WorldWideScience

Sample records for newin-situ synthesis method

  1. Synthesis gas method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Sean M.; Kromer, Brian R.; Litwin, Michael M.; Rosen, Lee J.; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie R.; Kosowski, Lawrence W.; Robinson, Charles

    2013-01-08

    A method and apparatus for producing a synthesis gas product having one or more oxygen transport membrane elements thermally coupled to one or more catalytic reactors such that heat generated from the oxygen transport membrane element supplies endothermic heating requirements for steam methane reforming reactions occurring within the catalytic reactor through radiation and convention heat transfer. A hydrogen containing stream containing no more than 20 percent methane is combusted within the oxygen transport membrane element to produce the heat and a heated combustion product stream. The heated combustion product stream is combined with a reactant stream to form a combined stream that is subjected to the reforming within the catalytic reactor. The apparatus may include modules in which tubular membrane elements surround a central reactor tube.

  2. Methods of synthesis of deuterium labelled lipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bragina, N.A.; Chupin, V.V.

    1997-01-01

    Methods for synthesis of deuterium-labelled hydrophobic and hydrophilic lipid molecules and ways of obtaining selectively and completely deuterized phospholipids and their analogues are considered. The deuterium-labelled lipids are used for studies on structural organization and functioning of biological membranes, including studies with the NMP and neutron-diffraction methods of lipid-lipid and lipid-protein interactions

  3. Greener Methods for Aspirin Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Barilone, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    In this semester long study, I used microwave irradiation to synthesize aspirin. I compared this method to a traditional method that utilizes a strong acid. I compared the percent yield and the purity of the methods to pure aspirin. 

  4. Synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles by Sonochemistry Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cota, L.F.; Pereira, L.C. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Licona, K.P.M.; Lunz, J.N.; Ribeiro, A.A. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (DPCM/INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Morejon, L. [Universidad de La Habana (UH/BIOMAT), Habana (Cuba). Centro de Biomateriales

    2014-07-01

    bone implant substitute due to a great chemical similarity with the biological calcified tissues. Among synthesis conventional methods, the acoustic cavitation, induced by the sonochemical method, allows formation of nano powders. This work aimed to synthesize HAp nano-sized powders by using CaCl2. 2H2O and Na3PO4. 12H2O as precursors, along with pH and temperature control. The sonochemical method was accomplished by using different amplitudes (20%, 60% e 100%). To optimize the process, another synthesis at 60% ultrasound amplitude was performed, with the use of a peristaltic pump for dripping control. The HAp nano powders achieved were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), BET analysis, Scanning Electron Microscope/Field Emission Gun (SEM/FEG) combined with EDS. The results indicated the influence of the sonochemical methodology and drip controlling, on the chemical composition, crystallinity and nanoparticles morphology. (author)

  5. Synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles by Sonochemistry Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cota, L.F.; Pereira, L.C.; Licona, K.P.M.; Lunz, J.N.; Ribeiro, A.A.; Morejon, L.

    2014-01-01

    bone implant substitute due to a great chemical similarity with the biological calcified tissues. Among synthesis conventional methods, the acoustic cavitation, induced by the sonochemical method, allows formation of nano powders. This work aimed to synthesize HAp nano-sized powders by using CaCl2. 2H2O and Na3PO4. 12H2O as precursors, along with pH and temperature control. The sonochemical method was accomplished by using different amplitudes (20%, 60% e 100%). To optimize the process, another synthesis at 60% ultrasound amplitude was performed, with the use of a peristaltic pump for dripping control. The HAp nano powders achieved were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), BET analysis, Scanning Electron Microscope/Field Emission Gun (SEM/FEG) combined with EDS. The results indicated the influence of the sonochemical methodology and drip controlling, on the chemical composition, crystallinity and nanoparticles morphology. (author)

  6. Simple Synthesis Method for Alumina Nanoparticle

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Damian; Florentina Cziple; Adina Segneanu; Ioan Grozescu

    2017-01-01

    Globally, the human population steady increase, expansion of urban areas, excessive industrialization including in agriculture, caused not only decrease to depletion of non-renewable resources, a rapid deterioration of the environment with negative impact on water quality, soil productivity and of course quality of life in general. This paper aims to prepare size controlled nanoparticles of aluminum oxide using a simple synthesis method. The morphology and dimensions of n...

  7. Synthesis method of asymmetric gold particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Bong-Hyun; Murata, Michael; Hahm, Eunil; Lee, Luke P

    2017-06-07

    Asymmetric particles can exhibit unique properties. However, reported synthesis methods for asymmetric particles hinder their application because these methods have a limited scale and lack the ability to afford particles of varied shapes. Herein, we report a novel synthetic method which has the potential to produce large quantities of asymmetric particles. Asymmetric rose-shaped gold particles were fabricated as a proof of concept experiment. First, silica nanoparticles (NPs) were bound to a hydrophobic micro-sized polymer containing 2-chlorotritylchloride linkers (2-CTC resin). Then, half-planar gold particles with rose-shaped and polyhedral structures were prepared on the silica particles on the 2-CTC resin. Particle size was controlled by the concentration of the gold source. The asymmetric particles were easily cleaved from the resin without aggregation. We confirmed that gold was grown on the silica NPs. This facile method for synthesizing asymmetric particles has great potential for materials science.

  8. Simple Synthesis Method for Alumina Nanoparticle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Damian

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Globally, the human population steady increase, expansion of urban areas, excessive industrialization including in agriculture, caused not only decrease to depletion of non-renewable resources, a rapid deterioration of the environment with negative impact on water quality, soil productivity and of course quality of life in general. This paper aims to prepare size controlled nanoparticles of aluminum oxide using a simple synthesis method. The morphology and dimensions of nanomaterial was investigated using modern analytical techniques: SEM/EDAX and XRD spectroscopy.

  9. Advances in organometallic synthesis with mechanochemical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rightmire, Nicholas R; Hanusa, Timothy P

    2016-02-14

    Solvent-based syntheses have long been normative in all areas of chemistry, although mechanochemical methods (specifically grinding and milling) have been used to good effect for decades in organic, and to a lesser but growing extent, inorganic coordination chemistry. Organometallic synthesis, in contrast, represents a relatively underdeveloped area for mechanochemical research, and the potential benefits are considerable. From access to new classes of unsolvated complexes, to control over stoichiometries that have not been observed in solution routes, mechanochemical (or 'M-chem') approaches have much to offer the synthetic chemist. It has already become clear that removing the solvent from an organometallic reaction can change reaction pathways considerably, so that prediction of the outcome is not always straightforward. This Perspective reviews recent developments in the field, and describes equipment that can be used in organometallic synthesis. Synthetic chemists are encouraged to add mechanochemical methods to their repertoire in the search for new and highly reactive metal complexes and novel types of organometallic transformations.

  10. A Synthesis of the Literature on Research Methods Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earley, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research synthesis is to examine the current research on teaching and learning research methods. The aims are to understand the themes present in the current literature and identify gaps in our understanding of how we teach, and how students learn, research methods. A synthesis of 89 studies generated three themes: (1)…

  11. Method of production of ammonia synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1943-09-10

    In the catalytic synthesis of complicated hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen at normal or slightly increased pressures by the Fischer--Tropsch process, or carried out at higher pressures in some other proposals, the synthesis gas was incompletely transformed. After the conclusion of the synthesis, the residual gas, upon the separation of the liquid constituents, contained, in addition to the unreacted carbon moxoxide and hydrogen, also considerable amounts of methane, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen from the original synthesis gas. This residual gas had been used as fuel. It was, however, pure and contained no sulfur or other catalyst poisons and burning it was considered uneconomical. It was proposed to make better use of it by using it as fuel. It was, however, pure and contained no sulfur or other catalyst poisons and burning it was considered uneconomical. It was proposed to make better use of it by using it as a raw material for the production of synthesis gas by decomposing the methane present in it with steam according to the equation CH/sub 4/ + H/sub 2/O = CO + 3H/sub 2/. This conversion was to be brought about either by a return to the producers or else in special splitting units. Also, it had been found that the residual gas, possibly even in the presence of oxygen compounds, could be conveniently used for the synthesis of ammonia. Several examples of ammonia synthesis were discussed.

  12. “Best fit” framework synthesis: refining the method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Following publication of the first worked example of the “best fit” method of evidence synthesis for the systematic review of qualitative evidence in this journal, the originators of the method identified a need to specify more fully some aspects of this particular derivative of framework synthesis. Methods and Results We therefore present a second such worked example in which all techniques are defined and explained, and their appropriateness is assessed. Specified features of the method include the development of new techniques to identify theories in a systematic manner; the creation of an a priori framework for the synthesis; and the “testing” of the synthesis. An innovative combination of existing methods of quality assessment, analysis and synthesis is used to complete the process. This second worked example was a qualitative evidence synthesis of employees’ views of workplace smoking cessation interventions, in which the “best fit” method was found to be practical and fit for purpose. Conclusions The method is suited to producing context-specific conceptual models for describing or explaining the decision-making and health behaviours of patients and other groups. It offers a pragmatic means of conducting rapid qualitative evidence synthesis and generating programme theories relating to intervention effectiveness, which might be of relevance both to researchers and policy-makers. PMID:23497061

  13. Asymmetric synthesis II more methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Christmann, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    After the overwhelming success of 'Asymmetric Synthesis - The Essentials', narrating the colorful history of asymmetric synthesis, this is the second edition with latest subjects and authors. While the aim of the first edition was mainly to honor the achievements of the pioneers in asymmetric syntheses, the aim of this new edition was bringing the current developments, especially from younger colleagues, to the attention of students. The format of the book remained unchanged, i.e. short conceptual overviews by young leaders in their field including a short biography of the authors. The growing multidisciplinary research within chemistry is reflected in the selection of topics including metal catalysis, organocatalysis, physical organic chemistry, analytical chemistry, and its applications in total synthesis. The prospective reader of this book is a graduate or undergraduate student of advanced organic chemistry as well as the industrial chemist who wants to get a brief update on the current developments in th...

  14. Two synthesis methods based on cepstral parametrization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přibil, Jiří; Madlová, A.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 2 (2002), s. 35-39 ISSN 1210-2512 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 258.10; GA ČR GV102/96/K087 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2067918 Keywords : speech processing * speech synthesis * signal processing Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics

  15. Fe-based Fischer Tropsch Synthesis of biomass-derived syngas: Effect of synthesis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiet Mai; Thomas Elder; Les Groom; James J. Spivey

    2015-01-01

    Two 100Fe/4Cu/4K/6Zn catalysts were prepared using two different methods: coprecipitation or impregnation methods. The effect of the preparation methods on the catalyst structure, catalytic properties, and the conversion of biomass-derived syngas via Fischer–Tropsch synthesis was investigated. Syngas was derived from gasifying Southern pine woodchips and had the...

  16. Silver nanoparticles: Synthesis methods, bio-applications and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Elham; Milani, Morteza; Fekri Aval, Sedigheh; Kouhi, Mohammad; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Tayefi Nasrabadi, Hamid; Nikasa, Parisa; Joo, San Woo; Hanifehpour, Younes; Nejati-Koshki, Kazem; Samiei, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles size makes wide range of new applications in various fields of industry. Synthesis of noble metal nanoparticles for applications such as catalysis, electronics, optics, environmental and biotechnology is an area of constant interest. Two main methods for Silver nanoparticles are the physical and chemical methods. The problem with these methods is absorption of toxic substances onto them. Green synthesis approaches overcome this limitation. Silver nanoparticles size makes wide range of new applications in various fields of industry. This article summarizes exclusively scalable techniques and focuses on strengths, respectively, limitations with respect to the biomedical applicability and regulatory requirements concerning silver nanoparticles.

  17. An Expedient Method for the Synthesis of Acylhydrazones under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple, efficient and eco-friendly method for the synthesis of acylhydrazones from acylhydrazides and aldehydes under microwave (MW) irradiation was reported, no solvent and catalyst was used. The method is combined with a combinatorial approach and fourteen novel acylhydrazones were synthesized in excellent ...

  18. Two expedient 'one-pot'methods for synthesis of -aryl- ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. -aryl--mercaptoketones; anhydrous potassium carbonate; amberlyst-15; chalcones; thia-Michael addition. Abstract. Two expedient one-pot methods have been developed for synthesis of -aryl--mercaptoketones using acetophenones, benzaldehydes and thiols as starting materials. The methods involve ...

  19. Photonic arbitrary waveform generator based on Taylor synthesis method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Shasha; Ding, Yunhong; Dong, Jianji

    2016-01-01

    Arbitrary waveform generation has been widely used in optical communication, radar system and many other applications. We propose and experimentally demonstrate a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) on chip optical arbitrary waveform generator, which is based on Taylor synthesis method. In our scheme......, a Gaussian pulse is launched to some cascaded microrings to obtain first-, second- and third-order differentiations. By controlling amplitude and phase of the initial pulse and successive differentiations, we can realize an arbitrary waveform generator according to Taylor expansion. We obtain several typical...... waveforms such as square waveform, triangular waveform, flat-top waveform, sawtooth waveform, Gaussian waveform and so on. Unlike other schemes based on Fourier synthesis or frequency-to-time mapping, our scheme is based on Taylor synthesis method. Our scheme does not require any spectral disperser or large...

  20. A variational synthesis nodal discrete ordinates method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favorite, J.A.; Stacey, W.M.

    1999-01-01

    A self-consistent nodal approximation method for computing discrete ordinates neutron flux distributions has been developed from a variational functional for neutron transport theory. The advantage of the new nodal method formulation is that it is self-consistent in its definition of the homogenized nodal parameters, the construction of the global nodal equations, and the reconstruction of the detailed flux distribution. The efficacy of the method is demonstrated by two-dimensional test problems

  1. Comparison of interpolation and approximation methods for optical freeform synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voznesenskaya, Anna; Krizskiy, Pavel

    2017-06-01

    Interpolation and approximation methods for freeform surface synthesis are analyzed using the developed software tool. Special computer tool is developed and results of freeform surface modeling with piecewise linear interpolation, piecewise quadratic interpolation, cubic spline interpolation, Lagrange polynomial interpolation are considered. The most accurate interpolation method is recommended. Surface profiles are approximated with the square least method. The freeform systems are generated in optical design software.

  2. Testing and building theories: mixed methods synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Harden, Angela

    2008-01-01

    Presentation on use of mixed methods in diverse study types, which combines the findings of ‘qualitative’ and ‘quantitative’ studies within a single systematic review, in order to address the same, overlapping or complementary review questions.

  3. Origins, Methods and Advances in Qualitative Meta-Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Elizabeth; Melendez-Torres, G. J.; Bonell, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research is a broad term encompassing many methods. Critiques of the field of qualitative research argue that while individual studies provide rich descriptions and insights, the absence of connections drawn between studies limits their usefulness. In response, qualitative meta-synthesis serves as a design to interpret and synthesise…

  4. Data synthesis methods for semantic segmentation in agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barth, R.; IJsselmuiden, J.; Hemming, J.; Henten, van E.J.

    2018-01-01

    This paper provides synthesis methods for large-scale semantic image segmentation datasets of agricultural scenes with the objective to bridge the gap between state-of-the art computer vision performance and that of computer vision in the agricultural robotics domain. We propose a novel

  5. Method of Pentest Synthesis and Vulnerability Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Hahanova Irina Vitalyevna

    2012-01-01

    The structural method for penetration test generation and vulnerability simulation for infrastructure of telecommunication hardwaresoftware information cybernetic systems (CS), focused to protect against unauthorized access the services defined in the system specification by means of penetrating through legal interfaces of component interaction, which have vulnerabilities, is proposed. A protection service infrastructure is created with cybersystem and maintains it during the life cycle, serv...

  6. Nanosilicon properties, synthesis, applications, methods of analysis and control

    CERN Document Server

    Ischenko, Anatoly A; Aslalnov, Leonid A

    2015-01-01

    Nanosilicon: Properties, Synthesis, Applications, Methods of Analysis and Control examines the latest developments on the physics and chemistry of nanosilicon. The book focuses on methods for producing nanosilicon, its electronic and optical properties, research methods to characterize its spectral and structural properties, and its possible applications. The first part of the book covers the basic properties of semiconductors, including causes of the size dependence of the properties, structural and electronic properties, and physical characteristics of the various forms of silicon. It presents theoretical and experimental research results as well as examples of porous silicon and quantum dots. The second part discusses the synthesis of nanosilicon, modification of the surface of nanoparticles, and properties of the resulting particles. The authors give special attention to the photoluminescence of silicon nanoparticles. The third part describes methods used for studying and controlling the structure and pro...

  7. Method and apparatus for chemical synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong; Peter C. , Herring; J. Stephen , Grandy; Jon D.

    2007-12-04

    A method and apparatus for forming a chemical hydride is described and which includes a pseudo-plasma-electrolysis reactor which is operable to receive a solution capable of forming a chemical hydride and which further includes a cathode and a movable anode, and wherein the anode is moved into and out of fluidic, ohmic electrical contact with the solution capable of forming a chemical hydride and which further, when energized produces an oxygen plasma which facilitates the formation of a chemical hydride in the solution.

  8. Method for synthesis of high quality graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzara, Alessandra [Piedmont, CA; Schmid, Andreas K [Berkeley, CA; Yu, Xiaozhu [Berkeley, CA; Hwang, Choonkyu [Albany, CA; Kohl, Annemarie [Beneditkbeuern, DE; Jozwiak, Chris M [Oakland, CA

    2012-03-27

    A method is described herein for the providing of high quality graphene layers on silicon carbide wafers in a thermal process. With two wafers facing each other in close proximity, in a first vacuum heating stage, while maintained at a vacuum of around 10.sup.-6 Torr, the wafer temperature is raised to about 1500.degree. C., whereby silicon evaporates from the wafer leaving a carbon rich surface, the evaporated silicon trapped in the gap between the wafers, such that the higher vapor pressure of silicon above each of the wafers suppresses further silicon evaporation. As the temperature of the wafers is raised to about 1530.degree. C. or more, the carbon atoms self assemble themselves into graphene.

  9. A New Method for Nano Tube Imogolite Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Zaenal; Matsue, Naoto; Henmi, Teruo

    2008-06-01

    A new orthosilicate source from dissolution of poly(silicic acid) for imogolite synthesis has been investigated. We have shown that dialysis membrane method can be used to produce orthosilicic acid from dissolution of poly(silicic acid). The amounts of soluble silica in the solution increases with increasing time and temperature, however always reach constant in the concentration less than 3.6 mM. By diluting the concentration of soluble silica becomes less more 2 mM, this solution was used to imogolite synthesis. The imogolite product has high purity and larger diameter than natural imogolite. We suggest that most of the soluble silica solutions contain silicic acid dominant as monomeric form than low polymeric species during poly(silicic acid) dissolved. This new method seems to be applied to produce imogolite in a large scale by combination between batch and flow system in the industrial field.

  10. Methods for the synthesis of donor-acceptor cyclopropanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomilov, Yu V.; Menchikov, L. G.; Novikov, R. A.; Ivanova, O. A.; Trushkov, I. V.

    2018-03-01

    The interest in cyclopropane derivatives is caused by the facts that, first, the three-carbon ring is present in quite a few natural and biologically active compounds and, second, compounds with this ring are convenient building blocks for the synthesis of diverse molecules (acyclic, alicyclic and heterocyclic). The carbon–carbon bonds in cyclopropane are kinetically rather inert; hence, they need to be activated to be involved in reactions. An efficient way of activation is to introduce vicinal electron-donating and electron-withdrawing substituents into the ring; these substrates are usually referred to as donor-acceptor cyclopropanes. This review gives a systematic account of the key methods for the synthesis of donor-acceptor cyclopropanes. The most important among them are reactions of nucleophilic alkenes with diazo compounds and iodonium ylides and approaches based on reactions of electrophilic alkenes with sulfur ylides (the Corey–Chaykovsky reaction). Among other methods used for this purpose, noteworthy are cycloalkylation of CH-acids, addition of α-halocarbonyl compounds to alkenes, cyclization via 1,3-elimination, reactions of alkenes with halocarbenes followed by reduction, the Simmons–Smith reaction and some other. The scope of applicability and prospects of various methods for the synthesis of donor-acceptor cyclopropanes are discussed. The bibliography includes 530 references.

  11. Realist synthesis: illustrating the method for implementation research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rycroft-Malone Jo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Realist synthesis is an increasingly popular approach to the review and synthesis of evidence, which focuses on understanding the mechanisms by which an intervention works (or not. There are few published examples of realist synthesis. This paper therefore fills a gap by describing, in detail, the process used for a realist review and synthesis to answer the question ‘what interventions and strategies are effective in enabling evidence-informed healthcare?’ The strengths and challenges of conducting realist review are also considered. Methods The realist approach involves identifying underlying causal mechanisms and exploring how they work under what conditions. The stages of this review included: defining the scope of the review (concept mining and framework formulation; searching for and scrutinising the evidence; extracting and synthesising the evidence; and developing the narrative, including hypotheses. Results Based on key terms and concepts related to various interventions to promote evidence-informed healthcare, we developed an outcome-focused theoretical framework. Questions were tailored for each of four theory/intervention areas within the theoretical framework and were used to guide development of a review and data extraction process. The search for literature within our first theory area, change agency, was executed and the screening procedure resulted in inclusion of 52 papers. Using the questions relevant to this theory area, data were extracted by one reviewer and validated by a second reviewer. Synthesis involved organisation of extracted data into evidence tables, theming and formulation of chains of inference, linking between the chains of inference, and hypothesis formulation. The narrative was developed around the hypotheses generated within the change agency theory area. Conclusions Realist synthesis lends itself to the review of complex interventions because it accounts for context as well as

  12. Building block synthesis using the polymerase chain assembly method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Julie A; Peccoud, Jean

    2012-01-01

    De novo gene synthesis allows the creation of custom DNA molecules without the typical constraints of traditional cloning assembly: scars, restriction site incompatibility, and the quest to find all the desired parts to name a few. Moreover, with the help of computer-assisted design, the perfect DNA molecule can be created along with its matching sequence ready to download. The challenge is to build the physical DNA molecules that have been designed with the software. Although there are several DNA assembly methods, this section presents and describes a method using the polymerase chain assembly (PCA).

  13. Synthesis and characterization of cobalt sulfide nanoparticles by sonochemical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muradov, Mustafa B.; Balayeva, Ofeliya O.; Azizov, Abdulsaid A.; Maharramov, Abel M.; Qahramanli, Lala R.; Eyvazova, Goncha M.; Aghamaliyev, Zohrab A.

    2018-03-01

    Convenient and environmentally friendly synthesis of Co9S8/PVA, CoxSy/EG and CoxSy/3-MPA nanocomposites were carried out in the presence of ultrasonic irradiation by the liquid phase synthesis of the sonochemical method. For the synthesis, cobalt acetate tetrahydrate [Co(CH3COO)2·4H2O] and sodium sulfide (Na2S·9H2O) were used as a cobalt and sulfur precursor, respectively. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), ethylene glycol (EG) and 3-mercaptopropionic acid (3-MPA) were used as a capping agent and surfactant. The structural, optical properties and morphology of nanocomposites were characterized using X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Ultraviolet/Visible Spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The optical band gap of Co9S8/PVA is 1.81 eV and for CoxSy/EG is 2.42 eV, where the direct band gap of bulk cobalt sulfide is (0.78-0.9 eV). The wide band gap indicates that synthesised nanocomposites can be used in the fabrication of optical and photonic devices. The growth mechanisms of the Co9S8, CoS2 and Co3S4 nanoparticles were discussed by the reactions. The effects of sonication time and annealing temperature on the properties of the nanoparticles have been studied in detail.

  14. Methods for the synthesis of α,β-unsaturated trifluoromethyl ketones and their use in organic synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenajdenko, Valentine G; Sanin, Andrei V; Balenkova, Elizabeth S

    1999-01-01

    Published data on the methods of synthesis and properties of α,β-unsaturated trifluoromethyl-containing ketones are surveyed and described systematically. Primary attention is devoted to the use of these compounds in organic synthesis as useful building blocks for the preparation of various compounds bearing a trifluoromethyl group. The bibliography includes 133 references.

  15. SYNTHESIS OF ALUMINIUM BORATE WHISKERS THROUGH WET MOLTEN SALT METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium borate (Al₄B₂O₉ whiskers were successfully synthesized by the wet molten salt method at 800 oC through control the aluminum/boron atomic ratio and synthesis temperature. The as-received Al₄B₂O₉ whiskers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD and thermal analysis. A solution-liquid-solid (SLS mechanism was proposed for the growth mechanism of the whiskers on the basis of the experimental phenomena and the TG-DSC data of the mixed raw materials.

  16. Formal and heuristic system decomposition methods in multidisciplinary synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloebaum, Christina Lynne

    The multidisciplinary interactions which exist in large scale engineering design problems provide a unique set of difficulties. These difficulties are associated primarily with unwieldy numbers of design variables and constraints, and with the interdependencies of the discipline analysis modules. Such obstacles require design techniques which account for the inherent disciplinary couplings in the analyses and optimizations. The objective of this work is to develop an efficient holistic design synthesis methodology that takes advantage of the synergistic nature of integrated design. Although the design process encompasses several stages in which optimization methods could be applied, the present study addresses the applications of optimization in the preliminary design stage, in which the most capability for positive change exists. A primary concern in this stage involves implementation of an accurate and efficient mathematical representation of large engineering systems. Without such a representation, meaningful design synthesis is impossible. Multilevel decomposition methods provide a systematic approach for decoupling the large complex systems found in multidisciplinary design problems into smaller, more manageable subsystems. These methods account for the couplings between the intrinsically linked disciplinary analysis modules on the basis of a linear sensitivity analysis. In a majority of such efforts, the decomposition is governed either by an obvious hierarchy in the system or on the basis of discipline.

  17. A direct method for the synthesis of orthogonally protected furyl- and thienyl- amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Alex S; Caron, Laurent; Colgin, Neil; Cobb, Steven L

    2015-04-01

    The synthesis of unnatural amino acids plays a key part in expanding the potential application of peptide-based drugs and in the total synthesis of peptide natural products. Herein, we report a direct method for the synthesis of orthogonally protected 5-membered heteroaromatic amino acids.

  18. Optimum strategies for nuclear energy system development (method of synthesis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belenky, V.Z.

    1983-01-01

    The problem of optimum long-term development of the nuclear energy system is considered. The optimum strategies (i.e. minimum total uranium consumption) for the transition phase leading to a stationary regime of development are found. For this purpose the author has elaborated a new method of solving linear problems of optimal control which can include jumps in trajectories. The method gives a possibility to fulfil a total synthesis of optimum strategies. A key characteristic of the problem is the productivity function of the nuclear energy system which connects technological system parameters with its growth rate. There are only two types of optimum strategies, according to an increasing or decreasing productivity function. Both cases are illustrated with numerical examples. (orig.) [de

  19. Usage of modal synthesis method with condensation in rotor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeman V.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with mathematical modelling of vibration and modal analysis of rotors composed of a flexible shaft and several flexible disks. The shaft is modelled as a one dimensional continuum whereon flexible disks modelled as a three dimensional continuum are rigid mounted to shaft. The presented approach allows to introduce continuously distributed centrifugal and gyroscopic effects. The finite element method was used for shaft and disks discretization. The modelling of such flexible multi-body rotors with large DOF number is based on the system decomposition into subsystems and on the modal synthesis method with condensation. Lower vibration mode shapes of the mutually uncoupled and non-rotating subsystems are used for creation of the rotor condensed mathematical model. An influence of the different level of a rotor condensation model on the accuracy of calculated eigenfrequencies and eigenvectors is discussed.

  20. Synthesis method for using in the design of an electron gun for gyrotion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, C.A.B.

    1987-09-01

    In this work a synthesis method is applied to the design of an electron gun for a 94GHz gyrotron. Using the synthesis method, it is found the shape of the electrodes compatible with the laminar flow which minimizes the action of space change on the electron velocity dispersion. A sistematic procedure is presented to fuid the parameters of the synthesis method which, in turn, are closely related to the characteristics of the aptoclechonic system. (author) [pt

  1. Controlled Synthesis of ZnO Nanostructures by Electrodeposition Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Jiangfeng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present here a systematic study on the synthesis of various ZnO nanostructures by electrodeposition method with ZnCl2 solution as starting reactant. Several reaction parameters were examined to develop an optimal procedure for controlling the size, shape, and surface morphology of the nanostructure. The results showed that the morphology of the products can be carefully controlled through adjusting the concentration of the electrolyte. The products present well-aligned nanorod arrays when the concentration is low. However, they act as anomalous hexangular nanoplates when the concentration of ZnCl2 is higher than 5 mM. Transmission electron microscopy and select area electron diffraction results show that the product presents good crystallinity. A possible formation process has been proposed.

  2. Porous metal oxide particles and their methods of synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fanglin; Liu, Qiang

    2013-03-12

    Methods are generally disclosed for synthesis of porous particles from a solution formed from a leaving agent, a surfactant, and a soluble metal salt in a solvent. The surfactant congregates to form a nanoparticle core such that the metal salt forms about the nanoparticle core to form a plurality of nanoparticles. The solution is heated such that the leaving agent forms gas bubbles in the solution, and the plurality of nanoparticles congregate about the gas bubbles to form a porous particle. The porous particles are also generally disclosed and can include a particle shell formed about a core to define an average diameter from about 0.5 .mu.m to about 50 .mu.m. The particle shell can be formed from a plurality of nanoparticles having an average diameter of from about 1 nm to about 50 nm and defined by a metal salt formed about a surfactant core.

  3. Aperture Synthesis Methods and Applications to Optical Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Swapan Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Over the years long baseline optical interferometry has slowly gained in importance and today it is a powerful tool. This timely book sets out to highlight the basic principles of long baseline optical interferometry. The book addresses the fundamentals of stellar interferometry with emphasis on aperture synthesis using an array of telescopes particularly at optical/IR wavelengths. It discusses the fundamentals of electromagnetic fields, wave optics, interference, diffraction, and imaging at length. There is a chapter dedicated to radio and intensity interferometry corroborating with basic mathematical steps. The basic principle of optical interferometry and its requirements, its limitations and the technical challenges it poses, are also covered in depth. Assisted by illustrations and footnotes, the book examines the basic tricks of the trade, current trends and methods, and it points to the potential of true interferometry both from the ground and space.

  4. Facile synthesis of labile gold nanodiscs by the Turkevich method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasseschi, Daniel; de O. Pereira, Maria Luiza; Shinohara, Jorge S.; Toma, Henrique E.

    2018-02-01

    The Turkevich method has been the preferred one for synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), owing to its apparent simplicity and facility of replacing the citrate ions on the particle surface by molecules exhibiting different functionalities. Using the most common procedure labile spherical nanoparticles are usually obtained by this method. Here, by using factorial design of experiments, we demonstrated that gold nanodiscs (AuNDs) with short aspect ratio can be generated by the Turkevich method when Au:citrate ratio is 1:1. In comparison with the CTAB capped gold nanorods (AuNR), the citrate stabilized AuNDs exhibited a more labile character, allowing fast ligand exchange reactions and easy functionalization of the nanoparticle surface. In the presence of 4-mercaptopyridine (4-mpy), the surface enhancement Raman scattering effect was 100 and 1000 times higher than the one observed for CTAB-AuNR and spherical AuNPs, respectively, increasing the 4-mpy detection limit to 2.5 × 10-9 molL-1.

  5. 147 ONE POT METHOD FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF ARYLIDENE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reactivity of condensing aldehyde is an important factor in the synthesis. Presence of alcohol enhances the formation of products. This fact have been utilized for alkali catalyzed synthesis of many arylidene flavanones been reported by them. The special feature of long conjugation with 4-keto group of flavanone moiety.

  6. Synthesis of nano-sized amorphous boron powders through active dilution self-propagating high-temperature synthesis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jilin; Gu, Yunle; Li, Zili; Wang, Weimin; Fu, Zhengyi

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Nano-sized amorphous boron powders were synthesized by active dilution self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) method. The effects of endothermic reaction rate, the possible chemical reaction mechanism and active dilution model for synthesis of the product were also discussed. Highlights: ► Nano-sized amorphous boron powders were synthesized by active dilution self-propagating high-temperature synthesis method. ► The morphology, particle size and purity of the samples could be effectively controlled via changing the endothermic rate. ► The diluter KBH 4 played an important role in active dilution synthesis of amorphous nano-sized boron powders. ► The active dilution method could be further popularized and become a common approach to prepare various inorganic materials. - Abstract: Nano-sized amorphous boron powders were synthesized by active dilution self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) method at temperatures ranging from 700 °C to 850 °C in a SHS furnace using Mg, B 2 O 3 and KBH 4 as raw materials. Samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Laser particle size analyzer, Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission TEM (HRTEM). The boron powders demonstrated an average particle size of 50 nm with a purity of 95.64 wt.%. The diluter KBH 4 played an important role in the active dilution synthesis of amorphous nano-sized boron powders. The effects of endothermic reaction rate, the possible chemical reaction mechanism and active dilution model for synthesis of the product were also discussed

  7. The Advanced Aluminum Nitride Synthesis Methods and Its Applications: Patent Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkin, Roman A; Elagin, Andrey A; Mayorova, Ekaterina S; Beketov, Askold R

    2016-01-01

    High purity nanosized aluminum nitride synthesis is a current issue for both industry and science. However, there is no up-to-date review considering the major issues and the technical solutions for different methods. This review aims to investigate the advanced methods of aluminum nitride synthesis and its development tendencies. Also the aluminum nitride application patents and prospects for development of the branch have been considered. The patent search on "aluminum nitride synthesis" has been carried out. The research activity has been analyzed. Special attention has been paid to the patenting geography and the leading researchers in aluminum nitride synthesis. Aluminum nitride synthesis methods have been divided into 6 main groups, the most studied approaches are carbothermal reduction (88 patents) and direct nitridation (107 patents). The current issues for each group have been analyzed; the main trends are purification of the final product and nanopowder synthesis. The leading researchers in aluminum nitride synthesis have represented 5 countries, namely: Japan, China, Russia, South Korea and USA. The main aluminum nitride application spheres are electronics (59,1 percent of applications) and new materials manufacturing (30,9 percent). The review deals with the state of the art data in nanosized aluminum nitride synthesis, the major issues and the technical solutions for different synthesis methods. It gives a full understanding of the development tendencies and of the current leaders in the sphere.

  8. Application of methods of discrete mathematics at modular synthesis of mechatronic devices

    OpenAIRE

    Nikiforov, S.; Nikiforov, B.; Mandarov, E.; Rabdanova, N.

    2010-01-01

    The article is devoted to application of methods of discrete mathematics (the theory of counts, the method of matrix code and others) and synthesis of executive mechanisms of mechatronic handling devices

  9. Psoralen plus near-ultraviolet light: a possible new method for measuring DNA repair synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heimer, Y.M.; Kol, R.; Shiloh, Y.; Riklis, E.

    1983-01-01

    A new method is proposed to inhibit semiconservative DNA synthesis in cultured cells while DNA repair synthesis is being measured. The cells are treated with the DNA-crosslinking agent Trioxalen (4,5,8-trimethylpsoralen) plus near-ultraviolet light, and consequently 99.5% inhibition of replicative DNA synthesis is achieved. Additional DNA-damaging agents induce thymidine incorporation into the double-stranded regions of the DNA. The new method gave results very similar to those obtained with the benzoylated naphthoylated DEAE (BND) cellulose method using three human fibroblast strains, of which one had deficient capacity for DNA repair synthesis following treatment with gamma rays and methyl methanesulfonate. The advantages of the new method are simplicity and rapidity, as well as the high extent to which replicative DNA synthesis is inhibited

  10. Psoralen plus near-ultraviolet light: a possible new method for measuring DNA repair synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heimer, Y.M.; Kol, R.; Shiloh, Y.; Riklis, E.

    1983-01-01

    A new method is proposed to inhibit semiconservative DNA synthesis in cultured cells while DNA repair synthesis is being measured. The cells are treated with the DNA-crosslinking agent Trioxalen (4,5,8-trimethylpsoralen) plus near-ultraviolet light, and consequently 99.5% inhibition of replicative DNA synthesis is achieved. Additional DNA-damaging agents induce thymidine incorporation into the double-stranded regions of the DNA. The new method gave results very similar to those obtained with the benzoylated naphthoylated DEAE (BND) cellulose method using three human fibroblast strains, of which one had deficient capacity for DNA repair synthesis following treatment with γ rays and methyl methanesulfonate. The advantages of the new method are simplicity and rapidity, as well as the high extent to which replicative DNA synthesis is inhibited

  11. Psoralen plus near-ultraviolet light: a possible new method for measuring DNA repair synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heimer, Y.M. (Nuclear Research Center, Negev, Israel); Kol, R.; Shiloh, Y.; Riklis, E.

    1983-09-01

    A new method is proposed to inhibit semiconservative DNA synthesis in cultured cells while DNA repair synthesis is being measured. The cells are treated with the DNA-crosslinking agent Trioxalen (4,5,8-trimethylpsoralen) plus near-ultraviolet light, and consequently 99.5% inhibition of replicative DNA synthesis is achieved. Additional DNA-damaging agents induce thymidine incorporation into the double-stranded regions of the DNA. The new method gave results very similar to those obtained with the benzoylated naphthoylated DEAE (BND) cellulose method using three human fibroblast strains, of which one had deficient capacity for DNA repair synthesis following treatment with ..gamma.. rays and methyl methanesulfonate. The advantages of the new method are simplicity and rapidity, as well as the high extent to which replicative DNA synthesis is inhibited.

  12. Multi-line split DNA synthesis: a novel combinatorial method to make high quality peptide libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ueno Shingo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We developed a method to make a various high quality random peptide libraries for evolutionary protein engineering based on a combinatorial DNA synthesis. Results A split synthesis in codon units was performed with mixtures of bases optimally designed by using a Genetic Algorithm program. It required only standard DNA synthetic reagents and standard DNA synthesizers in three lines. This multi-line split DNA synthesis (MLSDS is simply realized by adding a mix-and-split process to normal DNA synthesis protocol. Superiority of MLSDS method over other methods was shown. We demonstrated the synthesis of oligonucleotide libraries with 1016 diversity, and the construction of a library with random sequence coding 120 amino acids containing few stop codons. Conclusions Owing to the flexibility of the MLSDS method, it will be able to design various "rational" libraries by using bioinformatics databases.

  13. Synthesis of barium titanate crystalline nanoparticles using hydrothermal microwave method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, A.E.; Silva, R.A.; Teixeira, S.R.; Moreira, M.L.; Volanti, D.P.; Longo, E.

    2009-01-01

    The hydrothermal microwave method (HTMW) was used in the synthesis of barium titanate (BaTiO 3 ) nanoparticles. The solution was prepared in deionized water by using titanium (IV) isopropoxide (C 12 H 28 O 4 Ti), barium chloride (BaCl 2 .2H 2 O) and potassium hydroxide (KOH). Afterwards it was heated in an adapted conventional microwave oven. The system is composed of a temperature controller with thermocouple, a hermetic camera of reaction made of teflon, a manometer and a safety valve. The solution was heated to 140 deg C, at a 140 deg C/min heating rate, and maintained at this temperature for 40 minutes. The obtained ceramic powder was characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The XRD data confirms the formation of a high crystalline ceramic material with perovskite structure. The FE-SEM images reveal morphologies with dimensions varying from 27 to 54 nm. (author)

  14. An Improved, Highly Efficient Method for the Synthesis of Bisphenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Patil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient synthesis of bisphenols is described by condensation of substituted phenols with corresponding cyclic ketones in presence of cetyltrimethylammonium chloride and 3-mercaptopropionic acid as a catalyst in extremely high purity and yields.

  15. Peptide Synthesis Method and Solid Support for Use in the Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1994-01-01

    A method for the solid-phase synthesis of peptides or proteins in high yield and high purity uses a solid support consisting of a functionalized polystyrene-grafted polymer substrate, the grafted polystyrene chains being substantially non-cross-linked and having a chain molecular weight, not incl...... is immersed in a solution of optionally substituted styrene monomer in an alcohol such as methanol, the volume percentage of styrene in the solution preferably being about 30% v/v, and subjected to gamma irradiation....

