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Sample records for newly diagnosed asthma

  1. Fitness, daily activity and body composition in children with newly diagnosed, untreated asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahlkvist, S; Pedersen, S

    2009-01-01

    Background: Information about how the asthma disease affects the life style and health in children is sparse. Aim: To measure fitness, daily physical activity and body composition in children with newly diagnosed, untreated asthma and healthy controls, and to assess the association between...... the level of asthma control and these parameters. Methods: Daily physical activity measured using accelerometry, cardiovascular fitness and body composition (per cent fat, per cent lean tissue and bone mineral density) were measured in 57 children with newly diagnosed, untreated asthma and in 157 healthy...... fitness and daytime spent in intensive activity. Overweight children are physically less active than normal weight children....

  2. Quality of life in children with undiagnosed and diagnosed asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gent, R.; van Essen, L.E.; Rovers, M.M.; Kimpen, J.L.; van der Ent, C.K.; de Meer, G.

    This study describes the impact of undiagnosed and diagnosed asthma on quality of life in schoolchildren aged 7-10 years and their caregivers in a cross-sectional community-based study. Diagnosed asthma was defined as the parents' confirmation of a physician's diagnosis of asthma. Undiagnosed asthma

  3. PREVALENCE OF ASTHMA-LIKE SYMPTOMS AND DIAGNOSED ASTHMA IN THE POPULATION OF ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Namazova-Baranova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the recent years, standardised epidemiological studies of asthma and asthma'like symptoms in the population of children have been conducted. ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood questionnaire has been predominantly used as a tool to assess the prevalence of clinical implications and diagnosed conditions in children. However, this technique has limitations in terms of subject age (children aged 6–7 and 13–14. We have conducted a study on the prevalence of Asthma and allergy in adolescents (children aged 15–17 using the standardised GA2LEN (Global Allergy and Asthma European Network questionnaire in two Russian cities from central region and Siberia (Moscow and Tomsk. It has been found that the prevalence of asthma'like symptoms in adolescents was three times the level of clinically diagnosed asthma, which accounted for no more than 7%, with this indicator having no variance depending on the region of residence.Key words: asthma, GA2LEN, prevalence, epidemiology, adolescents.

  4. The effectiveness of newly developed written asthma action plan in improvement of asthma outcome in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakupoch, Kingthong; Manuyakorn, Wiparat; Preutthipan, Aroonwan; Kamalaporn, Harutai

    2017-09-17

    Providing asthma education about controller medication use and appropriate management of asthma exacerbation are the keys to improving the disease outcome. Many asthma guidelines recommend that physicians provide written asthma action plan (WAAP) to all of their asthmatic patients. However, the benefit of WAAP is unclear. Thus, we have created a new WAAP which is simplified in Thai and more user friendly. To determine the effectiveness of the newly developed asthma action plan in management of children with asthma. Asthmatic children who meet inclusion criteria all received the WAAP and they were followed up for 6 months with measurement of outcome variables, such as asthma exacerbation that required emergency room visit, unscheduled OPD visit, admission and school absence in order to compare with the past 6 months before receiving the WAAP. The analyzed outcomes of forty-nine children show significantly reduced emergency room visit (P-value 0.005), unscheduled OPD visit (P-value 0.046), admission days (P-value 0.026) and school absence days (P-value 0.022). Well controlled group and mild severity group were not the factors that contribute to decreased emergency room visit but step up therapy may be the co-factor to decreased ER visit. The results of this study suggest that the provision of newly developed WAAP is useful for improving self-care of asthma patients and reducing asthma exacerbation.

  5. Immunoparesis in newly diagnosed Multiple Myeloma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorrig, Rasmus; Klausen, Tobias W.; Salomo, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Immunoparesis (hypogammaglobulinemia) is associated to an unfavorable prognosis in newly diagnosed Multiple myeloma (MM) patients. However, this finding has not been validated in an unselected population-based cohort. We analyzed 2558 newly diagnosed MM patients in the Danish Multiple Myeloma...

  6. Asthma in elite athletes: pathogenesis, diagnosis, differential diagnoses, and treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars; Elers, Jimmi; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Elite athletes have a high prevalence of asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Although respiratory symptoms can be suggestive of asthma, the diagnosis of asthma in elite athletes cannot be based solely on the presence or absence of symptoms; diagnosis should be based on objective...... measurements, such as the eucapnic voluntary hyperpnea test or exercise test. When considering that not all respiratory symptoms are due to asthma, other diagnoses should be considered. Certain regulations apply to elite athletes who require asthma medication for asthma. Knowledge of these regulations...... is essential when treating elite athletes. This article is aimed at physicians who diagnose and treat athletes with respiratory symptoms. It focuses on the pathogenesis of asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in elite athletes and how the diagnosis can be made. Furthermore, treatment of elite...

  7. Comparison of clinically diagnosed asthma with parental assessment of children's asthma in a questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hederos, C.A.; Hasselgren, M.; Hedlin, G.

    2007-01-01

    with the corresponding medical records in the same region. An International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC)-based WQ was answered by 75% of the parents of 6295 children aged 1-6 yr. Clinically diagnosed asthma, recorded in connection with admissions to the hospital or a visit to any of the outpatient......Epidemiological evaluations of the prevalence of asthma are usually based on written questionnaires (WQs) in combination with validation by clinical investigation. In the present investigation, we compared parental assessment of asthma among their preschool children in response to a WQ...... clinics in the same region, were analysed in parallel. Finally, a complementary WQ was sent to the parents of children identified as asthmatic by either or both of this approaches. In response to the WQ 5.9% were claimed to suffer from asthma diagnosed by a doctor. According to the medical records...

  8. Problems faced by newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus patients at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetes mellitus can be a frightening experience for newly diagnosed patients. The aim of this study was to determine and describe the problems faced by newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus patients at primary healthcare facilities at Mopani district, Limpopo Province. A qualitative, descriptive and contextual research ...

  9. Assessment for markers of nephropathy in newly diagnosed type 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess for markers of nephropathy in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetics, using blood pressure levels, endogenous creatinine clearance and urinary protein excretion as markers of renal disease. Study design: Ninety newly diagnosed type 2 diabetics were studied within 6 weeks of diagnosis. They were in ...

  10. Choosing wisely: adherence by physicians to recommended use of spirometry in the diagnosis and management of adult asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol, Kristin C; Sharma, Gulshan; Lin, Yu-Li; Goldblum, Randall M

    2015-05-01

    The National Asthma Education and Prevention Program (NAEPP) and the American Thoracic Society provide guidelines stating that physicians should use spirometry in the diagnosis and management of asthma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the trends, over a 10-year period, in the utilization of spirometry in patients newly diagnosed with asthma. We hypothesized that spirometry use would increase in physicians who care for asthma patients, especially since 2007, when the revised NAEPP guidelines were published. This retrospective cohort analysis of spirometry use in subjects newly diagnosed with asthma used a privately insured adult population for the years 2002-2011. Our primary outcome of interest was spirometry performed within a year (± 365 days) of the initial date of asthma diagnosis. We also examined the type of asthma medications prescribed. In all, 134,208 patients were found to have a diagnosis of asthma. Only 47.6% had spirometry performed within 1 year of diagnosis. Younger patients, males, and those residing in the Northeast were more likely to receive spirometry. Spirometry use began to decline in 2007. Patients cared for by specialists were more likely to receive spirometry than those cared for by primary care physicians; 80.1% vs 23.3%, respectively. Lastly, even without spirometry, a significant portion of patients (78.3%) was prescribed asthma drugs. Our study suggests that spirometry is underutilized in newly diagnosed asthma patients. Moreover, the use of controller medications in those diagnosed with asthma without spirometry remains high. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Exercise recommendations in patients with newly diagnosed fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Brad; Spencer, Horace; Kortebein, Patrick

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate exercise recommendations in patients newly diagnosed with fibromyalgia. A retrospective chart review. A public university rheumatology clinic. Patients newly diagnosed with fibromyalgia (N = 122). Frequency and type of exercise recommendations. The mean (standard deviation) age of these patients with fibromyalgia was 45 ± 12 years; 91% were women. Exercise was recommended as part of the documented treatment plan in 47% of these patients (57/122); only 3 patients had a documented contraindication for exercise. Aquatic exercise was most frequently recommended (56% [32/57]), followed by combined aquatic-aerobic exercise (26% [15/57]), and, infrequently, aerobic exercise only (5% [3/57]); only 7% of these patients (4/57) were referred for physical therapy. The primary method of communication was verbal discussion (94% [54/57]). Although there is well-documented evidence that exercise is beneficial for patients with fibromyalgia, we found that less than half of patients with newly diagnosed fibromyalgia in our study were provided recommendations to initiate an exercise program as part of their treatment plan. Further investigation of these findings are warranted, including evaluation of other university and community rheumatology practices as well as that of other physicians caring for patients with fibromyalgia. However, our findings indicate that there appears to be an opportunity to provide more specific and practical education regarding the implementation of an exercise regimen for patients with newly diagnosed fibromyalgia. Physiatrists may be particularly well suited to manage the exercise component of patients with fibromyalgia because of their specialized training in exercise prescription. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Nilotinib versus imatinib for newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saglio, Giuseppe; Kim, Dong-Wook; Issaragrisil, Surapol

    2010-01-01

    Nilotinib has been shown to be a more potent inhibitor of BCR-ABL than imatinib. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of nilotinib, as compared with imatinib, in patients with newly diagnosed Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in the chronic phase.......Nilotinib has been shown to be a more potent inhibitor of BCR-ABL than imatinib. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of nilotinib, as compared with imatinib, in patients with newly diagnosed Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in the chronic phase....

  13. Diabetes education and self-management for ongoing and newly diagnosed (DESMOND)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, T. Chas; Carey, Marian E.; Cradock, Sue

    2006-01-01

    diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes changes key illness beliefs and that these changes predict quality of life and metabolic control at 3-month follow-up. Practice implications: Newly diagnosed individuals are open to attending self-management programs and, if the program is theoretically driven, can......Objective: To determine the effects of a structured education program on illness beliefs, quality of life and physical activity in people newly diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes. Methods: Individuals attending a diabetes education and self-management for ongoing and newly diagnosed (DESMOND) program...... in 12 Primary Care Trusts completed questionnaire booklets assessing illness beliefs and quality of life at baseline and 3-month follow-up, metabolic control being assessed through assay of HbA1c. Results: Two hundred and thirty-six individuals attended the structured self-management education sessions...

  14. Clinical heterogeneity in newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Bart; Speelman, Johannes D.; de Haan, Rob J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine clinical heterogeneity in newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease using cluster analysis and to describe the subgroups in terms of impairment, disability, perceived quality of life, and use of dopaminergic therapy. METHODS: We conducted a k-means cluster analysis in a prospective

  15. Chest Radiographic Findings in Newly Diagnosed Pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five hundred newly diagnosed cases of Pulmonary Tuberculosis were treated with directly observed short-course treatment and 100 of them had chest radiographic examination done. The various chest radiographic patterns in the 100 subjects were studied and included: Fluffy exudative changes 80(80%), fibrosis 70(70%) ...

  16. Autoimmune diseases in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirosh, Amir; Mandel, Dror; Mimouni, Francis B; Zimlichman, Eyal; Shochat, Tzippora; Kochba, Ilan

    2006-06-20

    Previous research has suggested an inverse relationship between T-helper 2-related atopic disorders, such as asthma, and T-helper 1-related autoimmune diseases. One controversial hypothesis postulates that asthma provides a protective effect for the development of autoimmune-related disorders. To assess the rate of newly diagnosed autoimmune disorders in a large cohort of young adults. Using cross-sectional data from the Israeli Defense Force database, the authors analyzed the prevalence of autoimmune disorders in asthmatic and nonasthmatic military personnel between 1980 and 2003. A follow-up study traced newly diagnosed autoimmune disorders among asthmatic and nonasthmatic individuals from the time of enrollment in military service until discharge (22 and 36 months for women and men, respectively). General community. 307,367 male and 181,474 female soldiers in compulsory military service who were between 18 and 21 years of age. Cases of type 1 diabetes mellitus, vasculitis, immune thrombocytopenic purpura, inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and the antiphospholipid syndrome. Of 488,841 participants at enrollment, significantly more women than men had autoimmune disorders. Compared with asthmatic women, nonasthmatic women had a significantly higher prevalence of all autoimmune disorders except for the antiphospholipid syndrome. Type 1 diabetes mellitus, vasculitis, and rheumatoid arthritis were less prevalent in men with asthma than in those without. During the follow-up period, vasculitis and rheumatoid arthritis were more frequently diagnosed in nonasthmatic persons of both sexes. There was a significantly higher incidence of immune thrombocytopenic purpura, inflammatory bowel disease, and the antiphospholipid syndrome in nonasthmatic women and a statistically significantly higher incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus in nonasthmatic men. The study was limited to a population of young military recruits; therefore, its findings are not necessarily

  17. Socio-demographic factors related to under-diagnosis of childhood asthma in Upper Silesia, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zejda, Jan E; Farnik, Małgorzata; Smółka, Irena; Lawson, Joshua; Brożek, Grzegorz M

    2017-06-07

    Introduction. The presented study of 4,535 children aged 7-17 years in the Upper Silesian region of Poland yielded 186 cases of previously known asthma, and 44 children with newly diagnosed asthma. The aim of the presented study was to identify non-medical factors that could explain why children with a newly established diagnosis ('undiagnosed asthma') had not been diagnosed in the past. Materials and method. The study was performed according to a case-control design. Parents of the children answered questionnaires on socio-economic status and family-related factors. Statistical determinants of undiagnosed asthma were explored using raw (OR) and logistic odds ratios with their 95% confidence intervals (logOR, 95%CI). Results. Children with undiagnosed asthma were younger compared to the group with previously known asthma (11.3±2.1 vs. 12.6±2.5 years; p=0.0008). Newly diagnosed cases were more frequent in children who had less parental attention (less than 1 hour/day spent by parent with child - OR=4.36; 95%CI: 1.76-10.81) and who were not registered with specialized health care (OR=2.20; 95%CI: 0.95-5.06). Results of logistic regression analysis suggest that under-diagnosis of asthma is related to age below 12 years - logOR = 3.59 (95%CI: 1.28-10.36), distance to a health centre > 5 km - logOR = 3.45 (95%CI: 1.05-11.36), time spent with child Conclusion. Among non-medical determinants of undiagnosed asthma the age of a child plays a major role. Another factors of importance is the large distance between residence and health centre, and low parental attention at home.

  18. Asthma-specific cognitions, self-focused attention, and fear of negative evaluation in adolescents and young adults diagnosed with childhood-onset asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junghans-Rutelonis, Ashley N; Tackett, Alayna P; Suorsa, Kristina I; Chaney, John M; Mullins, Larry L

    2018-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of asthma-specific thought intrusion (TI) and thought suppression (TS) on two cognitive-affective variables (self-focused attention and fear of negative evaluation) among adolescents and young adults (AYAs) diagnosed with childhood-onset asthma. Participants were 290 AYAs who completed assessment questionnaires and participated in a written exercise electronically. Asthma-TI and TS were reported by participants following participation in a writing assignment. Asthma-TI was associated with increased private, public, and social anxiety self-focused attention, and greater fear of negative evaluation. Interestingly, asthma-TS was not associated with these same outcome variables. Findings suggest illness-specific cognitions are associated with cognitive-affective variables and it may be important to assess for illness-specific intrusive thoughts following asthma-focused medical appointments. Additionally, findings suggest the importance of assessing asthma-TI and TS separately in order to better understand thoughts about health and psychological functioning.

  19. Radiation therapy of newly diagnosed, advanced prostatic cancer and hormonally relapsed prostatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Minoru; Fujiwara, Kazuhisa; Hayakawa, Katsumi; Hida, Shuichi

    1994-01-01

    Ten patients with newly diagnosed, advanced prostatic cancer were treated with radiotherapy and hormone therapy to improve tumor control and survival. Eight patients with hormonally relapsed prostatic cancer were treated with radiotherapy to improve their quality of life. Local control of the tumor was achieved in 9 of 10 patients with newly diagnosed, advanced prostatic cancer. Five of eight patients with hormonally relapsed prostatic cancer obtained improved quality of life. Combined radiotherapy and hormone therapy were effective in the treatment of newly diagnosed, advanced prostatic cancer, and radiotherapy was useful for improving the quality of life of patients with hormonally relapsed prostatic cancer. (author)

  20. Neuropsychological and psychological interventions for people with newly diagnosed epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Cerian F; Makin, Selina M; Baker, Gus A

    2015-07-22

    Many people with epilepsy report experiencing psychological difficulties such as anxiety, depression and neuropsychological deficits including memory problems. Research has shown that these difficulties are often present not only for people with chronic epilepsy but also for people with newly diagnosed epilepsy. Despite this, there are very few published interventions that detail means to help people with newly diagnosed epilepsy manage these problems. To identify and assess possible psychological and neuropsychological interventions for adults with newly diagnosed epilepsy. We searched the following databases on 30 June 2015: the Cochrane Epilepsy Group Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (Ovid), SCOPUS, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). This review includes all randomised controlled trials, quasi-randomised controlled trials, prospective cohort controlled studies, and prospective before and after studies which include psychological or neuropsychological interventions for people with newly diagnosed epilepsy. We excluded studies that included people with epilepsy and any other psychological disorder or neurological condition. We excluded studies carried out which recruited only children. We used the standard methodological procedure expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Two authors independently completed data extraction and risk of bias analysis. The results of this were cross-checked and third author resolved any discrepancies. In the event of missing data, we contacted the study authors. Meta-analysis was not completed due to differences in the intervention and outcomes reported in the two studies. We included two randomised controlled trials assessing psychological interventions for people with newly diagnosed epilepsy. One study assessed a cognitive behavioural intervention (CBI) in an adolescent

  1. Hope, emotion regulation, and psychosocial well-being in patients newly diagnosed with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peh, Chao Xu; Kua, Ee Heok; Mahendran, Rathi

    2016-05-01

    Patients newly diagnosed with cancer are often confronted with feelings of uncertainty and life threat. A significant proportion may report impairments in psychosocial well-being. Previous studies examining protective psychological factors such as hope and emotion regulation (ER) have yet to investigate these processes concurrently within a common self-regulation framework and/or focus on newly diagnosed patients. The present study aimed to examine how hope and ER may relate to psychosocial outcomes of patients newly diagnosed with cancer. The present study used a cross-sectional design with self-report questionnaires. Participants were newly diagnosed patients (N = 101) recruited from three cancer therapy clinics in a hospital. Patients completed measures of hope, ER (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression), and psychosocial well-being (life satisfaction and negative affectivity). Findings showed that (1) hope and reappraisal, but not suppression, were associated with well-being and (2) the interaction between hope and reappraisal was associated with well-being; reappraisal was not associated with well-being in high hope patients, while high reappraisal was associated with better well-being in low hope patients. Individual differences in hope and reappraisal appeared to be associated with psychosocial outcomes in newly diagnosed cancer patients. Hopeful thinking appeared to benefit patients' psychosocial well-being. In addition, an interaction effect between hope and reappraisal suggested that reappraisal as an ER strategy may be particularly adaptive for patients with low hope.

  2. Delivering the diabetes education and self management for ongoing and newly diagnosed (DESMOND) programme for people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillett, M.; Dallosso, H. M.; Dixon, S.

    2010-01-01

    intervention is £82 (-£831 to £1010) and the mean incremental cost per QALY gained is £2092. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis indicated that the likelihood that the DESMOND programme is cost effective at a threshold of £20 000 per QALY is 66% using trial based intervention costs and 70% using "real world......Objectives: To assess the long term clinical and cost effectiveness of the diabetes education and self management for ongoing and newly diagnosed (DESMOND) intervention compared with usual care in people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Design: We undertook a cost-utility analysis that used...... data from a 12 month, multicentre, cluster randomised controlled trial and, using the Sheffield type 2 diabetes model, modelled long term outcomes in terms of use of therapies, incidence of complications, mortality, and associated effect on costs and health related quality of life. A further cost...

  3. DISABILITIES OF HANDS, FEET AND EYES IN NEWLY-DIAGNOSED LEPROSY PATIENTS IN EASTERN NEPAL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHIPPER, A; LUBBERS, WJ; HOGEWEG, M; DESOLDENHOFF, R

    The objective of the study was to determine the magnitude of hand/feet/eye disabilities in newly diagnosed leprosy patients by examining all newly diagnosed leprosy patients who presented at the Eastern Leprosy Control Project (supported by The Netherlands Leprosy Relief Association), made up of a

  4. Management of Newly Diagnosed Atrial Fibrillation in an Outpatient Clinic Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrysoee, Lars; Strömberg, Anna; Brandes, Axel

    2018-01-01

    fibrillation is not a fatal disease in itself was very important for patients. At the same time, visiting the clinic was overwhelming, information was difficult to understand, and patients found it difficult to be involved in decision-making. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that patients were uncertain......AIMS: To gain in-depth knowledge of patients' experiences of the consultation processes at a multidisciplinary atrial fibrillation outpatient clinic in a university hospital in Denmark. BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation is the most common cardiac arrhythmia associated with morbidity and mortality...... if not diagnosed and treated as recommended. Patients with newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation preferably should be managed in an outpatient setting which includes medical examination, patient education and decision making on medical therapy. DESIGN: This is a qualitative study of 14 patients newly diagnosed...

  5. Identifying Malnutrition: Nutritional Status in Newly Diagnosed Patients With Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnasamy, Karthikayini; Li Yoong, Tang; Mei Chan, Chong; Peng Choong, Lau; Chinna, Karuthan

    2017-02-01

    Malnutrition is common among patients with cancer, but little attention is given to its risks and consequences. The aim of this study is to assess the nutritional status and identify the factors associated with malnutrition among newly diagnosed patients with cancer. Patients admitted with newly diagnosed cancer at a teaching hospital in Malaysia were recruited from January to April 2015. Nutritional status was assessed before treatment initiation, and patients were classified into three categories. A total of 132 pretreatment patients were recruited into the study. About half were severely malnourished. Patients with stage III cancer had the highest prevalence of severe malnourishment. Clinical parameters and disease characteristics were significantly associated with nutritional status. Demographic variables were also statistically significantly associated with severe nutritional status.

  6. Hope pictured in drawings by women newly diagnosed with gynecological cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Kristianna; Hall, Elisabeth; Mogensen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: In mysterious ways, hope makes life meaningful even in chaotic and uncontrolled situations. When a woman is newly diagnosed with gynecologic cancer, hope is ineffable and needs exploring. Drawings help express ineffable phenomena. OBJECTIVE:: The aim of the study was to explore how...... women newly diagnosed with gynecologic cancer express the meaning of hope in drawings. METHOD:: Participants were 15 women who on the same day had received the diagnosis of gynecologic cancer. They were between 24 and 87 years (median, 52 years) with a variety of gynecologic cancer diagnoses. Data from...... 15 drawings and postdrawing interviews with the women were analyzed using visual and hermeneutic phenomenology. RESULTS:: Three themes emerged: hope as a spirit to move on, hope as energy through nature, and hope as a communion with families. CONCLUSION:: Hope as pictured in drawings often appears...

  7. Asthma in elite athletes: how do we manage asthma-like symptoms and asthma in elite athletes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas Kromann

    2009-01-01

    . Elite athletes with physician-diagnosed asthma seem to have less airway reactivity and fewer sputum eosinophils than non-athletes with physician-diagnosed asthma, but more studies are needed to further investigate if and how the asthma phenotype of elite athletes differs from that of classical asthma....

  8. Hope in newly diagnosed cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggleby, Wendy; Ghosh, Sunita; Cooper, Dan; Dwernychuk, Lynne

    2013-11-01

    Hope is important to cancer patients as it helps them deal with their diagnosis. Little is known about hope in newly diagnosed cancer patients. Based on the Transcending Possibilities conceptual model of hope, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of hope with pain, energy, and psychological and demographic characteristics in newly diagnosed adult oncology outpatients. Data from 310 New Patient Assessment Forms from cancer outpatients' health records were collected. Health records from the first six months of 2009 were reviewed and data were collected on hope, energy, pain, depression, anxiety, feeling overwhelmed, and demographic variables. A generalized linear modeling approach was used to study the relationship of hope scores with these variables. Hypothesized variables and variables that were significant at the P = 0.01 level from the univariate analysis were entered into the multivariate model, with hope scores as the dependent variable. Hope scores were significantly negatively related to age (P = 0.02). More specifically, oncology patients who were 65 years of age or older had significantly less hope than those under the age of 65 years (P = 0.01). Gender (P = 0.009) also was a significant factor, with men having higher hope scores than women. No other variables were significant. Older adults comprise the majority of persons in Canada with cancer. The lower hope scores found in this age group compared with their younger counterparts underscore the importance of further research. This study provides a foundation for future research in this important area for oncology patients. Copyright © 2013 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Factors Associated with Newly Diagnosed Children with Diabetic Ketoacidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh Mirsadraee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Diabetes mellitus type 1 is one of the most prevalent endocrine diseases in pediatrics. Diabetic ketoacidosis is considered as one of the most threatening clinical pictures of DM1, especially if occurred as the first presentation of DM1 in children. Objectives The current study aimed to identify factors which may play a role in DKA onset in children. Methods This case-control study included all patients under 18 years old who referred to department of pediatrics endocrinology at Mashhad University Hospital (Imam Reza from January 2013 to December 2015 as newly diagnosed patients with DM1. Patients who fulfilled DKA criteria at diagnosis were considered as DKA group and those who referred with other presentations were considered as control group (non-DKA group. Data were analyzed by SPSS software ver. 16. Results During the study period, 97 (39.2% male newly diagnosed patients were included as DKA group. Accordingly 97 gender- and age-matched patients were added as non-DKA group. The most prevalent symptoms in both groups were polyuria (91.88% and polydipsia (88.66%. Fever and cold symptoms were significantly higher in the DKA group (P < 0.001 and P =0.005, respectively. Hemoglobin A1c level was significantly higher in the DKA group (P = 0.001, while body mass index was significantly lower in the DKA group (P = 0.045. Fever and father’s education level were the most important risk and protective factors in the DKA onset in newly diagnosed patients with DM1 (adjusted OR = 10.1, 95% CI = 2.9-35.3; P < 0.001 and adjusted OR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.3 - 0.9 and P = 0.019, respectively. Conclusions In conclusion, a recent febrile illness was found as the strongest risk factor and father’s education level as the main protective factor in the DKA to diagnose children with DM1. The study findings suggested that DKA is a severe form of DM1 instead of a neglected or misdiagnosed disease.

  10. Different Pathophysiological Phenotypes among Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stidsen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) can be considered a syndrome with several different pathophysiological mechanisms leading to hyperglycemia. Nonetheless, T2D is treated according to algorithms as if it was one disease entity. Methods: We investigated the prevalence of different pathophysiological phenotypes...... or secondary diabetes), classic obesity-associated insulin resistant diabetes ( f-P-C-peptide >= 568 pmol/l) and a normoinsulinopenic group (333 age of our new T2D patients was 61 years (range 21-95 years), 57% were men. We found that 3.0% newly diagnosed T2D patients...... suffered from LADA, 3.9% from secondary diabetes, 6.0% from steroid induced diabetes 5.9% had insulinopenic diabetes, whereas 56.7% presented the classic obesity-associated insulin-resistant phenotype. 24.6% was classified as normoinsulinopenic patients. Conclusion: We conclude that newly diagnosed T2D...

  11. Higher incidence of hip fracture in newly diagnosed schizophrenic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Higher incidence of hip fracture in newly diagnosed schizophrenic patients in Taiwan. Hip fracture is a major public health concern due to its poor outcome and serious socioeconomic burden in older people (1). Evidence has shown that many factors are related to increased risk of hip fracture, but psychiatric diseases are ...

  12. Death Concerns among Individuals Newly Diagnosed with Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto, Rebecca; Therrien, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Confronting the reality of death is an important challenge for individuals facing life-threatening illness such as lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer death. Few studies, however, document the nature of death-related concerns in individuals newly diagnosed with lung cancer. The aims of this exploratory study were to examine unsolicited…

  13. Patients with newly diagnosed Rheumatoid Arthritis are at increased risk of Diabetes Mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emamifar, Amir; Levin, Klaus; Jensen Hansen, Inger Marie

    2018-01-01

    -C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP) at the time of diagnosis and after 4 months (±1-2 months) of treatment initiation were extracted from Danbio Registry. To reveal the presence of DM, patients' electronic medical records were reviewed. The prevalence of DM in our patients was compared (using an age- and gender......-matched analysis) with that expected from Danish population. RESULTS: of 439 included patients, 60.1% were female, mean of age 64.6±15.0 years and RA disease duration 2.6±1.7 years. Prevalence of DM was 57/439 (12.9%), herein type II DM 52 (91.2%) and type I DM 5 (8.8%). Except for two patients, diagnosis of DM......AIMS: To reveal the prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) in patients with newly diagnosed Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) and evaluate the association between clinical characteristics of RA and DM as well as treatment response in newly diagnosed RA patients with DM. METHODS: Newly diagnosed, adult, RA...

  14. Bone histomorphometry in children with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, JA; Koudstaal, J; Wiersema-Buist, J; Kamps, WA; Timens, W

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain insight into bone formation and resorption in children with newly diagnosed untreated acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In 23 consecutive children with ALL, a bone biopsy was taken from the crista iliaca posterior under ketamine anesthesia, together with

  15. Importance of circulating tumor cells in newly diagnosed colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalum, Guus; Stam, Gerrit-Jan; Scholten, Loes F.A.; Mastboom, Walter J.B.; Vermes, I.; Tibbe, Arjan G.J.; De Groot, Marco R.; Terstappen, Leonardus Wendelinus Mathias Marie

    2015-01-01

    Presence of circulating tumor cells (CTC) is associated with poor prognosis in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). The present study was conducted to determine if the presence of CTC prior to surgery and during follow‑up in patients with newly diagnosed non-metastatic CRC can identify

  16. EYE DISEASE IN NEWLY-DIAGNOSED LEPROSY PATIENTS IN EASTERN NEPAL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LUBBERS, WJ; SCHIPPER, A; HOGEWEG, M; DESOLDENHOFF, R

    To determine the magnitude of eye lesions in newly diagnosed leprosy patients we examined their eyes. The Eastern Leprosy Control Project was supported by The Netherlands Leprosy Relief Association; we used the regional clinic in Biratnagar and 5 mobile clinics in surrounding districts as our survey

  17. Quality of life of elderly persons with newly diagnosed cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, B A; Osterlind, K; Roer, O

    2004-01-01

    The aim was to investigate quality of life (QoL) in elderly persons newly diagnosed with cancer (65+ years) in relation to age, contact with the health-care system, ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL), hope, social network and support, and to identify which factors were associated...... with low QoL. The sample consisted of 101 patients (75 women and 26 men) newly diagnosed with cancer. EORTC QLQ-C30, Nowotny's Hope Scale, Katz ADL and the Interview Schedule for Social Interaction (ISSI) were used. The analysis was carried out in four age groups and revealed no significant differences...... in QoL. Compared with the other age groups, those of a high age (80+ years) more often lived alone, used more home-help service and had a smaller social network. Factors associated with low QoL were 'no other incomes than retirement pension', 'low level of hope' and 'lung cancer'. In addition, 'being...

  18. Parental influences on sperm banking attempts among adolescent males newly diagnosed with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosky, James L; Flynn, Jessica S; Lehmann, Vicky; Russell, Kathryn M; Wang, Fang; Hardin, Robin N; Eddinger, Jasmine R; Zhang, Hui; Schenck, Lauren A-M; Schover, Leslie R

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the influence of parental sociodemographic, communication, and psychological factors on sperm collection attempts among at-risk adolescent males newly diagnosed with cancer. Prospective, single group, observational study design. Pediatric oncology centers. Parents (N = 144) of 122 newly diagnosed adolescent males at increased risk for infertility secondary to cancer therapy. Survey-based assessment of parent factors associated with adolescent collection attempts. Attempt of manual collection of sperm. Parental recommendation to bank sperm (odds ratio [OR] 3.72; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-11.76) and perceived self-efficacy to facilitate banking (OR 1.20; 95% CI 1.02-1.41) were associated with an increased likelihood of making a collection attempt. Parental recommendation to bank is a critical influence for sperm banking among adolescent males newly diagnosed with cancer. These findings highlight the importance of effective communication between parents, patients, and health-care teams when discussing preservation options. Parent perceptions of their ability to facilitate sperm banking at the time of diagnosis should also be targeted in future interventions. NCT01152268. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Quality of life of elderly persons with newly diagnosed cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, B A; Osterlind, K; Roer, O

    2004-01-01

    The aim was to investigate quality of life (QoL) in elderly persons newly diagnosed with cancer (65+ years) in relation to age, contact with the health-care system, ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL), hope, social network and support, and to identify which factors were associated...

  20. Clinical and immunological status of a newly diagnosed HIV positive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical and the immune status of newly HIV diagnosed patients, in Marrakech city and its neighboring area, in Morocco. Methods: We performed a retrospective study on 235 patients who have been previously confirmed for HIV infection, and underwent a CD4 T cells using flow cytometry ...

  1. Evolving antithrombotic treatment patterns for patients with newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camm, A.J.; Accetta, G.; Ambrosio, G.; Atar, D.; Bassand, J.P.; Berge, E. van de; Cools, F.; Fitzmaurice, D.A.; Goldhaber, S.Z.; Goto, S.; Haas, S.; Kayani, G.; Koretsune, Y.; Mantovani, L.G.; Misselwitz, F.; Oh, S.; Turpie, A.G.G.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Kakkar, A.K.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We studied evolving antithrombotic therapy patterns in patients with newly diagnosed non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) and >/=1 additional stroke risk factor between 2010 and 2015. METHODS: 39 670 patients were prospectively enrolled in four sequential cohorts in the Global

  2. Baseline staging tests based on molecular subtype is necessary for newly diagnosed breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuesong; Sun, Lichun; Cong, Yingying; Zhang, Tingting; Lin, Qiushi; Meng, Qingwei; Pang, Hui; Zhao, Yanbin; Li, Yu; Cai, Li; Dong, Xiaoqun

    2014-03-17

    Bone scanning (BS), liver ultrasonography (LUS), and chest radiography (CXR) are commonly recommended for baseline staging in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate whether these tests are indicated for specific patient subpopulation based on clinical staging and molecular subtype. A retrospective study on 5406 patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer was conducted to identify differences in occurrence of metastasis based on clinical staging and molecular subtypes. All patients had been evaluated by BS, LUS and CXR at diagnosis. Complete information on clinical staging was available in 5184 patients. For stage I, II, and III, bone metastasis rate was 0%, 0.6% and 2.7%, respectively (P diagnosed breast cancer.

  3. Coping strategies among patients with newly diagnosed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson Larsson, Birgitta; Nordin, Karin; Askmark, Håkan; Nygren, Ingela

    2014-11-01

    To prospectively identify different coping strategies among newly diagnosed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients and whether they change over time and to determine whether physical function, psychological well-being, age and gender correlated with the use of different coping strategies. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a fatal disease with impact on both physical function and psychological well-being. Different coping strategies are used to manage symptoms and disease progression, but knowledge about coping in newly diagnosed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients is scarce. This was a prospective study with a longitudinal and descriptive design. A total of 33 patients were included and evaluation was made at two time points, one to three months and six months after diagnosis. Patients were asked to complete the Motor Neuron Disease Coping Scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Physical function was estimated using the revised Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale. The most commonly used strategies were support and independence. Avoidance/venting and information seeking were seldom used at both time points. The use of information seeking decreased between the two time points. Men did not differ from women, but patients ≤64 years used positive action more often than older patients. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale was positively correlated with positive action at time point 1, but not at time point 2. Patients' psychological well-being was correlated with the use of different coping strategies. Support and independence were the most used coping strategies, and the use of different strategies changed over time. Psychological well-being was correlated with different coping strategies in newly diagnosed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients. The knowledge about coping strategies in early stage of the disease may help the nurses to improve and develop the care and support for these patients. © 2014 John Wiley

  4. Visual System Involvement in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigo, Alessandro; Calamuneri, Alessandro; Milardi, Demetrio; Mormina, Enricomaria; Rania, Laura; Postorino, Elisa; Marino, Silvia; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Anastasi, Giuseppe Pio; Ghilardi, Maria Felice; Aragona, Pasquale; Quartarone, Angelo; Gaeta, Michele

    2017-12-01

    Purpose To assess intracranial visual system changes of newly diagnosed Parkinson disease in drug-naïve patients. Materials and Methods Twenty patients with newly diagnosed Parkinson disease and 20 age-matched control subjects were recruited. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted imaging) was performed with a 3-T MR imager. White matter changes were assessed by exploring a white matter diffusion profile by means of diffusion-tensor imaging-based parameters and constrained spherical deconvolution-based connectivity analysis and by means of white matter voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Alterations in occipital gray matter were investigated by means of gray matter VBM. Morphologic analysis of the optic chiasm was based on manual measurement of regions of interest. Statistical testing included analysis of variance, t tests, and permutation tests. Results In the patients with Parkinson disease, significant alterations were found in optic radiation connectivity distribution, with decreased lateral geniculate nucleus V2 density (F, -8.28; P Parkinson disease and that the entire intracranial visual system can be involved. © RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  5. Selected aspects of medical care for patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miłkowska-Dymanowska, Joanna; Białas, Adam J; Górski, Paweł

    2017-01-01

    Noncompliance with healthcare undoubtedly has a strong influence on the high prevalence of uncontrolled obstructive diseases. The aim of our study was to evaluate the quality of medical conduct in patients with asthma or chronic obstructive lung diseases (COPD), with encompassed two-levelled system of health care. A survey of general practitioners (GP), allergists and pulmonologists practicing in Poland was performed between September and December 2016. The basic survey included the data concerning the number of treated patients, the course of the visits, treatment regimens and whether the patients follow the instructions of the physician. The specialist survey recorded the details of the specialist visits, their frequency and character, an evaluation of the pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies and an evaluation of the GP's actions. The basic questionnaire was completed by 807 doctors with an average of 21 ± 9.85 years of medical experience. Most of the interviewed individuals were GPs (56%), followed by pulmonologists (28%) and allergists (16%). The GP reported 47 cases/month with obstructive pulmonary conditions, including 48.94% asthma and 51.06% COPD patients. They diagnosed three new asthma and COPD patients per month. The allergists treated patients with asthma (105 patients/ month), with 19 newly-diagnosed patients/month. The pulmonologists treated fewer asthma cases than COPD: 71 and 98 patients respectively. They reported 14 patients/month of newly-diagnosed COPD cases. The patients took inhaled glucocorticoids and long-acting b adrenoceptor agonists in separate inhalers. The most frequently-used device was a disc. In opinion of the specialists, half of the therapies initiated recently by GPs for patients with asthma and COPD required modifications. There is a disparity between the true state of medical care of asthma and COPD patients and globally-accepted standards.

  6. Clinical Prediction Model for Time in Therapeutic Range While on Warfarin in Newly Diagnosed Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brent A; Evans, Michael A; Honushefsky, Ashley M; Berger, Peter B

    2017-10-12

    Though warfarin has historically been the primary oral anticoagulant for stroke prevention in newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation (AF), several new direct oral anticoagulants may be preferred when anticoagulation control with warfarin is expected to be poor. This study developed a prediction model for time in therapeutic range (TTR) among newly diagnosed AF patients on newly initiated warfarin as a tool to assist decision making between warfarin and direct oral anticoagulants. This electronic medical record-based, retrospective study included newly diagnosed, nonvalvular AF patients with no recent warfarin exposure receiving primary care services through a large healthcare system in rural Pennsylvania. TTR was estimated as the percentage of time international normalized ratio measurements were between 2.0 and 3.0 during the first year following warfarin initiation. Candidate predictors of TTR were chosen from data elements collected during usual clinical care. A TTR prediction model was developed and temporally validated and its predictive performance was compared with the SAMe-TT 2 R 2 score (sex, age, medical history, treatment, tobacco, race) using R 2 and c-statistics. A total of 7877 newly diagnosed AF patients met study inclusion criteria. Median (interquartile range) TTR within the first year of starting warfarin was 51% (32, 67). Of 85 candidate predictors evaluated, 15 were included in the final validated model with an R 2 of 15.4%. The proposed model showed better predictive performance than the SAMe-TT 2 R 2 score ( R 2 =3.0%). The proposed prediction model may assist decision making on the proper mode of oral anticoagulant among newly diagnosed AF patients. However, predicting TTR on warfarin remains challenging. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  7. MGMT inactivation and clinical response in newly diagnosed GBM patients treated with Gliadel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Rachel; Burger, Peter; Soudry, Ethan; Tyler, Betty; Chaichana, Kaisorn L; Weingart, Jon; Olivi, Alessandro; Gallia, Gary L; Sidransky, David; Quiñones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Ye, Xiaobu; Brem, Henry

    2015-12-01

    We examined the relationship between the O(6)-methylguanine-methyltransferase (MGMT) methylation status and clinical outcomes in newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients who were treated with Gliadel wafers (Eisai, Tokyo, Japan). MGMT promoter methylation has been associated with increased survival among patients with GBM who are treated with various alkylating agents. MGMT promoter methylation, in DNA from 122 of 160 newly diagnosed GBM patients treated with Gliadel, was determined by a quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction, and was correlated with overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS). The MGMT promoter was methylated in 40 (32.7%) of 122 patients. The median OS was 13.5 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 11.0-14.5) and RFS was 9.4 months (95% CI 7.8-10.2). After adjusting for age, Karnofsky performance score, extent of resection, temozolomide (TMZ) and radiation therapy (RT), the newly diagnosed GBM patients with MGMT methylation had a 15% reduced mortality risk, compared to patients with unmethylated MGMT (hazard ratio 0.85; 95% CI 0.56-1.31; p=0.46). The patients aged over 70 years with MGMT methylation had a significantly longer median OS of 13.5 months, compared to 7.6 months in patients with unmethylated MGMT (p=0.027). A significant difference was also found in older patients, with a median RFS of 13.1 versus 7.6 months for methylated and unmethylated MGMT groups, respectively (p=0.01). Methylation of the MGMT promoter in newly diagnosed GBM patients treated with Gliadel, RT and TMZ, was associated with significantly improved OS compared to the unmethylated population. In elderly patients, methylation of the MGMT promoter was associated with significantly better OS and RFS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Alterations found with computerized tomography in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruna, J.

    1989-01-01

    In 28 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients (insulin-independent), computerized tomography (CT) was used to determine the density of the pancreas and the kidneys, densities of the liver, spleen and blood in the abdominal aorta, and to investigate pathological changes in the tissues mentioned above. The results were correlated with laboratory findings. The following changes were found: decreased density of the pancreas (29.4 H) and the liver (49.1 H) and increased density of the spleen (56.3 H) and blood in the abdominal aorta (43.7 H). The decreased density of the pancreas appears to be connected with disorders of lipoprotein metabolism. The decreased liver density was related to increased energy intake by food and to overweight evaluated by Broc's index. Other CT findings in the newly diagnosed type 2 diabetics (changes in the size of the pancreas, and kidneys, kidney cysts, nephrolithiasis, sclerotic plaques on aorta) were not significant. (author). 2 tabs., 11 refs

  9. Changes in immunological status among newly-diagnosed HIV-infected in Denmark 1995-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoegh, S.; Lohse, N.; Hansen, A.B.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The incidence of new HIV diagnoses in Denmark has remained stable since 1991, but it has increased among the subgroup of homosexual men in recent years. This may reflect an actual increase in newly infected, e.g. as a result of increased risk behaviour, or it may reflect increased HIV....... MATERIALS AND METHODS: Observational study based on the Danish HIV Cohort Study, which includes all adults seen at Danish HIV clinics since 1995. RESULTS: From 2000 to 2004 the number of newly-infected homosexual men increased (from 69 to 123), particularly in persons under 30 years (from 5 to 42......). The median CD4 cell count at the time of diagnosis increased in this group (median 19.1 cells/microL per year [95% CI: 3.7-11.3]), while it remained stable among heterosexually infected. The number of newly-diagnosed homosexually infected under 30 years with a CD4 cell count over 400 cells/microL increased...

  10. Top Information Need Priorities of Older Adults Newly Diagnosed With Active Myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariman, Joseph D; Doorenbos, Ardith; Schepp, Karen G; Singhal, Seema; Berry, Donna L

    2015-01-01

    Prioritizing patients' information needs maximizes efficiency. This study examined the information sources and priorities in a sample of older adults newly diagnosed with symptomatic myeloma requiring immediate therapy. An association analysis of whether information needs were influenced by sociodemographic variables such as age, gender, education, marital status, and income was also conducted. The Information Needs Questionnaire (INQ) and an investigator-developed interview schedule were administered to 20 older adults diagnosed with symptomatic myeloma during a 30- to 45-minute semistructured interview. We found that older adults newly diagnosed with symptomatic myeloma have different priorities of information needs when compared with younger patients diagnosed with various types of cancer. The top three priorities related to treatment, prognosis, and self-care. Sociodemographic variables did not influence the priorities of information needs among older adults with symptomatic myeloma. The Internet, physicians, family, and friends were among the top sources of information. Advanced practitioners in oncology should support and identify interventions that can enhance patients' learning process from these sources. Well poised to assist patients in searching credible and reliable Internet sources, advanced practitioners in oncology can provide patient education about different treatments and the impact of such treatments on prognosis (e.g., overall survival and likelihood of cure).

  11. Shared decision making in the management of children with newly diagnosed immune thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Carolyn E; Boydell, Katherine M; Stasiulis, Elaine; Blanchette, Victor S; Llewellyn-Thomas, Hilary; Birken, Catherine S; Breakey, Vicky R; Parkin, Patricia C

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to examine the treatment decision-making process for children hospitalized with newly diagnosed immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Using focus groups, we studied children with ITP, parents of children with ITP, and health care professionals, inquiring about participants' experience with decision support and decision making in newly diagnosed ITP. Data were examined using thematic analysis. Themes that emerged from children were feelings of "anxiety, fear, and confusion"; the need to "understand information"; and "treatment choice," the experience of which was age dependent. For parents, "anxiety, fear, and confusion" was a dominant theme; "treatment choice" revealed that participants felt directed toward intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) for initial treatment. For health care professionals, "comfort level" highlighted factors contributing to professionals' comfort with offering options; "assumptions" were made about parental desire for participation in shared decision making (SDM) and parental acceptance of treatment options; "providing information" was informative regarding modes of facilitating SDM; and "treatment choice" revealed a discrepancy between current practice (directed toward IVIG) and the ideal of SDM. At our center, families of children with newly diagnosed ITP are not experiencing SDM. Our findings support the implementation of SDM to facilitate patient-centered care for the management of pediatric ITP.

  12. Serum lipid profile of newly diagnosed hypertensive patients in nnewi, South-East Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuji, Charles U; Omejua, Emeka G; Onwubuya, Emmanuel I; Ahaneku, Gladys I

    2012-01-01

    Abnormalities in serum lipid and lipoprotein levels are recognized major modifiable cardiovascular disease and essential hypertension risk factors. The objective of this study was to examine the serum lipid patterns of newly diagnosed hypertensive patients attending a tertiary healthcare centre in South East Nigeria. Methods. Two hundred and fifty newly diagnosed adult hypertensive patients and an equal number of age- and sex-matched controls without hypertension were consecutively recruited from the Medical and General Outpatient Clinics of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi. Result. 126 males and 124 females were in each of the two groups. Mean age was comparable in both groups. Hypertensives had significantly higher mean systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, and fasting blood sugar than the controls. The mean TC, TG, and LDL-C were significantly higher among the hypertensives. The mean HDL-C was comparable; P = 0.8. Among the hypertensive subjects, there was statistically significant positive correlation between BMI and TC; LDL-C and TG; WC and TG; FBS and TC; LDL-C and TG. HDL-C showed a statistically significant inverse correlation with WHR in hypertensives. Conclusion. This study showed that lipid abnormalities are highly prevalent among newly diagnosed hypertensives in South-East Nigeria.

  13. PREVALENCE OF SLEEP DISORDERED BREATHING IN PATIENTS WITH NEWLY DIAGNOSED ACROMEGALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. A. Tsoy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obstructive sleep disordered breathing or obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is the most common respiratory impairment in acromegaly. OSA is bound up with heightened cardiovascular mortality. Aim: Тo study frequency, features, and structure of sleep disordered breathing in patients with newly diagnosed acromegaly and to elucidate the factors influencing their development. Materials and methods: 38 patients (10 men, 28 women, median age 53 (28-76 years, median body mass index (BMI 29 (19.9-44.3 kg/m² with newly diagnosed acromegaly were recruited into the study. All subjects underwent full polysomnography (Embla N7000, Natus, USA and Remlogica software (USA. Results: Sleep disordered breathing was found in 28 (73.7% patients. OSA was revealed in all cases, in 11 (39.3% subjects it was mixed. In 10 (35.7% patients OSA was mild, in 8 (28.6% moderate, and in 10 (35.7% severe. BMI (р<0.01, disease duration (р=0.003, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 level (р=0.04 were different in patients without OSA and patients with moderate-to-severe OSA. No difference was found in sex (р=0.4, age (р=0.064, and growth hormone level (р=0.6. Frequency of arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and other glucose metabolism impairments was the same in subjects without OSA and with severe-to-moderate OSA. Conclusion: All patients with newly diagnosed acromegaly should undergo polysomnography. BMI, disease duration, and IGF-1 level are significant risk factors for OSA development. Correlation OSA with arterial hypertension and glucose metabolism impairments needs to be further investigated.

  14. Fraction of exhaled nitric oxide measurements in the diagnoses of asthma in elderly patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godinho Netto AC

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Antonio Carlos Maneira Godinho Netto,1,2 Túlio Gonçalves dos Reis,1,2 Cássia Franco Matheus,1,2 Beatriz Julião Vieira Aarestrup,3,4 Fernando Monteiro Aarestrup1,2,4 1School of Medical and Health Sciences – SUPREMA, 2Maternity Hospital Terezinha de Jesus, 3Morphology Department, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Institute of Biological Sciences, 4Laboratory of Immunopathology and Experimental Pathology, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Reproductive Biology Center (CBR, Juiz de Fora, Brazil Objective: To assess the value of fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO measurements in the diagnosis of asthma in elderly patients. Methods: The clinical symptoms of 202 elderly patients were assessed with the asthma module of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood test, which had been modified for the elderly patients, and the diagnostic routine for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, which was based on the Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria. Of the 202 patients assessed, 43 were subjected to pulmonary function evaluations (spirometry and FeNO measurements. Results: Of the 202 elderly patients, 34 had asthma (23 definite and eleven probable, 20 met COPD criteria, 13 presented with an overlap of asthma and COPD, and 135 did not fit the criteria for obstructive pulmonary disease. Among the 43 elderly patients who were subjected to FeNO measurements, ten showed altered results (23.2% and 33 had normal results (76.7%. The average value of FeNO in patients with definite and probable asthma undergoing this procedure was 29.2 parts per billion whereas that in nonasthmatic patients was 17.5 parts per billion (P=0.0002. Conclusion: We show a clear relationship between FeNO levels and asthma symptoms and previous asthma diagnoses in elderly patients. Keywords: asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, elderly patients, nitric oxide

  15. Serum Lipids and Diabetic Retinopathy in Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetic Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahana Shermin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetic retinopathy is the commonest and usually the first observable vascular complication of diabetes mellitus. Along with hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia is a contributing factor for the occurrence of diabetic retinopathy. It is postulated that dyslipidaemia results in formation of hard exudate by increasing blood viscosity and altering the fibrinolytic system. A case control study was carried out in the department of Biochemistry, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka during the period of January 2006 to December 2007 to evaluate the serum lipid profile in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic subjects with diabetic retinopathy. Materials and Methods: Total 85 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic subjects were included in this study, 40 were cases having retinopathy and 45 were age and sex matched controls without retinopathy. Serum triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C were compared between cases and controls. Unpaired t-test and chi-square test were done between groups as tests of significance. Results: All the parameters of lipid profile showed dyslipidaemic trend both in cases and controls. In the cases TG was significantly higher and HDL-C was significantly lower than that of controls (p < 0.05 whereas no significant difference was found between cases and controls with respect to serum TC and LDL-C. Conclusion: It can be concluded that high TG and low HDL-C are associated with diabetic retinopathy in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.

  16. Comparative Survival in Patients With Postresection Recurrent Versus Newly Diagnosed Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Treated With Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Xuwei; Xu Luying; Wang Li; Hayman, James A.; Chang, Andrew C.; Pickens, Allan; Cease, Kemp B.; Orringer, Mark B.; Kong, F.-M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the survival of postresection recurrent vs. newly diagnosed non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. Methods and Materials: The study population consisted of 661 consecutive patients with NSCLC registered in the radiation oncology databases at two medical centers in the United States between 1992 and 2004. Of the 661 patients, 54 had postresection recurrent NSCLC and 607 had newly diagnosed NSCLC. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression models were used for the survival analyses. Results: The distribution of relevant clinical factors between these two groups was similar. The median survival time and 5-year overall survival rates were 19.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.9-25.7) and 14.8% (95% confidence interval, 5.4-24.2%) vs. 12.2 months (95% CI, 10.8-13.6) and 11.0% (95% CI, 8.5-13.5%) for recurrent vs. newly diagnosed patients, respectively (p = .037). For Stage I-III patients, no significant difference was observed in the 5-year overall survival (p = .297) or progression-free survival (p = .935) between recurrent and newly diagnosed patients. For the 46 patients with Stage I-III recurrent disease, multivariate analysis showed that chemotherapy was a significant prognostic factor for 5-year progression-free survival (hazard ratio, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.224-0.914; p = .027). Conclusion: Our institutional data have shown that patients with postresection recurrent NSCLC achieved survival comparable to that of newly diagnosed NSCLC patients when they were both treated with radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. These findings suggest that patients with postresection recurrent NSCLC should be treated as aggressively as those with newly diagnosed disease.

  17. Time perspective and weight management behaviors in newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes: a mediational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Peter A; Fong, Geoffrey T; Cheng, Alice Y

    2012-12-01

    The primary objective of the current study was to examine the extent to which domain-specific time perspective predicts weight management behaviors (dietary behavior and physical activity) among those newly diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes. A secondary objective was to test potential mediators of the hypothesized effect (behavioral intention, self-efficacy and control beliefs). A total of 204 adults newly diagnosed (≤6 months) with Type 2 diabetes participated in the study, which included a baseline assessment of domain-general and domain-specific time perspective, as well as strength of intention to perform two weight-management behaviors (dietary choice and physical activity); both weight-management behaviors were assessed again at 6 month follow-up. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed a prospective association between domain-specific time perspective and uptake of weight management behaviors. Individuals with newly diagnosed T2DM possessing a future-oriented time perspective reported making less frequent fatty food choices and greater increases in physical activity over the 6-month follow-up interval. These effects were selectively mediated by intention strength, and not competing social cognitive variables. For both behaviors, the total effects and meditational models were robust to adjustments for demographics, body composition and disease variables. A future-oriented time perspective is prospectively associated with superior uptake of weight management behaviors among those with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes. The facilitating effect of future-oriented thinking appears to occur via enhanced strength of intentions to perform weight management behaviors.

  18. Asymmetric Dimethylarginine Plasma Levels and Endothelial Function in Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Perticone

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available It is now well established that major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD impact upon endothelial function by decreasing nitric oxide (NO bioavailability. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA, an endogenous analog of l-arginine, is able to inhibit the activity of endothelial-NO synthase, promoting endothelial dysfunction. Type 2 diabetes (T2D is characterized by a reduced endothelium-dependent vasodilation and increased ADMA levels and ADMA is strongly associated with micro- and macrovascular diabetic complications. However, there are not a lot of data about the role of ADMA on endothelial function in newly diagnosed T2D patients without cardiovascular (CV complications. For this aim, we have enrolled forty-five newly diagnosed T2D patients, evaluated by a oral glucose tolerance test, and thirty normal subjects. Endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilatation was investigated by intra-arterial infusion of increasing doses of acetylcholine (ACh and sodium nitroprusside. ADMA was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and insulin resistance (IR by HOMA. Newly diagnosed T2D patients showed higher ADMA and l-arginine mean values in comparison with normal subjects and a significantly reduced ACh-stimulated forearm blood flow (FBF. In T2D patients FBF was significantly and inversely correlated with ADMA (r = −0.524, p < 0.0001 and in a multivariate regression analysis, ADMA resulted the stronger predictor of FBF, explaining the 27.5% of variability (p < 0.0001. In conclusion, ADMA was strongly related to endothelial dysfunction also in patients with newly diagnosed T2D, without clinically manifest vascular complications. This field is of great interest for understanding the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of diabetic disease and its CV complications.

  19. Limited role for extended maintenance temozolomide for newly diagnosed glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramatzki, Dorothee; Kickingereder, Philipp; Hentschel, Bettina; Felsberg, Jörg; Herrlinger, Ulrich; Schackert, Gabriele; Tonn, Jörg-Christian; Westphal, Manfred; Sabel, Michael; Schlegel, Uwe; Wick, Wolfgang; Pietsch, Torsten; Reifenberger, Guido; Loeffler, Markus; Bendszus, Martin; Weller, Michael

    2017-04-11

    To explore an association with survival of modifying the current standard of care for patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma of surgery followed by radiotherapy plus concurrent and 6 cycles of maintenance temozolomide chemotherapy (TMZ/RT → TMZ) by extending TMZ beyond 6 cycles. The German Glioma Network cohort was screened for patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma who received TMZ/RT → TMZ and completed ≥6 cycles of maintenance chemotherapy without progression. Associations of clinical patient characteristics, molecular markers, and residual tumor determined by magnetic resonance imaging after 6 cycles of TMZ with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed with the log-rank test. Multivariate analyses using the Cox proportional hazards model were performed to assess associations of prolonged TMZ use with outcome. Sixty-one of 142 identified patients received at least 7 maintenance TMZ cycles (median 11, range 7-20). Patients with extended maintenance TMZ treatment had better PFS (20.5 months, 95% confidence interval [CI] 17.7-23.3, vs 17.2 months, 95% CI 10.2-24.2, p = 0.035) but not OS (32.6 months, 95% CI 28.9-36.4, vs 33.2 months, 95% CI 25.3-41.0, p = 0.126). However, there was no significant association of prolonged TMZ chemotherapy with PFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.8, 95% CI 0.4-1.6, p = 0.559) or OS (HR = 1.6, 95% CI 0.8-3.3, p = 0.218) adjusted for age, extent of resection, Karnofsky performance score, presence of residual tumor, O 6 -methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation status, or isocitrate dehydrogenase ( IDH ) mutation status. These data may not support the practice of prolonging maintenance TMZ chemotherapy beyond 6 cycles. This study provides Class III evidence that in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma, prolonged TMZ chemotherapy does not significantly increase PFS or OS. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  20. PREVALENCE OF DIABETIC RETINOPATHY IN PATIENTS WITH NEWLY DIAGNOSED TYPE II DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bostak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is a common complication of type II diabetes mellitus and carries with it the threat of blindness. Accurate information regarding the incidence of diabetic retinopathy and associated risk factors is important in the prevention of its development and of the visual impairment caused by this complication. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in newly diagnosed patients with type II diabetes mellitus. We have also evaluated the association of diabetic retinopathy with clinical and biochemical variables. In a cross-sectional study, 152 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed type II diabetes mellitus were referred from two outpatient clinics in Tehran for ophthalmologic exam to detect retinopathy. Indirect ophthalmoscopy was performed and data regarding risk factors were extracted from routine medical records. Chi square and Mann Whitney U tests were used to analyze the data. The overall prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was 13.8 %( 21 cases: three cases with microaneurysm only, 10 with mild, 5 with moderate and 2 with severe non proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Only one patient had advanced proliferative retinopathy. The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was positively associated with age, duration of disease, fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, and systolic blood pressure. Diabetic retinopathy is common in newly diagnosed type II diabetes mellitus patients. Ophthalmologic consultation is essential at the time of diagnosis for all patients.

  1. Quantitative computed tomography measurements of emphysema for diagnosing asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Mengshuang; Wang, Wei; Dou, Shuang; Cui, Liwei; Xiao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background The diagnostic criteria of asthma–COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) are controversial. Emphysema is characteristic of COPD and usually does not exist in typical asthma patients. Emphysema in patients with asthma suggests the coexistence of COPD. Quantitative computed tomography (CT) allows repeated evaluation of emphysema noninvasively. We investigated the value of quantitative CT measurements of emphysema in the diagnosis of ACOS. Methods This study included 404 participants; 151 asthma patients, 125 COPD patients, and 128 normal control subjects. All the participants underwent pulmonary function tests and a high-resolution CT scan. Emphysema measurements were taken with an Airway Inspector software. The asthma patients were divided into high and low emphysema index (EI) groups based on the percentage of low attenuation areas less than −950 Hounsfield units. The characteristics of asthma patients with high EI were compared with those having low EI or COPD. Results The normal value of percentage of low attenuation areas less than −950 Hounsfield units in Chinese aged >40 years was 2.79%±2.37%. COPD patients indicated more severe emphysema and more upper-zone-predominant distribution of emphysema than asthma patients or controls. Thirty-two (21.2%) of the 151 asthma patients had high EI. Compared with asthma patients with low EI, those with high EI were significantly older, more likely to be male, had more pack-years of smoking, had more upper-zone-predominant distribution of emphysema, and had greater airflow limitation. There were no significant differences in sex ratios, pack-years of smoking, airflow limitation, or emphysema distribution between asthma patients with high EI and COPD patients. A greater number of acute exacerbations were seen in asthma patients with high EI compared with those with low EI or COPD. Conclusion Asthma patients with high EI fulfill the features of ACOS, as described in the Global Initiative for Asthma and Global

  2. A changing trend in the management of patients with newly diagnosed Crohn's disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Qasim, A

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic shift with rising incidence of Crohn\\'s disease (CD) has been reported in recent studies. AIMS: To determine disease behaviour and therapeutic interventions undertaken in newly diagnosed patients with CD. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with CD between January 2006 and June 2008 were included. Disease type, location, degree of involvement and type of therapeutic interventions were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 78 patients were included. Colonic, ileo-colonic, terminal ileal and isolated small bowel disease were present in 37, 27, 9 and 5 patients, respectively. Disease phenotype was inflammatory, stenosing and fistulising in 42, 30 and 6 patients, respectively. Surgery was required in 22 patients, including right hemicolectomy (n = 8), subtotal colectomy (n = 4), segmental colonic resection (n = 2), segmental small bowel resection (n = 2), appendectomy (n = 2) and perianal surgery (n = 4). Fourteen patients underwent surgery at the time of diagnosis. Laparoscopic surgery was performed in 14 patients. CONCLUSIONS: A significant proportion of newly diagnosed patients with CD underwent surgical intervention on their first admission to hospital. This may signify a changing trend in the management approach.

  3. Asthma in General practice: risk factors and asthma control.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhof, L. van den

    2009-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic, inflammatory, pulmonary disease with a significant impact on patients, their families, and society. When symptomatic asthma is diagnosed, often irreversible changes in the airways have occurred. Therefore it is important to detect persons at high risk of asthma as early as

  4. Health-related quality of life of children with newly diagnosed specific learning disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karande, Sunil; Bhosrekar, Kirankumar; Kulkarni, Madhuri; Thakker, Arpita

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to measure health-related quality of life (HRQL) of children with newly diagnosed specific learning disability (SpLD) using the Child Health Questionnaire-Parent Form 50. We detected clinically significant deficits (effect size > or = -0.5) in 9 out of 12 domains: limitations in family activities, emotional impact on parents, social limitations as a result of emotional-behavioral problems, time impact on parents, general behavior, physical functioning, social limitations as a result of physical health, general health perceptions and mental health; and in both summary scores (psychosocial > physical). Multivariate analysis revealed having > or = 1 non-academic problem(s) (p or =1 non-academic problem(s) (p = 0.006) or first-born status (p = 0.035) predicted a poor physical summary score. HRQL is significantly compromised in children having newly diagnosed SpLD.

  5. Primary aldosteronism among newly diagnosed and untreated hypertensive patients in a Swedish primary care area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdahl, Christina; Bergenfelz, Anders; Isaksson, Anders; Nerbrand, Christina; Valdemarsson, Stig

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of primary aldosteronism (PA) in newly diagnosed and untreated hypertensive patients in primary care using the aldosterone/renin ratio (ARR), and to assess clinical and biochemical characteristics in patients with high and normal ARR. Patient survey study. A total of 200 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed and untreated hypertension from six primary health care centres in Sweden were included. ARR was calculated from serum aldosterone and plasma renin concentrations. The cut-off level for ARR was 65. Patients with an increased ARR were considered for confirmatory testing with the fludrocortisone suppression test (FST), followed by adrenal computed tomographic radiology (CT) and adrenal venous sampling (AVS). Of 200 patients, 36 patients had an ARR > 65. Of these 36 patients, 11 patients had an incomplete aldosterone inhibition during FST. Three patients were diagnosed with an aldosterone producing adenoma (APA) and eight with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia (BHA). Except for moderately lower level of P-K in patients with an ARR > 65 and in patients with PA, there were no biochemical or clinical differences found among hypertensive patients with PA compared with patients without PA. Eleven of 200 evaluated patients (5.5%) were considered to have PA. The diagnosis of PA should therefore be considered in newly diagnosed hypertensive subjects and screening for the diagnosis is warranted.

  6. [Management of difficult-to-treat asthma using a flow sheet for systematic evaluation and therapeutic intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakayama, Hisashi; Ogasawara, Tomohiko; Sato, Ai; Honda, Mamiko; Sakurai, Keiko; Uemura, Takehiro; Kasai, Daishi; Kato, Hisaaki; Tomita, Yuka; Park, Jangchul; Mizuno, Akiko; Suzuki, Masayuki

    2008-11-01

    Although most patients of asthma can be controlled by inhaled corticosteroid (ICS), some patients remain uncontrolled even after the introduction of ICS treatment. In management of such difficult-to-treat asthma, systematic review including additional differential diagnosis and avoidance of exacerbating factors is very important. Here we postulate a flow sheet presenting an algorithm which intends to achieve better asthma control following ATS refractory asthma guidance. For patients with poor controlled asthma even after using ICS more than moderate dose, we used the sheet in our daily outpatient management and investigated whether we could improve the control in such patients. The sheet was constructed by an algorithm which included (1) reevaluation of inhalation technique of ICS; (2) additional differential diagnosis of COPD and other similar diseases; and (3) reevaluation of presence of exacerbating factors. In our outpatient department, seven clinicians managed 22 difficult-to-treat asthma patients using this sheet. Additional factors which might worsen asthma control could be detected in 21 patients (95.5%). Firstly, smoking was disclosed in 8 patients (36.4%). Secondly, keeping pets was identified in 7 patients (31.8%). 5 patients (22.7%) were diagnosed as COPD rather than asthma and 4 patients (18.2%) were diagnosed as having rhinosinusitis. Some improvement of asthma control was achieved in 9 patients (40.9%). Reevaluation of refractory asthma patients using our newly developed flow sheet is essential and it may facilitate understanding of management of difficult-to-treat asthma.

  7. Subclassification of newly diagnosed glioblastomas through an immunohistochemical approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhan Conroy

    Full Text Available Molecular signatures in Glioblastoma (GBM have been described that correlate with clinical outcome and response to therapy. The Proneural (PN and Mesenchymal (MES signatures have been identified most consistently, but others including Classical (CLAS have also been reported. The molecular signatures have been detected by array techniques at RNA and DNA level, but these methods are costly and cannot take into account individual contributions of different cells within a tumor. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether subclasses of newly diagnosed GBMs could be assessed and assigned by application of standard pathology laboratory procedures. 123 newly diagnosed GBMs were analyzed for the tumor cell expression of 23 pre-identified proteins and EGFR amplification, together allowing for the subclassification of 65% of the tumors. Immunohistochemistry (IHC-based profiling was found to be analogous to transcription-based profiling using a 9-gene transcriptional signature for PN and MES subclasses. Based on these data a novel, minimal IHC-based scheme for subclass assignment for GBMs is proposed. Positive staining for IDH1R132H can be used for PN subclass assignment, high EGFR expression for the CLAS subtype and a combined high expression of PTEN, VIM and/or YKL40 for the MES subclass. The application of the proposed scheme was evaluated in an independent tumor set, which resulted in similar subclass assignment rates as those observed in the training set. The IHC-based subclassification scheme proposed in this study therefore could provide very useful in future studies for stratification of individual patient samples.

  8. Emotional suppression and depressive symptoms in women newly diagnosed with early breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingyan; Yang, Yanjie; He, Jincai; Yi, Jinyao; Wang, Yuping; Zhang, Jinqiang; Zhu, Xiongzhao

    2015-10-24

    Patients with breast cancer usually present varying levels of depressive symptoms. Emotional suppression, as a coping style, refers to an individual's ability to consciously control expression of negative emotions. Thus, emotional suppression is an important psychological factor related to depressive symptoms in patients with breast cancer. It has long been considered that compared to European and American women, Chinese women are more likely to ascribe to norms of negative emotion control for smooth social interaction. However, there is paucity of research focusing on emotional suppression among Chinese women with breast cancer. Thus the aims of the current study were (1) to investigate the incidence of depressive symptoms in women newly diagnosed with early breast cancer in Mainland China, and (2) to examine the relationships between emotional suppression and depressive symptoms in these patients. The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and the Chinese version of the Courtauld Emotional Control Scale (CECS) were used to assess the level of depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms and emotional suppression respectively in 247 women with early breast cancer and 362 healthy women. Analyses of variance were conducted to investigate group differences on depressive symptoms and emotional suppression. Bivariate correlations and Hierarchical regression analyses were performed to examine the effect of emotional suppression on depressive symptoms in participants after controlling the impact of group membership and anxiety level. (1) The incidence rates of clinical and severe depressive symptoms in patients were 36.4 and 36.0 % respectively. (2) Patients scored significantly higher than healthy women on CECS. (3) The scores on CECS were significantly associated with the total CES-D scores in all participants; Anger suppression significantly predicted the total CES-D scores. The majority of women newly diagnosed with

  9. Gene expression profiling for molecular classification of multiple myeloma in newly diagnosed patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broyl, Annemiek; Hose, Dirk; Lokhorst, Henk; de Knegt, Yvonne; Peeters, Justine; Jauch, Anna; Bertsch, Uta; Buijs, Arjan; Stevens-Kroef, Marian; Beverloo, H. Berna; Vellenga, Edo; Zweegman, Sonja; Kersten, Marie-Josée; van der Holt, Bronno; el Jarari, Laila; Mulligan, George; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; van Duin, Mark; Sonneveld, Pieter

    2010-01-01

    To identify molecularly defined subgroups in multiple myeloma, gene expression profiling was performed on purified CD138(+) plasma cells of 320 newly diagnosed myeloma patients included in the Dutch-Belgian/German HOVON-65/GMMG-HD4 trial. Hierarchical clustering identified 10 subgroups; 6

  10. Lack of effect of intermittently administered sodium fusidate in patients with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus: the FUSIDM trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conget, I; Aguilera, E; Pellitero, S

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated in a double-blind study the effect of early treatment with the immunomodulatory drug fusidin in patients with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus.......We evaluated in a double-blind study the effect of early treatment with the immunomodulatory drug fusidin in patients with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus....

