WorldWideScience

Sample records for newly developed temperature

  1. Parsing multiple processes of high temperature impacts on corn/soybean yield using a newly developed CLM-APSIM modeling framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, B.; Guan, K.; Chen, M.

    2016-12-01

    Future agricultural production faces a grand challenge of higher temperature under climate change. There are multiple physiological or metabolic processes of how high temperature affects crop yield. Specifically, we consider the following major processes: (1) direct temperature effects on photosynthesis and respiration; (2) speed-up growth rate and the shortening of growing season; (3) heat stress during reproductive stage (flowering and grain-filling); (4) high-temperature induced increase of atmospheric water demands. In this work, we use a newly developed modeling framework (CLM-APSIM) to simulate the corn and soybean growth and explicitly parse the above four processes. By combining the strength of CLM in modeling surface biophysical (e.g., hydrology and energy balance) and biogeochemical (e.g., photosynthesis and carbon-nitrogen interactions), as well as that of APSIM in modeling crop phenology and reproductive stress, the newly developed CLM-APSIM modeling framework enables us to diagnose the impacts of high temperature stress through different processes at various crop phenology stages. Ground measurements from the advanced SoyFACE facility at University of Illinois is used here to calibrate, validate, and improve the CLM-APSIM modeling framework at the site level. We finally use the CLM-APSIM modeling framework to project crop yield for the whole US Corn Belt under different climate scenarios.

  2. Newly developed low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope and its application to the study of superconducting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, F.; Dai, C.; Chen, Z.; Huang, G.; Bai, C.; Tao, H.; Yin, B.; Yang, Q.; Zhao, Z.

    1994-01-01

    A newly developed scanning tunneling microscope (STM) capable of operating at room temperature, 77 K, and 4.2 K is presented. This compact STM has a highly symmetric and rigid tunneling unit designed as an integral frame except the coarse and fine adjustment parts. The tunneling unit is incorporated into a small vacuum chamber that is usually pumped down to 2x10 -4 Pa to avoid water contamination. The fine mechanic adjustment makes the tip approach the sample in 5 nm steps. The coarse adjustment not only changes the distance between the tip and the sample, but also adjusts the tip to be normal to the surface of the sample. With this low-temperature STM atomic resolution images of Bi-2212 single-crystal and large-scale topographies of a YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 thin film are observed at 77 K

  3. Sizing Performance of the Newly Developed Eddy Current System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chan Hee; Lee, Hee Jong; Yoo, Hyun Ju; Moon, Gyoon Young; Lee, Tae Hoon [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    This paper describes the comparison results of sizing performance for two systems. The KHNP developed a new eddy current testing system for the inspection of steam generator tubing in domestic nuclear power plants. The equivalency assessment of the newly developed system with the EPRI-qualified system was already carried out. In this paper, the comparisons of depth-sizing performance for the artificial flaws between two systems were performed. The results show that the newly developed system is in good agreement with the qualified system. Therefore, it is expected that the newly developed eddy current system can be used for the inspection of steam generator tubing in nuclear power plants. There are some non-destructive examination (NDE) methods for the inspection of components in nuclear power plants, such as ultrasonic, radiographic, eddy current testing, etc. The eddy current testing is widely used for the inspection of steam generator (SG) tubing because it offers a relatively low cost approach for high speed, large scale testing of metallic materials in high pressure and temperature engineering systems. The Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) developed an eddy current testing system for the inspection of steam generator tubing in nuclear power plants. This system includes not only hardware but software such as the frequency generator and data acquisition-analysis program. The foreign eddy current system developed by ZETEC is currently used for the inspection of steam generator tubing in domestic nuclear power plants. The equivalency assessment between two systems was already carried out in accordance with the EPRI steam generator examination guidelines.

  4. Effect of Annealing Temperature on the Mechanical and Corrosion Behavior of a Newly Developed Novel Lean Duplex Stainless Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanjun; Hu, Jincheng; Li, Jin; Jiang, Laizhu; Liu, Tianwei; Wu, Yanping

    2014-09-12

    The effect of annealing temperature (1000-1150 °C) on the microstructure evolution, mechanical properties, and pitting corrosion behavior of a newly developed novel lean duplex stainless steel with 20.53Cr-3.45Mn-2.08Ni-0.17N-0.31Mo was studied by means of optical metallographic microscopy (OMM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), magnetic force microscopy (MFM), scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), uniaxial tensile tests (UTT), and potentiostatic critical pitting temperature (CPT). The results showed that tensile and yield strength, as well as the pitting corrosion resistance, could be degraded with annealing temperature increasing from 1000 up to 1150 °C. Meanwhile, the elongation at break reached the maximum of 52.7% after annealing at 1050 °C due to the effect of martensite transformation induced plasticity (TRIP). The localized pitting attack preferentially occurred at ferrite phase, indicating that the ferrite phase had inferior pitting corrosion resistance as compared to the austenite phase. With increasing annealing temperature, the pitting resistance equivalent number (PREN) of ferrite phase dropped, while that of the austenite phase rose. Additionally, it was found that ferrite possessed a lower Volta potential than austenite phase. Moreover, the Volta potential difference between ferrite and austenite increased with the annealing temperature, which was well consistent with the difference of PREN.

  5. Applicability of newly developed 610MPa class heavy thickness high strength steel to boiler pressure vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, Norihiko; Kaihara, Shoichiro; Ishii, Jun [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Corp., Yokohama (Japan); Kajigaya, Ichiro [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Totsuka, Takehiro; Miyazaki, Takashi [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Corp., Aioi (Japan)

    1995-11-01

    Construction of a 350 MW Class PFBC (Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion) boiler plant is under planning in Japan. Design temperature and pressure of the vessel are maximum 350 C and 1.69 MPa, respectively. As the plate thickness of the vessel exceeds over 100 mm, high strength steel plate of good weldability and less susceptible to reheat cracking was required and developed. The steel was aimed to satisfy the tensile strength over 610 MPa at 350 C after postweld heat treatment (PWHT), with good notch toughness. The authors investigated the welding performances of the newly developed steel by using 150 mm-thick plate welded by pulsed-MAG and SAW methods. It was confirmed that the newly developed steel and its welds possess sufficient strength and toughness after PWHT, and applicable to the actual pressure vessel.

  6. A newly developed snack effective for enhancing bone volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayashi Hidetaka

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of primary osteoporosis is higher in Japan than in USA and European countries. Recently, the importance of preventive medicine has been gradually recognized in the field of orthopaedic surgery with a concept that peak bone mass should be increased in childhood as much as possible for the prevention of osteoporosis. Under such background, we have developed a new bean snack with an aim to improve bone volume loss. In this study, we examined the effects of a newly developed snack on bone volume and density in osteoporosis model mice. Methods Orchiectomy (ORX and ovariectomy (OVX were performed for C57BL/6J mice of twelve-week-old (Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbar, ME, USA were used in this experiment. We prepared and given three types of powder diet e.g.: normal calcium diet (NCD, Ca: 0.9%, Clea Japan Co., Tokyo, Japan, low calcium diet (LCD, Ca: 0.63%, Clea Japan Co., and special diet (SCD, Ca: 0.9%. Eighteen weeks after surgery, all the animals were sacrified and prepared for histomorphometric analysis to quantify bone density and bone mineral content. Results As a result of histomorphometric examination, SCD was revealed to enhance bone volume irrespective of age and sex. The bone density was increased significantly in osteoporosis model mice fed the newly developmental snack as compared with the control mice. The bone mineral content was also enhanced significantly. These phenomena were revealed in both sexes. Conclusion It is shown that the newly developed bean snack is highly effective for the improvement of bone volume loss irrespective of sex. We demonstrated that newly developmental snack supplements may be a useful preventive measure for Japanese whose bone mineral density values are less than the ideal condition.

  7. Mapping subsurface in proximity to newly-developed sinkhole along roadway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    MS&T acquired electrical resistivity tomography profiles in immediate proximity to a newly-developed sinkhole in Nixa Missouri : The sinkhole has closed a well-traveled municipal roadway and threatens proximal infrastructure. The intent of this inves...

  8. Weldability aspects of a newly developed duplex stainless steel LDX 2101

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westin, E.M. [Avesta Research Centre, Avesta (Sweden). Outokumpu Stainless; Brolund, B. [SSAB Tunnplat, Borlaenge (Sweden); Hertzman, S. [Outokumpu Stainless Research Foundation, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2008-06-15

    Duplex grades have, due to balanced chemical compositions of both filler and base metals, a weldability that allows for successful welding using a majority of the technically relevant techniques of today. In order to fulfil the performance requirements several aspects must be considered. In the heat affected zone (HAZ) the austenite reformation must be reasonably high and in the weld metal the microstructure must be stable so that e.g. high productivity welding and multi-pass welding are possible, without precipitation of detrimental phases in previous passes. This paper addresses the effect of alloying elements and thermal cycles on phase balance in the high temperature HAZ (HTHAZ) of the newly developed lean duplex grade LDX 2101 (EN 1.4162, UNS S32101). Bead-on-plate welds and simulated weld structures have been produced and investigated using metallography, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results are analysed using the thermodynamic database Thermo-Calc and a model for phase transformation based on a paraequilibrium assumption for ferrite-austenite transformation. In the temperature region outside the paraequilibrium domain, growth controlled by diffusion of substitutional elements was considered. The analysis follows a model by Cahn regarding grain boundary nucleated growth and the Hillert-Engberg model on kinetics of spherical and planar growth. (orig.)

  9. Developing upconversion nanoparticle-based smart substrates for remote temperature sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Zachary; Marble, Kassie; Alkahtani, Masfer; Hemmer, Philip; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.

    2018-02-01

    Recent developments in understanding of nanomaterial behaviors and synthesis have led to their application across a wide range of commercial and scientific applications. Recent investigations span from applications in nanomedicine and the development of novel drug delivery systems to nanoelectronics and biosensors. In this study, we propose the application of a newly engineered temperature sensitive water-based bio-compatible core/shell up-conversion nanoparticle (UCNP) in the development of a smart substrate for remote temperature sensing. We developed this smart substrate by dispersing functionalized nanoparticles into a polymer solution and then spin-coating the solution onto one side of a microscope slide to form a thin film substrate layer of evenly dispersed nanoparticles. By using spin-coating to deposit the particle solution we both create a uniform surface for the substrate while simultaneously avoid undesired particle agglomeration. Through this investigation, we have determined the sensitivity and capabilities of this smart substrate and conclude that further development can lead to a greater range of applications for this type smart substrate and use in remote temperature sensing in conjunction with other microscopy and spectroscopy investigations.

  10. First results from the in-situ temperature measurements by the newly developed downhole tool during the drilling cruise in the hydrothermal fields of the mid-Okinawa Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitada, K.; Wu, H. Y.; Miyazaki, J.; Akiyama, K.; Nozaki, T.; Ishibashi, J. I.; Kumagai, H.; Maeda, L.

    2016-12-01

    The Okinawa trough is an active backarc basin behind the Ryukyu subduction zone and exhibits active rifting associated with extension of the continental margin. The temperature measurement in this area is essential for understanding hydrothermal system and hydraulic structure. During the CK16-01 cruise this March, we have conducted the in-situ temperature measurements by the newly developed downhole tool, TRDT (Thermo-Resistant Downhole Thermometer) in hydrothermal fields of the mid-Okinawa Trough. The purpose of this measurement is to investigate the in-situ temperature structure in deep-hot zones and its variation after coring and/or drilling. TRDT was designed by JAMSTEC as a memory downhole tool to measure in-situ borehole temperature under the extreme high temperature environment. First trial was conducted in the CK14-04 cruise by the free fall deployment to reduce the operation time. However, there was no temperature data recorded due to the strong vibration during the operation. After CK14-04 cruise, TRDT was modified to improve the function against vibration and shock. The improved TRDT passed the high temperature, vibration and shock tests to ensure the data acquisition of borehole logging. During the CK16-01 cruise, we have first successfully collected the in-situ temperature data from hydrothermal borehole in the Iheya North Knoll with wireline system. The temperature at depth of 187mbsf continued to increase almost linearly from 220 to 245°C during the 20 minute measurements time. This suggests that the inside borehole was cooled down by pumping seawater through drill pipes during the coring and lowering down the TRDT tool to the bottom hole. The in-situ temperature were extrapolated with exponential curve using nonlinear least squares fitting and the estimated equilibrium temperature was 278°C. To recover the in-situ temperature more precisely, the measurement time should kept as long as possible by considering the temperature rating. The operational

  11. High acceptability of a newly developed urological practical skills training program.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, A.H. de; Luijk, S.J. van; Scherpbier, A.J.J.A.; Hendrikx, A.J.M.; Koldewijn, E.L.; Wagner, C.; Schout, B.M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Benefits of simulation training are widely recognized, but its structural implementation into urological curricula remains challenging. This study aims to gain insight into current and ideal urological practical skills training and presents the outline of a newly developed skills

  12. High acceptability of a newly developed urological practical skills training program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, A.H.; van Luijk, S.J.; Scherpbier, A.J.J.A.; Hendrikx, A.J.M.; Koldewijn, E.L.; Wagner, C.; Schout, B.M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Benefits of simulation training are widely recognized, but its structural implementation into urological curricula remains challenging. This study aims to gain insight into current and ideal urological practical skills training and presents the outline of a newly developed skills

  13. A newly developed container for safe, easy, and cost-effective overnight transportation of tissues and organs by electrically keeping tissue or organ temperature at 3 to 6°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkawara, H; Kitagawa, T; Fukushima, N; Ito, T; Sawa, Y; Yoshimine, T

    2012-05-01

    As there is only one skin procurement organization in Japan the Japan Skin Bank Network (JSBN), all skin grafts procured in Japan are sent by a commercialized delivery system. Preliminarily, bottles containing saline were transported in a cardboard box using a so-called "cooled home delivery service" using a truck with a refrigerated cargo container. During transportation the temperature in the cardboard box increased to 18°C in summer and decreased to -5°C in winter. For these reasons, we investigated whether a newly developed container "Medi Cube" would be useful to transport skin grafts. Four bottles with a capacity of 300 mL containing 150 mL of saline in a Medi Cube container were transported from Osaka to the JSBN in Tokyo between 4 PM and 10 AM using a commercialized cooled home delivery service. Two bottles were transported in a Medi Cube container without phase change materials (PCM) in winter and summer, respectively. Another two bottles were transported in the Medi Cube with PCMs in winter. The temperatures inside saline, inside a transportation container, and outside the container, and air temperature were monitored continuously with a recordable thermometer. The temperatures inside saline and inside a Medi Cube container were maintained between 3 and 6°C, even when the temperature outside the container increased during parking. The temperature inside a Medi Cube container without PCM decreased to -3°C when the inside of the cargo container was overcooled in winter. However, the temperatures inside saline and inside a Medi Cube container with PCM were between 3 and 6°C, even when the temperature outside the container decreased to below 0°C in winter. A Medi Cube container with PCM provided a safe, easy, and cost-effective method for overnight transportation of skin grafts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Temperature effects on egg development and larval condition in the lesser sandeel, Ammodytes marinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Régnier, Thomas; Gibb, Fiona M.; Wright, Peter J.

    2018-04-01

    Understanding the influence of temperature on egg development and larval condition in planktonic fish is a prerequisite to understanding the phenological impacts of climate change on marine food-webs. The lesser sandeel, Ammodytes marinus (Raitt 1934), is a key trophic link between zooplankton and many piscivorous fish, sea birds and mammals in the northeast Atlantic. Temperature-egg development relationships were determined for batches of lesser sandeel eggs. Hatching began as early as 19 days post fertilisation at 11 °C and as late as 36 days post fertilisation at 6 °C, which is faster than egg development rates reported for closely related species at the lower end of the tested temperature range. The average size of newly hatched larvae decreased with increasing incubation temperatures in early hatching larvae, but this effect was lost by the middle of the hatching period. While the study revealed important temperature effects on egg development rate, predicted variability based on the range of temperatures eggs experience in the field, suggests it is only a minor contributor to the observed inter-annual variation in hatch date.

  15. NEWLY DISCOVERED GLOBAL TEMPERATURE STRUCTURES IN THE QUIET SUN AT SOLAR MINIMUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Zhenguang; Frazin, Richard A.; Landi, Enrico; Manchester, Ward B.; Gombosi, Tamas I. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Vasquez, Alberto M. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, CONICET-University of Buenos Aires, Ciudad de Buenos Aires, CC 67-Suc 28 (Argentina)

    2012-08-20

    Magnetic loops are building blocks of the closed-field corona. While active region loops are readily seen in images taken at EUV and X-ray wavelengths, quiet-Sun (QS) loops are seldom identifiable and are therefore difficult to study on an individual basis. The first analysis of solar minimum (Carrington Rotation 2077) QS coronal loops utilizing a novel technique called the Michigan Loop Diagnostic Technique (MLDT) is presented. This technique combines Differential Emission Measure Tomography and a potential field source surface (PFSS) model, and consists of tracing PFSS field lines through the tomographic grid on which the local differential emission measure is determined. As a result, the electron temperature T{sub e} and density N{sub e} at each point along each individual field line can be obtained. Using data from STEREO/EUVI and SOHO/MDI, the MLDT identifies two types of QS loops in the corona: so-called up loops in which the temperature increases with height and so-called down loops in which the temperature decreases with height. Up loops are expected, however, down loops are a surprise, and furthermore, they are ubiquitous in the low-latitude corona. Up loops dominate the QS at higher latitudes. The MLDT allows independent determination of the empirical pressure and density scale heights, and the differences between the two remain to be explained. The down loops appear to be a newly discovered property of the solar minimum corona that may shed light on the physics of coronal heating. The results are shown to be robust to the calibration uncertainties of the EUVI instrument.

  16. A newly developed Fe-doped calcium sulfide nanoparticles with magnetic property for cancer hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Steven Yueh-Hsiu; Tseng, Ching-Li; Lin, Feng-Huei

    2010-05-01

    In this study, a magnetic iron-doped calcium sulfide (Fe-CaS) nanoparticle was newly developed and studied for the purpose of hyperthermia due to its promising magnetic property, adequate biodegradation rate, and relatively good biocompatibility. Fe-CaS nanoparticles were synthesized by a wet chemical co-precipitation process with heat treatment in a N2 atmosphere, and were subsequently cooled in N2 and exposed to air at a low temperature. The crystal structure of the Fe-CaS nanoparticles was similar to that of the CaS, which was identified by an X-ray diffractometer (XRD). The particle size was less than 40 nm based on a Debye-Scherrer equation and transmission electron microscope (TEM) examination. Magnetic properties obtained from the SQUID magnetometer demonstrated that the synthesized CaS was a diamagnetic property. Once the Fe ions were doped, the synthesized Fe-CaS converted into paramagnetism which showed no hysteresis loop. Having been heated above 600 °C in N2, the Fe-CaS showed a promising magnetic property to produce enough energy to increase the temperature for hyperthermia. 10 mg/ml of the Fe-CaS was able to generate heat to elevate the media temperature over 42.5 °C within 6 min. The area of the hysteresis loop increased with the increasing of the treated temperature, especially at 800 °C for 1 h. This is because more Fe ions replaced Ca ions in the lattice at the higher heat treatment temperature. The heat production was also increasing with the increasing of heat treatment temperature, which resulted in an adequate specific absorption ratio (SAR) value, which was found to be 45.47 W/g at 37 °C under an alternative magnetic field of f = 750 KHz , H = 10 Oe. The in vitro biocompatibility test of the synthesized Fe-CaS nanoparticles examined by the LDH assay showed no cytotoxicity to 3T3 fibroblast. The result of in vitro cell hyperthermia shows that under magnetic field the Fe-CaS nanoparticles were able to generate heat and kill the CT-26 cancer

  17. A newly developed Fe-doped calcium sulfide nanoparticles with magnetic property for cancer hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Steven Yueh-Hsiu; Tseng, Ching-Li; Lin, Feng-Huei

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a magnetic iron-doped calcium sulfide (Fe-CaS) nanoparticle was newly developed and studied for the purpose of hyperthermia due to its promising magnetic property, adequate biodegradation rate, and relatively good biocompatibility. Fe-CaS nanoparticles were synthesized by a wet chemical co-precipitation process with heat treatment in a N 2 atmosphere, and were subsequently cooled in N 2 and exposed to air at a low temperature. The crystal structure of the Fe-CaS nanoparticles was similar to that of the CaS, which was identified by an X-ray diffractometer (XRD). The particle size was less than 40 nm based on a Debye-Scherrer equation and transmission electron microscope (TEM) examination. Magnetic properties obtained from the SQUID magnetometer demonstrated that the synthesized CaS was a diamagnetic property. Once the Fe ions were doped, the synthesized Fe-CaS converted into paramagnetism which showed no hysteresis loop. Having been heated above 600 o C in N 2 , the Fe-CaS showed a promising magnetic property to produce enough energy to increase the temperature for hyperthermia. 10 mg/ml of the Fe-CaS was able to generate heat to elevate the media temperature over 42.5 o C within 6 min. The area of the hysteresis loop increased with the increasing of the treated temperature, especially at 800 o C for 1 h. This is because more Fe ions replaced Ca ions in the lattice at the higher heat treatment temperature. The heat production was also increasing with the increasing of heat treatment temperature, which resulted in an adequate specific absorption ratio (SAR) value, which was found to be 45.47 W/g at 37 o C under an alternative magnetic field of f = 750 KHz, H = 10 Oe. The in vitro biocompatibility test of the synthesized Fe-CaS nanoparticles examined by the LDH assay showed no cytotoxicity to 3T3 fibroblast. The result of in vitro cell hyperthermia shows that under magnetic field the Fe-CaS nanoparticles were able to generate heat and kill the CT-26

  18. The implications of temperature-mediated plasticity in larval instar number for development within a marine invertebrate, the shrimp Palaemonetes varians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Oliphant

    Full Text Available Variations in larval instar number are common among arthropods. Here, we assess the implications of temperature-mediated variations in larval instar number for larval development time, larval growth rates, and juvenile dry weight within the palaemonid shrimp, Palaemonetes varians. In contrast with previous literature, which focuses on terrestrial arthropods, particularly model and pest species often of laboratory lines, we use wild shrimp, which differ in their life history from previous models. Newly-hatched P. varians larvae were first reared at 5, 10, 17, 25, and 30 °C to assess their thermal scope for development. Larvae developed at 17, 25, and 30 °C. At higher temperatures, larvae developed through fewer larval instars. Two dominant developmental pathways were observed; a short pathway of four instars and a long pathway of five instars. Longer developmental pathways of six to seven instars were rarely observed (mostly at lower temperatures and consisted of additional instars as 'repeat' instars; i.e. little developmental advance over the preceding instar. To assess the implications of temperature-mediated variation in larval instar number, newly-hatched larvae were then reared at 15, 20, and 25 °C. Again, the proportion of larvae developing through four instars increased with temperature. At all temperatures, larval development time and juvenile dry weight were greater for larvae developing through five instars. Importantly, because of the increasing proportion of larvae developing through four instars with increasing temperature, larval traits associated with this pathway (reduced development time and juvenile dry weight became more dominant. As a consequence of increasing growth rate with temperature, and the shift in the proportion of larvae developing through four instars, juvenile dry weight was greatest at intermediate temperatures (20 °C. We conclude that at settlement P. varians juveniles do not follow the temperature-size rule

  19. The implications of temperature-mediated plasticity in larval instar number for development within a marine invertebrate, the shrimp Palaemonetes varians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliphant, Andrew; Hauton, Chris; Thatje, Sven

    2013-01-01

    Variations in larval instar number are common among arthropods. Here, we assess the implications of temperature-mediated variations in larval instar number for larval development time, larval growth rates, and juvenile dry weight within the palaemonid shrimp, Palaemonetes varians. In contrast with previous literature, which focuses on terrestrial arthropods, particularly model and pest species often of laboratory lines, we use wild shrimp, which differ in their life history from previous models. Newly-hatched P. varians larvae were first reared at 5, 10, 17, 25, and 30 °C to assess their thermal scope for development. Larvae developed at 17, 25, and 30 °C. At higher temperatures, larvae developed through fewer larval instars. Two dominant developmental pathways were observed; a short pathway of four instars and a long pathway of five instars. Longer developmental pathways of six to seven instars were rarely observed (mostly at lower temperatures) and consisted of additional instars as 'repeat' instars; i.e. little developmental advance over the preceding instar. To assess the implications of temperature-mediated variation in larval instar number, newly-hatched larvae were then reared at 15, 20, and 25 °C. Again, the proportion of larvae developing through four instars increased with temperature. At all temperatures, larval development time and juvenile dry weight were greater for larvae developing through five instars. Importantly, because of the increasing proportion of larvae developing through four instars with increasing temperature, larval traits associated with this pathway (reduced development time and juvenile dry weight) became more dominant. As a consequence of increasing growth rate with temperature, and the shift in the proportion of larvae developing through four instars, juvenile dry weight was greatest at intermediate temperatures (20 °C). We conclude that at settlement P. varians juveniles do not follow the temperature-size rule; this is of

  20. High-temperature ethanol production using thermotolerant yeast newly isolated from Greater Mekong Subregion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atiya Techaparin

    Full Text Available Abstract The application of high-potential thermotolerant yeasts is a key factor for successful ethanol production at high temperatures. Two hundred and thirty-four yeast isolates from Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS countries, i.e., Thailand, The Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR and Vietnam were obtained. Five thermotolerant yeasts, designated Saccharomyces cerevisiae KKU-VN8, KKU-VN20, and KKU-VN27, Pichia kudriavzevii KKU-TH33 and P. kudriavzevii KKU-TH43, demonstrated high temperature and ethanol tolerance levels up to 45 °C and 13% (v/v, respectively. All five strains produced higher ethanol concentrations and exhibited greater productivities and yields than the industrial strain S. cerevisiae TISTR5606 during high-temperature fermentation at 40 °C and 43 °C. S. cerevisiae KKU-VN8 demonstrated the best performance for ethanol production from glucose at 37 °C with an ethanol concentration of 72.69 g/L, a productivity of 1.59 g/L/h and a theoretical ethanol yield of 86.27%. The optimal conditions for ethanol production of S. cerevisiae KKU-VN8 from sweet sorghum juice (SSJ at 40 °C were achieved using the Box-Behnken experimental design (BBD. The maximal ethanol concentration obtained during fermentation was 89.32 g/L, with a productivity of 2.48 g/L/h and a theoretical ethanol yield of 96.32%. Thus, the newly isolated thermotolerant S. cerevisiae KKU-VN8 exhibits a great potential for commercial-scale ethanol production in the future.

  1. Temperature Profile Measurements in a Newly Constructed 30-Stage 5 cm Centrifugal Contactor Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garn, Troy G.; Meikrantz, Dave H.; Greenhalgh, Mitchell R.; Law, Jack D.

    2008-01-01

    An annular centrifugal contactor pilot plant incorporating 30 stages of commercial 5 cm CINC V-02 units has been built and operated at INL during the past year. The pilot plant includes an automated process control and data acquisitioning system. The primary purpose of the pilot plant is to evaluate the performance of a large number of inter-connected centrifugal contactors and obtain temperature profile measurements within a 30-stage cascade. Additional solvent extraction flowsheet testing using stable surrogates is also being considered. Preliminary hydraulic testing was conducted with all 30 contactors interconnected for continuous counter-current flow. Hydraulic performance and system operational tests were conducted successfully but with higher single-stage rotor speeds found necessary to maintain steady interstage flow at flowrates of 1 L/min and higher. Initial temperature profile measurements were also completed in this configuration studying the performance during single aqueous and two-phase counter-current flow at ambient and elevated inlet solution temperatures. Temperature profile testing of two discreet sections of the cascade required additional feed and discharge connections. Lamp oil, a commercially available alkane mixture of C14 to C18 chains, and tap water adjusted to pH 2 were the solution feeds for all the testing described in this report. Numerous temperature profiles were completed using a newly constructed 30-stage centrifugal contactor pilot plant. The automated process control and data acquisition system worked very well throughout testing. Temperature data profiles for an array of total flowrates (FT) and contactor rpm values for both single-phase and two-phase systems have been collected with selected profiles and comparisons reported. Total flowrates (FT) ranged from 0.5-1.4 L/min with rotor speeds from 3500-4000 rpm. Solution inlet temperatures ranging from ambient up to 50 C were tested. Ambient temperature testing shows that a small

  2. Improving a newly developed patient-reported outcome for thyroid patients, using cognitive interviewing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watt, Torquil; Rasmussen, Ase Krogh; Groenvold, Mogens

    2008-01-01

    Objective To improve a newly developed patient-reported outcome measure for thyroid patients using cognitive interviewing. Methods Thirty-one interviews using immediate retrospective and expansive probing were conducted among patients with non-toxic goiter (n = 4), nodular toxic goiter (n = 5) Gr...

  3. Newly Developed Ceramic Membranes for Dehydration and Separation of Organic Mixtures by Pervaporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemert, van R.W.; Cuperus, F.P.

    1995-01-01

    Polymeric pervaporation membranes sometimes show great variety in performance when they are alternately used for different solvent mixtures. In addition, membrane stability in time is a problem in case of some solvents. Therefore, newly developed ceramic silica membranes with a 'dense' top layer

  4. The Development Needs of Newly Appointed Senior School Leaders in the Western Cape South Africa: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelius Jansen van Vuuren

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The essential role that senior school leaders play in school leadership teams to ensure effective strategic leadership in schools has been the subject of intense discussion for many years. Crucial to this debate is the establishment of professional learning and leadership approaches for newly appointed senior school leaders. Recommendations for policy and practice highlight the importance of appropriate, multifaceted, developmental support initiatives for newly appointed school leaders. In many countries, including South Africa, a teaching qualification and, in most cases, extensive teaching experience is the only requirement for being appointed as a senior school leader in a school. This tends to suggest that no further professional development is required for newly appointed school leaders, the problem addressed in this paper. This paper reports on the main findings of the perceived development needs of newly appointed senior school leaders in the Western Cape, South Africa, and suggests that school leaders occupy a unique and specialist role in education, which requires relevant and specific preparation to support effective leadership. The respondents of this study report a lack of contextualised training and support before and after their appointment in their new roles creating unique development needs. This paper, therefore, employs a mixed-method approach to gather data to understand the perceived needs of twenty newly appointed senior school leaders in the Western Cape, South Africa.

  5. Elevated temperature affects development, survivorship, and settlement of the elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata (Lamarck 1816).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Carly J; Szmant, Alina M

    2009-12-01

    Elevated seawater temperatures during the late summer have the potential to negatively affect the development and survivorship of the larvae of reef corals that are reproductive during that time of year. Acropora palmata, a major Caribbean hermatype, reproduces annually during August and September. A. palmata populations have severely declined over the past three decades, and recovery will require high recruitment rates. Such recruitment will be limited if larval supply is reduced by elevated temperatures. The effects of elevated temperatures on development, survival, and larval settlement of A. palmata were investigated by culturing newly fertilized eggs at temperatures ranging from 27.5 to 31.5 degrees C. Development was accelerated and the percentage of developmental abnormalities increased at higher temperatures. Embryo mortality peaked during gastrulation, indicating that this complex developmental process is particularly sensitive to elevated temperatures. Larvae cultured at 30 and 31.5 degrees C experienced as much as an 8-fold decrease in survivorship compared to those at 28 degrees C. Additionally, settlement was 62% at 28 degrees C compared to 37% at 31.5 degrees C. These results indicate that embryos and larvae of A. palmata will be negatively affected as sea surface temperatures continue to warm, likely reducing recruitment and the recovery potential of A. palmata on Caribbean reefs.

  6. Validating self-reported mobile phone use in adults using a newly developed smartphone application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedhart, Geertje; Kromhout, Hans; Wiart, Joe; Vermeulen, Roel

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Interpretation of epidemiological studies on health effects from mobile phone use is hindered by uncertainties in the exposure assessment. We used a newly developed smartphone application (app) to validate self-reported mobile phone use and behaviour among adults. METHODS: 107

  7. Anticipating the free amino acid concentrations in newly hatched pelagic fish larvae based on recently fertilized eggs and temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rayner, Thomas Allan; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Hansen, Benni Winding

    2017-01-01

    between the species for different FAAs was low, and the most outstanding essential FAAs were leucine, lysine, valine and isoleucine while alanine and serine dominated non-essential FAAs. Overall, leucine could be regarded as the most important among all species due to its common occurrence in newly...... spawned eggs and fast rate of decay. Based on the functions considered in the present study, it is possible to anticipate the availability of FAA diet needed in the form of live feed for pelagic first feeding marine fish larvae in aquaculture at different temperatures....

  8. Micro-computed tomography newly developed for in vivo small animal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Yoshinori; Ninomiya, Tadashi; Kato, Takafumi; Masuda, Yuji

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to report a newly developed micro-computed tomography system for in vivo use. The system was composed of a micro-focus X-ray tube and an image intensifier (I.I.), both of which rotated around the object stage. A guinea pig and a rat were examined. The anesthetized animal was set on the secure object stage. Images of the head of the guinea pig and the tibia knee joint of the rat were taken. In addition, an image of the rat's tail was taken. The reconstruction and the image viewing were carried out using I-View software. The voxel matrix was 512 x 512 x 384. The voxel sizes ranged from 10 x 10 x 10 μm to 100 x 100 x 100 μm. The exposure time was 17 s, and the reconstruction time was 150 s. The head of the guinea pig and the tibia/knee joint of the rat were observed clearly under 100-μm and 30μm voxels, respectively. The trabecular bone of the tail was also observed clearly under a 10 μm voxel. The newly developed micro-computed tomography system makes it possible to obtain images of anesthetized animals set on a secure object stage. Clear bone images of the small animals could be obtained within a short time. (author)

  9. A newly developed tool for intra-tracheal temperature and humidity assessment in laryngectomized individuals: the Airway Climate Explorer (ACE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuur, J.K.; Muller, S.H.; Jongh, F.H.C.; Horst, M.J. van der; Shehata, M.; Leeuwen, J. van; Sinaasappel, M.; Hilgers, F.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a postlaryngectomy airway climate explorer (ACE) for assessment of intratracheal temperature and humidity and of influence of heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs). Engineering goals were within-device condensation prevention and fast response time characteristics.

  10. Development of Yellow Sand Image Products Using Infrared Brightness Temperature Difference Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, J.; Kim, J.; Kwak, M.; Ha, K.

    2007-12-01

    A technique for detection of airborne yellow sand dust using meteorological satellite has been developed from various bands from ultraviolet to infrared channels. Among them, Infrared (IR) channels have an advantage of detecting aerosols over high reflecting surface as well as during nighttime. There had been suggestion of using brightness temperature difference (BTD) between 11 and 12¥ìm. We have found that the technique is highly depends on surface temperature, emissivity, and zenith angle, which results in changing the threshold of BTD. In order to overcome these problems, we have constructed the background brightness temperature threshold of BTD and then aerosol index (AI) has been determined from subtracting the background threshold from BTD of our interested scene. Along with this, we utilized high temporal coverage of geostationary satellite, MTSAT, to improve the reliability of the determined AI signal. The products have been evaluated by comparing the forecasted wind field with the movement fiend of AI. The statistical score test illustrates that this newly developed algorithm produces a promising result for detecting mineral dust by reducing the errors with respect to the current BTD method.

  11. Assessing College Students' Perceptions of a Case Teacher's Pedagogical Content Knowledge Using a Newly Developed Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Syh-Jong

    2011-01-01

    Ongoing professional development for college teachers has been much emphasized. However, previous research on learning environments has seldom addressed college students' perceptions of teachers' PCK. This study aimed to evaluate college students' perceptions of a physics teacher's PCK development using a newly developed instrument and workshop…

  12. Fundamental Characteristics of the Newly Developed ATA™ Membrane Dialyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunohara, Takashi; Masuda, Toshiaki

    2017-01-01

    Dialysis membranes are often made from synthetic polymers, such as polysulfone. However, membranes made from cellulose triacetate have superior biocompatibility and have been used since the 1980s. On-line hemodiafiltration treatment accompanied by massive fluid replacement is increasingly being used in Europe and Japan, but cellulose triacetate is not suitable for this treatment. Our newly developed asymmetric triacetate membrane, the ATA™ membrane, substantially improved the filtration properties and blood compatibility because of the asymmetric structure and smooth surface of this cellulose acetate membrane. Key Message: The ATA membrane maintains its high permeability even after massive filtration and shows less temporal variation in its permeation performance, lower protein adsorption, and superior biocompatibility compared with conventional membranes. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. PHL10/460: Cancerfacts.com - Vertical Portal with Newly Developed Health Profiler

    OpenAIRE

    Lenz, C; Brucksch, M

    1999-01-01

    Introduction Unlike general health portals such as WebMD and Drkoop.com that cover everything from the flu to heart disease, Silicon Valley-based cancerfacts.com is a so-called vertical portal. It covers only one small vertical niche of health care: cancer, and in particular, prostate cancer. As a value-added proprietary technology, the company offers its newly developed profile engine to health information retrievers. Methods Users are enabled to insert their specific medical information - r...

  14. Impact of container material on the development of Aedes aegypti larvae at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gaurav; Singh, R K; Pande, Veena; Dhiman, R C

    2016-01-01

    Aedes aegypti, the primary vector of dengue generally breeds in intradomestic and peridomestic containers made up of different materials, i.e. plastic, iron, rubber, earthen material etc. The material of container is likely to affect the temperature of water in container with variation in environmental temperature. The present study was aimed to determine the effect of different container materials on larval development of Ae. aegypti at different temperatures. Newly hatched I instar larvae (2-4 h old) were used in the study and experiments were conducted using three different containers made up of plastic, iron and earthen material. Three replicates for each type of container at 22, 26, 30, 34, 38, 40, and 42°C were placed in environmental chamber for the development of larvae. At temperatures >22°C, 50% pupation was completed in earthen pot within 4.3±0.6 to 6.3±0.6 days followed by plastic containers (5±0 to 8±0 days) and iron containers (6±0 to 9±0 days). Developmental time for 50% pupation in the three containers differed significantly (p containers (p containers resulted in significant variations in the developmental period of larvae. More than 35°C temperature of water was found inimical for pupal development. The results revealed the variation in temperature of water in different types of containers depending on the material of container, affecting duration of larval development. As the larval development was faster in earthen pot as compared to plastic and iron containers, community should be discouraged for storing the water in earthen pots. However, in view of containers of different materials used by the community in different temperature zones in the country, further studies are required for devising area-specific preventive measures for Aedes breeding.

  15. Newly developed semi-empirical formulas for (p, α) at 17.9 MeV and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 74; Issue 6. Newly developed semi-empirical formulas for (, ) at 17.9 MeV and (, ) at 22.3 MeV reaction cross-sections. Eyyup Tel Abdullah Aydin E Gamze Aydin Abdullah Kaplan Ömer Yavaş İskender A Reyhancan. Research Articles Volume 74 Issue 6 June ...

  16. Fast Air Temperature Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Elbert

    1998-01-01

    The note documents briefly work done on a newly developed sensor for making fast temperature measurements on the air flow in the intake ports of an SI engine and in the EGR input line. The work reviewed has been carried out in close cooperation with Civ. Ing. Michael Føns, the author (IAU...

  17. The newly developed Toyota plug-in hybrid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takaoka, Toshifumi; Ichinose, Hiroki [Toyota Motor Corporation (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    Toyota has been introducing several hybrid vehicles (HV) as a countermeasure to the automobile's concerns, like CO2 reduction, energy security, and emission reduction in urban areas. A next step towards an even more effective solution for these concerns is a plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHV). This vehicle combines the advantages of electric vehicles (EV), which use clean electric energy, and HV, with it's high environmental potential and user- friendliness comparable to conventional vehicles, such as a long cruising range. This paper describes a newly developed plug-in hybrid system and its vehicle performance. This system uses a Li-ion battery with high energy density and has an affordable EV range without sacrificing cabin space. The vehicle achieves a CO2 emission of 59g/km and meets the most stringent emission regulations in the world. The new PHV is a forerunner of the large-scale mass production PHV two years later. PHVs have the potential to become popular as a realistic solution towards sustainable mobility by renewable electricity usage in the future. (orig.)

  18. How Schools Can Promote Healthy Development for Newly Arrived Immigrant and Refugee Adolescents: Research Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeely, Clea A.; Morland, Lyn; Doty, S. Benjamin; Meschke, Laurie L.; Awad, Summer; Husain, Altaf; Nashwan, Ayat

    2017-01-01

    Background: The US education system must find creative and effective ways to foster the healthy development of the approximately 2 million newly arrived immigrant and refugee adolescents, many of whom contend with language barriers, limited prior education, trauma, and discrimination. We identify research priorities for promoting the school…

  19. A computer literacy scale for newly enrolled nursing college students: development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tung-Cheng

    2011-12-01

    Increasing application and use of information systems and mobile technologies in the healthcare industry require increasing nurse competency in computer use. Computer literacy is defined as basic computer skills, whereas computer competency is defined as the computer skills necessary to accomplish job tasks. Inadequate attention has been paid to computer literacy and computer competency scale validity. This study developed a computer literacy scale with good reliability and validity and investigated the current computer literacy of newly enrolled students to develop computer courses appropriate to students' skill levels and needs. This study referenced Hinkin's process to develop a computer literacy scale. Participants were newly enrolled first-year undergraduate students, with nursing or nursing-related backgrounds, currently attending a course entitled Information Literacy and Internet Applications. Researchers examined reliability and validity using confirmatory factor analysis. The final version of the developed computer literacy scale included six constructs (software, hardware, multimedia, networks, information ethics, and information security) and 22 measurement items. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the scale possessed good content validity, reliability, convergent validity, and discriminant validity. This study also found that participants earned the highest scores for the network domain and the lowest score for the hardware domain. With increasing use of information technology applications, courses related to hardware topic should be increased to improve nurse problem-solving abilities. This study recommends that emphases on word processing and network-related topics may be reduced in favor of an increased emphasis on database, statistical software, hospital information systems, and information ethics.

  20. Newly developed chitosan-silver hybrid nanoparticles: biosafety and apoptosis induction in HepG2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sherbiny, Ibrahim M.; Salih, Ehab; Yassin, Abdelrahman M.; Hafez, Elsayed E.

    2016-01-01

    The present study reports the biosafety assessment, the exact molecular effects, and apoptosis induction of newly developed chitosan-silver hybrid nanoparticles (Cs–Ag NPs) in HepG2 cells. The investigated hybrid NPs were green synthesized using Cs/grape leaves aqueous extract (Cs/GLE) or Cs/GLE NPs as reducing and stabilizing agents. The successful formation of Cs/GLE NPs and Cs–Ag hybrid NPs has been confirmed by UV–Vis spectrophotometry, FTIR spectroscopy, XRD, and HRTEM. From the TEM analysis, the prepared Cs/GLE NPs are uniform and spherical with an average size of 150 nm, and the AgNPs (5–10 nm) were formed mainly on their surface. The UV–Vis spectra of Cs–Ag NPs showed a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak at about 450 nm confirming their formation. The synthesized Cs–Ag NPs were found to be crystalline as shown by XRD patterns with fcc phase oriented along the (111), (200), (220), and (311) planes. The cytotoxicity patterns, the antiproliferative activities, and the possible mechanisms of anticancer activity at molecular level of the newly developed Cs–Ag hybrid NPs were investigated. Cytotoxicity patterns of all the preparations demonstrated that the nontoxic treatment concentrations are ranged from 0.39 to 50 %, and many of the newly prepared Cs–Ag hybrid NPs showed high anticancer activities against HpG2 cells, and induced cellular apoptosis by downregulating BCL2 gene and upregulating P53.Graphical Abstract

  1. Newly developed chitosan-silver hybrid nanoparticles: biosafety and apoptosis induction in HepG2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sherbiny, Ibrahim M., E-mail: ielsherbiny@Zewailcity.edu.eg; Salih, Ehab [Zewail City of Science and Technology, Center for Materials Science (Egypt); Yassin, Abdelrahman M. [Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, City of Scientific Research and Technology Applications, Biopharmaceutical Product Research Department (Egypt); Hafez, Elsayed E. [City of Scientific Research and Technology Applications, Plant Protection and Biomolecular Diagnosis Department (Egypt)

    2016-07-15

    The present study reports the biosafety assessment, the exact molecular effects, and apoptosis induction of newly developed chitosan-silver hybrid nanoparticles (Cs–Ag NPs) in HepG2 cells. The investigated hybrid NPs were green synthesized using Cs/grape leaves aqueous extract (Cs/GLE) or Cs/GLE NPs as reducing and stabilizing agents. The successful formation of Cs/GLE NPs and Cs–Ag hybrid NPs has been confirmed by UV–Vis spectrophotometry, FTIR spectroscopy, XRD, and HRTEM. From the TEM analysis, the prepared Cs/GLE NPs are uniform and spherical with an average size of 150 nm, and the AgNPs (5–10 nm) were formed mainly on their surface. The UV–Vis spectra of Cs–Ag NPs showed a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak at about 450 nm confirming their formation. The synthesized Cs–Ag NPs were found to be crystalline as shown by XRD patterns with fcc phase oriented along the (111), (200), (220), and (311) planes. The cytotoxicity patterns, the antiproliferative activities, and the possible mechanisms of anticancer activity at molecular level of the newly developed Cs–Ag hybrid NPs were investigated. Cytotoxicity patterns of all the preparations demonstrated that the nontoxic treatment concentrations are ranged from 0.39 to 50 %, and many of the newly prepared Cs–Ag hybrid NPs showed high anticancer activities against HpG2 cells, and induced cellular apoptosis by downregulating BCL2 gene and upregulating P53.Graphical Abstract.

  2. The use and development of the high-temperature reactor (HTR) in China. A conference report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marnet, C.

    2001-01-01

    Gas-cooled graphite-moderated reactors have been under development since the early days of nuclear technology. Starting with plants in Britain and France, reactors employing this combination of coolant and moderator were used in commercial nuclear power plants in the second half of the fifties. At the same time, efforts seeking to use inert helium gas as a coolant resulted in the construction in several countries, the United States and Germany in particular, of larger nuclear power plants with higher coolant temperatures and the resultant thermodynamic advantages of high efficiencies and the option of process heat generation. Economic and political considerations led to the decommissioning of these plants. Today, research and development of high-temperature reactors are concentrated on smaller units. Work is carried out in close international cooperation, especially on project designs and newly commissioned plants in China (HTR-10), Japan (HTTR, Oarai), And South Africa (ESKOM project), but also in the USA and in Russia. (orig.) [de

  3. A newly development RIA for thyroid hormone autoantibodies (THAAb)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Fengying; Gu Liqiong; Chen Xiayin; Jin Yan; Chen Shuxian; Zhang Qun; Qiu Hongxia; Yang Jingren; Zhao Yongju; Chen Mingdao

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To report a newly developed RIA for THAAb from this laboratory. Methods: The tested serum samples were cultured with labelled thyroid hormone analogous ( 125 I T 3 , 125 I T 4 ) for 16 hours. Antigen-antibody complex was precipitated with anti-human IgG (immune precipitation method) and radio-activity determined. Results: The mean positive rate of THAAb in healthy euthyroid controls (n=186) was only 1.07%. The mean positive rate in patients with thyroid disorders was 14.4% (mean rate 13.5% in hyperthyroid subjects, n=118 and mean rate 15.2% in hypothyroid subjects, n=72). The serum THAAb titer could be markedly lowered after adding non-labelled thyroid hormones (P 3 and FT 4 would be significantly lowered (P 3 , FT 4 levels. In patients with positive THAAb (about 14.4% in patients with all thyroid disorders), the FT 3 , FT 4 levels were best determined after PEG precipitation. (authors)

  4. Muscle Attenuation Is Associated With Newly Developed Hypertension in Men of African Ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Zmuda, Joseph M; Kuipers, Allison L; Bunker, Clareann H; Patrick, Alan L; Youk, Ada O; Miljkovic, Iva

    2017-05-01

    Increased ectopic adipose tissue infiltration in skeletal muscle is associated with insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus. We evaluated whether change in skeletal muscle adiposity predicts subsequent development of hypertension in men of African ancestry, a population sample understudied in previous studies. In the Tobago Health Study, a prospective longitudinal study among men of African ancestry (age range 40-91 years), calf intermuscular adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle attenuation were measured with computed tomography. Hypertension was defined as a systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg, or a diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg, or receiving antihypertensive medications. Logistic regression was performed with adjustment for age, insulin resistance, baseline and 6-year change in body mass index, baseline and 6-year change in waist circumference, and other potential confounding factors. Among 746 normotensive men at baseline, 321 (43%) developed hypertension during the mean 6.2 years of follow-up. Decreased skeletal muscle attenuation was associated with newly developed hypertension after adjustment for baseline and 6-year change of body mass index (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] per SD, 1.3 [1.0-1.6]) or baseline and 6-year change of waist circumference (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] per SD, 1.3 [1.0-1.6]). No association was observed between increased intermuscular adipose tissue and hypertension. Our novel findings show that decreased muscle attenuation is associated with newly developed hypertension among men of African ancestry, independent of general and central adiposity and insulin resistance. Further studies are needed to adjust for inflammation, visceral and other ectopic adipose tissue depots, and to confirm our findings in other population samples. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Safety philosophy of gas turbine high temperature reactor (GTHTR300)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji Katanishi; Kazuhiko Kunitomi; Shusaku Shiozawa

    2002-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has undertaken the study of an original design concept of gas turbine high temperature reactor, the GTHTR300. The general concept of this study is development of a greatly simplified design that leads to substantially reduced technical and cost requirements. Newly proposed design features enable the GTHTR300 to be an efficient and economically competitive reactor in 2010's. Also, the GTHTR300 fully takes advantage of its inherent safety characteristics. The safety philosophy of the GTHTR300 is developed based on the HTTR (High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor) of JAERI which is the first HTGR in Japan. Major features of the newly proposed safety philosophy for the GTHTR300 are described in this article. (authors)

  6. Predictive score for the development or progression of Graves' orbitopathy in patients with newly diagnosed Graves' hyperthyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiersinga, Wilmar; Žarković, Miloš; Bartalena, Luigi

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To construct a predictive score for the development or progression of Graves' orbitopathy (GO) in Graves' hyperthyroidism (GH). DESIGN: Prospective observational study in patients with newly diagnosed GH, treated with antithyroid drugs (ATD) for 18 months at ten participating centers f...

  7. Development of Cloud Chamber by Using Peltier Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Jong Kwan; Kwon, Jin Young; Park, Sang Tae

    2011-01-01

    In this research, we developed the newly cloud chamber apparatus by using Peltier device to apply nuclear physics experiment in high school or university. We observed the cosmic rays track by using the developed apparatus and a camcorder. And we compared and analyzed the acquired data. From the results, we acquired the following conclusions and suggestions : First, it is very difficult to observe the cosmic rays track in the typical cloud chamber because of the low frequency of it. But in the newly developed cloud chamber we can observe easily the cosmic rays track owing to the high frequency of it. Second, when we do the experiment with the newly developed apparatus, we found that the cosmic rays track happens well under the condition that the temperature of the upper place of cooling plate must be below 5 degree Celsius with more than isopropanol 1.04X10 -5 ml.mm -3 . Third, the newly developed apparatus will be improved to have better precision by controlling the temperature of cooling plate in the cloud chamber by current intensity. Therefore we think that it is very useful to use the newly developed apparatus in the nuclear physics experiment in high school or university.

  8. Development of Cloud Chamber by Using Peltier Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Jong Kwan [Jae Hyun High School, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Jin Young [Jeon Min High School, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang Tae [Dept. of Physics Education, Kongju National University, Kongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    In this research, we developed the newly cloud chamber apparatus by using Peltier device to apply nuclear physics experiment in high school or university. We observed the cosmic rays track by using the developed apparatus and a camcorder. And we compared and analyzed the acquired data. From the results, we acquired the following conclusions and suggestions : First, it is very difficult to observe the cosmic rays track in the typical cloud chamber because of the low frequency of it. But in the newly developed cloud chamber we can observe easily the cosmic rays track owing to the high frequency of it. Second, when we do the experiment with the newly developed apparatus, we found that the cosmic rays track happens well under the condition that the temperature of the upper place of cooling plate must be below 5 degree Celsius with more than isopropanol 1.04X10{sup -5}ml.mm{sup -3}. Third, the newly developed apparatus will be improved to have better precision by controlling the temperature of cooling plate in the cloud chamber by current intensity. Therefore we think that it is very useful to use the newly developed apparatus in the nuclear physics experiment in high school or university.

  9. Pressure drop performance evaluation for test assemblies with the newly developed top and bottom nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S. K.; Park, N. K.; Su, J. M.; Kim, H. K.; Lee, J. N.; Kim, K. T.

    2003-01-01

    To perform the hydraulic test for the newly developed top and bottom nozzles, two kinds of test assemblies were manufactured i. e. one is the test assembly which has the newly developed top and bottom nozzles and the other is Guardian test assembly which is commercially in mass production now. The test results show that the test assembly with one top nozzle and two bottom nozzles has a greater pressure loss coefficient than Guardian test assembly by 60.9% and 90.4% at the bottom nozzle location. This cause is due to the debris filtering plate for bottom nozzle to improve a filtering efficiency aginst foreign material. In the region of mid grid and top nozzle, there is no difference in pressure loss coefficient between the test assemblies since the componet features in these regions are very similar or same each other. The loss coefficients are 14.2% and 21.9% for model A and B respectively in the scale of test assembly, and the value would be within the 10% in the scale of real fuel assembly. As a result of hydraulic performance evaluation, model A is superior to model B

  10. Combined Effects of Temperature and Salinity on Larval ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was found that P. catenata larvae develop optimally in near to seawater salinity at a temperature of around 25 ºC. These results support the assumption that newly-hatched larvae of this species are exported from the estuarine environment to the sea for development. Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science ...

  11. How Schools Can Promote Healthy Development for Newly Arrived Immigrant and Refugee Adolescents: Research Priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeely, Clea A; Morland, Lyn; Doty, S Benjamin; Meschke, Laurie L; Awad, Summer; Husain, Altaf; Nashwan, Ayat

    2017-02-01

    The US education system must find creative and effective ways to foster the healthy development of the approximately 2 million newly arrived immigrant and refugee adolescents, many of whom contend with language barriers, limited prior education, trauma, and discrimination. We identify research priorities for promoting the school success of these youth. The study used the 4-phase priority-setting method of the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative. In the final stage, 132 researchers, service providers, educators, and policymakers based in the United States were asked to rate the importance of 36 research options. The highest priority research options (range 1 to 5) were: evaluating newcomer programs (mean = 4.44, SD = 0.55), identifying how family and community stressors affect newly arrived immigrant and refugee adolescents' functioning in school (mean = 4.40, SD = 0.56), identifying teachers' major stressors in working with this population (mean = 4.36, SD = 0.72), and identifying how to engage immigrant and refugee families in their children's education (mean = 4.35, SD = 0.62). These research priorities emphasize the generation of practical knowledge that could translate to immediate, tangible benefits for schools. Funders, schools, and researchers can use these research priorities to guide research for the highest benefit of schools and the newly arrived immigrant and refugee adolescents they serve. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  12. A multi-method approach to curriculum development for in-service training in China's newly established health emergency response offices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadong Wang

    Full Text Available To describe an innovative approach for developing and implementing an in-service curriculum in China for staff of the newly established health emergency response offices (HEROs, and that is generalisable to other settings.The multi-method training needs assessment included reviews of the competency domains needed to implement the International Health Regulations (2005 as well as China's policies and emergency regulations. The review, iterative interviews and workshops with experts in government, academia, the military, and with HERO staff were reviewed critically by an expert technical advisory panel.Over 1600 participants contributed to curriculum development. Of the 18 competency domains identified as essential for HERO staff, nine were developed into priority in-service training modules to be conducted over 2.5 weeks. Experts from academia and experienced practitioners prepared and delivered each module through lectures followed by interactive problem-solving exercises and desktop simulations to help trainees apply, experiment with, and consolidate newly acquired knowledge and skills.This study adds to the emerging literature on China's enduring efforts to strengthen its emergency response capabilities since the outbreak of SARS in 2003. The multi-method approach to curriculum development in partnership with senior policy-makers, researchers, and experienced practitioners can be applied in other settings to ensure training is responsive and customized to local needs, resources and priorities. Ongoing curriculum development should reflect international standards and be coupled with the development of appropriate performance support systems at the workplace for motivating staff to apply their newly acquired knowledge and skills effectively and creatively.

  13. A multi-method approach to curriculum development for in-service training in China's newly established health emergency response offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yadong; Li, Xiangrui; Yuan, Yiwen; Patel, Mahomed S

    2014-01-01

    To describe an innovative approach for developing and implementing an in-service curriculum in China for staff of the newly established health emergency response offices (HEROs), and that is generalisable to other settings. The multi-method training needs assessment included reviews of the competency domains needed to implement the International Health Regulations (2005) as well as China's policies and emergency regulations. The review, iterative interviews and workshops with experts in government, academia, the military, and with HERO staff were reviewed critically by an expert technical advisory panel. Over 1600 participants contributed to curriculum development. Of the 18 competency domains identified as essential for HERO staff, nine were developed into priority in-service training modules to be conducted over 2.5 weeks. Experts from academia and experienced practitioners prepared and delivered each module through lectures followed by interactive problem-solving exercises and desktop simulations to help trainees apply, experiment with, and consolidate newly acquired knowledge and skills. This study adds to the emerging literature on China's enduring efforts to strengthen its emergency response capabilities since the outbreak of SARS in 2003. The multi-method approach to curriculum development in partnership with senior policy-makers, researchers, and experienced practitioners can be applied in other settings to ensure training is responsive and customized to local needs, resources and priorities. Ongoing curriculum development should reflect international standards and be coupled with the development of appropriate performance support systems at the workplace for motivating staff to apply their newly acquired knowledge and skills effectively and creatively.

  14. Association Between Manual Loading and Newly Developed Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in Subjects With Physical Disabilities: A Follow-Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Nung; Chiu, Chun-Chieh; Huang, Shih-Wei; Hsu, Wen-Yen; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Chen, Yi-Wen; Chang, Kwang-Hwa

    2017-10-01

    To identify the association between body composition and newly developed carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and to search for the best probabilistic cutoff value of associated factors to predict subjects with physical disabilities developing new CTS. Longitudinal. University-affiliated medical center. Subjects with physical disabilities (N=47; mean age ± SD, 42.1±7.7y). Not applicable. Median and ulnar sensory nerve conduction velocity (SNCV) were measured at the initial and follow-up tests (interval >2y). Total and regional body composition were measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry at the initial test. Leg lean tissue percentage was calculated to delineate each participant's manual loading degree during locomotion. Leg lean tissue percentage is the lean tissue mass of both legs divided by body weight. Based on median SNCV changes, we divided all participants into 3 groups: subjects with bilateral CTS (median SNCV value normative ulnar SNCV value >37.8m/s) in the initial test (n=10), subjects with newly developed CTS in the follow-up test (n=8), and subjects without additional CTS in the follow-up test (n=27). Eight of 35 subjects not having bilateral CTS initially developed new CTS (8.8% per year; mean follow-up period, 2.6y). Leg lean tissue percentage was associated with the probability of newly developed CTS (adjusted odds ratio, .64; P12% were less likely to have developed new CTS at the follow-up test (sensitivity, .75; specificity, .85; area under the curve, .88; Pphysical disabilities. Therefore, a preventive program for those subjects at risk can start early. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The risk of newly developed visual impairment in treated normal-tension glaucoma: 10-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun Jeong; Kim, Martha; Park, Ki Ho; Kim, Dong Myung; Kim, Seok Hwan

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the risk and risk factors for newly developed visual impairment in treated patients with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) followed up on for 10 years. Patients with NTG, who did not have visual impairment at the initial diagnosis and had undergone intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering treatment for more than 7 years, were included on the basis of a retrospective chart review. Visual impairment was defined as either low vision (0.05 [20/400] ≤ visual acuity (VA) visual field (VF) visual impairment, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and generalized linear mixed effects models were utilized. During the 10.8 years mean follow-up period, 20 eyes of 16 patients were diagnosed as visual impairment (12 eyes as low vision, 8 as blindness) among 623 eyes of 411 patients. The cumulative risk of visual impairment in at least one eye was 2.8% at 10 years and 8.7% at 15 years. The risk factors for visual impairment from treated NTG were worse VF mean deviation (MD) at diagnosis and longer follow-up period. The risk of newly developed visual impairment in the treated patients with NTG was relatively low. Worse VF MD at diagnosis and longer follow-up period were associated with development of visual impairment. © 2014 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Extended Temperature Solar Cell Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Jenkins, Phillip; Scheiman, David; Rafaelle, Ryne

    2004-01-01

    Future NASA missions will require solar cells to operate both in regimes closer to the sun, and farther from the sun, where the operating temperatures will be higher and lower than standard operational conditions. NASA Glenn is engaged in testing solar cells under extended temperature ranges, developing theoretical models of cell operation as a function of temperature, and in developing technology for improving the performance of solar cells for both high and low temperature operation.

  17. Value of a newly sequenced bacterial genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbosa, Eudes; Aburjaile, Flavia F; Ramos, Rommel Tj

    2014-01-01

    and annotation will not be undertaken. It is important to know what is lost when we settle for a draft genome and to determine the "scientific value" of a newly sequenced genome. This review addresses the expected impact of newly sequenced genomes on antibacterial discovery and vaccinology. Also, it discusses...... heightened expectations that NGS would boost antibacterial discovery and vaccine development. Although many possible drug and vaccine targets have been discovered, the success rate of genome-based analysis has remained below expectations. Furthermore, NGS has had consequences for genome quality, resulting...

  18. Underground trials on a newly developed EDW 150-2 L unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wille, G.; Klimek, K.H.

    1982-01-01

    Coal-getting from medium thick coalbeds (> 1.7 m) requires high-performance shearer-loaders. Machine length and adjustability have to be such as to permit smooth cutting through geological faults. Furthermore they should be suitable to cut out niches for the AFC drives so that gateroads can be driven along with the face line. The newly developed EDW 150-2 L shearer-loader meets these expectations after various mechanical and electrical improvements. The unit proved its usefulness from the beginning and in the most difficult geological conditions where other shearer-loaders normally available for the range of coalbed thickness would mostly have failed. The multiple requirements and disturbances have led to a number of separate improvements and disturbances have led to a number of separate improvements which together contribute to a basic improvement of the machine concept as far as applications, operational flexibility and safety are concerned.

  19. A Newly Improved Modified Method Development and Validation of Bromofenac Sodium Sesquihydrate in Bulk Drug Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Sunil Kumar Yelamanchi V; Useni Reddy Mallu; I. V Kasi Viswanath; D. Balasubramanyam; G. Narshima Murthy

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to develop a simple, efficient, specific, precise and accurate newly improved modified Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Purity (or) Related substance method for bromofenac sodium sesquihydrate active pharmaceuticals ingredient dosage form. Validation of analytical method is the confirmation by examination and the provision of objective evidence that the particular requirements for a specific intended use are fulfilled as per ICH, USP...

  20. Temperature suitability for malaria climbing the Ethiopian Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Bradfield; Dinku, Tufa; Raman, Anita; Thomson, Madeleine C.

    2017-06-01

    While the effect of climate change on the prevalence of malaria in the highlands of Eastern Africa has been the topic of protracted debate, temperature is widely accepted as a fundamentally important environmental factor constraining its transmission. Air temperatures below approximately 18 °C and 15 °C, respectively, prohibit the development of the Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax parasites responsible for the majority of malaria cases in Ethiopia. Low temperatures also impede the development rates of the Anopheles mosquito vectors. While locations of sufficiently high elevation have temperatures below these transmission thresholds, a fundamental question is how such temperature ‘threshold elevations’ are changing with time. A lack of high quality, high spatial resolution climate data has previously prohibited a rigorous investigation. Using a newly developed national temperature dataset for Ethiopia that combines numerous in-situ surface observations with downscaled reanalysis data, we here identify statistically significant increases in elevation for both the 18 °C and 15 °C thresholds in highland areas between 1981-2014. Substantial interannual and spatial variations in threshold elevations are identified, the former associated with the El Niño Southern-Oscillation and the latter with the complex climate of the region. The estimated population in locations with an upward trend in the 15 °C threshold elevation is approximately 6.5 million people (2.2 million for 18 °C). While not a direct prediction of the additional population made vulnerable to malaria through a shift to higher temperature, our results underscore a newly acquired ability to investigate climate variability and trends at fine spatial scales across Ethiopia, including changes in a fundamental constraint on malaria transmission in the Ethiopian Highlands.

  1. Improving the performance of temperature index snowmelt model of SWAT by using MODIS land surface temperature data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Onishi, Takeo; Hiramatsu, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Simulation results of the widely used temperature index snowmelt model are greatly influenced by input air temperature data. Spatially sparse air temperature data remain the main factor inducing uncertainties and errors in that model, which limits its applications. Thus, to solve this problem, we created new air temperature data using linear regression relationships that can be formulated based on MODIS land surface temperature data. The Soil Water Assessment Tool model, which includes an improved temperature index snowmelt module, was chosen to test the newly created data. By evaluating simulation performance for daily snowmelt in three test basins of the Amur River, performance of the newly created data was assessed. The coefficient of determination (R (2)) and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) were used for evaluation. The results indicate that MODIS land surface temperature data can be used as a new source for air temperature data creation. This will improve snow simulation using the temperature index model in an area with sparse air temperature observations.