  16. Doping and synthesis method effect on zirconium silicate conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monrós, G.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The colour mechanisms of blue V- ZrSiO4 and yellow Pr- ZrSiO4 ceramic pigments which strongly depend on both fluorine addition and synthesis method, are still controversial. Complex impedance has been used as a useful tool to differentiate the materials as a function of the synthesis method, microstructure and observed colour, going deeply into the resolution of controversies about the nature of colours. Representative samples of these doping pigmenting systems prepared by both classical ceramic process and sol-gel method have been studied by complex impedance analysis. Vanadium doped zircon enhances resistivity and activation energy compared to undoped zircon powder and turkish blue vanadium-zircon obtained by addition of NaF shows the highest bulk resistivity. Activation energy and conductivity decrease for Praseodymium doped zircon compared to undoped zircon. This feature is in agreement with the presence of cationic vacancies on green vanadiumzircon samples due to V4+ and V5+ coexistence and praseodymium oxide inclusions on Pr- ZrSiO4 yellow pigment.

    El mecanismo del color en el azul de los pigmentos cerámicos V- ZrSiO4 y amarillo de Pr- ZrSiO4 cuyos tinos dependen mucho de la presencia de fluoruros así como del método de preparación esta controvertido en la literatura. La impedancia compleja se ha utilizado como una herramienta útil para diferenciar los materiales en función del método de síntesis, la microestructura y el color con el fin de profundizar en la resolución de las controversias. Se han preparado muestras representativas de ambos sistemas dopados mediante diferentes métodos de síntesis cerámico y sol-gel que se han estudiado por análisis de impedancia compleja. El circón dopado con vanadio aumenta su resistividad y sus energía de activación con referencia a la muestra no dopada y la muestra turquesa obtenida por adición de NaF presenta la mayor resistividad. Las muestras dopadas con praseodimio disminuyen

  17. Sound Cross-synthesis and Morphing Using Dictionary-based Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collins, Nick; Sturm, Bob L.

    2011-01-01

    Dictionary-based methods (DBMs) provide rich possibilities for new sound transformations; as the analysis dual to granular synthesis, audio signals are decomposed into `atoms', allowing interesting manipulations. We present various approaches to audio signal cross-synthesis and cross-analysis via...

  18. Making a difference: Towards a method for weighing the evidence in qualitative synthesis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeije, H.R.; van Wesel, F.; Alisic, E

    2011-01-01

    Objectives In a qualitative synthesis, primary qualitative studies are integrated to develop a theory or evidence-based interventions. Until now, the strength of the evidence in the primary studies has not been taken into account in the outcome of the qualitative synthesis. In this paper, a method

  19. Digital Sound Synthesis Algorithms: a Tutorial Introduction and Comparison of Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. Robert

    The objectives of the dissertation are to provide both a compendium of sound-synthesis methods with detailed descriptions and sound examples, as well as a comparison of the relative merits of each method based on ease of use, observed sound quality, execution time, and data storage requirements. The methods are classified under the general headings of wavetable-lookup synthesis, additive synthesis, subtractive synthesis, nonlinear methods, and physical modelling. The nonlinear methods comprise a large group that ranges from the well-known frequency-modulation synthesis to waveshaping. The final category explores computer modelling of real musical instruments and includes numerical and analytical solutions to the classical wave equation of motion, along with some of the more sophisticated time -domain models that are possible through the prudent combination of simpler synthesis techniques. The dissertation is intended to be understandable by a musician who is mathematically literate but who does not necessarily have a background in digital signal processing. With this limitation in mind, a brief and somewhat intuitive description of digital sampling theory is provided in the introduction. Other topics such as filter theory are discussed as the need arises. By employing each of the synthesis methods to produce the same type of sound, interesting comparisons can be made. For example, a struck string sound, such as that typical of a piano, can be produced by algorithms in each of the synthesis classifications. Many sounds, however, are peculiar to a single algorithm and must be examined independently. Psychoacoustic studies were conducted as an aid in the comparison of the sound quality of several implementations of the synthesis algorithms. Other psychoacoustic experiments were conducted to supplement the established notions of which timbral issues are important in the re -synthesis of the sounds of acoustic musical instruments.

  20. Producing transparent PLZT ceramics using different synthesis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dambekalne, M.; Antonova, M.; Livinsh, M.; Kalvane, A.; Plonska, M.; Garbarz-Glos, B.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Ceramic samples of Pb 1-x La x (Zr 0.65 Ti 0.35 )O 3 (x 8, 9, 10) were prepared from powders being sintered by two methods: 1) peroxohydroxopolimer (PHP), where as precursors were used solutions of inorganic salts TiCl 4 , ZrOCl 4 ·8H 2 O, Pb(NO 3 ) 2 , La(NO 3 ) 3 ·6H 2 O); 2) sol-gel, using as precursors solutions of metal organic salts Pb(COOCH 3 ) 2 ·3H 2 O, La(COOCH 3 ) 3 ·1.5H 2 O, Zr(OCH 2 CH 2 CH 3 ) 4 , Ti(OCH 2 CH 2 CH 3 ) 4 . The thermal regimes for both powders were similar: synthesis at 600 0 C for 2 - 4h, obtaining amorphous nanopowder. Ceramic samples were produced by hot pressing at 1100 - 1200 0 C for 2 - 6h and pressure of 20Mpa.Optical transmittance of ceramic samples from PHP derived powders was higher than that from sol- gel derived. The transparency of poled plates with thickness of 0.3mm (wavelength λ = 630nm) was 67 - 69% and 56 - 59%, respectively. It can be explained by lack of technical support for sol-gel processing in atmosphere of neutral gas, as metal organic precursors are extremely sensitive to moisture of air. X-ray and DTA studies were used for powders. Dielectrics, ferroelectric and optical properties as well as studies of icrostructure were carried out for ceramic samples. The grain size of ceramics produced from PHP powders is 3- 4μ, for sol-gel ceramics less than 1μ

  1. Text-in-context: a method for extracting findings in mixed-methods mixed research synthesis studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandelowski, Margarete; Leeman, Jennifer; Knafl, Kathleen; Crandell, Jamie L

    2013-06-01

    Our purpose in this paper is to propose a new method for extracting findings from research reports included in mixed-methods mixed research synthesis studies. International initiatives in the domains of systematic review and evidence synthesis have been focused on broadening the conceptualization of evidence, increased methodological inclusiveness and the production of evidence syntheses that will be accessible to and usable by a wider range of consumers. Initiatives in the general mixed-methods research field have been focused on developing truly integrative approaches to data analysis and interpretation. The data extraction challenges described here were encountered, and the method proposed for addressing these challenges was developed, in the first year of the ongoing (2011-2016) study: Mixed-Methods Synthesis of Research on Childhood Chronic Conditions and Family. To preserve the text-in-context of findings in research reports, we describe a method whereby findings are transformed into portable statements that anchor results to relevant information about sample, source of information, time, comparative reference point, magnitude and significance and study-specific conceptions of phenomena. The data extraction method featured here was developed specifically to accommodate mixed-methods mixed research synthesis studies conducted in nursing and other health sciences, but reviewers might find it useful in other kinds of research synthesis studies. This data extraction method itself constitutes a type of integration to preserve the methodological context of findings when statements are read individually and in comparison to each other. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. DNA and RNA Synthesis in Animal Cells in Culture--Methods for Use in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godsell, P. M.; Balls, M.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the experimental procedures used for detecting DNA and RNA synthesis in xenopus cells by autoradiography. The method described is suitable for senior high school laboratory classes or biology projects, if supervised by a teacher qualified to handle radioisotopes. (JR)

  3. Computational method and system for modeling, analyzing, and optimizing DNA amplification and synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandersall, Jennifer A.; Gardner, Shea N.; Clague, David S.

    2010-05-04

    A computational method and computer-based system of modeling DNA synthesis for the design and interpretation of PCR amplification, parallel DNA synthesis, and microarray chip analysis. The method and system include modules that address the bioinformatics, kinetics, and thermodynamics of DNA amplification and synthesis. Specifically, the steps of DNA selection, as well as the kinetics and thermodynamics of DNA hybridization and extensions, are addressed, which enable the optimization of the processing and the prediction of the products as a function of DNA sequence, mixing protocol, time, temperature and concentration of species.

  4. Robust Chemical Synthesis of Membrane Proteins through a General Method of Removable Backbone Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ji-Shen; He, Yao; Zuo, Chao; Cai, Xiao-Ying; Tang, Shan; Wang, Zhipeng A; Zhang, Long-Hua; Tian, Chang-Lin; Liu, Lei

    2016-03-16

    Chemical protein synthesis can provide access to proteins with post-translational modifications or site-specific labelings. Although this technology is finding increasing applications in the studies of water-soluble globular proteins, chemical synthesis of membrane proteins remains elusive. In this report, a general and robust removable backbone modification (RBM) method is developed for the chemical synthesis of membrane proteins. This method uses an activated O-to-N acyl transfer auxiliary to install in the Fmoc solid-phase peptide synthesis process a RBM group with switchable reactivity toward trifluoroacetic acid. The method can be applied to versatile membrane proteins because the RBM group can be placed at any primary amino acid. With RBM, the membrane proteins and their segments behave almost as if they were water-soluble peptides and can be easily handled in the process of ligation, purification, and mass characterizations. After the full-length protein is assembled, the RBM group can be readily removed by trifluoroacetic acid. The efficiency and usefulness of the new method has been demonstrated by the successful synthesis of a two-transmembrane-domain protein (HCV p7 ion channel) with site-specific isotopic labeling and a four-transmembrane-domain protein (multidrug resistance transporter EmrE). This method enables practical synthesis of small- to medium-sized membrane proteins or membrane protein domains for biochemical and biophysical studies.

  5. The application of green chemistry methods in organophosphorus synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odinets, Irina L; Matveeva, E V

    2012-01-01

    Data concerning the synthesis of organophosphorus compounds in ionic liquids, in water and under solvent-free conditions are considered and summarized. It is shown that this strategy, which complies with the definition of green chemistry, has advantages in terms of the rate of the process and the yields of target products as compared with syntheses in common organic solvents. The Wittig, Horner–Wadsworth–Emmons, Kabachnik–Fields, Arbuzov and Michaelis reactions are considered as examples. The bibliography includes 178 references.

  6. The application of green chemistry methods in organophosphorus synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odinets, Irina L.; Matveeva, E. V.

    2012-03-01

    Data concerning the synthesis of organophosphorus compounds in ionic liquids, in water and under solvent-free conditions are considered and summarized. It is shown that this strategy, which complies with the definition of green chemistry, has advantages in terms of the rate of the process and the yields of target products as compared with syntheses in common organic solvents. The Wittig, Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons, Kabachnik-Fields, Arbuzov and Michaelis reactions are considered as examples. The bibliography includes 178 references.

  7. Droplet-based microfluidic method for synthesis of microparticles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mbanjwa, MB

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available biological applications such as drug delivery, cell encapsulation and tissue engineering[1]. GENERATION AND CONTROL OF MICRODROPLETS Water-in-oil (w/o) and oil-in-water (o/w) microdroplets and emulsions can be generated using microfluidic channels...: Generation and control of w/o droplets in flow focusing microfluidic channel MICROFLUIDIC-ASSISTED MICROPARTICLE SYNTHESIS Microparticles, such as biologically-important hydrogel micro- spheres, can be fabricated from various polymers...

  8. Development of new methods in modern selective organic synthesis: preparation of functionalized molecules with atomic precision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananikov, V P; Khemchyan, L L; Ivanova, Yu V; Dilman, A D; Levin, V V; Bukhtiyarov, V I; Sorokin, A M; Prosvirin, I P; Romanenko, A V; Simonov, P A; Vatsadze, S Z; Medved'ko, A V; Nuriev, V N; Nenajdenko, V G; Shmatova, O I; Muzalevskiy, V M; Koptyug, I V; Kovtunov, K V; Zhivonitko, V V; Likholobov, V A

    2014-01-01

    The challenges of the modern society and the growing demand of high-technology sectors of industrial production bring about a new phase in the development of organic synthesis. A cutting edge of modern synthetic methods is introduction of functional groups and more complex structural units into organic molecules with unprecedented control over the course of chemical transformation. Analysis of the state-of-the-art achievements in selective organic synthesis indicates the appearance of a new trend — the synthesis of organic molecules, biologically active compounds, pharmaceutical substances and smart materials with absolute selectivity. Most advanced approaches to organic synthesis anticipated in the near future can be defined as 'atomic precision' in chemical reactions. The present review considers selective methods of organic synthesis suitable for transformation of complex functionalized molecules under mild conditions. Selected key trends in the modern organic synthesis are considered including the preparation of organofluorine compounds, catalytic cross-coupling and oxidative cross-coupling reactions, atom-economic addition reactions, methathesis processes, oxidation and reduction reactions, synthesis of heterocyclic compounds, design of new homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic systems, application of photocatalysis, scaling up synthetic procedures to industrial level and development of new approaches to investigation of mechanisms of catalytic reactions. The bibliography includes 840 references

  9. Ion transport membrane reactor systems and methods for producing synthesis gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repasky, John Michael

    2015-05-12

    Embodiments of the present invention provide cost-effective systems and methods for producing a synthesis gas product using a steam reformer system and an ion transport membrane (ITM) reactor having multiple stages, without requiring inter-stage reactant injections. Embodiments of the present invention also provide techniques for compensating for membrane performance degradation and other changes in system operating conditions that negatively affect synthesis gas production.

  10. How the Method of Synthesis Governs the Local and Global Structure of Zinc Aluminum Layered Double Hydroxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puschparaj, Suraj S. C.; Forano, Claude; Prevot, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Seven zinc aluminum layered double hydroxides (ZnAl LDHs), [Zn1-xAlx (OH)2Ax,nH2O] A = NO3-, Cl- or CO32-, prepared by the urea and co-precipitation synthesis methods were investigated to determine how synthesis parameters (pH, metal ion concentration and post synthesis treatment) affect the local...

  11. Synthesis-condition dependence of carbon nanotube growth by alcohol catalytic chemical vapor deposition method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhito Inami et al

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the dependence of growth yield of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs on heat-treatment time and catalyst film thickness by the alcohol catalytic chemical vapor deposition method. Three types of heat-treatment, synthesis of 30 min, synthesis of 30 min after annealing of 30 min, and synthesis of 60 min, were investigated. Thickness of Co catalyst film was varied from 1 to 10 nm. In the case of thinner Co film less than 3 nm, long synthesis time of 60 min is favorable for the effective SWNT growth, because of the small amount of Co catalyst. In the case of thicker Co film more than 3 nm, an amount of grown SWNTs by 30 min synthesis after 30 min annealing and by 60 min synthesis was much higher than that by 30 min synthesis without annealing, showing that total heat-treatment time of 60 min is important for the SWNT growth. Results suggest that the conversion from the thicker film of Co to nano-particle which acts as catalyst takes place during the first 30 min.

  12. Second-strand cDNA synthesis: classical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubler, U.

    1987-01-01

    The classical scheme for the synthesis of double-stranded cDNA as it was reported in 1976 is described. Reverse transcription of mRNA with oligo(dT) as the primer generates first strands with a small loop at the 3' end of the cDNA (the end that corresponds to the 5' end of the mRNA). Subsequent removal of the mRNA by alkaline hydrolysis leaves single-stranded cDNA molecules again with a small 3' loop. This loop can be used by either reverse transcriptase or Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase I as a primer for second-strand synthesis. The resulting products are double-stranded cDNA molecules that are covalently closed at the end corresponding to the 5' end of the original mRNA. Subsequent cleavage of the short piece of single-stranded cDNA within the loop with the single-strand-specific S 1 nuclease generate open double-stranded molecules that can be used for molecular cloning in plasmids or in phage. Useful variations of this scheme have been described

  13. Bayesian data augmentation methods for the synthesis of qualitative and quantitative research findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandell, Jamie L.; Voils, Corrine I.; Chang, YunKyung; Sandelowski, Margarete

    2010-01-01

    The possible utility of Bayesian methods for the synthesis of qualitative and quantitative research has been repeatedly suggested but insufficiently investigated. In this project, we developed and used a Bayesian method for synthesis, with the goal of identifying factors that influence adherence to HIV medication regimens. We investigated the effect of 10 factors on adherence. Recognizing that not all factors were examined in all studies, we considered standard methods for dealing with missing data and chose a Bayesian data augmentation method. We were able to summarize, rank, and compare the effects of each of the 10 factors on medication adherence. This is a promising methodological development in the synthesis of qualitative and quantitative research. PMID:21572970

  14. An efficient one-pot four-segment condensation method for protein chemical synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shan; Si, Yan-Yan; Wang, Zhi-Peng; Mei, Kun-Rong; Chen, Xin; Cheng, Jing-Yuan; Zheng, Ji-Shen; Liu, Lei

    2015-05-04

    Successive peptide ligation using a one-pot method can improve the efficiency of protein chemical synthesis. Although one-pot three-segment ligation has enjoyed widespread application, a robust method for one-pot four-segment ligation had to date remained undeveloped. Herein we report a new one-pot multisegment peptide ligation method that can be used to condense up to four segments with operational simplicity and high efficiency. Its practicality is demonstrated by the one-pot four-segment synthesis of a plant protein, crambin, and a human chemokine, hCCL21. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Method for innovative synthesis-design of chemical process flowsheets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar Tula, Anjan; Gani, Rafiqul

    is available, rigorous simulation is performed to validate the synthesis-design. Note that since the flowsheet is synthesized and the operations in the flowsheet designed to match a set of design targets, there are no iterations involved as the final flowsheet is among the best, if not the best. In this paper...... of chemical processes, where, chemical process flowsheets could be synthesized in the same way as atoms or groups of atoms are synthesized to form molecules in computer aided molecular design (CAMD) techniques [4]. That, from a library of building blocks (functional process-groups) and a set of rules to join...... and selected for further analysis. In the next stage, the design parameters for the operations of the flowsheet are established through reverse engineering approaches based on driving forces available for each operation. In the final stage, when all the necessary information for a rigorous process simulation...

  16. Comparative study of synthesis and reduction methods for graphene oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Alazmi, Amira

    2016-05-14

    Graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) have congregated much interest as promising active materials for a variety of applications such as electrodes for supercapacitors. Yet, partially given the absence of comparative studies in synthesis methodologies, a lack of understanding persists on how to best tailor these materials. In this work, the effect of using different graphene oxidation-reduction strategies in the structure and chemistry of rGOs is systematically discussed. Two of the most popular oxidation routes in the literature were used to obtain GO. Subsequently, two sets of rGO powders were synthesised employing three different reduction routes, totalling six separate products. It is shown that the extension of the structural rearrangement in rGOs is not just dependent on the reduction step but also on the approach followed for the initial graphite oxidation.

  17. Synthesis of alumina powders by precipitation method and solvothermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Politchuk, J.O.; Lima, N.B.; Lazar, D.R.R.; Ussui, V.; Yoshito, W.K.

    2012-01-01

    The improvement of alumina powders synthesis processes has been focused on the preparation of ceramic powders with well defined crystalline structure and with high specific surface area and nanometric particle size without formation of hard agglomerates. For this purpose the precipitation step should be studied and and also the temperature of alumina crystallization should be reduced. The aim of this study was to obtain alumina powders by hydroxide precipitation with ammonia in the presence of cationic surfactant, followed by solvothermal treatment and calcination. The powders were characterized by TG/DTA, X-ray diffraction, surface area measurements by gas adsorption (BET) and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that powders produced by solvothermal treatment without surfactant have higher crystallinity. However the presence of CTAB enhances 240% the specific surface area compared with powders produced without this reagent (author)

  18. Synthesis of borohydrides of rare earth metals by mechanic-chemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gafurov, B.A.; Nasrulloeva, D.Kh.; Khakyorov, I.Z.; Saidov, V.Ya.

    2010-01-01

    Present article is devoted to synthesis of borohydrides of rare earth metals by mechanic-chemical methods. The borohydrides of rare earth metals were obtained by means of mechanic-chemical methods. Physicochemical properties of obtained lanthanoid borohydrides were studied by means of X-ray phase analysis.

  19. A general mixed boundary model reduction method for component mode synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voormeeren, S.N.; Van der Valk, P.L.C.; Rixen, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    A classic issue in component mode synthesis (CMS) methods is the choice for fixed or free boundary conditions at the interface degrees of freedom (DoF) and the associated vibration modes in the components reduction base. In this paper, a novel mixed boundary CMS method called the “Mixed

  20. A Method of Polymer Design and Synthesis for Selective Infrared Energy Absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-18

    AD-AL17 485 CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING RESEARCH LAB (ARMY) SCHAMPAIGN IL F/6 7/3 A METHOD OF POLYMER OESIGN AND SYNTHESIS FOR SELECTIVE INFRARED--ETC(U...JUN A2 A SM ITH ULASSIFIED N 11111 .0 ;11L.5I 1111.2 1.25 11.4 MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART SM1ITH N A METHOD OF IPOLYU DESIGN AND SYNTHESIS FOR...nuclear magnetic resonanes The translations of vibrational or rotational energy via mas dis- placement occur as bond stretching (symetric and asymetric

  1. Systematic process synthesis and design methods for cost effective waste minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biegler, L.T.; Grossman, I.E.; Westerberg, A.W.

    1995-01-01

    We present progress on our work to develop synthesis methods to aid in the design of cost effective approaches to waste minimization. Work continues to combine the approaches of Douglas and coworkers and of Grossmann and coworkers on a hierarchical approach where bounding information allows it to fit within a mixed integer programming approach. We continue work on the synthesis of reactors and of flexible separation processes. In the first instance, we strive for methods we can use to reduce the production of potential pollutants, while in the second we look for ways to recover and recycle solvents

  2. Methods for the thematic synthesis of qualitative research in systematic reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harden Angela

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a growing recognition of the value of synthesising qualitative research in the evidence base in order to facilitate effective and appropriate health care. In response to this, methods for undertaking these syntheses are currently being developed. Thematic analysis is a method that is often used to analyse data in primary qualitative research. This paper reports on the use of this type of analysis in systematic reviews to bring together and integrate the findings of multiple qualitative studies. Methods We describe thematic synthesis, outline several steps for its conduct and illustrate the process and outcome of this approach using a completed review of health promotion research. Thematic synthesis has three stages: the coding of text 'line-by-line'; the development of 'descriptive themes'; and the generation of 'analytical themes'. While the development of descriptive themes remains 'close' to the primary studies, the analytical themes represent a stage of interpretation whereby the reviewers 'go beyond' the primary studies and generate new interpretive constructs, explanations or hypotheses. The use of computer software can facilitate this method of synthesis; detailed guidance is given on how this can be achieved. Results We used thematic synthesis to combine the studies of children's views and identified key themes to explore in the intervention studies. Most interventions were based in school and often combined learning about health benefits with 'hands-on' experience. The studies of children's views suggested that fruit and vegetables should be treated in different ways, and that messages should not focus on health warnings. Interventions that were in line with these suggestions tended to be more effective. Thematic synthesis enabled us to stay 'close' to the results of the primary studies, synthesising them in a transparent way, and facilitating the explicit production of new concepts and hypotheses

  3. Methanol synthesis catalyst manufacturing using the green solid-state method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Mirhosseini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research study, methanol synthesis catalysts were manufactured with various mole ratios of metal carbonates (zinc, copper and aluminum carbonate and ammonium hydrogen carbonate via a green solid-state method that employed a ball mill apparatus. Some parameters for the catalyst preparation, such as Al mole percent, Cu/Zn mole ratio, rotations milling speeds and aging time, were optimized to obtain the maximum catalyst activity. The prepared catalysts were compared with the best quality industrial catalyst under the same temperature and pressure condition in a titanium tabular fixed bed reactor. This novel method has many advantages in comparison to the conventional method. The main advantage of the solid-state method is that the methanol synthesis catalyst can be produced without using solvent. Furthermore, this new method reduces operating costs due to the elimination of the filtration and washing steps. Methanol synthesis catalytic activity was maximized at an optimized mole ratio of Cu/Zn of 1.9234 and an Al mole percent of 8 at the maximum grinding speed (450 rpm during an aging time of 30 min, which showed higher activity (240 gCH3OH/kg cat.h in comparison with an industrial catalyst sample (218 gCH3OH/kg cat.h. The production of a green catalyst, which requires less water and results in higher catalyst activity, can be widely used for methanol synthesis catalytic applications.

  4. Immobilization methods for the rapid total chemical synthesis of proteins on microtiter plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitterbart, Robert; Krumrey, Michael; Seitz, Oliver

    2017-07-01

    The chemical synthesis of proteins typically involves the solid-phase peptide synthesis of unprotected peptide fragments that are stitched together in solution by native chemical ligation (NCL). The process is slow, and throughput is limited because of the need for repeated high performance liquid chromatography purification steps after both solid-phase peptide synthesis and NCL. With an aim to provide faster access to functional proteins and to accelerate the functional analysis of synthetic proteins by parallelization, we developed a method for the high performance liquid chromatography-free synthesis of proteins on the surface of microtiter plates. The method relies on solid-phase synthesis of unprotected peptide fragments, immobilization of the C-terminal fragment and on-surface NCL with an unprotected peptide thioester in crude form. Herein, we describe the development of a suitable immobilization chemistry. We compared (i) formation of nickel(II)-oligohistidine complexes, (ii) Cu-based [2 + 3] alkine-azide cycloaddition and (iii) hydrazone ligation. The comparative study identified the hydrazone ligation as most suitable. The sequence of immobilization via hydrazone ligation, on-surface NCL and radical desulfurization furnished the targeted SH3 domains in near quantitative yield. The synthetic proteins were functional as demonstrated by an on-surface fluorescence-based saturation binding analysis. Copyright © 2017 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Method for synthesis of titanium dioxide nanotubes using ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jun; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng

    2013-11-19

    The invention is directed to a method for producing titanium dioxide nanotubes, the method comprising anodizing titanium metal in contact with an electrolytic medium containing an ionic liquid. The invention is also directed to the resulting titanium dioxide nanotubes, as well as devices incorporating the nanotubes, such as photovoltaic devices, hydrogen generation devices, and hydrogen detection devices.

  6. A SYNTHESIS METHOD OF BASIC TERNARY BENT-SQUARES BASED ON THE TRIAD SHIFT OPERATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Zhdanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Practical application of advanced algebraic constructions in modern communication systems based on MC-CDMA (Multi Code Code Division Multiple Access technology and in cryptography necessitates their further research. One of the most commonly used advanced algebraic construction is the binary bent-function having a uniform amplitude spectrum of the Walsh-Hadamard transform and, accordingly, having the maximal distance from the codewords of affine code. In addition to the binary bent-functions researchers are currently focuses on the development of synthesis methods of their many-valued analogues. In particular, one of the most effective methods for the synthesis of many-valued bent-functions is the method based on the Agievich bent-squares. In this paper, we developed a regular synthesis method of the ternary bent-squares on the basis of an arbitrary spectral vector and the regular operator of the triad shift. The classification of spectral vectors of lengths N = 3 and N = 9 is performed. On the basis of spectral classification more precise definition of many-valued bent-sequences is given, taking into account the existence of the phenomenon of many-valued bent-sequences for the length, determined by odd power of base. The paper results are valuable for practical use: the development of new constant amplitude codes for MC-CDMA technology, cryptographic primitives, data compression algorithms, signal structures, algorithms of block and stream encryption, based on advanced principles of many-valued logic. The developed bent-squares design method is also a basis for further theoretical research: development of methods of the permutation of rows and columns of basic bent-squares and their sign coding, synthesis of composite bent-squares. In addition, the data on the spectral classification of vectors give the task of constructing the synthesis methods of bent-functions of lengths N = 32k+1, k Є ℕ.

  7. Synthesis of Supported Bimetal Catalysts using Galvanic Deposition Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahara, Yuji; Ohyama, Junya; Sawabe, Kyoichi; Satsuma, Atsushi

    2018-02-22

    Supported bimetallic catalysts have been studied because of their enhanced catalytic properties due to metal-metal interactions compared with monometallic catalysts. We focused on galvanic deposition (GD) as a bimetallization method, which achieves well-defined metal-metal interfaces by exchanging heterogeneous metals with different ionisation tendencies. We have developed Ni@Ag/SiO 2 catalysts for CO oxidation, Co@Ru/Al 2 O 3 catalysts for automotive three-way reactions and Pd-Co/Al 2 O 3 catalysts for methane combustion by using the GD method. In all cases, the catalysts prepared by the GD method showed higher catalytic activity than the corresponding monometallic and bimetallic catalysts prepared by the conventional co-impregnation method. The GD method provides contact between noble and base metals to improve the electronic state, surface structure and reducibility of noble metals. © 2018 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. What is the most appropriate knowledge synthesis method to conduct a review? Protocol for a scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kastner Monika

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A knowledge synthesis attempts to summarize all pertinent studies on a specific question, can improve the understanding of inconsistencies in diverse evidence, and can identify gaps in research evidence to define future research agendas. Knowledge synthesis activities in healthcare have largely focused on systematic reviews of interventions. However, a wider range of synthesis methods has emerged in the last decade addressing different types of questions (e.g., realist synthesis to explore mediating mechanisms and moderators of interventions. Many different knowledge synthesis methods exist in the literature across multiple disciplines, but locating these, particularly for qualitative research, present challenges. There is a need for a comprehensive manual for synthesis methods (quantitative/qualitative or mixed, outlining how these methods are related, and how to match the most appropriate knowledge synthesis method to answer a research question. The objectives of this scoping review are to: 1 conduct a systematic search of the literature for knowledge synthesis methods across multi-disciplinary fields; 2 compare and contrast the different knowledge synthesis methods; and, 3 map out the specific steps to conducting the knowledge syntheses to inform the development of a knowledge synthesis methods manual/tool. Methods We will search relevant electronic databases (e.g., MEDLINE, CINAHL, grey literature, and discipline-based listservs. The scoping review will consider all study designs including qualitative and quantitative methodologies (excluding economic analysis or clinical practice guideline development, and identify knowledge synthesis methods across the disciplines of health, education, sociology, and philosophy. Two reviewers will pilot-test the screening criteria and data abstraction forms, and will independently screen the literature and abstract the data. A three-step synthesis process will be used to map the

  9. Stochastic rainfall synthesis for urban applications using different regionalization methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callau Poduje, A. C.; Leimbach, S.; Haberlandt, U.

    2017-12-01

    The proper design and efficient operation of urban drainage systems require long and continuous rainfall series in a high temporal resolution. Unfortunately, these time series are usually available in a few locations and it is therefore suitable to develop a stochastic precipitation model to generate rainfall in locations without observations. The model presented is based on an alternating renewal process and involves an external and an internal structure. The members of these structures are described by probability distributions which are site specific. Different regionalization methods based on site descriptors are presented which are used for estimating the distributions for locations without observations. Regional frequency analysis, multiple linear regressions and a vine-copula method are applied for this purpose. An area located in the north-west of Germany is used to compare the different methods and involves a total of 81 stations with 5 min rainfall records. The site descriptors include information available for the whole region: position, topography and hydrometeorologic characteristics which are estimated from long term observations. The methods are compared directly by cross validation of different rainfall statistics. Given that the model is stochastic the evaluation is performed based on ensembles of many long synthetic time series which are compared with observed ones. The performance is as well indirectly evaluated by setting up a fictional urban hydrological system to test the capability of the different methods regarding flooding and overflow characteristics. The results show a good representation of the seasonal variability and good performance in reproducing the sample statistics of the rainfall characteristics. The copula based method shows to be the most robust of the three methods. Advantages and disadvantages of the different methods are presented and discussed.

  10. A simple enzymic method for the synthesis of [32P]phosphoenolpyruvate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, F.

    1982-01-01

    A rapid and simple enzymic method is described for the synthesis of [ 32 P]phosphoenolpyruvate from [ 32 P]Psub(i), with a reproducible yield of 74%. The final product was shown to be a good substrate for pyruvate kinase (EC 2.7.1.40). (author)

  11. 2005 Nobel Prize in Chemistry: Development of the Olefin Metathesis Method in Organic Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Charles P.

    2006-01-01

    The 2005 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded "for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis". The discoveries of the laureates provided a chemical reaction used daily in the chemical industry for the efficient and more environmentally friendly production of important pharmaceuticals, fuels, synthetic fibers, and many other…

  12. Large pyramid shaped single crystals of BiFeO{sub 3} by solvothermal synthesis method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sornadurai, D.; Ravindran, T. R.; Paul, V. Thomas; Sastry, V. Sankara [Condensed Matter Physics Division, Materials Science Group, Physical Metallurgy Division, Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India); Condensed Matter Physics Division, Materials Science Group (India)

    2012-06-05

    Synthesis parameters are optimized in order to grow single crystals of multiferroic BiFeO{sub 3}. 2 to 3 mm size pyramid (tetrahedron) shaped single crystals were successfully obtained by solvothermal method. Scanning electron microscopy with EDAX confirmed the phase formation. Raman scattering spectra of bulk BiFeO3 single crystals have been measured which match well with reported spectra.

  13. Process Synthesis, Design and Analysis using Process-Group Contribution Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar Tula, Anjan; Eden, Mario Richard; Gani, Rafiqul

    Process synthesis implies the investigation of chemical reactions needed to produce the desired product, selection of the separation tec hniques needed for downstream processing, as well as making decisions on sequencing the involved reaction and separation operations. This work highlights the de...... methods [2] with mathematical programming techniques [3] to formulate and solve a superstructure based optimization problem....

  14. A Method of Timbre-Shape Synthesis Based On Summation of Spherical Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putnam, Lance Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    for simultaneous production of sonic tones and graphical curves based on additive synthesis of spherical curves. The spherical curves are generated from a sequence of elemental 3D rotations, similar to a Euler rotation. We show that this method can produce many important two- and three-dimensional curves directly...

  15. Synthesis of H2SO4 doped polyaniline film by potentiometric method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Synthesis of H2SO4 doped polyaniline film by potentiometric method. P D GAIKWAD, D J SHIRALE, V K GADE, ... transition from insulator to semiconductor when doped with oxidizing or reducing agent (Kobayashi et ... protonation (doping) and many other physical–chemical properties are connected to the presence of ...

  16. Carbon nanotube synthesis via the catalytic CVD method: a review on the effect of reaction parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Öncel, Çınar; Oncel, Cinar; Yürüm, Yuda; Yurum, Yuda

    2006-01-01

    This review covers the results obtained in carbon nanotube synthesis by chemical vapor deposition. Parameters such as catalysts, supports, carbon precursors, reaction time, temperature and gas flow rates that are used in the production of carbon nanotubes are discussed throughout the text. Purification of the synthesized carbon nanotubes and methods utilized for cost reduction were also explored.

  17. Synthesis of large CZTSe nanoparticles through a two-step hot-injection method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Sara Lena Josefin; Li, Zhenggang; Lek, Jun Yan

    2015-01-01

    Grain boundaries in Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1x)4 (CZTSSe) thin films act as a defect that reduces the mobility of the charges. Hence one way to improve the performance of these thin film solar cells is to increase the grain size in the films. Most of the synthesis methods published so far for CZTSSe colloidal...

  18. A green and efficient method for the synthesis of homodimeric (β ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... derivatives by intramolecular cyclization in various yields. Of particular interest is the use of the water as solvent of reaction and in absence of catalyst. Also these operating conditions protect the environment and economic points of view. Keywords: aqueous synthesis; bioactivity; dihydropyridine; dimedone; green method; ...

  19. Boundary flexibility method of component mode synthesis using static Ritz vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, A. A.; Huckelbridge, A. A.

    1990-01-01

    A method of dynamic substructuring is presented which provides for the incorporation of a set of static Ritz vectors, referred to as boundary flexibility vectors, as a replacement and/or supplement to conventional eigenvectors in component mode synthesis. The suggested boundary flexibility Ritz vectors are generated by an extension of Wilson's load-dependent Ritz vector algorithm for transient dynamic analysis. The extended algorithm is not load-dependent, is applicable to both fixed-and free-interface components, and results in a general component mode synthesis model appropriate for any type of dynamic analysis.

  20. Synthesis of micro- and nanodiamonds by the method of oxy- acetylene combustion flame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabitov, S; Medyanova, B; Partizan, G; Koshanova, A; Mansurova, M; Lesbayev, B; Mansurov, B; Merkibayev, Ye

    2016-01-01

    This work presents the results of experiments on synthesis of micro- and nanodiamonds by the method of oxy-acetylene torch on the surface of pre-deposited copper thin films. The influence of the thickness of the buffer copper film and the concentration ratio of oxygen and acetylene on the structure formation of the deposited samples was investigated during performed experiments. Studies by Raman scattering and scanning electron microscopy showed that the synthesis of micro- and nano-diamonds occurs under certain experimental conditions. (paper)

  1. Solid-phase synthesis of polynucleotides. III. Synthesis of polynucleotides with defined sequences by the block coupling phosphotriester method.

    OpenAIRE

    Miyoshi, K; Huang, T; Itakura, K

    1980-01-01

    Preparation of the three hexadecanucleotides, dGpTpApTpCpApCpGpApGpGpCpCpCpTpT, dCpGpApCpGpApGpCpGpTpGpApCpApCpC and cTpGpCpCpGpGpCpCpApCpGpApTpGpCpG, is described by a rapid and simple solid-phase method on polyacrylamide supports. The synthesis were performed by the extension of the method described in the previous paper using di and trinucleotides of defined sequences as an incoming 3'-phosphodiester unit. Although the coupling yields to form phosphotriester bonds are slightly lower than t...

  2. Synthesis of research on Biogrout soil improvement method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt KALTENBACHER

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Because of the great rhythm of city developments, there is a great need for a new cost effective method for ground improvement. In this paper, a few chemical improvement technologies and a new biological ground improvement method called Biogrout are discussed. The method, used in the paper for a Sarmatian sand in Transylvania (Feleac locality implies using microorganisms as catalysts in order to induce a microbial carbonate precipitation (MICP to increase the strength and stiffness of cohesionless soils. For this calcium based procedure, the bacteria Sporosarcina Pasteurii (DSMZ 33 is used, while for the treatment solution urea (CO(NH22 and calcium chloride (CaCl2 are used. The study presents the triaxial testing of sand probes treated with Biogrout and the comparison of results obtained with untreated sand probes.

  3. Methods for the synthesis of deuterated vinyl pyridine monomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kunlun; Yang, Jun; Bonnesen, Peter V

    2014-02-25

    Methods for synthesizing deuterated vinylpyridine compounds of the Formula (1), wherein the method includes: (i) deuterating an acyl pyridine of the Formula (2) in the presence of a metal catalyst and D.sub.2O, wherein the metal catalyst is active for hydrogen exchange in water, to produce a deuterated acyl compound of Formula (3); (ii) reducing the compound of Formula (3) with a deuterated reducing agent to convert the acyl group to an alcohol group, and (iii) dehydrating the compound produced in step (ii) with a dehydrating agent to afford the vinylpyridine compound of Formula (1). The resulting deuterated vinylpyridine compounds are also described.

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of Colloidal CZTS Nanocrystals by a Hot-Injection Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Méndez-López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the synthesis of colloidal Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS nanocrystals (average size ~4–9 nm by a simple and low cost hot-injection method. These nanocrystals form larger particles with sizes around 40 nm. Oleylamine (OLA was used as both the solvent and the nanocrystal stabilizer. The effect of the synthesis time on the structural, compositional, morphological, and optical properties was studied. As revealed by XRD, Raman, and TEM measurements all the prepared samples are comprised of both kesterite and wurtzite CZTS nanocrystals. The wurtzite phase contribution reduces as the reaction time is increased. The “bandgap” of the obtained nanoparticles tends to 1.52 eV for the larger synthesis times (24 h which is suitable for an absorber layer in thin films solar cells.

  5. Synthesis of carbon nanowall by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rulin; Chi, Yaqing; Fang, Liang; Tang, Zhensen; Yi, Xun

    2014-02-01

    Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) is widely used for the synthesis of carbon materials, such as diamond-like carbons (DLCs), carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon nanowalls (CNWs). Advantages of PECVD are low synthesis temperature compared with thermal CVD and the ability to grow vertically, free-standing structures. Due to its self-supported property and high specific surface area, CNWs are a promising material for field emission devices and other chemical applications. This article reviews the recent process on the synthesis of CNW by the PECVD method. We briefly introduce the structure and properties of CNW with characterization techniques. Growth mechanism is also discussed to analyze the influence of plasma conditions, substrates, temperature, and other parameters to the final film, which will give a suggestion on parameter modulation for desired film.