  11. Circulating mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor is increased in newly diagnosed prediabetic and diabetic patients, and is associated with insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tong; Zhang, Fang; Yang, Qiu; Zhang, Yuwei; Liu, Qinhui; Jiang, Wei; Cao, Hongyi; Li, Daigang; Xie, Shugui; Tong, Nanwei; He, Jinhan

    2017-04-29

    Evidence has shown that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was involved in the progression to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and development of insulin resistance. Mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) is a novel secreted protein upregulated by ER stress. This study aimed to assess serum level of MANF in normal glucose tolerance (NGT) participants and newly diagnosed prediabetic and T2DM patients. A total of 257 participants with NGT, newly diagnosed prediabetes or T2DM were recruited from Yinchao and Hangtian communities of Chengdu, Sichuan, China. Serum MANF level was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The mean age for the 257 participants (147 females) was 62±8 years (range 44-78): 71 with NGT, 115 with newly diagnosed prediabetes and 71 with T2DM. Mean serum MANF level was significantly higher with newly diagnosed prediabetes and T2DM than NGT (2.89±1.09 and 3.03±1.73 vs 2.13±1.37 ng/mL, both pprediabetes patients. We concluded that serum MANF level was higher in patients with newly diagnosed prediabetes and T2DM than in NGT controls. MANF appears to be associated with Matsuda Index, QUICKI and HOMA-IR in prediabetes patients.

  12. Resilience and Associated Factors among Mainland Chinese Women Newly Diagnosed with Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zijing; Liu, Ye; Li, Xuelian; Li, Xiaohan

    2016-01-01

    Resilience is the individual's ability to bounce back from trauma. It has been studied for some time in the U.S., but few studies in China have addressed this important construct. In mainland China, relatively little is known about the resilience of patients in clinical settings, especially among patients with breast cancer. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the level of resilience and identify predictors of resilience among mainland Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with 213 mainland Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer between November 2014 and June 2015. Participants were assessed with the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS), Medical Coping Modes Questionnaire (MCMQ, including 3 subscales: confrontation, avoidance, and acceptance-resignation), Herth Hope Index (HHI), and demographic and disease-related information. Descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses and multiple stepwise regression were conducted to explore predictors for resilience. The average score for CD-RISC was 60.97, ranging from 37 to 69. Resilience was positively associated with educational level, family income, time span after diagnosis, social support, confrontation, avoidance, and hope. However, resilience was negatively associated with age, body mass index (BMI), and acceptance-resignation. Multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that hope (β = 0.343, Pconfrontation (β = 0.187, P = 0.001), and age (β = -0.108, P = 0.037) significantly affected resilience and explained 50.1% of the total variance in resilience. Women with newly diagnosed breast cancer from mainland China demonstrated particularly low resilience level, which was predicted by hope educational level, avoidance, confrontation, and age.

  13. Changes of β-cell function after short-term transient intensive insulin treatment in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Xiaoping; Zhuang Huiqin; Su Cainu; Xu Ning; Yin Dong; Hui Yuan; Wu Yan

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of short-term intensive insulin treatment on β-cell function in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients with apparently hyperglycemia, twenty-four newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients with FPG more than 12.0 mmol/L were treated by short-term transient intensive insulin in average 9.04-4.8 days. Their β-cell function was assessed by oral glucose tolerance test. The FPG, HbAlc and HOMA IR of patients were significantly decreased (P<0.01), while the insulin, the Area Under Curve (AUC) of insulin and HOMA β were significantly increased (P<0.01) after the treatment with insulin. Improvement of β-cell function can be induced by short-term intensive insulin treatment for newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients with apparently hyperglycemia. (authors)

  14. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound compared with computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography for diagnosing liver metastases in people with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Martin; Bjerre, Thomas Abramovitz; Grønbæk, Henning

    2016-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To compare the accuracy of CEUS, CECT, MRI, and 18F-FDG PET-CT for diagnosing liver metastases in people with newly-diagnosed colorectal cancer. Potential sources of heterogeneity We will investigate...

  15. Timing of entry to care by newly diagnosed HIV cases before and after the 2010 New York State HIV testing law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Daniel E; Bian, Fuqin; Anderson, Bridget J; Smith, Lou C

    2015-01-01

    Prompt entry to care after HIV diagnosis benefits the infected individual and reduces the likelihood of further transmission of the virus. The New York State HIV Testing Law of 2010 requires diagnosing providers to refer persons newly diagnosed with HIV to follow-up medical care. This study used routinely collected HIV-related laboratory data from the New York State HIV surveillance system to assess whether the fraction of newly diagnosed cases entering care within 90 days of diagnosis increased after the implementation of the law. Laboratory data on 23,302 newly diagnosed cases showed that entry to care within 90 days rose steadily from 72.0% in 2007 to 85.4% in 2012. The rise was observed across all race/ethnic groups, ages, transmission risk groups, sexes, and regions of residence. Logistic regression analyses of entry to care pre-law and post-law, controlling for demographic characteristics, transmission risk, and geographic area, indicate that percentage of newly diagnosed cases entering care within 90 days grew more rapidly in the post-law period. This is consistent with a positive effect of the law on entry to care.

  16. Relationships of salivary cortisol and melatonin rhythms to sleep quality, emotion, and fatigue levels in patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Pei; Lin, Chia-Chin

    2017-08-01

    After being diagnosed with lung cancer, patients often experience sleep disturbance, anxiety, depression, and fatigue. These symptoms may occur because of changes in neurotransmitter secretion caused by tumors. This study investigated the correlation of cortisol and melatonin rhythms with sleep quality, anxiety, depression, and fatigue levels in patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer. We conducted a case-control study and recruited 40 patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer and 40 healthy adults. The patient group had a lower salivary melatonin level and flatter slope (p cortisol level and steeper slope (p cortisol slope (p = 0.005) and fatigue score (p = 0.032) predicted the sleep quality score (p = 0.011). Overall, the patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer had poorer sleep quality, higher depression levels, lower salivary melatonin levels, higher cortisol levels, and flatter melatonin and cortisol slopes than did the controls. The fatigue level and cortisol slope significantly predicted sleep quality. Therefore, the assessment of cortisol and melatonin rhythms and levels could provide crucial information that may be beneficial for managing symptoms in patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Quantitative probabilistic functional diffusion mapping in newly diagnosed glioblastoma treated with radiochemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingson, Benjamin M; Cloughesy, Timothy F; Lai, Albert; Nghiemphu, Phioanh L; Liau, Linda M; Pope, Whitney B

    2013-03-01

    Functional diffusion mapping (fDM) is a cancer imaging technique that uses voxel-wise changes in apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) to evaluate response to treatment. Despite promising initial results, uncertainty in image registration remains the largest barrier to widespread clinical application. The current study introduces a probabilistic approach to fDM quantification to overcome some of these limitations. A total of 143 patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma who were undergoing standard radiochemotherapy were enrolled in this retrospective study. Traditional and probabilistic fDMs were calculated using ADC maps acquired before and after therapy. Probabilistic fDMs were calculated by applying random, finite translational, and rotational perturbations to both pre-and posttherapy ADC maps, then repeating calculation of fDMs reflecting changes after treatment, resulting in probabilistic fDMs showing the voxel-wise probability of fDM classification. Probabilistic fDMs were then compared with traditional fDMs in their ability to predict progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Probabilistic fDMs applied to patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma treated with radiochemotherapy demonstrated shortened PFS and OS among patients with a large volume of tumor with decreasing ADC evaluated at the posttreatment time with respect to the baseline scans. Alternatively, patients with a large volume of tumor with increasing ADC evaluated at the posttreatment time with respect to baseline scans were more likely to progress later and live longer. Probabilistic fDMs performed better than traditional fDMs at predicting 12-month PFS and 24-month OS with use of receiver-operator characteristic analysis. Univariate log-rank analysis on Kaplan-Meier data also revealed that probabilistic fDMs could better separate patients on the basis of PFS and OS, compared with traditional fDMs. Results suggest that probabilistic fDMs are a more predictive biomarker in

  18. Managing Asthma in Pregnancy (MAP) trial: FENO levels and childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morten, Matthew; Collison, Adam; Murphy, Vanessa E; Barker, Daniel; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Attia, John; Meredith, Joseph; Powell, Heather; Robinson, Paul D; Sly, Peter D; Gibson, Peter G; Mattes, Joerg

    2018-03-08

    The single-center double-blind, randomized controlled Managing Asthma in Pregnancy (MAP) trial in Newcastle, Australia, compared a treatment algorithm using the fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) in combination with asthma symptoms (FENO group) against a treatment algorithm using clinical symptoms only (clinical group) in pregnant asthmatic women (Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, no. 12607000561482). The primary outcome was a 50% reduction in asthma exacerbations during pregnancy in the FENO group. However, the effect of FENO-guided management on the development of asthma in the offspring is unknown. We sought to investigate the effect of FENO-guided asthma management during pregnancy on asthma incidence in childhood. A total of 179 mothers consented to participate in the Growing into Asthma (GIA) double-blind follow-up study with the primary aim to determine the effect of FENO-guided asthma management on childhood asthma incidence. A total of 140 children (78%) were followed up at 4 to 6 years of age. FENO-guided as compared to symptoms-only approach significantly reduced doctor-diagnosed asthma (25.9% vs 43.2%; odds ratio [OR], 0.46, 95% CI, 0.22-0.96; P = .04). Furthermore, frequent wheeze (OR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.09-0.87; P = .03), use of short-acting β-agonists (OR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.25-0.97; P = .04), and emergency department visits for asthma (OR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.04-0.76; P = .02) in the past 12 months were less common in children born to mothers from the FENO group. Doctor-diagnosed asthma was associated with common risk alleles for early onset asthma at gene locus 17q21 (P = .01 for rs8069176; P = .03 for rs8076131), and higher airways resistance (P = .02) and FENO levels (P = .03). A causal mediation analysis suggested natural indirect effects of FENO-guided asthma management on childhood asthma through "any use" and "time to first change in dose" of inhaled corticosteroids during the MAP trial (OR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0

  19. Regional differences in the incidence of tuberculosis among patients with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo Ram; Kang, Young Ae; Heo, Eun Young; Koo, Bo Kyung; Choi, Nam-Kyong; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Lee, Chang-Hoon

    2018-04-01

    There are regional differences in the burden of tuberculosis (TB). Although these differences might be explained by regional differences in the risk factors of TB, whether such risk factors are actually associated with the regional differences in the TB burden remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the risk factors of and regional differences in TB incidence. A cohort study applying nationwide claims database in Republic of Korea included patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in 2009. The main outcome was the incidence of TB defined based on the diagnostic codes combined with anti-tuberculosis treatment repeated within 90 days. Sixteen regions were categorized into 3 groups according to the age- and sex-standardized TB incidence rates. Multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for risk factors was performed to identify the determinants of the regional differences in TB incidence. Among 331 601 participants newly diagnosed with type 2 DM and with no history of previous TB, 1216 TB cases were observed. The regional TB incidence rates ranged between 2.3 and 5.9/1000 patients. Multivariate analyses did not identify any determinants of regional differences in the TB incidence among the various risk factors, including age, sex, health care utilization, co-morbidities, medication and treatment and complications of DM. Similarly, temperature, humidity and latent TB infection rate also did not affect the results. Although substantial regional differences in the TB incidence rate were observed among patients with newly diagnosed DM, no determinants of regional difference were identified among the risk factors. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Clinical characteristics and beta cell function in Chinese patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus with different levels of serum triglyceride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shuang; Zhou, Huan; Han, Tingting; Li, Yangxue; Zhang, Yao; Liu, Wei; Hu, Yaomin

    2015-04-29

    To explore clinical characteristics and beta cell function in Chinese patients with newly diagnosed drug naive type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with different levels of serum triglyceride (TG). Patients with newly diagnosed T2DM (n = 624) were enrolled and divided into different groups according to levels of serum TG. All patients underwent oral glucose tolerance tests and insulin releasing tests. Demographic data, lipid profiles, glucose levels, and insulin profiles were compared between different groups. Basic insulin secretion function index (homeostasis model assessment for beta cell function index, HOMA-β), modified beta cell function index (MBCI), glucose disposition indices (DI), and early insulin secretion function index (insulinogenic index, IGI) were used to evaluate the beta cell function. Patients of newly diagnosed T2DM with hypertriglyceridemia were younger, fatter and had worse lipid profiles, glucose profiles, and high insulin levels than those with normal TG. There is no difference in early phase insulin secretion among groups of newly diagnosed T2DM patients with different TG levels. The basal beta cell function (HOMA-β and MBCI) initially increased along rising TG levels and then decreased as the TG levels rose further. The insulin sensitivity was relatively high in patients with a low level of TG and low with a high level of TG. Hypertriglyceridemia influences clinical characteristics and β cell function of Chinese patients with newly diagnosed T2DM. A better management of dyslipidemia may, to some extent, reduce the effect of lipotoxicity, thereby improving glucose homeostasis in patients with newly diagnosed T2DM.

  1. Resilience and Associated Factors among Mainland Chinese Women Newly Diagnosed with Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zijing Wu

    Full Text Available Resilience is the individual's ability to bounce back from trauma. It has been studied for some time in the U.S., but few studies in China have addressed this important construct. In mainland China, relatively little is known about the resilience of patients in clinical settings, especially among patients with breast cancer. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the level of resilience and identify predictors of resilience among mainland Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer.A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with 213 mainland Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer between November 2014 and June 2015. Participants were assessed with the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC, Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS, Medical Coping Modes Questionnaire (MCMQ, including 3 subscales: confrontation, avoidance, and acceptance-resignation, Herth Hope Index (HHI, and demographic and disease-related information. Descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses and multiple stepwise regression were conducted to explore predictors for resilience.The average score for CD-RISC was 60.97, ranging from 37 to 69. Resilience was positively associated with educational level, family income, time span after diagnosis, social support, confrontation, avoidance, and hope. However, resilience was negatively associated with age, body mass index (BMI, and acceptance-resignation. Multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that hope (β = 0.343, P<0.001, educational level of junior college or above (β = 0.272, P<0.001, educational level of high school (β = 0.235, P<0.001, avoidance (β = 0.220, P<0.001, confrontation (β = 0.187, P = 0.001, and age (β = -0.108, P = 0.037 significantly affected resilience and explained 50.1% of the total variance in resilience.Women with newly diagnosed breast cancer from mainland China demonstrated particularly low resilience level, which was predicted by hope educational level, avoidance, confrontation

  2. Increased gluconeogenesis in youth with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Stephanie T; Hsia, Daniel S; Chacko, Shaji K; Rodriguez, Luisa M; Haymond, Morey W

    2015-03-01

    The role of increased gluconeogenesis as an important contributor to fasting hyperglycaemia at diabetes onset is not known. We evaluated the contribution of gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis to fasting hyperglycaemia in newly diagnosed youths with type 2 diabetes following an overnight fast. Basal rates (μmol kg(FFM) (-1) min(-1)) of gluconeogenesis ((2)H2O), glycogenolysis and glycerol production ([(2)H5] glycerol) were measured in 18 adolescents (nine treatment naive diabetic and nine normal-glucose-tolerant obese adolescents). Type 2 diabetes was associated with higher gluconeogenesis (9.2 ± 0.6 vs 7.0 ± 0.3 μmol kg(FFM) (-1) min(-1), p gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis and glucose production were higher in diabetic youth (p ≤ 0.02). Glycerol concentration (84 ± 6 vs 57 ± 6 μmol/l, p = 0.01) and glycerol production (5.0 ± 0.3 vs 3.6 ± 0.5 μmol kg(FFM) (-1) min(-1), p = 0.03) were 40% higher in youth with diabetes. The increased glycerol production could account for only ~1/3 of substrate needed for the increased gluconeogenesis in diabetic youth. Increased gluconeogenesis was a major contributor to fasting hyperglycaemia and hepatic insulin resistance in newly diagnosed untreated adolescents and was an early pathological feature of type 2 diabetes. Increased glycerol availability may represent a significant source of new carbon substrates for increased gluconeogenesis but would not account for all the carbons required to sustain the increased rates.

  3. A cross-sectional study of leukopenia and thrombocytopenia among Chinese adults with newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yinzhong; Wang, Jiangrong; Wang, Zhenyan; Shen, Jiayin; Tangkai Qi; Song, Wei; Tang, Yang; Liu, Li; Zhang, Renfang; Zeng, Yi; Lu, Hongzhou

    2015-04-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence and risk factors of leukopenia and thrombocytopenia among Chinese adults with newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS. One thousand nine hundred and forty-eight newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients were enrolled between 2009 and 2010. Serum samples obtained from each individual were collected for complete blood count. Factors associated with the presence of leukopenia and thrombocytopenia were analyzed by multiple logistic regression. The overall prevalence of leukopenia and of thrombocytopenia was 33.2% and 15.6%, respectively. The prevalence of leukopenia was higher among females than among males (39.4% versus 31.2%). The prevalence of leukopenia increased with decreasing CD4 count (8.2%, 26.5%, 33.4%, and 41.5% among patients with CD4 count of ≥ 350, 200-349, 50-199, and risk of leukopenia, and that lower CD4 count, and HIV transmission by blood were significantly associated with an increased risk of thrombocytopenia. The study reflects that leukopenia and thrombocytopenia are common among Chinese adults with newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS; and lower CD4 count is associated with an increased risk of both leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. We propose that a routine assessment of these parameters is necessary for timely and adequate clinical management.

  4. Childhood asthma in low income countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Marianne Stubbe; Nantanda, Rebecca; Tumwine, James K

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial pneumonia has hitherto been considered the key cause of the high respiratory morbidity and mortality in children under five years of age (under-5s) in low-income countries, while asthma has not been stated as a significant reason. This paper explores the definitions and concepts...... of pneumonia and asthma/wheezing/bronchiolitis and examines whether asthma in under-5s may be confused with pneumonia. Over-diagnosing of bacterial pneumonia can be suspected from the limited association between clinical pneumonia and confirmatory test results such as chest x-ray and microbiological findings...... and poor treatment results using antibiotics. Moreover, children diagnosed with recurrent pneumonia in infancy were often later diagnosed with asthma. Recent studies showed a 10-15% prevalence of preschool asthma in low-income countries, although under-5s with long-term cough and difficulty breathing...

  5. Innate lymphoid cells and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sanhong; Kim, Hye Young; Chang, Ya-Jen; DeKruyff, Rosemarie H; Umetsu, Dale T

    2014-04-01

    Asthma is a complex and heterogeneous disease with several phenotypes, including an allergic asthma phenotype characterized by TH2 cytokine production and associated with allergen sensitization and adaptive immunity. Asthma also includes nonallergic asthma phenotypes, such as asthma associated with exposure to air pollution, infection, or obesity, that require innate rather than adaptive immunity. These innate pathways that lead to asthma involve macrophages, neutrophils, natural killer T cells, and innate lymphoid cells, newly described cell types that produce a variety of cytokines, including IL-5 and IL-13. We review the recent data regarding innate lymphoid cells and their role in asthma. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. My Child Is Diagnosed with Asthma, Now What?: Motivating Parents to Help Their Children Control Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepney, Cesalie; Kane, Katelyn; Bruzzese, Jean-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Pediatric asthma is often undiagnosed, and therefore untreated. It negatively impacts children's functioning, including school attendance and performance, as well as quality of life. Schoolwide screening for asthma is becoming increasingly common, making identification of possible asthma particularly relevant for school nurses. Nurses may need to…

  7. Serum selenium is low in newly diagnosed Graves´disease: a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow Pedersen, Inge; Knudsen, Nils; Carle, Allan

    2013-01-01

    by a fluorimetric method. Patients with newly diagnosed Graves’ disease (GD) (n = 97) or autoimmune overt hypothyroidism (AIH) (n = 96), euthyroid subjects with high serum levels of thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO‐Ab) (TPO‐Ab > 1500 U/ml, n = 92) and random controls (n = 830). Differences in s‐Se values. S...

  8. CTSH regulates β-cell function and disease progression in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fløyel, Tina; Brorsson, Caroline; Nielsen, Lotte B

    2014-01-01

    expression and increased insulin secretion. Additionally, islets from Ctsh(-/-) mice contained less insulin than islets from WT mice. Importantly, the TT genotype was associated with higher daily insulin dose and faster disease progression in newly diagnosed T1D patients, indicating agreement between...

  9. Efficacy of escalated imatinib combined with cytarabine in newly diagnosed patients with chronic myeloid leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deenik, Wendy; Janssen, Jeroen J. W. M.; van der Holt, Bronno; Verhoef, Gregor E. G.; Smit, Willem M.; Kersten, Marie José; Daenen, Simon M. G. J.; Verdonck, Leo F.; Ferrant, Augustin; Schattenberg, Anton V. M. B.; Sonneveld, Pieter; van Marwijk Kooy, Marinus; Wittebol, Shulamit; Willemze, Roelof; Wijermans, Pierre W.; Beverloo, H. Berna; Löwenberg, Bob; Valk, Peter J. M.; Ossenkoppele, Gert J.; Cornelissen, Jan J.

    2010-01-01

    In order to improve the molecular response rate and prevent resistance to treatment, combination therapy with different dosages of imatinib and cytarabine was studied in newly diagnosed patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in the HOVON-51 study. Having reported feasibility previously, we hereby

  10. Efficacy of escalated imatinib combined with cytarabine in newly diagnosed patients with chronic myeloid leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deenik, W.; Janssen, J.J.W.M.; van der Holt, B.; Verhoef, G.E.G.; Smit, W.M.; Kersten, M.J.; Daenen, S.M.G.J.; Verdouck, L.F.; Ferrant, A.; Schattenberg, A.V.M.B.; Sonneveld, P.; Kooy, M.V.M.; Wittebol, S.; Willemze, R.; Wijermans, P.W.; Beverloo, H.B.; Lowenberg, B.; Valk, P.J.M.; Ossenkoppele, G.J.; Cornelissen, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background In order to improve the molecular response rate and prevent resistance to treatment, combination therapy with different dosages of imatinib and cytarabine was studied in newly diagnosed patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in the HOVON-51 study. Design and Methods Having reported

  11. Efficacy of escalated imatinib combined with cytarabine in newly diagnosed patients with chronic myeloid leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deenik, Wendy; Janssen, Jeroen J. W. M.; van der Holt, Bronno; Verhoef, Gregor E. G.; Smit, Willem M.; Kersten, Marie Jose; Daenen, Simon M. G. J.; Verdouck, Leo F.; Ferrant, Augustin; Schattenberg, Anton V. M. B.; Sonneveld, Pieter; Kooy, Marinus van Marwijk; Wittebol, Shulamit; Willemze, Roelof; Wijermans, Pierre W.; Beverloo, H. Berna; Lowenberg, Bob; Valk, Peter J. M.; Ossenkoppele, Gert J.; Cornelissen, Jan J.

    Background In order to improve the molecular response rate and prevent resistance to treatment, combination therapy with different dosages of imatinib and cytarabine was studied in newly diagnosed patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in the HOVON-51 study. Design and Methods Having reported

  12. Antipsychotic medications and dental caries in newly diagnosed schizophrenia: A nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kai-Fang; Chou, Yu-Hsiang; Wen, Yen-Hsia; Hsieh, Kun-Pin; Tsai, Jui-Hsiu; Yang, Pinchen; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Lin, Chun-Hung Richard

    2016-11-30

    We investigated the association between antipsychotic medications and the risk of dental caries in patients with schizophrenia. We enroled a nationwide cohort of patients with newly diagnosed schizophrenia within 1 year of dental caries development. Exposure to antipsychotics and other medications was categorised according to their type and duration, and the association between exposure and dental caries was assessed through logistic regressions. Of the 3610 patients with newly diagnosed schizophrenia, 2149 (59.5%) exhibited an incidence of treated dental caries. Logistic regression analysis identified a younger age, female sex, high income, a 2-year history of dental caries, and exposure to first-generation antipsychotics, and antihypertensives as independent risk factors for treated dental caries in patients with schizophrenia. Hyposalivation, the adverse effect of first-generation antipsychotics and antihypertensives, was associated with an increased risk of treated dental caries. However, hypersalivation from first-generation antipsychotics for dental caries was associated with a protective factor. These findings suggest that clinicians should pay attention to the aforementioned risk factors for dental caries in patients with schizophrenia, particularly while prescribing first-generation antipsychotics and antihypertensives to such patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Rituximab and Dexamethasone vs Dexamethasone Monotherapy in Newly Diagnosed Patients with Primary Immune Thrombocytopenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudbrandsdottir, Sif; Birgens, Henrik Sverre; Frederiksen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we report the results from the largest cohort to date of newly diagnosed adult immune thrombocytopenia patients randomized to treatment with dexamethasone alone or in combination with rituximab. Eligible were patients with platelet counts ≤25×10(9)/L or ≤50×10(9)/L with bleeding sy...

  14. Objective measurements of activity patterns in people with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes demonstrate a sedentary lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichosz, S L; Fleischer, J; Hoeyem, P; Laugesen, E; Poulsen, P L; Christiansen, J S; Ejskjær, N; Hansen, T K

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate physical activity in people with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes using objective measures. We analysed data from a study aimed at assessing carotid femoral pulse wave velocity in which a piezoelectric accelerometer was worn by 100 people with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes and by 100 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Differences in physical activity patterns were investigated. Compared with the control group, the people with Type 2 diabetes spent significantly more time engaged in sedentary or lower level activities during the day, with a mean (sd) time of 926 (44) vs 898 (70) min, P sedentary lifestyle compared with well-matched controls. © 2013 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2013 Diabetes UK.

  15. Prognostic value of quantitative fluorodeoxyglucose measurements in newly diagnosed metastatic breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulaner, Gary A; Eaton, Anne; Morris, Patrick G; Lilienstein, Joshua; Jhaveri, Komal; Patil, Sujata; Fazio, Maurizio; Larson, Steven; Hudis, Clifford A; Jochelson, Maxine S

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of quantitative fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) measurements (maximum standardized uptake value [SUV max ], metabolic tumor volume [MTV], and total lesion glycolysis [TLG]) in patients with newly diagnosed metastatic breast cancer (MBC). An IRB-approved retrospective review was performed of patients who underwent FDG positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) from 1/02 to 12/08 within 60 days of diagnosis MBC. Patients with FDG-avid lesions without receiving chemotherapy in the prior 30 days were included. Target lesions in bone, lymph node (LN), liver, and lung were analyzed for SUV max , MTV, and TLG. Medical records were reviewed for patient characteristics and overall survival (OS). Cox regression was used to test associations between quantitative FDG measurements and OS. A total of 253 patients were identified with disease in bone (n = 150), LN (n = 162), liver (n = 48), and lung (n = 66) at the time of metastatic diagnosis. Higher SUV max tertile was associated with worse OS in bone metastases (highest vs. lowest tertile hazard ratio [HR] = 3.1, P < 0.01), but not in LN, liver or lung (all P > 0.1). Higher MTV tertile was associated with worse OS in LN (HR = 2.4, P < 0.01) and liver (HR = 3.0, P = 0.02) metastases, but not in bone (P = 0.22) or lung (P = 0.14). Higher TLG tertile was associated with worse OS in bone (HR = 2.2, P = 0.02), LN (HR = 2.3, P < 0.01), and liver (HR = 4.9, P < 0.01) metastases, but not in lung (P = 0.19). We conclude measures of FDG avidity are prognostic biomarkers in newly diagnosed MBC. SUV max and TLG were both predictors of survival in breast cancer patients with bone metastases. TLG may be a more informative biomarker of OS than SUV max for patients with LN and liver metastases. Measures of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) avidity are prognostic biomarkers in newly diagnosed metastatic breast cancer. Volumetric measurements, such as total lesion glycolysis (TLG

  16. Prevalence and characteristics of the metabolic syndrome among newly diagnosed hypertensive patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuji, Charles U.; Omejua, Emeka G.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease risk factors have a tendency to cluster. The presence of such a cluster in an individual has been designated the metabolic syndrome (MetS). There is a paucity of reports of the prevalence of MetS in hypertensive patients in south east Nigeria. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) among newly diagnosed hypertensive patients using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) criteria in a tertiary healthcare centre in South East Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A population of 250 consecutive newly diagnosed adult hypertensive patients (126 males and 124 females) was evaluated. Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were done using standardized techniques. After an overnight fast, blood samples were taken for glucose and lipid profile assays. The NCEP ATP III criteria were then applied for the diagnosis of MetS. Results: The prevalence of the MetS among the study population was 31.2%. The sex-specific prevalences were 15.1% and 47.6% among male and female patients respectively. A large number of the patients (40.4%) were at a high potential risk of developing the MetS as they already met 2 of the criteria. The MetS prevalence increased progressively from 14.3% through 23.8%, in the patients aged 24-33years and 34-43 years, respectively to a peak (40.4%) among those aged 44-53 years before declining in those aged 54-63 years (31.8%), 64-73 years (33.3%) and 74 years and above (20.6%). Central obesity was the most common component of the MetS being present in 50.4% of patients (28.6% of males and 72.6% of females). Of the other components, low HDL-C was present in 38.8% (26.2% of males and 51.6% of females), elevated FBS in 12.8% (6.3% of males and 19.4% of females) and elevated triglycerides in 8.8% (11.9% of males and 5.6% of females). Conclusion: The prevalence of the MetS is high among newly diagnosed hypertensive patients in Nnewi

  17. The impact of bevacizumab treatment on survival and quality of life in newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Hans Skovgaard; Urup, Thomas; Michaelsen, Signe Regner

    2014-01-01

    in newly diagnosed GBM patients have been performed during recent years to test the hypothesis that newly diagnosed GBM patients should be treated with standard multimodality treatment, in combination with bevacizumab, in order to prolong life and maintain or improve quality of life. The results...... treatment is therefore to prolong life, with a maintenance or improvement of quality of life. GBM is a highly vascular tumor and overexpresses the vascular endothelial growth factor A, which promotes angiogenesis. Preclinical data have suggested that anti-angiogenic treatment efficiently inhibits tumor...... growth. Bevacizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor A, and treatment has shown impressive response rates in recurrent GBM. In addition, it has been shown that response is correlated to prolonged survival and improved quality of life. Several investigations...

  18. Prevalence and predictors of chronic kidney disease in newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus patients in Owerri, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E N Anyabolu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection is a common cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study aims at identifying the prevalence and predictors of CKD in newly diagnosed HIV patients in Owerri, South East Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional study consisting of 393 newly diagnosed HIV-seropositive subjects and 136 age- and sex-matched seronegative subjects as controls. CKD was defined as 24-hour urine protein (24-HUP ≥0.3 g and/or glomerular filtration rate (GFR < 60 ml/min. Subjects were recruited from the HIV clinic and the Medical Outpatient Department of Federal Medical Centre, Owerri. Clinical and anthropometric data were collected. Relevant investigations were performed, including HIV screening and relevant urine and blood investigations. The mean age of the HIV subjects was 38.84 ± 10.65 years. CKD was present in 86 (22.9% HIV subjects and 11 (8.l % controls. Low waist circumference (WC, high serum creatinine, high spot urine protein/creatinine ratio (SUPCR, high 24-HUP/creatinine Ratio (24-HUPCR, high 24-HUP/osmolality Ratio (24-HUPOR predicted CKD in HIV subjects. CKD prevalence is high (22.9% among newly diagnosed HIV patients in South East Nigeria. The predictors of CKD included WC, serum creatinine, SUPCR, 24-HUPCR, and 24-HUPOR.

  19. Potential years lost and life expectancy in adults with newly diagnosed epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granbichler, Claudia A; Zimmermann, Georg; Oberaigner, Willi; Kuchukhidze, Giorgi; Ndayisaba, Jean-Pierre; Taylor, Alexandra; Luef, Gerhard; Bathke, Arne C; Trinka, Eugen

    2017-11-01

    Studies using relative measures, such as standardized mortality ratios, have shown that patients with epilepsy have an increased mortality. Reports on more direct and absolute measure such as life expectancy are sparse. We report potential years lost and how life expectancy has changed over 40 years in a cohort of patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy. We analyzed life expectancy in a cohort of adult patients diagnosed with definite epilepsy between 1970 and 2010. Those with brain tumor as cause of epilepsy were excluded. By retrospective probabilistic record linkage, living or death status was derived from the national death registry. We estimated life expectancy by a Weibull regression model using gender, age at diagnosis, epilepsy etiology, and year of diagnosis as covariates at time of epilepsy diagnosis, and 5, 10, 15, and 20 years after diagnosis. Results were compared to the general population, and 95% confidence intervals are given. There were 249 deaths (105 women, age at death 19.0-104.0 years) in 1,112 patients (11,978.4 person-years, 474 women, 638 men). A substantial decrease in life expectancy was observed for only a few subgroups, strongly depending on epilepsy etiology and time of diagnosis: time of life lost was highest in patients with symptomatic epilepsy diagnosed between 1970 and 1980; the impact declined with increasing time from diagnosis. Over half of the analyzed subgroups did not differ significantly from the general population. This effect was reversed in the later decades, and life expectancy was prolonged in some subgroups, reaching a maximum in those with newly diagnosed idiopathic and cryptogenic epilepsy between 2001 and 2010. Life expectancy is reduced in symptomatic epilepsies. However, in other subgroups, a prolonged life expectancy was found, which has not been reported previously. Reasons may be manifold and call for further study. © 2017 The Authors. Epilepsia published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International

  20. Web-based stress management for newly diagnosed cancer patients (STREAM-1): a randomized, wait-list controlled intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossert, Astrid; Urech, Corinne; Alder, Judith; Gaab, Jens; Berger, Thomas; Hess, Viviane

    2016-11-03

    Being diagnosed with cancer causes major psychological distress, yet the majority of newly diagnosed cancer patients lack psychological support. Internet interventions overcome many barriers for seeking face-to-face support and allow for independence in time and place. We assess efficacy and feasibility of the first web-based stress management intervention (STREAM: STREss-Aktiv-Mindern) for newly diagnosed, German-speaking cancer patients. In a prospective, wait-list controlled trial 120 newly diagnosed cancer patients will be included within 12 weeks of starting anti-cancer treatment and randomized between an immediate (intervention group) or delayed (control group) 8-week, web-based intervention. The intervention consists of eight modules with weekly written feedback by a psychologist ("minimal-contact") based on well-established stress management manuals including downloadable audio-files and exercises. The aim of this study is to evaluate efficacy in terms of improvement in quality of life (FACT-F), as well as decrease in anxiety and depression (HADS), as compared to patients in the wait-list control group. A sample size of 120 patients allows demonstrating a clinically relevant difference of nine points in the FACT score after the intervention (T2) with a two-sided alpha of 0.05 and 80 % power. As this is the first online stress management intervention for German-speaking cancer patients, more descriptive outcomes are equally important to further refine the group of patients with the largest potential for benefit who then will be targeted more specifically in future trials. These descriptive endpoints include: patients' characteristics (type of cancer, type of treatment, socio-demographic factors), dropout rate and dropout reasons, adherence and satisfaction with the program. New technologies open new opportunities: minimal-contact psychological interventions are becoming standard of care in several psychological disorders, where their efficacy is often

  1. Comprehensive Neighborhood Portraits and Child Asthma Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranjac, Ashley W; Kimbro, Rachel T; Denney, Justin T; Osiecki, Kristin M; Moffett, Brady S; Lopez, Keila N

    2017-07-01

    Objectives Previous research has established links between child, family, and neighborhood disadvantages and child asthma. We add to this literature by first characterizing neighborhoods in Houston, TX by demographic, economic, and air quality characteristics to establish differences in pediatric asthma diagnoses across neighborhoods. Second, we identify the relative risk of social, economic, and environmental risk factors for child asthma diagnoses. Methods We geocoded and linked electronic pediatric medical records to neighborhood-level social and economic indicators. Using latent profile modeling techniques, we identified Advantaged, Middle-class, and Disadvantaged neighborhoods. We then used a modified version of the Blinder-Oaxaca regression decomposition method to examine differences in asthma diagnoses across children in these different neighborhoods. Results Both compositional (the characteristics of the children and the ambient air quality in the neighborhood) and associational (the relationship between child and air quality characteristics and asthma) differences within the distinctive neighborhood contexts influence asthma outcomes. For example, unequal exposure to PM 2.5 and O 3 among children in Disadvantaged and Middle-class neighborhoods contribute to asthma diagnosis disparities within these contexts. For children in Disadvantaged and Advantaged neighborhoods, associational differences between racial/ethnic and socioeconomic characteristics and asthma diagnoses explain a significant proportion of the gap. Conclusions for Practice Our results provide evidence that differential exposure to pollution and protective factors associated with non-Hispanic White children and children from affluent families contribute to asthma disparities between neighborhoods. Future researchers should consider social and racial inequalities as more proximate drivers, not merely as associated, with asthma disparities in children.

  2. Illness-behaviour, attitude, and knowledge in newly diagnosed diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, B E; Vesterdal Jørgensen, H; Sestoft, L

    1986-01-01

    Sixty-five consecutive patients with newly diagnosed type I diabetes, aged 15-52, were exposed to a systematic educational programme and followed up by three-monthly controls for two to four years. In order to identify psychic, social and behavioural factors associated with good metabolic control...... and appropriate adaptation to illness, they were clinically tested and filled in a questionnaire. The study shows that the illness and the therapeutic regime created few problems regarding practical circumstances of daily living, but there were a vast number of psychological problems: perceived disability......, fatigue, fear, anger, strain, bad conscience, and perceived discrimination. The patients assessed the treatment regimen they had been taught as fair, but still the majority reported inadequate compliance and problems in relation to compliance, especially regarding dietary restrictions. The educational...

  3. The effect of indoor air pollutants on otitis media and asthma in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daigler, G.E.; Markello, S.J.; Cummings, K.M. (State Univ. of New York, Buffalo (USA))

    1991-03-01

    This case-control study investigated the possible association between home environmental air pollutants and their effect on otitis media and asthma in children. Patients with physician-diagnosed otitis (n = 125, 74% response), with asthma (n = 137, 80% response), and controls (n = 237, 72% response) from a private pediatric practice seen between October 1986 and May 1987 were studied. A questionnaire inquired about housing characteristics (i.e., age, insulation, heating system) and sources of indoor air pollution such as cigarette smoking, use of woodburning stoves, household pets, etc. Analysis of the responses confirmed previous findings of significant relationships between maternal smoking (P = .021), and the presence of pets (P = .034) and the occurrence of asthma. A newly reported relationship between exposure to woodburning stoves and the occurrence of otitis (P less than .05) was reported. This implicates yet another risk factor (wood burning) in the etiology of otitis media.

  4. The value of exhaled nitric oxide to identify asthma in smoking patients with asthma-like symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malinovschi, Andrei; Backer, Vibeke; Harving, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The fraction of nitric oxide in exhaled air (FeNO) is used in asthma diagnosis and management. Smoking reduces FeNO and 20-35% of asthmatics are smoking. However no guidelines exist on the diagnostic value of FeNO in smokers. Therefore we assessed the value of FeNO to diagnose asthma in a populat...... in a population of subjects with asthma-like symptoms and different smoking habits.......The fraction of nitric oxide in exhaled air (FeNO) is used in asthma diagnosis and management. Smoking reduces FeNO and 20-35% of asthmatics are smoking. However no guidelines exist on the diagnostic value of FeNO in smokers. Therefore we assessed the value of FeNO to diagnose asthma...

  5. Circulating zonulin levels in newly diagnosed Chinese type 2 diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D; Zhang, L; Zheng, Y; Yue, F; Russell, R D; Zeng, Y

    2014-11-01

    Studies suggest that type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with increased gut permeability. Human zonulin is the only physiological mediator discovered to date that is known to regulate gut permeability reversibly by disassembling intestinal tight junctions. However, the relationship between zonulin and type 2 diabetes remains to be defined, and no Chinese population-based data were reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between serum zonulin levels and type 2 diabetes in a Chinese Han population. 143 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients, 124 patients with impaired glucose tolerance and 121 subjects with normal glucose tolerance were enrolled in this study. Serum zonulin was measured by ELISA. Patients with type 2 diabetes had higher serum zonulin levels than impaired or normal glucose tolerant subjects. Serum zonulin correlated with body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-C, fasting plasma glucose, 2h plasma glucose, HbA1c, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 6, HOMA-IR and QUICK index using correlation analysis (p zonulin levels were independently associated with insulin resistance (β = 0.024, p = 0.005). In logistic regression analysis, zonulin levels were an independent predictor of type 2 diabetes (OR = 1.080, p = 0.037). Serum zonulin levels are significantly elevated in newly diagnosed Chinese Type 2 diabetes patients, and are associated with dyslipidemia, inflammation and insulin resistance, indicating a potential role of zonulin in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes in Chinese. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Defining asthma in genetic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, GH; Postma, DS; Meijer, G.

    1999-01-01

    Genetic studies have been hampered by the lack of a gold standard to diagnose asthma. The complex nature of asthma makes it more difficult to identify asthma genes. Therefore, approaches to define phenotypes, which have been successful in other genetically complex diseases, may be applied to define

  7. A prospective observational longitudinal study of new-onset seizures and newly diagnosed epilepsy in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredsø, N; Toft, Nils; Sabers, A.

    2017-01-01

    Seizures are common in dogs and can be caused by non-epileptic conditions or epilepsy. The clinical course of newly diagnosed epilepsy is sparsely documented. The objective of this study was to prospectively investigate causes for seizures (epileptic and non-epileptic) in a cohort of dogs with ne...

  8. High prevalence of cachexia in newly diagnosed head and neck cancer patients: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager-Wittenaar, Harriët; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Dijkstra, Gerard; Bijzet, Johan; Langendijk, Johannes A; van der Laan, Bernard F A M; Roodenburg, Jan L N

    2017-03-01

    In patients with cancer, weight loss can be related to simple starvation, disturbed metabolism, or both. In patients with head and neck cancer (HNC), weight loss often is attributed to simple starvation because the obvious oral symptoms are known to hinder dietary intake. In this population, cachexia remains a relatively unexplored phenomenon. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of cachexia and precachexia in patients with newly diagnosed HNC. Fifty-nine patients with newly diagnosed HNC were asked to participate in the prospective cohort study, from which only baseline data were used in the analyses. Measurements were performed 1 wk before cancer treatment, that is, cachexia status by Fearon's cancer-specific framework, dietary intake, muscle mass, muscle strength, and biochemical markers (C-reactive protein, albumin, hemoglobin, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α) were assessed. Data of 26 patients were included in the analyses (59% participation rate). Forty-two percent of the patients (n = 12) were classified as cachectic and 15% (n = 4) as precachectic. Muscle mass depletion was significantly more frequent in cachectic patients (67%) than in noncachectic patients (14%; P = 0.014). No differences in inflammatory markers were observed between cachectic and noncachectic patients. This exploratory study suggested a high prevalence of cachexia (42%) in patients with newly diagnosed HNC. Although a large study is needed to further elucidate the role of cachexia in patients with HNC, the data presented here suggest that cachexia is a common problem in this patient population, which has therapeutic and prognostic implications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The contribution of an asthma diagnostic consultation service in obtaining an accurate asthma diagnosis for primary care patients: results of a real-life study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, R M E; van Litsenburg, W; van Balkom, R H; Muris, J W; Smeenk, F W

    2017-05-19

    Previous studies showed that general practitioners have problems in diagnosing asthma accurately, resulting in both under and overdiagnosis. To support general practitioners in their diagnostic process, an asthma diagnostic consultation service was set up. We evaluated the performance of this asthma diagnostic consultation service by analysing the (dis)concordance between the general practitioners working hypotheses and the asthma diagnostic consultation service diagnoses and possible consequences this had on the patients' pharmacotherapy. In total 659 patients were included in this study. At this service the patients' medical history was taken and a physical examination and a histamine challenge test were carried out. We compared the general practitioners working hypotheses with the asthma diagnostic consultation service diagnoses and the change in medication that was incurred. In 52% (n = 340) an asthma diagnosis was excluded. The diagnosis was confirmed in 42% (n = 275). Furthermore, chronic rhinitis was diagnosed in 40% (n = 261) of the patients whereas this was noted in 25% (n = 163) by their general practitioner. The adjusted diagnosis resulted in a change of medication for more than half of all patients. In 10% (n = 63) medication was started because of a new asthma diagnosis. The 'one-stop-shop' principle was met with 53% of patients and 91% (n = 599) were referred back to their general practitioner, mostly within 6 months. Only 6% (n = 41) remained under control of the asthma diagnostic consultation service because of severe unstable asthma. In conclusion, the asthma diagnostic consultation service helped general practitioners significantly in setting accurate diagnoses for their patients with an asthma hypothesis. This may contribute to diminish the problem of over and underdiagnosis and may result in more appropriate treatment regimens. SERVICE HELPS GENERAL PRACTITIONERS MAKE ACCURATE DIAGNOSES: A consultation service can

  10. Prognostic value of regulatory T cells in newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahran, Asmaa M; Badrawy, Hosny; Ibrahim, Abeer

    2014-08-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a clonal disease, characterized by a reciprocal t(9, 22) that results in a chimeric BCR/ABL fusion gene. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) constitute the main cell population that enables cancer cells to evade immune surveillance. The purpose of our study was to investigate the level of Tregs in newly diagnosed CML patients and to correlate it with the patients' clinical, laboratory and molecular data. We also aimed to assess the effect of treatment using tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) on Treg levels. Tregs were characterized and quantified by flow cytometry in 63 newly diagnosed CML patients and 40 healthy controls. TKI was used in 45 patients with chronic phase CML, and the response to therapy was correlated with baseline Treg levels. The percentages of Tregs were significantly increased in CML patients compared to the controls. Treg numbers were significantly lower in patients with chronic phase CML versus the accelerated and blast phases, and were significantly lower in patients with complete molecular remission (CMR) compared to those patients without CMR. Tregs may play a role in the maintenance of CML. Moreover, the decrease of their levels in patients with CMR suggests that Tregs might have a clinical value in evaluating the effects of therapy.

  11. The role of Gliadel wafers in the treatment of newly diagnosed GBM: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing WK

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Wei-kang Xing,1 Chuan Shao,2 Zhen-yu Qi,1 Chao Yang,1 Zhong Wang1 1Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, 2Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Clinical Medical College of North Sichuan Medical College, Nanchong, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China Background: Standard treatment for high-grade glioma (HGG includes surgery followed by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. Insertion of carmustine wafers into the resection cavity as a treatment for malignant glioma is currently a controversial topic among neurosurgeons. Our meta-analysis focused on whether carmustine wafer treatment could significantly benefit the survival of patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM.Method: We searched the PubMed and Web of Science databases without any restrictions on language using the keywords “Gliadel wafers”, “carmustine wafers”, “BCNU wafers”, or “interstitial chemotherapy” in newly diagnosed GBM for the period from January 1990 to March 2015. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs and cohort studies/clinical trials that compared treatments designed with and without carmustine wafers and which reported overall survival or hazard ratio (HR or survival curves were included in this study. Moreover, the statistical analysis was conducted by the STATA 12.0 software.Results: Six studies including two RCTs and four cohort studies, enrolling a total of 513 patients (223 with and 290 without carmustine wafers, matched the selection criteria. Carmustine wafers showed a strong advantage when pooling all the included studies (HR =0.63, 95% confidence interval (CI =0.49–0.81; P=0.019. However, the two RCTs did not show a statistical increase in survival in the group with carmustine wafer compared to the group without it (HR =0.51, 95% CI =0.18–1.41; P=0.426, while the cohort studies demonstrated a significant survival increase (HR =0.59, 95% CI =0.44–0.79; P<0.0001.Conclusion

  12. Newly diagnosed primary hypothyroidism applicant with massive pericardial effusion and acute renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ates I

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. While non-symptomatic pericardial effusion is seen in primary hypothyroidism, massive pericardial effusion is a very rare finding. In the literature, newly diagnosed primary hypothyroidism cases presenting with massive pericardial effusion or acute renal failure are present, but we did not encounter any case first presenting with combination of two signs. In this case report, primary hypothyroidism case that presenting with massive pericardial effusion and acute renal failure will be discussed.

  13. Association of Thiazolidinedione with a Lower Risk of Parkinson's Disease in a Population with Newly-Diagnosed Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsiu-Li; Lin, Hsiu-Chen; Tseng, Yuan-Fu; Chao, Jane Chen-Jui; Hsu, Chien-Yeh

    2018-06-11

    We investigated the association of thiazolidinedione and its dose effect with the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). This study enrolled 38,521 patients with newly-diagnosed DM between 2001 and 2013 and compared them to matched subjects without DM. The hazard ratios (HRs) for PD were compared between the thiazolidinedione-treated and non-thiazolidinedione-treated groups of the study cohort, and between subgroups who received different cumulative dosages of thiazolidinedione. We observed 544 (1.4%) patients with PD during the follow up of median duration of 6.2 years in patients with newly-diagnosed DM who had a higher risk for PD than patients without DM (HR = 1.150). In the study cohort, the risk of PD was significantly lower in the thiazolidinedione-treated group (HR = 0.399) compared to the non-thiazolidinedione-treated group. Thiazolidinedione reduced the risk of PD in a dose-dependent manner, with HRs ranging from 0.613 to 0.081 with defined daily doses of 0-90 to > 720, respectively. Thiazolidinedione use was associated with a significantly reduced risk of PD in patients with newly-diagnosed DM. Further studies to elucidate the common mechanism of PD and DM may provide novel therapies for these two diseases.

  14. A twin study of early-childhood asthma in Puerto Ricans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supinda Bunyavanich

    Full Text Available The relative contributions of genetics and environment to asthma in Hispanics or to asthma in children younger than 3 years are not well understood.To examine the relative contributions of genetics and environment to early-childhood asthma by performing a longitudinal twin study of asthma in Puerto Rican children ≤ 3 years old.678 twin infants from the Puerto Rico Neo-Natal Twin Registry were assessed for asthma at age 1 year, with follow-up data obtained for 624 twins at age 3 years. Zygosity was determined by DNA microsatellite profiling. Structural equation modeling was performed for three phenotypes at ages 1 and 3 years: physician-diagnosed asthma, asthma medication use in the past year, and ≥ 1 hospitalization for asthma in the past year. Models were additionally adjusted for early-life environmental tobacco smoke exposure, sex, and age.The prevalences of physician-diagnosed asthma, asthma medication use, and hospitalization for asthma were 11.6%, 10.8%, 4.9% at age 1 year, and 34.1%, 40.1%, and 8.5% at 3 years, respectively. Shared environmental effects contributed to the majority of variance in susceptibility to physician-diagnosed asthma and asthma medication use in the first year of life (84%-86%, while genetic effects drove variance in all phenotypes (45%-65% at age 3 years. Early-life environmental tobacco smoke, sex, and age contributed to variance in susceptibility.Our longitudinal study in Puerto Rican twins demonstrates a changing contribution of shared environmental effects to liability for physician-diagnosed asthma and asthma medication use between ages 1 and 3 years. Early-life environmental tobacco smoke reduction could markedly reduce asthma morbidity in young Puerto Rican children.

  15. Asthma and psychiatric disorders in male army recruits and soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev-Tzion, Raffi; Friedman, Tal; Shochat, Tzippy; Gazala, Eliyahu; Wohl, Yonit

    2007-05-01

    Numerous studies have shown an association between asthma and mental disorders. While elevated rates of asthma have been noted among psychiatric patients with anxiety disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder, several studies have found elevated rates of mental disorders among asthma patients. Such studies, however, have generally relied upon questionnaires and assessment by non-specialist physicians to diagnose mental disorders and asthma. To examine a possible association between asthma and psychiatric diagnoses in Israeli military recruits and soldiers. In this cross-sectional study we compared the prevalence of mental diagnoses in asthmatic recruits and soldiers with that in non-asthmatic recruits and soldiers. A total of 195,903 recruits and soldiers were examined by Israel Defense Forces recruiting offices and fitness boards. Diagnoses of asthma were based on a pulmonologist's diagnosis, including spirometry at rest and exercise testing as indicated; diagnoses of mental disorders were based on examination by a psychiatrist. The prevalence of asthma was found to be 7.8% (current) and 9.8% (lifetime). The prevalence of mental disorders was 13.4%. Current asthma was associated with an increased likelihood of any mental disorder (OR = 1.20, 95% Cl = 1.15-1.26), and specifically with mood and anxiety disorders (1.31, 1.19-1.46), introvert personality disorders (1.20, 1.12-1.28) and adjustment disorder (1.43, 1.26-1.62). Lifetime asthma was associated with an increased likelihood of the same disorders, but the association was not as powerful. The results validate the previously documented association between asthma and mental disorders, using a sample of unprecedented size and improved methodology. A multidisciplinary approach to asthma that incorporates mental health professionals in the treatment of poorly controlled asthma and perhaps of asthma in general is recommended.

  16. Diabetes education improves depressive state in newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Bin; Zhang, Xiyao; Xu, Xiuping; Lv, Xiaofeng; Yao, Lu; Huang, Xu; Guo, Xueying; Liu, Baozhu; Li, Qiang; Cui, Can

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The prevalence of depression is relatively high in individuals with diabetes. However, screening and monitoring of depressive state in patients with diabetes is still neglected in developing countries and the treatment of diabetes-related depression is rarely performed in these countries. In this study, our aim was to study the role of diabetes education in the improvement of depressive state in newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: The Dutch version of the cente...

  17. Late-Onset Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2017-01-01

    Late-onset asthma is common, associated with poor outcome, underdiagnosed and undertreated, possibly due to the modifying effect of ageing on disease expression. Although the diagnostic work-up in elderly individuals suspected of having asthma follows the same steps as in younger individuals (case......, to objectively confirm asthma. If necessary, a trial of oral or inhaled corticosteroid might be necessary. Asthma can be diagnosed when increased airflow variability is identified in a symptomatic patient, and if the patient does not have a history of exposure, primarily smoking, known to cause chronic...... obstructive pulmonary disease, the diagnosis is asthma even if the patient does not have fully reversible airflow obstruction. Pharmacological therapy in patients with late-onset asthma follows international guidelines, including treatment with the lowest effective dose of inhaled corticosteroid to minimize...

  18. National prevalence of asthma and chemical hypersensitivity: an examination of potential overlap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caress, Stanley M; Steinemann, Anne C

    2005-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the linkage between asthma and chemical hypersensitivity. The authors conducted a population study with a random sample of 1057 geographically weighted cases to determine the prevalence of both asthma and chemical hypersensitivity in the American population and to explore their co-occurrence. A total of 14.1% of the respondents reported being diagnosed with asthma and 11.2% reported a hypersensitivity to chemicals. Of those with asthma, 27.2% also reported being hypersensitive to chemicals and 7.4% reported also being diagnosed with multiple chemical sensitivities (MCS). Of those diagnosed with MCS, 42% reported also being diagnosed with asthma. Additionally, 29.7% of those with asthma said air fresheners caused breathing difficulties, and 37.2% found scented products irritating. The results indicate that there is significant overlap between some forms of asthma and chemical hypersensitivity.

  19. Use of peri-operative anti-epileptic drugs in patients with newly diagnosed high grade malignant glioma: a single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwu, Shelly; Hamilton, Mark G; Forsyth, Peter A; Cairncross, J Gregory; Parney, Ian F

    2010-02-01

    An American Academy of Neurology practice parameter recommends that long-term prophylactic anti-epileptic drugs (AED) should not be routine in patients with newly diagnosed brain tumors. However, prospective multi-center North American data shows that most newly diagnosed glioma patients receive prophylactic AED. We examined our own peri-operative AED practice patterns in newly-diagnosed patients with malignant glioma to determine if we deviate from published guidelines. A retrospective chart review was performed in adult patients with newly diagnosed malignant gliomas undergoing surgery in southern Alberta between January 2003 and December 2005. Demographic information, AED use, seizure incidence, adverse effects, tumor size, and tumor location were recorded. Of 164 eligible patients, 54 (33%) presented with seizures and all received AED. Prophylactic AED were given to 44 patients (27%). Peri-operative seizures (within 1 week) occurred in two patients without (3%) and no patients with seizure prophylaxis. Adverse AED reactions and adverse effects attributable to seizures were both rare. Prophylactic AED were continued >1 week post-op in 30 patients (18%). Patients receiving prophylactic AED were more likely to have had tumors involving the temporal lobe than those who did not (50 vs. 20%; P < 0.01). Patients receiving peri-operative AED prophylaxis were common, had a trend to reduced peri-operative seizures, and had few adverse effects. However, most of these patients were maintained on prophylactic AED continued beyond the first peri-operative week, contradicting published guidelines. Increased awareness of practice guidelines may help modify AED prescription patterns in malignant glioma patients.

  20. Effectiveness of the diabetes education and self management for ongoing and newly diagnosed (DESMOND) programme for people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, M. J.; Heller, S.; Skinner, T. C.

    2008-01-01

    .001); directions of change were positive indicating greater understanding of diabetes. The intervention group had a lower depression score at 12 months: mean difference was -0.50 (95% confidence interval -0.96 to -0.04); P=0.032. A positive association was found between change in perceived personal responsibility....... Main outcome measures: Haemoglobin A1c levels, blood pressure, weight, blood lipid levels, smoking status, physical activity, quality of life, beliefs about illness, depression, and emotional impact of diabetes at baseline and up to 12 months. Main results: Haemoglobin A1c levels at 12 months had...... and weight loss at 12 months (β=0.12; P=0.008). Conclusion: A structured group education programme for patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes resulted in greater improvements in weight loss and smoking cessation and positive improvements in beliefs about illness but no difference in haemoglobin A 1c...

  1. Coping Profiles Differentiate Psychological Adjustment in Chinese Women Newly Diagnosed With Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingyan; Li, Shichen; Wang, Yuping; Yi, Jinyao; Yang, Yanjie; He, Jincai; Zhu, Xiongzhao

    2017-06-01

    The study aimed to explore latent profiles of coping in Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer and examine the differences of psychological distress, demographic, and medical characteristics across profiles. Latent profile analysis was used to identify 3 classes of copers based on data from 618 Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer who completed questionnaires assessing their coping strategies and psychological distress. "Adaptive coper," reporting most use of adaptive cognitive coping strategies, behaviors of acceptance and shifting attention, and least use of maladaptive cognitive coping strategies, had the best psychological adjustment. "Negative coper," characterized by most use of maladaptive cognitive coping strategies, least use of adaptive cognitive coping strategies except "putting in perspective," and median levels of medical coping behaviors, had the worst psychological adjustment. "Inconsistent coper," with great use of all cognitive coping strategies, and most behaviors of fighting against the disease, and fewest behaviors of attention shift, had relatively high levels of psychological distress. Younger age, less education, shorter time since diagnosis, widowed, living in rural areas, and undergoing chemotherapy are possible markers for patients with less adaptive coping patterns. Interventions should be developed according to the different coping profiles of patients, and the key group to target is "negative copers," who may benefit from cognitive behavioral approaches that combine emotion, cognition and behavior, which could help them more effectively appraise and cope with stressful events.

  2. Frequency of Ketoacidosis in Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Zahra

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (TIDM). Many patients with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes present with DKA. The aim of this study is to determine the frequency and the clinical presentation of diabetic ketoacidosis at the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus in youths in hamadan, Western Province of Iran. Methods The Clinical and laboratory data of a total of 200 patients under 19 years of age with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus between 1995-2005 were retrospectively reviewed. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 11. Results 48 (24%)of the children were presented in a state of ketoacidosis. Sever form of DKA (pH≤7.2) was observed in 54.5% of patients. The mean age at diagnosis was 7.3±5.15 years in DKA group and 8.59±3.07 in non-DKA group (p=0.22). 60.4% of patient with DKA were female whereas in the non-DKA group, 53.3% of patients were female, the difference was not significant (p=0.38). The duration of symptoms before diagnosis was 14.84±8.19 days in patients with DKA and 22.39±2.27 in the non-DKA group, (p=0.11). No significant difference was found between the age, sex and duration of the symptoms and occurance of DKA. Polydipsia (85.4) polyuria (83.3%), weakness (68.8%) and abdominal pain (52.1%) were the most frequently notified symptoms among the patients. In two cases, diagnosis of DKA was preceded by as appendicitis and the patient underwent appendectomy. Conclusion Frequency of DKA at onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus was significant in the studied region. However, it was lower than other regions in Asia. Polydipsia, polyuria, fatigue and abdominal pain were the most common symptoms on presentation. PMID:22125712

  3. Frequency of Ketoacidosis in Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Razavi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTObjectives: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (TIDM. Many patients with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes present with DKA. The aim of this study is to determine the frequency and the clinical presentation of diabetic ketoacidosis at the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus in youths in hamadan, Western Province of Iran.Methods: The Clinical and laboratory data of a total of 200 patients under 19 years of age with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus between 1995-2005 were retrospectively reviewed. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 11.Results: 48 (24%of the children were presented in a state of ketoacidosis. Sever form of DKA (pH≤7.2 was observed in 54.5% of patients. The mean age at diagnosis was 7.3±5.15 years in DKA group and 8.59±3.07 in non-DKA group (p=0.22. 60.4% of patient with DKA were female whereas in the non-DKA group, 53.3% of patients were female, the difference was not significant (p=0.38. The duration of symptoms before diagnosis was 14.84±8.19 days in patients with DKA and 22.39±2.27 in the non-DKA group, (p=0.11. No significant difference was found between the age, sex and duration of the symptoms and occurance of DKA. Polydipsia (85.4 polyuria (83.3%, weakness (68.8% and abdominal pain (52.1% were the most frequently notified symptoms among the patients. In two cases, diagnosis of DKA was preceded by as appendicitis and the patient underwent appendectomy.Conclusion: Frequency of DKA at onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus was significant in the studied region. However, it was lower than other regions in Asia. Polydipsia, polyuria, fatigue and abdominal pain were the most common symptoms on presentation.

  4. Trends on epidemiological, virological, and clinical features among newly diagnosed HIV-1 persons in Northwest Spain over the last 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernas, B; Mena, A; Cañizares, A; Grandal, M; Castro-Iglesias, A; Pértega, S; Pedreira, J D; Poveda, E

    2015-08-01

    To describe temporal trend and characteristics of newly HIV-diagnosed patients in a medical care area in Northwest Spain over the last 10 years. All newly diagnosed patients for HIV-infection from 2004 to 2013 at a reference medical care area in Northwest of Spain were identified. Epidemiological, virological, immunological, and clinical data, as well as HIV genotype and drug resistance information were recorded. A total of 565 newly HIV-diagnosed patients were identified. The number of new cases increased in the last 5 years (66 cases/year). Overall, 53.1% had a median CD4 counts study period was 3.7%, but a decreased to 2.6% was observed in the last 5 years. The most prevalent TDR mutations were: T215 revertants (1.5%), K219QENR (1.2%), for NRTIs; K103N (1.9%), for NNRTIs; L90M (0.3%), for PIs. Overall, 73.2% of patients started antiretroviral treatment and 9.9% of patients died during follow-up. The number of newly HIV diagnosed patients increased since year 2009. There is a high prevalence of late diagnosis (53%) and 33% had an AIDS defining criteria. Interestingly, the most prevalent non-B subtype in our population was F (25.8%). These findings support the need to facilitate the access for HIV testing to reduce the rate of late HIV diagnosis, improve the clinical outcome and prevent HIV transmission. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Knowledge and self-care practices regarding diabetes among newly diagnosed type 2 diabetics in Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Farzana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Levels of knowledge about diabetes mellitus (DM among newly diagnosed diabetics in Bangladesh are unknown. This study assessed the relationship between knowledge and practices among newly diagnosed type 2 DM patients. Methods Newly diagnosed adults with type 2 diabetes (N = 508 were selected from 19 healthcare centers. Patients’ knowledge and self-care practices were assessed via interviewer-administered questionnaires using a cross-sectional design. Knowledge questions were divided into basic and technical sections. Knowledge scores were categorized as poor (mean + 1 SD. Chi square testing and multivariate logistic regression were conducted to examine the relationship between diabetes-related knowledge and self-care practices. Results Approximately 16%, 66%, and 18% of respondents had good, average, and poor (GAP basic knowledge respectively and 10%, 78%, and 12% of respondents had GAP technical knowledge, about DM. About 90% of respondents from both basic and technical GAP did not test their blood glucose regularly; a significant relationship existed between basic knowledge and glucose monitoring. Technical knowledge and foot care were significantly related, though 81% with good technical knowledge and about 70% from average and poor groups did not take care of their feet. Approximately 85%, 71%, and 52% of the GAP technical knowledge groups, consumed betel nuts; a significant relationship existed between technical knowledge and consumption of betel nuts. Around 88%, 92%, and 98% of GAP technical knowledge groups failed to follow dietary advice from a diabetes educator. About 26%, 42%, and 51% of GAP basic and technical sometimes ate meals at a fixed time (p Conclusions Newly diagnosed type 2 diabetics had similar levels of basic and technical knowledge of DM. Health education and motivation should create positive changes in diabetes-control-related self-care practices.

  6. Molecular epidemiological analysis of env and pol sequences in newly diagnosed HIV type 1-infected, untreated patients in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezei, Mária; Ay, Eva; Koroknai, Anita; Tóth, Renáta; Balázs, Andrea; Bakos, Agnes; Gyori, Zoltán; Bánáti, Ferenc; Marschalkó, Márta; Kárpáti, Sarolta; Minárovits, János

    2011-11-01

    The aim of our study was to monitor the diversity of HIV-1 strains circulating in Hungary and investigate the prevalence of resistance-associated mutations to reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease (PR) inhibitors in newly diagnosed, drug-naive patients. A total of 30 HIV-1-infected patients without prior antiretroviral treatment diagnosed during the period 2008-2010 were included into this study. Viral subtypes and the presence of RT, PR resistance-associated mutations were established by sequencing. Classification of HIV-1 strains showed that 29 (96.6%) patients were infected with subtype B viruses and one patient (3.3%) with subtype A virus. The prevalence of HIV-1 strains with transmitted drug resistance mutations in newly diagnosed individuals was 16.6% (5/30). This study showed that HIV-1 subtype B is still highly predominant in Hungary and documented a relatively high transmission rate of drug resistance in our country.

  7. Methamphetamine use among newly diagnosed HIV-positive young men in North Carolina, United States, from 2000 to 2005.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B Hurt

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine (MA is a new arrival to the Southeastern United States (US. Incidence of HIV is also increasing regionally, but data are limited regarding any association between this trend and MA use. We examined behavioral data from North Carolina (NC residents newly diagnosed with HIV, collected by the Department of Health between 2000-2005.Among 1,460 newly diagnosed HIV-positive young men, an increasing trend was seen from 2000-2005 in MA use (p = 0.01, total n = 20. In bivariate analyses, users of MA had significantly greater odds of reporting other substance use, including alcohol, powder or crack cocaine, marijuana, and methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy". They were also more likely to have reported sexual activity while traveling outside NC; sex with anonymous partners; and previous HIV testing. In a predictive model, MA use had a negative association with nonwhite race, and strong positive associations with powder cocaine, "ecstasy," or intravenous drug use and being a university student.Similar to trends seen in more urban parts of the US, MA use among newly diagnosed, HIV-positive young men is increasing in NC. These data are among the first to demonstrate this relationship in a region with a burgeoning epidemic of MA use. Opportunities exist for MA-related HIV risk-reduction interventions whenever young men intersect the healthcare system.

  8. Efficacy of low to moderate doses of oxcarbazepine in adult patients with newly diagnosed partial epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xue-Mei; Chen, Jia-Ni; An, Dong-Mei; Hao, Nan-Ya; Hong, Zhen; Hao, Xiao-Ting; Rao, Ping; Zhou, Dong

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the efficacy of low dose of oxcarbazepine (OXC) in adult patients with newly diagnosed partial epilepsy in an actual clinical setting. The associated factors influencing the poor control of seizures were also evaluated. The epilepsy database (2010-2014) from the Epilepsy Clinic of West China Hospital was retrospectively reviewed. A total of 102 adult patients with newly diagnosed, previously untreated partial epilepsy initially treated with OXC were included, and divided into good response group (64) and poor response group (38) according to whether they were seizure-free for at least 12 months. There were 27 (26.5%) patients becoming seizure-free with OXC 600 mg/day monotherapy. The remaining 75 patients had doses of either increasing OXC to 900 mg/day (n = 59) or the addition of another antiepileptic drug (AED) (n = 16), with another 20 (19.6%) and six (5.9%) patients becoming seizure-free, respectively (P = 0.788). In addition, two (2.0%) and nine (8.8%) patients became seizure-free with OXC > 900 mg/day monotherapy and OXC ≥ 900 mg/day combination therapy, respectively. Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis revealed that the time from onset of epilepsy to treatment initiation is significantly associated with seizure control (P = 0.02). Our results indicated that OXC at low to moderate doses is effective for the treatment of Chinese adult patients with newly diagnosed, previously untreated partial epilepsy, and a longer time interval from the onset of epilepsy to the start of treatment significantly predicts poor seizure control. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Factors associated with initiation of antihyperglycaemic medication in UK patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinclair Alan J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim To assess the factors associated with antihyperglycaemic medication initiation in UK patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Methods In a retrospective cohort study, patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes were identified during the index period of 2003-2005. Eligible patients were ≥ 30 years old at the date of the first observed diabetes diagnosis (referred to as index date and had at least 2 years of follow-up medical history (N = 9,158. Initiation of antihyperglycaemic medication (i.e., treatment was assessed in the 2-year period following the index date. Adjusted Cox regression models were used to examine the association between time to medication initiation and patient age and other factors. Results Mean (SD HbA1c at diagnosis was 8.1% (2.3. Overall, 51% of patients initiated antihyperglycaemic medication within 2 years (65%, 55%, 46% and 40% for patients in the 30- th, 75th percentile time to treatment initiation was 63 (8, 257 days. Of the patients with HbA1c ≥ 7.5% at diagnosis, 87% initiated treatment within 2 years. These patients with a higher HbA1c also had shorter time to treatment initiation (adjusted hazard ratio (HR = 2.44 [95% confidence interval (CI: 1.61, 3.70]; p Conclusions In this UK cohort of patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes, only 51% had antihyperglycaemic medication initiated over a 2-year period following diagnosis. Older patients were significantly less likely to have been prescribed antihyperglycaemic medications. Elevated HbA1c was the strongest factor associated with initiating antihyperglycaemic medication in these patients.

