOs) are not involved. We aimed to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of the task shifting from government facilities to CBOs in China. Methods HIV preventive intervention for MSM and follow-up care for PLHA were shifted from government facilities to CBOs. Based on ‘cash on service delivery’ model, 10 USD per MSM tested for HIV with results notified, 82 USD per newly HIV cases diagnosed, and 50 USD per PLHA received a defined package of follow-up care services, were paid to the CBOs. Cash payments were made biannually based on the verified results in the national web-based HIV/AIDS information system. Findings After task shifting, CBOs gradually assumed preventive intervention for MSM and follow-up care for PLHA from 2008 to 2012. HIV testing coverage among MSM increased from 4.1% in 2008 to 22.7% in 2012. The baseline median CD4 counts of newly diagnosed HIV positive MSM increased from 309 to 397 cells/µL. HIV tests among MSM by CBOs accounted for less than 1% of the total HIV tests in Nanjing but the share of HIV cases detected by CBOs was 12.4% in 2008 and 43.6% in 2012. Unit cost per HIV case detected by CBOs was 47 times lower than that by government facilities. The coverage of CD4 tests and antiretroviral therapy increased from 71.1% and 78.6% in 2008 to 86.0% and 90.1% in 2012, respectively. Conclusion It is feasible to shift essential HIV services from government facilities to CBOs, and to verify independently service results to adopt ‘cash on service delivery’ model. Services provided by CBOs are cost-effective, as compared with that by government facilities. PMID:25050797

  8. Pretreatment loss-to-follow-up after HIV diagnosis from 27 counseling and testing centers across India: findings from a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarna, Avina; Sebastian, Mary; Bachani, Damodar; Sogarwal, Ruchi; Battala, Madhusudana

    2014-01-01

    Individuals testing HIV positive were interviewed at testing centers, followed prospectively and interviewed again when they registered at referral antiretroviral therapy (ART) centers (ARTCs). Those who did not register at ARTCs were traced and interviewed in the community. A total of 1057 newly diagnosed people living with HIV (PLHIV; 52% women; mean age, 34.7 years) were recruited. A total of 73.5% of PLHIV registered at referral ARTCs within 60 days, 17.9% did not register and were interviewed in the community, and 8.6% were not interviewed. The 2 main reasons cited for not registering were a perception of good health (30%) and work/family engagements (22%). Single clients (adjusted relative risk [ARR]: 1.54; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-2.34), participants who had not disclosed their HIV status (ARR: 2.32; 95%CI: 1.77-3.05), participants who knew a PLHIV (ARR: 1.89; 95% CI: 1.41-2.53), and participants from laborer households (ARR: 2.66; 95%CI:1.15-6.15) were more likely to not register. In conclusion, the majority of newly diagnosed PLHIV do reach ARTCs. Disclosure concerns and a perception of good health prevent PLHIV from accessing services.

  9. Concealment tactics among HIV-positive nurses in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Kyakuwa, M.; Hardon, A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on two-and-a-half years of ethnographic fieldwork in two rural Ugandan health centres during a period of ART scale-up. Around one-third of the nurses in these two sites were themselves HIV-positive but most concealed their status. We describe how a group of HIV-positive nurses set up a secret circle to talk about their predicament as HIV-positive healthcare professionals and how they developed innovative care technologies to overcome the skin rashes caused by ART that thre...

  10. HIV Diagnoses and Care Among Transgender Persons and Comparison With Men Who Have Sex With Men: New York City, 2006-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiewel, Ellen Weiss; Torian, Lucia V; Merchant, Pooja; Braunstein, Sarah L; Shepard, Colin W

    2016-03-01

    We measured HIV care outcomes of transgender persons, who have high HIV infection rates but are rarely distinguished from men who have sex with men (MSM) in HIV surveillance systems. New York City's surveillance registry includes HIV diagnoses since 2000 and HIV laboratory test results for transgender persons since 2005. We determined immunological status at diagnosis, delayed linkage to care, and nonachievement of viral suppression 1 year after diagnosis for transgender persons diagnosed with HIV in 2006 to 2011 and compared transgender women with MSM. In 2006 to 2011, 264 of 23 805 persons diagnosed with HIV were transgender (1%): 98% transgender women and 2% transgender men. Compared with MSM, transgender women had similar CD4 counts at diagnosis and rates of concurrent HIV/AIDS and delayed linkage to care but increased odds of not achieving suppression (adjusted odds ratio = 1.56; 95% confidence interval = 1.13, 2.16). Compared with MSM, transgender women in New York City had similar immunological status at diagnosis but lagged in achieving viral suppression. To provide appropriate assistance along the HIV care continuum, HIV care providers should accurately identify transgender persons.

  11. The oral microbiome in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, James O; Arirachakaran, Pratanporn; Poovorawan, Yong; Dahlén, Gunnar; Wade, William G

    2015-09-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with a range of oral conditions, and increased numbers of disease-associated microbial species have previously been found in HIV-positive subjects. The aim of this study was to use next-generation sequencing to compare the composition of the oral microbiome in HIV-positive and -negative individuals. Plaque and saliva were collected from 37 HIV-positive individuals and 37 HIV-negative individuals, and their bacterial composition determined by pyrosequencing of partial 16S rRNA genes. A total of 855,222 sequences were analysed. The number of species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs) detected was significantly lower in the saliva of HIV-positive individuals (mean = 303.3) than in that of HIV-negative individuals (mean = 365.5) (P PCoA) based on community membership (Jaccard index) and structure (Yue and Clayton measure of dissimilarity) showed significant separation of plaque and saliva samples [analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), P PCoA plots did not show any clear separation based on HIV status. However, AMOVA indicated that there was a significant difference in the community membership of saliva between HIV-positive and -negative groups (P = 0.001). Linear discriminant analysis effect size revealed an OTU identified as Haemophilus parainfluenzae to be significantly associated with HIV-positive individuals, whilst Streptococcus mitis/HOT473 was most significantly associated with HIV-negative individuals. In conclusion, this study has confirmed that the microbial composition of saliva and plaque is different. The oral microbiomes of HIV-positive and -negative individuals were found to be similar overall, although there were minor but significant differences in the composition of the salivary microbiota of the two groups.

  12. Country of Birth of Children With Diagnosed HIV Infection in the United States, 2008-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesheim, Steven R; Linley, Laurie; Gray, Kristen M; Zhang, Tianchi; Shi, Jing; Lampe, Margaret A; FitzHarris, Lauren F

    2018-01-01

    Diagnoses of HIV infection among children in the United States have been declining; however, a notable percentage of diagnoses are among those born outside the United States. The impact of foreign birth among children with diagnosed infections has not been examined in the United States. Using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National HIV Surveillance System, we analyzed data for children aged United States (reported from 50 states and the District of Columbia) during 2008-2014, by place of birth and selected characteristics. There were 1516 children [726 US born (47.9%) and 676 foreign born (44.6%)]. US-born children accounted for 70.0% in 2008, declining to 32.3% in 2013, and 40.9% in 2014. Foreign-born children have exceeded US-born children in number since 2011. Age at diagnosis was younger for US-born than foreign-born children (0-18 months: 72.6% vs. 9.8%; 5-12 years: 16.9% vs. 60.3%). HIV diagnoses in mothers of US-born children were made more often before pregnancy (49.7% vs. 21.4%), or during pregnancy (16.6% vs. 13.9%), and less often after birth (23.7% vs. 41%). Custodians of US-born children were more often biological parents (71.9% vs. 43.2%) and less likely to be foster or nonrelated adoptive parents (10.4% vs. 55.1%). Of 676 foreign-born children with known place of birth, 65.5% were born in sub-Saharan Africa and 14.3% in Eastern Europe. The top countries of birth were Ethiopia, Ukraine, Uganda, Haiti, and Russia. The increasing number of foreign-born children with diagnosed HIV infection in the United States requires specific considerations for care and treatment.

  13. Diabetes education improves depressive state in newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Bin; Zhang, Xiyao; Xu, Xiuping; Lv, Xiaofeng; Yao, Lu; Huang, Xu; Guo, Xueying; Liu, Baozhu; Li, Qiang; Cui, Can

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The prevalence of depression is relatively high in individuals with diabetes. However, screening and monitoring of depressive state in patients with diabetes is still neglected in developing countries and the treatment of diabetes-related depression is rarely performed in these countries. In this study, our aim was to study the role of diabetes education in the improvement of depressive state in newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: The Dutch version of the cente...

  14. HIV-positive patients' and their families' comprehension of HIV- and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV-positive patients' and their families' comprehension of HIV- and AIDS-related information. ... perceived that pre- and post-counselling provided an opportunity for information sharing, but that they need health care workers to spend more time with them, to be non-judgemental and to make more use of visual aids.

  15. Nano-Medicine as a Newly Emerging Approach to Combat Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, Muthupandian; Asmalash, Tsehaye; Gebrekidan, Atsebaha; Gebreegziabiher, Dawit; Araya, Tadele; Hilekiros, Haftamu; Barabadi, Hamed; Ramanathan, Kumaresan

    2018-01-01

    Human Immuno deficiency Virus (HIV) infection has attained pandemic level due to its complexity on both the HIV infection cycle and on the targets for drug delivery. This limits medication and consequently requires prominent and promising drug delivery systems to be invented. Notably, various nanomaterial have been studied to enhance effective delivery of the antiretroviral drugs for HIV prevention, diagnosis and cure. Some of these nanomaterials are liposomes, dendrimers, inorganic nanoparticles (NPs), polymeric micelles, natural and synthetic polymers. The present study aimed to review the recent progress in nanomedicine as a newly emerging approach to combat HIV. The scientific data bases reviewed carefully to find both in vitro and in vivo studies representing the role of nonomedicine to combat HIV. Impressively, nanomedicine drug delivery systems have been commendable in various models ranging from in vitro to in vivo. It gives notion about the application of nano-carrier systems for the delivery of anti-retroviral drugs which ideally should provide better distribution to surpass Blood- Brain Barrier (BBB) and other tissue or to overcome innate barriers such as mucus. Considerably, nanomaterials such as dendrimers and many other inorganic NPs such as silver, gold, iron, and zinc can be used for HIV treatment by interfering in varying stages of HIV life cycle. Furthermore, NPs could best act as adjuvants, convoys during vaccine delivery, as intra-vaginal microbicides and for the early detection of HIV-1 p24 antigen. Nanomedicine may be a proper approach in HIV/AIDS therapy by means of offering lower dosage and side effect, better patient-to-patient consistency, bioavailability, target specificity and improved sensitivity of HIV diagnosis. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Use of peri-operative anti-epileptic drugs in patients with newly diagnosed high grade malignant glioma: a single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwu, Shelly; Hamilton, Mark G; Forsyth, Peter A; Cairncross, J Gregory; Parney, Ian F

    2010-02-01

    An American Academy of Neurology practice parameter recommends that long-term prophylactic anti-epileptic drugs (AED) should not be routine in patients with newly diagnosed brain tumors. However, prospective multi-center North American data shows that most newly diagnosed glioma patients receive prophylactic AED. We examined our own peri-operative AED practice patterns in newly-diagnosed patients with malignant glioma to determine if we deviate from published guidelines. A retrospective chart review was performed in adult patients with newly diagnosed malignant gliomas undergoing surgery in southern Alberta between January 2003 and December 2005. Demographic information, AED use, seizure incidence, adverse effects, tumor size, and tumor location were recorded. Of 164 eligible patients, 54 (33%) presented with seizures and all received AED. Prophylactic AED were given to 44 patients (27%). Peri-operative seizures (within 1 week) occurred in two patients without (3%) and no patients with seizure prophylaxis. Adverse AED reactions and adverse effects attributable to seizures were both rare. Prophylactic AED were continued >1 week post-op in 30 patients (18%). Patients receiving prophylactic AED were more likely to have had tumors involving the temporal lobe than those who did not (50 vs. 20%; P < 0.01). Patients receiving peri-operative AED prophylaxis were common, had a trend to reduced peri-operative seizures, and had few adverse effects. However, most of these patients were maintained on prophylactic AED continued beyond the first peri-operative week, contradicting published guidelines. Increased awareness of practice guidelines may help modify AED prescription patterns in malignant glioma patients.

  17. Uptake of a Partner Notification Model for HIV Among Men Who Have Sex With Men and Transgender Women in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Shirley J; Pines, Heather A; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Vera, Alicia Harvey; Rangel, Gudelia; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Patterson, Thomas L

    2017-11-20

    Undiagnosed HIV infection is common among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) in Latin America. We examined uptake of a partner notification (PN) model among MSM and TW in Tijuana, Mexico. Forty-six HIV-positive MSM/TW enrolled as index patients, and reported 132 MSM/TW sexual partners for PN. Of notified partners (90/132), 39% declined eligibility screening or participation, 39% tested for HIV, and of those 28% were newly-diagnosed HIV-positive. Partners who were seen by the index patient more than once in the past 4 months and those who primarily had sex with the index patient in one of their homes were more likely to be notified via PN (76% vs. 50%; p = 0.01 and 86% vs. 64%, p = 0.02, respectively). Lower than expected PN uptake was associated with problems identifying index patients, obtaining reliable partner contact information, and engaging notified partners.

  18. Coping Profiles Differentiate Psychological Adjustment in Chinese Women Newly Diagnosed With Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingyan; Li, Shichen; Wang, Yuping; Yi, Jinyao; Yang, Yanjie; He, Jincai; Zhu, Xiongzhao

    2017-06-01

    The study aimed to explore latent profiles of coping in Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer and examine the differences of psychological distress, demographic, and medical characteristics across profiles. Latent profile analysis was used to identify 3 classes of copers based on data from 618 Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer who completed questionnaires assessing their coping strategies and psychological distress. "Adaptive coper," reporting most use of adaptive cognitive coping strategies, behaviors of acceptance and shifting attention, and least use of maladaptive cognitive coping strategies, had the best psychological adjustment. "Negative coper," characterized by most use of maladaptive cognitive coping strategies, least use of adaptive cognitive coping strategies except "putting in perspective," and median levels of medical coping behaviors, had the worst psychological adjustment. "Inconsistent coper," with great use of all cognitive coping strategies, and most behaviors of fighting against the disease, and fewest behaviors of attention shift, had relatively high levels of psychological distress. Younger age, less education, shorter time since diagnosis, widowed, living in rural areas, and undergoing chemotherapy are possible markers for patients with less adaptive coping patterns. Interventions should be developed according to the different coping profiles of patients, and the key group to target is "negative copers," who may benefit from cognitive behavioral approaches that combine emotion, cognition and behavior, which could help them more effectively appraise and cope with stressful events.