  6. Large-scale synthesis of YSZ nanopowder by Pechini method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    structure and chemical purity of 99⋅1% by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy on a large scale. Keywords. Sol–gel; yttria-stabilized zirconia; large scale; nanopowder; Pechini method. 1. Introduction. Zirconia has attracted the attention of many scientists because of its tremendous thermal, mechanical ...

  7. Synthesis of methods to assess farms' sustainability | Mhamdi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sustainability in agriculture is attached to broader exits of the total economy. The main aims of this review paper are: (1) formulate definitions of sustainable development, (2) identify and know the components and the aspects of sustainability at the farm level, and (3) mention methods of sustainability's evaluation. Keywords: ...

  8. Modified Methods for the Synthesis of Triazinyl Fluorescent Brightener Intermediates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Parach

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The production of triazinyl fluorescent brightener intermediates in high yields is described. The method involves a simplified work-up for the preparation of 4-nitro-toluene-2-sulfonic acid and the use of diethylene glycol instead of water in the preparation of 4,4'-dinitrostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid.

  9. Effect of synthesis method on the preparation of lanthanum chromite for using as ceramic pigment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, G.C.B.; Ferreira, K.M.B.; Pimentel, P.M.; Melo, D.M.A.; Gomes, D.K.S.; Costa, A.F.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, LaCrO3 perovskites were synthesized by two synthesis methods, in order to compare these methods in function of microstructure and optical properties. The synthesis routes employed were a method that use gelatin as organic precursor and microwave assisted auto-combustion. The resulting powders were calcined at 800 ° C and 1000 ° C for obtaining the perovskite phase. Then, they were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM); UV-Visible spectroscopy and colorimetric analysis for color identification. No significant changes were observed in the powders synthesized by two routes. The oxides presented orthorhombic perovskite structure. The powders synthesized by the gelatin method were single phase. Chromite lanthanide presented grayish hue being darker in perovskites calcined at higher temperatures. (author)

  10. Synthesis of polyaniline nanotubes through UV light catalytic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanyu Sun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, nitrocellulose (NC fiber blanket prepared by electrostatic spinning method has been used as a template, and copper nitrate (Cu(NO32 as an oxidant to synthesise polyaniline nanotubes doped with heteropolyacid (H4SiW12O40, SiW12 using UV light catalytic method. Infrared spectroscopy (IR, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM technologies were applied to characterize the prepared samples of polyaniline nanotubes. The results show that the external diameter of the tube is about 200 nm, and the internal diameter about 170 nm. We also give a reasonable speculation and explanation about the formation mechanism of the nanotubes.

  11. Low-Energy, Hydrogen-Free Method of Diamond Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Deepak (Inventor); Morell, Gerardo (Inventor); Weiner, Brad R. (Inventor); Makarov, Vladimir (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Diamond thin films were deposited on copper substrate by the Vapor Solid (VS) deposition method using a mixture of fullerene C(sub 60) and graphite as the source material. The deposition took place only when the substrate was kept in a narrow temperature range of approximately 550-650 C. Temperatures below and above this range results in the deposition of fullerenes and other carbon compounds, respectively.

  12. An Efficient Method for the N-Bromosuccinimide Catalyzed Synthesis of Indolyl-Nitroalkanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Fa Yao

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available An efficient and practical method for the synthesis of indolyl-nitroalkane derivatives catalyzed by N-bromosuccinimide is described. The generality of this method was demonstrated by synthesizing an array of diverse 3-substituted indole derivatives by the reaction of different β-nitrostyrenes with various substituted indoles. Simple reaction conditions accompanied by good yields of indolyl-nitroalkanes are the merits of this methodology.

  13. Synthesis of nitrogen-doped graphene via solid microwave method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Li, E-mail: zhangli379@sohu.com [School of Electrical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning 116024 (China); Ji, Bingcheng, E-mail: debbo.jee@outlook.com [School of Electrical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning 116024 (China); Wang, Kai [School of Electrical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning 116024 (China); Song, Jinyan [School of Information Engineering, Dalian Ocean University, Dalian, Liaoning 116024 (China)

    2014-07-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A direct solid microwave method is developed to prepare nitrogen-doped graphene. • The method consists of two steps, namely the functionalization and microwave irradiation. • Melamine can serve as not only functionalizing agent but also nitrogen source. - Abstract: In this paper, we propose a solid microwave-mediated method for scalable production of nitrogen-doped graphene sheets (NGS) using low-cost industrial material melamine as functionalizing agent and nitrogen source. The strong interaction of microwaves with graphene oxide has been fully utilized to generate in situ heating that induces the decompose melamine and nitrogen doping of graphene. The morphology, structure, and components of the as-produced nitrogen-doped graphene are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), pore-size distribution (PSD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman spectroscopy. The results show NGS can be successfully synthesized via this strategy.

  14. Sensitivity Analysis of Power Distribution Synthesis Method for Failed In core Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Bonseung; Cho, Jinyoung; Kim, Kyoyoun

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, performance of RCOMS 3-D power distribution synthesis method is evaluated and sensitivity analysis for the number of failed detector is tested. The performance of a 3-dimensional power distribution synthesis method (DPCM3D) was evaluated for the digital core monitoring system (RCOMS). RCOMS shows negligible power distribution errors and less sensitive to the number of available detectors compared with COLSS. By employing a DPCM3D method in RCOMS, it is judged that a core power distribution could be synthesized more accurately by eliminating the fitting error with a minimum available detector numbers and it would lead to thermal margin increase. A 3-dimensional power distribution synthesis method (called DPCM3D) has been developed by KAERI. RCOMS(Real-time calculator for COre Monitoring System) adopts the method instead of Fourier expansion method being used in COLSS of conventional PWRs. COLSS generates level-averaged detector responses from in core detector signals and fits core average axial power shape. Thus, COLSS inevitably includes considerable fitting error in itself. However, DPCM3D produces a synthetic 3-D power distribution by coupling a neutronics code and measured in core detector signals without any fitting

  15. Synthesis of Copper Nanoparticles Using a Different Method: Determination of Its Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet Demirci Gültekin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was aimed to obtain copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs with the method of green synthesis by using peroxidase enzymes which were partly purified from fig (Ficus carica. Copper (II oxide nanoparticles are successfully synthesized with the green synthesis method on the experiments we performed.  UV-VIS spectroscopy of the characterization of acquired CuO NPs were performed with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and X-ray Diffraction (XRD. Optimum activation temperature for green synthesis was observed to be in 30 min, pH:8, at 25 oC and in the concentration of 1mM CuCl2. By using peroxidase enzymes with green synthesis, it was found out the results of SEM and XRD measurements that acquired CuO NPs were in the size of 50-120 nm. Afterwards, the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of these nanoparticles were measured and it was understood from the obtained results that CuO NPs had both antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

  16. Rapid synthesis of single-phase bismuth ferrite by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Wenqian; Chen, Zhi; Gao, Tong; Zhou, Dantong; Leng, Xiaonan; Niu, Feng; Zhu, Yuxiang; Qin, Laishun; Wang, Jiangying; Huang, Yuexiang

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes on the fast synthesis of bismuth ferrite by the simple microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The phase transformation and the preferred growth facets during the synthetic process have been investigated by X-ray diffraction. Bismuth ferrite can be quickly prepared by microwave hydrothermal method by simply controlling the reaction time, which is further confirmed by Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy and magnetic measurement. - Graphical abstract: Single-phase BiFeO 3 could be realized at a shortest reaction time of 65 min. The reaction time has strong influences on the phase transformation and the preferred growth facets. - Highlights: • Rapid synthesis (65 min) of BiFeO 3 by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. • Reaction time has influence on the purity and preferred growth facets. • FTIR and magnetic measurement further confirm the pure phase.

  17. Measuring serotonin synthesis: from conventional methods to PET tracers and their (pre)clinical implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, Anniek K.D.; Waarde, Aren van; Willemsen, Antoon T.M. [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); Bosker, Fokko J. [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, University Center of Psychiatry, Groningen (Netherlands); Luiten, Paul G.M. [University of Groningen, Center for Behavior and Neurosciences, Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Haren (Netherlands); Boer, Johan A. den [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, University Center of Psychiatry, Groningen (Netherlands); Kema, Ido P. [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Groningen (Netherlands); Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); University Hospital Ghent, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium)

    2011-03-15

    The serotonergic system of the brain is complex, with an extensive innervation pattern covering all brain regions and endowed with at least 15 different receptors (each with their particular distribution patterns), specific reuptake mechanisms and synthetic processes. Many aspects of the functioning of the serotonergic system are still unclear, partially because of the difficulty of measuring physiological processes in the living brain. In this review we give an overview of the conventional methods of measuring serotonin synthesis and methods using positron emission tomography (PET) tracers, more specifically with respect to serotonergic function in affective disorders. Conventional methods are invasive and do not directly measure synthesis rates. Although they may give insight into turnover rates, a more direct measurement may be preferred. PET is a noninvasive technique which can trace metabolic processes, like serotonin synthesis. Tracers developed for this purpose are {alpha}-[{sup 11}C]methyltryptophan ([{sup 11}C]AMT) and 5-hydroxy-L-[{beta}-{sup 11}C]tryptophan ([{sup 11}C]5-HTP). Both tracers have advantages and disadvantages. [{sup 11}C]AMT can enter the kynurenine pathway under inflammatory conditions (and thus provide a false signal), but this tracer has been used in many studies leading to novel insights regarding antidepressant action. [{sup 11}C]5-HTP is difficult to produce, but trapping of this compound may better represent serotonin synthesis. AMT and 5-HTP kinetics are differently affected by tryptophan depletion and changes of mood. This may indicate that both tracers are associated with different enzymatic processes. In conclusion, PET with radiolabelled substrates for the serotonergic pathway is the only direct way to detect changes of serotonin synthesis in the living brain. (orig.)

  18. P-B Desulfurization: An Enabling Method for Protein Chemical Synthesis and Site-Specific Deuteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Kang; Li, Tianlu; Chow, Hoi Yee; Liu, Han; Li, Xuechen

    2017-11-13

    Cysteine-mediated native chemical ligation is a powerful method for protein chemical synthesis. Herein, we report an unprecedentedly mild system (TCEP/NaBH 4 or TCEP/LiBEt 3 H; TCEP=tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine) for chemoselective peptide desulfurization to achieve effective protein synthesis via the native chemical ligation-desulfurization approach. This method, termed P-B desulfurization, features usage of common reagents, simplicity of operation, robustness, high yields, clean conversion, and versatile functionality compatibility with complex peptides/proteins. In addition, this method can be used for incorporating deuterium into the peptides after cysteine desulfurization by running the reaction in D 2 O buffer. Moreover, this method enables the clean desulfurization of peptides carrying post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation and crotonylation. The effectiveness of this method has been demonstrated by the synthesis of the cyclic peptides dichotomin C and E and synthetic proteins, including ubiquitin, γ-synuclein, and histone H2A. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Hydroxyapatite Powder by Wet Precipitation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyaningrum, S. E.; Herdyastuty, N.; Devina, B.; Supangat, D.

    2018-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite is main inorganic component of the bone with formula Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2. Hydroxyapatite can be used as substituted bone biomaterial because biocompatible, non toxic, and osteoconductive. In this study, hydroxyapatite is synthesized using wet precipitation method from egg shell. The product was sintered at different temperatures of 800°C to 1000°C to improve its crystallinity. The hydroxyapatite was characterized by X-ray analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) to reveal its phase content, morphology and types of bond present within it. The analytical results showed hydroxyapatite had range in crystallinity from 85.527 to 98.753%. The analytical functional groups showed that presence of functional groups such as OH, (PO4)3 2‑, and CO3 2‑ that indicated as hydroxyapatite. The result of characterization SEM indicated that hydroxyapatite without sintering and HAp sintering at 800 °C were irregular shape without pore. The best hydroxyapatite with temperature sintering at 900 °C showed oval shaped with pores without agglomerated.

  20. The synthesis of hydroxyapatite through the precipitation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah Rizal, K.; Fahmi, M.N.; Mat Akil, H.; Zainal Arifin, A.

    2004-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) has been earmarked as suitable for implantation within the human body due to the similarity of its chemical makeup to human bone, In this paper, HA powders were synthesized via the precipitation method where phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 ) was titrated into calcium hydroxide solution [Ca(OH) 2 ]. Two parameters such as temperature and stirring rate were identified as factors that influenced the amount and purity of HA powder, Phase identification of the synthesized powder was done using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The results show that HA phase can be synthesized from this titration process of Ca(OH) 2 and H 3 PO 4 with yield amount of HA powder around 45-61 grams but with less than hundred percent purity. In order to study the effect of heat treatment to RA crystals structure, HA powder was calcined at 850 degree C for 2 hours. Its found that the degree of crystallinity increases after calcination because of lattice expansion when the materials were heated at higher temperature. (Author)

  1. The synthesis of hydroxyapatite through the precipitation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rizal K; Fahmi, M N; Mat, Akil H; Zainal, Arifin A

    2004-05-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) has been earmarked as suitable for implantation within the human of its chemical makeup to human bone. In this paper, HA powders were synthesized via the precipitation method where phosphoric acid (H3PO4) was titrated into calcium hydroxide solution [Ca(OH)2]. Two parameters such as temperature and stirring rate were identified as factors that influenced the amount and purity of HA powder. Phase identification of the synthesized powder was done using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The results show that HA phase can be synthesized from this titration process of Ca(OH)2 and H3PO4 with yield amount of HA powder around 45 - 61 grams but with less than hundred percent purity. In order to study the effect of heat treatment to HA crystals structure, HA powder was calcined at 850 degrees C for 2 hours. It's found that the degree of crystallinity increases after calcination because of lattice expansion when the materials were heated at higher temperature

  2. Surface Coating of Oxide Powders: A New Synthesis Method to Process Biomedical Grade Nano-Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Palmero

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Composite and nanocomposite ceramics have achieved special interest in recent years when used for biomedical applications. They have demonstrated, in some cases, increased performance, reliability, and stability in vivo, with respect to pure monolithic ceramics. Current research aims at developing new compositions and architectures to further increase their properties. However, the ability to tailor the microstructure requires the careful control of all steps of manufacturing, from the synthesis of composite nanopowders, to their processing and sintering. This review aims at deepening understanding of the critical issues associated with the manufacturing of nanocomposite ceramics, focusing on the key role of the synthesis methods to develop homogeneous and tailored microstructures. In this frame, the authors have developed an innovative method, named “surface-coating process”, in which matrix oxide powders are coated with inorganic precursors of the second phase. The method is illustrated into two case studies; the former, on Zirconia Toughened Alumina (ZTA materials for orthopedic applications, and the latter, on Zirconia-based composites for dental implants, discussing the advances and the potential of the method, which can become a valuable alternative to the current synthesis process already used at a clinical and industrial scale.

  3. A fast method for Stokes profile synthesis. Radiative transfer modeling for ZDI and Stokes profile inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, T. A.; Kopf, M.; Strassmeier, K. G.

    2008-09-01

    Context: The major challenges for a fully polarized radiative transfer driven approach to Zeeman-Doppler imaging are still the enormous computational requirements. In every cycle of the iterative interplay between the forward process (spectral synthesis) and the inverse process (derivative based optimization) the Stokes profile synthesis requires several thousand evaluations of the polarized radiative transfer equation for a given stellar surface model. Aims: To cope with these computational demands and to allow for the incorporation of a full Stokes profile synthesis into Doppler- and Zeeman-Doppler imaging applications as well as into large scale solar Stokes profile inversions, we present a novel fast and accurate synthesis method for calculating local Stokes profiles. Methods: Our approach is based on artificial neural network models, which we use to approximate the complex non-linear mapping between the most important atmospheric parameters and the corresponding Stokes profiles. A number of specialized artificial neural networks, are used to model the functional relation between the model atmosphere, magnetic field strength, field inclination, and field azimuth, on one hand and the individual components (I,Q,U,V) of the Stokes profiles, on the other hand. Results: We performed an extensive statistical evaluation and show that our new approach yields accurate local as well as disk-integrated Stokes profiles over a wide range of atmospheric conditions. The mean rms errors for the Stokes I and V profiles are well below 0.2% compared to the exact numerical solution. Errors for Stokes Q and U are in the range of 1%. Our approach does not only offer an accurate approximation to the LTE polarized radiative transfer it, moreover, accelerates the synthesis by a factor of more than 1000.

  4. Guidance for deciding upon use of primary mixed methods studies in research synthesis : Lessons learned in childhood trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeije, H.; van Wesel, F.; Slagt, M.

    2014-01-01

    When reviewing literature, mixed methods studies (MMS) are increasingly retrieved, yet it is unclear how they should be dealt with in a research synthesis. In this article we examine the inclusion of primary MMS in research synthesis, based on experiences with a meta-analysis (MA) and a qualitative

  5. Guidance for deciding upon use of primary mixed methods studies in research synthesis: lessons learned in childhood trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeije, H.R.; van Wesel, F.; Slagt, M.I.

    2014-01-01

    When reviewing literature, mixed methods studies (MMS) are increasingly retrieved, yet it is unclear how they should be dealt with in a research synthesis. In this article we examine the inclusion of primary MMS in research synthesis, based on experiences with a meta-analysis (MA) and a qualitative

  6. Guidance for deciding upon use of primary mixed methods studies in research synthesis: lessons learned in childhood trauma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeije, H.; Wesel, F. van; Slagt, M.

    2014-01-01

    When reviewing literature, mixed methods studies (MMS) are increasingly retrieved, yet it is unclear how they should be dealt with in a research synthesis. In this article we examine the inclusion of primary MMS in research synthesis, based on experiences with a meta-analysis (MA) and a qualitative

  7. Graphene-Reinforced Aluminum Matrix Composites: A Review of Synthesis Methods and Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Gupta, Nikhil; Behera, Rakesh K.; Rohatgi, Pradeep K.

    2018-03-01

    Graphene-reinforced aluminum (Gr-Al) matrix nanocomposites (NCs) have attracted strong interest from both research and industry in high-performance weight-sensitive applications. Due to the vastly different bonding characteristics of the Al matrix (metallic) and graphene (in-plane covalent + inter-plane van der Waals), the graphene phase has a general tendency to agglomerate and phase separate in the metal matrix, which is detrimental for the mechanical and chemical properties of the composite. Thus, synthesis of Gr-Al NCs is extremely challenging. This review summarizes the different methods available to synthesize Gr-Al NCs and the resulting properties achieved in these NCs. Understanding the effect of processing parameters on the realized properties opens up the possibility of tailoring the synthesis methods to achieve the desired properties for a given application.

  8. Chemical vs. biotechnological synthesis of C13-apocarotenoids: current methods, applications and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Vicente F; López, Javiera; Cárcamo, Martín; Agosin, Eduardo

    2016-07-01

    Apocarotenoids are natural compounds derived from the oxidative cleavage of carotenoids. Particularly, C13-apocarotenoids are volatile compounds that contribute to the aromas of different flowers and fruits and are highly valued by the Flavor and Fragrance industry. So far, the chemical synthesis of these terpenoids has dominated the industry. Nonetheless, the increasing consumer demand for more natural and sustainable processes raises an interesting opportunity for bio-production alternatives. In this regard, enzymatic biocatalysis and metabolically engineered microorganisms emerge as attractive biotechnological options. The present review summarizes promising bioengineering approaches with regard to chemical production methods for the synthesis of two families of C13-apocarotenoids: ionones/dihydroionones and damascones/damascenone. We discuss each method and its applicability, with a thorough comparative analysis for ionones, focusing on the production process, regulatory aspects, and sustainability.

  9. Evaluation of biological activities of nanocrystalline zirconia synthesis via combustion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakare, V.G.; Omanwar, S.K.; Bhatkar, V.B.; Wadegaokar, P.A.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the following study was synthesis of nanocrystalline zirconia by modified solution combustion synthesis method and evaluation of its structural and biological properties. The sample was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and evaluated for cytotoxicity study using 3T3 mouse fibroblast cells, the antibacterial property are investigated by spread plate method against E. coli bacterial pathogen and studied for degradation using phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution. The XRD pattern shows that the monoclinic phase of nanocrystalline zirconia was obtained. The FESEM images showed that the prepared sample consists of particles in the range of 45 nm and homogenous particle size distribution. The sample of zirconia has excellent tissue biocompatibility and does not show any toxicity towards normal 3T3 mouse fibroblast cells. It also inhibited the bacterial growth. The sample shows stability at physiological condition and does not show degradation. (author)

  10. Novel method for synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their application on wool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boroumand, Majid Nasiri [Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Montazer, Majid [Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Simon, Frank [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e.V., Dresden (Germany); Liesiene, Jolanta [Faculty of Chemical Technology, Kaunas University of Technology, Kaunas (Lithuania); Šaponjic, Zoran [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Dutschk, Victoria, E-mail: v.dutschk@utwente.nl [Faculty of Engineering Technology, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2015-08-15

    Graphical abstract: Tentative mechanism for reduction of Ag{sup +} by polyphenols having two hydroxy groups in ortho-position – the use of silver nanoparticles and an aqueous solution of extracted dye from Pomegranate peel as a reducing agent for synthesis silver nanoparticles from silver nitrate. - Highlights: • A new method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles suitable to impart antibacterial properties of wool fabric proposed. • Silver nanopartilces were synthesized by a biochemical reduction method. • An aqueous solution of extracted dye from Pomegranate peel was used as a reducing agent for synthesis of silver nanoparticles from silver nitrate. - Abstract: In this study, a new method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) suitable to impart antibacterial properties of wool fabric is proposed. AgNPs were synthesized by a biochemical reduction method. An aqueous solution of extracted dye from Pomegranate peel was used as a reducing agent for the synthesis of AgNPs from silver nitrate. The ratio of dye to silver nitrate concentration (R{sub Dye}/{sub Ag} = [Dye]/[AgNO{sub 3}]) is the influencing factor in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The nanoparticles formation was followed by UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy. The size and shape of AgNPs were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The size distribution and Zetapotential of nanoparticles were evaluated using diffraction light scattering (DLS) measurements. The antibacterial potential of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles against Escherichia coli (E. coli) was examined qualitatively and quantitatively. Kinetic analysis of the bacteria reduction using AgNPs synthesized in different way was performed. AgNPs were applied on wool fabrics by exhaustion. The changes in surface morphology of wool fibers after AgNPs loading were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The amounts of silver deposited on wool fabrics at different pH and temperature were compared applying

  11. Facile method for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using an ion coater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Han; Jung, Hyun Kyu; Kim, Tae Cheol; Kim, Chang Hee; Shin, Chang Hwan; Yoon, Tae-Sik; Hong, A.-Ra; Jang, Ho Seong; Kim, Dong Hun

    2018-03-01

    Herein we report a metal nanoparticle synthesis method based on a physical vapor deposition process instead of the conventional wet process of chemical reactions in liquids. A narrow size distribution of synthesized gold nanoparticles was obtained using an ion coater on glycerin at low vapor pressure. The nanoparticle size could be modulated by controlling the sputtering conditions especially the discharge current. Due to the formation of gold nanoparticles, a surface plasmon resonance peak appeared at

  12. Methods for the synthesis of aza(deaza)xanthines as a basis of biologically active compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babkov, D A; Geisman, A N; Novikov, M S; Khandazhinskaya, A L

    2016-01-01

    The review covers methods for the synthesis of aza(deaza)xanthines, i.e., fused pyrrolo-, pyrazolo- and triazolopyrimidine heterocyclic systems, which are common core structures of various biologically active compounds. The extensive range of modern synthetic approaches is organized according to target structures and starting building blocks. The presented material is intended to benefit broad audience of specialists in the fields of organic, medicinal and pharmaceutical chemistry. The bibliography includes 195 references

  13. Methods for the synthesis of aza(deaza)xanthines as a basis of biologically active compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babkov, D. A.; Geisman, A. N.; Khandazhinskaya, A. L.; Novikov, M. S.

    2016-03-01

    The review covers methods for the synthesis of aza(deaza)xanthines, i.e., fused pyrrolo-, pyrazolo- and triazolopyrimidine heterocyclic systems, which are common core structures of various biologically active compounds. The extensive range of modern synthetic approaches is organized according to target structures and starting building blocks. The presented material is intended to benefit broad audience of specialists in the fields of organic, medicinal and pharmaceutical chemistry. The bibliography includes 195 references.

  14. Novel Methods for the Chemical Synthesis of Insulin Superfamily Peptides and of Analogues Containing Disulfide Isosteres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammed Akhter; Wade, John D

    2017-09-19

    The insulin superfamily of peptides is ubiquitous within vertebrates and invertebrates and is characterized by the presence of a set of three disulfide bonds in a unique disposition. With the exception of insulin-like growth factors I and II, which are single chain peptides, the remaining 8 members of the human insulin superfamily are two-chain peptides containing one intramolecular and two intermolecular disulfide bridges. These structural features have long made the chemical synthesis of the peptides a considerable challenge, in particular, including their correct disulfide bond pairing and formation. However, they have also afforded the opportunity to develop modern solid phase synthesis methods for the preparation of such peptides that incorporate novel or improved chemical methods for the controlled introduction of both disulfide bonds and their surrogates, both during and after peptide chain assembly. In turn, this has enabled a detailed probing of the structure and function relationship of this small but complex superfamily of peptides. After initially using and subsequently identifying significant limitations of the approach of simultaneous random chain combination and oxidative folding, our laboratory undertook to develop robust chemical synthesis strategies in concert with orthogonal cysteine S-protecting groups and corresponding regioselective disulfide bond formation. These have included the separate synthesis of each of the two chains or of the two chains linked by an artificial C-peptide that is removed following postoxidative folding. These, in turn, have enabled an increased ease of acquisition in a good yield of not only members of human insulin superfamily but other insulin-like peptides. Importantly, these successful methods have enabled, for the first time, a detailed analysis of the role that the disulfide bonds play in the structure and function of such peptides. This was achieved by selective removal of the disulfide bonds or by the judicious

  15. Methods of Synthesis, Properties and Biomedical Applications of CuO Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina Elena Grigore

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to provide an updated survey of the main synthesis methods of copper oxide (CuO nanoparticles in order to obtain tailored nanosystems for various biomedical applications. The synthesis approach significantly impacts the properties of such nanoparticles and these properties in turn have a significant impact on their biomedical applications. Although not widely investigated as an efficient drug delivery system, CuO nanoparticles have great biological properties including effective antimicrobial action against a wide range of pathogens and also drug resistant bacteria. These properties have led to the development of various approaches with direct applications to the biomedical field, such as tailored surfaces with antimicrobial effect, wound dressings and modified textiles. It is also believed that these nanosystems could represent efficient alternatives in the development of smart systems utilized both for the detection of pathogens and for the treatment of infections.

  16. Production of advanced materials by methods of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Tavadze, Giorgi F

    2013-01-01

    This translation from the original Russian book outlines the production of a variety of materials by methods of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS). The types of materials discussed include: hard, refractory, corrosion and wear-resistant materials, as well as other advanced and speciality materials. The authors address the issue of optimal parameters for SHS reactions occurring during processes involving a preliminary metallothermic reduction stage, and they calculate this using thermodynamic approaches. In order to confirm the effectiveness of this approach, the authors describe experiments focussing on the synthesis of elemental crysalline boron, boron carbides and nitrides. Other parts of this brief include theoretical and experimental results on single-stage production of hard alloys on the basis of titanium and zirconium borides, as well as macrokinetics of degassing and compaciton of SHS-products.This brief is suitable for academics, as well as those working in industrial manufacturing com...

  17. Implementation of the block-Krylov boundary flexibility method of component synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Kelly S.; Abdallah, Ayman A.; Hucklebridge, Arthur A.

    1993-05-01

    A method of dynamic substructuring is presented which utilizes a set of static Ritz vectors as a replacement for normal eigenvectors in component mode synthesis. This set of Ritz vectors is generated in a recurrence relationship, which has the form of a block-Krylov subspace. The initial seed to the recurrence algorithm is based on the boundary flexibility vectors of the component. This algorithm is not load-dependent, is applicable to both fixed and free-interface boundary components, and results in a general component model appropriate for any type of dynamic analysis. This methodology was implemented in the MSC/NASTRAN normal modes solution sequence using DMAP. The accuracy is found to be comparable to that of component synthesis based upon normal modes. The block-Krylov recurrence algorithm is a series of static solutions and so requires significantly less computation than solving the normal eigenspace problem.

  18. Methods of Synthesis, Properties and Biomedical Applications of CuO Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigore, Madalina Elena; Biscu, Elena Ramona; Holban, Alina Maria; Gestal, Monica Cartelle; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to provide an updated survey of the main synthesis methods of copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles in order to obtain tailored nanosystems for various biomedical applications. The synthesis approach significantly impacts the properties of such nanoparticles and these properties in turn have a significant impact on their biomedical applications. Although not widely investigated as an efficient drug delivery system, CuO nanoparticles have great biological properties including effective antimicrobial action against a wide range of pathogens and also drug resistant bacteria. These properties have led to the development of various approaches with direct applications to the biomedical field, such as tailored surfaces with antimicrobial effect, wound dressings and modified textiles. It is also believed that these nanosystems could represent efficient alternatives in the development of smart systems utilized both for the detection of pathogens and for the treatment of infections. PMID:27916867

  19. Facile Synthesis of Ultrafine Gd2O3 Nanoparticles by Polyol Microwave Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Le Huu; Hoa, Tran Thai; Van Hieu, Nguyen; Cuong, Nguyen Duc

    2017-06-01

    Gd2O3 nanoparticles have been quickly synthesized by a modified polyol method with microwave assistance. Triethylene glycol (TEG) was used as solvent and surfactant stabilizing agent. Systematic characterization of the TEG-coated gadolinium oxide nanoparticles (Gd2O3@TEG) showed that average particle size of 1 nm, 5 nm, and 10 nm could be obtained by changing some synthesis conditions. It was found that, after thermal treatment at 700°C, Gd2O3 nanoparticles showed uniform spherical shape with unchanged average particle size in comparison with the Gd2O3@TEG precursor. This approach is simple and rapid and can be easily scaled up and potentially extended to synthesis of other oxides.

  20. Synthesis and size control of monodisperse copper nanoparticles by polyol method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bong Kyun; Jeong, Sunho; Kim, Dongjo; Moon, Jooho; Lim, Soonkwon; Kim, Jang Sub

    2007-07-15

    We describe herein the synthesis of metallic copper nanoparticles in the presence of poly(vinylpyrrolidone), employed as a protecting agent, via a polyol method in ambient atmosphere. The obtained copper particles were confirmed by XRD to be crystalline copper with a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure. We observed monodisperse spherical copper nanoparticles with a diameter range 45+/-8 nm. The particle size and its distribution are controlled by varying the synthesis parameters such as the reducing agent concentration, reaction temperature, and precursor injection rate. The precursor injection rate plays an important role in controlling the size of the copper nanoparticles. On the basis of XPS and HRTEM results, we demonstrate that the surface of the copper is surrounded by amorphous CuO and that poly(vinylpyrrolidone) is chemisorbed on the copper surface.

  1. Synthesis of novel chalcone derivatives by conventional and microwave irradiation methods and their pharmacological activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Rayees Ahmad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Chalcones are abundant in edible plants and are considered to be the precursors of flavonoids and isoflavonoids. Chalcones belong to an important class of flavonoids, which may be prepared by Claisen–Schmidt condensation. They possess a wide range of biological activities and industrial applications. The cytotoxicity against tumour cell lines may be the result of disruption of the cell cycle, inhibition of angiogenesis, interference with p53-MDM2 interaction, mitochondrial uncoupling or induction of apoptosis. Chalcones are synthesized by conventional and microwave assisted synthesis methods. By microwave assisted synthesis, a considerable increase in the reaction rate has been observed and that too, with better yields. The compounds have been screened for cytotoxic activity and antioxidant activity.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of copper nanoparticles by using the exploding wire method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Rashmita; Das, Basanta Kumar; Shyam, Anurag

    2012-01-01

    During the past few years, the synthesis of copper nanoparticles has attracted much attention because of their huge potential for replacing the expensive nano silver inks utilized in conductive printing. This opens a new possibility in printed electronics. Copper-based inkjet inks can be used to form various devices such as solar cells, RF identification tags and electroluminescence devices. This paper describes controlled synthesis of pure copper nanoparticles, mainly by using the exploding wire method. A wire of 0.26 mm in diameter was exploded in a nitrogen environment. The sample was characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). XRD revealed the presence of pure copper and AFM revealed the presence of nanoparticles with an average size of 55 nm.

  3. Synthesis of anhydrous K2TiOF4 via a mild hydrothermal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Justin B.; Yeon, Jeongho; zur Loye, Hans-Conrad

    2015-10-01

    The synthesis of anhydrous K2TiOF4 has been previously attempted by transforming precursor compounds, such as the peroxide (K2Ti(O2)F4), hydrate (K2TiOF4·H2O) and fluoride (K2TiF6). Due to the large structural differences between these precursors and the anhydrous oxyfluorides, however, these preparations have been unsuccessful. Therefore, a direct method of synthesis has been employed to grow single crystals of K2TiOF4 that were characterized by single crystal x-ray diffraction. K2TiOF4 was found to be isostructural with the previously known K2VOF4.

  4. Biological evaluation and simple method for the synthesis of tetrahydrobenzo[a]xanthenes-11-one derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple method for the synthesis of Tetrahydrobenzo[a]xanthenes-11-one derivatives in the presence of BF3.SiO2, and its antibacterial activity was assessed against Pseudomonas syringae, Xanthomonas citi and Pectobacterium carotovorum. The structure of the isolated compounds has been determined by means of 1H/13C NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy. The reactions were carried out in water at room temperature for 5 h. This method has some advantages such as good to excellent yield, mild reaction condition, ease of operation and workup, high product purity and green process.

  5. Dependencies of photoelectric properties of SiC/Si structures grown by the method of atoms substitution on synthesis time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grashchenko, A. S.; Kukushkin, S. A.; Osipov, A. V.; Feoktistov, N. A.

    2017-07-01

    This paper is dedicated to an exploration of the photoelectric properties of Si-SiC structures grown by the substitution method on silicon substrates of (001) orientation. For the samples with the synthesis times of 40, 60, 90, 120 and 900 s, magnitudes of the saturation currents are determined and the coefficients of efficiency are calculated. The obtained dependencies of the photoelectric characteristics on the synthesis time are explained using the theory of formation of dilatation dipoles during the synthesis by the method of atoms substitution.

  6. A fixed free interface component mode synthesis method for rotordynamic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, A.; Padmanabhan, Chandramouli

    2006-11-01

    A fixed-free interface component mode synthesis method has been developed for carrying out rotordynamic analysis with the gyroscopic effects being considered. This hybrid model has been developed to combine the advantages of the fixed interface method, known popularly as the Craig-Bampton approach and the free interface method, known as the Craig-Chang technique. It is shown in the paper that the proposed fixed-free interface method is able to predict the whirl frequencies accurately (like the Craig-Bampton method) and at the same time predict the unbalance response accurately (like the Craig-Chang approach). The proposed technique has been validated for two systems. (a) a cantilever rotor with a heavy disc at its free end and (b) a typical twin-spool aero-engine rotor-bearing configuration. This technique is also suitable for nonlinear analysis, when a squeeze film damper is present.

  7. Coupling Neumann development and component mode synthesis methods for stochastic analysis of random structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Driss Sarsri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a method to calculate the first two moments (mean and variance of the structural dynamics response of a structure with uncertain variables and subjected to random excitation. For this, Newmark method is used to transform the equation of motion of the structure into a quasistatic equilibrium equation in the time domain. The Neumann development method was coupled with Monte Carlo simulations to calculate the statistical values of the random response. The use of modal synthesis methods can reduce the dimensions of the model before integration of the equation of motion. Numerical applications have been developed to highlight effectiveness of the method developed to analyze the stochastic response of large structures.

  8. Improving the time efficiency of the Fourier synthesis method for slice selection in magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahayori, B; Khaneja, N; Johnston, L A; Farrell, P M; Mareels, I M Y

    2016-01-01

    The design of slice selective pulses for magnetic resonance imaging can be cast as an optimal control problem. The Fourier synthesis method is an existing approach to solve these optimal control problems. In this method the gradient field as well as the excitation field are switched rapidly and their amplitudes are calculated based on a Fourier series expansion. Here, we provide a novel insight into the Fourier synthesis method via representing the Bloch equation in spherical coordinates. Based on the spherical Bloch equation, we propose an alternative sequence of pulses that can be used for slice selection which is more time efficient compared to the original method. Simulation results demonstrate that while the performance of both methods is approximately the same, the required time for the proposed sequence of pulses is half of the original sequence of pulses. Furthermore, the slice selectivity of both sequences of pulses changes with radio frequency field inhomogeneities in a similar way. We also introduce a measure, referred to as gradient complexity, to compare the performance of both sequences of pulses. This measure indicates that for a desired level of uniformity in the excited slice, the gradient complexity for the proposed sequence of pulses is less than the original sequence. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Exploration and characterization of new synthesis methods for C60 colloidal suspensions in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilburn, Martha E.

    Buckminsterfullerene, C60, has been used in the production of several commercial products from badminton racquets and lubricants for their mechanical properties to cosmetics and even dietary supplements for their "antioxidant" properties. Multi-ton production of C60 began in 2003 encouraging serious consideration of its fate in the environment in the case of an accidental release or improper disposal. Although C60 is practically insoluble in water, it readily forms stable aqueous colloidal suspensions (termed nC60) through solvent exchange methods or long-term vigorous stirring in water. Two new solvent exchange methods for synthesizing nC60 are presented. These methods combine key advantages of multiple existing synthesis methods including high yield, narrow particle size distribution, short synthesis time, and an absence of solvents such as tetrahydrofuran that have historically caused problems in laboratory synthesized aggregates. The resulting samples are attractive candidates for use in controlled environmental impact, biological, and toxicity studies. An improved method for quantifying residual solvents in nC60 samples utilizing solid phase micro extraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) is also discussed.

  10. An exploratory study on the driving method of speech synthesis based on the human eye reading imaging data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Pei-pei; Liu, Feng

    2016-10-01

    With the development of information technology and artificial intelligence, speech synthesis plays a significant role in the fields of Human-Computer Interaction Techniques. However, the main problem of current speech synthesis techniques is lacking of naturalness and expressiveness so that it is not yet close to the standard of natural language. Another problem is that the human-computer interaction based on the speech synthesis is too monotonous to realize mechanism of user subjective drive. This thesis introduces the historical development of speech synthesis and summarizes the general process of this technique. It is pointed out that prosody generation module is an important part in the process of speech synthesis. On the basis of further research, using eye activity rules when reading to control and drive prosody generation was introduced as a new human-computer interaction method to enrich the synthetic form. In this article, the present situation of speech synthesis technology is reviewed in detail. Based on the premise of eye gaze data extraction, using eye movement signal in real-time driving, a speech synthesis method which can express the real speech rhythm of the speaker is proposed. That is, when reader is watching corpora with its eyes in silent reading, capture the reading information such as the eye gaze duration per prosodic unit, and establish a hierarchical prosodic pattern of duration model to determine the duration parameters of synthesized speech. At last, after the analysis, the feasibility of the above method is verified.