  10. Effects of topiramate on language functions in newly diagnosed pediatric epileptic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Jun; Kim, Moon Yeon; Choi, Yoon Mi; Song, Mi Kyoung

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the effects of topiramate on language functions in newly diagnosed pediatric epileptic patients. Thirty-eight newly diagnosed epileptic patients were assessed using standard language tests. Data were collected before and after beginning topiramate during which time a monotherapy treatment regimen was maintained. Language tests included the Test of Language Problem Solving Abilities, a Korean version of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. We used language tests in the Korean version because all the patients were spoken Korean exclusively in their families. All the language parameters of Test of Language Problem Solving Abilities worsened after initiation of topiramate (determine cause, 13.2 ± 4.8 to 11.2 ± 4.3; problem solving, 14.8 ± 6.0 to 12.8 ± 5.0; predicting, 9.8 ± 3.6 to 8.8 ± 4.6). Patients given topiramate exhibited a shortened mean length of utterance in words during response (determine cause, 4.8 ± 0.9 to 4.3 ± 0.7; making inference, 4.5 ± 0.8 to 4.1 ± 1.1; predicting, 5.2 ± 1.0 to 4.7 ± 0.6; P language of patients after taking topiramate (95.4 ± 20.4 to 100.8 ± 19.1). Our data suggest that topiramate may have negative effects on problem-solving abilities in children. We recommend performing language tests should be considered in children being treated with topiramate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Emotional processing during psychotherapy among women newly diagnosed with a gynecological cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, Sharon L; Myers-Virtue, Shannon; Darabos, Katie; Ozga, Melissa; Heckman, Carolyn; Kissane, David; Rotter, David

    2017-08-01

    Our aim was to compare changes in emotional processing by women newly diagnosed with gynecological cancer enrolled in either a coping and communication skills intervention (CCI) or a supportive counseling (SC) intervention. We examined the association between in-session emotional processing and patient-rated therapeutic progress. Three therapy sessions with 201 patients were rated for the depth of emotional processing (peak and mode) during emotion episodes (EEs) using the Experiencing Rating Scale (EXP). Participants completed measures of dispositional emotional expressivity, depressive symptoms, and cancer-related distress before treatment began, as well as ratings of perceived progress in therapy after each session. Peak EXP ratings averaged between 2.7 and 3.1, indicating that women discussed events, their emotional reactions, and their private experiences in sessions. A small proportion of patients had high levels of processing, indicating deeper exploration of the meaning of their feelings and experiences. Women in SC were able to achieve a higher level of emotional processing during the middle and later sessions, and during cancer-related EEs in the later session. However, emotional processing was not significantly associated with a patient's perceived therapeutic progress with SC. In the CCI group, higher levels of emotional processing were associated with greater session progress, suggesting that it may play an important role in patient-rated treatment outcomes. Newly diagnosed gynecological cancer patients are able to attend to their emotions and personal experiences, particularly when discussing cancer-related issues during both short-term SC and prescriptive coping skills interventions.

  12. Ethical issues when involving people newly diagnosed with dementia in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Suzanne; Kydd, Angela

    2015-03-01

    To discuss the methodological and ethical review challenges encountered by researchers who want to enable people with dementia to be involved in research. There has been increasing recognition of the importance of involving people with dementia in research. However, an argument has centred on the protection of these vulnerable clients versus their freedom to be involved as participants in research. People with dementia do have the right to have their experiences explored. Involving this client group in research is essential to gain a true understanding of their needs. The lead author's experience of conducting a study in which people newly diagnosed with dementia were recruited as research participants. An interpretive phenomenological approach was adopted during this qualitative study, with data collected by means of one to one interviews with people newly diagnosed with dementia. This study was completed within the set timeframe, but a large part of the work was spent gaining ethical approval. This meant that the timeframe of the study period was reduced and as a result, it was only possible to recruit three participants. However, people with dementia are perhaps one of the most vulnerable client groups and it is only right that they should not be subjected to harm. Ethical review is an important part of research. Meeting the ethical requirements of research involving people with dementia requires time and careful preparation to ensure that researchers safeguard the interests of this vulnerable client group, while also allowing the participants the opportunity to exercise their autonomy to their fullest potential. Conducting research that involves people with dementia may be time consuming, but it is only fair that this client group are afforded the freedom to be involved in research. This small time-limited study points to the need for larger pilot studies to hear from individuals what needs they have following a diagnosis of dementia.

  13. Combination of prostate specific antigen and pathological stage regarding to gleason score to predict bone metastasis of newly diagnosed prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhen; Zhou Liquan; Gao Jiangping; Shi Lixin; Zhao Xiaoyi; Hong Baofa

    2004-01-01

    To determine the value of tumor grade and serum prostate-specific antigen in predicting skeletal metastases in untreated prostate cancer, the results of bone scans were related retrospectively to levels of serum PSA and tumor Grade based on pathologyical examination in 202 patients with prostate cancer newly diagnosed. Skeletal metastases were present in 7% of patients with serum PSA 100 μg/L. Bone scans are omitted likely in a man newly diagnosed with prostate cancer who has no suggestive clinical features, a serum PSA 100 μg/L. (authors)

  14. Comorbidities and risk factors associated with newly diagnosed epilepsy in the U.S. pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ahyuda; Thurman, David J; Kim, Hyunmi

    2017-10-01

    Neurobehavioral comorbidities can be related to underlying etiology of epilepsy, epilepsy itself, and adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs. We examined the relationship between neurobehavioral comorbidities and putative risk factors for epilepsy in children with newly diagnosed epilepsy. We conducted a retrospective analysis of children aged ≤18years in 50 states and the District of Columbia, using the Truven Health MarketScan® commercial claims and encounters database from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2013. The eligible study cohort was continuously enrolled throughout 2013 as well as enrolled for any days during a baseline period of at least the prior 2years. Newly diagnosed cases of epilepsy were defined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification-coded diagnoses of epilepsy or recurrent seizures and evidence of prescribed antiepileptic drugs during 2013, when neither seizure codes nor seizure medication claims were recorded during baseline periods. Twelve neurobehavioral comorbidities and eleven putative risk factors for epilepsy were measured. More than 6 million children were analyzed (male, 51%; mean age, 8.8years). A total of 7654 children were identified as having newly diagnosed epilepsy (125 per 100,000, 99% CI=122-129). Neurobehavioral comorbidities were more prevalent in children with epilepsy than children without epilepsy (60%, 99% CI=58.1-61.0 vs. 23%, CI=23.1-23.2). Children with epilepsy were far more likely to have multiple comorbidities (36%, 99% CI=34.3-37.1) than those without epilepsy (8%, 99% CI=7.45-7.51, Pepilepsy were detected in 28% (99% CI=26.9-29.6) of children with epilepsy. After controlling for demographics, neurobehavioral comorbidities, family history of epilepsy, and other risk factors than primary interest, neonatal seizures had the strongest independent association with the development of epilepsy (OR=29.8, 99% CI=23.7-37.3, Pepilepsy, those with both epilepsy and risk factors were

  15. Frequency of retinopathy in newly diagnosed patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus (dm)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, K.A.; Kamran, S.M.; Qureshi, M.N.

    2015-01-01

    This study was to determine the frequency of retinopathy in newly diagnosed type-II Diabetics. Study Design: Cross sectional descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: It was conducted at Department of medicine, Military Hospital (MH), Rawalpindi from 1st Jan 2012 to 30 Jun 2012. Material and Methods: We included 200 patients of type-II DM from both genders diagnosed in last 03 months from both outdoor and indoor departments in the age range of 40 to 70 years by consecutive sampling. All patients having co morbidities affecting retina were excluded. Informed written consent was taken before enrollment. Formal approval of the study was taken from hospital ethical committee. Ocular Fundoscopy was performed with WelchAllyn Ophthalmoscope (REF 11470) as per standard protocols and both eyes were examined. The grade of DR (diabetic retinopathy) awarded as per highest changes in any of the two eyes. All tests were carried by a single person to avoid inter-observer variations. Findings of ocular fundoscopy were confirmed by ophthalmologist. All data was analyzed by using SPSS version 11. Results: Out of 200 subjects 63.5% were male and 36.5% were female. Age ranged from 40 to 70 years with mean age of 51.05+ 6.910 years. 29 (14.5%) subjects had Diabetic retinopathy. Out of 29 patients, 24 (82.8%) had preproliferative and 5 (17.2%) had proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Conclusion: A significant proportion of diabetic patients have retinopathy at the time of diagnosis of their disease which is more common in males and with increasing age. It is recommended to thoroughly screen the newly diagnosed diabetics for early detection of diabetic retinopathy and its management involving early referral to eye specialist. (author)

  16. Prevalence of Chronic Diabetic Complications in Newly Diagnosed versus Known Type 2 Diabetic Subjects in a Sample of Alexandria Population, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Samir Assaad; Megallaa, Magdy Helmy; Rohoma, Kamel Hemida; Guindy, Myriam AbouSeif; Zaki, Adel; Hassanein, Mohamed; Malaty, Amin Helmy; Ismael, Hanaa Mohamed; Kharboush, Ibrahim Fahmy; El Kafash, Dalal Nasr-Eldein; Sallam, Hassan Nooman; Desouky, Iman Abdelkareem

    2018-01-24

    In Egypt, data on the prevalence of chronic diabetic complications, which are essential for the adjustment of policies and practices related to diabetes care, are scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the frequency of chronic complications of diabetes; namely neuropathy, diabetic kidney disease (DKD), retinopathy and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in newly-diagnosed versus known type 2 diabetic patients. This is a cross-sectional study that is based on a previous household survey conducted on a representative sample of the population of Alexandria, Egypt. This study included 506 consecutive subjects with type 2 diabetes; 323 patients with previously known T2DM and 183 patients with newly diagnosed T2DM (discovered during the survey). For each participant, a focused history was taken. Comprehensive clinical examination was done including fundus examination, foot examination and assessment of ankle brachial index. Laboratory tests included HbAlc, lipids profile, serum creatinine and urinary albumin creatinine ratio (UACR). Peripheral neuropathy was detected in 20% of the studied patients; 29.4% of known patients and 3.3% of newly diagnosed patients (pDiabetic kidney disease was detected in 33.2% of the studied patients; 46.1% of known patients and 10.4% of newly diagnosed patients (pDiabetic retinopathy was detected in 34.6% of the studied patients; 48.3% of known patients and 10.4% of newly diagnosed patients (pdiabetes, the presence of any of the studied complications (neuropathy, diabetic kidney disease, retinopathy or PAD) was significantly associated with the presence of all other complications (pdiabetes, the presence of diabetic kidney disease was significantly associated with the presence of retinopathy (pdiabetes at the time of diagnosis. Finally, these results should be considered as a call for action for the health care planners and providers in our region to plan for early screening for diabetes and its complications to reduce the

  17. Association of copeptin and cortisol in newly diagnosed multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowska-Bik, Agnieszka; Kochanowski, Jan; Uchman, Dorota; Litwiniuk, Anna; Kalisz, Malgorzata; Martynska, Lidia; Wolinska-Witort, Ewa; Baranowska, Boguslawa; Bik, Wojciech

    2015-05-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. Obesity may increase the risk of developing MS. The aim of this study was to evaluate copeptin and cortisol plasma levels in newly diagnosed untreated MS patients and to determine whether copeptin and cortisol are related to the patients' clinical statuses. We report that copeptin and cortisol were higher in overweight/obese MS patients. Positive correlations were observed between the two parameters. We conclude that alterations of copeptin and cortisol levels in multiple sclerosis patients may be related to adiposity. An increase in cortisol may also be associated with copeptin secretion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Parenting stress as a mediator of parents' negative mood state and behavior problems in children with newly diagnosed cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Geest, Ivana M; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M; Passchier, Jan; van den Hoed-Heerschop, Corry; Pieters, Rob; Darlington, Anne-Sophie E

    2014-07-01

    The aim was to investigate the influence of parents' negative mood state and parenting stress on behavior in children with newly diagnosed cancer. A total of 123 parents (n=58 fathers, n=65 mothers) of 67 children with newly diagnosed cancer completed three questionnaires separately at the same time measuring parents' negative mood state, parenting stress, and child behavior problems. Parents' negative mood state was weakly correlated to more child behavior problems (r=0.31, pparenting stress were strongly correlated to more child behavior problems (r=0.61, pparents' negative mood state and child behavior problems (c=0.29, p=0.02 (fathers); c=0.25, p=0.04 (mothers)) became non-significant after mediating for parenting stress (c'=0.003, p=0.98 (fathers); c'=0.10, p=0.42 (mothers)). The indirect effect of parents' negative mood state and child behavior problems was only significant for fathers (95% CI [0.12; 0.51]), indicating that parenting stress mediates the effect between fathers' negative mood state and child behavior problems. This is the first study to demonstrate the mediational role of parenting stress in fathers of a child with newly diagnosed cancer. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Predictive score for the development or progression of Graves' orbitopathy in patients with newly diagnosed Graves' hyperthyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiersinga, Wilmar; Žarković, Miloš; Bartalena, Luigi

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To construct a predictive score for the development or progression of Graves' orbitopathy (GO) in Graves' hyperthyroidism (GH). DESIGN: Prospective observational study in patients with newly diagnosed GH, treated with antithyroid drugs (ATD) for 18 months at ten participating centers f...

  20. Analysis of Inflammatory Mediators in Prediabetes and Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhen; Shen, Xu-Hui; Feng, Wen-Ming; Ye, Guo-fen; Qiu, Wei; Li, Bo

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the inflammatory markers in prediabetes and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Inflammatory markers levels were analyzed using one-way analysis of covariance and the association with prediabetes or T2DM risks was examined by logistic regression models. Our data showed increased levels of hypersensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin (IL-4), IL-10, and tryptase in prediabetes subjects and hs-CRP, immunoglobulin E (IgE), IL-4, and IL-10 in T2DM sub...

  1. Brazilian dietary patterns and the dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet-relationship with metabolic syndrome and newly diagnosed diabetes in the ELSA-Brasil study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drehmer, Michele; Odegaard, Andrew O; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Duncan, Bruce B; Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; Matos, Sheila M Alvim; Molina, Maria Del Carmen B; Barreto, Sandhi M; Pereira, Mark A

    2017-01-01

    Studies evaluating dietary patterns, including the DASH diet, and their relationship with the metabolic syndrome and diabetes may help to understand the role of dairy products (low fat or full fat) in these conditions. Our aim is to identify dietary patterns in Brazilian adults and compare them with the (DASH) diet quality score in terms of their associations with metabolic syndrome and newly diagnosed diabetes in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health-the ELSA-Brasil study. The ELSA-Brasil is a multicenter cohort study comprising 15,105 civil servants, aged 35-74 years at baseline (2008-2010). Standardized interviews and exams were carried out, including an OGTT. We analyzed baseline data for 10,010 subjects. Dietary patterns were derived by principal component analysis. Multivariable logistic regression investigated associations of dietary patterns with metabolic syndrome and newly diagnosed diabetes and multivariable linear regression with components of metabolic syndrome. After controlling for potential confounders, we observed that greater adherence to the Common Brazilian meal pattern (white rice, beans, beer, processed and fresh meats), was associated with higher frequencies of newly diagnosed diabetes, metabolic syndrome and all of its components, except HDL-C. Participants with greater intake of a Common Brazilian fast foods/full fat dairy/milk based desserts pattern presented less newly diagnosed diabetes. An inverse association was also seen between the DASH Diet pattern and the metabolic syndrome, blood pressure and waist circumference. Diet, light foods and beverages/low fat dairy pattern was associated with more prevalence of both outcomes, and higher fasting glucose, HDL-C, waist circumference (among men) and lower blood pressure. Vegetables/fruit dietary pattern did not protect against metabolic syndrome and newly diagnosed diabetes but was associated with lower waist circumference. The inverse associations found for the dietary pattern

  2. Familial occurrence of epilepsy in children with newly diagnosed multiple seizures : Dutch study of epilepsy in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callenbach, PMC; Geerts, AT; Arts, WFM; van Donselaar, CA; Peters, A.C. Boudewyn; Stroink, H; Brouwer, OF

    Purpose: To study the familial occurrence of epilepsy in children with newly diagnosed multiple unprovoked seizures. Methods: Between August 1988 and September 1992, 462 children with two or more unprovoked seizures were included in the prospective Dutch Study of Epilepsy in Childhood. Seizures and

  3. A Pilot Safety Study of Lenalidomide and Radiotherapy for Patients With Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma Multiforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drappatz, Jan; Wong, Eric T.; Schiff, David; Kesari, Santosh; Batchelor, Tracy T.; Doherty, Lisa; LaFrankie, Debra Conrad; Ramakrishna, Naren; Weiss, Stephanie; Smith, Sharon T.; Ciampa, Abigail; Zimmerman, Jennifer; Ostrowsky, Louis; David, Karly; Norden, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of lenalidomide, an analogue of thalidomide with enhanced immunomodulatory and antiangiogenic properties and a more favorable toxicity profile, in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) when given concurrently with radiotherapy. Patients and Methods: Patients with newly diagnosed GBM received radiotherapy concurrently with lenalidomide given for 3 weeks followed by a 1-week rest period and continued lenalidomide until tumor progression or unacceptable toxicity. Dose escalation occurred in groups of 6. Determination of the MTD was based on toxicities during the first 12 weeks of therapy. The primary endpoint was toxicity. Results: Twenty-three patients were enrolled, of whom 20 were treated and evaluable for both toxicity and tumor response and 2 were evaluable for toxicity only. Common toxicities included venous thromboembolic disease, fatigue, and nausea. Dose-limiting toxicities were eosinophilic pneumonitis and transaminase elevations. The MTD for lenalidomide was determined to be 15 mg/m 2 /d. Conclusion: The recommended dose for lenalidomide with radiotherapy is 15 mg/m 2 /d for 3 weeks followed by a 1-week rest period. Venous thromboembolic complications occurred in 4 patients, and prophylactic anticoagulation should be considered

  4. Profile of Infections in Newly Diagnosed Patients with Acute Leukemia During the Induction Phase of Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayed, H.A.; Talaat, S.M.; El-Mahallawy, H.A.; Kaddah, A.M.; Ismael, H.T.

    2009-01-01

    Acute leukemia is the most common pediatric malignancy. Despite the significant progress in the treatment of infectious complications, infection-related morbidity and mortality continue to be of great importance. Prompt initiation of the appropriate empiric antibiotic treatment has improved infection outcome. The aim of the present study is to assess the type, frequency, and severity of infectious complications in a cohort of pediatric cancer patients treated at a single medical institution. We also aim to identify factors affecting bloodstream infections in newly diagnosed ALL and AML pediatric patients during the induction phase of treatment. Patients and Methods: This study was carried out at the Department of Pediatric Oncology, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, during the time period from January 1st to June 30th 2007. Inclusion criteria were pediatric age group (from 0-16 years), newly diagnosed acute leukemia, positive blood culture and documented site of infection. Data were analyzed using the SPSS package version 15. A p-value £0.05 was considered significant. Results: This is a retrospective study including 100 newly diagnosed cases of acute leukemia. Fifty-four patients had ALL, and 46 patients had AML. 348 infectious episodes were recorded. Blood stream infections (BSI) occurred once or twice in 32%, 3-4 episodes in 58%, and five or more episodes in 10% of the cases. Gram-positive cocci were the most frequently observed cause of BSI, accounting for 77.9% of the total isolates followed by Gram negative organisms seen in 18.9% and mixed infections in 8%. The majority of the episodes (n= 208, 58.4%) responded to first-line empirical antibiotic therapy. Conclusion: Clinical and laboratory risk factors could be identified and can help prediction of serious BSI.

  5. Association between High Fat-low Carbohydrate Diet Score and Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes in Chinese Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Na, Y.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Li, Y.P.; Zhang, J.; Fu, P.; Ma, G.S.; Yang, X.G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the association between high fat-low carbohydrate diet score and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes in Chinese population. Methods Data about 20 717 subjects aged 45-59 years from the cross-sectional 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey were analyzed. High fat-low

  6. Nephrotoxicity of cyclosporin A in patients with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Jensen, T; Dieperink, H

    1990-01-01

    Renal function was studied in 18 patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus. All were participating in the Canadian-European randomized placebo-controlled cyclosporin trial in newly diagnosed Type 1 diabetic patients, nine being randomized to placebo, and nine to cyclosporin A. During treatment for 12...... corrected for differences in blood glucose control it appeared that in three out of nine patients glomerular filtration rate had not completely returned to the reference range of the placebo group. We conclude that the nephrotoxic side-effects of cyclosporin A treatment for 1 year are reversible. There are...

  7. Prevalence of drug resistance mutations and non-B subtypes in newly diagnosed HIV-1 patients in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Louise B; Christensen, Marianne B; Gerstoft, Jan

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor the prevalence of drug resistance mutations in newly diagnosed HIV-1 positive individuals in Denmark. In addition we assessed the prevalence of non-B subtypes based on phylogenetic analysis of the pol gene. Plasma samples from 104 newly diagnosed HIV-1 positive...... patients were obtained in the year 2000. The entire protease gene and 320 amino acids of the reverse transcriptase gene were genotyped. Sequences were obtained from 97 patients. No subjects displayed primary resistance mutations in the protease gene, whereas all carried 1 or more secondary mutations....... Resistance mutations in the RT-gene associated with NRTI-resistance were found in 1 patient, who was infected with zidovudine resistant HIV-1 harbouring the M41L mutation in combination with T215S and L210S. The T215S mutation has been showed to be associated with reversion of zidovudine resistance. The T215...

  8. Prognostic Significance of Blood Transfusion in Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma Patients without Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Liping; Fu, Danhui; Zhang, Jinping; Wang, Qingqing; Ye, Yamei; Xie, Qianling

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether blood transfusions affect overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) patients without hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. A total of 181 patients were enrolled and divided into two groups: 68 patients in the transfused group and 113 patients in the nontransfused group. Statistical analyses showed that there were significant differences in ECOG scoring, Ig isotype, platelet (Plt) counts, hemoglobin (Hb) level, serum creatinine (Scr) level, and β2-microglobulin (β2-MG) level between the two groups. Univariate analyses showed that higher International Staging System staging, Plt counts blood transfusion was associated with PFS but not OS in MM patients. Multivariate analyses showed that blood transfusion was not an independent factor for PFS in MM patients. Our preliminary results suggested that newly diagnosed MM patients may benefit from a liberal blood transfusion strategy, since blood transfusion is not an independent impact factor for survival. PMID:28567420

  9. Correlation between bone scan findings and serum PSA level in prostate cancer patients in Bangladesh: both newly diagnosed and hormonally treated cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasmeen, S.; Nasreen, F.; Kabir, M.F.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The objective of the current study was to determine whether pre- treatment serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels can identify a group with low probability of osseous metastases and safely eliminate the need for bone scan as a routine part of the staging evaluation in Bangladeshi patients with newly diagnosed prostate carcinoma. Also, to find out a cut off value for serum PSA level for predicting positive bone scan in newly diagnosed Bangladeshi prostate cancer patients and to assess the role of PSA level in hormonally treated cases. Prostate cancer most commonly metastasizes to the bone. Bone scintigraphy is one of the best methods in detecting bone metastases, assessing the progression of the disease and response to therapy. For more than 30 yrs it has been known that bone scintigraphy is more sensitive than radiographic, clinical evaluation or chemical markers such as alkaline phosphatase or acid phosphatase in detection of early osseous metastatic prostate cancer. The introduction of PSA has dramatically changed the management of prostate cancer. Serum PSA level has proven to be a useful serum marker for detection of metastatic prostate cancer and it provides the best overall correlation. It also has considerable impact on bone scanning. Of special significance is the fact that patients who have a low PSA level in previously untreated carcinoma of prostate are extremely unlikely to have positive findings on a bone scan for metastases. The picture is different in patients who has received and responded to hormonal therapy. Bone scintigraphy appears to be extremely useful in patients whose PSA level begins to rise after surgical procedure. Patients, who were on anti- androgen therapy, even though they had visible metastatic disease on bone scans, had normal level of PSA Patients and methods: A total of 390 cases were studied. Some (n=242) were newly diagnosed without having any specific treatment other than surgery. Others (n=148) were old cases

  10. Descriptive comparison of drug treatment-persistent, -nonpersistent, and nondrug treatment patients with newly diagnosed attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Sebastian; Russo, Leo; Zeidler, Jan; Linder, Roland; Hodgkins, Paul

    2013-05-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous behavioral disorder commonly found in children, with serious lifetime health and social consequences for both children and their parents. Public awareness of ADHD in Germany has increased in the past decade, but little is known about the costs of treating newly diagnosed patients in clinical practice. This study aimed to describe the resource utilization and treatment costs of patients aged 6 to 17 years with newly diagnosed ADHD, using patient data from a German sickness fund, and to quantify resource utilization by drug treatment and treatment persistence. To identify patients with newly diagnosed ADHD, the second largest German sickness fund was utilized. Complete claims data of all de-identified patients meeting eligibility criteria for 2007 and 2008 were extracted. Patients were divided into 1 of 3 treatment groups: drug treatment-persistent, drug treatment-nonpersistent, and nondrug treatment. The differences in costs and resource utilization are reported in a descriptive manner, with paired and unpaired 2-sample Wilcoxon tests used. Of 3407 newly diagnosed patients with ADHD, 1105 (32%) received an ADHD-specific drug following diagnosis; the remaining 2302 comprised the nondrug treatment group. Of the total number of drug-treated patients, 1-year observational data were available for only 786 methylphenidate users (71%). Of these, 503 patients (64%) comprised the drug treatment-persistent group (those having at least 1 prescription every 3 months during the 12 months following their first ADHD prescription) and 283 (36%) comprised the drug treatment-nonpersistent group. After excluding those patients with benefits when patients are treatment persistent compared to nonpersistent [corrected]. Therefore, future disease-management programs might consider treatment persistence as potentially reducing overall payer costs. Additionally, the clinical and psychosocial situations of patients and their

  11. Effects of Mediterranean diet on sexual function in people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: The MÈDITA trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiorino, Maria Ida; Bellastella, Giuseppe; Caputo, Mariangela; Castaldo, Filomena; Improta, Maria Rosaria; Giugliano, Dario; Esposito, Katherine

    To assess the long-term effect of Mediterranean diet, as compared with low-fat diet, on sexual function in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. In a randomized clinical trial, with a total follow-up of 8.1years, 215 men and women with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes were assigned to Mediterranean diet (n=108) or a low-fat diet (n=107). The primary outcome measures were changes of erectile function (IIEF) in diabetic men and of female sexual function (FSFI) in diabetic women. There was no difference in baseline sexual function in men (n=54 vs 52) or women (n=54 vs 55) randomized to Mediterranean diet or low-fat diet, respectively (P=0.287, P=0.815). Over the entire follow-up, the changes of the primary outcomes were significantly lower in the Mediterranean diet group compared with the low-fat group: IIEF and FSFI showed a significantly lesser decrease (1.22 and 1.18, respectively, P=0.024 and 0.019) with the Mediterranean diet. Baseline C-reactive protein levels predicted erectile dysfunction in men but not female sexual dysfunction in women. Among persons with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes, a Mediterranean diet reduced the deterioration of sexual function over time in both sexes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Incidence of retinal complications in a cohort of newly diagnosed diabetic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Martín-Merino

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: We aimed at estimating the incidence of diabetic retinopathy (DR and maculopathy (DMP among newly diagnosed type 1 (t1DM and type 2 diabetic patients (t2DM in the United Kingdom primary care system. The incidence of DMP among patients with DR was also estimated. METHOD: We conducted a cohort study using The Health Improvement Network database. The cohort included 64,983 incident diabetic patients (97.3% were t2DM aged 1-84 years diagnosed between 2000 and 2007. This cohort was followed from the date of diabetes diagnosis until recording of DR or DMP in two separate follow-ups. Follow-up was censored at 85 years of age, death, or end of 2008. An additional follow-up was conducted from DR to DMP diagnosis using similar censoring reasons. DR and DMP cumulative incidences were calculated as well as incidence rates (IR; cases per 1,000 person-years per calendar period (2000-2001 and 2006-2007. RESULTS: Follow-up for DR: 9 years after diabetes diagnosis, 28% of t2DM and 24% of t1DM patients had developed DR (7,899 incident DR cases. During the first 2 years with diabetes, the IR was almost 2 times higher in patients diagnosed with diabetes in 2006-2007 (47.7 than among those diagnosed in 2000-2001 (24.5. Follow-up for DMP: 9 years after diabetes diagnosis, 3.6% of t2DM and 4.4% of t2DM patients had developed DMP (912 incident DMP cases. During the first 2 years with diabetes, the IR was three times higher in patients diagnosed with diabetes in 2006-2007 (5.8 than among those diagnosed in 2000-2001 (1.8. Macular oedema occurred in 0.8% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: In a cohort of incident diabetes, 28% of patients developed retinopathy and 4% maculopathy within the first 9 years. The 2-year IRs of DR and DMP were higher in patients diagnosed with diabetes during the period 2006-2007 than in those diagnosed during the 2000-2001 period.

  13. Leucocyte Telomere Shortening in relation to Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhelong Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to investigate the association between oxidative stress and telomere length shortening in the comorbid depression and diabetes. Therefore, 71 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2D and 52 subjects with normal glycemic level (control, Ctrl were enrolled. Depressive status was identified with the Depression Subscale of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D. Leukocyte telomere length ratio (T/S ratio was determined with quantitative PCR. Oxidative stress status was evaluated with 8-hydroxy-desoxyguanosine (8-OHdG assay kit. Some other biochemical blood testing was also performed. The data showed that T2D patients had higher proportion of depression evaluated by the HADS-D (x2=4.196, P=0.041. T/S ratio was significantly negatively correlated with 8-OHdG, HADS-D, age, HbA1c, FPG, and HOMA-IR. In addition, HADS-D was significantly positively correlated with HbA1c, FPG, HOMA-IR, and 8-OHdG. Both HADS-D and 8-OHdG were the major independent predictors for T/S ratio. This study indicates that oxidative stress contributes to both telomere length shortening and depression development in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients, while in depression status, some other mechanisms besides oxidative stress may also affect the telomere length.

  14. Understanding mild persistent asthma in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Szefler, Stanley J

    2005-01-01

    Limitations in asthma prevalence studies and difficulties in diagnosing pediatric asthma lead to uncertainty over the full extent of mild persistent asthma in children and adolescents. Although recent surveys have reported that the majority of pediatric patients with asthma in the United States...... and Europe have symptoms consistent with mild disease, these surveys have limitations in design. Thus, the true prevalence of mild asthma remains unknown. It is unclear whether children with mild persistent asthma progress to more severe asthma, but the risk of severe asthma exacerbations seems...... to be unrelated to the symptom severity. Clinical studies restricted to pediatric patients with mild asthma are limited, but available data do suggest substantial morbidity of mild persistent asthma in this population and support inhaled corticosteroid intervention. There is a need for further investigation...

  15. Hope as experienced in women newly diagnosed with gynaecological cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Kristianna; Mogensen, Ole; Hall, Elisabeth O C

    2009-01-01

    cancer diagnosis made the women oscillate between hope and hopelessness, between positive expectations of getting cured and frightening feelings of the disease taking over. Five major interrelated themes of hope were identified: hope of being cured, cared for and getting back to normal, hope as being...... at a gynaecological department of a Danish university hospital. The women, aged 24-87 (median 52yrs), were diagnosed with ovarian, endometrial, cervical and vulvar cancer. RESULTS: Hope was found to be connected to both diagnosis, cure, family life and life itself and closely tied to hopelessness. The newly received...... active and feeling well, hope as an internal power to maintain integration, hope as significant relationships and hope as fighting against hopelessness. Thus, hope was woven together with hopelessness in a mysterious way; it took command through inner strength and courage based on a trust in being cured...

  16. Decision-Making Capacity for Chemotherapy and Associated Factors in Newly Diagnosed Patients with Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Asao; Kondo, Kyoko; Takei, Hiroyuki; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Ohe, Yuichiro; Akechi, Tatsuo

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess decision-making capacity in patients newly diagnosed with lung cancer, clinical factors associated with impaired capacity, and physicians' perceptions of patients' decision-making capacity. We recruited 122 patients newly diagnosed with lung cancer. One hundred fourteen completed the assessment. All patients were receiving a combination of treatments (e.g., chemotherapy, chemo-radiotherapy, or targeted therapy). Decision-making capacity was assessed using the MacArthur Competence Tool for Treatment. Cognitive impairment, depressive symptoms, and frailty were also evaluated. Physicians' perceptions were compared with the ascertainments. Twenty-seven (24%, 95% confidence interval [CI], 16-31) patients were judged to have incapacity. Clinical teams had difficulty in judging six (22.2%) patients for incapacity. Logistic regression identified frailty (odds ratio, 3.51; 95% CI, 1.13-10.8) and cognitive impairment (odds ratio, 5.45; 95% CI, 1.26-23.6) as the factors associated with decision-making incapacity. Brain metastasis, emphysema, and depression were not associated with decision-making incapacity. A substantial proportion of patients diagnosed with lung cancer show impairments in their capacity to make a medical decision. Assessment of cognitive impairment and frailty may provide appropriate decision-making frameworks to act in the best interest of patients. Decision-making capacity is the cornerstone of clinical practice. A substantial proportion of patients with cancer show impairments in their capacity to make a medical decision. Assessment of cognitive impairment and frailty may provide appropriate decision-making frameworks to act in the best interest of patients. © AlphaMed Press 2017.

  17. Emotion episodes during psychotherapy sessions among women newly diagnosed with gynecological cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers Virtue, Shannon; Manne, Sharon L; Darabos, Kathleen; Heckman, Carolyn J; Ozga, Melissa; Kissane, David; Rubin, Stephen; Rosenblum, Norman

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe emotion episodes during early and late psychotherapy sessions among women newly diagnosed with gynecological cancer and to examine whether the total number of emotion episodes during early and later sessions was associated with baseline psychological distress, dispositional emotion expressivity, and patient-rated therapeutic progress. The study utilized data from an ongoing study examining the efficacy of two psychotherapy interventions, a coping and communication intervention and a supportive counseling intervention, for women diagnosed with gynecological cancer. Emotion episode coding was completed for the first and sixth psychotherapy sessions for each patient randomized to receive psychotherapy (N = 173). Patients completed baseline survey measures of psychological distress and dispositional emotional expressivity and post-session ratings of therapeutic progress. The average number of emotion episodes was 7.4 in the first session and 5.2 episodes in the sixth session. In both sessions, the majority of emotion episodes contained only negative emotions and focused on a cancer-related topic. A higher number of emotion episodes in the first session was associated with higher psychological distress reported in the baseline survey (p = 0.02). A higher number of emotion episodes in the sixth session was associated with a higher number of emotion episodes in the first session (p psychotherapy among women diagnosed with gynecological cancer. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Nutrient intake and nutritional status of newly diagnosed patients with cancer from the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Kavitha; Razak, Shariza Abdul; Ismail, Karami A; Krishna, Bhavaraju Venkata Murali

    2014-09-30

    Cancer therapy in Malaysia primarily focuses on the clinical management of patients with cancer and malnutrition continues to be one of the major causes of death in these patients. There is a dearth of information on the nutrient intake and status of newly diagnosed patients with cancer prior to the initiation of treatment. The present study aims to assess the nutrient intake and status of newly diagnosed patients with cancer from the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a convenient sample of newly diagnosed adult patients with cancer (n = 70) attending the Oncology clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia in the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, clinical status, anthropometry, dietary intake and biochemical data including blood samples was obtained. The mean (SD) age, triceps skin fold (TSF), mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) and body mass index (BMI) of participants was 21.1(3.9) years, 17.6(7.9) mm, 24.1(5.5) cm, and 21.1(3.9) Kg/m(2), respectively; 39% participants had BMI cancer were undernourished (i.e. women: MUAC cancer from the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia were underweight and undernourished. The majority of patients with cancer had poor micronutrient intakes; the older women had a poor macro and micronutrient intakes. Before the initiation of rigorous clinical management of patients with cancer, screening for nutritional status, subsequent nutrition counseling, and interventions are essential to improve their nutritional status; consequently, response to cancer therapy, survival and quality of life.

  19. Differences between asthma-COPD overlap syndrome and adult-onset asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommola, Minna; Ilmarinen, Pinja; Tuomisto, Leena E; Lehtimäki, Lauri; Haanpää, Jussi; Niemelä, Onni; Kankaanranta, Hannu

    2017-05-01

    Differences between asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) and adult-onset asthma are poorly understood. This study aimed to evaluate these differences in a clinical cohort of patients with adult-onset asthma, as a part of the Seinäjoki Adult Asthma Study (SAAS).188 patients were diagnosed with adult-onset asthma and re-evaluated 12 years after diagnosis. They were divided into three groups based on smoking history and post bronchodilator spirometry values: 1) never- and ex-smokers with obstructive (forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 )/forced vital capacity (FVC) ≥0.7) patients with ≥10 pack-years; and 3) ACOS patients with ≥10 pack-years and FEV 1 /FVC obstructive patients with ≥10 pack-years smoking history, respectively. ACOS patients also showed reduced lung function, higher remaining bronchial reversibility and a higher number of comorbidities.This study shows distinct differences in diffusing capacity, blood neutrophil and IL-6 levels, bronchial reversibility, lung function and comorbidities between ACOS and adult-onset asthma. The present findings should be considered in the comprehensive assessment of adult asthma patients. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  20. Computer quantification of “angle of collapse” on maximum expiratory flow volume curve for diagnosing asthma-COPD overlap syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang W

    2016-12-01

    surrogate marker for the diagnosis of emphysema and help to diagnose ACOS. Keywords: asthma, COPD, overlap, emphysema, MEFV, airway collapse

  1. The impact of bevacizumab treatment on survival and quality of life in newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulsen, Hans Skovgaard; Urup, Thomas; Michaelsen, Signe Regner; Staberg, Mikkel; Villingshøj, Mette; Lassen, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains one of the most devastating tumors, and patients have a median survival of 15 months despite aggressive local and systemic therapy, including maximal surgical resection, radiation therapy, and concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide. The purpose of antineoplastic treatment is therefore to prolong life, with a maintenance or improvement of quality of life. GBM is a highly vascular tumor and overexpresses the vascular endothelial growth factor A, which promotes angiogenesis. Preclinical data have suggested that anti-angiogenic treatment efficiently inhibits tumor growth. Bevacizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor A, and treatment has shown impressive response rates in recurrent GBM. In addition, it has been shown that response is correlated to prolonged survival and improved quality of life. Several investigations in newly diagnosed GBM patients have been performed during recent years to test the hypothesis that newly diagnosed GBM patients should be treated with standard multimodality treatment, in combination with bevacizumab, in order to prolong life and maintain or improve quality of life. The results of these studies along with relevant preclinical data will be described, and pitfalls in clinical and paraclinical endpoints will be discussed

  2. Relationship between Waist Circumference and Elevation of Carotid Intima-media Thickness in Newly-diagnosed Diabetic Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lei; JIA Wei Ping; SHEN Yun; ZHOU Jian; PAN Jie Min; YU Hao Yong; CHEN Hai Bing; LI Qing; LI Ming; BAO Yu Qian

    2014-01-01

    Objective Waist circumference, as a brief indicator of visceral obesity, is associated with multi-metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases. The present study was aimed to find out the relationship between waist circumference and carotid intima media thickness (C-IMT), as well as the best waist circumference cutoff for identifying C-IMT elevation in Chinese male patients with newly-diagnosed diabetes. Methods Five hundred and seventy-eight patients from Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism in Shanghai Sixth People’s Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University were enrolled. Both physical examination (for measurement of waist circumference) and carotid ultrasonography (for measurement of C-IMT) were performed. Results After grouping according to the quartiles of C-IMT, the waist circumference increased across all its quartiles. The waist circumference in 3rd and 4th quartiles (90.7±9.8 cm and 90.8±9.6 cm) was significant higher than in 1st and 2nd quartiles (P Conclusion Among newly-diagnosed diabetic male patients, waist circumference over 90 cm not only reflects sub-clinical atherosclerosis in early stage, but also predicts the progression of atherosclerosis.

  3. Variations in the prevalence of childhood asthma and wheeze in MeDALL cohorts in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora P. Uphoff

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available While there is evidence for variations in prevalence rates of childhood wheeze and asthma between countries, longitudinal, individual-level data are needed to understand these differences. The aim of this study was to examine variations in prevalence rates of childhood asthma, wheeze and wheeze with asthma in Europe. We analysed datasets from 10 MeDALL (Mechanisms of the Development of ALLergy cohorts in eight countries, representing 26 663 children, to calculate prevalence rates of wheeze and asthma by child age and wheeze with asthma at age 4 years. Harmonised variables included outcomes parent-reported wheeze and parent-reported doctor-diagnosed asthma, and covariates maternal education, parental smoking, pets, parental asthma, doctor-diagnosed allergic rhinitis, doctor-diagnosed eczema and wheeze severity. At age 4 years, asthma prevalence varied from 1.72% in Germany to 13.48% in England and the prevalence of wheeze varied from 9.82% in Greece to 55.37% in Spain. Adjusted estimates of the proportion of 4-year-old children with wheeze diagnosed with asthma remained highest in England (38.14%, 95% CI 31.38–44.90% and lowest in Spain (15.94%, 95% CI 6.16–25.71%. The large differences in prevalence rates of asthma, wheeze and wheeze with asthma at age 4 years between European cohorts may indicate that childhood asthma is more readily diagnosed in some countries while going unrecognised elsewhere.

  4. Weight history of patients with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivarius, N de Fine; Richelsen, B; Siersma, V

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: To estimate and illustrate how the 10 years of weight change immediately preceding diabetes diagnosis vary with weight at the age of 20 years and with socio-demographic variables, risk factors and comorbidities at diagnosis. METHODS: Data were from a population-based cohort of 1320 persons...... newly diagnosed with diabetes aged > or = 40 years. Patients' weight at diagnosis was measured by the doctor, while patients recalled their weight approximately 1, 5 and 10 years prior to diagnosis and at age 20 years. RESULTS: Median weight gain from age 20 years to diabetes diagnosis at median age 65.......3 years was 14.7 kg (interquartile range 6.0-23.0). Women gained weight more than men, and the lower the weight at age 20 years, the greater the weight gain. The average weight gain from 10 years prior to diabetes diagnosis until diagnosis, however, was only 1 kg and decreased markedly with age. These 10...

  5. Left ventricular functions in children with newly diagnosed Graves' disease. A single-center study from Upper Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metwalley, Kotb Abbass; Farghaly, Hekma Saad; Abdelhamid, Abdelrahman

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the left ventricular (LV) functions in a cohort of children with Graves' disease (GD). This is a cross-sectional case-control study. It included 36 children with GD and 36 healthy children matched for age and gender. Thyroid hormones (TSH, FT4, and FT3) and anti-thyroid autoantibodies [anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO), thyrotropin receptor (TRAbs), and thyroglobulin antibodies] were measured. Conventional and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) echocardiographies were used to assess left ventricular systolic and diastolic functions. LV mass index (LVMI) and myocardial performance index (MPI) were also measured. Compared to healthy children, conventional echocardiography of patients with GD revealed higher LVMI (P = 0.001) indicating LV hypertrophy but normal LV functions while TDI revealed lower Em/Am ratio indicating LV diastolic dysfunction (P = 0.001). Significant correlations were reported between FT4 with LVMI (P = 0.05), Em/Am (P = 0.01), and MPI (P = 0.01). In multivariate analysis, a positive correlation was identified between FT4 with MPI (OR = 1.17; 95% CI = 1.09-1.15; P = 0.001). Children with newly diagnosed GD may have significant subclinical changes in LV structure and function (diastolic and global). TDI is more sensitive than conventional Doppler in detecting LV dysfunction. These findings highlight the importance of early monitoring of children with GD for left ventricular mass index and diastolic function. What is Known: • There is an increased risk for cardiac abnormalities in children with Graves' disease (GD). • Limited studies assessed left ventricular function in patients with GD. What is New: • Children with newly diagnosed GD may have significant subclinical changes in left ventricular structure and functions. • Children with newly diagnosed GD should be monitored for left ventricular mass index and diastolic function.

  6. Fertility outcomes in asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Elisabeth Juul; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Lindenberg, Svend

    2016-01-01

    Evidence is increasing of an association between asthma and aspects of female reproduction. However, current knowledge is limited and furthermore relies on questionnaire studies or small populations. In a prospective observational cohort study to investigate whether time to pregnancy, the number...... of fertility treatments, and the number of successful pregnancies differ significantly between women with unexplained infertility with and without asthma.245 women with unexplained infertility (aged 23-45 years) underwent questionnaires and asthma and allergy testing while undergoing fertility treatment. 96...... women entering the study had either a former doctor's diagnosis of asthma or were diagnosed with asthma when included. After inclusion they were followed for a minimum of 12 months in fertility treatment, until they had a successful pregnancy, stopped treatment, or the observation ended.The likelihood...

  7. Incidence of depression and anxiety among women newly diagnosed with breast or genital organ cancer in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Louis; Kalder, Matthias; Kostev, Karel

    2017-10-01

    To analyze the incidence of depression and anxiety among women newly diagnosed with breast or genital organ cancer (BC or GOC) in Germany. A total of 29 366 women initially diagnosed with BC or GOC between 2005 and 2014 were available for analysis. The main outcome measure was the incidence of depression and anxiety among women newly diagnosed with BC or GOC within 5 years after the first cancer diagnosis in German gynecologist practices. Demographic and clinical data included age, type of cancer, and presence of metastases at diagnosis. The incidence rate of depression and anxiety per 100 person-years was calculated. We performed a multivariate regression model to analyze the association between depression and the variables of interest. In total, 7994 women were diagnosed with depression/anxiety (81.3% had BC and 18.7% had GOC). The incidence of depression and anxiety was 8.8 per 100 person-years in women with BC. In individuals with GOC, the incidence of depression/anxiety was 5.9 per 100 person-years. Breast cancer was associated with a 1.41-fold increase in the risk of developing depression or anxiety as compared with GOC. Patients with metastases also had a higher risk of being depressed and anxious than others (odds ratio = 1.40). Finally, women in the age groups of 41 to 50, 51 to 60, and 61 to 70 years were at a higher risk of depression/anxiety than women in the age group of 71 to 80 years (odds ratios equal to 1.50, 1.38, and 1.22). Women diagnosed with BC were at a higher risk of developing depression or anxiety than women with GOC. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. How should we discuss genetic testing with women newly diagnosed with breast cancer? Design and implementation of a randomized controlled trial of two models of delivering education about treatment-focused genetic testing to younger women newly diagnosed with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watts Kaaren J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation testing offered shortly after a breast cancer diagnosis to inform women’s treatment choices - treatment-focused genetic testing ‘TFGT’ - has entered clinical practice in specialist centers and is likely to be soon commonplace in acute breast cancer management, especially for younger women. Yet the optimal way to deliver information about TFGT to younger women newly diagnosed with breast cancer is not known, particularly for those who were not suspected of having a hereditary breast cancer syndrome prior to their cancer diagnosis. Also, little is known about the behavioral and psychosocial impact or cost effectiveness of educating patients about TFGT. This trial aims to examine the impact and efficiency of two models of educating younger women newly diagnosed with breast cancer about genetic testing in order to provide evidence for a safe and effective future clinical pathway for this service. Design/methods In this non-inferiority randomized controlled trial, 140 women newly diagnosed with breast cancer (aged less than 50 years are being recruited from nine cancer centers in Australia. Eligible women with either a significant family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer or with other high risk features suggestive of a mutation detection rate of > 10% are invited by their surgeon prior to mastectomy or radiotherapy. After completing the first questionnaire, participants are randomized to receive either: (a an educational pamphlet about genetic testing (intervention or (b a genetic counseling appointment at a family cancer center (standard care. Each participant is offered genetic testing for germline BRCA mutations. Decision-related and psychosocial outcomes are assessed over 12 months and include decisional conflict (primary outcome;uptake of bilateral mastectomy and/or risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy; cancer-specific- and general distress; family involvement in decision

  9. Predictive value of pretreatment positron emission tomography/computed tomography in patients with newly diagnosed extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Bing; Huang, Hui-Qiang; Cai, Qi-Chun; Fan, Wei; Wang, Xiao-Xiao; Zhang, Xu; Lin, Ze-Xiao; Gao, Yan; Xia, Yun-Fei; Guo, Ying; Cai, Qing-Qing; Jiang, Wen-Qi; Lin, Tong-Yu

    2013-03-01

    The role of (18)Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (ENKL) is not well established. This study aimed to investigate the prognostic role of the pretreatment maximum standardized uptake value (SUV(max)) on PET/CT in patients with newly diagnosed ENKL. Among 364 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed ENKL, 81 patients were included and reviewed. The impact of SUV(max) on survival and the relationship between SUV(max) and other clinicopathological parameters were analyzed. The median SUV(max) was 14.6 (range 2.0-45.4). The optimal cutoff value of SUV(max) to predict overall survival (OS) was 15. Patients with high SUV(max) (SUVmax >15) were associated with bulky disease (P KPI, P = 0.046), resistance to primary treatment (P = 0.014), poor OS (P 60 years (P = 0.001), stage III-IV (P = 0.023), SUV(max) >15 (P = 0.020), and bulky disease (>5 cm) (P = 0.002). By using the SUV(max), patients in most subgroups stratified by the KPI or the International Prognostic Index (IPI) were further discriminated in OS with significant statistical difference. Our results suggest the pretreatment SUV(max) is predictive of prognosis in patients with newly diagnosed ENKL. The SUV(max) may provide additional prognostic information for IPI and KPI.

  10. The usefulness of the mannitol challenge test for asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsbjerg, Celeste; Sverrild, Asger; Backer, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    The mannitol test was developed as an easy-to-use, safe, standardized bronchial challenge test for diagnosing asthma in a wide range of clinical settings. The mannitol test has a moderate sensitivity and will only detect approximately 60% of asthma cases. Hence, a negative mannitol test cannot be......-inflammatory therapy. In this review, the current knowledge on the usefulness of the mannitol in a clinical setting as well as in clinical trials is presented and outstanding questions on the usefulness of the test are discussed.......The mannitol test was developed as an easy-to-use, safe, standardized bronchial challenge test for diagnosing asthma in a wide range of clinical settings. The mannitol test has a moderate sensitivity and will only detect approximately 60% of asthma cases. Hence, a negative mannitol test cannot...... be used to rule out asthma. The advantage of the mannitol test is a high specificity. In an individual with symptoms suggestive of asthma, a positive test indicates a high likelihood of asthma with ongoing airway inflammation and seems useful for detecting asthma requiring regular anti...

  11. Asthma and obesity: does weight loss improve asthma control? a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juel CTB

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Caroline Trunk-Black Juel,1 Zarqa Ali,1 Lisbeth Nilas,2 Charlotte Suppli Ulrik11Respiratory Section, Internal Medicine Unit, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Hvidovre Hospital and University of Copenhagen, Hvidovre, DenmarkAim and methods: Obesity is a major health problem, and obesity is associated with a high incidence of asthma and poor asthma control. The aim of the present paper is to systematically review the current knowledge of the effect on overall asthma control of weight reduction in overweight and obese adults with asthma.Results: Weight loss in obese individuals with doctor-diagnosed asthma is associated with a 48%–100% remission of asthma symptoms and use of asthma medication. Published studies, furthermore, reveal that weight loss in obese asthmatics improves asthma control, and that especially surgically induced weight loss results in significant improvements in asthma severity, use of asthma medication, dyspnoea, exercise tolerance, and acute exacerbations, including hospitalizations due to asthma. Furthermore, weight loss in obese asthmatics is associated with improvements in level of lung function and airway responsiveness to inhaled methacholine, whereas no significant improvements have been observed in exhaled nitric oxide or other markers of eosinophilic airway inflammation.Conclusion: Overweight and obese adults with asthma experience a high symptomatic remission rate and significant improvements in asthma control, including objective measures of disease activity, after weight loss. Although these positive effects of weight loss on asthma-related health outcomes seem not to be accompanied by remission or improvements in markers of eosinophilic airway inflammation, it has potentially important implications for the future burden of asthma.Keywords: asthma, weight loss, diet, bariatric surgery, asthma control

  12. Co-morbidity and clinically significant interactions between antiepileptic drugs and other drugs in elderly patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruun, Emmi; Virta, Lauri J; Kälviäinen, Reetta; Keränen, Tapani

    2017-08-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the frequency of potential pharmacokinetic drug-to-drug interactions in elderly patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy. We also investigated co-morbid conditions associated with epilepsy. From the register of Kuopio University Hospital (KUH) we identified community-dwelling patients aged 65 or above with newly diagnosed epilepsy and in whom use of the first individual antiepileptic drug (AED) began in 2000-2013 (n=529). Furthermore, register data of the Social Insurance Institution of Finland were used for assessing potential interactions in a nationwide cohort of elderly subjects with newly diagnosed epilepsy. We extracted all patients aged 65 or above who had received special reimbursement for the cost of AEDs prescribed on account of epilepsy in 2012 where their first AED was recorded in 2011-2012 as monotherapy (n=1081). Clinically relevant drug interactions (of class C or D) at the time of starting of the first AED, as assessed via the SFINX-PHARAO database, were analysed. Hypertension (67%), dyslipidemia (45%), and ischaemic stroke (32%) were the most common co-morbid conditions in the hospital cohort of patients. In these patients, excessive polypharmacy (more than 10 concomitant drugs) was identified in 27% of cases. Of the patients started on carbamazepine, 52 subjects (32%) had one class-C or class-D drug interaction and 51 (31%) had two or more C- or D-class interactions. Only 2% of the subjects started on valproate exhibited a class-C interaction. None of the subjects using oxcarbazepine displayed class-C or class-D interactions. Patients with 3-5 (OR 4.22; p=0.05) or over six (OR 8.86; p=0.003) other drugs were more likely to have C- or D-class interaction. The most common drugs with potential interactions with carbamazepine were dihydropyridine calcium-blockers, statins, warfarin, and psychotropic drugs. Elderly patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy are at high risk of clinically relevant pharmacokinetic

  13. Prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Pediatrics Patients Newly Diagnosed with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Effatpanah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD is associated with a number of comorbidities in pediatrics. However, its association with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD has not been reported. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of ADHD in pediatric patients newly diagnosed with GERD. Materials and Methods: Sixty newly-diagnosed treatment naive GERD patients and sixty healthy controls aging between 5 to 12 years referring to the Children and Adolescent’s medical center, Tehran, Iran were recruited in a case-control study during the year 2015. Then patients were evaluated for ADHD by a psychiatrist according to the DSM-IV criteria. The revised Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS-R was used for assessment of the symptoms of ADHD. To screen for psychiatry disorders other than ADHD, the Kiddie-Sads-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL questionnaire was used. Logistic regression analysis was used for modeling the association between GERD and ADHD in the study sample. Results: The mean age of GERD patients was 5.77±2.27 and for non-GERD controls was 6.03±2.52 (P= 0.543. Thirty-three out of 60 (55% GERD patients and 37 out of 60(61.66% non-GERD controls were male (P: 0.579. Prevalence of ADHD was 33.60 (55% in GERD patients and 10.60 (16.66% in non-GERD (P

  14. The Danish National Database for Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backer, Vibeke; Lykkegaard, Jesper; Bodtger, Uffe

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF THE DATABASE: Asthma is the most prevalent chronic disease in children, adolescents, and young adults. In Denmark (with a population of 5.6 million citizens), >400,000 persons are prescribed antiasthmatic medication annually. However, undiagnosed cases, dubious diagnoses, and poor asthma...... management are probably common. The Danish National Database for Asthma (DNDA) was established in 2015. The aim of the DNDA was to collect the data on all patients treated for asthma in Denmark and to monitor asthma occurrence, the quality of diagnosis, and management. STUDY POPULATION: Persons above the age...... year, the inclusion criteria are a second purchase of asthma prescription medicine within a 2-year period (National Prescription Registry) or a diagnosis of asthma (National Patient Register). Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are excluded, but smokers are not excluded. DESCRIPTIVE...

  15. Motor Skills of Children Newly Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Prior to and Following Treatment with Stimulant Medication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossard-Racine, Marie; Shevell, Michael; Snider, Laurie; Belanger, Stacey Ageranioti; Majnemer, Annette

    2012-01-01

    Motor difficulties are common in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Although preliminary evidence has suggested that methylphenidate can improve the motor skills in children with ADHD and Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), the effect of stimulant medication on motor performance in children newly diagnosed with…

  16. Depressive symptoms and their impact on health-seeking behaviors in newly-diagnosed HIV-infected patients in Durban, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Avila, Lynn; Regan, Susan; Giddy, Janet; Chetty, Senica; Ross, Douglas; Katz, Jeffrey N; Freedberg, Kenneth A; Walensky, Rochelle P; Losina, Elena; Bassett, Ingrid V

    2012-11-01

    We evaluated the prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms prior to HIV diagnosis and determined the effect of these symptoms on seeking HIV care at an urban and rural clinic in Durban, South Africa. Adults were administered a questionnaire which included the 5-item Mental Health Index (MHI-5) before HIV testing. We determined the depressive symptoms among HIV-infected subjects. Of 1,545 newly-diagnosed HIV-infected subjects, 55% had depressive symptoms by MHI-5 score. Enrolling at the urban clinic and decreasing functional activity score were associated with depressive symptoms. Subjects with depressive symptoms who were referred for HIV testing by a healthcare provider were less likely to obtain a CD4 count than those without depressive symptoms who self-referred for testing. Depressive symptoms were common among newly-diagnosed HIV-infected participants and impacted CD4 uptake. Depression screening at the time of HIV diagnosis is critical for improving linkage to mental health and HIV services in South Africa.

  17. Evaluation of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in newly diagnosed patients receiving borte- zomib-based therapy for multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin; Wang, Jing; Xia, Jun; Cheng, Feng; Mao, Jingjue; Zhu, Jianwei; Guo, Hongfeng

    2018-01-01

    The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) at diagnosis has been identified as an independent prognostic marker in several malignancies. Recently, a few studies have reported that an elevated pretreatment NLR is associated with poor survival among multiple myeloma (MM) patients. However, the role of NLR at diagnosis in patients with MM treated with regimens containing bortezomib has been less explored. We aimed to investigate the relationships between NLR and overall survival (OS) in newly diagnosed patients receiving bortezomib-based therapy for MM. A total of 76 newly diagnosed patients with MM treated with bortezomib-based regimes were analyzed retrospectively. NLR was calculated from whole blood counts prior to therapy and subsequently correlated with OS. Complete remission (CR) was seen in 39.2% of patients with NLR analysis, only elevated LDH and IgA MM were factors predicting inferior OS. Elevated NLR was associated with poor OS in MM patients receiving induction therapy with bortezomib-based regimens, but it was not an independent prognostic factor in this patient cohort.

  18. Cerebral glucose metabolism and cognition in newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease: ICICLE-PD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firbank, M J; Yarnall, A J; Lawson, R A; Duncan, G W; Khoo, T K; Petrides, G S; O'Brien, J T; Barker, R A; Maxwell, R J; Brooks, D J; Burn, D J

    2017-04-01

    To assess reductions of cerebral glucose metabolism in Parkinson's disease (PD) with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET), and their associations with cognitive decline. FDG-PET was performed on a cohort of 79 patients with newly diagnosed PD (mean disease duration 8 months) and 20 unrelated controls. PD participants were scanned while on their usual dopaminergic medication. Cognitive testing was performed at baseline, and after 18 months using the Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) and Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) computerised batteries, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). We used statistical parametric mapping (SPM V.12) software to compare groups and investigate voxelwise correlations between FDG metabolism and cognitive score at baseline. Linear regression was used to evaluate how levels of cortical FDG metabolism were predictive of subsequent cognitive decline rated with the MMSE and MoCA. PD participants showed reduced glucose metabolism in the occipital and inferior parietal lobes relative to controls. Low performance on memory-based tasks was associated with reduced FDG metabolism in posterior parietal and temporal regions, while attentional performance was associated with more frontal deficits. Baseline parietal to cerebellum FDG metabolism ratios predicted MMSE (β=0.38, p=0.001) and MoCA (β=0.3, p=0.002) at 18 months controlling for baseline score. Reductions in cortical FDG metabolism were present in newly diagnosed PD, and correlated with performance on neuropsychological tests. A reduced baseline parietal metabolism is associated with risk of cognitive decline and may represent a potential biomarker for this state and the development of PD dementia. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Stereotactic radiosurgery for newly diagnosed brain metastases. Comparison of three dose levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rades, Dirk; Hornung, Dagmar; Blanck, Oliver; Martens, Kristina; Khoa, Mai Trong; Trang, Ngo Thuy; Hueppe, Michael; Terheyden, Patrick; Gliemroth, Jan; Schild, Steven E.

    2014-01-01

    Three doses were compared for local control of irradiated metastases, freedom from new brain metastases, and survival in patients receiving stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) alone for one to three newly diagnosed brain metastases. In all, 134 patients were assigned to three groups according to the SRS dose given to the margins of the lesions: 13-16 Gy (n = 33), 18 Gy (n = 18), and 20 Gy (n = 83). Additional potential prognostic factors were evaluated: age (≤ 60 vs. > 60 years), gender, Karnofsky Performance Scale score (70-80 vs. 90-100), tumor type (non-small-cell lung cancer vs. melanoma vs. others), number of brain metastases (1 vs. 2-3), lesion size ( 24 months). For 13-16 Gy, 18 Gy, and 20 Gy, the 1-year local control rates were 31, 65, and 79 %, respectively (p [de

  20. Intratumoral heterogeneity of 18F-FLT uptake predicts proliferation and survival in patients with newly diagnosed gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitamura, Katsuya; Yamamoto, Yuka; Kudomi, Nobuyuki; Norikane, Takashi; Miyake, Keisuke; Nishiyama, Yoshihiro; Maeda, Yukito

    2017-01-01

    The nucleoside analog 3'-deoxy-3'- 18 F-fluorothymidine (FLT) has been investigated for evaluating tumor proliferating activity in brain tumors. We evaluated FLT uptake heterogeneity using textural features from the histogram analysis in patients with newly diagnosed gliomas and examined correlation of the results with proliferative activity and patient prognosis, in comparison with the conventional PET parameters. FLT PET was investigated in 37 patients with newly diagnosed gliomas. The conventional parameters [tumor-to-contralateral normal brain tissue (T/N) ratio and metabolic tumor volume (MTV)] and textural parameters (standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis, entropy, and uniformity) were derived from FLT PET images. Linear regression analysis was used to compare PET parameters and the proliferative activity as indicated by the Ki-67 index. The associations between parameters and overall survival (OS) were tested by Cox regression analysis. Median OS was 662 days. For the conventional parameters, linear regression analysis indicated a significant correlation between T/N ratio and Ki-67 index (p = 0.02) and MTV and Ki-67 index (p = 0.02). Among textural parameters, linear regression analysis indicated a significant correlation for kurtosis (p = 0.003), entropy (p < 0.001), and uniformity (p < 0.001) as compared to Ki-67 index, exceeding those of the conventional parameters. The results of univariate analysis suggested that skewness and kurtosis were associated with OS (p = 0.03 and 0.02, respectively). Mean survival for patients with skewness values less than 0.65 was 1462 days, compared with 917 days for those with values greater than 0.65 (p = 0.02). Mean survival for patients with kurtosis values less than 6.16 was 1616 days, compared with 882 days for those with values greater than 6.16 (p = 0.006). Based on the results of this preliminary study in a small patient population, textural features reflecting heterogeneity on FLT PET images seem to be

  1. Comparable risk of childhood asthma after vaginal delivery and emergency caesarean section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Nis; Stokholm, Lonny; Jonsdottir, Fjola

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Caesarean section is thought to be a risk factor for childhood asthma, but this association may be caused by confounding from, for instance, familial factors. To address this problem, we used twin pairs to assess the risk of childhood asthma after emergency caesarean section. METHODS...... respiratory morbidity, the risk of childhood asthma following emergency caesarean section remained unchanged. CONCLUSION: Emergency caesarean section was not associated with childhood asthma. FUNDING: none. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant.......: In total, 464 twin pairs (928 twins) were included. In 30 pairs, the first twin (vaginal delivery) was diagnosed with asthma, but the second twin (emergency caesarean section) was not. In 20 pairs, the second twin (emergency caesarean section) was diagnosed with asthma, but the first twin (vaginal delivery...

  2. Sensitivity and specificity of Frontal Assessment Battery in newly diagnosed and untreated obstructive sleep apnea patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladera, Valentina; Sargento, Paulo; Perea, Victoria; Faria, Miguel; Garcia, Ricardo

    2018-02-01

    Executive dysfunction (ED) is often observed in subjects diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), but their assessment requires facilities that are not always available. We aim to evaluate the extent to which Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) discriminates ED in newly diagnosed, untreated, and without-comorbidity OSA patients. Sixty subjects participated in the study. Of these, 40 (31 males and 9 females) were newly diagnosed for OSA through full-night polysomnography (apnea/hypopnea index; M = 39.01, SD = 27.16), untreated, with a mean age of 54.50 years (SD = 8.90), while the remaining 20 (15 males and 5 females) had no symptoms of OSA (M = 51.60 years, SD = 10.70). The instruments used were the following: Questionnaire for Sleep Apnea Risk, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Mini-Mental State Examination, and FAB. The group with OSA exhibited significantly lower values in the FAB global score (p = 0.003) and in Conceptualization (p = 0.001) and Mental Flexibility (p = 0.009) subtests. ROC analysis showed adequate discriminative capacity for the FAB global score (AUC = 0.74) and for Conceptualization (AUC = 0.75) and Mental Flexibility (AUC = 0.70) scores. The FAB is a short and no-time-consuming tool that can be used to investigate the presence of ED in untreated OSA patients with no comorbidities, providing clinicians with a simple and effective way of detecting the presence of this dysfunction and allowing a more informed decision for the need of a full neuropsychological assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Healthcare professionals' views of group structured education for people with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkley, K; Upsher, R; Keij, S M; Chamley, M; Ismail, K; Forbes, A

    2018-04-06

    To determine healthcare professionals' (HCP) views of group structured education for people with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes. This was a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews to ascertain primary care HCPs' views and experiences of education for people with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes. A thematic framework method was applied to analyse the data. Participants were HCPs (N = 22) from 15 general practices in three south London boroughs. All but one HCP viewed diabetes education favourably and all identified that low attendance was a problem. Three key themes emerged from the qualitative data: (1) benefits of diabetes education, including the group mode of delivery, improved patient interactions, saving HCPs' time and improved patient outcomes; (2) factors limiting uptake of education, including patient-level problems such as access and the appropriateness of the programme for certain groups, and difficulties communicating the benefits to patients and integration of education management plans into ongoing diabetes care; and (3) suggestions for improvement, including strategies to improve attendance at education with more localized and targeted marketing and enhanced programme content including follow-up sessions and support for people with pre-existing psychological issues. Most HCPs valued diabetes education and all highlighted the lack of provision for people with different levels of health literacy. Because there was wide variation in terms of the level of knowledge regarding the education on offer, future studies may want to focus on how to help HCPs encourage their patients to attend. © 2018 Diabetes UK.

  4. Disclosure of newly diagnosed HIV infection and condom use at first sex after diagnosis: a study of young Black men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Richard A; Mena, Leandro; Arnold, Trisha

    2017-08-01

    Background The first purpose of the present study was to determine whether young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) disclose their newly diagnosed HIV infection to a male or female partner, and to determine whether this disclosure is related to condom use; the second was to identify correlates of disclosing newly diagnosed HIV infection to male sex partners, including a measure of partner-related barriers to condom use. A sample of 125 HIV-infected YBMSM (age 15-29 years) provided cross-sectional data used for both study purposes. Recruitment occurred in a mid-size city in the southern US experiencing inordinately high prevalence and incidence rates of HIV among YBMSM. Significance was defined by an α level of <0.05. Eighty-eight YBMSM (70.4%) indicated disclosing their newly diagnosed HIV status to the first male partner they had sex with after being diagnosed. Of these, nine (9.1%) reported that condoms were not used during ensuing sex with that partner. However, of the men not disclosing, 27.0% reported not using condoms for ensuing sex (P=0.009). Similar findings were observed relative to sex with females (P=0.057). Regarding the second study purpose, in addition to a protective effect of advancing age, men scoring at or above the median on a measure of partner-related barriers to condom use were 2.4-fold more likely to not disclose compared with men scoring below the median (P=0.04). For YBMSM, a beneficial counselling objective relative to disclosing newly diagnosed HIV may be to help men resolve perceptions of partner-related barriers to condom use.