  19. A rapid assessment of post-disclosure experiences of urban HIV-positive and HIV-negative school-aged children in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Gachanja

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been limited involvement of HIV-negative children in HIV disclosure studies; most studies conducted on the effects of disclosure on children have been with HIV-positive children and HIV-positive mother-child dyads. Seven HIV-positive and five HIV-negative children participated in a larger study conducted to understand the lived experiences of HIV-positive parents and their children during the disclosure process in Kenya. In this study, the experiences of these 12 children after receiving disclosure of their own and their parents’ illnesses respectively are presented. Each child underwent an in-depth qualitative semi-structured digitally recorded interview. The recorded interviews were transcribed and loaded into NVivo8 for phenomenological data analysis. Five themes emerged from the data, indicating that HIV-positive and negative children appear to have differing post-disclosure experiences revolving around acceptance of illness, stigma and discrimination, medication consumption, sexual awareness, and use of coping mechanisms. Following disclosure, HIV-negative children accepted their parents’ illnesses within a few hours to a few weeks; HIV-positive children took weeks to months to accept their own illnesses. HIV-negative children knew of high levels of stigma and discrimination within the community; HIV-positive children reported experiencing indirect incidences of stigma and discrimination. HIV-negative children wanted their parents to take their medications, stay healthy, and pay their school fees so they could have a better life in the future; HIV-positive children viewed medication consumption as an ordeal necessary to keep them healthy. HIV-negative children wanted their parents to speak to them about sexual-related matters; HIV-positive children had lingering questions about relationships, use of condoms, marriage, and childbearing options. All but one preadolescent HIV-positive child had self-identified a person to speak

  20. Frequency of Ketoacidosis in Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Zahra

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (TIDM). Many patients with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes present with DKA. The aim of this study is to determine the frequency and the clinical presentation of diabetic ketoacidosis at the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus in youths in hamadan, Western Province of Iran. Methods The Clinical and laboratory data of a total of 200 patients under 19 years of age with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus between 1995-2005 were retrospectively reviewed. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 11. Results 48 (24%)of the children were presented in a state of ketoacidosis. Sever form of DKA (pH≤7.2) was observed in 54.5% of patients. The mean age at diagnosis was 7.3±5.15 years in DKA group and 8.59±3.07 in non-DKA group (p=0.22). 60.4% of patient with DKA were female whereas in the non-DKA group, 53.3% of patients were female, the difference was not significant (p=0.38). The duration of symptoms before diagnosis was 14.84±8.19 days in patients with DKA and 22.39±2.27 in the non-DKA group, (p=0.11). No significant difference was found between the age, sex and duration of the symptoms and occurance of DKA. Polydipsia (85.4) polyuria (83.3%), weakness (68.8%) and abdominal pain (52.1%) were the most frequently notified symptoms among the patients. In two cases, diagnosis of DKA was preceded by as appendicitis and the patient underwent appendectomy. Conclusion Frequency of DKA at onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus was significant in the studied region. However, it was lower than other regions in Asia. Polydipsia, polyuria, fatigue and abdominal pain were the most common symptoms on presentation. PMID:22125712

  1. Frequency of Ketoacidosis in Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Razavi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTObjectives: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (TIDM. Many patients with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes present with DKA. The aim of this study is to determine the frequency and the clinical presentation of diabetic ketoacidosis at the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus in youths in hamadan, Western Province of Iran.Methods: The Clinical and laboratory data of a total of 200 patients under 19 years of age with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus between 1995-2005 were retrospectively reviewed. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 11.Results: 48 (24%of the children were presented in a state of ketoacidosis. Sever form of DKA (pH≤7.2 was observed in 54.5% of patients. The mean age at diagnosis was 7.3±5.15 years in DKA group and 8.59±3.07 in non-DKA group (p=0.22. 60.4% of patient with DKA were female whereas in the non-DKA group, 53.3% of patients were female, the difference was not significant (p=0.38. The duration of symptoms before diagnosis was 14.84±8.19 days in patients with DKA and 22.39±2.27 in the non-DKA group, (p=0.11. No significant difference was found between the age, sex and duration of the symptoms and occurance of DKA. Polydipsia (85.4 polyuria (83.3%, weakness (68.8% and abdominal pain (52.1% were the most frequently notified symptoms among the patients. In two cases, diagnosis of DKA was preceded by as appendicitis and the patient underwent appendectomy.Conclusion: Frequency of DKA at onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus was significant in the studied region. However, it was lower than other regions in Asia. Polydipsia, polyuria, fatigue and abdominal pain were the most common symptoms on presentation.

  2. Accounting for False Positive HIV Tests: Is Visceral Leishmaniasis Responsible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, Leslie; Ritmeijer, Koert; Piriou, Erwan; Siddiqui, M Ruby; Kliescikova, Jarmila; Pearce, Neil; Ariti, Cono; Muluneh, Libsework; Masiga, Johnson; Abebe, Almaz

    2015-01-01

    Co-infection with HIV and visceral leishmaniasis is an important consideration in treatment of either disease in endemic areas. Diagnosis of HIV in resource-limited settings relies on rapid diagnostic tests used together in an algorithm. A limitation of the HIV diagnostic algorithm is that it is vulnerable to falsely positive reactions due to cross reactivity. It has been postulated that visceral leishmaniasis (VL) infection can increase this risk of false positive HIV results. This cross sectional study compared the risk of false positive HIV results in VL patients with non-VL individuals. Participants were recruited from 2 sites in Ethiopia. The Ethiopian algorithm of a tiebreaker using 3 rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) was used to test for HIV. The gold standard test was the Western Blot, with indeterminate results resolved by PCR testing. Every RDT screen positive individual was included for testing with the gold standard along with 10% of all negatives. The final analysis included 89 VL and 405 non-VL patients. HIV prevalence was found to be 12.8% (47/ 367) in the VL group compared to 7.9% (200/2526) in the non-VL group. The RDT algorithm in the VL group yielded 47 positives, 4 false positives, and 38 negatives. The same algorithm for those without VL had 200 positives, 14 false positives, and 191 negatives. Specificity and positive predictive value for the group with VL was less than the non-VL group; however, the difference was not found to be significant (p = 0.52 and p = 0.76, respectively). The test algorithm yielded a high number of HIV false positive results. However, we were unable to demonstrate a significant difference between groups with and without VL disease. This suggests that the presence of endemic visceral leishmaniasis alone cannot account for the high number of false positive HIV results in our study.

  3. Accounting for False Positive HIV Tests: Is Visceral Leishmaniasis Responsible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Shanks

    Full Text Available Co-infection with HIV and visceral leishmaniasis is an important consideration in treatment of either disease in endemic areas. Diagnosis of HIV in resource-limited settings relies on rapid diagnostic tests used together in an algorithm. A limitation of the HIV diagnostic algorithm is that it is vulnerable to falsely positive reactions due to cross reactivity. It has been postulated that visceral leishmaniasis (VL infection can increase this risk of false positive HIV results. This cross sectional study compared the risk of false positive HIV results in VL patients with non-VL individuals.Participants were recruited from 2 sites in Ethiopia. The Ethiopian algorithm of a tiebreaker using 3 rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs was used to test for HIV. The gold standard test was the Western Blot, with indeterminate results resolved by PCR testing. Every RDT screen positive individual was included for testing with the gold standard along with 10% of all negatives. The final analysis included 89 VL and 405 non-VL patients. HIV prevalence was found to be 12.8% (47/ 367 in the VL group compared to 7.9% (200/2526 in the non-VL group. The RDT algorithm in the VL group yielded 47 positives, 4 false positives, and 38 negatives. The same algorithm for those without VL had 200 positives, 14 false positives, and 191 negatives. Specificity and positive predictive value for the group with VL was less than the non-VL group; however, the difference was not found to be significant (p = 0.52 and p = 0.76, respectively.The test algorithm yielded a high number of HIV false positive results. However, we were unable to demonstrate a significant difference between groups with and without VL disease. This suggests that the presence of endemic visceral leishmaniasis alone cannot account for the high number of false positive HIV results in our study.

  4. Disclosure of HIV Serostatus and Sexual Orientation Among HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex with Men in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiuyun; Chi, Peilian; Zhang, Liying; Zhang, Yan; Fang, Xiaoyi; Qiao, Shan; Li, Xiaoming

    2016-05-01

    This study addressed the issue of disclosing HIV status and sexual orientation, and explored the consequences of such disclosures among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. In-depth individual interviews were conducted with 37 HIV-positive MSM. Of these participants, 3 (8.1%) disclosed neither their HIV status nor their sexual orientation to anyone; 24 (64.9%) voluntarily disclosed both their HIV-positive status and their sexual orientation; 7 (18.9%) voluntarily disclosed their HIV status only, and 3 (8.1%) involuntarily disclosed their HIV status and sexual orientation. Parents, partners, siblings and close friends were the most common disclosure targets. HIV-positive MSM were less likely to disclose their sexual orientation than their HIV status. The positive consequences of disclosure included receiving support, acquiring family care, reducing stress, improving mood and developing more positive values and beliefs. The negative consequences included the participants' perception of rejection and stigma toward themselves and their families. However, the stigma mainly comes from "outsiders" rather than family members and close friends. We did not find any differences with respect to consequences between participants who disclosed their HIV status only and those who disclosed both their HIV status and sexual orientation. In conclusion, partners, siblings and friends were main disclosure targets, and HIV positive MSM preferred to disclose their HIV serostatus than their sexual orientation. Voluntarily disclosing one's HIV status to significant others resulted in more positive consequences than negative consequences. Theses results were informative for developing mental health and coping interventions.

  5. Being and Becoming “Fully Human” in an Hiv-Positive World: Hiv ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feminists have researched the link between gender and HIV/AIDS and shown that women are not always morally responsible for being HIV-positive. This article contributes to the debate by presenting a systematic discussion of women's experience of HIV/AIDS and spirituality. It offers a model of full humanity that interprets ...

  6. Anal microbiota profiles in HIV-positive and HIV-negative MSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guoqin; Fadrosh, Doug; Ma, Bing; Ravel, Jacques; Goedert, James J

    2014-03-13

    Because differences in anal microbial populations (microbiota) could affect acquisition of HIV or other conditions, especially among MSM, we profiled the microbiota of the anal canal, assessed its stability, and investigated associations with diversity and composition. Microbiota profiles in anal swabs collected from 76 MSM (52 in 1989, swab-1; 66 1-5 years later, swab-2) were compared by HIV status (25 HIV-positive), T-cell subsets, and questionnaire data. Bacterial 16S rRNA genes were amplified, sequenced (Illumina MiSeq), and clustered into species-level operational taxonomic units (QIIME and Greengenes). Regression models and Wilcoxon tests were used for associations with alpha diversity (unique operational taxonomic units, Shannon's index). Composition was compared by Adonis (QIIME). Most anal bacteria were Firmicutes (mean 60.6%, range 21.1-91.1%) or Bacteroidetes (29.4%, 4.1-70.8%). Alpha diversity did not change between the two swabs (N = 42 pairs). In swab-2, HIV-positives had lower alpha diversity (P ≤ 0.04) and altered composition, with fewer Firmicutes and more Fusobacteria taxa (P ≤ 0.03), not completely attributable to very low CD4(+) cell count (median 232 cells/μl), prior AIDS clinical diagnosis (N = 17), or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole use (N = 6). Similar but weaker differences were observed in swab-1 (HIV-positive median 580 CD4(+) cells/μl; no trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole). Associations with T-cell subsets, smoking, and sexual practices were null or inconsistent. The anal microbiota of MSM was relatively stable over 1-5 years. However, with uncontrolled, advanced HIV infection, the microbiota had altered composition and reduced diversity partially attributable to antibiotics. Investigations of microbial community associations with other immune perturbations and clinical abnormalities are needed.

  7. Gynaecological morbidity among HIV positive pregnant women in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Philip N

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To compare the prevalence of gynaecological conditions among HIV infected and non-infected pregnant women. Methods Two thousand and eight (2008 pregnant women were screened for HIV, lower genital tract infections and lower genital tract neoplasia at booking antenatal visit. Results About 10% (198/2008 were HIV positive. All lower genital tract infections except candidiasis were more prevalent among HIV positive compared to HIV negative women: vaginal candidiasis (36.9% vs 35.4%; p = 0.678, Trichomoniasis (21.2% vs 10.6%; p p p = 0.026, syphilis (35.9% vs 10.6%; p Chlamydia trachomatis (38.4% vs 7.1%; p p p Conclusion We conclude that (i sexually transmitted infections (STIs are common in both HIV positive and HIV negative pregnant women in Cameroon, and (ii STIs and preinvasive cervical lesions are more prevalent in HIV-infected pregnant women compared to their non-infected compatriots. We recommend routine screening and treatment of STIs during antenatal care in Cameroon and other countries with similar social profiles.

  8. Psychogenic "HIV infection"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sno, H. N.; Storosum, J. G.; Wortel, C. H.

    1991-01-01

    The case of a man who falsely represented himself as being HIV positive is reported. In less than one year he was admitted twice with symptoms suggestive of HIV infection. The diagnoses malingering and factitious disorder were consecutively made. Early recognition of Factitious Disorder is essential

  9. Pregnancy, Obstetric and Neonatal Outcomes in HIV Positive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While the effect of HIV infection on some maternal outcomes is well established, for some others there is conflicting information on possible association with HIV. In this study we investigated pregnancy and neonatal outcome of HIV positive women in large HIV treatment centre over a period of 84 months. They were ...

  10. The comparison of the performance of two screening strategies identifying newly-diagnosed HIV during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, K.; Smit, C.; Flier, M. van der; Wolf, F. de; Koopmans †, P.P.; Crevel, R. van; Eggink, A.J.; Groot, R. de; Keuter, M.; Post, F.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der; Warris, A.; et al.,

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the Netherlands, a non-selective opt-out instead of a selective opt-in antenatal HIV screening strategy was implemented in 2004. In case of infection, screening was followed by prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT). We compared the performance of the two strategies in

  11. Mechanisms underpinning effective peer support: a qualitative analysis of interactions between expert peers and patients newly-diagnosed with bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Proudfoot Judith G

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing burden on mental health services has led to the growing use of peer support in psychological interventions. Four theoretical mechanisms have been proposed to underpin effective peer support: advice grounded in experiential knowledge, social support, social comparison and the helper therapy principle. However, there has been a lack of studies examining whether these mechanisms are also evident in clinical populations in which interpersonal dysfunction is common, such as bipolar disorder. Method This qualitative study, conducted alongside a randomized controlled trial, examined whether the four mechanisms proposed to underpin effective peer support were expressed in the email exchange between 44 individuals newly-diagnosed with bipolar disorder and their Informed Supporters (n = 4, over the course of a supported online psychoeducation program for bipolar disorder. A total of 104 text segments were extracted and coded. The data were complemented by face-to-face interviews with three of the four Informed Supporters who participated in the study. Results Qualitative analyses of the email interchange and interview transcripts revealed rich examples of all four mechanisms. The data illustrated how the involvement of Informed Supporters resulted in numerous benefits for the newly-diagnosed individuals, including the provision of practical strategies for illness management as well as emotional support throughout the intervention. The Informed Supporters encouraged the development of positive relationships with mental health services, and acted as role models for treatment adherence. The Informed Supporters themselves reported gaining a number of benefits from helping, including a greater sense of connectedness with the mental health system, as well as a broader knowledge of illness management strategies. Conclusions Examples of the mechanisms underpinning effective peer support were found in the sample of emails from

  12. Efficacy of low to moderate doses of oxcarbazepine in adult patients with newly diagnosed partial epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xue-Mei; Chen, Jia-Ni; An, Dong-Mei; Hao, Nan-Ya; Hong, Zhen; Hao, Xiao-Ting; Rao, Ping; Zhou, Dong

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the efficacy of low dose of oxcarbazepine (OXC) in adult patients with newly diagnosed partial epilepsy in an actual clinical setting. The associated factors influencing the poor control of seizures were also evaluated. The epilepsy database (2010-2014) from the Epilepsy Clinic of West China Hospital was retrospectively reviewed. A total of 102 adult patients with newly diagnosed, previously untreated partial epilepsy initially treated with OXC were included, and divided into good response group (64) and poor response group (38) according to whether they were seizure-free for at least 12 months. There were 27 (26.5%) patients becoming seizure-free with OXC 600 mg/day monotherapy. The remaining 75 patients had doses of either increasing OXC to 900 mg/day (n = 59) or the addition of another antiepileptic drug (AED) (n = 16), with another 20 (19.6%) and six (5.9%) patients becoming seizure-free, respectively (P = 0.788). In addition, two (2.0%) and nine (8.8%) patients became seizure-free with OXC > 900 mg/day monotherapy and OXC ≥ 900 mg/day combination therapy, respectively. Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis revealed that the time from onset of epilepsy to treatment initiation is significantly associated with seizure control (P = 0.02). Our results indicated that OXC at low to moderate doses is effective for the treatment of Chinese adult patients with newly diagnosed, previously untreated partial epilepsy, and a longer time interval from the onset of epilepsy to the start of treatment significantly predicts poor seizure control. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Factors associated with initiation of antihyperglycaemic medication in UK patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinclair Alan J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim To assess the factors associated with antihyperglycaemic medication initiation in UK patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Methods In a retrospective cohort study, patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes were identified during the index period of 2003-2005. Eligible patients were ≥ 30 years old at the date of the first observed diabetes diagnosis (referred to as index date and had at least 2 years of follow-up medical history (N = 9,158. Initiation of antihyperglycaemic medication (i.e., treatment was assessed in the 2-year period following the index date. Adjusted Cox regression models were used to examine the association between time to medication initiation and patient age and other factors. Results Mean (SD HbA1c at diagnosis was 8.1% (2.3. Overall, 51% of patients initiated antihyperglycaemic medication within 2 years (65%, 55%, 46% and 40% for patients in the 30- th, 75th percentile time to treatment initiation was 63 (8, 257 days. Of the patients with HbA1c ≥ 7.5% at diagnosis, 87% initiated treatment within 2 years. These patients with a higher HbA1c also had shorter time to treatment initiation (adjusted hazard ratio (HR = 2.44 [95% confidence interval (CI: 1.61, 3.70]; p Conclusions In this UK cohort of patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes, only 51% had antihyperglycaemic medication initiated over a 2-year period following diagnosis. Older patients were significantly less likely to have been prescribed antihyperglycaemic medications. Elevated HbA1c was the strongest factor associated with initiating antihyperglycaemic medication in these patients.