  11. New method of synthesis and in vitro studies of a porous biomaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wers, E., E-mail: wers.eric@hotmail.com [Equipe Chimie du Solide et Matériaux, UMR CNRS 6226, Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Université de Rennes 1, Université Européenne de Bretagne, 263 avenue du Général Leclerc, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Lefeuvre, B. [Equipe Chimie du Solide et Matériaux, UMR CNRS 6226, Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Université de Rennes 1, Université Européenne de Bretagne, 263 avenue du Général Leclerc, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Pellen-Mussi, P.; Novella, A. [Equipe Chimie du Solide et Matériaux, UMR CNRS 6226, Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Université de Rennes 1, Université Européenne de Bretagne, 2 avenue du Professeur Léon Bernard, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Oudadesse, H. [Equipe Chimie du Solide et Matériaux, UMR CNRS 6226, Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Université de Rennes 1, Université Européenne de Bretagne, 263 avenue du Général Leclerc, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France)

    2016-04-01

    Biomaterials for bone reconstruction represent a widely studied area. In this paper, a new method of synthesis of a porous glass–ceramic obtained by thermal treatment is presented. The prepared biomaterial was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and induced couple plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), mercury porosimetry and by the Archimedes method. In vitro evaluations in a simulated body fluid (SBF) and in contact with SaOS{sub 2} human osteoblasts were also carried out. The porous glass–ceramic is composed of a total porous network of 60% suitable for body fluid and cell infiltration, with pore sizes varying from 60 nm to 143 μm. The presence of two crystalline phases decreases the kinetic of bioactivity compared to an amorphous biomaterial (bioactive glass). A hydroxyapatite layer appears from 15 days of immersion on the surface and inside the pores, showing a biodegradation and a bioactivity in four steps. Cytotoxicity assessments present an increase of the cellular viability after 72 h proving the non-cytotoxic effect of the glass–ceramic. Thus, the results of these different studies indicate that the porous biomaterial may have a potential application for the bone regeneration. This paper also presents the novelty of this method. It is a rapid synthesis which combines simplicity and low cost. This represents an advantage for an eventual industrialization. - Highlights: • The new method of synthesis of a porous glass–ceramic is reproducible. • The porous glass–ceramic possesses a total porosity of 60%. • The biomaterial shows a bioactivity in four steps with hydroxyapatite formation. • 82% of cellular viability is observed on the surface of the biomaterial.

  12. Learning spinal manipulation: A best-evidence synthesis of teaching methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stainsby, Brynne E; Clarke, Michelle C S; Egonia, Jade R

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different reported methods used to teach spinal manipulative therapy to chiropractic students. For this best-evidence literature synthesis, 5 electronic databases were searched from 1900 to 2015. Eligible studies were critically appraised using the criteria of the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. Scientifically admissible studies were synthesized following best-evidence synthesis principles. Twenty articles were critically appraised, including 9 randomized clinical trials, 9 cohort studies, and 2 systematic reviews/meta-analyses. Eleven articles were accepted as scientifically admissible. The type of teaching method aids included a Thrust in Motion cervical manikin, instrumented cardiopulmonary reanimation manikin, padded contact with a load cell, instrumented treatment table with force sensor/transducer, and Dynadjust instrument. Several different methods exist in the literature for teaching spinal manipulative therapy techniques; however, future research in this developing area of chiropractic education is proposed. It is suggested that various teaching methods be included in the regular curricula of chiropractic colleges to aid in developing manipulation skills, efficiency, and knowledge of performance.

  13. A Method for Sustainable Carbon Dioxide Utilization Process Synthesis and Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frauzem, Rebecca; Fjellerup, Kasper; Roh, Kosan

    for the process synthesis, design and more sustainable design. Using a superstructure-based approach a network of utilization alternatives is created linking CO2 and other raw materials with various products using processing blocks. This will then be optimized and verified for sustainability. Detailed design has...... also been performed for various case studies. These case studies include multiple pathways for the production of methanol and the production of dimethyl carbonate (DMC). From detailed design and analysis, CO2 conversion processes show promise as an additional method for the sustainable reduction of CO2...

  14. Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Development of the Olefin Metathesis Method in Organic Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Charles P.

    2006-02-01

    The 2005 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Yves Chauvin of the Institut Français du Pétrole, Robert H. Grubbs of CalTech, and Richard R. Schrock of MIT "for development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis". The discoveries of the laureates provided a chemical reaction now used daily in the chemical industry for the efficient and more environmentally friendly production of important pharmaceuticals, fuels, synthetic fibers, and many other products. This article tells the story of how olefin metathesis became a truly useful synthetic transformation and a triumph for mechanistic chemistry, and illustrates the importance of fundamental research. See JCE Featured Molecules .

  15. Methods for the synthesis of O-, S- and N-vinyl derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledovskaya, M. S.; Voronin, V. V.; Rodygin, K. S.

    2018-02-01

    The currently known methods for the preparation of vinyl ethers, vinyl sulfides and enamines are analyzed and described systematically. The published data on the reactions of alcohols, thiols and various nitrogen-containing compounds with acetylene, resulting in the corresponding vinyl derivatives, are considered. The attention is focused on the application of convenient acetylene sources. Other modern approaches to the synthesis of vinyl derivatives are described in detail, including vinyl exchange and metathesis reactions, various types of cross-coupling and cleavage of organic compounds. Some specific synthetic routes to vinyl ethers, vinyl sulfides and enamines are presented in the last Section. The bibliography includes 262 references.

  16. Synthesis of multiwalled carbon nanotube from different grades of carbon black using arc discharge method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, Neha, E-mail: n4neha31@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani (India); Sharma, N. N. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani (India); Director, School of Automobile, Mechanical & Mechatronics, Manipal University,Jaipur,India (India)

    2016-04-13

    This paper describes the synthesis of nanotube from different grades (Tread * A(non-ASTM), N134,N121,N660 and N330)of carbon black using DC arc discharge method at 40A current for 60sec. Carbon black samples of different grades were procured from industry (Aditya Birla Science and Technology Limited, India). Scanning Electron Micrographs (SEM) of the deposited carbon nanostructures suggests that MWCNTs are formed at 40A and for a minimal exposure time of 60sec.The result formed indicates the N330 grade of carbon black gets converted to MWCNTs (Multiwall Carbon nanotube) as compared to other grades.

  17. Recent progress in the direct synthesis of hierarchical zeolites: synthetic strategies and characterization methods

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Zhaohui

    2017-06-16

    Hierarchically structured zeolites combine the merits of microporous zeolites and mesoporous materials to offer enhanced molecular diffusion and mass transfer without compromising the inherent catalytic activities and selectivity of zeolites. This short review gives an introduction to the synthesis strategies for hierarchically structured zeolites with emphasis on the latest progress in the route of ‘direct synthesis’ using various templates. Several characterization methods that allow us to evaluate the ‘quality’ of complex porous structures are also introduced. At the end of this review, an outlook is given to discuss some critical issues and challenges regarding the development of novel hierarchically structured zeolites as well as their applications.

  18. Optimal synthesis of a four-bar linkage by method of controlled deviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulatović Radovan R.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers optimal synthesis of a four-bar linkage by method of controlled deviations. The advantage of this approximate method is that it allows control of motion of the coupler in the four-bar linkage so that the path of the coupler is in the prescribed environment around the given path on the segment observed. The Hooke-Jeeves’s optimization algorithm has been used in the optimization process. Calculation expressions are not used as the method of direct searching, i.e. individual comparison of the calculated value of the objective function is made in each iteration and the moving is done in the direction of decreasing the value of the objective function. This algorithm does not depend on the initial selection of the projected variables. All this is illustrated on an example of synthesis of a four-bar linkage whose coupler point traces a straight line, i.e. passes through sixteen prescribed points lying on one straight line. .

  19. New method of synthesis and in vitro studies of a porous biomaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wers, E; Lefeuvre, B; Pellen-Mussi, P; Novella, A; Oudadesse, H

    2016-04-01

    Biomaterials for bone reconstruction represent a widely studied area. In this paper, a new method of synthesis of a porous glass-ceramic obtained by thermal treatment is presented. The prepared biomaterial was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and induced couple plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), mercury porosimetry and by the Archimedes method. In vitro evaluations in a simulated body fluid (SBF) and in contact with SaOS2 human osteoblasts were also carried out. The porous glass-ceramic is composed of a total porous network of 60% suitable for body fluid and cell infiltration, with pore sizes varying from 60 nm to 143 μm. The presence of two crystalline phases decreases the kinetic of bioactivity compared to an amorphous biomaterial (bioactive glass). A hydroxyapatite layer appears from 15 days of immersion on the surface and inside the pores, showing a biodegradation and a bioactivity in four steps. Cytotoxicity assessments present an increase of the cellular viability after 72 h proving the non-cytotoxic effect of the glass-ceramic. Thus, the results of these different studies indicate that the porous biomaterial may have a potential application for the bone regeneration. This paper also presents the novelty of this method. It is a rapid synthesis which combines simplicity and low cost. This represents an advantage for an eventual industrialization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Study of iterative synthesis method by deflation in the resolution of neutron diffusion equation applied to fast reactors calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis Filho, P.E.G. dos

    1982-01-01

    A new synthesis method to substitute for the classical method of finite diferences for XYZ geometry (geometry of critical experiments in fast reactors), is developed. The new method allows a fine energy group division, that is, finer than the 6 groups division used in calculations of power core specification. (E.G.) [pt

  1. Tuning of PID controllers for integrating systems using direct synthesis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anil, Ch; Padma Sree, R

    2015-07-01

    A PID controller is designed for various forms of integrating systems with time delay using direct synthesis method. The method is based on comparing the characteristic equation of the integrating system and PID controller with a filter with the desired characteristic equation. The desired characteristic equation comprises of multiple poles which are placed at the same desired location. The tuning parameter is adjusted so as to achieve the desired robustness. Tuning rules in terms of process parameters are given for various forms of integrating systems. The tuning parameter can be selected for the desired robustness by specifying Ms value. The proposed controller design method is applied to various transfer function models and to the nonlinear model equations of jacketed CSTR to show its effectiveness and applicability. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. On the selection of optimized carbon nano tube synthesis method using analytic hierarchy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besharati, M. K.; Afaghi Khatibi, A.; Akbari, M.

    2008-01-01

    Evidence from the early and late industrializes shows that technology, as the commercial application of scientific knowledge, has been a major driver of industrial and economic development. International technology transfer is now being recognized as having played an important role in the development of the most successful late industrializes of the second half of the twentieth Century. Our society stands to be significantly influenced by carbon nano tubes, shaped by nano tube applications in every aspect, just as silicon-based technology still shapes society today. Nano tubes can be formed in various structures using several different processing methods. In this paper, the synthesis methods used to produce nano tubes in industrial or laboratory scales are discussed and a comparison is made. A technical feasibility study is conducted by using the multi criteria decision-making model, namely Analytic Hierarchy Process. The article ends with a discussion of selecting the best method of Technology Transferring of Carbon Nano tubes to Iran

  3. Impact of synthesis methods on the transport of single walled carbon nanotubes in the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Indranil; Duch, Mathew C; Gits, Colton C; Hersam, Mark C; Walker, Sharon L

    2012-11-06

    In this study, a systematic approach has been followed to investigate the fate and transport of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) from synthesis to environmentally relevant conditions. Three widely used SWCNT synthesis methods have been investigated in this study including high pressure carbon monoxide (HiPco), SWeNT CoMoCat, and electric arc discharge technique (EA). This study relates the transport of three SWCNTs (HiPco-D, SG65-D, and P2-D) with different synthesis methods and residual catalyst content revealing their influence on the subsequent fate of the nanotubes. To minimize nanotube bundling and aggregation, the SWCNTs were dispersed using the biocompatible triblock copolymer Pluronic, which allowed the comparison in the transport trends among these SWCNTs. After purification, the residual metal catalyst between the SWCNTs follows the trend: HiPco-D > SG65-D > P2-D. The electrophoretic mobility (EPM) and hydrodynamic diameter of SWCNTs remained insensitive to SWCNT type, pH, and presence of natural organic matter (NOM); but were affected by ionic strength (IS) and ion valence (K(+), Ca(2+)). In monovalent ions, the hydrodynamic diameter of SWCNTs was not influenced by IS, whereas larger aggregation was observed for HiPco-D with IS than P2-D and SG65-D in the presence of Ca(2+). Transport of HiPco-D in the porous media was significantly higher than SG65-D followed by P2-D. Release of HiPco-D from porous media was higher than SG65-D followed by P2-D, though negligible amount of all types of SWCNTs (transport and release patterns follow a similar trend to what was observed for residual metal catalysts in SWCNTs. Addition of NOM increased the transport of all SWCNTs primarily due to electrosteric repulsion. HiPco-D was notably more acidic than SG65-D followed by P2-D, which is similar to the transport trend. Overall, it was observed that the synthesis methods resulted in distinctive breakthrough trends, which were correlated to metal content. These

  4. Environmentally evaluated HPLC-ELSD method to monitor enzymatic synthesis of a non-ionic surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Yasser; Akerman, Cecilia Orellana; Hatti-Kaul, Rajni

    2014-01-01

    N-Lauroyl-N-methylglucamide is a biodegradable surfactant derived from renewable resources. In an earlier study, we presented an enzymatic solvent-free method for synthesis of this compound. In the present report, the HPLC method developed to follow the reaction between lauric acid/methyl laurate and N-methyl glucamine (MEG) and its environmental assessment are described. Use of ultraviolet (UV) absorption or refractive index (RI) detectors did not allow the detection of N-methyl glucamine (MEG). With Evaporative light scattering detector ELSD, it was possible to apply a gradient elution, and detect MEG with a limit of detection, LOD = 0.12 μg. A good separation of the peaks: MEG, lauric acid, product (amide) and by-product (amide-ester) was achieved with the gradient program with a run time of 40 min. The setting of ELSD detector was optimized using methyl laurate as the analyte. LC-MS/MS was used to confirm the amide and amide-ester peaks. We evaluated the greenness of the developed method using the freely available software HPLC-Environmental Assessment Tool (HPLC-EAT) and the method got a scoring of 73 HPLC-EAT units, implying that the analytical procedure was more environmentally benign compared to some other methods reported in literature whose HPLC-EAT values scored up to 182. Use of ELSD detector allowed the detection and quantification of the substrates and the reaction products of enzymatic synthesis of the surfactant, N-lauroyl-N-methylglucamide. The developed HPLC method has acceptable environmental profile based on HPLC-EAT evaluation.

  5. Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel Pelit

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available New optically active aminoalkylnaphthols were obtained by condensation of 2-naphthol, substituted aromatic and heteroaromatic aldehydes and (R-(+-1-phenylethylamine or (S-(−-1-phenylethylamine under conventional methods and ultrasonic irradiation. The enantiopure aminoalkylnaphthol derivatives were converted in ring-closure reaction with formaldehyde to the corresponding naphthoxazine derivatives.

  6. Efficient seed-mediated method for the large-scale synthesis of Au nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Waqqar; Bhatti, Arshad Saleem [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Physics (Pakistan); Ruitenbeek, Jan M. van, E-mail: Ruitenbeek@physics.leidenuniv.nl [Leiden University, Huygens-Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory (Netherlands)

    2017-03-15

    Seed-mediated methods are widely followed for the synthesis of Au nanorods (NRs). However, mostly dilute concentrations of the Au precursor (HAuCl{sub 4}) are used in the growth solution, which leads to a low final concentration of NRs. Attempts of increasing the concentration of NRs by simply increasing the concentration of HAuCl{sub 4}, other reagents in the growth solution and seeds lead to a faster growth kinetics which is not favourable for NR growth. Herein, we demonstrate that the increase in growth kinetics for high concentrations of reagents in growth solution can be neutralised by decreasing the pH of the solution. The synthesis of the NRs can be scaled up by using higher concentrations of reagents and adding an optimum concentration of HCl in the growth solution. The concentration of HAuCl{sub 4} in the growth solution can be increased up to 5 mM, and 10–20 times more NRs can be synthesised for the same reaction volume compared to that of the conventional seed-mediated method. We have also noticed that a cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-to-HAuCl{sub 4} molar ratio of 50 is sufficient for obtaining high yield of NRs.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of nano-CeO2 by detonation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhi-wei; Xie, Li-feng; Ni, Ou-qi; Li, Bin; Chao, Cheng; Xie, Yi-chao

    2012-04-01

    In order to study the application of detonation synthesis method in preparing nanoscale ceria(CeO2), ceria powder was synthesized by detonation method. The synthesis experiment was carried out in explosion containment vessel by initiating the emulsion explosive in which Ce(NO3)3.6H2O acted as the main oxidant. The phase composition, crystal form, appearance and microstructure of the as-synthesized products were characterized by X-ray diffraction(XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscope(TEM). The result from XRD test indicated that the nanoscale ceria belonged to cubic phase. The mean size of ceria grain was 26nm based on the calculation result according to Scherrer equation. The result from TEM test presented that the as-synthesized ceria grain was spherical by appearance, and the size was uniform. According to TEM test result, the mean size of ceria grain was between 20nm and 30nm, which coincided with calculation result perfectly.

  8. High-yield Synthesis of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube by Mechanothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manafi SA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study reports on the mechanothermal synthesis of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNTs from elemental graphite powder. Initially, high ultra-active graphite powder can be obtained by mechanical milling under argon atmosphere. Finally, the mechanical activation product is heat-treated at 1350°C for 2–4 h under argon gas flow. After heat-treatment, active graphite powders were successfully changed into MWCNTs with high purity. The XRD analyses showed that in the duration 150 h of milling, all the raw materials were changed to the desired materials. From the broadening of the diffraction lines in the XRD patterns, it was concluded that the graphite crystallites were nanosized, and raising the milling duration resulted in the fineness of the particles and the increase of the strain. The structure and morphology of MWCNTs were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM. The yield of MWCNTs was estimated through SEM and TEM observations of the as-prepared samples was to be about 90%. Indeed, mechanothermal method is of interest for fundamental understanding and improvement of commercial synthesis of carbon nanotubes (CNTs. As a matter of fact, the method of mechanothermal guarantees the production of MWCNTs suitable for different applications.

  9. Removable Backbone Modification Method for the Chemical Synthesis of Membrane Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia-Bin; Tang, Shan; Zheng, Ji-Shen; Tian, Chang-Lin; Liu, Lei

    2017-05-16

    Chemical synthesis can produce water-soluble globular proteins bearing specifically designed modifications. These synthetic molecules have been used to study the biological functions of proteins and to improve the pharmacological properties of protein drugs. However, the above advances notwithstanding, membrane proteins (MPs), which comprise 20-30% of all proteins in the proteomes of most eukaryotic cells, remain elusive with regard to chemical synthesis. This difficulty stems from the strong hydrophobic character of MPs, which can cause considerable handling issues during ligation, purification, and characterization steps. Considerable efforts have been made to improve the solubility of transmembrane peptides for chemical ligation. These methods can be classified into two main categories: the manipulation of external factors and chemical modification of the peptide. This Account summarizes our research advances in the development of chemical modification especially the two generations of removable backbone modification (RBM) strategy for the chemical synthesis of MPs. In the first RBM generation, we install a removable modification group at the backbone amide of Gly within the transmembrane peptides. In the second RBM generation, the RBM group can be installed into all primary amino acid residues. The second RBM strategy combines the activated intramolecular O-to-N acyl transfer reaction, in which a phenyl group remains unprotected during the coupling process, which can play a catalytic role to generate the activated phenyl ester to assist in the formation of amide. The key feature of the RBM group is its switchable stability in trifluoroacetic acid. The stability of these backbone amide N-modifications toward TFA can be modified by regulating the electronic effects of phenol groups. The free phenol group is acylated to survive the TFA deprotection step, while the acyl phenyl ester will be quantitatively hydrolyzed in a neutral aqueous solution, and the free

  10. Synthesis and characterization of TiO2 nanoparticles by the method Pechini

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoccal, Joao Victor Marques; Arouca, Fabio de Oliveira; Goncalves, Jose Antonio Silveira

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, scientific research showed an increasing interest in the field of nanotechnology, resulting in several techniques for the production of nanoparticles, such as methods of chemical synthesis. Among the various existing methods, the Pechini method has been used to obtain nanoparticles of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ). Thus, this work aims to synthesize and characterize nanoparticles of TiO 2 obtained by this method. The technique constitutes in the reaction between citric acid with titanium isopropoxide, resulting as the product the titanium citrate. With the addition of the ethylene glycol polymerization occurs, resulting in a polymeric resin. At the end of the process, the resin is calcined to remove organic matter, creating nanoparticles of TiO 2 . The resulting powders were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and thermal differential analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction, absorption spectrophotometry in the infrared, method of adsorption nitrogen / helium (BET method) and scanning electron microscopy. The results obtained in the characterization techniques showed that the Pechini method is promising in obtaining nanosized TiO 2 . (author)

  11. A facile and rapid method for the black pepper leaf mediated green synthesis of silver nanoparticles and the antimicrobial study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Robin; Kalarikkal, Nandakumar; Thomas, Sabu

    2014-10-01

    Green synthesis of nanoparticles is widely accepted due to the less toxicity in comparison with chemical methods. But there are certain drawbacks like slow formation of nanoparticles, difficulty to control particle size and shape make them less convenient. Here we report a novel cost-effective and eco-friendly method for the rapid green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaf extracts of Piper nigrum. Our results suggest that this method can be used for obtaining silver nanoparticles with controllable size within a few minutes. The fabricated nanoparticles possessed excellent antibacterial property against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of nanosized MnZn ferrites via a modified hydrothermal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingling; Liu, Xiansong; Xu, Taotao; Nie, Yu; Li, Honglin; Zhang, Cong

    2017-10-01

    Nanosized MnZn ferrite particles, with narrow size distribution, regular morphology and high saturation magnetization have been synthesized via a modified hydrothermal method. This modified hydrothermal method involves a chemical co-precipitation of hydroxides under a vacuum condition using potassium hydroxide as precipitating agent, followed by a separate hydrothermal process. The microstructure and magnetic properties of the synthesized nanoparticles were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The effects of different synthesis conditions (excess ratio of precipitating agent and hydrothermal reaction time) on the microstructure and magnetic properties of the as-synthesized nanoparticles were discussed. The magnetic measurements indicated that the obtained samples were superparamagnetic in nature at room temperature. Moreover, the MnZn ferrite nanoparticles with excellent magnetic performance could be synthesized at 180 °C for a short reaction time (3 h).

  13. The Synthesis Method of Automated System of Operational Planning in Low-Space Communication System Messaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhii Kovbasiuk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the reasons for the decrease of efficiency in low-speed communication systems, satellite communication, which are based on nanoplatform is a high degree of operational planning centralisation. To overcome this problem the method which carries out the distribution of tasks of communications operational planning minimizing the exchange of information between spatially remote sites, and takes into account the computing performance of software and hardware was developed. The technique is based on the use of methods of structural and parametric synthesis, simulation and statistical analysis of the results. Its use allows to obtain the optimal structure of the automated system of operational planning in low-space communication system messaging evaluation of efficiency in terms of fixed communication of information load.

  14. A method of reversible circuits synthesis based on s-maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorupski, Andrzej

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents an original method to designing reversible circuits. The main problem of reversible circuits synthesis is designing optimal reversible circuits i.e. circuits with minimal gates number implementing the given reversible function. To design reversible circuits a set of gates must be chosen. The most popular library is a set called CNT (Control, NOT and Toffoli) which contains three types of gates. The method presented in this paper is based on the CNT gates. A graphical representation of the reversible function called s-maps is introduced in the paper. This representation allows to find optimal solutions. The paper is organized as follows. Section 1 recalls basic concepts of reversible logic. In Section 2 a graphical representation of the reversible functions is presented. Section 3 describes the algorithm whereby any optimal solutions of the given function could be obtained.

  15. Preparation of bimetallic nanoparticles using a facile green synthesis method and their application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Bihua; He, Fang; Li, Lidong

    2013-04-16

    A straightforward, economically viable, and green approach for the synthesis of well-stabilized Au/Ag bimetallic nanoparticles is described; this method uses nontoxic and renewable degraded pueraria starch (DPS) as a matrix and mild reaction conditions. The DPS acted as both a reducing agent and a capping agent for the bimetallic nanoparticles. Au/Ag bimetallic nanoparticles were successfully grown within the DPS matrixes, and the bimetallic structures were characterized using various methods, including high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray, and X-ray diffraction. Moreover, it was shown that these DPS-capped Au/Ag bimetallic nanoparticles could function as catalysts for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol in the presence of NaBH4 and were more effective than Au or Ag monometallic nanoparticles.

  16. Hybrid variational principles and synthesis method for finite element neutron transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackroyd, R.T.; Nanneh, M.M.

    1990-01-01

    A family of hybrid variational principles is derived using a generalised least squares method. Neutron conservation is automatically satisfied for the hybrid principles employing two trial functions. No interfaces or reflection conditions need to be imposed on the independent even-parity trial function. For some hybrid principles a single trial function can be employed by relating one parity trial function to the other, using one of the parity transport equation in relaxed form. For other hybrid principles the trial functions can be employed sequentially. Synthesis of transport solutions, starting with the diffusion theory approximation, has been used as a way of reducing the scale of the computation that arises with established finite element methods for neutron transport. (author)

  17. Facile One-Pot Polyol Method for the Synthesis of Uniform Size Silver Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaili, Zhang; Yongguo, Du; Shimin, Chen

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the development of a facile and efficient one-pot polyol method for the synthesis of silver nanowires. The seed and growth of silver nanowires under different reaction conditions were characterized and measured. The pertinent variables such as temperature, time, concentration and capping agent were investigated. Moreover, the effect of seeding at two different stages-initial stage and secondary stage-was studied and discussed on the size control of silver nanowires. In particular, silver nanowires with diameter less than 40 nm and length over 25 µm in a narrow distribution, was obtained through a novel method in which reaction flask was placed in a low-temperature bath after seeding for some time in the high-temperature bath. This approach may be useful for the fabrication of uniform, large aspect ratio silver nanowires for optoelectronic applications.

  18. MODEL AND METHOD FOR SYNTHESIS OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT METHODOLOGY WITH FUZZY INPUT DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. KONONENKO

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Literature analysis concerning the selection or creation a project management methodology is performed. Creating a "complete" methodology is proposed which can be applied to managing projects with any complexity, various degrees of responsibility for results and different predictability of the requirements. For the formation of a "complete" methodology, it is proposed to take the PMBOK standard as the basis, which would be supplemented by processes of the most demanding plan driven and flexible Agile Methodologies. For each knowledge area of the PMBOK standard, The following groups of processes should be provided: initiation, planning, execution, reporting, and forecasting, controlling, analysis, decision making and closing. The method for generating a methodology for the specific project is presented. The multiple criteria mathematical model and method aredeveloped for the synthesis of methodology when initial data about the project and its environment are fuzzy.

  19. Metal-organic frameworks: structure, properties, methods of synthesis and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butova, V V; Soldatov, M A; Guda, A A; Lomachenko, K A; Lamberti, C

    2016-01-01

    This review deals with key methods of synthesis and characterization of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). The modular structure affords a wide variety of MOFs with different active metal sites and organic linkers. These compounds represent a new stage of development of porous materials in which the pore size and the active site structure can be modified within wide limits. The set of experimental methods considered in this review is sufficient for studying the short-range and long-range order of the MOF crystal structure, determining the morphology of samples and elucidating the processes that occur at the active metal site in the course of chemical reactions. The interest in metal-organic frameworks results, first of all, from their numerous possible applications, ranging from gas separation and storage to chemical reactions within the pores. The bibliography includes 362 references

  20. Facile and template-free method toward chemical synthesis of polyaniline film/nanotube structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Pei [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh Pennsylvania 15261; Zhu, Yisi [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Lab, Lemont Illinois 60439; Torres, Jorge [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh Pennsylvania 15261; Lee, Seung Hee [Department of BIN Fusion Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-786 Korea; Yun, Minhee [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh Pennsylvania 15261

    2017-09-05

    A facile and template-free method is reported to synthesize a new thin film structure: polyaniline (PANI) film/nanotubes (F/N) structure. The PANI F/N is a 100-nm thick PANI film embedded with PANI nanotubes. This well-controlled method requires no surfactant or organic acid as well as relatively low concentration of reagents. Synthesis condition studies reveal that aniline oligomers with certain structures are responsible for guiding the growth of the nanotubes. Electrical characterization also indicates that the PANI F/N possesses similar field-effect transistor characteristics to bare PANI film. With its 20% increased surface-area-to-volume (S/V) ratio contributed by surface embedded nanotubes and the excellent p-type semiconducting characteristic, PANI F/N shows clear superiority compared with bare PANI film. Such advantages guarantee the PANI F/N a promising future toward the development of ultra-high sensitivity and low-cost biosensors.

  1. Selection of Suitable Biological Method for the Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ashraf Sabri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present a brief overview of different biosynthesis routes of silver nanoparticles (NPs, their applications and influence of the method used on the size and morphology of these nanoparticles. A detailed and comprehensive study of available biological methods, also referred to as a bottom-up approach, as well as techniques reported, have been provided with an eye for details and comparison between the techniques involving fungi, bacteria, algae and plant extracts. Plant-derived bioreduc‐ tants such as leaf, stem or root extracts of various plants are seen as suitable solutions to green synthesis of silver NPs, implementing an easy, non-toxic, clean and environmen‐ tally friendly approach. Furthermore, reports on the antimicrobial activities with the zone of inhibition for various pathogens have also been included.

  2. Real-time arbitrary view synthesis method for ultra-HD auto-stereoscopic display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yuanfa; Sang, Xinzhu; Duo, Chen; Zhao, Tianqi; Fan, Xin; Guo, Nan; Yu, Xunbo; Yan, Binbin

    2013-08-01

    An arbitrary view synthesis method from 2D-Plus-Depth image for real-time auto-stereoscopic display is presented. Traditional methods use depth image based rendering (DIBR) technology, which is a process of synthesizing "virtual" views of a scene from still or moving images and associated per-pixel depth information. All the virtual view images are generated and then the ultimate stereo-image is synthesized. DIBR can greatly decrease the number of reference images and is flexible and efficient as the depth images are used. However it causes some problems such as the appearance of holes in the rendered image, and the occurrence of depth discontinuity on the surface of the object at virtual image plane. Here, reversed disparity shift pixel rendering is used to generate the stereo-image directly, and the target image won't generate holes. To avoid duplication of calculation and also to be able to match with any specific three-dimensional display, a selecting table is designed to pick up appropriate virtual viewpoints for auto-stereoscopic display. According to the selecting table, only sub-pixels of the appropriate virtual viewpoints are calculated, so calculation amount is independent of the number of virtual viewpoints. In addition, 3D image warping technology is used to translate depth information to parallax between virtual viewpoints and parallax, and the viewer can adjust the zero-parallax-setting-plane (ZPS) and change parallax conveniently to suit his/her personal preferences. The proposed method is implemented with OPENGL and demonstrated on a laptop computer with a 2.3 GHz Intel Core i5 CPU and NVIDA GeForce GT540m GPU. We got a frame rate 30 frames per second with 4096×2340 video. High synthesis efficiency and good stereoscopic sense can be obtained. The presented method can meet the requirements of real-time ultra-HD super multi-view auto-stereoscopic display.

  3. Development of Hydrotalcite Based Cobalt Catalyst by Hydrothermal and Co-precipitation Method for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Faizan Shareef

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the effect of a synthesis method for cobalt catalyst supported on hydrotalcite material for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The hydrotalcite supported cobalt (HT-Co catalysts were synthesized by co-precipitation and hydrothermal method. The prepared catalysts were characterized by using various techniques like BET (Brunauer–Emmett–Teller, SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy, TGA (Thermal Gravimetric Analysis, XRD (X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, and FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Fixed bed micro reactor was used to test the catalytic activity of prepared catalysts. The catalytic testing results demonstrated the performance of hydrotalcite based cobalt catalyst in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis with high selectivity for liquid products. The effect of synthesis method on the activity and selectivity of catalyst was also discussed. Copyright © 2017 BCREC Group. All rights reserved Received: 3rd November 2016; Revised: 26th February 2017; Accepted: 9th March 2017; Available online: 27th October 2017; Published regularly: December 2017 How to Cite: Sharif, M.S., Arslan, M., Iqbal, N., Ahmad, N., Noor, T. (2017. Development of Hydrotalcite Based Cobalt Catalyst by Hydrothermal and Co-precipitation Method for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 12(3: 357-363 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.12.3.762.357-363

  4. Method of mechanochemical synthesis for the production of nanocrystalline Nb-Al alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portnoj, V.K.; Tret'yakov, K.V.; Logacheva, A.I.; Logunov, A.V.; Razumovskij, I.M.

    2004-01-01

    Using X-ray diffraction and DS analyses the process of solid phase synthesis on cooperative comminution of components (Nb, Al, Cr) in a planetary ball mill is investigated. Powder nanocrystalline Nb 3 Al base alloys of various compositions with simultaneous introduction of chromium are synthesized. High power milling results in block size of ∼ 20 nm. It is shown that final chromium dissolution and partial decomposition of Nb(Al) supersaturated solid solutions proceed after heating up to 1100 deg C only. With the help of doping with niobium by the method of mechanical alloying, a two-phase alloy Nb 3 Al + Nb 2 Al having been produced by arc melting, is corrected by composition and transferred to the two-phase region of Nb 3 Al + Nb(Al). It is revealed that the process of niobium aluminide phase formation during mechanochemical synthesis and the process of mechanical activation of Nb-Al system intermetallics enriched with niobium always proceed through formation of supersaturated solid solutions. The mechanism of the process is probably associated with stacking faults formation due to deformation [ru

  5. Copper Nanoparticles Mediated by Chitosan: Synthesis and Characterization via Chemical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sani Usman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Herein we report a synthesis of copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs in chitosan (Cts media via a chemical reaction method. The nanoparticles were synthesized in an aqueous solution in the presence of Cts as stabilizer and CuSO4·5H2O precursor. The synthesis proceeded with addition of NaOH as pH moderator, ascorbic acid as antioxidant and hydrazine as the reducing agent. The characterization of the prepared NPs was done using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, which showed a 593 nm copper band. The Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM images were also observed, and found to be in agreement with the UV-Vis result, confirming the formation of metallic Cu-NPs. The mean size of the Cu-NPs was estimated to be in the range of 35–75 nm using X-ray diffraction. XRD was also used in analysis of the crystal structure of the NPs. The interaction between the chitosan and the synthesized NPs was studied using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy, which showed the capping of the NPs by Cts.

  6. Synthesis of alumina powder with seeds by Pechini Method using O2 as calcination atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, R.E.P.; Guilherme, K.A.; Chinelatto, A.S.A.; Chinelatto, A. L.

    2012-01-01

    Alumina is a very investigated material due to its excellent refractory characteristics and mechanical properties. Its alpha phase, the most stable one, has a formation temperature of about 1200 ° C. Due to its high temperature of formation, many researches have been trying to reduce it through addition of seeds of alpha phase in chemical processes of synthesis. This work aims to synthesize ultrafine powders of alpha-alumina by the Pechini method with seeding, and using an O 2 atmosphere in the pre-calcination (500 ° C) and calcination (1000 ° C and 1100° C) steps. The resulting powders were characterized through X-ray diffractometry, infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results were compared with samples calcined on ai. It was verified that the presence of oxygen in the calcination atmosphere favored the elimination of residual carbon from the precursor powders, forthcoming from the great amount of organic material used on the synthesis, modifying its morphology and favoring reduction of particle size. (author)

  7. Synthesis and properties of ZnS quantum dots by an oil-water interface method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yunxing; Zhou, Xingping; Liu, Yang; Wang, Xiaqin

    2012-11-01

    Nowadays, novel synthesis routes of nanoparticles are attracting a considerable attention of relative scientists. In this work, monodispersed spherical ZnS quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized by an oil-water interface method. The as-prepared products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Typical TEM images showed that the average size of ZnS QDs was 3.3 nm. The ZnS QDs with the largest yield and UV absorbance were obtained with the mole ratio of [S2-]/[Zn2+] = 1.2/1.0 at 100 degrees C. Based on the above results and the previous outstanding work for synthesis of monodispersed inorganic nanoparticles, the formation mechanism of the monodispersed ZnS quantum dots was proposed. Additionally, UV-vis absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectra for Mn2+ and Eu3+ doped ZnS QDs were used to investigate their optical properties. Effects of Mn2+ and Eu3+ doping ratio on their optical properties were studied. The optimized doping ratio of Mn2+ and Eu3+ was 4.0 mol.% and 5.0 mol.%, respectively.

  8. Facile Synthesis of Sub-20 nm Silver Nanowires through a Bromide-Mediated Polyol Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Robson Rosa; Yang, Miaoxin; Choi, Sang-Il; Chi, Miaofang; Luo, Ming; Zhang, Chao; Li, Zhi-Yuan; Camargo, Pedro H C; Ribeiro, Sidney José Lima; Xia, Younan

    2016-08-23

    Essentially all of the Ag nanowires reported in the literature have sizes larger than 30 nm in diameter. In this article, we report a simple and robust approach to the synthesis of Ag nanowires with diameters below 20 nm and aspect ratios over 1000 using a one-pot polyol method. The Ag nanowires took a penta-twinned structure, and they could be obtained rapidly (85% of the as-obtained solid product) under atmospheric pressure. The key to the success of this synthesis is to restrain the nanowires from lateral growth by employing both Br(-) ions and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) with a high molecular weight of 1 300 000 g/mol to cap the {100} side faces, together with the use of a syringe pump to slowly introduce AgNO3 into the reaction solution. By optimizing the ratios between the capping agents and AgNO3, we were able to slow down the reduction kinetics and effectively direct the Ag nanowires to grow along the longitudinal direction only. The nanowires showed great mechanical flexibility and could be bent with acute angles without breaking. Because of their small diameters, the transverse localized surface plasmon resonance peak of the Ag nanowires could be pushed down to the ultraviolet region, below 400 nm, making them ideal conductive elements for the fabrication of touch screens, solar cells, and smart windows.

  9. Synthesis Methods of Two-Dimensional MoS2: A Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Sun

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2 is one of the most important two-dimensional materials after graphene. Monolayer MoS2 has a direct bandgap (1.9 eV and is potentially suitable for post-silicon electronics. Among all atomically thin semiconductors, MoS2’s synthesis techniques are more developed. Here, we review the recent developments in the synthesis of hexagonal MoS2, where they are categorized into top-down and bottom-up approaches. Micromechanical exfoliation is convenient for beginners and basic research. Liquid phase exfoliation and solutions for chemical processes are cheap and suitable for large-scale production; yielding materials mostly in powders with different shapes, sizes and layer numbers. MoS2 films on a substrate targeting high-end nanoelectronic applications can be produced by chemical vapor deposition, compatible with the semiconductor industry. Usually, metal catalysts are unnecessary. Unlike graphene, the transfer of atomic layers is omitted. We especially emphasize the recent advances in metalorganic chemical vapor deposition and atomic layer deposition, where gaseous precursors are used. These processes grow MoS2 with the smallest building-blocks, naturally promising higher quality and controllability. Most likely, this will be an important direction in the field. Nevertheless, today none of those methods reproducibly produces MoS2 with competitive quality. There is a long way to go for MoS2 in real-life electronic device applications.

  10. Fungal synthesis of chiral phosphonic synthetic platform - Scope and limitations of the method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin-Lewańczuk, Monika; Klimek-Ochab, Magdalena; Brzezińska-Rodak, Małgorzata; Żymańczyk-Duda, Ewa

    2018-04-01

    Chiral hydroxyphosphonates due to their wide range of biological properties are industrially important chemicals. Chemical synthesis of their optical isomers is expensive, time consuming and not friendly to the environment, so biotransformations are under consideration. Among others, these compounds act as enzymes inhibitors. This makes the bioconversions of phosphonates, especially scaling experiments, hard to perform. Biocatalysis is one of the methods that can be applied in synthesis of optically pure compounds. To increase the efficiency of the process with whole cell biocatalysts, it is essential to ensure optimal reaction conditions that minimize cellular stress and can enhance the metabolic activity of cells. The present investigation focuses on the scaling up of the kinetic resolution of racemic mixture of 2-butyryloxy-2-(ethoxy-P-phenylphosphinyl)acetic acid, applying free and immobilized form of the fungal biocatalysts and two operation systems: shake flask and recirculated fixed-bed batch reactor. Protocols of effective mycelium immobilization on polyurethane foams were set for T. purpurogenus IAFB 2512, F. oxysporum, P. commune. The best results of biotransformation were obtained with the immobilized P. commune in the column recirculated fixed-bed batch reactor. The conversion reaches 56% (maximal for the kinetic process) and the enantiomeric enrichment of the isomers mixture ranges between 82 and 93% (93% for ester of R P ,R conformation). All biocatalysts exhibit S P -preference toward tested compound, what is essential because of importance of the phosphorus atom chirality for its biological activity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Biofabrication methods for the patterned assembly and synthesis of viral nanotemplates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasopoulos, K; McCarthy, M; Banerjee, P; Fan, X; Culver, J N; Ghodssi, R

    2010-02-05

    This paper reports on novel methodologies for the patterning and templated synthesis of virus-structured nanomaterials in two- and three-dimensional microfabricated architectures using the Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). The TMV is a high aspect ratio biological molecule which can be engineered to include amino acids with enhanced binding properties. These modifications facilitate self-assembly of the TMV onto various substrates and enable its use as a template for the synthesis of nanostructured materials. This work focuses on the combination of this bottom-up biologically inspired fabrication method with standard top-down micromachining processes that allow direct integration of the virus-structured materials into batch-fabricated devices. Photolithographic patterning of uncoated as well as nickel-coated TMV nanostructures has been achieved using a lift-off process in both solvent and mild basic solutions and their assembly onto three-dimensional polymer and silicon microstructures is demonstrated. In addition to these patterning techniques, in situ formation of metal oxide TMV coatings in patterned microfabricated environments is shown using atomic layer deposition directly on the nickel-coated viruses. The biofabrication 'process toolbox' presented in this work offers a simple and versatile alternative for the hierarchical patterning and incorporation of biotemplated nanomaterials into micro/nanofabrication schemes.