  5. Epidemiological Trends in Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm R Sears

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Many markers of asthma morbidity have shown substantial increases over the past two decades, including family physician visits, use of anti-asthma medications, emergency room visits and hospital admissions. The reported prevalence of diagnosed asthma and of wheezing has increased, especially in children, with accompanying evidence of increased atopy and increased airway responsiveness. Allergen exposure and parental smoking are significant risk factors for childhood wheezing, whereas the influence of outdoor air pollution is uncertain. Increasing use of beta-agonist treatment, which appears to increase the severity of asthma by increasing early and late responses to allergen, may contribute to increased morbidity and mortality, especially if potent beta-agonists are used. Risk factors for asthma mortality include age, smoking, allergy and airway lability, as well as over-reliance on beta-agonists and poor compliance with other aspects of treatment. Following withdrawal of the potent beta-agonist fenoterol in New Zealand, both hospital admissions and mortality from asthma fell abruptly. Continued patient and physician education, with emphasis on avoidance of risk factors and use of appropriate treatment, should reduce morbidity and mortality from asthma in Canada.

  6. The effects of journaling for women with newly diagnosed breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Susan; Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Langrock, Adela; Compas, Bruce

    2005-12-01

    Forty-three women newly diagnosed with breast cancer participated in this study, which examined the role of expressive journal writing characteristics on mood over the course of a 12-week support group. Writing was analyzed using the linguistic inquiry and word count program. Writing characteristics that were examined included: average word count, number of journal entries, positive and negative emotion words, the ratio of positive to negative words, and the use of cognitive mechanism words (i.e. insight and causal words). Regression analyses revealed that increased levels of anxiety and depression, post-intervention, were predicted by the prevalence of negative emotion in writing. Unique variance in mood (anxiety and depression) was accounted for by expression of negative emotion (7 and 6%, respectively). These relationships were significant (pjournaling so that appropriate recommendations for writing (e.g. focus, timing, amount) can be offered to patients who might choose to utilize this approach for coping with the stresses of cancer diagnosis and treatment. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Current asthma deaths among adults in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsugio Nakazawa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent asthma deaths were examined from yearly reports of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan and from reports published by the Japan Asthma Death Investigation Committee on 811 deaths over the period 1992–2000. The rate and number of recent asthma deaths in Japan have been decreasing rapidly. Most asthma deaths were of patients aged 70–90 years and there has been a marked trend for increased asthma deaths in the elderly. As for the circumstances surrounding the deaths, sudden death, unstable sudden aggravation and intermittent aggravation were mainly noted. Respiratory infections, fatigue and stress were the major courses of fatal attacks contributing to deaths due to asthma. Many of the patients who died from asthma had been diagnosed as having as moderate to severe asthma and many had non-atopic asthma. There are some reports that suggest that the recent decrease in asthma deaths in Japan is correlated with the use of inhaled cortico- steroids.

  8. Teaching Corner: Adult Asthma in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Asthma affects millions of people worldwide. It is often considered to be benign and is therefore under-diagnosed and under-treated. In fact asthma can be a very serious condition with significant morbidity and mortality. Most of the deaths are in patients over the age of 45 and many deaths could have been prevented with ...

  9. Incretin secretion in obese Korean children and adolescents with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So Hyun; Jung, Min Ho; Cho, Won Kyoung; Park, Mi Sun; Suh, Byung Kyu

    2016-01-01

    The role of incretins in type 2 diabetes is controversial. This study investigated the association between incretin levels in obese Korean children and adolescents newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. We performed a 2-hr oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in obese children and adolescents with type 2 diabetes and with normal glucose tolerance. Twelve obese children and adolescents with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (DM group) and 12 obese age-matched subjects without type 2 diabetes (NDM group) were included. An OGTT was conducted and insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) were measured during the OGTT. The mean age of the patients was 13·8 ± 2·0 years, and the mean body mass index (BMI) Z-score was 2·1 ± 0·5. The groups were comparable in age, sex, BMI Z-score and waist:hip ratio. The DM group had significantly lower homeostasis model assessment of β and insulinogenic index values (P 1). The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index was not different between the two groups. Insulin and C-peptide secretions were significantly lower in the DM group than in the NDM group (P 1). Total GLP-1 secretion was significantly higher in the DM group while intact GLP-1 and GIP secretion values were not significantly different between the two groups. Impaired insulin secretion might be important in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes in obese Korean children and adolescents, however, which may not be attributed to incretin secretion. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Spirometry in primary care for children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banasiak, Nancy Cantey

    2014-01-01

    Spirometry is an essential part of diagnosing a child with asthma. The National Asthma Education and Prevention Program (NAEPP) and the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) expert panels recommend spirometry to be performed on children five years of age and older as an objective assessment of lung function, to diagnosis asthma, and for ongoing yearly management of asthma (GINA, 2012; NAEPP, 2007). According to the NAEPP expert panel, history and physical examination alone are not reliable to accurately diagnose asthma, exclude alternative diagnosis, or determine lung impairment (NAEPP, 2007 Dombkowski, Hassan, Wasilevich, and Clark (2010) found 52% of physicians who provide primary care to children used spirometry, but only 21% used spirometry according to the national guidelines, and only 35% of physicians surveyed were comfortable interpreting the test results. Zanconato, Meneghelli, Braga, Zacchello, and Baraldi (2005) found that 21% of spirometry readings were interpreted incorrectly, concluding that proper training and quality control were important to provide if spirometry in the primary care office setting is to be used. The purpose of this article is to review the appropriate use of spirometry in pediatric primary care.

  11. Long-term CPAP treatment improves asthma control in patients with asthma and obstructive sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppi, Paula; Bachour, Patrick; Maasilta, Paula; Bachour, Adel

    2016-12-01

    Both asthma and obstructive sleep apnoea cause sleep disturbance, daytime sleepiness and diminished quality of life. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is efficient in reducing symptoms related to sleep apnoea. Here we report the impact of long-term use of CPAP on asthma symptoms. A survey questionnaire was distributed to all of our obstructive sleep apnoea patients with CPAP therapy in 2013. We used the Finnish version of the Asthma Control Test™ (ACT) and a visual analogue scale (0 = no symptoms, 100 = severe asthma symptoms). Asthma was defined as self-reported physician-diagnosed disease and a special reimbursement for asthma medication by the Social Insurance Institution. We sent 2577 questionnaires and received 1586 answers (61 %). One hundred ninety-seven patients were asthmatics with a prevalence of asthma among CPAP users of 13 %. We studied 152 patients (58 females) whose CPAP therapy was initiated after starting asthma medication. Their mean (SD) age was 62 (10) years, duration of CPAP 5.7 (4.7) years and their CPAP daily use was 6.3 (2.4) h. Self-reported asthma severity decreased significantly from 48.3 (29.6) to 33.1 (27.4) (p CPAP (P CPAP in patients with both asthma and obstructive sleep apnoea.

  12. Correlation of serum prostate specific antigen levels and Tc-99m mdp bone scintigraphy in newly diagnosed patients with prostrate cancer (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauf, M.; Khan, S.M.; Khan, A.A.; Ahmad, S.; Knob, G.; Shah, S.; Khan, A.A.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the correlation between serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) level and bone scintigraphy in newly diagnosed untreated prostate cancer patients. The probability of a positive bone scan for metastases was analyzed for different threshold values of prostate specific antigen (PSA), acid phosphastase and alkaline phosphates. Fifty four newly diagnosed untreated prostate cancer patients (mean age, 67 years range, 41 to 94) were included in this study. In each case serum PSA, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase measurements were performed followed by whole body Technetium-99m MDP bone scan. The positive predictive value of serum PSA level for bone metastases at the threshold of 10 ng/ml was 70% whereas the same threshold level of PSA gave a negative predictive value of 100%. We used receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis to examine the power of predictive value of each serum test, in predicting the results of the bone scan. We also applied regression analysis for the assessment of correlation between the levels of tumor markers and the extent of bone pathology. It was concluded that bone scintigraphy seems to be unnecessary in evaluation of newly diagnosed untreated prostate cancer in patients with no clinical signs of bone pathology and serum PSA levels of equal to or less than 10 ng/ml. (author)

  13. Expression of DACT1 in children with asthma and its regulation mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cunxue; Yang, Peili; Chen, Yan; Liu, Jing; Yuan, Xiutai

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to detect DACT1 expression levels in the lungs of children with asthma, and to investigate its role and molecular mechanisms in regulating the expression of inflammatory factors in RAW264.7 cells. DACT1, DACT2 and DACT3 expression was analyzed in biopsy specimens from 10 cases of newly diagnosed children with asthma and 10 healthy controls by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and their expression was confirmed in RAW264.7 cells. DACT1 expression was silenced by small interfering RNA or enhanced by transfection of pcDNA-3.1-DACT1 in RAW264.7 cells, and expression of β-catenin and inflammatory factors, interleukin (IL) 5, IL6 and IL13, was analyzed. Nuclear translocation of β-catenin was detected by western blot analysis, and the effect of DACT1 on β-catenin was investigated with rescue experiments. Regulation of the Wnt signaling pathway by DACT1 and β-catenin was analyzed in RAW264.7 cells after recombinant Wnt5A stimulation. DACT1, DACT2 and DACT3 were significantly upregulated in specimens from children with asthma compared with controls (Pasthma, which could induce higher pro-inflammatory factor expression. DACT1 may act via inhibiting the expression and nuclear translocation of β-catenin, a factor in the Wnt signaling pathway. The present results suggested that DACT1 may be a potential target for the treatment of asthma. PMID:29456669

  14. Hypogammaglobulinemia in newly diagnosed chronic lymphocytic leukemia is a predictor of early death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Michael Asger; Vojdeman, Fie Juhl; Andersen, Mette Klarskov

    2016-01-01

    Hypogammaglobulinemia is the most common immune deficiency in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). However, the prognostic significance in terms of morbidity and mortality remains controversial. We here evaluate the significance of hypogammaglobulinemia in terms of infections, treatment-free survi......Hypogammaglobulinemia is the most common immune deficiency in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). However, the prognostic significance in terms of morbidity and mortality remains controversial. We here evaluate the significance of hypogammaglobulinemia in terms of infections, treatment......-free survival (TFS), and overall survival (OS). A total of 159 consecutive, newly diagnosed patients were included for analysis. Twenty-five patients (16%) had a moderate or severe infection within one year of diagnosis, but no associations were found between low immunoglobulin (Ig) levels and infections...

  15. The effectiveness of school-based family asthma educational programs on the quality of life and number of asthma exacerbations of children aged five to 18 years diagnosed with asthma: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Helen; Sadeque-Iqbal, Fatema; Ulysse, Rose; Castillo, Doreen; Fitzpatrick, Aileen; Singleton, Joanne

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this review is to identify the best available quantitative evidence related to the effectiveness of school-based family asthma educational programs on the quality of life and number of asthma exacerbations of children aged five to18 years with a diagnosis of asthma. Asthma is a serious public health issue globally and nationally. The World Health Organization (WHO) Global Asthma Report 2014 estimates that 334 million people worldwide currently suffer from asthma. In the United States, asthma currently affects about 25 million people. Although asthma can occur at any age, it most often begins early in life, and is the most common non-communicable disease among children. Approximately 14% of the world's children have asthma. In the United States, 7.1 million children have asthma. Globally, the burden of asthma, measured by disability and premature death, is greatest in children approaching adolescence (ages 10-14). Asthma is also a serious economic concern in primary health care worldwide. In the United States, the estimated total cost of asthma to society was US$56 billion in 2007, or US$3259 per person. In 2008 asthma caused 10.5 million missed days from school and 14.2 missed days from work for caregivers. The estimated total cost of loss of productivity resulting from missed school or work days is US$3.8 billion per year, and premature death US$2.1 billion per year. Globally, asthma ranks 14 in terms of disability adjusted life years (DALYs), which are the number of years lost to ill health, disability or death attributed to asthma. According to a 2011 European study, the estimated total cost of asthma was €19.3 billion among people aged 15 to 64 years. A study conducted in the Asia-Pacific region reported that the direct and indirect costs of asthma per person ranged from US$184 in Vietnam to US$1189in Hong Kong in 2000. A Canadian study showed that C$184 loss of productivity during one week was attributed to asthma in 2012. In Australia, AU

  16. Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer: Comparison of Contrast-enhanced Spectral Mammography and Breast MR Imaging in the Evaluation of Extent of Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Felker, Stephanie A; Tekchandani, Leena; Thomas, Mariam; Gupta, Esha; Andrews-Tang, Denise; Roth, Antoinette; Sayre, James; Rahbar, Guita

    2017-11-01

    Purpose To compare the diagnostic performances of contrast material-enhanced spectral mammography and breast magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the detection of index and secondary cancers in women with newly diagnosed breast cancer by using histologic or imaging follow-up as the standard of reference. Materials and Methods This institutional review board-approved, HIPAA-compliant, retrospective study included 52 women who underwent breast MR imaging and contrast-enhanced spectral mammography for newly diagnosed unilateral breast cancer between March 2014 and October 2015. Of those 52 patients, 46 were referred for contrast-enhanced spectral mammography and targeted ultrasonography because they had additional suspicious lesions at MR imaging. In six of the 52 patients, breast cancer had been diagnosed at an outside institution. These patients were referred for contrast-enhanced spectral mammography and targeted US as part of diagnostic imaging. Images from contrast-enhanced spectral mammography were analyzed by two fellowship-trained breast imagers with 2.5 years of experience with contrast-enhanced spectral mammography. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value were calculated for both imaging modalities and compared by using the Bennett statistic. Results Fifty-two women with 120 breast lesions were included for analysis (mean age, 50 years; range, 29-73 years). Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography had similar sensitivity to MR imaging (94% [66 of 70 lesions] vs 99% [69 of 70 lesions]), a significantly higher PPV than MR imaging (93% [66 of 71 lesions] vs 60% [69 of 115 lesions]), and fewer false-positive findings than MR imaging (five vs 45) (P contrast-enhanced spectral mammography depicted 11 of the 11 secondary cancers (100%) and MR imaging depicted 10 (91%). Conclusion Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography is potentially as sensitive as MR imaging in the evaluation of extent of disease in newly diagnosed

  17. [Epidemiological survey of childhood asthma in Kunming City, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhi-Ye; Duan, Jing; Zhang, Quan; Cao, Zhi-Lan; Dai, Mei; Xiong, Jing-Jing; Mo, Ya-Xiong; Lu, Ping

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the prevalence of childhood asthma, and to find the distribution characteristics, precipitating factors, diagnosis and treatment status, and to provide scientific data for improving the prevention and management of asthma in children in Kunming City, China. Children were selected by random cluster sampling. A standardized preliminary questionnaire was used for screening out possible patients in the survey. Diagnosis of asthma was confirmed by diagnostic criteria in suspected asthmatic children. Asthmatic children were further asked for past diagnosis and treatment with the questionnaire of asthma in children. The total asthma incidence rate was 1.40%. The prevalence of asthma in male and female children was 1.89% and 0.88% respectively (Pasthma (1.69%) than that of school-age children (6-14 years old, 1.21%). In all asthmatic children, 51.3% were previously diagnosed with classical asthma or cough variant asthma, 26.0% were suffered attacks from December to February, and 54.0% were suffered attacks at midnight or dawn. Respiratory tract infection (87.3%) was the most common triggers of asthma exacerbation. Antibiotics were used in 80.0%, bronchodilators in 66.0%, inhaled corticosteroid in 64.0%. A peak flow meter for monitoring lung function was used in 17% of asthmatic children over 5 years old. The prevalence of asthma is associated with age and gender in children aged 0-14 years old in Kunming City. Acute asthma attack occurs mostly in winter and at midnight or dawn. Respiratory tract infection is the most common trigger of asthma exacerbation. Nearly a half of patients with asthma had not been diagnosed with asthma in the early stage. Most asthmatic children use antibiotics and only two-thirds use bronchodilators or inhaled corticosteroid in the treatment. The treatment and management of asthma in children awaits improvement as well.

  18. Stigma Reduction in Adolescents and Young Adults Newly Diagnosed with HIV: Findings from the Project ACCEPT Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Harper, Gary W.; Lemos, Diana; Hosek, Sybil G.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the influence of a group-based behavioral intervention for adolescents and young adults newly diagnosed with HIV (Project ACCEPT) on four dimensions of HIV-related stigma—personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, negative self-image, and concern with public attitudes about people with HIV—as measured by the Berger HIV Stigma Scale. Stigma was addressed in a holistic manner during the intervention by providing HIV/AIDS-related information, facilitating the acquisition of...

  19. Drug usage patterns and treatment costs in newly-diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus cases, 2007 vs 2012: findings from a large US healthcare claims database analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, W; Liang, Y; Kimball, E S; Hobbs, T; Kong, S; Sakurada, B; Bouchard, J

    2016-07-01

    Objective To explore trends in demographics, comorbidities, anti-diabetic drug usage, and healthcare utilization costs in patients with newly-diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using a large US claims database. Methods For the years 2007 and 2012, Truven Health Marketscan Research Databases were used to identify adults with newly-diagnosed T2DM and continuous 12-month enrollment with prescription benefits. Variables examined included patient demographics, comorbidities, inpatient utilization patterns, healthcare costs (inpatient and outpatient), drug costs, and diabetes drug claim patterns. Results Despite an increase in the overall database population between 2007-2012, the incidence of newly-diagnosed T2DM decreased from 1.1% (2007) to 0.65% (2012). Hyperlipidemia and hypertension were the most common comorbidities and increased in prevalence from 2007 to 2012. In 2007, 48.3% of newly-diagnosed T2DM patients had no claims for diabetes medications, compared with 36.2% of patients in 2012. The use of a single oral anti-diabetic drug (OAD) was the most common diabetes medication-related claim (46.2% of patients in 2007; 56.7% of patients in 2012). Among OAD monotherapy users, metformin was the most commonly used and increased from 2007 (74.7% of OAD monotherapy users) to 2012 (90.8%). Decreases were observed for sulfonylureas (14.1% to 6.2%) and thiazolidinediones (7.3% to 0.6%). Insulin, predominantly basal insulin, was used by 3.9% of patients in 2007 and 5.3% of patients in 2012. Mean total annual healthcare costs increased from $13,744 in 2007 to $15,175 in 2012, driven largely by outpatient services, although costs in all individual categories of healthcare services (inpatient and outpatient) increased. Conversely, total drug costs per patient were lower in 2012 compared with 2007. Conclusions Despite a drop in the rate of newly-diagnosed T2DM from 2007 to 2012 in the US, increased total medical costs and comorbidities per individual patient suggest that

  20. A descriptive retrospective study on children with newly diagnosed nephrotic syndrome presented to Tripoli Children Hospital during the period between Jan. to Dec. 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naziha Ramadan Rhuma

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nephrotic syndrome is a clinical picture characterized by severe proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, edema and hypercholesterolemia. A retrospective study was carried out in order to describe disease pattern in newly diagnosed nephrotic syndrome of children admitted to Tripoli children hospital during the year 2014. Methods: The medical data of 56 patients aged between 1 year and 11 years diagnosed with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome were analysed using SPSS software. The data included gender differences, sensitivity to steroid therapy, relapses during six months of follow up and the effect of variable factors such as family history, hypertension, hematuria, serum urea on the degree of relapse. Results: Out of 56 patients with newly diagnosed nephrotic syndrome (NS, 60.7% were boys and 39.3% were girls, with a mean age 4.2±2.2 years. Age  was related significantly to the response to steroid therapy, where 79.5% of patients aged between 2-8 years (group 1 had steroid sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS compared with only 41.7% of patients aged less than 2 years or more than 8 years (group 2  (P<0.001.  Although girls relapsed more than boys (70.5% versus 57.1% during six months of therapy, this difference was not statistically significant. Similarly, no other factors measured such as family history of NS, hypertension, hematuria, serum complement and urea had any effect on the percentage of relapse in patients with newly diagnosed NS.  Conclusion: NS is one of the commonest reasons for admission to nephrology ward. It is more common in boys than girls. The age at presentation related significantly to the response to steroidal therapy. Regarding relapses, girls seems to relapse more frequent than boys and relapses was seen more in age group 1 than group 2, however, these differences were not significant. Other factors studied seems to have no effect on the relapse rate of children with newly diagnosed NS. Key-words:  Idiopathic

  1. Altered modulation of prefrontal and subcortical brain activity in newly diagnosed schizophrenia and schizophreniform disorder. A regional cerebral blood flow study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, P; Holm, S; Friberg, L

    1991-01-01

    To measure prefrontal and subcortical activity during a cognitive task, we examined 19 newly diagnosed schizophrenics and patients with schizophreniform psychosis. Seven healthy volunteers served as controls. The patients were drug naive or had received neuroleptics for a few days only. Cerebral ...

  2. Asthma and cystic fibrosis: a tangled web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Brian D; Lane, Stephen J; van Beek, Edwin J; Dodd, Jonathan D; Costello, Richard W; Tiddens, Harm A W M

    2014-03-01

    Successfully diagnosing concomitant asthma in people with cystic fibrosis (CF) is a challenging proposition, and the utility of conventional diagnostic criteria of asthma in CF populations remains uncertain. Nonetheless, the accurate identification of individuals with CF and asthma allows appropriate tailoring of therapy, and should reduce the unnecessary use of asthma medication in broader CF cohorts. In this review, we discuss the diagnostic challenge posed by asthma in CF, both in terms of clinical evaluation, and of interpretation of pulmonary function testing and non-invasive markers of airway inflammation. We also examine how the role of cross-sectional thoracic imaging in CF and asthma can assist in the diagnosis of asthma in these patients. Finally, we critically appraise the evidence base behind the use of asthma medications in CF populations, with a particular focus on the use of inhaled corticosteroids and bronchodilators. As shall be discussed, the gaps in the current literature make further high-quality research in this field imperative. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Cognitive functions in newly diagnosed patients with HIV infection in a tertiary health facility: Assessment using community screening interview for dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A. Sumonu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Neurocognitive dysfunction is a detrimental complication of HIV infection. In this study we attempt to characterize the pattern of cognitive dysfunction in a sample of Nigerian patients with newly diagnosed HIV infection. Methods: We conducted a prospective study in which 50 patients with newly diagnosed HIV infection were studied along with 50 normal control subjects. The participants were evaluated with the medical history, general, physical and neurological examination. Laboratory evaluation and chest X-Ray were done for all patients. The Community Screening Interview for Dementia (CSID questionnaire was administered to all the study participants. Results: About 70% of the patients were in advanced disease stage. The mean age (SD of the patients and controls in years were 36.44±8.22 and 35.40±11.53 respectively. More than half (56% of the patients had secondary level of education (12years of education. About 20% of the patients had severe neurocognitive impairment while 48% had minor neurocognitive disorder. The patients with HIV infection performed poorly in the domains of language, memory, orientation, attention/calculation and praxis relative to controls (p0.05 but the presence of opportunistic infections had negative impact on the performances on orientation and total CSID scores in the patients with HIV infection (p<0.05. Conclusion: Patients with newly diagnosed HIV infection have poor cognitive functions when compared to normal controls and some presence of opportunistic infections in the patient is a significant risk factor for cognitive impairment. Keywords: Human immunodeficiency virus infection, Cognitive functions, Dementia, Nigeria

  4. Asthma prescription patterns for children: can GPs do better?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijen, J.H.J.M.; Wouden, J.C. van der; Schellevis, F.G.; Willemsen, S.P.; Suijlekom-Smit, L.W.A. van; Bindels, P.J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Assessing prescription patterns of asthma medication for children is helpful to optimize prescribing by general practitioners (GPs). The aim was to explore prescription patterns in children with physician-diagnosed asthma and its determinants in general practice. Methods: We used the

  5. Examining Perceived Stigma of Children with Newly-Diagnosed Epilepsy and Their Caregivers Over a Two Year Period

    OpenAIRE

    Rood, Jennifer E.; Schultz, Janet R.; Rausch, Joseph R.; Modi, Avani C.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine: 1) the course of perceived epilepsy-related stigma among children newly-diagnosed with epilepsy (n=39) and their caregivers (n=97) over a two year period, 2) the influence of seizure absence/presence on children and caregivers’ perception of epilepsy-related stigma, and 3) congruence of child and caregiver perception of child epilepsy-related stigma. Participants completed a measure of perceived epilepsy-related stigma at three time points, and seizur...

  6. The prevalence of asthma in schoolboys of travellers' families.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kearney, P M

    2012-02-03

    This study compared the prevalence of asthma in travelling schoolboys and settled controls to determine whether the travelling lifestyle may be a protective factor in the development of asthma. Information was collected by parental responses to the ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood) questionnaire. The design was a cross-sectional study with descriptive and analytical components. The subjects were six to twelve year old schoolboys from all male travelling children in Cork and from a selection of settled schoolboys. In addition the study collected information on the predictor variables--age, passive smoking and number of siblings. The questionnaire was administered to 54 travelling boys and 129 controls. The parent reported prevalence of wheeze and related symptoms were all more common in controls compared with the travelling boys. The values were significant for wheeze in the last year (31.3% v 14.8%; OR-5.6, p = 0.025), and for doctor diagnosed asthma (25.6% v 11.1%; OR = 5.1, p = 0.04). Schoolboys from travelling families have less wheeze and doctor diagnosed asthma than controls. The experience of the travelling lifestyle maybe a protective factor in the development of asthma.

  7. Determinants of persistent asthma in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traulsen, Lisbet Krogh; Halling, Anders; Bælum, Jesper

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate determinants for the prognosis of asthma in a population-based cohort of young adults. Design: The study was a nine-year clinical follow up of 239 asthmatic subjects from an enriched population-based sample of 1,191 young adults, aged 20-44 years, who...... participated in an interviewer-administered questionnaire and clinical examination at baseline in 2003-2006. From the interview, an asthma score was generated as the simple sum of affirmative answers to five main asthma-like symptoms in order to analyse symptoms of asthma as a continuum. The clinical...... examination comprised spirometry, bronchial challenge or bronchodilation, and skin prick test. Results: Among the 239 individuals with asthma at baseline 164 (69%) had persistent asthma at follow up, while 68 (28%) achieved remission of asthma and seven (3%) were diagnosed with COPD solely. Determinants...

  8. Chromium-Containing Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianmai Xiaoke Tablet, for Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review of Randomized Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yuming; Xu, Xuemin; Wang, Zhe; Xu, Yunsheng; Liu, Xiuzhi; Cao, Lejun; Wang, Xueyang; Li, Zhengxin; Feng, Bo

    2018-01-01

    Chromium-containing traditional Chinese medicine Tianmai Xiaoke tablet (TMXKT) is approved for treating newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in China. This review aimed to compile the evidence from randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and quantify the effects of TMXKT on newly diagnosed T2DM. Seven online databases were investigated up to March 20, 2017. The meta-analysis included RCTs investigating the treatment of newly diagnosed T2DM, in which TMXKT combined with conventional therapy was compared with placebo or conventional therapy. The risk of bias was evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration tool. The estimated mean difference (MD) and the standardized mean difference were within 95% confidence intervals (CI) with respect to the interstudy heterogeneity. The outcomes were measured using fasting blood glucose (FBG), 2-h postprandial blood glucose (2hPG), glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and body mass index (BMI) levels. TMXKT combined with conventional therapy lowered FBG level (MD = -0.68, 95% CI -0.90 to -0.45, P < 0.00001), 2hPG (MD = -1.33, 95% CI -1.86 to -0.79, P < 0.00001), HbA1c (MD = -0.46, 95% CI -0.57 to -0.36, P < 0.00001), and BMI (MD = -0.77, 95% CI -1.12 to -0.41, P < 0.00001). TMXKT combined with conventional therapy is beneficial for patients with newly diagnosed T2DM. However, the effectiveness and safety of TMXKT are uncertain because of the limited number of trials and low methodological quality. Therefore, practitioners should be cautious when applying TMXKT in daily practice. Also, well-designed clinical trials are needed in the future.

  9. Importance of fractional exhaled nitric oxide in the differentiation of asthma-COPD overlap syndrome, asthma, and COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng-Jia; Huang, Xin-Yan; Liu, Yang-Li; Lin, Geng-Peng; Xie, Can-Mao

    2016-01-01

    Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is an easy, sensitive, reproducible, and noninvasive marker of eosinophilic airway inflammation. Accordingly, FeNO is extensively used to diagnose and manage asthma. Patients with COPD who share some of the features of asthma have a condition called asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS). The feasibility of using FeNO to differentiate ACOS patients from asthma and COPD patients remains unclear. From February 2013 to May 2016, patients suspected with asthma and COPD through physician's opinion were subjected to FeNO measurement, pulmonary function test (PFT), and bronchial hyperresponsiveness or bronchodilator test. Patients were divided into asthma alone group, COPD alone group, and ACOS group according to a clinical history, PFT values, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness or bronchodilator test. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were obtained to elucidate the clinical functions of FeNO in diagnosing ACOS. The optimal operating point was also determined. A total of 689 patients were enrolled in this study: 500 had asthma, 132 had COPD, and 57 had ACOS. The FeNO value in patients with ACOS was 27 (21.5) parts per billion (ppb; median [interquartile range]), which was significantly higher than that in the COPD group (18 [11] ppb). The area under the ROC curve was estimated to be 0.783 for FeNO. Results also revealed an optimal cutoff value of >22.5 ppb FeNO for differentiating ACOS from COPD patients (sensitivity 70%, specificity 75%). FeNO measurement is an easy, noninvasive, and sensitive method for differentiating ACOS from COPD. This technique is a new perspective for the management of COPD patients.

  10. Screening for thyroid cancer according to French recommendations with thyroid ultrasound in newly diagnosed Graves' disease without palpable nodule is not useful.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nys, Pierre; Cordray, Jean-Pierre; Sarafian, Véronique; Lefort-Mossé, Ève; Merceron, Robert-Édouard

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate systematic thyroid ultrasonography (US) relevance in newly diagnosed Graves' disease among patients presenting without palpable nodules. We consecutively recruited 208 cases of Graves' disease without palpable nodule. All patients were screened for thyroid antibodies and underwent a thyroid US. Ultrasonically guided biopsy was proposed for the assessment of all nodules upper or equal to 10mm in diameter. Two third of patients had an abnormal thyroid at palpation requiring an US. One third of patients had a normal thyroid at palpation and US was consequently unwarranted. Among all patients, US detected non-palpable nodules in 26% of cases. We found no smears suspected to be cancerous. In newly diagnosed Graves' disease, the US relevance is only questionable in patients without abnormal thyroid at palpation. Ultrasonography detected non-palpable nodules and none was suspected to be cancerous. These data suggest that US is not useful in patients without abnormal thyroid at palpation. Nevertheless, the recent Thyroid Imaging-Reporting And Data System classification (TI-RADS) might change our conclusions. The TI-RADS classification indeed improves the selection of nodules lower than 10mm in diameter requiring a biopsy. Nodules lower than 10mm in diameter were not biopsied in the present study. The other US data presented herein (echogenicity, vascularisation) provide no further relevance for systematic US in newly diagnosed patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Allergic rhinitis is associated with poor asthma control in children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Eric P; Nijkamp, Anke; Duiverman, Eric J; Brand, Paul L P

    2012-07-01

    Asthma and allergic rhinitis are the two most common chronic disorders in childhood and adolescence. To date, no study has examined the impact of comorbid allergic rhinitis on asthma control in children. To examine the prevalence of allergic rhinitis in children with asthma, and the impact of the disease and its treatment on asthma control. A cross-sectional survey in 203 children with asthma (5-18 years) using validated questionnaires on rhinitis symptoms (stuffy or runny nose outside a cold) and its treatment, and the paediatric Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ). Fraction of nitric oxide in exhaled air (FeNO) was measured with a Niox Mino analyser; total and specific IgE levels were assessed by the Immunocap system. 157 children (76.2%) had symptoms of allergic rhinitis but only 88 of these (56.1%) had been diagnosed with the condition by a physician. ACQ scores were worse in children with allergic rhinitis than in those without the condition (p=0.012). An ACQ score ≥ 1.0 (incomplete asthma control) was significantly more likely in children with allergic rhinitis than in those without (OR 2.74, 95% CI 1.28 to 5.91, p=0.0081), also after adjustment for FeNO levels and total serum IgE. After adjustment for nasal corticosteroid therapy, allergic rhinitis was no longer associated with incomplete asthma control (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.47 to 1.12, p=0.150). Allergic rhinitis is common in children with asthma, and has a major impact on asthma control. The authors hypothesise that recognition and treatment of this condition with nasal corticosteroids may improve asthma control in children, but randomised clinical trials are needed to test this hypothesis.

  12. Factors associated with asthma among under-fives in Mulago hospital, Kampala Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nantanda, Rebecca; Ostergaard, Marianne S; Ndeezi, Grace

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic childhood illness, with rapidly increasing prevalence in low-income countries. Among young children, asthma is often under-diagnosed.We investigated the factors associated with asthma among under-fives presenting with acute respiratory symptoms at Mulago hospital...

  13. Does the presence of tumor-induced cortical bone destruction at CT have any prognostic value in newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Hugo J.A.; Nievelstein, Rutger A.J.; Kwee, Thomas C. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Klerk, John M.H. de [Meander Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Fijnheer, Rob [Meander Medical Center, Department of Hematology, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Heggelman, Ben G.F. [Meander Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Dubois, Stefan V. [Meander Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Amersfoort (Netherlands)

    2015-05-01

    To determine the prognostic value of tumor-induced cortical bone destruction at computed tomography (CT) in newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). This retrospective study included 105 patients with newly diagnosed DLBCL who had undergone CT and bone marrow biopsy (BMB) before R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, Oncovin, and prednisolone) chemo-immunotherapy. Cox regression analyses were used to determine the associations of cortical bone status at CT (absence vs. presence of tumor-induced cortical bone destruction), BMB findings (negative vs. positive for lymphomatous involvement), and dichotomized National Comprehensive Cancer Network International Prognostic Index (NCCN-IPI) strata (low risk vs. high risk) with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Univariate Cox regression analysis indicated that cortical bone status at CT was no significant predictor of either PFS or OS (p = 0.358 and p = 0.560, respectively), whereas BMB findings (p = 0.002 and p = 0.013, respectively) and dichotomized NCCN-IPI risk strata (p = 0.002 and p = 0.003, respectively) were significant predictors of both PFS and OS. In the multivariate Cox proportional hazards model, only the dichotomized NCCN-IPI score was an independent predictive factor of PFS and OS (p = 0.004 and p = 0.003, respectively). The presence of tumor-induced cortical bone destruction at CT was not found to have any prognostic implications in newly diagnosed DLBCL. (orig.)

  14. Is Home Spirometry Useful in Diagnosing Asthma in Children With Nonspecific Respiratory Symptoms?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Alwin F. J.; Visser, Chantal A. N.; Duiverman, Eric J.; Roorda, Ruurd Jan; Brand, Paul L. P.

    Background: Variation of lung function is considered to be a hallmark of asthma. Although guidelines recommend measuring it as a diagnostic tool for asthma, the usefulness of this approach has not been studied in children. Aim: To assess the usefulness of home spirometry in children with nonspecific

  15. HIV diagnosis, linkage to HIV care, and HIV risk behaviors among newly diagnosed HIV-positive female sex workers in Kigali, Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braunstein, Sarah L.; Umulisa, Marie-Michèle; Veldhuijzen, Nienke J.; Kestelyn, Evelyne; Ingabire, Chantal M.; Nyinawabega, Jeanine; van de Wijgert, Janneke H. H. M.; Nash, Denis

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate linkage-to-care, sexual behavior change, and psychosocial experiences among newly HIV-diagnosed female sex workers (FSWs) in Rwanda. FSWs (n = 800) with unknown serostatus were screened for HIV during 2007/2008. Women testing HIV positive (n = 192) were referred to care and asked to

  16. Does early indoor microbial exposure reduce the risk of asthma? The Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douwes, J; van Strien, R; Doekes, G; Smit, Jet; Kerkhof, M; Gerritsen, J; Postma, D; Travier, N; Brunekreef, B

    Background: Exposure to microbial agents might inhibit the development of atopy and asthma. Objective: We measured the association between microbial exposure assessed at 3 months and the development of atopic sensitization and doctor-diagnosed (DD) asthma and wheeze in the first 4 years in a birth

  17. Emotion regulation and emotional distress: The mediating role of hope on reappraisal and anxiety/depression in newly diagnosed cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peh, Chao Xu; Liu, Jianlin; Bishop, George D; Chan, Hui Yu; Chua, Shi Min; Kua, Ee Heok; Mahendran, Rathi

    2017-08-01

    A proportion of newly diagnosed cancer patients may experience anxiety and depression. Emotion suppression has been associated with poorer psychoemotional outcomes, whereas reappraisal may be an adaptive emotion regulation strategy. Few studies have examined potential mechanisms linking reappraisal to psychoemotional outcomes in cancer patients. This study aims to replicate findings on reappraisal and suppression and further examines if hope mediates the association between reappraisal and anxiety/depression in patients newly diagnosed with cancer. Participants were 144 adult cancer patients (65.3% female, mean age = 48.96 years, SD = 9.23). Patients completed a set of study questionnaires, including the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, Adult Hope Scale, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Path analysis was used to examine if hope mediated the association between reappraisal and anxiety/depression. Prevalence of anxiety was 39.6% and depression was 25.0%. Reappraisal and hope were correlated with lower anxiety and depression, whereas suppression was correlated with higher anxiety and depression. The hypothesized mediation model provided fit to the data, comparative fit index = 0.95, Tucker-Lewis index = 0.94, root-mean-square-error of approximation = 0.05. There was a significant indirect effect of reappraisal on anxiety and depression via hope, b = -0.95, SE = 0.42, 95% confidence interval = -1.77 to -0.12, whereas the direct effect of reappraisal was nonsignificant. The study findings suggest that hope mediated the association between reappraisal and anxiety/depression outcomes. Moreover, the high prevalence of anxiety and depression implies a need for healthcare providers to attend to the psychoemotional needs of newly diagnosed cancer patients. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Maximum standard uptake value on pre-chemotherapeutic FDG-PET is a significant parameter for disease progression of newly diagnosed lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eo, Jae Seon; Lee, Won Woo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Kim, Sang Eun

    2005-01-01

    F-18 FDG-PET is useful for detection and staging of lymphoma. We investigated the prognostic significance of maximum standard uptake (maxSUV) value of FDG-PET for newly diagnosed lymphoma patients before chemotherapy. Twenty-seven patients (male: female = 17: 10: age: 49±19 years) with newly diagnosed lymphoma were enrolled. Nine-teen patients suffered from B cell lymphoma, 6 Hodgkins disease and 2 T cell lymphoma. One patient was stage I, 9 stage II, 3 stage III, 1 stage IV and 13 others. All patients underwent FDG-PET before initiation of chemotherapy. MaxSUV values using lean body weight were obtained for main and largest lesion to represent maxSUV of the patients. The disease progression was defined as total change of the chemotherapeutic regimen or addition of new chemotherapeutic agent during follow up period. The observed period was 389±224 days. The value of maxSUV ranged from 3 to 18 (mean±SD = 10.6±4.4). The disease progressions occurred in 6 patients. Using Cox proportional-hazard regression analysis, maxSUV was identified as a significant parameter for the disease progression free survival (p=0.044). Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis revealed that the group with higher maxSUV (=10.6, n=5) suffered from shorter disease progression free survival (median 299 days) than the group with lower maxSUV (<10.6, n = 22) (median 378 days, p=0.0146). We found that maxSUV on pre-chemotherapeutic F-18 FDG-PET for newly diagnosed lymphoma patients is a significant parameter for disease progression. Lymphoma patients can be stratified before initiation of chemotherapy in terms of disease progression by the value of maxSUV 10.6

  19. Thalidomide, clarithromycin, lenalidomide and dexamethasone therapy in newly diagnosed, symptomatic multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Tomer M; Bowman, Isaac A; Rossi, Adriana C; Shah, Manan; Rodriguez, Melissa; Quinn, Ryann; Pearse, Roger N; Zafar, Faiza; Pekle, Karen; Jayabalan, David; Ely, Scott; Coleman, Morton; Chen-Kiang, Selina; Niesvizky, Ruben

    2014-12-01

    We studied T-BiRD (thalidomide [Thalomid(®)], clarithromycin [Biaxin(®)], lenalidomide [Revlimid(®)] and dexamethasone) in symptomatic, newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. In 28-day cycles, patients received dexamethasone 40 mg/day on days 1, 8, 15, 22, clarithromycin 500 mg twice daily on days 1-28; lenalidomide 25 mg/day on days 1-21; and thalidomide 100 mg/day (50 mg/day on days 1-7 of cycle 1 only) on days 1-28. Twenty-six patients received a median of 6 cycles (range 0-41). Overall response rate (ORR) was 80% for the group and 100% in 11 patients who underwent autologous stem cell transplantation as part of first-line therapy. The 4-year overall survival rate was 74.9%, and the median progression-free survival was 35.6 months. Eight patients discontinued due to regimen toxicity. Grade 3 non hematologic toxicity affected 12 patients (46.2%). T-BiRD is a highly active regimen with potential toxicity limitations. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00538733.

  20. Prognostic value of SPECT in newly diagnosed symptomatic west syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Megumi; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Kato, Tomomi; Futagi, Yasuyuki [Osaka Medical Center and Research Inst. for Maternal and Child Health, Izumi (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    In 19 cases with newly diagnosed symptomatic West syndrome, we assessed interictal regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) before ACTH therapy with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Based on the SPECT findings, we divided these cases into 3 groups: normal rCBF (Group A, 7 cases), abnormal rCBF corresponding to cerebral lesions on MRI and CT (Group B, 6 cases), and abnormal rCBF in areas different from lesions on MRI and CT (Group C, 6 cases). We compared clinical features, response to initial treatment, and short-term outcome among these 3 groups. No significant differences were found in clinical characteristics (sex, age of onset, prior seizures before onset of spasms, EEG findings). Four cases in Group B (67%) and 5 in Group C (83%) showed complete cessation of spasms after initial treatment (high dose vitamin B{sub 6}{yields}zonisamide{yields}ACTH therapy), while in Group A only 2 patients (29%, p>0.05; compared to Group B or Group C) responded. Although not statistically significant, short-term prognosis (both seizures and development) after a mean follow-up of 2 years and 8 months was also worst in Group A. Our results suggest that normal SPECT findings may be predictive of unfavorable prognosis in infants with symptomatic West syndrome. (author)

  1. The dieting dilemma in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: Does dietary restraint predict weight gain four years after diagnosis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strien, T. van; Laar, F.A. van de; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van; Lucassen, P.L.B.J.; Hoogen, H.J.M. van den; Rutten, G.E.H.M.; Weel, C. van

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether dieting--restriction of food intake for the purpose of weight control--suppresses or promotes excessive food intake and weight gain. Design: A 4-year follow-up study of a dietary intervention in a sample of 97 patients with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes. Main Outcome

  2. The dieting dilemma in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: does dietary restraint predict weight gain 4 years after diagnosis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strien, T. van; Laar, F.A. van de; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van; Lucassen, P.L.B.J.; Hoogen, H.J.M. van den; Rutten, G.E.H.M.; Weel, C. van

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether dieting--restriction of food intake for the purpose of weight control--suppresses or promotes excessive food intake and weight gain. DESIGN: A 4-year follow-up study of a dietary intervention in a sample of 97 patients with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes. MAIN OUTCOME

  3. Sustainable Benefits of a Community Hospital-Based Paediatric Asthma Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzik, Brian A; Chen, Chee P; Hansen, Miriam J; Montgomery, Paula L

    2017-01-01

    In 2011, we reported that our paediatric asthma clinic (PAC) appeared to significantly reduce the burden of paediatric asthma in our community. Supported by these results, the PAC underwent a gradual threefold expansion while maintaining the same model of care. We now report on the outcome of that expansion and demonstrate that our PAC continues to significantly reduce the burden of paediatric asthma in our community. As previously, newly enrolled PAC patients continue to show a 12-month reduction in asthma-related emergency department (ED) visits and admissions exceeding 60% and 80%, respectively. This consistent short-term benefit, coupled with clinic expansion, has contributed to a significant improvement in our rate of paediatric asthma-related ED visits or hospitalizations when compared to other Ontario hospitals.

  4. Starting with a higher dose of inhaled corticosteroids in primary care asthma treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, T; Meyboom-de Jong, B; Mulder, HH; Postma, DS

    New British guidelines on the treatment of asthma (9) advocate starting with a higher dose of inhaled corticosteroids in newly detected asthma patients. We investigated whether initiating inhaled steroid treatment with a higher dose is clinically more effective than a lower dose in steroid naive

  5. Biomedical, lifestyle and psychosocial characteristics of people newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khunti, K.; Skinner, T. C.; Heller, S.

    2008-01-01

    Aims: To describe the characteristics of newly diagnosed people with Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and compare these with published studies. Methods: Baseline data of participants recruited to the DESMOND randomized controlled trial conducted in 13 sites across England and Scotland were used. Biomedical...... measures and questionnaires on psychological characteristics were collected within 4 weeks of diagnosis. Results: Of 1109 participants referred, 824 consented to participate (74.3%). Mean (± sd) age was 59.5 ± 12 years and 54.9% were male. Mean HbA1c was 8.1 ± 2.1% and did not differ by gender. Mean body...... mass index (BMI) was significantly higher in women (33.7 vs. 31.3 kg/m2; P 30 kg/m2). Total cholesterol was significantly higher in women (5.6 vs. 5.2 mmol/l; P

  6. Japanese guidelines for childhood asthma 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Hirokazu; Hamasaki, Yuhei; Kohno, Yoichi; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Kondo, Naomi; Nishima, Sankei; Nishimuta, Toshiyuki; Morikawa, Akihiro

    2017-04-01

    The Japanese Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Allergic Diseases 2017 (JAGL 2017) includes a minor revision of the Japanese Pediatric Guideline for the Treatment and Management of Asthma 2012 (JPGL 2012) by the Japanese Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology. The section on child asthma in JAGL 2017 provides information on how to diagnose asthma between infancy and adolescence (0-15 years of age). It makes recommendations for best practices in the management of childhood asthma, including management of acute exacerbations and non-pharmacological and pharmacological management. This guideline will be of interest to non-specialist physicians involved in the care of children with asthma. JAGL differs from the Global Initiative for Asthma Guideline in that JAGL emphasizes diagnosis and early intervention of children with asthma at asthma control levels, is easy to understand; thus, this guideline is suitable for the routine medical care of children with asthma. JAGL also recommends using a control test in children, so that the physician aims for complete control by avoiding exacerbating factors and appropriately using anti-inflammatory drugs (for example, inhaled corticosteroids and leukotriene receptor antagonists). Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Asthma and cystic fibrosis: A tangled web.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kent, Brian D

    2014-03-01

    Successfully diagnosing concomitant asthma in people with cystic fibrosis (CF) is a challenging proposition, and the utility of conventional diagnostic criteria of asthma in CF populations remains uncertain. Nonetheless, the accurate identification of individuals with CF and asthma allows appropriate tailoring of therapy, and should reduce the unnecessary use of asthma medication in broader CF cohorts. In this review, we discuss the diagnostic challenge posed by asthma in CF, both in terms of clinical evaluation, and of interpretation of pulmonary function testing and non-invasive markers of airway inflammation. We also examine how the role of cross-sectional thoracic imaging in CF and asthma can assist in the diagnosis of asthma in these patients. Finally, we critically appraise the evidence base behind the use of asthma medications in CF populations, with a particular focus on the use of inhaled corticosteroids and bronchodilators. As shall be discussed, the gaps in the current literature make further high-quality research in this field imperative. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2014; 49:205-213. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Inverse Association of Plasma Chromium Levels with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijing Chen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chromium has long been known as an enhancer of insulin action. However, the role of chromium in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in humans remains controversial. The current study aimed to examine the associations of plasma chromium levels with T2DM and pre-diabetes mellitus (pre-DM. We conducted a case-control study involving 1471 patients with newly diagnosed T2DM, 682 individuals with newly diagnosed pre-DM, and 2290 individuals with normal glucose tolerance in a Chinese population from 2009 to 2014. Plasma chromium was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Plasma chromium levels were lower in the T2DM and pre-DM groups than in the control group (median: 3.68 μg/L, 3.61 μg/L, 3.97 μg/L, respectively, p < 0.001. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, the odds ratios (95% confidence interval for T2DM across increasing quartiles of plasma chromium levels were 1 (referent, 0.67 (0.55–0.83, 0.64 (0.51–0.79, and 0.58 (0.46–0.73, respectively (p for trend <0.001. The corresponding odds ratios (95% confidence interval for pre-DM were 1 (referent, 0.70 (0.54–0.91, 0.67 (0.52–0.88, and 0.58 (0.43–0.78, respectively (p for trend < 0.001. Our results indicated that plasma chromium concentrations were inversely associated with T2DM and pre-DM in Chinese adults.

  9. Health related quality of life in patients with newly diagnosed anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibody associated vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Michael; Mukhtyar, Chetan; Mahr, Alfred; Herlyn, Karen; Luqmani, Raashid; Merkel, Peter A.; Jayne, David R. W.

    2011-01-01

    Background Anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV) can present with a broad spectrum of signs and symptoms. The relative effects of different manifestations on health related quality of life (HRQOL) is unknown. Methods We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis of baseline Short Form 36 (SF-36) scores from four randomized controlled trials of patients with newly diagnosed AAV. We determined the associations between organ manifestations at trial entry and the SF-36 Physical Composite Score (PCS) and Mental Composite Score (MCS) using mixed effects models adjusted for demographic factors. Associations with each of the 8 domains of the SF-36 were further explored using multivariate multiple regression. Results SF-36 data was available from 346 patients. Older age (−0.11 points/year; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] −0.21 to −0.012; p=0.029) and neurologic involvement (−5.84, p<0.001) at baseline were associated with lower Physical Composite Scores. Physical Function scores were the most affected and older age (−0.25 points per year, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] −0.38 to −0.11; p<0.001) scores and neurologic involvement (−8.48 points, 95% CI −12.90 to −4.06; p<0.001) had the largest effects. The MCS was negatively affected only by chest involvement (p=0.027) but this effect was not exerted in any particular domain. Conclusions HRQOL in patients with newly diagnosed AAV are complex and incompletely explained by their organ system manifestations. PMID:21452254

  10. Hormonal therapy with external radiation therapy for metastatic spinal cord compression from newly diagnosed prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, So; Hozumi, Takahiro; Yamakawa, Kiyofumi; Higashikawa, Akiro; Goto, Takahiro; Shinohara, Mitsuru; Kondo, Taiji

    2013-01-01

    Although hormonal therapy is effective for treatment of prostate cancer, its effect in the treatment of metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC) has not been established. The objective of this study was to clarify the efficacy of conservative treatment of MSCC-induced paralysis resulting from prostate cancer for patients without a previous treatment history. We reviewed data from 38 patients with MSCC-induced paralysis from newly diagnosed prostate cancer who presented to our service between 1984 and 2010. Conservative treatment consisted of hormonal therapy with external radiation therapy (ERT). Patient demographic data, treatment details, involved spine MRI images, complications, and the course of neurologic recovery were investigated. Twenty-five patients were treated conservatively. Mean follow-up period was 36.8 months. Sixteen patients (two with Frankel B, 14 with Frankel C) were unable to walk at initial presentation. After initiating conservative treatment, 75% (12 of 16) of these patients regained the ability to walk within 1 month, 88% (14 in 16) did so within 3 months, and all non-ambulatory patients did so within 6 months. No one had morbid complications. Four patients who did not regain the ability to walk at 1 month were found to have progressed to paraplegia rapidly, and tended to have severe compression as visualized on MRI, with a delay in the start of treatment in comparison with those who did so within 1 month (21.0 vs. 7.8 days). Hormonal therapy associated with ERT is an important option for treatment of MSCC resulting from newly diagnosed prostate cancer. (author)

  11. Triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and carotid intima-medial thickness in Chinese adolescents with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Deng, You-Ping; Yang, Miao; Wu, Yu-Wen; Sun, Su-Xin; Sun, Jia-Zhong

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the relationship between triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio and carotid intima-medial thickness (CIMT) in Chinese youth and adolescents with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Ninety-eight subjects aged 10-24 yr with newly-diagnosed T2DM had general inflammation, anthropometric, laboratory and CIMT data collected, and were divided into three groups based on TG/HDL-C tertiles. There were no significant differences in gender, age, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and carotid arterial diameter (CAD) among the groups based on TG/HDL-C tertiles. Across TG/HDL-C tertiles, there was a significant progressive increase in body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), TG, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and CIMT (all P < 0.01 or P < 0.05), while HDL-C was decreased significantly across the groups (P < 0.01). In general linear regression model, TG/HDL-C was an independent determinant of CIMT even after adjusting for BMI, SBP, DBP, TG, TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, HbA1c and HOMA-IR. TG/HDL-C ratio, the marker of small dense LDL particles, is an independent determinant of CIMT in Chinese youth and adolescents with newly diagnosed T2DM, and may be a simple and helpful tool in predicting the increased CIMT in such patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Neoadjuvant bevacizumab and irinotecan versus bevacizumab and temozolomide followed by concomitant chemoradiotherapy in newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofland, Kenneth F; Hansen, Steinbjørn; Sorensen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Surgery followed by radiotherapy and concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide is standard therapy in newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Bevacizumab combined with irinotecan produces impressive response rates in recurrent GBM. In a randomized phase II study, we investigated...... from febrile neutropenia whereas non-hematological toxicity was manageable. CONCLUSIONS: Only the Bev-Tem arm met the pre-specified level of activity of interest. Our results did not indicate any benefit from Bev-Iri in first-line therapy as opposed to Bev-Tem in terms of response and PFS....

  13. Newly Diagnosed Anemia in Admitted Diabetics, Frequency, Etiology and Associated Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shams, N.; Osmani, M. H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To determine the frequency of newly-diagnosed anemia in diabetics admitted to the Internal Medicine Department and its etiology and contributing factors. Study Design: A cross-sectional, analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Internal Medicine, Sir Syed Trust Hospital and College of Medical Sciences, Karachi, from July 2011 to December 2012. Methodology: Adult diabetic patients first diagnosed as having anemia upon hospital admission during the specified duration were included. Patients with active bleed, acute renal impairment, critical illness, pregnancy and previously diagnosed anemia were excluded. Etiology and risk factors of anemia were determined in each case on the basis of history, clinical findings and relevant laboratory investigations i.e. complete blood picture, red cell indices, iron profile, renal function tests, urine and stool examination. Association of anemia was determined using chi-square and t-tests with p-value < 0.05 taken as significant. Results: One hundred and thirty patients (34 males and 96 females) were included. Mean age was 51 ± 12.4 years, with mean BMI of 25.4 ± 5.2 kg/m2, mean duration of diabetes of 7.6 ± 5.5 years and mean glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) 8.47 ± 1.58%, with 75% diabetics having unsatisfactory glycemic control. Mean haemoglobin was 11.6 ± 1.96 g/dl. Anemia was present in 63% diabetics (18 males and 64 females). It was normocytic in 59.8%, microcytic in 37.8% and macrocytic in 2.4%. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) was present in 44%, iron deficiency in 23%, mixed etiology in 6%, vitamin B-12 deficiency in 2% and thalassemia minor in 1% cases. Statistically significant association of anemia was found with poor glycemic control (p=0.002), dietary restriction for red meat (p < 0.001), history of blood loss (p < 0.001), gastrointestinal disorders (p < 0.001), CKD (p < 0.001) and retinopathy (p=0.011). Conclusion: Anemia in two out of every three diabetics in this study points to need for

  14. Tracheal adenoid cystic carcinoma masquerading asthma: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurul Cuneyt

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tracheal tumors are often misdiagnosed as asthma and are treated with inhaled steroids and bronchodilators without resolution. Case Presentation Here, a patient with tracheal adenoid cystic carcinoma who had been previously diagnosed with difficult asthma was reported. The possibility of the presence of localized airway obstruction was raised when the flow-volume curve suggesting fixed airway obstruction, was obtained. Conclusion The presenting case report emphasizes the fact that not all wheezes are asthma. It is critical to bear in mind that if a patient does not respond to appropriate anti-asthma therapy, localized obstructions should be ruled out before establishing the diagnosis of asthma.

  15. Dasatinib or imatinib in newly diagnosed chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia : 2-year follow-up from a randomized phase 3 trial (DASISION)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kantarjian, Hagop M.; Shah, Neil P.; Cortes, Jorge E.; Baccarani, Michele; Agarwal, Mohan B.; Soledad Undurraga, Maria; Wang, Jianxiang; Kassack Ipina, Juan Julio; Kim, Dong-Wook; Ogura, Michinori; Pavlovsky, Carolina; Junghanss, Christian; Milone, Jorge H.; Nicolini, Franck E.; Robak, Tadeusz; Van Droogenbroeck, Jan; Vellenga, Edo; Bradley-Garelik, M. Brigid; Zhu, Chao; Hochhaus, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Dasatinib is a highly potent BCR-ABL inhibitor with established efficacy and safety in imatinib-resistant/-intolerant patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). In the phase 3 DASISION trial, patients with newly diagnosed chronic-phase (CP) CML were randomized to receive dasatinib 100 mg (n =

  16. Comparison of the Effects of Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion and Add-On Therapy with Sitagliptin in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Wan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To identify a new regimen to optimize treatment for patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2DM by short-term continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII alone. Methods. 60 patients with newly diagnosed T2DM were randomized into two groups (n=30 each and treated for 2 weeks with CSII alone (CSII group or with CSII plus sitagliptin (CSII + Sig group. The glycemic variability of the patients was measured using a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS for the last 72 hours. A standard meal test was performed before and after the interventions, and the levels of glycated albumin, fasting glucose, fasting C-peptide, postprandial 2 h blood glucose, and postprandial 2 h C-peptide were examined. Results. Compared with the CSII group, the indicators of glycemic variability, such as the mean amplitude of glycemic excursion (MAGE and the standard deviation of blood glucose (SDBG, were decreased significantly in the CSII + Sig group. The changes before and after treatment in the C-peptide reactivity index (ΔCPI and the secretory unit of islet in transplantation index (ΔSUIT indicated a significant improvement in the CSII + Sig group. Conclusions. Add-on therapy with sitagliptin may be an optimized treatment for patients with newly diagnosed T2DM compared with short-term CSII alone.

  17. Motivating Latino Caregivers of Children with Asthma to Quit Smoking: A Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, Belinda; McQuaid, Elizabeth L.; Novak, Scott P.; Hammond, S. Katharine; Becker, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Secondhand smoke exposure is associated with asthma onset and exacerbation. Latino children have higher rates of asthma morbidity than other groups. The current study compared the effectiveness of a newly developed smoking cessation treatment with existing clinical guidelines for smoking cessation. Method: Latino caregivers who smoked…

  18. Determinants of allergic rhinitis in young children with asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Moussu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the preschool period, allergic rhinitis (AR is infrequent and thus under-diagnosed. However, recent works have highlighted the occurrence of AR in toddlers although the causes of AR in this young population remain unknown. The objective of this study was to identify determinants of AR in young children with asthma. METHODS: We carried out a case-control study of 227 children with active asthma and enrolled in the Trousseau Asthma Program. AR and other allergic diseases (asthma, food allergy and eczema were diagnosed by medical doctors using standardized questionnaires. Parental history of AR and asthma, biological markers of atopy (total IgE, blood eosinophilia, allergic sensitization towards food and aeroallergens and environmental parameters were also collected. RESULTS: Forty one of the children (18.1% had AR. By univariate logistic regression analysis, AR was mainly associated with peanut sensitization (OR = 6.75; p = 0.002; food allergy (OR = 4.31; p = 0.026; mold exposure (OR = 3.81 p<0.01 and parental history of AR (OR = 1.42; p = 0.046. Due to the strong link between food allergy and peanut sensitization three models of multivariate logistic regression were performed and confirmed that AR is associated with peanut sensitization but also food allergy and mold exposure. A random forest analysis was also performed to explain AR. The results reinforced the logistic analysis that peanut sensitization and mold exposure were the principal determinants of AR. CONCLUSIONS & CLINICAL RELEVANCE: These results stress the importance of investigating AR in young children with asthma to potentially diagnose a particularly severe allergic asthmatic phenotype. Moreover, these data evoke the hypothesis that peanut could be an aeroallergen.

  19. Left in limbo – Experiences and needs among postmenopausal women newly diagnosed with osteoporosis without preceding osteoporotic fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Pernille Ravn; Hermann, Anne Pernille; Søndergaard, Jens

    2018-01-01

    to participate in treatment decision-making and (3) needs of being able to take care of bone health. Conclusion and implications In general the women experienced as been left ‘in limbo’, and they requested targeted and tailored information about osteoporosis. In particular, they want information about dual...... more attention on the benefits of detecting early stage osteoporosis. The study highlights the call for new approaches to postmenopausal women newly diagnosed with osteoporosis without preceding fractures....

  20. Evidence for an association between tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy and bronchial asthma: retrospective analysis in a primary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Blotzheim, Leonardo Glutz; Christen, Stefan; Wieser, Stephan; Ulrich, Silvia; Huber, Lars C

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence of bronchial asthma in patients with Tako-Tsubo Syndrome (TTS). This retrospective case-series study was conducted in a primary care hospital in Zurich, Switzerland. Data of all patients with newly diagnosed TTS (2002 - 2012) were assessed electronically by the use of ICD-10. Asthma prevalence was compared to published epidemiologic data. Bronchial asthma is characterized by airway inflammation and, during attack, release of endogenous catecholamines. Sympathomimetic drugs are the mainstay of treatment for asthma patients. Likewise, catecholamine mediated diffuse microvascular myocardial dysfunction seems to be of critical importance for the development of TTS. 20 cases of TTS were identified. 90% were female, showed a median age of 70±13y [25y - 90y], an apical and/or midventricular ballooning pattern with preserved basal function and a median initial LVEF of 34±9% [25% - 55%]. 65% of patients underwent coronary angiography to rule out significant coronary artery disease. Hypertension was present in 45% of patients, 35% were smokers, none was suffering from diabetes. Prevalence of asthma in patients with TTS was significantly higher compared to the normal population (25% vs. 7%, p=0.012). In 30% of the TTS patients an iatrogenic cause for development of TTS was identified. Prevalence of asthma was significantly higher in patients with TTS compared to epidemiologic data from an age-matched population. Phenotypes of patients developing obstructive ventilatory disease and TTS might share common pathogenic mechanisms beyond the use of bronchodilatators. In addition, we identified other iatrogenic etiologies in patients with TTS.

  1. Work stress, asthma control and asthma-specific quality of life: Initial evidence from a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Bettina; Leucht, Verena; Loerbroks, Adrian

    2017-03-01

    Research has suggested that psychological stress is positively associated with asthma morbidity. One major source of stress in adulthood is one's occupation. However, to date, potential links of work stress with asthma control or asthma-specific quality of life have not been examined. We aimed to address this knowledge gap. In 2014/2015, we conducted a cross-sectional study among adults with asthma in Germany (n = 362). For the current analyses that sample was restricted to participants in employment and reporting to have never been diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n = 94). Work stress was operationalized by the 16-item effort-reward-imbalance (ERI) questionnaire, which measures the subcomponents "effort", "reward" and "overcommitment." Participants further completed the Asthma Control Test and the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire-Sydney. Multivariable associations were quantified by linear regression and logistic regression. Effort, reward and their ratio (i.e. ERI ratio) did not show meaningful associations with asthma morbidity. By contrast, increasing levels of overcommitment were associated with poorer asthma control and worse quality of life in both linear regression (ß = -0.26, p = 0.01 and ß = 0.44, p work-related overcommitment with asthma control and asthma-specific quality of life. Longitudinal studies with larger samples are needed to confirm our findings and to disentangle the potential causality of associations.

  2. Prevalence of bronchial asthma and respiratory symptoms in a group of students from grodno. An example of standardized epidemiological survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Ahiyevets

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to an insufficient knowledge of the real asthma prevalence rate among children and adults in Belarus, we conducted a population-based respiratory health survey. Aim of the study: The study aimed at estimating the prevalence rate of asthma and major respiratory symptoms among students of the Grodno Region (Western Belarus. Material and methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 and included 833 students aged 20-40 (young adults. Physician-diagnosed respiratory diseases and symptoms were ascertained using electronic version of the ISAAC questionnaire (web LimeSurvey. Results: The prevalence of asthma was 2.88% (physician-diagnosed. The obstructive (asthmatic bronchitis (without established diagnosis of asthma was found in 5.04% of the respondents. A chronic respiratory symptom occurring in the past 12 months and suggestive of asthma included attacks of dyspnea at rest, cough (5.88% or in previous periods (8.88%, and wheezing in the chest (one of the most characteristic symptoms of asthma - 8.04%, which may indicate a higher prevalence of asthma among patients. Wheezing and wheeze without diagnosed asthma, colds or infections were reported in a small number of cases (about 1.0%. 32 respondents (3.84% can be attributed to the group of risk for asthma due to the presence of specific respiratory symptoms. Conclusions: The findings show a low prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma among students of Western Belarus. Relatively low prevalence of allergic disorders among respondents of Belarus suggest underdiagnosis of allergic diseases, in particular of asthma. Presumably, cases of asthma might be diagnosed as spastic bronchitis, “obstructive bronchitis”, “asthmatic bronchitis”, a traditional label for clinical manifestation of asthma in medical practice in the region.

  3. A population-based study of the effectiveness of breast conservation for newly diagnosed breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paszat, Lawrence F.; Groome, Patti A.; Schulze, Karleen; Holowaty, Eric J.; Mackillop, William J.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of breast conservation for newly diagnosed breast cancer. Effectiveness was operationalized as two outcomes within 5 years of the diagnosis of breast cancer: the probability of mastectomy-free survival (either death or mastectomy count as event, whichever comes first), and the probability of mastectomy conditional on survival (mastectomy counts as event, observations censored at death). Methods and Materials: We linked records of 46,687 new cases of breast cancer from 1982 to 1991 in the Ontario Cancer Registry to records of surgery from 1982 to 1995, radiotherapy (RT) from 1982 to 1992, and median household income from the 1986 census. We labeled breast surgery within 4 months and postoperative RT within 12 months of diagnosis as treatment for newly diagnosed breast cancer. Surgery was categorized as mastectomy, lumpectomy plus RT, lumpectomy alone, or no surgical procedure. Among cases that did not undergo mastectomy within 4 months of diagnosis, we labeled mastectomy subsequent to 4 months after diagnosis as treatment failure. We performed life-table analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression, to describe the probability of mastectomy conditional on survival and the probability of mastectomy-free survival. Results: A total of 16,279 cases underwent lumpectomy as the maximum procedure on the breast within 4 months of diagnosis, and 49.7% of these received postoperative RT. Compared to the provincial mean, regions with higher rates of lumpectomy plus RT have higher probability of mastectomy-free survival and lower probability of mastectomy conditional upon survival 5 years after diagnosis of breast cancer. Conclusions: These findings are consistent with a hypothesis that breast conservation is effective in the overall breast cancer population of Ontario within the first 5 years after diagnosis

  4. Transmitted drug resistance and type of infection in newly diagnosed HIV-1 individuals in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Wendy; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela; Morales, Sonia; Monterroso, Edgar; Paredes, Mayte; Dobbs, Trudy; Parekh, Bharat S; Albert, Jan; Rivera, Ivette Lorenzana de

    2010-12-01

    Transmitted drug resistance (TDR) reduces the efficacy of antiretroviral treatment and is a public health concern. To gain insight in the epidemiology of TDR in Honduras by evaluating the amount of TDR in a representative sample of newly diagnosed individuals and by determining whether these are recent or established infections. Two hundred treatment-naïve, newly diagnosed HIV-positive individuals representing different population groups (general population, Garifunas ethnic group, female sex workers and men who have sex with men) and different geographic regions were enrolled during April 2004-April 2007. The HIV-1 pol gene was sequenced to identify drug-resistant mutations and TDR was scored as recommended by the WHO. Specimens were classified as recent or established infections using the BED assay. Among 200 samples analyzed from Honduran patients the prevalence of TDR was 7% (95% CI: 3.9-11.5%), 5% for non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), 3% for nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and 0.5% for protease inhibitors (PIs). Testing of these samples with the BED assay revealed that 12% of the specimens were associated with recent infections. TDR was significantly more common in specimens with recent infection (21%) than established infection (5%) (p=0.016). The prevalence of TDR in Honduras was moderate (7%). The percentage of specimens who were recently infected was low (12%), suggesting that late HIV diagnosis is common. The TDR prevalence was higher in recent than in established infections, which may indicate that TDR is increasing over time. The higher prevalence of NNRTI and NRTI mutations as compared to PI mutations is probably due to a broader and longer use of these drugs in Honduras. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Stigma, Subsistence, Intimacy, Face, Filial Piety, and Mental Health Problems Among Newly HIV-Diagnosed Men Who Have Sex With Men in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haochu Howard; Holroyd, Eleanor; Lau, Joseph; Li, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    High rates of mental health problems among people living with HIV (PLWH) have been widely reported in the literature; however, an understanding of the socioecological contexts of these presentations remains limited, particularly in China. In order to explore potential socioecological factors associated with mental health problems among newly diagnosed HIV-infected migrant men who have sex with men (MSM), we employed a life profile approach conducting semi-structured in-depth interviews with 31 newly diagnosed HIV-infected MSM residing in a city in Southern China. Participants' life profile accounts outlined their concerns, including internalized stigma, subsistence living, difficulties finding a lover or a stable partner, loss of face, and deviation from filial piety. We contend that targeted interventions should address socio-ecological issues such as migrant adversities, social suffering, and cultural trauma when providing culturally based mental health services for this marginalized population within the context of Chinese society. Copyright © 2015 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Risk of Periodontal Disease in Patients With Asthma: A Nationwide Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Te-Chun; Chang, Pei-Ying; Lin, Cheng-Li; Wei, Chang-Ching; Tu, Chih-Yen; Hsia, Te-Chun; Shih, Chuen-Ming; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2017-08-01

    Studies have reported an association between asthma and oral diseases, including periodontal diseases. The aim of this retrospective study is to investigate risk of periodontal diseases for patients with asthma. Using the claims data of National Health Insurance of Taiwan and patients without a history of periodontal diseases, 19,206 asthmatic patients, who were newly diagnosed from 2000 through 2010, were identified. For each case, four comparison individuals without history of asthma and periodontal disease were randomly selected from the general population and frequency matched (categorical matched) by sex, age, and year of diagnosis (n = 76,824). Both cohorts were followed to the end of 2011 to monitor occurrence of periodontal diseases. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) of periodontal disease were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Overall incidence of periodontal diseases was 1.18-fold greater in the asthma cohort than in the comparison cohort (P periodontal diseases compared with those with a mean of less than one visit. Patients with at least three admissions annually also had a similar aHR (51.8) for periodontal disease. In addition, asthmatic patients on inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) therapy had greater aHRs than non-users (aHR = 1.12; 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.23). In the studied population, asthmatic patients are at an elevated risk of developing periodontal diseases. The risk is much greater for those with emergency medical demands or hospital admissions and those on ICS treatment.