  14. Effects of topiramate on language functions in newly diagnosed pediatric epileptic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Jun; Kim, Moon Yeon; Choi, Yoon Mi; Song, Mi Kyoung

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the effects of topiramate on language functions in newly diagnosed pediatric epileptic patients. Thirty-eight newly diagnosed epileptic patients were assessed using standard language tests. Data were collected before and after beginning topiramate during which time a monotherapy treatment regimen was maintained. Language tests included the Test of Language Problem Solving Abilities, a Korean version of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. We used language tests in the Korean version because all the patients were spoken Korean exclusively in their families. All the language parameters of Test of Language Problem Solving Abilities worsened after initiation of topiramate (determine cause, 13.2 ± 4.8 to 11.2 ± 4.3; problem solving, 14.8 ± 6.0 to 12.8 ± 5.0; predicting, 9.8 ± 3.6 to 8.8 ± 4.6). Patients given topiramate exhibited a shortened mean length of utterance in words during response (determine cause, 4.8 ± 0.9 to 4.3 ± 0.7; making inference, 4.5 ± 0.8 to 4.1 ± 1.1; predicting, 5.2 ± 1.0 to 4.7 ± 0.6; P language of patients after taking topiramate (95.4 ± 20.4 to 100.8 ± 19.1). Our data suggest that topiramate may have negative effects on problem-solving abilities in children. We recommend performing language tests should be considered in children being treated with topiramate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Emotional processing during psychotherapy among women newly diagnosed with a gynecological cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, Sharon L; Myers-Virtue, Shannon; Darabos, Katie; Ozga, Melissa; Heckman, Carolyn; Kissane, David; Rotter, David

    2017-08-01

    Our aim was to compare changes in emotional processing by women newly diagnosed with gynecological cancer enrolled in either a coping and communication skills intervention (CCI) or a supportive counseling (SC) intervention. We examined the association between in-session emotional processing and patient-rated therapeutic progress. Three therapy sessions with 201 patients were rated for the depth of emotional processing (peak and mode) during emotion episodes (EEs) using the Experiencing Rating Scale (EXP). Participants completed measures of dispositional emotional expressivity, depressive symptoms, and cancer-related distress before treatment began, as well as ratings of perceived progress in therapy after each session. Peak EXP ratings averaged between 2.7 and 3.1, indicating that women discussed events, their emotional reactions, and their private experiences in sessions. A small proportion of patients had high levels of processing, indicating deeper exploration of the meaning of their feelings and experiences. Women in SC were able to achieve a higher level of emotional processing during the middle and later sessions, and during cancer-related EEs in the later session. However, emotional processing was not significantly associated with a patient's perceived therapeutic progress with SC. In the CCI group, higher levels of emotional processing were associated with greater session progress, suggesting that it may play an important role in patient-rated treatment outcomes. Newly diagnosed gynecological cancer patients are able to attend to their emotions and personal experiences, particularly when discussing cancer-related issues during both short-term SC and prescriptive coping skills interventions.

  16. Opt-Out Panel Testing for HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C in an Urban Emergency Department: A Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah O'Connell

    Full Text Available Studies suggest 2 per 1000 people in Dublin are living with HIV, the level above which universal screening is advised. We aimed to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a universal opt-out HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C testing programme for Emergency Department patients and to describe the incidence and prevalence of blood-borne viruses in this population.An opt-out ED blood borne virus screening programme was piloted from March 2014 to January 2015. Patients undergoing blood sampling during routine clinical care were offered HIV 1&2 antibody/antigen assay, HBV surface antigen and HCV antibody tests. Linkage to care where necessary was co-ordinated by the study team. New diagnosis and prevalence rates were defined as the new cases per 1000 tested and number of positive tests per 1000 tested respectively.Over 45 weeks of testing, of 10,000 patient visits, 8,839 individual patient samples were available for analysis following removal of duplicates. A sustained target uptake of >50% was obtained after week 3. 97(1.09%, 44(0.49% and 447(5.05% HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C tests were positive respectively. Of these, 7(0.08%, 20(0.22% and 58(0.66% were new diagnoses of HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C respectively. The new diagnosis rate for HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C was 0.8, 2.26 and 6.5 per 1000 and study prevalence for HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C was 11.0, 5.0 and 50.5 per 1000 respectively.Opt-out blood borne viral screening was feasible and acceptable in an inner-city ED. Blood borne viral infections were prevalent in this population and newly diagnosed cases were diagnosed and linked to care. These results suggest widespread blood borne viral testing in differing clinical locations with differing population demographic risks may be warranted.

  17. Ethical issues when involving people newly diagnosed with dementia in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Suzanne; Kydd, Angela

    2015-03-01

    To discuss the methodological and ethical review challenges encountered by researchers who want to enable people with dementia to be involved in research. There has been increasing recognition of the importance of involving people with dementia in research. However, an argument has centred on the protection of these vulnerable clients versus their freedom to be involved as participants in research. People with dementia do have the right to have their experiences explored. Involving this client group in research is essential to gain a true understanding of their needs. The lead author's experience of conducting a study in which people newly diagnosed with dementia were recruited as research participants. An interpretive phenomenological approach was adopted during this qualitative study, with data collected by means of one to one interviews with people newly diagnosed with dementia. This study was completed within the set timeframe, but a large part of the work was spent gaining ethical approval. This meant that the timeframe of the study period was reduced and as a result, it was only possible to recruit three participants. However, people with dementia are perhaps one of the most vulnerable client groups and it is only right that they should not be subjected to harm. Ethical review is an important part of research. Meeting the ethical requirements of research involving people with dementia requires time and careful preparation to ensure that researchers safeguard the interests of this vulnerable client group, while also allowing the participants the opportunity to exercise their autonomy to their fullest potential. Conducting research that involves people with dementia may be time consuming, but it is only fair that this client group are afforded the freedom to be involved in research. This small time-limited study points to the need for larger pilot studies to hear from individuals what needs they have following a diagnosis of dementia.

  18. Engaging HIV-infected patients in antiretroviral therapy services: CD4 cell count testing after HIV diagnosis from 2005 to 2009 in Yunnan and Guangxi, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yao; Ray Y. Chen; ZHANG Fu-jie; LU Lin; LI Hui-qin; LIU Wei; TANG Zhi-rong; FANG Hua; Jennifer Y. Chen; MA Ye; ZHAO Yan

    2011-01-01

    Background The initiation and expansion of China's national free antiretroviral therapy program has led to significant improvement of survival among its participants. Success of further scaling up treatment coverage rests upon intensifying HIV screening and efficient linkage of care. Timely CD4 cell count testing after HIV diagnosis is necessary to determine whether a patient meets criteria for antiretroviral treatment, and represents a crucial link to engage HIV-infected patients in appropriate care, which has not been evaluated in China.Methods We evaluated all patients ≥16 years who tested HIV positive from 2005 to 2009 in Yunnan and Guangxi.Multivariate Logistic regression models were applied to identify factors associated with lack of CD4 cell count testing within 6 months after HIV diagnosis.Results A total of 83 556 patients were included. Over the study period, 30 635 (37%) of subjects received a CD4 cell count within 6 months of receiving the HIV diagnosis. The rate of CD4 cell count testing within 6 months of HIV diagnosis increased significantly from 7% in 2005 to 62% in 2009. Besides the earlier years of HIV diagnosis, negative predictors for CD4 cell count testing in multivariate analyses included older age, not married or unclear marriage status,incarceration, diagnosis at sexual transmitted disease clinics, mode of HIV transmission classified as men who have sex with men, intravenous drug users or transmission route unclear, while minority ethnicity, receipt of high school or higher education, diagnosis at voluntary counseling and testing clinics, and having HIV positive parents were protective.Conclusions Significant progress has been made in increasing CD4 testing among newly diagnosed HIV positive patients in Yunnan and Guangxi from 2005-2009. However, a sizable proportion of HIV positive patients still lack CD4testing within 6 months of diagnosis. Improving CD4 testing, particularly among patients with identified risk factors, is essential to

  19. Combination of prostate specific antigen and pathological stage regarding to gleason score to predict bone metastasis of newly diagnosed prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhen; Zhou Liquan; Gao Jiangping; Shi Lixin; Zhao Xiaoyi; Hong Baofa

    2004-01-01

    To determine the value of tumor grade and serum prostate-specific antigen in predicting skeletal metastases in untreated prostate cancer, the results of bone scans were related retrospectively to levels of serum PSA and tumor Grade based on pathologyical examination in 202 patients with prostate cancer newly diagnosed. Skeletal metastases were present in 7% of patients with serum PSA 100 μg/L. Bone scans are omitted likely in a man newly diagnosed with prostate cancer who has no suggestive clinical features, a serum PSA 100 μg/L. (authors)

  20. Comorbidities and risk factors associated with newly diagnosed epilepsy in the U.S. pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ahyuda; Thurman, David J; Kim, Hyunmi

    2017-10-01

    Neurobehavioral comorbidities can be related to underlying etiology of epilepsy, epilepsy itself, and adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs. We examined the relationship between neurobehavioral comorbidities and putative risk factors for epilepsy in children with newly diagnosed epilepsy. We conducted a retrospective analysis of children aged ≤18years in 50 states and the District of Columbia, using the Truven Health MarketScan® commercial claims and encounters database from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2013. The eligible study cohort was continuously enrolled throughout 2013 as well as enrolled for any days during a baseline period of at least the prior 2years. Newly diagnosed cases of epilepsy were defined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification-coded diagnoses of epilepsy or recurrent seizures and evidence of prescribed antiepileptic drugs during 2013, when neither seizure codes nor seizure medication claims were recorded during baseline periods. Twelve neurobehavioral comorbidities and eleven putative risk factors for epilepsy were measured. More than 6 million children were analyzed (male, 51%; mean age, 8.8years). A total of 7654 children were identified as having newly diagnosed epilepsy (125 per 100,000, 99% CI=122-129). Neurobehavioral comorbidities were more prevalent in children with epilepsy than children without epilepsy (60%, 99% CI=58.1-61.0 vs. 23%, CI=23.1-23.2). Children with epilepsy were far more likely to have multiple comorbidities (36%, 99% CI=34.3-37.1) than those without epilepsy (8%, 99% CI=7.45-7.51, Pepilepsy were detected in 28% (99% CI=26.9-29.6) of children with epilepsy. After controlling for demographics, neurobehavioral comorbidities, family history of epilepsy, and other risk factors than primary interest, neonatal seizures had the strongest independent association with the development of epilepsy (OR=29.8, 99% CI=23.7-37.3, Pepilepsy, those with both epilepsy and risk factors were

  1. [Analysis of the risky behaviors among HIV positive female sex workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jue; Jia, Manhong; Luo, Hongbing; Li, Youfang; Song, Lijun; Mei, Jingyuan; Ma, Yanling; Yang, Yanling; Lu, Ran; Wang, Ling; Zhang, Renzhong; Pan, Songfeng; Li, Zhiqing; Lu, Lin

    2015-11-01

    To analyze the characteristics of risky behaviors among different age groups of HIV positive female sex workers, and to explore the strengthening of their management. From January to June 2014, 22 814 female sex workers were investigated and tested HIV in 117 sentinel surveillance sites in Yunnan Province, and 181 were confirmed to be HIV antibody positive, who accepted questionnaire surveys. According to the age, the participants were divided into the HIV/AIDS and related risk behaviors characteristics of the two groups were obtained via questionnaire surveys among 181 HIV positive female sex workers, and in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted from among 12 HIV positive sex workers. HIV antibody positive rate was 0.8% (181), the age of the 181 subjects were (35.83 ± 9.17) years old, 76 cases (42.0%) were HIV, the proportion of AIDS awareness was 95.6% (173); the proportion of drug use among ≥ 35 years old age group was 51.4% (54), which was higher than that in HIV counseling and testing in the past year. The proportion of continuing to engage in sexual services over 5 years after HIV infection was 48.5% (51/105) and the proportion of receiving antiretroviral treatment was 69.5% (73/105) in ≥ 35 years old age group, which were higher than those in the HIV positive female sex workers found that regular clients, not consistent use of condoms were the main cause of no condom use. Economic and livelihood factors are important reasons for continuing to engage in sexual services among HIV positive sex workers. HIV positive sex workers still have high risk behaviors including continuing to engage in commercial sexual service and no condom use after knowing their HIV infection status, and the proportion of using drugs in the ≥ 35 years old group was higher than that in < 35 years old group.

  2. High percentage of recent HIV infection leading to onward transmission in Odessa, Ukraine associated with young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simmons, Ruth; Semenenko, Igor; Tolpina, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The proportion of new HIV diagnoses between May and December 2009 across Odessa recently-infected was estimated using the BED-CEIA assay. Logistic regression models were used to explore factors associated with testing as recent. Of 1,313 newly-diagnosed individuals, 321 (24 %) were classified as ...