  2. A Newly Developed Nested PCR Assay for the Detection of Helicobacter pylori in the Oral Cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Hawazen; Morgan, Claire; Griffiths, Paul; Williams, John; Jenkins, Gareth

    2016-01-01

    To develop a new nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for identifying Helicobacter pylori DNA from dental plaque. H. pylori is one of the most common chronic bacterial pathogens in humans. The accurate detection of this organism is essential for proper patient management and for the eradication of the bacteria following treatment. Forty-nine patients (24 males and 25 females; mean age: 51; range, 19 to 94 y) were investigated for the presence of H. pylori in dental plaque by single-step PCR and nested PCR and in the stomach by single-step PCR, nested PCR, and histologic examination. The newly developed nested PCR assay identified H. pylori DNA in gastric biopsies of 18 patients who were histologically classified as H. pylori-positive and 2 additional biopsies of patients who were H. pylori-negative by histologic examination (20/49; 40.8%). Dental plaque samples collected before and after endoscopy from the 49 patients revealed that single-step PCR did not detect H. pylori but nested PCR was able to detect H. pylori DNA in 40.8% (20/49) patients. Nested PCR gave a higher detection rate (40.8%, 20/49) than that of histology (36.7%, 18/49) and single-step PCR. When nested PCR results were compared with histology results there was no significant difference between the 2 methods. Our newly developed nested PCR assay is at least as sensitive as histology and may be useful for H. pylori detection in patients unfit for endoscopic examination.

  3. Characteristics of bread prepared from wheat flours blended with various kinds of newly developed rice flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, S; Suzuki, K; Ohtsubo, K

    2009-04-01

    Characteristics of the bread prepared from wheat flour blended with the flour of various kinds of newly developed rice cultivars were investigated. Qualities of the bread made from wheat flour blended with rice flour have been reported to be inferior to those from 100% wheat flour bread. To improve its qualities, we searched for the new-characteristic rice flours among the various kinds of newly developed rice cultivars to blend with the wheat flour for the bread preparation. The most suitable new characteristic rices are combination of purple waxy rice, high-amylose rice, and sugary rice. Specific volume of the bread from the combination of wheat and these 3 kinds of rice flours showed higher specific volume (3.93) compared with the traditional wheat/rice bread (3.58). We adopted the novel method, continuous progressive compression test, to measure the physical properties of the dough and the bread in addition to the sensory evaluation. As a result of the selection of the most suitable rice cultivars and blending ratio with the wheat flour, we could develop the novel wheat/rice bread, of which loaf volume, physical properties, and tastes are acceptable and resistant to firming on even 4 d after the bread preparation. To increase the ratio of rice to wheat, we tried to add a part of rice as cooked rice grains. The specific volume and qualities of the bread were maintained well although the rice content of total flour increased from 30% to 40%.

  4. Development of high temperature turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahara, Kitao; Nouse, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Toyoaki; Minoda, Mitsuhiro; Matsusue, Katsutoshi; Yanagi, Ryoji

    1988-07-01

    For the contribution to the development of FJR710, high by-pass ratio turbofan engine, with the study for many years of the development of high efficiency turbine for the jet engine, the first technical prize from the Energy Resource Research Committee was awarded in April, 1988. This report introduced its technical contents. In order to improve the thermal efficiency and enlarge the output, it is very effective to raise the gas temperature at the inlet of gas turbine. For its purpose, by cooling the nozzle and moving blades and having those blades operate at lower temperature than that of the working limitation, they realized, for the first time in Japan, the technique of cooling turbine to heighten the operational gas temperature. By that technique, it was enabled to raise the gas temperature at the inlet of turbine, to 1,350/sup 0/C from 850/sup 0/C. This report explain many important points of study covering the basic test, visualizing flow experiment, material discussion and structural design in the process of development. (9 figs)

  5. Establishment probability in newly founded populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusset Markus

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Establishment success in newly founded populations relies on reaching the established phase, which is defined by characteristic fluctuations of the population’s state variables. Stochastic population models can be used to quantify the establishment probability of newly founded populations; however, so far no simple but robust method for doing so existed. To determine a critical initial number of individuals that need to be released to reach the established phase, we used a novel application of the “Wissel plot”, where –ln(1 – P0(t is plotted against time t. This plot is based on the equation P0t=1–c1e–ω1t, which relates the probability of extinction by time t, P0(t, to two constants: c1 describes the probability of a newly founded population to reach the established phase, whereas ω1 describes the population’s probability of extinction per short time interval once established. Results For illustration, we applied the method to a previously developed stochastic population model of the endangered African wild dog (Lycaon pictus. A newly founded population reaches the established phase if the intercept of the (extrapolated linear parts of the “Wissel plot” with the y-axis, which is –ln(c1, is negative. For wild dogs in our model, this is the case if a critical initial number of four packs, consisting of eight individuals each, are released. Conclusions The method we present to quantify the establishment probability of newly founded populations is generic and inferences thus are transferable to other systems across the field of conservation biology. In contrast to other methods, our approach disaggregates the components of a population’s viability by distinguishing establishment from persistence.

  6. High Temperature Properties and Recent Research Trend of Mg-RE Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Soo Woo [Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    For the applications in automotive, aircraft, aerospace, and electronic industries, the lightest structural Mg alloys have received much attention since 2000. There has been some progress for the improvement of the mechanical properties such as room temperature strength, formability and mechanical anisotropy. However, the high temperature strength of Mg alloys is very low to be used for the parts and structures of high temperature conditions. For the last decade, considerable efforts are concentrated for the development of Mg alloys to be used at high temperature. Newly developing Mg-RE alloys are the good examples for the high temperature use. In this regard, this review paper introduces the recent research trends for the development of Mg-RE alloys strengthened with some precipitates and the long period stacking ordered (LPSO) structures related RE elements.

  7. High Temperature Properties and Recent Research Trend of Mg-RE Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Soo Woo

    2017-01-01

    For the applications in automotive, aircraft, aerospace, and electronic industries, the lightest structural Mg alloys have received much attention since 2000. There has been some progress for the improvement of the mechanical properties such as room temperature strength, formability and mechanical anisotropy. However, the high temperature strength of Mg alloys is very low to be used for the parts and structures of high temperature conditions. For the last decade, considerable efforts are concentrated for the development of Mg alloys to be used at high temperature. Newly developing Mg-RE alloys are the good examples for the high temperature use. In this regard, this review paper introduces the recent research trends for the development of Mg-RE alloys strengthened with some precipitates and the long period stacking ordered (LPSO) structures related RE elements.

  8. The effectiveness of newly developed written asthma action plan in improvement of asthma outcome in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakupoch, Kingthong; Manuyakorn, Wiparat; Preutthipan, Aroonwan; Kamalaporn, Harutai

    2017-09-17

    Providing asthma education about controller medication use and appropriate management of asthma exacerbation are the keys to improving the disease outcome. Many asthma guidelines recommend that physicians provide written asthma action plan (WAAP) to all of their asthmatic patients. However, the benefit of WAAP is unclear. Thus, we have created a new WAAP which is simplified in Thai and more user friendly. To determine the effectiveness of the newly developed asthma action plan in management of children with asthma. Asthmatic children who meet inclusion criteria all received the WAAP and they were followed up for 6 months with measurement of outcome variables, such as asthma exacerbation that required emergency room visit, unscheduled OPD visit, admission and school absence in order to compare with the past 6 months before receiving the WAAP. The analyzed outcomes of forty-nine children show significantly reduced emergency room visit (P-value 0.005), unscheduled OPD visit (P-value 0.046), admission days (P-value 0.026) and school absence days (P-value 0.022). Well controlled group and mild severity group were not the factors that contribute to decreased emergency room visit but step up therapy may be the co-factor to decreased ER visit. The results of this study suggest that the provision of newly developed WAAP is useful for improving self-care of asthma patients and reducing asthma exacerbation.

  9. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE ORTHO/PARA RATIO OF NEWLY FORMED MOLECULAR HYDROGEN ON AMORPHOUS SOLID WATER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavilan, L.; Lemaire, J. L.; Dulieu, F.; Congiu, E.; Chaabouni, H.; Vidali, G.; Chehrouri, M.; Fillion, J.-H.

    2012-01-01

    Several astronomical observations have shown that the ortho/para ratio (OPR) of H 2 can differ from the expected statistical value of 3 or the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) value at the gas or dust temperature. It is thus important to know the OPR of H 2 newly formed on dust grain surfaces, in order to clarify the dependence of the observed OPR in space on the formation process. Using an experimental setup designed to mimic interstellar medium environments, we measured the OPR of H 2 and D 2 formed on the surface of porous amorphous water ice held at 10 K. We report for the first time the OPR value for newly formed D 2 , consistent with the expected LTE value at the high-temperature limit found by previous theoretical and experimental works on the determination of the OPR upon H 2 formation on surfaces at low temperature.

  10. Newly developed liquid-based cytology. TACAS™: cytological appearance and HPV testing using liquid-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubushiro, Kaneyuki; Taoka, Hideki; Sakurai, Nobuyuki; Yamamoto, Yasuhiro; Kurasaki, Akiko; Asakawa, Yasuyuki; Iwahara, Minoru; Takahashi, Kei

    2011-09-01

    Cell profiles determined by the thin-layer advanced cytology assay system (TACAS™), a liquid-based cytology technique newly developed in Japan, were analyzed in this study. Hybrid capture 2 (HC-2) was also performed using the liquid-based samples prepared by TACAS to ascertain its ability to detect human papillomavirus (HPV). Cell collection samples from uterine cervix were obtained from 359 patients and examined cytologically. A HC-2 assay for HPV was carried out in the cell specimens. All specimens were found to show background factors such as leukocytes. After excluding the 5 unsatisfactory cases from the total 354 cases, 82 cases (23.2%) were positive and 272 cases (76.8%) were negative for HPV. Cell specimens from 30 HPV-positive cases and 166 HPV-negative cases were subjected to 4 weeks of preservation at room temperature. Then, when subsequently re-assayed, 28 cases (93.3%) in the former group were found to be HPV positive and 164 cases (98.8%) in the latter group were found to be HPV negative. These results supported the excellent reproducibility of TACAS for HPV testing. A reasonable inference from the foregoing analysis is that TACAS may be distinguished from other liquid-based cytological approaches, such as ThinPrep and SurePath, in that it can retain the cell backgrounds. Furthermore, this study raises the possibility that cell specimens prepared using TACAS could be preserved for at least 4 weeks prior to carrying out a HC-2 assay for HPV.

  11. Development of Anodic Flux and Temperature Controlling System for Micro Direct Methanol Fuel Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, M M; Liu, C; Liang, J S; Wu, C B; Xu, Z

    2006-01-01

    Micro Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (μDMFC) is a kind of newly developed power sources, which effective apparatus for its performance evaluation is still in urgent need at present. In this study, a testing system was established for the purpose of testing the continuous working performance such as micro flux and temperature of μDMFC. In view of the temperature controlling for micro-flux liquid fuel, a heating block with labyrinth-like single pass channel inside for heating up the methanol solution was fabricated. A semiconductorrefrigerating chip was utilized to heat and cool the liquid flow during testing procedures. On the other hand, the two channels of a high accuracy double-channel syringe pump that can suck and pump in turn so as to transport methanol solution continuously was adopted. Based on the requirements of wide-ranged temperature and micro flux controlling, the solenoid valves and the correlative component were used. A hydraulic circuit, which can circulate the fed methanol cold to hot in turn, has also been constructed to test the fatigue life of the μDMFC. The automatic control was actualized by software module written with Visual C++. Experimental results show that the system is perfect in stability and it may provide an important and advanced evaluation apparatus to satisfy the needs for real time performance testing of μDMFC

  12. Conventional and improved cytotoxicity test methods of newly developed biodegradable magnesium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyung-Seop; Kim, Hee-Kyoung; Kim, Yu-Chan; Seok, Hyun-Kwang; Kim, Young-Yul

    2015-11-01

    Unique biodegradable property of magnesium has spawned countless studies to develop ideal biodegradable orthopedic implant materials in the last decade. However, due to the rapid pH change and extensive amount of hydrogen gas generated during biocorrosion, it is extremely difficult to determine the accurate cytotoxicity of newly developed magnesium alloys using the existing methods. Herein, we report a new method to accurately determine the cytotoxicity of magnesium alloys with varying corrosion rate while taking in-vivo condition into the consideration. For conventional method, extract quantities of each metal ion were determined using ICP-MS and the result showed that the cytotoxicity due to pH change caused by corrosion affected the cell viability rather than the intrinsic cytotoxicity of magnesium alloy. In physiological environment, pH is regulated and adjusted within normal pH (˜7.4) range by homeostasis. Two new methods using pH buffered extracts were proposed and performed to show that environmental buffering effect of pH, dilution of the extract, and the regulation of eluate surface area must be taken into consideration for accurate cytotoxicity measurement of biodegradable magnesium alloys.

  13. Temperature extremes: Effect on plant growth and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry L. Hatfield

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Temperature is a primary factor affecting the rate of plant development. Warmer temperatures expected with climate change and the potential for more extreme temperature events will impact plant productivity. Pollination is one of the most sensitive phenological stages to temperature extremes across all species and during this developmental stage temperature extremes would greatly affect production. Few adaptation strategies are available to cope with temperature extremes at this developmental stage other than to select for plants which shed pollen during the cooler periods of the day or are indeterminate so flowering occurs over a longer period of the growing season. In controlled environment studies, warm temperatures increased the rate of phenological development; however, there was no effect on leaf area or vegetative biomass compared to normal temperatures. The major impact of warmer temperatures was during the reproductive stage of development and in all cases grain yield in maize was significantly reduced by as much as 80−90% from a normal temperature regime. Temperature effects are increased by water deficits and excess soil water demonstrating that understanding the interaction of temperature and water will be needed to develop more effective adaptation strategies to offset the impacts of greater temperature extreme events associated with a changing climate.

  14. Evaluation of Shielding Performance for Newly Developed Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Beren Richard

    This work details an investigation into the contributing factors behind the success of newly developed composite neutron shield materials. Monte Carlo simulation methods were utilized to assess the neutron shielding capabilities and secondary radiation production characteristics of aluminum boron carbide, tungsten boron carbide, bismuth borosilicate glass, and Metathene within various neutron energy spectra. Shielding performance and secondary radiation data suggested that tungsten boron carbide was the most effective composite material. An analysis of the macroscopic cross-section contributions from constituent materials and interaction mechanisms was then performed in an attempt to determine the reasons for tungsten boron carbide's success over the other investigated materials. This analysis determined that there was a positive correlation between a non-elastic interaction contribution towards a material's total cross-section and shielding performance within the thermal and epi-thermal energy regimes. This finding was assumed to be a result of the boron-10 absorption reaction. The analysis also determined that within the faster energy regions, materials featuring higher non-elastic interaction contributions were comparable to those exhibiting primarily elastic scattering via low Z elements. This allowed for the conclusion that composite shield success within higher energy neutron spectra does not necessitate the use elastic scattering via low Z elements. These findings suggest that the inclusion of materials featuring high thermal absorption properties is more critical to composite neutron shield performance than the presence of constituent materials more inclined to maximize elastic scattering energy loss.

  15. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE ORTHO/PARA RATIO OF NEWLY FORMED MOLECULAR HYDROGEN ON AMORPHOUS SOLID WATER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavilan, L.; Lemaire, J. L.; Dulieu, F.; Congiu, E.; Chaabouni, H. [LERMA, UMR 8112 du CNRS, de l' Observatoire de Paris et de l' Universite de Cergy Pontoise, 5 mail Gay Lussac, F-95000 Cergy Pontoise Cedex (France); Vidali, G. [Visiting Professor. Permanent address: Physics Department, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244-1320 (United States); Chehrouri, M. [Permanent address: LEPC Universite de Saida, BP138, ENSAR, 20002 Saida (Algeria); Fillion, J.-H., E-mail: lisseth.gavilan@obspm.fr [Permanent address: LPMAA, UMR 7092, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2012-11-20

    Several astronomical observations have shown that the ortho/para ratio (OPR) of H{sub 2} can differ from the expected statistical value of 3 or the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) value at the gas or dust temperature. It is thus important to know the OPR of H{sub 2} newly formed on dust grain surfaces, in order to clarify the dependence of the observed OPR in space on the formation process. Using an experimental setup designed to mimic interstellar medium environments, we measured the OPR of H{sub 2} and D{sub 2} formed on the surface of porous amorphous water ice held at 10 K. We report for the first time the OPR value for newly formed D{sub 2}, consistent with the expected LTE value at the high-temperature limit found by previous theoretical and experimental works on the determination of the OPR upon H{sub 2} formation on surfaces at low temperature.

  16. Combustion, performance and emissions characteristics of a newly ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of a newly developed CRDI single cylinder diesel engine. AVINASH ... In case of unit injector and unit pump systems, fuel injection pressure depends on ... nozzle hole diameters were effective in reducing smoke and PM emissions. However ...

  17. Technology development for high temperature logging tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veneruso, A.F.; Coquat, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    A set of prototype, high temperature logging tools (temperature, pressure and flow) were tested successfully to temperatures up to 275/sup 0/C in a Union geothermal well during November 1978 as part of the Geothermal Logging Instrumentation Development Program. This program is being conducted by Sandia Laboratories for the Department of Energy's Division of Geothermal Energy. The progress and plans of this industry based program to develop and apply the high temperature instrumentation technology needed to make reliable geothermal borehole measurements are described. Specifically, this program is upgrading existing sondes for improved high temperature performance, as well as applying new materials (elastomers, polymers, metals and ceramics) and developing component technology such as high temperature cables, cableheads and electronics to make borehole measurements such as formation temperature, flow rate, high resolution pressure and fracture mapping. In order to satisfy critical existing needs, the near term goal is for operation up to 275/sup 0/C and 7000 psi by the end of FY80. The long term goal is for operation up to 350/sup 0/C and 20,000 psi by the end of FY84.

  18. The use of newly developed real-time PCR for the rapid identification of bacteria in culture-negative osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Naomi; Bauer, Thomas W; Sakai, Hiroshige; Togawa, Daisuke; Lieberman, Isador H; Fujishiro, Takaaki; Procop, Gary W

    2006-12-01

    We report a case of a culture-negative osteomyelitis in which our newly developed real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) could differentiate Staphylococcus aureus from Staphylococcus epidermidis. This is the first report that described the application of this novel assay to an orthopedics clinical sample. This assay may be useful for other clinical culture-negative cases in a combination with a broad-spectrum assay as a rapid microorganism identification method.

  19. Perceptions of the clinical competence of newly registered nurses in the North West province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Moeti

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The clinical competence of newly registered nurses relating to the care of individual Clients, depends on their ability to correlate theoretical knowledge learned in the classroom with practice and the development of clinical skills. Its foundation lies in the ability to identify and solve problems that emanate from critical thinking, analytical reasoning and reflective practice. It is clear that the quality of clinical exposure plays a leading role in the development of nursing professionals. Nursing skills alone cannot ensure quality care of clients without the application of theory. Facilitation of this theory to practice therefore remains an essential component of nursing education. This study was aimed at identifying areas of incompetence of newly registered nurses (1998- 2001 in the clinical area by determining the newly registered nurses1 and professional nurses1 perceptions of the competence of the newly registered nurses. A quantitative, non-experimental, descriptive survey was used to collect the data regarding the clinical competence of newly registered nurses (1998-2001.

  20. High Temperature Transparent Furnace Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Stephen C.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the use of novel techniques for heat containment that could be used to build a high temperature transparent furnace. The primary objective of the work was to experimentally demonstrate transparent furnace operation at 1200 C. Secondary objectives were to understand furnace operation and furnace component specification to enable the design and construction of a low power prototype furnace for delivery to NASA in a follow-up project. The basic approach of the research was to couple high temperature component design with simple concept demonstration experiments that modify a commercially available transparent furnace rated at lower temperature. A detailed energy balance of the operating transparent furnace was performed, calculating heat losses through the furnace components as a result of conduction, radiation, and convection. The transparent furnace shells and furnace components were redesigned to permit furnace operation at at least 1200 C. Techniques were developed that are expected to lead to significantly improved heat containment compared with current transparent furnaces. The design of a thermal profile in a multizone high temperature transparent furnace design was also addressed. Experiments were performed to verify the energy balance analysis, to demonstrate some of the major furnace improvement techniques developed, and to demonstrate the overall feasibility of a high temperature transparent furnace. The important objective of the research was achieved: to demonstrate the feasibility of operating a transparent furnace at 1200 C.

  1. Measurement equivalence of the newly developed Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy Questionnaire (QOLCE-55).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Mark A; Goodwin, Shane W; Sabaz, Mark; Speechley, Kathy N

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine measurement equivalence of the newly developed Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy Questionnaire (QOLCE-55) across age, sex, and time in a representative sample of children with newly diagnosed epilepsy. Data come from 373 children enrolled in the Health-related Quality of Life in Children with Epilepsy Study (HERQULES), a multisite prospective cohort study. Measurement equivalence was examined using a multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis framework, whereby increasingly stringent parameter constraints are imposed on the model. Comparison groups were stratified based on age (4-7 years vs. 8-12 years), sex (male vs. female), and time (measurement of health-related quality of life at diagnosis vs. 24 months later). The QOLCE-55 demonstrated measurement equivalence at the level of strict invariance for each model tested--age: χ(2) (3,123) = 4,097.3, p QOLCE-55 are perceived similarly among groups stratified by age, sex, and time and provide further evidence supporting the validity of the scale in children with epilepsy. Health professionals and researchers should be confident that group comparisons made using the QOLCE-55 are unbiased and that any group differences detected are meaningful; that is, not related to differences in the interpretation of items by informants. Future research replicating these findings is encouraged. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  2. Practicing on Newly Dead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jewel Abraham

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A newly dead cadaver simulation is practiced on the physical remains of the dead before the onset of rigor mortis. This technique has potential benefits for providing real-life in-situ experience for novice providers in health care practices. Evolving ethical views in health care brings into question some of the ethical aspects associated with newly dead cadaver simulation in terms of justification for practice, autonomy, consent, and the need of disclosure. A clear statement of policies and procedures on newly dead cadaver simulation has yet to be implemented. Although there are benefits and disadvantages to an in-situ cadaver simulation, such practices should not be carried out in secrecy as there is no compelling evidence that suggests such training as imperative. Secrecy in these practices is a violation of honor code of nursing ethics. As health care providers, practitioners are obliged to be ethically honest and trustworthy to their patients. The author explores the ethical aspects of using newly dead cadaver simulation in training novice nursing providers to gain competency in various lifesaving skills, which otherwise cannot be practiced on a living individual. The author explores multiple views on cadaver simulation in relation to ethical theories and practices such as consent and disclosure to family.

  3. Newly qualified teachers´ possibilities to get foothold in a lifelong career course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøjgaard, Frede; Frederiksen, Lisbeth Angela Lunde

    Keyword: Induction program, newly qualified teachers, NQT, retention, professional development In Contrary to many other countries in Europe Denmark does not have any kind of national program regarding teacher induction program (TIP) or support in general to newly qualified teachers what so ever...

  4. Effect of Heat Flux on the Specimen Temperature of an LBE Capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Y. H.; Park, S. J.; Cho, M. S.; Choo, K. N.; Lee, Y. S.

    2011-01-01

    For application of high-temperature irradiation tests in the HANARO reactor for Gen IV reactor material development, a number of newly designed LBE capsules have been investigated at KAERI since 2008. Recent study on heat transfer experiment of an LBE capsule with a single heater has shown that the specimen temperature of the mock-up increased linearly with an increase of heat input. The work highlighted only the heat transfer capability of an LBE capsule with a single heater as a simulated specimen in a liquid metal medium. Hence, a new LBE capsule with multi specimen sets has been designed and fabricated for the heat transfer experiment of an LBE capsule of 11M-01K. In this paper, a series of thermal analyses and heat transfer experiments for a newly designed LBE capsule was implemented to study the effect of an increase in the value of heat input and its influence on temperature distribution in the capsule mock-up

  5. The practical skills of newly qualified nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danbjørg, Dorthe Boe; Birkelund, Regner

    2011-02-01

    This paper reports the findings from a study of newly qualified nurses and which subjects the nurses regarded as the most important in order to be able to live up to the requirements of clinical practice, and how they experience their potential for developing practical and moral skills, after the decrease in practical training. A qualitative approach guided the research process and the analysis of the data. The data was collected by participant observation and qualitative interviews with four nurses as informants. The conclusions made in this study are based on the statements and the observations of the newly qualified nurses. Our findings are discussed in relation to the Aristotelian concept and other relevant literature. The main message is that the newly qualified nurses did not feel equipped when they finished their training. This could be interpreted as a direct consequence of the decrease in practical training. Our study also underlines that the way nursing theory is perceived and taught is problematic. The interviews revealed that the nurses think that nursing theories should be applied directly in practice. This misunderstanding is probably also applicable to the teachers of the theories. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of newly developed anti-bone morphogenetic protein 4 llama-derived antibodies with commercially available BMP4 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calpe, Silvia; Correia, Ana C P; Sancho-Serra, Maria Del Carmen; Krishnadath, Kausilia K

    2016-01-01

    Due to improved understanding of the role of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) in an increasing number of diseases, the development of selective inhibitors of BMP4 is an attractive therapeutic option. The currently available BMP4 inhibitors are not suitable as therapeutics because of their low specificity and low effectiveness. Here, we compared newly generated anti-BMP4 llama-derived antibodies (VHHs) with 3 different types of commercially available BMP4 inhibitors, natural antagonists, small molecule BMPR inhibitors and conventional anti-BMP4 monoclonal antibodies. We found that the anti-BMP4 VHHs were as effective as the natural antagonist or small molecule inhibitors, but had higher specificity. We also showed that commercial anti-BMP4 antibodies were inferior in terms of both specificity and effectiveness. These findings might result from the fact that the VHHs C4C4 and C8C8 target a small region within the BMPR1 epitope of BMP4, whereas the commercial antibodies target other areas of the BMP4 molecule. Our results show that the newly developed anti-BMP4 VHHs are promising antibodies with better specificity and effectivity for inhibition of BMP4, making them an attractive tool for research and for therapeutic applications.

  7. Development of a framework for identification of political environmental issues faced by multinational hotel chains in newly industrialized countries in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Chol Yong

    1992-01-01

    The primary/objective of this study was to develop a framework for identification of political environmental issues faced by multinational hotel chains in newly industrialized countries in Asia. To accomplish the objective, key factors having an impact upon these hotel chains were identified using the Delphi Technique.

  8. The nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) process: A newly developed low-temperature technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattus, A.J.; Lee, D.D.

    1993-01-01

    Bench-top feasibility studies with Hanford single-shell tank (SST) simulants, using a new low-temperature (50-60 degrees C) process for converting nitrate to ammonia and ceramic, have conclusively shown that between 90 and 99% of the nitrate at Hanford can be readily converted to ammonia. In this process, aluminum powders or shot can be used to convert alkaline, nitrate-based supernate to ammonia and an alumina-silica-based ceramic solid. The process may actually be able to utilize already contaminated aluminum scrap metal from various US DOE sites to effect the conversion. The final nitrate-free ceramic product can be calcined, pressed, and sintered like any other ceramic. Based upon the starting volumes of 6.2 and 3.1 M sodium nitrate solution (probable supernate concentrations resulting from salt-cake/sludge removal from the Hanford SSTs), volume reductions as high as 70% are currently obtained, compared with an expected 40 to 50% volume increase if the Hanford supernate were grouted. Engineering data extracted from bench-top studies indicate that the process will be very economical. These data were used to cost a batch facility with a production rate of 1200 kilograms of nitrate per hour for processing all the Hanford SST waste over 20 years. Our process cost analysis indicates that between $2.01 and 2.66 will be required to convert each kilogram of nitrate. Based upon 1957 literature, these costs are one-third to one-half of the processing costs quoted for electrolytic and thermal processes

  9. Development of drift-flux model based on 8 x 8 BWR rod bundle geometry experiments under prototypic temperature and pressure conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Tetsuhiro; Suzuki, Riichiro; Mashiko, Hiroyuki; Hibiki, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    The drift-flux model is one of the imperative concepts used to consider the effects of phase coupling on two-phase flow dynamics. Several drift-flux models are available that apply to rod bundle geometries and some of these are implemented in several nuclear safety analysis codes. However, these models are not validated by well-designed prototypic full bundle test data, and therefore, the scalability of these models has not necessarily been verified. The Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) conducted void fraction measurement tests in Japan with prototypic 8 x 8 BWR (boiling water reactor) rod bundles under prototypic temperature and pressure conditions. Based on these NUPEC data, a new drift-flux model applicable to predicting the void fraction in a rod bundle geometry has been developed. The newly developed drift-flux model is compared with the other existing data such as the two-phase flow test facility (TPTF) data taken at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) [currently, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA)] and low pressure adiabatic 8 x 8 bundle test data taken at Purdue University in the United States. The results of these comparisons show good agreement between the test data and the predictions. The effects of power distribution, spacer grids, and the bundle geometry on the newly developed drift-flux model have been discussed using the NUPEC data. (author)

  10. The effect of low temperature cryocoolers on the development of low temperature superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Michael A.

    2000-01-01

    The commercial development of reliable 4 K cryocoolers improves the future prospects for magnets made from low temperature superconductors (LTS). The hope of the developers of high temperature superconductors (HTS) has been to replace liquid helium cooled LTS magnets with HTS magnets that operate at or near liquid nitrogen temperature. There has been limited success in this endeavor, but continued problems with HTS conductors have greatly slowed progress toward this goal. The development of cryocoolers that reliably operate below 4 K will allow magnets made from LTS conductor to remain very competitive for many years to come. A key enabling technology for the use of low temperature cryocoolers on LTS magnets has been the development of HTS leads. This report describes the characteristics of LTS magnets that can be successfully melded to low-temperature cryocoolers. This report will also show when it is not appropriate to consider the use of low-temperature cryocoolers to cool magnets made with LTS conductor. A couple of specific examples of LTS magnets where cryocoolers can be used are given

  11. Newly graduated nurses' use of knowledge sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldbjerg, Siri Lygum; Grønkjaer, Mette; Sørensen, Erik Elgaard

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To advance evidence on newly graduated nurses' use of knowledge sources. BACKGROUND: Clinical decisions need to be evidence-based and understanding the knowledge sources that newly graduated nurses use will inform both education and practice. Qualitative studies on newly graduated nurses' use...... underscoring progression in knowledge use and perception of competence and confidence among newly graduated nurses. CONCLUSION: The transition phase, feeling of confidence and ability to use critical thinking and reflection, has a great impact on knowledge sources incorporated in clinical decisions....... The synthesis accentuates that for use of newly graduated nurses' qualifications and skills in evidence-based practice, clinical practice needs to provide a supportive environment which nurtures critical thinking and questions and articulates use of multiple knowledge sources....

  12. Study of surface energy budget and test of a newly developed fast photoacoustic spectroscopy based hygrometer in field campaign Szeged (Hungary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatrai, David; Nikov, Daniella; Zsolt Jász, Ervin; Bozóki, Zoltán; Szabó, Gábor; Weidinger, Tamás; András Gyöngyösi, Zénó; Kiss, Melinda; Józsa, János; Simó Diego, Gemma; Cuxart Rodamilans, Joan; Wrenger, Burkhart; Bottyán, Zsolt

    2014-05-01

    A micrometeorological field measurement campaign dedicated to study the surface energy budget and the structure of the boundary layer focusing on the transient layer forming periods during night-time was organized in the period of 10th of November to 3rd of December 2013 in the nearby of Szeged, Hungary. A temporary micrometeorological measurement station was set up at the coordinates N:46.239943; E:20.089758, approximately 1700 m far from a national meteorology station (N:46.255711; E:20.09052). In the experimental micrometeorological site different types of instruments were installed to measure numerous parameters: standard meteorological measurements (p, T, wet, wind speed and direction at three different levels, relative humidity at two levels and absolute humidity at one level) radiation budget components surface temperature and leaf wetness soil temperature, moisture and heat flux into the deeper soil layer eddy-covariance measurements (t, H, LE CO2) at 3 m level using Campbell open-path IRGA (EC150) system. At the national meteorology station (http://adatok.geo.u-szeged.hu/?lang=eng) besides their standard measurement equipment and measurement routine a SODAR was installed and continuously operated. These ground based measurements were combined with and supported by UAV, quadcopter and tethered balloon based vertical profile measurements of p, T, rh. For this measurement campaign as a modification of a previously developed airborne ready dual channel hygrometer, a fast photoacoustic spectroscopy based hygrometer was developed for absolute humidity measurements. The estimated response time of the system is faster than 15 Hz, which was achieved by the replacement of the data acquisition system and by recording the raw photoacoustic signal sampled at rate of 48 kHz for post-processing. During the campaign this new system was compared to a TDL system commercially available at Li-COR Inc. Besides the testing of the newly developed fast photoacoustic hygrometer

  13. Being a team leader: newly registered nurses relate their experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekström, Louise; Idvall, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study that explores how newly qualified registered nurses experience their leadership role in the ward-based nursing care team. A nurse's clinical leadership affects the quality of care provided. Newly qualified nurses experience difficulties during the transition period from student to qualified professional and find it challenging to lead nursing care. Twelve nurses were interviewed and the transcribed texts analysed using qualitative content analysis to assess both manifest and latent content. Five themes were identified: feeling stranded; forming well-functioning teams; learning to lead; having the courage, strength, and desire to lead; and ensuring appropriate care. The findings indicate that many factors limit nurses' leadership but some circumstances are supportive. The leadership prerequisites for newly registered nurses need to improve, emphasizing different ways to create a supportive atmosphere that promotes professional development and job satisfaction. To increase nurse retention and promote quality of care, nurse managers need to clarify expectations and guide and support newly qualified nurses in a planned way. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Variable temperature investigation of the atomic structure of gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, N P; Kirkland, A I; Huis, M A van; Zandbergen, H W; Xu, H

    2010-01-01

    The characterisation of nanoparticle structures is the first step towards understanding and optimising their utility in important technological applications such as catalysis. Using newly developed in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) specimen holders, the temperature dependent atomic structure of gold nanoparticles in the size range 5-12 nm has been investigated. In this size interval, the decahedral morphology has been identified as the most favourable structure at or above room temperature, while particle surface roughening becomes evident above 600 0 C. An icosahedral transition has also been identified at low temperature in particles under 9 nm in diameter. These experimental results are consistent with recently published temperature dependent equilibrium phase maps for gold nanoparticles.

  15. Variable temperature investigation of the atomic structure of gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, N P; Kirkland, A I [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Huis, M A van; Zandbergen, H W [Kavli Insitute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technolgy, Lorentzweg 1, NL-2628CJ, Delft (Netherlands); Xu, H, E-mail: neil.young@materials.ox.ac.u [Department of Geology and Geophysics, and Materials Science Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The characterisation of nanoparticle structures is the first step towards understanding and optimising their utility in important technological applications such as catalysis. Using newly developed in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) specimen holders, the temperature dependent atomic structure of gold nanoparticles in the size range 5-12 nm has been investigated. In this size interval, the decahedral morphology has been identified as the most favourable structure at or above room temperature, while particle surface roughening becomes evident above 600{sup 0}C. An icosahedral transition has also been identified at low temperature in particles under 9 nm in diameter. These experimental results are consistent with recently published temperature dependent equilibrium phase maps for gold nanoparticles.

  16. Estimation of paddy water temperature during crop development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centeno, H.G.S.; Horie, T.

    1996-01-01

    The crop meristem is in direct contact with paddy water during crop's vegetative stage. Ambient air temperature becomes an important factor in crop development only when internodes elongate sufficiently for the meristem to rise above the water surface. This does not occur until after panicle initiation. Crop growth at vegetative stage is affected more by water temperature than the most commonly measured air temperature. During transplanting in 1992 dry season, the maximum paddy water temperature was 10 deg C higher than the maximum air temperature. For rice crop models, the development of a submodel to estimate water temperature is important to account the effect of paddy water temperature on plant growth. Paddy water temperature is estimated from mean air temperature, solar radiation, and crop canopy. The parameters of the model were derived using the simplex method on data from the 1993 wet- and dry-season field experiments at IRRI

  17. Development of ODL in a Newly Industrialized Country according to Face-to-Face Contact, ICT, and E-Readiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marinda van Zyl

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A large number of unqualified and under-qualified in-service teachers are holding back socio-economical development in South Africa, a newly industrialized country. Open and distance learning (ODL provides an innovative strategy and praxis for developing and newly industrialized countries to reach their educational and socio-economical objectives through professional development and training. In order to examine factors which affect the success of ODL offered by the North-West University in South Africa, a qualitative and quantitative research approach is used. Factors examined include face-to-face classroom contact, the implementation and use of ICTs, and e-readiness. The relationships between these factors are also discussed. A questionnaire was administered to 87 teacher-students in four Advanced Certificate in Education (ACE programs to collect quantitative data regarding aspects of their classes and the e-readiness of students. This data was qualitatively elaborated upon by three semi-structured, open-ended focus-group interviews. Besides descriptive statistics, Spearman’s rank-order correlations (r were determined between variables pertaining to negative feelings towards face-to-face classroom contact, ODL as students’ choice of delivery mode, and students’ positive attitude towards information and communication technology (ICT. Combined quantitative and qualitative findings were used to evaluate the effectiveness of contact classes as well as the e-readiness of students towards the attainment of ODL development Phase D. This phase refers to UNESCO’s description of ICT implementation, integration, and use. Relationships (Spearman’s rank-order correlations between ODL, as teacher-students’ choice of educational delivery mode, and aspects of their e-readiness suggest that the e-readiness of teacher-students is implicit to their choice of ODL as educational delivery mode for professional development.

  18. Development of VHTR high temperature piping in KHI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Nobuhiro; Takano, Shiro

    1981-01-01

    The high temperature pipings used for multi-purpose high temperature gas-cooled reactors are the internally insulated pipings for transporting high temperature, high pressure helium at 1000 deg C and 40 kgf/cm 2 , and the influences exerted by their performance as well as safety to the plants are very large. Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., has engaged in the development of the high temperature pipings for VHTRs for years. In this report, the progress of the development, the test carried out recently and the problems for future are described. KHI manufactured and is constructing a heater and internally insulated helium pipings for the large, high temperature structure testing loop constructed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The design concept for the high temperature pipings is to separate the temperature boundary and the pressure boundary, therefore, the double walled construction with internal heat insulation was adopted. The requirements for the high temperature pipings are to prevent natural convection, to prevent bypass flow, to minimize radiation heat transfer and to reduce heat leak through insulator supporters. The heat insulator is composed of two layers, metal laminate insulator and fiber insulator of alumina-silica. The present state of development of the high temperature pipings for VHTRs is reported. (Kako, I.)

  19. Erosion of newly developed CFCs and Be under disruption heat loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, K.; Akiba, M.; Araki, M.; Dairaku, M.; Sato, K.; Suzuki, S.; Yokoyama, K.; Linke, J.; Duwe, R.; Bolt, H.; Roedig, M.

    1996-10-01

    An evaluation of the erosion under disruption heat loads is very important to the lifetime prediction of divertor armour tiles of next fusion devices such as ITER. In particular, erosion data on CFCs (carbon fiber reinforced composites) and beryllium (Be) as the armour materials is urgently required in the ITER design. For CFCs, high heat flux experiments on the newly developed CFCs with high thermal conductivity have been performed under the heat flux of around 800-2000 MW/m 2 and the pulse length of 2-5 ms in JAERI electron beam irradiation systems (JEBIS). As a result, the weight losses of B 4C doped CFCs after heating were almost same to those of the non doped CFC up to 5 wt% boron content. For Be, we have carried out our first disruption experiments on S65/C grade Be specimens in the Juelich divertor test facility in hot cells (JUDITH) facility as a frame work of the J—EU collaboration. The heating conditions were heat loads of 1250-5000 MW/m 2 for 2-8 ms, and the heated area was 3 × 3 mm 2. As a result, the protuberances of the heated area of Be were observed under the lower heat flux.

  20. Erosion of newly developed CFCs and Be under disruption heat loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, K.; Duwe, R.; Bolt, H.; Roedig, M.

    1996-01-01

    An evaluation of the erosion under disruption heat loads is very important to the lifetime prediction of divertor armour tiles of next fusion devices such as ITER. In particular, erosion data on CFCs (carbon fiber reinforced composites) and beryllium (Be) as the armour materials is urgently required in the ITER design. For CFCs, high heat flux experiments on the newly developed CFCs with high thermal conductivity have been performed under the heat flux of around 800-2000 MW/m 2 and the pulse length of 2-5 ms in JAERI electron beam irradiation systems (JEBIS). As a result, the weight losses of B 4 C doped CFCs after heating were almost same to those of the non doped CFC up to 5 wt% boron content. For Be, we have carried out our first disruption experiments on S65/C grade Be specimens in the Juelich divertor test facility in hot cells (JUDITH) facility as a frame work of the J-EU collaboration. The heating conditions were heat loads of 1250-5000 MW/m 2 for 2-8 ms, and the heated area was 3 x 3 mm 2 . As a result, the protuberances of the heated area of Be were observed under the lower heat flux. (orig.)

  1. NUMERICAL MODELLING OF THE SOIL BEHAVIOUR BY USING NEWLY DEVELOPED ADVANCED MATERIAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Veselý

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a theoretical background, implementation and validation of the newly developed Jardine plastic hardening-softening model (JPHS model, which can be used for numerical modelling of the soils behaviour. Although the JPHS model is based on the elasto-plastic theory, like the Mohr-Coulomb model that is widely used in geotechnics, it contains some improvements, which removes the main disadvantages of the MC model. The presented model is coupled with an isotopically hardening and softening law, non-linear elastic stress-strain law, non-associated elasto-plastic material description and a cap yield surface. The validation of the model is done by comparing the numerical results with real measured data from the laboratory tests and by testing of the model on the real project of the tunnel excavation. The 3D numerical analysis is performed and the comparison between the JPHS, Mohr-Coulomb, Modified Cam-Clay, Hardening small strain model and monitoring in-situ data is done.

  2. Use of newly developed standardized form for interpretation of high-resolution CT in screening for pneumoconiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julien, P.J.; Sider, L.; Silverman, J.M.; Dahlgren, J.; Harber, P.; Bunn, W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that although the International Labour Office (ILO) standard for interpretation of the posteroanterior chest radiograph has been available for 10 years, there has been no attempt to standardize the high-resolution CT (HRTC) readings for screening of pneumoconiosis. An integrated respirator surveillance program for 87 workers exposed to inorganic dust was conducted. This program consisted of a detailed occupational exposure history, physical symptoms and signs, spirometry, chest radiography, and HRCT. Two groups of workers with known exposure were studied with HRCT. Group 1 had normal spirometry results and chest radiographs, and group 2 had abnormalities at spirometry or on chest radiographs. The HRCT scans were read independently of the clinical findings and chest radiographs. The HRCT scans were interpreted by using an ILO-based standard form developed by the authors for this project. With the newly developed HRCT form, individual descriptive abnormality localized severity, and overall rating systems have been developed and compared for inter- and intraobserver consistency

  3. Development of zeolite ion source for beam probe measurements of high temperature plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohshima, Shinsuke; Fujisawa, Akihide; Shimizu, Akihiro; Nakano, Haruhisa

    2005-10-01

    A zeolite ion source has been developed for plasma diagnostics. Extracted beam current is increased by a factor of ∼10 after redesigning the ion source structure and improving the method to make emitter material (zeolite). The paper introduces an experiment on making desirable ion emitter, together with properties of the newly developed ion source. (author)

  4. Development of a high temperature solar receiver for high-efficient thermionic conversion systems; Fukugo netsuden henkan system yo chokoon taiyo junetsuki no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umeoka, T; Naito, H; Yugami, H; Arashi, H [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-27

    For thermionic conversion systems (TIC) using concentrated sunlight as heat source, the newly developed solar receiver was tested. Concentrated sunlight aims at the inner surface of the cavity type solar receiver. The emitter of TIC installed in the rear of the solar receiver is uniformly heated over 1700K by thermal radiation from the rear of the solar receiver, emitting thermion. Electric power is generated by collecting the thermion by collector. Mo is used as emitter material, however, because of poor heat absorption of Mo, high-absorptive TiC is used for heat absorption surface to heat Mo by thermal conduction from high-temperature TiC. Functionally gradient material (FGM) with an intermediate layer of gradient TiC/Mo ratios between TiC and Mo is used as emitter material. The emitter is thus uniformly heated at high temperatures of 1723{plus_minus}12K. As a result, the developed solar receiver is applicable to heat the emitter of TIC. Heat flux measurement at the graphite cavity clarified that cavity temperature of as high as 1780K and heat flow of 50W/cm{sup 2} are obtained at 4.7kW in input. 6 figs.

  5. Characterization of PCBs from computers and mobile phones, and the proposal of newly developed materials for substitution of gold, lead and arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervišević, Irma; Minić, Duško; Kamberović, Željko; Ćosović, Vladan; Ristić, Mirjana

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we have analyzed parts of printed circuit board (PCB) and liquid crystal display (LCD) screens of mobile phones and computers, quantitative and qualitative chemical compositions of individual components, and complete PCBs were determined. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) methods were used to determine the temperatures of phase transformations, whereas qualitative and quantitative compositions of the samples were determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) analyses. The microstructure of samples was studied by optical microscopy. Based on results of the analysis, a procedure for recycling PCBs is proposed. The emphasis was on the effects that can be achieved in the recycling process by extraction of some parts before the melting process. In addition, newly developed materials can be an adequate substitute for some of the dangerous and harmful materials, such as lead and arsenic are proposed, which is in accordance with the European Union (EU) Restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances (RoHS) directive as well as some alternative materials for use in the electronics industry instead of gold and gold alloys.

  6. High-temperature LDV seed particle development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frish, Michael B.; Pierce, Vicky G.

    1989-05-01

    The feasibility of developing a method for making monodisperse, unagglomerated spherical particles greater than 50 nm in diameter was demonstrated. Carbonaceous particles were made by pyrolyzing ethylene with a pulsed CO2 laser, thereby creating a non-equilibrium mixture of carbon, hydrogen, hydrocarbon vapors, and unpyrolyzed ethylene. Via a complex series of reactions, the carbon and hydrocarbon vapors quickly condensed into the spherical particles. By cooling and dispersing them in a supersonic expansion immediately after their creation, the hot newly-formed spheres were prevented from colliding and coalescing, thus preventing the problem of agglomeration which as plagued other investigators studying laser-simulated particle formation. The cold particles could be left suspended in the residual gases indefinitely without agglomerating. Their uniform sizes and unagglomerated nature were visualized by collecting the particles on filters that were subsequently examined using electron microscopy. It was found the mean particle size can be coarsely controlled by varying the initial ethylene pressure, and can be finely controlled by varying the fluence (energy/unit area) with which the laser irradiates the gas. The motivating application for this research was to manufacture particles that could be used as laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) seeds in high-temperature high-speed flows. Though the particles made in this program will not evaporate until heated to about 3000 K, and thus could serve as LDV seeds in some applications, they are not ideal when the hot atmosphere is also oxidizing. In that situation, ceramic materials would be preferable. Research performed elsewhere has demonstrated that selected ceramic materials can be manufactured by laser pyrolysis of appropriate supply gases. It is anticipated that, when the same gases are used in conjunction with the rapid cooling technique, unagglomerated spherical ceramic particles can be made with little difficulty. Such

  7. Verification of gamma knife based fractionated radiosurgery with newly developed head-thorax phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisht, Raj Kishor; Kale, Shashank Sharad; Natanasabapathi, Gopishankar; Singh, Manmohan Jit; Agarwal, Deepak; Garg, Ajay; Rath, Goura Kishore; Julka, Pramod Kumar; Kumar, Pratik; Thulkar, Sanjay; Sharma, Bhawani Shankar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Purpose of the study is to verify the Gamma Knife Extend™ system (ES) based fractionated stereotactic radiosurgery with newly developed head-thorax phantom. Methods: Phantoms are extensively used to measure radiation dose and verify treatment plan in radiotherapy. A human upper body shaped phantom with thorax was designed to simulate fractionated stereotactic radiosurgery using Extend™ system of Gamma Knife. The central component of the phantom aids in performing radiological precision test, dosimetric evaluation and treatment verification. A hollow right circular cylindrical space of diameter 7.0 cm was created at the centre of this component to place various dosimetric devices using suitable adaptors. The phantom is made of poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA), a transparent thermoplastic material. Two sets of disk assemblies were designed to place dosimetric films in (1) horizontal (xy) and (2) vertical (xz) planes. Specific cylindrical adaptors were designed to place thimble ionization chamber inside phantom for point dose recording along xz axis. EBT3 Gafchromic films were used to analyze and map radiation field. The focal precision test was performed using 4 mm collimator shot in phantom to check radiological accuracy of treatment. The phantom head position within the Extend™ frame was estimated using encoded aperture measurement of repositioning check tool (RCT). For treatment verification, the phantom with inserts for film and ion chamber was scanned in reference treatment position using X-ray computed tomography (CT) machine and acquired stereotactic images were transferred into Leksell Gammaplan (LGP). A patient treatment plan with hypo-fractionated regimen was delivered and identical fractions were compared using EBT3 films and in-house MATLAB codes. Results: RCT measurement showed an overall positional accuracy of 0.265 mm (range 0.223 mm–0.343 mm). Gamma index analysis across fractions exhibited close agreement between LGP and film

  8. PCTFPeval: a web tool for benchmarking newly developed algorithms for predicting cooperative transcription factor pairs in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Fu-Jou; Chang, Hong-Tsun; Wu, Wei-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Computational identification of cooperative transcription factor (TF) pairs helps understand the combinatorial regulation of gene expression in eukaryotic cells. Many advanced algorithms have been proposed to predict cooperative TF pairs in yeast. However, it is still difficult to conduct a comprehensive and objective performance comparison of different algorithms because of lacking sufficient performance indices and adequate overall performance scores. To solve this problem, in our previous study (published in BMC Systems Biology 2014), we adopted/proposed eight performance indices and designed two overall performance scores to compare the performance of 14 existing algorithms for predicting cooperative TF pairs in yeast. Most importantly, our performance comparison framework can be applied to comprehensively and objectively evaluate the performance of a newly developed algorithm. However, to use our framework, researchers have to put a lot of effort to construct it first. To save researchers time and effort, here we develop a web tool to implement our performance comparison framework, featuring fast data processing, a comprehensive performance comparison and an easy-to-use web interface. The developed tool is called PCTFPeval (Predicted Cooperative TF Pair evaluator), written in PHP and Python programming languages. The friendly web interface allows users to input a list of predicted cooperative TF pairs from their algorithm and select (i) the compared algorithms among the 15 existing algorithms, (ii) the performance indices among the eight existing indices, and (iii) the overall performance scores from two possible choices. The comprehensive performance comparison results are then generated in tens of seconds and shown as both bar charts and tables. The original comparison results of each compared algorithm and each selected performance index can be downloaded as text files for further analyses. Allowing users to select eight existing performance indices and 15

  9. Flagellation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in newly divided cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kun; Lee, Calvin; Anda, Jaime; Wong, Gerard

    2015-03-01

    For monotrichous bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, after cell division, one daughter cell inherits the old flagellum from its mother cell, and the other grows a new flagellum during or after cell division. It had been shown that the new flagellum grows at the distal pole of the dividing cell when the two daughter cells haven't completely separated. However, for those daughter cells who grow new flagella after division, it still remains unknown at which pole the new flagellum will grow. Here, by combining our newly developed bacteria family tree tracking techniques with genetic manipulation method, we showed that for the daughter cell who did not inherit the old flagellum, a new flagellum has about 90% chances to grow at the newly formed pole. We proposed a model for flagellation of P. aeruginosa.

  10. Surface ultrastuctures of the human laryngeal mucosa - observation by an newly developed technique of SEM cinematography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyama, M.; Ohno, I.; Fujita, T.; Adachi, K.

    1981-01-01

    With the newly-developed techniques of SEM cinematography, surface ultrastructures of the human normal and pathological laryngeal mucosa were demonstrated. The high specialization of the laryngeal mucosa with its marked regional differences stresses the fact that even the squamous epithelium and nonciliated epithelium may play a role of utmost importance. All specimens were obtained after laryngectomy from 10 patients affected by laryngeal cancer which had been treated with or without preoperative irradiation of Lineac in total doses of 3,500-4,500 rad. Special attention was paid to the occurrence of microvilli and microplicae in the normal and pathological mucosa of the larynx, and their morphological and physiological significances were discussed briefly. (Auth.)

  11. Transferability of Newly Developed Pear SSR Markers to Other Rosaceae Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, L; Zhang, M-Y; Liu, Q-Z; Li, L-T; Song, Y; Wang, L-F; Zhang, S-L; Wu, J

    2013-01-01

    A set of 120 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) was developed from the newly assembled pear sequence and evaluated for polymorphisms in seven genotypes of pear from different genetic backgrounds. Of these, 67 (55.8 %) primer pairs produced polymorphic amplifications. Together, the 67 SSRs detected 277 alleles with an average of 4.13 per locus. Sequencing of the amplification products from randomly picked loci NAUPy31a and NAUpy53a verified the presence of the SSR loci. When the 67 primer pairs were tested on 96 individual members of eight species in the Rosaceae family, 61.2 % (41/67) of the tested SSRs successfully amplified a PCR product in at least one of the Rosaceae genera. The transferability from pear to different species varied from 58.2 % (apple) to 11.9 % (cherry). The ratio of transferability also reflected the closer relationships within Maloideae over Prunoideae. Two pear SSR markers, NAUpy43c and NAUpy55k, could distinguish the 20 different apple genotypes thoroughly, and UPGMA cluster analysis grouped them into three groups at the similarity level of 0.56. The high level of polymorphism and good transferability of pear SSRs to Rosaceae species indicate their promise for application to future molecular screening, map construction, and comparative genomic studies among pears and other Rosaceae species.

  12. Cross-Linking Mast Cell Specific Gangliosides Stimulates the Release of Newly Formed Lipid Mediators and Newly Synthesized Cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edismauro Garcia Freitas Filho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells are immunoregulatory cells that participate in inflammatory processes. Cross-linking mast cell specific GD1b derived gangliosides by mAbAA4 results in partial activation of mast cells without the release of preformed mediators. The present study examines the release of newly formed and newly synthesized mediators following ganglioside cross-linking. Cross-linking the gangliosides with mAbAA4 released the newly formed lipid mediators, prostaglandins D2 and E2, without release of leukotrienes B4 and C4. The effect of cross-linking these gangliosides on the activation of enzymes in the arachidonate cascade was then investigated. Ganglioside cross-linking resulted in phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 and increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2. Translocation of 5-lipoxygenase from the cytosol to the nucleus was not induced by ganglioside cross-linking. Cross-linking of GD1b derived gangliosides also resulted in the release of the newly synthesized mediators, interleukin-4, interleukin-6, and TNF-α. The effect of cross-linking the gangliosides on the MAP kinase pathway was then investigated. Cross-linking the gangliosides induced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and p38 as well as activating both NFκB and NFAT in a Syk-dependent manner. Therefore, cross-linking the mast cell specific GD1b derived gangliosides results in the activation of signaling pathways that culminate with the release of newly formed and newly synthesized mediators.

  13. Development and testing of a mobile application to support diabetes self-management for people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: a design thinking case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Mira; Hempler, Nana F

    2017-06-26

    Numerous mobile applications have been developed to support diabetes-self-management. However, the majority of these applications lack a theoretical foundation and the involvement of people with diabetes during development. The aim of this study was to develop and test a mobile application (app) supporting diabetes self-management among people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes using design thinking. The app was developed and tested in 2015 using a design-based research approach involving target users (individuals newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes), research scientists, healthcare professionals, designers, and app developers. The research approach comprised three major phases: inspiration, ideation, and implementation. The first phase included observations of diabetes education and 12 in-depth interviews with users regarding challenges and needs related to living with diabetes. The ideation phrase consisted of four interactive workshops with users focusing on app needs, in which ideas were developed and prioritized. Finally, 14 users tested the app over 4 weeks; they were interviewed about usability and perceptions about the app as a support tool. A multifunctional app was useful for people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. The final app comprised five major functions: overview of diabetes activities after diagnosis, recording of health data, reflection games and goal setting, knowledge games and recording of psychological data such as sleep, fatigue, and well-being. Users found the app to be a valuable tool for support, particularly for raising their awareness about their psychological health and for informing and guiding them through the healthcare system after diagnosis. The design thinking processes used in the development and implementation of the mobile health app were crucial to creating value for users. More attention should be paid to the training of professionals who introduce health apps. Danish Data Protection Agency: 2012-58-0004. Registered 6

  14. Newly Homeless Youth Typically Return Home

    OpenAIRE

    Milburn, Norweeta G.; Rosenthal, Doreen; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Mallett, Shelley; Batterham, Philip; Rice, Eric; Solorio, Rosa

    2007-01-01

    165 newly homeless adolescents from Melbourne, Australia and 261 from Los Angeles, United States were surveyed and followed for two years. Most newly homeless adolescents returned home (70% U.S., 47% Australia) for significant amounts of time (39% U.S., 17% Australia more than 12 months) within two years of becoming homeless.

  15. Technetium-99m carboxymethylcellulose: A newly developed fibre marker for gastric emptying studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schade, J.H.; Hoving, J.; Brouweres, J.R.B.J.; Riedstra-van Gent, H.G.; Zijlstra, J.; Dijkstra, J.P.H.

    1991-01-01

    We report a study of technetium-99m-labelled carboxymethyl-cellulose ( 99m Tc-CMC) as a newly developed non-digestible marker of the solid phase of gastric contents. The radiosynthesis is simple and shows a high labelling efficiency. In vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated stability of the marker in the gastrointestinal tract during the process of gastric emptying. The gastric half-emptying time in ten healthy volunteers of both sexes was 105±17 min (mean±SD). This rate of gastric emptying is similar to that of non-digestible solid-phase markers such as in vivo labelled 99m Tc-chicken liver or radio-iodinated cellulose. In comparison with digestible solid-phase markers such as 99m Tc-labelled pancake or 99m Tc-cooked egg, gastric emptying of 99m Tc-CMC occurred more slowly, confirming the expected behaviour of a non-digestible solid-phase marker. We conclude that 99m Tc-CMC has the advantage of a simple and rapid labelling procedure and may be useful for clinical studies of gastric emptying. (orig.)

  16. Evaluating the Physiological and Perceptual Responses of Wearing a Newly Designed Cooling Vest for Construction Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yijie; Yi, Wen; Chan, Albert P C; Wong, Francis K W; Yam, Michael C H

    2017-08-01

    Construction workers are subjected to heat stress because of the hot environment, physically demanding tasks, and/or personal protective equipment. A tailor-made cooling vest that protects construction workers from heat-related injuries was developed. The purpose of the study is to examine a newly designed cooling vest's effectiveness in alleviating physiological and perceptual strain in a hot and humid environment. Twelve male participants performed two trials, i.e., cooling vest (VEST) and control (CON) in a climatic chamber controlled at 37°C temperature, 60% relative humidity, 0.3 m/s air velocity, and 450 W/m2 solar radiation to simulate the summer working environment of construction sites. Two bouts of treadmill exercise intermitted with 30-minute passive recovery were designed to simulate the practical work-rest schedule of the construction industry. The cooling vest was used during the passive recovery period in the VEST condition, and the results were compared with that of no cooling vest in the CON condition. The results revealed that the newly designed cooling vest can significantly alleviate heat strain and improve thermal comfort, based on the decrease in body temperature, heart rate, and subjective perceptions (including perceived exertion, thermal, wetness, and comfort sensation) of the participants. It can also prolong work duration in the subsequent exercise. The cooling countermeasures proposed in this study will be able to provide an effective solution in situations that involve repeated bouts of outdoor construction work. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  17. Production and Characterization of Tannase from a newly isolated bacillus subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aftab, M. N.; Mukhtar, H.; Haq, I.

    2016-01-01

    The work describes the production and characterization of tannase from a newly isolated Bacillus subtilis. The strain was isolated from the garden soil and was capable of producing tannase at particular temperature (41 degree C) and pH (5) in 24 h. Addition of 10 % glucose as a carbon source and 12% tannic acid as an inducer resulted in the improved rate of enzyme production. The enzyme was purified up to 4.86 fold with 96.25% yield. It exhibited optimal temperature and pH tolerance of 45 degree C and 5, respectively. However, the enzyme was found to be notably more functional in a broad range of temperature (20-80 degree C) and pH (3-10). Furthermore it remained remarkably stable at wide range of pH (3-8) and at a higher salt concentration (3M). The shelf life of enzyme was also prolonged and remained stable up to a maximum of 8 months. (author)

  18. Development of new type concrete for spent fuel storage cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimojo, J.; Mantani, K.; Owaki, E.; Sugihara, Y.; Hata, A.; Shimono, M.; Taniuchi, H.

    2004-01-01

    Heat resistant concrete has been developed to make it possible to design a new type cask that has been designed on the same concept of metal cask technologies for use in high temperature conditions. The allowable temperature of conventional concrete is limited to less than 100 degrees Celsius because most of its moisture is free water and therefore hydrogen, which is effective for neutron shielding, can be easily lost. Our newly developed concrete uses chemically bonded water and as a result can be used under high temperatures

  19. Development of new type concrete for spent fuel storage cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimojo, J.; Mantani, K. [Kobe Steel, Ltd., Hyogo (Japan); Owaki, E.; Sugihara, Y.; Hata, A.; Shimono, M. [Taisei Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Taniuchi, H. [Transnuclear, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    Heat resistant concrete has been developed to make it possible to design a new type cask that has been designed on the same concept of metal cask technologies for use in high temperature conditions. The allowable temperature of conventional concrete is limited to less than 100 degrees Celsius because most of its moisture is free water and therefore hydrogen, which is effective for neutron shielding, can be easily lost. Our newly developed concrete uses chemically bonded water and as a result can be used under high temperatures.

  20. New insights in the low-temperature oxidation of acetylene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Bing-Yin; Liu, Yue-Xi; Weng, Jun-Jie

    2017-01-01

    This work presents new experimental data of C2H2 low-temperature oxidation for equivalence ratios Φ= 0.5–3.0 in a newly designed jet-stirred reactor over a temperature range of 600–1100K at atmospheric pressure with residence time corresponding from 1.94 to 1.06s. Mole fraction profiles of 17...... intermediates including aromatic compounds such as toluene, styrene and ethylbenzene were quantified. A detailed kinetic mechanism involving 295 species and 1830 reactions was established to predict the oxidation of C2H2 and formation of PAH. In developing the mechanism, particular attention was paid...

  1. Correlation electron cyclotron emission diagnostic and improved calculation of turbulent temperature fluctuation levels on ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creely, A. J.; Freethy, S. J.; Burke, W. M.; Conway, G. D.; Leccacorvi, R.; Parkin, W. C.; Terry, D. R.; White, A. E.

    2018-05-01

    A newly upgraded correlation electron cyclotron emission (CECE) diagnostic has been installed on the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak and has begun to perform experimental measurements of electron temperature fluctuations. CECE diagnostics measure small amplitude electron temperature fluctuations by correlating closely spaced heterodyne radiometer channels. This upgrade expanded the system from six channels to thirty, allowing simultaneous measurement of fluctuation level radial profiles without repeat discharges, as well as opening up the possibility of measuring radial turbulent correlation lengths. Newly refined statistical techniques have been developed in order to accurately analyze the fluctuation data collected from the CECE system. This paper presents the hardware upgrades for this system and the analysis techniques used to interpret the raw data, as well as measurements of fluctuation spectra and fluctuation level radial profiles.

  2. THE NEXUS BETWEEN ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENT WITH ASYMMETRIC CAUSALITY TEST: NEW EVIDENCE FROM NEWLY INDUSTRIALIZED COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feyyaz Zeren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the relationship between energy consumption and financial development is investigated via Hatemi-J asymmetric causality test (2012 which is able to separate positive and negative shocks in analysis. In order to determine different dimensions of financial system, deposit money bank assets to GDP (dbagdp, financial system deposits to GDP (fdgdp and private credit to GDP (pcrdbgdp were used as three different indicators. As a result of this study on Newly Industrialized 7 Countries spanning the period 1971 till 2010, both positive and negative shocks existed for Malaysia and Mexico, causality from energy consumption to financial developments emerged for Philippines in only negative shocks. While two-way causality occurred for India, Turkey and Thailand, there was not for South Africa.

  3. Design of an X-band accelerating structure using a newly developed structural optimization procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xiaoxia [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Fang, Wencheng; Gu, Qiang [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zhao, Zhentang, E-mail: zhaozhentang@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2017-05-11

    An X-band high gradient accelerating structure is a challenging technology for implementation in advanced electron linear accelerator facilities. The present work discusses the design of an X-band accelerating structure for dedicated application to a compact hard X-ray free electron laser facility at the Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, and numerous design optimizations are conducted with consideration for radio frequency (RF) breakdown, RF efficiency, short-range wakefields, and dipole/quadrupole field modes, to ensure good beam quality and a high accelerating gradient. The designed X-band accelerating structure is a constant gradient structure with a 4π/5 operating mode and input and output dual-feed couplers in a racetrack shape. The design process employs a newly developed effective optimization procedure for optimization of the X-band accelerating structure. In addition, the specific design of couplers providing high beam quality by eliminating dipole field components and reducing quadrupole field components is discussed in detail.