  7. ERICA: prevalence of asthma in Brazilian adolescents

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    Fábio Chigres Kuschnir

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of asthma and physician-diagnosed asthma in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Cross-sectional, national, school-based study with adolescents from 12 to 17 years old, participants in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA. The study stratified the sample by region and grouped according to schools and classes with representativeness to the set of cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants of the Country, macro-regions, capitals, and Federal District. A questionnaire collected data through a self-filled in method. We calculated the prevalences and their confidence intervals of 95% (95%CI according to sex, age group, type of school and skin color. RESULTS Between 2013 and 2014, 74,589 adolescents were evaluated, 55.3% of the female sex. The total prevalence of active asthma was of 13.1% (95%CI 12.1-13.9, being higher in girls (14.8%; 95%CI 13.7-16.0 when compared to boys (11.2%; 95%CI 10.3-12.2 in all geographical strata examined. It was also higher between students of private schools (15.9%; 95%CI 14.2-17.7 when compared to public ones (12.4%; 95%CI 11.4-13.4. It was higher in the Southeast region (14.5%; 95%CI 12.9-16.1, and in the city of Sao Paulo (16.7%; 95%CI 14.7-18.7. The lowest prevalence was observed in North region (9.7%; 95%CI 9.7-10.5, and in Teresina (6.3%; 95%CI 4.9-7.7. The prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma was of 8.7% (95%CI 8.2-9.1; higher in the North region (13.5%; 95%CI 12.7-14.2, and in Porto Alegre (19.8%; 95%CI 17.5-22.3. It was lower in the Midwest (6.9%; 95%CI 6.0-7.8, and in Cuiaba (4.8%; 95%CI 3.8-5.9. We found no significant difference in the expression of this rate between the sexes, as well as in other variables evaluated by the study. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of asthma in Brazilian adolescents is high. Rates of active asthma and physician-diagnosed asthma vary widely in different regions and capitals evaluated by the ERICA. These results may assist in

  8. ERICA: prevalence of asthma in Brazilian adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuschnir, Fábio Chigres; Gurgel, Ricardo Queiroz; Solé, Dirceu; Costa, Eduardo; Felix, Mara Morelo Rocha; de Oliveira, Cecília Lacroix; de Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina Caetano

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of asthma and physician-diagnosed asthma in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Cross-sectional, national, school-based study with adolescents from 12 to 17 years old, participants in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). The study stratified the sample by region and grouped according to schools and classes with representativeness to the set of cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants of the Country, macro-regions, capitals, and Federal District. A questionnaire collected data through a self-filled in method. We calculated the prevalences and their confidence intervals of 95% (95%CI) according to sex, age group, type of school and skin color. RESULTS Between 2013 and 2014, 74,589 adolescents were evaluated, 55.3% of the female sex. The total prevalence of active asthma was of 13.1% (95%CI 12.1-13.9), being higher in girls (14.8%; 95%CI 13.7-16.0) when compared to boys (11.2%; 95%CI 10.3-12.2) in all geographical strata examined. It was also higher between students of private schools (15.9%; 95%CI 14.2-17.7) when compared to public ones (12.4%; 95%CI 11.4-13.4). It was higher in the Southeast region (14.5%; 95%CI 12.9-16.1), and in the city of Sao Paulo (16.7%; 95%CI 14.7-18.7). The lowest prevalence was observed in North region (9.7%; 95%CI 9.7-10.5), and in Teresina (6.3%; 95%CI 4.9-7.7). The prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma was of 8.7% (95%CI 8.2-9.1); higher in the North region (13.5%; 95%CI 12.7-14.2), and in Porto Alegre (19.8%; 95%CI 17.5-22.3). It was lower in the Midwest (6.9%; 95%CI 6.0-7.8), and in Cuiaba (4.8%; 95%CI 3.8-5.9). We found no significant difference in the expression of this rate between the sexes, as well as in other variables evaluated by the study. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of asthma in Brazilian adolescents is high. Rates of active asthma and physician-diagnosed asthma vary widely in different regions and capitals evaluated by the ERICA. These results may assist in the

  9. Subcutaneous Administration of Bortezomib in Combination with Thalidomide and Dexamethasone for Treatment of Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghao Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the efficacy and safety of the treatment of the newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM patients with the therapy of subcutaneous (subQ administration of bortezomib and dexamethasone plus thalidomide (VTD regimen. Methods. A total of 60 newly diagnosed MM patients were analyzed. 30 patients received improved VTD regimen (improved VTD group with the subQ injection of bortezomib and the other 30 patients received conventional VTD regimen (VTD group.The efficacy and safety of two groups were analyzed retrospectively. Results. The overall remission (OR after eight cycles of treatment was 73.3% in the VTD group and 76.7% in the improved VTD group (P>0.05. No significant differences in time to 1-year estimate of overall survival (72% versus 75%, P=0.848 and progression-free survival (median 22 months versus 25 months; P=0.725 between two groups. The main toxicities related to therapy were leukopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, asthenia, fatigue, and renal and urinary disorders. Grade 3 and higher adverse events were significantly less common in the improved VTD group (50% than VTD group (80%, P=0.015. Conclusions. The improved VTD regimen by changing bortezomib from intravenous administration to subcutaneous injection has noninferior efficacy to standard VTD regimen, with an improved safety profile and reduced adverse events.

  10. Correlation between {sup 18}F-fluoromisonidazole PET and expression of HIF-1α and VEGF in newly diagnosed and recurrent malignant gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawai, Nobuyuki; Ogawa, Daisuke; Miyake, Keisuke; Tamiya, Takashi [Kagawa University, Department of Neurological Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa (Japan); Lin, Wei [Kagawa University, Department of Neurological Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa (Japan); Fourth Military Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Xijing Hospital, Xi' an (China); Cao, Wei-Dong [Fourth Military Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Xijing Hospital, Xi' an (China); Haba, Reiji [Kagawa University, Department of Diagnostic Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa (Japan); Maeda, Yukito; Yamamoto, Yuka; Nishiyama, Yoshihiro [Kagawa University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa (Japan)

    2014-10-15

    Hypoxia and its consequences at the molecular level promote tumour progression and affect patient prognosis. One of the main early cellular events evoked by hypoxia is induction of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) and subsequent upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In this study we sought to determine whether hypoxia detected by {sup 18}F-fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) PET accurately reflects the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF in the tumour and can be used as a biomarker of antiangiogenic treatment and as a prognostic factor in newly diagnosed and recurrent malignant gliomas. Enrolled in this study were 32 patients with newly diagnosed glioma and 16 with recurrent glioma of grade III or grade IV. All the patients had undergone FMISO PET preoperatively. The maximum tumour-to-blood FMISO activity ratio (T/B{sub max}) was used to evaluate the degree of tumour hypoxia and the hypoxic volume (HV) was calculated using a tumour-to-blood FMISO uptake ratio of ≥1.2. Immunohistochemical expressions of HIF-1α and VEGF were evaluated semiquantitatively using the immunoreactivity score (IRS, scores 0 to 12) and the correlation was examined between IRS of HIF-1α or VEGF and FMISO uptake of the tumour (SUV{sub tumour}) using navigation-based sampling. Survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method in relation to the T/B{sub max} and the HV. The T/B{sub max} and the HV in grade IV gliomas were significantly higher than in grade III gliomas (P < 0.01 and P < 0.01, respectively). Moderate to strong HIF-1α and VEGF expression was observed in the majority of malignant gliomas. The IRS of HIF-1α and VEGF in the tumour were not significantly different between grade III and grade IV gliomas. The IRS of HIF-1α in the tumour did not correlate with the SUV{sub tumour} of FMISO in either newly diagnosed or recurrent glioma. There was a significant but weak correlation between the IRS of VEGF and the SUV{sub tumour} of FMISO in newly diagnosed glioma, but not

  11. Patient/Family Education for Newly Diagnosed Pediatric Oncology Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landier, Wendy; Ahern, JoAnn; Barakat, Lamia P; Bhatia, Smita; Bingen, Kristin M; Bondurant, Patricia G; Cohn, Susan L; Dobrozsi, Sarah K; Haugen, Maureen; Herring, Ruth Anne; Hooke, Mary C; Martin, Melissa; Murphy, Kathryn; Newman, Amy R; Rodgers, Cheryl C; Ruccione, Kathleen S; Sullivan, Jeneane; Weiss, Marianne; Withycombe, Janice; Yasui, Lise; Hockenberry, Marilyn

    There is a paucity of data to support evidence-based practices in the provision of patient/family education in the context of a new childhood cancer diagnosis. Since the majority of children with cancer are treated on pediatric oncology clinical trials, lack of effective patient/family education has the potential to negatively affect both patient and clinical trial outcomes. The Children's Oncology Group Nursing Discipline convened an interprofessional expert panel from within and beyond pediatric oncology to review available and emerging evidence and develop expert consensus recommendations regarding harmonization of patient/family education practices for newly diagnosed pediatric oncology patients across institutions. Five broad principles, with associated recommendations, were identified by the panel, including recognition that (1) in pediatric oncology, patient/family education is family-centered; (2) a diagnosis of childhood cancer is overwhelming and the family needs time to process the diagnosis and develop a plan for managing ongoing life demands before they can successfully learn to care for the child; (3) patient/family education should be an interprofessional endeavor with 3 key areas of focus: (a) diagnosis/treatment, (b) psychosocial coping, and (c) care of the child; (4) patient/family education should occur across the continuum of care; and (5) a supportive environment is necessary to optimize learning. Dissemination and implementation of these recommendations will set the stage for future studies that aim to develop evidence to inform best practices, and ultimately to establish the standard of care for effective patient/family education in pediatric oncology.

  12. Serial analysis of 3D H-1 MRSI for patients with newly diagnosed GBM treated with combination therapy that includes bevacizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Sarah J; Li, Yan; Lupo, Janine M; Olson, Marram; Crane, Jason C; Molinaro, Annette; Roy, Ritu; Clarke, Jennifer; Butowski, Nicholas; Prados, Michael; Cha, Soonmee; Chang, Susan M

    2016-10-01

    Interpretation of changes in the T1- and T2-weighted MR images from patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma (GBM) treated with standard of care in conjunction with anti-angiogenic agents is complicated by pseudoprogression and pseudoresponse. The hypothesis being tested in this study was that 3D H-1 magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) provides estimates of levels of choline, creatine, N-acetylaspartate (NAA), lactate and lipid that change in response to treatment and that metrics describing these characteristics are associated with survival. Thirty-one patients with newly diagnosed GBM and being treated with radiation therapy (RT), temozolomide, erlotinib and bevacizumab were recruited to receive serial MR scans that included 3-D lactate edited MRSI at baseline, mid-RT, post-RT and at specific follow-up time points. The data were processed to provide estimates of metrics representing changes in metabolite levels relative to normal appearing brain. Cox proportional hazards analysis was applied to examine the relationship of these parameters with progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). There were significant reductions in parameters that describe relative levels of choline to NAA and creatine, indicating that the treatment caused a decrease in tumor cellularity. Changes in the levels of lactate and lipid relative to the NAA from contralateral brain were consistent with vascular normalization. Metabolic parameters from the first serial follow-up scan were associated with PFS and OS, when accounting for age and extent of resection. Integrating metabolic parameters into the assessment of patients with newly diagnosed GBM receiving therapies that include anti-angiogenic agents may be helpful for tracking changes in tumor burden, resolving ambiguities in anatomic images caused by non-specific treatment effects and for predicting outcome.

  13. Prevalence of asthma and bronchial hyperreactivity in Danish schoolchildren: no change over 10 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zilmer, Monica; Steen, Nick Phaff; Zachariassen, Gitte

    2011-01-01

    Aim:  To describe the point prevalence of current physician-diagnosed asthma and bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) in 2001 among unselected Danish schoolchildren aged 6-17 years, compared with the prevalence from a similar study from 1990 to 1991. Methods:  Cross-sectional study using parental ques......-diagnosed asthma and BHR among unselected Danish schoolchildren aged 6-17 years was unchanged over 10 years between 1990-1991 and 2001.......Aim:  To describe the point prevalence of current physician-diagnosed asthma and bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) in 2001 among unselected Danish schoolchildren aged 6-17 years, compared with the prevalence from a similar study from 1990 to 1991. Methods:  Cross-sectional study using parental...

  14. Unmet information needs and limited health literacy in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients over the course of cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbach, Sarah Maria; Ernstmann, Nicole; Kowalski, Christoph; Pfaff, Holger; Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; Wesselmann, Simone; Enders, Anna

    2016-09-01

    To investigate unmet information needs in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients over the course of cancer treatment and its association with health literacy. We present results from a prospective, multicenter cohort study (PIAT). Newly diagnosed breast cancer patients (N=1060) were surveyed directly after breast cancer surgery, 10 and 40 weeks later. Pooled linear regression modeling was employed analyzing changes in unmet information needs over time and its association with health literacy. Unmet information needs on side effects and medication and medical examination results and treatment options were high and increased during the first 10 weeks after breast cancer surgery. Considering health promotion and social issues, unmet information needs started high and decreased during post-treatment. Patients with limited health literacy had higher unmet information needs. Our results indicate a mismatch in information provision and breast cancer patients' information needs. Patients with limited health literacy may be at a distinct disadvantage in having their information needs met over the course of breast cancer treatment. Strategies are needed to reduce unmet information needs in breast cancer patients considering treatment-phase and health literacy and thereby enable them to better cope with their diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Predictors of disclosure management behavior at the end of 1-year follow-up in Korean adults with newly diagnosed epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Ahm; No, Soon-Kee; Park, Hyungkook; Kim, Ok-Joon; Kwon, Jee-Hyun; Ryu, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Sang-Moo; Jo, Kwang-Deog

    2017-09-01

    Epilepsy is a concealable stigmatizing condition. We investigated the factors predicting disclosure management behavior in Korean adults with newly diagnosed epilepsy. This longitudinal multicenter study included Korean adults with newly diagnosed epilepsy. Using statistical analyses, we determined at the end of a 1-year follow-up whether Disclosure Management Scale (DMS) scores were predicted by demographic, clinical, and psychosocial variables, including felt stigma, stress coping style, personality traits, social support, and experienced discrimination from society. Of a total of 121 participants, 69% reported that they often or sometimes kept their diagnosis a secret from others and rarely or never talked to others about their epilepsy. The average DMS score was 5.8 (SD=2.9, range 0-11). In univariate analyses, DMS scores were significantly associated with an emotion-focused coping style (r=0.320, pepilepsy often or sometimes keep their epilepsy a secret. Emotion-focused coping is the most important predictor of concealment of epilepsy diagnosis at the end of a 1-year follow-up, although social support and episodes of experienced discrimination are also associated with disclosure management strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Previously known and newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation: a major risk indicator after a myocardial infarction complicated by heart failure or left ventricular dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køber, Lars; Swedberg, Karl; McMurray, John J V

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: To characterize the relationship between known and newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation (AF) and the risk of death and major cardiovascular (CV) events in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) complicated by heart failure (HF) and/or left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD). MET...

  17. Cardiovascular Risk Assessment with Vascular Function, Carotid Atherosclerosis and the UKPDS Risk Engine in Korean Patients with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choon Sik Seon

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPatients with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Few studies have evaluated the cardiovascular disease (CVD risk simultaneously using the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS risk engine and non-invasive vascular tests in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.MethodsParticipants (n=380; aged 20 to 81 years with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes were free of clinical evidence of CVD. The 10-year coronary heart disease (CHD and stroke risks were calculated for each patient using the UKPDS risk engine. Carotid intima media thickness (CIMT, flow mediated dilation (FMD, pulse wave velocity (PWV and augmentation index (AI were measured. The correlations between the UKPDS risk engine and the non-invasive vascular tests were assessed using partial correlation analysis, after adjusting for age, and multiple regression analysis.ResultsThe mean 10-year CHD and 10-year stroke risks were 14.92±11.53% and 4.03±3.95%, respectively. The 10-year CHD risk correlated with CIMT (P<0.001, FMD (P=0.017, and PWV (P=0.35 after adjusting for age. The 10-year stroke risk correlated only with the mean CIMT (P<0.001 after adjusting for age. FMD correlated with age (P<0.01 and systolic blood pressure (P=0.09. CIMT correlated with age (P<0.01, HbA1c (P=0.05, and gender (P<0.01.ConclusionThe CVD risk is increased at the onset of type 2 diabetes. CIMT, FMD, and PWV along with the UKPDS risk engine should be considered to evaluate cardiovascular disease risk in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.

  18. Activity of intraarterial carboplatin as a single agent in the treatment of newly diagnosed extremity osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrilli, A S; Kechichian, R; Broniscer, A; Garcia, R J; Tanaka, C; Francisco, J; Lederman, H; Odone Filho, V; Camargo, O P; Bruniera, P; Pericles, P; Consentino, E; Ortega, J A

    1999-08-01

    Chemotherapy has dramatically improved the rates of cure and survival of patients with localized and metastatic osteosarcoma. Nonetheless, the number of chemotherapeutic agents active against osteosarcoma is limited to doxorubicin, cisplatin, high-dose methotrexate, and ifosfamide. Carboplatin, a cisplatin analogue, has been tested as a single agent in patients with recurrent osteosarcoma or as part of multiagent chemotherapy in newly diagnosed patients. We tested the activity and toxicity of two cycles of intraarterial carboplatin as a "window therapy" (600 mg/m2 per cycle) in 33 consecutive patients with extremity osteosarcoma before the start of multiagent chemotherapy. Response was based on clinical (tumor diameter, local inflammatory signs, and range of motion) and radiological parameters (plain local films and arteriographic studies prior to drug administration). Patients' age ranged between 8 and 18 years (median age 13 years). Primary tumor originated from the femur (15 patients), tibia (10 patients), fibula (4 patients), humerus (3 patients), and calcaneus (1 patient). Only 7 patients (21%) had metastatic disease at diagnosis (5 in the lung and 2 in other bones). A favorable clinical and radiological response was documented in 81% and 73% of the patients, respectively. Clinical and radiological progression occurred in 12% and 9% of the patients, respectively. Seventeen of the patients remain alive and disease-free. Survival and event-free survival at 3 years for nonmetastatic patients are 71% (SE = 9%) and 65% (SE = 9%), respectively; for metastatic patients, the figures are 17% (SE = 15%) and 14% (SE = 13%), respectively. We conclude that carboplatin is an active agent in the treatment of newly diagnosed extremity osteosarcoma. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Randomized trial of proactive rapid genetic counseling versus usual care for newly diagnosed breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Marc D; Peshkin, Beth N; Isaacs, Claudine; Willey, Shawna; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis B; Nusbaum, Rachel; Hooker, Gillian; O'Neill, Suzanne; Jandorf, Lina; Kelly, Scott P; Heinzmann, Jessica; Zidell, Aliza; Khoury, Katia

    2018-04-02

    Breast cancer patients who carry BRCA1/BRCA2 gene mutations may consider bilateral mastectomy. Having bilateral mastectomy at the time of diagnosis not only reduces risk of a contralateral breast cancer, but can eliminate the need for radiation therapy and yield improved reconstruction options. However, most patients do not receive genetic counseling or testing at the time of their diagnosis. In this trial, we tested proactive rapid genetic counseling and testing (RGCT) in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients in order to facilitate pre-surgical genetic counseling and testing. We recruited newly diagnosed breast cancer patients at increased risk for carrying a BRCA1/2 mutation. Of 379 eligible patients who completed a baseline survey, 330 agreed to randomization in a 2:1 ratio to RGCT (n = 220) versus UC (n = 108). Primary outcomes were genetic counseling and testing uptake and breast cancer surgical decisions. RGCT led to higher overall (83.8% vs. 54.6%; p genetic counseling uptake compared to UC. Despite higher rates of genetic counseling, RGCT did not differ from UC in overall (54.1% vs. 49.1%, p > 0.10) or pre-surgical (30.6% vs. 27.4%, p > 0.10) receipt of genetic test results nor did they differ in uptake of bilateral mastectomy (26.6% vs. 21.8%, p > 0.10). Although RGCT yielded increased genetic counseling participation, this did not result in increased rates of pre-surgical genetic testing or impact surgical decisions. These data suggest that those patients most likely to opt for genetic testing at the time of diagnosis are being effectively identified by their surgeons.

  20. Cellular Proliferation by Multiplex Immunohistochemistry Identifies High-Risk Multiple Myeloma in Newly Diagnosed, Treatment-Naive Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Scott; Forsberg, Peter; Ouansafi, Ihsane; Rossi, Adriana; Modin, Alvin; Pearse, Roger; Pekle, Karen; Perry, Arthur; Coleman, Morton; Jayabalan, David; Di Liberto, Maurizio; Chen-Kiang, Selina; Niesvizky, Ruben; Mark, Tomer M

    2017-12-01

    Therapeutic options for multiple myeloma (MM) are growing, yet clinical outcomes remain heterogeneous. Cytogenetic analysis and disease staging are mainstays of risk stratification, but data suggest a complex interplay between numerous abnormalities. Myeloma cell proliferation is a metric shown to predict outcomes, but available methods are not feasible in clinical practice. Multiplex immunohistochemistry (mIHC), using multiple immunostains simultaneously, is universally available for clinical use. We tested mIHC as a method to calculate a plasma cell proliferation index (PCPI). By mIHC, marrow trephine core biopsy samples were costained for CD138, a plasma cell-specific marker, and Ki-67. Myeloma cells (CD138 + ) were counted as proliferating if coexpressing Ki-67. Retrospective analysis was performed on 151 newly diagnosed, treatment-naive patients divided into 2 groups on the basis of myeloma cell proliferation: low (PCPI ≤ 5%, n = 87), and high (PCPI > 5%, n = 64). Median overall survival (OS) was not reached versus 78.9 months (P = .0434) for the low versus high PCPI groups. Multivariate analysis showed that only high-risk cytogenetics (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.02; P = .023), International Staging System (ISS) stage > I (HR = 2.30; P = .014), and PCPI > 5% (HR = 1.70; P = .041) had independent effects on OS. Twenty-three (36%) of the 64 patients with low-risk disease (ISS stage 1, without high-risk cytogenetics) were uniquely reidentified as high risk by PCPI. PCPI is a practical method that predicts OS in newly diagnosed myeloma and facilitates broader use of MM cell proliferation for risk stratification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cognitive and psychosocial effects of oxcarbazepine monotherapy in newly diagnosed partial epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daeyoung; Seo, Ji-Hye; Joo, Eun Yeon; Lee, Hyang Woon; Shin, Won Chul; Hong, Seung Bong

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of oxcarbazepine (OXC) on cognition and psychosocial difficulties in patients with new-onset partial epilepsy. Cognitive and psychosocial assessments were performed before and after 6 to 12 months of OXC monotherapy in 52 drug-naive patients (25 women; mean age, 31.1 years; SD, 12.1 years). Cognitive functions were evaluated with well-structured and validated tools. Mood, psychological distress, subjective handicap, and quality of life were also evaluated. Differences between baseline and after-treatment evaluation were compared and adjusted for possible confounders such as age, sex, seizure control, duration of epilepsy, assessment interval, and epileptogenic region. Mean assessment interval was 231.8 (range, 182-348) days, and mean (SD) OXC dose at retest was 693.8 (208.9) mg. The OXC was found to have no significant adverse effect on cognition. Furthermore, OXC monotherapy was not found to affect psychosocial difficulties, including psychological distress and subjective handicap. The results suggest that OXC monotherapy could be used to treat newly diagnosed partial epilepsy without adversely affecting cognitive and psychosocial functions.

  2. [Comparative analysis of conventional pulmonary function test results in children with asthma or cough variant asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jie; An, Shu-Hua; Gao, Wen-Jie; Du, Wen-Jin; Sun, Jun-Feng; Zhang, Man; Yao, Cong-Zhuo

    2013-03-01

    To compare the conventional pulmonary function test results of children with asthma or cough variant asthma (CVA). A total of 140 children, who were diagnosed with asthma or CVA from May 2010 to May 2011, were divided into acute asthma attack (n=50), asthma remission (n=50) and CVA groups (n=40); 30 healthy children were included as a control group. The forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), forced expiratory flow after 25% of vital capacity has been expelled (FEF25), forced expiratory flow after 50% of vital capacity has been expelled (FEF50), forced expiratory flow after 75% of vital capacity has been expelled (FEF75) and maximal midexpiratory flow (MMEF75/25) were measured. The mean percent predicted values of all the above indices were lower than 80% in the acute asthma attack group, with FEF50, FEF75 and MMEF75/25 declining markedly; the mean percent predicted values of FEF75 and MMEF75/25 were lower than 80% in the CVA group. All the pulmonary function indices in the acute asthma attack group were lower than those in the control group. The mean percent predicted values of FVC, FEV1, FEF25 and MMEF75/25 in the asthma remission and CVA groups were lower than in the control group. All the pulmonary function indices in the acute asthma attack group were lower than in the asthma remission and CVA groups, but there were no significant differences between the asthma remission and CVA groups. There is small and large airway dysfunction, particularly small airway dysfunction, in children with acute asthma attack. Children with CVA present mainly with mild small airway dysfunction, as do those with asthma in remission.

  3. Mechanisms underpinning effective peer support: a qualitative analysis of interactions between expert peers and patients newly-diagnosed with bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Proudfoot Judith G

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing burden on mental health services has led to the growing use of peer support in psychological interventions. Four theoretical mechanisms have been proposed to underpin effective peer support: advice grounded in experiential knowledge, social support, social comparison and the helper therapy principle. However, there has been a lack of studies examining whether these mechanisms are also evident in clinical populations in which interpersonal dysfunction is common, such as bipolar disorder. Method This qualitative study, conducted alongside a randomized controlled trial, examined whether the four mechanisms proposed to underpin effective peer support were expressed in the email exchange between 44 individuals newly-diagnosed with bipolar disorder and their Informed Supporters (n = 4, over the course of a supported online psychoeducation program for bipolar disorder. A total of 104 text segments were extracted and coded. The data were complemented by face-to-face interviews with three of the four Informed Supporters who participated in the study. Results Qualitative analyses of the email interchange and interview transcripts revealed rich examples of all four mechanisms. The data illustrated how the involvement of Informed Supporters resulted in numerous benefits for the newly-diagnosed individuals, including the provision of practical strategies for illness management as well as emotional support throughout the intervention. The Informed Supporters encouraged the development of positive relationships with mental health services, and acted as role models for treatment adherence. The Informed Supporters themselves reported gaining a number of benefits from helping, including a greater sense of connectedness with the mental health system, as well as a broader knowledge of illness management strategies. Conclusions Examples of the mechanisms underpinning effective peer support were found in the sample of emails from

  4. A call for action: comparative effectiveness research in asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan, Jerry A.; Schatz, Michael X.; Apter, Andrea J.

    2010-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) has received considerable research attention in recent months, and efforts to promote CER are part of the newly enacted Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. In this paper, we define CER, how it complements traditional efficacy research in asthma, and discuss how CER can help provide the basis for rational decision-making about the care of individual patients with asthma and how best to deliver this care in real-world settings. We present informa...

  5. Validation of asthma recording in electronic health records: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nissen F

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Francis Nissen,1 Jennifer K Quint,2 Samantha Wilkinson,1 Hana Mullerova,3 Liam Smeeth,1 Ian J Douglas1 1Department of Non-Communicable Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK; 2National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London, UK; 3RWD & Epidemiology, GSK R&D, Uxbridge, UK Objective: To describe the methods used to validate asthma diagnoses in electronic health records and summarize the results of the validation studies. Background: Electronic health records are increasingly being used for research on asthma to inform health services and health policy. Validation of the recording of asthma diagnoses in electronic health records is essential to use these databases for credible epidemiological asthma research.Methods: We searched EMBASE and MEDLINE databases for studies that validated asthma diagnoses detected in electronic health records up to October 2016. Two reviewers independently assessed the full text against the predetermined inclusion criteria. Key data including author, year, data source, case definitions, reference standard, and validation statistics (including sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value [PPV], and negative predictive value [NPV] were summarized in two tables.Results: Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Most studies demonstrated a high validity using at least one case definition (PPV >80%. Ten studies used a manual validation as the reference standard; each had at least one case definition with a PPV of at least 63%, up to 100%. We also found two studies using a second independent database to validate asthma diagnoses. The PPVs of the best performing case definitions ranged from 46% to 58%. We found one study which used a questionnaire as the reference standard to validate a database case definition; the PPV of the case definition algorithm in this study was 89%. Conclusion: Attaining high PPVs (>80% is possible using each of the discussed validation

  6. Interpretation of positive results of a methacholine inhalation challenge and 1 week of inhaled bronchodilator use in diagnosing and treating cough-variant asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, R S; French, C T; Smyrnios, N A; Curley, F J

    1997-09-22

    In diagnosing cough due to asthma, methacholine chloride inhalation challenge (MIC) interpreted in a traditional fashion has been shown to have positive predictive values from 60% to 82%. To determine whether any features of positive results of an MIC or the results of a 1-week trial of inhaled beta-agonist therapy were helpful in predicting when the cough was due to asthma. The study design was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover format performed in adult, nonsmoking subjects, who were referred for diagnosis and treatment of chronic cough. The subjects had no other respiratory complaints or medical conditions for which they were taking medications, the results of baseline spirometry and chest roentgenograms were normal, and the results of MIC were positive. After obtaining baseline data, including MICs on 2 separate days, objective cough counting, and self-assessment of cough severity using a visual analog scale, subjects were randomized to receive 2 inhalations (1.3 mg) of metaproterenol sulfate or placebo by metered dose inhaler attached to a spacer device every 4 hours while awake. At 1 week, data identical to baseline were collected, and subjects received the other metered dose inhaler for 7 days. At 1 week, data identical to baseline were collected. After completion of the protocol, subjects were followed up in the clinic to observe the final response of the cough to specific therapy. Based on the disappearance of the cough with specific therapy, the cough was due to asthma in 9 of 15 subjects and nonasthma in 6 of 15 subjects. Baseline data were similar between groups. With respect to MICs, there were no significant differences between groups in the cumulative dose of methacholine that provoked a 20% decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 second from the postsaline baseline value (PD20 values), slopes of dose-response curves, and maximal-response plateaus. Cough severity significantly improved after 1 week of

  7. The Effects of Inhaled Budesonide on Lung Function in Smokers and Nonsmokers With Mild Persistent Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Byrne, Paul M; Lamm, Carl Johan; Busse, William W

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested reduced benefit from inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in smoking asthmatics. The objective of this post-hoc study was to study the effects of low dose inhaled budesonide on lung function in smokers and nonsmokers with mild persistent asthma. METHODS: Adult...... habitual asthmatic smokers, and 2432 nonsmokers. RESULTS: When treated with placebo, newly diagnosed smoking asthmatics had a greater 3-year decline in post-bronchodilator FEV(1), the change being -263.9 mL (SE 21.8), when compared to nonsmokers on placebo, which was -180.8 mL (SE 10.6), the mean...... difference being -83.1 mL (p smokers and + 46.5 mL (p = 0.001) in nonsmokers. The corresponding effect...

  8. [The standardized perioperative treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps and asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tingting; Ju, Jianbao; Yu, Hailing; Xie, Daoyu

    2015-04-01

    To discuss the perioperative treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) and asthma. Retrospective analysis of perioperative clinical data of 43 cases with CRSwNP and asthma. The admitted and under endoscopic surgery. Patients with preventing perioperative asthma attacks and corresponding standardized treatment were Observed. Thirty-five cases were stable during perioperative period and without asthma. Seven patients diagnosed as mild and moderate asthma attacks because of low pulse oximetry (SpO2 92%-95%) and scattered wheeze heard in the lungs. So these patients were sent to ICU for the treatment. They went back to ward after their conditions turned to stable and no asthma during perioperative. One patient diagnosed as severe asthma attack, because irritability and suffocation happened, SpO2 decreased from 99% to 84%-81%, diffuse wheeze could be heard in the whole lung . So we give him tracheal intubation and sent him to ICU for advanced treatment after breathing smooth. Five days later the patient retuned to the ward in stable condition and with no asthma attack again. Before operation the patients should be give some corresponding standardized comprehensive treatment according to the nasal symptoms and the degree of asthma attack, such as the application of topical steroid and antiallergic medicine. And some special treatment should be given to reduce airway hyperresponsiveness mucosa during anesthesia. These methods can reduce the risk of the asthma attacks and improve perioperative safety, prevent serious complications.

  9. Relationship of Stigma and Depression Among Newly HIV-Diagnosed Chinese Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jun; Wang, Lijuan; Kipp, Aaron M; Qian, Han-Zhu; Yin, Lu; Ruan, Yuhua; Shao, Yiming; Lu, Hongyan; Vermund, Sten H

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between HIV stigma and depression among newly diagnosed HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). We measured HIV-related stigma and current depression using standard scales among 367 Chinese MSM who had been diagnosed very recently with HIV infection, analyzing key associations with multivariable ordinal logistic regression. Current depression prevalence was 36 %. Median scores for felt, vicarious, and internalized stigma were 17, 2, and 5, respectively, each on a 0-30 scale. A one-point increase in the total stigma score was associated with a 4 % increase in the odds of current depression [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.04, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.05]. Internalized stigma had the strongest association with depression (aOR = 1.09, 95 % CI 1.07-1.12). Effective interventions to address coping with HIV-related stigma immediately following HIV-diagnosis might help reduce depression, improve long-term mental health, and improve engagement in their care.

  10. Virus-induced exacerbations in asthma and COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke eKurai

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is characterized by chronic airway inflammation and/or airflow limitation due to pulmonary emphysema. Chronic bronchitis, pulmonary emphysema, and bronchial asthma may all be associated with airflow limitation; therefore, exacerbation of asthma may be associated with the pathophysiology of COPD. Furthermore, recent studies have suggested that the exacerbation of asthma, namely virus-induced asthma, may be associated with a wide variety of respiratory viruses.COPD and asthma have different underlying pathophysiological processes and thus require individual therapies. Exacerbation of both COPD and asthma, which are basically defined and diagnosed by clinical symptoms, is associated with a rapid decline in lung function and increased mortality. Similar pathogens, including human rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus, parainfluenza virus and coronavirus, are also frequently detected during exacerbation of asthma and/or COPD. Immune response to respiratory viral infections, which may be related to the severity of exacerbation in each disease, varies in patients with both COPD and asthma. In this regard, it is crucial to recognize and understand both the similarities and differences of clinical features in patients with COPD and/or asthma associated with respiratory viral infections, especially in the exacerbative stage.In relation to definition, epidemiology, and pathophysiology, this review aims to summarize current knowledge concerning exacerbation of both COPD and asthma by focusing on the clinical significance of associated respiratory virus infections.

  11. Sex differences in asthma in swimmers and tennis players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romberg, Kerstin; Tufvesson, Ellen; Bjermer, Leif

    2017-03-01

    Elite athletes, independent of sport, have increased risk of developing asthma, but little is known about sex difference among adolescent athletes. To investigate and compare sex-related differences according to symptoms and treatment of asthma, allergy, and health among elite athletes and a reference group. Adolescent elite swimmers (n = 101), tennis players (n = 86), and a reference group (n = 1,628) responded to a questionnaire about respiratory symptoms, allergy, health behavior, psychosomatic symptoms, self- esteem, and well-being. The athletes performed a mannitol provocation and a sport-specific exercise provocation. Atopy was assessed by skin prick tests, and fractional exhaled nitric oxide was measured. The females reported more asthma symptoms than the males in both the reference group (29.1% vs 22.3%) and the athlete group (56.4% vs 40.2%). However, no significant differences were found in physician-diagnosed asthma or treatment with inhaled corticosteroids. More female athletes had a positive mannitol provocation result (48.7% vs 35.8% in male athletes), and more female swimmers had a positive exercise provocation result (15.1% vs 7.7% in male swimmers). The females in all groups had more psychosomatic symptoms compared with the respective males, and the males in the reference group reported higher self-esteem and felt more well-being compared with the reference group females. Overall, we found a higher prevalence of asthma symptoms in the females. However, the frequency of physician-diagnosed asthma and the prescription of inhaled corticosteroids were the same in both sexes. This finding demonstrates an insufficient diagnosis of asthma in females. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Utility of tests used to diagnose asthma, gastroesophageal reflux and upper airway cough syndrome in patients with chronic cough and normal chest radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed E. Mansour

    2012-07-01

    Conclusion: Asthma, UACS, GERD, or some combination of these represent 78% of the causes of chronic cough in our sample. Therefore, these conditions should be considered first during diagnostic evaluation of patients with chronic cough and normal CXR. Inspite of some discrepancy between initial and final diagnoses, the study identifies the group of diagnostic methods best able to identify the cause in the vast majority of cases of chronic cough including sinuses CT scan, rhinoscopy, pulmonary function tests, and esophageal pH monitoring.

  13. Diagnosing asthma in general practice with portable exhaled nitric oxide measurement – results of a prospective diagnostic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laux Gunter

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO for the diagnosis of asthma in general practice. Methods Prospective diagnostic study with 160 patients attending 10 general practices for the first time with complaints suspicious of obstructive airway disease (OAD. Patients were referred to a lung function laboratory for diagnostic investigation. The index test was FENO measured with a portable FENO analyser based on electrochemical sensor. The reference standard was the Tiffeneau ratio (FEV1/VC as received by spirometric manoeuvre and/or results of bronchial provocation. Bronchial provocation with methacholine was performed to determine bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR in the event of inconclusive spirometric results. Results 88 (55% were female; their average age was 43.9 years. 75 (46.9% patients had asthma, 25 (15.6% had COPD, 8 (5.0% had an overlap of COPD and asthma, and 52 (32.5% had no OAD. At a cut-off level of 46 parts per billion (ppb (n = 30; 18.8%, sensitivity was 32% (95%CI 23–43%, specificity 93% (95%CI 85–97%, positive predictive value (PPV 80% (95%CI 63–91%, negative predictive value (NPV 61% (95%CI 52–69% when compared with a 20% fall in FEV1 from the baseline value (PC20 after inhaling methacholine concentration ≤ 16 mg/ml. At 76 ppb (n = 11; 6.9% specificity was 100% (95%CI 96–100% and PPV was 100% (95%CI 72–100. At a cut-off level of 12 ppb (n = 34; 21.3%, sensitivity was 90% (95%CI 79–95%, specificity 25% (95%CI 17–34%, PPV 40% (95%CI 32–50, NPV 81% (95%CI 64–91% when compared with a 20% fall of FEV1 after inhaling methacholine concentration ≤ 4 mg/ml. Three patients with unsuspicious spirometric results have to be tested with FENO to save one bronchial provocation test. Conclusion Asthma could be ruled in with FENO > 46 ppb. Mild and moderate to severe asthma could be ruled out with FENO ≤ 12 ppb. FENO measurement with

  14. Social and environmental stressors in the home and childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suglia, Shakira Franco; Franco Suglia, Shakira; Duarte, Cristiane S; Sandel, Megan T; Wright, Rosalind J

    2010-07-01

    Both physical environmental factors and chronic stress may independently increase susceptibility to asthma; however, little is known on how these different risks may interact. The authors examined the relationship between maternal intimate partner violence (IPV), housing quality and asthma among children in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N=2013). Maternal reports of IPV were obtained after the child's birth and at 12 and 36 months. At the 36-month assessment, interviewers rated indoor housing conditions, regarding housing deterioration (ie, peeling paint, holes in floor, broken windows) and housing disarray (ie, dark, cluttered, crowded or noisy house). At the same time, mothers reported on housing hardships (ie, moving repeatedly, and hardships in keeping house warm). Maternal-report of physician-diagnosed asthma by age 36 months which was active in the past year was the outcome. Asthma was diagnosed in 10% of the children. In an adjusted analysis, an increased odds of asthma was observed in children of mothers experiencing IPV chronically (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.0 to 3.5) and in children experiencing housing disarray (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.0) compared with those not exposed to these risks. In stratified analyses, a greater effect of IPV on asthma was noted among children living in disarrayed or deteriorated housing or among children whose mothers were experiencing housing hardship. IPV and housing disarray are associated with increased early childhood asthma. Exposure to cumulative or multiple stressors (ie, IPV and poor housing quality) may increase children's risk of developing asthma more than a single stressor.

  15. eHealth Literacy and Partner Involvement in Treatment Decision Making for Men With Newly Diagnosed Localized Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lixin; Tatum, Kimberly; Greene, Giselle; Chen, Ronald C

    2017-03-01

    To examine how the eHealth literacy of partners of patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer affects their involvement in decision making, and to identify the factors that influence their eHealth literacy.
. Cross-sectional exploratory study.
. North Carolina.
. 142 partners of men with newly diagnosed localized prostate cancer. 
. A telephone survey and descriptive and multiple linear regression analyses were used.
. The partners' eHealth literacy, involvement in treatment decision making, and demographics, and the health statuses of the patients and their partners. 
. Higher levels of eHealth literacy among partners were significantly associated with their involvement in getting a second opinion, their awareness of treatment options, and the size of the social network they relied on for additional information and support for treatment decision making for prostate cancer. The factor influencing eHealth literacy was the partners' access to the Internet for personal use, which explained some of the variance in eHealth literacy.
. This study described how partners' eHealth literacy influenced their involvement in treatment decision making for prostate cancer and highlighted the influencing factors (i.e., partners' access to the Internet for personal use).
. When helping men with prostate cancer and their partners with treatment decision making, nurses need to assess eHealth literacy levels to determine whether nonelectronically based education materials are needed and to provide clear instructions on how to use eHealth resources.

  16. Study Protocol: Early Stereotactic Gamma Knife Radiosurgery to Residual Tumor After Surgery of Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma (Gamma-GBM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehmer, Stefanie; Grimm, Mario Alexander; Förster, Alex; Seiz-Rosenhagen, Marcel; Welzel, Grit; Stieler, Florian; Wenz, Frederik; Groden, Christoph; Mai, Sabine; Hänggi, Daniel; Giordano, Frank Anton

    2018-04-24

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common malignant brain tumor in adult patients. Tumor recurrence commonly occurs around the resection cavity, especially after subtotal resection (STR). Consequently, the extent of resection correlates with overall survival (OS), suggesting that depletion of postoperative tumor remnants will improve outcome. To assess safety and efficacy of adding stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) to the standard treatment of GBM in patients with postoperative residual tumor. Gamma-GBM is a single center, open-label, prospective, single arm, phase II study that includes patients with newly diagnosed GBM (intraoperative via frozen sections) who underwent STR (residual tumor will be identified by native and contrast enhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans). All patients will receive SRS with 15 Gy (prescribed to the 50% isodose enclosing all areas of residual tumor) early (within 24-72 h) after surgery. Thereafter, all patients undergo standard-of-care therapy for GBM (radiochemotherapy with 60 Gy external beam radiotherapy [EBRT] plus concomitant temozolomide and 6 cycles of adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy). The primary outcome is median progression-free survival, secondary outcomes are median OS, occurrence of radiation induced acute (3 mo post-SRS) neurotoxicity and incidence of symptomatic radionecrosis. We expect to detect efficacy and safety signals by the immediate application of SRS to standard-of-care therapy in newly diagnosed GBM. Early postoperative SRS to areas of residual tumor could bridge the therapeutic gap between surgery and adjuvant therapies.

  17. CHOEP-21 chemotherapy for newly diagnosed nodal peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs) in Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattarittamrong, Ekarat; Norasetthada, Lalita; Tantiworawit, Adisak; Chai-Adisaksopha, Chatree; Nawarawong, Weerasak

    2013-11-01

    To determine the effectiveness and tolerability of the combination of chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (CHOP) with the addition of etoposide (CHOEP-21) for newly diagnosed nodal peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs). Between January 2009 and October 2011, patients aged 18 to 60 years with newly diagnosed nodal PTCLs at the Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital were enrolled to receive CHOEP-21 every three weeks for eight cycles. G-CSF prophylaxis was given to all patients. Twenty-four patients were enrolled. Twenty of them were male with a median age of 49 years. The majority of patients (66.7%) had PTCL, not otherwise specified (PTCL, NOS), and 95.8% of the patients were in stage III or IV. The overall response rate was 58% with 42% having complete response. The response rates were better among patients with ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL; 100%) and angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL; 85%) than those with PTCL, NOS (44%). With a median follow-up of 21 months, the patients had an estimated 2-year event-free survival, and an overall survival rate of 37.6% and 54.4%, respectively. The most common adverse effects were infection and hematologic toxicities that was manageable. Although CHOEP-21 induced favorable responses in patients with ALK-negative ALCL and AITL, the responses were not durable and further therapy is mandated in management of patients with nodal PTCL.

  18. Cord blood 25(OH)-vitamin D deficiency and childhood asthma, allergy and eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, Bo L; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Jensen, Pia F

    2014-01-01

    on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC2000) at-risk mother-child cohort. Troublesome lung symptoms (TROLS), asthma, respiratory infections, allergic rhinitis, and eczema, at age 0-7 yrs were diagnosed exclusively by the COPSAC pediatricians strictly adhering to predefined algorithms. Objective assessments of lung......BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have suggested an association between maternal vitamin D dietary intake during pregnancy and risk of asthma and allergy in the offspring. However, prospective clinical studies on vitamin D measured in cord blood and development of clinical end-points are sparse....... OBJECTIVE: To investigate the interdependence of cord blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)-Vitamin D) level and investigator-diagnosed asthma- and allergy-related conditions during preschool-age. METHODS: Cord blood 25(OH)-Vitamin D level was measured in 257 children from the Copenhagen Prospective Studies...

  19. Effect of Linezolid on Hematologic Recovery in Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients Following Induction Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedved, Adrienne N; DeFrates, Sean R; Hladnik, Lindsay M; Stockerl-Goldstein, Keith E

    2016-10-01

    Assess the effects of linezolid on hematologic outcomes in newly diagnosed patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) following induction chemotherapy. Single-center, retrospective, observational, cohort study. Large, tertiary care academic medical center. A total of 225 patients ≥ 18 years admitted between December 2010 and 2013 with newly diagnosed AML were assessed for inclusion. Patients were identified through the use of ICD-9 codes and chemotherapy ordered via the computerized physician order entry system. Sixty-eight patients met inclusion criteria and were grouped into two arms based on antimicrobial treatment: LZD group (linezolid plus gram-negative antimicrobial, n=21) or control group (vancomycin or daptomycin plus gram-negative antimicrobial, n=47). The LZD group received linezolid ≥ 72 hours. The control group received vancomycin or daptomycin ≥ 72 hours. If patients switched extended gram-positive therapy, they were included in the LZD group as long as they had received ≥ 72 hours of linezolid. The primary end point of time to neutrophil recovery was not statistically different (28 days for LZD group vs 26 days for control group; p=0.675). The preplanned subgroup analysis of patients who received ≥ 14 days of linezolid demonstrated statistically similar median times to neutrophil recovery (29 days for LZD group vs 26 days for control group; p=0.487). Total duration of extended gram-positive antimicrobial therapy was significantly longer in the LZD group (27 days vs 16 days; plinezolid for extended gram-positive antimicrobial coverage following induction chemotherapy. This study provides new insight with a primary focus on the effects of hematologic outcomes when using linezolid in a well-defined acute leukemia population. Further study is warranted with larger populations to assess the potential adverse effects linezolid may have in patients with acute leukemia. © 2016 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  20. Preoperative psychological distress, coping and quality of life in Chinese patients with newly diagnosed gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jingfang; Wei, Zengzeng; Wang, Weili

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of preoperative psychological distress and its relationship with coping style and quality of life in Chinese patients with newly diagnosed gastric cancer. Being newly diagnosed with cancer can be a source of psychological distress. Understanding the preoperative psychological distress may contribute to the development of appropriate interventions. This is a descriptive correlational survey study. The study was conducted in two teaching hospitals in Anhui province, China. A total of 165 patients with gastric cancer completed a battery of self-report questionnaires including the Distress Thermometer, the revised Chinese version of the Quality of Life Questionnaire-Stomach 22 and the Cancer Coping Modes Questionnaire. The prevalence of clinically significant preoperative psychological distress was 76·97% in this group. Statistically significant correlations were identified between the distress score and stomach pain, eating restrictions and anxiety subscale. Positive associations were found between the distress scores and four subdimensions of coping (avoidance and suppression, resignation, fantasy and catharsis), whereas a negative association was found between the distress scores and one subdimension of coping (Confrontation). There were also significant differences in the quality of life and coping style of patients who had different psychological distress statuses. These findings indicate a relatively high prevalence of preoperative psychological distress among Chinese patients with gastric cancer. Patients with clinically psychological distress were more likely to have poor quality of life and to demonstrate negative coping styles. Nursing professionals need to carefully assess the psychological status of patients with gastric cancer. Tailored interventions can be administered to help these patients appropriately cope with the disease and to enhance their quality of life. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Comparable risk of childhood asthma after vaginal delivery and emergency caesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brix, Nis; Stokholm, Lonny; Jonsdottir, Fjola; Kristensen, Kim; Secher, Niels Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    Caesarean section is thought to be a risk factor for childhood asthma, but this association may be caused by confounding from, for instance, familial factors. To address this problem, we used twin pairs to assess the risk of childhood asthma after emergency caesarean section. The study was a register-based nation-wide matched cohort study using twin pairs to minimise residual confounding. Included were twin pairs in which the first twin was delivered vaginally and the second by emergency caesarean section during the study period from January 1997 through December 2012. In total, 464 twin pairs (928 twins) were included. In 30 pairs, the first twin (vaginal delivery) was diagnosed with asthma, but the second twin (emergency caesarean section) was not. In 20 pairs, the second twin (emergency caesarean section) was diagnosed with asthma, but the first twin (vaginal delivery) was not. In 11 pairs, both twins developed asthma. In the unadjusted analysis, emergency caesarean section did not affect the risk of asthma (odds ratio = 0.67 (95% confidence interval: 0.38-1.17); p = 0.16). After adjusting for birth weight, gender, umbilical cord pH, Apgar score at 5 min. and neonatal respiratory morbidity, the risk of childhood asthma following emergency caesarean section remained unchanged. Emergency caesarean section was not associated with childhood asthma. none. not relevant.

  2. Impact of universal health coverage on suicide risk in newly diagnosed cancer patients: Population-based cohort study from 1985 to 2007 in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Po-Hsien; Liao, Shih-Cheng; Chen, I-Ming; Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Shan, Jia-Chi; Lee, Ming-Been; Chen, Wei J

    2017-11-01

    National Health Insurance (NHI), launched in 1995 in Taiwan, lightens patient's financial burdens but its effect on the suicide risk in cancer patients is unclear. We aimed to investigate the impacts of the NHI on the suicide in newly diagnosed cancer patients. We identified patients with newly diagnosed cancer from the nationwide Taiwan Cancer Registration from 1985 to 2007, and ascertained suicide deaths from the national database of registered deaths between 1985 and 2009. Standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of suicide risk among patients with cancer was calculated, and the suicide risk ratios were examined by gender, age group, and prognosis. For the 916 337 registered cancer patients with 4 300 953 person-years, 2 543 died by suicide, with a suicide rate of 59.1 per 100 000 person-years. Compared to the general population, cancer patients had an SMR of 2.47 for suicide, with a higher figure for males (2.73), age 45 to 64 (2.89), and cancer of poor prognosis (3.19). The suicide risk was highest in the first 2 years after the initial diagnosis. Comparing the cohorts of the period before (1985 to 1992) and after (1996 to 2007) the launch of NHI, we saw a reduction in the SMR within the first 2 years after cancer diagnosis (20%), with more prominent reduction for females (29%), age under 45 (69%), and cancer of good prognosis (33%). A universal health coverage relieving both physical and psychological distress may account for the post-NHI reduction of immediate suicide risk in patients of newly diagnosed cancer. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Hospital Admissions, Costs, and 30-Day Readmissions Among Newly Diagnosed Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation Patients Treated with Dabigatran Etexilate or Warfarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Eileen; Sander, Stephen D; Hess, Gregory P; Ghosh, Sabyasachi

    2015-11-01

    Oral anticoagulation such as warfarin and dabigatran is indicated for atrial fibrillation (AF) patients at risk of ischemic stroke. Dabigatran etexilate was developed to address the limitations of warfarin, including the need for regular blood monitoring, which has the potential to lead to higher health care resource use, particularly in hospitalized patients. To evaluate whether hospitalization cost, length of hospital stay (LOS), likelihood of readmission within 30 days, and cost of readmissions differed across inpatient encounters among nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) patients that were newly diagnosed and newly treated with either dabigatran or warfarin. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using IMS Health's Charge Detail Master (CDM) database. Hospitalizations were identified based on a primary or secondary AF diagnosis, dabigatran or warfarin use, and a discharge date from January 2011 through March 2012. The identified patients without valvular procedures and transient AF were required to have a minimum of 12 months of pharmacy and private practitioner records prior to the inpatient encounter to ensure that they were newly treated on dabigatran or warfarin. Propensity score matching was used to balance baseline characteristics between treatment cohorts. Outcomes assessed were LOS, 30-day readmissions, and costs. Because individual patients could have more than 1 hospital observation, generalized estimating equations (GEE) with a gamma distribution (log link) were used for the analysis of continuous outcome measures (e.g., LOS and costs) and a binominal distribution for dichotomous outcomes (hospital readmissions). Two cohorts were propensity score matched (1:2) on demographic and clinical characteristics. The dabigatran cohort included 646 hospitalizations, and the warfarin cohort included 1,292 hospitalizations. Hospitalizations were on average 13% shorter (4.8 vs. 5.5 days, P  less than  0.001) and cost 12% less ($14,794 vs. $16,826, P

  4. Parental Perceptions and Practices toward Childhood Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amani K. Abu-Shaheen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Parental perceptions and practices are important for improving the asthma outcomes in children; indeed, evidence shows that parents of asthmatic children harbor considerable misperceptions of the disease. Objective. To investigate the perceptions and practices of parents toward asthma and its management in Saudi children. Methods. Using a self-administered questionnaire, a two-stage cross-sectional survey of parents of children aged between 3 and 15 years, was conducted from schools located in Riyadh province in central Saudi Arabia. Results. During the study interval, 2000 parents were asked to participate in the study; 1450 parents responded, of whom 600 (41.4% reported that their children had asthma, dyspnea, or chest allergy (recurrent wheezing or coughing, while 478 (32.9% of the parents reported that their children were diagnosed earlier with asthma by a physician. Therefore, the final statistical analyses were performed with 600 participants. Furthermore, 321 (53.5% respondents believed that asthma is solely a hereditary disease. Interestingly, 361 (60.3% were concerned about side effects of inhaled corticosteroids and 192 (32% about the development of dependency on asthma medications. Almost 76% of parents had previously visited a pediatric emergency department during an asthma attack. Conclusions. Parents had misperceptions regarding asthma and exhibited ineffective practices in its management. Therefore, improving asthma care and compliance requires added parental education.

  5. Parental Perceptions and Practices toward Childhood Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Shaheen, Amani K; Nofal, Abdullah; Heena, Humariya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction . Parental perceptions and practices are important for improving the asthma outcomes in children; indeed, evidence shows that parents of asthmatic children harbor considerable misperceptions of the disease. Objective. To investigate the perceptions and practices of parents toward asthma and its management in Saudi children. Methods . Using a self-administered questionnaire, a two-stage cross-sectional survey of parents of children aged between 3 and 15 years, was conducted from schools located in Riyadh province in central Saudi Arabia. Results . During the study interval, 2000 parents were asked to participate in the study; 1450 parents responded, of whom 600 (41.4%) reported that their children had asthma, dyspnea, or chest allergy (recurrent wheezing or coughing), while 478 (32.9%) of the parents reported that their children were diagnosed earlier with asthma by a physician. Therefore, the final statistical analyses were performed with 600 participants. Furthermore, 321 (53.5%) respondents believed that asthma is solely a hereditary disease. Interestingly, 361 (60.3%) were concerned about side effects of inhaled corticosteroids and 192 (32%) about the development of dependency on asthma medications. Almost 76% of parents had previously visited a pediatric emergency department during an asthma attack. Conclusions . Parents had misperceptions regarding asthma and exhibited ineffective practices in its management. Therefore, improving asthma care and compliance requires added parental education.

  6. Body composition as an indicator of the nutritional status in children with newly diagnosed ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease – a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Więch

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : The prevalence of nutritional status disorders in children with ulcerative colitis (UC is much lower than in the case of Crohn’s disease (CD. The largest variability in the components of body composition occurs at the time of a new diagnosis and in periods of disease exacerbation. Aim: Assessment of body composition in children with UC and CD. Material and methods: The preliminary study included 59 children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD (34 children with UC vs. 25 children with CD aged 4–18 years. The final analysis included 26 newly diagnosed children (16 children with UC vs. 10 children with CD. The evaluation of body composition was conducted by means of BIA-101 bioimpedance analyser. Results : Decreased values of lean mass were found in children with newly diagnosed IBD (UC: 41.13 kg vs. control group: 42.06 kg; CD: 35.50 kg vs. control group: 45.50 kg. After a year interval, an increase in fat (UC 1: 7.67 kg vs. UC 2: 10.33 kg; CD 1: 7.36 kg vs. CD 2: 9.47 kg as well as lean body mass (UC 1: 35.22 kg vs. UC 2: 39.00 kg; CD 1: 35.99 kg vs. CD 2: 42.41 kg was found in children. Conclusions : Children with newly diagnosed IBD were highly vulnerable to nutritional status disturbances. The increase in fat and lean body mass in an annual interval may be due to the treatment regime and control of the children.

  7. Risk of Asthma from Cesarean Delivery Depends on Membrane Rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sevelsted, Astrid; Stokholm, Jakob; Bisgaard, Hans

    2016-01-01

    in Childhood2000 is a high-risk birth cohort of 411 Danish children. Asthma was diagnosed prospectively by physicians at the research site, and associations with cesarean delivery were investigated using Cox proportional hazard models. From the Danish national prospective registry we included data from 1997......-2010. Childhood asthma was defined from recurrent use of inhaled corticosteroids filled at pharmacies. Cesarean delivery was classified as either before or after rupture of membranes, and the risk of asthma was compared with vaginal delivery. Results were adjusted stepwise for age and calendar year, sex, birth...... weight, gestational age, multiple births, parity, and maternal factors (age, smoking/antibiotics during pregnancy, employment status, and asthma). RESULTS: In the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood2000 cohort, the adjusted hazard ratio for asthma was increased by cesarean delivery...

  8. Depressive Symptoms and Their Impact on Health-seeking Behaviors in Newly-diagnosed HIV-infected Patients in Durban, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez-Avila, Lynn; Regan, Susan; Giddy, Janet; Chetty, Senica; Ross, Douglas; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Walensky, Rochelle P.; Losina, Elena; Bassett, Ingrid V.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms prior to HIV diagnosis and determined the effect of these symptoms on seeking HIV care at an urban and rural clinic in Durban, South Africa. Adults were administered a questionnaire which included the 5-item Mental Health Index (MHI-5) before HIV testing. We determined the depressive symptoms among HIV-infected subjects. Of 1,545 newly-diagnosed HIV-infected subjects, 55% had depressive symptoms by MHI-5 score. Enrolling at the...

  9. Overweight and obesity in children with newly diagnosed inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pituch-Zdanowska, Aleksandra; Banaszkiewicz, Aleksandra; Dziekiewicz, Marcin; Łazowska-Przeorek, Izabella; Gawrońska, Agnieszka; Kowalska-Duplaga, Kinga; Iwańczak, Barbara; Klincewicz, Beata; Grzybowska-Chlebowczyk, Urszula; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Albrecht, Piotr

    2016-03-01

    Determination of overweight and obesity prevalence in children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) at the time of diagnosis. This was a multicenter retrospective study. The study group consisted of children with new cases of IBD diagnosed in 2005-2013 according to the Porto criteria. Hospital admission records were reviewed for demographic and clinical characteristics. BMI-for-age and gender percentile charts were used to define overweight as ≥85th BMI percentile and obesity as ≥95th BMI percentile. 675 patients were evaluated: 368 with Crohn's disease (CD) and 307 with ulcerative colitis (UC). Of these, 54.8% were boys and 45.2% were girls. There were no statistically significant differences in age, weight, height and disease activity between the CD and UC patients. The UC patients had higher BMI values than the CD patients. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher in the UC than the CD patients (4.89% CI95 2.76-7.93 vs. 2.45% CI95 1.12-4.59 and 8.47% CI95 5.61-12.16 vs. 1.9% CI95 0.77-3.88, respectively); the differences were statistically significant (-2.44% CI95 -5.45 to 0.49 and -6.57% CI95 -10 to -3.1, respectively). The risk of overweight/obesity was 3.5 times higher for patients with UC (OR=0.272, CI95 0.14-0.49, p=0.0004). The prevalence of overweight and obesity in newly diagnosed children with IBD was 8.4% and was higher in patients with UC than in patients with CD. The results of this study have shown that not only malnourished children may suffer from IBD but also children who are overweight or obese at the time of diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 Medical University of Bialystok. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  10. Cytomorphology review of 100 newly diagnosed lower-risk MDS patients in the European LeukemiaNet MDS (EUMDS) registry reveals a high inter-observer concordance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, L. de; Smith, A.; MacKenzie, M.; Symeonidis, A.; Neukirchen, J.; Mikulenkova, D.; Vallespi, T.; Zini, G.; Paszkowska-Kowalewska, M.; Kruger, A.; Saft, L.; Fenaux, P.; Bowen, D.; Hellstrom-Lindberg, E.; Cermak, J.; Stauder, R.; Tatic, A.; Holm, M.S.; Malcovati, L.; Madry, K.; Droste, J.A.; Blijlevens, N.M.; Witte, T.J. de; Germing, U.

    2017-01-01

    The European LeukemiaNet MDS (EUMDS) registry is collecting data of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients belonging to the IPSS low or intermediate-1 category, newly diagnosed by local cytologists. The diagnosis of MDS can be challenging, and some data report inter-observer variability with regard

  11. A STUDY TO CORRELATE HBA1C LEVELS AND LEFT VENTRICULAR DIASTOLIC DYSFUNCTION IN NEWLY DIAGNOSED TYPE II DIABETES MELLITUS

    OpenAIRE

    Vasanthi; Namitha; Jayanthi; Elangumanan; Mohamed; Uma Maheshwari; Pravin Selvam; Santhi

    2016-01-01

    AIM To assess the correlation of HBA1C levels with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetic patient. This prospective study was done at Department of General Medicine, OPD, Medical Wards, Stanley Medical College and Hospital, Chennai. RESULT The mean HBA1C levels were meaningfully more in Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction (LVDD) positive group compared to the LVDD negative group by 1.33%. This significant difference of 15% increase in...

  12. The PCDH1 gene and asthma in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Li J; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Hakonarson, Hakon

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that variants in the protocadherin-1 (PCDH1) gene, which is important for cell-cell adhesion, are associated with asthma, bronchial, hyperresponsiveness and atopic dermatitis in school children. Our aim was to associate common variants of the PCDH1 gene with longit......Previous studies have suggested that variants in the protocadherin-1 (PCDH1) gene, which is important for cell-cell adhesion, are associated with asthma, bronchial, hyperresponsiveness and atopic dermatitis in school children. Our aim was to associate common variants of the PCDH1 gene...... with longitudinally assessed asthma phenotypes and atopic dermatitis in early childhood. We analysed eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms in PCDH1 from 411 children born to asthmatic mothers from the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood birth cohort. Asthma and atopic dermatitis were diagnosed...

  13. A rare case of Mounier-Kuhn syndrome with bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi Tanay

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tracheobronchomegaly(Mounier–Kuhn syndrome is dilatation of the trachea and major bronchi because of atrophy or absence of elastic fibers and smooth muscle cells .Patients presenting to primary care physician with lower respiratory tract symptoms like dyspnoea and wheezing are often diagnosed with COPD or asthma and started on treatment. There are uncommon conditions like Mounier-Kuhn syndrome (MKS that can present with similar symptoms and it is important for the primary care physician to keep them in mind when evaluating the patients. It is important to identify MKS, as early recognition can lead to better management and prevention of complications. Very few cases of MKS with Bronchial Asthma have been reported so far. We present a case of 65 year old male who presented with intermittent episodes of cough with productive sputum ,wheezing and breathing difficulty since last 35 years and was treated for Bronchial Asthma since last 25 years. He was later diagnosed with Mounier–Kuhn syndrome with Bronchial Asthma by clinical history supported by Radiological evidences.

  14. Hypoactivation of reward motivational system in patients with newly diagnosed hypertension grade I-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftanas, L I; Brak, I V; Gilinskaya, O M; Korenek, V V; Pavlov, S V; Reva, N V

    2014-08-01

    In patients with newly diagnosed untreated grade I-II hypertension, EEG oscillations were recorded under conditions activation of the two basic motivational systems, defensive motivational system and positive reinforcement system, evoked by recall of personally meaningful emotional events. The 64-channel EEG and cardiovascular reactivity (beat-by-beat technology) were simultaneously recorded. At rest, hypertensive patients had significantly reduced platelet serotonin concentrations in comparison with healthy individuals. The patients experiencing emotional activation were characterized by significantly lower intensity of positive emotions associated with more pronounced suppression of EEG activity in the delta (2-4 Hz) and theta (ranges of frequency 4-6 and 6-8 Hz) oscillators in the parieto-occipital cortex (zones P and PO) in both hemispheres of the brain. The findings attest to insufficient function of the brain serotonin system and hypoactivation of the reward/reinforcement system in patients with primary hypertension.

  15. Intellectual Impairment in Patients with Newly Diagnosed HIV Infection in Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taofiki A. Sunmonu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurocognitive impairment is a detrimental complication of HIV infection. Here, we characterized the intellectual performance of patients with newly diagnosed HIV infection in southwestern Nigeria. We conducted a prospective study at Owo Federal Medical Center by using the adapted Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS. The raw scores were converted to standardized scores (z-scores and correlated with clinical and laboratory findings. Fifty-eight HIV positive patients were recruited; 72% were in WHO stages 3 and 4. We detected a high rate of intellectual impairment in HIV positive patients and controls (63.8% and 10%, resp.; P<0.001. HIV positive patients performed worse throughout the subtests of both verbal and performance intelligence quotients. Presence of opportunistic infections was associated with worse performance in the similarities and digit symbol tests and performance and full scale scores. Lower body weight correlated with poor performance in different WAIS subtests. The high rate of advanced disease stage warrants measures aimed at earlier diagnosis and treatment. Assessment of neurocognitive performance at diagnosis may offer the opportunity to improve functioning in daily life and counteract disease progression.

  16. Quality of life of parents of children with newly diagnosed specific learning disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karande S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poor school performance in children causes significant stress to parents. Aims: To analyze the quality of life (QOL of parents having a child with newly diagnosed specific learning disability (SpLD and to evaluate the impact of clinical and socio-demographic characteristics on their QOL. Design: Cross-sectional questionnaire-based study. Setting: Learning disability clinic in tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: From June 2006 to February 2007, 150 parents (either mother or father of children consecutively diagnosed as having SpLD were enrolled. Parent′s QOL was measured by the WHOQOL-100 instrument which is a generic instrument containing 25 facets of QOL organized in six domains. Statistical Analysis Used: Independent samples t-test, one-way analysis of variance, and multiple regression analysis were carried out for statistical significance. Results: Mean age of parents was 42.6 years (SD 5.5; mothers to fathers ratio 1.3:1; and 19 (12.7% were currently ill. Only four WHOQOL-100 domains (psychological > social relationships > environment > spiritual and five WHOQOL-100 facets (leisur > pfeel > energy > esteem > sex contributed significantly to their "overall" QOL. Female gender, being currently ill, being in paid work, and having a male child were characteristics that independently predicted a poor domain/facet QOL score. Conclusions: The present study has identified domains and facets that need to be addressed by counselors for improving overall QOL of these parents. Initiating these measures would also improve the home environment and help in the rehabilitation of children with SpLD.