  3. The comparison of the performance of two screening strategies identifying newly-diagnosed HIV during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Kees; Smit, Colette; van der Flier, Michiel; de Wolf, Frank; Bezemer, D. O.; Gras, L. A. J.; Kesselring, A. M.; van Sighem, A. I.; Smit, C.; Zhang, S.; Zaheri, S.; Bronsveld, W.; Hillebrand-Haverkort, M. E.; Prins, J. M.; Branger, J.; Eeftinck Schattenkerk, J. K. M.; Gisolf, J.; Godfried, M. H.; Lange, J. M. A.; Lettinga, K. D.; van der Meer, J. T. M.; Nellen, F. J. B.; van der Poll, T.; Reiss, P.; Ruys, Th A.; Steingrover, R.; van Twillert, G.; Vermeulen, J. N.; Vrouenraets, S. M. E.; van Vugt, M.; Wit, F. W. M. N.; Kuijpers, T. W.; Pajkrt, D.; Scherpbier, H. J.; van Eeden, A.; Brinkman, K.; van den Berk, G. E. L.; Blok, W. L.; Frissen, P. H. J.; Roos, J. C.; Schouten, W. E. M.; Bekendam, D. J.; Weigel, H. M.; Mulder, J. W.; van Gorp, E. C. M.; Wagenaar, J.; Veenstra, J.; Danner, S. A.; van Agtmael, M. A.; Claessen, F. A. P.

    2011-01-01

    In the Netherlands, a non-selective opt-out instead of a selective opt-in antenatal HIV screening strategy was implemented in 2004. In case of infection, screening was followed by prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT). We compared the performance of the two strategies in terms of

  4. Frequency of retinopathy in newly diagnosed patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus (dm)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, K.A.; Kamran, S.M.; Qureshi, M.N.

    2015-01-01

    This study was to determine the frequency of retinopathy in newly diagnosed type-II Diabetics. Study Design: Cross sectional descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: It was conducted at Department of medicine, Military Hospital (MH), Rawalpindi from 1st Jan 2012 to 30 Jun 2012. Material and Methods: We included 200 patients of type-II DM from both genders diagnosed in last 03 months from both outdoor and indoor departments in the age range of 40 to 70 years by consecutive sampling. All patients having co morbidities affecting retina were excluded. Informed written consent was taken before enrollment. Formal approval of the study was taken from hospital ethical committee. Ocular Fundoscopy was performed with WelchAllyn Ophthalmoscope (REF 11470) as per standard protocols and both eyes were examined. The grade of DR (diabetic retinopathy) awarded as per highest changes in any of the two eyes. All tests were carried by a single person to avoid inter-observer variations. Findings of ocular fundoscopy were confirmed by ophthalmologist. All data was analyzed by using SPSS version 11. Results: Out of 200 subjects 63.5% were male and 36.5% were female. Age ranged from 40 to 70 years with mean age of 51.05+ 6.910 years. 29 (14.5%) subjects had Diabetic retinopathy. Out of 29 patients, 24 (82.8%) had preproliferative and 5 (17.2%) had proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Conclusion: A significant proportion of diabetic patients have retinopathy at the time of diagnosis of their disease which is more common in males and with increasing age. It is recommended to thoroughly screen the newly diagnosed diabetics for early detection of diabetic retinopathy and its management involving early referral to eye specialist. (author)

  5. Prevalence of Chronic Diabetic Complications in Newly Diagnosed versus Known Type 2 Diabetic Subjects in a Sample of Alexandria Population, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Samir Assaad; Megallaa, Magdy Helmy; Rohoma, Kamel Hemida; Guindy, Myriam AbouSeif; Zaki, Adel; Hassanein, Mohamed; Malaty, Amin Helmy; Ismael, Hanaa Mohamed; Kharboush, Ibrahim Fahmy; El Kafash, Dalal Nasr-Eldein; Sallam, Hassan Nooman; Desouky, Iman Abdelkareem

    2018-01-24

    In Egypt, data on the prevalence of chronic diabetic complications, which are essential for the adjustment of policies and practices related to diabetes care, are scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the frequency of chronic complications of diabetes; namely neuropathy, diabetic kidney disease (DKD), retinopathy and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in newly-diagnosed versus known type 2 diabetic patients. This is a cross-sectional study that is based on a previous household survey conducted on a representative sample of the population of Alexandria, Egypt. This study included 506 consecutive subjects with type 2 diabetes; 323 patients with previously known T2DM and 183 patients with newly diagnosed T2DM (discovered during the survey). For each participant, a focused history was taken. Comprehensive clinical examination was done including fundus examination, foot examination and assessment of ankle brachial index. Laboratory tests included HbAlc, lipids profile, serum creatinine and urinary albumin creatinine ratio (UACR). Peripheral neuropathy was detected in 20% of the studied patients; 29.4% of known patients and 3.3% of newly diagnosed patients (pDiabetic kidney disease was detected in 33.2% of the studied patients; 46.1% of known patients and 10.4% of newly diagnosed patients (pDiabetic retinopathy was detected in 34.6% of the studied patients; 48.3% of known patients and 10.4% of newly diagnosed patients (pdiabetes, the presence of any of the studied complications (neuropathy, diabetic kidney disease, retinopathy or PAD) was significantly associated with the presence of all other complications (pdiabetes, the presence of diabetic kidney disease was significantly associated with the presence of retinopathy (pdiabetes at the time of diagnosis. Finally, these results should be considered as a call for action for the health care planners and providers in our region to plan for early screening for diabetes and its complications to reduce the

  6. Preoperative psychological distress, coping and quality of life in Chinese patients with newly diagnosed gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jingfang; Wei, Zengzeng; Wang, Weili

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of preoperative psychological distress and its relationship with coping style and quality of life in Chinese patients with newly diagnosed gastric cancer. Being newly diagnosed with cancer can be a source of psychological distress. Understanding the preoperative psychological distress may contribute to the development of appropriate interventions. This is a descriptive correlational survey study. The study was conducted in two teaching hospitals in Anhui province, China. A total of 165 patients with gastric cancer completed a battery of self-report questionnaires including the Distress Thermometer, the revised Chinese version of the Quality of Life Questionnaire-Stomach 22 and the Cancer Coping Modes Questionnaire. The prevalence of clinically significant preoperative psychological distress was 76·97% in this group. Statistically significant correlations were identified between the distress score and stomach pain, eating restrictions and anxiety subscale. Positive associations were found between the distress scores and four subdimensions of coping (avoidance and suppression, resignation, fantasy and catharsis), whereas a negative association was found between the distress scores and one subdimension of coping (Confrontation). There were also significant differences in the quality of life and coping style of patients who had different psychological distress statuses. These findings indicate a relatively high prevalence of preoperative psychological distress among Chinese patients with gastric cancer. Patients with clinically psychological distress were more likely to have poor quality of life and to demonstrate negative coping styles. Nursing professionals need to carefully assess the psychological status of patients with gastric cancer. Tailored interventions can be administered to help these patients appropriately cope with the disease and to enhance their quality of life. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Positive smoking cessation-related interactions with HIV care providers increase the likelihood of interest in cessation among HIV-positive cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacek, Lauren R; Rass, Olga; Johnson, Matthew W

    2017-10-01

    Smoking cessation has proven to be a challenge for HIV-positive smokers. Patient and provider characteristics may provide barriers to smoking cessation. We aimed to identify characteristics associated with interest in cessation as well as characterize use of, current interest in, and provider recommendations for smoking cessation modalities. Data came from 275 HIV-positive smokers recruited online. Half (49.1%) of the sample was interested in quitting; daily smoking was associated with decreased likelihood of interest in cessation, whereas making a lifetime quit attempt, receiving encouragement to quit from an HIV care provider, and greater frequency of discussions regarding cessation with HIV care providers were associated with increased likelihood of interest in cessation. Nicotine replacement therapy was the most commonly used (42.9%), generated the most interest (59.1%), and was the most commonly clinician-recommended (70.7%) cessation modality. Findings emphasize the importance of the healthcare provider-patient relationship for smoking cessation promotion in HIV-positive smokers.

  8. Parenting stress as a mediator of parents' negative mood state and behavior problems in children with newly diagnosed cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Geest, Ivana M; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M; Passchier, Jan; van den Hoed-Heerschop, Corry; Pieters, Rob; Darlington, Anne-Sophie E

    2014-07-01

    The aim was to investigate the influence of parents' negative mood state and parenting stress on behavior in children with newly diagnosed cancer. A total of 123 parents (n=58 fathers, n=65 mothers) of 67 children with newly diagnosed cancer completed three questionnaires separately at the same time measuring parents' negative mood state, parenting stress, and child behavior problems. Parents' negative mood state was weakly correlated to more child behavior problems (r=0.31, pparenting stress were strongly correlated to more child behavior problems (r=0.61, pparents' negative mood state and child behavior problems (c=0.29, p=0.02 (fathers); c=0.25, p=0.04 (mothers)) became non-significant after mediating for parenting stress (c'=0.003, p=0.98 (fathers); c'=0.10, p=0.42 (mothers)). The indirect effect of parents' negative mood state and child behavior problems was only significant for fathers (95% CI [0.12; 0.51]), indicating that parenting stress mediates the effect between fathers' negative mood state and child behavior problems. This is the first study to demonstrate the mediational role of parenting stress in fathers of a child with newly diagnosed cancer. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. HIV Diagnoses and Care Among Transgender Persons and Comparison With Men Who Have Sex With Men: New York City, 2006–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torian, Lucia V.; Merchant, Pooja; Braunstein, Sarah L.; Shepard, Colin W.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We measured HIV care outcomes of transgender persons, who have high HIV infection rates but are rarely distinguished from men who have sex with men (MSM) in HIV surveillance systems. Methods. New York City’s surveillance registry includes HIV diagnoses since 2000 and HIV laboratory test results for transgender persons since 2005. We determined immunological status at diagnosis, delayed linkage to care, and nonachievement of viral suppression 1 year after diagnosis for transgender persons diagnosed with HIV in 2006 to 2011 and compared transgender women with MSM. Results. In 2006 to 2011, 264 of 23 805 persons diagnosed with HIV were transgender (1%): 98% transgender women and 2% transgender men. Compared with MSM, transgender women had similar CD4 counts at diagnosis and rates of concurrent HIV/AIDS and delayed linkage to care but increased odds of not achieving suppression (adjusted odds ratio = 1.56; 95% confidence interval = 1.13, 2.16). Conclusions. Compared with MSM, transgender women in New York City had similar immunological status at diagnosis but lagged in achieving viral suppression. To provide appropriate assistance along the HIV care continuum, HIV care providers should accurately identify transgender persons. PMID:26691124

  10. Factors Influencing Pregnancy Desires among HIV Positive Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing Pregnancy Desires among HIV Positive Women in Sibande District in Mpumalanga, South Africa. ... Gender and Behaviour ... The objective of the study is to present findings on factors influencing pregnancy desires amongst HIV positive women that have participated in Prevention of Mother to child ...

  11. Incidence and risk factors of herpes zoster among hiv-positive patients in the german competence network for HIV/AIDS (KompNet): a cohort study analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Klaus; Haastert, Burkhard; Michalik, Claudia; Guignard, Adrienne; Esser, Stefan; Dupke, Stephan; Plettenberg, Andreas; Skaletz-Rorowski, Adriane; Brockmeyer, Norbert H

    2013-08-10

    HIV infection is a risk factor for the development of Herpes zoster (HZ) and its complications. Prior to antiretroviral therapy (ART), HZ incidence in HIV-infected individuals ranged from 2.9-5.1/100 person-years. There is limited evidence for the impact of ART on HZ occurrence among HIV-infected adults. We analysed the incidence of, and risk factors for, HZ in a large cohort of German HIV-positive patients. The study population was taken from the German KompNet cohort, a nationwide multicenter HIV cohort study. The study population was defined by age (≥ 18 years), year of first positive HIV diagnosis, CD4 values ± 6 months from HIV diagnosis (t0), and month of HZ diagnosis. Incidences were estimated using a Poisson distribution, and uni- and multivariate Cox proportional Hazard ratio (HR) regression models were fitted to identify risk factors for developing an initial HZ episode. Independent variables were sex, age at HIV diagnosis, route of HIV transmission, ART status, CD4 count before HZ episode, immunosuppressive medication, and mode of data documentation (retrospective or prospective). HZ incidence in the overall study population was 1.2/100 person-years. In a subset of patients for that we were able to examine risk factors the following was observed: We examined 3,757 individuals whose mean age at t0 was 38 years. Of those individuals, 96% were diagnosed with HIV in 1996 or later, with a mean observation time of 5.8 years. HZ episodes (n = 362) were recorded in 326 patients (8.7%), resulting in annual HZ incidences of 1.7/100 person-years overall, and 1.6/100 person-years for initial HZ cases. The main risk factors associated with an initial HZ episode were: not partaking in ART compared with an ART regimen containing a non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (HR 0.530, p study HZ incidences were lower than in previous studies relating to HIV-positive patients. We showed that ART is an important protective factor for HZ episodes.

  12. Predictive score for the development or progression of Graves' orbitopathy in patients with newly diagnosed Graves' hyperthyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiersinga, Wilmar; Žarković, Miloš; Bartalena, Luigi

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To construct a predictive score for the development or progression of Graves' orbitopathy (GO) in Graves' hyperthyroidism (GH). DESIGN: Prospective observational study in patients with newly diagnosed GH, treated with antithyroid drugs (ATD) for 18 months at ten participating centers f...

  13. Analysis of HIV subtypes and the phylogenetic tree in HIV-positive samples from Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Zahrani, Alhusain J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to assess the prevalence of HIV-1 genetic subtypes in Saudi Arabia in samples that are serologically positive for HIV-1 and compare the HIV-1 genetic subtypes prevalent in Saudi Arabia with the subtypes prevalent in other countries. Thirty-nine HIV-1 positive samples were analyzed for HIV-1 subtypes using molecular techniques. The study is retrospective study that was conducted in Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and in Abbott laboratories (United States of America) from2004 to 2007. All samples were seropositive for HIV-1 group M. Of the 39 seropositive samples, only 12 were polymerase chain reaction positive. Subtype C is the most common virus strain as it occurred in 58% of these samples; subtype B occurred in 17%; subtypes A, D and G were found in 8% each. The phylogenetic tree was also identified for the isolates. Detection of HIV subtypes is important for epidemiological purposes and may help in tracing the source of HIV infections in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. (author)

  14. Cerebral perfusion imaging in HIV positive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundley, Kshama; Chowdhury, D.; Lele, V.R.; Lele, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Twelve human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive patients were studied by SPECT cerebral perfusion imaging 1 hour post injection of 15 mCi of 99m Tc-ECD under ideal conditions with a triple head gamma camera (Prism 3000 X P LEUHR), fanbeam collimators followed by Folstein Mini Mental Status Examination (FMMSE) and AIDS dementia complex (ADC) staging on the same day. All 12 patients were male, in the age range of 23-45 y (mean 31 y). The infected status was diagnosed by ELISA (10 patients) or Western blot (5 patients). The interval between diagnosis and imaging ranged from 1 month - 35 months (mean 15.3 months). Two patients were alcoholic and 2 were smokers. None of them had CNS disorder clinically. ADC staging and FMMSE could be performed in 4 patients. Two patients were normal (stage 0) and 2 were subclinical (stage 0.5) on ADC staging. FMMSE revealed normal or near normal status (mean score 35; maximum score 36). Cerebral perfusion images were interpreted simultaneously by 3 observers blind towards history and examination using semi-quantitative and quantitative methods by consensus. It revealed multiple areas of hypoperfusion, viz. temporal (11 patients (91 %), parietal 10 patients (83%), frontal 9 patients (75%, pre and post central gyrus 7 patients (58%), occipital 6 patients (50%) cingulate gyrus and cerebellum 5 patients (41%) and thalamic in 2 patients (16%). Hyper perfusion in caudate nuclei was noted in 10 patients (83%). The study reveals presence of multiple perfusion abnormalities on cerebral perfusion imaging in HIV positive patients who have normal/near normal mental status suggesting precedence of perfusion abnormality over clinically apparent mental deficit