  4. Duplex ultrasound: Indications and findings in a newly created ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Duplex ultrasound: Indications and findings in a newly created facility at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar. ... It is recommended that timely referrals be made, and mobile Doppler units be acquired to save more lives and limbs in the developing world. Keywords: Calabar, deep venous thrombosis, duplex ...

  5. Competence of newly qualified registered nurses from a nursing college

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BG Morolong

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The South African education and training system, through its policy of outcomesbased education and training, has made competency a national priority. In compliance to this national requirement of producing competent learners, the South African Nursing Council ( 1999 B require that the beginner professional nurse practitioners and midwives have the necessary knowledge, skills, attitudes and values which will enable them to render efficient professional service. The health care system also demands competent nurse practitioners to ensure quality in health care. In the light of competency being a national priority and a statutory demand, the research question that emerges is, how competent are the newly qualified registered nurses from a specific nursing college in clinical nursing education? A quantitative, non-experimental contextual design was used to evaluate the competence of newly qualified registered nurses from a specific nursing college. The study was conducted in two phases. The first phase dealt with the development of an instrument together with its manual through the conceptualisation process. The second phase focused on the evaluation of the competency of newly qualified nurses using the instrument based on the steps of the nursing process. A pilot study was conducted to test the feasibility of the items of the instrument. During the evaluation phase, a sample of twenty-six newly qualified nurses was selected by simple random sampling from a target population of thirty-six newly qualified registered nurses. However, six participants withdrew from the study. Data was collected in two general hospitals where the newly qualified registered nurses were working. Observation and questioning were used as data collection techniques in accordance with the developed instrument. Measures were taken to ensure internal validity and reliability of the results. To protect the rights of the participants, the researcher adhered to DENOSA’S (1998

  6. A newly developed grab sampling system for collecting stratospheric air over Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyuki Honda

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to measure the concentrations of various minor constituents and their isotopic ratios in the stratosphere over Antarctica, a simple grab sampling system was newly developed. The sampling system was designed to be launched by a small number of personnel using a rubber balloon under severe experimental conditions. Special attention was paid to minimize the contamination of sample air, as well as to allow easy handling of the system. The sampler consisted mainly of a 15l sample container with electromagnetic and manual valves, control electronics for executing the air sampling procedures and sending the position and status information of the sampler to the ground station, batteries and a transmitter. All these parts were assembled in an aluminum frame gondola with a shock absorbing system for landing. The sampler was equipped with a turn-over mechanism of the gondola to minimize contamination from the gondola, as well as with a GPS receiver and a rawinsonde for its tracking. Total weight of the sampler was about 11kg. To receive, display and store the position and status data of the sampling system at the ground station, a simple data acquisition system with a portable receiver and a microcomputer was also developed. A new gas handling system was prepared to simplify the injection of He gas into the balloon. For air sampling experiments, three sampling systems were launched at Syowa Station (69°00′S, 39°35′E, Antarctica and then recovered on sea ice near the station on January 22 and 25,1996.

  7. Evaluation of newly developed veterinary portable blood glucose meter with hematocrit correction in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Akihiro; Oda, Hitomi; Onozawa, Eri; Shono, Saori; Sako, Toshinori

    2017-10-07

    This study evaluated the accuracy of a newly developed veterinary portable blood glucose meter (PBGM) with hematocrit correction in dogs and cats. Sixty-one dogs and 31 cats were used for the current study. Blood samples were obtained from each dog and cat one to six times. Acceptable results were obtained in error grid analysis between PBGM and reference method values (glucose oxidation methods) in both dogs and cats. Bland-Altman plot analysis revealed a mean difference between the PBGM value and reference method value of -1.975 mg/dl (bias) in dogs and 1.339 mg/dl (bias) in cats. Hematocrit values did not affect the results of the veterinary PBGM. Therefore, this veterinary PBGM is clinically useful in dogs and cats.

  8. Newly-graduated midwives transcending barriers: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Michele J; Hauck, Yvonne L; O'Donoghue, Thomas; Clarke, Simon

    2013-12-01

    Midwifery has developed its own philosophy to formalise its unique identity as a profession. Newly-graduated midwives are taught, and ideally embrace, this philosophy during their education. However, embarking in their career within a predominantly institutionalised and the medically focused health-care model may challenge this application. The research question guiding this study was as follows: 'How do newly graduated midwives deal with applying the philosophy of midwifery in their first six months of practice?' The aim was to generate a grounded theory around this social process. This Western Australian grounded theory study is conceptualised within the social theory of symbolic interactionism. Data were collected by means of in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 11 recent midwifery graduates. Participant and interviewer's journals provided supplementary data. The 'constant comparison' approach was used for data analysis. The substantive theory of transcending barriers was generated. Three stages in transcending barriers were identified: Addressing personal attributes, Understanding the 'bigger picture', and finally, 'Evaluating, planning and acting' to provide woman-centred care. An overview of these three stages provides the focus of this article. The theory of transcending barriers provides a new perspective on how newly-graduated midwives deal with applying the philosophy of midwifery in their first six months of practice. A number of implications for pre and post registration midwifery education and policy development are suggested, as well as recommendations for future research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A newly developed lubricant, chitosan laurate, in the manufacture of acetaminophen tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bani-Jaber, Ahmad; Kobayashi, Asuka; Yamada, Kyohei; Haj-Ali, Dana; Uchimoto, Takeaki; Iwao, Yasunori; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2015-04-10

    To study the usefulness of chitosan laurate (CS-LA), a newly developed chitosan salt, as a lubricant, lubrication properties such as the pressure transmission ratio and ejection force were determined at different concentrations of CS-LA in tableting. In addition, tablet properties such as the tensile strength, disintegration time, and dissolution behavior, were also determined. When CS-LA was mixed at concentrations of 0.1%-3.0%, the pressure transmission ratio was increased in a concentration-dependent manner, and the value at a CS-LA concentration of 3% was equal to that of magnesium stearate (Mg-St), a widely used lubricant. Additionally, a reduction in the ejection force was observed at a concentration from 1%, proving that CS-LA has good lubrication performance. A prolonged disintegration time and decreased tensile strength, which are known disadvantages of Mg-St, were not observed with CS-LA. Furthermore, with CS-LA, retardation of dissolution of the drug from the tablets was not observed. Conjugation of CS with LA was found to be quite important for both lubricant and tablet properties. In conclusion, CS-LA should be useful as an alternative lubricant to Mg-St. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Immunoparesis in newly diagnosed Multiple Myeloma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorrig, Rasmus; Klausen, Tobias W.; Salomo, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Immunoparesis (hypogammaglobulinemia) is associated to an unfavorable prognosis in newly diagnosed Multiple myeloma (MM) patients. However, this finding has not been validated in an unselected population-based cohort. We analyzed 2558 newly diagnosed MM patients in the Danish Multiple Myeloma...

  11. A Newly Developed Method for Computing Reliability Measures in a Water Supply Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Malinowski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A reliability model of a water supply network has beens examined. Its main features are: a topology that can be decomposed by the so-called state factorization into a (relativelysmall number of derivative networks, each having a series-parallel structure (1, binary-state components (either operative or failed with given flow capacities (2, a multi-state character of the whole network and its sub-networks - a network state is defined as the maximal flow between a source (sources and a sink (sinks (3, all capacities (component, network, and sub-network have integer values (4. As the network operates, its state changes due to component failures, repairs, and replacements. A newly developed method of computing the inter-state transition intensities has been presented. It is based on the so-called state factorization and series-parallel aggregation. The analysis of these intensities shows that the failure-repair process of the considered system is an asymptotically homogenous Markov process. It is also demonstrated how certain reliability parameters useful for the network maintenance planning can be determined on the basis of the asymptotic intensities. For better understanding of the presented method, an illustrative example is given. (original abstract

  12. Generational differences among newly licensed registered nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keepnews, David M; Brewer, Carol S; Kovner, Christine T; Shin, Juh Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Responses of 2369 newly licensed registered nurses from 3 generational cohorts-Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y-were studied to identify differences in their characteristics, work-related experiences, and attitudes. These responses revealed significant differences among generations in: job satisfaction, organizational commitment, work motivation, work-to-family conflict, family-to-work conflict, distributive justice, promotional opportunities, supervisory support, mentor support, procedural justice, and perceptions of local job opportunities. Health organizations and their leaders need to anticipate intergenerational differences among newly licensed nurses and should provide for supportive working environments that recognize those differences. Orientation and residency programs for newly licensed nurses should be tailored to the varying needs of different generations. Future research should focus on evaluating the effectiveness of orientation and residency programs with regard to different generations so that these programs can be tailored to meet the varying needs of newly licensed nurses at the start of their careers. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. H2O temperature sensor for low-pressure flames using tunable diode laser absorption near 2.9 νm

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Sijie; Farooq, Aamir; Hanson, Ronald Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Making use of a newly available rapid-tuning diode laser operating at wavelengths up to 2.9 νm, an absorption-based temperature sensor was developed for in situ measurements in low-pressure flames. Based on the systematic analysis of H2O vapor

  14. High Temperature Materials Characterization and Advanced Materials Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Woo Seog; Kim, D. H.; Kim, S. H.

    2007-06-01

    The project has been carried out for 2 years in stage III in order to achieve the final goals of performance verification of the developed materials, after successful development of the advanced high temperature material technologies for 3 years in Stage II. The mechanical and thermal properties of the advanced materials, which were developed during Stage II, were evaluated at high temperatures, and the modification of the advanced materials were performed. Moreover, a database management system was established using user-friendly knowledge-base scheme to complete the integrated-information material database in KAERI material division

  15. Mentorship for newly appointed physicians: a strategy for enhancing patient safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Reema; McClean, Serwaa; Lawton, Rebecca; Wright, John; Kay, Clive

    2014-09-01

    Mentorship is an increasingly popular innovation from business and industry that is being applied in health-care contexts. This paper explores the concept of mentorship for newly appointed physicians in their first substantive senior post, and specifically its utilization to enhance patient safety. Semi-structured face to face and telephone interviews with Medical Directors (n = 5), Deputy Medical Directors (n = 4), and Clinical Directors (n = 6) from 9 acute NHS Trusts in the Yorkshire and Humber region in the north of England. A focused thematic analysis was used. A number of beneficial outcomes were associated with mentorship for newly appointed physicians including greater personal and professional support, organizational commitment, and general well-being. Providing newly appointed senior physicians with support through mentorship was considered to enhance the safety of patient care. Mentorship may prevent or reduce active failures, be used to identify threats in the local working environment, and in the longer term, address latent threats to safety within the organization by encouraging a healthier safety culture. Offering mentorship to all newly appointed physicians in their first substantive post in health care may be a useful strategy to support the development of their clinical, professional, and personal skills in this transitional period that may also enhance the safety of patient care.

  16. Development of eggs and the planktonic stages of salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) at low temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxaspen, Karin; Næss, Tore

    2000-01-01

    To verify if and to what extent egg and nauplii development of the salmon lice take place during winter, the development from egg to the copepodid stage at 2,3,4,5 and 10°C was examined. Newly extruded egg strings from a winter population of salmon lice were individually placed in 6 ml stagnant

  17. [An Introduction to A Newly-developed "Acupuncture Needle Manipulation Training-evaluation System" Based on Optical Motion Capture Technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ao; Yan, Xing-Ke; Liu, An-Guo

    2016-12-25

    In the present paper, the authors introduce a newly-developed "Acupuncture Needle Manipulation Training-evaluation System" based on optical motion capture technique. It is composed of two parts, sensor and software, and overcomes some shortages of mechanical motion capture technique. This device is able to analyze the data of operations of the pressing-hand and needle-insertion hand during acupuncture performance and its software contains personal computer (PC) version, Android version, and Internetwork Operating System (IOS) Apple version. It is competent in recording and analyzing information of any ope-rator's needling manipulations, and is quite helpful for teachers in teaching, training and examining students in clinical practice.

  18. Moderator temperature coefficient in BWR core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Yoshitaka

    1977-01-01

    Temperature dependences of infinite multiplication factor k sub(infinity) and neutron leakage from the core must be examined for estimation of moderator temperature coefficient. Temperature dependence on k sub(infinity) has been investigated by many researchers, however, the dependence on neutron leakage of a BWR with cruciformed control rods has hardly been done. Because there are difficulties and necessity on calculations of three space dimensional and multi-energy groups neutron distribution in a BWR core. In this study, moderator temperature coefficients of JPDR-II (BWR) core were obtained by calculation with DIFFUSION-ACE, which is newly developed three-dimensional multi-group computer code. The results were compared with experimental data measured from 20 to 275 0 C of the moderator temperature and the good agreement was obtained between calculation and measurement. In order to evaluate neutron leakage from the core, the other two calculations were carried out, adjusting criticality by uniform absorption rate and by material buckling. The former underestimated neutron leakage and the latter overestimated it. Discussion on the results shows that in order to estimate the temperature coefficient of BWR, neutron leakage must be evaluated precisely, therefore the calculation at actual pattern of control rods is necessary. (auth.)

  19. The effect of strain distribution on microstructural developments during forging in a newly developed nickel base superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckingham, R.C. [Institute of Structural Materials, Swansea University, Bay Campus, Fabian Way, Swansea SA1 8EN (United Kingdom); Argyrakis, C.; Hardy, M.C. [Rolls-Royce plc, PO Box 31, Derby DE24 8BJ (United Kingdom); Birosca, S., E-mail: 522042@swansea.ac.uk [Institute of Structural Materials, Swansea University, Bay Campus, Fabian Way, Swansea SA1 8EN (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-27

    In the current study, the effect of strain distribution in a simple forging geometry on the propensity for recrystallization, and its impact on mechanical properties has been investigated in a newly developed experimental nickel-based superalloy. The new alloy was produced via a Powder Metallurgy (PM) route and was subsequently Hot Isostatic Processed (HIP), isothermally forged, and heat treated to produce a coarse grain microstructure with average grain size of 23–32 μm. The alloy was examined by means of Electron Back-Scatter Diffraction (EBSD) to characterise the microstructural features such as grain orientation and morphology, grain boundary characteristics and the identification of potential Prior Particle Boundaries (PPBs) throughout each stage of the processing route. Results at the central region of the cross-section plane parallel to the loading direction showed significant microstructural differences across the forging depth. This microstructural variation was found to be highly dependent on the value of local strain imparted during forging such that areas of low effective strain showed partial recrystallisation and a necklace grain structure was observed following heat treatment. Meanwhile, a fully recrystallised microstructure with no PPBs was observed in the areas of high strain values, in the central region of the forging.

  20. Challenges in Smart Low-Temperature District Heating Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hongwei; Wang, Stephen Jia

    2014-01-01

    Previous research and development shows that low temperature district heating (LTDH) system is economic feasible for low energy buildings and buildings at sparse areas. Coupling with reduced network temperature and well-designed district heating (DH) networks, LTDH can reduce network heat loss by...

  1. Guidelines for developing certification programs for newly generated TRU waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitty, W.J.; Ostenak, C.A.; Pillay, K.K.S.; Geoffrion, R.R.

    1983-05-01

    These guidelines were prepared with direction from the US Department of Energy (DOE) Transuranic (TRU) Waste Management Program in support of the DOE effort to certify that newly generated TRU wastes meet the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria. The guidelines provide instructions for generic Certification Program preparation for TRU-waste generators preparing site-specific Certification Programs in response to WIPP requirements. The guidelines address all major aspects of a Certification Program that are necessary to satisfy the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria and their associated Compliance Requirements and Certification Quality Assurance Requirements. The details of the major element of a Certification Program, namely, the Certification Plan, are described. The Certification Plan relies on supporting data and control documentation to provide a traceable, auditable account of certification activities. Examples of specific parts of the Certification Plan illustrate the recommended degree of detail. Also, a brief description of generic waste processes related to certification activities is included

  2. Newly democratic Mongolia offering exploration contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penttila, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Mongolia, formerly the Mongolian People's Republic, is working to open its exploration prospects to international operators as it emerges as the world's 15th largest independent nation. The country, about the same size as Alaska with a population of 2 million, held its first free election in July 1990. The newly elected government drafted a constitution that took effect Feb. 12, 1992. The document modifies the previous government's structures to eliminate bureaucracy and allows for political pluralism. At the same time, the government is formulating energy policies, state oil company structure, and resource development philosophy

  3. Uranium casting furnace automatic temperature control development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    Development of an automatic molten uranium temperature control system for use on batch-type induction casting furnaces is described. Implementation of a two-color optical pyrometer, development of an optical scanner for the pyrometer, determination of furnace thermal dynamics, and design of control systems are addressed. The optical scanning system is shown to greatly improve pyrometer measurement repeatability, particularly where heavy floating slag accumulations cause surface temperature gradients. Thermal dynamics of the furnaces were determined by applying least-squares system identification techniques to actual production data. A unity feedback control system utilizing a proportional-integral-derivative compensator is designed by using frequency-domain techniques. 14 refs

  4. Comparison of a newly developed binary typing with ribotyping and multilocus sequence typing methods for Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhirong; Liu, Xiaolei; Zhao, Jianhong; Xu, Kaiyue; Tian, Tiantian; Yang, Jing; Qiang, Cuixin; Shi, Dongyan; Wei, Honglian; Sun, Suju; Cui, Qingqing; Li, Ruxin; Niu, Yanan; Huang, Bixing

    2018-04-01

    Clostridium difficile is the causative pathogen for antibiotic-related nosocomial diarrhea. For epidemiological study and identification of virulent clones, a new binary typing method was developed for C. difficile in this study. The usefulness of this newly developed optimized 10-loci binary typing method was compared with two widely used methods ribotyping and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) in 189 C. difficile samples. The binary typing, ribotyping and MLST typed the samples into 53 binary types (BTs), 26 ribotypes (RTs), and 33 MLST sequence types (STs), respectively. The typing ability of the binary method was better than that of either ribotyping or MLST expressed in Simpson Index (SI) at 0.937, 0.892 and 0.859, respectively. The ease of testing, portability and cost-effectiveness of the new binary typing would make it a useful typing alternative for outbreak investigations within healthcare facilities and epidemiological research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Who Is Doing Well? A Typology of Newly Homeless Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milburn, Norweeta; Liang, Li-Jung; Lee, Sung-Jae; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Rosenthal, Doreen; Mallett, Shelley; Lightfoot, Marguerita; Lester, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    There is growing evidence to support developing new typologies for homeless adolescents. Current typologies focus on the risks associated with being homeless, with less consideration of the positive attributes of homeless adolescents. The authors examined both risk and protective factors in a sample of newly homeless adolescents. Using cluster…

  6. Achievement report for fiscal 2000 on the phase II research and development for hydrogen utilizing international clean energy system technology (WE-NET). Task 10. Development of low-temperature materials; 2000 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) dai 2 ki kenkyu kaihatsu. Task 10. Teion zairyo no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in fiscal 2000 from the development of candidate low-temperature materials for liquid hydrogen transportation and storage (including mother materials and welds) for WE-NET. Evaluation tests were performed on material properties (mechanical properties, low-temperature embrittlement, and hydrogen embrittlement sensitivity) under room temperature and low temperature regions including liquid hydrogen atmosphere. Low temperature toughness of welds was assessed particularly to identify characteristics of different welding methods developed newly for improvements. The stainless steels and the mother materials of aluminum alloy selected as the candidates have sufficient characteristics even under the liquid hydrogen atmosphere, but the welds have lower low-temperature toughness, requiring improvement. For the stainless steels, since the amount of {delta} ferrite in welds affects greatly the low-temperature toughness, adoption of complete austenite type welding metal is effective. The reduced pressure electron beam welding method can enhance drastically the low-temperature toughness of stainless steel. For the aluminum alloy, it can be one of the alternatives to use an alloy system with composition of high low-temperature toughness. The friction stir welding method for the aluminum alloy was found to provide extremely high low-temperature toughness, which can be evaluated as a new welding method. (NEDO)

  7. Development of Very High Temperature Reactor Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Jae; Noh, J. M.; Kim, Y. H.

    2009-04-01

    For an efficient production of nuclear hydrogen, the VHTR (Very High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor) of 950 .deg. C outlet temperature and the interfacing system for the hydrogen production are required. We have developed various evaluation technologies for the performance and safety of VHTR through the accomplishment of this project. First, to evaluate the performance of VHTR, a series of analyses has been performed such as core characteristics at 950 .deg. C, applicability of cooled-vessel, intermediate loop system and high temperature structural integrity. Through the analyses of major accidents such as HPCC and LPCC and the analysis of the risk/performance-informed method, VHTR safety evaluation has been also performed. In addition, various design analysis codes have been developed for a nuclear design, system loop design, system performance analysis, air-ingress accident analysis, fission product/tritium transport analysis, graphite structure seismic analysis and hydrogen explosion analysis, and they are being verified and validated through a lot of international collaborations

  8. Newly graduated nurses' empowerment regarding professional competence and other work-related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuokkanen, Liisa; Leino-Kilpi, Helena; Numminen, Olivia; Isoaho, Hannu; Flinkman, Mervi; Meretoja, Riitta

    2016-01-01

    Although both nurse empowerment and competence are fundamental concepts of describing newly graduated nurses' professional development and job satisfaction, only few studies exist on the relationship between these concepts. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine how newly graduated nurses assess their empowerment and to clarify professional competence compared to other work-related factors. A descriptive, cross-sectional and correlational design was applied. The sample comprised newly graduated nurses (n = 318) in Finland. Empowerment was measured using the 19-item Qualities of an Empowered Nurse scale and the Nurse Competence Scale measured nurses' self-assessed generic competence. In addition to demographic data, the background data included employment sector (public/private), job satisfaction, intent to change/leave job, work schedule (shifts/business hours) and assessments of the quality of care in the workplace. The data were analysed statistically by using Spearman's correlation coefficient as well as the One-Way and Multivariate Analysis of Variance. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used to estimate the internal consistency. Newly graduated nurses perceived their level of empowerment and competence fairly high. The association between nurse empowerment and professional competence was statistically significant. Other variables correlating positively to empowerment included employment sector, age, job satisfaction, intent to change job, work schedule, and satisfaction with the quality of care in the work unit. The study indicates competence had the strongest effect on newly graduated nurses' empowerment. New graduates need support and career opportunities. In the future, nurses' further education and nurse managers' resources for supporting and empowering nurses should respond to the newly graduated nurses' requisites for attractive and meaningful work.

  9. Use of a newly developed active thermal neutron detector for in-phantom measurements in a medical LINAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodogni, R.; Sanchez-Doblado, F.; Pola, A.; Gentile, A.; Esposito, A.; Gomez-ros, J. M.; Pressello, M. C.; Lagares, J. I.; Terron, J. A.; Gomez, F.

    2013-07-01

    In this work a newly developed active thermal neutron detector, based on a solid state analog device, was used to determine the thermal neutron fluence in selected positions of a simplified human phantom undergoing radiotherapy with a 15 MV LINAC. The results are compared with TLD, the predictions from a Monte Carlo simulation and with measurements indirectly performed with a digital device, located far from the phantom, inside the treatment room. In this work only TLD comparison is presented. Since active neutron instruments are usually affected by systematic deviations when used in a pulsed field with large photon background, the new detector offered in this work may represent an innovative and useful tool for neutron evaluations in accelerator-based radiotherapy. (Author)

  10. Adapted to change: The rapid development of symbiosis in newly settled, fast-maturing chemosymbiotic mussels in the deep sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laming, Sven R; Duperron, Sébastien; Gaudron, Sylvie M; Hilário, Ana; Cunha, Marina R

    2015-12-01

    Symbioses between microbiota and marine metazoa occur globally at chemosynthetic habitats facing imminent threat from anthropogenic disturbance, yet little is known concerning the role of symbiosis during early development in chemosymbiotic metazoans: a critical period in any benthic species' lifecycle. The emerging symbiosis of Idas (sensu lato) simpsoni mussels undergoing development is assessed over a post-larval-to-adult size spectrum using histology and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). Post-larval development shows similarities to that of both heterotrophic and chemosymbiotic mussels. Data from newly settled specimens confirm aposymbiotic, planktotrophic larval development. Sulphur-oxidising (SOX) symbionts subsequently colonise multiple exposed, non-ciliated epithelia shortly after metamorphosis, but only become abundant on gills as these expand with greater host size. This wide-spread bathymodiolin recorded from sulphidic wood, bone and cold-seep habitats, displays a suite of adaptive traits that could buffer against anthropogenic disturbance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Physicochemical properties of newly developed bioactive glass cement and its effects on various cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washio, Ayako; Nakagawa, Aika; Nishihara, Tatsuji; Maeda, Hidefumi; Kitamura, Chiaki

    2015-02-01

    Biomaterials used in dental treatments are expected to have favorable properties such as biocompatibility and an ability to induce tissue formation in dental pulp and periapical tissue, as well as sealing to block external stimuli. Bioactive glasses have been applied in bone engineering, but rarely applied in the field of dentistry. In the present study, bioactive glass cement for dental treatment was developed, and then its physicochemical properties and effects on cell responses were analyzed. To clarify the physicochemical attributes of the cement, field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and pH measurement were carried out. Cell attachment, morphology, and viability to the cement were also examined to clarify the effects of the cement on odontoblast-like cells (KN-3 cells), osteoblastic cells (MC3T3-E1 cells), human periodontal ligament stem/progenitor cells and neuro-differentiative cells (PC-12 cells). Hydroxyapatite-like precipitation was formed on the surface of the hardened cement and the pH level changed from pH10 to pH9, then stabilized in simulate body fluid. The cement had no cytotxic effects on these cells, and particulary induced process elongation of PC-12 cells. Our results suggest that the newly developed bioactive glass cement have capability of the application in dental procedures as bioactive cement. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Application of newly developed heat resistant materials for USC boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, T.; Tamura, K.; Fukuda, Y.; Matsuda, J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the research on the development and improvement of new high strength heat resistant steels such as SUPER304H (18Cr-9Ni-3Cu-Nb-N), NF709 (20Cr-25Ni-1.5Mo-Nb-Ti-N) and HR3C (25Cr-20Ni-Nb-N) as boiler tube, and NF616 (9Cr-0.5Mo-1.8W-Nb-V) and HCM12A (11Cr-0.4Mo-2W-Nb-V-Cu) as thick section pipe. The latest manufacturing techniques applied for these steels are introduced. In addition the high temperature strength of Alloy617 (52Ni-22Cr-13Co-9Mo-Ti-Al) that is one of the candidate materials for the next generation 700 □ USC boilers is described. (orig.)

  13. New developments in low temperature physics New developments in low temperature physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallock, Bob; Paalanenn, Mikko

    2009-04-01

    Below you will find part of the activity report to the IUPAP General Assembly, October 2008, by the present and previous Chairmen of C5. It provides an overview of the most important and recent developments in low temperature physics, much in line with the program of LT25. For the field of experimental low temperature physics, the ability to conduct research has been damaged by the dramatic increase in the price of liquid helium. In the USA, for example, the price of liquid helium has approximately doubled over the past two years. This has led to a reduction in activity in many laboratories as the funding agencies have not quickly increased support in proportion. The increase in price of liquid helium has accelerated interest in the development and use of alternative cooling systems. In particular, pulse-tube coolers are now available that will allow cryostats with modest cooling needs to operate dilution refrigerators without the need for repeated refills of liquid helium from external supply sources. Solid helium research has seen a dramatic resurgence. Torsional oscillator experiments have been interpreted to show that solid helium may undergo a transition to a state in which some of the atoms in the container do not follow the motion of the container, e.g. may be 'supersolid'. The observation is robust, but the interpretation is controversial. The shear modulus of solid helium undergoes a similar signature with respect to temperature. Experiments that should be expected to cause helium to flow give conflicting results. Theory predicts that a perfect solid cannot show supersolid behavior, but novel superfluid-like behavior should be seen in various defects that can exist in the solid, and vorticity may play a significant role. And, recently there have been reports of unusual mass decoupling in films of pure 4He on graphite surfaces as well as 3He- 4He mixture films on solid hydrogen surfaces. These may be other examples of unusual superfluid-like behavior. There

  14. Development of Very High Temperature Reactor Design Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Jae; Noh, J. M.; Kim, K. S.

    2007-05-01

    To develop design technologies for the VHTR (Very High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor) of 950 .deg. C outlet temperature for an efficient hydrogen production, key studies were performed, which include evaluation technology for the performance and safety of VHTR, and development of design and analysis codes. First, to evaluate the performance of VHTR, a series of analyses has been carried out for core characteristics at 950 .deg. C, cooled-vessel adopting internal flow path through the graphite structure, compact heat exchanger with periodic channel configuration, intermediate loop system, risk/performance-informed method, and high temperature structural integrity. Through the analyses of major accidents such as HPCC and LPCC, safety evaluation of both VHTR and RCCS has been also performed. In addition, prototype codes have been developed for a nuclear design, system loop design, system performance analysis, air-ingress accident analysis, fission product/tritium transport analysis, graphite structure seismic analysis and hydrogen explosion analysis, and they are being verified and validated through a lot of international collaborations

  15. Feasibility and preliminary effects of an intervention targeting schema development for caregivers of newly admitted hospice patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Kathryn B; Mazurek Melnyk, Bernadette

    2013-06-01

    The transition to hospice care is a stressful experience for caregivers, who report high anxiety, unpreparedness, and lack of confidence. These sequelae are likely explained by the lack of an accurate cognitive schema, not knowing what to expect or how to help their loved one. Few interventions exist for this population and most do not measure preparedness, confidence, and anxiety using a schema building a conceptual framework for a new experience. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and preliminary effects of an intervention program, Education and Skill building Intervention for Caregivers of Hospice patients (ESI-CH), using an innovative conceptual design that targets cognitive schema development and basic skill building for caregivers of loved ones newly admitted to hospice services. A pre-experimental one-group pre- and post-test study design was used. Eighteen caregivers caring for loved ones in their homes were recruited and twelve completed the pilot study. Depression, anxiety, activity restriction, preparedness, and beliefs/confidence were measured. Caregivers reported increased preparedness, more helpful beliefs, and more confidence about their ability to care for their loved one. Preliminary trends suggested decreased anxiety levels for the intervention group. Caregivers who completed the intervention program rated the program very good or excellent, thought the information was helpful and timely, and would recommend it to friends. Results show promise that the ESI-CH program may assist as an evidence-based program to support caregivers in their role as a caregiver to a newly admitted hospice patient.

  16. Fluorescent and radiolabelling of pepsin-digested human glomerular basement membrane with a newly developed hydroxy-coumarin derivative (CASE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rand-Weaver, M.; Abuknesha, R.A.; Price, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    The labelling of pepsin-digested human glomerular basement membrane (pHGBM) with a newly developed fluorescent iodine acceptor 7-hydroxy-coumarin-3-acetic acid N-hydroxysucciniimydyl ester (CASE) is described. The binding of a monoclonal antibody to pHGBM was assessed by radiobinding assays, and when directly iodinated pHGBM was used there was no apparent binding. When CASE was conjugated to pHGBM prior to iodination 11% binding was achieved. CASE acting as an iodine acceptor may be useful for proteins containing few or inaccessible tyrosine residues or which are destroyed by introduction of 125 I. Since CASE is fluorescent, small amounts of material can be detected during isolation prior to iodination. (orig.)

  17. Production and partial characterization of lipases from a newly isolated Penicillium sp. using experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolski, E; Rigo, E; Di Luccio, M; Oliveira, J V; de Oliveira, D; Treichel, H

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the lipase production by a newly isolated Penicillium sp., using experimental design technique, in submerged fermentation using a medium based on peptone, yeast extract, NaCl and olive oil, as well as to characterize the crude enzymatic extracts obtained. Lipase activity values of 9.5 U ml(-1) in 96 h of fermentation was obtained at the maximized operational conditions of peptone, yeast extract, NaCl and olive oil concentrations (g l(-1)) of 20.0, 5.0, 5.0 and of 10.0 respectively. The partial characterization of crude enzymatic extract obtained by submerged fermentation showed optimum activity at pH range from 4.9 to 5.5 and temperature from 37 degrees C to 42 degrees C. The crude extract maintained its initial activity at freezing temperatures up to 100 days. A newly isolated strain of Penicillium sp. used in this work yielded good lipase activities compared to the literature. The growing interest in lipase production is related to the potential biotechnological applications that these enzymes present. New lipase producers are relevant to finding enzymes with different catalytic properties of commercial interest could be obtained, without using genetically modified organisms (GMO).

  18. EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT OF YELLOWFIN TUNA (Thunnus albacares AT DIFFERENT INCUBATION TEMPERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon Harianto Hutapea

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted in order to figure out the effect of incubation temperature on embryonic development of yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares eggs. Five different incubation temperatures were applied as treatments, i.e.: 24°C, 26°C, 28°C, 30°C, and 32°C with 3 replicate each. Ten micro plates with lid (IWAKI, Japan were used; each has 6 well and 10 mL volumes. Five micro plates were used for experiment and five for balance on shaker. Three well of each micro plate were filled with 8 mL ultra violet sterilized sea water and 50 fertilized eggs. Temperature was set using Multi Thermo Incubator which has 5 level racks. Temperatures were set from the lowest to the highest on bottom to upper rack order. To maintain eggs dispersed in the medium, shaker on each rack was operated at 150 RPM. The embryo was monitored every 30-60 minutes depends on embryonic stage development using Microscope which was connected to Digital Camera DXM 1200F. Image analyses by Image Analyzer Program. The results showed, incubation temperature was significantly affect (P<0.05 embryonic development and hatching time of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares eggs. Optimum incubation temperature for embryo development and hatching was 28°C. Decreased on incubation temperature slows down embryo development at all stages, and vice versa, increased on incubation temperature accelerates embryo development.

  19. Critical thinking dispositions among newly graduated nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangensteen, Sigrid; Johansson, Inger S; Björkström, Monica E; Nordström, Gun

    2010-01-01

    wangensteen s., johansson i.s., björkström m.e. & nordström g. (2010) Critical thinking dispositions among newly graduated nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing66(10), 2170–2181. Aim The aim of the study was to describe critical thinking dispositions among newly graduated nurses in Norway, and to study whether background data had any impact on critical thinking dispositions. Background Competence in critical thinking is one of the expectations of nursing education. Critical thinkers are described as well-informed, inquisitive, open-minded and orderly in complex matters. Critical thinking competence has thus been designated as an outcome for judging the quality of nursing education programmes and for the development of clinical judgement. The ability to think critically is also described as reducing the research–practice gap and fostering evidence-based nursing. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed. The data were collected between October 2006 and April 2007 using the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory. The response rate was 33% (n= 618). Pearson’s chi-square tests were used to analyse the data. Results Nearly 80% of the respondents reported a positive disposition towards critical thinking. The highest mean score was on the Inquisitiveness subscale and the lowest on the Truth-seeking subscale. A statistically significant higher proportion of nurses with high critical thinking scores were found among those older than 30 years, those with university education prior to nursing education, and those working in community health care. Conclusion Nurse leaders and nurse teachers should encourage and nurture critical thinking among newly graduated nurses and nursing students. The low Truth-seeking scores found may be a result of traditional teaching strategies in nursing education and might indicate a need for more student-active learning models. PMID:20384637

  20. Planning for the Management and Disposition of Newly Generated TRU Waste from REDC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffey, D. E.; Forrester, T. W.; Krause, T.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the waste characteristics of newly generated transuranic waste from the Radiochemical Engineering and Development Center at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the basic certification structure that will be proposed by the University of Tennessee-Battelle and Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for this waste stream. The characterization approach uses information derived from the active production operations as acceptable knowledge for the Radiochemical Engineering and Development Center transuranic waste. The characterization approach includes smear data taken from processing and waste staging hot cells, as well as analytical data on product and liquid waste streams going to liquid waste disposal. Bechtel Jacobs Company and University of Tennessee-Battelle are currently developing the elements of a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant-compliant program with a plan to be certified by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for shipment of newly generated transuranic waste in the next few years. The current activities include developing interface plans, program documents, and waste stream specific procedures

  1. Development of High Temperature Transport System for Molten Salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S. H.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, J. G.

    2011-01-01

    Pyroprocessing technology is one of the the most promising technologies for the advanced fuel cycle with favorable economic potential and intrinsic proliferation-resistance. The electrorefining process, one of main processes which is composed of pyroprocess to recover the useful elements from spent fuel, is under development at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute as a sub process of the pyrochemical treatment of spent PWR fuel. High-temperature molten salt transport technologies are required because a molten salt should be transported from the electrorefiner to electrowiner after the electrorefining process. Therefore, in pyrometallurgical processing, the development of high-temperature molten salt transport technologies is a crucial prerequisite. However, there have been a few transport studies on high-temperature molten salt. In this study, an apparatus for suction transport experiments was designed and constructed for the development of high temperature transport technology for molten salt, and the performance test of the apparatus was performed. And also, predissolution test of the salt was carried out using the reactor with furnace in experimental apparatus

  2. Near-real-time feedback control system for liver thermal ablations based on self-referenced temperature imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keserci, Bilgin M.; Kokuryo, Daisuke; Suzuki, Kyohei; Kumamoto, Etsuko; Okada, Atsuya; Khankan, Azzam A.; Kuroda, Kagayaki

    2006-01-01

    Our challenge was to design and implement a dedicated temperature imaging feedback control system to guide and assist in a thermal liver ablation procedure in a double-donut 0.5T open MR scanner. This system has near-real-time feedback capability based on a newly developed 'self-referenced' temperature imaging method using 'moving-slab' and complex-field-fitting techniques. Two phantom validation studies and one ex vivo experiment were performed to compare the newly developed self-referenced method with the conventional subtraction method and evaluate the ability of the feedback control system in the same MR scanner. The near-real-time feedback system was achieved by integrating the following primary functions: (1) imaging of the moving organ temperature; (2) on-line needle tip tracking; (3) automatic turn-on/off the heating devices; (4) a Windows operating system-based novel user-interfaces. In the first part of the validation studies, microwave heating was applied in an agar phantom using a fast spoiled gradient recalled echo in a steady state sequence. In the second part of the validation and ex vivo study, target visualization, treatment planning and monitoring, and temperature and thermal dose visualization with the graphical user interface of the thermal ablation software were demonstrated. Furthermore, MR imaging with the 'self-referenced' temperature imaging method has the ability to localize the hot spot in the heated region and measure temperature elevation during the experiment. In conclusion, we have demonstrated an interactively controllable feedback control system that offers a new method for the guidance of liver thermal ablation procedures, as well as improving the ability to assist ablation procedures in an open MR scanner

  3. Engineering fluorescent proteins towards ultimate performances: lessons from the newly developed cyan variants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mérola, Fabienne; Erard, Marie; Fredj, Asma; Pasquier, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    New fluorescent proteins (FPs) are constantly discovered from natural sources, and submitted to intensive engineering based on random mutagenesis and directed evolution. However, most of these newly developed FPs fail to achieve all the performances required for their bioimaging applications. The design of highly optimised FP-based reporters, simultaneously displaying appropriate colour, multimeric state, chromophore maturation, brightness, photostability and environmental sensitivity will require a better understanding of the structural and dynamic determinants of FP photophysics. The recent development of cyan fluorescent proteins (CFPs) like mCerulean3, mTurquoise2 and Aquamarine brings a different view on these questions, as in this particular case, a step by step evaluation of critical mutations has been performed within a family of spectrally identical and evolutionary close variants. These efforts have led to CFPs with quantum yields close to unity, near single exponential emission decays, high photostability and complete insensitivity to pH, making them ideal choices as energy transfer donors in FRET and FLIM imaging applications. During this process, it was found that a proper amino-acid choice at only two positions (148 and 65) is sufficient to transform the performances of CFPs: with the help of structural and theoretical investigations, we rationalise here how these two positions critically control the CFP photophysics, in the context of FPs derived from the Aequorea victoria species. Today, these results provide a useful toolbox for upgrading the different CFP donors carried by FRET biosensors. They also trace the route towards the de novo design of FP-based optogenetic devices that will be perfectly tailored to dedicated imaging and sensing applications. (topical review)

  4. Shock temperature dependent rate law for plastic bonded explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Tariq D.

    2018-04-01

    A reactive flow model for the tri-amino-tri-nitro-benzene (TATB) based plastic bonded explosive PBX 9502 (95% TATB, 5% polymeric binder Kel-F 800) is presented. This newly devised model is based primarily on the shock temperature of the material, along with local pressure, and accurately models a broader range of detonation and initiation scenarios. Specifically, sensitivity changes to the initial explosive temperature are accounted for naturally and with a single set of parameters. The equation of state forms for the reactants and products, as well as the thermodynamic closure of pressure and temperature equilibration, are carried over from the Wescott-Stewart-Davis (WSD) model [Wescott et al., J. Appl. Phys. 98, 053514 (2005) and "Modeling detonation diffraction and dead zones in PBX-9502," in Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Detonation Symposium (2006)]. This newly devised model, with Arrhenius state dependence on the shock temperature, based on the WSD equation of states, is denoted by AWSD. Modifying an existing implementation of the WSD model to the AWSD model in a hydrocode is a rather straightforward procedure.

  5. High temperature reactor development in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heek, A.I. van

    1996-01-01

    This year, some clear design choices have been made in the WHITE Reactor development programme. The activities will be concentrated at the development of a small size pebble bed HTR for combined heat and power production with a closed cycle gas turbine. Objective of the development is threefold: 1. restoring social support; 2. establishing commercial viability after market introduction; and 3. making the market introduction itself feasible, i.e. limited development and first-of-a-kind costs. This design is based on the peu-a-peu design of KFA Juelich and will be optimized. The computer codes necessary for this are being prepared for this work. The dynamic neutronics code PANTHER is being coupled to the thermal hydraulics code THERMIX-DIREKT. For this reactor type, fuel temperatures are maximal in the scenario of depressurization with recriticality. Even for this scenario, fuel temperatures of the 20MWth PAP-GT do not exceed 1300 deg. C, so there should be room for upscaling for economic reasons. On the other hand, it would be convenient to fuel the reactor batchwise instead of continuously, and the use of thorium could be required. These two features may lead to a larger temperature margin. The optimal design must unite these features in the best acceptable way. To gain expertise in calculations on gas cooled graphite moderate reactors, benchmark calculations are being performed in parallel with international partners. Parallel to this, special expertise is being built up on HTR fuel and HTR reactor vessels. (author). 3 refs

  6. Development of a sample environment for neutron diffraction at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Soo; Lee, Chang Hee; Choi, Yong Nam

    2000-06-01

    This report contains the development of low temperature sample environment for the neutron diffraction and its utilization techniques. With this research, a low temperature experimental facility of T=10-300 K was developed. We measured magnetic peak of La 1 .4Sr 1 .6Mn 2 O 7 due to low temperature phase transition successfully by this unit installed at the sample table of HRPD. Therefore, the research capability for various materials under the low temperature was expanded

  7. Status of photovoltaics in the Newly Associated States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietruszko, S.M.; Mikolajuk, A.; Fara, L.; Fara, S.; Vitanov, P.; Stratieva, N.; Rehak, J.; Barinka, R.; Mellikov, E.; Palfy, M.; Shipkovs, P.; Krotkus, A.; Saly, V.; Nemac, F.; Swens, J.; Nowak, S.; Zachariou, A.; Fechner, H.; Passiniemi, P.

    2004-01-01

    The Status of Photovoltaics in the Central and Eastern Europe presents the state of the art of photovoltaics (PV) in the Newly Associated States (NAS): Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia. The attempt was made to cover all photovoltaics activities in NAS, from research to industry and markets as well as from technology development to dissemination and education. The document covers the following topics and issues: organization of PV research and demonstration activities, stakeholders involved in research and technology development (RTD), scientific potential of NAS PV community, PV activities carried out in NAS countries, PV policies and support mechanisms, achievements and barriers, challenges and needs to the development of PV in the NAS. (authors)

  8. Achievement report on research and development (1st phase) of direct iron making by use of high-temperature; Koon kangen gas riyo ni yoru chokusetsu seitetsu no kenkyu kaihatsu (daiikki) ni kansuru hyoka hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-02-01

    Efforts are put into the study of direct iron making for use in a closed system where heat energy from a multi-purpose high-temperature gas furnace expected to be developed in the near future will be utilized for iron making. The researches, carried out for the establishment of technologies necessary for designing, building, and operating a pilot plant dimensionally suitable for connection to a 50MWt multi-purpose high-temperature gas furnace, cover the plant total system, a high-temperature heat exchanger, ultrahigh-temperature alloys, high-temperature insulating materials, a reduced gas generating unit, and a reduced iron making unit. When the effort is evaluated as a whole, it is found that the newly developed system is effective in preventing pollution, emitting but 0.1Nm{sup 3} of SOx per 1 ton of crude iron against the 0.4-0.9Nm{sup 3} emitted by a blast furnace/converter iron making mill. It is also found effective in reducing fossil fuel dependence and in enhancing energy source diversification. When it comes to energy conversion efficiency, furthermore, it is shown that the new system achieves a rate of 60% or more while only approximately 30% is attained by light water reactor power generation and approximately 40% by a high-temperature gas furnace. (NEDO)

  9. The Activity of Carbohydrate-Degrading Enzymes in the Development of Brood and Newly Emerged workers and Drones of the Carniolan Honeybee, Apis mellifera carnica

    OpenAIRE

    Żółtowska, Krystyna; Lipiński, Zbigniew; Łopieńska-Biernat, Elżbieta; Farjan, Marek; Dmitryjuk, Małgorzata

    2012-01-01

    The activity of glycogen Phosphorylase and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes α-amylase, glucoamylase, trehalase, and sucrase was studied in the development of the Carniolan honey bee, Apis mellifera carnica Pollman (Hymenoptera: Apidae), from newly hatched larva to freshly emerged imago of worker and drone. Phosphorolytic degradation of glycogen was significantly stronger than hydrolytic degradation in all developmental stages. Developmental profiles of hydrolase activity were similar in both ...

  10. Three-dimensional quantification of cardiac surface motion: a newly developed three-dimensional digital motion-capture and reconstruction system for beating heart surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Toshiki; Omata, Sadao; Odamura, Motoki; Okada, Masahumi; Nakamura, Yoshihiko; Yokoyama, Hitoshi

    2006-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate our newly developed 3-dimensional digital motion-capture and reconstruction system in an animal experiment setting and to characterize quantitatively the three regional cardiac surface motions, in the left anterior descending artery, right coronary artery, and left circumflex artery, before and after stabilization using a stabilizer. Six pigs underwent a full sternotomy. Three tiny metallic markers (diameter 2 mm) coated with a reflective material were attached on three regional cardiac surfaces (left anterior descending, right coronary, and left circumflex coronary artery regions). These markers were captured by two high-speed digital video cameras (955 frames per second) as 2-dimensional coordinates and reconstructed to 3-dimensional data points (about 480 xyz-position data per second) by a newly developed computer program. The remaining motion after stabilization ranged from 0.4 to 1.01 mm at the left anterior descending, 0.91 to 1.52 mm at the right coronary artery, and 0.53 to 1.14 mm at the left circumflex regions. Significant differences before and after stabilization were evaluated in maximum moving velocity (left anterior descending 456.7 +/- 178.7 vs 306.5 +/- 207.4 mm/s; right coronary artery 574.9 +/- 161.7 vs 446.9 +/- 170.7 mm/s; left circumflex 578.7 +/- 226.7 vs 398.9 +/- 192.6 mm/s; P heart surface movement. This helps us better understand the complexity of the heart, its motion, and the need for developing a better stabilizer for beating heart surgery.

  11. A summary of high-temperature electronics research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thome, F.V.; King, D.B.

    1991-01-01

    Current and future needs in automative, aircraft, space, military, and well logging industries require operation of electronics at higher temperatures than today's accepted limit of 395 K. Without the availability of high-temperature electronics, many systems must operate under derated conditions or must accept severe mass penalties required by coolant systems to maintain electronic temperatures below critical levels. This paper presents ongoing research and development in the electronics community to bring high-temperature electronics to commercial realization. Much of this work was recently reviewed at the First International High-Temperature Electronics Conference held 16--20 June 1991 in Albuquerque, New Mexico. 4 refs., 1 tab

  12. A model for mentoring newly-appointed nurse educators in nursing education institutions in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seekoe, Eunice

    2014-04-24

    South Africa transformed higher education through the enactment of the Higher Education Act (No. 101 of 1997). The researcher identified the need to develop a model for the mentoring of newly-appointed nurse educators in nursing education institutions in South Africa.  To develop and describe the model for mentoring newly-appointed nurse educators in nursing education institutions in South Africa.  A qualitative and theory-generating design was used (following empirical findings regarding needs analysis) in order to develop the model. The conceptualisation of the framework focused on the context, content, process and the theoretical domains that influenced the model. Ideas from different theories were borrowed from and integrated with the literature and deductive and inductive strategies were applied.  The structure of the model is multidimensional and complex in nature (macro, mesoand micro) based on the philosophy of reflective practice, competency-based practice andcritical learning theories. The assumptions are in relation to stakeholders, context, mentoring, outcome, process and dynamic. The stakeholders are the mentor and mentee within an interactive participatory relationship. The mentoring takes place within the process with a sequence of activities such as relationship building, development, engagement, reflective process and assessment. Capacity building and empowerment are outcomes of mentoring driven by motivation.  The implication for nurse managers is that the model can be used to develop mentoring programmes for newly-appointed nurse educators.

  13. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DIFFERENT ALLOGAMIC ASSOCIATED TRAIT CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FIVE NEWLY DEVELOPED CYTOPLASMIC MALE STERILE (CMS LINES IN RICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nematzadeh GHORBAN ALI

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Five suitable maintainer varieties were identifi ed through testcrosses with IR58025A and the transfer of wild abortive cytoplasm was carried out by seven successive backcrosses. Five new CMS lines were developed by this approach in well adapted high yielding improved varietal background such as ‘Nemat’, ‘Neda’, ‘Dasht’, ‘Amol3’ and ‘Champa’. Agronomical characterization and allogamy-associated traits of the fi ve newly developed CMS lines were studied for their interrelationship. Anther length had a signifi cant positive correlation with the duration of glume opening (0.759 and high correlation of (0.698 with the angle between lemma and palea. The results indicated that ‘Nemat’ A, ‘Neda’ A, ‘Dasht’ A are more suitable as parents for hybrid seed production due to their favorable and superior fl oral characteristics in comparison to IR58025A.

  14. Development open source microcontroller based temperature data logger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, M. H.; Che Ghani, S. A.; Zaulkafilai, Z.; Tajuddin, S. N.

    2017-10-01

    This article discusses the development stages in designing, prototyping, testing and deploying a portable open source microcontroller based temperature data logger for use in rough industrial environment. The 5V powered prototype of data logger is equipped with open source Arduino microcontroller for integrating multiple thermocouple sensors with their module, secure digital (SD) card storage, liquid crystal display (LCD), real time clock and electronic enclosure made of acrylic. The program for the function of the datalogger is programmed so that 8 readings from the thermocouples can be acquired within 3 s interval and displayed on the LCD simultaneously. The recorded temperature readings at four different points on both hydrodistillation show similar profile pattern and highest yield of extracted oil was achieved on hydrodistillation 2 at 0.004%. From the obtained results, this study achieved the objective of developing an inexpensive, portable and robust eight channels temperature measuring module with capabilities to monitor and store real time data.

  15. High temperature material characterization and advanced materials development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Woo Seog; Kim, D. H.; Kim, S. H. and others

    2005-03-01

    The study is to characterize the structural materials under the high temperature, one of the most significant environmental factors in nuclear systems. And advanced materials are developed for high temperature and/or low activation in neutron irradiation. Tensile, fatigue and creep properties have been carried out at high temperature to evaluate the mechanical degradation. Irradiation tests were performed using the HANARO. The optimum chemical composition and heat treatment condition were determined for nuclear grade 316NG stainless steel. Nitrogen, aluminum, and tungsten were added for increasing the creep rupture strength of FMS steel. The new heat treatment method was developed to form more stable precipitates. By applying the novel whiskering process, high density SiC/SiC composites with relative density above 90% could be obtained even in a shorter processing time than the conventional CVI process. Material integrated databases are established using data sheets. The databases of 6 kinds of material properties are accessible through the home page of KAERI material division

  16. Development of very high temperature reactor design technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Jae; Noh, Jan Man

    2012-04-01

    or an efficient production of nuclear hydrogen, the VHTR (Very High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor) of 950 .deg. C outlet temperature and the interfacing system for the hydrogen production are required. We have developed various evaluation technologies for the performance and safety of VHTR through the accomplishment of this project. First, to evaluate the performance of VHTR, a series of analyses has been performed such as core characteristics at 950 .deg. C, applicability of cooled-vessel, intermediate loop system and high temperature structural integrity. Through the analyses of major accidents such as HPCC and LPCC and the analysis of the risk/performance-informed method, VHTR safety evaluation has been also performed. In addition, various design analysis codes have been developed for a nuclear design, system loop design, system performance analysis, fission product/tritium transport analysis, core thermo-fluid analysis, system layout analysis, graphite structure seismic analysis and hydrogen exposion analysis, and they are being verified and validated through a lot of international collaborations

  17. Development of a method for estimating oesophageal temperature by multi-locational temperature measurement inside the external auditory canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada, Hirofumi; Horie, Seichi; Kawanami, Shoko; Inoue, Jinro; Iijima, Yoshinori; Sato, Kiyoharu; Abe, Takeshi

    2017-09-01

    We aimed to develop a practical method to estimate oesophageal temperature by measuring multi-locational auditory canal temperatures. This method can be applied to prevent heatstroke by simultaneously and continuously monitoring the core temperatures of people working under hot environments. We asked 11 healthy male volunteers to exercise, generating 80 W for 45 min in a climatic chamber set at 24, 32 and 40 °C, at 50% relative humidity. We also exposed the participants to radiation at 32 °C. We continuously measured temperatures at the oesophagus, rectum and three different locations along the external auditory canal. We developed equations for estimating oesophageal temperatures from auditory canal temperatures and compared their fitness and errors. The rectal temperature increased or decreased faster than oesophageal temperature at the start or end of exercise in all conditions. Estimated temperature showed good similarity with oesophageal temperature, and the square of the correlation coefficient of the best fitting model reached 0.904. We observed intermediate values between rectal and oesophageal temperatures during the rest phase. Even under the condition with radiation, estimated oesophageal temperature demonstrated concordant movement with oesophageal temperature at around 0.1 °C overestimation. Our method measured temperatures at three different locations along the external auditory canal. We confirmed that the approach can credibly estimate the oesophageal temperature from 24 to 40 °C for people performing exercise in the same place in a windless environment.

  18. Clinical Prediction Model for Time in Therapeutic Range While on Warfarin in Newly Diagnosed Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brent A; Evans, Michael A; Honushefsky, Ashley M; Berger, Peter B

    2017-10-12

    Though warfarin has historically been the primary oral anticoagulant for stroke prevention in newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation (AF), several new direct oral anticoagulants may be preferred when anticoagulation control with warfarin is expected to be poor. This study developed a prediction model for time in therapeutic range (TTR) among newly diagnosed AF patients on newly initiated warfarin as a tool to assist decision making between warfarin and direct oral anticoagulants. This electronic medical record-based, retrospective study included newly diagnosed, nonvalvular AF patients with no recent warfarin exposure receiving primary care services through a large healthcare system in rural Pennsylvania. TTR was estimated as the percentage of time international normalized ratio measurements were between 2.0 and 3.0 during the first year following warfarin initiation. Candidate predictors of TTR were chosen from data elements collected during usual clinical care. A TTR prediction model was developed and temporally validated and its predictive performance was compared with the SAMe-TT 2 R 2 score (sex, age, medical history, treatment, tobacco, race) using R 2 and c-statistics. A total of 7877 newly diagnosed AF patients met study inclusion criteria. Median (interquartile range) TTR within the first year of starting warfarin was 51% (32, 67). Of 85 candidate predictors evaluated, 15 were included in the final validated model with an R 2 of 15.4%. The proposed model showed better predictive performance than the SAMe-TT 2 R 2 score ( R 2 =3.0%). The proposed prediction model may assist decision making on the proper mode of oral anticoagulant among newly diagnosed AF patients. However, predicting TTR on warfarin remains challenging. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  19. The activity of carbohydrate-degrading enzymes in the development of brood and newly emerged workers and drones of the Carniolan honeybee, Apis mellifera carnica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żółtowska, Krystyna; Lipiński, Zbigniew; Łopieńska-Biernat, Elżbieta; Farjan, Marek; Dmitryjuk, Małgorzata

    2012-01-01

    The activity of glycogen Phosphorylase and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes α-amylase, glucoamylase, trehalase, and sucrase was studied in the development of the Carniolan honey bee, Apis mellifera carnica Pollman (Hymenoptera: Apidae), from newly hatched larva to freshly emerged imago of worker and drone. Phosphorolytic degradation of glycogen was significantly stronger than hydrolytic degradation in all developmental stages. Developmental profiles of hydrolase activity were similar in both sexes of brood; high activity was found in unsealed larvae, the lowest in prepupae followed by an increase in enzymatic activity. Especially intensive increases in activity occurred in the last stage of pupae and newly emerged imago. Besides α-amylase, the activities of other enzymes were higher in drone than in worker broods. Among drones, activity of glucoamylase was particularly high, ranging from around three times higher in the youngest larvae to 13 times higher in the oldest pupae. This confirms earlier suggestions about higher rates of metabolism in drone broods than in worker broods.

  20. Confidence in leadership among the newly qualified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss-Pratt, Lisa; Morley, Mary; Bagley, Liz; Alderson, Steven

    2013-10-23

    The Francis report highlighted the importance of strong leadership from health professionals but it is unclear how prepared those who are newly qualified feel to take on a leadership role. We aimed to assess the confidence of newly qualified health professionals working in the West Midlands in the different competencies of the NHS Leadership Framework. Most respondents felt confident in their abilities to demonstrate personal qualities and work with others, but less so at managing or improving services or setting direction.

  1. Programmes and projects for high-temperature reactor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogusch, Edgar; Hittner, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    An increasing attention has to be recognised worldwide on the development of High-Temperature Reactors (HTR) which has started in Germany and other countries in the 1970ies. While pebble bed reactors with spherical fuel elements have been developed and constructed in Germany, countries such as France, the US and Russia investigated HTR concepts with prismatic block-type fuel elements. The concept of a modular HTR formerly developed by Areva NP was an essential basis for the HTR-10 in China. A pebble bed HTR for electricity production is developed in South Africa. The construction is planned after the completion of the licensing procedure. Also the US is planning an HTR under the NGNP (Next Generation Nuclear Plant) Project. Due to the high temperature level of the helium coolant, the HTR can be used not only for electricity production but also for supply of process heat. Including its inherent safety features the HTR is an attractive candidate for heat supply to various types of plants e.g. for hydrogen production or coal liquefactions. The conceptual design of an HTR with prismatic fuel elements for the cogeneration of electricity and process heat has been developed by Areva NP. On the European scale the HTR development is promoted by the RAPHAEL (ReActor for Process heat, Hydrogen And ELectricity generation) project. RAPHAEL is an Integrated Project of the Euratom 6th Framework Programme for the development of technologies towards a Very High-Temperature Reactor (VHTR) for the production of electricity and heat. It is financed jointly by the European Commission and the partners of the HTR Technology Network (HTR-TN) and coordinated by Areva NP. The RAPHAEL project not only promotes HTR development but also the cooperation with other European projects such as the material programme EXTREMAT. Furthermore HTR technology is investigated in the frame of Generation IV International Forum (GIF). The development of a VHTR with helium temperatures above 900 C for the

  2. Temperature and shear rate characteristics of electrorheological gel applied to a clutch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyanagi, K; Takata, Y; Motoyoshi, T; Oshima, T; Kakinuma, Y; Anzai, H; Sakurai, K

    2013-01-01

    This investigation reports the physical characteristics of electrorheological (ER) gels, which are a type of functional material having controlled surface friction. We previously developed slip clutches using ER gels sandwiched between electrodes, and verified their responses and controllability. We newly report the temperature and shear rate characteristics of ER gel in this study because the input and output electrodes of the clutch continuously slip past each other. While the temperature of ER gels increased when energized, the shear stress hardly changed. Instead, wearing and adaptation to the electrode affect the property. The shear rate hardly affected the shear stress in the high-shear-rate region. Conversely, the shear stress depended on the shear rate in the lower region.

  3. Weldability of newly developed austenitic alloy for cryogenic service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, T.; Koseki, T.

    1986-01-01

    The testing reported in this paper involved typical steels of the new grades such as STEEL-A (0.025C-14Ni-25Cr-0.35N), STEEL-B (0.04C-23Mn-13Cr-0.22N) and STEEL-C (0.20C-25Mn-5Cr), and commercial steels of Type 300 series. Weldments were made mainly using the GTAW, SMAW and SAW processes with experimental and commercial filler metals. Strength and toughness of weldments were examined at 77 K (-321 0 F) and 4 K. The strengthening of material through the addition of nitrogen was far greater in the weld metal that in the base metal at cryogenic temperature. In fact, 0.2% proof stress of weld metals bearging 0.20% to 0.40% nitrogen at 77 K exhibited a higher value by 60 to 150 MPa (8,740 to 21,760 psi) than that of the base metal. Impact absorbed energy of weld metals at 77 K decreased rapidly with nitrogen content, 60-90 J at 0.20%N to 20-50J at 0.35% N. Rather high impact absorbed energy was obtained when the weld metal solidified as primary austenitic phase, resulting in fully austenitic microstructure or austenite-eutectic ferrite mixture at ambient temperature. In addition, oxide inclusions, the number of which strongly depends on welding processes, were detrimental to toughness of weld metals at cryogenic temperature

  4. Characteristics of a newly designed electrolyser to enrich tritium in environmental water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shima, Nagayoshi; Muranaka, Takeshi

    2007-01-01

    A newly designed electrolytic device to enrich tritium in environmental water is proposed. This device is composed of a solid polymer electrolytic film (SPE film) and porous, dimensionally stable electrodes (DSE). In our design a platinum mesh was inserted between the SPE film and the anode DSE so that the device can be easily disassembled and the used SPE film can be replaced with a new one after each use. A thin gold plate with a number of minute holes in it is used as current collector in both electrodes allowing the electrolytic gas to be released progressively. An electrolytic current of 6A was passed through the device to obtain a volume reducing factor of five by keeping a temperature of water both at 2degC or lower. After that, our device achieved a tritium recovery factor of 0.836±0.021 (n=4). Such a value is greater than the value obtained using a commercially available apparatus operated under the same experimental conditions. It is thought that this greater efficiency depends on the difference between electrolytic temperature produced in our device and the temperature in the commercially available one. (author)

  5. Hanford coring bit temperature monitor development testing results report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey, D.

    1995-05-01

    Instrumentation which directly monitors the temperature of a coring bit used to retrieve core samples of high level nuclear waste stored in tanks at Hanford was developed at Sandia National Laboratories. Monitoring the temperature of the coring bit is desired to enhance the safety of the coring operations. A unique application of mature technologies was used to accomplish the measurement. This report documents the results of development testing performed at Sandia to assure the instrumentation will withstand the severe environments present in the waste tanks

  6. High-temperature-structural design and research and development for reactor system components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Makoto; Hada, Mikio

    1985-01-01

    The design of reactor system components requires high-temperature-structural design guide with the consideration of the creep effect of materials related to research and development on structural design. The high-temperature-structural design guideline for the fast prototype reactor MONJU has been developed under the active leadership by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation and Toshiba has actively participated to this work with responsibility on in-vessel components, performing research and development programs. This paper reports the current status of high-temperature-structural-design-oriented research and development programs and development of analytical system including stress-evaluation program. (author)

  7. Optimum development temperature and duration for nuclear plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagoshi, Chieko.

    1975-01-01

    Sakura 100 μm thick nuclear plates have been employed to determine optimum temperature and duration of the Amidol developer for low energy protons (Ep 0 C were tried for periods of 15--35 min. For Ep 0 C and for development time less than 30 min. (auth.)

  8. Newly developed EMF cell with zirconia solid electrolyte for measurement of low oxygen potentials in liquid Cu-Cr and Cu-Zr alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayama I.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to measure the very low oxygen potential by use of stabilized zirconia solid electrolyte emf method, a new cell construction was devised. The idea was based on Janke but a zirconia rod was used instead of the zirconia crucible which contacts liquid alloy electrode. The cell was used for determination of the oxygen potentials in liquid dilute Cu-Cr and Cu-Zr alloys. The reference electrode was Cr,Cr2O3. Emf measurements were performed in the temperature range of 1400-1580K and composition range of 0.198-3.10at%Cr-Cu alloys, and 1380-1465K, 0.085-0.761at%Zr-Cu alloys. The composition of liquid alloys were determined by picking up from the liquid alloys and ICP analysis. By use of the newly devised cell construction in this study, stable emf values were obtained at each temperature and alloy composition. Emf values were corrected by using the parameter for electronic contribution of the YSZ. Activity of Cr obeys Henry’s law and activity coefficient at infinitely dilute alloys of Cr in Cu-Cr alloys are: lng0 Cr =(3.80 at 1423K, (3.57 at 1473K, (3.38 at 1523K and (3.20 at 1573K. At 1423 K activity coefficient of Zr at infinitely diluted alloy is lnγo Zr = -4.0.