  17. Stigma Reduction in Adolescents and Young Adults Newly Diagnosed with HIV: Findings from the Project ACCEPT Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Diana; Hosek, Sybil G.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This article describes the influence of a group-based behavioral intervention for adolescents and young adults newly diagnosed with HIV (Project ACCEPT) on four dimensions of HIV-related stigma—personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, negative self-image, and concern with public attitudes about people with HIV—as measured by the Berger HIV Stigma Scale. Stigma was addressed in a holistic manner during the intervention by providing HIV/AIDS-related information, facilitating the acquisition of coping skills, and providing contact with other youth living with HIV in order to improve social support. Fifty youth (28 male, 22 female; mean age=19.24 years) newly diagnosed with HIV from four geographically diverse clinics participated in a one-group pretest-posttest design study whereby they received the intervention over a 12-week period, and completed assessments at baseline, post-intervention, and 3-month follow-up. Results from the combined sample (males and females) revealed overall reductions in stigma in three dimensions: personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, and negative self-image, although only the combined-sample effects for negative self-image were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Gender-specific analyses revealed that the intervention reduced stigma for males across all four dimensions of stigma, with all effects being maintained to some degree at the 3-month follow-up. Only personalized stigma demonstrated a decrease for females, although this effect was not maintained at the 3-month follow-up; while the other three types of stigma increased at post-intervention and 3-month follow-up. Findings are discussed in terms of gender specific outcomes and the need for a different type of intervention to reduce stigma for young women. PMID:25216106

  18. Predictors of Distant Brain Recurrence for Patients With Newly Diagnosed Brain Metastases Treated With Stereotactic Radiosurgery Alone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawrie, Stephen M.; Guthrie, Barton L.; Spencer, Sharon A.; Nordal, Robert A.; Meredith, Ruby F.; Markert, James M.; Cloud, Gretchen A.; Fiveash, John B.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To ascertain predictors of distant brain failure (DBF) in patients treated initially with stereotactic radiosurgery alone for newly diagnosed brain metastases. We hypothesize that these factors may be used to group patients according to risk of DBF. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed 100 patients with newly diagnosed brain metastases treated from 2003 to 2005 at our Gamma Knife radiosurgery facility. The primary endpoint was DBF. Potential predictors included number of metastases, tumor volume, histologic characteristics, extracranial disease, and use of temozolomide. Results: One-year actuarial risk of DBF was 61% for all patients. Significant predictors of DBF included more than three metastases (hazard ratio, 3.30; p = 0.004), stable or poorly controlled extracranial disease (hazard ratio, 2.16; p = 0.04), and melanoma histologic characteristics (hazard ratio, 2.14; p = 0.02). These were confirmed in multivariate analysis. Those with three or fewer metastases, no extracranial disease, and nonmelanoma histologic characteristics (N = 18) had a median time to DBF of 89 weeks vs. 33 weeks for all others. One-year actuarial freedom from DBF for this group was 83% vs. 26% for all others. Conclusions: Independent significant predictors of DBF in our series included number of metastases (more than three), present or uncontrolled extracranial disease, and melanoma histologic characteristics. These factors were combined to identify a lower risk subgroup with significantly longer time to DBF. These patients may be candidates for initial localized treatment, reserving whole-brain radiation therapy for salvage. Patients in the higher risk group may be candidates for initial whole-brain radiation therapy or should be considered for clinical trials

  19. Visual disability in newly diagnosed primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) patients in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awoyesuku, E A; Ejimadu, C S

    2012-01-01

    Glaucoma remains the second leading cause of blindness worldwide and the highes cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. In N Glaucoma accounts for 16% of blindness and primary open angle glaucoma is the most prevalent clinical type. The aim of this study is to assess the visual disability resulting from glaucoma in newly diagnosed POAG patients in University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. This is a retrospective study of newly diagnosed glaucoma patients referred from the general ophthalmology clinic to the glaucoma clinic over a 12 month period (January-December 2010). All patients had a glaucoma workup includin Snellen distant visual acuity, slit lamp examination, Goldman applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, dilated fundoscopy with +78 diopter lens as well as perimetry. All examinations were carried out by both authors. Patients with other co-morbidities such as cataract and retinal/macular pathologies were excluded from the study. A total of 98 patients were reviewed. The were 34 males and 27 females, giving a male to female ratio of 1.3:1. The average age was 54.2 years and most patients (>80%) were in the 40-59 year age group. Of the 98 patients reviewed, 62.2% had POAG. 30 patients were-blind by distant visual acuity criteria while 45 patients were blind by central visual field criteria. POAG is the most prevalent clinical subtype of glaucoma in Nigeria and sub-Saharan Africa Paucity of symptoms in early stages of the disease at late presentation is a characteristic finding in our clinic environment. Our study showed that POAG in our environment is associated with marked visual disability at the time of presentation.

  20. Stigma reduction in adolescents and young adults newly diagnosed with HIV: findings from the Project ACCEPT intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Gary W; Lemos, Diana; Hosek, Sybil G

    2014-10-01

    This article describes the influence of a group-based behavioral intervention for adolescents and young adults newly diagnosed with HIV (Project ACCEPT) on four dimensions of HIV-related stigma-personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, negative self-image, and concern with public attitudes about people with HIV-as measured by the Berger HIV Stigma Scale. Stigma was addressed in a holistic manner during the intervention by providing HIV/AIDS-related information, facilitating the acquisition of coping skills, and providing contact with other youth living with HIV in order to improve social support. Fifty youth (28 male, 22 female; mean age=19.24 years) newly diagnosed with HIV from four geographically diverse clinics participated in a one-group pretest-posttest design study whereby they received the intervention over a 12-week period, and completed assessments at baseline, post-intervention, and 3-month follow-up. Results from the combined sample (males and females) revealed overall reductions in stigma in three dimensions: personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, and negative self-image, although only the combined-sample effects for negative self-image were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Gender-specific analyses revealed that the intervention reduced stigma for males across all four dimensions of stigma, with all effects being maintained to some degree at the 3-month follow-up. Only personalized stigma demonstrated a decrease for females, although this effect was not maintained at the 3-month follow-up; while the other three types of stigma increased at post-intervention and 3-month follow-up. Findings are discussed in terms of gender specific outcomes and the need for a different type of intervention to reduce stigma for young women.

  1. Newly diagnosed hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with advanced hepatitis C treated with DAAs: A prospective population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Antonietta; Angeli, Paolo; Piovesan, Sara; Noventa, Franco; Anastassopoulos, Georgios; Chemello, Liliana; Cavalletto, Luisa; Gambato, Martina; Russo, Francesco Paolo; Burra, Patrizia; Vincenzi, Valter; Scotton, Pier Giorgio; Panese, Sandro; Tempesta, Diego; Bertin, Tosca; Carrara, Maurizio; Carlotto, Antonio; Capra, Franco; Carolo, Giada; Scroccaro, Giovanna; Alberti, Alfredo

    2018-03-16

    Direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) are safe and effective in patients with hepatitis C. Conflicting data were reported on the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) during/after therapy with DAAs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of newly diagnosed HCC and associated risk factors in patients with advanced hepatitis C treated with DAAs. The study is based on the NAVIGATORE platform, a prospectively recording database of all patients with hepatitis C receiving DAAs in the Veneto region of Italy. The inclusion criteria were: fibrosis stage ≥F3. The exclusion criteria were: Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP)-C, liver transplantation before DAAs, history or presence of HCC, follow-up hepatocarcinoma during the first year is not higher, and might be lower, than that of untreated patients. The risk further declines thereafter. Early hepatocarcinoma appearance may reflect pre-existing, microscopic, undetectable tumors. Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the complications of hepatitis C related cirrhosis. Treating patients with advanced hepatitis C with the new interferon-free direct-acting antiviral agents has been associated with improvement in liver function and survival, while more conflicting data have been reported regarding the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. We report the results of a prospective population study on the incidence of newly diagnosed hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with advanced hepatitis C treated with direct-acting antiviral agents, clearly indicating that the residual hepatocellular carcinoma risk is reduced and declines progressively with time after a sustained virological response. Development of a liver tumor during/after therapy was associated with known risk factors and with virological failure. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. HIV-1 molecular epidemiology among newly diagnosed HIV-1 individuals in Hebei, a low HIV prevalence province in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinli; Kang, Xianjiang; Liu, Yongjian; Cui, Ze; Guo, Wei; Zhao, Cuiying; Li, Yan; Chen, Suliang; Li, Jingyun; Zhang, Yuqi; Zhao, Hongru

    2017-01-01

    New human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) diagnoses are increasing rapidly in Hebei. The aim of this study presents the most extensive HIV-1 molecular epidemiology investigation in Hebei province in China thus far. We have carried out the most extensive systematic cross-sectional study based on newly diagnosed HIV-1 positive individuals in 2013, and characterized the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 based on full length gag-partial pol gene sequences in the whole of Hebei. Nine HIV-1 genotypes based on full length gag-partial pol gene sequence were identified among 610 newly diagnosed naïve individuals. The four main genotypes were circulating recombinant form (CRF)01_AE (53.4%), CRF07_BC (23.4%), subtype B (15.9%), and unique recombinant forms URFs (4.9%). Within 1 year, three new genotypes (subtype A1, CRF55_01B, CRF65_cpx), unknown before in Hebei, were first found among men who have sex with men (MSM). All nine genotypes were identified in the sexually contracted HIV-1 population. Among 30 URFs, six recombinant patterns were revealed, including CRF01_AE/BC (40.0%), CRF01_AE/B (23.3%), B/C (16.7%), CRF01_AE/C (13.3%), CRF01_AE/B/A2 (3.3%) and CRF01_AE/BC/A2 (3.3%), plus two potential CRFs. This study elucidated the complicated characteristics of HIV-1 molecular epidemiology in a low HIV-1 prevalence northern province of China and revealed the high level of HIV-1 genetic diversity. All nine HIV-1 genotypes circulating in Hebei have spread out of their initial risk groups into the general population through sexual contact, especially through MSM. This highlights the urgency of HIV prevention and control in China.

  3. HIV-1 molecular epidemiology among newly diagnosed HIV-1 individuals in Hebei, a low HIV prevalence province in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinli Lu

    Full Text Available New human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 diagnoses are increasing rapidly in Hebei. The aim of this study presents the most extensive HIV-1 molecular epidemiology investigation in Hebei province in China thus far. We have carried out the most extensive systematic cross-sectional study based on newly diagnosed HIV-1 positive individuals in 2013, and characterized the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 based on full length gag-partial pol gene sequences in the whole of Hebei. Nine HIV-1 genotypes based on full length gag-partial pol gene sequence were identified among 610 newly diagnosed naïve individuals. The four main genotypes were circulating recombinant form (CRF01_AE (53.4%, CRF07_BC (23.4%, subtype B (15.9%, and unique recombinant forms URFs (4.9%. Within 1 year, three new genotypes (subtype A1, CRF55_01B, CRF65_cpx, unknown before in Hebei, were first found among men who have sex with men (MSM. All nine genotypes were identified in the sexually contracted HIV-1 population. Among 30 URFs, six recombinant patterns were revealed, including CRF01_AE/BC (40.0%, CRF01_AE/B (23.3%, B/C (16.7%, CRF01_AE/C (13.3%, CRF01_AE/B/A2 (3.3% and CRF01_AE/BC/A2 (3.3%, plus two potential CRFs. This study elucidated the complicated characteristics of HIV-1 molecular epidemiology in a low HIV-1 prevalence northern province of China and revealed the high level of HIV-1 genetic diversity. All nine HIV-1 genotypes circulating in Hebei have spread out of their initial risk groups into the general population through sexual contact, especially through MSM. This highlights the urgency of HIV prevention and control in China.

  4. Brain putamen volume changes in newly-diagnosed patients with obstructive sleep apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is accompanied by cognitive, motor, autonomic, learning, and affective abnormalities. The putamen serves several of these functions, especially motor and autonomic behaviors, but whether global and specific sub-regions of that structure are damaged is unclear. We assessed global and regional putamen volumes in 43 recently-diagnosed, treatment-naïve OSA (age, 46.4 ± 8.8 years; 31 male and 61 control subjects (47.6 ± 8.8 years; 39 male using high-resolution T1-weighted images collected with a 3.0-Tesla MRI scanner. Global putamen volumes were calculated, and group differences evaluated with independent samples t-tests, as well as with analysis of covariance (covariates; age, gender, and total intracranial volume. Regional differences between groups were visualized with 3D surface morphometry-based group ratio maps. OSA subjects showed significantly higher global putamen volumes, relative to controls. Regional analyses showed putamen areas with increased and decreased tissue volumes in OSA relative to control subjects, including increases in caudal, mid-dorsal, mid-ventral portions, and ventral regions, while areas with decreased volumes appeared in rostral, mid-dorsal, medial-caudal, and mid-ventral sites. Global putamen volumes were significantly higher in the OSA subjects, but local sites showed both higher and lower volumes. The appearance of localized volume alterations points to differential hypoxic or perfusion action on glia and other tissues within the structure, and may reflect a stage in progression of injury in these newly-diagnosed patients toward the overall volume loss found in patients with chronic OSA. The regional changes may underlie some of the specific deficits in motor, autonomic, and neuropsychologic functions in OSA.

  5. Screening for asymptomatic lymphogranuloma venereum co-infection in men who have sex with men newly diagnosed with HIV, hepatitis C or syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallawela, Sns; Bradshaw, D; Hodson, L; Rehill, K; Wong, F; Rockwood, N; Gedela, K; Hardie, J; Price, H; Alexander, S; McLean, K; Dean, G; Smith, A; Sullivan, A K

    2016-07-01

    Patients diagnosed with lymphogranuloma venereum have high rates of co-infection with HIV, syphilis and hepatitis C. The aim of this enhanced surveillance was to screen all men who have sex with men (MSM) newly diagnosed with HIV, syphilis or hepatitis C for co-infection with asymptomatic lymphogranuloma venereum as part of the recommended sexual health screen. Of the 145 patients screened, 21 patients were diagnosed with rectal Chlamydia trachomatis, one with both rectal and urethral chlamydia and six with urethral chlamydia. One rectal chlamydia-positive sample, when tested, was equivocal for lymphogranuloma venereum. Our data suggested that there was not a pool of asymptomatic lymphogranuloma venereum infection in MSM recently diagnosed with HIV, hepatitis C and syphilis. However, there have been recent reports of an increased incidence of asymptomatic lymphogranuloma venereum, raising the question whether lymphogranuloma venereum should be screened for in high risk asymptomatic MSM. The prevalence of asymptomatic rectal chlamydia infections was 19%. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Exploring the individual patterns of spiritual well-being in people newly diagnosed with advanced cancer: a cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Mei; Dixon, Jane; Williams, Anna-Leila; Jeon, Sangchoon; Lazenby, Mark; McCorkle, Ruth

    2016-11-01

    Research shows that spiritual well-being correlates positively with quality of life (QOL) for people with cancer, whereas contradictory findings are frequently reported with respect to the differentiated associations between dimensions of spiritual well-being, namely peace, meaning and faith, and QOL. This study aimed to examine individual patterns of spiritual well-being among patients newly diagnosed with advanced cancer. Cluster analysis was based on the twelve items of the 12-item Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being Scale at Time 1. A combination of hierarchical and k-means (non-hierarchical) clustering methods was employed to jointly determine the number of clusters. Self-rated health, depressive symptoms, peace, meaning and faith, and overall QOL were compared at Time 1 and Time 2. Hierarchical and k-means clustering methods both suggested four clusters. Comparison of the four clusters supported statistically significant and clinically meaningful differences in QOL outcomes among clusters while revealing contrasting relations of faith with QOL. Cluster 1, Cluster 3, and Cluster 4 represented high, medium, and low levels of overall QOL, respectively, with correspondingly high, medium, and low levels of peace, meaning, and faith. Cluster 2 was distinguished from other clusters by its medium levels of overall QOL, peace, and meaning and low level of faith. This study provides empirical support for individual difference in response to a newly diagnosed cancer and brings into focus conceptual and methodological challenges associated with the measure of spiritual well-being, which may partly contribute to the attenuated relation between faith and QOL.

  7. The relationship between migraine headache and asthma features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirican, Nigar; Demirci, Seden; Cakir, Munire

    2017-06-01

    Migraine and asthma are comorbid chronic disorders with episodic attacks thought to involve inflammatory and neurological mechanisms. The objective of the present study is to investigate the relationship of asthma features between the asthma patients with migraine and those without migraine headache. A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2015 to June 2016. Physician-diagnosed asthma patients aged 18 years and above were included. Demographic data, pulmonary function test and treatment of asthma were recorded. Asthma control was assessed using the asthma control test (ACT) and asthma control questionnaire (ACQ). The diagnosis of migraine was made by the neurologist with face-to face examinations based on the International Classification of Headache Disorders, third edition beta (ICHD-III-beta) criteria. Data about the age at onset, frequency of headache attacks, duration of headache attack, the presence of aura, and severity of headache were recorded. The severity of headache was evaluated using visual analogue scale (VAS). Overall 121 asthma patients were included in this study. Migraine was found to be present in 32 (26.4%) of patients. No statistically significant difference was found between asthma group and asthma with migraine groups in terms of pulmonary function test parameters. The mean ACT score in asthma with migraine patients group was significantly lower than the asthma groups. Morever, in the group asthma with migraine, a negative significant correlations were found between ACT scores with VAS scores. This study demonstrates that migraine headache may be associated with poor asthma control. On the other hand, it should not be forgotten that ACT is a subjective test and can be affected from by many clinical parameters.

  8. Asthma in Rhinosinusitis: A Survey from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Bakhshaee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The coexistence of asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS is more common than expected given their individual prevalence in the general population and may affect patient’s quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of asthma in chronic rhinosinusitis in Mashhad, Northeast Iran.  Materials and Methods: This study was performed in two university hospital from November 2012 for 12 months. In total, 153 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis were enrolled and referred to a particular pulmonologist for asthma evaluation.  Results: The mean age of participants was 40.54±13.11 years, and 41.8% were male. In total, 63.4% of patients had the polypoid form of CRS. The proportion of patients in this study with asthma was 41.8%, compared with a general asthma prevalence in this region of 13.5%.  Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of asthma among patients with CRS, but it often remains undiagnosed. Asthma in CRS patients should be diagnosed and treated in order to improve patient’s quality of life. We recommend an evaluation of the lower airways in all of these patients as well as further studies in this field.

  9. Exploring the relationship between spiritual well-being and quality of life among patients newly diagnosed with advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Mei; Lazenby, Mark; Jeon, Sangchoon; Dixon, Jane; McCorkle, Ruth

    2015-08-01

    In our context, existential plight refers to heightened concerns about life and death when people are diagnosed with cancer. Although the duration of existential plight has been proposed to be approximately 100 days, evidence from longitudinal studies raises questions about whether the impact of a diagnosis of advanced cancer may require a longer period of adjustment. The purpose of our study was to examine spiritual well-being (SpWB) and quality of life (QoL) as well as their interrelationship in 52 patients with advanced cancer after 100 days since the diagnosis at one and three months post-baseline. The study was designed as a secondary data analysis of a cluster randomized clinical trial involving patients with stage 3 or 4 cancer undergoing treatment. SpWB was measured using the 12-item Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being Scale (FACIT-Sp-12); common factor analyses revealed a three-factor pattern on the FACIT-Sp-12. Quality of life was measured with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G). We limited our sample to participants assigned to the control condition (n = 52). SpWB and QoL remained stable between one and three months post-baseline, which were a median of 112 and 183 days after diagnosis, respectively. SpWB was found to be associated with QoL more strongly than physical and emotional well-being. Peace and Meaning each contributed unique variance to QoL, and their relative importance shifted over time. Faith was positively related to QoL initially. This association became insignificant at three months post-baseline. This study underscores the significance of SpWB for people newly diagnosed with advanced cancer, and it highlights the dynamic pattern of Peace, Meaning, and Faith in association with QoL. Our results confirm that patients newly diagnosed with advanced cancer experience an existential crisis, improve and stabilize over time. Future studies with larger samples over a longer period of

  10. Validation of a questionnaire for asthma case identification in pre-schools in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busi, Luciano E; Sly, Peter D; Llancaman, Lidia

    2015-08-01

    We recently developed and validated a screening questionnaire for determining which school-aged children may need further investigation to diagnose and manage asthma. In the present study we sought to extend this to pre-school aged children. Questions from the school-aged questionnaire and literature on pre-school asthma were used to inform a focus group of parents with pre-school-aged children with asthma to develop a screening questionnaire. Parents of children attending 6 randomly selected kindergartens in Trelew, Argentina (n = 639) were invited to respond to the questionnaire. A reliability test-retest was undertaken in 187 randomly selected parents who completed the same questionnaire twice within 2-5 weeks. Clinical assessment included a standardized history and physical examination, spirometry before and after a β-agonist inhaler, and chest X-ray. Asthma was diagnosed by the pulmonologist. Completed surveys were returned for 620 children, 607 of whom underwent clinical evaluation. The mean age was 4.21 years (range of 3.01-5.50) and included 82.5% white and 49.4% male children. Asthma was diagnosed in 103 (17.0%) children); 72 (69.9%) of these children did not have a previous diagnosis of asthma. The specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the questionnaire were 93.2%, 86.1%, 57.8% and 98.4%, respectively. We have demonstrated the utility of a screening questionnaire for identifying pre-school-aged children who may benefit from further assessment for asthma. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  11. Comparison of Efficacy and Safety of Lispro and Aspart Evaluated by Continuous Glucose Monitoring System in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-li Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare the effect of the rapid-acting insulin analogues (RAIAs aspart (NovoRapid and lispro (Prandilin on glycemic variations by continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS in patients within newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM receiving continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII and metformin intensive therapy. Methods. This is a single-blind randomized controlled trial. A total of 110 patients with newly diagnosed T2DM and with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c% above 9% was hospitalized and randomly divided into two groups: group Asp (NovoRapid group and group Lis (Prandilin group. They all received CSII and metformin therapy. Treatments were maintained for 2-3 weeks after the glycaemic target was reached. C-peptide and insulin and fructosamine were determined. CGMS was continuously applied for 4 days after reaching the glycemic target. Results. There were no significant differences in daily dosages of insulin, fasting plasma C-P and 2 h postprandial C-P and insulin, and fructosamine at the baseline and endpoint between the groups Asp and Lis. No significant differences were seen in the 24 h mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE, 24 h mean blood glucose (MBG, the standard deviation of the MBG (SDBG, fasting blood glucose, number of glycemic excursion (NGE, and the incidence of hypoglycemia between the two groups. Similarly, no significant differences were found in areas under the curve (AUC of glucose above 10.0 mmol/L or the decremental area over the curve (AOC of glucose below 3.9 mmol/L between the two groups. Conclusions. Lispro and aspart had the similar ability to control the glycemic variations in patients with newly diagnosed T2DM. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number ChiCTR-IPR-17010338.

  12. The Danish National Database for Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne; Hoffmann-Petersen, Benjamin; Sverrild, Asger

    2016-01-01

    in death only in extreme cases, the disease is associated with significant morbidity, reduced quality of life, increased absenteeism, and large costs for society. Asthma can be diagnosed based on report of characteristic symptoms and/or the use of several different diagnostic tests. However......, there is currently no gold standard for making a diagnosis, and some degree of misclassification and inter-observer variation can be expected. This may lead to local and regional differences in the treatment, monitoring, and follow-up of the patients. The Danish National Database for Asthma (DNDA) is slated...... control visits, appropriate pharmacological treatment, measurement of lung function, and asthma challenge testing; second, tools used for diagnosis in new cases; and third, annual assessment of smoking status, height, and weight measurements, and the proportion of patients with acute hospital treatment...

  13. Adding liraglutide to the backbone therapy of biguanide in patients with coronary artery disease and newly diagnosed type-2 diabetes (the AddHope2 study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anholm, Christian; Kumarathurai, Preman; Klit, Malene S

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) more than doubles the risk of death compared with otherwise matched glucose tolerant patients. The biguanide metformin is the drug of choice in treatment of T2DM and has shown to ameliorate...... cardiovascular morbidity in patients with T2DM and myocardial infarction (MI). The incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) improves β-cell function, insulin sensitivity and causes weight loss and has been suggested to have beneficial effects on cardiac function. The GLP-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA......), liraglutide, is currently used for treatment of T2DM but its potential effect on cardiac function has not been investigated in detail. We hypothesised that liraglutide added to metformin backbone therapy in patients with CAD and newly diagnosed T2DM will improve β-cell function and left ventricular systolic...

  14. Treatment of newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme with carmustine, cisplatin and etoposide followed by radiotherapy. A phase II study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, U; Kristjansen, P E; Wagner, A

    1999-01-01

    fractions. Twenty-nine patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), mean age 50 (27-66) and performance status (PS) 0-2 were included. Using the Macdonald criteria 33% had partial remission (PR), 41% stable disease (SD) and 26% progressive disease (PD) after chemotherapy. After additional...... (6.0-9.1) and median survival was 11.4 months (10.1-12.7). We conclude that this regimen is effective and feasible in patients with GBM. The short course pre-irradiatory chemotherapy may be less cumbersome than adjuvant chemotherapy and the regimen may be even more active in grade III gliomas....

  15. Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Newly Diagnosed Diabetic Macular Edema in Turkey: A Real-Life Registry Study—TURK-DEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bora Eldem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the clinical and diagnostic characteristics of patients with newly diagnosed diabetic macular edema (DME in Turkey in a real-life setting. Methods. A total of 945 consecutive patients (mean (SD age: 61.3 (9.9 years, 55.2% male with newly diagnosed DME were included. Data on patient demographics, comorbidities, ocular history, ophthalmic examination findings including type of DME, central macular thickness (CMT via time domain (TD and spectral domain (SD optical coherence tomography (OCT, and planned treatments were recorded. Results. OCT (98.8% and fundoscopy (92.9% were the two most common diagnostic methods. Diffuse and focal DMEs were detected in 39.2% and 36.9% of cases, respectively. Laser photocoagulation (32.1% and antivascular endothelial growth factors (anti-VEGF; 31.8% were the most commonly planned treatments. The median CMT in the right eye was significantly greater in untreated than in treated patients [376.5 μm (range: 160–840 versus 342 μm (range: 146–999 (p=0.002] and in the left eye [370 μm (range: 201–780 versus 329 μm (range: 148–999 (p<0.001]. Conclusions. This study is the first large-scale real-life registry of DME patients in Turkey. SD-OCT and fundoscopy were the most common diagnostic methods. Laser photocoagulation and anti-VEGF therapy were the most common treatments.

  16. Prevalence of Work-Related Asthma and its Impact in Primary Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Rigat, Rosa; Panadès Valls, Rafael; Hernandez Huet, Enric; Sivecas Maristany, Joan; Blanché Prat, Xavier; Muñoz-Ortiz, Laura; Torán Monserrat, Pere; Rabell Santacana, Ventura

    2015-09-01

    To determine the prevalence of occupational asthma (OA) and work-exacerbated asthma (WEA) among asthmatic patients diagnosed in Primary Health Care (PHC). To analyze the impact at PHC level caused by under-diagnosis and inappropriate referral of OA. A descriptive, cross-sectional multicenter study in patients aged between 16 and 64years diagnosed with asthma, according to their medical record; all were working or had worked, and were assigned to one of 16 PHC centers in a healthcare district. Based on the responses to the questionnaire completed at the study visit, which included a thorough review of the subject's entire working history, patients were classified into three categories by an expert in occupational asthma: OA, WEA or common asthma (CA). Three hundred and sixty-eight patients completed the questionnaire. The prevalence of OA was 18.2% (25% in men and 14.6% in women, P=.046), and 54 patients (14.7%) were classified as WEA. The proportion of patients with work-related asthma (WRA) was therefore 32.9%. Asthmatic patients with WRA took more sick leave than CA patients (P<.001). A high prevalence of WRA was found, mostly treated in PHC. Under-diagnosis of WRA is widespread in PHC. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy followed by GDP chemotherapy for newly diagnosed stage I/II extranodal natural killer/T cell lymphoma, nasal type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Yang, Jianliang; Liu, Peng; Zhou, Shengyu; Gui, Lin; He, Xiaohui; Qin, Yan; Zhang, Changgong; Yang, Sheng; Xing, Puyuan; Sun, Yan; Shi, Yuankai

    2017-09-01

    Extranodal natural killer (NK)/T cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTL) is an aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma and the majority of ENKTL cases are diagnosed at the localized stage. Radiotherapy in combination with chemotherapy has been used for localized ENKTL, but the optimal combination treatment modality and the best first-line chemotherapy regimen have not been defined. In this retrospective study, 44 patients with newly diagnosed, stages I/II ENKTL were enrolled and received intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT, 50-56 Gy) followed by GDP (gemcitabine, dexamethasone, and cisplatin) chemotherapy. The median number of chemotherapy cycles per patient was 4 (range, 2-6 cycles). At the end of treatment, the overall response rate was 95% (42/44), including 39 patients (89%) who attained complete response. Two patients developed systemic progression after IMRT. With a median follow-up of 37.5 months, the 3-year overall survival (OS) rate and progression-free survival (PFS) rate were 85% (95% CI, 74 to 96%) and 77% (95% CI, 64 to 91%), respectively. Locoregional and systemic failure rates for this treatment were 9% (4/44) and 14% (6/44), respectively. The most common grades 3 to 4 adverse events included leukopenia (37%), neutropenia (34%), and mucositis (25%). No treatment-related deaths were observed. This study suggested high efficacy and low toxicity of IMRT followed by GDP regimen chemotherapy for newly diagnosed stage I/II ENKTL patients. These results require further investigation in prospective trials.

  18. A 92-Year-Old Male with Eosinophilic Asthma Presenting with Recurrent Palpable Purpuric Plaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negbenebor, Nicole A.; Khalifian, Saami; Foreman, Ruth K.; Kroshinsky, Daniela

    2018-01-01

    Churg-Strauss syndrome or eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis is a systemic vasculitis affecting the small and medium-sized vasculature. It is commonly associated with asthma and eosinophilia. Most patients are diagnosed at around the age of 40. We report a case of biopsy-confirmed Churg-Strauss syndrome in a 92-year-old male with a history of eosinophilic asthma and peripheral eosinophilia who was later diagnosed with Churg-Strauss syndrome. PMID:29719830

  19. A 92-Year-Old Male with Eosinophilic Asthma Presenting with Recurrent Palpable Purpuric Plaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole A. Negbenebor

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Churg-Strauss syndrome or eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis is a systemic vasculitis affecting the small and medium-sized vasculature. It is commonly associated with asthma and eosinophilia. Most patients are diagnosed at around the age of 40. We report a case of biopsy-confirmed Churg-Strauss syndrome in a 92-year-old male with a history of eosinophilic asthma and peripheral eosinophilia who was later diagnosed with Churg-Strauss syndrome.

  20. Once Daily Valacyclovir for Reducing Viral Shedding in Subjects Newly Diagnosed with Genital Herpes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark G. Martens

    2009-01-01

    Results. 52 subjects had at least one PCR measurement in both treatment periods and comprised the primary efficacy population. Valacyclovir significantly reduced HSV-2 shedding during all days compared to placebo (mean 2.9% versus 13.5% of all days (P<.01, a 78% reduction. Valacyclovir significantly reduced subclinical HSV-2 shedding during all days compared to placebo (mean 2.4% versus 11.0% of all days (P<.01, a 78% reduction. However, 79% of subjects had no GH recurrences while receiving valacyclovir compared to 52% of subjects receiving placebo (P<.01. Conclusion. In this study, the frequency of total and subclinical HSV-2 shedding was greater than reported in earlier studies involving subjects with a history of symptomatic genital recurrences. Our study is the first to demonstrate a significant reduction in viral shedding with valacyclovir 1 g daily compared to placebo in a population of subjects newly diagnosed with HSV-2 infection.

  1. Interocular asymmetry of the visual field defects in newly diagnosed normal-tension glaucoma, primary open-angle glaucoma, and chronic angle-closure glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ping; Shi, Yan; Wang, Xin; Liu, Mugen; Zhang, Chun

    2014-09-01

    To compare the interocular asymmetry of visual field loss in newly diagnosed normal-tension glaucoma (NTG), primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), and chronic angle-closure glaucoma (CACG) patients. Visual field results of 117 newly diagnosed, treatment-naive glaucoma patients (42 NTG, 38 POAG, and 37 CACG) were studied retrospectively. The following 3 visual field defect parameters were used to evaluate the interocular asymmetry: (1) global indices; (2) local mean deviations (MDs) of 6 predefined visual field areas; and (3) stage designated by glaucoma staging system 2. The differences of the above parameters between the trial eye (the eye with greater MDs) and the fellow eye in each subject were defined as interocular asymmetry scores. Interocular asymmetry of visual field loss was presented in all the 3 groups (all P0.05). Interocular asymmetry scores of glaucoma staging system 2 had no significant difference among the 3 groups (P=0.068). All CACG, POAG, and NTG groups presented with interocular asymmetric visual field loss at the time of diagnosis. CACG had greater interocular asymmetry compared with NTG and POAG. No significant interocular asymmetry difference was observed between NTG and POAG.

  2. A prospective observational longitudinal study of new-onset seizures and newly diagnosed epilepsy in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredsø, N; Toft, Nils; Sabers, A.

    2017-01-01

    Seizures are common in dogs and can be caused by non-epileptic conditions or epilepsy. The clinical course of newly diagnosed epilepsy is sparsely documented. The objective of this study was to prospectively investigate causes for seizures (epileptic and non-epileptic) in a cohort of dogs with new...... structural epilepsy. A non-epileptic cause for seizures was identified in 13 dogs and suspected in 10 dogs. Four dogs in which no cause for seizures was identified experienced only one seizure during the study. In dogs with idiopathic epilepsy 60% had their second epileptic seizure within three months...... seizures motivated early treatment. In a few dogs with a high seizure frequency owners declined treatment against the investigators advice. Epilepsy is the most likely diagnosis in dogs presenting with new-onset seizures. The course of idiopathic epilepsy is highly individual and might not necessarily...

  3. Standard chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab for women with newly diagnosed ovarian cancer (ICON7)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oza, Amit M; Cook, Adrian D; Pfisterer, Jacobus

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ICON7 trial previously reported improved progression-free survival in women with ovarian cancer with the addition of bevacizumab to standard chemotherapy, with the greatest effect in patients at high risk of disease progression. We report the final overall survival results...... of the trial. METHODS: ICON7 was an international, phase 3, open-label, randomised trial undertaken at 263 centres in 11 countries across Europe, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Eligible adult women with newly diagnosed ovarian cancer that was either high-risk early-stage disease (International Federation....... This trial is registered as an International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial, number ISRCTN91273375. FINDINGS: Between Dec 18, 2006, and Feb 16, 2009, 1528 women were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive chemotherapy (n=764) or chemotherapy plus bevacizumab (n=764). Median follow-up at the end...

  4. Educating young children about asthma: comparing the effectiveness of a developmentally appropriate asthma education video tape and picture book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzheimer, L; Mohay, H; Masters, I B

    1998-01-01

    Asthma self-management programmes have been shown to increase children's knowledge about asthma and improve their management practices and health status. However, existing programmes have rarely addressed the unique learning needs of very young children. This study aimed to develop and assess the effectiveness of a video tape and picture book designed to teach children about the prevention and management of acute episodes of asthma. The information content of the educational resources was determined by analysis of relevant medical information and asthma management skills. Social Learning Theory and consideration of the developmental stage of the target population informed the format and style of presentation of the resources. Eighty children aged between 2 and 5 years who had been diagnosed with asthma by their medical practitioner and who required daily asthma medication participated in a controlled experimental study. The study evaluated the impact of the asthma education resources on children's knowledge about asthma, compliance with medication regimens and health status. Children were randomly allocated to one of three experimental groups. Children in these groups were exposed to either the video tape alone, the book alone or both the video tape and book, or to a control group who viewed materials unrelated to asthma. The results for the three experimental groups were compared with the control group who did not receive exposure to any of the asthma education resources. The results showed that children in each experimental group had significantly greater gains in asthma-related knowledge than children in the control group and children exposed to both resources showed the greatest increases in knowledge. Children in each of the three experimental groups also had better compliance and health than children in the control group. These findings indicate that carefully designed asthma education resources are useful for providing even the youngest children with

  5. A comparison of some of the characteristics of patients with occupational and non-occupational asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axon, E J; Beach, J R; Burge, P S

    1995-04-01

    Occupational asthma is the most frequently diagnosed occupational lung disease reported to the SWORD (Surveillance of Work-related and Occupational Respiratory Disease) scheme. However, diagnosing occupational asthma is not straightforward, and establishing a link with work may be difficult. This study was undertaken to determine the differences between patients with occupational asthma and those with non-occupational asthma which might help in their diagnosis. Information was collected using a self-completed questionnaire. Questionnaires were distributed to 30 subjects aged 18-65 years at each of two clinics--one for patients with occupational asthma and one for those with cryptogenic and environmental asthma. Replies were received from 26 patients with occupational asthma (87%) and 29 patients with non-occupational asthma (97%). The age of onset was significantly higher for those with occupational asthma (42.6 vs 20.7 years). Significantly more subjects with occupational asthma reported improvement on holiday, whereas no significant difference was found in the numbers reporting worsening of symptoms on work days. Those with occupational asthma were less likely to report seasonal variation in symptoms, exacerbation by allergies, pets and stress, or a family history of asthma. Subjects with occupational asthma were more likely to become unemployed (50% vs 3%). Recognition of some of these features in a patient's history may help in the difficult task of differentiating occupational from non-occupational asthma, potentially avoiding the need for exhaustive investigations in some patients. The high prevalence of holiday improvement among subjects with non-occupational asthma suggested that domestic or environmental allergies arising outside the workplace may have been making an important contribution to ongoing symptoms in these subjects.

  6. The relationship of different respiratory virus infection with pediatric asthma attack as well as cytokine and lymphocyte subset levels

    OpenAIRE

    Hua Miao; Xiao-Rong Liu

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship of different respiratory virus infection with pediatric asthma attack as well as cytokine and lymphocyte subset levels. Methods: A total of 85 children who were diagnosed with bronchial asthma in our hospital between May 2013 and March 2016 were selected as asthma group and further divided into asthma-RSV group, asthma-AV group, asthma-PIV group, asthma-IFV group and pure asthma group according to the condition of respiratory virus infection...

  7. Hospitalizations for asthma among adults exposed to the September 11, 2001 World Trade Center terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Archie, Sara A; Jordan, Hannah T; Alper, Howard; Wisnivesky, Juan P; Cone, James E; Friedman, Stephen M; Brackbill, Robert M

    2018-04-01

    We described the patterns of asthma hospitalization among persons exposed to the 2001 World Trade Center (WTC) attacks, and assessed whether 9/11-related exposures or comorbidities, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and gastroesophageal reflux symptoms (GERS), were associated with an increased rate of hospitalization. Data for adult enrollees in the WTC Health Registry, a prospective cohort study, with self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma who resided in New York State on 9/11 were linked to administrative hospitalization data to identify asthma hospitalizations during September 11, 2001-December 31, 2010. Multivariable zero-inflated Poisson regression was used to examine associations among 9/11 exposures, comorbid conditions, and asthma hospitalizations. Of 11 471 enrollees with asthma, 406 (3.5%) had ≥1 asthma hospitalization during the study period (721 total hospitalizations). Among enrollees diagnosed before 9/11 (n = 6319), those with PTSD or GERS had over twice the rate of hospitalization (adjusted rate ratio (ARR) = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.4-4.1; ARR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.3-3.2, respectively) compared to those without. This association was not statistically significant in enrollees diagnosed after 9/11. Compared to higher educational attainment, completing less than college was associated with an increased hospitalization rate among participants with both pre-9/11- and post-9/11-onset asthma (ARR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.2-2.9; ARR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.6-4.1, respectively). Sinus symptoms, exposure to the dust cloud, and having been a WTC responder were not associated with asthma hospitalization. Among enrollees with pre-9/11 asthma, comorbid PTSD and GERS were associated with an increase in asthma hospitalizations. Management of these comorbidities may be an important factor in preventing hospitalization.

  8. Asthma essentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Greene

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a chronic, reversible obstructive disease that when in exacerbation can present to the emergency department in a spectrum of severity. Prompt recognition of the potentially severely ill asthmatic requires a careful history and physical exam while considering alternative diagnoses for the presenting symptoms. Early administration of salbutamol and corticosteroids is indicated in almost all patients with other medications such as ipratropium and magnesium and supportive modalities like BiPAP reserved for sicker patients. The global impact of asthma is increasing, especially amongst children. While the benign clinical presentation is most common and mortality has decreased in recent decades due to improved recognition and care, the ubiquity of the condition and frequent lack of regular outpatient management contribute to the disease claiming 250,000 lives worldwide annually. The emergency physician must be prepared to assess and appropriately manage both the young child with a mild wheeze and the adult in respiratory failure.

  9. How Often is Chest Radiography Ordered for Patients with Pediatric Asthma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serap Özmen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Although many children with asthma can be diagnosed clinically, chest radiographs are routinely requested in asthma attacks. The aim of this study is to determine how often chest radiographs are requested and the factors affecting these requests in pediatric patients with asthma. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed by studying the electronic radiographic records of pediatric patients with asthma who were referred to our Pediatric Allergy and Immunology Department over a six-month period. A questionnaire was designed to obtain further information from the parents of the patients. Results: The records of 100 children with bronchial asthma, aged 21 to 192 months, were evaluated. The average number of chest radiographs was 3.9±3.8 (between 1-30. Fifty-one percent of the children underwent three or more chest radiographs. There was a positive correlation between the number of chest X-rays before asthma diagnosis and the frequency of antibiotic usage (r=0.222, p=0.026. An inverse correlation was found between the number of chest radiographs and the patients’ ages and the age at which asthma was diagnosed (r=−0.335, p=0.001; r=−0.211, p=0.035, respectively. In contrast, there was a positive correlation between the number of chest X-rays and the number of hospital admissions (r=0.205, p=0.040. A positive correlation between the frequency of antibiotic usage and the annual number of hospital admissions was determined (r=0.428, p=0.000. Furthermore, a positive correlation between the frequency of antibiotic usage and the frequency of asthma attacks was observed (r=0.292, p=0.003. Conclusion: The results of our study show that the use of chest radiographs is high in cases of childhood asthma, especially in younger children.

  10. A comparison of three methods to measure asthma in epidemiologic studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne; Strøm, Marin; Maslova, Ekaterina

    2012-01-01

    , the prevalence of asthma was estimated from a self-administered questionnaire using parental report of doctor diagnoses, ICD-10 diagnoses from a population-based hospitalization registry, and data on anti-asthmatic medication from a population-based prescription registry. We assessed the agreement between...

  11. Asthma 1-2-3: a low literacy multimedia tool to educate African American adults about asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Rina M; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K; Waite, Katherine R; Rittner, Sarah S; Wilson, Elizabeth A H; Wolf, Michael S

    2009-08-01

    Asthma 1-2-3 is a newly-developed low-literacy multimedia education tool designed to promote asthma self-care concepts among African American adults. An expert panel (n = 10) informed content development for the tool. The video script and storyboard imagery were shown to 30 African Americans recruited from the American Lung Association, whose reactions and comments guided further revisions. The final version was pilot tested in three diverse community settings in Chicago to determine the efficacy of Asthma 1-2-3 at improving patient understanding of asthma and its symptoms. In all, 130 adults participated in the pilot test. Knowledge scores significantly improved from pretest to posttest following presentation of the developed tool for subjects across all literacy levels (Pretest: Mean = 4.2 [SD = 1.6]; Posttest: M = 6.8 [SD = 2.0], P < 0.001). Symptom pathophysiology concepts were the least understood. Individuals with low literacy had less total knowledge score gains compared to those with marginal and adequate literacy (1.8, 2.6, and 3.2 respectively; P = 0.002). The multimedia tool significantly improved understanding of asthma. Individuals with limited literacy may require additional instruction, repeated viewing, or added tangible cues (i.e. supplementary print materials) to support knowledge retention. In general, feedback from the target population was particularly helpful in the development of the tool and its initial evaluation, and should be considered as a necessary step in the creation of other patient education materials.

  12. Newly diagnosed and previously known diabetes mellitus and 1-year outcomes of acute myocardial infarction: the VALsartan In Acute myocardial iNfarcTion (VALIANT) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguilar, David; Solomon, Scott D; Køber, Lars

    2004-01-01

    cardiovascular events associated with previously known and newly diagnosed diabetes by studying 14,703 patients with acute MI enrolled in the VALsartan In Acute myocardial iNfarcTion (VALIANT) trial. Patients were grouped by diabetic status: previously known diabetes (insulin use or diagnosis of diabetes before...

  13. Adjustment to Acute Leukemia: The Impact of Social Support and Marital Satisfaction on Distress and Quality of Life Among Newly Diagnosed Patients and Their Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pailler, Megan E; Johnson, Teresa M; Kuszczak, Sarah; Attwood, Kristopher M; Zevon, Michael A; Griffiths, Elizabeth; Thompson, James; Wang, Eunice S; Wetzler, Meir

    2016-09-01

    Little is known about the specific patterns of adjustment among newly diagnosed acute leukemia patients and their caregivers. This study examined the trajectories of patient and caregiver distress over time as well as the extent to which marital satisfaction and social support moderated these trajectories among those with significant-other caregivers. Forty six patient-caregiver dyads provided ratings at four time points: within 1 week of diagnosis (T1), 2 week follow-up (T2), 6 week follow-up (T3) and 12 week follow-up (T4). As anticipated, patients and caregivers reported higher levels of distress around the time of diagnosis than they did during subsequent time points. Marital satisfaction was a significant predictor of distress among patients, whereas among caregivers, social support predicted distress and quality of life. Results support the inclusion of relational variables such as social support and relationship satisfaction in the assessment of newly diagnosed patients and families in order to best identify those at risk for distress over time.

  14. Occupational rhinitis and occupational asthma; one airway two diseases?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed, M J; Gittins, M; De Vocht, F; Agius, R M.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of 'one airway, one disease' refers to the frequent comorbidity of asthma and rhinitis. However, only limited research has been done on this association for the diverse range of occupational respiratory sensitisers. The relative frequency of rhinitis was determined for the 15 respiratory sensitisers reported to cause at least 10 cases of rhinitis or asthma to The Health and Occupation Reporting (THOR) network between 1997 and 2006. Of 1408 cases, 1190 were sole diagnoses of asthma, 138 sole diagnoses of rhinitis and in 80 cases asthma coexisted with rhinitis. The six sensitisers for which rhinitis featured in over 15% of cases were all particulates and known to cause release of mast cell mediators, either directly or through IgE antibodies. Four of the other nine sensitisers often exist as vapours and only two have been consistently associated with IgE-mediated disease mechanisms. Particle size did not appear to correlate with the relative frequency of rhinitis. Despite its limitations this study would support the hypothesis that there are at least two mechanistic categories of respiratory sensitisation with rhinitis being relatively more common where the mechanism is IgE-mediated. Particulate nature may be another important factor to consider in future studies.

  15. Asthma in children in relation to pre-term birth and fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, Gibby; Akrouf, Kafya A S; Kelly, Yvonne; Delpisheh, Ali; Brabin, Bernard J

    2013-08-01

    To assess the impact of parental asthma on risk of pre-term birth (PTB) and intrauterine growth restriction, and their subsequent association with childhood asthma. Three sequential cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 1993 (3,746), 1998 (1,964) and 2006 (1,074) in the same 15 schools among 5-11 year old children in Merseyside using the same respiratory health questionnaire completed by parents (sample size in brackets). Between 1993 and 2006, prevalence of PTB varied between 12.4 and 15.2 %, and of small for gestational age (SGA or growth restricted) babies between 2.1 and 4.6 %, and maternal asthma prevalence between 8.1 and 13.4 %. For the combined surveys mothers with asthma were more likely to have a PTB than non-asthmatic mothers (OR 1.39, 95 % CI 1.10-1.95, p PTBs of asthmatic mothers developed doctor diagnosed asthma compared to 34.3 % for term babies (adjusted OR 1.65, 1.34-2.04, p < 0.001). The corresponding estimates for the symptom triad of cough, wheeze and breathlessness were 19.4 and 17.6 % (adjusted OR 1.78, 0.79-3.98). Conversely SGA babies were less likely to develop doctor diagnosed asthma (adjusted OR 0.49, 0.27-0.90, p < 0.021), or the symptom triad of cough, wheeze and breathlessness (adjusted OR 0.22, 0.05-0.97, p < 0.043), whether or not the mother was asthmatic. Maternal asthma is an independent risk factor for PTB which predisposes to childhood asthma. Intrauterine growth restriction was protective against childhood asthma.

  16. Application of PET/CT in treatment response evaluation and recurrence prediction in patients with newly-diagnosed multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Liu, Junru; Huang, Beihui; Chen, Meilan; Diao, Xiangwen; Li, Juan

    2017-04-11

    Multiple myeloma (MM) causes osteolytic lesions which can be detected by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/Computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT). We prospectively involve 96 Newly diagnosed MM to take PET/CT scan at scheduled treatment time (figure 1), and 18F-FDG uptake of lesion was measured by SUVmax and T/Mmax. All MM patients took bortezomib based chemotherapy as induction and received ASCT and maintenance. All clinical features were analyzed with the PET/CT image changes, and some relationships between treatment response and FDG uptakes changes were found: Osteolytic lesions of MM uptakes higher FDG than healthy volunteers, and this trend is more obvious in extramedullary lesions. Compared to X-ray, PET/CT was more sensitive both in discoering bone as well as extramedullary lesions. In newly diagnosed MM, several adverse clinical factors were related to high FDG uptakes of bone lesions. Bone lesion FDG uptakes of MM with P53 mutation or with hypodiploidy and complex karyotype were also higher than those without such changes. In treatment response, PET/CT showed higher sensitivity in detecting tumor residual disease than immunofixation electrophoresis. But in relapse prediction, it might show false positive disease recurrences and the imaging changes might be influenced by infections and hemoglobulin levels. PET/CT is sensitive in discovering meduallary and extrameduallary lesions of MM, and the 18F-FDG uptake of lesions are related with clinical indictors and biological features of plasma cells. In evaluating treatment response and survival, PET/CT showed its superiority. But in predicting relapse or refractory, it may show false positive results.

  17. Prematurity, atopy, and childhood asthma in Puerto Ricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Salazar, Christian; Ramratnam, Sima K; Brehm, John M; Han, Yueh-Ying; Boutaoui, Nadia; Forno, Erick; Acosta-Pérez, Edna; Alvarez, María; Colón-Semidey, Angel; Canino, Glorisa; Celedón, Juan C

    2014-02-01

    Puerto Rican children share a disproportionate burden of prematurity and asthma in the United States. Little is known about prematurity and childhood asthma in Puerto Rican subjects. We sought to examine whether prematurity is associated with asthma in Puerto Rican children. We performed a case-control study of 678 children aged 6 to 14 years with (n = 351) and without (n = 327) asthma living in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Prematurity was defined by parental report for our primary analysis. In a secondary analysis, we only included children whose parents reported prematurity that required admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. Asthma was defined as physician-diagnosed asthma and wheeze in the prior year. We used logistic regression for analysis. All multivariate models were adjusted for age, sex, household income, atopy (≥1 positive IgE level to common allergens), maternal history of asthma, and early-life exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. In a multivariate analysis there was a significant interaction between prematurity and atopy on asthma (P = .006). In an analysis stratified by atopy, prematurity was associated with a nearly 5-fold increased odds of asthma in atopic children (adjusted odds ratio, 4.7; 95% CI, 1.5-14.3; P = .007). In contrast, there was no significant association between prematurity and asthma in nonatopic children. Similar results were obtained in our analysis of prematurity requiring admission to the neonatal intensive care unit and asthma. Our results suggest that atopy modifies the estimated effect of prematurity on asthma in Puerto Rican children. Prematurity might explain, in part, the high prevalence of atopic asthma in this ethnic group. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Dietary pattern and lifestyle factors in asthma control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Noufal Poongadan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of asthma in adults varied from 0.96% to 11.03% while in children ranged from 2.3% to 11.9% in India. A number of factors including genetic predisposition, environment, and lifestyle factors including dietary habits influence the development and expression of asthma. The goal of asthma treatment is to achieve and maintain clinical control, which can be achieved in a majority of patients with pharmacologic intervention strategy. Objective: To assess the role of diet and lifestyle factors in asthma control in Indian population. Materials and Methods: Diagnosed asthma patients (aged 12-40 years were enrolled from the outpatient clinics. All patients were followed up and reassessed after 4 weeks with asthma control test (ACT and dietary and lifestyle questionnaire. The assessment of dietary pattern was performed by food frequency questionnaire (Nordic Nutrition Recommendations-Danish Physical Activity Questionnaire. The lifestyle factor included body mass index, smoking status, tobacco chewing, alcohol consumption, duration of travel (h/week, mental stress (visual analog scale: 0-10, sports activity - h/day, television (TV watching/video games - h/day, duration of sleep - h/day. Results: Seventy-five asthma patients (43 males and 32 females were divided into three groups according to ACT, 18 (24% patients in poorly-controlled asthma, 35 (46.7% in well-controlled asthma, and 22 (29.3% patients with totally-controlled asthma. Increased consumption of vegetables and cereals in patients with total-controlled asthma while increased consumption of sugar, nonvegetarian, fast food, salted and fried snacks in patients with poorly-controlled asthma. Poorly-controlled asthma had the highest duration of watching TV and sleep and least duration of travel and sports, though the results failed to reach statistical significance. Conclusion: The dietary and lifestyle factors too contribute to degree of control of asthma in India.

  19. Effects of metformin on markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant reserve in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu V Pankratova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Реферат по статье: Effects of metformin on markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant reserve in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: A randomized clinical trial Alireza Esteghamati, Delaram Eskandari, Hossein Mirmiranpour, Sina Noshad, Mostafa Mousavizadeh, Mehdi Hedayati, Manouchehr Nakhjavan//Clinical Nutrition xxx (2012 1-7 Tehran, Iran

  20. The Impact of Coexisting Asthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Tuberculosis on Survival in Patients with Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing-Yang; Jian, Zhi-Hong; Ndi Nfor, Oswald; Jhang, Kai-Ming; Ku, Wen-Yuan; Ko, Pei-Chieh; Jan, Shiou-Rung; Ho, Chien-Chang; Lung, Chia-Chi; Pan, Hui-Hsien; Liang, Yu-Chiu; Liaw, Yung-Po

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary diseases [asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and tuberculosis (TB)] are associated with lung cancer mortality. However, the relationship between coexisting pulmonary diseases and survival in patients with lung squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) has not been well defined. Patients newly diagnosed with SqCC between 2003 and 2008 were identified by linking the National Health Insurance Research Database and Taiwan Cancer Registry Database. Cases with SqCC were followed up until death, loss to follow-up, or study end in 2010. Information on health status, date of death and the main causes of death was ascertained from the National Death Registry Database. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) of coexisting asthma, COPD and/or TB. During the study period, a total of 5406 cases with SqCC were enrolled. For all cause-mortality, HRs were 1.08 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.99-1.18], 1.04 (95% CI, 0.97-1.12), and 1.14 (95% CI, 1.00-1.31) for individuals with asthma, COPD, and TB, respectively. Specifically, among men with coexisting pulmonary diseases, the HRs were 1.56 (95% CI, 1.23-1.97) and 1.11 (95% CI, 1.00-1.24) for individuals with asthma+COPD+TB and asthma+COPD, respectively. Among male patients with stage III SqCC, HRs were 3.41 (95%CI, 1.27-9.17) and 1.65 (95%CI, 1.10-2.47) for individuals with asthma+TB and asthma+COPD+TB, respectively. Among male patients with stage IV SqCC, HRs were 1.40 (95%CI, 1.00-1.97) and 1.25 (95%CI, 1.03-1.52) for individuals with asthma+ COPD+TB and asthma. Among female patients with stage I and II, HR was 0.19 (95%CI, 005-0.77) for individuals with asthma. Coexisting pulmonary diseases increased the risk of mortality from SqCC in male patients. For female patients with early stage SqCC, pre-existing asthma decreased mortality. These patients deserve greater attention while undergoing cancer treatment.

  1. The Impact of Coexisting Asthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Tuberculosis on Survival in Patients with Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Yang Huang

    Full Text Available Pulmonary diseases [asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, and tuberculosis (TB] are associated with lung cancer mortality. However, the relationship between coexisting pulmonary diseases and survival in patients with lung squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC has not been well defined.Patients newly diagnosed with SqCC between 2003 and 2008 were identified by linking the National Health Insurance Research Database and Taiwan Cancer Registry Database. Cases with SqCC were followed up until death, loss to follow-up, or study end in 2010. Information on health status, date of death and the main causes of death was ascertained from the National Death Registry Database. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to calculate the hazard ratio (HR of coexisting asthma, COPD and/or TB.During the study period, a total of 5406 cases with SqCC were enrolled. For all cause-mortality, HRs were 1.08 [95% confidence interval (CI, 0.99-1.18], 1.04 (95% CI, 0.97-1.12, and 1.14 (95% CI, 1.00-1.31 for individuals with asthma, COPD, and TB, respectively. Specifically, among men with coexisting pulmonary diseases, the HRs were 1.56 (95% CI, 1.23-1.97 and 1.11 (95% CI, 1.00-1.24 for individuals with asthma+COPD+TB and asthma+COPD, respectively. Among male patients with stage III SqCC, HRs were 3.41 (95%CI, 1.27-9.17 and 1.65 (95%CI, 1.10-2.47 for individuals with asthma+TB and asthma+COPD+TB, respectively. Among male patients with stage IV SqCC, HRs were 1.40 (95%CI, 1.00-1.97 and 1.25 (95%CI, 1.03-1.52 for individuals with asthma+ COPD+TB and asthma. Among female patients with stage I and II, HR was 0.19 (95%CI, 005-0.77 for individuals with asthma.Coexisting pulmonary diseases increased the risk of mortality from SqCC in male patients. For female patients with early stage SqCC, pre-existing asthma decreased mortality. These patients deserve greater attention while undergoing cancer treatment.

  2. Coffee Consumption, Newly Diagnosed Diabetes, and Other Alterations in Glucose Homeostasis: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmolinsky, James; Mueller, Noel T.; Duncan, Bruce B.; Bisi Molina, Maria del Carmen; Goulart, Alessandra C.; Schmidt, Maria Inês

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Observational studies have reported fairly consistent inverse associations between coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes, but this association has been little investigated with regard to lesser degrees of hyperglycemia and other alterations in glucose homeostasis. Additionally, the association between coffee consumption and diabetes has been rarely investigated in South American populations. We examined the cross-sectional relationships of coffee intake with newly diagnosed diabetes and measures of glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion, in a large Brazilian cohort of middle-aged and elderly individuals. Methods We used baseline data from 12,586 participants of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine associations between coffee consumption and newly diagnosed diabetes. Analysis of covariance was used to assess coffee intake in relation to two-hour glucose from an oral glucose tolerance test, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, fasting and –2-hour postload insulin and measures of insulin sensitivity. Results We found an inverse association between coffee consumption and newly diagnosed diabetes, after adjusting for multiple covariates [23% and 26% lower odds of diabetes for those consuming coffee 2–3 and >3 times per day, respectively, compared to those reporting never or almost never consuming coffee, (p = .02)]. An inverse association was also found for 2-hour postload glucose [Never/almost never: 7.57 mmol/L, ≤1 time/day: 7.48 mmol/L, 2-3 times/day: 7.22 mmol/L, >3 times/day: 7.12 mol/L, p3 times/day: 262.2 pmol/L, p = 0.0005) but not with fasting insulin concentrations (p = .58). Conclusion Our present study provides further evidence of a protective effect of coffee on risk of adult-onset diabetes. This effect appears to act primarily, if not exclusively, through postprandial, as opposed to fasting, glucose homeostasis. PMID:25978631

  3. Coffee Consumption, Newly Diagnosed Diabetes, and Other Alterations in Glucose Homeostasis: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Yarmolinsky

    Full Text Available Observational studies have reported fairly consistent inverse associations between coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes, but this association has been little investigated with regard to lesser degrees of hyperglycemia and other alterations in glucose homeostasis. Additionally, the association between coffee consumption and diabetes has been rarely investigated in South American populations. We examined the cross-sectional relationships of coffee intake with newly diagnosed diabetes and measures of glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion, in a large Brazilian cohort of middle-aged and elderly individuals.We used baseline data from 12,586 participants of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine associations between coffee consumption and newly diagnosed diabetes. Analysis of covariance was used to assess coffee intake in relation to two-hour glucose from an oral glucose tolerance test, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, fasting and -2-hour postload insulin and measures of insulin sensitivity.We found an inverse association between coffee consumption and newly diagnosed diabetes, after adjusting for multiple covariates [23% and 26% lower odds of diabetes for those consuming coffee 2-3 and >3 times per day, respectively, compared to those reporting never or almost never consuming coffee, (p = .02]. An inverse association was also found for 2-hour postload glucose [Never/almost never: 7.57 mmol/L, ≤1 time/day: 7.48 mmol/L, 2-3 times/day: 7.22 mmol/L, >3 times/day: 7.12 mol/L, p3 times/day: 262.2 pmol/L, p = 0.0005 but not with fasting insulin concentrations (p = .58.Our present study provides further evidence of a protective effect of coffee on risk of adult-onset diabetes. This effect appears to act primarily, if not exclusively, through postprandial, as opposed to fasting, glucose homeostasis.

  4. Patients newly diagnosed with clinical type 2 diabetes mellitus but presenting with HbA1c within normal range: 19-year mortality and clinical outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veloso, A.G.; Siersma, V.; Heldgaard, P.E.

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate whether long-term mortality or clinical outcomes differed between patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus and presenting with HbA1c within or above normal range at time of diagnosis. METHODS: Data were from a population-based sample of 1136 individuals with newly dia...

  5. Associations of doctor-diagnosed asthma with immigration status, age at immigration, and length of residence in the United States in a sample of Mexican American School Children in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldeirawi, Kamal; McConnell, Rob; Furner, Sylvia; Freels, Sally; Stayner, Leslie; Hernandez, Eva; Amoruso, Lisa; Torres, Shioban; Persky, Victoria W

    2009-10-01

    Among Mexican Americans in the United States, children who were born in the US had higher rates of asthma than their Mexico-born peers. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of doctor-diagnosed asthma with immigration-related variables and to investigate whether these associations could be explained by factors that may change with migration. We surveyed parents of 2,023 school children of Mexican descent and examined the associations of asthma with nativity, age at immigration, and length of residence in the US after adjusting for potential confounding variables. In multivariate analyses, US-born children had a 2.42-fold (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.52-3.83) increased odds of asthma compared with their Mexico-born peers. Mexico-born participants who moved to the US before 2 years of age were almost twice as likely to experience asthma compared with Mexico-born children who moved to the US >or=2 years of age. In addition, Mexico-born participants who lived in the US for 10 years or more were 2.37 times more likely to have asthma than Mexico-born students who lived in the US for less than 10 years. These associations were not explained by a wide variety of factors such as place of residence in infancy; exposure to animals/pets; history of infections, Tylenol use, and antibiotic use in infancy; breastfeeding; exposure to environmental tobacco smoke; daycare attendance and number of siblings; and language use. Our findings point to the effects of nativity, age at immigration, and duration of residence in the US on the risk of asthma in Mexican American children, suggesting that potentially modifiable factors that change with migration may be linked with the disease. The findings of this study should stimulate further research to explain factors that may be responsible for the observed differentials in the risk of asthma among Mexican Americans.

  6. Lifestyle and clinical factors associated with elevated C-reactive protein among newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Elisabeth; Mor, Anil; Rungby, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We aimed to examine the prevalence of and modifiable factors associated with elevated C-reactive Protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation, in men and women with newly diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (DM) in a population-based setting. METHODS: CRP was measured in 1,037 patients (57...... was primarily elevated among patients with no regular physical activity (aRR 1.5 (95% CI 1.1-1.9)), previous cardiovascular disease (aRR1.5 (95% CI 1.2-1.9) and other comorbidity. For both genders, elevated CRP was 1.4-fold increased in those with weight gain >30 kg since age 20 years. Sensitivity analyses...

  7. Insulin requirement profiles of short-term intensive insulin therapy in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and its association with long-term glycemic remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liehua; Ke, Weijian; Wan, Xuesi; Zhang, Pengyuan; Cao, Xiaopei; Deng, Wanping; Li, Yanbing

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the insulin requirement profiles during short-term intensive continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and its relationship with long-term glycemic remission. CSII was applied in 104 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Daily insulin doses were titrated and recorded to achieve and maintain euglycemia for 2 weeks. Measurements of blood glucose, lipid profiles as well as intravenous glucose tolerance tests were performed before and after the therapy. Afterwards, patients were followed up for 1 year. Total daily insulin dose (TDD) was 56.6±16.1IU at the first day when euglycemia was achieved (TDD-1). Thereafter, TDD progressively decreased at a rate of 1.4±1.0IU/day to 36.2±16.5IU at the end of the therapy. TDD-1 could be estimated with body weight, FPG, triglyceride and waist circumference in a multiple linear regression model. Decrement of TDD after euglycemia was achieved (ΔTDD) was associated with reduction of HOMA-IR (r=0.27, P=0.008) but not with improvement in β cell function. Patients in the lower tertile of ΔTDD had a significantly higher risk of hyperglycemia relapse than those in the upper tertile within 1 year (HR 3.4, 95%CI [1.4, 8.4], P=0.008). There is a steady decline of TDD after euglycemia is achieved in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes treated with CSII, and ΔTDD is associated with a better long-term glycemic outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Regional Variability of Lifestyle Factors and Hypertension with Prediabetes and Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Population-Based KORA-F4 and SHIP-TREND Studies in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckl, Doris; Rückert-Eheberg, Ina-Maria; Heier, Margit; Peters, Annette; Schipf, Sabine; Krabbe, Christine; Völzke, Henry; Tamayo, Teresa; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Meisinger, Christa

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) shows regional differences in Germany. The purpose of the project was to compare the prevalence of prediabetes and undiagnosed T2D in two regions in Germany, the Northeast and the South, and to evaluate their associations with regional variations in lifestyle factors and hypertension. Data from the KORA-F4 study (South Germany, 2006-2008) and the SHIP-TREND study (Northeast Germany, 2008-2012) were used. Participants aged 35-79 years without T2D with an overnight fasting of more than 8 hours and an oral glucose tolerance test were included: KORA-F4: n = 2,616 and SHIP-TREND: n = 1,968. The prevalence of prediabetes/newly diagnosed T2D was especially high in men (about 60%) and women (about 50%) in the Northeast, followed by men (about 50%) and women (about 30%) in the South. Lifestyle factors associated with T2D varied between the regions: more participants in the Northeast were active smokers and the percentages of people with overweight or obesity were greater than in their southern counterparts. However, these differences could not explain the striking disparity in prediabetes/newly diagnosed T2D. The frequency of hypertension was also distinctly higher in the Northeast than in the South and clearly associated with prediabetes/newly diagnosed T2D. Especially in men living in the Northeast, screening individuals with blood pressure ≥ 140/90mmHg might reveal up to 70% of those with prediabetes/newly diagnosed T2D. Knowledge about regional variability in T2D and related risk factors is important for the planning of diabetes prevention programs. In our analyses, common lifestyle factors did not nearly explain these variations between the northern SHIP-TREND and the southern KORA-F4 studies. Further examinations of regional socioeconomic, political, environmental and other aspects are needed. Meanwhile, targeted diabetes prevention strategies with a special focus on men living in the northern parts of Germany are reasonable.

  9. Asthma prevalence in German Olympic athletes: A comparison of winter and summer sport disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selge, Charlotte; Thomas, Silke; Nowak, Dennis; Radon, Katja; Wolfarth, Bernd

    2016-09-01

    Prevalence of asthma in elite athletes shows very wide ranges. It remains unclear to what extent this is influenced by the competition season (winter vs. summer) or the ventilation rate achieved during competition. The aim of this study was to evaluate prevalence of asthma in German elite winter and summer athletes from a wide range of sport disciplines and to identify high risk groups. In total, 265 German elite winter athletes (response 77%) and 283 German elite summer athletes (response 64%) answered validated respiratory questionnaires. Using logistic regression, the asthma risks associated with competition season and ventilation rate during competition, respectively, were investigated. A subset of winter athletes was also examined for their FENO-levels and lung function. With respect to all asthma outcomes, no association was found with the competition season. Regarding the ventilation rate, athletes in high ventilation sports were at increased risk of asthma, as compared to athletes in low ventilation sports (doctors' diagnosed asthma: OR 2.32, 95% CI 1.19-4.53; use of asthma medication: OR 4.46, 95% CI 1.52-13.10; current wheeze or use of asthma medication: OR 2.78, 95% CI 1.34-5.76). Athletes with doctors' diagnosed asthma were at an approximate four-fold risk of elevated FENO-values. The clinically relevant finding of this study is that athletes' asthma seems to be more common in sports with high ventilation during competition, whereas the summer or winter season had no impact on the frequency of the disease. Among winter athletes, elevated FENO suggested suboptimal control of asthma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Xerostomia relates to the degree of asthma control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcázar Navarrete, Bernardino; Gómez-Moreno, Gerardo; Aguilar-Salvatierra, Antonio; Guardia, Javier; Romero Palacios, Pedro José

    2015-04-01

    Few studies have assessed the relationships between xerostomia and the use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). The main objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of xerostomia in a respiratory outpatient clinic and its relationship with bronchial asthma and ICS use. A cross-sectional observational study of patients recruited in an outpatient setting divided them according to previous diagnoses of bronchial asthma. Data about pulmonary function, concomitant medication, medical comorbidities, Xerostomia Inventory test (XI test), and the degree of asthma control by ACT (asthma control test) were collected for each patient. A linear regression model was applied, using the XI score as dependent variable and the ACT score as independent variable. The 57 patients were divided into asthmatics (40 patients, 70.2%) and control group without asthma (17, 29.8%). The prevalence of xerostomia was 87.7% (50 patients), with no differences between the study groups or current dose of ICS. In the asthmatic group, patients with uncontrolled asthma had worse XI scores than those with partially or totally controlled asthma (30.43 ± 8.71 vs. 24.92 ± 8.08; P Xerostomia is a common symptom in the ambulatory setting. There is a moderate relationship between the degree of asthma control and the severity of xerostomia. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Concurrent radiotherapy: fotemustine combination for newly diagnosed malignant glioma patients, a phase II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchesne, Patrick D; Taillandier, L; Bernier, V; Carnin, C

    2009-06-01

    Fotemustine is a nitrosourea compound used for the treatment of malignant gliomas, especially in France. Recently, an EORTC-NCIC study has shown that a concomitant combination of radiotherapy plus temozolomide (an oral cytotoxic drug) improved survival in glioblastoma patients. We set out to test a concurrent combination of radiotherapy and fotemustine for newly malignant gliomas. A prospective single-center phase II study opened for accrual in September 2004. Patients over 18 years of age able to give informed consent and with histologically proven, newly diagnosed supratentorial malignant gliomas were eligible. All patients were treated by a standard cranial irradiation (conformal irradiation, tumor bulk plus a margin of 2.5 cm) and concomitant daily administration of 10 mg/m(2) of fotemustine (5 days per week, 6 weeks, 1 h 30 min before radiation therapy). Adjuvant chemotherapy, fotemustine, was administered at tumor progression as standard and classic regimen. Twenty-two patients were enrolled, 16 men and 6 women, median age 56 years (range 32-74), median Karnofsky performance status 70 (range 60-90). Histology included 16 glioblastomas, 3 anaplastic astrocytomas, 2 anaplastic oligodendrogliomas and 1 mixed glioma. Eight patients underwent surgery (three total resections). Fourteen patients had a stereotactic biopsy. The concurrent radiotherapy-fotemustine combination was well tolerated: toxicity was mild and three hematologic toxicities grade 3-4 were observed. Median survival from the initial diagnosis was 9.9 months, two patients are currently alive. Median survival was 11 months for surgery and 9 months for stereotactic biopsy. Concomitant radiotherapy-fotemustine combination is safe and well tolerated. Overall survival of over 10 months for the whole population compares favorably with other reports.