  12. Synthesis and assessment methods for an edge-alignment-free hybrid image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripian, Peeraya; Yamaguchi, Yasushi

    2017-07-01

    A hybrid image allows multiple image interpretations to be modulated by the viewing distance. It can be constructed on the basis of the multiscale perceptual mechanisms of the human visual system by combining the low and high spatial frequencies of two different images. The hybrid image was introduced as an experimental tool for visual recognition study in terms of spatial frequency perception. To produce a compelling hybrid image, the original hybrid image synthesis method could only use similar shapes of source images that were aligned in the edges. If any two different images can be hybrid, it would be beneficial as a new experimental tool. In addition, there is no measure for the actual perception of spatial frequency, whether a single spatial frequency or both spatial frequencies are perceived from the hybrid stimulus. This paper describes two methods for synthesizing a hybrid image from dissimilar shape images or unaligned images; this hybrid image is known as an "edge-alignment-free hybrid image." A noise-inserted method can be done by intentionally inserting and enhancing noises into the high-frequency image. With this method, the low-frequency blobs are covered with high-frequency noises when viewed up close. A color-inserted method uses complementary color gratings in the background of the high-frequency image to emphasize the high-frequency image when viewed up close, whereas the gratings disappear when viewed from far away. To ascertain that our approach successfully separates the spatial frequency at each viewing distance, we measured this property using our proposed assessment method. Our proposed method allows the experimenter to quantify the probability of perceiving both spatial frequencies and a single spatial frequency in a hybrid image. The experimental results confirmed that our proposed synthesis methods successfully hid the low-frequency image and emphasized the high-frequency image at a close viewing distance. At the same time, the

  13. Cochrane Qualitative and Implementation Methods Group guidance paper 3: methods for assessing methodological limitations, data extraction and synthesis, and confidence in synthesized qualitative findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Jane; Booth, Andrew; Flemming, Kate; Garside, Ruth; Harden, Angela; Lewin, Simon; Pantoja, Tomas; Hannes, Karin; Cargo, Margaret; Thomas, James

    2017-12-13

    The Cochrane Qualitative and Implementation Methods Group develops and publishes guidance on the synthesis of qualitative and mixed-method implementation evidence. Choice of appropriate methodologies, methods, and tools is essential when developing a rigorous protocol and conducting the synthesis. Cochrane authors who conduct qualitative evidence syntheses have thus far used a small number of relatively simple methods to address similarly written questions. Cochrane has invested in methodological work to develop new tools and to encourage the production of exemplar reviews to show the value of more innovative methods that address a wider range of questions. In this paper, in the series, we report updated guidance on the selection of tools to assess methodological limitations in qualitative studies and methods to extract and synthesize qualitative evidence. We recommend application of Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation-Confidence in the Evidence from Qualitative Reviews to assess confidence in qualitative synthesized findings. This guidance aims to support review authors to undertake a qualitative evidence synthesis that is intended to be integrated subsequently with the findings of one or more Cochrane reviews of the effects of similar interventions. The review of intervention effects may be undertaken concurrently with or separate to the qualitative evidence synthesis. We encourage further development through reflection and formal testing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of a method for environmentally friendly chemical peptide synthesis in water using water-dispersible amino acid nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukumori Yoshinobu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Due to the vast importance of peptides in biological processes, there is an escalating need for synthetic peptides to be used in a wide variety of applications. However, the consumption of organic solvent is extremely large in chemical peptide syntheses because of the multiple condensation steps in organic solvents. That is, the current synthesis method is not environmentally friendly. From the viewpoint of green sustainable chemistry, we focused on developing an organic solvent-free synthetic method using water, an environmentally friendly solvent. Here we described in-water synthesis technology using water-dispersible protected amino acids.

  15. Simple and an efficient method for the synthesis of 1-[2-dimethylamino-1-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-ethyl]-cyclohexanol hydrochloride: (+/-) venlafaxine racemic mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basappa; Kavitha, C V; Rangappa, K S

    2004-06-21

    A novel synthetic method was developed for the synthesis of venlafaxine using inexpensive reagents. An improvement in the method, in the yield was achieved for the conversion of the venlafaxine. This is an improved version, simple and efficient method for the large-scale synthesis of venlafaxine.

  16. Synthesis of cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) nanoparticles using simple CO-precipitation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahmandjou, M.; Zarinkamar, M.; Firoozabadi, T. P., E-mail: farahamndjou@iauvaramin.ac.ir [Islamis Azad University, Varamin-Phisva Branch, Department of Physics, Varamin (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Synthesis of cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) nanoparticles was studied by new and simple co-precipitation method. The cerium oxide nanoparticles were synthesized using cerium nitrate and potassium carbonate precursors. Their physicochemical properties were characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), scanning electron microscopy (Sem), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (Ftir) and UV-Vis spectrophotometer. XRD pattern showed the cubic structure of the cerium oxide nanoparticles. The average particle size of CeO{sub 2} was around 20 nm as estimated by XRD technique and direct HRTEM observations. The surface morphological studies from Sem and Tem depicted spherical particles with formation of clusters. The sharp peaks in Ftir spectrum determined the existence of CeO{sub 2} stretching mode and the absorbance peak of UV-Vis spectrum showed the bandgap energy of 3.26 eV. (Author)

  17. Methods for Improving Enzymatic Trans-glycosylation for Synthesis of Human Milk Oligosaccharide Biomimetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuner, Birgitte; Jers, Carsten; Mikkelsen, Jørn Dalgaard

    2014-01-01

    , enzyme recycling, and/or the use of cosolvents may significantly improve trans-glycosylation and biocatalytic productivity of the enzymatic reactions. Protein engineering is also a promising technique for obtaining high trans-glycosylation yields, and proof-of-concept for reversing sialidase activity...... optimization to promote “reverse” catalysis with glycosidases is currently preferred over the use of glycosyl transferases. Numerous methods exist for minimizing the undesirable glycosidase-catalyzed hydrolysis and for improving the trans-glycosylation yields. This review provides an overview of the approaches...... and data available concerning optimization of enzymatic trans-glycosylation for novel synthesis of complex bioactive carbohydrates using sialidases, α-l-fucosidases, and β-galactosidases as examples. The use of an adequately high acceptor/donor ratio, reaction time control, continuous product removal...

  18. The review of various synthesis methods of barium titanate with the enhanced dielectric properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More, S. P.; Topare, R. J.

    2016-01-01

    The Barium Titanate is a very well known dielectric ceramic belongs to perovskite structure. It has very wide applications in the field of electronic, electro ceramic, electromechanical and electro-optical applications. Barium Titanate has very high dielectric constant as well as low dielectric loss. Substituted dielectrics are one of the most important technological compounds in modern electro ceramics. Its electrical properties can be tuned flexibly by a simple substitution technique. This has encouraged researchers to select a typical cation to be substituted at cationic sites. In the present paper, the review of various synthesis methods of Barium Titanate compound with the effect of different dopants, the grain size on the dielectric properties at various temperatures is discussed.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of NiO nanoparticles by Pechini method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, A.; Ribeiro, M.A.; Costa, A.C.F.M.; Gama, L.; Bernardi, M.I.B.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, ultrafine magnetic particles of NiO have attracting the attention because of its unknown behavior, enormous scientific potential and technological application. Some of its more important properties are accented magnetic moments, double dynamic exchange, quantization of wave of spin and etc. In this context, this work has for objective to synthesize and to characterize nanoparticles of NiO for the Pechini method. The powder was analyzed by X-rays diffraction. The results of scanning electron microscopy, adsorption of nitrogen. The analysis of X-rays diffraction of the sample showed single-phase peaks of NiO, with crystallite size close to 38 nm. The surface area was 6.44 m 2 /g. The image from scanning electron microscopy shows soft homogeneous agglomerates. The Pechini synthesis was efficient in the production of powders of NiO nano metrics and single-phase. (author)

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of Polyethylene Glycol Mediated Silver Nanoparticles by the Green Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadollah Abdollahi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The roles of green chemistry in nanotechnology and nanoscience fields are very significant in the synthesis of diverse nanomaterials. Herein, we report a green chemistry method for synthesized colloidal silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs in polymeric media. The colloidal Ag NPs were synthesized in an aqueous solution using silver nitrate, polyethylene glycol (PEG, and β-d-glucose as a silver precursor, stabilizer, and reducing agent, respectively. The properties of synthesized colloidal Ag NPs were studied at different reaction times. The ultraviolet-visible spectra were in excellent agreement with the obtained nanostructure studies performed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and their size distributions. The Ag NPs were characterized by utilizing X-ray diffraction (XRD, zeta potential measurements and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR. The use of green chemistry reagents, such as glucose, provides green and economic features to this work.

  1. Modelling and Simulation on Multibody Dynamics for Vehicular Cold Launch Systems Based on Subsystem Synthesis Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panyun, YAN; Guozhu, LIANG; Yongzhi, LU; Zhihui, QI; Xingdou, GAO

    2017-12-01

    The fast simulation of the vehicular cold launch system (VCLS) in the launch process is an essential requirement for practical engineering applications. In particular, a general and fast simulation model of the VCLS will help the designer to obtain the optimum scheme in the initial design phase. For these purposes, a system-level fast simulation model was established for the VCLS based on the subsystem synthesis method. Moreover, a comparison of the load of a seven-axis VCLS on the rigid ground through both theoretical calculations and experiments was carried out. It was found that the error of the load of the rear left outrigger is less than 7.1%, and the error of the total load of all the outriggers is less than 2.8%. Moreover, time taken for completion of the simulation model is only 9.5 min, which is 5% of the time taken by conventional algorithms.

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of Polyethylene Glycol Mediated Silver Nanoparticles by the Green Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shameli, Kamyar; Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Jazayeri, Seyed Davoud; Sedaghat, Sajjad; Shabanzadeh, Parvaneh; Jahangirian, Hossein; Mahdavi, Mahnaz; Abdollahi, Yadollah

    2012-01-01

    The roles of green chemistry in nanotechnology and nanoscience fields are very significant in the synthesis of diverse nanomaterials. Herein, we report a green chemistry method for synthesized colloidal silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) in polymeric media. The colloidal Ag NPs were synthesized in an aqueous solution using silver nitrate, polyethylene glycol (PEG), and β-D-glucose as a silver precursor, stabilizer, and reducing agent, respectively. The properties of synthesized colloidal Ag NPs were studied at different reaction times. The ultraviolet-visible spectra were in excellent agreement with the obtained nanostructure studies performed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and their size distributions. The Ag NPs were characterized by utilizing X-ray diffraction (XRD), zeta potential measurements and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). The use of green chemistry reagents, such as glucose, provides green and economic features to this work. PMID:22837654

  3. Synthesis methods, microscopy characterization and device integration of nanoscale metal oxide semiconductors for gas sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Wal, Randy L; Berger, Gordon M; Kulis, Michael J; Hunter, Gary W; Xu, Jennifer C; Evans, Laura

    2009-01-01

    A comparison is made between SnO(2), ZnO, and TiO(2) single-crystal nanowires and SnO(2) polycrystalline nanofibers for gas sensing. Both nanostructures possess a one-dimensional morphology. Different synthesis methods are used to produce these materials: thermal evaporation-condensation (TEC), controlled oxidation, and electrospinning. Advantages and limitations of each technique are listed. Practical issues associated with harvesting, purification, and integration of these materials into sensing devices are detailed. For comparison to the nascent form, these sensing materials are surface coated with Pd and Pt nanoparticles. Gas sensing tests, with respect to H(2), are conducted at ambient and elevated temperatures. Comparative normalized responses and time constants for the catalyst and noncatalyst systems provide a basis for identification of the superior metal-oxide nanostructure and catalyst combination. With temperature-dependent data, Arrhenius analyses are made to determine activation energies for the catalyst-assisted systems.

  4. Synthesis of graphene on nickel films by CVD method using methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Manuela O. de; Liebold-Ribeiro, Yvonne; Barros, Eduardo B.; Salomao, Francisco C.C.; Mendes Filho, Josue; Souza Filho, Antonio G.; Chesman, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Nanomaterials have opened up many possibilities for groundbreaking innovations in various technologies of modern society. One key example is graphene, which is composed of one-atom-thick sheet of sp2-bonded carbon atoms, arranged in a hexagonal symmetry. However, real world applications of graphene require well-established and large synthesis techniques. The so-called Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) is one of the most promising method for synthesizing graphene. The general idea of this technique is to dissolve carbon atoms inside a transition metal melt at a certain temperature, then allowing the dissolved carbon to precipitate at lower temperatures as single layer graphene (SLG). In the present work, we used the CVD method and methane gas as carbon source for the synthesis of graphene on silicon (Si) substrates (300nm thermal oxide) covered with sputtered nickel (Ni) films as catalyst. In order to achieve large-area and defect-free graphene sheets the influence of the different growth parameters (growth temperature and time, gas flow of methane, film thickness and grain size of Ni) on quality and quantity of graphene growth were studied. The obtained graphene films were transferred to a silicon substrate by the polymer coating process, using polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) as coating. In order to characterize the transferred graphene we used Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Raman Spectroscopy, Optical Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The results show the influence of CVD process parameters on the quality and quantity of graphene growth in our experimental conditions. Acknowledgments: The authors thank Brazilian agencies CNPq and FUNCAP for financial support and Alfonso Reina (MIT, USA) for helpful discussions. (author)

  5. A basis for designing digital library maturity model: Meta-synthesis method application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Sheikhshoaei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital Library (DL development is faced with many challenges which cannot be overcome all at once. In such cases which are so complex, maturity models are utilized. In a maturity model, features of a phenomenon are classified into few levels so that improving or realizing the features of each level is the prerequisite of going to the next level. DL can also be approached by maturity model more efficiently and effectively. Since the maturity model for DL has not been designed yet, first, a literature review of the DL and maturity models using a qualitative approach and meta-synthesis method was done. According to the findings of the literature review, the maturity characteristics of DL are proposed to be a basis for designing DL maturity model. Since the concept of maturity and DL is extensive and has several dimensions, meta-synthesis has been found as a suitable method for comprehensive integration of the models offered in other areas with the existing literature in the field of DL based on their interpretation. To do so, 68 papers (38 in the field of DL and 30 in the field of maturity models in various fields were selected from the available resources. By analyzing these papers, three categories, seven concepts, and 35 codes obtained as DL maturity features. Among these findings, the focuses of previous studies have been on the use of software/ hardware systems as supporter and enabler of DL and the DL content. The found features, in addition to be a basis for designing of digital library model, can be a tool in the hands of project managers of DL for assessing the status of their projects and planning to achieve higher levels of maturity.

  6. A Direction Finding Method with A 3-D Array Based on Aperture Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiwen; Chen, Liangbing; Gao, Zhaozhao; Ma, Wenfeng

    2018-01-01

    Direction finding for electronic warfare application should provide a wider field of view as possible. But the maximum unambiguous field of view for conventional direction finding methods is a hemisphere. It cannot distinguish the direction of arrival of the signals from the back lobe of the array. In this paper, a full 3-D direction finding method based on aperture synthesis radiometry is proposed. The model of the direction finding system is illustrated, and the fundamentals are presented. The relationship between the outputs of the measurements of a 3-D array and the 3-D power distribution of the point sources can be represented by a 3-D Fourier transform, and then the 3-D power distribution of the point sources can be reconstructed by an inverse 3-D Fourier transform. And in order to display the 3-D power distribution of the point sources conveniently, the whole spherical distribution is represented by two 2-D circular distribution images, one of which is for the upper hemisphere, and the other is for the lower hemisphere. Then a numeric simulation is designed and conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of the method. The results show that the method can estimate the arbitrary direction of arrival of the signals in the 3-D space correctly.

  7. Synthesis of gelatin nano/submicron particles by binary nonsolvent aided coacervation (BNAC) method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Shamayita; Basak, Piyali; Tibarewala, D N

    2016-02-01

    A newly developed modified coacervation method is utilized to synthesize gelatin nano/submicron particles (GN/SPs) as a drug carrier. Binary nonsolvent aided coacervation (BNAC) method is a modified single step coacervation method, which has yielded approximately a threefold lower particle size and higher average yield in terms of weight percentage of around 94% in comparison to the conventional phase separation methods. In this study 0.5% (w/v) gelatin aqueous solution with a binary nonsolvent system of acetone and ethanol was used. Nanoparticle synthesis was optimized with respect to nonsolvent system type and pH. pH7 has resulted a minimum particle size of 55.67 (±43.74) nm in anhydrous medium along with a swollen particle size of 776nm (±38.57) in aqueous medium with a zeta potential of (-16.3±3.51) mV in aqueous medium. Swelling ratio of 13.95 confirms the crosslinked hydrogel nature of the particles. Furthermore, drug loading efficiency of the gelatin particles prepared at 7pH was observed with nitrofurazone as the model drug. Results of drug release study indicate the potential use of GN/SPs as drug loading matrix for wound management such as burn wound management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of Methods for the Hot Synthesis of S35-Labelled Biologically Active Substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzantiev, B.G.; Shishkov, A.V.

    1965-01-01

    2 group in the norleucine. In both cases the yield of methionine-S 35 amounts to 7-12%. The products in question were separated and identified both chemically and by paper chromatography. In the case of triethylenimine thiophosphoramide biological tests were carried out on the labelled products. The ''hot synthesis'' method thus enables one to obtain complex, biologically active compounds by means of a single-stage process, in many cases without a carrier [fr

  9. Aseismic optimization of nonlinear joint elements in boiler plant structures based on substructure synthesis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, E.; Suzuki, K.; Yasuda, T.; Ohwa, Y.

    1993-01-01

    This paper deals with an optimum design method for joint elements in boiler plant structures which are excited by earthquakes. Characteristics of joint elements which connect the boiler and its supporting structure, are supposed to be viscoelastic, elasto-plastic, or a combination of both. Considering the expansion of this study to an active or semi-active aseismic structural control of joint elements, the structures are modeled with the aid of block diagram. In order to improve the efficiency of calculation, substructure synthesis method is introduced. Time-domain optimization is carried out using a nonlinear programming technique. To prevent seismic damage of pipes and ducts, limitations for relative displacements between the boiler and its supporting structure is introduced is inequality constraints. Elasto-plasticity and viscoelasticity of joint elements are simulated by a combination of a spring, a Coulomb friction, and a dashpot. These joint element characteristics are optimized to minimize seismic time-response of the structures. This method is applied to actual boiler plant structures and has proven to be effective and practical for aseismic designs of boiler plant structures

  10. Convenient, rapid synthesis of silver nanocubes and nanowires via a microwave-assisted polyol method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dapeng; Qiao, Xueliang; Qiu, Xiaolin; Chen, Jianguo; Jiang, Renzhi

    2010-01-01

    Silver nanostructures have been synthesized via a microwave-assisted polyol method by adding sodium sulfide (Na2S) into the solution. An interesting morphology evolution can be observed by adjusting the concentration of Na2S and the heating power. It is found that the ideal concentration of Na2S is 31.25-500 µM for the fast reduction of Ag+ at 300 W under optimal conditions for producing monodispersed silver nanocubes. When the heating power is increased to 400 W, 62.5-250 µM is the ideal concentration of Na2S for the synthesis of silver nanocubes. On increasing the concentration of Na2S (>500 µM), a mixture of silver nanowires, nanocubes, bipyramids, and irregular/quasispherical particles is synthesized at 300 and 400 W. In particular, an increase in the concentration of Na2S to 750 µM at 400 W leads to the production of a quantity of silver nanowires. In addition, silver nanocubes with controllable sizes can be obtained by changing the concentration of Na2S and the heating power. Compared to traditional wet-chemical methods, this method has the advantage of a marked decrease in reaction time to 3.5 min. Finally, our work provides a simple strategy for fabricating silver nanostructures with controllable morphologies and sizes.

  11. Convenient, rapid synthesis of silver nanocubes and nanowires via a microwave-assisted polyol method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Dapeng; Qiao Xueliang; Chen Jianguo; Jiang Renzhi [State Key Laboratory of Plastic Forming Simulation and Die and Mold Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074, Hubei (China); Qiu Xiaolin, E-mail: dpchenhust@yahoo.com.cn [Nanomaterials Research Center, Nanchang Institute of Technology, Nanchang, 330013, Jiangxi (China)

    2010-01-15

    Silver nanostructures have been synthesized via a microwave-assisted polyol method by adding sodium sulfide (Na{sub 2}S) into the solution. An interesting morphology evolution can be observed by adjusting the concentration of Na{sub 2}S and the heating power. It is found that the ideal concentration of Na{sub 2}S is 31.25-500 {mu}M for the fast reduction of Ag{sup +} at 300 W under optimal conditions for producing monodispersed silver nanocubes. When the heating power is increased to 400 W, 62.5-250 {mu}M is the ideal concentration of Na{sub 2}S for the synthesis of silver nanocubes. On increasing the concentration of Na{sub 2}S (>500 {mu}M), a mixture of silver nanowires, nanocubes, bipyramids, and irregular/quasispherical particles is synthesized at 300 and 400 W. In particular, an increase in the concentration of Na{sub 2}S to 750 {mu}M at 400 W leads to the production of a quantity of silver nanowires. In addition, silver nanocubes with controllable sizes can be obtained by changing the concentration of Na{sub 2}S and the heating power. Compared to traditional wet-chemical methods, this method has the advantage of a marked decrease in reaction time to 3.5 min. Finally, our work provides a simple strategy for fabricating silver nanostructures with controllable morphologies and sizes.

  12. Convenient, rapid synthesis of silver nanocubes and nanowires via a microwave-assisted polyol method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Dapeng; Qiao Xueliang; Chen Jianguo; Jiang Renzhi; Qiu Xiaolin

    2010-01-01

    Silver nanostructures have been synthesized via a microwave-assisted polyol method by adding sodium sulfide (Na 2 S) into the solution. An interesting morphology evolution can be observed by adjusting the concentration of Na 2 S and the heating power. It is found that the ideal concentration of Na 2 S is 31.25-500 μM for the fast reduction of Ag + at 300 W under optimal conditions for producing monodispersed silver nanocubes. When the heating power is increased to 400 W, 62.5-250 μM is the ideal concentration of Na 2 S for the synthesis of silver nanocubes. On increasing the concentration of Na 2 S (>500 μM), a mixture of silver nanowires, nanocubes, bipyramids, and irregular/quasispherical particles is synthesized at 300 and 400 W. In particular, an increase in the concentration of Na 2 S to 750 μM at 400 W leads to the production of a quantity of silver nanowires. In addition, silver nanocubes with controllable sizes can be obtained by changing the concentration of Na 2 S and the heating power. Compared to traditional wet-chemical methods, this method has the advantage of a marked decrease in reaction time to 3.5 min. Finally, our work provides a simple strategy for fabricating silver nanostructures with controllable morphologies and sizes.

  13. Low temperature synthesis & characterization of lead-free BCZT ceramics using molten salt method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jai Shree, K.; Chandrakala, E.; Das, Dibakar

    2018-04-01

    Piezoelectric properties are greatly influenced by the synthesis route, microstructure, stoichiometry of the chemical composition, purity of the starting materials. In this study, molten salt method was used to prepare lead-free BCZT ceramics. Molten salt method is one of the simplestmethods to prepare chemically-purified, single phase powders in high yield often at lower temperatures and shorten reaction time. Calcination of the molten salt synthesized powders resulted in asingle-phase perovskite structure at 1000 °C which is ˜ 350 °C less than the conventional solid-sate reaction method. With increasing calcination temperature the average template size was increased (˜ 0.5-2 µm). Formation of well dispersive templates improves the sinterability at lower temperatures. Lead-free BCZT ceramics sintered at 1500 °C for 2 h resulted in homogenous and highly dense microstructure with ˜92% of the theoretical density and a grain size of ˜ 35 µm. This highly dense microstructure could enhance the piezoelectric properties of the system.

  14. Convenient, rapid synthesis of silver nanocubes and nanowires via a microwave-assisted polyol method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dapeng; Qiao, Xueliang; Qiu, Xiaolin; Chen, Jianguo; Jiang, Renzhi

    2010-01-15

    Silver nanostructures have been synthesized via a microwave-assisted polyol method by adding sodium sulfide (Na(2)S) into the solution. An interesting morphology evolution can be observed by adjusting the concentration of Na(2)S and the heating power. It is found that the ideal concentration of Na(2)S is 31.25-500 microM for the fast reduction of Ag(+) at 300 W under optimal conditions for producing monodispersed silver nanocubes. When the heating power is increased to 400 W, 62.5-250 microM is the ideal concentration of Na(2)S for the synthesis of silver nanocubes. On increasing the concentration of Na(2)S (>500 microM), a mixture of silver nanowires, nanocubes, bipyramids, and irregular/quasispherical particles is synthesized at 300 and 400 W. In particular, an increase in the concentration of Na(2)S to 750 microM at 400 W leads to the production of a quantity of silver nanowires. In addition, silver nanocubes with controllable sizes can be obtained by changing the concentration of Na(2)S and the heating power. Compared to traditional wet-chemical methods, this method has the advantage of a marked decrease in reaction time to 3.5 min. Finally, our work provides a simple strategy for fabricating silver nanostructures with controllable morphologies and sizes.

  15. Effect of synthesis methods and a comparative study of structural and magnetic properties of zinc ferrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Sazzad Hossain

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Zinc ferrite samples were prepared by two different routes which are chemical co-precipitation and standard solid state double sintering method. Structural properties of ZnFe2O4 were determined, and initial particle size was found as 5 nm in the samples prepared by chemical co-precipitation technique. The XRD patterns showed the single phase of ZnFe2O4 spinel structure and confirmed by the lattice parameter and the unmixed hkl values for both the synthesis techniques. M-H curves at room temperature showed superparamagnetic nature of the samples sintered from 200°C to 600°C, synthesized by chemical co-precipitation technique. The Mössbauer analysis at room temperature showed a doublet which is the signature of superparamagnetic nature, and it is in agreement with the acquired M-H curves. The magnetization of ZnFe2O4 synthesized by chemical co-precipitation method was found higher than the magnetization of ZnFe2O4 synthesized by the solid-state double sintering method in the sintering temperature from 1100°C to 1300°C.

  16. Bulk Synthesis and Characterization of Ti3Al Nanoparticles by Flow-Levitation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanjun Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel bulk synthesis method for preparing high pure Ti3Al nanoparticles was developed by flow-levitation method (FL. The Ti and Al vapours ascending from the high temperature levitated droplet were condensed by cryogenic Ar gas under atmospheric pressure. The morphology, crystalline structure, and chemical composition of Ti3Al nanoparticles were, respectively, investigated by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The results indicated that the Ti3Al powders are nearly spherical-shaped, and the particle size ranges from several nanometers to 100 nm in diameter. Measurements of the d-spacing from X-ray (XRD and electron diffraction studies confirmed that the Ti3Al nanoparticles have a hexagonal structure. A thin oxidation coating of 2-3 nm in thickness was formed around the particles after exposure to air. Based on the XPS measurements, the surface coating of the Ti3Al nanoparticles is a mixture of Al2O3 and TiO2. The production rate of Ti3Al nanoparticles was estimated to be about 3 g/h. This method has a great potential in mass production of Ti3Al nanoparticles.

  17. A review of the magnetic properties, synthesis methods and applications of maghemite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shokrollahi, H., E-mail: shokrollahi@sutech.ac.ir

    2017-03-15

    It must be pointed out that maghemite (γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) with a cubic spinel structure is a crucial material for various applications, including spin electronic devices, high-density magnetic recording, nano-medicines and biosensors. This paper has to do with a review study on the synthesis methods, magnetic properties and application of maghemite in the form of one-dimensional (1D) nanostructured materials, such as nanoparticles, nanotubes, nano-rods, and nanowires, as well as two-dimensional (2D) thin films. The results revealed that maghemite is widely used in the biomedical applications (hyperthermia, magnetic resonance imaging and drug delivery) and magnetic recording devices. The unmodified and Co/Mn modified maghemite thin films prepared by the dc-reactive magnetron sputtering show the excellent values of coercivity 2100 Oe and 3900 Oe, respectively, for the magnetic storage application. The super-paramagnetic particles with 7 nm size and the saturation magnetization of 80 emu/g prepared by the established thermolysis method are good candidates for bio-medical applications. - Highlights: • Among iron oxides, maghemite is one of the most important magnetic ceramics. • Maghemite is widely sued in magnetic recording and biomedicine. • This paper attempts to give an overview on the some important areas. • They contain synthetic methods, magnetic study, structural study and applications.

  18. Reported credibility techniques in higher education evaluation studies that use qualitative methods: A research synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hongjing; Hitchcock, John

    2018-03-09

    This synthesis study examined the reported use of credibility techniques in higher education evaluation articles that use qualitative methods. The sample included 118 articles published in six leading higher education evaluation journals from 2003 to 2012. Mixed methods approaches were used to identify key credibility techniques reported across the articles, document the frequency of these techniques, and describe their use and properties. Two broad sets of techniques were of interest: primary design techniques (i.e., basic), such as sampling/participant recruitment strategies, data collection methods, analytic details, and additional qualitative credibility techniques (e.g., member checking, negative case analyses, peer debriefing). The majority of evaluation articles reported use of primary techniques although there was wide variation in the amount of supporting detail; most of the articles did not describe the use of additional credibility techniques. This suggests that editors of evaluation journals should encourage the reporting of qualitative design details and authors should develop strategies yielding fuller methodological description. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of a Probabilistic Dynamic Synthesis Method for the Analysis of Nondeterministic Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A. M.

    1998-01-01

    Accounting for the statistical geometric and material variability of structures in analysis has been a topic of considerable research for the last 30 years. The determination of quantifiable measures of statistical probability of a desired response variable, such as natural frequency, maximum displacement, or stress, to replace experience-based "safety factors" has been a primary goal of these studies. There are, however, several problems associated with their satisfactory application to realistic structures, such as bladed disks in turbomachinery. These include the accurate definition of the input random variables (rv's), the large size of the finite element models frequently used to simulate these structures, which makes even a single deterministic analysis expensive, and accurate generation of the cumulative distribution function (CDF) necessary to obtain the probability of the desired response variables. The research presented here applies a methodology called probabilistic dynamic synthesis (PDS) to solve these problems. The PDS method uses dynamic characteristics of substructures measured from modal test as the input rv's, rather than "primitive" rv's such as material or geometric uncertainties. These dynamic characteristics, which are the free-free eigenvalues, eigenvectors, and residual flexibility (RF), are readily measured and for many substructures, a reasonable sample set of these measurements can be obtained. The statistics for these rv's accurately account for the entire random character of the substructure. Using the RF method of component mode synthesis, these dynamic characteristics are used to generate reduced-size sample models of the substructures, which are then coupled to form system models. These sample models are used to obtain the CDF of the response variable by either applying Monte Carlo simulation or by generating data points for use in the response surface reliability method, which can perform the probabilistic analysis with an order of

  20. Effect of Synthesis Method of La1 - x Sr x MnO3 Manganite Nanoparticles on Their Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlapa, Yulia; Solopan, Sergii; Belous, Anatolii; Tovstolytkin, Alexandr

    2018-01-01

    Nanoparticles of lanthanum-strontium manganite were synthesized via different methods, namely, sol-gel method, precipitation from non-aqueous solution, and precipitation from reversal microemulsions. It was shown that the use of organic compounds and non-aqueous media allowed significantly decreasing of the crystallization temperature of nanoparticles, and the single-phased crystalline product was formed in one stage. Morphology and properties of nanoparticles depended on the method and conditions of the synthesis. The heating efficiency directly depended on the change in the magnetic parameters of nanoparticles, especially on the magnetization. Performed studies showed that each of these methods of synthesis can be used to obtain weakly agglomerated manganite nanoparticles; however, particles synthesized via sol-gel method are more promising for use as hyperthermia inducers. PACS: 61.46.Df 75.75.Cd 81.20. Fw

  1. High-gravity combustion synthesis and in situ melt infiltration: A new method for preparing cemented carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Guanghua; Li, Jiangtao; Yang, Zengchao; Guo, Shibin; Chen, Yixiang

    2013-01-01

    A new method of high-gravity combustion synthesis and in situ melt infiltration is reported for preparing cemented carbides, where hot nickel melt is in situ synthesized from a highly exothermic combustion reaction and then infiltrated into tungsten carbide powder compacts. The as-prepared sample showed a homogeneous microstructure, and its relative density, hardness and flexural strength were 94.4%, 84 HRA and 1.49 GPa, respectively. Compared with conventional powder metallurgy approaches, high-gravity combustion synthesis offers a fast and furnace-free way to produce cemented carbides

  2. Determining the Parameters of Importance of a Graphene Synthesis Process Using Design-of-Experiments Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udit Narula

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A systematic method to identify key factors that control the synthesis of Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD-based graphene on copper is necessary for engineering graphene growth. The statistical design-of-experiments method is employed and demonstrated in this work in order to fulfill the necessity. Full-factorial design-of-experiments are performed to examine the significance of the main effects and the extent of the interactions of the controlling factors, which are responsible for the number of layers and the quality of the grown graphene. We found that a thinner amorphous carbon layer and a higher annealing temperature are suitable for the growth of mono-layer/few-layer graphene with low defects, while the effect of annealing time has a trade-off and needs to be optimized further. On the other hand, the same treatment, but with larger annealing times will result in multi-layer graphene and low defects. The results obtained from the analysis of the design-of-experiments are verified experimentally with Raman characterization.

  3. Evaluation of Various Synthesis Methods for Calcite-Precipitated Calcium Carbonate (PCC) Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramakrishna, Chilakala [Hanil Cement Corporation, Danyang (Korea, Republic of); Thenepalli, Thriveni; Ahn, Ji Whan [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    This review paper evaluates different kinds of synthesis methods for calcite precipitated calcium carbonates by using different materials. The various processing routes of calcite with different compositions are reported and the possible optimum conditions required to synthesize a desired particle sizes of calcite are predicted. This paper mainly focuses on that the calcite morphology and size of the particles by carbonation process using loop reactors. In this regard, we have investigated various parameters such as CO{sub 2} flow rate, Ca (OH){sub 2} concentration, temperature, pH effect, reaction time and loop reactor mechanism with orifice diameter. The research results illustrate the formation of well-defined and pure calcite crystals with controlled crystal growth and particle size, without additives or organic solvents. The crystal growth and particle size can be controlled, and smaller sizes are obtained by decreasing the Ca (OH){sub 2} concentration and increasing the CO{sub 2} flow rate at lower temperatures with suitable pH. The crystal structure of obtained calcite was characterized by using X-ray diffraction method and the morphology by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The result of x-ray diffraction recognized that the calcite phase of calcium carbonate was the dominating crystalline structure.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of black amorphous titanium oxide nanoparticles by spark discharge method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabzehparvar, Milad; Kiani, Fatemeh; Tabrizi, Nooshin Salman

    2018-01-01

    In the last decade, while crystalline titanium oxide nanoparticles have been extensively studied, the studies on amorphous polymorph nanoparticles are relatively rare and limited to the ab initio studies. We have synthesized black amorphous titanium oxide nanoparticles using, for the first time, spark ablation in the argon gas followed by oxidation at atmospheric conditions. The produced nanoparticles were characterized by various characterization methods to study their structure, size, morphology, surface area and optical properties. XRD analysis indicated the formation of an amorphous TiO2 phase together with Ti, TiO and Ti2O3 crystalline phases. FESEM demonstrated that the produced nanoparticles had a narrow size distribution. EDS analysis suggested the formation of nonstoichiometric titanium oxide. TEM and SAED analyses showed that the majority of nanoparticles were in amorphous state and possessed an average size of about 5.2 nm. A very high specific surface area of 310 m2/g was measured for the produced nanoparticles by the BJH analysis. These titanium oxide nanoparticles showed an optical band gap of around 3.2eV and an enhanced absorption in the whole visible spectrum measured by the UV-Vis and DRS analyses due to the oxygen deficiency. These results indicate that the spark ablation in the gas phase is a facile method for the synthesis of black amorphous titanium oxide nanoparticles.

  5. A review of the magnetic properties, synthesis methods and applications of maghemite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokrollahi, H.

    2017-03-01

    It must be pointed out that maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) with a cubic spinel structure is a crucial material for various applications, including spin electronic devices, high-density magnetic recording, nano-medicines and biosensors. This paper has to do with a review study on the synthesis methods, magnetic properties and application of maghemite in the form of one-dimensional (1D) nanostructured materials, such as nanoparticles, nanotubes, nano-rods, and nanowires, as well as two-dimensional (2D) thin films. The results revealed that maghemite is widely used in the biomedical applications (hyperthermia, magnetic resonance imaging and drug delivery) and magnetic recording devices. The unmodified and Co/Mn modified maghemite thin films prepared by the dc-reactive magnetron sputtering show the excellent values of coercivity 2100 Oe and 3900 Oe, respectively, for the magnetic storage application. The super-paramagnetic particles with 7 nm size and the saturation magnetization of 80 emu/g prepared by the established thermolysis method are good candidates for bio-medical applications.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of lanthanum monoaluminate by co-precipitation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madoui N.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Our contribution has focused on the synthesis and characterization of lanthanum monoaluminate LaAlO3 by the method of co-precipitation. The powder was successfully synthesized using NaOH, La (NO33.6H2O and Al (NO33.9H2O as raw materials by this method and calcined at different temperatures. It was characterized by several techniques: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTA, X-ray diffraction (XRD and laser diffusion. All the results for physico-chemicals characterizations show that the crystallization temperature of the LaAlO3 precursor gels precipitated is estimated as 790 °C by TG/DTA. The XRD pattern of the LaAlO3 precursor gels calcined at 700 °C for 6 h has a perovskite structure of rhombohedral hexagonal phase formed and the presence of crystalline impurities is not found. The crystallite size of LaAlO3 slightly increases from 31to 44.5 nm with calcination temperature increasing from 700to1000 °C for 6 h.

  7. Synthesis of ZnO nanopencils using wet chemical method and its investigation as LPG sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimpi, Navinchandra G., E-mail: navin_shimpi@rediffmail.com [Department of Chemistry, University of Mumbai, Santacruz (East), Mumbai-400098 (India); Jain, Shilpa [Department of Chemistry, University of Mumbai, Santacruz (East), Mumbai-400098 (India); Karmakar, Narayan [Department of Physics, University of Mumbai, Santacruz (East), Mumbai-400098 (India); Shah, Akshara [Department of Chemistry, University of Mumbai, Santacruz (East), Mumbai-400098 (India); Kothari, D.C. [Department of Physics, University of Mumbai, Santacruz (East), Mumbai-400098 (India); National Centre for Nanosciences & Nanotechnology, University of Mumbai, Santacruz (East), Mumbai-400098 (India); Mishra, Satyendra [University Institute of Chemical Technology, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon (India)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Synthesis using a simple and cost-effective wet chemical process. • Uniform, monodispersed and pure nanoparticles. • Pencil shaped rods with sharp tips. • Understanding of Growth mechanism. • Efficient LPG sensing with high response. • Morphology dependent sensing. - Abstract: ZnO nanopencils (NPCs) were prepared by a novel wet chemical process, using triethanolamine (TEA) as a mild base, which is relatively simple and cost effective method as compared to hydrothermal method. ZnO NPCs were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy in mid-IR and far-IR regions, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis (UV–vis) absorption spectroscopy, room temperature Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). ZnO NPCs obtained, were highly pure, uniform and monodispersed.XRD pattern indicated hexagonal unit cell structure with preferred orientation along the c-axis. Sensing behaviour of ZnO NPCs was studied towards Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) at different operating temperatures. The study shows that ZnO NPCs were most sensitive and promising candidate for detection of LPG at 250 °C with gas sensitivity > 60%. The high response towards LPG is due to high surface area of ZnO NPCs and their parallel alignment.