  9. Four newly recorded species of Dryopteridaceae from Kashmir valley, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAKOOR AHMAD MIR

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mir SA, Mishra AK, Reshi ZA, Sharma MP. 2014. Four newly recorded species of Dryopteridaceae from Kashmir valley, India. Biodiversitas 15: 6-11. Habitat diversity, elevation, cloud cover, rainfall, seasonal and temperature variations have created many ideal sites for the luxuriant growth of pteridophytes in the Kashmir valley, yet all the regions of the valley have not been surveyed. In Kashmir valley the family Dryopteridaceae is represented by 31 species. During the recent extensive field surveys of Shopian district four more species viz., Dryopteris caroli-hopei Fraser-Jenkins, Dryopteris blanfordii subsp. nigrosquamosa (Ching Fraser-Jenkins, Dryopteris pulvinulifera (Bedd. Kuntze and Polystichum Nepalense (Spreng C. Chr. have been recorded for the first time from the valley. The taxonomic description, synonyms, distribution and photographs of each species are given in this article.

  10. Temperatures and the growth and development of maize and rice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez, Berta; Rasmussen, Anton; Porter, John Roy

    2014-01-01

    and maize crop responses to temperature in different, but consistent, phenological phases and development stages. A literature review and data compilation of around 140 scientific articles have determined the key temperature thresholds and response to extreme temperature effects for rice and maize...... defined in all three crops. Anthesis and ripening are the most sensitive temperature stages in rice as well as in wheat and maize. We call for further experimental studies of the effects of transgressing threshold temperatures so such responses can be included into crop impact and adaptation models....

  11. The effect of temperature on development of Sarconesia chlorogaster, a blowfly of forensic importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecheta, Melise Cristine; Thyssen, Patricia Jacqueline; Moura, Mauricio Osvaldo

    2015-12-01

    The blowfly Sarconesia chlorogaster (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is of limited forensic use in South America, due to the poorly known relationship between development time and temperature. The purpose of this study was to determine development time of S. chlorogaster at different constant temperatures, thereby enabling the forensic use of this fly. Development time of this species was examined by observing larval development at six temperatures (10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 °C). The thermal constant (K), the minimum development threshold (t 0), and development rate were calculated using linear regressions of the development time interval at five temperatures (10-30 °C). Development interval from egg to adult varied from 14.2 to 95.2 days, depending on temperature. The t0 calculated for total immature development is 6.33 °C and the overall thermal constant is 355.51 degree-days (DD). Temperature affected the viability of pupae, at 35 °C 100 % mortality was observed. Understanding development rate across these temperatures now makes development of S. chlorogaster a forensically useful tool for estimating postmortem interval.

  12. A model for mentoring newly-appointed nurse educators in nursing education institutions in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Seekoe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa transformed higher education through the enactment of the Higher Education Act (No. 101 of 1997. The researcher identified the need to develop a model for the mentoring of newly-appointed nurse educators in nursing education institutions in South Africa. Objectives: To develop and describe the model for mentoring newly-appointed nurse educators in nursing education institutions in South Africa. Method: A qualitative and theory-generating design was used (following empirical findings regarding needs analysis in order to develop the model. The conceptualisation of the framework focused on the context, content, process and the theoretical domains that influenced the model. Ideas from different theories were borrowed from and integrated with the literature and deductive and inductive strategies were applied. Results: The structure of the model is multidimensional and complex in nature (macro, mesoand micro based on the philosophy of reflective practice, competency-based practice andcritical learning theories. The assumptions are in relation to stakeholders, context, mentoring, outcome, process and dynamic. The stakeholders are the mentor and mentee within an interactive participatory relationship. The mentoring takes place within the process with a sequence of activities such as relationship building, development, engagement, reflective process and assessment. Capacity building and empowerment are outcomes of mentoring driven by motivation. Conclusion: The implication for nurse managers is that the model can be used to develop mentoring programmes for newly-appointed nurse educators.

  13. Los Alamos Plutonium Facility newly generated TRU waste certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruetzmacher, K.; Montoya, A.; Sinkule, B.; Maez, M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the activities being planned and implemented to certify newly generated contact handled transuranic (TRU) waste produced by Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL's) Plutonium Facility. Certifying waste at the point of generation is the most important cost and labor saving step in the WIPP certification process. The pedigree of a waste item is best known by the originator of the waste and frees a site from expensive characterization activities such as those associated with legacy waste. Through a cooperative agreement with LANLs Waste Management Facility and under the umbrella of LANLs WIPP-related certification and quality assurance documents, the Plutonium Facility will be certifying its own newly generated waste. Some of the challenges faced by the Plutonium Facility in preparing to certify TRU waste include the modification and addition of procedures to meet WIPP requirements, standardizing packaging for TRU waste, collecting processing documentation from operations which produce TRU waste, and developing ways to modify waste streams which are not certifiable in their present form

  14. Phenology of Lymantria monacha (Lepidoptera:Lymantriidae) laboratory reared on spruce foliage or a newly developed artificial diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melody A. Keena; Alice Vandel; Oldrich. Pultar

    2010-01-01

    Lymantria monacha (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) is a Eurasian pest of conifers that has potential for accidental introduction into North America. The phenology over the entire life cycle for L. monacha individuals from the Czech Republic was compared on Picea glauca (Moench) Voss (white spruce) and a newly...

  15. Problems faced by newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus patients at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetes mellitus can be a frightening experience for newly diagnosed patients. The aim of this study was to determine and describe the problems faced by newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus patients at primary healthcare facilities at Mopani district, Limpopo Province. A qualitative, descriptive and contextual research ...

  16. Newly graduated nurses' use of knowledge sources in clinical decision-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldbjerg, Siri Lygum; Grønkjaer, Mette; Wiechula, Rick

    2017-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore which knowledge sources newly graduated nurses' use in clinical decision-making and why and how they are used. BACKGROUND: In spite of an increased educational focus on skills and competencies within evidence based practice newly graduated nurses' ability to use...... approaches to strengthen the knowledgebase used in clinical decision-making. DESIGN AND METHODS: Ethnographic study using participant-observation and individual semi-structured interviews of nine Danish newly graduated nurses in medical and surgical hospital settings. RESULTS: Newly graduates use...... in clinical decision-making. If newly graduates are to be supported in an articulate and reflective use of a variety of sources, they have to be allocated to experienced nurses who model a reflective, articulate and balanced use of knowledge sources. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  17. Impedance measurements on Au microelectrodes using controlled atmosphere high temperature scanning probe microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Yuehua; Hansen, Karin Vels; Jacobsen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    High temperature impedance measurements on Au microelectrodes deposited on polished yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) pellets were demonstrated using a newly designed controlled atmosphere high temperature scanning probe microscope (CAHT-SPM). Probes based on Pt0.8Ir0.2 were fabricated and employed...

  18. Temperature fluctuations in fully-developed turbulent channel flow with heated upper wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahri, Carla; Mueller, Michael; Hultmark, Marcus

    2013-11-01

    The interactions and scaling differences between the velocity field and temperature field in a wall-bounded turbulent flow are investigated. In particular, a fully developed turbulent channel flow perturbed by a step change in the wall temperature is considered with a focus on the details of the developing thermal boundary layer. For this specific study, temperature acts as a passive scalar, having no dynamical effect on the flow. A combination of experimental investigation and direct numerical simulation (DNS) is presented. Velocity and temperature data are acquired with high accuracy where, the flow is allowed to reach a fully-developed state before encountering a heated upper wall at constant temperature. The experimental data is compared with DNS data where simulations of the same configuration are conducted.

  19. Relationship between phase development and swelling of AISI 316 during temperature changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W.J.S.; Garner, F.A.

    1982-04-01

    The effect of temperature changes on radiation-induced swelling and phase development of AISI 316 has been examined for specimens irradiated in two different experiments. The formation of radiation-stable phases at low temperature appears to precede swelling but these phases tend to dissolve when subsequently subjected to higher temperature. Phases which develop at high temperature persist when the temperature is subsequently lowered. Once nucleated at low temperatures, voids tend to persist without reduction in density at higher temperatures. However, a new round of void nucleation occurs when the temperature is decreased during irradiation. If the swelling has entered the steady-state swelling regime prior to the temperature change, there is no effect on the subsequent swelling rate. For temperature changes that occur before the end of the transient swelling regime, substantial changes can occur in the swelling behavior, particularly if the changes occur in the range around 500 0 . The isothermal swelling behavior of AISI 316 is much less sensitive to irradiation temperature than previously envisioned

  20. Newly graduated nurses' occupational commitment and its associations with professional competence and work-related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numminen, Olivia; Leino-Kilpi, Helena; Isoaho, Hannu; Meretoja, Riitta

    2016-01-01

    To explore newly graduated nurses' occupational commitment and its associations with their self-assessed professional competence and other work-related factors. As a factor affecting nurse turnover, newly graduated nurses' occupational commitment and its associations with work-related factors needs exploring to retain adequate workforce. Nurses' commitment has mainly been studied as organisational commitment, but newly graduated nurses' occupational commitment and its association with work-related factors needs further studying. This study used descriptive, cross-sectional, correlation design. A convenience sample of 318 newly graduated nurses in Finland participated responding to an electronic questionnaire. Statistical software, NCSS version 9, was used in data analysis. Frequencies, percentages, ranges, means and standard deviations summarised the data. Multivariate Analyses of Variance estimated associations between occupational commitment and work-related variables. IBM SPSS Amos version 22 estimated the model fit of Occupational Commitment Scale and Nurse Competence Scale. Newly graduated nurses' occupational commitment was good, affective commitment reaching the highest mean score. There was a significant difference between the nurse groups in favour of nurses at higher competence levels in all subscales except in limited alternatives occupational commitment. Multivariate analyses revealed significant associations between subscales of commitment and competence, turnover intentions, job satisfaction, earlier professional education and work sector, competence counting only through affective dimension. The association between occupational commitment and low turnover intentions and satisfaction with nursing occupation was strong. Higher general competence indicated higher overall occupational commitment. Managers' recognition of the influence of all dimensions of occupational commitment in newly graduated nurses' professional development is important. Follow

  1. Alternative waste form development - low-temperature pyrolytic carbon coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oma, K.H.; Rusin, J.M.; Kidd, R.W.; Browning, M.F.

    1981-01-01

    Although several chemical vapor deposition (CVD) - coated waste forms have been successfully produced, some major disadvantages associated with the high-temperature fluidized-bed CVD coating process exist. To overcome these disadvantages, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory has initiated the development of a pyrolytic carbon CVD coating system to coat large waste-form particles at temperatures ranging from 400 to 500/degree/C. This relatively simple system has been used to coat kilogram quantities of simulated waste-glass marbles. Further development of this system could result in a viable process to coat bulk quantities of both glass and ceramic waste forms. This paper discusses various aspects of the development work, including coating techniques, parametric study, and coater equipment. 10 refs

  2. Ethical climate and nurse competence - newly graduated nurses' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numminen, Olivia; Leino-Kilpi, Helena; Isoaho, Hannu; Meretoja, Riitta

    2015-12-01

    is also a need for knowledge of newly graduated nurses' views of factors which act as enhancers or barriers to positive ethical climates to develop. Interventions, continuing education courses, and discussions designed to promote positive ethical climates should be developed for managers, nurses, and multi-professional teams. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Practices influenced by policy? An exploration of newly hired science teachers at sites in South Africa and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navy, S. L.; Luft, J. A.; Toerien, R.; Hewson, P. W.

    2018-05-01

    In many parts of the world, newly hired science teachers' practices are developing in a complex policy environment. However, little is known about how newly hired science teachers' practices are enacted throughout a cycle of instruction and how these practices can be influenced by macro-, meso-, and micro-policies. Knowing how policies impact practice can result in better policies or better support for certain policies in order to enhance the instruction of newly hired teachers. This comparative study investigated how 12 newly hired science teachers at sites in South Africa (SA) and the United States (US) progressed through an instructional cycle of planning, teaching, and reflection. The qualitative data were analysed through beginning teacher competency frameworks, the cycle of instruction, and institutional theory. Data analysis revealed prevailing areas of practice and connections to levels of policy within the instructional cycle phases. There were some differences between the SA and US teachers and among first-, second-, and third-year teachers. More importantly, this study indicates that newly hired teachers are susceptible to micro-policies and are progressively developing their practice. It also shows the importance of meso-level connectors. It suggests that teacher educators and policy makers must consider how to prepare and support newly hired science teachers to achieve the shared global visions of science teaching.

  4. Development of temperature statistical model when machining of aerospace alloy materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadirgama Kumaran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents to develop first-order models for predicting the cutting temperature for end-milling operation of Hastelloy C-22HS by using four different coated carbide cutting tools and two different cutting environments. The first-order equations of cutting temperature are developed using the response surface methodology (RSM. The cutting variables are cutting speed, feed rate, and axial depth. The analyses are carried out with the aid of the statistical software package. It can be seen that the model is suitable to predict the longitudinal component of the cutting temperature close to those readings recorded experimentally with a 95% confident level. The results obtained from the predictive models are also compared with results obtained from finite-element analysis (FEA. The developed first-order equations for the cutting temperature revealed that the feed rate is the most crucial factor, followed by axial depth and cutting speed. The PVD coated cutting tools perform better than the CVD-coated cutting tools in terms of cutting temperature. The cutting tools coated with TiAlN perform better compared with other cutting tools during the machining performance of Hastelloy C-22HS. It followed by TiN/TiCN/TiN and CVD coated with TiN/TiCN/Al2O3 and TiN/TiCN/TiN. From the finite-element analysis, the distribution of the cutting temperature can be discussed. High temperature appears in the lower sliding friction zone and at the cutting tip of the cutting tool. Maximum temperature is developed at the rake face some distance away from the tool nose, however, before the chip lift away.

  5. NEWLY-PACKAGED BALI TOURIST PERFORMING ARTS IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF CULTURAL STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Ruastiti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This research is focused on the newly packaged tourist performing arts; they are anew concept and seem to be different from the general tourist performing arts. They arepackaged from various components of Balinese arts and managed as large scale-touristperforming arts in terms of materials, space, and time of their performances. The researchercalls them new types of Bali tourist performing arts because how they are presented isnew and different from the traditional tourist performing arts which are simply performed.In this research, the newly-packaged performing arts are analyzed in the perspective ofcultural studies.The research was carried out at three palaces in Bali; they are Mengwi Palace inBadung regency, Anyar Palace at Kerambitan, Tabanan regency, and Banyuning Palace atBongkasa, Badung regency. There are three main problems to be discussed: firstly, how dothe tourist performing arts emerge in all the palaces? Secondly, are they related to thetourist industry developed in the palaces?, thirdly, what is the impact and meaning of themfor the sake of the palaces, society, and Balinese culture? The researcher uses a qualitativemethod and an interdisciplinary approach as characteristics of cultural studies. The theoriesused are hegemony, deconstruction, and structuration.The result shows that the tourism development at all the palaces has made the localsociety become more critical. The money-oriented economy based on the spirit of gettingbenefit has made the emergence of comodification in all sectors of life. The emergence oftourist industry at the palaces has led to the idea of showing all of the useful art and culturalpotentials which at the palaces and their surroundings. Theoretically, the palaces can bestated to have deconstructed the concept of presenting the Bali tourist performing arts into anew one, that is, “the newly packaged Bali tourist performing arts”.It has been observed that all the palaces have developed t “Newly

  6. Efficacy of Intra-articular Injection of a Newly Developed Plasma Rich in Growth Factor (PRGF) Versus Hyaluronic Acid on Pain and Function of Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis: A Single-Blinded Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeissadat, Seyed Ahmad; Rayegani, Seyed Mansoor; Ahangar, Azadeh Gharooee; Abadi, Porya Hassan; Mojgani, Parviz; Ahangar, Omid Gharooi

    2017-01-01

    Knee osteoarthritis is the most common joint disease. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of intra-articular injection of a newly developed plasma rich in growth factor (PRGF) versus hyaluronic acid (HA) on pain and function of patients with knee osteoarthritis. In this single-blinded randomized clinical trial, patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis of knee were assigned to receive 2 intra-articular injections of our newly developed PRGF in 3 weeks or 3 weekly injections of HA. Our primary outcome was the mean change from baseline until 2 and 6 months post intervention in scores of visual analog scale, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), and Lequesne index. We used analysis of variance for repeated-measures statistical test. A total of 69 patients entered final analysis. The mean age of patients was 58.2 ± 7.41 years and 81.2% were women. In particular, total WOMAC index decreased from 42.9 ± 13.51 to 26.8 ± 13.45 and 24.4 ± 16.54 at 2 and 6 months in the newly developed PRGF group (within subjects P  = .001), and from 38.8 ± 12.62 to 27.8 ± 11.01 and 27.4 ± 11.38 at 2 and 6 months in the HA group (within subjects P  = .001), respectively (between subjects P  = .631). There was no significant difference between PRGF and HA groups in patients' satisfaction and minor complications of injection, whereas patients in HA group reported significantly lower injection-induced pain. In 6 months follow up, our newly developed PRGF and HA, both are effective options to decrease pain and improvement of function in patients with symptomatic mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis.

  7. [Bioethical analysis of the use of newly dead patients in medical learning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Andréia Patrícia; Rego, Sergio; Palácios, Marisa; Siqueira-Batista, Rodrigo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to carry out, a discussion on the subject of bioethics and cadavers based upon a critic review of literature. A review of literature, was made with a survey of articles between 1977 and 2007 in the sites 'Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde', PubMed and SciElo, utilizing the keywords: newly deceased patients, newly dead patients, simulators,. This was complemented by a critical evaluation of books published in the area of ethics and bioethics. The possibility to develop learning without orientation by a supervisor is doubtful.. The utilization of newly dead for learning invasive procedures is very frequent and seldom admitted. These procedures, are usually, carried out secretly, without the knowledge and consent of the family. The ethical aspects of these practices are not discussed in the practical medical education. It essential that the ethics of use of recent deceased become a necessary content of graduate education. Performance of these procedures by students should always be authorized by family members. The simulators meet the requirements of training. Discussions about the ethical and bioethical aspects cannot be separated from practical considerations during the students learning time.

  8. Demonstration of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in rat Kupffer cells by a newly-developed ultrastructural enzyme-cytochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Matsubara

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Although various tissue macrophages possess high glucose- 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD activity, which is reported to be closely associated with their phagocytotic/bactericidal function, the fine subcellular localization of this enzyme in liver resident macrophages (Kupffer cells has not been determined.We have investigated the subcellular localization of G6PD in Kupffer cells in rat liver, using a newly developed enzyme-cytochemical (copper-ferrocyanide method. Electron-dense precipitates indicating G6PD activity were clearly visible in the cytoplasm and on the cytosolic side of the endoplasmic reticulum of Kupffer cells. Cytochemical controls ensured specific detection of the enzymatic activity. Rat Kupffer cells abundantly possessed enzyme-cytochemically detectable G6PD activity. Kupffer cell G6PD may play a role in liver defense by delivering NADPH to NADPH-dependent enzymes. G6PD enzyme-cytochemistry may be a useful tool for the study of Kupffer cell functions.

  9. R/D and implement of temper bead welding as newly developed maintenance technique in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Shinro; Sera, Takehiko; Chigusa, Naoki; Okimura, Koji; Nishimoto, Kazutoshi

    2011-01-01

    Japanese government has recently addressed a policy to increase capacity factor of existing nuclear PPs to achieve the goal to decrease the emission of CO 2 . Numerous preventive measures have taken in nuclear power plants to minimize the risk of unexpected long shutdown. Newly developed mitigation measures or repair methods need to be qualified to satisfy regulatory standards, before it is implemented to nuclear power plants. The qualification process needs to comply regulatory standards though it may consume time to go through each of the required steps. This paper describes such cases namely ambient temper-bead welding and clarifies the issues that need to be resolved regarding qualification process. The qualification process for new methods that has not been prescribed in regulatory standards temporarily completed by go through confirm testing by JAPEIC, RNP and issuance of no action letter in rush. Currently, the qualification process can only be applied on limited area so generalized qualification process needs to be established. (author)

  10. Low-Cost, High Glass-Transition Temperature, Thermosetting Polyimide Developed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Kathy C.

    1999-01-01

    PMR-15 polyimide, developed in the mid-1970's at the NASA Lewis Research Center, is recognized as a state-of-the-art high-temperature resin for composite applications in the temperature range of 500 to 550 F (260 to 288 C). PMR-15 offers easy processing and good property retention at a reasonable cost. For these reasons, it is widely used in both military and commercial aircraft engine components. Traditionally, polyimide composites have been designed for long-term use at 500 to 600 F over thousands of hours. However, new applications in reusable launch vehicles (RLV's) require lightweight materials that can perform for short times (tens of hours) at temperatures between 800 and 1000 F (425 and 538 C). Current efforts at Lewis are focused on raising the use temperature of polyimide composites by increasing the glass-transition temperature of the matrix resins. Achieving this dramatic increase in the upper use temperature without sacrificing polymer and composite processability is a major technical challenge.

  11. Technology Requirements and Development for Affordable High-Temperature Distributed Engine Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    long lasting, high temperature modules is to use high temperature electronics on ceramic modules. The electronic components are “ brazed ” onto the...Copyright © 2012 by ISA Technology Requirements and Development for Affordable High - Temperature Distributed Engine Controls Alireza Behbahani 1...with regards to high temperature capability. The Government and Industry Distributed Engine Controls Working Group (DECWG) [5] has been established

  12. 10-GHz return-to-zero pulse source tunable in wavelength with a single- or multiwavelength output based on four-wave mixing in a newly developed highly nonlinear fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, A. T.; Oxenlowe, L.; Peucheret, Christophe

    2001-01-01

    In this letter, a novel scheme for a wavelength-tunable pulse source (WTPS) is proposed and characterized. It is based on four-wave mixing (FWM) in a newly developed highly nonlinear fiber between a return-to-zero (RZ) pulsed signal at a fixed wavelength and a continuous wave probe tunable...

  13. PREVALENCE OF SLEEP DISORDERED BREATHING IN PATIENTS WITH NEWLY DIAGNOSED ACROMEGALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. A. Tsoy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obstructive sleep disordered breathing or obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is the most common respiratory impairment in acromegaly. OSA is bound up with heightened cardiovascular mortality. Aim: Тo study frequency, features, and structure of sleep disordered breathing in patients with newly diagnosed acromegaly and to elucidate the factors influencing their development. Materials and methods: 38 patients (10 men, 28 women, median age 53 (28-76 years, median body mass index (BMI 29 (19.9-44.3 kg/m² with newly diagnosed acromegaly were recruited into the study. All subjects underwent full polysomnography (Embla N7000, Natus, USA and Remlogica software (USA. Results: Sleep disordered breathing was found in 28 (73.7% patients. OSA was revealed in all cases, in 11 (39.3% subjects it was mixed. In 10 (35.7% patients OSA was mild, in 8 (28.6% moderate, and in 10 (35.7% severe. BMI (р<0.01, disease duration (р=0.003, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 level (р=0.04 were different in patients without OSA and patients with moderate-to-severe OSA. No difference was found in sex (р=0.4, age (р=0.064, and growth hormone level (р=0.6. Frequency of arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and other glucose metabolism impairments was the same in subjects without OSA and with severe-to-moderate OSA. Conclusion: All patients with newly diagnosed acromegaly should undergo polysomnography. BMI, disease duration, and IGF-1 level are significant risk factors for OSA development. Correlation OSA with arterial hypertension and glucose metabolism impairments needs to be further investigated.

  14. GPU-based local interaction simulation approach for simplified temperature effect modelling in Lamb wave propagation used for damage detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kijanka, P; Radecki, R; Packo, P; Staszewski, W J; Uhl, T

    2013-01-01

    Temperature has a significant effect on Lamb wave propagation. It is important to compensate for this effect when the method is considered for structural damage detection. The paper explores a newly proposed, very efficient numerical simulation tool for Lamb wave propagation modelling in aluminum plates exposed to temperature changes. A local interaction approach implemented with a parallel computing architecture and graphics cards is used for these numerical simulations. The numerical results are compared with the experimental data. The results demonstrate that the proposed approach could be used efficiently to produce a large database required for the development of various temperature compensation procedures in structural health monitoring applications. (paper)

  15. Application of a newly developed software program for image quality assessment in cone-beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Marcus Vinicius Linhares; Santos, António Carvalho; Paulo, Graciano; Campos, Paulo Sergio Flores; Santos, Joana

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply a newly developed free software program, at low cost and with minimal time, to evaluate the quality of dental and maxillofacial cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. A polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantom, CQP-IFBA, was scanned in 3 CBCT units with 7 protocols. A macro program was developed, using the free software ImageJ, to automatically evaluate the image quality parameters. The image quality evaluation was based on 8 parameters: uniformity, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), noise, the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), spatial resolution, the artifact index, geometric accuracy, and low-contrast resolution. The image uniformity and noise depended on the protocol that was applied. Regarding the CNR, high-density structures were more sensitive to the effect of scanning parameters. There were no significant differences between SNR and CNR in centered and peripheral objects. The geometric accuracy assessment showed that all the distance measurements were lower than the real values. Low-contrast resolution was influenced by the scanning parameters, and the 1-mm rod present in the phantom was not depicted in any of the 3 CBCT units. Smaller voxel sizes presented higher spatial resolution. There were no significant differences among the protocols regarding artifact presence. This software package provided a fast, low-cost, and feasible method for the evaluation of image quality parameters in CBCT.

  16. Application of a newly developed software program for image quality assessment in cone-beam computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Oliveira, Marcus Vinicius Linhares; Campos, Paulo Sergio Flores; Paulo, Graciano; Santos, Antonio Carvalho; Santos, Joana

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply a newly developed free software program, at low cost and with minimal time, to evaluate the quality of dental and maxillofacial cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. A polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantom, CQP-IFBA, was scanned in 3 CBCT units with 7 protocols. A macro program was developed, using the free software ImageJ, to automatically evaluate the image quality parameters. The image quality evaluation was based on 8 parameters: uniformity, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), noise, the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), spatial resolution, the artifact index, geometric accuracy, and low-contrast resolution. The image uniformity and noise depended on the protocol that was applied. Regarding the CNR, high-density structures were more sensitive to the effect of scanning parameters. There were no significant differences between SNR and CNR in centered and peripheral objects. The geometric accuracy assessment showed that all the distance measurements were lower than the real values. Low-contrast resolution was influenced by the scanning parameters, and the 1-mm rod present in the phantom was not depicted in any of the 3 CBCT units. Smaller voxel sizes presented higher spatial resolution. There were no significant differences among the protocols regarding artifact presence. This software package provided a fast, low-cost, and feasible method for the evaluation of image quality parameters in CBCT

  17. Application of a newly developed software program for image quality assessment in cone-beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Oliveira, Marcus Vinicius Linhares; Campos, Paulo Sergio Flores [Federal Institute of Bahia, Salvador (Brazil); Paulo, Graciano; Santos, Antonio Carvalho; Santos, Joana [Coimbra Health School, Polytechnic Institute of Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal)

    2017-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to apply a newly developed free software program, at low cost and with minimal time, to evaluate the quality of dental and maxillofacial cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. A polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantom, CQP-IFBA, was scanned in 3 CBCT units with 7 protocols. A macro program was developed, using the free software ImageJ, to automatically evaluate the image quality parameters. The image quality evaluation was based on 8 parameters: uniformity, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), noise, the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), spatial resolution, the artifact index, geometric accuracy, and low-contrast resolution. The image uniformity and noise depended on the protocol that was applied. Regarding the CNR, high-density structures were more sensitive to the effect of scanning parameters. There were no significant differences between SNR and CNR in centered and peripheral objects. The geometric accuracy assessment showed that all the distance measurements were lower than the real values. Low-contrast resolution was influenced by the scanning parameters, and the 1-mm rod present in the phantom was not depicted in any of the 3 CBCT units. Smaller voxel sizes presented higher spatial resolution. There were no significant differences among the protocols regarding artifact presence. This software package provided a fast, low-cost, and feasible method for the evaluation of image quality parameters in CBCT.

  18. Development of high temperature gas cooled reactor in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Wentao [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland). Dept. of Nuclear Energy and Safety; Schorer, Michael [Swiss Nuclear Forum, Olten (Switzerland)

    2018-02-15

    High temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) is one of the six Generation IV reactor types put forward by Generation IV International Forum (GIF) in 2002. This type of reactor has high outlet temperature. It uses Helium as coolant and graphite as moderator. Pebble fuel and ceramic reactor core are adopted. Inherit safety, good economy, high generating efficiency are the advantages of HTGR. According to the comprehensive evaluation from the international nuclear community, HTGR has already been given the priority to the research and development for commercial use. A demonstration project of the High Temperature Reactor-Pebble-�bed Modules (HTR-PM) in Shidao Bay nuclear power plant in China is under construction. In this paper, the development history of HTGR in China and the current situation of HTR-PM will be introduced. The experiences from China may be taken as a reference by the international nuclear community.

  19. High-temperature reactor developments in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schram, R.P.C.; Cordfunke, E.H.P.; Heek, A.I. van

    1996-01-01

    The high-temperature reactor development in the Netherlands is embedded in the WHITE reactor program, in which several Dutch research institutes and engineering companies participate. The activities within the WHITE program are focused on the development of a small scale HTR for combined heat and power generation. In 1995, design choices for a pebble bed reactor were made at ECN. The first concept HTR will have a closed cycle helium turbine and a power level of 40 MWth. It is intended to make the market introduction of a commercially competitive HTR feasible. As a part of the HTR program at ECN, chemical aspects of HTR fuel and coated particles are studied. Experimental work on the oxidation resistance of coating materials and fission product attack on coating materials as well as thermochemical calculations of the fuel particles are done at ECN. The concept-HTR of ECN is fuelled with UO 2 , but the use of thorium is considered. The composition of the fuel determines the oxygen potential, which plays a key role in chemical safety of the fuel. Thermochemical calculations of the chemical form of cesium inside the HTR fuel particles were performed for a wide oxygen potential range. The chemical form of cesium determines the cesium pressure inside the fuel particle, which in turn determines the release behavior of Cs from defective particles. At normal operating temperatures and low oxygen potentials, the chemical form of cesium is C 60 Cs. It is known that cesium carbon compounds decompose above 650degC in vacuum. The stability of these compounds in the fuel particles at high temperatures(1000-1600degC) is questioned. Decomposition of these compounds may result in high cesium pressures even at normal operating conditions. Experimental work on the thermodynamic properties of cesium compounds at high temperatures is currently performed. (J.P.N.)

  20. Newly Generated Liquid Waste Processing Alternatives Study, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landman, William Henry; Bates, Steven Odum; Bonnema, Bruce Edward; Palmer, Stanley Leland; Podgorney, Anna Kristine; Walsh, Stephanie

    2002-09-01

    This report identifies and evaluates three options for treating newly generated liquid waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The three options are: (a) treat the waste using processing facilities designed for treating sodium-bearing waste, (b) treat the waste using subcontractor-supplied mobile systems, or (c) treat the waste using a special facility designed and constructed for that purpose. In studying these options, engineers concluded that the best approach is to store the newly generated liquid waste until a sodium-bearing waste treatment facility is available and then to co-process the stored inventory of the newly generated waste with the sodium-bearing waste. After the sodium-bearing waste facility completes its mission, two paths are available. The newly generated liquid waste could be treated using the subcontractor-supplied system or the sodium-bearing waste facility or a portion of it. The final decision depends on the design of the sodium-bearing waste treatment facility, which will be completed in coming years.

  1. Time--temperature relation of embryonic development in the northwestern salamander, Ambystoma gracile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, H A

    1976-04-01

    A field and laboratory study on temperature-related embryonic development of Ambystoma gracile was made on a population from northwestern Washington. Natural spawning began in the beaver pond during early March, and the duration of embryonic development (stages 1 to 46) was about 62 days. Average water temperature in the pond during embryonic development was 8.5/sup 0/C (range, 4.4 to 14.3/sup 0/C). The laboratory data of embryonic development at constant temperatures show that the limits of temperature tolerance are about 5 to 22.5/sup 0/C. Rate of development was measured by determining time required to develop from first cleavage (stage 2) to gill circulation (stage 37); representative rates are 12.7 days at 20/sup 0/C, 27 days at 12/sup 0/C, and 89 days at 7/sup 0/C. Embryos of A. gracile have the slowest rate of development when compared with embryos of four other species of Ambystoma (maculatum, mexicanum, tigrinum, and jeffersonianum) and with embryos of three Pacific Northwest frogs (Ascaphus truei, Rana aurora, and Hyla regilla).

  2. Development of a new micro-furnace for "in situ" high-temperature single crystal X-ray diffraction measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvaro, Matteo; Angel, Ross J.; Marciano, Claudio; Zaffiro, Gabriele; Scandolo, Lorenzo; Mazzucchelli, Mattia L.; Milani, Sula; Rustioni, Greta; Domeneghetti, Chiara M.; Nestola, Fabrizio

    2015-04-01

    Several experimental methods to reliably determine elastic properties of minerals at non-ambient conditions have been developed. In particular, different techniques for generating high-pressure and high-temperature have been successfully adopted for single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction measurements. High temperature devices for "in-situ" measurements should provide the most controlled isothermal environment as possible across the entire sample. It is intuitive that in general, thermal gradients across the sample increase as the temperature increases. Even if the small isothermal volume required for single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments makes such phenomena almost negligible, the design of a furnace should also aim to reduce thermal gradients by including a large thermal mass that encloses the sample. However this solution often leads to complex design that results in a restricted access to reciprocal space or attenuation of the incident or diffracted intensity (with consequent reduction of the accuracy and/or precision in lattice parameter determination). Here we present a newly-developed H-shaped Pt-Pt/Rh resistance microfurnace for in-situ high-temperature single-crystal X-ray diffraction measurements. The compact design of the furnace together with the long collimator-sample-detector distance allows us to perform measurements up to 2θ = 70° with no further restrictions on any other angular movement. The microfurnace is equipped with a water cooling system that allows a constant thermal gradient to be maintained that in turn guarantees thermal stability with oscillations smaller than 5°C in the whole range of operating T of room-T to 1200°C. The furnace has been built for use with a conventional 4-circle Eulerian geometry equipped with point detector and automated with the SINGLE software (Angel and Finger 2011) that allows the effects of crystal offsets and diffractometer aberrations to be eliminated from the refined peak positions by the 8

  3. Development history of the gas turbine modular high temperature reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brey, H.L.

    2001-01-01

    The development of the high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) as an environmentally agreeable and efficient power source to support the generation of electricity and achieve a broad range of high temperature industrial applications has been an evolutionary process spanning over four decades. This process has included ongoing major development in both the HTGR as a nuclear energy source and associated power conversion systems from the steam cycle to the gas turbine. This paper follows the development process progressively through individual plant designs from early research of the 1950s to the present focus on the gas turbine modular HTGR. (author)

  4. Development of Non-Platinum Catalysts for Intermediate Temperature Water Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikiforov, Aleksey Valerievich; Petrushina, Irina Michailovna; Bjerrum, Niels J.

    2014-01-01

    Water electrolysis is recognized as an efficient energy storage (in the form of hydrogen) supplement in renewable energy production. However, industrial alkaline water electrolyzers are rather ineffective and space requiring for a commercial use in connection with energy storage. The most effective...... modern water electrolyzers are based on polymeric proton-conducting membrane electrolytes (PEM), e.g. Nafion®, a perfluorocarbon-sulfonic acid polymer. These electrolyzers work at temperatures up to around 80 °C, and, in extreme cases, up to 130-140 °C. The most developed PEM electrolyzers...... as electrolytes for the intermediate temperature applications, such as CsHSO4, KHSO45. The most successful systems have been developed with CsH2PO4 (solid acid fuel cells (SAFCs) and Sn0.9In0.1P2O7 electrolytes6,7. While developing materials for the promising medium temperature electrolysis systems...

  5. High temperature superconductivity and cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabinowitz, M.

    1990-01-01

    There are numerous historical and scientific parallels between high temperature superconductivity (HTSC) and the newly emerging field of cold fusion (CF). Just as the charge carrier effective mass plays an important role in SC, the deuteron effective mass may play a vital role in CF. A new theory including effects of proximity, electron shielding, and decreased effective mass of the fusing nuclei can account for the reported CF results. A quantum-gas model that covers the range from low temperature to superhigh temperature SC indicates an increased T c with reduced dimensionality. A reduced dimensionality effect may also enhance CF. A relation is shown between CF and the significant cluster-impact fusion experiments

  6. Development of High Temperature Capacitor Technology and Manufacturing Capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2011-05-15

    The goal of the Development of High Temperature Capacitor Technology and Manufacturing Capability program was to mature a production-ready supply chain for reliable 250°C FPE (fluorinated polyester) film capacitors by 2011. These high-temperature film capacitors enable both the down hole drilling and aerospace industries by enabling a variety of benefits including: - Deeper oil exploration in higher temperature and pressure environments - Enabling power electronic and control equipment to operate in higher temperature environments - Enabling reduced cooling requirements of electronics - Increasing reliability and life of capacitors operating below rated temperature - Enabling capacitors to handle higher electrical losses without overheating. The key challenges to bringing the FPE film capacitors to market have been manufacturing challenges including: - FPE Film is difficult to handle and wind, resulting in poor yields - Voltage breakdown strength decreases when the film is wound into capacitors (~70% decrease) - Encapsulation technologies must be improved to enable higher perature operation - Manufacturing and test cycle time is very long As a direct result of this program most of the manufacturing challenges have been met. The FPE film production metalization and winding yield has increased to over 82% from 70%, and the voltage breakdown strength of the wound capacitors has increased 270% to 189 V/μm. The high temperature packaging concepts are showing significant progress including promising results for lead attachments and hermetic packages at 200°C and non-hermetic packages at 250°C. Manufacturing and test cycle time will decrease as the market for FPE capacitors develops.

  7. A genomic audit of newly-adopted autosomal STRs for forensic identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, C

    2017-07-01

    In preparation for the growing use of massively parallel sequencing (MPS) technology to genotype forensic STRs, a comprehensive genomic audit of 73 STRs was made in 2016 [Parson et al., Forensic Sci. Int. Genet. 22, 54-63]. The loci examined included miniSTRs that were not in widespread use, but had been incorporated into MPS kits or were under consideration for this purpose. The current study expands the genomic analysis of autosomal STRs that are not commonly used, to include the full set of developed miniSTRs and an additional 24 STRs, most of which have been recently included in several supplementary forensic multiplex kits for capillary electrophoresis. The genomic audit of these 47 newly-adopted STRs examined the linkage status of new loci on the same chromosome as established forensic STRs; analyzed world-wide population variation of the newly-adopted STRs using published data; assessed their forensic informativeness; and compiled the sequence characteristics, repeat structures and flanking regions of each STR. A further 44 autosomal STRs developed for forensic analyses but not incorporated into commercial kits, are also briefly described. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Improved modelling of thermal energy savings potential in the existing residential stock using a newly available data source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dineen, D.; Rogan, F.; Ó Gallachóir, B.P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel bottom up approach to modelling the energy savings potential of energy efficiency improvement measures to be applied through retrofit of the existing dwelling stock. It takes advantage of a newly available, rich dataset on the construction characteristics of the 2011 housing stock in Ireland. The methodological innovation centres on the use of wall construction type in the modelling and analysis. While Ireland is the focus, this approach is applicable to any EU member state for which data on dwelling characteristics exists from surveys carried as part of Energy Performance Certificate calculations. The model is calibrated to the national energy balance for 2011 by varying the internal temperature assumptions. Sensitivity analysis is performed on the effects of internal temperature and rebound. The paper also highlights some limitations posed by data availability on the accuracy and sophistication of models that can currently be developed, specifically in the Irish case. - Highlights: • Archetype model of energy savings potential from retrofit of existing dwelling stock. • Takes advantage of rich dataset on the construction characteristics of the Irish housing stock. • Innovative use of wall construction types in archetype definition possible due to improved data. • Results calibrated to top down estimate of heating demand by adjusting internal temperature. • Highlights limitations on the accuracy and sophistication of models posed by data availability.

  9. Regional differences in the incidence of tuberculosis among patients with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo Ram; Kang, Young Ae; Heo, Eun Young; Koo, Bo Kyung; Choi, Nam-Kyong; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Lee, Chang-Hoon

    2018-04-01

    There are regional differences in the burden of tuberculosis (TB). Although these differences might be explained by regional differences in the risk factors of TB, whether such risk factors are actually associated with the regional differences in the TB burden remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the risk factors of and regional differences in TB incidence. A cohort study applying nationwide claims database in Republic of Korea included patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in 2009. The main outcome was the incidence of TB defined based on the diagnostic codes combined with anti-tuberculosis treatment repeated within 90 days. Sixteen regions were categorized into 3 groups according to the age- and sex-standardized TB incidence rates. Multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for risk factors was performed to identify the determinants of the regional differences in TB incidence. Among 331 601 participants newly diagnosed with type 2 DM and with no history of previous TB, 1216 TB cases were observed. The regional TB incidence rates ranged between 2.3 and 5.9/1000 patients. Multivariate analyses did not identify any determinants of regional differences in the TB incidence among the various risk factors, including age, sex, health care utilization, co-morbidities, medication and treatment and complications of DM. Similarly, temperature, humidity and latent TB infection rate also did not affect the results. Although substantial regional differences in the TB incidence rate were observed among patients with newly diagnosed DM, no determinants of regional difference were identified among the risk factors. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON NYMPHAL DEVELOPMENT OF Podisus distinctus (DALLAS (HETEROPTERA: PENTATOMIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germi Porto Santos

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the effect of five temperatures (17ºC; 21ºC; 25ºC; 29ºC and 33oC on survival and nymph development of Podisus distinctus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae in laboratory. Period of egg incubation decreased with temperature elevation being lower at 29oC and lethal at 33oC. This indicates that superior thermal limit for this species can be found between these temperatures. Optimal temperature for egg viability was 23.7oC. Nymphs of Podisus distinctus completed its development between 17 and 29oC with optimal temperature at 26.3oC with higher nymph viability at intermediate temperatures (19ºC and 25oC. Optimal temperature for rearing this predator lay between 25ºC and 27oC.

  11. Research and development for the high-temperature helium-leak detection system (Joint research). Part 2. Development of temperature sensors using optical fibre for the HTTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakaba, Nariaki; Nakazawa, Toshio; Kawasaki, Kozo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Urakami, Masao; Saisyu, Sadanori [Japan Atomic Power Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    In the second stage of the research and development for a high-temperature helium-leak detection system, the temperature sensor using optical fibres was studied. The sensor detects the helium leakage by the temperature increase surrounded optical fibre with or without heat insulator. Moreover, the applicability of high temperature equipments as the HTTR system was studied. With the sensor we detected 5.0-20.0 cm{sup 3}/s helium leakages within 60 minutes. Also it was possible to detect earlier when the leakage level is at 20.0 cm {sup 3}/s. (author)

  12. Ovarian development and early larval survival of Stenopus zanzibaricus (Bruce, 1976

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Marques

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite economically valuable, ornamental shrimps are poorly studied and there is a lack of protocols for their captive breeding. Stenopus is one of the most important genera of ornamental shrimps, being Stenopus zanzibaricus one of the species with less information about captive breeding and larviculture. For a better knowledge of its reproductive cycle, we evaluated morphological and color changes during ovarian development of adult females through daily photographs taken during all the cycle. The effect of three diets (Brachionus plicatilis + Tetraselmis chuii; newly artemia nauplii + Tetraselmis chuii; newly artemia nauplii and two different temperatures (25ºC and 27ºC on early larval development were also evaluated. With this study, it was expected to obtain some insight about Stenopus zanzibaricus reproductive cycle and early larval development, in order to develop captive breeding and larval rearing protocols for this economic valuable species.

  13. Recent UK research and the development of high temperature design methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, R.T.; Tomkins, B.; Townley, C.H.A.

    1987-01-01

    The paper outlines recent research and development activities on high temperature design methods and criteria for high temperature components as utilized by liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors. (orig.)

  14. Novel low-temperature sintering ceramic substrate based on indialite/cordierite glass ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Jobin; Vahera, Timo; Ohsato, Hitoshi; Iwata, Makoto; Jantunen, Heli

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, a novel low-temperature sintering substrate for low temperature co-fired ceramic applications based on indialite/cordierite glass ceramics with Bi2O3 as a sintering aid showing low permittivity (εr) and ultralow dielectric loss (tan δ) is described. The fine powder of indialite was prepared by the crystallization of cordierite glass at 1000 °C/1 h. The optimized sintering temperature was 900 °C with 10 wt % Bi2O3 addition. The relative density achieved was 97%, and εr and tan δ were 6.10 and 0.0001 at 1 MHz, respectively. The composition also showed a moderately low temperature coefficient of relative permittivity of 118 ppm/°C at 1 MHz. The obtained linear coefficient of thermal expansion was 3.5 ppm/°C in the measured temperature range of 100 to 600 °C. The decreasing trend in dielectric loss, the low relative permittivity at 1 MHz, and the low thermal expansion of the newly developed composition make it an ideal choice for radio frequency applications.

  15. Research Activities on Development of Piping Design Methodology of High Temperature Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Nam-Su [Seoul National Univ. of Science and Technology, Seoul(Korea, Republic of); Won, Min-Gu [Sungkyukwan Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Young-Jin [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Co. Inc., Gimcheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyeog-Yeon; Kim, Yoo-Gon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon(Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    A SFR is operated at high temperature and low pressure compared with commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR), and such an operating condition leads to time-dependent damages such as creep rupture, excessive creep deformation, creep-fatigue interaction and creep crack growth. Thus, high temperature design and structural integrity assessment methodology should be developed considering such failure mechanisms. In terms of design of mechanical components of SFR, ASME B and PV Code, Sec. III, Div. 5 and RCC-MRx provide high temperature design and assessment procedures for nuclear structural components operated at high temperature, and a Leak-Before-Break (LBB) assessment procedure for high temperature piping is also provided in RCC-MRx, A16. Three web-based evaluation programs based on the current high temperature codes were developed for structural components of high temperature reactors. Moreover, for the detailed LBB analyses of high temperature piping, new engineering methods for predicting creep C*-integral and creep COD rate based either on GE/EPRI or on reference stress concepts were proposed. Finally, the numerical methods based on Garofalo's model and RCC-MRx have been developed, and they have been implemented into ABAQUS. The predictions based on both models were compared with the experimental results, and it has been revealed that the predictions from Garafalo's model gave somewhat successful results to describe the deformation behavior of Gr. 91 at elevated temperatures.

  16. Observation of the bone mineral density of newly formed bone using rabbits. Compared with newly formed bone around implants and cortical bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakada, Hiroshi; Numata, Yasuko; Sakae, Toshiro; Tamaki, Hiroyuki; Kato, Takao

    2009-01-01

    There have been many studies reporting that newly formed bone around implants is spongy bone. However, although the morphology is reported as being like spongy bone, it is difficult to discriminate whether the bone quality of newly formed bone appears similar to osteoid or cortical bone; therefore, evaluation of bone quality is required. The aims of this study were to measure the bone mineral density (BMD) values of newly formed bone around implants after 4, 8, 16, 24 and 48 weeks, to represent these values on three-dimensional color mapping (3Dmap), and to evaluate the change in bone quality associated with newly formed bone around implants. The animal experimental protocol of this study was approved by the Ethics Committee for Animal Experiments of our University. This experiment used 20 surface treatment implants (Ti-6Al-4V alloy: 3.1 mm in diameter and 30.0 mm in length) by grit-blasting. They were embedded into surgically created flaws in femurs of 20 New Zealand white rabbits (16 weeks old, male). The rabbits were sacrificed with an ear intravenous overdose of pentobarbital sodium under general anesthesia each period, and the femurs were resected. We measured BMD of newly formed bone around implants and cortical bone using Micro-CT, and the BMD distribution map of 3Dmap (TRI/3D Bon BMD, Ratoc System Engineering). The BMD of cortical bone was 1,026.3±44.3 mg/cm 3 at 4 weeks, 1,023.8±40.9 mg/cm 3 at 8 weeks, 1,048.2±45.6 mg/cm 3 at 16 weeks, 1,067.2±60.2 mg/cm 3 at 24 weeks, and 1,069.3±50.7 mg/cm 3 at 48 weeks after implantation, showing a non-significant increase each period. The BMD of newly formed bone around implants was 296.8±25.6 mg/cm 3 at 4 weeks, 525.0±72.4 mg/cm 3 at 8 weeks, 691.2±26.0 mg/cm 3 at 16 weeks, 776.9±27.7 mg/cm 3 at 24 weeks, and 845.2±23.1 mg/cm 3 at 48 weeks after implantation, showing a significant increase after each period. It was revealed that the color scale of newly formed bone was Low level at 4 weeks, and then it

  17. Newly developed central diabetes insipidus following kidney transplantation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K M; Kim, S M; Lee, J; Lee, S Y; Kwon, S K; Kim, H-Y

    2013-09-01

    Polyuria after kidney transplantation is a common, usually self-limiting disorder. However, persistent polyuria can cause not only patient discomfort, including polyuria and polydipsia, but also volume depletion that can produce allograft dysfunction. Herein, we have report a case of central diabetes insipidus newly diagnosed after kidney transplantation. A 45-year-old woman with end-stage kidney disease underwent deceased donor kidney transplantation. Two months after the transplantation, she was admitted for persistent polyuria, polydipsia, and nocturia with urine output of more than 4 L/d. Urine osmolarity was 100 mOsm/kg, which implied that the polyuria was due to water rather than solute diuresis. A water deprivation test was compatible with central diabetes insipidus; desmopressin treatment resulted in immediate symptomatic relief. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated diffuse thickening of the pituitary stalk, which was considered to be nonspecific finding. MRI 12 months later showed no change in the pituitary stalk, although the patient has been in good health without polyuria or polydipsia on desmopressin treatment. The possibility of central diabetes insipidus should be considered in patients presenting with persistent polyuria after kidney transplantation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Newly graduated nurses' use of knowledge sources: a meta-ethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voldbjerg, Siri Lygum; Grønkjaer, Mette; Sørensen, Erik Elgaard; Hall, Elisabeth O C

    2016-08-01

    To advance evidence on newly graduated nurses' use of knowledge sources. Clinical decisions need to be evidence-based and understanding the knowledge sources that newly graduated nurses use will inform both education and practice. Qualitative studies on newly graduated nurses' use of knowledge sources are increasing though generated from scattered healthcare contexts. Therefore, a metasynthesis of qualitative research on what knowledge sources new graduates use in decision-making was conducted. Meta-ethnography. Nineteen reports, representing 17 studies, published from 2000-2014 were identified from iterative searches in relevant databases from May 2013-May 2014. Included reports were appraised for quality and Noblit and Hare's meta-ethnography guided the interpretation and synthesis of data. Newly graduated nurses' use of knowledge sources during their first 2-year postgraduation were interpreted in the main theme 'self and others as knowledge sources,' with two subthemes 'doing and following' and 'knowing and doing,' each with several elucidating categories. The metasynthesis revealed a line of argument among the report findings underscoring progression in knowledge use and perception of competence and confidence among newly graduated nurses. The transition phase, feeling of confidence and ability to use critical thinking and reflection, has a great impact on knowledge sources incorporated in clinical decisions. The synthesis accentuates that for use of newly graduated nurses' qualifications and skills in evidence-based practice, clinical practice needs to provide a supportive environment which nurtures critical thinking and questions and articulates use of multiple knowledge sources. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Strength and low temperature toughness of Fe-13%Ni-Mo alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Keisuke; Maruyama, Norio; Tsuya, Kazuo

    1978-01-01

    Mechanical tests were made on newly developed Fe-13%Ni-Mo alloys for eryogenic service. The effects of the additional elements were investigated from the viewpoint of the strength and the low temperature toughness. The alloys added by Al, Ti or V have the better balance of these properties. They did not show low temperature brittleness induced by cleavage fracture in Charpy impact test at 77 K. The microfractography showed the utterly dimple rupture patterns on the broken surface of all specimens. It would be supposed that the cleavage fracture stress is considerably higher than the flow stress. These alloys are superior to some commercial structural materials for low temperature use in the balance between the strength at 300 K and the toughness at 77 K. Additionally, it is noted that these experimental alloys have a good advantage in getting high strength and high toughness by the rather simple heat treatment. (auth.)

  20. The nanotoxicology of a newly developed zero-valent iron nanomaterial for groundwater remediation and its remediation efficiency assessment combined with in vitro bioassays for detection of dioxin-like environmental pollutants

    OpenAIRE

    Schiwy, Andreas Herbert

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of chemicals and new compounds is an important task of ecotoxicology. In this thesis a newly developed zero-valent iron material for nanoremediation of groundwater contaminations was investigated and in vitro bioassays for high throughput screening were developed. These two elements of the thesis were combined to assess the remediation efficiency of the nanomaterial on the groundwater contaminant acridine. The developed in vitro bioassays were evaluated for quantification of th...

  1. High Temperature Metallic Seal Development For Aero Propulsion and Gas Turbine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Greg; Datta, Amit

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on metallic high temperature static seal development at NASA for gas turbine applications is shown. The topics include: 1) High Temperature Static Seal Development; 2) Program Review; 3) Phase IV Innovative Seal with Blade Alloy Spring; 4) Spring Design; 5) Phase IV: Innovative Seal with Blade Alloy Spring; 6) PHase IV: Testing Results; 7) Seal Seating Load; 8) Spring Seal Manufacturing; and 9) Other Applications for HIgh Temperature Spring Design

  2. High-temperature fermentation. How can processes for ethanol production at high temperatures become superior to the traditional process using mesophilic yeast?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Banat, Babiker M.A.; Hoshida, Hisashi; Nonklang, Sanom; Akada, Rinji [Yamaguchi Univ. Graduate School of Medicine, Ube (Japan). Dept. of Applied Molecular Bioscience; Ano, Akihiko [Iwata Chemical Co. Ltd. (Japan)

    2010-01-15

    The process of ethanol fermentation has a long history in the production of alcoholic drinks, but much larger scale production of ethanol is now required to enable its use as a substituent of gasoline fuels at 3%, 10%, or 85% (referred to as E3, E10, and E85, respectively). Compared with fossil fuels, the production costs are a major issue for the production of fuel ethanol. There are a number of possible approaches to delivering cost-effective fuel ethanol production from different biomass sources, but we focus in our current report on high-temperature fermentation using a newly isolated thermotolerant strain of the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus. We demonstrate that a 5 C increase only in the fermentation temperature can greatly affect the fuel ethanol production costs. We contend that this approach may also be applicable to the other microbial fermentations systems and propose that thermotolerant mesophilic microorganisms have considerable potential for the development of future fermentation technologies. (orig.)

  3. Certification document for newly generated contact-handled transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Box, W.D.; Setaro, J.

    1984-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has requested that all national laboratories handling defense waste develop and augment a program whereby all newly generated contact-handled transuranic (TRU) waste be contained, stored, and then shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in accordance with the requirements set forth in WIPP-DOE-114. The program described in this report delineates how Oak Ridge National Laboratory intends to comply with these requirements and lists the procedures used by each generator to ensure that their TRU wastes are certifiable for shipment to WIPP

  4. Development and Performance Verification of Fiber Optic Temperature Sensors in High Temperature Engine Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamovsky, Grigory; Mackey, Jeffrey R.; Kren, Lawrence A.; Floyd, Bertram M.; Elam, Kristie A.; Martinez, Martel

    2014-01-01

    A High Temperature Fiber Optic Sensor (HTFOS) has been developed at NASA Glenn Research Center for aircraft engine applications. After fabrication and preliminary in-house performance evaluation, the HTFOS was tested in an engine environment at NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center. The engine tests enabled the performance of the HTFOS in real engine environments to be evaluated along with the ability of the sensor to respond to changes in the engine's operating condition. Data were collected prior, during, and after each test in order to observe the change in temperature from ambient to each of the various test point levels. An adequate amount of data was collected and analyzed to satisfy the research team that HTFOS operates properly while the engine was running. Temperature measurements made by HTFOS while the engine was running agreed with those anticipated.

  5. Newly blind persons using virtual environment system in a traditional orientation and mobility rehabilitation program: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahav, Orly; Schloerb, David W; Srinivasan, Mandayam A

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents a virtual reality system (the BlindAid) developed for orientation and mobility training of people who are newly blind. The BlindAid allows users to interact with different virtual structures and objects via auditory and haptic feedback. This case study aims to examine if and how the BlindAid, in conjunction with a traditional rehabilitation programme, can help people who are newly blind develop new orientation and mobility methods. Follow-up research based on this study, with a large experiment and control group, could contribute to the area of orientation and mobility rehabilitation training for the newly blind. The case study research focused on A., a woman who is newly blind, for 17 virtual sessions spanning ten weeks, during the 12 weeks of her traditional orientation and mobility rehabilitation programme. The research was implemented by using virtual environment (VE) exploration and orientation tasks in VE and physical spaces. The research methodology used both qualitative and quantitative methods, including interviews, questionnaire, videotape recording, and user computer logs. The results of this study helped elucidate several issues concerning the contribution of the BlindAid system to the exploration strategies and learning processes experienced by the participant in her encounters with familiar and unfamiliar physical surroundings. [Box: see text].

  6. Effects of temperature and salinity on the development of the amphipod crustacean Eogammarus sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Suyan; Fang, Jianguang; Zhang, Jihong; Jiang, Zengjie; Mao, Yuze; Zhao, Fazhen

    2013-09-01

    The amphipod crustacean Eogammarus sinensis has useful features that make it suitable for use in the aquaculture of fish and large decapod crustaceans. In this study, we investigated the effects of temperature and salinity on the development, fecundity, survival, and growth rate of E. sinensis. The results show that temperature significantly affected E. sinensis development, but salinity. As temperature increased, the duration of E. sinensis embryonic development decreased. Fecundity was affected significantly by temperature and the combination of temperature and salinity, but by salinity alone. In addition, high temperatures accelerated E. sinensis juvenile growth rates, whereas high salinity reduced it. Therefore, our data suggest that E. sinensis tolerates a wide range of salinities and that temperature has more significant effects than salinity on the embryonic development, fecundity, and growth of E. sinensis. Our results shall be useful for mass production of this species for use in aquaculture.

  7. A new method for the determination of vaporization enthalpies of ionic liquids at low temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verevkin, Sergey P; Zaitsau, Dzmitry H; Emelyanenko, Vladimir N; Heintz, Andreas

    2011-11-10

    A new method for the determination of vaporization enthalpies of extremely low volatile ILs has been developed using a newly constructed quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) vacuum setup. Because of the very high sensitivity of the QCM it has been possible to reduce the average temperature of the vaporization studies by approximately 100 K in comparison to other conventional techniques. The physical basis of the evaluation procedure has been developed and test measurements have been performed with the common ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide [C(2)mim][NTf(2)] extending the range of measuring vaporization enthalpies down to 363 K. The results obtained for [C(2)mim][NTf(2)] have been tested for thermodynamic consistency by comparison with data already available at higher temperatures. Comparison of the temperature-dependent vaporization enthalpy data taken from the literature show only acceptable agreement with the heat capacity difference of -40 J K(-1) mol(-1). The method developed in this work opens also a new way to obtain reliable values of vaporization enthalpies of thermally unstable ionic liquids.

  8. The impact of organisational culture on the adaptation of newly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Usually newly employed nurses find adjusting to a work setting a challenging experience. Their successful adaptation to their work situation is greatly influenced by the socialisation process inherent in the organisational culture. The newly employed nurse often finds that the norms are unclear, confusing and restrictive.

  9. A newly developed spinal simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, R; Watson, M J

    2000-11-01

    A number of studies indicate poor intra-therapist and inter-therapist reliability in the performance of graded, passive oscillatory movements to the lumbar spine. However, it has been suggested that therapists can be trained to be more consistent in their performance of these techniques if given reliable quantitative feedback. The intention of this study was to develop equipment, analogous to the lumbar spine that could be used for both teaching and research purposes. Equipment has been updated and connected to a personal IBM compatible computer. Custom designed software allows concurrent and accurate feedback to students on their performance and in a form suitable for advanced data analysis using statistical packages. The uses and implications of this equipment are discussed. Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  10. Encounters of Newly Qualified Teachers with Micro-Politics in Primary Schools in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magudu, Snodia; Gumbo, Mishack

    2017-01-01

    This article demonstrates, through the example of Zimbabwe, the complexities of micro-political learning during induction. It reports on the experiences of ten newly qualified teachers with micro-politics or power relations in their schools during induction and locates these experiences within the broader context of their professional development.…

  11. The construction of social identity in newly recruited nuclear engineering staff: A longitudinal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Lynda; Murphy, Glen; Chang, Artemis

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the process by which newly recruited nuclear engineering and technical staff came to understand, define, think, feel and behave within a distinct group that has a direct contribution to the organization's overall emphasis on a culture of reliability and system safety. In the field of organizational behavior the interactive model of social identity formation has been recently proposed to explain the process by which the internalization of shared norms and values occurs, an element critical in identity formation. Using this rich model of organizational behavior we analyzed multiple sources of data from nine new hires over a period of three years. This was done from the time they were employed to investigate the construction of social identity by new entrants entering into a complex organizational setting reflected in the context of a nuclear facility. Informed by our data analyses, we found support for the interactive model of social identity development and report the unexpected finding that a newly appointed member's age and level of experience appears to influence the manner in which they adapt, and assimilate into their surroundings. This study represents an important contribution to the safety and reliability literature as it provides a rich insight into the way newly recruited employees enact the process by which their identities are formed and hence act, particularly under conditions of duress or significant organizational disruption in complex organizational settings. - Highlights: • We examined how newly recruited nuclear engineer staff develop their social identity. • The study empirically examined the interactive model of social identity formation. • Innovative research strategies were used to capture rich primary data for all case studies. • Age and experience moderated internalization route and the social identity formation process

  12. Assessment for markers of nephropathy in newly diagnosed type 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess for markers of nephropathy in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetics, using blood pressure levels, endogenous creatinine clearance and urinary protein excretion as markers of renal disease. Study design: Ninety newly diagnosed type 2 diabetics were studied within 6 weeks of diagnosis. They were in ...

  13. Development of a high-temperature diagnostics-while-drilling tool.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavira, David J.; Huey, David (Stress Engineering Services, Inc.); Hetmaniak, Chris (Stress Engineering Services, Inc.); Polsky, Yarom; King, Dennis K.; Jacobson, Ronald David; Blankenship, Douglas Alan; Knudsen, Steven Dell; Henfling, Joseph Anthony; Mansure, Arthur James

    2009-01-01

    The envisioned benefits of Diagnostics-While-Drilling (DWD) are based on the principle that high-speed, real-time information from the downhole environment will promote better control of the drilling process. Although in practice a DWD system could provide information related to any aspect of exploration and production of subsurface resources, the current DWD system provides data on drilling dynamics. This particular set of new tools provided by DWD will allow quicker detection of problems, reduce drilling flat-time and facilitate more efficient drilling (drilling optimization) with the overarching result of decreased drilling costs. In addition to providing the driller with an improved, real-time picture of the drilling conditions downhole, data generated from DWD systems provides researchers with valuable, high fidelity data sets necessary for developing and validating enhanced understanding of the drilling process. Toward this end, the availability of DWD creates a synergy with other Sandia Geothermal programs, such as the hard-rock bit program, where the introduction of alternative rock-reduction technologies are contingent on the reduction or elimination of damaging dynamic effects. More detailed descriptions of the rationale for the program and early development efforts are described in more detail by others [SAND2003-2069 and SAND2000-0239]. A first-generation low-temperature (LT) DWD system was fielded in a series of proof-of-concept tests (POC) to validate functionality. Using the LT system, DWD was subsequently used to support a single-laboratory/multiple-partner CRADA (Cooperative Research and Development Agreement) entitled Advanced Drag Bits for Hard-Rock Drilling. The drag-bit CRADA was established between Sandia and four bit companies, and involved testing of a PDC bit from each company [Wise, et al., 2003, 2004] in the same lithologic interval at the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) test facility near Catoosa, OK. In addition, the LT DWD system has

  14. The fabrication and high temperature stability of biaxially textured Ni tape by ion beam structure modification method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, K.; Wang, S.S.; Meng, J.; Han, Z.