  12. Epidemiological investigation and analysis of bronchial asthma in combat troops garrisoned in the cold areas of northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang SHI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the incidence and related risk factors of occurrence of bronchial asthma in troops garrisoned in the cold areas of northeast China, and explore the corresponding prevention strategy. Methods  A portion of the recruits enlisted in 2012 to Shenyang Command were enrolled as the subjects of the study with three questionnaires. The first questionnaire was carried out during training just after recruit. The second survey was carried out after winter training in selected recruits entering the army for two years, and the last questionnaire was carried out to select recruits just before their discharge from army. The final diagnosis of bronchial asthma in the suspected cases was established by pulmonary function test. Results  In the first period of the survey, the prevalence of asthma was found to be 3.55‰in the newly enlisted recruits; in the second survey 1067 cases were found to be suspicious to have asthma; in the last survey, 26 subjects were finally diagnosed to have asthma, the incidence was 1.73‰. The most common symptoms of the illness at first attack were cough (88.5% and wheeziness (56.3%, and the main inducing factors were respiratory tract infection (76.9% and exposure to cold air (65.4%, and it frequently appeared at early morning (30.8% and forenoon (23.1%. Asthmatic attack presented obvious seasonal predisposition, and it occurred in 19 of 26 patients (73.1% during winter, and 10 (38.5% during spring. The attacks of asthma could be increased by fatigue, allergy, exposure to cold air, chronic bronchitis, smoking, inhalation of gunpowder exhaust, or dysthymia. Conclusion  Fatigue may be the most frequent factor in inducing asthma, and allergy, exposure to cold air, chronic bronchitis, smoking, inhalation of gunpowder exhaust and dysthymia are the risk factors of asthmatic attack. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.04.13

  13. Ethnicity and elevated liver transaminases among newly diagnosed children with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Omar D

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the influence of ethnicity on liver transaminases among adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods A retrospective medical chart review of 57 (30 males and 27 females newly diagnosed patients with T2DM. Ethnicity was determined by self-report and height, weight, body mass index (BMI and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c were obtained using standard clinical procedures. Fasting levels of alanine aminotransaminase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST were collected prior to the initiation of any therapy. Results Age, gender, height, weight, BMI, and HbA1c did not differ between ethnic groups. Compared to African-Americans, Hispanics had significantly higher ALT (23.9 ± 3.4 vs. 107.8 ± 20.3, p=0.002 and AST (17.7 ± 2.5 vs. 71.1 ± 15.7, p Conclusions These preliminary findings suggest that Hispanic children with T2DM may be at higher risk for developing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and indicate that a comprehensive hepatic evaluation is warranted in this population. Future studies that incorporate more precise and proximal measures of liver health are warranted in this population.

  14. Prevalence of asthma in schoolchildren in Alta Floresta- a municipality in the southeast of the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Farias, Márcia Regina de Col; Rosa, Antonia Maria; Hacon, Sandra de Souza; de Castro, Hermano Albuquerque; Ignotti, Eliane

    2010-03-01

    To analyze the prevalence and symptoms of asthma in students of the Brazilian Amazon municipality of Alta Floresta-MT. Cross-sectional study on the prevalence of asthma in 6 and 7 year-old children and 13 to 14 year-old adolescents, using the Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood - ISAAC method, phase I in 2007. Students who answered affirmatively question 2 - "presence of wheezing in the past 12 months" were considered asthmatic. Of the total 2,071 students, 1,072 (51.7%) were children and 999 (48.3%) were teenagers. The prevalence of asthma was 21.4% among schoolchildren, and 12.4% among adolescents (chi2 = 29.29; rho = 0.00). Children presented a higher prevalence than adolescents of the following asthma symptoms: wheezing sometime in life (49.9%), wheezing in the past 12 months (21.4%), 1 to 3 wheezing attacks in the past 12 months (16.4%), and dry cough at night (38.2%). Regarding physician-diagnosed asthma, no difference was observed between the two age groups, with a prevalence of around 6.0%. Male schoolchildren presented a higher prevalence of asthma, physician-diagnosed asthma and four or more wheezing episodes in the past 12 months (rho asthma in Latin America among schoolchildren in the 6 and 7 year-old age group.

  15. Patients newly diagnosed with clinical type 2 diabetes during oral glucocorticoid treatment and observed for 14 years: all-cause mortality and clinical developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivarius, Niels de Fine; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Dyring-Andersen, B.

    2011-01-01

    and sex and to 1.39 (0.92-2.11, p = 0.12, n = 1086) when risk factors, complications and cancer were added to the model. Apart from differences in age and overweight, patients in this relatively small sample of those diagnosed with clinical type 2 diabetes during GC treatment were comparable at diagnosis...... treatment. A population-based sample of 1369 people newly diagnosed with clinical type 2 diabetes underwent a clinical examination at diagnosis, and surviving patients were followed up 6 and 14 years later. Patients receiving oral GC treatment at diagnosis were compared with the other patients. Of 1369......Chronic exposure to glucocorticoids (GCs) has many side effects including glucose intolerance and diabetes and may accelerate the occurrence of cardiovascular disease and increase mortality. We studied the 14-year clinical development of diabetes in patients diagnosed with diabetes during GC...

  16. The value of spirometry and exercise challenge test to diagnose and monitor children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Wijngaart, Lara S; Roukema, Jolt; Merkus, Peter Jfm

    2015-03-01

    Asthma is defined as a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways with characteristic symptoms including recurrent episodes of wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness, and coughing. It may result in abnormalities of ventilator function, which can be assessed by different pulmonary function tests. In this case report, we present a 15-year-old boy with asthma and illustrate the value and limitations of spirometry and exercise challenge test in daily practice.

  17. An assessment of asthmatic patients at four Western Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To identify the profile of asthmatic patients visiting community pharmacies and to assess the appropriateness of their current asthma therapy. Design. Patients were identified as either chronic, newly diagnosed or undiagnosed. Asthma status was assessed from their current symptom and medication profiles and ...

  18. An assessment of asthmatic patients at four Western Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To identify the profile of asthmatic patients visiting community pharmacies and to assess the appropriateness of their current asthma therapy. Design. Patients were identified as either chronic, newly diagnosed or undiagnosed. Asthma status was assessed from their current symptom and medication profiles and.

  19. Concomitant HIV infection in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RESEARCH ... To compare the presenting features of HIV-positive patients diagnosed with MM ..... Especially since recent publications are showing trends of .... 18. Agrawal S, Deshpande A. A unique presentation of multiple myeloma in an ...

  20. Association between response rates and survival outcomes in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. A systematic review and meta-regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainou, Maria; Madenidou, Anastasia-Vasiliki; Liakos, Aris; Paschos, Paschalis; Karagiannis, Thomas; Bekiari, Eleni; Vlachaki, Efthymia; Wang, Zhen; Murad, Mohammad Hassan; Kumar, Shaji; Tsapas, Apostolos

    2017-06-01

    We performed a systematic review and meta-regression analysis of randomized control trials to investigate the association between response to initial treatment and survival outcomes in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM). Response outcomes included complete response (CR) and the combined outcome of CR or very good partial response (VGPR), while survival outcomes were overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). We used random-effect meta-regression models and conducted sensitivity analyses based on definition of CR and study quality. Seventy-two trials were included in the systematic review, 63 of which contributed data in meta-regression analyses. There was no association between OS and CR in patients without autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) (regression coefficient: .02, 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.06, 0.10), in patients undergoing ASCT (-.11, 95% CI -0.44, 0.22) and in trials comparing ASCT with non-ASCT patients (.04, 95% CI -0.29, 0.38). Similarly, OS did not correlate with the combined metric of CR or VGPR, and no association was evident between response outcomes and PFS. Sensitivity analyses yielded similar results. This meta-regression analysis suggests that there is no association between conventional response outcomes and survival in patients with newly diagnosed MM. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Prevalence and progression of visual impairment in patients newly diagnosed with clinical type 2 diabetes: a 6-year follow up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almind Gitte

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many diabetic patients fear visual loss as the worst consequence of diabetes. In most studies the main eye pathology is assigned as the cause of visual impairment. This study analysed a broad range of possible ocular and non-ocular predictors of visual impairment prospectively in patients newly diagnosed with clinical type 2 diabetes. Methods Data were from a population-based cohort of 1,241 persons newly diagnosed with clinical, often symptomatic type 2 diabetes aged ≥ 40 years. After 6 years, 807 patients were followed up. Standard eye examinations were done by practising ophthalmologists. Results At diabetes diagnosis median age was 65.5 years. Over 6 years, the prevalence of blindness (visual acuity of best seeing eye ≤ 0.1 rose from 0.9% (11/1,241 to 2.4% (19/807 and the prevalence of moderate visual impairment (> 0.1; Conclusions In a comprehensive assessment of predictors of visual impairment, even in a health care system allowing self-referral to free eye examinations, treatable eye pathologies such as DR and cataract emerge together with age as the most notable predictors of continued visual loss after diabetes diagnosis. Our results underline the importance of eliminating barriers to efficient eye care by increasing patients' and primary care practitioners' awareness of the necessity of regular eye examinations and timely surgical treatment.

  2. Unawareness and undertreatment of asthma: follow-up in a different geographic area in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backer, V.; Nolte, H.; Pedersen, L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Early detection and treatment of asthma is important to minimize morbidity and healthcare costs. The objective of this study was to investigate asthma awareness and management in a western society. Methods: In a random sample of 10 400 subjects aged 14-44 years, 686 (6.6%) reported...... symptoms of asthma in a standardized screening questionnaire. All 686 were evaluated by respiratory specialists and diagnosed by history, symptoms, lung function tests, bronchial challenges and allergy testing. Of these 686 participants, 69 (10%) had asthma alone, 205 (30%) had rhinitis alone and 217 (32...... asthma alone (40.6%) (P half of the persons with asthma were aware of their disorder; and the awareness was more likely in those...

  3. The Program for the Prevention of Childhood Asthma: a specialized care program for children with wheezing or asthma in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia-Pereira, Marilyn; Avila, Jennifer; Solé, Dirceu

    2016-01-01

    To present the Programa Infantil de Prevenção de Asma (PIPA, Program for the Prevention of Childhood Asthma) and the characteristics of the patients followed in this program. Implemented in the city of Uruguaiana, Brazil, PIPA has as its target population children and adolescents ( 3 years of age, respectively. Physician-diagnosed asthma was reported in 26.5% and 82.2%, respectively. In the sample as a whole, the prevalence of passive smoking was high (> 36%), occurring during pregnancy in > 15%; > 40% of the patients had been born by cesarean section; and 30% had a mother who had had < 8 years of schooling. A prevention program for children with asthma is an effective strategy for controlling the disease. Knowledge of local epidemiological and environmental characteristics is essential to reducing the prevalence of the severe forms of asthma, to improving the use of health resources, and to preventing pulmonary changes that could lead to COPD in adulthood.

  4. The Program for the Prevention of Childhood Asthma: a specialized care program for children with wheezing or asthma in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Urrutia-Pereira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To present the Programa Infantil de Prevenção de Asma (PIPA, Program for the Prevention of Childhood Asthma and the characteristics of the patients followed in this program. Methods : Implemented in the city of Uruguaiana, Brazil, PIPA has as its target population children and adolescents ( 3 years of age, respectively. Physician-diagnosed asthma was reported in 26.5% and 82.2%, respectively. In the sample as a whole, the prevalence of passive smoking was high (> 36%, occurring during pregnancy in > 15%; > 40% of the patients had been born by cesarean section; and 30% had a mother who had had < 8 years of schooling. Conclusions : A prevention program for children with asthma is an effective strategy for controlling the disease. Knowledge of local epidemiological and environmental characteristics is essential to reducing the prevalence of the severe forms of asthma, to improving the use of health resources, and to preventing pulmonary changes that could lead to COPD in adulthood.

  5. Assessing Asthma Symptoms in Adolescents and Adults: Qualitative Research Supporting Development of the Asthma Daily Symptom Diary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gater, Adam; Nelsen, Linda; Fleming, Sarah; Lundy, J Jason; Bonner, Nicola; Hall, Rebecca; Marshall, Chris; Staunton, Hannah; Krishnan, Jerry A; Stoloff, Stuart; Schatz, Michael; Haughney, John

    2016-06-01

    Despite the widespread availability of patient-reported asthma questionnaires, instruments developed in accordance with present regulatory expectations are lacking. To address this gap, the Patient-Reported Outcome (PRO) Consortium's Asthma Working Group has developed a patient-reported asthma daily symptom diary (ADSD) for use in clinical research to assess outcomes and support medical product labeling claims in adults and adolescents with asthma. To summarize the qualitative research conducted to inform the initial development of the ADSD and to provide evidence for content validity of the instrument in accordance with the Food and Drug Administration's PRO Guidance. Research informing the initial development and confirming the content validity of the ADSD is summarized. This comprised a review of published qualitative research, semi-structured concept elicitation interviews (n = 55), and cognitive interviews (n = 65) with a diverse and representative sample of adults and adolescents with a clinician-confirmed diagnosis of asthma in the United States to understand the asthma symptom experience and to assess the relevance and understanding of the newly developed ADSD. From the qualitative literature review and concept elicitation interviews, eight core asthma symptoms emerged. These were broadly categorized as breathing symptoms (difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, and wheezing), chest symptoms (chest tightness, chest pain, and pressure/weight on chest), and cough symptoms (cough and the presence of mucus/phlegm). Conceptual saturation was achieved and differences in the experience of participants according to socio-demographic or clinical characteristics were not observed. Subsequent testing of the ADSD confirmed participant relevance and understanding. The ADSD is a new patient-reported asthma symptom diary developed in accordance with the Food and Drug Administration's PRO Guidance. Evidence to date supports the content validity of the instrument. Item

  6. Use of Antibiotics during pregnancy increases the risk of Asthma in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensballe, Lone Graff; Simonsen, Jacob; Jensen, Signe Marie

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the hypothesis that mother's use of antibiotics in pregnancy could influence asthma and eczema in early life. STUDY DESIGN: Subjects were included from the Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood cohort of children born of mothers with asthma (N = 411). Severe...... verified eczema. All children were followed to age 5 years in a cohort study design. RESULTS: The Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood data showed increased risk of asthma exacerbation (hazard ratio 1.98 [95% CI 1.08-3.63]) if mothers had used antibiotics during third trimester. The Danish...... asthma exacerbations and eczema were diagnosed by research unit physicians. Replication was sought in children from the Danish National Birth Cohort (N = 30 675). Asthma outcomes were hospitalization and use of inhaled corticosteroids. Eczema was defined by an algorithm developed from cases of clinically...

  7. Maternal obesity, gestational weight gain, and risk of asthma and atopic disease in offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harpsøe, Maria C; Basit, Saima; Bager, Peter

    2013-01-01

    -onset wheezing (adjusted OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.28-2.73). Maternal BMI and GWG were not associated with AE or hay fever. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal obesity during pregnancy was associated with increased risk of asthma and wheezing in offspring but not with AE and hay fever, suggesting that pathways may be nonallergic....... calculated by logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders. RESULTS: During the first 7 years of life, 10.4% of children developed doctor-diagnosed asthma, 25.8% AE, and 4.6% hay fever. Maternal BMI and to a lesser extent GWG were associated with doctor-diagnosed asthma ever. In particular......, BMI ≥ 35 (adjusted OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 0.95-3.68) and GWG ≥ 25 kg (adjusted OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.38-2.83) were associated with current severe asthma at age 7 years. Maternal BMI was also associated with wheezing in offspring, with the strongest association observed between BMI ≥ 35 and late...

  8. Maternal obesity, gestational weight gain, and risk of asthma and atopic disease in offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harpsøe, Maria C; Basit, Saima; Bager, Peter

    2012-01-01

    -onset wheezing (adjusted OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.28-2.73). Maternal BMI and GWG were not associated with AE or hay fever. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal obesity during pregnancy was associated with increased risk of asthma and wheezing in offspring but not with AE and hay fever, suggesting that pathways may be nonallergic....... calculated by logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders. RESULTS: During the first 7 years of life, 10.4% of children developed doctor-diagnosed asthma, 25.8% AE, and 4.6% hay fever. Maternal BMI and to a lesser extent GWG were associated with doctor-diagnosed asthma ever. In particular......, BMI ≥ 35 (adjusted OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 0.95-3.68) and GWG ≥ 25 kg (adjusted OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.38-2.83) were associated with current severe asthma at age 7 years. Maternal BMI was also associated with wheezing in offspring, with the strongest association observed between BMI ≥ 35 and late...

  9. Does the medical diagnosis of occupational asthma coincide with the legal diagnosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelebi Sözener, Zeynep; Aydın, Ömür; Demirel, Yavuz Selim; Soyyiğit, Şadan; Çerçi, Pamir; Kendirlinan, Reşat; Bavbek, Sevim; Çelik, Gülfem Elif; Misirligil, Zeynep; Sin, Betül Ayşe; Keleşoğlu, Arif; Mungan, Dilşad

    2017-11-01

    The incidence of occupational asthma (OA) is increasing worldwide. In this study, we first aimed to document the rate of diagnosis of OA among patients who were referred to our clinic from the Social Security Institution and the factors that affected diagnosis; secondly, we aimed to assess the consistency of the medical and legal diagnoses. The study involved 132 consecutive patients who were referred to our clinic for the evaluation of OA between 2010 and 2015. Detailed workplace history, the tools used in the diagnosis such as peak expiratory flow (PEF) monitoring and bronchial provocation tests, and the final medical diagnosis were recorded from case files. Asthma was diagnosed in 75% (n = 99) of the patients. Among them, 22.2% were diagnosed as having OA. The diagnosis was confirmed by serial PEF measurements, non-specific bronchial hyperreactivity assessment or both of the tests both at work and off-work periods. OA diagnosis was mostly established in active workers (72.7%). The legal diagnosis period was completed in 54.5% of these 22 patients, and 50% (n = 11) were officially diagnosed as having OA with a 91.6% concordance with medical diagnosis. This study verifies the importance of diagnosing asthma correctly as a first step in the evaluation of OA. Diagnostic tests other than specific provocation tests could be preferential in patients who still work in the same field. We believe that cooperation with the patient's occupational physician and adequate recognition of the work environment will improve the consistency of legal and medical diagnoses.

  10. Health-Related Quality of Life of Children with Asthma: Self and Parental Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyva, Efrosini; Eiser, Christine; Papathanasiou, Aikaterini

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to explore whether age, gender, asthma severity, asthma duration, and exposure to parental smoking were associated with levels of asthma-specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among Greek children with asthma and to identify any differences between self- and proxy ratings of asthma-specific HRQoL. One hundred and seventy-three (173) children with asthma (8-12 years old) and their parents completed the Pediatric Quality of Life Asthma Module self- and proxy measures. Asthma severity, age, and asthma duration explained almost half of the variance in asthma-specific HRQoL scores according to self- and proxy reports. Older male children with more severe asthma who were diagnosed for a longer period of time and had at least one smoking parent reported lower asthma-specific HRQoL according to self- and proxy reports. Although children and their parents seemed to agree in their views of asthma-specific HRQoL, there were significant differences in ratings of specific parameters of asthma-specific HRQoL. This study identifies the factors that account for a significant variance in asthma-specific HRQoL scores according to self- and proxy reports and is among the first to record the effect of parental smoking on children's and parents' perceptions of asthma-specific HRQoL.

  11. Chest CT scans are frequently abnormal in asymptomatic patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallipuram, Janaki; Dhalla, Sidika; Bell, Chaim M; Dresser, Linda; Han, Heekyung; Husain, Shahid; Minden, Mark D; Paul, Narinder S; So, Miranda; Steinberg, Marilyn; Vallipuram, Mayuran; Wong, Gary; Morris, Andrew M

    2017-04-01

    Chest computed tomography (CT) findings of nodules, ground glass opacities, and consolidations are often interpreted as representing invasive fungal infection in individuals with febrile neutropenia. We assessed whether these CT findings were present in asymptomatic individuals with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) at low risk of invasive fungal disease. A retrospective study of consecutive asymptomatic adult patients with newly diagnosed AML over a 2-year period was performed at a tertiary care oncology center. Radiology reports of baseline chest CTs were reviewed. Of 145 CT scans, the majority (88%) had pulmonary abnormalities. Many (70%) had one or both of unspecified opacities (52%) and nodules (49%). Ground glass opacities (18%) and consolidations (12%) occurred less frequently. Radiologists suggested pneumonia as a possible diagnosis in 32% (n = 47) of scans. Chest CT may result in over-diagnosis of invasive fungal disease in individuals with febrile neutropenia if interpreted without correlation to the patients' clinical status.

  12. HIV-1 genetic diversity and its distribution characteristics among newly diagnosed HIV-1 individuals in Hebei province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinli; Zhao, Cuiying; Wang, Wei; Nie, Chenxi; Zhang, Yuqi; Zhao, Hongru; Chen, Suliang; Cui, Ze

    2016-01-01

    Since the first HIV-1 case in 1989, Hebei province has presented a clearly rising trend of HIV-1 prevalence, and HIV-1 genetic diversity has become the vital barrier to HIV prevention and control in this area. To obtain detailed information of HIV-1 spread in different populations and in different areas of Hebei, a cross-sectional HIV-1 molecular epidemiological investigation was performed across the province. Blood samples of 154 newly diagnosed HIV-1 individuals were collected from ten prefectures in Hebei using stratified sampling. Partial gag and env genes were amplified and sequenced. HIV-1 genotypes were identified by phylogenetic tree analyses. Among the 139 subjects genotyped, six HIV-1 subtypes were identified successfully, including subtype B (41.0 %), CRF01_AE (40.3 %), CRF07_BC (11.5 %), CRF08_BC (4.3 %), unique recombinant forms (URFs) (1.4 %) and subtype C (1.4 %). Subtype B was identified as the most frequent subtype. Two URF recombination patterns were the same as CRF01_AE/B. HIV-1 genotype distribution showed a significant statistical difference in different demographic characteristics, such as source (P  0.05). The differences in HIV-1 genotype distribution were closely associated with transmission routes. Particularly, all six subtype strains were found in heterosexuals, showing that HIV-1 has spread from the high-risk populations to the general populations in Hebei, China. In addition, CRF01_AE instead of subtype B has become the major strain of HIV-1 infection among homosexuals. Our study revealed HIV-1 evolution and genotype distribution by investigating newly diagnosed HIV-1 individuals in Hebei, China. This study provides important information to enhance the strategic plan for HIV prevention and control in China.

  13. Thai pediatricians' current practice toward childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalaporn, Harutai; Chawalitdamrong, Pongpan; Preutthipan, Aroonwan

    2018-04-01

    Childhood asthma is a substantial health burden in Thailand. Due to a lack of pediatric respiratory specialists (pediatric pulmonologists and allergists; RS), most Thai children are cared for by general pediatricians (pediatric primary care providers (PCP)). We investigated whether current practices of Thai pediatricians complied with asthma guidelines and compared practices (diagnosis and treatments) provided by PCP and RS. A cross-sectional study was conducted using electronic surveys including four case scenarios of different asthma phenotypes distributed to Thai pediatricians. Asthma diagnosis and management were evaluated for compliance with standard guidelines. The practices of PCP and RS were compared. From 800 surveys distributed, there were 405 respondents (51%). Most respondents (81%) were PCP, who preferred to use clinical diagnosis rather than laboratory investigations to diagnose asthma. For acute asthmatic attacks, 58% of the pediatricians prescribed a systemic corticosteroid. For uncontrolled asthma, 89% of the pediatricians prescribed at least one controller. For exercise-induced bronchospasm, 55% of the pediatricians chose an inhaled bronchodilator, while 38% chose a leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA). For virus-induced wheeze, 40% of the respondents chose an LTRA, while 15% chose inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). PCP prescribed more oral bronchodilators (31% vs. 18%, p = 0.02), antibiotics (20% vs. 6%, p attack. Most of the Thai pediatricians' practices toward diagnosis and treatment of acute asthmatic attack and uncontrolled asthma conform to the guidelines. PCP prescribed more oral bronchodilators, antibiotics, and antihistamines than RS.

  14. Effectiveness of initial extracorporeal shock wave therapy on the newly diagnosed lateral or medial epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Seok; Kang, Sangkuk; Park, Noh Kyoung; Lee, Chan Woo; Song, Ho Sup; Sohn, Min Kyun; Cho, Kang Hee; Kim, Jung Hwan

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of initial extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) for patients newly diagnosed with lateral or medial epicondylitis, compared to local steroid injection. An analysis was conducted of twenty-two patients who were newly confirmed as lateral or medial epicondylitis through medical history and physical examination. The ESWT group (n=12) was treated once a week for 3 weeks using low energy (0.06-0.12 mJ/mm(2), 2,000 shocks), while the local steroid injection group (n=10) was treated once with triamcinolone 10 mg mixed with 1% lidocaine solution. Nirschl score and 100 point score were assessed before and after the treatments of 1st, 2nd, 4th and 8th week. And Roles and Maudsley score was assessed one and eight weeks after the treatments. Both groups showed significant improvement in Nirschl score and 100 point score during the entire period. The local steroid injection group improved more in Nirschl score at the first week and in 100 point score at the first 2 weeks, compared to those of the ESWT group. But the proportion of excellent and good grades of Roles and Maudsley score in the ESWT group increased more than that of local steroid injection group by the final 8th week. The ESWT group improved as much as the local steroid injection group as treatment for medial and lateral epicondylitis. Therefore, ESWT can be a useful treatment option in patients for whom local steroid injection is difficult.

  15. Overlap Syndrome in Respiratory Medicine: Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru Corlateanu; Valeria Pripa; Gloria Montanari; Victor Botnaru

    2014-01-01

    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are highly prevalent chronic diseases in the general population. Both are characterized by similar mechanisms: airway inflammation, airway obstruction, and airway hyperresponsiveness. However, the distinction between the two obstructive diseases is not always clear. Multiple epidemiological studies demonstrate that in elderly people with obstructive airway disease, as many as half or more may have overlapping diagnoses of asthma and COPD...

  16. Development and testing of a mobile application to support diabetes self-management for people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: a design thinking case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Mira; Hempler, Nana F

    2017-06-26

    Numerous mobile applications have been developed to support diabetes-self-management. However, the majority of these applications lack a theoretical foundation and the involvement of people with diabetes during development. The aim of this study was to develop and test a mobile application (app) supporting diabetes self-management among people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes using design thinking. The app was developed and tested in 2015 using a design-based research approach involving target users (individuals newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes), research scientists, healthcare professionals, designers, and app developers. The research approach comprised three major phases: inspiration, ideation, and implementation. The first phase included observations of diabetes education and 12 in-depth interviews with users regarding challenges and needs related to living with diabetes. The ideation phrase consisted of four interactive workshops with users focusing on app needs, in which ideas were developed and prioritized. Finally, 14 users tested the app over 4 weeks; they were interviewed about usability and perceptions about the app as a support tool. A multifunctional app was useful for people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. The final app comprised five major functions: overview of diabetes activities after diagnosis, recording of health data, reflection games and goal setting, knowledge games and recording of psychological data such as sleep, fatigue, and well-being. Users found the app to be a valuable tool for support, particularly for raising their awareness about their psychological health and for informing and guiding them through the healthcare system after diagnosis. The design thinking processes used in the development and implementation of the mobile health app were crucial to creating value for users. More attention should be paid to the training of professionals who introduce health apps. Danish Data Protection Agency: 2012-58-0004. Registered 6

  17. Prevalence of gastro-esophageal reflux disease in patients with difficult to control asthma and effect of proton pump inhibitor therapy on asthma symptoms, reflux symptoms, pulmonary function and requirement for asthma medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandur, V; Murugesh, M; Banait, V; Rathi, P M; Bhatia, S J; Joshi, J M; Kate, A

    2014-01-01

    The hypothesis that GER can trigger or exacerbate asthma is supported by several clinical trials that have shown amelioration in asthma symptoms and/or an improvement in pulmonary function after antireflux therapy. To investigate the prevalence of GER in patients with difficult to control asthma and to determine the effect of omeprazole on asthma symptoms, reflux symptoms, pulmonary function and on the requirement of asthma medications. Patients with difficult to control asthma were recruited into the study. All patients underwent esophageal manometry and 24 hour esophageal pH monitoring. Pulmonary function tests were done before and after treatment. The severity of asthma and reflux was assessed by a 1 week pulmonary symptom score(PSS) and reflux symptom score(RSS) respectively before and after treatment. Those who had an abnormal pH study (pH 5% of the time) underwent anti-GER treatment with lifestyle changes, and a proton pump inhibitor (omeprazole 40 mg, bid) for 3 months. Asthma medications were added or deleted based on severity of asthma. Out of 250 asthmatic patients screened, forty patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Twenty eight of 40 patients(70%) were diagnosed to have GERD. Of the patients 28 with GER, 8 patients(28.5%) had no reflux symptoms. On 24 hr pH metry, the percentage time pH reflux symptom score(RSS) improved from 22.39 ± 14.99 to 1.04 ± 1.07, pulmonary symptom score(PSS) improved from 27.14 ± 7.49 to 13.82 ± 4.21 and night time asthma symptom score(NASS) improved from 6.71 ± 1.80 to 3.04 ± 1.23 (p-value <0.0001). After treatment, FEV1 and PEFR increased from 1.38 ± 0.57 and 4.14 ± 1.97 to 1.47 ± 0.54 and 5.56 ± 1.72, respectively (p-value 0.00114). PPI therapy improves nocturnal asthma symptoms, daytime asthma symptoms, pulmonary function and decreases requirement of asthma medications in these patients.

  18. Comparison of health care needs of child family members of adults with alcohol or drug dependence versus adults with asthma or diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, G Thomas; Mertens, Jennifer R; Weisner, Constance

    2014-05-01

    To compare the health problems, preventive care utilization, and medical costs of child family members (CFMs) of adults diagnosed with alcohol or drug dependence (AODD) to CFMs of adults diagnosed with diabetes or asthma. Child family members of adults diagnosed with AODD between 2002 and 2005 and CFMs of matched adults diagnosed with diabetes or asthma were followed up to 7 years after diagnosis of the index adult. Logistic regression was used to determine whether the CFMs of AODD adults were more likely to be diagnosed with medical conditions, or get preventive care, than the CFMs of adults with asthma or diabetes. Children's health services use was compared using multivariate models. In Year 5 after index date, CFMs of adults with AODD were more likely to be diagnosed with depression and AODD than CFMs of adults with asthma or diabetes and were less likely to be diagnosed with asthma, otitis media, and pneumonia than CFMs of adults with asthma. CFMs of AODD adults were less likely than CFMs of adult asthmatic patients to have annual well-child visits. CFMs of AODD adults had similar mean annual total health care costs to CFMs of adults with asthma but higher total costs ($159/yr higher, confidence interval, $56-$253) than CFMs of adult diabetic patients. CFMs of adults with AODD had higher emergency department, higher outpatient alcohol and drug program, higher outpatient psychiatry, and lower primary care costs than CFMs of either adult asthmatic patients or diabetic patients. Children in families with an alcohol- or drug-dependent adult have unique patterns of health conditions, and differences in the types of health services used, compared to children in families with an adult asthmatic or diabetic family member. However, overall cost and utilization for health care services is similar or only somewhat higher. This is the first study of its kind, and the results have implications for the reduction of parental alcohol or drug dependence stigma by health care

  19. Patient Portal Use and Blood Pressure Control in Newly Diagnosed Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manard, William; Scherrer, Jeffrey F; Salas, Joanne; Schneider, F David

    2016-01-01

    Current evidence that patient portal use improves disease management is inconclusive. Randomized controlled trials have found no benefit of Web-based patient-provider communication for blood pressure (BP) control, but patients from these studies were not selected for uncontrolled hypertension, nor did measures of portal use occur in a real-world setting, as captured in the electronic medical record. This study determined whether patient portal use by patients with treated, incident hypertension was associated with achieving BP control. Between 2008 to 2010, 1571 patients with an incident hypertension diagnosis, ages 21 to >89 years, were identified from an academic medical center primary care patient data registry. Cox proportional hazard models were computed to estimate the association between portal use and incident BP control during follow-up (2011-2015), before and after adjusting for covariates. Covariates included sociodemographics, smoking, obesity and other physical and mental health comorbidities, and volume of health care utilization. After adjusting for age, portal users were more likely than nonusers to achieve BP control (hazard ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.45). After adjustment for sociodemographics, portal use was no longer associated with BP control (hazard ratio, 0.98; 95% confidence interval, 0.83-1.16). Patient sociodemographic factors, including race, sex, and socioeconomic status, account for the observation that portal use leads to BP control among persons with newly diagnosed hypertension. Further research is warranted to determine whether there are benefits of portal use for other chronic conditions. © Copyright 2016 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  20. Preeclampsia Associates with Asthma, Allergy, and Eczema in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokholm, Jakob; Sevelsted, Astrid; Anderson, Ulrik D; Bisgaard, Hans

    2017-03-01

    Preeclampsia reflects an unusual increase in systemic inflammation during pregnancy. We studied associations between preeclampsia and asthma, allergy, and eczema in Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood 2000 (COPSAC 2000 ) and in national registries. COPSAC 2000 is a high-risk birth cohort of 411 Danish children. Asthma, allergy, and eczema were diagnosed prospectively, and lung function measured at age 1 month and 7 years. Sensitization was evaluated at age 6 months, 18 months, 4 years, and 6 years by skin prick tests and IgE measurements. The register-based cohort included 1.7 million children from Danish national registries in the 35-year period 1977-2012. Children born to mothers with preeclampsia were analyzed regarding risk of asthma, allergy, and eczema. In the COPSAC 2000 cohort, 5.6% (n = 23) were diagnosed with preeclampsia. Preeclampsia was associated with increased risk of treatment with inhaled corticosteroids at age 7 years (adjusted odds ratio, 4.01 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-14.43]; P = 0.0337), increased bronchial responsiveness to methacholine (adjusted β-coefficient log-μmol, -0.80 [95% CI, -1.55 to -0.06]; P = 0.0348), and allergic rhinitis (adjusted odds ratio, 4.83 [95% CI, 1.58-14.78]; P = 0.0057) in the 7-year-old children. Furthermore, the children had an increased risk of sensitization to both aeroallergens and food allergens, and increased amount of total IgE during childhood. In the registry-based cohort, 3.7% (n = 62,728) were born to mothers with preeclampsia. Preeclampsia was associated with increased risk of asthma, eczema, and aeroallergen and food allergy, especially pronounced after a duration of preeclampsia of 14 days or more. Maternal asthma increased the risk of preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is a shared prenatal risk factor for asthma, eczema, and allergy in childhood pointing toward in utero immune programming of the child.

  1. Effect of intensive insulin therapy on macular biometrics, plasma VEGF and its soluble receptor in newly diagnosed diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Cristina; Zapata, Miguel A; Losada, Eladio; Villarroel, Marta; García-Ramírez, Marta; García-Arumí, José; Simó, Rafael

    2010-07-01

    To evaluate whether intensive insulin therapy leads to changes in macular biometrics (volume and thickness) in newly diagnosed diabetic patients with acute hyperglycaemia and its relationship with serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its soluble receptor (sFlt-1). Twenty-six newly diagnosed diabetic patients admitted to our hospital to initiate intensive insulin treatment were prospectively recruited. Examinations were performed on admission (day 1) and during follow-up (days 3, 10 and 21) and included a questionnaire regarding the presence of blurred vision, standardized refraction measurements and optical coherence tomography. Plasma VEGF and sFlt-1 were assessed by ELISA at baseline and during follow-up. At study entry seven patients (26.9%) complained of blurred vision and five (19.2%) developed burred vision during follow-up. Macular volume and thickness increased significantly (p = 0.008 and p = 0.04, respectively) in the group with blurred vision at day 3 and returned to the baseline value at 10 days. This pattern was present in 18 out of the 24 eyes from patients with blurred vision. By contrast, macular biometrics remained unchanged in the group without blurred vision. We did not detect any significant changes in VEGF levels during follow-up. By contrast, a significant reduction of sFlt-1 was observed in those patients with blurred vision at day 3 (p = 0.03) with normalization by day 10. Diabetic patients with blurred vision after starting insulin therapy present a significant transient increase in macular biometrics which is associated with a decrease in circulating sFlt-1. Copyright (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Dupilumab: a novel treatment for asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatrella A

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Alessandro Vatrella,1 Immacolata Fabozzi,1 Cecilia Calabrese,2 Rosario Maselli,3 Girolamo Pelaia3 1Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Salerno, Salerno, 2Department of Cardiothoracic and Respiratory Sciences, Second University of Naples, Naples, 3Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University Magna Græcia, Catanzaro, Italy Abstract: Simultaneously with the steady progress towards a better knowledge of the pathobiology of asthma, the potential usefulness of anticytokine therapies is emerging as one of the key concepts in the newly developing treatments of this widespread airway disease. In particular, given the key role played by interleukin (IL-4 and IL-13 in the pathophysiology of the most typical aspects of asthma, such as chronic airway inflammation, tissue remodeling, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness, these pleiotropic cytokines are now considered as suitable therapeutic targets. Among the recently developed antiasthma biologic drugs, the monoclonal antibody dupilumab is very promising because of its ability to inhibit the biological effects of both IL-4 and IL-13. Indeed, dupilumab prevents IL-4/13 interactions with the α-subunit of the IL-4 receptor complex. A recent trial showed that in patients with difficult-to-control asthma, dupilumab can markedly decrease asthma exacerbations and improve respiratory symptoms and lung function; these effects were paralleled by significant reductions in T-helper 2-associated inflammatory biomarkers. However, further larger and longer trials are required to extend and validate these preliminary results, and also to carefully study the safety and tolerability profile of dupilumab. Keywords: Th2-high asthma, interleukin-4, interleukin-13, dupilumab

  3. [Ten years comparison of diagnosis and treatment of asthma in urban children in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Li; Liu, Chuanhe; Shao, Mingjun; Chen, Yuzhi

    2016-03-01

    To compare the changes of diagnosis, treatment and control of 0-14 years old urban asthma children during 10 years. The questionnaires were given to diagnosed asthmatic children during the national epidemiological survey of asthma in children in 2000 and 2010 to understand the diagnosis and treatment of asthma and the status of the disease control. Children with asthma of a total of 36 cities were involved in this study, and the diagnosed asthma children in recent 2 years were 6,128 and 8 174, separately. Data were stored using epi-info software by double entry, V19.0 of SPSS was used to do the statistical analysis , χ(2) test was used. The proportion of correct diagnosis of asthma before investigation in 2010 was 64.6%, while it was 70.7% in 2010, which showed a significant increase (χ(2) = 59.3, P asthma onset within 1 year was separately 50.8% and 78.6% in 2000 and 2010. The early diagnostic rate was significantly higher in 2010 than that in 2000 (χ(2) = 817.7, P asthma medication in the use of inhaled corticosteroids was 36.3% and 61.7%, it increased by 0.7 times in 2010 (χ(2) = 907.5, P asthma attacks within recent 1 year were separately 86.3% and 77.0% (χ(2) = 194.0, Pasthma attack were separately 54.0% and 47.3% (χ(2) = 61.7, P asthma less than 10 days was separately 47.5% and 71.4% (χ(2) = 682.6, P asthma in urban Chinese children within 1 year had a significant increase compared with a decade ago. Inhaled corticosteroids therapy had increased by 0.7 times than before while systemic corticosteroids utilization rate significantly decreased. Antibiotics usage had a decrease of 22.0% but they were still overused. Asthma control was significantly improved, but acute exacerbations and hospitalizations of asthma children still accounts for a large proportion although they both had a great improvement.

  4. Effect of clomifene citrate plus metformin and clomifene citrate plus placebo on induction of ovulation in women with newly diagnosed polycystic ovary syndrome: randomised double blind clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moll, Etelka; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Korevaar, Johanna C.; Lambalk, Cornelis B.; van der Veen, Fulco

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of clomifene citrate plus metformin and clomifene citrate plus placebo in women with newly diagnosed polycystic ovary syndrome. DESIGN: Randomised clinical trial. SETTING: Multicentre trial in 20 Dutch hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: 228 women with polycystic ovary

  5. Asthma Length of Stay in Hospitals in London 2001?2006: Demographic, Diagnostic and Temporal Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Soyiri, Ireneous N.; Reidpath, Daniel D.; Sarran, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is a condition of significant public health concern associated with morbidity, mortality and healthcare utilisation. This study identifies key determinants of length of stay (LOS) associated with asthma-related hospital admissions in London, and further explores their effects on individuals. Subjects were primarily diagnosed and admitted for asthma in London between 1(st) January 2001 and 31(st) December 2006. All repeated admissions were treated uniquely as independent cases. Negative...

  6. Anaesthesia in aspirin-induced asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celiker, V; Basgül, E

    2003-01-01

    The triad of bronchial asthma, nasal polyposis, and intolerance to aspirin and aspirin-like chemicals are designated aspirin-induced asthma (AIA) or Samter's syndrome. The exact mechanism of the disease is unknown but it is thought to be a disorder of arachidonic acid metabolism. These patients are frequently referred to allergy clinics for preoperative evaluation for possible anesthetic agent sensitivity, requiring anesthesia for nasal polypectomy or several other reasons. Anesthetists must be aware of their pulmonary dysfunction, because the anesthetic management of asthma requires a specific approach. Marked cross-sensitivity with NSAIDs, which may also precipitate severe bronchospasm and adverse reactions, is the main problem faced by anesthetists in postoperative pain management. This article discusses the relationship between AIA and anesthesia. We also present our experience with 47 patients diagnosed with AIA between 1991 and 2003 in the department of chest diseases and adult allergy unit who underwent surgery requiring general anesthesia. In conclusion, preoperative evaluation of these patients and collaboration between the allergists and anesthesiologists is essential to prevent preoperative, perioperative and postoperative complications.

  7. A multidisciplinary prostate cancer clinic for newly diagnosed patients: developing the role of the advanced practice nurse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Lydia T; Craig, Catherine; Kuban, Deborah

    2009-06-01

    Newly diagnosed patients with prostate cancer have various treatment options, and a multidisciplinary prostate cancer clinic (MPCC) can present all options in a single setting. An MPCC was started in 2004 at the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, and 258 patients with prostate cancer were evaluated in its first year. The clinic expanded in 2006 and an oncology advanced practice nurse (APN) was recruited to address specific objectives. The APN role was used to implement a quality-of-life protocol, provide detailed patient education (including a treatment summary and care plan), and serve as a single point of contact as patients move toward a treatment decision. Formal evaluation of the MPCC showed that patients were satisfied with this approach to the complex decision-making process in prostate cancer.

  8. Systematic Review of Decision Aids for Newly Diagnosed Patients with Prostate Cancer Making Treatment Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adsul, Prajakta; Wray, Ricardo; Spradling, Kyle; Darwish, Oussama; Weaver, Nancy; Siddiqui, Sameer

    2015-11-01

    Despite established evidence for using patient decision aids, use with newly diagnosed patients with prostate cancer remains limited partly due to variability in aid characteristics. We systematically reviewed decision aids for newly diagnosed patients with prostate cancer. Published peer reviewed journal articles, unpublished literature on the Internet and the Ottawa decision aids web repository were searched to identify decision aids designed for patients with prostate cancer facing treatment decisions. A total of 14 aids were included in study. Supplementary materials on aid development and published studies evaluating the aids were also included. We studied aids designed to help patients make specific choices among options and outcomes relevant to health status that were specific to prostate cancer treatment and in English only. Aids were reviewed for IPDAS (International Patient Decision Aid Standards) and additional standards deemed relevant to prostate cancer treatment decisions. They were also reviewed for novel criteria on the potential for implementation. Acceptable interrater reliability was achieved at Krippendorff α = 0.82. Eight of the 14 decision aids (57.1%) were developed in the United States, 6 (42.8%) were print based, 5 (35.7%) were web or print based and only 4 (28.5%) had been updated since 2013. Ten aids (71.4%) were targeted to prostate cancer stage. All discussed radiation and surgery, 10 (71.4%) discussed active surveillance and/or watchful waiting and 8 (57.1%) discussed hormonal therapy. Of the aids 64.2% presented balanced perspectives on treatment benefits and risks, and/or outcome probabilities associated with each option. Ten aids (71.4%) presented value clarification prompts for patients and steps to make treatment decisions. No aid was tested with physicians and only 4 (28.6%) were tested with patients. Nine aids (64.2%) provided details on data appraisal and 4 (28.6%) commented on the quality of evidence used. Seven of the 8

  9. TRPA1 gene polymorphisms and childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Valentina; Dijk, F Nicole; Holloway, John W; Ring, Susan M; Koppelman, Gerard H; Postma, Dirkje S; Strachan, David P; Granell, Raquel; de Jongste, Johan C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; den Dekker, Herman T; Duijts, Liesbeth; Henderson, A John; Shaheen, Seif O

    2017-03-01

    Animal data have suggested that the transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1) ion channel plays a key role in promoting airway inflammation in asthma and may mediate effects of paracetamol on asthma, yet confirmatory human data are lacking. To study associations of TRPA1 gene variants with childhood asthma and total IgE concentration, and interactions between TRPA1 and prenatal paracetamol exposure on these outcomes. We analysed associations between 31 TRPA1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and current doctor-diagnosed asthma and total IgE concentration at 7.5 years in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort. We sought to confirm the most significant associations with comparable outcomes in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) and Generation R birth cohorts. In ALSPAC, we explored interactions with prenatal paracetamol exposure. In ALSPAC, there was strong evidence for association between six SNPs and asthma: rs959974 and rs1384001 (per-allele odds ratio for both: 1.30 (95% CI: 1.15-1.47), p = 0.00001), rs7010969 (OR 1.28 (1.13-1.46), p = 0.00004), rs3735945 (OR 1.30 (1.09-1.55), p = 0.003), rs920829 (OR 1.30 (1.09-1.54), p = 0.004) and rs4738202 (OR 1.22 (1.07-1.39), p = 0.004). In a meta-analysis across the three cohorts, the pooled effect estimates confirmed that all six SNPs were significantly associated with asthma. In ALSPAC, TRPA1 associations with asthma were not modified by prenatal paracetamol, although associations with IgE concentration were. This study suggests that TRPA1 may play a role in the development of childhood asthma. (249 words). © 2016 The Authors Pediatric Allergy and Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Psychosocial risk factors and asthma among adults in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yueh-Ying; Forno, Erick; Canino, Glorisa; Celedón, Juan C

    2018-05-08

    Asthma and psychosocial stressors are common among Puerto Rican adults living in the United States. We estimated the prevalence of current asthma, and examined potential psychosocial risk factors and current asthma, among adults in Puerto Rico. Cross-sectional study of 3,049 Puerto Ricans aged 18-64 years living in Puerto Rico between May 2014 and June 2016. A structured interview was conducted to obtain information on demographics, lifestyles, mental disorders, and respiratory health. Current asthma was defined as self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma and still having asthma. Two-sample t tests (for continuous variables) or chi-square tests (for categorical variables) were used in bivariate analyses. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine psychosocial risk factors and current asthma. The estimated prevalence of current asthma was 10.2%. In a multivariable analysis, exposure to violence (odds ratio [OR] for each 1-point increment in a validated scale = 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.07 to 1.21) and a lifetime history of at least one suicide attempt (OR = 3.01, 95% CI = 1.80 to 5.01) were significantly associated with current asthma, independently of major depressive disorder. Moreover, a lifetime history of at least one suicide attempt was associated with co-existing asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (i.e. asthma-COPD overlap syndrome or ACOS (OR = 9.05, 95% CI = 3.32-24.67). Our findings suggest that asthma is a major health problem among adults in Puerto Rico, with psychosocial risk factors playing a significant role on asthma and ACOS. Addressing chronic stressors and mental illness should be part of comprehensive strategies to reduce asthma burden in this population.

  11. Association of depression with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes among adults aged between 25 to 60 years in Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perveen Shazia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The combination of depression with type 2 diabetes is a public health problem. If diabetes is managed in its initial phase, the morbidity and mortality due to this combination may be prevented at an early stage. Therefore, we aimed to determine the association of depression with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes among adults aged between 25 to 60 years in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods From July 2006 to September 2007, a matched case control study (n = 592 was conducted in Civil Hospital, Karachi. Incident cases of type 2 diabetes (n = 296 diagnosed within one month were recruited from diabetic Out Patient Department (OPD of Civil Hospital, Karachi. They were matched on age and sex with controls (n = 296, who were attendants sitting in the medical out patient department of the same hospital, recruited on the basis of absence of classical symptoms of polyuria and polydispia along with random blood glucose level of Results The study comprised of 592 subjects with 432(73% males and 160(27% females. Depression was significantly associated with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes having mild level (mOR: 3.86; 95%CI: 2.22,6.71 and moderate to severe level (mOR: 3.41; 95%CI: 2.07,5.61. History of (h/o gestational diabetes (mOR: 2.83; 95%CI: 1.05,7.64, family h/o diabetes (mOR: 1.59; 95%CI: 1.04,2.43, nuclear family (mOR: 1.75; 95%CI: 1.14,2.69, BMI (mOR: 1.62; 95%CI: 1.01,2.60 for obese and mOR: 2.12; 95%CI: 1.19,3.79 for overweight vs healthy to underweight were also significantly associated with outcome, adjusting for age, sex, marital status, h/o smoking and h/o high BP. Conclusions Diabetics should be screened simultaneously for depression and concomitant preventive strategies for gestational diabetes, nuclear family and high BMI should also be used to prevent mortality/morbidity among patients between 25 to 60 years of age.

  12. [Try to achieve quickly the blood pressure target in newly diagnosed hypertensive patients is safe and effective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kichou, B; Henine, N; Kichou, L; Boubchir, M A; Ait Said, M A; Zatout, M; Hammouche, A; Mazeghrane, A; Madiou, A; Benbouabdellah, M

    2018-05-09

    To compare a so-called an "accelerated" antihypertensive strategy to a "standard" strategy, in terms of blood pressure control rates and adverse events. Prospective open-label randomized controlled trial, which included consecutive hypertensive patients, newly diagnosed, 40 to 70 years old, with no prior antihypertensive treatment. Hypertension was diagnosed if office blood pressure was≥140/90mmHg, confirmed by an increase of Home or a daytime ambulatory blood pressure. The patients were randomly assigned according to 1:1 ratio to an "accelerated" strategy or to a "standard" strategy. The primary end-point was the rate of blood pressure control at 12weeks. The secondary end-point was the rate of adverse events (a safety end-point). We recruited 268 patients (132 in the "accelerated" strategy group), with a mean age of 55 years and 62% of men. The mean office blood pressure at baseline was 168/95mmHg. The clinical characteristics were on average similar between the 2 treatment groups. At 12 weeks, the rates of blood pressure control were 63.6% in the "accelerated" strategy and 38.2% in the "standard" strategy (Pblood pressure control, without an increase in adverse events rate. This could translate into a future cardiovascular events reduction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of clinical effects of beclomethasone dipropionate & budesonide in treatment of children with mild persistent asthma: A double-blind, randomized, controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Various inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs are available to control the symptoms of asthma. Although beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP and budesonide (BUD are one of the oldest ICSs, their wide availability and low cost make them attractive options in developing countries. Due to lack of consensus on which of the two drugs is better for controlling mild persistent asthma, we undertook this study to compare the efficacy of these two drugs by measuring the change in percentage predicted forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1 from baseline in children with mild persistent asthma. Methods: A double-blind, randomized, parallel group study was conducted in children 7-15 yr of age with newly diagnosed asthma. Of the 85 cases of mild persistent asthma, 42 received BUD while 43 received BDP at a dose of 400 µg/day using pressurized metered-dose inhaler with valved spacer for two months. The outcomes measured were change in FEV 1 , symptom scores and side effects. Results: There was a significant (P < 0.05 improvement in FEV 1 in BUD group (98.43 ± 4.63% than in BDP group (95.65 ± 5.66% at the end of two months of treatment. The mean symptom scores in BUD group (0.28 ± 1.22 and BDP group (0.43 ± 1.52 were comparable after two months. No side effects were seen in either group. Interpretation & conclusions: FEV 1 was significantly greater in BUD group than BDP group. Improvement in symptoms and incidence of side effects were similar. Our findings indicate that both BDP and BUD can be used effectively in the management of children with mild persistent asthma. [CTRI No: CTRI/2013/03/003495].

  14. Association of serum vitamin D3 with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taznuva Anwar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D has an important role and supposed to be a risk factor in the development of pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus by affecting either insulin sensitivity or β-cell function, or both. The present study was conducted to evaluate the relation of serum vitamin D3  and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Total 80 individuals were enrolled in this study. Forty newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic individual were enrolled as cases and 40 healthy glucose tolerant subjects were enrolled as controls. Serum vitamin D3 was measured by chemiluminescence microparticle immunoassay. Fasting and 2 hours plasma glucose level were measured by hexokinase method using the Dimension clinical chemistry system. The mean serum vitamin D3 level was significantly low in type 2 diabetes mellitus than in controls (p= 0,007. The individual with vitamin D3 deficiency showed 3.4 times higher chances to develop type 2 diabetes mellitus compare to the individual with normal vitamin D status. Correlation test showed significant (r= -0.351 negative correlation (p=0.026  between serum vitamin D3 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. It can be concluded that vitamin D3 deficiency is related to type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  15. Lower prevalence and greater severity of asthma in hot and dry climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia Junior, Marco Aurélio de Valois; Sarinho, Emanuel Sávio Cavalcanti; Rizzo, José Angelo; Sarinho, Silvia Wanick

    To estimate asthma prevalence, severity, and associated factors in adolescents who live in a low relative humidity environment. In this cross-sectional study, adolescents aged 13-14 years from the city of Petrolina located in the Brazilian semiarid region answered the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. The possible explanatory variables of the study were gender, family income, mother's education, smokers in the household, parental history of asthma, personal history of allergic rhinitis or atopic dermatitis, and physical activity level. Poisson regression analysis was used to assess the association between asthma and the explanatory variables. A total of 1591 adolescents participated in the study, of whom 49.7% were male. The prevalence of active asthma, severe asthma, and physician-diagnosed asthma were 14.0%, 10.4%, and 17.8%, respectively. Adolescents with asthma missed more school days than their peers (33 vs. 22 days/year; pclimate might hamper disease control and this may have contributed to the higher school absenteeism observed. The association of asthma with allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis as well as a history of asthma in parents suggests that atopy is an important risk factor for asthma in this population. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Global and Regional Brain Non-Gaussian Diffusion Changes in Newly Diagnosed Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummala, Sudhakar; Palomares, Jose; Kang, Daniel W; Park, Bumhee; Woo, Mary A; Harper, Ronald M; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients show brain structural injury and functional deficits in autonomic, affective, and cognitive regulatory sites, as revealed by mean diffusivity (MD) and other imaging procedures. The time course and nature of gray and white matter injury can be revealed in more detail with mean kurtosis (MK) procedures, which can differentiate acute from chronic injury, and better show extent of damage over MD procedures. Our objective was to examine global and regional MK changes in newly diagnosed OSA, relative to control subjects. Two diffusion kurtosis image series were collected from 22 recently-diagnosed, treatment-naïve OSA and 26 control subjects using a 3.0-Tesla MRI scanner. MK maps were generated, normalized to a common space, smoothed, and compared voxel-by-voxel between groups using analysis of covariance (covariates; age, sex). No age or sex differences appeared, but body mass index, sleep, neuropsychologic, and cognitive scores significantly differed between groups. MK values were significantly increased globally in OSA over controls, and in multiple localized sites, including the basal forebrain, extending to the hypothalamus, hippocampus, thalamus, insular cortices, basal ganglia, limbic regions, cerebellar areas, parietal cortices, ventral temporal lobe, ventrolateral medulla, and midline pons. Multiple sites, including the insular cortices, ventrolateral medulla, and midline pons showed more injury over previously identified damage with MD procedures, with damage often lateralized. Global mean kurtosis values are significantly increased in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), suggesting acute tissue injury, and these changes are principally localized in critical sites mediating deficient functions in the condition. The mechanisms for injury likely include altered perfusion and hypoxemia-induced processes, leading to acute tissue changes in recently diagnosed OSA. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  17. Association between age, IL-10, IFN¿, stimulated C-peptide and disease progression in children with newly diagnosed Type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaas, A; Pfleger, Claudia Christina; Kharagjitsingh, A V

    2012-01-01

    Aims: The relation of disease progression and age, serum interleukin 10 (IL-10) and interferon gamma (IFN¿) and their genetic correlates were studied in paediatric patients with newly diagnosed Type 1 diabetes. Methods: Two hundred and twenty-seven patients from the Hvidoere Study Group were...... classified in four different progression groups as assessed by change in stimulated C-peptide from 1 to 6 months. CA repeat variants of the IL-10 and IFN¿ gene were genotyped and serum levels of IL-10 and IFN¿ were measured at 1, 6 and 12 months. Results: IL-10 decreased (P...

  18. Mortality risk in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis and its association to asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Jeremiah A; Thomas, Andrew J; Curtin, Karen; Wong, Jathine; Rudmik, Luke; Orlandi, Richard R

    2017-06-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a highly prevalent inflammatory condition, with significant effects on morbidity and quality of life. Given that other chronic inflammatory conditions have been associated with increased mortality risk, we sought to evaluate the relationship between mortality and CRS including the influence of asthma. Our objective was to determine if CRS, with or without asthma, is associated with altered risk of mortality. Using a statewide population database, we retrospectively identified 27,005 patients diagnosed with CRS between 1996 and 2012, and 134,440 unaffected controls matched 5:1 on birth year and sex. Risk of mortality was determined from Cox models and Kaplan-Meier curves were used to compare survival. A significant interaction between CRS and asthma status was observed in which CRS appeared to confer a protective effect in asthma patients. Asthma, when present, increased mortality in CRS-negative controls (p-interaction risk (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74 to 0.85) compared to controls. However, in patients diagnosed at or before the median age of CRS onset (42 years) independent of asthma status, survival was not improved (HR = 0.98; 95% CI, 0.81 to 1.18). Risk of mortality was greater in CRS with nasal polyps (n = 1643) compared to 25,362 polyp-negative CRS patients (HR = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.77). CRS was associated with lower risk of mortality compared to controls, and appeared to mitigate increased mortality from asthma. We posit that better survival conferred by CRS may be secondary to treatment. However, the etiology of this relationship and the effect of CRS treatment on mortality are unknown. © 2017 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  19. Asthma symptoms improvement in moderate persistent asthma patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD: the role of proton-pump inhibitor

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    Agus D. Susanto

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate effect of proton pump inhibitor (esomeprazole on asthma symptoms, use of inhaled bronchodilator and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR in moderate persistent asthma with gastroesofageal refluks disease (GERD. This randomized single blind, controlled clinical trial study was conducted at Persahabatan Hospital, Jakarta from July 2004 until October 2005. Samples were moderate persistent asthma patients with GERD. GERD is diagnosed GERD symptoms and proof of oesophagitis from endoscopy and or histapatologic examination from oesophagus biopsy. Phase 1:2 week run-in period patient received inhaled budesonide 2x200 ug/day. Phase 2: patient randomised to receive inhaled budesonide 2 x 400 ug/day with esomeprazole 40 mg/day or without esomeprazole (control group for 8 weeks. Phase 3: 4 week wash out period, patient receive inhaled budesonide 2 x 200 ug/day. Diary cards were assessed at run-in periode, after treatment 4 weeks, 8 weeks and wash out. There were 32 patients (23 female and 9 male completed the study. Mean total asthma symptoms score daily were significantly decreased on esomeprazole vs without esomeprazole after 8 weeks (-2.29 vs -0.90; p < 0.05. Mean use of inhaled bronchodilator was significantly decreased on esomeprazole vs without esomeprazole after 8 weeks (-1.09 vs -0.42; p < 0.05. Morning and evening PEFR improved higher on esomeprazole than without esomeprazol but were not significantly difference. In conclusion, administration esomeprazole 40 mg daily improved asthma symptoms and lower the use of inhaled bronchodilator in moderate persistent asthma patients with GERD. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 169-74Keywords: Asthma symptoms, inhaled bronchodilator, moderate persistent asthma, GERD, esomeprazole

  20. Phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity in a genome-wide linkage study of asthma families

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    Schuster Antje

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is a complex genetic disease with more than 20 genome-wide scans conducted so far. Regions on almost every chromosome have been linked to asthma and several genes have been associated. However, most of these associations are weak and are still awaiting replication. Methods In this study, we conducted a second-stage genome-wide scan with 408 microsatellite markers on 201 asthma-affected sib pair families and defined clinical subgroups to identify phenotype-genotype relations. Results The lowest P value for asthma in the total sample was 0.003 on chromosome 11, while several of the clinical subsets reached lower significance levels than in the overall sample. Suggestive evidence for linkage (p = 0.0007 was found for total IgE on chromosomes 1, 7 and again on chromosome 11, as well as for HDM asthma on chromosome 12. Weaker linkage signals could be found on chromosomes 4 and 5 for early onset and HDM, and, newly described, on chromosome 2 for severe asthma and on chromosome 9 for hay fever. Conclusions This phenotypic dissection underlines the importance of detailed clinical characterisations and the extreme genetic heterogeneity of asthma.

  1. Enrolment in an Asthma Management Program during Pregnancy and Adherence with Inhaled Corticosteroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baarnes, Camilla Boslev; Hansen, A V; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Poor adherence with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) is a major problem in asthma and according to previous studies not least during pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to assess if enrolment in an asthma management program, and by that close monitoring, can improve self-reported and docum......BACKGROUND: Poor adherence with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) is a major problem in asthma and according to previous studies not least during pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to assess if enrolment in an asthma management program, and by that close monitoring, can improve self......-reported and documented adherence with ICS in pregnant women with asthma. METHODS: Pregnant women with doctor-diagnosed asthma, currently being prescribed ICS, referred during a 12-month period to the outpatient respiratory clinic, were consecutively included in the study. They had follow-up visits every 4 weeks during...

  2. Dysfunctional breathing phenotype in adults with asthma - incidence and risk factors

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    Agache Ioana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abnormal breathing patterns may cause characteristic symptoms and impair quality of life. In a cross-sectional survey 29% of adults treated for asthma in primary care had symptoms suggestive of dysfunctional breathing (DB, more likely to be female and younger, with no differences for severity of asthma. No clear risk factors were demonstrated for DB in asthma, nor the impact of asthma medication was evaluated. The objective of this study was to describe the DB phenotype in adults with asthma treated in a specialised asthma centre. Methods Adult patients aged 17–65 with diagnosed asthma were screened for DB using the Nijmegen questionnaire (positive predictive score >23 and confirmed by progressive exercise testing. The following were evaluated as independent risk factors for DB in the multiple regression analysis: female sex; atopy, obesity, active smoker, moderate/severe rhinitis, psychopathology, GERD, arterial hypertension; severe asthma, asthma duration > 5 years, lack of asthma control, fixed airway obstruction, fast lung function decline, frequent exacerbator and brittle asthma phenotypes; lack of ICS, use of LABA or LTRA. Results 91 adults with asthma, mean age 35.04 ±1.19 years, 47(51.65% females were evaluated. 27 (29.67% subjects had a positive screening score on Nijmegen questionnaire and 16(17.58% were confirmed by progressive exercise testing as having DB. Independent risk factors for DB were psychopathology (p = 0.000002, frequent exacerbator asthma phenotype (p = 0.01 and uncontrolled asthma (p Conclusion Dysfunctional breathing is not infrequent in asthma patients and should be evaluated in asthma patients presenting with psychopathology, frequent severe asthma exacerbations or uncontrolled asthma. Asthma medication (ICS, LABA or LTRA had no significant relation with dysfunctional breathing.

  3. Uncoupling of collagen II metabolism in newly diagnosed, untreated rheumatoid arthritis is linked to inflammation and antibodies against cyclic citrullinated peptides

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    Christensen, Anne Friesgaard; Hørslev-Petersen, Kim; Christgau, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    . METHODS: One hundred sixty patients with newly diagnosed, untreated RA entered the Cyclosporine, Methotrexate, Steroid in RA (CIMESTRA) trial. Disease activity and radiograph status were measured at baseline and 4 years. The N-terminal propeptide of collagen IIA (PIIANP) and the cross-linked C...... associations of collagen II anabolism (PIIANP) and collagen II degradation (CTX-II) with anti-CCP, synovitis, and radiographic progression indicate that at this early stage of RA, cartilage collagen degradation is mainly driven by synovitis, while anti-CCP antibodies may interfere with cartilage regeneration...

  4. Korean Red Ginseng Improves Glucose Control in Subjects with Impaired Fasting Glucose, Impaired Glucose Tolerance, or Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Bang, Hyangju; Kwak, Jung Hyun; Ahn, Hyeon Yeong; Shin, Dong Yeob; Lee, Jong Ho

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of Korean red ginseng (KRG) supplementation on glucose control in subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), or newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The study was a 12-week randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled (5 g of KRG [n=21] or placebo [n=20] in tablet form) trial. Glucose-related biomarkers, including serum and whole blood levels of glucose, insulin, and C-peptide, were measured by 2...

  5. Higher body mass index may induce asthma among adolescents with pre-asthmatic symptoms: a prospective cohort study

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    Myers Leann

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited studies have prospectively examined the role of body mass index (BMI as a major risk factor for asthma during adolescence. This study investigates whether BMI is associated with increased risk of developing physician-diagnosed asthma during 12-month follow-up among adolescents with undiagnosed asthma-like symptoms at baseline. Methods A total of 4,052 adolescents with undiagnosed asthma-like symptoms at baseline were re-examined after a 12-month follow-up. Asthma cases were considered confirmed only after diagnosis by a physician based on the New England core and International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC criteria video questionnaires, and accompanying pulmonary function tests. Logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the relationship of BMI and the risk of acquiring asthma. Results The results indicated that girls with higher BMI were at an increased risk of developing asthma during the 12-month follow-up. The odds ratios for girls developing physician-diagnosed asthma were 1.75 (95% CI = 1.18-2.61 and 1.12 (95% CI = 0.76-1.67, respectively, for overweight and obesity as compared to the normal weight reference group after adjustment for other covariates. A similar relationship was not observed for overweight and obese boys who were also significantly more active than their female counterparts. Conclusions Increased BMI exaggerates the risk of acquiring asthma in symptomatic adolescent females but not in adolescent males. Thus, gender is an important modifier of BMI-related asthma risk. Additional research will be required to determine whether the increased asthma risk results from genetic, physiological or behavioural differences.

  6. Asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or both? Diagnostic labeling and spirometry in primary care patients aged 40 years or more

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melbye, Hasse; Drivenes, Elin; Dalbak, Lene G; Leinan, Tone; Høegh-Henrichsen, Svein; Østrem, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Aims To describe symptoms and lung function in patients registered with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in primary care and to examine how spirometry findings fit with general practitioners’ (GPs) diagnoses. Methods Patients aged ≥40 years with a diagnosis of asthma or COPD registered in the electronic medical record during the previous 5 years were recruited at seven GP offices in Norway in 2009–2010. Registered diagnosis, spirometry results, comorbidity, and reported symptoms were compared. Results Among 376 patients, 62% were women. Based on Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Diseases criteria, a spirometry diagnosis of COPD could be made in 68.1% of the patients with a previous COPD diagnosis and in 17.1% of those diagnosed with asthma only (P spirometry was 0.50. A restrictive spirometry pattern was found in 19.4% and more frequently in patients diagnosed with both asthma and COPD (23.9%) than in patients diagnosed with COPD only (6.8%, P = 0.003). Conclusion The ability of GPs to differentiate between asthma and COPD seems to have considerably improved during the last decade, probably due to the dissemination of spirometry and guidelines for COPD diagnosis. A diagnosis of COPD that cannot be confirmed by spirometry represents a challenge in clinical practice, in particular when a restrictive pattern on spirometry is found. PMID:22135492

  7. Newly diagnosed rheumatic heart disease among indigenous populations in the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabel, Mariana; Tafflet, Muriel; Noël, Baptiste; Parks, Tom; Axler, Olivier; Robert, Jacques; Nadra, Marie; Phelippeau, Gwendolyne; Descloux, Elodie; Cazorla, Cécile; Missotte, Isabelle; Gervolino, Shirley; Barguil, Yann; Rouchon, Bernard; Laumond, Sylvie; Jubeau, Thierry; Braunstein, Corinne; Empana, Jean-Philippe; Marijon, Eloi; Jouven, Xavier

    2015-12-01

    Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) remains the leading acquired heart disease in the young worldwide. We aimed at assessing outcomes and influencing factors in the contemporary era. Hospital-based cohort in a high-income island nation where RHD remains endemic and the population is captive. All patients admitted with newly diagnosed RHD according to World Heart Federation echocardiographic criteria were enrolled (2005-2013). The incidence of major cardiovascular events (MACEs) including heart failure, peripheral embolism, stroke, heart valve intervention and cardiovascular death was calculated, and their determinants identified. Of the 396 patients, 43.9% were male with median age 18 years (IQR 10-40)). 127 (32.1%) patients presented with mild, 131 (33.1%) with moderate and 138 (34.8%) with severe heart valve disease. 205 (51.8%) had features of acute rheumatic fever. 106 (26.8%) presented with at least one MACE. Among the remaining 290 patients, after a median follow-up period of 4.08 (95% CI 1.84 to 6.84) years, 7 patients (2.4%) died and 62 (21.4%) had a first MACE. The annual incidence of first MACE and of heart failure were 59.05‰ (95% CI 44.35 to 73.75) and 29.06‰ (95% CI 19.29 to 38.82), respectively. The severity of RHD at diagnosis (moderate vs mild HR 3.39 (0.95 to 12.12); severe vs mild RHD HR 10.81 (3.11 to 37.62), pdisease and no secondary prophylaxis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Age-Dependent Fecal Bacterial Correlation to Inflammatory Bowel Disease for Newly Diagnosed Untreated Children

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    Felix Chinweije Nwosu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge about correlation patterns between the fecal microbiota and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD—comprising the two subforms Crohn's disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC—for newly diagnosed untreated children is limited. To address this knowledge gap, a selection of faecal specimens (CD, n=27 and UC, n=16 and non-IBD controls (n=30 children (age < 18 years was analysed utilising bacterial small subunit (SSU rRNA. We found, surprising age dependence for the fecal microbiota correlating to IBD. The most pronounced patterns were that E. coli was positively (R2=0.16, P=0.05 and Bacteroidetes, negatively (R2=0.15, P=0.05 correlated to age for CD patients. For UC, we found an apparent opposite age-related disease correlation for both Bacteroides and Escherichia. In addition, there was an overrepresentation of Haemophilus for the UC children. From our, results we propose a model where the aetiology of IBD is related to an on-going immunological development in children requiring different age-dependent bacterial stimuli. The impact of our findings could be a better age stratification for understanding and treating IBD in children.