  8. Synthesis and Self-Assembly of Gold Nanoparticles by Chemically Modified Polyol Methods under Experimental Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Viet Long

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In our present research, bottom-up self-assembly of gold (Au nanoparticles on a flat copper (Cu substrate is performed by a facile method. The very interesting evidence of self-assembly of Au nanoparticles on the top of the thin assembled layer was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. We had discovered one of the most general and simple methods for the self-assembly of metal nanoparticles. The general physical and chemical mechanisms of the evaporation process of the solvents can be used for self-assembly of the as-prepared nanoparticles. The important roles of molecules of the used solvents are very critical to self-assembly of the as-prepared Au nanoparticles in the case without using any polymers for those processes. It is clear that self-assembly of such one nanosystem of the uniform Au nanoparticles is fully examined. Finally, an exciting surface plasmon resonance (SPR phenomenon of the pure Au nanoparticles in the solvent was fully discovered in their exciting changes of the narrow and large SPR bands according to synthesis time. The SPR was considered as the collective oscillation of valence electrons of the surfaces of the pure Au nanoparticles in the solvent by incident ultraviolet-visible light. Then, the frequency of light photons matches the frequency of the oscillation of surface electrons of the Au nanoparticles that are excited.

  9. Evaluation of Various Synthesis Methods for Calcite-Precipitated Calcium Carbonate (PCC) Formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakrishna, Chilakala; Thenepalli, Thriveni; Ahn, Ji Whan

    2017-01-01

    This review paper evaluates different kinds of synthesis methods for calcite precipitated calcium carbonates by using different materials. The various processing routes of calcite with different compositions are reported and the possible optimum conditions required to synthesize a desired particle sizes of calcite are predicted. This paper mainly focuses on that the calcite morphology and size of the particles by carbonation process using loop reactors. In this regard, we have investigated various parameters such as CO 2 flow rate, Ca (OH) 2 concentration, temperature, pH effect, reaction time and loop reactor mechanism with orifice diameter. The research results illustrate the formation of well-defined and pure calcite crystals with controlled crystal growth and particle size, without additives or organic solvents. The crystal growth and particle size can be controlled, and smaller sizes are obtained by decreasing the Ca (OH) 2 concentration and increasing the CO 2 flow rate at lower temperatures with suitable pH. The crystal structure of obtained calcite was characterized by using X-ray diffraction method and the morphology by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The result of x-ray diffraction recognized that the calcite phase of calcium carbonate was the dominating crystalline structure.

  10. Synthesis of Li2MO3 (M = Ti or Zr) by the combustion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruza, D.; Bulbuliana, S.; Cruza, D.; Pfeifferc, H.

    2006-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of the combustion method to prepare Li 2 TiO 3 and Li 2 ZrO 3 ceramics were studied. Firstly, the ceramic powders were prepared by the combustion process using LiOH, MO 2 (where M=Ti or Zr) and urea in different molar ratios (from 2:1:3 to 3:1:3) at different temperatures for 5 minutes. Li 2 TiO 3 and Li 2 ZrO 3 were also obtained by the solid-state method, and the results were compared with those obtained by the combustion process. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the combustion process reduces the synthesis time of Li 2 TiO 3 (1 minute at 750 C), but it does not have any advantage on producing Li 2 ZrO 3 , due to thermodynamic factors. On the other hand, the combustion process produces carbon contaminants in the solids. It was necessary to add excess of lithium hydroxide, in order to compensate the quantity of Li sublimated during the production of the ceramics. Finally, it seems that both reactions follow the same mechanism, which is determined by the lithium diffusion into the metal oxides. (authors)

  11. Novel method of room temperature ionic liquid assisted Fe3O4 nanocubes and nanoflakes synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramalakshmi, M.; Shakkthivel, P.; Sundrarajan, M.; Chen, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • First time [Bmim][TfO] IL is used for the Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticle synthesis. • Novel method tunes Fe 3 O 4 nanocubes and nanoflakes forms influenced by the base and IL. • Fe 3 O 4 oxidized topotactically into γ-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles by annealing and base. • Uniform morphology with average size of 33 nm negligible superstructure are formed. • Ms values are characterized by thin layer of γ-Fe 2 O 3 on the nanoparticle surface. - Abstract: For the first time, the nanomagnetite superparamagnetic particles are successfully synthesized by precipitation method using 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethane sulfonate [Bmim][TfO] ionic liquid medium/surfactant. The obtained Fe 3 O 4 particles are nanocubes and nanoflakes and this formation is influenced by the base concentration and anisotropic circumstances produced by the ionic liquid and their size varies from 20 nm to 150 × 300 nm (width × length). The synthesized magnetite nanoparticles are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) studies. The results show that the core of the Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles is surrounded by a thin layer of γ-Fe 2 O 3 by topotactical partial oxidation, which is remarkably proceed with the subsequent calcination. The magnetite nanocubes have high saturation magnetization value and exhibit superparamagnetic hysteresis loop

  12. A sequential high-yielding large-scale solution-method for synthesis of philanthotoxin analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wellendorph, Petrine; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W; Hansen, Steen Honoré

    2003-01-01

    A general, improved procedure for rapid synthesis of philanthotoxin analogues, a pharmacologically important class of polyamine conjugates, is described. The solution-phase procedure is illustrated by gram-scale synthesis of philanthotoxins PhTX-343 and PhTX-12. Selectively protected polyamines...

  13. Methods of synthesis and performance improvement of lithium iron phosphate for high rate Li-ion batteries: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V.S.L. Satyavani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Lithium ion battery technology has the potential to meet the requirements of high energy density and high power density applications. A continuous search for novel materials is pursued continually to exploit the latent potential of this technology. In this review paper, methods for preparation of Lithium Iron Phosphate are discussed which include solid state and solution based synthesis routes. The methods to improve the electrochemical performance of lithium iron phosphate are presented in detail.

  14. New labeling methods via organometallic species: new synthesis of a chiral methyl group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faucher, Nicolas

    2000-01-01

    Chapter 1: New labeling methods via organometallic species. In the first part of this work, we have developed a new labeling strategy based on the hydrogenolysis of organolithium compounds with tritium gas or deuterium gas. This reaction is catalyzed with palladium on charcoal and leads to the labelled compounds with direct replacement of the proton by its isotopes ( 2 H or 3 H) without further chemical modification of the target molecule. Using this strategy, tritium or deuterium atoms can be introduced in a region but also in a stereoselective fashion with more than 90% ee. The former result was obtained using (-)-sparteine during the lithiation step. Chapter II: New synthesis of a chiral methyl group. In the second part of this work, we have developed a new synthetic method to prepare chiral ditosyl-methylamine using 4,5-disubstituted oxazolidines. Dia-stereoselective substitution of the methoxy group of a 2-alkoxy-oxazolidine by a deuteride in the presence of a Lewis acid leads to the 2-deutero-oxazolidine in a highly stereoselective fashion (de = 100%). Still using a lewis acid, a tritiated hydride open the former 2-deutero-oxazolidine to afford chiral methyl group borne by the nitrogen. Further de-protection and re-protection steps lead to the ditosyl-methylamine with an ee of 65% (RIS= 83/17). Nowadays, this is the best known synthetic method, not only in terms of enantioselectivity but also in terms of chemical yield and number of radioactive steps. As NTs 2 is a fairly good leaving group, the ditosyl-methylamine offers the possibility of introducing chiral methyl group in many substrates using a S N 2 reaction with various nucleophiles. This last point leads to many potential applications in the field of biochemistry or for mechanical studies. (author) [fr

  15. Mechanistic insights on one-phase vs. two-phase Brust–Schiffrin method synthesis of Au nanoparticles with dioctyl-diselenides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaluzhna, Oksana; Li, Ying; Zangmeister, Chris; Allison, Thomas C.; Tong, YuYe J.

    2012-01-01

    Metal precursors in the one-phase (1p) and two-phase (2p) Brust-Schiffrin method (BSM) synthesis of Au nanoparticles (NPs) using dioctyl-diselenides were identified. A single dominant type of metal precursor was found in the 1p synthesis as compared to multiple ones in the 2p synthesis, which was proposed as the key reason why the former is better than the latter.

  16. Mechanistic insights on one-phase vs. two-phase Brust-Schiffrin method synthesis of Au nanoparticles with dioctyl-diselenides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaluzhna, Oksana; Li, Ying; Zangmeister, Chris; Allison, Thomas C; Tong, YuYe J

    2012-01-11

    Metal precursors in the one-phase (1p) and two-phase (2p) Brust-Schiffrin method (BSM) synthesis of Au nanoparticles (NPs) using dioctyl-diselenides were identified. A single dominant type of metal precursor was found in the 1p synthesis as compared to multiple ones in the 2p synthesis, which was proposed as the key reason why the former is better than the latter. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  17. Sample-based engine noise synthesis using an enhanced pitch-synchronous overlap-and-add method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagla, Jan; Maillard, Julien; Martin, Nadine

    2012-11-01

    An algorithm for the real time synthesis of internal combustion engine noise is presented. Through the analysis of a recorded engine noise signal of continuously varying engine speed, a dataset of sound samples is extracted allowing the real time synthesis of the noise induced by arbitrary evolutions of engine speed. The sound samples are extracted from a recording spanning the entire engine speed range. Each sample is delimitated such as to contain the sound emitted during one cycle of the engine plus the necessary overlap to ensure smooth transitions during the synthesis. The proposed approach, an extension of the PSOLA method introduced for speech processing, takes advantage of the specific periodicity of engine noise signals to locate the extraction instants of the sound samples. During the synthesis stage, the sound samples corresponding to the target engine speed evolution are concatenated with an overlap and add algorithm. It is shown that this method produces high quality audio restitution with a low computational load. It is therefore well suited for real time applications.

  18. [Interpretative method as a synthesis of explicative, teleologic and analogic models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez Cortés, R

    1980-06-01

    To establish the basis of the interpretative method is congruous with finding a solid basis--epistemologically speaking--to the analytic theory. This basis would be the means to transform this theory into a real science with its necessary adecuation among method, act and object of knowledge. It is only from a scientific stand that the psychoanalytic theory will be able to face successfully the reductionisms that menace it, be it the biologist-naturalism with its explanations of the psychic phenomena by means of mechanisms and biologic models or be it the speculative ideologies with their nucleus of technical praxis which make it impossible for the social-factic sciences to become real sciences. We propose as interpretative method the union of two models: the teleologic one which makes possible the appearance of intelligible, contingent and variable explanations between an antecedent and a consequent on one side, and on the other, the analogic model with its two moments: the comparative and the symbolic one. These moments makes possible the comparison and the union between antecedent and consequent baring in mind the "natural" ambiguity of the subject-object in question. The principal objective of the method--as a regulative idea in the Kantian sense--would be the search of univocity as regards the choice of one and only one sense from all the possible senses that "explain" the motive relationship or motive-end relationship in order to make the interpretation scientific. This status of scientificity should obey the rules of explanation: that the interpretations be derived effectively from the presupposed theory, that they really explain what they claim to explain, that they are not contradictory or contrary in the same ontologic level. We postulate that the synthesis of the two mentioned models, the teleologic-explanative and the analogic one allows us to find a possibility to make clear the "dark" sense of the noun interpretation and in this way the factibility of

  19. Synthesis of cobalt alloy through smelting method and its characterization as prosthesis bone implant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aminatun,, E-mail: ami-sofijan@yahoo.co.id; Putri, N.S Efinda, E-mail: ami-sofijan@yahoo.co.id; Indriani, Arista, E-mail: ami-sofijan@yahoo.co.id; Himawati, Umi, E-mail: ami-sofijan@yahoo.co.id; Hikmawati, Dyah, E-mail: ami-sofijan@yahoo.co.id; Suhariningsih, E-mail: ami-sofijan@yahoo.co.id [Department of physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Airlangga University (Indonesia)

    2014-09-25

    Cobalt-based alloys are widely used as total hip and knee replacements because of their excellent properties, such as corrosion resistance, fatigue strength and biocompatibility. In this work, cobalt alloys with variation of Cr (28.5; 30; 31.5; 33, and 34.5% wt) have been synthesized by smelting method began with the process of compaction, followed by smelting process using Tri Arc Melting Furnace at 200A. Continued by homogenization process at recrystallization temperature (1250° C) for 3 hours to allow the atoms diffuses and transform into γ phase. The next process is rolling process which is accompanied by heating at 1200° C for ± 15 minutes and followed by quenching. This process is repeated until the obtained thickness of ± 1 mm. The evaluated material properties included microstructure, surface morphology, and hardness value. It was shown that microstructure of cobalt alloys with variation of Cr is dominant by γ phase, thus making the entire cobalt alloys have high hardness. It was also shown from the surface morphology of entire cobalt alloys sample indicated the whole process of synthesis that had good solubility were at flat surface area. Hardness value test showed all of cobalt alloys sample had high hardness, just variation of 33% Cr be in the range of ASTMF75, it were 345,24 VHN which is potential to be applied as an implant prosthesis.

  20. A high-throughput and quantitative method to assess the mutagenic potential of translesion DNA synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, David J.; Camerlengo, Terry L.; Harrison, Jason K.; Sherrer, Shanen M.; Kshetry, Ajay K.; Taylor, John-Stephen; Huang, Kun; Suo, Zucai

    2013-01-01

    Cellular genomes are constantly damaged by endogenous and exogenous agents that covalently and structurally modify DNA to produce DNA lesions. Although most lesions are mended by various DNA repair pathways in vivo, a significant number of damage sites persist during genomic replication. Our understanding of the mutagenic outcomes derived from these unrepaired DNA lesions has been hindered by the low throughput of existing sequencing methods. Therefore, we have developed a cost-effective high-throughput short oligonucleotide sequencing assay that uses next-generation DNA sequencing technology for the assessment of the mutagenic profiles of translesion DNA synthesis catalyzed by any error-prone DNA polymerase. The vast amount of sequencing data produced were aligned and quantified by using our novel software. As an example, the high-throughput short oligonucleotide sequencing assay was used to analyze the types and frequencies of mutations upstream, downstream and at a site-specifically placed cis–syn thymidine–thymidine dimer generated individually by three lesion-bypass human Y-family DNA polymerases. PMID:23470999

  1. Investigation of the effective parameters on the synthesis of strontium hexaferrite nanoparticles by chemical coprecipitation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davoodi, A., E-mail: akbardavudijamaloee@yahoo.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Zand Street, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashemi, B. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Zand Street, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-01-25

    Strontium hexaferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical coprecipitation method in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a protective agent. A mixture of the deionized water/ethanol (50/50) was used as the solvent. The effects of PVP, pH of the solution, Fe{sup 3+}/Sr{sup 2+} molar ratio and calcination temperature of the precipitates on the synthesis of strontium hexaferrite samples were studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermal analysis (DTA-TGA), dynamic light scattering particle size analyzer (PSA) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were used to investigate the properties of the obtained samples. The results showed that increasing the pH from 9 to 13 or decreasing Fe{sup 3+}/Sr{sup 2+} molar ratio from 12 to 9 promoted SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} formation and decreased the size of nanoparticles. The minimum coercivity of 4733 Oe and maximum saturation magnetization of 51 emu/g were obtained by increasing the pH from 9 to 13. It was also concluded that PVP could be effective in decreasing the size of SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} nanoparticles and resulted to decrease the calcination temperature from 800 to 700 Degree-Sign C.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of eggshell-derived hydroxyapatite via mechanochemical method: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, A. A.; Salimi, M. N.; Yusoff, A. H. M.

    2017-04-01

    The focus of bone graft properties has developed through generations, from the ability to withstand mechanical stress to the ability to integrate with the biological structure. In recent years, the use of hydroxyapatite (HA) as bone graft material in orthopedic and dental applications has been increasing. HA is a natural occuring mineral with excellent bioactivity but relatively poor mechanical properties. It constitutes 96% portion of enamel in teeth and 67% portion of bone. HA can be extracted from animal bones or fabricated from synthetic or biologic sources. In this study, eggshells were used as raw material to synthesize eggshell-derived HA (EHA) via mechanochemical method. The synthesis of EHA involved CaO, which was obtained from the calcination of eggshells, and reaction with dicalcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrous (DCPD) or phosphoric acid (H3PO4). The effects of rotational speed and heat treatment temperature on EHA's characteristics were investigated. The characterization studies were carried out by using the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). HA powder was successfully synthesized with crystallite and particle sizes in the range of 8-47 nm and 250-550 nm respectively. It was observed from this study that the increase of milling rotational speed had increased the phase purity of EHA samples. Furthermore, the higher heating temperature of HA samples resulted in higher degree of crystallinity of HA and the appearance of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) as secondary phase.

  3. A new method for synthesis of As-Te chalcogenide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochalov, Leonid; Nezhdanov, Aleksey; Usanov, Dmitry; Markelov, Aleksey; Trushin, Vladimir; Chidichimo, Giuseppe; De Filpo, Giovanni; Gogova, Daniela; Mashin, Aleksandr

    2017-11-01

    A novel Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition method for synthesis of amorphous AsxTe100-x (31 ≤ x ≤ 49) films is demonstrated. The innovative process has been developed in a non-equilibrium low-temperature argon plasma under reduced pressure, employing for the first time volatile As and Te as precursors. Utilization of inorganic precursors, in contrast to the typically used in CVD metal-organic precursors, has given us the chance to achieve ≿halcogenide As-Te films of very high quality and purity. Phase and structural evolution of the As-Te system, based on equilibrium coexistence of two phases (AsTe and As2Te3) has been studied. The dependence of structure and optical bandgap of the chalcogenide materials on their composition was established. The newly developed process is cost-effective and enables deposition of As-Te films with a thickness ranging from 10 nm to 10 μm, the latter is highly desireable for one-mode planar waveguides applications and in other components of integral optics.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of mesoporous MgO by template-free hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Hongmei, E-mail: hmcui@home.ipe.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1 Zhongguancun Road, Haidian District 100190, Beijing (China); Research Institute of Synthetic Crystals, 1 Hongsong Road, Chaoyang District 100018, Beijing (China); Wu, Xiaofeng, E-mail: wxftsjc@mail.ipe.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1 Zhongguancun Road, Haidian District 100190, Beijing (China); Chen, Yunfa, E-mail: yfchen@mail.ipe.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1 Zhongguancun Road, Haidian District 100190, Beijing (China); Boughton, R.I. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green 43403, OH (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: • A simple synthesis of porous MgO with diameter size from 3 to 10 μm without any templates. • Effect of temperature and time were investigated. • Systematic characterization by TG/DTA, XRD, SEM, TEM, and nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherm of MgO. • A possible formation and crystal growth mechanism of mesopores MgO is proposed. - Abstract: Mesoporous MgO particles have been synthesized through a novel template-free hydrothermal co-precipitation method using a Mg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} solution as the magnesium source and NaCO{sub 3} as precipitant. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption analysis. The results indicate that the MgO samples have a disordered mesoporous structure, a large BET surface area, and a large pore volume. The effect of reaction temperature on the MgO product BET surface area was studied. A possible formation and crystal growth mechanism for mesoporous MgO is proposed.

  5. The synthesis and characterization of platinum nanoparticles: a method of controlling the size and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Nguyen Viet; Hayakawa, Tomokatsu; Lakshminarayana, Gandham; Nogami, Masayuki; Chien, Nguyen Duc; Hirata, Hirohito

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, Pt nanoparticles with good shapes of nanocubes and nano-octahedra and well-controlled sizes in the range 5-7 and 8-12 nm, respectively, have been successfully synthesized. The modified polyol method by adding silver nitrate and varying the molar ratio of the solutions of silver nitrate and H 2 PtCl 6 has been used to produce Pt nanoparticles of the size and shape to be controlled. The size and morphology of Pt nanoparticles have been studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution TEM (HRTEM). The results have shown that their very sharp and good shapes exist in the main forms of cubic, cuboctahedral, octahedral and tetrahedral shapes directly related to the crystal nucleation along various directions of the {100} cubic, {111} octahedral and {111} tetrahedral facets during synthesis. In particular, various irregular and new shapes of Pt nanoparticles have been found. Here, it is concluded that the role of silver ions has to be considered as an important factor for promoting and controlling the development of Pt nanoparticles of {100} cubic, {111} octahedral and {111} tetrahedral facets, and also directly orienting the growth and formation of Pt nanoparticles.

  6. The synthesis and characterization of platinum nanoparticles: a method of controlling the size and morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Nguyen Viet; Hayakawa, Tomokatsu; Lakshminarayana, Gandham; Nogami, Masayuki [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Chien, Nguyen Duc [Institute of Engineering Physics, Hanoi University of Technology, Dai Co Viet 1, Hanoi City (Viet Nam); Hirata, Hirohito, E-mail: nguyen.longviet@nitech.ac.jp, E-mail: nogami@nitech.ac.jp [Advanced Material Engineering Division, Toyota Motor Corporation, Higashifuji Technical Center 1200, Mishuku, Susono, Shizuoka (Japan)

    2010-01-22

    In this paper, Pt nanoparticles with good shapes of nanocubes and nano-octahedra and well-controlled sizes in the range 5-7 and 8-12 nm, respectively, have been successfully synthesized. The modified polyol method by adding silver nitrate and varying the molar ratio of the solutions of silver nitrate and H{sub 2}PtCl{sub 6} has been used to produce Pt nanoparticles of the size and shape to be controlled. The size and morphology of Pt nanoparticles have been studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution TEM (HRTEM). The results have shown that their very sharp and good shapes exist in the main forms of cubic, cuboctahedral, octahedral and tetrahedral shapes directly related to the crystal nucleation along various directions of the {l_brace}100{r_brace} cubic, {l_brace}111{r_brace} octahedral and {l_brace}111{r_brace} tetrahedral facets during synthesis. In particular, various irregular and new shapes of Pt nanoparticles have been found. Here, it is concluded that the role of silver ions has to be considered as an important factor for promoting and controlling the development of Pt nanoparticles of {l_brace}100{r_brace} cubic, {l_brace}111{r_brace} octahedral and {l_brace}111{r_brace} tetrahedral facets, and also directly orienting the growth and formation of Pt nanoparticles.

  7. Thermoluminescence study of aluminium oxide doped germanium prepared by combustion synthesis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saharin Nurul Syazlin Binti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports the optimum concentration of germanium (Ge dopant in aluminium oxide (AhO3 samples prepared by combustion synthesis (CS method for thermoluminescence (TL studies. The samples were prepared at various Ge concentration i.e. 1 to 5% mol. The phase formation of un-doped and Ge-doped Al2O3 samples was determined using X-ray Diffraction (XRD. The sharp peaks present in the XRD pattern confirms the crystallinity of the samples. The samples were then exposed to 50 Gy Cobalt-60 sources (Gamma cell 220. TL glow curves were measured and recorded using a Harshaw Model 3500 TLD reader. Comparison of TL peaks were observed to obtain the best composition of Ge dopants. A simple glow curves TL peak at around 175̊C for all composition samples was observed. It was also found that the composition of aluminium oxide doped with 3.0% of germanium exhibits the highest thermoluminescence (TL intensity which is 349747.04 (a.u.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of Cr2O3 nanoparticles through sol-gel proteic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, Angela Maria de Lemos

    2007-01-01

    In the last years, nanoparticles have becoming important to several researchers. This research reside in the fact that new and uncommon physical and chemical properties, absent in the same material in macro and microscopic size, are observed in this new scale. The subject of this study is obtaining chromium oxide nanoparticles (Cr 2 O 3 ) by sol–gel proteic process using gelatin as an organic precursor. This process appears as a new alternative for the synthesis of oxides for great applications with high efficiency and low cost. The interest in that material is due to the several applications such as green pigments, coverings of materials for thermal protection and mainly as catalyst of countless products originating from of the industry of the petroleum, among others. This new route, using chromium salt as chromium source, produces nanoparticles with average particle size between 20 and 60nm. These values were obtained for different crystallographic direction by means of X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) technique and the structure refinement by Rietveld method were applied in several samples prepared at different temperatures. Other techniques have been used in order to complement the XRD results. (author)

  9. Vapour-phase method in the synthesis of polymer-ibuprofen sodium-silica gel composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kierys

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The study discusses the synthesis of polymer-silica composites comprising water soluble drug (ibuprofen sodium, IBS. The polymers selected for this study were poly(TRIM and poly(HEMA-co-TRIM produced in the form of permanently porous beads via the suspension-emulsion polymerization method. The acid and base set ternary composites were prepared by the saturation of the solid dispersions of drug (poly(TRIM-IBS and/or poly(HEMA-co-TRIM-IBS with TEOS, and followed by their exposition to the vapour mixture of water and ammonia, or water and hydrochloric acid, at autogenous pressure. The conducted analyses reveal that the internal structure and total porosity of the resulting composites strongly depend on the catalyst which was used for silica precursor gelation. The parameters characterizing the porosity of both of the acid set composites are much lower than the parameters of the base set composites. Moreover, the basic catalyst supplied in the vapour phase does not affect the ibuprofen sodium molecules, whereas the acid one causes transformation of the ibuprofen sodium into the sodium chloride and a derivative of propanoic acid, which is poorly water soluble. The release profiles of ibuprofen sodium from composites demonstrate that there are differences in the rate and efficiency of drug desorption from them. They are mainly affected by the chemical character of the polymeric carrier but are also associated with the restricted swelling of the composites in the buffer solution after precipitation of silica gel.

  10. Synthesis of Ag{sub 2}S nanorods by biomimetic method in the lysozyme matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Dezhi, E-mail: dezhiqin@163.com; Zhang, Li; He, Guoxu; Zhang, Qiuxia

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Firstly, Ag{sub 2}S nanorods were synthesized by biomimetic method in the lysozyme solutions. • The study of the interaction between Ag{sup +} and the lysozyme. • Discussion of possible formation mechanism of Ag{sub 2}S nanorods. • The synthesis process of lyso-conjugated Ag{sub 2}S nanocrystals is facile, effective and environment friendly. - Abstract: Ag{sub 2}S nanorods were successfully synthesized by biomimetic route in the lysozyme solution at physiological temperature and atmospheric pressure. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images revealed that the prepared nanorods are uniform and monodisperse with homogeneous size about 50 nm in diameter and 150 nm in length. The optical property of Ag{sub 2}S nanocrystals was studied by the ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, the results show that the products exhibit well-defined emission at 471 nm and 496 nm excited by 292 nm. The interaction of Ag{sup +}/Ag{sub 2}S with the lysozyme was investigated through Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, which shows that the cooperation effect of the lysozyme and Ag{sup +} could be responsible for the formation of as obtained Ag{sub 2}S nanorods.

  11. Synthesis of ZnO-SiO2 nanocomposite particles and their characterization by sonochemical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiyastuti, W.; Machmudah, Siti; Nurtono, Tantular; Winardi, Sugeng; Okuyama, Kikuo

    2017-05-01

    ZnO-SiO2 nanocomposite particles were prepared by sonochemical method under continuous ultrasound irradiation for an hour. Zinc nitrate and sodium silicate were used as zinc oxide and silica sources, respectively. Silica concentration was varied to investigate the effect of silica on the characteristics of the generated composite particles and they were also compared to ZnO particles. Morphology, crystallinity, chemical bonding analysis, photoluminescence spectra, and photocatalytic activity were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray diffraction, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), luminescence spectrophotometer, and UV-Vis spectrophotometer, respectively. Nanorod structures were observed for pure ZnO, ZnO-SiO2 particles with 250 ppm and 750 ppm silica addition during synthesis. Spherical agglomerated particles were found for particle with 0.1 M silica addition. The crystalline size and photocalytic activity decreased with the silica addition. A strongest chemical bonding for ZnO and SiO2 was also observed for particle with 0.1 M silica addition based on FTIR spectra. However, the highest photoluminescence emission by excitation wavelength at 250 nm, was observed for ZnO-SiO2 particles with 750 ppm silica addition with emission peak at 515 nm wavelength.

  12. Effect of synthesis conditions on the preparation of YIG powders via co-precipitation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashad, M.M.; Hessien, M.M.; El-Midany, A.; Ibrahim, I.A.

    2009-01-01

    Yttrium iron garnet (YIG) (Y 3 Fe 5 O 12 ) powders have been synthesized through a co-precipitation method in the presence of sodium bis(2-ethylhexylsulfosuccinate), AOT as an anionic surfactant. The garnet precursors produced were obtained from aqueous iron and yttrium nitrates mixtures using 5 M sodium hydroxide at pH 10. A statistical Box-Behnken experimental design was used to investigate the effect of the main parameters (i.e. AOT surfactant concentration, annealing time and temperature) on YIG powder formation, crystallite size, morphology and magnetic properties. YIG particles were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and vibrating sample magnetometer. XRD revealed that the formation of single cubic phase of YIG was temperature dependent and increased by increasing the annealing temperature from 800 to 1200 o C. SEM micrographs showed that the addition of AOT surfactant promoted the microstructure of YIG in crystalline cubic-like structure. The magnetic properties were sensitive to the synthesis variables of annealing temperature, time and AOT surfactant concentration. The maximum saturation magnetization (28.13 emu/g), remanence magnetization (21.57 emu/g) and coercive force (703 Oe) were achieved at an annealing temperature of 1200 o C, time 2 h and 500 ppm of AOT surfactant concentration.

  13. Synthesis of zinc oxide by microwave hydrothermal method for application to transesterification of soybean oil (biodiesel)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirino, Max Rocha [LABQUIM/Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Campus III, 58200-000, Bananeiras, PB (Brazil); Oliveira, Mateus José C. [DEMA/Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Campina Grande, Campus I, 58429-900, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Keyson, Davy [DME/Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Campus – I, 58051-900, João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Lucena, Guilherme Leocárdio, E-mail: guilhermelucena@cchsa.ufpb.br [LABQUIM/Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Campus III, 58200-000, Bananeiras, PB (Brazil); Oliveira, João Bosco L. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus I, 59078-970, Natal, RN (Brazil); Gama, Lucianna [DEMA/Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Campina Grande, Campus I, 58429-900, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)

    2017-01-01

    ZnO nanostructures were synthesized by microwave hydrothermal treatment using two different mineralization agents (NaOH and NH{sub 4}OH), and were evaluated as catalysts for biodiesel synthesis. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis. The XRD patterns indicated the formation of the hexagonal wurtzite phase in both samples. SEM analysis showed completely different morphologies based on the mineralization agent employed. The ZnO nanostructures synthesized with NaOH (ZONa5 and ZONa5P) presented plate-like agglomerates, resulting in a quasi-spherical morphology, whereas the materials synthesized with NH{sub 4}OH (ZONH5 and ZONH5P) presented a flower-like morphology. The ZONa5P sample showed an activity of 77.82% for the catalytic conversion of soybean oil into biodiesel by transesterification using methanol. - Highlights: • ZnO was synthesized by MH method in only 5 min. • The powders morphology is completely influenced by mineralization agent. • ZONa5P showed activity of 77.82% for the conversion of soybean oil into biodiesel.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of nanostructured zinc oxide particles synthesized by the pyrosol method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasile, Otilia-Ruxandra; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Ghitulica, Cristina; Vasile, Bogdan Stefan; Oprea, Ovidiu; Vasile, Eugeniu; Trusca, Roxana

    2012-12-01

    Nanostructured ZnO particles with different crystallite dimensions, in the range between 5.7 and 21.8 nm, with poly-crystalline structure, have been obtained, in a facile manner, using the pyrosol method. The microstructure and properties of the obtained powders were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with selected area electron diffraction and fluorescence spectroscopy. From the XRD spectra it was observed that, starting from 600 °C, zinc oxide with wurtzite structure is obtained. The particles have spherical morphology, as it can be seen from SEM images, with an average particle size ranging from 0.2 to 2 μm. The TEM analysis reveals that the particles are in fact agglomerates, nanostructured, with an average nanoparticles size as low as 13.9 nm. The composition, morphology and size of obtained particles are influenced by the synthesis temperatures, as well as by the concentration of precursor solutions.

  15. A CATALYTIC METHOD FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF 4-ALKYL(ARYL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    )-pyridinones and their 2-imino ... synthesis of milrinone analogues as a series of nonglycosidic, non-sympathomimetic, cardiotonic .... from dimethoxyacetophenone and ammonia adds to the aldol condensation product of the aldehyde and ...

  16. The synthesis of Ag/polypyrrole coaxial nanocables via ion adsorption method using different oxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Teng; Xie Huxiao; Zhang Jiangru; Zahoor, Amad; Li Xiaoyu

    2011-01-01

    Ag/polypyrrole (PPy) coaxial nanocables (NCs) were synthesized by an ion adsorption method. In this method, the pre-made Ag nanowires (NWs) were dispersed in the aqueous solution of copper acetate (Cu(Ac) 2 ), and the Cu 2+ ions adsorbed onto the surface of Ag NWs can oxidize pyrrole monomers to polymerize into uniform PPy sheath outside Ag NWs after the Cu(Ac) 2 -treated Ag NWs were re-dispersed in the aqueous solution of pyrrole. The morphology of NCs was characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The relationship between the thickness of polymer sheath and the concentration of Cu(Ac) 2 was established. As Cu(Ac) 2 which served as the oxidant can also be replaced by AgNO 3 in this synthesis, the differences on the structure of polymer sheath caused by different oxidants were studied by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Comparing with the characterization results of Ag/PPy NCs synthesized using AgNO 3 as the oxidant which indicates the random arrangement of PPy chains at the interface between polymer sheath and Ag NWs, PPy chain oxidized by Cu 2+ tends to show a relatively ordered conformation at the interface with the pyrrole rings identically taking the plane vertical to the surface of Ag NWs. In addition, although the main part of the polymer sheath was composed of PPy whatever kind of oxidant was used, the sheath of the NCs oxidized by Cu 2+ is typical for the existence of Cu(I)–pyrrole coordinate structures with strong Cu(I)–N bond signal shown in XPS characterization.

  17. YIG based broad band microwave absorber: A perspective on synthesis methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vinay; Saha, J.; Patnaik, S.; Kuanr, Bijoy K.

    2017-10-01

    The fabrication of a thin layer of microwave absorber that operates over a wide band of frequencies is still a challenging task. With recent advances in nanostructure synthesis techniques, considerable progress has been achieved in realizations of thin nanocomposite layer designed for full absorption of incident electromagnetic (EM) radiation covering S to K band frequencies. The primary objective of this investigation is to achieve best possible EM absorption with a wide bandwidth and attenuation >10 dB for a thin absorbing layer (few hundred of microns). Magnetic yttrium iron garnet (Y3Fe5O12; in short YIG) nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by sol-gel (SG) as well as solid-state (SS) reaction methods to elucidate the effects of nanoscale finite size on the magnetic behavior of the particles and hence their microwave absorption capabilities. It is found that YIG prepared by these two methods are different in many ways. Magnetic properties investigated using vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) exhibit that the coercivity (Hc) of solid-state NPs is much larger (72 Oe) than the sol-gel NPs (31 Oe). Microwave absorption properties were studied by ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) technique in field sweep mode at different fixed frequencies. A thin layer (∼300 μm) of YIG film was deposited using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique over a coplanar waveguide (CPW) transmission line made on copper coated RT/duroid® 5880 substrates. Temperature dependent magnetic properties were also investigated using VSM and FMR techniques. Microwave absorption properties were investigated at high temperatures (up to 300 °C) both for sol-gel and solid-state synthesized NPs and are related to skin depth of YIG films. It is observed that microwave absorption almost vanishes when the temperature reached the Néel temperature of YIG.

  18. Comparison among structural characteristics of Ce1-xCuxO2 nanocatalysts obtained by two methods of distinct synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neiva, L.S.; Bispo, A.; Santos, P.T.A.; Costa, A.C.F.M.; Gama, L.; Mascarenhas, A.J.S.

    2009-01-01

    The objective this work is to synthesize nano catalysts Ce 1-x Cu x O 2 type by the synthesis methods of the combustion reaction and Pechini. The value of the concentration (x) of the element dope (Cu) varies between 0,1 and 0,5 mols. It intends evaluate that form the synthesis method influences in the physical structural characteristics of this material. nano catalysts were characterized by ray- X diffraction. The results showed nano catalysts formation with a formed structure for the most part by the phase CeO 2 , as it was expected, since this is the hostess matrix of the element dope (Cu). Nano catalysts obtained by the method Pechini presents crystallinity larger deg, according with patterns of ray-X. Thus, it was concluded that synthesis employee method the kind in the methodology, as well as the value of the concentration of the element dope has influence on the final structural characteristics of the developed material. (author)

  19. Aerobic method for the synthesis of nearly size-monodisperse bismuth nanoparticles from a redox non-innocent precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, H.; Christopher-Allison, E.; Brown, A. L.; Goforth, A. M.

    2018-04-01

    Herein, we report an aerobic synthesis method to produce bismuth nanoparticles (Bi NPs) with average diameters in the range 40-80 nm using commercially available bismuth triiodide (BiI3) as the starting material; the method uses only readily available chemicals and conventional laboratory equipment. Furthermore, size data from replicates of the synthesis under standard reaction conditions indicate that this method is highly reproducible in achieving Bi NP populations with low standard deviations in the mean diameters. We also investigated the mechanism of the reaction, which we determined results from the reduction of a soluble alkylammonium iodobismuthate precursor species formed in situ. Under appropriate concentration conditions of iodobismuthate anion, we demonstrate that burst nucleation of Bi NPs results from reduction of Bi3+ by the coordinated, redox non-innocent iodide ligands when a threshold temperature is exceeded. Finally, we demonstrate phase transfer and silica coating of the Bi NPs, which results in stable aqueous colloids with retention of size, morphology, and colloidal stability. The resultant, high atomic number, hydrophilic Bi NPs prepared using this synthesis method have potential for application in emerging x-ray contrast and x-ray therapeutic applications.

  20. SYNTHESIS OF 2,6-DIAMINOPYRIDINE-4-NITROPHENOL (2,6DAP4N COCRYSTAL NANOPARTICLES BY LASER ABLATION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Zulina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We propose findings for laser ablation of organic materials in liquids as one of the perspective methods of nanoparticles synthesis on their basis. We describe nanoparticles synthesis for 2,6-diaminopyridine-4-nitrophenol (2,6DAP4N cocrystal by the method of material laser ablation at nanoparticles condensation in liquid (dodecane and polyphenyleneoxide. Laser radiation with wavelength equal to 355 nm, pulse duration - 10 ns, pulse repetition rate - 3.8 kHz, and pulse power density equal to 170 kW/cm2 has been used in the study. Nanoparticles in the form of colloids have been obtained and studied by visible range spectroscopy and optical microscopy. Obtained particles size is around 0.5 μm.

  1. Application of the single-channel continuous synthesis method to criticity and power distribution calculations in thermal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medrano Asensio, Gregorio.

    1976-06-01

    A detailed power distribution calculation in a large power reactor requires the solution of the multigroup 3D diffusion equations. Using the finite difference method, this computation is too expensive to be performed for design purposes. This work is devoted to the single channel continous synthesis method: the choice of the trial functions and the determination of the mixing functions are discussed in details; 2D and 3D results are presented. The method is applied to the calculation of the IAEA ''Benchmark'' reactor and the results obtained are compared with a finite element resolution and with published results [fr

  2. An algorithm for a valved brass instrument synthesis environment using finite-difference time-domain methods with performance optimisation

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Reginald L.; Bilbao, Stefan; Perry, James

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a physical modelling sound synthesis environment for the production of valved brass instrument sounds. The governing equations of the system are solved using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) methods and the environment is implemented in the C programming language. Users of the environment can create their own custom instruments and are able to control player parameters such as lip frequency, mouth pressure and valve openings through the use of instrument and score file...