    2004-01-01

    For the conventional rolling assisted biaxially textured metallic substrate (RABiTS) process, a large degree of cold rolling deformation and a subsequent high temperature annealing procedure are required to obtain adequately biaxially textured Ni tape. Recently, we have reported a newly developed process, named as ion beam structure modification (ISM), for fabricating biaxially textured Ni tape by use of low energy argon ion beam bombardment. In this paper, the biaxial texture of ISM processed Ni tape and its thermal stability at high temperatures are investigated. Results show that Ni tape processed under optimum ISM conditions, the (2 0 0) rocking curve FWHM is less than 5.7 deg. , and the (1 1 1) phi-scan FWHM is less than 7.5 deg. . High temperature annealing does not impair the biaxial-texture already developed in ISM processed Ni foils, although ISMs should not be regarded as a complete equilibrium process

  15. Efficacy of Intra-articular Injection of a Newly Developed Plasma Rich in Growth Factor (PRGF) Versus Hyaluronic Acid on Pain and Function of Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis: A Single-Blinded Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeissadat, Seyed Ahmad; Rayegani, Seyed Mansoor; Ahangar, Azadeh Gharooee; Abadi, Porya Hassan; Mojgani, Parviz; Ahangar, Omid Gharooi

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives: Knee osteoarthritis is the most common joint disease. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of intra-articular injection of a newly developed plasma rich in growth factor (PRGF) versus hyaluronic acid (HA) on pain and function of patients with knee osteoarthritis. Methods: In this single-blinded randomized clinical trial, patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis of knee were assigned to receive 2 intra-articular injections of our newly developed PRGF in 3 weeks or 3 weekly injections of HA. Our primary outcome was the mean change from baseline until 2 and 6 months post intervention in scores of visual analog scale, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), and Lequesne index. We used analysis of variance for repeated-measures statistical test. Results: A total of 69 patients entered final analysis. The mean age of patients was 58.2 ± 7.41 years and 81.2% were women. In particular, total WOMAC index decreased from 42.9 ± 13.51 to 26.8 ± 13.45 and 24.4 ± 16.54 at 2 and 6 months in the newly developed PRGF group (within subjects P = .001), and from 38.8 ± 12.62 to 27.8 ± 11.01 and 27.4 ± 11.38 at 2 and 6 months in the HA group (within subjects P = .001), respectively (between subjects P = .631). There was no significant difference between PRGF and HA groups in patients’ satisfaction and minor complications of injection, whereas patients in HA group reported significantly lower injection-induced pain. Conclusions: In 6 months follow up, our newly developed PRGF and HA, both are effective options to decrease pain and improvement of function in patients with symptomatic mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis. PMID:29051707

  16. Efficacy of Intra-articular Injection of a Newly Developed Plasma Rich in Growth Factor (PRGF Versus Hyaluronic Acid on Pain and Function of Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis: A Single-Blinded Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ahmad Raeissadat

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Knee osteoarthritis is the most common joint disease. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of intra-articular injection of a newly developed plasma rich in growth factor (PRGF versus hyaluronic acid (HA on pain and function of patients with knee osteoarthritis. Methods: In this single-blinded randomized clinical trial, patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis of knee were assigned to receive 2 intra-articular injections of our newly developed PRGF in 3 weeks or 3 weekly injections of HA. Our primary outcome was the mean change from baseline until 2 and 6 months post intervention in scores of visual analog scale, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC, and Lequesne index. We used analysis of variance for repeated-measures statistical test. Results: A total of 69 patients entered final analysis. The mean age of patients was 58.2 ± 7.41 years and 81.2% were women. In particular, total WOMAC index decreased from 42.9 ± 13.51 to 26.8 ± 13.45 and 24.4 ± 16.54 at 2 and 6 months in the newly developed PRGF group (within subjects P  = .001, and from 38.8 ± 12.62 to 27.8 ± 11.01 and 27.4 ± 11.38 at 2 and 6 months in the HA group (within subjects P  = .001, respectively (between subjects P  = .631. There was no significant difference between PRGF and HA groups in patients’ satisfaction and minor complications of injection, whereas patients in HA group reported significantly lower injection-induced pain. Conclusions: In 6 months follow up, our newly developed PRGF and HA, both are effective options to decrease pain and improvement of function in patients with symptomatic mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis.

  17. Numerical and analytical investigation towards performance enhancement of a newly developed rockfall protective cable-net structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dhakal

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In a previous companion paper, we presented a three-tier modelling of a particular type of rockfall protective cable-net structure (barrier, developed newly in Japan. Therein, we developed a three-dimensional, Finite Element based, nonlinear numerical model having been calibrated/back-calculated and verified with the element- and structure-level physical tests. Moreover, using a very simple, lumped-mass, single-degree-of-freedom, equivalently linear analytical model, a global-displacement-predictive correlation was devised by modifying the basic equation – obtained by combining the principles of conservation of linear momentum and energy – based on the back-analysis of the tests on the numerical model. In this paper, we use the developed models to explore the performance enhancement potential of the structure in terms of (a the control of global displacement – possibly the major performance criterion for the proposed structure owing to a narrow space available in the targeted site, and (b the increase in energy dissipation by the existing U-bolt-type Friction-brake Devices – which are identified to have performed weakly when integrated into the structure. A set of parametric investigations have revealed correlations to achieve the first objective in terms of the structure's mass, particularly by manipulating the wire-net's characteristics, and has additionally disclosed the effects of the impacting-block's parameters. Towards achieving the second objective, another set of parametric investigations have led to a proposal of a few innovative improvements in the constitutive behaviour (model of the studied brake device (dissipator, in addition to an important recommendation of careful handling of the device based on the identified potential flaw.

  18. Effects of temperature on Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera:Calliphoridae) development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, J H; Butler, J F

    1997-05-01

    Growth curves were studied for the egg, larva, and pupa of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) under mean cyclic temperatures of 15.6, 21.1, 26.7, and 35.0 degrees C and a constant temperature of 25.0 degrees C. Development from egg to adult under all regimes ranged from 190 to 598 h. A constant temperature of 25 degrees C produced a range of pupation times from 134 to 162 h, with adult emergence ranging from 237 to 289 h. The maximal preferential temperature of 35.1 degrees C was determined for maggots using a gradient system. Highly predictable developmental time, minimal larval length variation, and low cohort variation emphasize the utility of this species in entomological-based postmortem interval determinations. Therefore, C. rufifacies should be of primary forensic importance when recovered alone or in conjunction with other species of Calliphoridae.

  19. Biological aspects and life table of Uroleucon ambrosiae (Thomas, 1878) as a function of temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Auad Alexander Machado; Moraes Jair Campos de

    2003-01-01

    The aphid Uroleucon ambrosiae (Thomas) is considered a pest of hidroponically-grown lettuce, but basic and applied information on its control are scarce in Brazil. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different temperatures on biological aspects and life history of U. ambrosiae (Thomas) developing on hydroponic lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) crop. Newly emerged nymphs were placed on 4-cm discs of hydroponic lettuce, var. Verônica, which were maintained on 5-cm Petri dishes, at te...

  20. Accumulation of operational history through emulation test to meet proven technology requirement for newly developed I and C technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeong Cheol, Shin; Sung Kon, Kang; Han Seong, Son

    2006-01-01

    As new advanced digital I and C technology with potential benefits of higher functionality and better cost effectiveness is available in the market, NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) operators are inclined to use the new technology for the construction of new plant and the upgrade of existing plants. However, this new technology poses risks to the NPP operators at the same time. These risks are mainly due to the poor reliability of newly developed technology. KHNP's past experiences with the new equipment shows many cases of reliability problems. And their consequences include unintended plant trips, lowered acceptance of the new digital technology by the plant I and C maintenance crew, and increased licensing burden in answering for questions from the nuclear regulatory body. Considering the fact that the risk of these failures in the nuclear plant operation is far greater than those in other industry, nuclear power plant operators want proven technology for I and C systems. This paper presents an approach for the emulation of operational history through which a newly developed technology becomes a proven technology. One of the essential elements of this approach is the feedback scheme of running the new equipment in emulated environment, gathering equipment failure, and correcting the design(and test bed). The emulation of environment includes normal and abnormal events of the new equipment such as reconfiguration of control system due to power failure, plant operation including full spectrum of credible scenarios in an NPP. Emulation of I and C equipment execution mode includes normal operation, initialization and termination, abnormal operation, hardware maintenance and maintenance of algorithm/software. Plant specific simulator is used to create complete profile of plant operational conditions that I and C equipment is to experience in the real plant. Virtual operating crew technology is developed to run the simulator scenarios without involvement of actual operators

  1. Characteristics of low polymerization shrinkage flowable resin composites in newly-developed cavity base materials for bulk filling technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Keiko; Nomoto, Rie; Tsubota, Yuji; Tsuchikawa, Masuji; Hayakawa, Tohru

    2017-11-29

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate polymerization shrinkage and other physical properties of newly-developed cavity base materials for bulk filling technique, with the brand name BULK BASE (BBS). Polymerization shrinkage was measured according to ISO/FDIS 17304. BBS showed the significantly lowest polymerization shrinkage and significantly higher depth of cure than conventional flowable resin composites (p<0.05). The Knoop hardness, flexural strength and elastic modulus of that were significantly lower than conventional flowable resin composites (p<0.05). BBS had the significantly greatest filler content (p<0.05). SEM images of the surface showed failure of fillers. The lowest polymerization shrinkage was due to the incorporation of a new type of low shrinkage monomer, which has urethane moieties. There were no clear correlations between inorganic filler contents and polymerization shrinkage, flexural strength and elastic modulus. In conclusion, the low polymerization shrinkage of BBS will be useful for cavity treatment in dental clinics.

  2. 14 CFR 26.39 - Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank... Tank Flammability § 26.39 Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability. (a) Applicability: This... Series 767 Series (b) Any fuel tank meeting all of the criteria stated in paragraphs (b)(1), (b)(2) and...

  3. Incubation Temperature during Fetal Development Influences Morphophysiological Characteristics and Preferred Ambient Temperature of Chicken Hatchlings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane de Souza Morita

    Full Text Available Skin and feather characteristics, which play a critical role in body temperature maintenance, can be affected by incubation circumstances, such as incubation temperature. However, no study to date has assessed the influence of incubation temperature during the fetal stage on morphometric characteristics and vascular development of the skin, feather characteristics, and their relationship to hormone levels and preferred temperature in later life in chickens. Broiler breeder eggs were exposed to low (36°C, control (37.5°C, or high (39°C temperatures (treatments LT, CK, and HT, respectively from day 13 of incubation onward, because it is known that the endocrine axes are already established at this time. During this period, eggshell temperature of HT eggs (38.8±0.33°C was higher than of LT (37.4±0.08°C and CK eggs (37.8 ±0.15°C. The difference between eggshell and incubator air temperature diminished with the increasing incubation temperature, and was approximately zero for HT. HT hatchlings had higher surface temperature on the head, neck, and back, and thinner and more vascularized skin than did CK and LT hatchlings. No differences were found among treatments for body weight, total feather weight, number and length of barbs, barbule length, and plasma T4 concentration. LT hatchlings showed lower plasma T3 and GH, as well as lower T3/T4 ratio and decreased vascularity in the neck, back, and thigh skin compared to CK hatchlings. On the other hand, HT hatchlings had decreased skin thickness and increased vascularity, and preferred a higher ambient temperature compared to CK and HT hatchlings. In addition, for all treatments, surface temperature on the head was higher than of the other body regions. We conclude that changes in skin thickness and vascularity, as well as changes in thyroid and growth hormone levels, are the result of embryonic strategies to cope with higher or lower than normal incubation temperatures. Additionally exposure to

  4. Self-Esteem: A Comparison between Hong Kong Children and Newly Arrived Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yiu Man; Chan, Christine Mei-Sheung

    2004-01-01

    The Self-esteem Inventory developed by Coopersmith (1967) was used to measure the self-esteem of 387 Chinese children. The sample included newly arrived mainland Chinese children and Hong Kong children. The results showed significant statistical differences when measuring the self-esteem level associated with the length of their stay in Hong Kong…

  5. LVDT Development for High Temperature Irradiation Test and Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chul Yong; Ban, Chae Min; Choo, Kee Nam; Jun, Byung Hyuk [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The LVDT (Linear Variable Differential Transformer) is used to measure the elongation and pressure of a nuclear fuel rod, or the creep and fatigue of the material during a reactor irradiation test. This device must be a radiation-resistant LVDT for use in a research reactor. Norway Halden has LVDTs for an irradiation test by the own development and commercialized. But Halden's LVDTs have limited the temperature of the use until to 350 .deg. C. So, KAERI has been developing a new LVDT for high temperature irradiation test. This paper describes the design of a LVDT, the fabrication process of a LVDT, and the result of the performance test. The designed LVDT uses thermocouple cable for coil wire material and one MI cable as signal cable. This LVDT for a high temperature irradiation test can be used until a maximum of 900 .deg. C. Welding is a very important factor for the fabrication of an LVDT. We are using a 150W fiber laser welding system that consists of a welding head, monitoring vision system and rotary index.

  6. Chrysosplenium japonicum (Saxifragaceae, Newly Recorded from Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Chuan Hsu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Chrysosplenium japonicum (Maxim. Makino (Saxifragaceae is newly recorded from northeastern Taiwan. Description, color photos and a key to the Chrysosplenium species in Taiwan are provided.

  7. Development of geothermal field following the 2000 eruption of Usu volcano as revealed by ground temperature, resistivity and self-potential variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Mogi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The 2000 eruption of Usu volcano, NE Japan, took place on the foot of the somma, and formed a cryptodome of 65 m high accompanying numerous faults. We made repeated measurements of ground temperature, Self-Potential (SP and electrical resistivity, in order to clarify the mechanism of development of the newly formed geothermal field on the fault zone. Prior to the expansion of the geothermal field, we detected a resistive zone at the center of the geothermal zone and it supposed to evidence that the zone involving dry steam phase had been formed beneath the fault zone. A rapid expansion of the geothermal field followed along the fault zone away from the craters. The place of maximum amplitude of the SP field also migrated following the expansion of the high ground temperature zone. The high resistive part has shrunk as a consequence of the progress of condensation to warm the surroundings. Based on the observations, we delineated the process of the hydrothermal circulation. Considering the topographic effect of the SP field observed on the highly permeable zone in the Usu somma, the potential flow along the slope of the soma was expected to play an important role to promote the rapid expansion of the geothermal field and the migration of the most active part.

  8. Yolk-albumen testosterone in a lizard with temperature-dependent sex determination: relation with development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Victoria; Bowden, Rachel M; Crews, David

    2013-06-01

    The leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius) exhibits temperature-dependent sex determination as well as temperature-influenced polymorphisms. Research suggests that in oviparous reptiles with temperature-dependent sex determination, steroid hormones in the yolk might influence sex determination and sexual differentiation. From captive leopard geckos that were all from the same incubation temperature regime, we gathered freshly laid eggs, incubated them at one of two female-biased incubation temperatures (26 or 34°C), and measured testosterone content in the yolk-albumen at early or late development. No differences in the concentration of testosterone were detected in eggs from different incubation temperatures. We report testosterone concentrations in the yolk-albumen were higher in eggs of late development than early development at 26°C incubation temperatures, a finding opposite that reported in other TSD reptiles studied to date. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. On the causal structure between CO2 and global temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stips, Adolf; Macias, Diego; Coughlan, Clare; Garcia-Gorriz, Elisa; Liang, X. San

    2016-01-01

    We use a newly developed technique that is based on the information flow concept to investigate the causal structure between the global radiative forcing and the annual global mean surface temperature anomalies (GMTA) since 1850. Our study unambiguously shows one-way causality between the total Greenhouse Gases and GMTA. Specifically, it is confirmed that the former, especially CO2, are the main causal drivers of the recent warming. A significant but smaller information flow comes from aerosol direct and indirect forcing, and on short time periods, volcanic forcings. In contrast the causality contribution from natural forcings (solar irradiance and volcanic forcing) to the long term trend is not significant. The spatial explicit analysis reveals that the anthropogenic forcing fingerprint is significantly regionally varying in both hemispheres. On paleoclimate time scales, however, the cause-effect direction is reversed: temperature changes cause subsequent CO2/CH4 changes. PMID:26900086

  10. People newly in love are more responsive to positive feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Cassandra L; Beninger, Richard J

    2012-06-01

    Passionate love is associated with increased activity in dopamine-rich regions of the brain. Increased dopamine in these regions is associated with a greater tendency to learn from reward in trial-and-error learning tasks. This study examined the prediction that individuals who were newly in love would be better at responding to reward (positive feedback). In test trials, people who were newly in love selected positive outcomes significantly more often than their single (not in love) counterparts but were no better at the task overall. This suggests that people who are newly in love show a bias toward responding to positive feedback, which may reflect a general bias towards reward-seeking.

  11. Numerical calculation of air velocity and temperature in ice rinks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellache, O.; Galanis, N. [Sherbrooke Univ., PQ (Canada); Ouzzane, M.; Sunye, R. [Natural Resources Canada, Varennes, PQ (Canada). CANMET Energy Diversification Laboratory

    2002-07-01

    A computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model was developed to predict the energy consumption at an ice rink. Ice rinks in Canada consume approximately 3500 GWh of electricity annually and generate about 300,000 tons of gases contributing to the greenhouse effect. This newly developed model also considers ice quality and comfort conditions in the arena. The typical 2D configuration includes refrigeration loads as well as heat transfer coefficients between the air and the ice. The effects of heat losses through the ice rink envelope are also determined. A comparison of prediction results from 4 different formulations confirms that there are important differences in air velocities near the walls and in the temperature gradient near the ice. The turbulent mixed convection model gives the best estimate of the refrigeration load. It was determined that a good ventilation should circulate air throughout the building to avoid stagnant areas. Air velocities must be low near the stands where the temperature should be around 20 degrees C. Air temperature near the ice should be low to preserve ice quality and to reduce the refrigeration load. The complexity of this geometry has been taken into account in a numerical simulation of the hydrodynamic and thermal fields in the ice rink. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  12. Different patterns in the risk of newly developed fatty liver and lipid changes with tamoxifen versus aromatase inhibitors in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer: A propensity score-matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Namki; Yoon, Han Gyul; Seo, Da Hea; Park, Seho; Kim, Seung Il; Sohn, Joo Hyuk; Rhee, Yumie

    2017-09-01

    Management of metabolic complications of long-term adjuvant endocrine therapy in early breast cancer remained an unmet need. We aimed to compare the effects of tamoxifen (TMX) and aromatase inhibitors (AIs) on the risk of fatty liver in conjunction with longitudinal changes in the serum lipid parameters. Among 1203 subjects who were taking adjuvant TMX or AI (anastrozole or letrozole) without fatty liver at baseline, those taking TMX or AI were 1:1 matched on the propensity score. The primary outcome was newly developed fatty liver detected on annual liver ultrasonography. Among 328 matched subjects (mean age 53.5 years, body mass index 22.9 kg/m 2 ), 62 cases of fatty liver in the TMX group and 41 cases in the AI group were detected in a total of 987.4 person-years. The incidence rate of fatty liver was higher in the TMX group than in the AI group (128.7 versus 81.1 per 1000 person-years, P = 0.021), particularly within the first 2 years of therapy. TMX was associated with an increased 5-year risk of newly developed fatty liver (adjusted hazard ratio 1.61, P = 0.030) compared with AI independent of obesity and cholesterol level. Subjects who developed fatty liver had higher triglycerides (TGs) and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level at baseline than those without, which was sustained during follow-up despite the serum cholesterol-lowering effect of TMX. TMX independently increased the 5-year risk of newly developed fatty liver compared with AI in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer. Our findings suggest the need for considering the risk of fatty liver as a different adverse event profile between AI and TMX, particularly in patients with obesity, high TGs and low HDL-C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Temperature-dependent development and reproductive traits of Tetranychus macfarlanei (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullah, Mohammad Shaef; Haque, Md. Ahsanul; Nachman, Gösta

    2012-01-01

    Development and reproductive traits of Tetranychus macfarlanei Baker & Pritchard (Acari: Tetranychidae) were investigated on kidney bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., at eleven constant temperatures. Tetranychus macfarlanei was able to develop and complete its life cycle at temperatures ranging from 17...

  14. Simulation of oat development cycle by photoperiod and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubia D. Mantai

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The simulation of oat development cycle can be used in the planning of agricultural practices. The aim of the study was to simulate and validate the duration of oat development cycle by photoperiod, temperature and coefficients of development of wheat for use in the WE-Streck model, considering different doses of N-fertilizer and systems of succession of high and low C/N ratio. The study was conducted in 2015 in a randomized block design with four replicates in a 4 x 2 factorial scheme, corresponding to N rates (0, 30, 60 and 120 kg ha-1 and oat cultivars (Barbarasul and Brisasul, respectively, in the soybean/oat and maize/oat systems. The duration of the stages from emergence to anthesis and from anthesis to maturation of oats was simulated in the WE-Streck model. The minimum, optimum and maximum temperatures that effectively simulate the oat development cycle were 4, 22 and 30 °C from emergence to anthesis and 15, 25 and 35 °C from anthesis to maturation, respectively. The intermediate-cycle oat development was efficiently simulated by the WE-Streck model using coefficients developed for wheat, with vegetative and reproductive cycles estimated at 89 and 43 days, respectively.

  15. Test of high temperature fuel element, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akino, Norio; Shiina, Yasuaki; Nekoya, Shin-ichi; Takizuka, Takakazu; Emori, Koichi

    1980-11-01

    Heat transfer experiment to measure the characteristics of a VHTR fuel in the same condition of the reactor core was carried out using HTGL (High Temperature Helium Gas Loop) and its test section. In this report, the details of the test section, related problems of construction and some typical results are described. The newly developed heater with graphite heat transfer surface was used as a simulated fuel element to determine the heat transfer characteristics. Following conclusions were obtained; (1) Reynolds number between turbulent and transitional region is about 2600. (2) Reynolds number between transitional and laminar region is about 4800. (3) The laminarization phenomena have not been observed and are hardly occurred in annular tubes comparing with round tube. (4) Measured Nusselt numbers agree to the established correlations in turbulent and laminar regions. (author)

  16. Workplace Violence and Job Outcomes of Newly Licensed Nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Hyoung Eun; Cho, Sung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of workplace violence toward newly licensed nurses and the relationship between workplace violence and job outcomes. Methods: An online survey was conducted of newly licensed registered nurses who had obtained their license in 2012 or 2013 in South Korea and had been working for 5–12 months after first being employed. The sample consisted of 312 nurses working in hospitals or clinics. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire...

  17. Development of High Temperature/High Sensitivity Novel Chemical Resistive Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Chunrui [Univ. of Texas, San Antonio, TX (United States); Enriquez, Erik [Univ. of Texas, San Antonio, TX (United States); Wang, Haibing [Univ. of Texas, San Antonio, TX (United States); Xu, Xing [Univ. of Texas, San Antonio, TX (United States); Bao, Shangyong [Univ. of Texas, San Antonio, TX (United States); Collins, Gregory [Univ. of Texas, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2013-08-13

    The research has been focused to design, fabricate, and develop high temperature/high sensitivity novel multifunctional chemical sensors for the selective detection of fossil energy gases used in power and fuel systems. By systematically studying the physical properties of the LnBaCo2O5+d (LBCO) [Ln=Pr or La] thin-films, a new concept chemical sensor based high temperature chemical resistant change has been developed for the application for the next generation highly efficient and near zero emission power generation technologies. We also discovered that the superfast chemical dynamic behavior and an ultrafast surface exchange kinetics in the highly epitaxial LBCO thin films. Furthermore, our research indicates that hydrogen can superfast diffuse in the ordered oxygen vacancy structures in the highly epitaxial LBCO thin films, which suggest that the LBCO thin film not only can be an excellent candidate for the fabrication of high temperature ultra sensitive chemical sensors and control systems for power and fuel monitoring systems, but also can be an excellent candidate for the low temperature solid oxide fuel cell anode and cathode materials.

  18. Development of an experimental variable temperature set-up for a temperature range from 2.2 K to 325 K for cost-effective temperature sensor calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sandip; Kar, Ranjan; Mandal, Anupam; Das, Ananda; Saha, Subrata

    2017-05-01

    A prototype of a variable temperature insert has been developed in-house as a cryogenic thermometer calibration facility. It was commissioned in fulfilment of the very stringent requirements of the temperature control of the cryogenic system. The calibration facility is designed for calibrating industrial cryogenic thermometers that include a temperature sensor and the wires heat-intercept in the 2.2 K-325 K temperature range. The isothermal section of the calibration block onto which the thermometers are mounted is weakly linked with the temperature control zone mounted with cooling capillary coil and cryogenic heater. The connecting wires of the thermometer are thermally anchored with the support of the temperature insert. The calibration procedure begins once the temperature of the support is stabilized. Homogeneity of the calibration block’s temperature is established both by simulation and by cross-comparison of two calibrated sensors. The absolute uncertainty present in temperature measurement is calculated and found comparable with the measured uncertainty at different temperature points. Measured data is presented in comparison to the standard thermometers at fixed points and it is possible to infer that the absolute accuracy achieved is better than  ±0.5% of the reading in comparison to the fixed point temperature. The design and development of simpler, low cost equipment, and approach to analysis of the calibration results are discussed further in this paper, so that it can be easily devised by other researchers.

  19. Investigation of various reconstruction parameters for algebraic reconstruction technique in a newly developed chest digital tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.; Choi, S.; Kim, Y.-S.; Park, H.-S.; Seo, C.-W.; Kim, H.-J.; Lee, D.; Lee, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Chest digital tomosynthesis (CDT) is a promising new modality that provides 3D information by reconstructing limited projection views. CDT systems have been developed to improve the limitations of conventional radiography such as image degradation and low sensitivity. However, the development of reconstruction methods is challenging because of the limited projection views within various angular ranges. Optimization of reconstruction parameters for various reconsturction methods in CDT system also is needed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) method, and to evaluate the effect of the reconstruction parameters for our newly developed CDT system. We designed ART method with 41 projection views over an angular range of ±20°. To investigate the effect of reconstruction parameters, we measured the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), artifact spread function (ASF), and quality factor (QF) using LUNGMAN phantom included tumors. We found that the proper choice of reconstruction parameters such as relaxation parameter, initial guess, and number of iterations improved the quality of reconstructed images from the same projection views. Optimal values of ART relaxation parameter with uniform (UI) and back-projection (BP) initial guesses were 0.4 and 0.6, respectively. BP initial guess improved image quality in comparison with UI initial guess, in terms of providing a higher CNR and QF values with a faster speed. CNR and QF values improved with increasing number of iteration. Particularly, ART method with BP initial guess (when β = 0.6) after 3-terations provide satisfactory reconstructed image. In conclusion, the use of ART method with proper reconstruction parameters provided better image quality than FBP method as well as conventional radiography. These results indicated that the ART method with optimal reconstruction parameters could improve image quality for nodule detection using the CDT system.

  20. Investigation of various reconstruction parameters for algebraic reconstruction technique in a newly developed chest digital tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H.; Choi, S.; Lee, D.; Kim, Y.-s.; Park, H.-S.; Lee, Y.; Seo, C.-W.; Kim, H.-J.

    2017-08-01

    Chest digital tomosynthesis (CDT) is a promising new modality that provides 3D information by reconstructing limited projection views. CDT systems have been developed to improve the limitations of conventional radiography such as image degradation and low sensitivity. However, the development of reconstruction methods is challenging because of the limited projection views within various angular ranges. Optimization of reconstruction parameters for various reconsturction methods in CDT system also is needed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) method, and to evaluate the effect of the reconstruction parameters for our newly developed CDT system. We designed ART method with 41 projection views over an angular range of ±20°. To investigate the effect of reconstruction parameters, we measured the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), artifact spread function (ASF), and quality factor (QF) using LUNGMAN phantom included tumors. We found that the proper choice of reconstruction parameters such as relaxation parameter, initial guess, and number of iterations improved the quality of reconstructed images from the same projection views. Optimal values of ART relaxation parameter with uniform (UI) and back-projection (BP) initial guesses were 0.4 and 0.6, respectively. BP initial guess improved image quality in comparison with UI initial guess, in terms of providing a higher CNR and QF values with a faster speed. CNR and QF values improved with increasing number of iteration. Particularly, ART method with BP initial guess (when β = 0.6) after 3-terations provide satisfactory reconstructed image. In conclusion, the use of ART method with proper reconstruction parameters provided better image quality than FBP method as well as conventional radiography. These results indicated that the ART method with optimal reconstruction parameters could improve image quality for nodule detection using the CDT system.

  1. Effect of water temperature on biofouling development in reverse osmosis membrane systems

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Nadia

    2016-07-14

    Understanding the factors that determine the spatial and temporal biofilm development is a key to formulate effective control strategies in reverse osmosis membrane systems for desalination and wastewater reuse. In this study, biofilm development was investigated at different water temperatures (10, 20, and 30 °C) inside a membrane fouling simulator (MFS) flow cell. The MFS studies were done at the same crossflow velocity with the same type of membrane and spacer materials, and the same feed water type and nutrient concentration, differing only in water temperature. Spatially resolved biofilm parameters such as oxygen decrease rate, biovolume, biofilm spatial distribution, thickness and composition were measured using in-situ imaging techniques. Pressure drop (PD) increase in time was used as a benchmark as to when to stop the experiments. Biofilm measurements were performed daily, and experiments were stopped once the average PD increased to 40 mbar/cm. The results of the biofouling study showed that with increasing feed water temperature (i) the biofilm activity developed faster, (ii) the pressure drop increased faster, while (iii) the biofilm thickness decreased. At an average pressure drop increase of 40 mbar/cm over the MFS for the different feed water temperatures, different biofilm activities, structures, and quantities were found, indicating that diagnosis of biofouling of membranes operated at different or varying (seasonal) feed water temperatures may be challenging. Membrane installations with a high temperature feed water are more susceptible to biofouling than installations fed with low temperature feed water.

  2. Assessment of salt tolerance of some newly developed and candidate wheat (triticum aestivum l.) cultivars using gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence attributes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanwal, H.; Shahbaz, M.; Ashraf, M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was aimed to assess salt tolerance of some newly developed and candidate cultivars of wheat using gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. Ten wheat cultivars including five newly developed (S-24, Saher-2006, Fsd-2008, Lasani and Inqlab-91) and five candidate (P .B-18, M.P-65, S.H-20, AARI-10 and G.A-20) were grown in sand culture. Salt stress (150 mM NaCl in Hoagland's nutrient solution) was applied at the seedling stage. A significant reduction in plant biomass production was recorded in all wheat cultivars. Cultivars S-24, Saher-2006 and Fsd-2008 showed less reduction in biomass production as compared with the other cultivars. Different gas exchange attributes such as leaf net photosynthetic rate (A), transpiration rate ( E), and stomatal conductance (gs) were also adversely affected due to salt stress and were positively associated with the plant biomass production of the genotypes under saline stress. More negative effects in relation to these gas exchange attributes were recorded in cvs. Lasani, G.A-20 and ARRI-10 than those in the other cultivars. Leaf maximum chlorophyll fluorescence (Fm), maximum fluorescence at steady state (Fms ), and photochemical fluorescence quenching (Qp) increased while maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm), quantum yield of electron transport (Qp), electron transport rate ( ETR ) and non-photochemical quenching (Qn) decreased due to imposition of salt stress. The adverse effects of salt stress on these chlorophyll fluorescence attributes were minimum in cultivars S-24, Saher-2006 and Fsd-2008. A significant positive correlation was recorded between biomass production, different gas exchange attributes and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. Overall, cvs. S-24, Saher-2006 and Fsd-2008 were ranked as salt tolerant on the basis of their performance in biomass production, gas exchange attributes and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. (author)

  3. The role of infections and coinfections with newly identified and emerging respiratory viruses in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debiaggi Maurizia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acute respiratory infections are a major cause of morbidity in children both in developed and developing countries. A wide range of respiratory viruses, including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, influenza A and B viruses, parainfluenza viruses (PIVs, adenovirus, rhinovirus (HRV, have repeatedly been detected in acute lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI in children in the past decades. However, in the last ten years thanks to progress in molecular technologies, newly discovered viruses have been identified including human Metapneumovirus (hMPV, coronaviruses NL63 (HcoV-NL63 and HKU1 (HcoV-HKU1, human Bocavirus (HBoV, new enterovirus (HEV, parechovirus (HpeV and rhinovirus (HRV strains, polyomaviruses WU (WUPyV and KI (KIPyV and the pandemic H1N1v influenza A virus. These discoveries have heavily modified previous knowledge on respiratory infections mainly highlighting that pediatric population is exposed to a variety of viruses with similar seasonal patterns. In this context establishing a causal link between a newly identified virus and the disease as well as an association between mixed infections and an increase in disease severity can be challenging. This review will present an overview of newly recognized as well as the main emerging respiratory viruses and seek to focus on the their contribution to infection and co-infection in LRTIs in childhood.

  4. The development of research on high temperature superconductors in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaari, A.H.; Hashim, M.; Dalimin, M.N.

    1989-01-01

    The background of the recent discovery of high-temperature oxide superconductor is given. This new discovery has driven scientists of different disciplines from many parts of the world into the race. Even those researchers from the developing countries are able to join the band wagon of the frontier research due to the convenience of working at temperatures well above that of liquid nitrogen. In Malaysia, some aspects of preparations and characterization of Y-Ba-Cu-O and Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O ceramics are studied. The 90 K transition temperature is observed in Y-Ba-Cu-O. (Auth.). 10 figs.; 5 refs

  5. Exploring Content Validity of Shore Handwriting Screening and Newly Developed Score Sheet With Pre-Kindergarten Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise K. Donica

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Limited tools exist to measure handwriting readiness skills of pre-kindergarten students. This study was a preliminary exploration of content validity of the Shore Handwriting Screening (SHS and the newly developed Score Sheet with the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Second Edition (BOT-2 in 4- and 5-year-old pre-kindergarten students. Because socioeconomic status (SES is known to impact handwriting skills, data from two different socioeconomic groups were collected. Method: Students from a Lower SES group (n = 36 and a Higher SES group (n = 14 completed the SHS and fine motor composite of the BOT-2. Pearson’s correlation was used to compare scores on the two assessments within the two groups. Results: SHS overall percentage scores were compared to standard scores and composite scores of the BOT-2. SHS scores displayed moderate to high correlation with fine manual control portions of the BOT-2 for the Lower SES group and low to moderate correlation for the same portion in the Higher SES group. Conclusion: SHS and the Score Sheet correlate to fine and visual-motor skill subtests on the fine manual control portions of the BOT-2, which supports the need for further research on the reliability and validity of the Score Sheet for use in practice.

  6. Development and Characterization of Temperature-resistant Polymer Electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qingfeng, Li; Hjuler, Hans Aage; Bjerrum, Niels

    1999-01-01

    Acid-doped PBI polymer electrolyte membranes have been developed and characterized for fuel cell applications at temperatures up to 200°C. Electric conductivity as high as 0.13 S/cm is obtained at 160°C at high doping levels. The water osmotic drag coefficient of the polymer electrolyte is found...

  7. Development of the high temperature sintering furnace for DUPIC fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Won; Kim, B. G.; Park, J. J.; Yang, M. S.; Kim, K. H.; Kim, J. H.; Cho, K. H.; Lee, D. Y.; Lee, Y. S.

    1998-11-01

    This report describes the development of the high temperature sintering furnace for manufacturing DUPIC (Direct Use of spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors) fuel pellets. The furnace has to be remotely operated and maintained in a high radioactive hot cell using master-slave manipulators. The high temperature sintering furnace for manufacturing DUPIC fuel pellets, which is satisfied with the requirements of remote operation and maintenance in a hot cell, was successfully developed and installed in the M6 hot cell at IMEF (Irradiated Material Examination Facility). The functional and thermal performance test was also successfully completed. The technology accumulated during developing this sintering furnace became the basis of other DUPIC equipment development, and will be very helpful in the development of equipment for use in hot cell in the future. (author). 20 figs

  8. Development and evaluation of a workpiece temperature analyzer for industrial furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-05-01

    An instrument capable of measuring the bulk temperature of a workpiece while it is being heated could have a variety of applications. If such an instrument were reasonably priced, it would have a tremendous impact upon national energy usage. The Department of Energy has realized the importance of this type of instrument and has sponsored three concurrent programs to evaluate three different technologies for this type of instrument. In one of these programs, Surface Combustion is the prime contractor to develop a pulsed laser, polarizing interferometer based sensor to be used as a workpiece temperature analyzer (WPTA). The overall goal of the program is to develop a workpiece temperature analyzer for industrial furnaces to significantly improve product quality, productivity and energy efficiency. The workpiece temperature analyzer concept in this program uses a pulsed laser polarizing interferometer (PLPI) for measuring sound velocity through a workpiece. This type of instrument has a high resolution and could detect surface motion of as small as 10 picometer. The sound velocity measurement can be converted to an average workpiece temperature through a mathematical equation programmed into the microprocessor used for control. 76 refs., 12 figs., 14 tabs.

  9. Exercise recommendations in patients with newly diagnosed fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Brad; Spencer, Horace; Kortebein, Patrick

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate exercise recommendations in patients newly diagnosed with fibromyalgia. A retrospective chart review. A public university rheumatology clinic. Patients newly diagnosed with fibromyalgia (N = 122). Frequency and type of exercise recommendations. The mean (standard deviation) age of these patients with fibromyalgia was 45 ± 12 years; 91% were women. Exercise was recommended as part of the documented treatment plan in 47% of these patients (57/122); only 3 patients had a documented contraindication for exercise. Aquatic exercise was most frequently recommended (56% [32/57]), followed by combined aquatic-aerobic exercise (26% [15/57]), and, infrequently, aerobic exercise only (5% [3/57]); only 7% of these patients (4/57) were referred for physical therapy. The primary method of communication was verbal discussion (94% [54/57]). Although there is well-documented evidence that exercise is beneficial for patients with fibromyalgia, we found that less than half of patients with newly diagnosed fibromyalgia in our study were provided recommendations to initiate an exercise program as part of their treatment plan. Further investigation of these findings are warranted, including evaluation of other university and community rheumatology practices as well as that of other physicians caring for patients with fibromyalgia. However, our findings indicate that there appears to be an opportunity to provide more specific and practical education regarding the implementation of an exercise regimen for patients with newly diagnosed fibromyalgia. Physiatrists may be particularly well suited to manage the exercise component of patients with fibromyalgia because of their specialized training in exercise prescription. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Critical thinking dispositions among newly graduated nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangensteen, Sigrid; Johansson, Inger S; Björkström, Monica E; Nordström, Gun

    2010-10-01

    The aim of the study was to describe critical thinking dispositions among newly graduated nurses in Norway, and to study whether background data had any impact on critical thinking dispositions. Competence in critical thinking is one of the expectations of nursing education. Critical thinkers are described as well-informed, inquisitive, open-minded and orderly in complex matters. Critical thinking competence has thus been designated as an outcome for judging the quality of nursing education programmes and for the development of clinical judgement. The ability to think critically is also described as reducing the research-practice gap and fostering evidence-based nursing. A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed. The data were collected between October 2006 and April 2007 using the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory. The response rate was 33% (n = 618). Pearson's chi-square tests were used to analyse the data. Nearly 80% of the respondents reported a positive disposition towards critical thinking. The highest mean score was on the Inquisitiveness subscale and the lowest on the Truth-seeking subscale. A statistically significant higher proportion of nurses with high critical thinking scores were found among those older than 30 years, those with university education prior to nursing education, and those working in community health care. Nurse leaders and nurse teachers should encourage and nurture critical thinking among newly graduated nurses and nursing students. The low Truth-seeking scores found may be a result of traditional teaching strategies in nursing education and might indicate a need for more student-active learning models. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. The ecological and construct validity of a newly developed measure of executive function: the Virtual Library Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renison, Belinda; Ponsford, Jennie; Testa, Renee; Richardson, Barry; Brownfield, Kylie

    2012-05-01

    Virtual reality (VR) assessment paradigms have the potential to address the limited ecological validity of pen and paper measures of executive function (EF) and the pragmatic and reliability issues associated with functional measures. To investigate the ecological validity and construct validity of a newly developed VR measure of EF, the Virtual Library Task (VLT); a real life analogous task--the Real Library Task (RLT); and five neuropsychological measures of EF were administered to 30 patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and 30 healthy Controls. Significant others for each participant also completed the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX), which is a behavioral rating scale of everyday EF. Performances on the VLT and the RLT were significantly positively correlated indicating that VR performance is similar to real world performance. The TBI group performed significantly worse than the Control group on the VLT and the Modified Six Elements Test (MSET) but the other four neuropsychological measures of EF failed to differentiate the groups. Both the MSET and the VLT significantly predicted everyday EF suggesting that they are both ecologically valid tools for the assessment of EF. The VLT has the advantage over the MSET of providing objective measurement of individual components of EF.

  12. Effect of water temperature on biofouling development in reverse osmosis membrane systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, N M; Vrouwenvelder, J S; Van Loosdrecht, M C M; Bucs, Sz S; Staal, M

    2016-10-15

    Understanding the factors that determine the spatial and temporal biofilm development is a key to formulate effective control strategies in reverse osmosis membrane systems for desalination and wastewater reuse. In this study, biofilm development was investigated at different water temperatures (10, 20, and 30 °C) inside a membrane fouling simulator (MFS) flow cell. The MFS studies were done at the same crossflow velocity with the same type of membrane and spacer materials, and the same feed water type and nutrient concentration, differing only in water temperature. Spatially resolved biofilm parameters such as oxygen decrease rate, biovolume, biofilm spatial distribution, thickness and composition were measured using in-situ imaging techniques. Pressure drop (PD) increase in time was used as a benchmark as to when to stop the experiments. Biofilm measurements were performed daily, and experiments were stopped once the average PD increased to 40 mbar/cm. The results of the biofouling study showed that with increasing feed water temperature (i) the biofilm activity developed faster, (ii) the pressure drop increased faster, while (iii) the biofilm thickness decreased. At an average pressure drop increase of 40 mbar/cm over the MFS for the different feed water temperatures, different biofilm activities, structures, and quantities were found, indicating that diagnosis of biofouling of membranes operated at different or varying (seasonal) feed water temperatures may be challenging. Membrane installations with a high temperature feed water are more susceptible to biofouling than installations fed with low temperature feed water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Nilotinib versus imatinib for newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saglio, Giuseppe; Kim, Dong-Wook; Issaragrisil, Surapol

    2010-01-01

    Nilotinib has been shown to be a more potent inhibitor of BCR-ABL than imatinib. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of nilotinib, as compared with imatinib, in patients with newly diagnosed Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in the chronic phase.......Nilotinib has been shown to be a more potent inhibitor of BCR-ABL than imatinib. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of nilotinib, as compared with imatinib, in patients with newly diagnosed Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in the chronic phase....

  14. Transformation of organic N newly added to red soil treated with different cultural practices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangQin-Zheng; YeQing-Fu; 等

    1998-01-01

    By using 15N tracer method,transformation of organic N,which wqas newly added to red soil treated with different cultural practices,was studied under thelaboratory incubation condition.The experimental results showed that the transformation of N from newly added organic matter and soil native pool during incubation was influenced by cultural practice treatment beforeincubation.Fallow was favorable to the mineralization of newly added organic N and soil N compared with the planting wheat treatment.Planting wheat greatly increased the loss of soil N.Application of fertilizers stimulated the mineralization of newly added organic N and application of organic matter reduced the mineralization,but stimulated microbialtransformation of newly adde4d organic N.

  15. UCSD SORT Test (U-SORT): Examination of a newly developed organizational skills assessment tool for severely mentally ill adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiznado, Denisse; Mausbach, Brent T; Cardenas, Veronica; Jeste, Dilip V; Patterson, Thomas L

    2010-12-01

    The present investigation examined the validity of a new cognitive test intended to assess organizational skills. Participants were 180 middle-aged or older participants with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Participants' organizational skills were measured using our newly developed University of California, San Diego Sorting Test (U-SORT), a performance-based test of organizational ability in which subjects sort objects (e.g., battery, pens) from a "junk drawer" into "keep" versus "trash" piles. Significant correlations between U-SORT scores and theoretically similar constructs (i.e. functional capacity, cognitive functioning, and clinical symptoms) were acceptable (mean r = 0.34), and weak correlations were found between U-SORT scores and theoretically dissimilar constructs (e.g., health symptoms, social support, gender; mean r = 0.06 ). The correlation between assessment scores provides preliminary support for the U-SORT test as a brief, easily transportable, reliable, and valid measure of functioning for this population.

  16. Thermodynamic properties of standard seawater: extensions to high temperatures and pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Safarov

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of (p, ρ, T properties of standard seawater with practical salinity S≈35, temperature T=(273.14 to 468.06 K and pressures, p, up to 140 MPa are reported with the reproducibility of the density measurements observed to be in the average percent deviation range Δρ/ρ=±(0.01 to 0.03%. The measurements are made with a newly constructed vibration-tube densimeter which is calibrated using double-distilled water, methanol and aqueous NaCl solutions. Based on these and previous measurements, an empirical expression for the density of standard seawater has been developed as a function of pressure and temperature. This equation is used to calculate other volumetric properties including isothermal compressibility, isobaric thermal expansibility, differences in isobaric and isochoric heat capacities, the thermal pressure coefficient, internal pressure and the secant bulk modulus. The results can be used to extend the present equation of state of seawater to higher temperatures for pressure up to 140 MPa.

  17. Development of a one-step RT-PCR assay for detection of pancoronaviruses (α-, β-, γ-, and δ-coronaviruses) using newly designed degenerate primers for porcine and avian `fecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hui; Jung, Kwonil; Wang, Qiuhong; Saif, Linda J; Vlasova, Anastasia N

    2018-06-01

    Coronaviruses (CoVs) are critical human and animal pathogens because of their potential to cause severe epidemics of respiratory or enteric diseases. In pigs, the newly emerged porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) and re-emerged porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) reported in the US and Asia, as well as the discovery of novel CoVs in wild bats or birds, has necessitated development of improved detection and control measures for these CoVs. Because the previous pancoronavirus (panCoV) RT-PCR established in our laboratory in 2007-2011 did not detect deltacoronaviruses (δ-CoVs) in swine fecal and serum samples, our goal was to develop a new panCoV RT-PCR assay to detect known human and animal CoVs, including δ-CoVs. In this study, we designed a new primer set to amplify a 668 bp-region within the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) gene that encodes the most conserved protein domain of α-, β-, γ-, and δ-CoVs. We established a one-step panCoV RT-PCR assay and standardized the assay conditions. The newly established panCoV RT-PCR assay was demonstrated to have a high sensitivity and specificity. Using a panel of 60 swine biological samples (feces, intestinal contents, and sera) characterized by PEDV, PDCoV and transmissible gastroenteritis virus-specific RT-PCR assays, we demonstrated that sensitivity and specificity of the newly established panCoV RT-PCR assay were 100%. 400 avian fecal (RNA) samples were further tested simultaneously for CoV by the new panCoV RT-PCR and a one-step RT-PCR assay with the δ-CoV nucleocapsid-specific universal primers. Four of 400 avian samples were positive for CoV, three of which were positive for δ-CoV by the conventional RT-PCR. PanCoV RT-PCR fragments for 3 of the 4 CoVs were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of one γ-CoV and two δ-CoV in the sequenced samples. The newly designed panCoV RT-PCR assay should be useful for the detection of currently known CoVs in animal biological samples. Copyright © 2018

  18. Temperatures during flower bud development affect pollen germination, self-incompatibility reaction and early fruit development of clementine (Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distefano, G; Gentile, A; Hedhly, A; La Malfa, S

    2018-03-01

    One of the key environmental factors affecting plant reproductive systems is temperature. Characterising such effects is especially relevant for some commercially important genera such as Citrus. In this genus, failure of fertilisation results in parthenocarpic fruit development and seedlessness, which is a much-prized character. Here, we characterise the effects of temperature on flower and ovary development, and on pollen-pistil interactions in 'Comune' clementine (Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan.). We examine flower bud development, in vitro pollen germination and pollen-pistil interaction at different temperatures (15, 20, 25 or 30 °C). These temperatures span the range from 'cold' to 'hot' weather during the flowering season in many citrus-growing regions. Temperature had a strong effect on flower and ovary development, pollen germination, and pollen tube growth kinetics. In particular, parthenocarpic fruit development (indicated by juice vesicle growth) was initiated early if flowers were exposed to warmer temperatures during anthesis. Exposure to different temperatures during flower bud development also alters expression of the self-incompatibility reaction. This affects the point in the pistil at which pollen tube growth is arrested and confirms the role of sub- and supra-optimal temperatures in determining the numbers of pollen tubes reaching the ovary. © 2017 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  19. Efficacy of Topical Therapy with Newly Developed Terbinafine and Econazole Formulations in the Treatment of Dermatophytosis in Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivaskiene, M; Matusevicius, A P; Grigonis, A; Zamokas, G; Babickaite, L

    2016-09-01

    In the field of veterinary dermatology dermatophytosis is one of the most frequently occurring infectious diseases, therefore its treatment should be effective, convenient, safe and inexpensive. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of newly developed topical formulations in the treatment of cats with dermatophytosis. Evaluation of clinical efficacy and safety of terbinafine and econazole formulations administered topically twice a day was performed in 40 cats. Cats, suffering from the most widely spread Microsporum canis-induced dermatophytosis and treated with terbinafine hydrochloride 1% cream, recovered within 20.3±0.88 days; whereas when treated with econazole nitrate 1% cream, they recovered within 28.4±1.14 days. A positive therapeutic effect was yielded by combined treatment with local application of creams and whole coat spray with enilconazole 0.2% emulsion "Imaverol". Most cats treated with econazole cream revealed redness and irritation of the skin at the site of application. This study demonstrates that terbinafine tended to have superior clinical efficacy (p<0.001) in the treatment of dermatophytosis in cats compared to the azole tested.

  20. Developing prospects of NiAlMn high temperature shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Min

    1999-01-01

    The reason and information on high temperature shape memory alloy research are introduced briefly Also, referring to some experimental reports on NiAlMn high temperature shape memory alloy, it is pointed out that ductility and memory property of this alloy can be improved by adapting proper composition and procedure to control its microstructure. Meanwhile, the engineering details must be considered when NiAlMn high temperature shape memory alloy being developed so as to resolve the problems of its practical use

  1. Coping strategies among patients with newly diagnosed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson Larsson, Birgitta; Nordin, Karin; Askmark, Håkan; Nygren, Ingela

    2014-11-01

    To prospectively identify different coping strategies among newly diagnosed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients and whether they change over time and to determine whether physical function, psychological well-being, age and gender correlated with the use of different coping strategies. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a fatal disease with impact on both physical function and psychological well-being. Different coping strategies are used to manage symptoms and disease progression, but knowledge about coping in newly diagnosed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients is scarce. This was a prospective study with a longitudinal and descriptive design. A total of 33 patients were included and evaluation was made at two time points, one to three months and six months after diagnosis. Patients were asked to complete the Motor Neuron Disease Coping Scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Physical function was estimated using the revised Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale. The most commonly used strategies were support and independence. Avoidance/venting and information seeking were seldom used at both time points. The use of information seeking decreased between the two time points. Men did not differ from women, but patients ≤64 years used positive action more often than older patients. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale was positively correlated with positive action at time point 1, but not at time point 2. Patients' psychological well-being was correlated with the use of different coping strategies. Support and independence were the most used coping strategies, and the use of different strategies changed over time. Psychological well-being was correlated with different coping strategies in newly diagnosed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients. The knowledge about coping strategies in early stage of the disease may help the nurses to improve and develop the care and support for these patients. © 2014 John Wiley

  2. Development of two tier test to assess conceptual understanding in heat and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winarti; Cari; Suparmi; Sunarno, Widha; Istiyono, Edi

    2017-01-01

    Heat and temperature is a concept that has been learnt from primary school to undergraduate levels. One problem about heat and temperature is that they are presented abstractly, theoretical concept. A student conceptual frameworks develop from their daily experiences. The purpose of this research was to develop a two-tier test of heat and temperature concept and measure conceptual understanding of heat and temperature of the student. This study consist of two method is qualitative and quantitative method. The two-tier test was developed using procedures defined by Borg and Gall. The two-tier test consisted of 20 question and was tested for 137 students for collecting data. The result of the study showed that the two-tier test was effective in determining the students’ conceptual understanding and also it might be used as an alternative for assessment and evaluation of students’ achievement

  3. Effect of mulching systems on fruit quality and phytochemical composition of newly developed strawberry lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Fan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of three mulching systems on total yield, average yield per plant, average fruit weight, soluble solids content (SSC, titratable acidity (TA, firmness and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC of two newly developed lines (‘Orléans’ and ‘Saint Pierre’, one advanced selection (‘SJ8976-1’ and two commonly used cultivars (‘Jewel’ and ‘Kent’ were evaluated. The studied mulching systems were: plastic mulch (PM, mulch with row cover (PMRC, and matted-row system (MRS. Results showed that plastic mulch with row cover (PMRC generally increased yield per plant, average fruit weight, SSC, firmness and ORAC, but differences varied within harvest times. No significant differences in total yield and TA were observed under the selected mulching systems. Both PMRC and PM accelerated the harvest periods compared to MRS. ‘Kent’ and ‘Jewel’ had the highest total yield while ‘SJ8976-1’ and ‘St-Pierre’ had the highest average fruit weight. The highest SSC, TA and ORAC were found in ‘Jewel’. There was no interaction between the mulching systems and genotypes, indicating that the effect of production system is independent of cultivars. PMRC seems to be a better growing system, improving fruit quality and increasing the nutritional value of all genotypes. By allowing off-season fruit production in cool climates, PMRC can be an alternative method to the costly high tunnels.

  4. Lactic Acid Production from Pretreated Hydrolysates of Corn Stover by a Newly Developed Bacillus coagulans Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Ting; Qiao, Hui; Zheng, Zhaojuan; Chu, Qiulu; Li, Xin; Yong, Qiang; Ouyang, Jia

    2016-01-01

    An inhibitor-tolerance strain, Bacillus coagulans GKN316, was developed through atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP) mutation and evolution experiment in condensed dilute-acid hydrolysate (CDH) of corn stover. The fermentabilities of other hydrolysates with B. coagulans GKN316 and the parental strain B. coagulans NL01 were assessed. When using condensed acid-catalyzed steam-exploded hydrolysate (CASEH), condensed acid-catalyzed liquid hot water hydrolysate (CALH) and condensed acid-...

  5. Development of high temperature property database for Alloy 800H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Norio; Watanabe, Katsutoshi; Tsuji, Hirokazu; Nakajima, Hajime.

    1993-07-01

    JAERI Material Performance Database (JMPD) has been developed since 1989 in JAERI with a view to utilizing the various kinds of characteristic data of nuclear materials efficiently. Using relational database management system, PLANNER on the mainframe, the JMPD provides the retrieval supporting system, graphic and statistical analyses system. The data obtained with 7868 sets on characteristic data of metallic materials including fatigue crack growth data, etc. have been stored in the JMPD at the end of March in 1993. A ferritic superalloy, Alloy 800H is used for the structural material of the control rods of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). Thermal stress generates which might cause a severe creep damage at a reactor scram. It therefore needs to be designed with consideration on the fracture modes induced by creep deformation after neutron irradiation. The creep data (approximately 240 sets) and tensile data (approximately 100 sets) of Alloy 800H including the effects of test environment, aging treatment and neutron irradiation have been stored in the JMPD. Furthermore, using a personal computer, high temperature property database for Alloy 800H has been developed. The present report outlines the development of high temperature property database for Alloy 800H. (author)

  6. State of development of high temperature gas-cooled reactors in foreign countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudo, Yukio

    1990-01-01

    Emphasis has been placed in the development of high temperature gas-cooled reactors on high thermal efficiency as power reactors and the reactor from which nuclear heat can be utilized. In U.K., as the international project 'Dragon Project', the experimental Dragon reactor for research use with 20 MWt output and exit coolant temperature 750 deg C was constructed, and operated till 1976. Coated fuel particles were developed. In West Germany, the experimental power reactor AVR with 46 MWt and 15 MWe output was operated till 1988. The prototype power reactor THTR-300 with 300 MWe output and 750 deg C exit temperature is in commercial operation. In USA, the experimental power reactor Peach Bottom reactor with 40 MWe output and 728 deg C exit temperature was operated till 1974. The prototype Fort Saint Vrain power reactor with 330 MWe output and 782 deg C exit temperature was operated till 1989. In USSR, the modular VGM with 200 MWh output is at the planning stage. Also in China, high temperature gas-cooled reactors are at the design stage. Switzerland has taken part in various international projects. (K.I.)

  7. Temperature and moisture regimes in the Enterprise Forest, 1970--1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crow, T.R.; Buech, R.R.

    1977-01-01

    Within the Enterprise Radiation Forest, measurements of ambient air temperature, humidity, and precipitation were taken from 1970 through 1973. Temperature and moisture stresses that could alter the responses of organisms to gamma radiation were not evident during irradiation (1972) or during the recovery year 1973. Changes in microclimatic regimes as a result of the destruction of vegetation by gamma radiation were also assessed. Although differences in temperature and vapor-pressure deficit (VPD) were small when considering monthly means, mean maximum and mean minimum temperature and standardized plots of mean daily temperature and mean daily VPD indicated greater extremes in the newly created open environment than under the forest canopy. These relationships parallel those reported in comparisons of open environments to forested environments

  8. Application of newly developed Fluoro-QC software for image quality evaluation in cardiac X-ray systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, M; Lopez, G; Geambastiani, P; Ubeda, C

    2018-05-01

    A quality assurance (QA) program is a valuable tool for the continuous production of optimal quality images. The aim of this paper is to assess a newly developed automatic computer software for image quality (IR) evaluation in fluoroscopy X-ray systems. Test object images were acquired using one fluoroscopy system, Siemens Axiom Artis model (Siemens AG, Medical Solutions Erlangen, Germany). The software was developed as an ImageJ plugin. Two image quality parameters were assessed: high-contrast spatial resolution (HCSR) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The time between manual and automatic image quality assessment procedures were compared. The paired t-test was used to assess the data. p Values of less than 0.05 were considered significant. The Fluoro-QC software generated faster IQ evaluation results (mean = 0.31 ± 0.08 min) than manual procedure (mean = 4.68 ± 0.09 min). The mean difference between techniques was 4.36 min. Discrepancies were identified in the region of interest (ROI) areas drawn manually with evidence of user dependence. The new software presented the results of two tests (HCSR = 3.06, SNR = 5.17) and also collected information from the DICOM header. Significant differences were not identified between manual and automatic measures of SNR (p value = 0.22) and HCRS (p value = 0.46). The Fluoro-QC software is a feasible, fast and free to use method for evaluating imaging quality parameters on fluoroscopy systems. Copyright © 2017 The College of Radiographers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Possible origin of Saturn's newly discovered outer ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moehlmann, D.

    1986-01-01

    Within a planetogonic model the self-gravitationally caused formation of pre-planetary and pre-satellite rings from an earlier thin disk is reported. The theoretically derived orbital radii of these rings are compared with the orbital levels in the planetary system and the satellite systems of Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus. From this comparison it is concluded that at the radial position of Saturn's newly discovered outer ring an early pre-satellite ring of more or less evolved satellites could have existed. These satellites should have been disturbed in their evolution by the gravitation of the neighbouring massive satellite Titan. The comparison also may indicate similarities between the asteroidal belt and the newly discovered outer ring of Saturn

  10. Oral Cancer Knowledge Assessment: Newly Graduated versus Senior Dental Clinicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado de Souza, Ricardo; Gallego Arias Pecorari, Vanessa; Lauria Dib, Luciano

    2018-01-01

    The present study assessed the level of dentists' knowledge regarding oral cancer in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. A questionnaire was used to compare the level of knowledge among newly graduated and senior clinicians. A total of 20,154 e-mails were correctly delivered to the dentists registered in the database of the Regional Dentistry Council of São Paulo, and 477 (2.36%) responses were received. This sample consisted of 84 newly graduated clinicians and 105 senior clinicians. For the statistical analysis, the chi-square test and the logistic regression analysis were performed with α = 0.05, and the results were described herein. According to their knowledge level, the results were statistically different between the groups, since 19% of the newly graduated clinicians were evaluated with knowledge grade A (excellent) in comparison to 6.7% of the senior clinicians. In spite of the results indicated that newly graduated clinicians' knowledge regarding oral cancer was 2.1 times higher, 34.5% of the professionals in this group had regular or poor knowledge on the subject, and several questions relating to clinical characteristics and risk factors indicated that there still exist some knowledge gaps, demonstrating that there is a need for further studies and information activities addressing oral cancer. PMID:29666649

  11. Quantification of Fusarium oxysporum in fumigated soils by a newly developed real-time PCR assay to assess the efficacy of fumigants for Fusarium wilt disease in strawberry plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Mao, Liangang; Yan, Dongdong; Ma, Taotao; Shen, Jin; Guo, Meixia; Wang, Qiuxia; Ouyang, Canbin; Cao, Aocheng

    2014-11-01

    Two soil fumigants, chloropicrin (CP) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), were used to control Fusarium wilt disease (FWD) which caused large economic losses in strawberries. The fumigants were evaluated alone and in combination in a laboratory study and in strawberry greenhouses. Laboratory tests found that combinations of CP and DMDS indicated a positive synergistic activity on Fusarium oxysporum. A newly developed quantitative assay for F. oxysporum involving real-time PCR was used successfully to evaluate F. oxysporum control by the fumigants; it provided similar results to the selective medium but was less time-consuming and less labor intensive. Greenhouse trials revealed that the combination of CP and DMDS successfully suppressed the incidence of FWD and sharply reduced the population density of F. oxysporum, which significantly increased fruit branch number and maintained a good strawberry yield, higher than methyl bromide (MB) treatment. All of the treatments provided significantly better results than the non-treated control. This study confirms that the newly developed real-time PCR quantitative assay for F. oxysporum was suitable for the control efficacy evaluation of soil fumigants and that the novel fumigant combination of CP and DMDS offers a promising effective alternative to MB for the control of F. oxysporum in strawberry greenhouses. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Career Motivation in Newly Licensed Registered Nurses: What Makes Them Remain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Zarata Mann; Bailey, Jessica H.

    2010-01-01

    Despite vast research on newly licensed registered nurses (RNs), we don't know why some newly licensed registered nurses remain in their current jobs and others leave the nursing profession early in their career. Job satisfaction, the most significant factor emerging from the literature, plays a significant role in nurses' decisions to remain in…

  13. Development of an ultrasonic flow and temperature measurement system for pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, R.W.; Lubnow, T.; Baumgart, G.; Ravetti, D.

    1996-01-01

    In U.S. nuclear plants, primary coolant flow and reactor thermal power are calculated from a measurement of feedwater flow to the steam generator combined with knowledge of steam generator heat transfer characteristics nd measurement of hot leg temperature by resistance temperature detectors (RTDs). The calculation of plant thermal output is complicated by an indirect measurement of primary coolant mass flow rate and thermal streaming in the region where hot leg temperature is typically measured. Uncertainty in the thermal output calculation results from uncertainties in steam generator characteristics, in the hot leg temperature due to thermal streaming, and in fouling of venturi nozzles used for feedwater flow measurement. This in turn leads to operation of power plants ar lower levels of efficiency. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has on ongoing project to develop a prototype system to directly measure primary coolant flow rate and bulk average temperature using ultrasonic transducers externally mounted on the pipe. The topic of this paper is a summary of the project experience in developing this system. The technology being developed in this project is based in part upon previously existing ultrasonic feedwater flow measurement technology developed by MPR Associates and Caldon, Inc EPRI is a non-profit company performing research for U.S. and international electric power utilities. (authors)

  14. Proximate effects of temperature versus evolved intrinsic constraints for embryonic development times among temperate and tropical songbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ton, Riccardo; Martin, Thomas E.

    2017-01-01

    The relative importance of intrinsic constraints imposed by evolved physiological trade-offs versus the proximate effects of temperature for interspecific variation in embryonic development time remains unclear. Understanding this distinction is important because slow development due to evolved trade-offs can yield phenotypic benefits, whereas slow development from low temperature can yield costs. We experimentally increased embryonic temperature in free-living tropical and north temperate songbird species to test these alternatives. Warmer temperatures consistently shortened development time without costs to embryo mass or metabolism. However, proximate effects of temperature played an increasingly stronger role than intrinsic constraints for development time among species with colder natural incubation temperatures. Long development times of tropical birds have been thought to primarily reflect evolved physiological trade-offs that facilitate their greater longevity. In contrast, our results indicate a much stronger role of temperature in embryonic development time than currently thought.

  15. PREVALENCE OF DIABETIC RETINOPATHY IN PATIENTS WITH NEWLY DIAGNOSED TYPE II DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bostak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is a common complication of type II diabetes mellitus and carries with it the threat of blindness. Accurate information regarding the incidence of diabetic retinopathy and associated risk factors is important in the prevention of its development and of the visual impairment caused by this complication. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in newly diagnosed patients with type II diabetes mellitus. We have also evaluated the association of diabetic retinopathy with clinical and biochemical variables. In a cross-sectional study, 152 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed type II diabetes mellitus were referred from two outpatient clinics in Tehran for ophthalmologic exam to detect retinopathy. Indirect ophthalmoscopy was performed and data regarding risk factors were extracted from routine medical records. Chi square and Mann Whitney U tests were used to analyze the data. The overall prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was 13.8 %( 21 cases: three cases with microaneurysm only, 10 with mild, 5 with moderate and 2 with severe non proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Only one patient had advanced proliferative retinopathy. The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was positively associated with age, duration of disease, fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, and systolic blood pressure. Diabetic retinopathy is common in newly diagnosed type II diabetes mellitus patients. Ophthalmologic consultation is essential at the time of diagnosis for all patients.