  15. Creating continuity out of the disruption of a diagnosis of HIV during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Carmel; Alderdice, Fiona; Lohan, Maria; Spence, Dale

    2012-06-01

    To understand the uniqueness of the experience of testing HIV positive from the perspective of pregnant women. As more people learn of their HIV diagnosis through routine screening processes, it is timely to reflect on the impact of receiving an unexpected positive result. A prospective qualitative study. This paper draws on the case studies of four women who were participating in a larger prospective qualitative study of reproductive decision-making, pregnancy and childbirth following HIV diagnosis. Multiple interviews were conducted following diagnosis during pregnancy, and, after the birth of their babies. Thematic data analysis was undertaken. Drawing on Becker's theory of disruption, we document the 'sudden disjuncture' of their antenatal diagnosis and the embodied emotional struggle the women engaged in to create continuity in their lives. A diagnosis of HIV disrupted the women's biographies in terms of their health, relationships and social identity. As pregnant women, the threat of HIV was experienced most significantly in relation to their unborn child. However, their narratives also revealed how a diagnosis of HIV in the context of pregnancy, whilst traumatic, provided a focus for regaining continuity in their lives, as the baby became a metaphor for hope and orientation toward the future. As HIV testing becomes more 'routine', the findings of this study serve to remind health professionals that a positive diagnosis continues to constitute a major trauma to individuals and families. We propose that appropriately educated nursing and midwifery staff could facilitate the 'meaning making' process that is required for newly diagnosed HIV positive persons to find a subjective sense of well-being in their lives. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Analysis of Inflammatory Mediators in Prediabetes and Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhen; Shen, Xu-Hui; Feng, Wen-Ming; Ye, Guo-fen; Qiu, Wei; Li, Bo

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the inflammatory markers in prediabetes and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Inflammatory markers levels were analyzed using one-way analysis of covariance and the association with prediabetes or T2DM risks was examined by logistic regression models. Our data showed increased levels of hypersensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin (IL-4), IL-10, and tryptase in prediabetes subjects and hs-CRP, immunoglobulin E (IgE), IL-4, and IL-10 in T2DM sub...

  17. Projected demographic composition of the United States population of people living with diagnosed HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Julia E; Golden, Matthew R; Hughes, James P; Goodreau, Steven M; Siddiqi, Azfar-E-Alam; Buskin, Susan E; Hawes, Stephen E

    2017-12-01

    The transformation of HIV from a fatal disease to lifelong disease has resulted in an HIV-infected population that is growing and aging, placing new and increasing demands on public programs and health services. We used National HIV Surveillance System and US census data to project the demographic composition of the population of people living with diagnosed HIV (PLWDH) in the United States through 2045. The input parameters for the projections include: (1) census projections, (2) number of people with an existing HIV diagnosis in 2013, (3) number of new HIV diagnoses in 2013, and (4) death rate within the PLWDH population in 2013. Sex-, risk group-, and race-specific projections were estimated through an adapted Leslie Matrix Model for age-structured populations. Projections for 2013-2045 suggest that the number of PLWDH in the U.S. will consistently grow, from 917,294 to 1,232,054, though the annual growth rate will slow from 1.8% to 0.8%. The number of PLWDH aged 55 years and older will increase from 232,113 to 470,221. The number of non-Hispanic (NH) African Americans/Blacks and Hispanics is projected to consistently grow, shifting the racial/ethnic composition of the US PLWDH population from 32 to 23% NH-White, 42 to 38% NH-Black, and 20-32% Hispanic between 2013 and 2045. Given current trends, the composition of the PLWDH population is projected to change considerably. Public health practitioners should anticipate large shifts in the age and racial/ethnic structure of the PLWDH population in the United States.

  18. Exploring the individual patterns of spiritual well-being in people newly diagnosed with advanced cancer: a cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Mei; Dixon, Jane; Williams, Anna-Leila; Jeon, Sangchoon; Lazenby, Mark; McCorkle, Ruth

    2016-11-01

    Research shows that spiritual well-being correlates positively with quality of life (QOL) for people with cancer, whereas contradictory findings are frequently reported with respect to the differentiated associations between dimensions of spiritual well-being, namely peace, meaning and faith, and QOL. This study aimed to examine individual patterns of spiritual well-being among patients newly diagnosed with advanced cancer. Cluster analysis was based on the twelve items of the 12-item Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being Scale at Time 1. A combination of hierarchical and k-means (non-hierarchical) clustering methods was employed to jointly determine the number of clusters. Self-rated health, depressive symptoms, peace, meaning and faith, and overall QOL were compared at Time 1 and Time 2. Hierarchical and k-means clustering methods both suggested four clusters. Comparison of the four clusters supported statistically significant and clinically meaningful differences in QOL outcomes among clusters while revealing contrasting relations of faith with QOL. Cluster 1, Cluster 3, and Cluster 4 represented high, medium, and low levels of overall QOL, respectively, with correspondingly high, medium, and low levels of peace, meaning, and faith. Cluster 2 was distinguished from other clusters by its medium levels of overall QOL, peace, and meaning and low level of faith. This study provides empirical support for individual difference in response to a newly diagnosed cancer and brings into focus conceptual and methodological challenges associated with the measure of spiritual well-being, which may partly contribute to the attenuated relation between faith and QOL.

  19. HIV-positive father wins visitation battle in Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-03-24

    [Name removed], after a four-year court battle, has been awarded visitation rights with his three daughters. [Name removed] separated from his wife [name removed] in [name removed] 1991 after telling her he was diagnosed with HIV. The custody dispute originally centered around not only [name removed]'s HIV status, but also his homosexuality (he had left his wife for the family friend and godfather to one of the couple's daughter's). Custody judge Audrey E. Melbourne allowed [name removed] to see his daughters at his home, excluding overnight, weekday or holiday visits. [Name removed]'s appeal focused on the medical aspects of HIV transmission in the household. Since Mrs. [Name removed]' expert witness conceded that he knew of no recorded instances of a person transmitting HIV to another person through bathing, cooking or breathing, the judge agreed the risk of transmission was so small as to pose no threat to the children's safety. [Name removed] was awarded visitation on alternating weekends, plus alternating Federal holidays.

  20. Pattern of neuropsychological performance among HIV positive patients in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parsons Thomas D

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have examined cognitive functioning of HIV positive patients in sub-Saharan Africa. It cannot be assumed that HIV positive patients in Africa exhibit the same declines as patients in high-resource settings, since there are differences that may influence cognitive functioning including nutrition, history of concomitant disease, and varying HIV strains, among other possibilities. Part of the difficulty of specifying abnormalities in neuropsychological functioning among African HIV positive patients is that there are no readily available African normative databases. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the pattern of neuropsychological performance in a sample of HIV positive patients in comparison to HIV negative control subjects in Uganda. Methods The neuropsychological test scores of 110 HIV positive patients (WHO Stage 2, n = 21; WHO Stage 3, n = 69; WHO Stage 4, n = 20 were contrasted with those of 100 control subjects on measures of attention/concentration, mental flexibility, learning/memory, and motor functioning. Results Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA revealed significant group differences on measures of verbal learning and memory, speed of processing, attention and executive functioning between HIV seropositive and seronegative subjects. Conclusion Ugandan patients with HIV demonstrated relative deficits on measures of verbal learning and memory, speed of processing, attention, and executive functioning compared to HIV negative controls. These results from a resource limited region where clades A and D are prevalent are consistent with previous findings in the developed world where clade B predominates.

  1. Linking women who test HIV-positive in pregnancy-related services to HIV care and treatment services in Kenya: a mixed methods prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ferguson

    Full Text Available There has been insufficient attention to long-term care and treatment for pregnant women diagnosed with HIV.This prospective cohort study of 100 HIV-positive women recruited within pregnancy-related services in a district hospital in Kenya employed quantitative methods to assess attrition between women testing HIV-positive in pregnancy-related services and accessing long-term HIV care and treatment services. Qualitative methods were used to explore barriers and facilitators to navigating these services. Structured questionnaires were administered to cohort participants at enrolment and 90+ days later. Participants' medical records were monitored prospectively. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were carried out with a sub-set of 19 participants.Only 53/100 (53% women registered at an HIV clinic within 90 days of HIV diagnosis, of whom 27/53 (51% had a CD4 count result in their file. 11/27 (41% women were eligible for immediate antiretroviral therapy (ART; only 6/11 (55% started ART during study follow-up. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, factors associated with registration at the HIV clinic within 90 days of HIV diagnosis were: having cared for someone with HIV (aOR:3.67(95%CI:1.22, 11.09, not having to pay for transport to the hospital (aOR:2.73(95%CI:1.09, 6.84, and having received enough information to decide to have an HIV test (aOR:3.61(95%CI:0.83, 15.71. Qualitative data revealed multiple factors underlying high patient drop-out related to women's social support networks (e.g. partner's attitude to HIV status, interactions with health workers (e.g. being given unclear/incorrect HIV-related information and health services characteristics (e.g. restricted opening hours, long waiting times.HIV testing within pregnancy-related services is an important entry point to HIV care and treatment services, but few women successfully completed the steps needed for assessment of their treatment needs within three months of diagnosis

  2. Sexual behavior and risk practices of HIV positive and HIV negative Rwandan women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ADEDIMEJI, Adebola A.; HOOVER, Donald R.; SHI, Qiuhu; GARD, Tracy; MUTIMURA, Eugene; SINAYOBYE, Jean d’Amour; COHEN, Mardge H.; ANASTOS, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    It is not well understood how infection with HIV and prior experience of sexual violence affects sexual behavior in African women. We describe factors influencing current sexual practices of Rwandan women living with or without HIV/AIDS. By design, 75% of participants were HIV positive and ~50% reported having experienced genocidal rape. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were fit to describe demographic and clinical characteristics that influenced sexual behavior in the previous 6 months, condom use, history of transactional sex, and prior infection with a non-HIV sexually transmitted disease. Respondents’ age, where they lived, whether or not they lived with a husband or partner, experience of sexual trauma, CD4 count, CES-D and PTSD scores were strongly associated with risky sexual behavior and infection with non-HIV STI. HIV positive women with a history of sexual violence in the contexts of war and conflict may be susceptible to some high-risk sexual behaviors. PMID:25488169

  3. Familial occurrence of epilepsy in children with newly diagnosed multiple seizures : Dutch study of epilepsy in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callenbach, PMC; Geerts, AT; Arts, WFM; van Donselaar, CA; Peters, A.C. Boudewyn; Stroink, H; Brouwer, OF

    Purpose: To study the familial occurrence of epilepsy in children with newly diagnosed multiple unprovoked seizures. Methods: Between August 1988 and September 1992, 462 children with two or more unprovoked seizures were included in the prospective Dutch Study of Epilepsy in Childhood. Seizures and

  4. A Pilot Safety Study of Lenalidomide and Radiotherapy for Patients With Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma Multiforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drappatz, Jan; Wong, Eric T.; Schiff, David; Kesari, Santosh; Batchelor, Tracy T.; Doherty, Lisa; LaFrankie, Debra Conrad; Ramakrishna, Naren; Weiss, Stephanie; Smith, Sharon T.; Ciampa, Abigail; Zimmerman, Jennifer; Ostrowsky, Louis; David, Karly; Norden, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of lenalidomide, an analogue of thalidomide with enhanced immunomodulatory and antiangiogenic properties and a more favorable toxicity profile, in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) when given concurrently with radiotherapy. Patients and Methods: Patients with newly diagnosed GBM received radiotherapy concurrently with lenalidomide given for 3 weeks followed by a 1-week rest period and continued lenalidomide until tumor progression or unacceptable toxicity. Dose escalation occurred in groups of 6. Determination of the MTD was based on toxicities during the first 12 weeks of therapy. The primary endpoint was toxicity. Results: Twenty-three patients were enrolled, of whom 20 were treated and evaluable for both toxicity and tumor response and 2 were evaluable for toxicity only. Common toxicities included venous thromboembolic disease, fatigue, and nausea. Dose-limiting toxicities were eosinophilic pneumonitis and transaminase elevations. The MTD for lenalidomide was determined to be 15 mg/m 2 /d. Conclusion: The recommended dose for lenalidomide with radiotherapy is 15 mg/m 2 /d for 3 weeks followed by a 1-week rest period. Venous thromboembolic complications occurred in 4 patients, and prophylactic anticoagulation should be considered

  5. Access to HIV Care and Resilience in a Long-Term Conflict Setting: A Qualitative Assessment of the Experiences of Living with Diagnosed HIV in Mogadishu, Somali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulane, Asli; Owuor, John O A; Sematimba, Douglas; Abdulahi, Sacdia Abdisamad; Yusuf, Hamdi Moalim; Mohamed, Lul M

    2017-07-05

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) continues to take a heavy toll on the lives of many people, with the worst impact on health and wellbeing for the affected individuals in fragile states. The HIV situation in Somalia is not clearly known and experiences of the people living with HIV in this war-torn region are often unexpressed. This pilot qualitative study sought to explore the experiences of people diagnosed with HIV living in Mogadishu, and their resilience in access to care and social support. Participants were recruited through drug dispensers at the HIV clinic in Banadir Hospital. Face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted in Somali in May 2013 among patients who were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) from the HIV clinic in Mogadishu. These were tape-recorded, transcribed, and translated for content analysis. Three women and four men who were living with HIV shared the following narratives. Their perception was that they had either got HIV from their spouses or through health care contamination. They were very knowledgeable about the realities of HIV, how the medication works, nutritional requirements, and drug adherence. They were always willing to go an extra mile to secure a good life for themselves. However, the external HIV stigma impacted their access to care. They faced challenges in their homes and at work which compelled them to seek support from non-governmental organizations (NGOs) or close family members. This stigma often affected their disclosure to the wider community due to the uncertainty of the repercussions, leading to a life of extreme loneliness and financial difficulties. The participants' coping mechanisms included living together and starting their own NGO for support with very strong optimism about their prognosis. The people diagnosed with HIV living in Mogadishu are highly knowledgeable about HIV transmission, the realities of living with a diagnosed HIV infection, and the efficacy of HIV treatment. Our small sample

  6. Access to HIV Care and Resilience in a Long-Term Conflict Setting: A Qualitative Assessment of the Experiences of Living with Diagnosed HIV in Mogadishu, Somali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulane, Asli; Owuor, John O. A.; Abdulahi, Sacdia Abdisamad; Yusuf, Hamdi Moalim; Mohamed, Lul M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) continues to take a heavy toll on the lives of many people, with the worst impact on health and wellbeing for the affected individuals in fragile states. The HIV situation in Somalia is not clearly known and experiences of the people living with HIV in this war-torn region are often unexpressed. This pilot qualitative study sought to explore the experiences of people diagnosed with HIV living in Mogadishu, and their resilience in access to care and social support. Methods: Participants were recruited through drug dispensers at the HIV clinic in Banadir Hospital. Face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted in Somali in May 2013 among patients who were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) from the HIV clinic in Mogadishu. These were tape-recorded, transcribed, and translated for content analysis. Results: Three women and four men who were living with HIV shared the following narratives. Their perception was that they had either got HIV from their spouses or through health care contamination. They were very knowledgeable about the realities of HIV, how the medication works, nutritional requirements, and drug adherence. They were always willing to go an extra mile to secure a good life for themselves. However, the external HIV stigma impacted their access to care. They faced challenges in their homes and at work which compelled them to seek support from non-governmental organizations (NGOs) or close family members. This stigma often affected their disclosure to the wider community due to the uncertainty of the repercussions, leading to a life of extreme loneliness and financial difficulties. The participants’ coping mechanisms included living together and starting their own NGO for support with very strong optimism about their prognosis. Conclusions: The people diagnosed with HIV living in Mogadishu are highly knowledgeable about HIV transmission, the realities of living with a diagnosed HIV infection, and the

  7. Prevalence of HIV positive blood donors among screened ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2006-04-03

    Apr 3, 2006 ... Department of Physiology, Obafemi Awolowo College of Health Sciences, Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching. Hospital ... screening volunteer donors by initial criteria alone does not fully eliminate all HIV positive donors. The prevalence of HIV ... HIV test criteria alone to qualify for blood donation in the.