  3. A facile, green and efficient surfactant-free method for synthesis of aluminum nanooxides with an extraordinary high surface area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadnezhad, Gholamhossein; Akintola, Oluseun; Plass, Winfried; Steiniger, Frank; Westermann, Martin

    2016-04-21

    Nano boehmite with unprecedented high surface area and pore volume (802 m(2) g(-1), 2.35 cm(3) g(-1)) was prepared using a facile, green and efficient surfactant-free synthesis method. The structure of the material is characterized by the presence of plates with varying thicknesses and morphologies. The calcined samples show curved and rolled plates with a nanotube-like appearance.

  4. The Dietary Patterns Methods Project: Synthesis of Findings across Cohorts and Relevance to Dietary Guidance1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liese, Angela D; Krebs-Smith, Susan M; Subar, Amy F; George, Stephanie M; Harmon, Brook E; Neuhouser, Marian L; Boushey, Carol J; Schap, TusaRebecca E; Reedy, Jill

    2015-01-01

    The Dietary Patterns Methods Project (DPMP) was initiated in 2012 to strengthen research evidence on dietary indices, dietary patterns, and health for upcoming revisions of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, given that the lack of consistent methodology has impeded development of consistent and reliable conclusions. DPMP investigators developed research questions and a standardized approach to index-based dietary analysis. This article presents a synthesis of findings across the cohorts. Standardized analyses were conducted in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, the Multiethnic Cohort, and the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI-OS). Healthy Eating Index 2010, Alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010 (AHEI-2010), alternate Mediterranean Diet, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) scores were examined across cohorts for correlations between pairs of indices; concordant classifications into index score quintiles; associations with all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer mortality with the use of Cox proportional hazards models; and dietary intake of foods and nutrients corresponding to index quintiles. Across all cohorts in women and men, there was a high degree of correlation and consistent classifications between index pairs. Higher diet quality (top quintile) was significantly and consistently associated with an 11–28% reduced risk of death due to all causes, CVD, and cancer compared with the lowest quintile, independent of known confounders. This was true for all diet index–mortality associations, with the exception of AHEI-2010 and cancer mortality in WHI-OS women. In all cohorts, survival benefit was greater with a higher-quality diet, and relatively small intake differences distinguished the index quintiles. The reductions in mortality risk started at relatively lower levels of diet quality. Higher scores on each of the indices, signifying higher diet quality, were associated with marked reductions in mortality

  5. A facile synthesis method of hydroxyethyl cellulose-silver nanoparticle scaffolds for skin tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifli, Farah Hanani; Hussain, Fathima Shahitha Jahir; Zeyohannes, Senait Sileshi; Rasad, Mohammad Syaiful Bahari Abdull; Yusuff, Mashitah M

    2017-10-01

    Green porous and ecofriendly scaffolds have been considered as one of the potent candidates for tissue engineering substitutes. The objective of this study is to investigate the biocompatibility of hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC)/silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), prepared by the green synthesis method as a potential host material for skin tissue applications. The substrates which contained varied concentrations of AgNO 3 (0.4%-1.6%) were formed in the presence of HEC, were dissolved in a single step in water. The presence of AgNPs was confirmed visually by the change of color from colorless to dark brown, and was fabricated via freeze-drying technique. The outcomes exhibited significant porosity of >80%, moderate degradation rate, and tremendous value of water absorption up to 1163% in all samples. These scaffolds of HEC/AgNPs were further characterized by SEM, UV-Vis, ATR-FTIR, TGA, and DSC. All scaffolds possessed open interconnected pore size in the range of 50-150μm. The characteristic peaks of Ag in the UV-Vis spectra (417-421nm) revealed the formation of AgNPs in the blend composite. ATR-FTIR curve showed new existing peak, which implies the oxidation of HEC in the cellulose derivatives. The DSC thermogram showed augmentation in T g with increased AgNO 3 concentration. Preliminary studies of cytotoxicity were carried out in vitro by implementation of the hFB cells on the scaffolds. The results substantiated low toxicity of HEC/AgNPs scaffolds, thus exhibiting an ideal characteristic in skin tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Large Scale Screening of Southern African Plant Extracts for the Green Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Microtitre-Plate Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman M. Elbagory

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs involves a variety of chemical and physical methods. These methods use toxic and environmentally harmful chemicals. Consequently, the synthesis of AuNPs using green chemistry has been under investigation to develop eco-friendly nanoparticles. One approach to achieve this is the use of plant-derived phytochemicals that are capable of reducing gold ions to produce AuNPs. The aim of this study was to implement a facile microtitre-plate method to screen a large number of aqueous plant extracts to determine the optimum concentration (OC for the bio-synthesis of the AuNPs. Several AuNPs of different sizes and shapes were successfully synthesized and characterized from 17 South African plants. The characterization was done using Ultra Violet-Visible Spectroscopy, Dynamic Light Scattering, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy and Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy. We also studied the effects of temperature on the synthesis of the AuNPs and showed that changes in temperatures affect the size and dispersity of the generated AuNPs. We also evaluated the stability of the synthesized AuNPs and showed that some of them are stable in biological buffer solutions.

  7. Conversion of Carbon Dioxide to Ethanol by Electrochemical Synthesis Method Using Brass as A Cathode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Septian Ramadan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of potential and gas flow rate were investigated to determine the optimum conditions of the electrochemical synthesis process to convert carbon dioxide to ethanol. The conversion process is carried out using a NaHCO3 electrolyte solution in an electrochemical reactor equipped with a cathode and anode. As cathode is used brass, while as anode is used carbon. The result of the electrochemical synthesis process was analyzed by gas chromatography to determine the content of the compounds produced qualitatively and quantitatively. The optimum electrochemical synthesis conditions to convert carbon dioxide to ethanol are potential and gas flow rate are 3 volts and 0.5 L/minutes with ethanol concentration yielded 1.32%.

  8. Conversion of Carbon Dioxide into Ethanol by Electrochemical Synthesis Method Using Cu-Zn Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyanto; Ramadan, S.; Fariduddin, S.; Aminudin, A. R.; Hayatri, A. K.

    2018-01-01

    Research on conversion of carbon dioxide into ethanol has been done. The conversion process is carried out in a sodium bicarbonate electrolyte solution in an electrochemical synthesis reactor. As cathode was used Cu-Zn, while as anode carbon was utilized. Variations of voltage, concentration of sodium bicarbonate electrolyte solution and time of electrolysis were performed to determine the optimum conditions to convert carbon dioxide into ethanol. Sample of the electrochemical synthesis process was analyzed by gas chromatography. From the result, it is found that the optimum conditions of the electrochemical synthesis process of carbon dioxide conversion into ethanol are voltage, concentration of sodium bicarbonate electrolyte solution and time of electrolysis are 3 volts, 0.4 M and 90 minutes with the ethanol concentration of 10.44%.

  9. Systematic methods for synthesis and design of sustainable chemical and biochemical processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    , biomass, coal, natural gas, rock, etc., that are usually extracted), to a bigger set of basic chemical products (such as, ethylene, benzene sulfuric acid, ammonia, etc., that are produced in large quantities), to an even bigger set of intermediates (such as, methanol, urea, succinic acid, ethylene glycol...... from the renewable resources, the sustainability of the product and therefore the process can be improved. Also, the number of alternatives that exist provide opportunities and challenges to find the best synthesis routes, for example, for process intensification or a multi-product processing complex...... like a biorefinery. The process synthesis design problem can be formulated as one where first a synthesis-design target (a process with desired qualities) is defined and then design alternatives (process flowsheets for different raw material-product connection) that match the target are identified...

  10. Chemical protein synthesis: Inventing synthetic methods to decipher how proteins work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Stephen

    2017-09-15

    Total chemical synthesis of proteins has been rendered practical by the chemical ligation principle: chemoselective condensation of unprotected peptide segments equipped with unique, mutually reactive functional groups, enabled by formation of a non-native replacement for the peptide bond. Ligation chemistries are briefly described, including native chemical ligation - thioester-mediated, amide-forming reaction at Xaa-Cys sites - and its extensions. Case studies from the author's own works are used to illustrate the utility and applications of chemical protein synthesis. Selected recent developments in the field are briefly discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fire Synthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1000ºC or special infrastructure which require careful maintenance. In such a situation fire synthesis is a simpler method that can be adopted for the bulk production of high purity alumina and related oxides. Fire Synthesis. Preparation of Alumina ...

  12. Synthesis mechanism of an Al-Ti-C grain refiner master alloy prepared by a new method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B. Q.; Lu, L.; Lai, M. O.; Fang, H. S.; Ma, H. T.; Li, J. G.

    2003-08-01

    The mechanisms of in-situ synthesis of an Al-Ti-C grain-refiner master alloy, prepared by adding a powder mixture of potassium titanium fluoride and carbon into an aluminum melt, have been systematically studied. It was found that vigorous reactions occurred at the initial stage of reaction and then slowed down. After about 20 minutes, the reactions, which led the formation of blocky titanium aluminides and submicron titanium carbides in the aluminum matrix, appeared to reach completion. Potassium titanium fluoride reacted with aluminum and carbon at 724 °C and 736 °C, respectively, resulting in the formation of titanium aluminides and titanium carbides in the aluminum matrix as well as in the formation of a low-melting-point slag of binary potassium aluminofluorides. The reaction between potassium titanium fluoride and carbon is believed to be the predominant mechanism in the synthesis of TiC by this method.

  13. O-acyl isopeptide method: development of an O-acyl isodipeptide unit for Boc SPPS and its application to the synthesis of Aβ1-42 isopeptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshiya, Taku; Uemura, Tsuyoshi; Maruno, Takahiro; Kubo, Shigeru; Kiso, Yoshiaki; Sohma, Youhei; Kobayashi, Yuji; Yoshizawa-Kumagaye, Kumiko; Nishiuchi, Yuji

    2014-09-01

    The O-acyl isopeptide method was developed for the efficient preparation of difficult sequence-containing peptide. Furthermore, development of the O-acyl isodipeptide unit for Fmoc chemistry simplified its synthetic procedure by solid-phase peptide synthesis. Here, we report a novel isodipeptide unit for Boc chemistry, and the unit was successfully applied to the synthesis of amyloid β peptide. Combination of Boc chemistry and the isodipeptide unit would be an effective method for the synthesis of many difficult peptides. Copyright © 2014 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Synthesis and luminescent properties of Eu2+ doped BaZn2Si2O7 phosphors by combustion-assisted synthesis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Shanshan; Xue Lihong; Yan Youwei

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The orthorhombic BaZnSi 2 O 7 :Eu 2+ green emitting phosphor was prepared by the combustion-assisted synthesis method. → The critical quenching concentration of Eu 2+ in BaZnSi 2 O 7 :Eu 2+ phosphor is about 0.05. → The corresponding concentration quenching mechanism is verified to be a dipole-dipole interaction. → The CIE of the optimized sample was calculated (x, y) = (0.24, 0.58). - Abstract: A green emitting phosphor of the orthorhombic BaZn 2 Si 2 O 7 :Eu 2+ was prepared by the combustion-assisted synthesis method and an efficient green emission under near-ultraviolet was observed. The luminescence and crystallinity were investigated by using luminescence spectrometry, X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The emission spectrum shows a single intensive band centered at 522 nm, which corresponds to the 4f6 5 d 1 → 4f 7 transition of Eu 2+ . The excitation spectrum is a broad extending from 260 to 465 nm, which matches the mission of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs). The critical quenching concentration of Eu 2+ in BaZn 2 Si 2 O 7 :Eu 2+ phosphor is about 0.05. The corresponding concentration quenching mechanism is verified to be a dipole-dipole interaction. The chromaticity coordinates were obtained from the luminescence emission spectrum. The results indicate that BaZn 2 Si 2 O 7 :Eu 2+ can be potentially useful as a UV radiation-converting phosphor for white light-emitting diodes (LEDs).

  15. Methods for the synthesis of tritium-labelled fatty acids and their derivatives, oxylipins and steroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevchenko, Valerii P; Nagaev, Igor Yu; Myasoedov, Nikolai F

    1999-01-01

    The achievements in the field of synthesis and application of tritium-labelled oxylipins, steroids, fatty acids, phospho-, sphingo- and other lipids are reviewed. The importance of these studies for the solution of current problems of biochemistry, biology and pharmacology is exemplified in the application of labelled compounds. The bibliography includes 148 references.

  16. A convenient and efficient one-step method for the synthesis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hydroxy-5-methyl benzaldehyde with a mole of N,N'-bis(2-pyridyl)dopamine in THF at ambient conditions in high yield (75-80%). KEY WORDS: Dicompartmental ligand, Synthesis, Phenol-based ligand, Acyclic ligand. Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 2010 ...

  17. Synthesis of nanocrystalline TiO2 by tartarate gel method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Keywords. Ceramics; oxides; chemical synthesis; X-ray diffraction; microscopy. 1. Introduction. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is an important industrial material as a main component of paint, pigment, cosmetics and as a support for vanadium DeNOx catalyst (Fox and Dulay. 1993; Samuel et al 2004). It has also been used for opti-.

  18. Process synthesis, design and analysis using process-group contribution method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar Tula, Anjan; Eden, Mario Richard; Gani, Rafiqul

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development and application of a framework for synthesis, design, and analysis of chemical and biochemical processes. The framework is based on the principle of group contribution used for prediction of physical properties. The fundamental pillars of this methodology...

  19. Chemical synthesis of membrane proteins by the removable backbone modification method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shan; Zuo, Chao; Huang, Dong-Liang; Cai, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Long-Hua; Tian, Chang-Lin; Zheng, Ji-Shen; Liu, Lei

    2017-12-01

    Chemical synthesis can produce membrane proteins bearing specifically designed modifications (e.g., phosphorylation, isotope labeling) that are difficult to obtain through recombinant protein expression approaches. The resulting homogeneously modified synthetic membrane proteins are valuable tools for many advanced biochemical and biophysical studies. This protocol describes the chemical synthesis of membrane proteins by condensation of transmembrane peptide segments through native chemical ligation. To avoid common problems encountered due to the poor solubility of transmembrane peptides in almost any solvent, we describe an effective procedure for the chemical synthesis of membrane proteins through the removable-backbone modification (RBM) strategy. Two key steps of this protocol are: (i) installation of solubilizing Arg4-tagged RBM groups into the transmembrane peptides at any primary amino acid through Fmoc (9-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl) solid-phase peptide synthesis and (ii) native ligation of the full-length sequence, followed by removal of the RBM tags by TFA (trifluoroacetic acid) cocktails to afford the native protein. The installation of RBM groups is achieved by using 4-methoxy-5-nitrosalicyladehyde by reduction amination to incorporate an activated O-to-N acyl transfer auxiliary. The Arg4-tag-modified membrane-spanning peptide segments behave like water-soluble peptides to facilitate their purification, ligation and mass characterization.

  20. Methods for Collecting Postschool Outcomes Data on Young Adults with Disabilities: A Literature Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alverson, Charlotte Y.; Naranjo, Jason M.; Yamamoto, Scott; Unruh, Deanne K.

    2010-01-01

    The current U.S. federal mandate for educational accountability requires state departments of education to collect data on the postschool employment and postsecondary school and/or training enrollment of young adults with disabilities. To examine how these data have been collected, we conducted a literature synthesis of follow-up and follow-along…

  1. Synthesis of lithium silicates generators of tritium by a modified method of combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz G, D.

    2003-01-01

    The ceramics of lithium have been proposed as generating materials of tritium through the following reaction: 6 Li + 1 n → 4 He + 3 H . In previous works carried out by Pfeiffer and collaborators, the lithium silicates generators of tritium were prepared using the following methods: reactions of solid state, precipitation and sol-gel synthesis. Although those methods have advantages, it is required of heating at high temperatures (900 C during four hours) to be able to obtain the crystalline compounds. Those products found in these works were diverse crystallization forms of the lithium silicates and of SiO 2 , such as, Li 2 SiO 3 , Li 2 Si 2 0 5 , Li 4 SiO 4 , and quartz (SiO 2 ). The combustion method uses exothermic reactions to take place ceramic compounds. The precursor solutions are mixtures of the nitrate of metal oxidizer and the fuels (urea, glycine, carbohydrazide). However the reported method in the literature, it is not useful to prepare lithium silicates, for what was modified using non oxidizers compounds. The lithium hydroxide (LiOH) and the silicic acid (H 2 SiO 3 ) they were the compounds non oxidizers used, and the urea (CH 4 N 2 O) it was the one fuel. They were carried out two series of experiments; inside the series 1 of experiments are varied the molar ratio of lithium hydroxide and urea (LiOH : H 2 SiO 3 = 1, 2 and 3, LiOH : CH 4 N 2 O = 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5) and the prepared mixtures were taken to one muffle previously preheated to a temperature of 450 C during 5 minutes. In the series 2 of experiments was studied the effect of the temperature and of the washed with distilled water in the prepared samples with the following molar ratios: LiOH : H 2 SiO 3 : CH 4 N 2 O = 1:1:3, 2:1:3, 3:1:3 and 3:1:6, those which were heated to temperatures from 450 C up to 750 C and were washed. The obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Infrared spectroscopy (I S), semiquantitative elemental analysis (EDS) and Thermal gravimetric

  2. The role anions on the synthesis of AlOOH nanoparticles using simple solvothermal method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozaffar Abdollahifar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Effect of aluminium salts on the synthesis of AlOOH nanostructures has been successfully investigated in detail using solvothermal method, when ethanol and NaOH are solvent and pH adjusting agent, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, were used to characterize the synthesized samples. The specific surface area, pore size distribution and pore structure of the different AlOOH structures were also discussed by the N2 adsorption/desorption test. According to our experimental results, the structure characterization revealed that for synthesized AlOOH nanostructures no obvious XRD peaks arising from other phases of alumina are found indicating pure AlOOH phase of products. Furthermore, the nitrogen adsorption and desorption measurements indicated that the obtained AlOOH nanoparticles from aluminium chloride at basic condition possess a high BET surface area of approximately 90 m2/g. Resumen: El efecto de las sales de aluminio sobre la síntesis de las nanoestructuras de AlOOH ha sido analizado en detalle satisfactoriamente usando el método solvotérmico, cuando el etanol y el NaOH son el disolvente y el agente de regulación del pH, respectivamente. Para clasificar las muestras sintetizadas se utilizaron la espectroscopia infrarroja por transformada de Fourier (FTIR, difracción de rayos X por polvo (XRD y microscopia electrónica de barrido de emisión de campo (FESEM. El área superficial específica, la distribución del tamaño del poro y la estructura de poros de las diferentes estructuras de AlOOH también se debatieron mediante la prueba de adsorción/desorción de N2. De acuerdo con nuestros resultados experimentales, la clasificación de la estructura reveló que en las nanoestructuras de AlOOH sintetizadas no se observan picos XRD evidentes derivados de otras fases de la alúmina que indican la fase pura de AlOOH de los productos

  3. Layer-by-Layer Method for the Synthesis and Growth of Surface Mounted Metal-Organic Frameworks (SURMOFs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Shekhah

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A layer-by-layer method has been developed for the synthesis of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs and their deposition on functionalized organic surfaces. The approach is based on the sequential immersion of functionalized organic surfaces into solutions of the building blocks of the MOF, i.e., the organic ligand and the inorganic unit. The synthesis and growth of different types of MOFs on substrates with different functionalization, like COOH, OH and pyridine terminated surfaces, were studied and characterized with different surface characterization techniques. A controlled and highly oriented growth of very homogenous films was obtained using this method. The layer-by-layer method offered also the possibility to study the kinetics of film formation in more detail using surface plasmon resonance and quartz crystal microbalance. In addition, this method demonstrates the potential to synthesize new classes of MOFs not accessible by conventional methods. Finally, the controlled growth of MOF thin films is important for many applications like chemical sensors, membranes and related electrodes.

  4. Superiority of sonochemical processing method for the synthesis of barium titanate nanocrystals in contrast to the mechanochemical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghtada, A; Ashiri, R

    2018-03-01

    The results indicated that the ultrasonic sonochemistry which brings into play the acoustic cavitation phenomenon is more powerful and feasible in synthesizing the mixed oxides in contrast to the conventional solid-state approaches. The obtained results demonstrated that the sonochemical approach is able to obtain highly pure powder product at a much lower processing temperature of about 323K (50°C) in contrast to 1173K (900°C) which is essential for the synthesis by the mechanochemical approach. Sonochemical synthesis benefits from homogenous ordering the reactant ions (which have been dissolved in the solution mixture) into perovskite structure using ultrasonication. This indicates that the acoustic cavitation phenomenon is much more powerful and cost-effective than high energy ball milling in synthesizing nanopowders of the mixed oxide materials. Moreover, the sonochemical processing method is able to prepare the final powder products in a much shorter time by a one-step synthesis approach without the need for the successive calcination in contrast to the solid-state approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Higuchi’s Method applied to detection of changes in timbre of digital sound synthesis of string instruments with the functional transformation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanjanapen, Manorth; Kunsombat, Cherdsak; Chiangga, Surasak

    2017-09-01

    The functional transformation method (FTM) is a powerful tool for detailed investigation of digital sound synthesis by the physical modeling method, the resulting sound or measured vibrational characteristics at discretized points on real instruments directly solves the underlying physical effect of partial differential equation (PDE). In this paper, we present the Higuchi’s method to examine the difference between the timbre of tone and estimate fractal dimension of musical signals which contains information about their geometrical structure that synthesizes by FTM. With the Higuchi’s method we obtain the whole process is not complicated, fast processing, with the ease of analysis without expertise in the physics or virtuoso musicians and the easiest way for the common people can judge that sounds similarly presented.

  6. Synthesis of carbon nanotube using camphor with SS 316 as catalytic substrate via oxidative heat treatment preparation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulan, Praswasti Pembangun Dyah Kencana; Angelina, Dian

    2017-11-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) is a material that now often become the topic in nanotechnology research. CNT is widely used in the electronics industry especially for TV and computer flat panel displays, devices, automotives for car components, and batteries. Also for defense industries as well as other industries such as sports equipment. Camphor (C10H16O), a botanical hydrocarbon, can be used as a renewable and low cost carbon source for CNT synthesis. Synthesis was performed with stainless steel-316 (SS 316) as substrate, argon as carrier gas, and hydrogen as co-reactant. Preparation of the SS 316 was through a pretreatment by oxidative heat treatment method at a temperature of 850oC for 30 minutes, to remove the layer of chrome and make a rough surface as a growth media for CNT. The operating temperature of the synthesis used was 800oC with a reaction time of 60 minutes. Reactor, which made from stainless steel 316 (SS 316), was used for synthesis CNTs with maximum camphor mass of 20 grams. This research was conducted by varying the number of camphor mass by 5, 7, 10, 12, and 15 grams. The results showed that camphor decomposed into three compounds which are 40% benzene, 8% toluene, and 52% xylene. CNT grows on the surface of the SS 316 plate for each variation. CNTs have grown by follow tips growth model with deformations like buckling growth model and continuous growth model were also founded. The results of XRD showed that CNT were found in every camphor mass variation with high intensity at 2θ angle of 26° and 43°. The best quality and yield of CNT was obtained at camphor mass of 15 grams with carbon percentage of 87,1% and diameter 33 - 44 nm.

  7. Non-isothermal kinetics study on synthesis of LiFePO4 via carbothermal reduction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Lihua; Liu, Xuheng; Zhao, Zhongwei

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Non-isothermal kinetics of LiFePO 4 synthesis is studied. • LiFePO 4 synthesis can be divided into dehydration and LiFePO 4 formation stages. • Dehydration process is controlled by product layer diffusion. • LiFePO 4 crystallization is controlled by random nucleation and subsequent growth. • Kinetic equations of dehydration and LiFePO 4 formation are Avrami's A 1.5 and A 4 . - Abstract: Non-isothermal kinetics of lithium ion phosphate synthesis via carbothermal reduction method with raw materials Li 2 CO 3 , FePO 4 ·2H 2 O and C 6 H 12 O 6 ·2H 2 O is studied by thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TG–DSC) technology. The results indicate the synthesis process can be divided into two stages: dehydration and LiFePO 4 formation. The apparent activation energy and natural logarithm frequency factor (ln A-value) for dehydration reaction is respectively 83.4 ± 4.7 kJ mol −1 and 22.1 ± 1.5 s −1 , and that for LiFePO 4 formation reaction is in turn 184.2 ± 10.4 kJ mol −1 and 28.3 ± 1.9 s −1 . Additionally, the mechanism for dehydration and LiFePO 4 formation stages is Avrami's A 1.5 and A 4 , respectively. Furthermore, the dehydration process is diffusion controlled, and the crystallization of LiFePO 4 formation is controlled by nuclei being formed randomly and growing in three-dimensions, and the kinetic equations for each stage are shown as follows: (table) where α is the fractional conversion, T the calcination temperature (K), t the calcination time (s), R the gas constant (8.314 J mol −1 K −1 )

  8. Romp: The Method of Choice for Precise Macromolecular Engineering and Synthesis of Smart Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Ezat; Castle, Thomas C.; Kujawa, Margaret; Leejarkpai, Jan; Hutchings, Lian R.; Hine, Peter J.

    The recent advances in olefin metathesis highlight the impact of Ring Opening Metathesis Polymerisation (ROMP) as a powerful technique for macromolecular engineering and synthesis of smart materials with well-defined structures. ROMP has attracted a considerable research attention recently particularly by industry largely due to the development of well-defined metal complexes as initiators and also because of the award of the Noble Prize for Chemistry in 2005 to three scientists (Chauvin, Grubbs, Schrock) for their contributions in this area. This chapter discusses several interesting examples in order to demonstrate that ROMP is a power tool in macromolecular engineering and that it allows the design and synthesis of polymers with novel topologies.

  9. Catalyst synthesis PD/SiO2 and PD/C by irradiation microwave method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sant'Anna, L.S.; Franceschi, E.; Egues, S.; Santos, M.L.; Dariva, C.; Borges, G.R.

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of nanoparticulate materials has been developed over the years, in order to propose new routes or routes more efficient in the process. The application of microwave irradiation applied in this work allowed to show that metal catalysts may be generated in a faster reaction time compared to conventional mechanical agitation techniques. Catalysts using palladium acetate (OAc) 2 supported on charcoal and commercial silica were synthesized. The solvent used for the preparation was 40 ml of ethanol at a temperature of 100 ° C and 300 W power. The synthesis time was 2 to 5 minutes. The synthesized material was calcined and characterized by ICP, XRD, TEM and BET obtained metal content ranged from 1.1 to 4.1% of the metal support. The particle size was between 7 and 9 nm. The surface areas of the carriers were reduced on its surface due to the metal impregnation. (author)

  10. Precipitation method for barium metaborate (BaB2O4) synthesis from borax solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akşener, Eymen; Figen, Aysel Kantürk; Pişkin, Sabriye

    2013-01-01

    In this study, barium metaborate (BaB 2 O 4 , BMB) synthesis from the borax solution was carried out. BMB currently is used in production of ceramic glazes, luminophors, oxide cathodes as well as additives to pigments for aqueous emulsion paints and also β−BaB 2 O 4 single crystals are the best candidate for fabrication of solid-state UV lasers operating at a wavelength of 200 nm due to excellent nonlinear optical properties. In the present study, synthesis was carried out from the borax solution (Na 2 B 4 O 7⋅ 10H 2 O, BDH) and barium chloride (BaCI 2⋅ 2H 2 O, Ba) in the glass-batch reactor with stirring. The effect of, times (5-15 min), molar ratio [stoich.ration (1.0:2.0), 1.25:2.0, 1.5:2.0, 2.5:2:0, 3.0:2.0, 3.5:2.0,4.0:2.0, 5.0:2.0] and also crystallization time (2-6 hour) on the BMB yield (%) was investigated at 80 °C reaction temperature. It is found that, BMB precipitation synthesis with 90 % yield can be performed from 0.50 molar ration (BDH:Ba), under 80 °C, 15 minute, and 6 hours crystallization time. The structural properties of BMB powders were characterized by using XRD, FT-IR and DTA-TG instrumental analysis technique

  11. Precipitation method for barium metaborate (BaB2O4) synthesis from borax solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akşener, Eymen; Figen, Aysel Kantürk; Pişkin, Sabriye

    2013-12-01

    In this study, barium metaborate (BaB2O4, BMB) synthesis from the borax solution was carried out. BMB currently is used in production of ceramic glazes, luminophors, oxide cathodes as well as additives to pigments for aqueous emulsion paints and also β-BaB2O4 single crystals are the best candidate for fabrication of solid-state UV lasers operating at a wavelength of 200 nm due to excellent nonlinear optical properties. In the present study, synthesis was carried out from the borax solution (Na2B4O7ṡ10H2O, BDH) and barium chloride (BaCI2ṡ2H2O, Ba) in the glass-batch reactor with stirring. The effect of, times (5-15 min), molar ratio [stoich.ration (1.0:2.0), 1.25:2.0, 1.5:2.0, 2.5:2:0, 3.0:2.0, 3.5:2.0,4.0:2.0, 5.0:2.0] and also crystallization time (2-6 hour) on the BMB yield (%) was investigated at 80 °C reaction temperature. It is found that, BMB precipitation synthesis with 90 % yield can be performed from 0.50 molar ration (BDH:Ba), under 80 °C, 15 minute, and 6 hours crystallization time. The structural properties of BMB powders were characterized by using XRD, FT-IR and DTA-TG instrumental analysis technique.

  12. Novel methods for the synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles with special morphologies and textured assemblages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyiro-Kosa, Ilona, E-mail: kosaili@gmail.com [University of Pannonia, Department of Material Engineering (Hungary); Recnik, Aleksander [Jozef Stefan Institute, Department for Nanostructured Materials (Slovenia); Posfai, Mihaly [University of Pannonia, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences (Hungary)

    2012-10-15

    There is an increasing technological demand for magnetic nanocrystals with special morphologies and controlled sizes. Several approaches are used for the synthesis of magnetite crystals with irregular or octahedral shapes; however, the room-temperature synthesis of nanocrystals with specific morphologies is not yet established. Here, we describe the synthesis of magnetite crystals (100-300 nm) at a relatively low temperature ({approx}70 Degree-Sign C) from organic precursors, including Fe(II) oxalate or Fe(II) sulfate, and study the effects of ethylene glycol and tetraethylene glycol on the final physical and chemical properties of the crystals. The magnetite crystals formed from different precursor materials (sulfate or oxalate green rust) show specific morphological and textural features. We show that octahedral magnetite crystals can be produced from Fe(II) oxalate via a simple co-precipitation process. Using different kinds and amounts of polyols, various types of particle morphologies and nanocrystal textures can be produced, including hexagonal-shaped clusters of elongated crystals and porous and solid, large, rounded polycrystalline aggregates.

  13. Divalent and Multivalent Activation in Phosphate Triesters: A Versatile Method for the Synthesis of Advanced Polyol Synthons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christopher D; McParland, James P; Hanson, Paul R

    2009-11-01

    The construction of mono- and bicyclic phosphate trimesters possessing divalent and multivalent activation and their subsequent use in the production of advanced polyol synthons is presented. The method highlights efforts to employ phosphate tethers as removable, functionally active tethers capable of multipositional activation and their subsequent role as leaving groups in selective cleavage reactions. The development of phosphate tethers represents an integrated platform for a new and versatile tether for natural product synthesis and sheds light on new approaches to the facile construction of small molecules.

  14. An efficient method based on the uniformity principle for synthesis of large-scale heat exchanger networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chunwei; Cui, Guomin; Chen, Shang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Two dimensionless uniformity factors are presented to heat exchange network. • The grouping of process streams reduces the computational complexity of large-scale HENS problems. • The optimal sub-network can be obtained by Powell particle swarm optimization algorithm. • The method is illustrated by a case study involving 39 process streams, with a better solution. - Abstract: The optimal design of large-scale heat exchanger networks is a difficult task due to the inherent non-linear characteristics and the combinatorial nature of heat exchangers. To solve large-scale heat exchanger network synthesis (HENS) problems, two dimensionless uniformity factors to describe the heat exchanger network (HEN) uniformity in terms of the temperature difference and the accuracy of process stream grouping are deduced. Additionally, a novel algorithm that combines deterministic and stochastic optimizations to obtain an optimal sub-network with a suitable heat load for a given group of streams is proposed, and is named the Powell particle swarm optimization (PPSO). As a result, the synthesis of large-scale heat exchanger networks is divided into two corresponding sub-parts, namely, the grouping of process streams and the optimization of sub-networks. This approach reduces the computational complexity and increases the efficiency of the proposed method. The robustness and effectiveness of the proposed method are demonstrated by solving a large-scale HENS problem involving 39 process streams, and the results obtained are better than those previously published in the literature.

  15. Optimization of a surfactant free polyol method for the synthesis of platinum-cobalt electrocatalysts using Taguchi design of experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grolleau, C. [Laboratoire de Catalyse en Chimie Organique (LACCO), Universite de Poitiers, 40 av Recteur Pineau, F-86000 Poitiers (France); ST Microelectronics Tours, rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-37100 Tours (France); Coutanceau, C.; Leger, J.-M. [Laboratoire de Catalyse en Chimie Organique (LACCO), Universite de Poitiers, 40 av Recteur Pineau, F-86000 Poitiers (France); Pierre, F. [ST Microelectronics Tours, rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-37100 Tours (France)

    2010-03-15

    A design of experiments (derived from the Taguchi method) was implemented to optimize experimental conditions of a surfactant free polyol method for the synthesis of PtCo electrocatalysts. Considered responses were the active surface area and the catalytic activity toward oxygen reduction reaction. Metallic salt concentration, pH, temperature ramp, addition order of reactants and particle cleaning step were chosen as main parameters according to considerations coming from literature and previous experiments. Matrix models describing the behaviour of the synthesis system was elaborated taking into account the effects of each considered parameter and their interactions. From this model, an optimized PtCo/C catalyst, in terms of active surface area and activity towards the oxygen reduction reaction, was synthesized. Both the measured values of the active surface area and the electrocatalytic activity are in very good agreement with the calculated ones from the matrix model. Furthermore, actions of parameters and interactions between parameters can be better understood using this method. (author)

  16. Green synthesis of nanocrystalline α-Al2O3 powders by both wet-chemical and mechanochemical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Huiying; Li, Zhiyong; Zhao, Peng

    2018-03-01

    Nanosized α-Al2O3 powders were prepared with AlCl3ṡ6H2O and NH4HCO3 as raw materials by both wet-chemical and mechanochemical methods, through the synthesis of the ammonium aluminum carbonate hydroxide (AACH) precursor followed by calcination. The environmentally benign starch was used as an effective dispersant during the preparation of nanocrystalline α-Al2O3 powders. X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed to characterize the precursor AACH and products. The results show that nanosized spherical α-Al2O3 powders without hard agglomeration and with particle size in the range of 20-40 nm can be obtained by the two methods. Comparing the two “green” processes, the mechanochemical method has better prospects for commercial production.

  17. A facile method for high yield synthesis of carbon nano onions for designing binder-free flexible supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Debananda; Badrayyana, Subramanya; Parida, Smrutiranjan

    2017-05-01

    Carbon nano onion (CNO) is a promising material for diverse application areas such as energy devices, catalysis, lubrication, biology and gas storage, etc. However, its implementation is fraught with the production of high-quality powders in bulk quantity. Herein, we report a facile scalable and one-step "wick-and-oil" flame synthesis of pure and water dispersible CNO nanopowder. Other forms of carbon did not contaminate the as-prepared CNO; hence, a post processing purification procedure was not necessary. Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) specific surface area of as-prepared CNO was 218 m2/g, which is higher as compared to other reported flame synthesis methods. Locally available daily used cotton wipe has been used for fabrication of such an ideal electrode by "dipping and drying" process providing outstanding strechability and mechanical flexibility with strong adhesion between CNOs and porous wipe. The specific capacitance 102.16 F/g, energy density 14.18 Wh/kg and power density 2448 W/kg at 20 mV/s scan rate are the highest values that ever recorded and reported so far in symmetrical two electrode cell configuration with 1M Na2SO4 electrolyte; indicating a very good synthesis conditions employed with optimum pore size in agreement with electrolyte ion size. This free standing CNOs electrode also showed an excellent cyclic performance and stability retaining 95% original capacity after 5000 charge -discharge cycles. Simple preparation of high-purity CNOs and excellent electrochemical behavior of functionalized CNOs make them a promising electrode material for supercapacitor applications. Furthermore, this unique method not only affords binder free - freestanding electrode, but also provide a general way of fabricating such multifunctional promising CNOs based nanocomposites for their potential device applications in flexible solar cells and lithium ion batteries.

  18. Liquid phase low temperature method for production of methanol from synthesis gas and catalyst formulations therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Devinder

    2005-07-26

    The invention provides a homogenous catalyst for the production of methanol from purified synthesis gas at low temperature and low pressure which includes a transition metal capable of forming transition metal complexes with coordinating ligands and an alkoxide, the catalyst dissolved in a methanol solvent system, provided the transition metal complex is not transition metal carbonyl. The coordinating ligands can be selected from the group consisting of N-donor ligands, P-donor ligands, O-donor ligands, C-donor ligands, halogens and mixtures thereof.

  19. Synthesis of durable microcapsules for self-healing anticorrosive coatings: A comparison of selected methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nesterova, Tatyana; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Kiil, Søren

    2011-01-01

    in the literature, have been conducted to investigate the challenges associated with the synthesis of stable microcapsules. It was found that the nature of the core material strongly affects the microcapsule stability and performance. Furthermore, it was evident that experimental procedures developed for certain...... core materials were not suitable for encapsulation of other compounds without modifications. This is a severe limitation as not many of the encapsulation procedures have been developed for industrially relevant core materials such as epoxy resin. Results of experiments, aiming at finding optimal...

  20. Physically Informed Signal Processing Methods for Piano Sound Synthesis: A Research Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avanzini Federico

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews recent developments in physics-based synthesis of piano. The paper considers the main components of the instrument, that is, the hammer, the string, and the soundboard. Modeling techniques are discussed for each of these elements, together with implementation strategies. Attention is focused on numerical issues, and each implementation technique is described in light of its efficiency and accuracy properties. As the structured audio coding approach is gaining popularity, the authors argue that the physical modeling approach will have relevant applications in the field of multimedia communication.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of nanosized ceria powders by microwave-hydrothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonamartini Corradi, A.; Bondioli, F.; Ferrari, A.M.; Manfredini, T.

    2006-01-01

    Nanocrystalline ceria powders (CeO 2 ) have been prepared by adding NaOH to a cerium ammonium nitrate aqueous solution under microwave-hydrothermal conditions. In particular the effect of the synthesis conditions (time, pressure and concentration of both the precursor and the precipitant agent solutions) on the physical properties of the crystals have been evaluated. Microwave-hydrothermal treatment of 5 min at 13.4 atm allows to obtain almost crystallized powders (amorphous phase 4%) as underlined by Rietveld-reference intensity ratio (RIR) results

  2. Characterization of silver nanoparticles by green synthesis method using Pedalium murex leaf extract and their antibacterial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandalakshmi, K.; Venugobal, J.; Ramasamy, V.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, an aqueous extract of fresh leaves of Pedalium murex was used for the synthesis of silver (Ag) nanoparticles. Different biological methods are gaining recognition for the production of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) due to their multiple applications. The use of plants in the green synthesis of nanoparticles emerges as a cost-effective and eco-friendly approach. Characterization of nanoparticles was done using different methods, which include; ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), fluorescence emission spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential and antibacterial activity. UV-visible spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver nanoparticles showed absorption peak at around 430 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectra had shown that the biomolecule compounds were responsible for the reduction and capping material of silver nanoparticles. XRD study showed the particles to be crystalline in nature, with a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure. The size and stability were detected using DLS and zeta potential analysis. The antibacterial activity of AgNPs against generally found bacteria was assessed to find their potential use in silver-containing antibacterial product.