  16. Diurnal temperature variations affect development of a herbivorous arthropod pest and its predators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominiek Vangansbeke

    Full Text Available The impact of daily temperature variations on arthropod life history remains woefully understudied compared to the large body of research that has been carried out on the effects of constant temperatures. However, diurnal varying temperature regimes more commonly represent the environment in which most organisms thrive. Such varying temperature regimes have been demonstrated to substantially affect development and reproduction of ectothermic organisms, generally in accordance with Jensen's inequality. In the present study we evaluated the impact of temperature alternations at 4 amplitudes (DTR0, +5, +10 and +15°C on the developmental rate of the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot and Neoseiulus californicus McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae and their natural prey, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae. We have modelled their developmental rates as a function of temperature using both linear and nonlinear models. Diurnally alternating temperatures resulted in a faster development in the lower temperature range as compared to their corresponding mean constant temperatures, whereas the opposite was observed in the higher temperature range. Our results indicate that Jensen's inequality does not suffice to fully explain the differences in developmental rates at constant and alternating temperatures, suggesting additional physiological responses play a role. It is concluded that diurnal temperature range should not be ignored and should be incorporated in predictive models on the phenology of arthropod pests and their natural enemies and their performance in biological control programmes.

  17. Diurnal Temperature Variations Affect Development of a Herbivorous Arthropod Pest and its Predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangansbeke, Dominiek; Audenaert, Joachim; Nguyen, Duc Tung; Verhoeven, Ruth; Gobin, Bruno; Tirry, Luc; De Clercq, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The impact of daily temperature variations on arthropod life history remains woefully understudied compared to the large body of research that has been carried out on the effects of constant temperatures. However, diurnal varying temperature regimes more commonly represent the environment in which most organisms thrive. Such varying temperature regimes have been demonstrated to substantially affect development and reproduction of ectothermic organisms, generally in accordance with Jensen’s inequality. In the present study we evaluated the impact of temperature alternations at 4 amplitudes (DTR0, +5, +10 and +15°C) on the developmental rate of the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot and Neoseiulus californicus McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and their natural prey, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). We have modelled their developmental rates as a function of temperature using both linear and nonlinear models. Diurnally alternating temperatures resulted in a faster development in the lower temperature range as compared to their corresponding mean constant temperatures, whereas the opposite was observed in the higher temperature range. Our results indicate that Jensen’s inequality does not suffice to fully explain the differences in developmental rates at constant and alternating temperatures, suggesting additional physiological responses play a role. It is concluded that diurnal temperature range should not be ignored and should be incorporated in predictive models on the phenology of arthropod pests and their natural enemies and their performance in biological control programmes. PMID:25874697

  18. Diverging temperature responses of CO2 assimilation and plant development explain the overall effect of temperature on biomass accumulation in wheat leaves and grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Nicholas C; Parent, Boris

    2017-01-09

    There is a growing consensus in the literature that rising temperatures influence the rate of biomass accumulation by shortening the development of plant organs and the whole plant and by altering rates of respiration and photosynthesis. A model describing the net effects of these processes on biomass would be useful, but would need to reconcile reported differences in the effects of night and day temperature on plant productivity. In this study, the working hypothesis was that the temperature responses of CO 2 assimilation and plant development rates were divergent, and that their net effects could explain observed differences in biomass accumulation. In wheat (Triticum aestivum) plants, we followed the temperature responses of photosynthesis, respiration and leaf elongation, and confirmed that their responses diverged. We measured the amount of carbon assimilated per "unit of plant development" in each scenario and compared it to the biomass that accumulated in growing leaves and grains. Our results suggested that, up to a temperature optimum, the rate of any developmental process increased with temperature more rapidly than that of CO 2 assimilation and that this discrepancy, summarised by the CO 2 assimilation rate per unit of plant development, could explain the observed reductions in biomass accumulation in plant organs under high temperatures. The model described the effects of night and day temperature equally well, and offers a simple framework for describing the effects of temperature on plant growth. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  19. Meeting and activating the newly unemployed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotger, Gabriel Pons

    -demanding activity. As intensive activation is usually accompanied by intensive search monitoring, it is important to disentangling the contribution of the costly activation programs from that of caseworker meetings. Using Danish data for the period 2010-13, the paper shows that requiring newly unemployed intensive...... activation, contrary to job search meetings, reduces employment and increases sickness benefit claims....

  20. Optimization of Thermo-Mechanical Processing for Forging of Newly Developed Creep-Resistant Magnesium Alloy ABaX633

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamineni Pitcheswara Rao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The compressive strength and creep resistance of cast Mg-6Al-3Ba-3Ca (ABaX633 alloy has been measured in the temperature range of 25 to 250 °C, and compared with that of its predecessor ABaX422. The alloy is stronger and more creep-resistant than ABaX422, and exhibits only a small decrease of yield stress with temperature. The higher strength of ABaX633 is attributed to a larger volume fraction of intermetallic particles (Al, Mg2Ca and Mg21Al3Ba2 in its microstructure. Hot deformation mechanisms in ABaX633 have been characterized by developing a processing map in the temperature and strain rate ranges of 300 to 500 °C and 0.0003 to 10 s−1. The processing map exhibits two workability domains in the temperature and strain rate ranges of: (1 380 to 475 °C and 0.0003 to 0.003 s−1, and (2 480–500 °C and 0.003 to 0.5 s−1. The apparent activation energy values estimated in the above two domains (204 and 216 kJ/mol are higher than that for lattice self-diffusion of Mg, which is attributed to the large back-stress that is caused by the intermetallic particles. Optimum condition for bulk working is 500 °C and 0.01 s−1 at which hot workability will be maximum. Flow instability is exhibited at lower temperatures and higher strain rates, as well as at higher temperatures and higher strain rates. The predictions of the processing map on the workability domains, as well as the instability regimes are fully validated by the forging of a rib-web (cup shaped component under optimized conditions.

  1. Temperature effects on the immature development time of Culex eduardoi Casal and Garcia (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loetti, V.; Schweigmann, N.J.; Burroni, N.E., E-mail: nburroni@ege.fcen.uba.a [Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Grupo de Estudio de Mosquitos

    2011-01-15

    The effect of constant temperatures on the development time from first instar to adult emergence was studied in Culex eduardoi Casal and Garcia reared at 7, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 or 33 deg C. Data were adjusted to the linear degree-day model and the nonlinear Briere model. According to the linear model, the development time was inversely related to the rearing temperatures between 7 deg C and 25 deg C. Maximum mortality (100%) was recorded at temperatures > 30 deg C. According to the linear model, the development threshold temperature and thermal constant were 5.7 deg C and 188.8 degree days, respectively. The lower and upper threshold temperatures and the optimum temperature for the nonlinear model were -2.3, 30.0 and 28.1 deg C, respectively. (author)

  2. Sample holder for studying temperature dependent particle guiding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bereczky, R.J.; Toekesi, K.; Kowarik, G.; Aumayr, F.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The so called guiding effect is a complex process involving the interplay of a large number of charged particles with a solid. Although many research groups joined this field and carried out various experiments with insulator capillaries many details of the interactions are still unknown. We investigated the temperature dependence of the guiding since it opens new possibilities both for a fundamental understanding of the guiding phenomenon and for applications. For the temperature dependent guiding experiments a completely new heatable sample holder was designed. We developed and built such a heatable sample holder to make accurate and reproducible studies of the temperature dependence of the ion guiding effect possible. The target holder (for an exploded view see Fig. 1) consists of two main parts, the front and the back plates. The two plates of the sample holder, which function as an oven, are made of copper. These parts surround the capillary in order to guarantee a uniform temperature along the whole tube. The temperature of the copper parts is monitored by a K-Type thermocouple. Stainless steel coaxial heaters surrounding the oven are used for heating. The heating power up to a few watts is regulated by a PID controller. Cooling of the capillary is achieved by a copper feed-through connected to a liquid nitrogen bath outside the UHV chamber. This solution allows us to change the temperature of the sample from -30 deg C up to 90 deg C. Our experiments with this newly developed temperature regulated capillary holder show that the glass temperature (i.e. conductivity) can be used to control the guiding properties of the glass capillary and adjust the conditions from guiding at room temperature to simple geometrical transmission at elevated temperatures. This holds the promise to investigate the effect of conductivity on particle transport (build-up and removal of charge patches) through capillaries in more details

  3. Preceptors' perceptions of the elements of a successful and an unsuccessful orientation period for newly graduated nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindfors, Kirsi; Meretoja, Riitta; Kaunonen, Marja; Paavilainen, Eija

    2018-04-01

    To identify existing orientation patterns and to find elements that may enhance or impede successful orientation of newly graduated nurses. Preceptors have first-hand information concerning orientation and their opinions should not be forgotten when organisations develop their orientation processes. An open-ended questionnaire was undertaken to collect data from preceptors (n = 172) about the current orientation patterns. Data were analysed by using deductive content analysis and by quantifying the phrases. Communal commitment to the orientation process, strong professional orientation know-how and supportive leadership were the enhancing elements of successful orientation. Complex interpersonal relationship problems during orientation, inadequate orientation resources and the organisation's structural and functional problems were the impeding elements of successful orientation. With the elements of successful orientation we ensure a supportive transition to practice for newly graduate nurses and possibilities to focus on good orientation practices for preceptors. Nurse leaders play an important part in ensuring newly graduated nurses have a safe nursing career starting point and, for preceptors, opportunities to provide orientation that is as good as possible. Supportive leadership, sufficient resources and good interpersonal relationships should be the leading principles during newly graduated nurses' orientation period. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. High-temperature reactor developments in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schram, R.P.C.; Cordfunke, E.H.P.; Heek, A.I. van.

    1996-01-01

    The high-temperature reactor development in the Netherland is embedded in the WHITE reactor program, in which several Dutch research institutes and engineering companies participate. The activities within the WHITE program are focused on the development of a small scale HTS for combined heat and power generation. In 1995, design choices for a pebble bed reactor were made at ECN. The first concept HTR will gave a closed cycle helium turbine and a power level of 40 MWth. It is intended to make the market introduction of a commercially competitive HTR feasible. The design will be an optimization of the Peu-a-Peu (PAP) concept of KFA Juelich. Computer codes necessary for the evaluation of reactor physics aspects of this reactor are developed in cooperation with international partners. An evaluation of a 20 MWth PAP concept showed that the maximum fuel termmperature after depressurization does not exceed 1300 C. (orig.)

  5. Development and optimization of a high temperature coupling system thermoanalyzer/mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagdfeld, H.J.

    1983-11-01

    The development of a high temperature coupling system was accomplished to carry out thermodynamic investigations during glass melting to solidify highly radioactive fission products into glass at a temperature up to 1200 0 C. The actual problem consisted of the fact that the gas species evaporating from the melter have to pass without condensation or without change of their composition a multistage pressure reducing system to enter the analysator unit of the mass spectrometer in the high vacuum. With the systems, offered at present, this is only possible up to approximately 450 0 C. The development of a new high temperature coupling included investigations of the gas dynamics, raw materials and thermic behaviour. (orig./EF) [de

  6. Bioorthogonal Chemistry for the Isolation and Study of Newly Synthesized Histones and Their Modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaudo, Anna M; Link, A James; Garcia, Benjamin A

    2016-03-18

    The nucleosome is an octamer containing DNA wrapped around one histone H3-H4 tetramer and two histone H2A-H2B dimers. Within the nucleosome, histones are decorated with post-translational modifications. Previous studies indicate that the H3-H4 tetramer is conserved during DNA replication, suggesting that old tetramers serve as a template for the modification of newly synthesized tetramers. Here, we present a method that merges bioorthogonal chemistry with mass spectrometry for the study of modifications on newly synthesized histones in mammalian cells. HeLa S3 cells are dually labeled with the methionine analog azidohomoalanine and heavy (13)C6,(15)N4 isotope labeled arginine. Heavy amino acid labeling marks newly synthesized histones while azidohomoalanine incorporation allows for their isolation using bioorthogonal ligation. Labeled mononucleosomes were covalently linked via a copper catalyzed reaction to a FLAG-GGR-alkyne peptide, immunoprecipitated, and subjected to mass spectrometry for quantitative modification analysis. Mononucleosomes containing new histones were successfully isolated using this approach. Additionally, the development of this method highlights the potential deleterious effects of azidohomoalanine labeling on protein PTMs and cell cycle progression, which should be considered for future studies utilizing bioorthogonal labeling strategies in mammalian cells.

  7. Quality of life in newly diagnosed children with specific learning disabilities (SpLD) and differences from typically developing children: a study of child and parent reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginieri-Coccossis, M; Rotsika, V; Skevington, S; Papaevangelou, S; Malliori, M; Tomaras, V; Kokkevi, A

    2013-07-01

    Research on quality of life (QoL) of school children with specific learning disabilities (SpLD) and their parents is scarce. The present study explores QoL deficits in newly diagnosed children with SpLD and their parents, in comparison to a similar age group of typically developing children. Possible associations between parental and child QoL were statistically explored in both groups of children. 70 newly diagnosed children with SpLD [International Classification of Diseases-10 (ICD-10) criteria] (38 boys, 32 girls, mean age 10.1 years) and a control group of 69 typically developing children of the same age (40 boys, 29 girls, mean age 10.6 years) were recruited. Children were of normal intelligence quotient, attending mainstream schools. Their parents were also recruited so a child's scores could be associated with corresponding parental scores (mother or father). Children's QoL was assessed by the German questionnaire for measuring quality of life in children and adolescents (KINDL(R) ) questionnaire and parental QoL by World Health Organization Quality of Life brief questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF) of the World Health Organization. Children with SpLD in comparison to typically developing children reported according to the KINDL(R) measurement poorer emotional well-being, lower self-esteem and satisfaction in their relationships with family and friends. Surprisingly, school functioning was not reported by these children as an area of concern. Parents of children with SpLD indicated experiencing lower satisfaction in the WHOQOL-BREF domains of social relationships and environment. Correlational and regression analysis with parental-child QoL scores provided evidence that in the SpLD group, parental scores on WHOQOL-BREF social relationships and psychological health domains could be predictors of the child's emotional well-being, satisfaction with family, friends and school functioning. Stepwise regression analysis verified the effect of parents' WHOQOL-BREF social

  8. An Experimental Study on Dynamics of a Novel Dual-Belt Continuous Variable Transmission Based on a Newly Developed Test Rig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pak Kin Wong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel dual-belt Van Doorne’s continuous variable transmission (DBVCVT system, which is applicable to heavy-duty vehicles, has been previously proposed by the authors in order to improve the low torque capacity of traditional single-belt CVT. This DBVCVT is a novel design among continuously variable transmissions and is necessary to be prototyped for experimental study, and the analytical dynamic model for this DBVCVT also needs to be experimentally validated. So, this work originally fabricated a prototype of DBVCVT and integrates this prototype to a light-load hardware-in-the-loop test rig by replacing the engine and load equipment with the AC motor and magnetic powder dynamometer. Moreover, with the use of this newly developed test rig, this work implements the experimental study of this DBVCVT for the first time. The comparison of experimental and simulation results validates the previously proposed analytical model for DBVCVT, and some basic characteristics of the DBVCVT in terms of the reliability, speed ratio, and transmission efficiency are also experimentally studied. In all, this developed test rig with the analytical model lays the foundation for further study on this novel DBVCVT.

  9. Clinical heterogeneity in newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Bart; Speelman, Johannes D.; de Haan, Rob J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine clinical heterogeneity in newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease using cluster analysis and to describe the subgroups in terms of impairment, disability, perceived quality of life, and use of dopaminergic therapy. METHODS: We conducted a k-means cluster analysis in a prospective

  10. The development and impact of active learning strategies on self-confidence in a newly designed first-year self-care pharmacy course - outcomes and experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathryn J; Grundmann, Oliver; Li, Robin Moorman

    2018-04-01

    The primary objective of this investigation was to determine the effectiveness of different active learning exercises in a newly-designed flipped-classroom self-care course in applying newly acquired knowledge of self-care and improving the confidence of first-year pharmacy students to recommend self-care treatments and counsel patients. The early development of these skills is essential for the subsequent Community Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experience (CIPPE). An unpaired anonymous survey was administered to students, pre- and post-course, to ascertain their opinions on the effectiveness of various teaching strategies and active learning exercises on learning and on their confidence in treatment-planning and patient counseling for self-care patients. Comparison between pre- and post-course Likert scores was conducted using a one-way ANOVA followed by a post-hoc Tukey's test with significance at p = 0.05. All other tests of significance were conducted using a student's t-test with significance at p = 0.05. Students' self-confidence in developing treatment plans and in counseling for non-prescription drugs and dietary supplements significantly improved from the beginning to the end of this self-care course. The response rate was high in both the pre- (N = 208, 88.1%) and post- (N = 198, 83.9%) course surveys. The positive change in confidence was not reflected in increased performance on the final exam represented by a lower average score than the midterm exam. Active learning sessions and the flipped classroom approach in this first-year pharmacy self-care course contributed to increased self-confidence in making recommendations and counseling patients on proper use of nonprescription medications and dietary supplements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of temperature regulation in newborn reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hissa

    1981-05-01

    Full Text Available Development of temperature regulation was investigated by determining the ability of newborn reindeer calves (Rangifer tarandus tarandus to maintain a normal body temperature when exposed to an incrementially decreasing ambient temperature. Newborn calves (1 day old can maintain their body temperature even at -15 °C. They can increase their metabolic rate five- to sixfold. Heat production is primarily stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system. The response to exogenous administration of noradrenaline and propranolol was investigated.Poronvasan låmmonsååtelyn syntymånjålkeinen kehittyminen.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto: Vastasyntyneiden poronvasojen kylmansietoa ja lammonsaatelya tutkittiin toukokuussa 1981 Inarin Kaamasessa Paliskuntain yhdistyksen koetarhassa. Tutkittavat vasat olivat 1-10 vuorokauden ikaisia. Vasa asetettiin jååhdytettåvaån mittauskammioon. Sen aineenvaihdunta, lampotilat niin ihon eri kohdista kuin perasuolesta, lihasvarina ja sydanfrekvenssi rekisteroitiin jatkuvasti. Tulosten mukaan nayttåa siltå kuin 1 vuorokauden ikaiselle vasalle -15 °C olisi ehdoton alaraja låmpotilan sååtelyssa. Se kykeni kohottamaan hapenkulutusta talloin 5-kertaisesti. Lihasvarinan merkitys on vahainen verrattuna kemialliseen låmmontuottoon kylmassa. Tama voitiin osoittaa injisoimalla vasaan sympaattisen hermoston valittajaainetta noradrenaliinia.Temperaturreguleringens utvikling hos nyfødte reinkalver.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Temperaturreguleringens utvikling er studert ved å bestemme nyfødte reinkalvers evne til å opprettholde normal kroppstemperatur under påvirkning av gradvis synkende omgivelsestemperatur. Nyfødte kalver (1 døgn gamle kan opprettholde sin kroppstemperatur selv ved -15 °C. De kan øke sin omsetningshastighet fem til seks ganger. I starten er varmeproduksjonen stimulert av det sympatiske nervesystem. Virkningen av tilført noradrenalin og propranolol ble studert og skjelving synes å spille

  12. Research and development for high temperature gas cooled reactor in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taketani, K.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes the current status of High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor research and development work in Japan, with emphasis on the Experimental Very High Temperature Reactor (Exp. VHTR) to be built by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) before the end of 1985. The necessity of construction of Exp. VHTR was explained from the points of Japanese energy problems and resources

  13. Programmed temperature control of capsule in irradiation test with personal computer at JMTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, H.; Uramoto, T.; Fukushima, M.; Obata, M.; Suzuki, S.; Nakazaki, C.; Tanaka, I.

    1992-01-01

    The capsule irradiation facility is one of various equipments employed at the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). The capsule facility has been used in irradiation tests of both nuclear fuels and materials. The capsule to be irradiated consists of the specimen, the outer tube and inner tube with a annular space between them. The temperature of the specimen is controlled by varying the degree of pressure (below the atmospheric pressure) of He gas in the annular space (vacuum-controlled). Beside this, in another system the temperature of the specimen is controlled with electric heaters mounted around the specimen (heater-controlled). The use of personal computer in the capsule facility has led to the development of a versatile temperature control system at the JMTR. Features of this newly-developed temperature control system lie in the following: the temperature control mode for a operation period can be preset prior to the operation; and the vacuum-controlled irradiation facility can be used in cooperation with the heater-controlled. The introduction of personal computer has brought in automatic heat-up and cool-down operations of the capsule, setting aside the hand-operated jobs which had been conducted by the operators. As a result of this, the various requirements seeking a higher accuracy and efficiency in the irradiation can be met by fully exploiting the capabilities incorporated into the facility which allow the cyclic or delicate changes in the temperature. This paper deals with a capsule temperature control system with personal computer. (author)

  14. Low-temperature-active and salt-tolerant β-mannanase from a newly isolated Enterobacter sp. strain N18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jia; Liu, Jin-Feng; Yang, Shi-Zhong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2016-02-01

    A low-temperature-active and salt-tolerant β-mannanase produced by a novel mannanase-producer, Enterobacter sp. strain N18, was isolated, purified and then evaluated for its potential application as a gel-breaker in relation to viscosity reduction of guar-based hydraulic fracturing fluids used in oil field. The enzyme could lower the viscosity of guar gum solution by more than 95% within 10 min. The purified β-mannanase with molecular mass of 90 kDa displayed high activity in a broad range of pH and temperature: more than 70% of activity was retained in the pH range of 3.0-8.0 with the optimal pH 7.5, about 50% activity at 20°C with the optimal temperature 50°C. Furthermore, the enzyme retained >70% activity in the presence of 0.5-4.0 M NaCl. These properties implied that the enzyme from strain N18 had potential for serving as a gel-breaker for low temperature oil wells and other industrial fields, where chemical gel breakers were inactive due to low temperature. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [Principles of nutrition in patients with newly appointed stoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachocka, Lucyna Małgorzata; Urbanik, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of intestinal stoma is often a difficult experience for patients and results in numerous problems in the physical, psychological and social aspects. Therefore, post-operative care of the patient with the newly appointed stoma should be taken by therapeutic team consisting of doctors, nurses, physiotherapists, dieticians, psychologists and social workers. Appropriate nutritional education of patients aims to improve their quality of life and to prevent from unpleasant ailments formed after the operation. The specific type of stoma may decide about certain dietary recommendations. The presented work provides a practical dietary recommendations for patients with newly appointed stoma.

  16. Temperature thresholds and thermal requirements for development of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Beatriz Maria; Muñiz, Mariano; Barrios, Laura; Fereres, Alberto

    2007-08-01

    Early detection of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on lettuce is of primary importance for its effective control. Temperature thresholds for development of this pest were estimated using developmental rates [r(T)] at different constant temperatures (8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 26, and 28 degrees C). Observed developmental rates data and temperature were fitted to two linear (Campbell and Muñiz and Gil) and a nonlinear (Lactin) models. Lower temperature threshold estimated by the Campbell model was 3.6 degrees C for apterous, 4.1 degrees C for alates, and 3.1 degrees C for both aphid adult morphs together. Similar values of the lower temperature threshold were obtained with the Muñiz and Gil model, for apterous (4.0 degrees C), alates (4.2 degrees C), and both adult morphs together (3.7 degrees C) of N. ribisnigri. Thermal requirements of N. ribisnigri to complete development were estimated by Campbell and Muñiz and Gil models for apterous in 125 and 129 DD and for both adult morphs together in 143 and 139 DD, respectively. For complete development from birth to adulthood, the alate morph needed 15-18 DD more than the apterous morph. The lower temperature threshold determined by the Lactin model was 5.3 degrees C for alates, 2.3 degrees C for apterous, and 1.9 degrees C for both adult morphs together. The optimal and upper temperature thresholds were 25.2 and 33.6 degrees C, respectively, for the alate morph, 27 and 35.9 degrees C, respectively, for the apterous morph, and 26.1 and 35.3 degrees C, respectively, for the two adult morphs together. The Campbell model provided the best fit to the observed developmental rates data of N. ribisnigri. This information could be incorporated in forecasting models of this pest.

  17. Development of high temperature, radiation hard detectors based on diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metcalfe, Alex, E-mail: Alex.Metcalfe@brunel.ac.uk [Wolfson Centre for Materials Processing, Brunel University London, Uxbridge UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Fern, George R. [Wolfson Centre for Materials Processing, Brunel University London, Uxbridge UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Hobson, Peter R. [Centre for Sensors & Instrumentation, College of Engineering, Design and Physical Sciences, Brunel University London, Uxbridge UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Ireland, Terry; Salimian, Ali; Silver, Jack [Wolfson Centre for Materials Processing, Brunel University London, Uxbridge UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Smith, David R. [Centre for Sensors & Instrumentation, College of Engineering, Design and Physical Sciences, Brunel University London, Uxbridge UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Lefeuvre, Gwenaelle [Micron Semiconductor Ltd., Lancing BN15 8 SJ (United Kingdom); Saenger, Richard [Schlumberger Limited, 91240 Clamart (France)

    2017-02-11

    Single crystal CVD diamond has many desirable properties compared to current, well developed, detector materials; exceptional radiation, chemical and physical hardness, chemical inertness, low Z (close to human tissue, good for dosimetry), wide bandgap and an intrinsic pathway to fast neutron detection through the {sup 12}C(n,α){sup 9}Be reaction. However effective exploitation of these properties requires development of a suitable metallisation scheme to give stable contacts for high temperature applications. To best utilise available processing techniques to optimise sensor response through geometry and conversion media configurations, a reliable model is required. This must assess the performance in terms of spectral response and overall efficiency as a function of detector and converter geometry. The same is also required for proper interpretation of experimental data. Sensors have been fabricated with varying metallisation schemes indented to permit high temperature operation; Present test results indicate that viable fabrication schemes for high temperature contacts have been developed and present modelling results, supported by preliminary data from partners indicate simulations provide a useful representation of response. - Highlights: • Radiation sensors using diamond as the sensitive volume have been constructed. • Functionality of these sensors with minimal degradation has been confirmed at 100 °C. • Sensitisation to thermal neutrons by addition of conversion layers has been modelled. • Modelling suggests 4× efficiency improvements from 3d converter-substrate interfaces.

  18. Two Newly Discovered Plants in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Tian-Chuan Hsu; Jia-Jung Lin; Shih-Wen Chung

    2009-01-01

    Two herbs are newly discovered in Taiwan. Limnophila fragrans (G. Forst.) Seem. (Scrophulariaceae), native in SE Asia, is recognized from southern lowlands. Anagallis minima (L.) E. H. L. Krause (Primulaceae), native in N America and Europe, was found from northern mountainous region at low altitudes. In this study, descriptions, line drawings, color photos and a distribution map of the two species are provided.

  19. Fabrication and performance evaluation of a high temperature co-fired ceramic vaporizing liquid microthruster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheah, Kean How; Low, Kay-Soon

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the study of a microelectromechanical system (MEMS)-scaled microthruster using ceramic as the structural material. A vaporizing liquid microthruster (VLM) has been fabricated using the high temperature co-fired ceramic (HTCC) technology. The developed microthruster consists of five components, i.e. inlet, injector, vaporizing chamber, micronozzle and microheater, all integrated in a chip with a dimension of 30 mm × 26 mm × 8 mm. In the dry test, the newly developed microheater which is deposited on zirconia substrate consumes 21% less electrical power than those deposited on silicon substrate to achieve a temperature of 100 °C. Heating temperature as high as 409.1 °C can be achieved using just 5 W of electrical power. For simplicity and safety, a functional test of the VLM with water as propellant has been conducted in the laboratory. Full vaporization of water propellant feeding at different flow rates has been successfully demonstrated. A maximum thrust of 633.5 µN at 1 µl s −1 propellant consumption rate was measured using a torsional thrust stand. (paper)

  20. Effects of exurban development and temperature on bird species in the southern Appalachians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkin, Heather A; Pearson, Scott M

    2013-10-01

    Land-use dynamics and climatic gradients have large effects on many terrestrial systems. Exurban development, one of the fastest growing forms of land use in the United States, may affect wildlife through habitat fragmentation and building presence may alter habitat quality. We studied the effects of residential development and temperature gradients on bird species occurrence at 140 study sites in the southern Appalachian Mountains (North Carolina, U.S.A.) that varied with respect to building density and elevation. We used occupancy models to determine 36 bird species' associations with building density, forest canopy cover, average daily mean temperature, and an interaction between building density and mean temperature. Responses varied with habitat requirement, breeding range, and migration distance. Building density and mean temperature were both included in the top occupancy models for 19 of 36 species and a building density by temperature interaction was included in models for 8 bird species. As exurban development expands in the southern Appalachians, interior forest species and Neotropical migrants are likely to decline, but shrubland or edge species are not likely to benefit. Overall, effects of building density were greater than those of forest canopy cover. Exurban development had a greater effect on birds at high elevations due to a greater abundance of sensitive forest-interior species and Neotropical migrants. A warming climate may exacerbate these negative effects. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  1. Newly-formed emotional memories guide selective attention processes: Evidence from event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schupp, Harald T; Kirmse, Ursula; Schmälzle, Ralf; Flaisch, Tobias; Renner, Britta

    2016-06-20

    Emotional cues can guide selective attention processes. However, emotional stimuli can both activate long-term memory representations reflecting general world knowledge and engage newly formed memory representations representing specific knowledge from the immediate past. Here, the self-completion feature of associative memory was utilized to assess the regulation of attention processes by newly-formed emotional memory. First, new memory representations were formed by presenting pictures depicting a person either in an erotic pose or as a portrait. Afterwards, to activate newly-built memory traces, edited pictures were presented showing only the head region of the person. ERP recordings revealed the emotional regulation of attention by newly-formed memories. Specifically, edited pictures from the erotic compared to the portrait category elicited an early posterior negativity and late positive potential, similar to the findings observed for the original pictures. A control condition showed that the effect was dependent on newly-formed memory traces. Given the large number of new memories formed each day, they presumably make an important contribution to the regulation of attention in everyday life.

  2. Newly-formed emotional memories guide selective attention processes: Evidence from event-related potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schupp, Harald T.; Kirmse, Ursula; Schmälzle, Ralf; Flaisch, Tobias; Renner, Britta

    2016-01-01

    Emotional cues can guide selective attention processes. However, emotional stimuli can both activate long-term memory representations reflecting general world knowledge and engage newly formed memory representations representing specific knowledge from the immediate past. Here, the self-completion feature of associative memory was utilized to assess the regulation of attention processes by newly-formed emotional memory. First, new memory representations were formed by presenting pictures depicting a person either in an erotic pose or as a portrait. Afterwards, to activate newly-built memory traces, edited pictures were presented showing only the head region of the person. ERP recordings revealed the emotional regulation of attention by newly-formed memories. Specifically, edited pictures from the erotic compared to the portrait category elicited an early posterior negativity and late positive potential, similar to the findings observed for the original pictures. A control condition showed that the effect was dependent on newly-formed memory traces. Given the large number of new memories formed each day, they presumably make an important contribution to the regulation of attention in everyday life. PMID:27321471

  3. Development of a program for evaluating the temperature of SMART-P fuel rod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheon, Jin Sik; Lee, Byung Ho; Koo, Yang Hyun; Oh, Je Yong; Yim, Jeong Sik; Sohn, Dong Seong

    2003-11-01

    A code for evaluating the temperature of SMART-P fuel rod has been developed. Finite Element (FE) method is adopted for the developed code sharing the user subroutines which has been prepared for the ABAQUS commercial FE code. The developed program for SMART-P fuel rod corresponds to a nonlinear transient heat transfer problem, and uses a sparse matrix solver for FE equations during iterations at every time step. The verifications of the developed program were conducted using the ABAQUS code. Steady state and transient problems were analyzed for 1/8 rod model due to the symmetry of the fuel rod and full model. From the evaluation of temperature for the 1/8 rod model at steady state, maximal error of 0.18 % was present relative to the ABAQUS result. Analysis for the transient problem using the fuel rod model resulted in the same as the variation of centerline temperature from the ABAQUS code during a hypothetical power transient. Also, given a power depression in fuel meat as a function of burnup, its effect on the centerline temperature was more precisely evaluated by the developed program compared to the ABAQUS code. The distribution of heat flux for the entire cross section and surface was almost identical for the two codes.

  4. Effect of acclimation on the temperature tolerance of young muskellunge fry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, K.C.; Spotila, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    Temperature tolerances of newly hatched muskellunge fry (Esox masquinongy) were determined in the laboratory. Three groups of fry were reared in a closed tank system under controlled environmental conditions for 31 days at 7, 15, and 25 0 C. The photoperiod was 12 hr of light alternating with 12 hr of darkness (L--D, 12:12). Biweekly water samples were taken to monitor the closed tank systems. Parameters measured were dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, pH, organic and nitrate nitrogen, phosphates, and ammonia, all of which were in normal concentrations. Critical thermal maximum (CTM) was used to indicate temperature tolerance. Experimental fish reared at 25 0 C exhibited the highest temperature tolerance (33.2 to 36.1 0 C) throughout their development. The CTM values for the 15 0 C experimental fish ranged from 29.8 to 34.4 0 C. These fish exhibited a decrease in temperature tolerance during their swim-up stage, followed by a slow recovery period indicated by a general increase in CTM values. Two days after the experiment began, 7 0 C experimental fry entered a torpid state that lasted for 10 days and was followed by a general decrease in thermal tolerance and a high mortality rate. The CTM values for this group ranged from an initial high of 34.0 0 C on the first day to 27.2 0 C at the termination of the experiment. Development never reached the free-swimming stage

  5. Evaluation of edge enhancement effect of phase contrast imaging using newly-developed photostimulable phosphor plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Satoru; Morishita, Junji; Katafuchi, Tetsuro; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether the use of a newly developed columnar-crystal-type photostimulable-phosphor plate (CP1M200, referred to as system C) helps to provide improved edge-enhanced effect in phase contrast imaging. Physical characteristics of 2 conventional particulate-crystal-type photostimulable-phosphor plates (RP-5PM, referred to as system A and RP-6M, referred to as system B) and system C were measured. Then, an acrylic plate phantom and RMI152 phantom were imaged using 3 types of plates, and the edge-enhancement effects were evaluated based on the profile curve of the acrylic plate phantom. Visual evaluation of the RMI152 phantom images was conducted. The results showed that the modulation transfer function (MTF) of system C was superior to those of the other systems. The WS of system C was superior to those of the other systems in the low frequency band region, and inferior to those of the other systems in the high frequency band region. The presence of an edge-enhanced image was not detectable in the profile curve of the acrylic plate in system A, although that was shown in systems B and C due to their excellent sharpness. In the visual image evaluation of the RMI152 phantom, image quality of system C was superior to those of the other systems. Phase contrast imaging with a digital detector of a columnar-crystal-type photostimulable-phosphor plate is considered to provide improved edge-enhancement over that of conventional plates. (author)

  6. Pollen parameters estimates of genetic variability among newly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pollen parameters estimates of genetic variability among newly selected Nigerian roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) genotypes. ... Estimates of some pollen parameters where used to assess the genetic diversity among ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  7. Tricks of the trade: time management tips for newly qualified doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offiah, Gozie; Doherty, Eva

    2018-03-01

    The transition from medical student to doctor is an important milestone. The discovery that their time is no longer their own and that the demands of their job are greater than the time they have available is extremely challenging. At a recent surgical boot camp training programme, 60 first-year surgical trainees who had just completed their internship were invited to reflect on the lessons learnt regarding effective time management and to recommend tips for their newly qualified colleagues. They were asked to identify clinical duties that were considered urgent and important using the time management matrix and the common time traps encountered by newly qualified doctors. The surgical trainees identified several practical tips that ranged from writing a priority list to working on relationships within the team. These tips are generic and so applicable to all newly qualified medial doctors. We hope that awareness of these tips from the outset as against learning them through experience will greatly assist newly qualified doctors. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Development of temperature history device for measurement of FBR's irradiation environment

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, K; Satou, M; Tobita, K

    2002-01-01

    New surface modification and machining process which control swelling and exfoliation using rare gas ion beam had been developed. An attempt to make a memory device for temperature history was carried out using the process. As a prototype of the memory, array of the temperature monitor consist of thousand of small bulges was made on the surface of silicon carbide substrate. Baseline properties, which would be needed for the temperature monitor materials were examined. Microstructure observation of the swelling region was carried out by transmission electron microscopy. Mechanism of the changing of the surface morphology due to heating was discussed. Depending on temperature region, it was proposed that two mechanisms could be utilized for the temperature memory device. First one was surface exfoliation due to internal pressure of the implanted gas and second was surface exfoliation due to internal stress which caused by volume shrinking with thermal recovery process.

  9. Chest Radiographic Findings in Newly Diagnosed Pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five hundred newly diagnosed cases of Pulmonary Tuberculosis were treated with directly observed short-course treatment and 100 of them had chest radiographic examination done. The various chest radiographic patterns in the 100 subjects were studied and included: Fluffy exudative changes 80(80%), fibrosis 70(70%) ...

  10. Growth and Development Temperature Influences Level of Tolerance to High Light Stress 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Kenneth L.; Palta, Jiwan P.

    1989-01-01

    The influence of growth and development temperature on the relative tolerance of photosynthetic tissue to high light stress at chilling temperatures was investigated. Two tuber-bearing potato species, Solanum tuberosum L. cv Red Pontiac and Solanum commersonii were grown for 4 weeks, at either 12 or 24°C with 12 hours of about 375 micromoles per second per square meter of photosynthetically active radiation. Paired leaf discs were cut from directly across the midvein of leaflets of comparable developmental stage and light environment from each species at each growth temperature treatment. One disc of each pair was exposed to 1°C and about 1000 micromoles per second per square meter photosynthetically active radiation for 4 hours, and the other disc was held at 1°C in total darkness for the same duration. Photosynthetic tissue of S. tuberosum, developed at 12°C, was much more tolerant to high light and low temperature stress than tissue developed under 24°C conditions. Following the high light treatment, 24°C-grown S. tuberosum tissue demonstrated light-limited and light-saturated rates that were approximately 50% of their paired dark controls. In contrast, the 12°C-grown tissue from S. tuberosum that was subjected to the light stress showed only a 18 and 6% reduction in light-limited and light-saturated rates of photosynthetic oxygen evolution, respectively. Tissue from 24°C-grown S. commersonii was much less sensitive to the light stress than was tissue from S. tuberosum grown under the same conditions. The results presented here demonstrate that: (a) acclimation of S. tuberosum to lower temperature growth conditions with a constant light environment, results in the increased capacity of photosynthetic tissue to tolerate high light stress at chilling temperature and (b) following growth and development at relatively high temperatures S. commersonii, a frost- and heat-tolerant wild species, has a much greater tolerance to the high light stress at chilling

  11. Distributed temperature sensors development using an stepped-helical ultrasonic waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periyannan, Suresh; Rajagopal, Prabhu; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents the design and development of the distributed ultrasonic waveguide temperature sensors using some stepped-helical structures. Distributed sensing has several applications in various industries (oil, glass, steel) for measurement of physical parameters such as level, temperature, viscosity, etc. This waveguide incorporates a special notch or bend for obtaining ultrasonic wave reflections from the desired locations (Gage-lengths) where local measurements are desired. In this paper, a multi-location measurement wave-guide, with a measurement capability of 18 locations in a single wire, has been fabricated. The distribution of these sensors is both in the axial as well as radial directions using a stepped-helical spring configuration. Also, different high temperature materials have been chosen for the wave-guide. Both lower order axi-symmetric guided ultrasonic modes (L(0,1) and T(0,1)) were employed. These wave modes were generated/received (pulse-echo approach) using conventional longitudinal and shear transducers, respectively. Also, both the wave modes were simultaneously generated/received and compared using shear transducer for developing the distributed helical wave-guide sensors. The effect of dispersion of the wave modes due to curvature effects will also be discussed.

  12. Validating self-reported mobile phone use in adults using a newly developed smartphone application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedhart, Geertje; Kromhout, Hans; Wiart, Joe; Vermeulen, Roel

    2015-11-01

    Interpretation of epidemiological studies on health effects from mobile phone use is hindered by uncertainties in the exposure assessment. We used a newly developed smartphone application (app) to validate self-reported mobile phone use and behaviour among adults. 107 participants (mean age 41.4 years) in the Netherlands either downloaded the software app on their smartphone or were provided with a study smartphone for 4 weeks. The app recorded the number and duration of calls, text messages, data transfer, laterality and hands-free use. Self-reported mobile phone use was collected before using the app and after 6 months through an interviewer-administered questionnaire. The geometric mean ratios (GMR, 95% CI) and Spearman correlations (r) of self-reported (after 6 months) versus recorded number and duration of calls were: GMR=0.65 (0.53 to 0.80), r=0.53; and GMR=1.11 (0.86 to 1.42), r=0.57 respectively. Participants held the phone on average for 86% of the total call time near the head. Self-reported right side users held the phone for 70.7% of the total call time on the right side of the head, and left side users for 66.2% on the left side of the head. The percentage of total call time that the use of hands-free devices (headset, speaker mode, Bluetooth) was recorded increased with increasing frequency of reported hands-free device usage. The observed recall errors and precision of reported laterality and hands-free use can be used to quantify and improve radiofrequency exposure models based on self-reported mobile phone use. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Application of the newly developed Japanese adenosine normal database for adenosine stress myocardial scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harata, Shingo; Isobe, Satoshi; Morishima, Itsuro; Suzuki, Susumu; Tsuboi, Hideyuki; Sone, Takahito; Ishii, Hideki; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2015-10-01

    The currently available Japanese normal database (NDB) in stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphy recommended by the Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine (JSNM-NDB) is created based on the data from exercise tests. The newly developed adenosine normal database (ADS-NDB) remains to be validated for patients undergoing adenosine stress test. We tested whether the diagnostic accuracy of adenosine stress test is improved by the use of ADS-NDB (Kanazawa University). Of 233 consecutive patients undergoing (99m)Tc-MIBI adenosine stress test, 112 patients were tested. The stress/rest myocardial (99m)Tc-MIBI single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images were analyzed by AutoQUANT 7.2 with both ADS-NDB and JSNM-NDB. The summed stress score (SSS) and summed difference score (SDS) were calculated. The agreements of the post-stress defect severity between ADS-NDB and JSNM-NDB were assessed using a weighted kappa statistic. In all patients, mean SSSs of all, right coronary artery (RCA), left anterior descending (LAD), and left circumflex (LCx) territories were significantly lower with ADS-NDB than those with JSNM-NDB. Mean SDSs in all, RCA, and LAD territories were significantly lower with ADS-NDB than those with JSNM-NDB. In 28 patients with significant coronary stenosis, the mean SSS in the RCA territory was significantly lower with ADS-NDB than that with JSNM-NDB. In 84 patients without ischemia, both mean SSSs and SDSs in all, RCA, LAD, and LCx territories were significantly lower with ADS-NDB than those with JSNM-NDB. Weighted kappa values of all patients, patients with significant stenosis, and patients without ischemia were 0.89, 0.83, and 0.92, respectively. Differences were observed between results from ADS-NDB and JSNM-NDB. The diagnostic accuracy of adenosine stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphy may be improved by reducing false-positive results.

  14. Preparation and Evaluation of Newly Developed Chitosan Salt Coating Dispersions for Colon Delivery without Requiring Overcoating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kyohei; Iwao, Yasunori; Bani-Jaber, Ahmad; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    Although chitosan (CS) has been recognized as a good material for colon-specific drug delivery systems, an overcoating with an enteric coating polymer on the surface of CS is absolutely necessary because CS is soluble in acidic conditions before reaching the colon. In the present study, to improve its stability in the presence of acid, a newly developed CS-laurate (CS-LA) material was evaluated as a coating dispersion for the development of colon-specific drug delivery systems. Two types of CS with different molecular weights, CS250 and CS600, were used to prepare CS-LA films by the casting method. The CS250-LA films had smooth surfaces, whereas the surfaces of the CS600-LA films were rough, indicating that the CS250-LA dispersion could form a denser film than CS600-LA. Both of these CS-LA films maintained a constant shape over 22 h in a pH 1.2 HCl/NaCl buffer, where the corresponding CS films rapidly disintegrated. In addition, the CS250-LA film showed specific colon degradability in a pH 6.0 phosphate buffered solution containing 1.0% (w/v) β-glucosidase. As a result of tensile strength and elongation at the break, both CS-LA films were found to have flexible film properties. Finally, the release of acetaminophen from disks coated with CS250-LA dispersions was significantly suppressed in fluids at pH 1.2 and 6.8, whereas disks coated with CS solution rapidly released the drug in pH 1.2 fluids. Taken together, this study shows that LA modification could be a useful approach in preparing CS films with acid stability and colonic degradability properties without requiring overcoating.

  15. Temperature rising characteristics of ammonium diurante in microwave fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Bingguo; Peng JinHui; Huang Daifu; Zhang Libo; Hu Jinming; Zhuang Zebiao; Kong Dongcheng; Guo Shenghui; Li Chunxiang

    2010-01-01

    The temperature rising characteristics of ammonium diurante, triuranium octaoxide (U 3 O 8 ), and their mixture were investigated under microwave irradiation, aiming at exploring newly theoretical foundation for advanced metallurgical methods. The temperature rising curves showed that ammonium diurante had weak capability to absorb microwave energy, while triuranium octaoxide had the very strong absorption capability. The temperature of mixture containing 20% of U 3 O 8 could rise from room temperature to 1171 K within 280 s. The ability to absorb microwave energy for the mixture with different ratios increased with the increase in the amount of U 3 O 8 . These are in good agreement with the results of Maxwell-Garnett effective medium theory. It is feasible to calcine ammonium diurante by adding of small amounts of U 3 O 8 in microwave fields.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF THE TEMPERATURE CONTROL OF THE HOME-STREET AND MANAGING EXECUTIVE EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doshenko G.G.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A home-street temperature control device and executive equipment management have been developed, which is characterized by high reliability and comparatively low cost. Due to the improvement of the analog circuit it is ensured to increase the speed of the developed device and its reliability. Practical recommendations for the manufacture of a home-street temperature control device and executive equipment management are presented

  17. Design and development of gas turbine high temperature reactor 300

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunitomi, Kazuhiko; Katanishi, Shoji; Takada, Shoji; Yan, Xing; Takizuka, Takakazu

    2003-01-01

    JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute) has been designing a Japan's original gas turbine high temperature reactor, GTHTR300 (Gas Turbine High Temperature Reactor 300). The greatly simplified design based on salient features of the HTGR (High Temperature Gas-cooled reactor) with a closed helium gas turbine enables the GTHTR300 a high efficient and economically competitive reactor to be deployed in early 2010s. Also, the GTHTR300 fully taking advantage of various experiences accumulated in design, construction and operation of the HTTR (High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor) and fossil gas turbine systems reduces technological development concerning a reactor system and electric generation system. Original features of this system are core design with two-year refueling interval, conventional steel material usage for a reactor pressure vessel, innovative plant flow scheme and horizontally installed gas turbine unit. Due to these salient features, the capital cost of the GTHTR300 is less than a target cost of 200 thousands Yen/kWe, and the electric generation cost is close to a target cost of 4 Yen/kWh. This paper describes the original design features focusing on reactor core design, fuel design, in-core structure design and reactor pressure vessel design except PCU design. Also, R and D for developing the power conversion unit is briefly described. The present study is entrusted from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. (author)

  18. A proposal to develop a high temperature structural design guideline for HTGR components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hada, K.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents some proposals for developing a high-temperature structural design guideline for HTGR structural components. It is appropriate that a basis for developing high-temperature structural design rules is rested on well-established elevated-temperature design guidelines, if the same failure modes are expected for high-temperature components as considered in such design guidelines. As for the applicability of ASME B and PV Code Case N-47 to structural design rules for high-temperature components (service temperatures ≥ 900 deg. C), the following critical issues on material properties and service life evaluation rules have been pointed out. (i) no work-hardening of stress-strain curves at high temperatures due to dynamic recrystallization; (ii) issues relating to very significant creep; (iii) ductility loss after long-term ageing at high temperatures; (iv) validity of life-fraction rule (Robinson-Taira rule) as creep-fatigue damage evaluation rule. Furthermore, the validity of design margins of elevated-temperature structural design guidelines to high-temperature design rules should be clarified. Solutions and proposals to these issues are presented in this paper. Concerning no work-hardening due to dynamic recrystallization, it is shown that viscous effects cannot be neglected even at high extension rate for tensile tests, and that changes in viscous deformation rates by dynamic recrystallization should be taken into account. The extension rate for tensile tests is proposed to change at high temperatures. The solutions and proposals to the above-mentioned issues lead to the conclusion that the design methodologies of N-47 are basically applicable to the high-temperature structural design guideline for HTGR structural components in service at about 900 deg. C. (author). 9 refs, 5 figs

  19. Attachment of Free Filament Thermocouples for Temperature Measurements on CMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jih-Fen; Cuy, Michael D.; Wnuk, Stephen P.

    1997-01-01

    Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC) are being developed for use as enabling materials for advanced aeropropulsion engine and high speed civil transport applications. The characterization and testing of these advanced materials in hostile, high-temperature environments require accurate measurement of the material temperatures. Commonly used wire Thermo-Couples (TC) can not be attached to this ceramic based material via conventional spot-welding techniques. Attachment of wire TC's with commercially available ceramic cements fail to provide sufficient adhesion at high temperatures. While advanced thin film TC technology provides minimally intrusive surface temperature measurement and has good adhesion on the CMC, its fabrication requires sophisticated and expensive facilities and is very time consuming. In addition, the durability of lead wire attachments to both thin film TC's and the substrate materials requires further improvement. This paper presents a newly developed attachment technique for installation of free filament wire TC's with a unique convoluted design on ceramic based materials such as CMC's. Three CMC's (SiC/SiC CMC and alumina/alumina CMC) instrumented with type IC, R or S wire TC's were tested in a Mach 0.3 burner rig. The CMC temperatures measured from these wire TC's were compared to that from the facility pyrometer and thin film TC's. There was no sign of TC delamination even after several hours exposure to 1200 C. The test results proved that this new technique can successfully attach wire TC's on CMC's and provide temperature data in hostile environments. The sensor fabrication process is less expensive and requires very little time compared to that of the thin film TC's. The same installation technique/process can also be applied to attach lead wires for thin film sensor systems.

  20. Two Newly Discovered Plants in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Chuan Hsu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Two herbs are newly discovered in Taiwan. Limnophila fragrans (G. Forst. Seem. (Scrophulariaceae, native in SE Asia, is recognized from southern lowlands. Anagallis minima (L. E. H. L. Krause (Primulaceae, native in N America and Europe, was found from northern mountainous region at low altitudes. In this study, descriptions, line drawings, color photos and a distribution map of the two species are provided.

  1. Diabetes education and self-management for ongoing and newly diagnosed (DESMOND)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, T. Chas; Carey, Marian E.; Cradock, Sue

    2006-01-01

    diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes changes key illness beliefs and that these changes predict quality of life and metabolic control at 3-month follow-up. Practice implications: Newly diagnosed individuals are open to attending self-management programs and, if the program is theoretically driven, can......Objective: To determine the effects of a structured education program on illness beliefs, quality of life and physical activity in people newly diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes. Methods: Individuals attending a diabetes education and self-management for ongoing and newly diagnosed (DESMOND) program...... in 12 Primary Care Trusts completed questionnaire booklets assessing illness beliefs and quality of life at baseline and 3-month follow-up, metabolic control being assessed through assay of HbA1c. Results: Two hundred and thirty-six individuals attended the structured self-management education sessions...

  2. Nuclear material accounting and control: Co-ordinating assistance to newly independent States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorstensen, S.

    1995-01-01

    This article outlines work under way among the IAEA, its Member States, and the Newly Independent States (NIS) relating to the establishment and development in the NIS of State Systems of Accounting and Control (SSACs) of nuclear material. It describes IAEA activities in the NIS, including fact-finding missions at technical visits, the successful attempts to find donor States providing voluntary funding and expertise, and the co-ordination of technical support between the IAEA and the donor States. 3 tabs

  3. The Development of High Temperature Thermoplastic Composite Materials for Additive Manufactured Autoclave Tooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunc, Vlastimil [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Duty, Chad E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lindahl, John M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hassen, Ahmed A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    In this work, ORNL and Techmer investigated and screened different high temperature thermoplastic reinforced materials to fabricate composite molds for autoclave processes using Additive Manufacturing (AM) techniques. This project directly led to the development and commercial release of two printable, high temperature composite materials available through Techmer PM. These new materials are targeted for high temperature tooling made via large scale additive manufacturing.

  4. The influence of temperature on the embryonic development of the annual fish Cynopoecilus melanotaenia (Cyprinodontiformes, Rivulidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. ARENZON

    Full Text Available The present study aims to provide data about the time required for Cynopoecilus melanotaenia kept at different temperatures to complete embryonic development. This information can be valuable for optimizing laboratory culture and facilitating future use of this species as a test organism in toxicity tests. Temperature effects on hatching rate are presented as well as information related to embryonic development stages. Eggs were observed daily, from start to finish of embryonic development. Thirteen developmental stages were described. Eggs were kept at two constant temperatures (20°C and 25°C and at a variable ambient temperature (16-25°C - mean = 21°C, sd = 1.95, to determine developmental rate (velocity at each temperature. A shorter incubation period was necessary to complete development at 25° ± 1°C. However, all embryos kept at this temperature hatched with morphological defects, which prevented their survival. No significant difference in developmental time period (p = 0.05 was observed at the 20°C and 16°-25°C (mean = 21°C, sd = 1.95 temperatures.

  5. Profiles of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone in the Japanese flounder as revealed by a newly developed time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay and immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiya, Noriko; Amano, Masafumi; Takahashi, Akiyoshi; Yamanome, Takeshi; Yamamori, Kunio

    2007-03-01

    Profiles of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) in the Japanese flounder were examined by a newly developed time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA) and immunohistochemistry. A TR-FIA for alpha-MSH was newly developed, and its levels in the pituitary gland and plasma of Japanese flounder reared in a white or black tank for 5 months were compared. A competitive assay using two antibodies was performed among secondary antibodies in the solid phase, alpha-MSH antibodies, samples, and europium-labeled Des-Ac-alpha-MSH. The sensitivity of the assay, defined as twice the standard deviation at a zero dose, was 0.98 ng/ml (49 pg/well). The intra- and interassay coefficients of variation of the assay were 8.8% (n=8) and 17.3% (n=5), respectively, at about 50% binding. Cross-reactivities of Des-Ac-alpha-MSH and Di-Ac-alpha-MSH were about 100%. Cross-reactivities of adrenocorticotropic hormone, salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (sGnRH), and chicken GnRH-II were less than 0.2%, and that of melanin-concentrating hormone was less than 2.0% at 50% binding. Displacement curves of serially twofold-diluted hypothalamus extract, pituitary gland extract, and plasma extract of Japanese flounder with the assay buffer were parallel to the alpha-MSH standard curve. Moreover, displacement curves of serially twofold-diluted hypothalamus and/or pituitary gland extract of masu salmon, goldfish, red seabream, Japanese eel, tiger puffer, and barfin flounder with the assay buffer were also parallel to the alpha-MSH standard. In Japanese flounder, total immunoreactive (ir)-alpha-MSH levels in the pituitary gland were lower in the black tank, whereas those in the plasma tended to be higher in the black tank, suggesting that the synthesis and release of alpha-MSH are higher in the black tank. alpha-MSH-ir cells were detected in the pars intermedia and a small part of the pars distalis of the pituitary gland. alpha-MSH-ir cell bodies were located in the basal hypothalamus and alpha

  6. Development of large-area high-temperature fixed-point blackbodies for photometry and radiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlevnoy, Boris; Grigoryeva, Irina; Anhalt, Klaus; Waehmer, Martin; Ivashin, Evgeniy; Otryaskin, Denis; Solodilov, Maxim; Sapritsky, Victor

    2018-04-01

    Large-area high-temperature fixed-point (HTFP) blackbodies with working temperatures of approximately 2748 K and 3021 K, based on an Re-C eutectic and a WC-C peritectic respectively, have been developed and investigated. The blackbodies have an emissivity of 0.9997, show high-quality phase-transition plateaus and have high repeatability of the melting temperatures, but demonstrate temperature differences (from 0.2 K to 0.6 K) compared with small-cell blackbodies of the same HTFP. We associate these temperature differences with the temperature drop effect, which may differ from cell to cell. The large radiating cavity diameter of 14 mm allows developed HTFP blackbodies to be used for photometric and radiometric applications in irradiance mode with uncertainties as small as 0.12% (k  =  1) in the visible. A photometer and an irradiance-mode filter radiometer (visible range), previously calibrated at VNIIOFI, were used to measure illuminance and irradiance of the HTFP blackbodies equipped with a precise outer aperture. The values measured by the detectors agreed with those based on the blackbody calculation to within 0.2%. The large-area HTFP blackbodies will be used in a joint PTB-VNIIOFI experiment on measuring thermodynamic temperature.

  7. Effects of temperature and irradiance on early development of Chondrus ocellatus Holm (Gigartinaceae, Rhodophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Zhao, Peng; Wang, Gaoge; Li, Dapeng; Wang, Jicheng; Duan, Delin

    2010-05-01

    Chondrus is a type of commercially produced red seaweed that widely used for food and carrageen extraction. Although the natural life history of the alga had been well understood, the factors influencing development of the tetraspore and carpospore remain poorly understood. In the perspective of seedling resources, the regulation of early development is crucial for the seedling nursing; therefore, it is necessary to understand the physiological influences during its early development. In this study, we studied the effects of temperature and irradiance on the early development of Chondrus ocellatus Holm under laboratory conditions. The released tetraspores and carpospores were cultivated at different temperatures (10-28°C) and irradiances (10, 60 μmol photons m-2s-1) with a photoperiod of 12L:12D. The results indicate that both tetraspores and carpospores are tolerant to temperatures of 10-25°C, and have the highest relative growth rate at 20°C. Irradiance variances influenced the growth of the discoid crusts, and the influence was more significant with increasing temperature; 60 μmol photons m-2s-1 was more suitable than 10 μmol photons m-2s-1. The optimum temperature and irradiance for the development of seedlings was 20°C and 60 μmol photons m-2s-1, respectively.

  8. Derivation of Land Surface Temperature for Landsat-8 TIRS Using a Split Window Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Offer Rozenstein

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Land surface temperature (LST is one of the most important variables measured by satellite remote sensing. Public domain data are available from the newly operational Landsat-8 Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS. This paper presents an adjustment of the split window algorithm (SWA for TIRS that uses atmospheric transmittance and land surface emissivity (LSE as inputs. Various alternatives for estimating these SWA inputs are reviewed, and a sensitivity analysis of the SWA to misestimating the input parameters is performed. The accuracy of the current development was assessed using simulated Modtran data. The root mean square error (RMSE of the simulated LST was calculated as 0.93 °C. This SWA development is leading to progress in the determination of LST by Landsat-8 TIRS.

  9. Development program for the high-temperature nuclear process heat system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiacoletti, R.J.

    1975-09-01

    A comprehensive development program plan for a high-temperature nuclear process heat system with a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor heat source is presented. The system would provide an interim substitute for fossil-fired sources and ultimately the vehicle for the production of substitute and synthetic fuels to replace petroleum and natural gas. The dwindling domestic reserves of petroleum and natural gas dictate major increases in the utilization of coal and nuclear sources to meet the national energy demand. The nuclear process heat system has significant potential in a unique combination of the two sources that is environmentally and economically attractive and technically sound: the production of synthetic fuels from coal. In the longer term, it could be the key component in hydrogen production from water processes that offer a substitute fuel and chemical feedstock free of dependence on fossil-fuel reserves. The proposed development program is threefold: a process studies program, a demonstration plant program, and a supportive research and development program. Optional development scenarios are presented and evaluated, and a selection is proposed and qualified. The interdependence of the three major program elements is examined, but particular emphasis is placed on the supportive research and development activities. A detailed description of proposed activities in the supportive research and development program with tentative costs and schedules is presented as an appendix with an assessment of current status and planning

  10. Status and prospects on development of yttrium-based high-temperature superconducting coated conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumi, Teruo; Yanagi, Nagato

    2017-01-01

    Development of a large-sized large-current conductor using a high-temperature superconducting wire rod based on copper oxide has been started worldwide for the purpose of applying it as an option of a magnet for a nuclear fusion prototype reactor. There is yttrium-based thin film wire rod as a promising candidate. Japan is leading the development of this wire rod for many years, aiming to apply it to power equipment and the like. This paper explained the history of wire rod development, basic superconducting properties and manufacturing method, and latest achievements, and overviewed the feasibility of application to nuclear fusion reactor magnets. At present, the use of niobium-based low-temperature superconducting wire rod that is used in ITER is the basic idea. On the other hand, the development of wire rod using a copper oxide type high-temperature superconductor (HTS) has also been started. HTS wire rod is evaluated as suitable for application to nuclear fusion magnets due to its superior critical current characteristics and high mechanical rigidity up to high magnetic fields at high temperatures of yttrium. As current development progress, there are development of high-quality wire rod in the magnetic field and development of low AC loss wire rod. As future prospects, cost reduction due to mass production and improvement of yield, and investigation of low-resistance connection technology are being studied. The remaining future challenges of yttrium-based HTS are improvement of the anisotropy, influence on neutron irradiation, and problem of activation. (A.O.)

  11. 'Practising under your own Pin'- a description of the transition experiences of newly qualified midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avis, Mark; Mallik, Maggie; Fraser, Diane M

    2013-11-01

    Transition experiences of newly qualified midwives were examined in depth during the third phase of a UK evaluation study of midwifery education. The fitness to practise and the retention of newly qualified nursing and midwifery graduates are pressing concerns for health care managers. The advantages of preceptorship are reported in the literature but the content and timing of schemes remain unclear. A semi-structured diary was kept for up to 6 months by 35 newly qualified midwives in 18 work sites covering all countries in the UK. The preceptor and supervisor of midwives for each newly qualified midwife completed short questionnaires about their preceptee's performance, and a further sub-sample of newly qualified midwives and preceptors participated in a semi-structured interview. Data were analysed to elicit aspects of newly qualified midwives transition experiences. Findings confirm that structured preceptorship schemes are not widely available. Newly qualified midwives primarily obtained transition support from members of the midwifery team. Although perceived as competent, there is no demarcation point in becoming confident to practise as a registered practitioner. Implications for managers include the importance of a supportive culture within clinical teams for successful transition and the introduction of structured preceptorship schemes facilitated by appropriate rotation patterns. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Music-based Autism Diagnostics (MUSAD) - A newly developed diagnostic measure for adults with intellectual developmental disabilities suspected of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Thomas; Sappok, Tanja; Diefenbacher, Albert; Dames, Sibylle; Heinrich, Manuel; Ziegler, Matthias; Dziobek, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    The MUSAD was developed as a diagnostic observational instrument in an interactional music framework. It is based on the ICD-10/DSM-5 criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and was designed to assess adults on a lower level of functioning, including individuals with severe language impairments. This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the newly developed instrument. Calculations were based on a consecutive clinical sample of N=76 adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) suspected of ASD. Objectivity, test-retest reliability, and construct validity were calculated and a confirmatory factor analysis was applied to verify a reduced and optimized test version. The structural model showed a good fit, while internal consistency of the subscales was excellent (ω>.92). Item difficulties ranged between .04≤pi≤.82 and item-total correlation from .21 to .85. Objectivity was assessed by comparing the scorings of two external raters based on a subsample of n=12; interrater agreement was .71 (ICC 2, 1). Reliability was calculated for four test repetitions: the average ICC (3, 1) was .69. Convergent ASD measures correlated significantly with the MUSAD, while the discriminant Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS) showed no significant overlap. Confirmation of factorial structure and acceptable psychometric properties suggest that the MUSAD is a promising new instrument for diagnosing ASD in adults with IDD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. On the development of high temperature ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Reinholdt, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pumps (HACHP) are a promising technology for development of ecient high temperature industrial heat pumps. Using 28 bar components HACHPs up to 100 °C are commercially available. Components developed for 50 bar and 140 bar show that these pressure...... limits may be possible to exceed if needed for actual applications. Feasible heat supply temperatures using these component limits are investigated. A feasible solution is defined as one that satisfies constraints on the COP, low and high pressure, compressor discharge temperature, vapour water content...... and volumetric heat capacity. The ammonia mass fraction and the liquid circulation ratio both influence these constraining parameters. The paper investigates feasible combinations of these parameters through the use of a numerical model. 28 bar components allow temperatures up to 111 °C, 50 bar up to 129°C...