  9. “The Logic of Care” – Parents’ perceptions of the educational process when a child is newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes

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    Jönsson Lisbeth

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of new cases of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM has increased substantially in recent years and it is now one of the most common long-term endocrine disorders in childhood. In Sweden the child and family are hospitalised in accordance with the national guidelines for one to two weeks at diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to describe parents’ perceptions of the educational process when their child is newly diagnosed with T1DM. Methods Qualitative interviews were performed in the south western part of Sweden with ten mothers and eight fathers of children, diagnosed with T1DM, at three to six months after they had received the diagnosis. The interviews were analysed using deductive content analysis and Mol’s philosophical theory. Results The results show that almost all parents had experienced the educational process as being satisfactory. However, most parents felt that the teaching needed to be adapted to the individual families and to help them to learn to live with diabetes in their everyday lives. Rather than merely teaching according to a fixed schedule and cramming knowledge, the education should be parent-centered and provide time for grief and shock. There should also be a greater emphasis on why certain things should be done rather than on what should be done. The routines learned at the hospital made the efforts to be good parents managing the child’s disease, and continuing to lead a normal family life, a difficult task. Conclusions In order to optimize the educational process for families with children newly diagnosed with T1DM an increased focus on the families’ perceptions might be helpful in that this could lead to further revelations of the educational process thus making it more understandable for the family members involved.

  10. Sleep-disordered breathing in children with asthma: a systematic review on the impact of treatment

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    Sánchez T

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Trinidad Sánchez,1 José A Castro-Rodríguez,2 Pablo E Brockmann2,3 1Division of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, 2Department of Pediatric Cardiology and Pulmonology, Division of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, 3Sleep Medicine Center, Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile Background: The objective was to perform a systematic review in order to describe the relationship between asthma and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB in children, especially regarding the impact of treatment and management. Methods: We performed an electronic search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and LILACS database. Study inclusion criteria were the following: 1 studies that examined the relationship between asthma/wheezing and SDB/obstructive sleep apnea (OSA; and 2 studies conducted in children <18 years of age. Primary outcomes were the prevalence of asthma and SDB, the tests used for diagnosis, and the influence of their treatment and management. Results: One thousand and twenty studies were identified, among which 32 were selected (n=143,343 children; 51% males; age [mean ± standard deviation] 8.4±2.5 years. Most studies (n=26 diagnosed SDB using questionnaires or clinical history. Nine studies performed a sleep study for diagnosing OSA. The diagnosis of asthma was based on clinical history (n=16, previous medical diagnosis (n=4, questionnaires (n=12, and spirometry (n=5. Children with asthma were more likely to develop habitual snoring and OSA, and children with SDB were more likely to develop asthma. Moreover, asthma was associated with more severe OSA, and the presence of SDB was associated with severe asthma. Treatment of SDB with adenotonsillectomy was associated with significant asthma improvement. Conclusion: The relationship between asthma and SDB appears to be bidirectional, and adenotonsillectomy appears to improve asthma control. Future trials on how asthma treatment could impact on SDB are needed

  11. Induction regimens for transplant-eligible patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: a network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

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    Zeng ZH

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Zi-Hang Zeng,1,2 Jia-Feng Chen,1,2 Yi-Xuan Li,1,2 Ran Zhang,1,2 Ling-Fei Xiao,1,2 Xiang-Yu Meng1,2 1Center for Evidence-Based and Translational Medicine, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, 2Department of Evidence-Based Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, Second Clinical College of Wuhan University, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the early efficacy and survivals of induction regimens for transplant-eligible patients with untreated multiple myeloma. Materials and methods: A comprehensive literature search in electronic databases was conducted for relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs. Eligible studies were selected according to the predefined selection criteria, before they were evaluated for methodological quality. Basic characteristics and data for network meta-analysis (NMA were extracted from included trials and pooled in our meta-analysis. The end points were the overall response rate (ORR, progression-free survival (PFS, and overall survival (OS. Results: A total of 14 RCTs that included 4,763 patients were analyzed. The post-induction ORR was higher with bortezomib plus thalidomide plus dexamethasone (VTD regimens, and VTD was better than the majority of other regimens. For OS, VTD plus cyclophosphamide (VTDC regimens showed potential superiority over other regimens, but the difference was not statistically significant. The PFS was longer with thalidomide plus doxorubicin plus dexamethasone (TAD regimens for transplant-eligible patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM. Conclusion: The NMA demonstrated that the VTD, VTDC, and TAD regimens are most beneficial in terms of ORR, OS, and PFS for transplant-eligible patients with NDMM, respectively. Keywords: multiple myeloma, newly diagnosed, transplant-eligible, induction therapies, network meta-analysis

  12. Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is associated with asthma

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    Halmøy Anne

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is increasingly recognized as a common disorder not only in children, but also in the adult population. Similarly, asthma also has a substantial prevalence among adults. Previous studies concerning a potential relationship between ADHD and asthma have not presented consistent results. Methods A cross-sectional study of 594 adult patients diagnosed with ADHD, compared with 719 persons from the general population. Information was collected between 1997 and 2005 using auto-questionnaires rating past and present symptoms of ADHD, co-morbid conditions, including asthma, and work status. Results The prevalence of asthma was significantly higher in the ADHD patient group compared to the controls, 24.4% vs. 11.3% respectively (OR = 2.54, 95% CI 1.89-3.44, and controls with asthma scored higher on ratings of both past and present symptoms of ADHD. Female ADHD patients had a significantly higher prevalence of asthma compared to male ADHD patients (30.9% vs. 18.2%, OR = 2.01, CI 1.36-2.95, but in controls a slight female preponderance was not statistically significant. In both ADHD patients and controls, having asthma was associated with an increased prevalence of symptoms of mood- and anxiety disorders. Conclusions The present findings point to a co-morbidity of ADHD and asthma, and these patients may represent a clinical and biological subgroup of adult patients with ADHD.

  13. Uncommon EGFR mutations in cytological specimens of 1,874 newly diagnosed Indonesian lung cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahruddin, Elisna; Wulandari, Laksmi; Sri Muktiati, Nunuk; Rima, Ana; Soeroso, Noni; Ermayanti, Sabrina; Levi, Michael; Hidajat, Heriawaty; Widjajahakim, Grace; Utomo, Ahmad Rusdan Handoyo

    2018-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to evaluate the distribution of individual epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation subtypes found in routine cytological specimens. Patients and methods A retrospective audit was performed on EGFR testing results of 1,874 consecutive cytological samples of newly diagnosed or treatment-naïve Indonesian lung cancer patients (years 2015–2016). Testing was performed by ISO15189 accredited central laboratory. Results Overall test failure rate was 5.1%, with the highest failure (7.1%) observed in pleural effusion and lowest (1.6%) in needle aspiration samples. EGFR mutation frequency was 44.4%. Tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI)-sensitive common EGFR mutations (ins/dels exon 19, L858R) and uncommon mutations (G719X, T790M, L861Q) contributed 57.1% and 29%, respectively. Approximately 13.9% of mutation-positive patients carried a mixture of common and uncommon mutations. Women had higher EGFR mutation rate (52.9%) vs men (39.1%; pcytological techniques yielded similar success rate to detect EGFR mutations. Uncommon EGFR mutations were frequent events in Indonesian lung cancer patients. PMID:29615847

  14. Avoidant Coping Mediates the Relationship Between Self-Efficacy for HIV Disclosure and Depression Symptoms Among Men Who Have Sex with Men Newly Diagnosed with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherenack, Emily M; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Watt, Melissa H; Hansen, Nathan B; Wilson, Patrick A

    2018-01-25

    HIV diagnosis presents a critical opportunity to reduce secondary transmission, improve engagement in care, and enhance overall well-being. To develop relevant interventions, research is needed on the psychosocial experiences of newly diagnosed individuals. This study examined avoidant coping, self-efficacy for HIV disclosure decisions, and depression among 92 newly diagnosed men who have sex with men who reported recent sexual risk behavior. It was hypothesized that avoidant coping would mediate the relationship between self-efficacy and depression. Cross-sectional surveys were collected from participants 3 months after HIV diagnosis. To test for mediation, multiple linear regressions were conducted while controlling for HIV disclosure to sexual partners. Self-efficacy for HIV disclosure decisions showed a negative linear relationship to depression symptoms, and 99% of this relationship was mediated by avoidant coping. The index of mediation of self-efficacy on depression indicated a small-to-medium effect. Higher self-efficacy was related to less avoidant coping, and less avoidant coping was related to decreased depression symptoms, all else held constant. These findings highlight the role of avoidant coping in explaining the relationship between self-efficacy for HIV disclosure decisions and depression.

  15. Risk Factors for Asthma Exacerbation and Treatment Failure in Adults and Adolescents with Well-Controlled Asthma during Continuation and Step Down Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMango, Emily; Rogers, Linda; Reibman, Joan; Gerald, Lynn B; Brown, Mark; Sugar, Elizabeth A; Henderson, Robert; Holbrook, Janet T

    2018-06-04

    Although national and international guidelines recommend reduction of asthma controller therapy or 'step-down" therapy in patients with well controlled asthma, it is expected that some individuals may experience worsening of asthma symptoms or asthma exacerbations during step-down. Characteristics associated with subsequent exacerbations during step-down therapy have not been well defined. The effect of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure on risk of treatment failure during asthma step down therapy has not been reported. To identify baseline characteristics associated with treatment failure and asthma exacerbation during maintenance and guideline-based step-down therapy. The present analysis uses data collected from a completed randomized controlled trial of optimal step-down therapy in patients with well controlled asthma taking moderate dose combination inhaled corticosteroids/long acting beta agonists. Participants were 12 years or older with physician diagnosed asthma and were enrolled between December 2011 and May 2014. An Emergency Room visit in the previous year was predictive of a subsequent treatment failure (HR 1.53 (1.06, 2.21 CI). For every 10% increase in baseline forced expiratory volume in one second percent predicted, the hazard for treatment failure was reduced by 14% (95% CI: 0.74-0.99). There was no difference in risk of treatment failure between adults and children, nor did duration of asthma increase risk of treatment failure. Age of asthma onset was not associated with increased risk of treatment failure. Unexpected emergency room visit in the previous year was the only risk factor significantly associated with subsequent asthma exacerbations requiring systemic corticosteroids. Time to treatment failure or exacerbation did not differ in participants with and without self-report of ETS exposure. The present findings can help clinicians identify patients more likely to develop treatment failures and exacerbations and who may therefore

  16. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in newly diagnosed patients with head and neck cancer and their partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posluszny, Donna M; Dougall, Angela Liegey; Johnson, Jonas T; Argiris, Athanassios; Ferris, Robert L; Baum, Andrew; Bovbjerg, Dana H; Dew, Mary Amanda

    2015-09-01

    Head and neck cancer is a life-threatening illness requiring aversive treatments. Despite clear potential for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in both patients and their partners, research is scant. Newly diagnosed patients and partners (number of dyads = 42) completed questionnaires to assess symptoms of PTSD, anxiety, and depression, as well as demographic, medical, and attitudinal variables. Partners had higher average levels of PTSD symptoms than patients (p = .023). More partners (28.6%) met criteria for estimated PTSD caseness than did patients (11.9%). There were no significant differences in levels of other anxiety or depression symptoms. Perceived threat of disease appeared to be a stronger correlate of PTSD symptom levels than medical variables in patients and partners. A diagnosis of head and neck cancer elicits significant levels of PTSD symptoms in patients, and even higher levels among partners. Identified correlates of distress, including perceived threat of disease, are potential intervention targets. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Use of a cancer registry is preferable to a direct-to-community approach for recruitment to a cohort study of wellbeing in women newly diagnosed with invasive breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrugia Helen

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer (BC mortality is declining such that the number of survivors of BC in the community is increasing. BC survivors report a range of sequelae from their cancer and its management beyond the period of their immediate treatment. Previous studies to document these have generally been small, clinic-based or commenced years after diagnosis. We have recruited a large cohort of women newly diagnosed with invasive BC from the community who will be followed for five years in order to systematically document the physical, psychological and socio-economic consequences of BC and its treatment. The aim of this manuscript is to describe the issues encountered in the recruitment of this community-based study population. Methods Women residing in the southern Australian state of Victoria newly diagnosed with invasive BC were recruited to this cohort study using two approaches: directly from the community using an advertising campaign and contemporaneously using an invitation to participate from the Victorian Cancer Registry (VCR. Results Over the two and half year recruitment period, 2135 women were recruited and agreed to receive the enrollment questionnaire (EQ. Of these, 1684 women were eligible and completed an EQ, with the majority of participants having been recruited through the VCR (n = 1321. Only 16% of women contacted by the VCR actively refused participation following a letter of invitation and phone follow-up. The age distribution and tumour characteristics of participants are consistent with state-wide data and their residential postcodes include 400 of a possible 699. Recruitment through a direct community awareness program aimed at women with newly diagnosed invasive BC was difficult, labour-intensive and expensive. Barriers to the recruitment process were identified. Conclusion Most of the women in this study were recruited through a state-based cancer registry. Limitations to recruitment occurred because we

  18. A prospective multicenter study of venous thromboembolism in patients with newly-diagnosed high-grade glioma: hazard rate and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streiff, Michael B; Ye, Xiaobu; Kickler, Thomas S; Desideri, Serena; Jani, Jayesh; Fisher, Joy; Grossman, Stuart A

    2015-09-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common complication in patients with high-grade gliomas. The purpose of this prospective multicenter study was to determine the hazard rate of first symptomatic VTE in newly-diagnosed glioma patients and identify clinical and laboratory risk factors. On enrollment, demographic and clinical information were recorded and a comprehensive coagulation evaluation was performed. Patients were followed until death. The study end point was objectively-documented symptomatic VTE. One hundred seven patients were enrolled with a median age of 57 years (range 29-85) between June 2005 and April 2008. Ninety-one (85 %) had glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). During an average survival of 17.7 months, 26 patients (24 %) (95 % CI 17-34 %) developed VTE (hazard rate 0.15 per person-year) and 94 patients (88 %) died. Median time to VTE was 14.2 weeks post-operation (range 3-126). Patients with an initial tumor biopsy were 3.0 fold more likely to suffer VTE (p = 0.02). Patients with an elevated factor VIII activity (>147 %) were 2.1-fold more likely to develop VTE. ABO blood group, D dimer and thrombin generation were not associated with VTE. No fatal VTE occurred. VTE is a common complication in patients with newly-diagnosed high grade gliomas, particularly in the first six months after diagnosis. Patients with an initial tumor biopsy and elevated factor VIII levels are at increased risk. However, VTE was not judged to be primarily responsible for any patient deaths. Therefore, outpatient primary VTE prophylaxis remains investigational until more effective primary prophylaxis strategies and therapies for glioma are identified.

  19. Asthma Control and Its Relationship with Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Teodorescu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objectives. Asthma in older individuals is poorly understood. We aimed to characterize the older asthma phenotype and test its association with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. Design. Cross-sectional. Setting. Pulmonary and Asthma/Allergy clinics. Participants. 659 asthma subjects aged 18–59 years (younger and 154 aged 60–75 (older. Measurements. Sleep Apnea scale of Sleep Disorders Questionnaire (SA-SDQ, asthma severity step (1–4, severe if step 3 or 4, established OSA diagnosis, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP use, and comorbidities. Results. Older versus younger had worse control, as assessed by asthma step, lung function, and inhaled corticosteroid use. Among older subjects, after controlling for known asthma aggravators, OSA diagnosis was the only factor robustly associated with severe asthma: on average, OSA was associated with nearly 7 times greater likelihood of severe asthma in an older individual (OR=6.67. This relationship was of greater magnitude than in younger subjects (OR=2.16. CPAP use attenuated the likelihood of severe asthma in older subjects by 91% (P=0.005, much more than in the younger asthmatics. Conclusion. Diagnosed OSA increases the risk for worse asthma control in older patients, while CPAP therapy may have greater impact on asthma outcomes. Unrecognized OSA may be a reason for poor asthma control, particularly among older patients.

  20. Health outcomes in low-income children with current asthma in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, T; Dell, S; Tassoudji, M; Wang, C

    2009-01-01

    Data collected from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY) in 1994/95 and 1996/97 were used to measure longitudinal health outcomes among children with asthma. Over 10 000 children aged 1 to 11 years with complete data on asthma status in both years were included. Outcomes included hospitalizations and health services use (HSU). Current asthma was defined as children diagnosed with asthma by a physician and who took prescribed inhalants regularly, had wheezing or an attack in the previous year, or had their activities limited by asthma. Children having asthma significantly increased their odds of hospitalization (OR = 2.52; 95% CI: 1.71, 3.70) and health services use (OR = 3.80; 95% CI: 2.69, 5.37). Low-income adequacy (LIA) in 1994/ 95 significantly predicts hospitalization and HSU in 1996/97 (OR = 2.68; 95% CI: 1.29, 5.59 and OR = 0.67; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.99, respectively). Our results confirmed that both having current asthma and living in low-income families had a significant impact on the health status of children in Canada. Programs seeking to decrease the economic burden of pediatric hospitalizations need to focus on asthma and low-income populations.

  1. Childhood asthma and indoor allergens in Native Americans in New York

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarbell Alice

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to assess the correlation between childhood asthma and potential risk factors, especially exposure to indoor allergens, in a Native American population. Methods A case-control study of St. Regis Mohawk tribe children ages 2–14 years, 25 diagnosed with asthma and 25 controls was conducted. Exposure was assessed based on a personal interview and measurement of mite and cat allergens (Der p 1, Fel d 1 in indoor dust. Results A non-significant increased risk of childhood asthma was associated with self-reported family history of asthma, childhood environmental tobacco smoke exposure, and air pollution. There was a significant protective effect of breastfeeding against current asthma in children less than 14 years (5.2 fold lower risk. About 80% of dust mite and 15% of cat allergen samples were above the threshold values for sensitization of 2 and 1 μg/g, respectively. The association between current asthma and exposure to dust mite and cat allergens was positive but not statistically significant. Conclusion This research identified several potential indoor and outdoor risk factors for asthma in Mohawks homes, of which avoidance may reduce or delay the development of asthma in susceptible individuals.

  2. Dry Eye Disease in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiskaoglu, Nesime Setge; Yazıcı, Alper; Karlıdere, Tunay; Sari, Esin; Oguz, Elif Yilmaz; Musaoglu, Musa; Aslan, Seyda; Samet Ermiş, Sıtkı

    2017-05-01

    Psychiatric conditions and not just the treatments themselves might be involved in the pathophysiology of dry eye disease (DED). The aim of our study was to evaluate the association between depression and DED using objective and subjective tests in patients with newly diagnosed depressive disorder who were not using any medication which may help us to determine the sole effect of depression on dry eye. Thirty-six patients from the psychiatry clinic with a new diagnosis of depressive disorder and 32 controls were included in the study. All met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV criteria for depression. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to measure depression severity and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Stai1, Stai2) for concomitant anxiety symptoms. The Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) and Visual Functioning Questionnaires (VFQ25) were completed and used to confirm diagnosis of DED in conjunction with the tear break up time (TBUT), ocular surface vital dye staining, and Schirmer's test. The comparison of depressive and control groups revealed significantly lower Schirmer (20.3 ± 9.9 vs. 25.7 ± 9.3 mm) and TBUT (7.8 ± 5.7 vs. 12.5 ± 7.8 s) scores with a consistently higher Oxford score (1.8 ± 3.2 vs. 0.2 ± 0.4) in the depressive group. Although the parameters were affected in the depressive group, this did not influence OSDI (86.1 ± 13.6 vs. 86.6 ± 13.3) and VFQ25 (30.8 ± 21.6 vs. 38.5 ± 29.1) scores. In both groups, the three psychological test scores (Stai1-2 and BDI) were correlated to each other but none of these tests were correlated to OSDI, VRQL, Schirmer, TBUT, and Oxford staining scores. Our study shows a definite association between depression and DED. We feel that it is important that psychiatrists take this into account especially while prescribing antidepressants which may aggravate dry eye signs.

  3. Combination therapy with carfilzomib, lenalidomide and dexamethasone (KRd) results in an unprecedented purity of the stem cell graft in newly diagnosed patients with myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tageja, Nishant; Korde, Neha; Kazandjian, Dickran; Panch, Sandhya; Manasanch, Elisabet; Bhutani, Manisha; Kwok, Mary; Mailankody, Sham; Yuan, Constance; Stetler-Stevenson, Maryalice; Leitman, Susan F; Sportes, Claude; Landgren, Ola

    2018-05-04

    Still, many physicians give 4 cycles of combination therapy to multiple myeloma patients prior to collection of stem cells for autologous bone marrow transplant. This tradition originates from older doxorubicin-containing regiments which limited the number of cycles due to cumulative cardiotoxicity. Using older regiments, most patients had residual myeloma cells in their autologous stem-cell grafts during collection. Emerging data show that newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients treated with modern carfilzomib/lenalidomide/dexamethasone (KRd) therapy, on average, take 6 cycles until reaching minimal residual disease (MRD) negativity. We assessed newly diagnosed patients treated with KRd focusing MRD status both in the individual patient's bone marrow, and the corresponding autologous hematopoietic progenitor cell grafts during collection. Per protocol, stem-cell collection was allowed after 4 to 8 cycles of KRd. We found similar stem-cell yield independent of the number of cycles of KRd. At stem-cell collection, 11/30 patients (36.6%) were MRD negative in their bone marrow; all 11 patients had MRD negative hematopoietic progenitor cell grafts. Furthermore, 18/19 patients who were MRD positive in their bone marrows also had MRD negative hematopoietic progenitor cell grafts. These observations support 6 cycles of KRd as an efficacious and safe induction strategy prior to stem-cell collection.

  4. Smoking patterns among adolescents with asthma attending upper secondary schools: a community-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Precht, Dorthe Hansen; Keiding, Lis; Madsen, Mette

    2003-01-01

    adjusted for age, gender, parents' job and smoking, family type, body mass index, and exercise habits. RESULTS: In total, 37.7% smoked currently and 16.5% smoked daily; more girls than boys smoked. More pupils with asthma than without smoked daily (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.15; 95% confidence interval......OBJECTIVE: Smoking among people who have asthma may be a serious health problem. We studied the prevalence of smoking and the relations between smoking and asthma, symptoms, medicine, and gender differences among adolescents with asthma. METHODS: A national cross-sectional study on health...... and lifestyles was performed in 1996-1997 using a computerized questionnaire in upper secondary schools in Denmark. We included 1887 pupils with asthma (defined as self-reported asthma diagnosed by a physician) and 20 688 controls. Smoking was categorized as daily, occasional, ex-smokers, and never smoked. We...

  5. The epidemiology, healthcare and societal burden and costs of asthma in the UK and its member nations: analyses of standalone and linked national databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Mome; Stoddart, Andrew; Gupta, Ramyani P; Nwaru, Bright I; Farr, Angela; Heaven, Martin; Fitzsimmons, Deborah; Bandyopadhyay, Amrita; Aftab, Chantelle; Simpson, Colin R; Lyons, Ronan A; Fischbacher, Colin; Dibben, Christopher; Shields, Michael D; Phillips, Ceri J; Strachan, David P; Davies, Gwyneth A; McKinstry, Brian; Sheikh, Aziz

    2016-08-29

    There are a lack of reliable data on the epidemiology and associated burden and costs of asthma. We sought to provide the first UK-wide estimates of the epidemiology, healthcare utilisation and costs of asthma. We obtained and analysed asthma-relevant data from 27 datasets: these comprised national health surveys for 2010-11, and routine administrative, health and social care datasets for 2011-12; 2011-12 costs were estimated in pounds sterling using economic modelling. The prevalence of asthma depended on the definition and data source used. The UK lifetime prevalence of patient-reported symptoms suggestive of asthma was 29.5 % (95 % CI, 27.7-31.3; n = 18.5 million (m) people) and 15.6 % (14.3-16.9, n = 9.8 m) for patient-reported clinician-diagnosed asthma. The annual prevalence of patient-reported clinician-diagnosed-and-treated asthma was 9.6 % (8.9-10.3, n = 6.0 m) and of clinician-reported, diagnosed-and-treated asthma 5.7 % (5.7-5.7; n = 3.6 m). Asthma resulted in at least 6.3 m primary care consultations, 93,000 hospital in-patient episodes, 1800 intensive-care unit episodes and 36,800 disability living allowance claims. The costs of asthma were estimated at least £1.1 billion: 74 % of these costs were for provision of primary care services (60 % prescribing, 14 % consultations), 13 % for disability claims, and 12 % for hospital care. There were 1160 asthma deaths. Asthma is very common and is responsible for considerable morbidity, healthcare utilisation and financial costs to the UK public sector. Greater policy focus on primary care provision is needed to reduce the risk of asthma exacerbations, hospitalisations and deaths, and reduce costs.

  6. Psychological Disorders and Psychosocial Resources of Patients with Newly Diagnosed Bladder and Kidney Cancer: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Long Yang

    Full Text Available Psychological disorders have been proven to be associated with poor physiological, psychological and immune outcomes in cancer patients. However, despite of many challenges of the changed self-image/body image and the altered sexual/urinary function, relatively little is known about psychological disorders of patients with newly diagnosed bladder and kidney cancer. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and the associated psychosocial factors among bladder/kidney cancer patients.A cross-sectional study was conducted of consecutive inpatients with bladder/kidney cancer in the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University in Liaoning Province, northeast China. A total of 489 early-stage cancer patients eligible for this study completed questionnaires on demographic and clinical variables, depression, anxiety, PTSD, perceived social support and positive psychological variables (hope, optimism and resilience anonymously during October 2013 and August 2014. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between psychosocial resources and psychological disorders, while controlling for possible covariates.The prevalence of depression, anxiety and PTSD was 77.5%, 69.3% and 25.2%, respectively, while 24.9% of patients had psychological co-morbidity. Psychosocial resources together explained more than one-third of the variance on psychological disorders. Under standardized estimate (β sequence, patient's perception of social support from family was significantly associated with depression, anxiety and PTSD (p < 0.01. Optimism and resilience showed integrated and independent effects on psychological disorders, and hope represented the significant association with PTSD only (p < 0.01.The high prevalence of psychological disorders in newly diagnosed patients with early-stage bladder/kidney cancer should receive more attention in Chinese medical settings

  7. "I've made this my lifestyle now": a prospective qualitative study of motivation for lifestyle change among people with newly diagnosed type two diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebire, Simon J; Toumpakari, Zoi; Turner, Katrina M; Cooper, Ashley R; Page, Angie S; Malpass, Alice; Andrews, Robert C

    2018-01-31

    Diagnosis with Type 2 Diabetes is an opportunity for individuals to change their physical activity and dietary behaviours. Diabetes treatment guidelines recommend theory-based, patient-centred care and advocate the provision of support for patient motivation but the motivational experiences of people newly diagnosed with diabetes have not been well studied. Framed in self-determination theory, this study aimed to qualitatively explore how this patient group articulate and experience different types of motivation when attempting lifestyle change. A secondary analysis of semi-structured interview data collected with 30 (n female = 18, n male = 12) adults who had been newly diagnosed with type two diabetes and were participants in the Early ACTID trial was undertaken. Deductive directed content analysis was performed using NVivo V10 and researcher triangulation to identify and describe patient experiences and narratives that reflected the motivation types outlined in self-determination theory and if/how these changed over time. The findings revealed the diversity in motivation quality both between and within individuals over time and that patients with newly-diagnosed diabetes have multifaceted often competing motivations for lifestyle behaviour change. Applying self-determination theory, we identified that many participants reported relatively dominant controlled motivation to comply with lifestyle recommendations, avoid their non-compliance being "found out" or supress guilt following lapses in behaviour change attempts. Such narratives were accompanied by experiences of frustrating slow behaviour change progress. More autonomous motivation was expressed as something often achieved over time and reflected goals to improve health, quality of life or family time. Motivational internalisation was evident and some participants had integrated their behaviour change to a new way of life which they found resilient to common barriers. Motivation for lifestyle change

  8. Whole-body {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for M staging in the patient with newly diagnosed nasopharyngeal carcinoma: Who needs?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Yun-yan; Li, You-cai; Wu, Hu-bing, E-mail: wuhbym@163.com; Wang, Quan-shi; Han, Yan-jiang; Zhou, Wen-lan; Li, Hong-sheng

    2017-04-15

    Objective: Although whole-body fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) ({sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT) is commonly used for M staging of newly diagnosed nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), some patients may not benefit from this procedure. The present study investigated which patients require this modality for M staging. Methods: Whole-body {sup 18}F FDG PET/CT results and clinical data were collected for 264 patients with newly diagnosed NPC. The relationships between distant metastasis and age, gender, pathological type, lesion size, SUVmax-T, T staging, N staging, SUVmax-N and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) quantity were retrospectively analysed to identify factors associated with increased risk. Results: Of the 264 patients, only 37 (14.0%) were diagnosed with distant metastasis. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, EBV-positivity (OR = 13.1; 95% CI:1.61,106.80), N staging (OR = 3.05; 95% CI:1.41,6.63) and T staging (OR = 2.16; 95% CI:1.10, 4.24) were significantly related to distant metastasis (all P < 0.05). EBV DNA levels ≥ 9000 copies/ml, N3 stage and T4 stage were identified as high risk factors. A low risk of distant metastasis was found in patients with 0–1 risk factors and in those with 2 specific risk factors, T3/T4 and N2/N3 staging. Patients with EBV DNA levels ≥9000 copies/ml and N3 or T4 staging and those with 3 risk factors had a medium or high risk, with a much higher incidence of distant metastasis (χ{sup 2} = 29.896, P = 0.000), and needed a whole-body {sup 18}F FDG PET/CT for M staging. Conclusions: Due to the low incidence of distant metastasis, only patients with medium or high risk need to undergo a whole-body scan.

  9. Low attendance at structured education for people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: General practice characteristics and individual patient factors predict uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkley, Kirsty; Stahl, Daniel; Chamley, Mark; Stopford, Rosanna; Boughdady, Monica; Thomas, Stephen; Amiel, Stephanie A; Forbes, Angus; Ismail, Khalida

    2016-01-01

    The aims were to determine the association between individual and neighbourhood factors and attendance at structured education amongst people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Multi-level analysis of questionnaire data from a prospective cohort of adults newly diagnosed T2DM. Setting was primary care, London, UK. Main outcome was attendance at structured education within 2 years. Of 1790 people recruited, attendance data were available for 1626 (91%). Only 22.4% (n=365/1626) attended education. Attendance was independently associated with female gender (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.05-1.46), lower HbA1c (OR 0.98 mmol/mol 95% CI 0.97-0.99) and non-smoker status (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.07-1.55). General practice covariates, achievement of primary care targets for glycaemic control (OR 1.05, 95% C.I. 1.01-1.08) and recording of retinal screening (OR 0.96, 95% C.I. 0.93-0.99) were independently associated with attendance but unexplained general practice clustering accounted for 17% of the variance. Education uptake is low amongst people with new onset T2DM. Attenders are more likely to be female, non-smokers with better HbA1c. General practices achieving glycaemic targets are more likely to have patients who attend education. Strategies are needed to improve attendance at structured diabetes education particularly amongst hard to reach groups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The prognostic value of FET PET at radiotherapy planning in newly diagnosed glioblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoejklint Poulsen, Sidsel [The Finsen Center, Rigshospitalet, Department of Radiation Biology, Copenhagen (Denmark); Center of Diagnostic Investigation, Rigshospitalet, Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Copenhagen (Denmark); Urup, Thomas; Grunnet, Kirsten; Skovgaard Poulsen, Hans [The Finsen Center, Rigshospitalet, Department of Radiation Biology, Copenhagen (Denmark); The Finsen Center, Rigshospitalet, Department of Oncology, Copenhagen (Denmark); Jarle Christensen, Ib [University of Copenhagen, Hvidovre Hospital, Laboratory of Gastroenterology, Copenhagen (Denmark); Larsen, Vibeke Andree [Center of Diagnostic Investigation, Rigshospitalet, Department of Radiology, Copenhagen (Denmark); Lundemann Jensen, Michael; Munck af Rosenschoeld, Per [The Finsen Center, Rigshospitalet, Department of Oncology, Copenhagen (Denmark); The Finsen Center, Rigshospitalet, Section of Radiotherapy, Copenhagen (Denmark); Law, Ian [Center of Diagnostic Investigation, Rigshospitalet, Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2017-03-15

    Glioblastoma patients show a great variability in progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). To gain additional pretherapeutic information, we explored the potential of O-(2-{sup 18}F-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (FET) PET as an independent prognostic biomarker. We retrospectively analyzed 146 consecutively treated, newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients. All patients were treated with temozolomide and radiation therapy (RT). CT/MR and FET PET scans were obtained postoperatively for RT planning. We used Cox proportional hazards models with OS and PFS as endpoints, to test the prognostic value of FET PET biological tumor volume (BTV). Median follow-up time was 14 months, and median OS and PFS were 16.5 and 6.5 months, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, increasing BTV (HR = 1.17, P < 0.001), poor performance status (HR = 2.35, P < 0.001), O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase protein status (HR = 1.61, P = 0.024) and higher age (HR = 1.32, P = 0.013) were independent prognostic factors of poor OS. For poor PFS, only increasing BTV (HR = 1.18; P = 0.002) was prognostic. A prognostic index for OS was created based on the identified prognostic factors. Large BTV on FET PET is an independent prognostic factor of poor OS and PFS in glioblastoma patients. With the introduction of FET PET, we obtain a prognostic index that can help in glioblastoma treatment planning. (orig.)

  11. Full-chain health impact assessment of traffic-related air pollution and childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khreis, Haneen; de Hoogh, Kees; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2018-05-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease in children. Traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) may be an important exposure contributing to its development. In the UK, Bradford is a deprived city suffering from childhood asthma rates higher than national and regional averages and TRAP is of particular concern to the local communities. We estimated the burden of childhood asthma attributable to air pollution and specifically TRAP in Bradford. Air pollution exposures were estimated using a newly developed full-chain exposure assessment model and an existing land-use regression model (LUR). We estimated childhood population exposure to NO x and, by conversion, NO 2 at the smallest census area level using a newly developed full-chain model knitting together distinct traffic (SATURN), vehicle emission (COPERT) and atmospheric dispersion (ADMS-Urban) models. We compared these estimates with measurements and estimates from ESCAPE's LUR model. Using the UK incidence rate for childhood asthma, meta-analytical exposure-response functions, and estimates from the two exposure models, we estimated annual number of asthma cases attributable to NO 2 and NO x in Bradford, and annual number of asthma cases specifically attributable to traffic. The annual average census tract levels of NO 2 and NO x estimated using the full-chain model were 15.41 and 25.68 μg/m 3 , respectively. On average, 2.75 μg/m 3 NO 2 and 4.59 μg/m 3 NO x were specifically contributed by traffic, without minor roads and cold starts. The annual average census tract levels of NO 2 and NO x estimated using the LUR model were 21.93 and 35.60 μg/m 3 , respectively. The results indicated that up to 687 (or 38% of all) annual childhood asthma cases in Bradford may be attributable to air pollution. Up to 109 cases (6%) and 219 cases (12%) may be specifically attributable to TRAP, with and without minor roads and cold starts, respectively. This is the first study undertaking full-chain health impact assessment

  12. The pool chlorine hypothesis and asthma among boys.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cotter, A

    2012-01-31

    Swimming pool sanitation has largely been concerned with the microbiological quality of pool water, which is normally treated using a number of chlorine products. Recent studies have pointed to the potential hazards of chlorine by-products to the respiratory epithelium, particularly in indoor, poorly ventilated, pools. The aim of our study was to elucidate whether chronic exposure to indoor chlorinated swimming pools was associated with an increased likelihood of the development of asthma in boys. METHODS: The subjects were boys aged between 6 and 12 years. Data was collected by means of parental responses to a standardized asthma questionnaire (ISAAC: International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood), supplemented with additional questions regarding frequency of attendance, number of years attendance, whether the child is a swimming team member. The questionnaire return rate was 71\\/% (n = 121). 23 boys were excluded on the basis that they had asthma before they started swimming (n = 97). There was a significant association between number of years a boy had been swimming and the likelihood of wheezing in the last 12 months (p = 0.009; OR = 1.351; 95% CI = 1.077-1.693) and diagnosed asthma (p = 0.046; OR = 1.299; 95% CI = 1.004-1.506). The greater the number the number of years a boy had been attending an indoor, chlorinated pool, the greater the likelihood of wheezing in the last 12 months or "had asthma". Age, parental smoking habits and being a swimming team member had no association with any of the asthma variables examined. Swimming pool attendance may be a risk factor in asthma in boys.

  13. [Diseases diagnosed at a pneumology unit integrated with its health area. Comparison with historical controls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Escribano, P; López Encuentra, A; Martín García, I; Cienfuegos Agustín, M I; Caballero Borda, C

    1996-01-01

    An understanding of changes in pulmonology disease patterns observed at a general hospital before and after implantation of a population-based model of health care not only provides useful insight into the diseases treated but also aids adjustment of health care service organization. The aim of this study was to compare data collected after 1992 (when the new system was established) with records kept by the same pulmonology group in earlier years (1974-1986). Data after 1992 described patients attended in Health District 11 by the newly organized pneumologists. For the two periods the most common pneumological diagnoses were chronic air flow obstruction and chronic hypersecretory bronchitis. The most common non pneumological diagnoses were systemic arterial hypertension, obesity, diabetes, liver disease and hiatus hernia/gastroesophageal reflux. The prospective study covered a larger population and was closer to primary care, including as it did patients at clinics unattached to hospitals. In the earlier hospital-based experience the most common diagnoses were acute respiratory infection, chronic air flow obstruction and asthma, apart from those patients referred in whom no respiratory disease was found. With the organizational integration of hospital and health district pulmonology service, contact between patients and specialists has increased. Record systems have been established for a well-defined population to permit better forecasting at less cost and facilitate contact with primary care givers and epidemiological studies.

  14. Danish Centre for Strategic Research in Type 2 Diabetes (DD2) project cohort of newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Diana Hedevang; Nicolaisen, Sia Kromann; Berencsi, Klára

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this article is to provide a detailed description of the ongoing nationwide Danish Centre for Strategic Research in Type 2 Diabetes (DD2) project cohort and biobank. The DD2 cohort continuously enrols newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) throughout Denmark...... measures and presence of complications at baseline have been reported. FUTURE PLANS: During 2016, a detailed follow-up questionnaire has been answered by 85% of initial participants, providing follow-up information on baseline variables and on presence of diabetic neuropathy. The DD2 cohort has now been...

  15. Genetic markers, which define the occurrence and course of bronchial asthma in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banadyha N.V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze the frequency of polymorphic loci associations rs 1042713 (Arg16Gly of ADRβ2 gene in children with bronchial asthma. Patients and methods: in-depth clinical examination using the special methods of investigation, conducted to 62 children suffering from bronchial asthma. The results of investigation. As a result of depth collection of anamnesis, it was revealed that in 73.68% of patients the anamnesis was unburdened. Among the examined patients, bronchial asthma manifested at the early age in 18 children (33.96% in preschool age in 17 children (32.08%, and in a primary school in 18 children (33.96%. The early debut of disease associated with genotype Arg16Gly, while late manifestation observed in children with genotype Gly16Gly. Mostly the family inheritance depends on mother health, regardless of the severity of bronchial asthma. Іt was found that in both types of inheritance (paternal and maternal dominated genotype Arg16Gly. Found that girls often associated with asthma genotype Gly16Gly (56.52% and Arg16Gly (39.13% while the boys with genotype Arg16Gly (53.84%, less with Gly16Gly (38.89%. However, genotype Arg16Arg was observed in individual patients and in the case of intermittent disease. In case of allergen-induced and virus-induced phenotypes the genotype Arg16Gly was more often diagnosed. It was clarified that intermittent flow associated with two genotypes: Arg16Gly (47.37% and Gly16Gly (42.11%. The persistent mild course of bronchial asthma replied to genotype Gly16Gly (64.71%, but with moderate persistent — to Arg16Gly (57.69%. A good bronchodilator response was observed in patients with genotype diagnosed Arg16Gly and Gly16Gly. At the same time, patients with genotype Arg16Arg ADRβ2 needed the use of combined drugs to overcome the attack. Conclusions: Allelic polymorphism differences of ADRβ2 gene in children with asthma were diagnosed and it indicates that dependence of debut was genetically based as well

  16. Parents' childhood socioeconomic circumstances are associated with their children's asthma outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Edith; Shalowitz, Madeleine U; Story, Rachel E; Ehrlich, Katherine B; Manczak, Erika M; Ham, Paula J; Le, Van; Miller, Gregory E

    2017-09-01

    Previous literature documents associations between low socioeconomic status (SES) and poor health outcomes, including asthma. However, this literature has largely focused on the effects of current family circumstances. We sought to test an intergenerational hypothesis, that the childhood SES that parents experience will be associated with asthma outcomes in their children, independent of effects of current family SES. Second, we aimed to test whether this association is in part due to difficulties in current parent-child relationships. This was an observational study, whereby 150 parents were interviewed about their childhood SES and their children (physician-diagnosed asthma, ages 9-17 years) were interviewed about current family stress. Asthma control was assessed by parent report and child report (primary outcome), and blood was collected from children to measure cytokine production relevant to asthma (secondary outcomes). To the degree that parents had lower childhood SES, their offspring showed worse asthma outcomes across multiple indicators. This included lower asthma control scores (parent and child report, Ps childhood SES had current family relationships that were more stressful, and these difficulties, in turn, related to worse asthma control and greater cytokine production in children. These results suggest the potential "long reach" of low SES across generations, and the importance of expanding theories of how the social environment can affect childhood asthma to include characteristics of earlier generations. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Risk factors associated with allergic and non-allergic asthma in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, Christer; Kalm-Stephens, Pia; Foucard, Tony; Alving, Kjell; Nordvall, S Lennart

    2007-07-01

    Risk factors for asthma have been investigated in a large number of studies in adults and children, with little progress in the primary and secondary prevention of asthma. The aim of this investigation was to investigate risk factors associated with allergic and non-allergic asthma in adolescents. In this study, 959 schoolchildren (13-14 years old) answered a questionnaire and performed exhaled nitric oxide (NO) measurements. All children (n = 238) with reported asthma, asthma-related symptoms and/or increased NO levels were invited to a clinical follow-up which included a physician evaluation and skin-prick testing. Asthma was diagnosed in 96 adolescents, whereof half had allergic and half non-allergic asthma. Children with both allergic and non-allergic asthma had a significantly higher body mass index (BMI) (20.8 and 20.7 vs. 19.8 kg/m(2)) (p < 0.05) and a higher prevalence of parental asthma (30% and 32% vs. 16%) (p < 0.05). Early-life infection (otitis and croup) [adjusted odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI)): 1.99 (1.02-3.88) and 2.80 (1.44-5.42), respectively], pets during the first year of life [2.17 (1.16-4.04)], window pane condensation [2.45 (1.11-5.40)] and unsatisfactory school cleaning [(2.50 (1.28-4.89)] was associated with non-allergic but not with allergic asthma. This study indicates the importance of distinguishing between subtypes of asthma when assessing the effect of different risk factors. While the risk of both allergic and non-allergic asthma increased with increasing BMI, associations between early-life and current environmental exposure were primarily found in relation to non-allergic asthma.

  18. Detection of Anti-Asparaginase Antibodies During Therapy with E.coli Asparaginase in Children with Newly Diagnosed Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia and Lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EBEID, E.N.; KAMEL, M.M.; ALI, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Asparaginase is an effective anti leukemic agent which is included in most front-line protocols for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (All) worldwide. Since asparaginase is a bacterial protein, it may induce formation of antibodies. The reported frequency of anti-asparaginase antibodies is highly variable: antibodies have been reported in as many as 79% of adults and as many as 70% of children after intravenous or intramuscular administration of E.coli asparaginase. Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine if the presence of antibodies during induction and continuation phases in newly diagnosed children with ALL and lymphoblastic lymphoma during therapy with E.coli asparaginase, had any correlation with various factors such as: age, gender, hypersensitivity reactions, response to therapy and Event Free Survival (EFS). Patients and Methods: Between the period from March 2005 to May 2007, sixty-four children who attended the Menia outpatient pediatric oncology clinic, or were admitted to the in patient department of the Menia oncology center, were enrolled in the study. Forty children had newly diagnosed ALL and 24 had lymphoblastic lymphoma. Patients were 48 males (75%) and 16 females (25%) with a male:female ratio 3:1. Their ages ranged from 3.5 to 17 years with mean age of 9.6 years. All patients received asparaginase therapy according to the St. Jude Total X III protocol, in a dose of 10,000 Iu/m2/dose, intramuscularly for 6-9 doses during the induction phase and another 6-9 doses during continuation phase according to disease status. Results: Forty one patients achieved complete remission, 9 had partial remission, and 14 were lost to followup at different intervals of treatment. Anti asparaginase antibodies were detected in 36 patients (56%) out of 64 patients, and 37 patients (60%) out of 62 patients who were treated with asparaginase at day 8 and day 27 of induction phase respectively. Moreover, 33 patients (61%) out of 54 patients, and

  19. Exposure to Mobile Source Air Pollution in Early-life and Childhood Asthma Incidence: The Kaiser Air Pollution and Pediatric Asthma Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Audrey Flak; Strickland, Matthew J; Klein, Mitchel; Zhai, Xinxin; Bates, Josephine T; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn; Hansen, Craig; Russell, Armistead G; Tolbert, Paige E; Darrow, Lyndsey A

    2018-01-01

    Early-life exposure to traffic-related air pollution exacerbates childhood asthma, but it is unclear what role it plays in asthma development. The association between exposure to primary mobile source pollutants during pregnancy and during infancy and asthma incidence by ages 2 through 6 was examined in the Kaiser Air Pollution and Pediatric Asthma Study, a racially diverse birth cohort of 24,608 children born between 2000 and 2010 and insured by Kaiser Permanente Georgia. We estimated concentrations of mobile source fine particulate matter (PM2.5, µg/m), nitrogen oxides (NOX, ppb), and carbon monoxide (CO, ppm) at the maternal and child residence using a Research LINE source dispersion model for near-surface releases. Asthma was defined using diagnoses and medication dispensings from medical records. We used binomial generalized linear regression to model the impact of exposure continuously and by quintiles on asthma risk. Controlling for covariates and modeling log-transformed exposure, a 2.7-fold increase in first year of life PM2.5 was associated with an absolute 4.1% (95% confidence interval, 1.6%, 6.6%) increase in risk of asthma by age 5. Quintile analysis showed an increase in risk from the first to second quintile, but similar risk across quintiles 2-5. Risk differences increased with follow-up age. Results were similar for NOX and CO and for exposure during pregnancy and the first year of life owing to high correlation. Results provide limited evidence for an association of early-life mobile source air pollution with childhood asthma incidence with a steeper concentration-response relationship observed at lower levels of exposure.

  20. Clinically remitted childhood asthma is associated with airflow obstruction in middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omori, Keitaro; Iwamoto, Hiroshi; Yamane, Takashi; Nakashima, Taku; Haruta, Yoshinori; Hattori, Noboru; Yokoyama, Akihito; Kohno, Nobuoki

    2017-01-01

    While adult asthma has been shown to be a risk factor for COPD, the effect of remitted childhood asthma on adult lung function has not been clarified. The aim of this study was to examine whether remitted childhood asthma is a risk factor for airflow obstruction in a middle-aged general population. A total of 9896 participants (range: 35-60 years) from five healthcare centres were included in the study. The participants were classified into four categories based on the presence or absence of physician-diagnosed childhood/adulthood asthma and asthma symptoms as follows: healthy controls (n = 9154), remitted childhood asthma (n = 287), adulthood-onset asthma (n = 354) and childhood-adulthood asthma (n = 101). The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was similar in both the participants with remitted childhood asthma and healthy controls. The prevalence of airflow obstruction (forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 )/forced vital capacity (FVC) childhood asthma, those with adult-onset asthma and those with childhood-adulthood asthma (5.2%, 14.4% and 16.8%, respectively) compared with healthy controls (2.2%). Multivariate logistic regression showed that remitted childhood asthma was independently associated with airflow obstruction. Among the participants with remitted childhood asthma, ever-smokers had significantly lower FEV 1 /FVC than never-smokers. Clinically remitted childhood asthma is associated with airflow obstruction in middle-aged adults. Smoking and remitted childhood asthma may be additive factors for the development of airflow obstruction. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  1. Association of hand and arm disinfection with asthma control in US nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Orianne; Varraso, Raphäelle; Boggs, Krislyn M; Descatha, Alexis; Henneberger, Paul K; Quinot, Catherine; Speizer, Frank E; Zock, Jan-Paul; Le Moual, Nicole; Camargo, Carlos A

    2018-05-01

    To investigate the association between occupational exposure to disinfectants/antiseptics used for hand hygiene and asthma control in nurses. In 2014, we invited female nurses with asthma drawn from the Nurses' Health Study II to complete two supplemental questionnaires on their occupation and asthma (cross-sectional study, response rate: 80%). Among 4055 nurses (mean age: 59 years) with physician-diagnosed asthma and asthma medication use in the past year, we examined asthma control, as defined by the Asthma Control Test (ACT). Nurses were asked about the daily frequency of hand hygiene tasks: 'wash/scrub hands with disinfectants/hand sanitizers' (hand hygiene) and 'wash/scrub arms with disinfecting products' (surrogate of surgical hand/arm antisepsis). Analyses were adjusted for age, race, ethnicity, smoking status and body mass index. Nurses with partly controlled asthma (ACT: 20-24, 50%) and poorly controlled asthma (ACT ≤19, 18%) were compared with nurses with controlled asthma (ACT=25, 32%). In separate models, both hand and arm hygiene were associated with poorly controlled asthma. After mutual adjustment, only arm hygiene was associated with poorly controlled asthma: OR (95% CI) for arm hygiene tasks (never to >10 times/day) and poor asthma control. Associations persisted after further adjustment for surfaces/instruments disinfection tasks. Frequency of hand/arm hygiene tasks in nurses was associated with poor asthma control. The results suggest an adverse effect of products used for surgical hand/arm antisepsis. This potential new occupational risk factor for asthma warrants further study. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Body mass index trajectory classes and incident asthma in childhood: results from 8 European Birth Cohorts--a Global Allergy and Asthma European Network initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzehak, Peter; Wijga, Alet H; Keil, Thomas; Eller, Esben; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Smit, Henriette A; Weyler, Joost; Dom, Sandra; Sunyer, Jordi; Mendez, Michelle; Torrent, Maties; Vall, Oriol; Bauer, Carl-Peter; Berdel, Dietrich; Schaaf, Beate; Chen, Chih-Mei; Bergström, Anna; Fantini, Maria P; Mommers, Monique; Wahn, Ulrich; Lau, Susanne; Heinrich, Joachim

    2013-06-01

    The causal link between body mass index (BMI) or obesity and asthma in children is still being debated. Analyses of large longitudinal studies with a sufficient number of incident cases and in which the time-dependent processes of both excess weight and asthma development can be validly analyzed are lacking. We sought to investigate whether the course of BMI predicts incident asthma in childhood. Data from 12,050 subjects of 8 European birth cohorts on asthma and allergies were combined. BMI and doctor-diagnosed asthma were modeled during the first 6 years of life with latent growth mixture modeling and discrete time hazard models. Subpopulations of children were identified with similar standardized BMI trajectories according to age- and sex-specific "World Health Organization (WHO) child growth standards" and "WHO growth standards for school aged children and adolescents" for children up to age 5 years and older than 5 years, respectively (BMI-SDS). These types of growth profiles were analyzed as predictors for incident asthma. Children with a rapid BMI-SDS gain in the first 2 years of life had a higher risk for incident asthma up to age 6 years than children with a less pronounced weight gain slope in early childhood. The hazard ratio was 1.3 (95% CI, 1.1-1.5) after adjustment for birth weight, weight-for-length at birth, gestational age, sex, maternal smoking in pregnancy, breast-feeding, and family history of asthma or allergies. A rapid BMI gain at 2 to 6 years of age in addition to rapid gain in the first 2 years of life did not significantly enhance the risk of asthma. Rapid growth in BMI during the first 2 years of life increases the risk of asthma up to age 6 years. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A parallel-group randomized clinical trial of individually tailored, multidisciplinary, palliative rehabilitation for patients with newly diagnosed advanced cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nottelmann, Lise; Groenvold, Mogens; Vejlgaard, Tove Bahn

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of early palliative care and rehabilitation on the quality of life of patients with advanced cancer has been only sparsely described and needs further investigation. In the present trial we combine elements of early, specialized palliative care with cancer rehabilitation...... in a 12-week individually tailored, palliative rehabilitation program initiated shortly after a diagnosis of advanced cancer. METHODS: This single center, randomized, controlled trial will include 300 patients with newly diagnosed advanced cancer recruited from the Department of Oncology, Vejle Hospital...... initiated shortly after an advanced cancer diagnosis. The study will contribute with evidence on the effectiveness of implementing early palliative care in standard oncology treatment and hopefully offer new knowledge and future directions as to the content of palliative rehabilitation programs. TRIAL...

  4. Moisture damage and asthma: a birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvonen, Anne M; Hyvärinen, Anne; Korppi, Matti; Haverinen-Shaughnessy, Ulla; Renz, Harald; Pfefferle, Petra I; Remes, Sami; Genuneit, Jon; Pekkanen, Juha

    2015-03-01

    Excess moisture and visible mold are associated with increased risk of asthma. Only a few studies have performed detailed home visits to characterize the extent and location of moisture damage and mold growth. Structured home inspections were performed in a birth cohort study when the children were 5 months old (on average). Children (N = 398) were followed up to the age of 6 years. Specific immunoglobulin E concentrations were determined at 6 years. Moisture damage and mold at an early age in the child's main living areas (but not in bathrooms or other interior spaces) were associated with the risk of developing physician-diagnosed asthma ever, persistent asthma, and respiratory symptoms during the first 6 years. Associations with asthma ever were strongest for moisture damage with visible mold in the child's bedroom (adjusted odds ratio: 4.82 [95% confidence interval: 1.29-18.02]) and in the living room (adjusted odds ratio: 7.51 [95% confidence interval: 1.49-37.83]). Associations with asthma ever were stronger in the earlier part of the follow-up and among atopic children. No consistent associations were found between moisture damage with or without visible mold and atopic sensitization. Moisture damage and mold in early infancy in the child's main living areas were associated with asthma development. Atopic children may be more susceptible to the effects of moisture damage and mold. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. The occurrence of dynamic structural disorders in the pharynx and larynx, at rest and during exercise, in horses diagnosed with mild and moderate Equine Asthma (Inflammatory Airway Disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocka, B; Kluciński, W

    2018-03-01

    The goal of the present study was to establish the occurrence of structural disorders in the larynx and pharynx during treadmill exercise tests in horses diagnosed with Equine Asthma (EA). Investigation was performed in 29 horses, patients of the Equine Clinic of the Warsaw University of Life Sciences in Poland, admitted with poor exercise performance. Upper and lower airway examinations were performed in all patients revealing both mild to moderate Equine Asthma (13 horses), and no lower airway abnormalities (16 animals). In the group of horses with EA, 11 did not have structural disorders of the pharynx and larynx at rest. During exercise two horses were free of abnormalities, while 11 had structural disorders, eight of them solely in the pharynx, two in the larynx, and one in both the pharynx and larynx. In the non- asthmatic group, 11 horses had no structural disorders during resting endoscopy. Endoscopy performed during exercise revealed disorders of the larynx in 10 horses, of the pharynx in three horses, and in both the larynx and pharynx in the remaining three horses. horses with diagnosed EA frequently have disorders of the pharynx during treadmill exercise tests, while without EA, often have disorders of the larynx. Endoscopy of upper airways during exercise testing is a valuable tool in the diagnosis of poor performance in horses with lower airway inflammatory disease. Copyright© by the Polish Academy of Sciences.

  6. 1,5-anhydroglucitol is associated with early-phase insulin secretion in chinese patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaojing; Hao, Yaping; Hu, Xiang; Luo, Yuqi; Deng, Zixuan; Zhou, Jian; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2015-05-01

    The goal of the present study was to explore the correlations of 1,5-anhydroglucitol (l,5-AG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and glycated albumin (GA) with insulin sensitivity and secretion. In total, 302 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (166 men, 136 women) were enrolled in this study. The homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and homeostasis model assessment for β-cell function (HOMA-β) were calculated to determine the basal insulin sensitivity and secretion. The insulinogenic index (IGI) was used to evaluate early-phase insulin secretion. 1,5-AG and GA were assayed via the enzymatic method, and HbA1c was detected by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Among all 302 subjects, the serum 1,5-AG level was 13.1±7.2 μg/mL, and the HbA1c and GA levels [median (interquartile range)] were 6.7% (6.2-7.3%) and 17.7% (16.0-19.5%), respectively. Increased 1,5-AG quartiles were accompanied by trends toward a decreased HOMA-IR and an increased HOMA-β and IGI (for all trends, P1). 1,5-AG was negatively associated with HOMA-IR (r=-0.200, P1) and positively associated with HOMA-β and IGI (r=0.210 and 0.413, respectively; both P1). 1,5-AG was independently related to HOMA-IR and HOMA-β and exhibited an independent positive association with IGI (standardized β=0.242, P1). Additionally, both HbA1c and GA were independently correlated with HOMA-IR and HOMA-β. 1,5-AG is not only correlated with basal insulin sensitivity and secretion, but also closely associated with early-phase insulin secretion in Chinese patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  7. Psychological distress in newly diagnosed colorectal cancer patients following microsatellite instability testing for Lynch syndrome on the pathologist's initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsbergen, K M; Prins, J B; Brunner, H G; van Duijvendijk, P; Nagengast, F M; van Krieken, J H; Ligtenberg, M; Hoogerbrugge, N

    2012-06-01

    According to the Dutch Guideline on Hereditary Colorectal Cancer published in 2008, patients with recently diagnosed colorectal cancer (CRC) should undergo microsatellite instability (MSI) testing by a pathologist immediately after tumour resection if they are younger than 50 years, or if a second CRC has been diagnosed before the age of 70 years, owing to the high risk of Lynch syndrome (MIPA). The aim of the present MIPAPS study was to investigate general distress and cancer-specific distress following MSI testing. From March 2007 to September 2009, 400 patients who had been tested for MSI after newly diagnosed CRC were recruited from 30 Dutch hospitals. Levels of general distress (SCL-90) and cancer-specific distress (IES) were assessed immediately after MSI result disclosure (T1) and 6 months later (T2). Response rates were 23/77 (30%) in the MSI-positive patients and 58/323 (18%) in the MSI-negative patients. Levels of general distress and cancer-specific distress were moderate. In the MSI-positive group, 27% of the patients had high general distress at T1 versus 18% at T2 (p = 0.5), whereas in the MSI-negative group, these percentage were 14 and 18% (p = 0.6), respectively. At T1 and T2, cancer-specific distress rates in the MSI-positive group and MSI-negative group were 39 versus 27% (p = 0.3) and 38 versus 36% (p = 1.0), respectively. High levels of general distress were correlated with female gender, low social support and high perceived cancer risk. Moderate levels of distress were observed after MSI testing, similar to those found in other patients diagnosed with CRC. Immediately after result disclosure, high cancer-specific distress was observed in 40% of the MSI-positive patients.

  8. Chest radiography in supporting the diagnosis of asthma in children with persistent cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halaby, Claudia; Feuerman, Martin; Barlev, Dan; Pirzada, Melodi

    2014-03-01

    To establish whether chest radiographic findings suggestive of lower airway obstruction (LAO) disease support the diagnosis of asthma in pediatric patients with persistent cough in an outpatient setting. 180 patient charts were reviewed. The patients were children aged 1 to 18 years referred over a 3-year period to a pediatric pulmonary subspecialty clinic for evaluation of cough lasting ≥ 4 weeks. Chest radiographic images obtained after the initial evaluation of 90 patients diagnosed with cough-variant asthma and 90 patients diagnosed with persistent cough from nonasthma origins were compared with radiologic findings of a control group consisting of patients with a positive tuberculin skin test and no respiratory symptoms. Increased peribronchial markings/peribronchial cuffing and hyperinflation were considered radiographically suggestive findings of LAO disease. Children diagnosed with cough-variant asthma at the initial evaluation had higher rates of chest radiographic findings suggestive of LAO disease (30.00%) than children with persistent cough from other causes (17.80%) or those with a positive tuberculin skin test and no respiratory symptoms (8.16%) (overall P value = 0.0063). They also had higher rates of spirometry abnormalities suggestive of an LAO defect. Children with chest radiographic findings suggestive of LAO disease were found to be younger than those with normal chest radiographic findings (5.0 ± 2.7 years vs 8.6 ± 4.7 years; P < 0.0001). This study suggests that chest radiographic findings indicative of an LAO in correlation with the clinical presentation can support the diagnostic suspicion of asthma, especially in younger children unable to perform spirometry.

  9. Understanding childhood asthma in focus groups: perspectives from mothers of different ethnic backgrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKenzie Sheila

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnosing childhood asthma is dependent upon parental symptom reporting but there are problems in the use of words and terms. The purpose of this study was to describe and compare understandings of childhood 'asthma' by mothers from three different ethnic backgrounds who have no personal experience of diagnosing asthma. A better understanding of parents' perceptions of an illness by clinicians should improve communication and management of the illness. Method Sixty-six mothers living in east London describing their ethnic backgrounds as Bangladeshi, white English and black Caribbean were recruited to 9 focus groups. Discussion was semi-structured. Three sessions were conducted with each ethnic group. Mothers were shown a video clip of a boy with audible wheeze and cough and then addressed 6 questions. Sessions were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Responses were compared within and between ethnic groups. Results Each session, and ethnic group overall, developed a particular orientation to the discussion. Some mothers described the problem using single signs, while others imitated the sound or made comparisons to other illnesses. Hereditary factors were recognised by some, although all groups were concerned with environmental triggers. Responses about what to do included 'normal illness' strategies, use of health services and calls for complementary treatment. All groups were concerned about using medication every day. Expectations about the quality of life were varied, with recognition that restrictions may be based on parental beliefs about asthma, rather than asthma itself. Conclusion Information from these focus groups suggests mothers know a great deal about childhood asthma even though they have no personal experience of it. Knowledge of how mothers from these ethnic backgrounds perceive asthma may facilitate doctor – patient communication with parents of children experiencing breathing difficulties.

  10. Time for a new language for asthma control: results from REALISE Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, David; David-Wang, Aileen; Cho, Sang-Heon; Ho, James Chung-Man; Jeong, Jae-Won; Liam, Chong-Kin; Lin, Jiangtao; Muttalif, Abdul Razak; Perng, Diahn-Warng; Tan, Tze-Lee; Yunus, Faisal; Neira, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Asthma is a global health problem, and asthma prevalence in Asia is increasing. The REcognise Asthma and LInk to Symptoms and Experience Asia study assessed patients’ perception of asthma control and attitudes toward treatment in an accessible, real-life adult Asian population. Patients and methods An online survey of 2,467 patients with asthma from eight Asian countries/regions, aged 18–50 years, showed greater than or equal to two prescriptions in previous 2 years and access to social media. Patients were asked about their asthma symptoms, exacerbations and treatment type, views and perceptions of asthma control, attitudes toward asthma management, and sources of asthma information. Results Patients had a mean age of 34.2 (±7.4) years and were diagnosed with asthma for 12.5 (±9.7) years. Half had the Global Initiative for Asthma-defined uncontrolled asthma. During the previous year, 38% of patients visited the emergency department, 33% were hospitalized, and 73% had greater than or equal to one course of oral corticosteroids. About 90% of patients felt that their asthma was under control, 82% considered their condition as not serious, and 59% were concerned about their condition. In all, 66% of patients viewed asthma control as managing attacks and 24% saw it as an absence of or minimal symptoms. About 14% of patients who correctly identified their controller inhalers had controlled asthma compared to 6% who could not. Conclusion Patients consistently overestimated their level of asthma control contrary to what their symptoms suggest. They perceived control as management of exacerbations, reflective of a crisis-oriented mind-set. Interventions can leverage on patients’ trust in health care providers and desire for self-management via a new language to generate a paradigm shift toward symptom control and preventive care. PMID:26445555

  11. Comparison of asthma prevalence among African American teenage youth attending public high schools in rural Georgia and urban Detroit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ownby, Dennis R; Tingen, Martha S; Havstad, Suzanne; Waller, Jennifer L; Johnson, Christine C; Joseph, Christine L M

    2015-09-01

    The high prevalence of asthma among urban African American (AA) populations has attracted research attention, whereas the prevalence among rural AA populations is poorly documented. We sought to compare the prevalence of asthma among AA youth in rural Georgia and urban Detroit, Michigan. The prevalence of asthma was compared in population-based samples of 7297 youth attending Detroit public high schools and in 2523 youth attending public high schools in rural Georgia. Current asthma was defined as a physician diagnosis and symptoms in the previous 12 months. Undiagnosed asthma was defined as multiple respiratory symptoms in the previous 12 months without a physician diagnosis. In Detroit, 6994 (95.8%) youth were AA compared with 1514 (60.0%) in Georgia. Average population density in high school postal codes was 5628 people/mile(2) in Detroit and 45.1 people/mile(2) in Georgia. The percentages of poverty and of students qualifying for free or reduced lunches were similar in both areas. The prevalence of current diagnosed asthma among AA youth in Detroit and Georgia was similar: 15.0% (95% CI, 14.1-15.8) and 13.7% (95% CI, 12.0-17.1) (P = .22), respectively. The prevalence of undiagnosed asthma in AA youth was 8.0% in Detroit and 7.5% in Georgia (P = .56). Asthma symptoms were reported more frequently among those with diagnosed asthma in Detroit, whereas those with undiagnosed asthma in Georgia reported more symptoms. Among AA youth living in similar socioeconomic circumstances, asthma prevalence is as high in rural Georgia as it is in urban Detroit, suggesting that urban residence is not an asthma risk factor. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Warning symptoms of asthma attack and asthma self-management: a national asthma control survey from China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J T; Wang, W Q; Zhou, X; Wang, C Z; Huang, M; Cai, S X; Chen, P; Lin, Q C; Zhou, J Y; Gu, Y H; Yuan, Y D; Sun, D J; Yang, X H; Yang, L; Huo, J M; Chen, Z C; Jiang, P; Zhang, J; Ye, X W; Liu, H G; Tang, H P; Liu, R Y; Liu, C T; Zhang, W; Hu, C P; Chen, Y Q; Liu, X J; Dai, L M; Zhou, W; Huang, Y J; Xu, J Y

    2017-08-08

    Objective: To investigate warning symptoms of asthma attack and evaluate asthma self-management status of asthma patients in urban China. Methods: A multi-center, cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was carried out from 30 general hospitals dispersed in 30 provinces of mainland China (except for Tibet) during Oct 2015 to May 2016. Information of frequency and warning symptoms of asthma attack, the time from warning symptoms to asthma attack, the impact of asthma attack and asthma self-management were collected from asthma patients of outpatient department. Results: Altogether 3 875 asthmatic outpatients were recruited. 78.1% (3 026/3 875) of the patients reported restriction of exercise and daily activities during asthma exacerbation. 82.5% (3 160/3 829) of the patients had warning symptoms before asthma attack, the most common warning symptoms were cough, chest tightness and shortness of breath. The median time from warning symptoms to asthma attack was 2 h, the mean time was 90 h. Only 4.4% (167/3 829) of the patients had definite confidence to control asthma when symptoms deteriorated. 76.7% (2 937/3 828) of the patients used medications to control asthma when asthma symptoms deteriorated. Medication choice: inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) + formoterol 45.8% (1 776/3 875), short-acting beta-agonist (SABA) 23.9% (927/3 875). Conclusions: Most asthma patients have warning symptoms before asthma attack, the most common symptoms are cough, chest tightness and shortness of breath. The proportion of patients conducting effective asthma self-management remains low.

  13. The validity of register data to identify children with atopic dermatitis, asthma or allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stensballe, Lone Graff; Klansø, Lotte; Jensen, Andreas; Haerskjold, Ann; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Simonsen, Jacob

    2017-09-01

    The incidence of atopic dermatitis, wheezing, asthma and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis has been increasing. Register-based studies are essential for research in subpopulations with specific diseases and facilitate epidemiological studies to identify causes and evaluate interventions. Algorithms have been developed to identify children with atopic dermatitis, asthma or allergic rhinoconjunctivitis using register information on disease-specific dispensed prescribed medication and hospital contacts, but the validity of the algorithms has not been evaluated. This study validated the algorithms vs gold standard deep telephone interviews with the caretaker about physician-diagnosed atopic dermatitis, wheezing, asthma or allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in the child. The algorithms defined each of the three atopic diseases using register-based information on disease-specific hospital contacts and/or filled prescriptions of disease-specific medication. Confirmative answers to questions about physician-diagnosed atopic disease were used as the gold standard for the comparison with the algorithms, resulting in sensitivities and specificities and 95% confidence intervals. The interviews with the caretaker of the included 454 Danish children born 1997-2003 were carried out May-September 2015; the mean age of the children at the time of the interview being 15.2 years (standard deviation 1.3 years). For the algorithm capturing children with atopic dermatitis, the sensitivity was 74.1% (95% confidence interval: 66.9%-80.2%) and the specificity 73.0% (67.3%-78.0%). For the algorithm capturing children with asthma, both the sensitivity of 84.1% (78.0%-88.8%) and the specificity of 81.6% (76.5%-85.8%) were high compared with physician-diagnosed asthmatic bronchitis (recurrent wheezing). The sensitivity remained high when capturing physician-diagnosed asthma: 83.3% (74.3%-89.6%); however, the specificity declined to 66.0% (60.9%-70.8%). For allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, the sensitivity

  14. Preeclampsia Associates with Asthma, Allergy, and Eczema in Chi