  8. Same day ART initiation versus clinic-based pre-ART assessment and counselling for individuals newly tested HIV-positive during community-based HIV testing in rural Lesotho - a randomized controlled trial (CASCADE trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labhardt, Niklaus Daniel; Ringera, Isaac; Lejone, Thabo Ishmael; Masethothi, Phofu; Thaanyane, T'sepang; Kamele, Mashaete; Gupta, Ravi Shankar; Thin, Kyaw; Cerutti, Bernard; Klimkait, Thomas; Fritz, Christiane; Glass, Tracy Renée

    2016-04-14

    Achievement of the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets in Sub-Sahara Africa is challenged by a weak care-cascade with poor linkage to care and retention in care. Community-based HIV testing and counselling (HTC) is widely used in African countries. However, rates of linkage to care and initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in individuals who tested HIV-positive are often very low. A frequently cited reason for non-linkage to care is the time-consuming pre-ART assessment often requiring several clinic visits before ART-initiation. This two-armed open-label randomized controlled trial compares in individuals tested HIV-positive during community-based HTC the proposition of same-day community-based ART-initiation to the standard of care pre-ART assessment at the clinic. Home-based HTC campaigns will be conducted in catchment areas of six clinics in rural Lesotho. Households where at least one individual tested HIV positive will be randomized. In the standard of care group individuals receive post-test counselling and referral to the nearest clinic for pre-ART assessment and counselling. Once they have started ART the follow-up schedule foresees monthly clinic visits. Individuals randomized to the intervention group receive on the spot point-of-care pre-ART assessment and adherence counselling with the proposition to start ART that same day. Once they have started ART, follow-up clinic visits will be less frequent. First primary outcome is linkage to care (individual presents at the clinic at least once within 3 months after the HIV test). The second primary outcome is viral suppression 12 months after enrolment in the study. We plan to enrol a minimum of 260 households with 1:1 allocation and parallel assignment into both arms. This trial will show if in individuals tested HIV-positive during community-based HTC campaigns the proposition of same-day ART initiation in the community, combined with less frequent follow-up visits at the clinic could be a pragmatic approach to

  9. HIV status and treatment influence on fertility desires among women newly becoming eligible for antiretroviral therapy in western Kenya: insights from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayieko, James; Ti, Angeline; Hagey, Jill; Akama, Eliud; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Cohen, Craig R; Patel, Rena C

    2017-08-08

    Factors influencing fertility desires among HIV-infected individuals remain poorly understood. With new recommendations for universal HIV treatment and increasing antiretroviral therapy (ART) access, we sought to evaluate how access to early ART influences fertility desires among HIV-infected ART-naïve women. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with a select subgroup of 20 HIV-infected ART-naïve women attending one of 13 HIV facilities in western Kenya between July and August 2014 who would soon newly become eligible to initiate ART based on the latest national policy recommendations. The interviews covered four major themes: 1) definitions of family and children's role in community; 2) personal, interpersonal, institutional, and societal factors influencing fertility desires; 3) influence of HIV-positive status on fertility desires; and 4) influence of future ART initiation on fertility desires. An iterative process of reading transcripts, applying inductive codes, and comparing and contrasting codes was used to identify convergent and divergent themes. The women indicated their HIV-positive status did influence-largely negatively-their fertility desires. Furthermore, initiating ART and anticipating improved health status did not necessarily translate to increased fertility desires. Instead, individual factors, such as age, parity, current health status, financial resources and number of surviving or HIV-infected children, played a crucial role in decisions about future fertility. In addition, societal influences, such as community norms and health providers' expectations of their fertility desires, played an equally important role in determining fertility desires. Initiating ART may not be the leading factor influencing fertility desires among previously ART-naïve HIV-infected women. Instead, individual and societal factors appear to be the major determinants of fertility desires among these women.

  10. Association between High Fat-low Carbohydrate Diet Score and Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes in Chinese Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Na, Y.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Li, Y.P.; Zhang, J.; Fu, P.; Ma, G.S.; Yang, X.G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the association between high fat-low carbohydrate diet score and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes in Chinese population. Methods Data about 20 717 subjects aged 45-59 years from the cross-sectional 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey were analyzed. High fat-low

  11. Nephrotoxicity of cyclosporin A in patients with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Jensen, T; Dieperink, H

    1990-01-01

    Renal function was studied in 18 patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus. All were participating in the Canadian-European randomized placebo-controlled cyclosporin trial in newly diagnosed Type 1 diabetic patients, nine being randomized to placebo, and nine to cyclosporin A. During treatment for 12...... corrected for differences in blood glucose control it appeared that in three out of nine patients glomerular filtration rate had not completely returned to the reference range of the placebo group. We conclude that the nephrotoxic side-effects of cyclosporin A treatment for 1 year are reversible. There are...

  12. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV Option B+ cascade in rural Tanzania: The One Stop Clinic model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gamell

    Full Text Available Strategies to improve the uptake of Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission of HIV (PMTCT are needed. We integrated HIV and maternal, newborn and child health services in a One Stop Clinic to improve the PMTCT cascade in a rural Tanzanian setting.The One Stop Clinic of Ifakara offers integral care to HIV-infected pregnant women and their families at one single place and time. All pregnant women and HIV-exposed infants attended during the first year of Option B+ implementation (04/2014-03/2015 were included. PMTCT was assessed at the antenatal clinic (ANC, HIV care and labour ward, and compared with the pre-B+ period. We also characterised HIV-infected pregnant women and evaluated the MTCT rate.1,579 women attended the ANC. Seven (0.4% were known to be HIV-infected. Of the remainder, 98.5% (1,548/1,572 were offered an HIV test, 94% (1,456/1,548 accepted and 38 (2.6% tested HIV-positive. 51 were re-screened for HIV during late pregnancy and one had seroconverted. The HIV prevalence at the ANC was 3.1% (46/1,463. Of the 39 newly diagnosed women, 35 (90% were linked to care. HIV test was offered to >98% of ANC clients during both the pre- and post-B+ periods. During the post-B+ period, test acceptance (94% versus 90.5%, p<0.0001 and linkage to care (90% versus 26%, p<0.0001 increased. Ten additional women diagnosed outside the ANC were linked to care. 82% (37/45 of these newly-enrolled women started antiretroviral treatment (ART. After a median time of 17 months, 27% (12/45 were lost to follow-up. 79 women under HIV care became pregnant and all received ART. After a median follow-up time of 19 months, 6% (5/79 had been lost. 5,727 women delivered at the hospital, 20% (1,155/5,727 had unknown HIV serostatus. Of these, 30% (345/1,155 were tested for HIV, and 18/345 (5.2% were HIV-positive. Compared to the pre-B+ period more women were tested during labour (30% versus 2.4%, p<0.0001. During the study, the MTCT rate was 2.2%.The implementation of

  13. Prognostic Significance of Blood Transfusion in Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma Patients without Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Liping; Fu, Danhui; Zhang, Jinping; Wang, Qingqing; Ye, Yamei; Xie, Qianling

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether blood transfusions affect overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) patients without hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. A total of 181 patients were enrolled and divided into two groups: 68 patients in the transfused group and 113 patients in the nontransfused group. Statistical analyses showed that there were significant differences in ECOG scoring, Ig isotype, platelet (Plt) counts, hemoglobin (Hb) level, serum creatinine (Scr) level, and β2-microglobulin (β2-MG) level between the two groups. Univariate analyses showed that higher International Staging System staging, Plt counts blood transfusion was associated with PFS but not OS in MM patients. Multivariate analyses showed that blood transfusion was not an independent factor for PFS in MM patients. Our preliminary results suggested that newly diagnosed MM patients may benefit from a liberal blood transfusion strategy, since blood transfusion is not an independent impact factor for survival. PMID:28567420

  14. A Pilot Study to Increase the Efficiency of HIV Outreach Testing Through the Use of Timely and Geolocated HIV Viral Load Surveillance Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Jacky M.; Schumacher, Christina; Perin, Jamie; Myers, Tanya; Fields, Nathan; Greiner Safi, Amelia; Chaulk, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    Background Eliminating HIV transmission in a population necessitates identifying population reservoirs of HIV infection and subgroups most likely to transmit. HIV viral load is the single most important predictor of HIV transmission. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate whether a public health practice pilot project based on community viral load resulted in increases in the proportion of time spent testing in high viral load areas (process measure) and 3 outcome measures—the number and percent of overall HIV diagnoses, new diagnoses, and high viral load positives—in one mid-Atlantic US city with a severe HIV epidemic. Methods The evaluation was conducted during three, 3-month periods for 3 years and included the use of community viral load, global positioning system tracking data, and statistical testing to evaluate the effectiveness of the pilot project. Results The proportion of time spent outreach testing in high viral load areas (69%–84%, P the overall number and percent of HIV positives ((60 (3%) to 127 (6%), P The number and percent of new diagnoses (3 (0.1%) to 6 (0.2%)) and high viral load positives (5 (0.2%) to 9 (0.4%)) increased, but the numbers were too small for statistical testing. Discussion These results suggest that using community viral load to increase the efficiency of HIV outreach testing is feasible and may be effective in identifying more HIV positives. The pilot project provides a model for other public health practice demonstration projects. PMID:29420450

  15. Descriptive comparison of drug treatment-persistent, -nonpersistent, and nondrug treatment patients with newly diagnosed attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Sebastian; Russo, Leo; Zeidler, Jan; Linder, Roland; Hodgkins, Paul

    2013-05-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous behavioral disorder commonly found in children, with serious lifetime health and social consequences for both children and their parents. Public awareness of ADHD in Germany has increased in the past decade, but little is known about the costs of treating newly diagnosed patients in clinical practice. This study aimed to describe the resource utilization and treatment costs of patients aged 6 to 17 years with newly diagnosed ADHD, using patient data from a German sickness fund, and to quantify resource utilization by drug treatment and treatment persistence. To identify patients with newly diagnosed ADHD, the second largest German sickness fund was utilized. Complete claims data of all de-identified patients meeting eligibility criteria for 2007 and 2008 were extracted. Patients were divided into 1 of 3 treatment groups: drug treatment-persistent, drug treatment-nonpersistent, and nondrug treatment. The differences in costs and resource utilization are reported in a descriptive manner, with paired and unpaired 2-sample Wilcoxon tests used. Of 3407 newly diagnosed patients with ADHD, 1105 (32%) received an ADHD-specific drug following diagnosis; the remaining 2302 comprised the nondrug treatment group. Of the total number of drug-treated patients, 1-year observational data were available for only 786 methylphenidate users (71%). Of these, 503 patients (64%) comprised the drug treatment-persistent group (those having at least 1 prescription every 3 months during the 12 months following their first ADHD prescription) and 283 (36%) comprised the drug treatment-nonpersistent group. After excluding those patients with benefits when patients are treatment persistent compared to nonpersistent [corrected]. Therefore, future disease-management programs might consider treatment persistence as potentially reducing overall payer costs. Additionally, the clinical and psychosocial situations of patients and their

  16. [Situation and reasons for missed follow-up services among newly reported HIV/AIDS cases transmitted by homosexual behavior in China, 2008-2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; Han, J; Tang, H L; Li, J; Zang, C P; Mao, Y R

    2018-04-10

    Objective: To determine the prevalence and relative factors on those who missed the follow-up service among newly reported HIV/AIDS cases that were infected by homosexual behavior. Methods: Data were extracted from both HIV/AIDS case-reporting and follow-up cards on HIV/AIDS in the Comprehensive Response Information Management System, between December 2008 and December 2015. Data was analyzed, using the generalized estimating equations (GEE) to explore the relative factors of influence. Results: Among the newly reported HIV infection among MSM, the proportion of those who missed the follow-up services was 5.06% (6 037/119 358), and decreased dramatically, from 37.57% (1 261/3 356) to 0.84% (267/31 935) (trend χ (2)=103.43, P discovered MSM HIV cases declined dramatically. Among the MSM HIV cases, those having the following characteristics as: younger than 50-year old, with less school education, with unspecified occupation or unemployment, working in commercial service, being student, having history of incarceration, recruited from special investigation, and floating population were prone to miss the follow-up program, suggesting that the follow-up service should be targeting on these patients.

  17. Recurrence of cervical intraepithelial lesions after thermo-coagulation in HIV-positive and HIV-negative Nigerian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oga, Emmanuel A; Brown, Jessica P; Brown, Clayton; Dareng, Eileen; Adekanmbi, Victor; Odutola, Michael; Olaniyan, Olayinka; Offiong, Richard; Obende, Kayode; Adewole, Ayodele Stephen; Peter, Achara; Dakum, Patrick; Adebamowo, Clement

    2016-05-11

    The burden of cervical cancer remains huge globally, more so in sub-Saharan Africa. Effectiveness of screening, rates of recurrence following treatment and factors driving these in Africans have not been sufficiently studied. The purpose of this study therefore was to investigate factors associated with recurrence of cervical intraepithelial lesions following thermo-coagulation in HIV-positive and HIV-negative Nigerian women using Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid (VIA) or Lugol's Iodine (VILI) for diagnosis. A retrospective cohort study was conducted, recruiting participants from the cervical cancer "see and treat" program of IHVN. Data from 6 sites collected over a 4-year period was used. Inclusion criteria were: age ≥18 years, baseline HIV status known, VIA or VILI positive and thermo-coagulation done. Logistic regression was performed to examine the proportion of women with recurrence and to examine factors associated with recurrence. Out of 177 women included in study, 67.8 % (120/177) were HIV-positive and 32.2 % (57/177) were HIV-negative. Recurrence occurred in 16.4 % (29/177) of participants; this was 18.3 % (22/120) in HIV-positive women compared to 12.3 % (7/57) in HIV-negative women but this difference was not statistically significant (p-value 0.31). Women aged ≥30 years were much less likely to develop recurrence, adjusted OR = 0.34 (95 % CI = 0.13, 0.92). Among HIV-positive women, CD4 count thermo-coagulation occurs in a significant proportion of women. HIV-positive women with low CD4 counts are at increased risk of recurrent lesions and may be related to immunosuppression.