  14. The use of EORTC measures in daily clinical practice-A synopsis of a newly developed manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintner, Lisa M; Sztankay, Monika; Aaronson, Neil; Bottomley, Andrew; Giesinger, Johannes M; Groenvold, Mogens; Petersen, Morten Aa; van de Poll-Franse, Lonneke; Velikova, Galina; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma; Holzner, Bernhard

    2016-11-01

    Cancer has increasingly become a chronic condition and the routine collection of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) like quality of life is widely recommended for clinical practice. Nonetheless, the successful implementation of PROs is still a major challenge, although common barriers to and facilitators of their beneficial use are well known. To support health care professionals and other stakeholders in the implementation of the EORTC PRO measures, the EORTC Quality of Life Group provides guidance on issues considered important for their use in daily clinical practice. Herein, we present an outline of the newly developed "'Manual for the use of EORTC measures in daily clinical practice", covering the following issues: * a rationale for using EORTC measures in routine care *selection of EORTC measures, timing of assessments, scoring and presentation of results * aspects of a strategic implementation * electronic data assessment and telemonitoring, and * further use of EORTC measures and ethical considerations. Next to an extensive overview of currently available literature, the manual specifically focuses on knowledge about EORTC measures to give evidence-based recommendations whenever possible and to encourage readers and end-users of EORTC measures to contribute to further needed high-quality research. The manual will be accessible on the EORTC Quality of Life Group website's homepage and will be periodically updated to take into account any new knowledge due to medical, technical, regulatory and scientific advances. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Development and Performance Evaluation of Optical Sensors for High Temperature Engine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamovsky, G.; Varga, D.; Floyd, B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses fiber optic sensors designed and constructed to withstand extreme temperatures of aircraft engine. The paper describes development and performance evaluation of fiber optic Bragg grating based sensors. It also describes the design and presents test results of packaged sensors subjected to temperatures up to 1000 C for prolonged periods of time.

  16. Nuclear process heat at high temperature: Application, realization and development programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sammeck, K.H.; Fischer, R.

    1976-01-01

    Studies in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), the USA and the United Kingdom have shown that high-temperature helium energy from an HTR can advantageously be utilized for coal gasification and other fossil fuel conversion processes, and that a substantial demand for substitute natural gas (SNG) can be expected in the future. These results are based on plant design studies, economic assessments and basic development efforts in the field of coal gasification with nuclear heat, which in the FRG were carried out by Arbeitsgemeinschaft Nukleare Prozesswaerme (ANP)-members, HRB and KFA Juelich. Nuclear process plants are based on different gasification processes, resulting in different concepts of the nuclear heat system. In the case of hydro-gasification it is expected that steam reformers, arranged within the primary circuit of the reactor, will be heated directly by the primary helium. In the case of steam gasification, the high-temperature energy must be transferred to the gasification process via an intermediate circuit which is coupled to a gasifier outside the containment. In both cases the design of the nuclear reactor resembles an HTR for electricity generation. The main objectives of the development of nuclear process heat are to increase the helium outlet temperature of the reactor up to 950 0 C, to develop metallic alloys for high-temperature components such as heat exchangers, to design and construct a hot-gas duct, a steam reformer and a helium-helium heat exchanger and to develop the gasification processes. The nuclear safety regulations and the interface problems between the reactor, the process plant and the electricity generating plant have to be considered thoroughly. The Arbeitsgemeinschaft Nukleare Prozesswaerme and HRB started a development programme, in close collaboration with KFA Juelich, which will lead to the construction of a prototype plant for coal gasification with nuclear heat within 5 to 5 1/2 years. A survey of the main objectives

  17. Development of powder metallurgy Al alloys for high temperature aircraft structural applications, phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellman, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    In this continuing study, the development of mechanically alloyed heat resistant aluminum alloys for aircraft were studied to develop higher strength targets and higher service temperatures. The use of higher alloy additions to MA Al-Fe-Co alloys, employment of prealloyed starting materials, and higher extrusion temperatures were investigated. While the MA Al-Fe-Co alloys exhibited good retention of strength and ductility properties at elevated temperatures and excellent stability of properties after 1000 hour exposure at elevated temperatures, a sensitivity of this system to low extrusion strain rates adversely affected the level of strength achieved. MA alloys in the Al-Li family showed excellent notched toughness and property stability after long time exposures at elevated temperatures. A loss of Li during processing and the higher extrusion temperature 482 K (900 F) resulted in low mechanical strengths. Subsequent hot and cold working of the MA Al-Li had only a mild influence on properties.

  18. Yield and Adaptability Evaluation of Newly Introduced Tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High yield is a major ambition to tomato plant breeders and farmers. The purpose of the ... Tabora Region on the growth and yield of newly introduced tomato varieties. The tested ..... (1985). Evaluation of some American tomatocultivars grown.

  19. Novel polymer derived ceramic-high temperature heat flux sensor for gas turbine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaiah, N R; Kapat, J S; An, L; Chow, L

    2006-01-01

    This paper attempts to prove the feasibility of a novel High Temperature Heat Flux (HTHF) sensor for gas turbine environment. Based on the latest improvement in a new type of Polymer-Derived Ceramic (PDC) material, the authors present the design and development of a HTHF sensor based on PDC material, and show that such a sensor is indeed feasible. The PDC-HTHF sensor is fabricated using newly developed polymer derived SiCN, whose conductivity is controlled by proper composition and treatment condition. Direct measurements and characterization of the relevant material properties are presented. Electrical conductivity can be varied from 0 (insulator) to 100 (ohm.cm) -1 ; in addition a value of 4000 ppm/ 0 C (at 600 K) is obtained for temperature coefficient of resistance. This novel sensor is found to perform quite satisfactorily at about 1400 0 C for long term as compared to conventional heat flux sensors available commercially. This type of PDC-HTHF sensor can be used in harsh environments due to its high temperature resistance and resistance to oxidation. This paper also discusses lithography as a microfabrication technique to manufacture the proposed PDC-HTHF sensor. In our current design, the sensor dimensions are 2.5mm in diameter and 250 μm thickness

  20. Newly elected IAEA Board of Governors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The document gives information about the election of 11 Member States to the IAEA Board of Governors, the 35-member policy-making body, during the 44th regular session of the IAEA's General Conference (18 - 22 September 2000, Austria Center, Vienna). The newly elected Member States are: Argentina, Egypt, Ghana, Ireland, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Mexico, Pakistan, Peru, Switzerland, Thailand, Ukraine. The other 24 Member States of the Board are also given

  1. Novel fragmentation model for pulverized coal particles gasification in low temperature air thermal plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Rastko D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available New system for start-up and flame support based on coal gasification by low temperature air thermal plasma is planned to supplement current heavy oil system in Serbian thermal power plants in order to decrease air pollutions emission and operational costs. Locally introduced plasma thermal energy heats up and ignites entrained coal particles, thus starting chain process which releases heat energy from gasified coal particles inside burner channel. Important stages during particle combustion, such as particle devolatilisation and char combustion, are described with satisfying accuracy in existing commercial CFD codes that are extensively used as powerful tool for pulverized coal combustion and gasification modeling. However, during plasma coal gasification, high plasma temperature induces strong thermal stresses inside interacting coal particles. These stresses lead to “thermal shock” and extensive particle fragmentation during which coal particles with initial size of 50-100 m disintegrate into fragments of at most 5-10 m. This intensifies volatile release by a factor 3-4 and substantially accelerates the oxidation of combustible matter. Particle fragmentation, due to its small size and thus limited influence on combustion process is commonly neglected in modelling. The main focus of this work is to suggest novel approach to pulverized coal gasification under high temperature conditions and to implement it into commercial comprehensive code ANSYS FLUENT 14.0. Proposed model was validated against experimental data obtained in newly built pilot scale D.C plasma burner test facility. Newly developed model showed very good agreement with experimental results with relative error less than 10%, while the standard built-in gasification model had error up to 25%.

  2. Newly devised infrared radiometer (ERI type IR ground scanner) and the surface temperature of the Mihara crater, O-shima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimozuru, D [Earthquake Res. Inst., Univ. of Tokyo; Kagiyama, T

    1976-10-01

    The infrared radiometer, a remote sensing tool, can be successfully used to measure the surface temperature of a volcanic or geothermal area. Many of these devices are available commercially for industrial use but their application to volcano observations is limited due to a wide field of view which prohibits detailed examination of specific points. A commercial radiometer was mounted on a balloon theodolite with an electrically driven rotating base. A telescope was attached to the radiometer to permit monitoring of the field of view. Radiometer output can be recorded either on a magnetic tape data recorder or a strip chart recorder. The device is also useful for continuous monitoring of the temperature of a vent or fumarole. The observed temperatures are dependent upon the wave length of actual spatial temperature distribution, the field of view and the scanning speed. Detailed information of both a theoretical and an experimental nature is provided. The improved radiometer was utilized to observe surface temperature in the caldera of Miharayama, Oshima in March, 1976. It was found that the vent temperature was markedly lower than had previously been recorded, as was the average surface temperature.

  3. Circulating mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor is increased in newly diagnosed prediabetic and diabetic patients, and is associated with insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tong; Zhang, Fang; Yang, Qiu; Zhang, Yuwei; Liu, Qinhui; Jiang, Wei; Cao, Hongyi; Li, Daigang; Xie, Shugui; Tong, Nanwei; He, Jinhan

    2017-04-29

    Evidence has shown that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was involved in the progression to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and development of insulin resistance. Mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) is a novel secreted protein upregulated by ER stress. This study aimed to assess serum level of MANF in normal glucose tolerance (NGT) participants and newly diagnosed prediabetic and T2DM patients. A total of 257 participants with NGT, newly diagnosed prediabetes or T2DM were recruited from Yinchao and Hangtian communities of Chengdu, Sichuan, China. Serum MANF level was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The mean age for the 257 participants (147 females) was 62±8 years (range 44-78): 71 with NGT, 115 with newly diagnosed prediabetes and 71 with T2DM. Mean serum MANF level was significantly higher with newly diagnosed prediabetes and T2DM than NGT (2.89±1.09 and 3.03±1.73 vs 2.13±1.37 ng/mL, both pprediabetes patients. We concluded that serum MANF level was higher in patients with newly diagnosed prediabetes and T2DM than in NGT controls. MANF appears to be associated with Matsuda Index, QUICKI and HOMA-IR in prediabetes patients.

  4. Effect of Curing Temperature Histories on the Compressive Strength Development of High-Strength Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keun-Hyeok Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relative strength-maturity relationship of high-strength concrete (HSC specifically developed for nuclear facility structures while considering the economic efficiency and durability of the concrete. Two types of mixture proportions with water-to-binder ratios of 0.4 and 0.28 were tested under different temperature histories including (1 isothermal curing conditions of 5°C, 20°C, and 40°C and (2 terraced temperature histories of 20°C for an initial age of individual 1, 3, or 7 days and a constant temperature of 5°C for the subsequent ages. On the basis of the test results, the traditional maturity function of an equivalent age was modified to consider the offset maturity and the insignificance of subsequent curing temperature after an age of 3 days on later strength of concrete. To determine the key parameters in the maturity function, the setting behavior, apparent activation energy, and rate constant of the prepared mixtures were also measured. This study reveals that the compressive strength development of HSC cured at the reference temperature for an early age of 3 days is insignificantly affected by the subsequent curing temperature histories. The proposed maturity approach with the modified equivalent age accurately predicts the strength development of HSC.

  5. Localization of foot-and-mouth disease - RNA synthesis on newly formed cellular smooth membranous vacuoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polatnick, J.; Wool, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    Viral RNA synthesis in foot-and-mouth disease infected bovine kidney cell cultures was associated throughout the infectious period with newly formed smooth membranous vacuoles. Membrane formation was measured by choline uptake. The site of RNA synthesis was determined by electron microscopic examination of autoradiograms of incorporated [ 3 H] uridine. Both membrane formation and RNA synthesis became signifcant at 2.5 hours postinfection, but membrane formation increased steadily to 4.5 hours while RNA synthesis peaked at 3.5 hours. Percent density distributions of developed silver grains on autoradiograms showed that almost all RNA synthesis was concentrated on the smooth vacuoles of infected cells. Histogram analysis of grain density distributions established that the site of RNA synthesis was the vacuolar membrane. The newly formed smooth membrane-bound vacuoles were not seen to coalesce into the large vacuolated areas typical of poliovirus cytopathogenicity. (Author)

  6. Localization of foot-and-mouth disease - RNA synthesis on newly formed cellular smooth membranous vacuoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polatnick, J.; Wool, S.H. (United States Department of Agriculture, Science and Education, Greenport, New York (USA). Agricultural Research, Plum Island Animal Disease Center)

    1982-01-01

    Viral RNA synthesis in foot-and-mouth disease infected bovine kidney cell cultures was associated throughout the infectious period with newly formed smooth membranous vacuoles. Membrane formation was measured by choline uptake. The site of RNA synthesis was determined by electron microscopic examination of autoradiograms of incorporated (/sup 3/H) uridine. Both membrane formation and RNA synthesis became signifcant at 2.5 hours postinfection, but membrane formation increased steadily to 4.5 hours while RNA synthesis peaked at 3.5 hours. Percent density distributions of developed silver grains on autoradiograms showed that almost all RNA synthesis was concentrated on the smooth vacuoles of infected cells. Histogram analysis of grain density distributions established that the site of RNA synthesis was the vacuolar membrane. The newly formed smooth membrane-bound vacuoles were not seen to coalesce into the large vacuolated areas typical of poliovirus cytopathogenicity.

  7. Clinical evaluation of a newly designed orthodontic tooth brush - A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C S Saimbi

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the newly designed orthodontic tooth brush is compared with an ordinary tooth brush. Results of this study show that the newly designed orthodontic tooth brush is superior in its cleaning efficiency as compared to the ordinary tooth brush. The results show that plaque removing capacity of orthodontic tooth brush is nearly 95-99%.

  8. Development of materials for high temperature superconductor Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houlton, R.J.; Reagor, D.W.; Hawley, M.E.; Springer, K.N.; Jia, Q.X.; Mombourquette, C.B.; Garzon, F.H.; Wu, X.D.

    1994-01-01

    We have conducted a systematic optimization of deposition parameters for fabrication of multilayered oxide films to be used in the development of high temperature superconducting SNS Functions. These films were deposited by off-axis sputtering using a custom fabricated multi-gun planar magnetron system. Each material and the various combinations of materials were optimized for epitaxial lattice match, crystal quality, film uniformity, electrical properties, and surface microstructure. In addition to the standard procedures commonly used to sputter deposit epitaxial oxide films, a variety of insitu and exsitu procedures were used to produce high quality multilayer devices, including varying the nucleation temperature from the actual film growth temperature, location of the substrate during the deposition process, constant rotation of the substrate, and timing of the oxygen anneal. The unprocessed films and devices in process were characterized with Atomic Force Microscopy and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy as well as other common materials characterization techniques. Completed multilayer devices were patterned and packaged for electrical characterization. Relation between material properties and electrical characteristics is discussed

  9. Development of materials for high temperature superconductor Josephson junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlton, R.J.; Reagor, D.W.; Hawley, M.E.; Springer, K.N.; Jia, Q.X.; Mombourquette, C.B.; Garzon, F.H.; Wu, X.D.

    1994-10-01

    We have conducted a systematic optimization of deposition parameters for fabrication of multilayered oxide films to be used in the development of high temperature superconducting SNS Functions. These films were deposited by off-axis sputtering using a custom fabricated multi-gun planar magnetron system. Each material and the various combinations of materials were optimized for epitaxial lattice match, crystal quality, film uniformity, electrical properties, and surface microstructure. In addition to the standard procedures commonly used to sputter deposit epitaxial oxide films, a variety of insitu and exsitu procedures were used to produce high quality multilayer devices, including varying the nucleation temperature from the actual film growth temperature, location of the substrate during the deposition process, constant rotation of the substrate, and timing of the oxygen anneal. The unprocessed films and devices in process were characterized with Atomic Force Microscopy and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy as well as other common materials characterization techniques. Completed multilayer devices were patterned and packaged for electrical characterization. Relation between material properties and electrical characteristics is discussed

  10. Study on development of differential transformer for use in high-temperature environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ara, Katsuyuki

    1983-11-01

    Today, in many fields of industrial science and technology, various efforts are being directed to the development of new technology aiming the technological inovation of the coming generation. Under these circumstances, new requirements are called for in instrumentation and measurement; one is the measurement at very severe environments such as high-temperature and high-pressure. Especially in the field of nuclear energy development, various kinds of measurements are needed under a high-temperature, high-pressure and high-radiation environments, and many sensors have been developed for such purposes. One of the most excellent heat-resisting sensors is the sensor based on and utilizing electromagnetic induction. Various electromagnetic sensors have been, therefore, developed and used in in-core environments of nuclear reactors. The author has been engaged in the development of differential transformers for use in in-core environments of Light Water Reactors: this paper compiles the results obtained through the development. (author)

  11. High temperature fission chambers. Fast breeder reactor research and development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlin, C.; Perrigueur, J.C.

    1984-04-01

    Development of a high temperature fission chamber and experimentations of measuring channels (detectors and electronic devices) in similar conditions as those of power plants: development of measuring channels (impulses and current) of the Super Phenix neutronic measures auxiliary system, development of a measuring channel with impulses for the surveillance system of the clad failures, based on integrated detectors, and development of a fission chamber for experimentations in similar conditions as in Superphenix [fr

  12. Temperature, larval diet, and density effects on development rate and survival of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannelle Couret

    Full Text Available Many environmental factors, biotic and abiotic interact to influence organismal development. Given the importance of Aedes aegypti as a vector of human pathogens including dengue and yellow fever, understanding the impact of environmental factors such as temperature, resource availability, and intraspecific competition during development is critical for population control purposes. Despite known associations between developmental traits and factors of diet and density, temperature has been considered the primary driver of development rate and survival. To determine the relative importance of these critical factors, wide gradients of conditions must be considered. We hypothesize that 1 diet and density, as well as temperature influence the variation in development rate and survival, 2 that these factors interact, and this interaction is also necessary to understand variation in developmental traits. Temperature, diet, density, and their two-way interactions are significant factors in explaining development rate variation of the larval stages of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. These factors as well as two and three-way interactions are significantly associated with the development rate from hatch to emergence. Temperature, but not diet or density, significantly impacted juvenile mortality. Development time was heteroskedastic with the highest variation occurring at the extremes of diet and density conditions. All three factors significantly impacted survival curves of experimental larvae that died during development. Complex interactions may contribute to variation in development rate. To better predict variation in development rate and survival in Ae. aegypti, factors of resource availability and intraspecific density must be considered in addition, but never to the exclusion of temperature.

  13. New composites graphite/salt for high temperature thermal energy storage: From elaboration to development of thermal characterization methods for orthotropic conductive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acem, Zoubir

    2007-01-01

    This PhD is carried out within the framework of DISTOR (European) and HTPSTOCK (French) projects, which have for objective to conceive and study new graphite/salt composites dedicated to high temperature energy storage (>200 deg. C). She is split into two distinct part. The first one focused mainly on works linked with elaboration and thermal characterisation of these new composites. The different composites ways of elaboration (Dispersion, uniaxial compression, isostatic) associated to the different kind of graphite (Natural expanded graphite (ENG), synthetic graphite) investigated during the PhD are presented. The results of the thermal characterization campaign of these composites are also presented and permit to highlight the impact of graphite in the thermal behaviour of studied materials. Based on these results, modelling studies of the evolution of the thermal conductivity have been undertaken to deepen the understanding of the effect of graphite (quantity, size of particles) on the effective conductivity composites. The second one describes the thermal characterization devices and associated thermo-kinetics models which had to be developed and adapted to the specificities of newly developed materials. This concerns mainly the materials prepared by compression, which present orthotropic properties and are difficult to reproduce. So, the characterization of this kind of material is very difficult and tedious. That is why we are committed to develop and adapt existing methods of characterization to allow the complete thermal characterisation of an orthotropic conductive material from a single experimentation on a single sample. (author) [fr

  14. Developing High-Temperature Water-Soluble Coatings for Reconfigurable Tooling Materials-PREPRINT

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Calvert, George; Cao, Kevin J; Jacobson, Ted; Clements, Linda; Luo, Shen-Yi; Kim, Kwang J; O'Toole, Brendan

    2007-01-01

    .... This paper describes the development of such coatings, including the investigation of chemical modification and mechanical reinforcement as well as the suitability of the coatings in elevated-temperature use...

  15. Newly developed dope-free coatings help improve running operations in remote protected areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santi, Nestor J.; Gallo, Ernesto A. [TENARIS (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Oil and Gas industry has been evolving in a permanent way to reach new sources of energy or to produce in the existing ones in a more efficient way, triggering in such a way the development of new drilling, completion and production techniques, equipment and processes; among these equipment, pipes and connections are not the exception, and the requirements on material and connections performance and reliability have been increased as well. The complexity of the new wells is not only related to the architecture of the well but also to the type of environments that are being found such as H2S, CO2, high pressure and/or high temperature; therefore, for these cases, connections have to be special premium connections threaded in most of the cases on highly alloyed materials (Ni-Cr alloys). Additionally, most of the regions under exploration are offshore and/or in remote areas of the planet which are considered untouchable due to economic reasons (fishing) or preservation (endangered flora and fauna) for instance Alaska, North Atlantic, North Sea, etc. For these areas, new environmental restrictions are applied which make it difficult for the operators to use standard practices. Among the recent solutions developed for Oil and Gas industry aiming to help with the protection of the environment are the dope-free coatings. These coatings are applied on tubing and casing connections providing a real greener alternative to traditional thread compounds, while maintaining the performance of the connections, for different materials as carbon steels, 13Cr and Corrosion Resistance Alloys (Ni, Cr). In spite of being a technically sound solution, the elimination of thread compounds may lead to potential operational problems such as galling, difficulties in making-up due to low temperature, etc. In addition, it is also necessary to evaluate the interaction between the dry coatings and the different connections to be used, as the designs have to be able to allocate the coating

  16. Diabetes education improves depressive state in newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Bin; Zhang, Xiyao; Xu, Xiuping; Lv, Xiaofeng; Yao, Lu; Huang, Xu; Guo, Xueying; Liu, Baozhu; Li, Qiang; Cui, Can

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The prevalence of depression is relatively high in individuals with diabetes. However, screening and monitoring of depressive state in patients with diabetes is still neglected in developing countries and the treatment of diabetes-related depression is rarely performed in these countries. In this study, our aim was to study the role of diabetes education in the improvement of depressive state in newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: The Dutch version of the cente...

  17. Development of decay energy spectroscopy using low temperature detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Y S; Kim, G B; Kim, K J; Kim, M S; Lee, H J; Lee, J S; Lee, K B; Lee, M K; Lee, S J; Ri, H C; Yoon, W S; Yuryev, Y N; Kim, Y H

    2012-09-01

    We have developed a high-resolution detection technique for measuring the energy and activity of alpha decay events using low-temperature detectors. A small amount of source material containing alpha-emitting radionuclides was enclosed in a 4π metal absorber. The energy of the alpha particles as well as that of the recoiled nuclides, low-energy electrons, and low-energy x-rays and γ-rays was converted into thermal energy of the gold absorber. A metallic magnetic calorimeter serving as a fast and sensitive thermometer was thermally attached to the metal absorber. In the present report, experimental demonstrations of Q spectroscopy were made with a new meander-type magnetic calorimeter. The thermal connection between the temperature sensor and the absorber was established with annealed gold wires. Each alpha decay event in the absorber resulted in a temperature increase of the absorber and the temperature sensor. Using the spectrum measured for a drop of (226)Ra solution in a 4π gold absorber, all of the alpha emitters in the sample were identified with a demonstration of good detector linearity. The resolution of the (226)Ra spectrum showed a 3.3 keV FWHM at its Q value together with an expected gamma escape peak at the energy shifted by its γ-ray energy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Newly elected IAEA Board of Governors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The document gives information about the election of 11 Member States to the IAEA Board of Governors, the 35-member policy-making body, during the 45th regular session of the IAEA's General Conference (17-21 September 2001, Austria Center, Vienna). The newly elected Member States are: Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Chile, Colombia, Islamic Republic of Iran, Kuwait, Morocco, Philippines, Romania, Spain, and Turkey. The other 24 Member States of the Board are also given

  19. Development auxiliaries for dyeing polyester with disperse dyes at low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion-Fite, F. J.; Radei, S.

    2017-10-01

    High-molecular weight organic compounds known as carriers are widely used to expedite polyester dyeing at atmospheric pressure at 100 °C. However, carriers are usually poorly biodegradable and can partially plasticize fibres. Also, dyeing at temperatures above 100 °C in the absence of a carrier entails using expensive equipment. In this work, we developed an alternative method for dyeing polyester at temperatures below 100 °C that reduces energy expenses, dispenses with the need to invest in new equipment and avoids the undesirable effects of non-biodegradable carriers. The method uses disperse dyes in a microemulsion containing a low proportion of a non-toxic organic solvent and either of two alternative development auxiliaries (coumarin and o-vanillin) that is prepared with the aid of ultrasound.

  20. Health problems of newly arrived migrants and refugees in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavli, Androula; Maltezou, Helena

    2017-07-01

    The number of migrants and refugees in Europe in the past few years has increased dramatically due to war, violence or prosecutions in their homeland. Migration may affect physical, mental and social health. The objective of this article is to assess migrants and refugees' health problems, and to recommend appropriate interventions. A PubMed search of published articles on health problems of newly arrived migrants and refugees was conducted from 2003 through 2016, focusing on the current refugee crisis in Europe. In addition to communicable diseases, such as respiratory, gastrointestinal and dermatologic infections, non-communicable diseases, including chronic conditions, mental and social problems, account for a significant morbidity burden in newly arrived migrants and refugees. Vaccine-preventable diseases are also of outmost importance. The appropriate management of newly arrived refugees and migrants' health problems is affected by barriers to access to health care including legal, communication, cultural and bureaucratic difficulties. There is diversity and lack of integration regarding health care provision across Europe due to policy differences between health care systems and social services. There is a notable burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases among newly arrived migrants and refugees. Provision of health care at reception and temporary centres should be integrated and provided by a multidisciplinary team Appropriate health care of migrants and refugees could greatly enhance their health and social status which will benefit also the host countries at large. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  1. Southwire's High Temperature Superconducting Cable Development - Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, Uday; Lindsay, David

    2005-01-01

    Final technical report on Southwire HTS cable development program. Southwire started an HTS cable development program beginning early 1995 with a Co-operative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The development task was to study the properties of HTS tapes, and construct hand wound 1-m cables to study the winding characteristics of the tapes. Within a short time several 1-m long cables were constructed and tested. A goal was established to construct a 30-m long, three single-phase cables suitable to carry 1250-Aac at 12.4 kV and power Southwire's two main manufacturing plants, machinery division, and part of the corporate headquarters building. Southwire chose to construct a cold dielectric (CD) design cable that has the advantage of shielding magnetic fields and suitable for carrying larger amounts of current for future applications. The CD design however, required a dielectric material that would be suitable at liquid nitrogen temperature. After considerable testing, a polymer based tape called ''Cryoflex'' was developed by Southwire for use as a cold dielectric. Southwire developed a HTS cable making facility for the winding of HTS and dielectric tapes. At the same time Southwire and ORNL developed at Oak Ridge a dielectric testing laboratory and a 5-m cable test bed. The HTS cable requires special terminations that connect cables at 77 K and high pressures (design pressure of 150 psi) with outside power at ambient temperature and pressure. Two types of terminations called Vacuum (T-1) and Pressure termination (T-2) were developed. The vacuum termination needed very high vacuum (10 -5 bar) and cold ceramic bushings that were expensive and unreliable. The modified pressure termination eliminated vacuum, utilize industrial bushings, reduced cost, and increased reliability. Two 5-m cables were designed and constructed at Southwire with the same rating as needed for the 30-m cables. The 5-m cables were tested successfully

  2. Development of a HEC-RAS temperature model for the North Santiam River, northwestern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonewall, Adam J.; Buccola, Norman L.

    2015-01-01

    A one-dimensional, unsteady streamflow and temperature model (HEC-RAS) of the North Santiam and Santiam Rivers was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey to be used in conjunction with previously developed two-dimensional hydrodynamic water-quality models (CE-QUAL-W2) of Detroit and Big Cliff Lakes upstream of the study area. In conjunction with the output from the previously developed models, the HEC-RAS model can simulate streamflows and temperatures within acceptable limits (mean error [bias] near zero; typical streamflow errors less than 5 percent; typical water temperature errors less than 1.0 °C) for the length of the North Santiam River downstream of Big Cliff Dam under a series of potential future conditions in which dam structures and/or dam operations are modified to improve temperature conditions for threatened and endangered fish. Although a two-dimensional (longitudinal, vertical) CE-QUAL-W2 model for the North Santiam and Santiam Rivers downstream of Big Cliff Dam exists, that model proved unstable under highly variable flow conditions. The one-dimensional HEC-RAS model documented in this report can better simulate cross-sectional-averaged stream temperatures under a wide range of flow conditions.

  3. Development of fabrication method for thermal expansion difference irradiation temperature monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Kouichi; Takatsudo, Hiroshi; Miyakawa, Shun-ichi; Kobori, Takahisa; Miyo, Toshimasa

    1998-03-01

    This report describes the development activities for the fabrication of the Thermal Expansion Difference irradiation temperature monitor (TED) at the Oarai Engineering Center (OEC)/PNC. TED is used for various irradiation tests in the experimental fast reactor JOYO. TED is the most accurate off-line temperature monitor used for irradiation examination. The TED is composed of a metallic sphere lid and either a stainless steel or nickel alloy container. Once the container is filled with sodium, the metallic sphere lid is sealed by using a resistance weld. This capsule is then loaded into a reactor. Once a TED is loaded into the JOYO reactor, the sodium inside the metallic container increases as a result of thermal expansion. The TED identifies the peak irradiation temperature of the reactor based on a formula correlating temperature to increment values. This formula is established specifically for the particular TED being used during a calibration process performed when the TED is fabricated. Initially the TED was developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in the United States, and was imported by PNC for use in the JOYO reactor. In 1992 PNC decided to fabricate TED domestically in order to ensure the stability of future supplies. Based on technical information provided by ANL, PNC began fabrication of a TED on an experimental basis. In addition, PNC endeavored to make the domestically produced TED more efficient. This involved improving the techniques used in the sodium filling and the metallic sphere welding processes. These quality control efforts led to PNC's development of processes enabling the capsules to be filled with sodium to nearly 100%. As a result, the accuracy of the temperature dispersion in the out-pile calibration test was improved from +/-10degC to +/-5degC. In 1996 the new domestically fabricated TED was attached to a JOYO irradiation rig. In March of 1997, irradiation of the rig was started on the 30th duty cycle operation, and should be

  4. Development of program for evaluating the temperature of Zr-U metallic fuel rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, J. S.; Lee, B. H.; Ku, Y. H.; Oh, J. Y.; Im, J. S.; Sohn, D. S.

    2003-01-01

    A code for evaluating the temperature of Zr-U metallic rod has been developed. Finite element (FE) method is adopted for the developed code sharing the user subroutines which has been prepared for the ABAQUS commercial FE code. The developed program for the Zr-U metallic fuel rod corresponds to a nonlinear transient heat transfer problem, and uses a sparse matrix solver for FE equations during iterations at every time step. The verifications of the developed program were conducted using the ABAQUS code. Steady state and transient problems were analyzed for 1/8 rod model due to the symmetry of the fuel rod and full model. From the evaluation of temperature for the 1/8 rod model at steady state, maximal error of 0.18 % was present relative to the ABAQUS result. Analysis for the transient problem using the fuel rod model resulted in the same as the variation of centerline temperature from the ABAQUS code during a hypothetical power transient. The distribution of heat flux for the entire cross section and surface was almost identical for the two codes

  5. Enhancement of Treatment Efficiency of Recalcitrant Wastewater Containing Textile Dyes Using a Newly Developed Iron Zeolite Socony Mobil-5 Heterogeneous Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mushtaq; Asghar, Anam; Abdul Raman, Abdul Aziz; Wan Daud, Wan Mohd Ashri

    2015-01-01

    Fenton oxidation, an advanced oxidation process, is an efficient method for the treatment of recalcitrant wastewaters. Unfortunately, it utilizes H2O2 and iron-based homogeneous catalysts, which lead to the formation of high volumes of sludge and secondary pollutants. To overcome these problems, an alternate option is the usage of heterogeneous catalyst. In this study, a heterogeneous catalyst was developed to provide an alternative solution for homogeneous Fenton oxidation. Iron Zeolite Socony Mobile-5 (Fe-ZSM-5) was synthesized using a new two-step process. Next, the catalyst was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis and tested against a model wastewater containing the azo dye Acid Blue 113. Results showed that the loading of iron particles reduced the surface area of the catalyst from 293.59 to 243.93 m2/g; meanwhile, the average particle size of the loaded material was 12.29 nm. Furthermore, efficiency of the developed catalyst was evaluated by performing heterogeneous Fenton oxidation. Taguchi method was coupled with principal component analysis in order to assess and optimize mineralization efficiency. Experimental results showed that under optimized conditions, over 99.7% degradation and 77% mineralization was obtained, with a 90% reduction in the consumption of the developed catalyst. Furthermore, the developed catalyst was stable and reusable, with less than 2% leaching observed under optimized conditions. Thus, the present study proved that newly developed catalyst has enhanced the oxidation process and reduced the chemicals consumption. PMID:26517827

  6. Enhancement of Treatment Efficiency of Recalcitrant Wastewater Containing Textile Dyes Using a Newly Developed Iron Zeolite Socony Mobil-5 Heterogeneous Catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mushtaq; Asghar, Anam; Abdul Raman, Abdul Aziz; Wan Daud, Wan Mohd Ashri

    2015-01-01

    Fenton oxidation, an advanced oxidation process, is an efficient method for the treatment of recalcitrant wastewaters. Unfortunately, it utilizes H2O2 and iron-based homogeneous catalysts, which lead to the formation of high volumes of sludge and secondary pollutants. To overcome these problems, an alternate option is the usage of heterogeneous catalyst. In this study, a heterogeneous catalyst was developed to provide an alternative solution for homogeneous Fenton oxidation. Iron Zeolite Socony Mobile-5 (Fe-ZSM-5) was synthesized using a new two-step process. Next, the catalyst was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis and tested against a model wastewater containing the azo dye Acid Blue 113. Results showed that the loading of iron particles reduced the surface area of the catalyst from 293.59 to 243.93 m2/g; meanwhile, the average particle size of the loaded material was 12.29 nm. Furthermore, efficiency of the developed catalyst was evaluated by performing heterogeneous Fenton oxidation. Taguchi method was coupled with principal component analysis in order to assess and optimize mineralization efficiency. Experimental results showed that under optimized conditions, over 99.7% degradation and 77% mineralization was obtained, with a 90% reduction in the consumption of the developed catalyst. Furthermore, the developed catalyst was stable and reusable, with less than 2% leaching observed under optimized conditions. Thus, the present study proved that newly developed catalyst has enhanced the oxidation process and reduced the chemicals consumption.

  7. The effect of non-uniform temperature and velocity fields on long range ultrasonic measurement systems in MYRRHA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Wyer, Nicolas; Schram, Christophe [von Karman Institute For Fluids Dynamic (Belgium); Van Dyck, Dries; Dierckx, Marc [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (Belgium)

    2015-07-01

    SCK.CEN, the Belgian Nuclear Research Center, is developing MYRRHA, a generation IV liquid metal cooled nuclear research reactor. As the liquid metal coolant is opaque to light, normal visual feedback during fuel manipulations is not available and must therefore be replaced by a system that is not hindered by the opacity of the coolant. In this respect ultrasonic based instrumentation is under development at SCK.CEN to provide feedback during operations under liquid metal. One of the tasks that will be tackled using ultrasound is the detection and localization of a potentially lost fuel assembly. In this application, the distance between ultrasonic sensor and target may be as large as 2.5 m. At these distances, non uniform velocity and temperature fields in the liquid metal potentially influence the propagation of the ultrasonic signals, affecting the performance of the ultrasonic systems. In this paper, we investigate how relevant temperature and velocity gradients inside the liquid metal influence the propagation of ultrasonic waves. The effect of temperature and velocity gradients are simulated by means of a newly developed numerical ray-tracing model. The performance of the model is validated by dedicated water experiments. The setup is capable of creating velocity and temperature gradients representative for MYRRHA conditions. Once validated in water, the same model is used to make predictions for the effect of gradients in the MYRRHA liquid metal environment. (authors)

  8. Temperature-dependent development of the parasitoid Tachinaephagus zealandicus on five forensically important carrion fly species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, S C; Spafford, H; Dadour, I R

    2010-06-01

    The influences of temperature and host species on the development of the forensically important parasitoid Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) were studied at six constant temperatures in the range of 15-30 degrees C. T. zealandicus completed development successfully between 15 degrees C and 27 degrees C on five species of Calliphoridae, Calliphora albifrontalis Malloch, Calliphora dubia Macquart, Lucilia sericata Meigen, Chrysomya rufifacies Macquart and Chrysomya megacephala Fabricius. No adult parasitoids emerged from any of the host species reared at 30 degrees C. Temperature and host species significantly influenced development time, emergence success and progeny size. Development was significantly longer on Ch. megacephala and Ch. rufifacies at 18-24 degrees C and significantly longer on Ch. rufifacies and C. albifrontalis at 15 degrees C and 27 degrees C. Parasitoid emergence success was greatest at 21 degrees C, declined at the temperature extremes (15 degrees C and 27 degrees C) and was significantly lower on Ch. megacephala and Ch. rufifacies than on the three other host species. Progeny numbers per host pupa were highest at 21-24 degrees C, declined on either side of this temperature range and were significantly lower on L. sericata, Ch. rufifacies and Ch. megacephala than on either C. dubia or C. albifrontalis. An effect of host species on sex ratio was only observed at 27 degrees C, at which a higher proportion of T. zealandicus females emerged from Ch. megacephala and Ch. rufifacies than from the other host species. The thermal requirements for development (developmental thresholds, thermal constant, optimum temperature) of T. zealandicus in each host species were estimated using linear and non-linear models. Upper and lower developmental thresholds ranged between 29.90 degrees C and 31.73 degrees C, and 9.73 degrees C and 10.08 degrees C, respectively. The optimum temperature for development was estimated at between 25

  9. Climate change and the water cycle in newly irrigated areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahão, Raphael; García-Garizábal, Iker; Merchán, Daniel; Causapé, Jesús

    2015-02-01

    Climate change is affecting agriculture doubly: evapotranspiration is increasing due to increments in temperature while the availability of water resources is decreasing. Furthermore, irrigated areas are expanding worldwide. In this study, the dynamics of climate change impacts on the water cycle of a newly irrigated watershed are studied through the calculation of soil water balances. The study area was a 752-ha watershed located on the left side of the Ebro river valley, in Northeast Spain. The soil water balance procedures were carried out throughout 1827 consecutive days (5 years) of hydrological and agronomical monitoring in the study area. Daily data from two agroclimatic stations were used as well. Evaluation of the impact of climate change on the water cycle considered the creation of two future climate scenarios for comparison: 2070 decade with climate change and 2070 decade without climate change. The main indicators studied were precipitation, irrigation, reference evapotranspiration, actual evapotranspiration, drainage from the watershed, and irrigation losses. The aridity index was also applied. The results represent a baseline scenario in which adaptation measures may be included and tested to reduce the impacts of climate change in the studied area and other similar areas.

  10. The Colonization of Newly Built Fishponds by the Macroinvertebrate Assemblages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavla Řezníčková

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The succession of standing waters by aquatic macroinvertebrates is a present and insufficiently surveyed topic. This study is addressed to the issue of colonisation of newly created small standing waters. Two fishponds situated in the north of Moravia (Czech Republic were studied. The aim of this study was to determine the character and colonisation rate of these ponds by macroinvertebrates, to evaluate the abundance, taxonomic composition and changes in composition of freshwater assemblages as a result of the fish stock influence. Basic abiotic parameters were also measured within the sampling occasions (e.g. water temperature, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, pH, total nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. Samples of aquatic macroinvertebrates were taken monthly during the years 2012 and 2013, by kick sampling method using the hand net. The character of sampled fishponds was very similar, environmental parameters (e.g. area, substrate, depth etc. were comparable. The colonisation of both fishponds was very fast. The pioneer colonists were mainly insect larvae (e.g. chironomids. Very low numbers of macroinvertebrates as a result of fish stock influence were recorded on both sites during the observation with the highest abundances in summer season.

  11. Development of temperature related thermal neutron scattering database for MCNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei Longwei; Cai Xiangzhou; Jiang Dazhen; Chen Jingen; Guo Wei

    2013-01-01

    Based on ENDF/B-Ⅶ neutron library, the thermal neutron scattering library S(α, β) for molten salt reactor moderators was developed. The temperatures of this library were chose as the characteristic temperature of the molten salt reactor. The cross section of the thermal neutron scattering of ACE format was investigated, and this library was also validated by the benchmarks of ICSBEP. The uncertainties shown in the validation were in reasonable range when compared with the thermal neutron scattering library tmccs which included in the MCNP data library. It was proved that the thermal neutron scattering library processed in this study could be used in the molten salt reactor design. (authors)

  12. Radiation therapy of newly diagnosed, advanced prostatic cancer and hormonally relapsed prostatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Minoru; Fujiwara, Kazuhisa; Hayakawa, Katsumi; Hida, Shuichi

    1994-01-01

    Ten patients with newly diagnosed, advanced prostatic cancer were treated with radiotherapy and hormone therapy to improve tumor control and survival. Eight patients with hormonally relapsed prostatic cancer were treated with radiotherapy to improve their quality of life. Local control of the tumor was achieved in 9 of 10 patients with newly diagnosed, advanced prostatic cancer. Five of eight patients with hormonally relapsed prostatic cancer obtained improved quality of life. Combined radiotherapy and hormone therapy were effective in the treatment of newly diagnosed, advanced prostatic cancer, and radiotherapy was useful for improving the quality of life of patients with hormonally relapsed prostatic cancer. (author)

  13. Three Newly Naturalized Plants in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jer Jung

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Three newly naturalized plants are reported in this paper. Hypochaeris microcephala (Sch. Bip. Cabrera var. albiflora (Kuntze Cabrera (Asteraceae is naturalized in urban areas of northern Taiwan. Indigofera pseudo-tinctoria Matsum. (Leguminosae is naturalized in low elevations of northern and southern Taiwan and in middle elevations of central Taiwan. Lamium purpureum L. (Laminaceae has become naturalized locally in middle elevations of central Taiwan. Descriptions, illustrations and color photos of these plants are provided.

  14. TEMPERATURE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT AND SURVIVAL OF RICE STEMBORERS IN LABORATORY CONDITIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md.TouhidurRahman; Khalequzzamant

    2004-01-01

    The effect of seven constant temperatures from 10 to 40℃ (10, 15, 20, 25 30, 35 and 40℃) on the development of eggs, larvae and pupae of rice stemborers viz., Chilo polychrysa (Meyrick), C. suppressalis (Walker), C. partellus (Swinhoe), Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker) ,S. innotata (Walker) and Sesamia inferens (Walker) were studied. The mean developmental period among constant temperatures (in days) of egg, larva and pupa of six borers differed significantly (P < 0.0001). The mean percent of development per day of egg, larva and pupa of all borers gradually increased with the increase of constant temperatures. The total developmental period was inversely decreased with the increase of constant temperatures. The lower threshold temperature was found between 10-15℃and higher threshold temperature between 35-40℃, where no development took place. The mean developmental zero was 8.57+1.71, 7.70+1.01, 8.56+3.25, 10.19+2.19, 8.64+2.68 and 7.91+0.82 for egg, larva and pupa of above-mentioned borers respectively. The total thermal constant of egg, larva and pupa was 705.56, 725.32, 703.30, 556.59, 655.34 and 837.95 degree- days for C. polychrysa, C. suppressalis, C. partellus, S. incertulas, S. innotata and S. inferens respectively. The degree- days required for oviposition of female moths of the six borers was calculated as 99.06, 90.85, 99.29, 75.16, 92.25 and 80.41 respectively. The total degree- days required completing a generation was 804.62, 816.17, 802.59, 631.75, 648.84 and 918.36 respectively.

  15. New Temperature-based Models for Predicting Global Solar Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, Gasser E.; Youssef, M. Elsayed; Mohamed, Zahraa E.; Ali, Mohamed A.; Hanafy, Ahmed A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • New temperature-based models for estimating solar radiation are investigated. • The models are validated against 20-years measured data of global solar radiation. • The new temperature-based model shows the best performance for coastal sites. • The new temperature-based model is more accurate than the sunshine-based models. • The new model is highly applicable with weather temperature forecast techniques. - Abstract: This study presents new ambient-temperature-based models for estimating global solar radiation as alternatives to the widely used sunshine-based models owing to the unavailability of sunshine data at all locations around the world. Seventeen new temperature-based models are established, validated and compared with other three models proposed in the literature (the Annandale, Allen and Goodin models) to estimate the monthly average daily global solar radiation on a horizontal surface. These models are developed using a 20-year measured dataset of global solar radiation for the case study location (Lat. 30°51′N and long. 29°34′E), and then, the general formulae of the newly suggested models are examined for ten different locations around Egypt. Moreover, the local formulae for the models are established and validated for two coastal locations where the general formulae give inaccurate predictions. Mostly common statistical errors are utilized to evaluate the performance of these models and identify the most accurate model. The obtained results show that the local formula for the most accurate new model provides good predictions for global solar radiation at different locations, especially at coastal sites. Moreover, the local and general formulas of the most accurate temperature-based model also perform better than the two most accurate sunshine-based models from the literature. The quick and accurate estimations of the global solar radiation using this approach can be employed in the design and evaluation of performance for

  16. The $16,819 pay gap for newly trained physicians: the unexplained trend of men earning more than women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Sasso, Anthony T; Richards, Michael R; Chou, Chiu-Fang; Gerber, Susan E

    2011-02-01

    Prior research has suggested that gender differences in physicians' salaries can be accounted for by the tendency of women to enter primary care fields and work fewer hours. However, in examining starting salaries by gender of physicians leaving residency programs in New York State during 1999-2008, we found a significant gender gap that cannot be explained by specialty choice, practice setting, work hours, or other characteristics. The unexplained trend toward diverging salaries appears to be a recent development that is growing over time. In 2008, male physicians newly trained in New York State made on average $16,819 more than newly trained female physicians, compared to a $3,600 difference in 1999.

  17. Fatigue Damage Evaluation of Short Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics Based on Phase Information of Thermoelastic Temperature Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiozawa, Daiki; Sakagami, Takahide; Nakamura, Yu; Nonaka, Shinichi; Hamada, Kenichi

    2017-12-06

    Carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) is widely used for structural members of transportation vehicles such as automobile, aircraft, or spacecraft, utilizing its excellent specific strength and specific rigidity in contrast with the metal. Short carbon fiber composite materials are receiving a lot of attentions because of their excellent moldability and productivity, however they show complicated behaviors in fatigue fracture due to the random fibers orientation. In this study, thermoelastic stress analysis (TSA) using an infrared thermography was applied to evaluate fatigue damage in short carbon fiber composites. The distribution of the thermoelastic temperature change was measured during the fatigue test, as well as the phase difference between the thermoelastic temperature change and applied loading signal. Evolution of fatigue damage was detected from the distribution of thermoelastic temperature change according to the thermoelastic damage analysis (TDA) procedure. It was also found that fatigue damage evolution was more clearly detected than before by the newly developed thermoelastic phase damage analysis (TPDA) in which damaged area was emphasized in the differential phase delay images utilizing the property that carbon fiber shows opposite phase thermoelastic temperature change.

  18. Development and application of an empirical formula for the high temperature behavior of ferroelectric ceramics switched by electric field at room temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Won Ji

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The strain changes during temperature rise of a poled lead titanate zirconate rectangular parallelepiped switched by electric field at room temperature are obtained by integrating thermal expansion coefficients that are measured using an invar-specimen. By estimating and analyzing pyroelectric and thermal expansion coefficients, first-order differential equations are constructed for polarization and strain changes during temperature increase. The solutions to the differential equations are found and used to calculate the high temperature behavior of the materials. It is shown that the predictions are well compared with measured responses. Finally, the developed formulae are applied to calculate strain butterfly loops from a polarization hysteresis loop at a high temperature.

  19. A Newly Developed Perfused Umbrella Electrode for Radiofrequency Ablation: An Ex Vivo Evaluation Study in Bovine Liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruners, Philipp; Pfeffer, Jochen; Kazim, Rana M.; Guenther, Rolf W.; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Mahnken, Andreas H.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a newly developed perfused monopolar radiofrequency (RF) probe with an umbrella-shaped array. A perfused umbrella-shaped monopolar RF probe based on a LeVeen electrode (Boston Scientific Corp., Natick, MA, USA) with a 3-cm array diameter was developed. Five different configurations of this electrode were tested: (a) perfusion channel/endhole, (b) perfusion channel/endhole + sideholes, (c) 1 cm insulation removed at the tip, (d) 1 cm insulation removed at the tip + perfusion channel/endhole, and (e) 1 cm insulation removed at the tip + perfusion channel/endhole + sideholes. An unmodified LeVeen electrode served as a reference standard. RF ablations were performed in freshly excised bovine liver using a commercial monopolar RF system with a 200-W generator (RF 3000; Boston Scientific Corp.). Each electrode was tested 10 times applying the vendor's recommended ablation protocol combined with the preinjection of 2 ml 0.9% saline. Volumes and shapes of the lesions were compared. Lesions generated with the original LeVeen electrode showed a mean volume of 12.74 ± 0.52 cm 3 . Removing parts of the insulation led to larger coagulation volumes (22.65 ± 2.12 cm 3 ). Depending on the configuration, saline preinjection resulted in a further increase in coagulation volume (25.22 ± 3.37 to 31.28 ± 2.32 cm 3 ). Besides lesion volume, the shape of the ablation zone was influenced by the configuration of the electrode used. We conclude that saline preinjection in combination with increasing the active tip length of the umbrella-shaped LeVeen RF probe allows the reliable ablation of larger volumes in comparison to the originally configured electrode

  20. The integrated project SOFC600 development of low-temperature SOFC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rietveld, B.; Van Berkel, F.; Zhang-Steenwinkel, Y.

    2009-01-01

    The Integrated Project SOFC600 unites 21 partners jointly working on the research and development of SOFC stack components for operation at 600oC. The project is funded by the European Commission within the 6th Framework Programme. Low-temperature operation is considered essential for achieving c...

  1. Development of High-Temperature Transport System for Molten Salt in Pyroprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Ho; Kim, In Tae; Park, Sung Bin

    2014-01-01

    The electrorefining process, which is a key process in pyroprocessing, is composed of two parts, electrorefining to deposit a uranium with a solid cathode and electrowinning to co-deposit TRU and RE with a liquid cadmium cathode (LCC). As the electrorefining operation proceedes, TRU and RE are accumulated in electrolyte LiCl-KCl salt, and after the electrorefining process, the molten salt used in an electrorefining reactor should by transported to the next process, the electrowinning process, to recover U/TRU/RE; Thus, a molten salt transfer system by suction is now being developed. An apparatus for suction transport experiments was designed and constructed for the development of high- temperature molten salt transport technology. Suction transport experiments were performed using LiC-KCl eutectic salt. The feasibility of pyro-reprocessing has been demonstrated through many laboratory-scale experiments. In pyroprocessing, a eutectic LiCl-KCl salt was used as a liquid elextrolyte for a recovery of actinides. However, reliable transport technologies for these high temperature liquids have not yet been developed. A preliminary study on high-temperature transport technology for molten salt by suction is now being carried out. In this study, three different salt transport technologies (gravity, suction pump, and centrifugal pump) were investigated to select the most suitable method for molten salt transport. An apparatus for suction transport experiments was designed and installed for the development of high-temperature molten salt transport technology. Basic preliminary suction transport experiments were carried out using the prepared LiC-KCl eutectic salt at 500 .deg. C to observe the transport behavior of LiCl-KCl molten salt. In addition, a PRIDE salt transport system was designed and installed for an engineering-scale salt transport demonstration. Several types of suction transport experiments using molten salt (LiCl-KCl eutectics) for the development of a high-temperature

  2. Development of High-Temperature Transport System for Molten Salt in Pyroprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sung Ho; Kim, In Tae; Park, Sung Bin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The electrorefining process, which is a key process in pyroprocessing, is composed of two parts, electrorefining to deposit a uranium with a solid cathode and electrowinning to co-deposit TRU and RE with a liquid cadmium cathode (LCC). As the electrorefining operation proceedes, TRU and RE are accumulated in electrolyte LiCl-KCl salt, and after the electrorefining process, the molten salt used in an electrorefining reactor should by transported to the next process, the electrowinning process, to recover U/TRU/RE; Thus, a molten salt transfer system by suction is now being developed. An apparatus for suction transport experiments was designed and constructed for the development of high- temperature molten salt transport technology. Suction transport experiments were performed using LiC-KCl eutectic salt. The feasibility of pyro-reprocessing has been demonstrated through many laboratory-scale experiments. In pyroprocessing, a eutectic LiCl-KCl salt was used as a liquid elextrolyte for a recovery of actinides. However, reliable transport technologies for these high temperature liquids have not yet been developed. A preliminary study on high-temperature transport technology for molten salt by suction is now being carried out. In this study, three different salt transport technologies (gravity, suction pump, and centrifugal pump) were investigated to select the most suitable method for molten salt transport. An apparatus for suction transport experiments was designed and installed for the development of high-temperature molten salt transport technology. Basic preliminary suction transport experiments were carried out using the prepared LiC-KCl eutectic salt at 500 .deg. C to observe the transport behavior of LiCl-KCl molten salt. In addition, a PRIDE salt transport system was designed and installed for an engineering-scale salt transport demonstration. Several types of suction transport experiments using molten salt (LiCl-KCl eutectics) for the development of a high-temperature

  3. Assessment of a Newly Developed, Active Pneumatic-Driven, Sensorimotor Test and Training Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Haslinger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The sensorimotor system (SMS plays an important role in sports and in every day movement. Several tools for assessment and training have been designed. Many of them are directed to specific populations, and have major shortcomings due to the training effect or safety. The aim of the present study was to design and assess a dynamic sensorimotor test and training device that can be adjusted for all levels of performance. The novel pneumatic-driven mechatronic device can guide the trainee, allow independent movements or disrupt the individual with unpredicted perturbations while standing on a platform. The test-reliability was evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC. Subjects were required to balance their center of pressure (COP in a target circle (TITC. The time in TITC and the COP error (COPe were recorded for analysis. The results of 22 males and 14 females (23.7 ± 2.6 years showed good to excellent test–retest reliability. The newly designed Active Balance System (ABS was then compared with the Biodex Balance System SD® (BBS. The results of 15 females, 14 males (23.4 ± 1.6 years showed modest correlation in static and acceptable correlation in dynamic conditions, suggesting that ABS could be a reliable and comparable tool for dynamic balance assessments.

  4. Development of elevated temperature fatigue design information for type 316 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaske, C.E.; Mindlin, H.; Perrin, J.S.

    1975-01-01

    To develop material properties information for use in elevated-temperature fatigue design, an extensive study of the fatigue and stress-strain behaviour of Type 316 stainless steel was conducted at temperatures from 21 to 649 0 C. Fatigue life and cyclic stress-strain curves were developed. Creep-fatigue interaction was evaluated by conducting strain hold-time tests at 566 and 649 0 C. Hold periods at peak tensile strain produced a large reduction in cyclic life. It was found that both a linear damage rule and the strain-partitioning method could be used to assess cumulative creep and fatigue damage. Aging for 1000 h at test temperature before testing caused only small or no changes in continuous cycling fatigue resistance at 566 and 649 0 C and in tension hold-time fatigue resistance at 566 0 C. This aging produced a significant increase in tension hold-time fatigue resistance at 649 0 C. (author)

  5. Validation of mentorship model for newly qualified professional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Newly qualified professional nurses (NQPNs) allocated to community health care services require the use of validated model to practice independently. Validation was done to adapt and assess if the model is understood and could be implemented by NQPNs and mentors employed in community health care services.

  6. Electrochemical Study on Newly Synthesized Chlorocurcumin as an Inhibitor for Mild Steel Corrosion in Hydrochloric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Al-Amiery

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A new curcumin derivative, i.e., (1E,4Z,6E-5-chloro-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylhepta-1,4,6-trien-3-one (chlorocurcumin, was prepared starting with the natural compound curcumin. The newly synthesized compound was characterized by elemental analysis and spectral studies (IR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. The corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 1 M HCl by chlorocurcumin has been studied using potentiodynamic polarization (PDP measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. The inhibition efficiency increases with the concentration of the inhibitor but decreases with increases in temperature. The potentiodynamic polarization reveals that chlorocurcumin is a mixed-type inhibitor. The kinetic parameters for mild steel corrosion were determined and discussed.

  7. Electrochemical Study on Newly Synthesized Chlorocurcumin as an Inhibitor for Mild Steel Corrosion in Hydrochloric Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amiery, Ahmed A.; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Musa, Ahmed Y.; Li, Cheong Jiun

    2013-01-01

    A new curcumin derivative, i.e., (1E,4Z,6E)-5-chloro-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)hepta-1,4,6-trien-3-one (chlorocurcumin), was prepared starting with the natural compound curcumin. The newly synthesized compound was characterized by elemental analysis and spectral studies (IR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR). The corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 1 M HCl by chlorocurcumin has been studied using potentiodynamic polarization (PDP) measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The inhibition efficiency increases with the concentration of the inhibitor but decreases with increases in temperature. The potentiodynamic polarization reveals that chlorocurcumin is a mixed-type inhibitor. The kinetic parameters for mild steel corrosion were determined and discussed. PMID:28788402

  8. Development of hot water utilizing power plants in fiscal 1999. Development of technology to collect geothermal resources in great depths/Development of technology to excavate geothermal resources in great depths (Designing whole development); 1999 nendo nessui riyo hatsuden plant nado kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Shinbu chinetsu shigen saishu gijutsu no kaihatsu / shinbu chinetsu shigen kussaku gijutsu no kaihatsu (zentai kaihatsu sekkei)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Technological development has been made on excavation of geothermal wells, which are dense, hard, and high in temperature and pressure, in developing geothermal resources in great depths. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. This fiscal year has performed the excavation test using an actual well to verify the reliability in practical use of the developed heat-resistant and durable bit. The test was executed by using a bit with a diameter of 8-1/2 inches in a ground bet having a maximum temperature of 300 degrees C in the Yamakawa geothermal field. As a result, good site evaluation was obtained that the wear and tear after lift-up showed no problems, and sufficient performance was verified in the drilling rate and durability. In addition, the low specific gravity cement for high temperature use that has been newly developed was given a cement mixing test to identify its workability at site and hardening properties, at a test well with a temperature of about 40 degrees C in the Okiri geothermal field. The actual well test was performed in a large-scale lost water occurred in a return well during an excavation by Nittestu-Kagoshima Geothermal Company. Effects were recognized in measures to prevent water loss. (NEDO)

  9. Development of a Microchannel High Temperature Recuperator for Fuel Cell Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukas, Michael [Fuelcell Energy, Inc., Danbury, CT (United States)

    2014-03-24

    This report summarizes the progress made in development of microchannel recuperators for high temperature fuel cell/turbine hybrid systems for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. Both Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/Turbine (SOFC/T) and Direct FuelCell/Turbine (DFC/T) systems employ an indirectly heated Turbine Generator to supplement fuel cell generated power. The concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell’s byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the SOFC/T and DFC/T systems include: electrical efficiencies of up to 65% on natural gas, minimal emissions, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, simplicity in design, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. Project work consisted of candidate material selection from FuelCell Energy (FCE) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) institutional databases as well as from industrial and academic literature. Candidate materials were then downselected and actual samples were tested under representative environmental conditions resulting in further downselection. A microchannel thermal-mechanical model was developed to calculate overall device cost to be later used in developing a final Tier 1 material candidate list. Specifications and operating conditions were developed for both SOFC/T and DFC/T systems. This development included system conceptualization and progression to process flow diagrams (PFD’s) including all major equipment. Material and energy balances were then developed for the two types of systems which were then used for extensive sensitivity studies that used high temperature recuperator (HTR) design parameters (e.g., operating temperature) as inputs and calculated overall system parameters (e.g., system efficiency). The results of the sensitivity studies determined the final HTR design temperatures, pressure drops, and gas compositions. The results also established operating conditions and

  10. Nonlinear Power-Level Control of the MHTGR Only with the Feedback Loop of Helium Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Dong

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Power-level control is a crucial technique for the safe, stable and efficient operation of modular high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors (MHTGRs, which have strong inherent safety features and high outlet temperatures. The current power-level controllers of the MHTGRs need measurements of both the nuclear power and the helium temperature, which cannot provide satisfactory control performance and can even induce large oscillations when the neutron sensors are in error. In order to improve the fault tolerance of the control system, it is important to develop a power-level control strategy that only requires the helium temperature. The basis for developing this kind of control law is to give a state-observer of the MHTGR a relationship that only needs the measurement of helium temperature. With this in mind, a novel nonlinear state observer which only needs the measurement of helium temperature is proposed. This observer is globally convergent if there is no disturbance, and has the L2 disturbance attenuation performance if the disturbance is nonzero. The separation principle of this observer is also proven, which denotes that this observer can recover the performance of both globally asymptotic stabilizers and L2 disturbance attenuators. Then, a new dynamic output feedback power-level control strategy is established, which is composed of this observer and the well-built static state-feedback power-level control based upon iterative dissipation assignment (IDA-PLC. Finally, numerical simulation results show the high performance and feasibility of this newly-built dynamic output feedback power-level controller.

  11. Newly divided eosinophils limit ozone-induced airway hyperreactivity in nonsensitized guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicher, Sarah A; Jacoby, David B; Fryer, Allison D

    2017-06-01

    Ozone causes vagally mediated airway hyperreactivity and recruits inflammatory cells, including eosinophils, to lungs, where they mediate ozone-induced hyperreactivity 1 day after exposure but are paradoxically protective 3 days later. We aimed to test the role of newly divided eosinophils in ozone-induced airway hyperreactivity in sensitized and nonsensitized guinea pigs. Nonsensitized and sensitized guinea pigs were treated with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label newly divided cells and were exposed to air or ozone for 4 h. Later (1 or 3 days later), vagally induced bronchoconstriction was measured, and inflammatory cells were harvested from bone marrow, blood, and bronchoalveolar lavage. Ozone induced eosinophil hematopoiesis. One day after ozone, mature eosinophils dominate the inflammatory response and potentiate vagally induced bronchoconstriction. However, by 3 days, newly divided eosinophils have reached the lungs, where they inhibit ozone-induced airway hyperreactivity because depleting them with antibody to IL-5 or a TNF-α antagonist worsened vagally induced bronchoconstriction. In sensitized guinea pigs, both ozone-induced eosinophil hematopoiesis and subsequent recruitment of newly divided eosinophils to lungs 3 days later failed to occur. Thus mature eosinophils dominated the ozone-induced inflammatory response in sensitized guinea pigs. Depleting these mature eosinophils prevented ozone-induced airway hyperreactivity in sensitized animals. Ozone induces eosinophil hematopoiesis and recruitment to lungs, where 3 days later, newly divided eosinophils attenuate vagally mediated hyperreactivity. Ozone-induced hematopoiesis of beneficial eosinophils is blocked by a TNF-α antagonist or by prior sensitization. In these animals, mature eosinophils are associated with hyperreactivity. Thus interventions targeting eosinophils, although beneficial in atopic individuals, may delay resolution of airway hyperreactivity in nonatopic individuals. Copyright

  12. Laboratory model study of newly deposited dredger fills using improved multiple-vacuum preloading technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjin Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Problems continue to be encountered concerning the traditional vacuum preloading method in field during the treatment of newly deposited dredger fills. In this paper, an improved multiple-vacuum preloading method was developed to consolidate newly dredger fills that are hydraulically placed in seawater for land reclamation in Lingang Industrial Zone of Tianjin City, China. With this multiple-vacuum preloading method, the newly deposited dredger fills could be treated effectively by adopting a novel moisture separator and a rapid improvement technique without sand cushion. A series of model tests was conducted in the laboratory for comparing the results from the multiple-vacuum preloading method and the traditional one. Ten piezometers and settlement plates were installed to measure the variations in excess pore water pressures and moisture content, and vane shear strength was measured at different positions. The testing results indicate that water discharge–time curves obtained by the traditional vacuum preloading method can be divided into three phases: rapid growth phase, slow growth phase, and steady phase. According to the process of fluid flow concentrated along tiny ripples and building of larger channels inside soils during the whole vacuum loading process, the fluctuations of pore water pressure during each loading step are divided into three phases: steady phase, rapid dissipation phase, and slow dissipation phase. An optimal loading pattern which could have a best treatment effect was proposed for calculating the water discharge and pore water pressure of soil using the improved multiple-vacuum preloading method. For the newly deposited dredger fills at Lingang Industrial Zone of Tianjin City, the best loading step was 20 kPa and the loading of 40–50 kPa produced the highest drainage consolidation. The measured moisture content and vane shear strength were discussed in terms of the effect of reinforcement, both of which indicate

  13. Examination of in vivo gelatinolytic activity in rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissue using newly developed in situ zymography and image analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, W; Uzuki, M; Nishida, J; Shimamura, T; Sawai, T

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine in vivo gelatinolytic activity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovium using a newly developed in situ zymography (ISZ) method and pathological image analyzer, and to evaluate the relationship between this activity and several features on RA. A total of 8 samples of synovium were obtained from RA patients during surgery, and 8 samples from osteoarthritis (OA) patients were examined as controls. Furthermore, total 14 samples of syovium were obtained for comparison among radiographical classifications as Larsen grade (4 cases of grade III, 5 cases of grade IV and 5 cases of grade V). These specimens were frozen with OCT compound immediately after surgery. Frozen sections were applied to a newly developed gelatin-coated FIZ film (Fuji Film Co.Tokyo.Japan) designed for use ISZ, and incubated at 37 degrees C for 6 hours. Using an image analyzer (image processor for analytical pathology; IPAP), two variables were measured as indicators of in vivo gelatynolytic activity: optical density of gelatinolyzed area (ODG), and ratio of gelatinolyzed area (RGA). Also, we investigated the relationship between these indicators and the following variables: radiographic changes (Larsen grades), clinical data (C-reactive protein concentration), histological score of synovial tissue (modified Rooney's score), and expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2 (assessed by immunohistochemistry). RA synovium had significantly higher RGA and lower ODG than OA, indicating higher gelatinolytic activity in RA. Synovium from cases with Larsen grade IV or V had significantly lower ODG than cases with grade III, but there was no significant difference in RGA between grades. There was no significant correlation between gelatinolytic activity (ODG or RGA) and either CRP or modified Rooney's Histological Score. The results of ISZ indicate that the gelatinolyzed areas were mainly localized in the

  14. Development of Metal Oxide Nanostructure-based Optical Sensors for Fossil Fuel Derived Gases Measurement at High Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Kevin P. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-02-13

    This final technical report details research works performed supported by a Department of Energy grant (DE-FE0003859), which was awarded under the University Coal Research Program administrated by National Energy Technology Laboratory. This research program studied high temperature fiber sensor for harsh environment applications. It developed two fiber optical sensor platform technology including regenerative fiber Bragg grating sensors and distributed fiber optical sensing based on Rayleigh backscattering optical frequency domain reflectometry. Through the studies of chemical and thermal regenerative techniques for fiber Bragg grating (FBG) fabrication, high-temperature stable FBG sensors were successfully developed and fabricated in air-hole microstructured fibers, high-attenuation fibers, rare-earth doped fibers, and standard telecommunication fibers. By optimizing the laser processing and thermal annealing procedures, fiber grating sensors with stable performance up to 1100°C have been developed. Using these temperature-stable FBG gratings as sensor platform, fiber optical flow, temperature, pressure, and chemical sensors have been developed to operate at high temperatures up to 800°C. Through the integration of on-fiber functional coating, the use of application-specific air-hole microstructural fiber, and application of active fiber sensing scheme, distributed fiber sensor for temperature, pressure, flow, liquid level, and chemical sensing have been demonstrated with high spatial resolution (1-cm or better) with wide temperature ranges. These include the demonstration of 1) liquid level sensing from 77K to the room temperature, pressure/temperature sensing from the room temperature to 800C and from the 15psi to 2000 psi, and hydrogen concentration measurement from 0.2% to 10% with temperature ranges from the room temperature to 700°C. Optical sensors developed by this program has broken several technical records including flow sensors with the highest

  15. Experimental determination of the effect of temperature and humidity on the development of colour in Pinus radiata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. McCurdy

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were undertaken to determine the effects of drying conditions (temperature and humidity on the development of kiln brown stain in radiata pine during drying. Eight schedules were tested with temperatures ranging from 50°C to 120°C and relative humidity from 14% to 67%. The variables measured were moisture content, color expressed using the CIELab color space, and nitrogen content. The experiments have shown that the kiln brown stain is influenced by drying temperature and drying time. The recommendation is therefore that low-temperature and low-humidity schedules be developed for controlling color development.

  16. Neuropsychological and psychological interventions for people with newly diagnosed epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Cerian F; Makin, Selina M; Baker, Gus A

    2015-07-22

    Many people with epilepsy report experiencing psychological difficulties such as anxiety, depression and neuropsychological deficits including memory problems. Research has shown that these difficulties are often present not only for people with chronic epilepsy but also for people with newly diagnosed epilepsy. Despite this, there are very few published interventions that detail means to help people with newly diagnosed epilepsy manage these problems. To identify and assess possible psychological and neuropsychological interventions for adults with newly diagnosed epilepsy. We searched the following databases on 30 June 2015: the Cochrane Epilepsy Group Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (Ovid), SCOPUS, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). This review includes all randomised controlled trials, quasi-randomised controlled trials, prospective cohort controlled studies, and prospective before and after studies which include psychological or neuropsychological interventions for people with newly diagnosed epilepsy. We excluded studies that included people with epilepsy and any other psychological disorder or neurological condition. We excluded studies carried out which recruited only children. We used the standard methodological procedure expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Two authors independently completed data extraction and risk of bias analysis. The results of this were cross-checked and third author resolved any discrepancies. In the event of missing data, we contacted the study authors. Meta-analysis was not completed due to differences in the intervention and outcomes reported in the two studies. We included two randomised controlled trials assessing psychological interventions for people with newly diagnosed epilepsy. One study assessed a cognitive behavioural intervention (CBI) in an adolescent

  17. Vibro-acoustic performance of newly designed tram track structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haladin, Ivo; Lakušić, Stjepan; Ahac, Maja

    2017-09-01

    Rail vehicles in interaction with a railway structure induce vibrations that are propagating to surrounding structures and cause noise disturbance in the surrounding areas. Since tram tracks in urban areas often share the running surface with road vehicles one of top priorities is to achieve low maintenance and long lasting structure. Research conducted in scope of this paper gives an overview of newly designed tram track structures designated for use on Zagreb tram network and their performance in terms of noise and vibration mitigation. Research has been conducted on a 150 m long test section consisted of three tram track types: standard tram track structure commonly used on tram lines in Zagreb, optimized tram structure for better noise and vibration mitigation and a slab track with double sleepers embedded in a concrete slab, which presents an entirely new approach of tram track construction in Zagreb. Track has been instrumented with acceleration sensors, strain gauges and revision shafts for inspection. Relative deformations give an insight into track structure dynamic load distribution through the exploitation period. Further the paper describes vibro-acoustic measurements conducted at the test site. To evaluate the track performance from the vibro-acoustical standpoint, detailed analysis of track decay rate has been analysed. Opposed to measurement technique using impact hammer for track decay rate measurements, newly developed measuring technique using vehicle pass by vibrations as a source of excitation has been proposed and analysed. Paper gives overview of the method, it’s benefits compared to standard method of track decay rate measurements and method evaluation based on noise measurements of the vehicle pass by.

  18. The interrelation between growth and development of wheat as influenced by temperature, light and nitrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalil, M.S.H.

    1956-01-01

    Development was studied in wheat, mainly the subtropical varieties Hindi and Baladi. Leaf emergence was faster and the relation shoot/root decreased as temperature increased from 10° to 30°C. After transfer from low night temperature to higher temperatures for daily illumination, the root system was

  19. Molecular Tagging Velocimetry Development for In-situ Measurement in High-Temperature Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Matthieu A.; Bardet, Philippe M.; Burns, Ross A.; Danehy, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    The High Temperature Test Facility, HTTF, at Oregon State University (OSU) is an integral-effect test facility designed to model the behavior of a Very High Temperature Gas Reactor (VHTR) during a Depressurized Conduction Cooldown (DCC) event. It also has the ability to conduct limited investigations into the progression of a Pressurized Conduction Cooldown (PCC) event in addition to phenomena occurring during normal operations. Both of these phenomena will be studied with in-situ velocity field measurements. Experimental measurements of velocity are critical to provide proper boundary conditions to validate CFD codes, as well as developing correlations for system level codes, such as RELAP5 (http://www4vip.inl.gov/relap5/). Such data will be the first acquired in the HTTF and will introduce a diagnostic with numerous other applications to the field of nuclear thermal hydraulics. A laser-based optical diagnostic under development at The George Washington University (GWU) is presented; the technique is demonstrated with velocity data obtained in ambient temperature air, and adaptation to high-pressure, high-temperature flow is discussed.

  20. Microstructure and mechanical properties of newly developed aluminum–lithium alloy 2A97 welded by fiber laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Banglong [Key Laboratory for Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Qin, Guoliang, E-mail: glqin@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Meng, Xiangmeng; Ji, Yang; Zou, Yong [Key Laboratory for Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Lei, Zhen [Harbin Welding Institute, Harbin 150028 (China)

    2014-11-03

    The newly developed aluminum–lithium alloy 2A97 was for the first time joined by laser beam welding in order to meet the ever-increased long-term requirements of aerospace, aviation and armament industries. The weld appearance, microstructure, solute segregation, precipitate behavior, and their relationships with mechanical properties of welded joints were investigated. Sound joints with no crack and a few small porosities are obtained under appropriate heat inputs. As a result of heterogeneous nucleation involving the effect of Zr and Li, a non-dendritic equiaxed zone forms between partially melted zone and fusion zone. The crystal morphologies in fusion zone vary from columnar dendrite to equiaxed dendrite, with the increase of constitutional supercooling. Solute segregation leads to the variations of Cu content in grain interior and boundary, as well as the weak ability of re-precipitation of fusion zone. Most precipitates in the base metal dissolve during welding, and fusion zone contains a decreased quantity of δ′, β′, θ′, and T{sub 1}. The ultimate tensile strength of laser welded joints is 83.4% of that of the base metal, and can meet the application requirements from related industries, but the ductility still needs to be improved. Welding defects and loss of solid solution/precipitation hardened structure lead to the degradation of mechanical properties. Tensile fracture occurs in weld with the brittle intergranular dominated mode and premature failure occurs and extends in the equiaxed zone.

  1. Patients newly diagnosed with clinical type 2 diabetes during oral glucocorticoid treatment and observed for 14 years: all-cause mortality and clinical developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivarius, Niels de Fine; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Dyring-Andersen, B.

    2011-01-01

    and sex and to 1.39 (0.92-2.11, p = 0.12, n = 1086) when risk factors, complications and cancer were added to the model. Apart from differences in age and overweight, patients in this relatively small sample of those diagnosed with clinical type 2 diabetes during GC treatment were comparable at diagnosis...... treatment. A population-based sample of 1369 people newly diagnosed with clinical type 2 diabetes underwent a clinical examination at diagnosis, and surviving patients were followed up 6 and 14 years later. Patients receiving oral GC treatment at diagnosis were compared with the other patients. Of 1369......Chronic exposure to glucocorticoids (GCs) has many side effects including glucose intolerance and diabetes and may accelerate the occurrence of cardiovascular disease and increase mortality. We studied the 14-year clinical development of diabetes in patients diagnosed with diabetes during GC...

  2. [Epidemiological characteristics of newly reported HIV infections in Chinese and Burmese residents, during 2012-2016 in Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J B; Chen, X C; Duan, X; Yang, J; Wang, Y K; Yang, T; Ye, R H; Yang, Y C; Yao, S T; Jiang, Y; Duan, S; He, N

    2017-10-10

    Objective: To understand the epidemiological characteristics of newly reported HIV infections in Chinese and Burmese residents during 2012-2016 in Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture of Yunnan province (Dehong) and to provide evidence for the development of related programs on prevention and control. Methods: All the HIV infections who were newly reported during 2012-2016 in Dehong, were recruited as the study subjects, with epidemiological characteristics of the cases analyzed by using the software SPSS 22.0. Results: A total of 5 692 HIV infections were newly reported between 2012 and 2016 (including 5 592 in this study), in which the Chinese patients accounted for 43.3 % (2 419) and the rest 56.7 % (3 173) were Burmese. Differences in age, gender and other social characteristics of these newly reported HIV infections were statistically significant between the Chinese and the Burmese (all p -values Chinese patients but through injecting drug use among the Burmese patients. Conclusions: Epidemiological characteristics of the newly reported HIV infections were different between the Chinese and the Burmese, between 2012 and 2016 in Dehong. Targeted prevention and control programs should be taken.

  3. The effect of rearing temperature in larval development of pejerrey, Odontesthes bonariensis: morphological indicators of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Chalde

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that in pejerrey water temperature not only affects growth rates but also directs the sexual differentiation process. This fact rise the question of how different the development of pejerrey larvae of the same age is when reared at different temperatures. A description of developmental stages for the embryonic and larval periods of the pejerrey, Odontesthes bonariensis, and the influence of rearing temperature on larval development are presented. Then, larval development was studied at three rearing temperatures, and changes in general morphology, fin morphology, and caudal fin structure have been taken into consideration within the thermal range involved in the temperature sex determination of this species. Fin fold reabsorption, caudal fin formation, and body shape were selected to follow the events leading to the acquisition of the juvenile morphology. The juvenile phenotype was defined when the fin fold was reabsorpted and the caudal fin acquired its definitive homocercal structure. The moment at which the juvenile phenotype was achieved, was evaluated in relation to larval age, size and, shape. The size resulted as the best indicator of development in pejerrey.A temperatura da água não afeta apenas as taxas de crescimento no peixe-rei, mas também direciona o processo de diferenciação sexual. Este fato levanta o questionamento de quão diferente é o desenvolvimento de larvas do peixe-rei da mesma idade quando criadas em temperaturas diferentes. Este trabalho teve como objetivo apresentar uma descrição do de desenvolvimento de embriões e larvas do peixe-rei, Odontesthes bonariensis, e a influência da temperatura de criação no desenvolvimento das larvas. Neste trabalho, o desenvolvimento das larvas foi estudado em três temperaturas diferentes de cultivo. Foram consideradas as alterações ocorridas na morfologia geral, assim como na morfologia e na estrutura da nadadeira caudal dentro da variação termal da

  4. Hope, emotion regulation, and psychosocial well-being in patients newly diagnosed with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peh, Chao Xu; Kua, Ee Heok; Mahendran, Rathi

    2016-05-01

    Patients newly diagnosed with cancer are often confronted with feelings of uncertainty and life threat. A significant proportion may report impairments in psychosocial well-being. Previous studies examining protective psychological factors such as hope and emotion regulation (ER) have yet to investigate these processes concurrently within a common self-regulation framework and/or focus on newly diagnosed patients. The present study aimed to examine how hope and ER may relate to psychosocial outcomes of patients newly diagnosed with cancer. The present study used a cross-sectional design with self-report questionnaires. Participants were newly diagnosed patients (N = 101) recruited from three cancer therapy clinics in a hospital. Patients completed measures of hope, ER (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression), and psychosocial well-being (life satisfaction and negative affectivity). Findings showed that (1) hope and reappraisal, but not suppression, were associated with well-being and (2) the interaction between hope and reappraisal was associated with well-being; reappraisal was not associated with well-being in high hope patients, while high reappraisal was associated with better well-being in low hope patients. Individual differences in hope and reappraisal appeared to be associated with psychosocial outcomes in newly diagnosed cancer patients. Hopeful thinking appeared to benefit patients' psychosocial well-being. In addition, an interaction effect between hope and reappraisal suggested that reappraisal as an ER strategy may be particularly adaptive for patients with low hope.

  5. Development of NONSTA code for the design and analysis of LMR high temperature structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Bum; Lee, H. Y.; Yoo, B.

    1999-02-01

    Liquid metal reactor(LMR) operates at high temperature (500-550 dg C) and structural materials undergo complex deformation behavior like diffusion, dislocation glide, and dislocation climb due to high temperature environment. And the material life reduces rapidly due to the interaction of cavities created inside structural materials and high temperature fatigue cracks. Thus the establishment of high temperature structure analysis techniques is necessary for the reliability and safety evaluation of such structures. The objectives of this study are to develop NONSTA code as the subprogram of ABAQUS code adopting constitutive equations which can predict high temperature material behavior precisely and to build the systematic analysis procedures. The developed program was applied to the example problems such as the tensile analysis using exponential creep model and the repetitive tensile-compression analysis using Chaboche unified viscoplastic model. In addition, the problem of a plate with a center hole subjected to tensile load was solved to show the applicability of the program to multiaxial problem and the time dependent stress redistribution was observed. (Author). 40 refs., 2 tabs., 24 figs

  6. Assessing the comparative effectiveness of newly marketed medications: methodological challenges and implications for drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeweiss, S; Gagne, J J; Glynn, R J; Ruhl, M; Rassen, J A

    2011-12-01

    Comparative-effectiveness research (CER) aims to produce actionable evidence regarding the effectiveness and safety of medical products and interventions as they are used outside of controlled research settings. Although CER evidence regarding medications is particularly needed shortly after market approval, key methodological challenges include (i) potential bias due to channeling of patients to the newly marketed medication because of various patient-, physician-, and system-related factors; (ii) rapid changes in the characteristics of the user population during the early phase of marketing; and (iii) lack of timely data and the often small number of users in the first few months of marketing. We propose a mix of approaches to generate comparative-effectiveness data in the early marketing period, including sequential cohort monitoring with secondary health-care data and propensity score (PS) balancing, as well as extended follow-up of phase III and phase IV trials, indirect comparisons of placebo-controlled trials, and modeling and simulation of virtual trials.

  7. Mentoring program for students newly enrolled in an Engineering Degree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pedro Peña-Martín

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a mentoring program for first year engineering students in the Telecommunications Engineering College (ETSIT at the University of Malaga (UMA. Actors involved in the program are professors from staff, veterans mentoring students and, of course, freshmen. All of them has been organized trough the Moodle based Virtual Learning Environment Platform of the UMA. The program has gone through several phases over three years. This paper shows the main objectives of this mentoring program, the initial design to get them where professors played mentor role, and successive changes made to try to improve the results, including the assumption of the mentor role by senior students (peer mentoring. The tools used for program evaluation are shown too. Despite the low participation, it has been a framework for the development of various educational and socializing activities (for mentors and mentees focused on developing generic competences. Furthermore, it has been a research tool to get a better understanding of problems affecting students newly enrolled.

  8. HIGH TEMPERATURE TENSILE PROPERTIES OF NEW FE-CR-MN DEVELOPED STEEL

    OpenAIRE

    M. Mahmoudiniya; Sh. Kheirandish; M. Asadi Asadabad

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, Ni-free austenitic stainless steels are being developed rapidly and high price of nickel is one of the most important motivations for this development. At present research a new FeCrMn steel was designed and produced based on Fe-Cr-Mn-C system. Comparative studies on microstructure and high temperature mechanical properties of  new steel and AISI 316 steel were done. The results showed that new FeCrMn developed steel has single austenite phase microstructure, and its tensile st...

  9. Biomechanical Skin Property Evaluation for Wounds Treated With Synthetic and Biosynthetic Wound Dressings and a Newly Developed Collagen Matrix During Healing of Superficial Skin Defects in a Rat Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Manuel; Engelke, Anne-Sophie; Tolzmann, Dascha Sophie; Rahmanian-Schwarz, Afshin; Schaller, Hans-Eberhard; Rothenberger, Jens

    2016-09-01

    There is a high prevalence of superficial wounds such as partial-thickness burns. Treatment of these wounds frequently includes temporary application of wound dressings. The aim of this study was to compare a newly developed collagen matrix with commonly used temporary skin dressings for treatment of partial-thickness skin defects. Through a skin dermatome, 42 standardized superficial skin defects were generated on the back of 28 adult male Lewis rats. The wounds were treated with a synthetic wound dressing (Suprathel, Polymedics Innovations Inc, Woodstock, GA) (n = 14), a biosynthetic skin dressing (Biobrane, Smith & Nephew, Hull, UK) (n = 14), or a newly developed bovine collagen matrix, Collagen Cell Carrier (Viscofan BioEngineering, Weinheim, Germany) (n = 14). Biomechanical properties of the skin were determined and compared every 10 days over a 3-month period of using the Cutometer MPA 580 (Courage + Khazaka Electronic GmbH, Cologne, Germany). As opposed to healthy skin, statistically significant differences were detected between days 10 and 30, and between days 60 and 80, for calculated elasticity (Ue), firmness of skin (R0), and overall elasticity (R8). After 3 months, no statistically significant differences in skin elasticity were detected between the different wound dressings. The presented results give an opportunity to compare the wound dressings used for treatment with respect to skin elasticity and reveal the potential of the bovine collagen matrix in the treatment of superficial skin defects; therefore the results facilitate further evaluation of collagen matrix in surgical applications and regenerative medicine.

  10. Eclosion rate, development and survivorship of Aedes albopictus (Skuse)(Diptera: Culicidae) under different water temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, Laura C.C.; Souza, Jose R.B. de; Albuquerque, Cleide M.R. de

    2007-01-01

    In tropical areas, where vector insects populations are particularly numerous, temperature usually range between 25 de C and 35 deg C. Considering the importance of such temperature variation in determining mosquitoes population dynamics, in this work the developmental, eclosion and survival rates of the immature stages of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) were compared under constant 25, 30 and 35 deg C (using acclimatized chambers) and environmental (25 deg C to 29 deg C) temperatures. The hatching rate was considered as total number of larvae recovered after 24h. The development period as well as larval and pupal survival rate were evaluated daily. Eclosion rate was significantly higher under environmental temperature than under the studied constant temperatures, suggesting that temperature variation may be an eclosion-stimulating factor. The mean eclosion time increased with the temperature, ranging from 2.8 h (25 deg C) to 5.2 h (35 deg C). The larval period was greatly variable inside each group, although it did not differ significantly amongst groups (11.0 +- 4.19 days), with individuals showing longer larval stages in water at 35 deg C (12.0 +- 4.95 days) and environmental temperature (13.6 +- 5.98 days). Oppositely, survival was strongly affected by the higher temperature, where only one individual lived through to adult phase. The results suggest that population of Ae. albopictus from Recife may be adapting to increasing of environmental temperatures and that the limiting temperature to larval development is around 35 deg C. (author)

  11. GABA regulates synaptic integration of newly generated neurons in the adult brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shaoyu; Goh, Eyleen L. K.; Sailor, Kurt A.; Kitabatake, Yasuji; Ming, Guo-Li; Song, Hongjun

    2006-02-01

    Adult neurogenesis, the birth and integration of new neurons from adult neural stem cells, is a striking form of structural plasticity and highlights the regenerative capacity of the adult mammalian brain. Accumulating evidence suggests that neuronal activity regulates adult neurogenesis and that new neurons contribute to specific brain functions. The mechanism that regulates the integration of newly generated neurons into the pre-existing functional circuitry in the adult brain is unknown. Here we show that newborn granule cells in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus are tonically activated by ambient GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) before being sequentially innervated by GABA- and glutamate-mediated synaptic inputs. GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult brain, initially exerts an excitatory action on newborn neurons owing to their high cytoplasmic chloride ion content. Conversion of GABA-induced depolarization (excitation) into hyperpolarization (inhibition) in newborn neurons leads to marked defects in their synapse formation and dendritic development in vivo. Our study identifies an essential role for GABA in the synaptic integration of newly generated neurons in the adult brain, and suggests an unexpected mechanism for activity-dependent regulation of adult neurogenesis, in which newborn neurons may sense neuronal network activity through tonic and phasic GABA activation.

  12. Top Information Need Priorities of Older Adults Newly Diagnosed With Active Myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariman, Joseph D; Doorenbos, Ardith; Schepp, Karen G; Singhal, Seema; Berry, Donna L

    2015-01-01

    Prioritizing patients' information needs maximizes efficiency. This study examined the information sources and priorities in a sample of older adults newly diagnosed with symptomatic myeloma requiring immediate therapy. An association analysis of whether information needs were influenced by sociodemographic variables such as age, gender, education, marital status, and income was also conducted. The Information Needs Questionnaire (INQ) and an investigator-developed interview schedule were administered to 20 older adults diagnosed with symptomatic myeloma during a 30- to 45-minute semistructured interview. We found that older adults newly diagnosed with symptomatic myeloma have different priorities of information needs when compared with younger patients diagnosed with various types of cancer. The top three priorities related to treatment, prognosis, and self-care. Sociodemographic variables did not influence the priorities of information needs among older adults with symptomatic myeloma. The Internet, physicians, family, and friends were among the top sources of information. Advanced practitioners in oncology should support and identify interventions that can enhance patients' learning process from these sources. Well poised to assist patients in searching credible and reliable Internet sources, advanced practitioners in oncology can provide patient education about different treatments and the impact of such treatments on prognosis (e.g., overall survival and likelihood of cure).

  13. Big earth-observation data analytics for modelling pan-tropical land-use change trajectories for newly deforested areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coca Castro, Alejandro; Reymondin, Louis; Rebetez, Julien; Fabio Satizabal Mejia, Hector; Perez-Uribe, Andres; Mulligan, Mark; Smith, Thomas; Hyman, Glenn

    2017-04-01

    Global land use monitoring is important to the the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The latest advances in storage and manipulation of big earth-observation data have been key to developing multiple operational forest monitoring initiatives such as FORMA, Terra-i and Global Forest Change. Although the data provided by these systems are useful for identifying and estimating newly deforested areas (from 2000), they do not provide details about the land use to which these deforested areas are transitioned. This information is critical to understand the biodiversity and ecosystem services impact of deforestation and the resulting impacts on human wellbeing, locally and downstream. With the aim of contributing to current forest monitoring initiatives, this research presents a set of experimental case studies in Latin America which integrate existing land-change information derived from remote sensing image and aerial photography/ground datasets, high-temporal resolution MODIS data, advanced machine learning (i.e deep learning) and big data technologies (i.e. Hadoop and Spark) to assess land-use change trajectories in newly deforested areas in near real time.

  14. High-resolution temperature-based optimization for hyperthermia treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kok, H P; Haaren, P M A van; Kamer, J B Van de; Wiersma, J; Dijk, J D P Van; Crezee, J

    2005-01-01

    In regional hyperthermia, optimization techniques are valuable in order to obtain amplitude/phase settings for the applicators to achieve maximal tumour heating without toxicity to normal tissue. We implemented a temperature-based optimization technique and maximized tumour temperature with constraints on normal tissue temperature to prevent hot spots. E-field distributions are the primary input for the optimization method. Due to computer limitations we are restricted to a resolution of 1 x 1 x 1 cm 3 for E-field calculations, too low for reliable treatment planning. A major problem is the fact that hot spots at low-resolution (LR) do not always correspond to hot spots at high-resolution (HR), and vice versa. Thus, HR temperature-based optimization is necessary for adequate treatment planning and satisfactory results cannot be obtained with LR strategies. To obtain HR power density (PD) distributions from LR E-field calculations, a quasi-static zooming technique has been developed earlier at the UMC Utrecht. However, quasi-static zooming does not preserve phase information and therefore it does not provide the HR E-field information required for direct HR optimization. We combined quasi-static zooming with the optimization method to obtain a millimetre resolution temperature-based optimization strategy. First we performed a LR (1 cm) optimization and used the obtained settings to calculate the HR (2 mm) PD and corresponding HR temperature distribution. Next, we performed a HR optimization using an estimation of the new HR temperature distribution based on previous calculations. This estimation is based on the assumption that the HR and LR temperature distributions, though strongly different, respond in a similar way to amplitude/phase steering. To verify the newly obtained settings, we calculate the corresponding HR temperature distribution. This method was applied to several clinical situations and found to work very well. Deviations of this estimation method for

  15. Warm Arctic—cold continents: climate impacts of the newly open Arctic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E. Overland

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent Arctic changes are likely due to coupled Arctic amplification mechanisms with increased linkage between Arctic climate and sub-Arctic weather. Historically, sea ice grew rapidly in autumn, a strong negative radiative feedback. But increased sea-ice mobility, loss of multi-year sea ice, enhanced heat storage in newly sea ice-free ocean areas, and modified wind fields form connected positive feedback processes. One-way shifts in the Arctic system are sensitive to the combination of episodic intrinsic atmospheric and ocean variability and persistent increasing greenhouse gases. Winter 2009/10 and December 2010 showed a unique connectivity between the Arctic and more southern weather patterns when the typical polar vortex was replaced by high geopotential heights over the central Arctic and low heights over mid-latitudes that resulted in record snow and low temperatures, a warm Arctic—cold continents pattern. The negative value of the winter (DJF 2009/10 North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO index associated with enhanced meridional winds was the lowest observed value since the beginning of the record in 1865. Wind patterns in December 2007 and 2008 also show an impact of warmer Arctic temperatures. A tendency for higher geopotential heights over the Arctic and enhanced meridional winds are physically consistent with continued loss of sea ice over the next 40 years. A major challenge is to understand the interaction of Arctic changes with climate patterns such as the NAO, Pacific North American and El Niño–Southern Oscillation.

  16. Yolk-sac larval development of the substrate-brooding cichlid Archocentrus nigrofasciatus in relation to temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahos, Nikolaos; Vasilopoulos, Michael; Mente, Eleni; Hotos, George; Katselis, George; Vidalis, Kosmas

    2015-09-01

    In order to conserve and culture the cichlid fish Archocentrus nigrofasciatus, more information about its reproductive biology and its larval behavior and morphogenesis is necessary. Currently, temperatures ranging from 21 to 27 °C are used in ornamental aquaculture hatcheries. Lower temperatures are preferred to reduce the costs of water heating, and 23 °C is usually the selected temperature. However, there is limited information on culturing protocols for ornamental species and most of the information generated on this topic remains scarce. Thus, the present study examines the morphological development of Archocentrus nigrofasciatus during the yolk-sac period up to the age of 100 h post-hatching in relation to 2 temperature regimes used in ornamental aquaculture: a temperature of 27 °C (thermal optimum) and a decreased temperature of 23 °C (thermal tolerance). The results of this study suggest that the 27 °C temperature generates intense morphological changes in yolk-sac development in a shorter period. This has advantages as it reduces the time of yolk-sac larval development, and, thus, minimizes the transition phase to exogenous feeding and maximizes the efficiency at which yolk is converted into body tissues. The present paper provides necessary information to produce freshwater ornamental fish with better practices so as to increase larval survival and capitalize on time for growth. © 2015 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. A newly high alkaline lipase: an ideal choice for application in detergent formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherif Slim

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial lipases received much attention for their substrate specificity and their ability to function in extreme environments (pH, temperature.... Many staphylococci produced lipases which were released into the culture medium. Reports of thermostable lipases from Staphylococcus sp. and active in alkaline conditions are not previously described. Results A newly soil-isolated Staphylococcus sp. strain ESW secretes an induced lipase in the culture medium. The effects of temperature, pH and various components in a detergent on the activity and stability of Staphylococcus sp. lipase (SL1 were studied in a preliminary evaluation for use in detergent formulation solutions. The enzyme was highly active over a wide range of pH from 9.0 to 13.0, with an optimum at pH 12.0. The relative activity at pH 13.0 was about 60% of that obtained at pH 12.0. It exhibited maximal activity at 60°C. This novel lipase, showed extreme stability towards non-ionic and anionic surfactants after pre-incubation for 1 h at 40°C, and relative stability towards oxidizing agents. Additionally, the crude enzyme showed excellent stability and compatibility with various commercial solid and liquid detergents. Conclusions These properties added to the high activity in high alkaline pH make this novel lipase an ideal choice for application in detergent formulations.

  18. Protogalaxy interactions in newly formed clusters: Galaxy luminosities, colors, and intergalactic gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.

    1978-01-01

    The role of protogalaxy interactions in galactic evolution is studied during the formation of galaxy clusters. In the early stages of the collapse, coalescent encounters of protogalaxies lead to the development of a galactic luminosity function. Once galaxies acquire appreciable random motions, mutual collisions between galaxies in rich clusters will trigger the collapse of interstellar clouds to form stars. This provides both a source for enriched intracluster gas and an interpretation of the correlation between luminosity and color for cluster elliptical galaxies. Other observational consequences that are considered include optical, X-ray, and diffuse nonthermal radio emission from newly formed clusters of galaxies

  19. Frictional characteristics of silicon graphite lubricated with water at high pressure and high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Seon; Kim, Eun Hyun; Park, Jin Seok; Kim, Jong In

    2001-01-01

    Experimental frictional and wear characteristics of silicon graphite materials is studied in this paper. Those specimens are lubricated with high temperature and highly pressurized water to simulate the same operating condition for the journal bearing and the thrust bearing on the main coolant pump bearing in the newly developing nuclear reactor named SMART(System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor). Operating condition of the bearings is realized by the tribometer and the autoclave. Friction coefficient and wear loss are analyzed to choose the best silicon graphite material. Pin on plate test specimens are used and coned disk springs are used to control the applied force on the specimens. Wear loss and wear width are measured by a precision balance and a micrometer. The friction force is measured by the strain gauge which can be used under high temperature and high pressure. Three kinds of silicon graphite materials are examined and compared with each other, and each material shows similar but different results on frictional and wear characteristics

  20. Best management practices for newly weaned calves for improved health and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, B K; Richards, C J; Step, D L; Krehbiel, C R

    2017-05-01

    Morbidity and mortality in newly weaned calves resulting from bovine respiratory disease (BRD) continue to be the most significant problems facing the beef industry. Morbidity attributed to BRD accounts for approximately 75% of total feedlot morbidity. Several experiments have documented the economic impacts of BRD. Direct costs attributable to BRD include death loss, treatment and labor costs, and prevention costs, while indirect costs associated with BRD include decreased growth performance and feed efficiency, increased days on feed, and decreased carcass merit and market value. In recent years, cattle treated for BRD have returned $50 to $250 less per head at harvest than cattle never treated for BRD. Best management practices for newly weaned calves vary depending on a multitude of factors including: season of year calves are purchased, calf genetics, length of time in the marketing and transport channels, previous management and vaccination programs, and other factors. In general, calves purchased directly from a ranch have fewer health problems than calves purchased through auction markets. The longer a calf is in the marketing chain, the more likely health problems will be encountered. Calves that have spent several days in the marketing chain may develop clinical BRD before or very soon after arrival, whereas cattle with less time in the marketing chain may get sick later (2 to 4 wk), due to the length of time it takes for BRD to develop. On or before arrival, calves should be given a risk score (high, medium, or low) that relates to the quantity and magnitude of stress they have encountered and the probability they will develop BRD. High-risk calves typically will have been recently weaned, received no vaccinations, not been castrated or dehorned, been commingled, and moved through an auction market. Low-risk calves will often originate from a single source and will have gone through a preconditioning program that includes vaccination, castration

  1. Towards the development of high temperature comparison artifacts for radiation thermometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, R. N. [Inmetro, Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); Machin, G. [NPL, Teddington (United Kingdom); Orlando, A. [PUC-Rio, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-09-11

    This paper describes the methodology and first results of the development of high temperature fixed point artifacts of unknown temperature suitable for scale comparison purposes. This study is being undertaken at the Thermal Metrology Division of Inmetro, Brazil, as part of PhD studies. In this initial phase of the study two identical cobalt carbon eutectic cells were constructed and one doped with a known amount of copper. This was an attempt to achieve a controlled change in the transition temperature of the alloy during melting. Copper was chosen due to the relatively simple phase diagram it forms with carbon and cobalt. The cobalt, in powder form, was supplied by Alfa Aesar at 99.998 % purity, and was mixed with carbon powder (1,9 % by weight) of 99.9999 % purity. Complete filling of the crucible took 6 steps and was performed in a vertical furnace with graphite heating elements, in an inert gas atmosphere. The temperature measurements were performed using a KE LP3 radiation thermometer, which was previously evaluated for spectral responsivity, linearity and size-of-source effect (SSE). During these measurements, the thermometer stability was periodically checked using a silver fixed point blackbody maintained in a three zone furnace. The main purpose of the first part of this study is to dope a series of Co-C blackbody with differing amounts of copper, in order to alter their temperatures whilst still retaining good melting plateau performance. The long-term stability of the adjusted transition temperatures will also be investigated. Other dopants will be studied as the research progresses, and thermo chemical modeling will be performed in an attempt to understand the change in temperature with dopant concentration and so help select suitable dopants in the future. The overall objective is to construct comparison artifacts that have good performance, in terms of plateau shape and long-term temperature stability, but with unknown temperatures. These can then be

  2. DISABILITIES OF HANDS, FEET AND EYES IN NEWLY-DIAGNOSED LEPROSY PATIENTS IN EASTERN NEPAL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHIPPER, A; LUBBERS, WJ; HOGEWEG, M; DESOLDENHOFF, R

    The objective of the study was to determine the magnitude of hand/feet/eye disabilities in newly diagnosed leprosy patients by examining all newly diagnosed leprosy patients who presented at the Eastern Leprosy Control Project (supported by The Netherlands Leprosy Relief Association), made up of a

  3. Antipsychotic medications and dental caries in newly diagnosed schizophrenia: A nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kai-Fang; Chou, Yu-Hsiang; Wen, Yen-Hsia; Hsieh, Kun-Pin; Tsai, Jui-Hsiu; Yang, Pinchen; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Lin, Chun-Hung Richard

    2016-11-30

    We investigated the association between antipsychotic medications and the risk of dental caries in patients with schizophrenia. We enroled a nationwide cohort of patients with newly diagnosed schizophrenia within 1 year of dental caries development. Exposure to antipsychotics and other medications was categorised according to their type and duration, and the association between exposure and dental caries was assessed through logistic regressions. Of the 3610 patients with newly diagnosed schizophrenia, 2149 (59.5%) exhibited an incidence of treated dental caries. Logistic regression analysis identified a younger age, female sex, high income, a 2-year history of dental caries, and exposure to first-generation antipsychotics, and antihypertensives as independent risk factors for treated dental caries in patients with schizophrenia. Hyposalivation, the adverse effect of first-generation antipsychotics and antihypertensives, was associated with an increased risk of treated dental caries. However, hypersalivation from first-generation antipsychotics for dental caries was associated with a protective factor. These findings suggest that clinicians should pay attention to the aforementioned risk factors for dental caries in patients with schizophrenia, particularly while prescribing first-generation antipsychotics and antihypertensives to such patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Experiments on Quantum Hall Topological Phases in Ultra Low Temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Rui-Rui

    2015-01-01

    This project is to cool electrons in semiconductors to extremely low temperatures and to study new states of matter formed by low-dimensional electrons (or holes). At such low temperatures (and with an intense magnetic field), electronic behavior differs completely from ordinary ones observed at room temperatures or regular low temperature. Studies of electrons at such low temperatures would open the door for fundamental discoveries in condensed matter physics. Present studies have been focused on topological phases in the fractional quantum Hall effect in GaAs/AlGaAs semiconductor heterostructures, and the newly discovered (by this group) quantum spin Hall effect in InAs/GaSb materials. This project consists of the following components: 1) Development of efficient sample cooling techniques and electron thermometry: Our goal is to reach 1 mK electron temperature and reasonable determination of electron temperature; 2) Experiments at ultra-low temperatures: Our goal is to understand the energy scale of competing quantum phases, by measuring the temperature-dependence of transport features. Focus will be placed on such issues as the energy gap of the 5/2 state, and those of 12/5 (and possible 13/5); resistive signature of instability near 1/2 at ultra-low temperatures; 3) Measurement of the 5/2 gaps in the limit of small or large Zeeman energies: Our goal is to gain physics insight of 5/2 state at limiting experimental parameters, especially those properties concerning the spin polarization; 4) Experiments on tuning the electron-electron interaction in a screened quantum Hall system: Our goal is to gain understanding of the formation of paired fractional quantum Hall state as the interaction pseudo-potential is being modified by a nearby screening electron layer; 5) Experiments on the quantized helical edge states under a strong magnetic field and ultralow temperatures: our goal is to investigate both the bulk and edge states in a quantum spin Hall insulator under

  5. Delivering the diabetes education and self management for ongoing and newly diagnosed (DESMOND) programme for people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillett, M.; Dallosso, H. M.; Dixon, S.

    2010-01-01

    intervention is £82 (-£831 to £1010) and the mean incremental cost per QALY gained is £2092. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis indicated that the likelihood that the DESMOND programme is cost effective at a threshold of £20 000 per QALY is 66% using trial based intervention costs and 70% using "real world......Objectives: To assess the long term clinical and cost effectiveness of the diabetes education and self management for ongoing and newly diagnosed (DESMOND) intervention compared with usual care in people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Design: We undertook a cost-utility analysis that used...... data from a 12 month, multicentre, cluster randomised controlled trial and, using the Sheffield type 2 diabetes model, modelled long term outcomes in terms of use of therapies, incidence of complications, mortality, and associated effect on costs and health related quality of life. A further cost...

  6. Algorithm Development for Multi-Energy SXR based Electron Temperature Profile Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, D. J.; Tritz, K.; Finkenthal, M.; Kumar, D.; Stutman, D.

    2012-10-01

    New techniques utilizing computational tools such as neural networks and genetic algorithms are being developed to infer plasma electron temperature profiles on fast time scales (> 10 kHz) from multi-energy soft-x-ray (ME-SXR) diagnostics. Traditionally, a two-foil SXR technique, using the ratio of filtered continuum emission measured by two SXR detectors, has been employed on fusion devices as an indirect method of measuring electron temperature. However, these measurements can be susceptible to large errors due to uncertainties in time-evolving impurity density profiles, leading to unreliable temperature measurements. To correct this problem, measurements using ME-SXR diagnostics, which use three or more filtered SXR arrays to distinguish line and continuum emission from various impurities, in conjunction with constraints from spectroscopic diagnostics, can be used to account for unknown or time evolving impurity profiles [K. Tritz et al, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. Vol. 56, No. 12 (2011), PP9.00067]. On NSTX, ME-SXR diagnostics can be used for fast (10-100 kHz) temperature profile measurements, using a Thomson scattering diagnostic (60 Hz) for periodic normalization. The use of more advanced algorithms, such as neural network processing, can decouple the reconstruction of the temperature profile from spectral modeling.

  7. High pressure apparatus for neutron scattering at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munakata, Koji; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Aso, Naofumi

    2010-01-01

    Effects of pressure on the physical properties are very important for understanding highly correlated electron systems, in which pressure-induced attractive phenomena such as superconductivity and magnetically ordered non-Fermi liquid have been observed. Up to now, many scientists have developed a lot of high pressure apparatus for each purpose. The characteristic features of various materials and pressure transmitting media for use of high pressure apparatus are reported. Then, two kinds of clamp type high-pressure cell designed for low-temperature neutron diffraction measurements are shown; one is a piston cylinder type high-pressure cell which can be attached to the dilution refrigerator, and the other one is a newly-developed cubic anvil type high-pressure cell which can generate pressure above 7GPa. We also introduce the results of magnetic neutron scattering under pressure on a pressure-induced superconducting ferromagnet UGe 2 in use of the piston cylinder type clamp cell, and those on an iron arsenide superconductor SrFe 2 As 2 in use of the cubic anvil type clamp cell. (author)

  8. Load-Bearing Capacity and Retention of Newly Developed Micro-Locking Implant Prosthetic System: An In Vitro Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Won Choi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to introduce the newly developed micro-locking implant prosthetic system and to evaluate the resulting its characteristics. To evaluate load-bearing capacity, 25 implants were divided into five groups: external-hexagon connection (EH, internal-octagon connection (IO, internal-hexagon connection (IH, one-body implant (OB, micro-locking implant system (ML. The maximum compressive load was measured using a universal testing machine (UTM according to the ISO 14801. Retention was evaluated in two experiments: (1 a tensile test of the structure modifications of the components (attachment and implant and (2 a tensile test after cyclic loading (total 5,000,000 cycles, 100 N, 2 Hz. The load-bearing capacity of the ML group was not significantly different from the other groups (p > 0.05. The number of balls in the attachment and the presence of a hexagonal receptacle did not show a significant correlation with retention (p > 0.05, but the shape of the retentive groove in the implant post had a statistically significant effect on retention (p < 0.05. On the other hand, the retention loss was observed during the initial 1,000,000 cycles, but an overall constant retention was maintained afterward. Various preclinical studies on this novel micro-locking implant prosthetic system should continue so that it can be applied in clinical practice.

  9. Development of thermal mixing enhancement method for lower plenum of the High Temperature Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gradecka, Malwina Joanna, E-mail: malgrad@gmail.com; Woods, Brian G., E-mail: brian.woods@oregonstate.edu

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Coolant mixing in lower plenum might be insufficient and pose operational issues. • Two mixing methods were developed to lower the coolant temperature variation. • The methods resulted with reduction of the temperature variation by 60% and 71%. - Abstract: The High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) is one of the most mature Gen IV reactor concepts under development today. The High Temperature Test Facility (HTTF) at Oregon State University is a test facility that supports the R&D needs for HTGRs. This study focuses on the issue of helium mixing after the core section in the HTTF, the results of which are generally applicable in HTGRs. In the HTTF, hot helium jets at different temperatures are supposed to uniformly mix in the lower plenum (LP) chamber. However, the level of mixing is not sufficient to reduce the peak helium temperature before the hot jet impinges the LP structure, which can cause issues with structural materials and operational issues in the heat exchanger downstream. The maximum allowable temperature variation in the outlet duct connected to the lower plenum is defined as 40 K (±20 K from the average temperature), while the CFD simulations of this study indicate that the reference design suffers temperature variations in the duct as high as 100 K. To solve this issue, the installation of mixing-enhancing structures within the outlet duct were proposed and analyzed using CFD modeling. We show that using either an optimized “Kwiat” structure (developed in this study) or a motionless mixer installed in the outlet duct, the temperature variations can be brought dramatically, with acceptable increases in pressure drop. The optimal solution appears to be to install double motionless mixers with long blades in the outlet duct, which brings the temperature variation into the acceptable range (from 100 K down to 18 K), with a resulting pressure drop increase in the HTTF loop of 0.73 kPa (6% of total pressure drop).

  10. Development of thermal mixing enhancement method for lower plenum of the High Temperature Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gradecka, Malwina Joanna; Woods, Brian G.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Coolant mixing in lower plenum might be insufficient and pose operational issues. • Two mixing methods were developed to lower the coolant temperature variation. • The methods resulted with reduction of the temperature variation by 60% and 71%. - Abstract: The High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) is one of the most mature Gen IV reactor concepts under development today. The High Temperature Test Facility (HTTF) at Oregon State University is a test facility that supports the R&D needs for HTGRs. This study focuses on the issue of helium mixing after the core section in the HTTF, the results of which are generally applicable in HTGRs. In the HTTF, hot helium jets at different temperatures are supposed to uniformly mix in the lower plenum (LP) chamber. However, the level of mixing is not sufficient to reduce the peak helium temperature before the hot jet impinges the LP structure, which can cause issues with structural materials and operational issues in the heat exchanger downstream. The maximum allowable temperature variation in the outlet duct connected to the lower plenum is defined as 40 K (±20 K from the average temperature), while the CFD simulations of this study indicate that the reference design suffers temperature variations in the duct as high as 100 K. To solve this issue, the installation of mixing-enhancing structures within the outlet duct were proposed and analyzed using CFD modeling. We show that using either an optimized “Kwiat” structure (developed in this study) or a motionless mixer installed in the outlet duct, the temperature variations can be brought dramatically, with acceptable increases in pressure drop. The optimal solution appears to be to install double motionless mixers with long blades in the outlet duct, which brings the temperature variation into the acceptable range (from 100 K down to 18 K), with a resulting pressure drop increase in the HTTF loop of 0.73 kPa (6% of total pressure drop).

  11. Design and development of gas turbine high temperature reactor 300 (GTHTR300)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunitomi, Kazuhiko; Katanishi, Shoji; Takada, Shoji; Takizuka, Takakazu; Yan, Xing; Kosugiyama, Shinichi

    2003-01-01

    JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute) started design and development of the high temperature gas cooled reactor with a gas turbine electric generation system, GTHTR300, in April 2001. Design originalities of the GTHTR300 are a horizontally mounted highly efficient gas turbine system and an ultimately simplified safety system such as no containment building and no active emergency core cooling. These design originalities are proposed based on design and operational experiences in conventional gas turbine systems and Japan's first high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTTR: High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor) so that many R and Ds are not required for the development. Except these original design features, devised core design, fuel design and plant design are adopted to meet design requirements and attain a target cost. This paper describes the unique design features focusing on the safety design, reactor core design and gas turbine system design together with a preliminary result of the safety evaluation carried out for a typical severe event. This study is entrusted from Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. (author)

  12. Biological aspects and life table of Uroleucon ambrosiae (Thomas, 1878 as a function of temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auad Alexander Machado

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aphid Uroleucon ambrosiae (Thomas is considered a pest of hidroponically-grown lettuce, but basic and applied information on its control are scarce in Brazil. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different temperatures on biological aspects and life history of U. ambrosiae (Thomas developing on hydroponic lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. crop. Newly emerged nymphs were placed on 4-cm discs of hydroponic lettuce, var. Verônica, which were maintained on 5-cm Petri dishes, at temperatures of 15, 20 and 25ºC and 14 h photophase, and inside a greenhouse, within micro-cages at room temperature. The duration of development in all nymphal stages varied inversely to temperature. Nymphs maintained at 20ºC and 25ºC, had similar development period. However, at fluctuating greenhouse temperatures (daily mean = 21ºC, different results were obtained, which was also true for the pre-reproductive, reproductive and post-reproductive periods. Daily and total fertilities at 20ºC were better in comparison to the other treatments. The highest mortality rate of aphids occurred under greenhouse conditions. The production of 1.28 nymphs per female per day, the time needed for the population to double in size (TD=2.77days, and the intrinsic rate of population increase (r m=0.25, were similar for in insects maintained at 20 and 25ºC. On the other hand, time interval between generations (T and the net reproductive rate (Ro were higher at 20ºC. In the greenhouse, even though T was similar to laboratory conditions at 20 and 25ºC, the R0, r m and l parameters were lower and TD was higher. Based on biological aspects, fertility and life expectancy tables, constant temperature of 20ºC is the most suitable for U. ambrosiae.

  13. Temperature dependent embryonic development of Trichuris suis eggs in a medicinal raw material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejzagic, Nermina; Kringel, Helene; Bruun, Johan Musaeus

    2016-01-01

    in Göttingen minipigs.Both male and female pigs were used to evaluate eventual gender specific infectivity. Storage at 30 °C up to 14 weeks and subsequent embryonation for 14 weeks at 25 °C did not significantly reduce the overall larval establishment in minipigs, as compared to storage at 5 °C and subsequent...... analysis (OvaSpec), and an egg hatching assay prior to the final testing in minipigs (Trial 1). These methods showed that the development started earlier at higher temperatures, but the long-term storage at higher temperature affected the egg development. The present study further documents tolerance...

  14. Research and development of construction at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Shigeru

    1974-01-01

    The contents and present situation of the researches on the construction of a multipurpose high temperature gas reactor are reported. The researches have been divided into five research blocks. The first block deals with the development of analytical codes required for the evaluation of construction in accordance with MITI Notification No.501, ASME section III, and case interpretation 1331-4-8. The codes for the analysis of two dimensional construction named FINEHEAT, AXINCRE and DYNSHL, those for three dimensional construction named STEREO and PINOSE, and for aseismatic analysis DYNAP were completed. The second block deals with the method for evaluating high temperature construction in accordance with ASME section III, case interpretation 133-5-8 and the evaluation of analytical codes. This block is related to a new technological field including a variety of unsolved problems. The third block deals with basic performance data on construction materials used at high temperature. There is very few basic data concerning material performance. The heretofore reported data are confirmed to enable the evaluation of construction. The fourth block deals with the application of construction evaluation method. The object of this block is to grasp the behavior of stress by experimental means, and to enable evaluation and to simultaneously establish stress index. The fifth block deals with the research for the determination of construction, including measuring technique, the effect of radiation heat on heat transfer efficiency, the prevention of metallic adhesion and the welding performance of seven materials by TIC, electron beam and plasma welding. (Iwakiri, K.)

  15. Effects of Temperatures on Immature Development and Survival of the Invasive Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Darcy A; Ganjisaffar, Fatemeh; Palumbo, John C; Perring, Thomas M

    2017-12-05

    Bagrada hilaris (Burmeister) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is a non-native stink bug that feeds primarily on cole crops and wild mustards. Its invasion into desert agriculture in California and Arizona presents a conundrum between rapid pest development at warm temperatures and severe damage to cool season crops. In this study, the development and survival of B. hilaris were determined at nine constant temperatures (ranging from 20-42°C) when reared on organically grown broccoli florets. Egg hatching was greatly delayed at 20°C, and first instar nymphs did not survive at this temperature. No eggs hatched at 42°C. The highest survival rates (70.0-86.7%) of B. hilaris were observed at temperatures ranging from 24 to 35°C. The total developmental rate of B. hilaris from egg to adult increased from 0.027 to 0.066/d from 24 to 35°C, and then slightly dropped to 0.064/d at 39°C. Based on the linear model, B. hilaris requires 285.4 degree-days to complete its development. The Briere 1 model predicted the lower and upper temperature thresholds as 16.7 and 42.7°C, respectively. The optimal temperature for development (TOpt) was estimated as 36°C. According to the results, B. hilaris is well adapted to warm conditions, and temperatures of 33-39°C are well suited for B. hilaris development. Information from this study helps explain the rapid range expansion of B. hilaris across the southern United States and will be instrumental in predicting future expansion across the rest of the country and in other parts of the world. The relationship between thermal thresholds and invasion dynamics of this pest are discussed. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Mechanical Behavior of AZ31B Mg Alloy Sheets under Monotonic and Cyclic Loadings at Room and Moderately Elevated Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoc-Trung Nguyen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Large-strain monotonic and cyclic loading tests of AZ31B magnesium alloy sheets were performed with a newly developed testing system, at different temperatures, ranging from room temperature to 250 °C. Behaviors showing significant twinning during initial in-plane compression and untwinning in subsequent tension at and slightly above room temperature were recorded. Strong yielding asymmetry and nonlinear hardening behavior were also revealed. Considerable Bauschinger effects, transient behavior, and variable permanent softening responses were observed near room temperature, but these were reduced and almost disappeared as the temperature increased. Different stress–strain responses were inherent to the activation of twinning at lower temperatures and non-basal slip systems at elevated temperatures. A critical temperature was identified to account for the transition between the twinning-dominant and slip-dominant deformation mechanisms. Accordingly, below the transition point, stress–strain curves of cyclic loading tests exhibited concave-up shapes for compression or compression following tension, and an unusual S-shape for tension following compression. This unusual shape disappeared when the temperature was above the transition point. Shrinkage of the elastic range and variation in Young’s modulus due to plastic strain deformation during stress reversals were also observed. The texture-induced anisotropy of both the elastic and plastic behaviors was characterized experimentally.

  17. Kinetics of color development in glucose/Amino Acid model systems at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paola Echavarría

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of temperature on the color development of melanoidins formed from a single combination of glucose with amino acid. The selected amino acid, commonly found in apple juice and highly reactive in the Maillard reaction, were asparagine (Asn, aspartic acid (Asp and glutamic acid (Glu. For this, the color development was evaluated by measuring browning at 420 nm and color measurements by spectrophotometry and colorimetry methods. The effect of temperature on the color intensity, the absorption of melanoidins were also measured at different wavelengths (280, 325, 405. The value of melanoidins formed from all model systems was located on a dominant wavelength of 325 nm, the ultra violet zone of the diagram. A first-order kinetic model was applied to L* and the evolution of color difference ΔE*. In addition, a*, b* values, significantly differences were found in the glucose/aspartic acid model system in the brown-red zone. Therefore, the color development of the melanoidins was influenced by the type of amino acid and temperature, and it is thought that the a* and b* values can be used to explain the differences among the amino acid in the color development of melanoidins.

  18. Development of a leak detection system using high temperature-resistant microphones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, Yoshitsugu; Mochizuki, Hiroyasu; Watanabe, Kenshiu; Nakamura, Takahisa; Nakajima, Yoshiaki; Yamauchi, Tatsuya

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the development of a detection system of coolant leak from an inlet feeder pipe of an Advanced Thermal Reactor (ATR) with high temperature-resistant microphones. A microphone having resistance to both high temperature and high radiation dose has been developed at first. The characteristics with regard to leakage sound, attenuation of sound level in a heat insulating box for the inlet feeder pipes and background noise were clarified by laboratory experiments and measurements in the prototype ATR 'Fugen'. On the basis of these experimental findings, appropriate frequency ranges were surveyed to detect the leakage sound with a high S/N ratio under the background noise. Reliability of the system to a malfunction caused by burst-type noises observed in the plant was also investigated by statistical analyses. Finally, it was confirmed that the present method could detect a leak within a couple of seconds. (author)

  19. A review of reaction rates in high temperature air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul

    1989-01-01

    The existing experimental data on the rate coefficients for the chemical reactions in nonequilibrium high temperature air are reviewed and collated, and a selected set of such values is recommended for use in hypersonic flow calculations. For the reactions of neutral species, the recommended values are chosen from the experimental data that existed mostly prior to 1970, and are slightly different from those used previously. For the reactions involving ions, the recommended rate coefficients are newly chosen from the experimental data obtained more recently. The reacting environment is assumed to lack thermal equilibrium, and the rate coefficients are expressed as a function of the controlling temperature, incorporating the recent multitemperature reaction concept.

  20. Development of a temperature-dependent cyclic plasticity constitutive model for SUS304 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Yukio

    1990-01-01

    Development of an accurate inelastic constitutive model is required to improve the accuracy of inelastic analysis for structural components used in the inelastic region. Based on two fundamental assumptions derived from physical interpretation of temperature dependency of the plastic deformation behavior of type 304 stainless steel, a temperature-dependent cyclic plastic constitutive model is constructed here. Particular emphasis is placed on the modeling of enhanced hardening caused by the dynamic strain aging effect observed in some temperature regimes. Constants and functions involved in the model are determined based on the deformation characteristics observed in the low-cycle fatigue tests conducted at room temperature through 600degC. Several comparisons of model predictions with experimental data show the effectiveness of the present model in non-isothermal condition as well as in isothermal condition between room temperature and 600degC. (author)

  1. Different selective pressures lead to different genomic outcomes as newly-formed hybrid yeasts evolve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotrowski Jeff S

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interspecific hybridization occurs in every eukaryotic kingdom. While hybrid progeny are frequently at a selective disadvantage, in some instances their increased genome size and complexity may result in greater stress resistance than their ancestors, which can be adaptively advantageous at the edges of their ancestors' ranges. While this phenomenon has been repeatedly documented in the field, the response of hybrid populations to long-term selection has not often been explored in the lab. To fill this knowledge gap we crossed the two most distantly related members of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto group, S. cerevisiae and S. uvarum, and established a mixed population of homoploid and aneuploid hybrids to study how different types of selection impact hybrid genome structure. Results As temperature was raised incrementally from 31°C to 46.5°C over 500 generations of continuous culture, selection favored loss of the S. uvarum genome, although the kinetics of genome loss differed among independent replicates. Temperature-selected isolates exhibited greater inherent and induced thermal tolerance than parental species and founding hybrids, and also exhibited ethanol resistance. In contrast, as exogenous ethanol was increased from 0% to 14% over 500 generations of continuous culture, selection favored euploid S. cerevisiae x S. uvarum hybrids. Ethanol-selected isolates were more ethanol tolerant than S. uvarum and one of the founding hybrids, but did not exhibit resistance to temperature stress. Relative to parental and founding hybrids, temperature-selected strains showed heritable differences in cell wall structure in the forms of increased resistance to zymolyase digestion and Micafungin, which targets cell wall biosynthesis. Conclusions This is the first study to show experimentally that the genomic fate of newly-formed interspecific hybrids depends on the type of selection they encounter during the course of evolution

  2. The Durability and Performance of Short Fibers for a Newly Developed Alkali-Activated Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Funke

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the development of a fiber-reinforced alkali-activated binder (FRAAB with an emphasis on the performance and the durability of the fibers in the alkaline alkali-activated binder (AAB-matrix. For the development of the matrix, the reactive components granulated slag and coal fly ash were used, which were alkali-activated with a mixture of sodium hydroxide (2–10 mol/L and an aqueous sodium silicate solution (SiO2/Na2O molar ratio: 2.1 at ambient temperature. For the reinforcement of the matrix integral fibers of alkali-resistant glass (AR-glass, E-glass, basalt, and carbon with a fiber volume content of 0.5% were used. By the integration of these short fibers, the three-point bending tensile strength of the AAB increased strikingly from 4.6 MPa (no fibers up to 5.7 MPa (carbon after one day. As a result of the investigations of the alkali resistance, the AR-glass and the carbon fibers showed the highest durability of all fibers in the FRAAB-matrix. In contrast to that, the weight loss of E-glass and basalt fibers was significant under the alkaline condition. According to these results, only the AR-glass and the carbon fibers reveal sufficient durability in the alkaline AAB-matrix.

  3. The effect of mimicking febrile temperature and drug stress on malarial development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adisakwattana Poom

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria remains one of the most important tropical diseases of human with 1–2 million deaths annually especially caused by P. falciparum. During malarial life cycle, they exposed to many environmentally stresses including wide temperature fluctuation and pharmacological active molecules. These trigger malarial evolutionarily adaptive responses. The effect of febrile temperature on malarial growth, development and drug susceptibility by mimicking patient in treatment failure before and after drug uptake was examined. Methods Sensitivities of P. falciparum to antimalarial drug (chloroquine, mefloquine, quinine and artesunate were investigated based on the incorporation of [3H] hypoxanthine into parasite nucleic acids or radioisotopic technique. The number of parasites was examined under microscope following Giemsa staining and the parasite development at the end of each phase was counted and comparison of parasite number was made. The proteome was separated, blotted and hybridized with anti-Hsp70s primary antibody. The hybridized proteins were separately digested with trypsin and identified by MALDI-TOF peptide mass fingerprint. Results The results show that febrile temperature is capable of markedly inhibiting the growth of field isolate P. falciparum but not to K1 and 3D7 standard strains. K1 and 3D7 grown under heat shock developed greater and the reinfection rate was increased up to 2-folds when compared to that of non-heat shock group. The IC50 value of K1 toward chloroquine, mefloquine and quinine under heat shock was higher than that of K1 under non-heat shock which is opposite to that of 3D7. Heat shock caused death in field isolated parasite. It was also found that the febrile temperature coped with chloroquine uptake had no effect to the development, drug sensitivity and the parasite number of K1 strain. In the opposite way, heat shock and chloroquine shows extremely effect toward 3D7 and field isolate PF91 as shown

  4. The development of stream temperature model in a mountainous river of Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Ching-Pin; Lee, Tsung-Yu; Huang, Jr-Chuang; Perng, Po-Wen; Kao, Shih-Ji; Liao, Lin-Yen

    2014-11-01

    Formosan landlocked salmon is an endangered species and is very sensitive to stream temperature change. This study attempts to improve a former stream temperature model (STM) which was developed for the salmon's habitat to simulate stream temperature more realistically. Two modules, solar radiation modification (SRM) and surface/subsurface runoff mixing (RM), were incorporated to overcome the limitation of STM designed only for clear-sky conditions. It was found that daily temperature difference is related to cloud cover and can be used to adjust the effects of cloud cover on incident solar radiation to the ground level. The modified model (STM + SRM) improved the simulation during a baseflow period in both winter and summer with the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient improved from 0.37 (by STM only) to 0.71 for the winter and from -0.18 to 0.70 for the summer. On the days with surface/subsurface runoff, the incorporation of the two new modules together (STM + SRM + RM) improved the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient from 0.00 to 0.65 and from 0.29 to 0.83 in the winter and the summer, respectively. Meanwhile, the contributions of major thermal sources to stream temperature changes were identified. Groundwater is a major controlling factor for regulating seasonal changes of stream temperature while solar radiation is the primary factor controlling daily stream temperature variations. This study advanced our understanding on short-term stream temperature variation, which could be useful for the authorities to restore the salmon's habitat.

  5. Exploring selection and recruitment processes for newly qualified nurses: a sequential-explanatory mixed-method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Paul; Chandler, Val; Morris-Thomson, Trish; Sayer, Jane; Burke, Linda

    2015-01-01

    To map current selection and recruitment processes for newly qualified nurses and to explore the advantages and limitations of current selection and recruitment processes. The need to improve current selection and recruitment practices for newly qualified nurses is highlighted in health policy internationally. A cross-sectional, sequential-explanatory mixed-method design with 4 components: (1) Literature review of selection and recruitment of newly qualified nurses; and (2) Literature review of a public sector professions' selection and recruitment processes; (3) Survey mapping existing selection and recruitment processes for newly qualified nurses; and (4) Qualitative study about recruiters' selection and recruitment processes. Literature searches on the selection and recruitment of newly qualified candidates in teaching and nursing (2005-2013) were conducted. Cross-sectional, mixed-method data were collected from thirty-one (n = 31) individuals in health providers in London who had responsibility for the selection and recruitment of newly qualified nurses using a survey instrument. Of these providers who took part, six (n = 6) purposively selected to be interviewed qualitatively. Issues of supply and demand in the workforce, rather than selection and recruitment tools, predominated in the literature reviews. Examples of tools to measure values, attitudes and skills were found in the nursing literature. The mapping exercise found that providers used many selection and recruitment tools, some providers combined tools to streamline process and assure quality of candidates. Most providers had processes which addressed the issue of quality in the selection and recruitment of newly qualified nurses. The 'assessment centre model', which providers were adopting, allowed for multiple levels of assessment and streamlined recruitment. There is a need to validate the efficacy of the selection tools. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Newly-formed emotional memories guide selective attention processes: Evidence from event-related potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Harald T. Schupp; Ursula Kirmse; Ralf Schmälzle; Tobias Flaisch; Britta Renner

    2016-01-01

    Emotional cues can guide selective attention processes. However, emotional stimuli can both activate long-term memory representations reflecting general world knowledge and engage newly formed memory representations representing specific knowledge from the immediate past. Here, the self-completion feature of associative memory was utilized to assess the regulation of attention processes by newly-formed emotional memory. First, new memory representations were formed by presenting pictures depi...

  7. Newly developed surface coil for endoluminal MRI, depiction of pig gastric wall layers and vascular architecture in ex vivo study.