  18. Effects of Mediterranean diet on sexual function in people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: The MÈDITA trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiorino, Maria Ida; Bellastella, Giuseppe; Caputo, Mariangela; Castaldo, Filomena; Improta, Maria Rosaria; Giugliano, Dario; Esposito, Katherine

    To assess the long-term effect of Mediterranean diet, as compared with low-fat diet, on sexual function in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. In a randomized clinical trial, with a total follow-up of 8.1years, 215 men and women with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes were assigned to Mediterranean diet (n=108) or a low-fat diet (n=107). The primary outcome measures were changes of erectile function (IIEF) in diabetic men and of female sexual function (FSFI) in diabetic women. There was no difference in baseline sexual function in men (n=54 vs 52) or women (n=54 vs 55) randomized to Mediterranean diet or low-fat diet, respectively (P=0.287, P=0.815). Over the entire follow-up, the changes of the primary outcomes were significantly lower in the Mediterranean diet group compared with the low-fat group: IIEF and FSFI showed a significantly lesser decrease (1.22 and 1.18, respectively, P=0.024 and 0.019) with the Mediterranean diet. Baseline C-reactive protein levels predicted erectile dysfunction in men but not female sexual dysfunction in women. Among persons with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes, a Mediterranean diet reduced the deterioration of sexual function over time in both sexes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Incidence of retinal complications in a cohort of newly diagnosed diabetic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Martín-Merino

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: We aimed at estimating the incidence of diabetic retinopathy (DR and maculopathy (DMP among newly diagnosed type 1 (t1DM and type 2 diabetic patients (t2DM in the United Kingdom primary care system. The incidence of DMP among patients with DR was also estimated. METHOD: We conducted a cohort study using The Health Improvement Network database. The cohort included 64,983 incident diabetic patients (97.3% were t2DM aged 1-84 years diagnosed between 2000 and 2007. This cohort was followed from the date of diabetes diagnosis until recording of DR or DMP in two separate follow-ups. Follow-up was censored at 85 years of age, death, or end of 2008. An additional follow-up was conducted from DR to DMP diagnosis using similar censoring reasons. DR and DMP cumulative incidences were calculated as well as incidence rates (IR; cases per 1,000 person-years per calendar period (2000-2001 and 2006-2007. RESULTS: Follow-up for DR: 9 years after diabetes diagnosis, 28% of t2DM and 24% of t1DM patients had developed DR (7,899 incident DR cases. During the first 2 years with diabetes, the IR was almost 2 times higher in patients diagnosed with diabetes in 2006-2007 (47.7 than among those diagnosed in 2000-2001 (24.5. Follow-up for DMP: 9 years after diabetes diagnosis, 3.6% of t2DM and 4.4% of t2DM patients had developed DMP (912 incident DMP cases. During the first 2 years with diabetes, the IR was three times higher in patients diagnosed with diabetes in 2006-2007 (5.8 than among those diagnosed in 2000-2001 (1.8. Macular oedema occurred in 0.8% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: In a cohort of incident diabetes, 28% of patients developed retinopathy and 4% maculopathy within the first 9 years. The 2-year IRs of DR and DMP were higher in patients diagnosed with diabetes during the period 2006-2007 than in those diagnosed during the 2000-2001 period.

  20. Maternal hiv positive sero-prevalence at delivery at a tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Key Words: Maternal HIV positive sero-prevalence, delivery, birth sex ratio,Orlu.: The duo of HIV/AIDS infection has become a Global public health problem. This study was conducted to determine the maternal HIV positive seroprevalence at delivery at the Imo State University Teaching Hospital, Orlu. Methods: ...

  1. Patterns of repeated anal cytology results among HIV-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary A. Robbins

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Men who have sex with men (MSM are at increased risk for anal cancer. In cervical cancer screening, patterns of repeated cytology results are used to identify low- and high-risk women, but little is known about these patterns for anal cytology among MSM. Methods: We analyzed Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS data for MSM who were offered anal cytology testing annually (HIV-positive or every 2 years (HIV-negative for 4 years. Results: Following an initial negative (normal cytology, the frequency of a second negative cytology was lower among HIV-positive MSM with CD4 ≥ 500 (74% or CD4 < 500 (68% than HIV-negative MSM (83% (p < 0.001. After an initial abnormal cytology, the frequency of a second abnormal cytology was highest among HIV-positive MSM with CD4 < 500 (70% compared to CD4 ≥ 500 (53% or HIV-negative MSM (46% (p = 0.003. Among HIV-positive MSM with at least three results, 37% had 3 consecutive negative results; 3 consecutive abnormal results were more frequent among CD4 < 500 (22% than CD4 ≥ 500 (10% (p = 0.008. Conclusions: More than one-third of HIV-positive MSM have consistently negative anal cytology over three years. Following abnormal anal cytology, a repeated cytology is commonly negative in HIV-negative or immunocompetent HIV-positive men, while persistent cytological abnormality is more likely among HIV-positive men with CD4 < 500. Keywords: Anal cancer, Anal cytology, HIV, MSM, Anal cancer screening

  2. Family correlates of depression among hiv positive patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background information: HIV infection may impact negatively on family relationship and vice versa. Members of the family of HIV positive patients may become frustrated because of the stigma of having a family member with HIV infection, and the burden of having to care for the patient. This can result into the family ...

  3. Pregnancy outcomes in HIV-positive women: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Kholoud; Spence, Andrea R; Czuzoj-Shulman, Nicholas; Abenhaim, Haim A

    2017-03-01

    In the United States, an estimated 8500 HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) positive women gave birth in 2014. This rate appears to be increasing annually. Our objective is to examine obstetrical outcomes of pregnancy among HIV-positive women. A population-based cohort study was conducted using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database (2003-2011) from the United States. Pregnant HIV-positive women were identified and compared to pregnant women without HIV. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the adjusted effect of HIV status on obstetrical and neonatal outcomes. Among 7,772,999 births over the study period, 1997 were in HIV-positive women (an incidence of 25.7/100,000 births). HIV-infected patients had greater frequency of pre-existing diabetes and chronic hypertension, and use of cigarettes, drugs, and alcohol during pregnancy (p HIV-infected women had greater likelihood of antenatal complications: preterm premature rupture of membranes (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.14-1.60) and urinary tract infections (OR 3.02, 95% CI 2.40-3.81). Delivery and postpartum complications were also increased among HIV-infected women: cesarean delivery (OR 3.06, 95% CI 2.79-3.36), postpartum sepsis (OR 8.05, 95% CI 5.44-11.90), venous thromboembolism (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.46-3.33), blood transfusions (OR 3.67, 95% CI 3.01-4.49), postpartum infection (OR 3.00, 95% CI 2.37-3.80), and maternal mortality (OR 21.52, 95% CI 12.96-35.72). Neonates born to these mothers were at higher risk of prematurity and intrauterine growth restriction. Pregnancy in HIV-infected women is associated with adverse maternal and newborn complications. Pregnant HIV-positive women should be followed in high-risk healthcare centers.

  4. Perceptions of HIV-related health services in Zambia for people with disabilities who are HIV-positive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Stephanie A; Cameron, Cathy; Hanass-Hancock, Jill; Simwaba, Phillimon; Solomon, Patricia E; Bond, Virginia A; Menon, Anitha; Richardson, Emma; Stevens, Marianne; Zack, Elisse

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Despite the emerging body of literature on increased vulnerability to HIV among people with disabilities (PWDs), there is a dearth of evidence related to experiences of PWDs who have become HIV-positive. This priority was identified by a disability advocacy organization in Lusaka, Zambia, where the prevalence of HIV and of disability is each approximately 15%. The purpose of this study was to explore perceptions and experiences of HIV-related health services for PWDs who are also living with HIV in Lusaka, Zambia. Methods This qualitative, interpretive study involved in-depth, semi-structured, one-on-one interviews with two groups of participants in Lusaka, Zambia: 21 PWDs who had become HIV-positive, and 11 people working in HIV and/or disability. PWDs had physical, hearing, visual and/or intellectual impairments. Interviews were conducted in English, Nyanja, Bemba or Zambian sign language. Descriptive and thematic analyses were conducted by a multidisciplinary, international research team. Results Participants described their experiences with HIV-related health services in terms of the challenges they faced. In particular, they encountered three main challenges while seeking care and treatment: (1) disability-related discrimination heightened when seeking HIV services, (2) communication barriers and related concerns with confidentiality, and (3) movement and mobility challenges related to seeking care and collecting antiretroviral therapy. These experiences were further shaped by participants’ profound concerns about poverty and unmet basic needs. Discussion This study demonstrates how PWDs who are HIV-positive have the same HIV care, treatment and support needs as able-bodied counterparts, but face avoidable barriers to care. Many challenges mirror concerns identified with HIV prevention, suggesting that efforts to promote inclusion and reduce stigma could have widespread benefits. Conclusions Despite the growing body of literature on increased

  5. Perceptions of HIV-related health services in Zambia for people with disabilities who are HIV-positive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Stephanie A; Cameron, Cathy; Hanass-Hancock, Jill; Simwaba, Phillimon; Solomon, Patricia E; Bond, Virginia A; Menon, Anitha; Richardson, Emma; Stevens, Marianne; Zack, Elisse

    2014-01-01

    Despite the emerging body of literature on increased vulnerability to HIV among people with disabilities (PWDs), there is a dearth of evidence related to experiences of PWDs who have become HIV-positive. This priority was identified by a disability advocacy organization in Lusaka, Zambia, where the prevalence of HIV and of disability is each approximately 15%. The purpose of this study was to explore perceptions and experiences of HIV-related health services for PWDs who are also living with HIV in Lusaka, Zambia. This qualitative, interpretive study involved in-depth, semi-structured, one-on-one interviews with two groups of participants in Lusaka, Zambia: 21 PWDs who had become HIV-positive, and 11 people working in HIV and/or disability. PWDs had physical, hearing, visual and/or intellectual impairments. Interviews were conducted in English, Nyanja, Bemba or Zambian sign language. Descriptive and thematic analyses were conducted by a multidisciplinary, international research team. Participants described their experiences with HIV-related health services in terms of the challenges they faced. In particular, they encountered three main challenges while seeking care and treatment: (1) disability-related discrimination heightened when seeking HIV services, (2) communication barriers and related concerns with confidentiality, and (3) movement and mobility challenges related to seeking care and collecting antiretroviral therapy. These experiences were further shaped by participants' profound concerns about poverty and unmet basic needs. This study demonstrates how PWDs who are HIV-positive have the same HIV care, treatment and support needs as able-bodied counterparts, but face avoidable barriers to care. Many challenges mirror concerns identified with HIV prevention, suggesting that efforts to promote inclusion and reduce stigma could have widespread benefits. Despite the growing body of literature on increased risk of exposure to HIV among HIV-negative PWDs, this is

  6. Targeting screening and social marketing to increase detection of acute HIV infection in men who have sex with men in Vancouver, British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Mark; Cook, Darrel; Steinberg, Malcolm; Kwag, Michael; Robert, Wayne; Doupe, Glenn; Krajden, Mel; Rekart, Michael

    2013-10-23

    The contribution of acute HIV infection (AHI) to transmission is widely recognized, and increasing AHI diagnosis capacity can enhance HIV prevention through subsequent behavior change or intervention. We examined the impact of targeted pooled nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) and social marketing to increase AHI diagnosis among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Vancouver. Observational study. We implemented pooled NAAT following negative third-generation enzyme immunoassay (EIA) testing for males above 18 years in six clinics accessed by MSM, accompanied by two social marketing campaigns developed by a community gay men's health organization. We compared test volume and diagnosis rates for pre-implementation (April 2006-March 2009) and post-implementation (April 2009-March 2012) periods. After implementation, we used linear regression to examine quarterly trends and calculated diagnostic yield. After implementation, the AHI diagnosis rate significantly increased from 1.03 to 1.84 per 1000 tests, as did quarterly HIV test volumes and acute to non-acute diagnosis ratio. Of the 217 new HIV diagnoses after implementation, 54 (24.9%) were AHIs (25 detected by pooled NAAT only) for an increased diagnostic yield of 11.5%. The average number of prior negative HIV tests (past 2 years) increased significantly for newly diagnosed MSM at the six study clinics compared to other newly diagnosed MSM in British Columbia, per quarter. Targeted implementation of pooled NAAT at clinics accessed by MSM is effective in increasing AHI diagnoses compared to third-generation EIA testing. Social marketing campaigns accompanying pooled NAAT implementation may contribute to increasing AHI diagnoses and frequency of HIV testing.

  7. Emerging viral STIs among HIV-positive men who have sex with men: the era of hepatitis C virus and human papillomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Laar, Thijs Jw; Richel, Olivier

    2017-08-01

    The number of infectious disease outbreaks and the number of unique pathogens responsible have significantly increased since the 1980s. HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) are a vulnerable population with regards to the introduction, spread and clinical consequences of (newly introduced) STIs. After the introduction of combination antiretroviral treatment (cART), the incidence of sexually acquired hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced anal cancers have significantly increased among HIV-positive MSM. The introduction and expansion of HCV is the result of increased sexual risk behaviour and sexually acquired mucosal trauma within large interconnected networks of HIV-positive MSM in particular. With the availability of cART, postexposure and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PEP and PrEP) and direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) for HCV, less concern for HIV and HCV might require a new approach to develop effective behavioural intervention strategies among MSM. The marked rise in HPV-induced anal cancers can be ascribed to the long-term immunologic defects in an ageing population affected by HIV. More evidence with regards to effective treatment options for anal dysplastic lesions and the usefulness of anal malignancy screening programmes is urgently needed. Most anal cancers in the future generation of HIV-positive MSM could be prevented with the inclusion of boys in addition to girls in current HPV vaccination programmes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Decision-Making Capacity for Chemotherapy and Associated Factors in Newly Diagnosed Patients with Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Asao; Kondo, Kyoko; Takei, Hiroyuki; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Ohe, Yuichiro; Akechi, Tatsuo

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess decision-making capacity in patients newly diagnosed with lung cancer, clinical factors associated with impaired capacity, and physicians' perceptions of patients' decision-making capacity. We recruited 122 patients newly diagnosed with lung cancer. One hundred fourteen completed the assessment. All patients were receiving a combination of treatments (e.g., chemotherapy, chemo-radiotherapy, or targeted therapy). Decision-making capacity was assessed using the MacArthur Competence Tool for Treatment. Cognitive impairment, depressive symptoms, and frailty were also evaluated. Physicians' perceptions were compared with the ascertainments. Twenty-seven (24%, 95% confidence interval [CI], 16-31) patients were judged to have incapacity. Clinical teams had difficulty in judging six (22.2%) patients for incapacity. Logistic regression identified frailty (odds ratio, 3.51; 95% CI, 1.13-10.8) and cognitive impairment (odds ratio, 5.45; 95% CI, 1.26-23.6) as the factors associated with decision-making incapacity. Brain metastasis, emphysema, and depression were not associated with decision-making incapacity. A substantial proportion of patients diagnosed with lung cancer show impairments in their capacity to make a medical decision. Assessment of cognitive impairment and frailty may provide appropriate decision-making frameworks to act in the best interest of patients. Decision-making capacity is the cornerstone of clinical practice. A substantial proportion of patients with cancer show impairments in their capacity to make a medical decision. Assessment of cognitive impairment and frailty may provide appropriate decision-making frameworks to act in the best interest of patients. © AlphaMed Press 2017.

  9. Exploring the relationship between spiritual well-being and quality of life among patients newly diagnosed with advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Mei; Lazenby, Mark; Jeon, Sangchoon; Dixon, Jane; McCorkle, Ruth

    2015-08-01

    In our context, existential plight refers to heightened concerns about life and death when people are diagnosed with cancer. Although the duration of existential plight has been proposed to be approximately 100 days, evidence from longitudinal studies raises questions about whether the impact of a diagnosis of advanced cancer may require a longer period of adjustment. The purpose of our study was to examine spiritual well-being (SpWB) and quality of life (QoL) as well as their interrelationship in 52 patients with advanced cancer after 100 days since the diagnosis at one and three months post-baseline. The study was designed as a secondary data analysis of a cluster randomized clinical trial involving patients with stage 3 or 4 cancer undergoing treatment. SpWB was measured using the 12-item Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being Scale (FACIT-Sp-12); common factor analyses revealed a three-factor pattern on the FACIT-Sp-12. Quality of life was measured with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G). We limited our sample to participants assigned to the control condition (n = 52). SpWB and QoL remained stable between one and three months post-baseline, which were a median of 112 and 183 days after diagnosis, respectively. SpWB was found to be associated with QoL more strongly than physical and emotional well-being. Peace and Meaning each contributed unique variance to QoL, and their relative importance shifted over time. Faith was positively related to QoL initially. This association became insignificant at three months post-baseline. This study underscores the significance of SpWB for people newly diagnosed with advanced cancer, and it highlights the dynamic pattern of Peace, Meaning, and Faith in association with QoL. Our results confirm that patients newly diagnosed with advanced cancer experience an existential crisis, improve and stabilize over time. Future studies with larger samples over a longer period of

  10. 1,5-anhydroglucitol is associated with early-phase insulin secretion in chinese patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaojing; Hao, Yaping; Hu, Xiang; Luo, Yuqi; Deng, Zixuan; Zhou, Jian; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2015-05-01

    The goal of the present study was to explore the correlations of 1,5-anhydroglucitol (l,5-AG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and glycated albumin (GA) with insulin sensitivity and secretion. In total, 302 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (166 men, 136 women) were enrolled in this study. The homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and homeostasis model assessment for β-cell function (HOMA-β) were calculated to determine the basal insulin sensitivity and secretion. The insulinogenic index (IGI) was used to evaluate early-phase insulin secretion. 1,5-AG and GA were assayed via the enzymatic method, and HbA1c was detected by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Among all 302 subjects, the serum 1,5-AG level was 13.1±7.2 μg/mL, and the HbA1c and GA levels [median (interquartile range)] were 6.7% (6.2-7.3%) and 17.7% (16.0-19.5%), respectively. Increased 1,5-AG quartiles were accompanied by trends toward a decreased HOMA-IR and an increased HOMA-β and IGI (for all trends, P1). 1,5-AG was negatively associated with HOMA-IR (r=-0.200, P1) and positively associated with HOMA-β and IGI (r=0.210 and 0.413, respectively; both P1). 1,5-AG was independently related to HOMA-IR and HOMA-β and exhibited an independent positive association with IGI (standardized β=0.242, P1). Additionally, both HbA1c and GA were independently correlated with HOMA-IR and HOMA-β. 1,5-AG is not only correlated with basal insulin sensitivity and secretion, but also closely associated with early-phase insulin secretion in Chinese patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  11. Pregnancy in HIV-Positive Patients: Effects on Vaginal Flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Vallone

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A high proportion of HIV-infected pregnant women present pathogenic organisms in their lower genital tract. This has been associated with the development of postpartum morbility, HIV transmission to the partner and offspring, and other gynaecological conditions, such as cervical dysplasia or cancer. Vaginal flora alterations can range from 47% in Western countries to 89% in Africa in pregnant HIV-positive patients, much higher than about 20% of the general population. Pathogen organism retrieval is high. As peripartum complications due to vaginal infections seem higher in HIV-positive patients, accurate investigation and treatment of such infections are strongly mandatory.

  12. Emotion episodes during psychotherapy sessions among women newly diagnosed with gynecological cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers Virtue, Shannon; Manne, Sharon L; Darabos, Kathleen; Heckman, Carolyn J; Ozga, Melissa; Kissane, David; Rubin, Stephen; Rosenblum, Norman

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe emotion episodes during early and late psychotherapy sessions among women newly diagnosed with gynecological cancer and to examine whether the total number of emotion episodes during early and later sessions was associated with baseline psychological distress, dispositional emotion expressivity, and patient-rated therapeutic progress. The study utilized data from an ongoing study examining the efficacy of two psychotherapy interventions, a coping and communication intervention and a supportive counseling intervention, for women diagnosed with gynecological cancer. Emotion episode coding was completed for the first and sixth psychotherapy sessions for each patient randomized to receive psychotherapy (N = 173). Patients completed baseline survey measures of psychological distress and dispositional emotional expressivity and post-session ratings of therapeutic progress. The average number of emotion episodes was 7.4 in the first session and 5.2 episodes in the sixth session. In both sessions, the majority of emotion episodes contained only negative emotions and focused on a cancer-related topic. A higher number of emotion episodes in the first session was associated with higher psychological distress reported in the baseline survey (p = 0.02). A higher number of emotion episodes in the sixth session was associated with a higher number of emotion episodes in the first session (p psychotherapy among women diagnosed with gynecological cancer. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Concealment tactics among HIV-positive nurses in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyakuwa, Margaret; Hardon, Anita

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on two-and-a-half years of ethnographic fieldwork in two rural Ugandan health centres during a period of ART scale-up. Around one-third of the nurses in these two sites were themselves HIV-positive but most concealed their status. We describe how a group of HIV-positive nurses set up a secret circle to talk about their predicament as HIV-positive healthcare professionals and how they developed innovative care technologies to overcome the skin rashes caused by ART that threatened to give them away. Together with patients and a traditional healer, the nurses resisted hegemonic biomedical norms denouncing herbal medicines and then devised and advocated for a herbal skin cream treatment to be included in the ART programme.

  14. Socio - demographic characteristics of HIV patients diagnosed at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-09-12

    Sep 12, 2016 ... the treatment programme. All HIV positive mothers were referred for treatment. Refusal to participate in the study carried no penalty. Data were recorded and standard statistical analysis was performed using SPSS statistical package version 20. Continuous variables were summarized using means,.

  15. HIV-positive pregnant and postpartum women's perspectives about Option B+ in Malawi: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katirayi, Leila; Namadingo, Hazel; Phiri, Mafayo; Bobrow, Emily A; Ahimbisibwe, Allan; Berhan, Aida Yemane; Buono, Nicole; Moland, Karen Marie; Tylleskär, Thorkild

    2016-01-01

    The implementation of lifelong antiretroviral treatment (ART) for all pregnant women (Option B+) in Malawi has resulted in a significant increase in the number of HIV-positive pregnant women initiating treatment. However, research has highlighted the challenge of retaining newly initiated women in care. This study explores barriers and facilitators that affect a woman's decision to initiate and to adhere to Option B+. A total of 39 in-depth interviews and 16 focus group discussions were conducted. Eligible women were ≥18 years old, living with HIV and either pregnant and receiving antenatal care from a study site or had delivered a child within the last 18 months, breastfed their child and received services at one of the study sites. Eligible women were identified by healthcare workers (HCWs) in the antenatal clinic and ART unit. Focus groups were also conducted with HCWs employed in these departments. Qualitative data were analyzed using Maxqda version 10 (VERBI Software, Berlin, Germany). The general perception towards the drug regimen used in Option B+ was positive; women reported fewer side effects and acknowledged the positive benefits of ART. Women felt hopeful about prolonging their life and having an HIV-uninfected baby, yet grappled with the fact that ART is a lifelong commitment. Women and HCWs discussed challenges with the counselling services for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission under the new Option B+ guidelines, and many women struggled with initiating ART on the same day as learning their HIV status. Women wanted to discuss their circumstances with their husbands first, receive a CD4 count and obtain an HIV test at another facility to confirm their HIV status. HCWs expressed concern that women might just agree to take the drugs to please them. HCWs also discussed concerns around loss to follow-up and drug resistance. Although Option B+ has significantly increased the number of women initiating ART, there are still challenges that need

  16. Post-traumatic stress disorder among recently diagnosed patients with HIV/AIDS in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olley, B O; Zeier, M D; Seedat, S; Stein, D J

    2005-07-01

    This study examined the prevalence of and factors associated with post-traumatic stress disorder in recently diagnosed HIV/AIDS patients in South Africa. One hundred and forty-nine (44 male, 105 female) recently diagnosed HIV/AIDS patients (mean duration since diagnosis = 5.8 months, SD = 4.1) were evaluated. Subjects were assessed using the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), the Carver Brief COPE coping scale and the Sheehan Disability Scale. In addition, previous exposures to trauma and past risk behaviours were assessed. Twenty-two patients (14.8%) met criteria for PTSD. Current psychiatric conditions more likely to be associated with PTSD included major depressive disorder (29% in PTSD patients versus 7% in non-PTSD patients, p = 0.004), suicidality (54% versus 11%, p = 0.001) and social anxiety disorder (40% versus 13%, p = 0.04). Further patients with PTSD reported significantly more work impairment and demonstrated a trend towards higher usage of alcohol as a means of coping. Discriminant function analysis indicated that female gender and a history of sexual violation in the past year were significantly associated with a diagnosis of PTSD. Patients whose PTSD was a direct result of an HIV/AIDS diagnosis (8/22) did not differ from other patients with PTSD on demographic or clinical features. In the South African context, PTSD is not an uncommon disorder in patients with HIV/AIDS. In some cases, PTSD is secondary to the diagnosis of HIV/AIDS but in most cases it is seen after other traumas, with sexual violation and intimate partner violence in women being particularly important.

  17. Nutrient intake and nutritional status of newly diagnosed patients with cancer from the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Kavitha; Razak, Shariza Abdul; Ismail, Karami A; Krishna, Bhavaraju Venkata Murali

    2014-09-30

    Cancer therapy in Malaysia primarily focuses on the clinical management of patients with cancer and malnutrition continues to be one of the major causes of death in these patients. There is a dearth of information on the nutrient intake and status of newly diagnosed patients with cancer prior to the initiation of treatment. The present study aims to assess the nutrient intake and status of newly diagnosed patients with cancer from the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a convenient sample of newly diagnosed adult patients with cancer (n = 70) attending the Oncology clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia in the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, clinical status, anthropometry, dietary intake and biochemical data including blood samples was obtained. The mean (SD) age, triceps skin fold (TSF), mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) and body mass index (BMI) of participants was 21.1(3.9) years, 17.6(7.9) mm, 24.1(5.5) cm, and 21.1(3.9) Kg/m(2), respectively; 39% participants had BMI cancer were undernourished (i.e. women: MUAC cancer from the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia were underweight and undernourished. The majority of patients with cancer had poor micronutrient intakes; the older women had a poor macro and micronutrient intakes. Before the initiation of rigorous clinical management of patients with cancer, screening for nutritional status, subsequent nutrition counseling, and interventions are essential to improve their nutritional status; consequently, response to cancer therapy, survival and quality of life.

  18. HIV-positive and HIV-negative consumers accept an instant soy maize porridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna C Bouwer

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess consumer acceptability, preference and consumption intent of an instant soy maize porridge, compared to an instant plain maize porridge, in order to determine the successful inclusion of the soy maize porridge as a food supplement for HIV subjects in a subsequent nutrition intervention trial, to improve their nutritional status. A 5-point hedonic and food action rating scale was used for this purpose. HIV-positive (n=57 and HIV-negative (n=47 subjects were recruited on a basis of availability and willingness to participate. Long-term acceptability and compliance of HIV-positive consumers (n=9 was assessed after three and five months. Analysis of variance (ANOVA, Tukey’s multiple comparison test and T-tests (p≤0.05 were performed. Overall, consumers found the soy maize porridge significantly more acceptable, preferred it to, and also intended to consume it more often than the plain maize porridge. There were no significant differences between the HIV-positive and HIV-negative group regarding acceptability, preference and consumption intent. After three and five months, the HIV-positive consumers (n=9 did not find acceptability of the soy maize porridge significantly different from the first evaluation. It therefore had the potential to be included successfully in the nutrition intervention trial. The current study emphasises the need for sensory evaluation of food products prior to including them in intervention studies, to assess consumers’ acceptance of them. Opsomming Die doel van hierdie studie was om verbruikers se aanvaarding, voorkeur en voorneme van verbruik van ‘n kitssojamieliepap, in vergelyking met ‘n gewone kitsmieliepap te bepaal, ten einde die suksesvolle insluiting van die kitssojamieliepap as voedselaanvulling vir HIV-proefpersone om hul voedingstatus te verbeter, in ‘n daaropvolgende voedingsintervensiestudie te ondersoek. ‘n Vyf-punt hedoniese en voedselaksie

  19. Diagnostic Value of Culture and Serological Tests in the Diagnosis of Histoplasmosis in HIV and non-HIV Colombian Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango-Bustamante, Karen; Restrepo, Angela; Cano, Luz Elena; de Bedout, Catalina; Tobón, Angela Maria; González, Angel

    2013-01-01

    We determined the value of culture and serological tests used to diagnose histoplasmosis. The medical records of 391 histoplasmosis patients were analyzed. Diagnosis of the mycosis was assessed by culture, complement fixation, and immunodiffusion tests; 310 patients (79.5%) were male, and 184 patients (47.1%) were infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Positivity value for cultures was 35.7% (74/207), reactivity of serological tests was 95.2% (160/168), and a combination of both methodologies was 16.9% (35/207) for non-HIV patients. Positivity value for cultures was 75.0% (138/184), reactivity of serological tests was 92.4% (85/92), and a combination of both methodologies was 26.0% (48/184) for HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients; 48.1% (102/212) of extrapulmonary samples from HIV/AIDS patients yielded positive cultures compared with 23.1% (49/212) in non-HIV patients. Lymphocyte counts made for 33.1% (61/184) of HIV/AIDS patients showed a trend to low CD4+ numbers and higher proportion of positive cultures. These results indicate that culture is the most reliable fungal diagnostic method for HIV/AIDS patients, and contrary to what is generally believed, serological assays are useful for diagnosing histoplasmosis in these patients. PMID:24043688

  20. Effective interventions to improve young adults' linkage to HIV care in Sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavegam, Bertille Octavie; Pharr, Jennifer R; Cruz, Patricia; Ezeanolue, Echezona E

    2017-10-01

    HIV/AIDS remains a major public health problem despite the efforts to prevent and decrease its spread. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) represents 70% of the global number of people living with HIV and 73% of all HIV/AIDS-related deaths. Young adults age 15-24 years are disproportionately impacted by HIV/AIDS in SSA with 34% of people living with HIV (PLWHIV) and 37% of newly diagnosed individuals being in this age group. It is important that PLWHIV be linked to care to facilitate antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and limit the spread of infection. We conducted a systematic literature review to identify effective interventions designed to improve linkage to care among HIV-infected young adults in SSA. One hundred and forty-six titles and abstracts were screened, 28 full-texts were reviewed, and 6 articles met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Home-based HIV counseling and testing, home-based HIV self-testing, and mobile HIV counseling and testing followed by proper referral of HIV-positive patients to HIV care were effective for improving linkage of young adults to care. Other factors such as referral forms, transportation allowance, home initiation of HIV care, and volunteer escort to the HIV treatment clinic were effective in reducing time to linkage to care. There is a vast need for research and interventions that target HIV-positive young adults in SSA which aim to improve their linkage and access to HIV care. The results of this study illustrate effective interventions in improving linkage to care and reducing time to linkage to care of young adults in SSA.

  1. Characteristics and outcomes among older HIV-positive adults enrolled in HIV programs in four sub-Saharan African countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Eduardo

    Full Text Available Limited information exists on adults ≥50 years receiving HIV care in sub-Saharan Afri