  3. Post-treatment Method for the Synthesis of Monodisperse Binary FePt-Fe3O4 Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhilu; Wu, Chun; Niu, Liang; Yang, Ganting; Wang, Kai; Pei, Wenli; Wang, Qiang

    2017-09-01

    To obtain the optimal 1:1 composition of FePt alloy nanomaterials by polyol synthesis, the iron precursor (iron pentacarbonyl, Fe(CO)5) must be used in excess, because the Fe(CO)5 exists in the vapor phase at the typical temperatures used for FePt synthesis and cannot be consumed completely. Fabrication of Fe3O4 nanoparticles by consuming the excess iron precursor was an effective strategy to make full use of the iron precursor. In this paper, a facile post-treatment method was applied to consume the excess iron, which was oxidized to Fe3O4 after post-treatment at 150 and 200 °C, and a monodisperse binary FePt-Fe3O4 nanoparticle system was generated. The post-treatment method did not affect the crystal structure, grain size, or composition of the FePt nanoparticles. However, the content and grain size of the fcc-Fe3O4 nanoparticles can be increased simply by increasing the post-treatment temperature from 150 to 200 °C.

  4. Preparation of high concentration polyaluminum chloride by chemical synthesis-membrane distillation method with self-made hollow fiber membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Changwei; Yan, Yong; Hou, Deyin; Luan, Zhaokun; Jia, Zhiping

    2012-01-01

    A method of direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) with a self-made hollow polyvinylidene fluoride membrane was applied to prepare high concentration polyaluminum chloride (PACl) with high A1b content based on chemical synthesis. The permeate flux and A1 species distribution were investigated. The experimental results showed that the permeate flux decreased from 14 to 6 kg/(m2 x hr) at the end of the DCMD process, which can be mainly attributed to the formation of NaCl deposits on the membrane surface. The Alb content decreased slightly, only from 86.3% to 84.4%, when the DCMD experiment finished, correspondingly the A1c content increased slightly from 7.2% to 8.5%, and the A1a content remained at 7% during the whole DCMD process. A PACl with A1b content of 84% at total aluminum concentration 2.2 mol/L was successfully prepared by the chemical synthesis-DCMD method.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of CaCO3 (calcite) nano particles from cockle shells (Anadara granosa Linn) by precipitation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyastuti, Sri; Intan Ayu Kusuma, P.

    2017-06-01

    Calcium supplements can reduce the risk of osteoporosis, but they are not automatically absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. Nanotechnology is presumed to have a capacity in resolving this problem. The preparation and characterization of calcium carbonate nano particle to improve the solubility was performed. Calcium carbonate nano particles were synthesized using precipitation method from cockle shells (Anadara granosa Linn). Samples of the cockle shells were dried in an oven at temperature of 50°C for 7 (seven) days and subsequently they were crushed and blended into fine powder that was sieved through 125-μm sieve. The synthesis of calcium carbonate nanocrystals was done by extracting using hydro chloride acid and various concentrations of sodium hydroxide were used to precipitate the calcium carbonate nano particles. The size of the nano particles was determined by SEM, XRD data, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results of XRD indicated that the overall crystalline structure and phase purity of the typical calcite phase CaCO3 particles were approximately 300 nm in size. The method to find potential applications in industry to yield the large scale synthesis of aragonite nano particles by a low cost but abundant natural resource such as cockle shells is required.

  6. Personal recovery within forensic settings--Systematic review and meta-synthesis of qualitative methods studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Andrew; Doyle, Michael; Sanders, Caroline; Shaw, Jenny

    2016-02-01

    Many mental health services now explicitly aim to support personal recovery. Are there special ethical and practical considerations for application of this model in forensic mental health services? Is there, for example, any conflict in this context between personal empowerment and risk management? Our aim was to develop a model of the personal recovery processes for people needing forensic mental health services. A systematic literature review was conducted and meta-synthesis applied to data from relevant papers. Five studies were identified through the search process and combined through meta-synthesis. Three key overarching themes were synthesised: safety and security as a necessary base for the recovery process, the dynamics of hope and social networks in supporting the recovery process and work on identity as a changing feature in the recovery process. The themes identified provide for theoretically informed and testable developments in care that could enhance the quality of recovery and rehabilitation for offender patients through explicitly enhancing personal sense of safety, understanding the patient's sense of personal identity and their social networks and transitioning between institutional and community support. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Plasma dynamic synthesis of ultradispersed zinc oxide and sintering ceramics on its basis by SPS method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanenkova, Yu; Sivkov, A.; Ivashutenko, A.; Shanenkov, I.; Firsov, K.

    2017-05-01

    Zinc oxide is a well-known semiconductor material having good electrical, optical and catalytic properties. It can be used in different areas from cosmetics to drug delivery and biosensors. The synthesis of nanosized zinc oxide is an urgent task for obtaining ZnO-based ceramics with enhanced physical properties. This work shows the possibility to implement the plasma dynamic synthesis of zinc oxide in one short-term process (less than 1 ms) using an electrodischarge zinc-containing plasma jet, flowing into oxygen atmosphere. It allows synthesizing a mono-crystalline powder with particle size distribution from tens to hundred nanometers. The synthesized powdered product is investigated using by X-Ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. According to XRD, the obtained product consists of hexagonal zinc oxide with lattice parameters a = b = 3.24982 Å, c = 5.20661 Å that is clearly confirmed by microscopy data. This powder was used to produce a bulk ceramics sample on its basis by spark plasma sintering. The influence of sintering parameters on the structure of the resulting sample was studied. The optimal parameters were found which allows obtaining the more dense ceramics with a better microstructure. It was also found that the absence of exposure time after reaching the working temperature and pressure allows decreasing the porosity of ceramics.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of Li{sub 2}ZnTi{sub 3}O{sub 8} spinel using the modified polymeric precursor method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camara, M.S.C.; Lisboa-Filho, P.N.; Cabrelon, M.D.; Gama, L.; Ortiz, W.A.; Paiva-Santos, C.O.; Leite, E.R.; Longo, E

    2003-09-28

    In this work we report the synthesis procedure, crystallographic, structural and magnetic properties of the Li{sub 2}ZnTi{sub 3}O{sub 8} spinel obtained using a modified polymeric precursor method. This synthesis method generates very reactive and property-controlled nanoparticles. The samples were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) associated to the Rietveld refinement method, thermogravimetric analysis (TG), specific surface area, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The phase formation temperature of the lithium zinc titanate spinel was observed to decrease due to the homogeneity and highly controlled nanometric particle size.

  9. New synthesis parameters of GGG:Nd nanocrystalline powder prepared by sol–gel method: Structural and spectroscopic investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alshikh Mohamad, Yassin, E-mail: yassinm@mail.ru; Atassi, Yomen; Moussa, Zafer

    2015-09-15

    GGG:Nd nanopowder is synthesized by the sol–gel method using formic acid and acetic acid as chelating agents and ethylene glycol as a cross linking agent. TGA–DSC, XRD, photoluminescence spectroscopy and fluorescence life time analysis (τ) are used to characterize the powder. XRD is used to optimize the synthesis parameters. According to XRD, complete phase of GGG nanopowder is formed at 800 °C for 1 min. Fluorescence life time analyses reveal that the optimum crystallization temperature is 1000 °C. - Highlights: • GGG:Nd nanopowder was prepared using formic acid by the sol gel method. • Optimization of sol gel parameters was done. • GGG phase formation was complete at 800 °C for 1 min • According to τ measurements, optimal temperature treatment is at 1000 °C. • Nanopowder prepared with formic acid was better than that formed with acetic acid.

  10. A practical and convenient method for the synthesis of anesthetic drug thiopental: using thiourea and sodium ethoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojat Narimani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A general, simple, practical and convenient method has been described for the synthesis of anesthetic drug thiopental using thiourea in the presence of sodium ethoxide. Anesthetic drug of thiopental was prepared in two stages; during the first stage, the alkylation of mthyl cyanoacetate was performed which was then to be followed by cyclization. Alkylation of methyl cyanoacetate which was performed by 2-iodopentane in the presence of sodium ethoxide reacts with thiourea and then the process was followed by thiopental prepration in excellent yield. Some important aspects of this methodology are the high reactivity of the substrates, avoidance of the use of hazardous solvents, simplicity of the product separation, low cost of the substrates and reagents and high yield of product. This is a applicable and efficient method for the preparation of thiopental anesthesia in high yield and in an appropriate time.

  11. Similarities between pinch analysis and classical blast furnace analysis methods. Possible improvement by synthesis. Paper no. IGEC-1-004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryman, C.; Grip, C.-E.; Franck, P.-A.; Wikstrom, J.-O.

    2005-01-01

    Pinch analysis originated at UMIST in the 1970's. It has since then been used as a method for energy analysis and optimisation of industrial systems. The blast furnace process for reducing iron oxide to molten iron is a very important process unit in the metallurgical industry. It is a counter-current shaft process with a wide temperature range and gaseous, solid and liquid phases present in different zones. Because of this the blast furnace acts as a system of different sub-processes rather than a single process. The analysis tools developed to describe the process are in some respects similar to the tools of pinch analysis. The exchange between the two fields of knowledge has yet been negligible. In this paper the methods are described and compared. Problems, possibilities and advantages with an exchange and synthesis of knowledge are discussed. (author)

  12. Synthesis of the proteinase inhibitor LEKTI domain 6 by the fragment condensation method and regioselective disulfide bond formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileiou, Zoe; Barlos, Kostas K; Gatos, Dimitrios; Adermann, Knut; Deraison, Celine; Barlos, Kleomenis

    2010-01-01

    Proteinase inhibitors are of high pharmaceutical interest and are drug candidates for a variety of indications. Specific kallikrein inhibitors are important for their antitumor activity and their potential application to the treatment of skin diseases. In this study we describe the synthesis of domain 6 of the kallikrein inhibitor Lympho-Epithilial Kazal-Type Inhibitor (LEKTI) by the fragment condensation method and site-directed cystine bridge formation. To obtain the linear LEKTI precursor, the condensation was best performed in solution, coupling the protected fragment 1-22 to 23-68. This method yielded LEKTI domain 6 of high purity and equipotent to the recombinantly produced peptide. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of spinel-type zinc aluminate nanoparticles by a modified sol-gel method using new precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davar, Fatemeh, E-mail: davar@kashanu.ac.ir [Institute of Nano Science and Nano Technology, University of Kashan, Kashan, P. O. Box. 87317-51167 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salavati-Niasari, Masoud, E-mail: salavati@kashanu.ac.ir [Institute of Nano Science and Nano Technology, University of Kashan, Kashan, P. O. Box. 87317-51167 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan, Kashan, P. O. Box. 87317-51167 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-02-03

    Research highlights: > Modified sol-gel method for synthesis of spinel-type zinc aluminate nanoparticles. > Zn(en){sub 2}{sup 2+} complex (en = ethylenediamine) as new Zn{sup 2+} source. > Effect of reaction temperature on the particle size. - Abstract: In the present paper, we report the successful synthesis of spinel-type of zinc aluminate (ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles by a modified sol-gel method. Aluminum nitrate and Zn(en){sub 2}{sup +} complex (en: ethylenediamine) as new Zn{sup 2+} source were used. Diethylene glycol monoethyl ether and citric acid are employed as solvent and chelating agent. This method starts from the precursor complex, and involves formation of homogeneous solid intermediates, reducing atomic diffusion paths during thermal treatment. ZnO and ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocrystals were obtained when the precursor was heat-treated at 350 deg. C in air for 2 h. The stages of the formation of ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, as well as the characterization of the resulting compounds were done using thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The structure, particle size, and temperature of formation of ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} phases were found to depend on the precursors and methods used for preparation and the calcination temperature. The lowest temperature for preparation of the ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} is about 550 deg. C.

  14. Effect of different catalyst preparation methods on the synthesis of carbon nanotubes with the flame pyrolysis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghong Guo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Flame pyrolysis method used to synthesize carbon nanotubes was studied in this work. In order to improve the quality of synthesized carbon nanotubes, it is important to change the corresponding natures of the catalyst. Two catalyst preparation methods, namely, the sol-gel method and the impregnation method, were compared in this experiment. The properties of the catalyst are analyzed in depth by energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS, x-ray diffraction (XRD, temperature program reduction (TPR. The generation of carbon nanotubes was systematically analysed through scanning electron microscope (SEM, molecule dynamics (MD, raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscope (TEM. The results show that the catalysts prepared by the impregnation method are stickier, dispersed and easier to dip onto the probe or substrate, which is beneficial for the large-scale production of carbon tubes. The specific surface area of alumina is larger and the iron and molybdenum oxide are more evenly dispersed on the surface of alumina. The carbon nanotubes produced by the catalysts prepared by impregnation method are flatter and have less impurities. The ratio of ID/IG+ is 29.7% lower than that of the sol-gel method in the Raman spectra. The TEM statistics show that the average diameter of the carbon tubes decreases by 23.3%. Therefore, the impregnation method can improve the quality of carbon nanotubes in the case of a similar degree of difficulty in the preparation of the catalyst.

  15. Effect of different catalyst preparation methods on the synthesis of carbon nanotubes with the flame pyrolysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yonghong; Zhai, Gang; Ru, Yu; Wu, Chuyu; Jia, Xiaowei; Sun, Yaping; Yu, Jiawen; Kang, Zhizhong; Sun, Baomin

    2018-03-01

    The Flame pyrolysis method used to synthesize carbon nanotubes was studied in this work. In order to improve the quality of synthesized carbon nanotubes, it is important to change the corresponding natures of the catalyst. Two catalyst preparation methods, namely, the sol-gel method and the impregnation method, were compared in this experiment. The properties of the catalyst are analyzed in depth by energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), x-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature program reduction (TPR). The generation of carbon nanotubes was systematically analysed through scanning electron microscope (SEM), molecule dynamics (MD), raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results show that the catalysts prepared by the impregnation method are stickier, dispersed and easier to dip onto the probe or substrate, which is beneficial for the large-scale production of carbon tubes. The specific surface area of alumina is larger and the iron and molybdenum oxide are more evenly dispersed on the surface of alumina. The carbon nanotubes produced by the catalysts prepared by impregnation method are flatter and have less impurities. The ratio of ID/IG+ is 29.7% lower than that of the sol-gel method in the Raman spectra. The TEM statistics show that the average diameter of the carbon tubes decreases by 23.3%. Therefore, the impregnation method can improve the quality of carbon nanotubes in the case of a similar degree of difficulty in the preparation of the catalyst.

  16. Comparison of two full automatic synthesis methods of 9-(4-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-3-hydroxymethylbutyl)guanine using different chemistry modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Se Hun [Molecular Imaging and Therapy Branch, National Cancer Center, Goyang 410-769 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemistry, Sogang University, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Seung Jun [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1 Pungnap-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sjoh@amc.seoul.kr; Lee, Sang Ju [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1 Pungnap-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Keon, Wook Kang; Kim, Seok-ki [Molecular Imaging and Therapy Branch, National Cancer Center, Goyang 410-769 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nuclear Medicine, National Cancer Center, Goyang 410-769 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ho-young [Department of Nuclear Medicine, National Cancer Center, Goyang 410-769 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Jin [Genitourinary Cancer Branch, National Cancer Center, Goyang 410-769 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, In Hoo [Molecular Imaging and Therapy Branch, National Cancer Center, Goyang 410-769 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won Koo [Department of Chemistry, Sogang University, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    We have developed synthesis methods for 9-(4-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-3-hydroxymethylbutyl)guanine ([{sup 18}F]FHBG) using two commercial automatic chemistry modules, Tracerlab MX and Explora RN, and compared radiochemical yields. Synthesis conditions and sequence programs were modified for two modules because both these modules have different mechanical structures, including heater type, vacuum system, reactor, and tubing size. Synthesis using the Tracerlab MX module showed a 21.0{+-}3.8% yield of radiochemical, which was 98{+-}0.9% pure; the total preparation time was 63.0{+-}5.0 min including an HPLC purification step. In contrast, synthesis using the Explora RN module showed a 32.0{+-}1.2% yield of radiochemical, which was 99.0{+-}0.6% pure; the total preparation time was 38{+-}2 min, using different HPLC purification conditions and without the HPLC solvent evaporation step.

  17. Synthesis of chromium and ferrochromium alloy in molten salts by the electro-reduction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge X.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we successfully applied the Fray-Farthing-Chen Cambridge electro-reduction process on the preparation of chromium from chromium oxide, and for the first time, the synthesis of ferrochromium alloy from chromium oxide and iron oxide mixture and the chromite ore in molten calcium chloride. The present work systematically investigated the influences of sintered temperature of the solid precursor, electrochemical potential, electrolysis temperature and time on the products by using a set of advanced characterization techniques, including XRD and SEM/EDS analyses. In particular, our results show that this process is energy-friendly and technically-feasible for the direct extraction of ferrochromium alloy from chromite ore. Our findings thus provide useful insights for designing a novel green process to produce ferrochromium alloy from low-grade chromite ore or stainless steel slag.

  18. Synthesis of high saturation magnetic iron oxide nanomaterials via low temperature hydrothermal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavani, P.; Rajababu, C. H.; Arif, M. D.; Reddy, I. Venkata Subba; Reddy, N. Ramamanohar

    2017-03-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) were synthesized through a simple low temperature hydrothermal approach to obtain with high saturation magnetization properties. Two series of iron precursors (sulfates and chlorides) were used in synthesis process by varying the reaction temperature at a constant pH. The X-ray diffraction pattern indicates the inverse spinel structure of the synthesized IONPs. The Field emission scanning electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy studies revealed that the particles prepared using iron sulfate were consisting a mixer of spherical (16-40 nm) and rod (diameter 20-25 nm, length magnetization (MS) of 103.017 emu/g and low remanant magnetization (Mr) of 0.22 emu/g with coercivity (Hc) of 70.9 Oe, which may be attributed to the smaller magnetic domains (dm) and dead magnetic layer thickness (t).

  19. ESTIMATION OF THE PROCESS OF SYNTHESIS OF MEAT BROILER THROUGH MODERN METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MONICA PÂRVU

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In vivo experiments on broilers were conducted in order to elaborate a mathematical model for body synthesis, the experimental data being processed with Gompertz time functions and linear functions. The experiment used 166, Ross 308 day-old chicks through an experimental period of 42 days. The broilers received diets according to the growth period (1 – 14, 15 – 28, 29 – 42 days. The dietary energy and nutrient supply for group 1 (control were according to the recommendation of Ross Breeders. The birds had free access to the feed. Group 2 received 90% and group 3 received 80% of the amount of feed received by group 1; the dietary energy supply was 90% in group 4 and 80% in group 5, also related to group 1. Mathematical modelling was used to evaluate the evolution of the body chemical composition (water, protein and lipid content, starting from the protein content at hatching.

  20. Azapeptide Synthesis Methods for Expanding Side-Chain Diversity for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chingle, Ramesh; Proulx, Caroline; Lubell, William D

    2017-07-18

    Mimicry of bioactive conformations is critical for peptide-based medicinal chemistry because such peptidomimetics may augment stability, enhance affinity, and increase specificity. Azapeptides are peptidomimetics in which the α-carbon(s) of one or more amino acid residues are substituted by nitrogen. The resulting semicarbazide analogues have been shown to reinforce β-turn conformation through the combination of lone pair-lone pair repulsion of the adjacent hydrazine nitrogen and urea planarity. Substitution of a semicarbazide for an amino amide residue in a peptide may retain biological activity and add benefits such as improved metabolic stability. The applications of azapeptides include receptor ligands, enzyme inhibitors, prodrugs, probes, and imaging agents. Moreover, azapeptides have proven therapeutic utility. For example, the aza-glycinamide analogue of the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogue Zoladex is a potent long-acting agonist currently used in the clinic for the treatment of prostate and breast cancer. However, the use of azapeptides was hampered by tedious solution-phase synthetic routes for selective hydrazine functionalization. A remarkable stride to overcome this bottleneck was made in 2009 through the introduction of the submonomer procedure for azapeptide synthesis, which enabled addition of diverse side chains onto a common semicarbazone intermediate, providing a means to construct azapeptide libraries by solution- and solid-phase chemistry. In brief, aza residues are introduced into the peptide chain using the submonomer strategy by semicarbazone incorporation, deprotonation, N-alkylation, and orthogonal deprotection. Amino acylation of the resulting semicarbazide and elongation gives the desired azapeptide. Since the initial report, a number of chemical transformations have taken advantage of the orthogonal chemistry of semicarbazone residues (e.g., Michael additions and N-arylations). In addition, libraries have been synthesized

  1. Non-isothermal kinetics study on synthesis of LiFePO{sub 4} via carbothermal reduction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Lihua; Liu, Xuheng; Zhao, Zhongwei, E-mail: zhaozw@csu.edu.cn

    2013-08-20

    Highlights: • Non-isothermal kinetics of LiFePO{sub 4} synthesis is studied. • LiFePO{sub 4} synthesis can be divided into dehydration and LiFePO{sub 4} formation stages. • Dehydration process is controlled by product layer diffusion. • LiFePO{sub 4} crystallization is controlled by random nucleation and subsequent growth. • Kinetic equations of dehydration and LiFePO{sub 4} formation are Avrami's A{sub 1.5} and A{sub 4}. - Abstract: Non-isothermal kinetics of lithium ion phosphate synthesis via carbothermal reduction method with raw materials Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, FePO{sub 4}·2H{sub 2}O and C{sub 6}H{sub 12}O{sub 6}·2H{sub 2}O is studied by thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TG–DSC) technology. The results indicate the synthesis process can be divided into two stages: dehydration and LiFePO{sub 4} formation. The apparent activation energy and natural logarithm frequency factor (ln A-value) for dehydration reaction is respectively 83.4 ± 4.7 kJ mol{sup −1} and 22.1 ± 1.5 s{sup −1}, and that for LiFePO{sub 4} formation reaction is in turn 184.2 ± 10.4 kJ mol{sup −1} and 28.3 ± 1.9 s{sup −1}. Additionally, the mechanism for dehydration and LiFePO{sub 4} formation stages is Avrami's A{sub 1.5} and A{sub 4}, respectively. Furthermore, the dehydration process is diffusion controlled, and the crystallization of LiFePO{sub 4} formation is controlled by nuclei being formed randomly and growing in three-dimensions, and the kinetic equations for each stage are shown as follows: (table) where α is the fractional conversion, T the calcination temperature (K), t the calcination time (s), R the gas constant (8.314 J mol{sup −1} K{sup −1})

  2. Application of the Synthesis method to the calculations of neutron flow in 3D in the enveloping of a BWR reactor with the DORT code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xolocostli M, J.V.; Gomez T, A.M.; Palacios H, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    The surveillance program of the vessel materials of a BWR reactor requires the determination of the neutron flux in 3D in the core enveloping. To carry out these calculations of the neutron flux, the Regulatory Guide 1.190 of the NRC recommends the use of the following codes: MCNP, TORT and DORT. In the case of using the DORT code, the one which solves the transport equation in discreet coordinates and in two dimensions (xy, rθ, and rz), the regulatory guide in reference, requires to make an approach of the flow in three dimensions by means of the call Synthesis Method. It is denominated like this due to that a flow representation in 3D is achieved 'combining' or 'synthesizing' the calculated flows by DORT in rθ, rz and r. In this work the application of the Synthesis Method it is presented, according to the Regulatory Guide 1.190, to determine the 3D flows in a BWR reactor. To achieve the above mentioned it was implemented the Synthesis Method in a computer program developed in the ININ to which is denominated SYNTHESIS. This program applies the synthesis method, and is 'coupled' with the DORT code to determine by this way the neutronic fluxes in 3D on the enveloping of a BWR reactor. (Author)

  3. A Modified Thermal Treatment Method for the Up-Scalable Synthesis of Size-Controlled Nanocrystalline Titania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysar Sabah Keiteb

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering the increasing demand for titania nanoparticles with controlled quality for various applications, the present work reports the up-scalable synthesis of size-controlled titanium dioxide nanocrystals with a simple and convenient thermal treatment route. Titanium dioxide nanocrystals with tetragonal structure were synthesized directly from an aqueous solution containing titanium (IV isopropoxide as the main reactant, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP as the capping agent, and deionized water as a solvent. With the elimination of the drying process in a thermal treatment method, an attempt was made to decrease the synthesis time. The mixture directly underwent calcination to form titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanocrystalline powder, which was confirmed by FT-IR, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, and X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis. The control over the size and optical properties of nanocrystals was achieved via variation in calcination temperatures. The obtained average sizes from XRD spectra and transmission electron microscopy (TEM images showed exponential variation with increasing calcination temperature. The optical properties showed a decrease in the band gap energy with increasing calcination temperature due to the enlargement of the nanoparticle size. These results prove that direct calcination of reactant solution is a convenient thermal treatment route for the potential large-scale production of size-controlled Titania nanoparticles.

  4. The application of the large particles method of numerical modeling of the process of carbonic nanostructures synthesis in plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, G. V.; Gavrilov, A. N.

    2018-03-01

    The article deals with the numerical solution of the mathematical model of the particles motion and interaction in multicomponent plasma by the example of electric arc synthesis of carbon nanostructures. The high order of the particles and the number of their interactions requires a significant input of machine resources and time for calculations. Application of the large particles method makes it possible to reduce the amount of computation and the requirements for hardware resources without affecting the accuracy of numerical calculations. The use of technology of GPGPU parallel computing using the Nvidia CUDA technology allows organizing all General purpose computation on the basis of the graphical processor graphics card. The comparative analysis of different approaches to parallelization of computations to speed up calculations with the choice of the algorithm in which to calculate the accuracy of the solution shared memory is used. Numerical study of the influence of particles density in the macro particle on the motion parameters and the total number of particle collisions in the plasma for different modes of synthesis has been carried out. The rational range of the coherence coefficient of particle in the macro particle is computed.

  5. A simple method for the small scale synthesis and solid-phase extraction purification of steroid sulfates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Christopher C; McLeod, Malcolm D

    2014-12-01

    Steroid sulfates are a major class of steroid metabolite that are of growing importance in fields such as anti-doping analysis, the detection of residues in agricultural produce or medicine. Despite this, many steroid sulfate reference materials may have limited or no availability hampering the development of analytical methods. We report simple protocols for the rapid synthesis and purification of steroid sulfates that are suitable for adoption by analytical laboratories. Central to this approach is the use of solid-phase extraction (SPE) for purification, a technique routinely used for sample preparation in analytical laboratories around the world. The sulfate conjugates of sixteen steroid compounds encompassing a wide range of steroid substitution patterns and configurations are prepared, including the previously unreported sulfate conjugates of the designer steroids furazadrol (17β-hydroxyandrostan[2,3-d]isoxazole), isofurazadrol (17β-hydroxyandrostan[3,2-c]isoxazole) and trenazone (17β-hydroxyestra-4,9-dien-3-one). Structural characterization data, together with NMR and mass spectra are reported for all steroid sulfates, often for the first time. The scope of this approach for small scale synthesis is highlighted by the sulfation of 1μg of testosterone (17β-hydroxyandrost-4-en-3-one) as monitored by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LCMS). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Synthesis of praseodymium doped cerium oxides by the polymerization-combustion method for application as anodic component in SOFC devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Pacheco, A. F.; Gómez Cuaspud, J. A.; López, E. Vera

    2016-02-01

    This work reports the synthesis and the characterization of six oxides; it is based on Ce1-xPrxO2 (x=0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0) system, which is obtained by the polymerization- combustion technique for potential applications on design of advanced electrodic components, for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Initially the solid precursors are characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermal analysis (TGA-DTA), allowing to determine the formation of prevalent citrate species and the optimal temperature for the consolidation of the desired crystalline phases. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the transmission electron microscopy analysis (TEM) are performed over calcined samples which provided information about the formation of a fluorite phase with grain distribution, surface, textural and morphological properties consistent with the nanometric obtaining crystallites (30nm), it is oriented along the (1 1 1) facet, with d spacings of 0.31nm for the main diffraction signal. These results indicate the effectiveness of the proposed synthesis method for potential applications in the design of advanced anodic materials for solid oxide fuel cells.

  7. A novel method for the synthesis of coumarin laser dyes derived from 3-(1H-benzoimidazol-2-yl coumarin-2-one under microwave irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Bakhtiari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We want to achieve the synthesis of 3-(1H-benzoimidazol-2-yl-7-(diethylamino coumarin-2-one (1, 3-(1H-benzoimidazol-2-yl-7-(dimethylamino coumarin-2-one (2, 3-(1H-benzoimidazol-2-yl coumarin-2-one (3 that are important dyes in industries (Soko owska et al., 2001. Methods for the synthesis of some of these compounds have been the title in some pervious patents, but enough information about separation and purification of them was not clearly indicated. We carried out several methods for the synthesis of the mentioned compound and purification with different yields. Now, we can synthesise these dyes under microwave irradiation in solid phase and solvent free methods with 80% yield, which is a high and remarkable percentage.

  8. Synthesis of Sulochrin-125I and Its Binding Affinity as α-Glucosidase Inhibitor using Radioligand Binding Assay (RBA Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lestari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of diabetics patients have type 2 diabetes mellitus or non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Treatment type 2 diabetes mellitus can be done by inhibiting α-glucosidase enzyme which converts carbohydrates into glucose. Sulochrin is one of the potential compounds which can inhibit the function of α-glucosidase enzyme. This study was carried out to obtain data of sulochrin binding with α-glucosidase enzyme as α-glucosidase inhibitor using Radioligand Binding Assay (RBA method. Primary reagent required in RBA method is labeled radioactive ligand (radioligand. In this study, the radioligand was sulochrin-125I and prior to sulochrin-125I synthesis, the sulochrin-I was synthesized. Sulochrin-I and sulochrin-125I were synthesized and their bindings were studied using Radioligand Binding Assay method. Sulochrin-I was synthesized with molecular formula C17H15O7I and molecular weight 457.9940. Sulochrin-125I was synthesized from sulochrin-I by isotope exchange method. From the RBA method, dissociation constant (Kd and maximum binding (Bmax were obtained 26.316 nM and Bmax 9.302 nM respectively. This low Kd indicated that sulochrin was can bind to α-glucosidase

  9. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles in aloe vera plant extract prepared by a hydrothermal method and their synergistic antibacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patcharaporn Tippayawat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background There is worldwide interest in silver nanoparticles (AgNPs synthesized by various chemical reactions for use in applications exploiting their antibacterial activity, even though these processes exhibit a broad range of toxicity in vertebrates and invertebrates alike. To avoid the chemical toxicity, biosynthesis (green synthesis of metal nanoparticles is proposed as a cost-effective and environmental friendly alternative. Aloe vera leaf extract is a medicinal agent with multiple properties including an antibacterial effect. Moreover the constituents of aloe vera leaves include lignin, hemicellulose, and pectins which can be used in the reduction of silver ions to produce as AgNPs@aloe vera (AgNPs@AV with antibacterial activity. Methods AgNPs were prepared by an eco-friendly hydrothermal method using an aloe vera plant extract solution as both a reducing and stabilizing agent. AgNPs@AV were characterized using XRD and SEM. Additionally, an agar well diffusion method was used to screen for antimicrobial activity. MIC and MBC were used to correlate the concentration of AgNPs@AV its bactericidal effect. SEM was used to investigate bacterial inactivation. Then the toxicity with human cells was investigated using an MTT assay. Results The synthesized AgNPs were crystalline with sizes of 70.70 ± 22-192.02 ± 53 nm as revealed using XRD and SEM. The sizes of AgNPs can be varied through alteration of times and temperatures used in their synthesis. These AgNPs were investigated for potential use as an antibacterial agent to inhibit pathogenic bacteria. Their antibacterial activity was tested on S. epidermidis and P. aeruginosa. The results showed that AgNPs had a high antibacterial which depended on their synthesis conditions, particularly when processed at 100 oC for 6 h and 200 oC for 12 h. The cytotoxicity of AgNPs was determined using human PBMCs revealing no obvious cytotoxicity. These results indicated that AgNPs@AV can be effectively

  10. Methods for systematic reviews of health economic evaluations: a systematic review, comparison, and synthesis of method literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Tim; Walgenbach, Maren; Antoine, Sunya-Lee; Pieper, Dawid; Eikermann, Michaela

    2014-10-01

    The quality of systematic reviews of health economic evaluations (SR-HE) is often limited because of methodological shortcomings. One reason for this poor quality is that there are no established standards for the preparation of SR-HE. The objective of this study is to compare existing methods and suggest best practices for the preparation of SR-HE. To identify the relevant methodological literature on SR-HE, a systematic literature search was performed in Embase, Medline, the National Health System Economic Evaluation Database, the Health Technology Assessment Database, and the Cochrane methodology register, and webpages of international health technology assessment agencies were searched. The study selection was performed independently by 2 reviewers. Data were extracted by one reviewer and verified by a second reviewer. On the basis of the overlaps in the recommendations for the methods of SR-HE in the included papers, suggestions for best practices for the preparation of SR-HE were developed. Nineteen relevant publications were identified. The recommendations within them often differed. However, for most process steps there was some overlap between recommendations for the methods of preparation. The overlaps were taken as basis on which to develop suggestions for the following process steps of preparation: defining the research question, developing eligibility criteria, conducting a literature search, selecting studies, assessing the methodological study quality, assessing transferability, and synthesizing data. The differences in the proposed recommendations are not always explainable by the focus on certain evaluation types, target audiences, or integration in the decision process. Currently, there seem to be no standard methods for the preparation of SR-HE. The suggestions presented here can contribute to the harmonization of methods for the preparation of SR-HE. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Mathematical synthesis of the thickness profile of the waveguide Lüneburg lens using the adiabatic waveguide modes method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayryan, Edik; Dashitsyrenov, Genin; Laneev, Evgeniy; Lovetskiy, Konstantin; Sevastianov, Leonid; Sevastianov, Anton

    2017-04-01

    The paper describes the classical and generalized Luneburg lens in the 3D and planar waveguide implementation. We demonstrate the relation between the focusing inhomogeneity of the effective refractive index of waveguide Luneburg lens and the irregularity of the waveguide layer thickness generating this inhomogeneity. For the dispersion relation of the irregular thin-film waveguide in the model of adiabatic waveguide modes we solve the problem of mathematical synthesis and computer-aided design of the thickness profile of waveguide layer for the Luneburg thin-film generalized waveguide lens with a given focal length. The calculations are carried out in specially normalized coordinates convenient for computer calculations. The solution is compared with the one obtained using the cross-sections method.

  12. Synthesis of nanostructured LiTi2(PO4)3 powder by a Pechini-type polymerizable complex method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariappan, C.R.; Galven, C.; Crosnier-Lopez, M.-P.; Le Berre, F.; Bohnke, O.

    2006-01-01

    The nanostructured NASICON-type LiTi 2 (PO 4 ) 3 (LTP) material has been synthesized by Pechini-type polymerizable complex method. The use of water-soluble ammonium citratoperoxotitanate (IV) metal complex instead of alkoxides as precursor allows to prepare monophase material. Thermal analyses have been carried out on the powder precursor to check the weight loss and synthesis temperature. X-ray powder diffraction analysis (XRD) has been performed on the LTP powder obtained after heating the powder precursor over a temperature range from 550 to 1050 deg. C for 2 h. By varying the molar ratio of citric acid to metal ion (CA/Ti) and citric acid to ethylene glycol (CA/EG), the grain size of the LTP powder could be modified. The formation of small and well-crystalline grains, in the order of 50-125 nm in size, has been determined from the XRD patterns and confirmed by transmission electron microscopy

  13. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles in aloe vera plant extract prepared by a hydrothermal method and their synergistic antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippayawat, Patcharaporn; Phromviyo, Nutthakritta; Boueroy, Parichart; Chompoosor, Apiwat

    2016-01-01

    There is worldwide interest in silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized by various chemical reactions for use in applications exploiting their antibacterial activity, even though these processes exhibit a broad range of toxicity in vertebrates and invertebrates alike. To avoid the chemical toxicity, biosynthesis (green synthesis) of metal nanoparticles is proposed as a cost-effective and environmental friendly alternative. Aloe vera leaf extract is a medicinal agent with multiple properties including an antibacterial effect. Moreover the constituents of aloe vera leaves include lignin, hemicellulose, and pectins which can be used in the reduction of silver ions to produce as AgNPs@aloe vera (AgNPs@AV) with antibacterial activity. AgNPs were prepared by an eco-friendly hydrothermal method using an aloe vera plant extract solution as both a reducing and stabilizing agent. AgNPs@AV were characterized using XRD and SEM. Additionally, an agar well diffusion method was used to screen for antimicrobial activity. MIC and MBC were used to correlate the concentration of AgNPs@AV its bactericidal effect. SEM was used to investigate bacterial inactivation. Then the toxicity with human cells was investigated using an MTT assay. The synthesized AgNPs were crystalline with sizes of 70.70 ± 22-192.02 ± 53 nm as revealed using XRD and SEM. The sizes of AgNPs can be varied through alteration of times and temperatures used in their synthesis. These AgNPs were investigated for potential use as an antibacterial agent to inhibit pathogenic bacteria. Their antibacterial activity was tested on S. epidermidis and P. aeruginosa . The results showed that AgNPs had a high antibacterial which depended on their synthesis conditions, particularly when processed at 100 o C for 6 h and 200 o C for 12 h. The cytotoxicity of AgNPs was determined using human PBMCs revealing no obvious cytotoxicity. These results indicated that AgNPs@AV can be effectively utilized in pharmaceutical, biotechnological

  14. Synthesis Methods, Microscopy Characterization and Device Integration of Nanoscale Metal Oxide Semiconductors for Gas Sensing in Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderWal, Randy L.; Berger, Gordon M.; Kulis, Michael J.; Hunter, Gary W.; Xu, Jennifer C.; Evans, Laura J.

    2009-01-01

    A comparison is made between SnO2, ZnO, and TiO2 single-crystal nanowires and SnO2 polycrystalline nanofibers for gas sensing. Both nanostructures possess a one-dimensional morphology. Different synthesis methods are used to produce these materials: thermal evaporation-condensation (TEC), controlled oxidation, and electrospinning. Advantages and limitations of each technique are listed. Practical issues associated with harvesting, purification, and integration of these materials into sensing devices are detailed. For comparison to the nascent form, these sensing materials are surface coated with Pd and Pt nanoparticles. Gas sensing tests, with respect to H2, are conducted at ambient and elevated temperatures. Comparative normalized responses and time constants for the catalyst and noncatalyst systems provide a basis for identification of the superior metal-oxide nanostructure and catalyst combination. With temperature-dependent data, Arrhenius analyses are made to determine an activation energy for the catalyst-assisted systems.

  15. Synthesis of FeNi Alloy Nanomaterials by Proteic Sol-Gel Method: Crystallographic, Morphological, and Magnetic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássio Morilla dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteic Sol-Gel method was used for the synthesis of FeNi alloy at different temperature conditions and flow reduction. The solids were characterized by XRD, H2-TPR, SEM, TEM, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and VSM. It was observed by X-ray diffraction pure FeNi alloy in the samples reduced at 600°C (40 mL/min H2 flow and 700°C (25 mL/min H2 flow. The FeNi alloy presented stability against the oxidizing atmosphere up to 250°C. The morphology exhibited agglomerates relatively spherical and particles in the range of 10–40 nm. Mössbauer spectroscopy showed the presence of disordered ferromagnetic FeNi alloy, and magnetic hysteresis loop revealed a typical behavior of soft magnetic material.

  16. Synthesis and structure of Ag-Si nanoparticles obtained by the electron-beam evaporation/condensation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomoev, A. V.; Bardakhanov, S. P.

    2012-04-01

    Metal-semiconductor composite Ag-Si nanostructures, including Ag/Si core-shell nanoparticles, have been synthesized for the first time by a high-efficiency evaporation/condensation method using relativistic electron beam. In the Ag/Si core-shell nanoparticles, the core is crystalline, while the shell consists of amorphous silicon. It is found that the synthesis of these particles requires taking into account the difference in the saturated vapor pressures of evaporated components. The dependences of the particle size on the electron beam power at the evaporation stage and the pressure of argon at the condensation stage have been studied. It is established that (i) the main process of Ag/Si nanoparticle formation is coagulation and (ii) the Si shell formation decreases the size of particles.

  17. Simple Laboratory methods to measure cell proliferation using DNA synthesis property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavan H N

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a mini-review on the techniques to measure proliferation of cells by estimation of DNA synthesis. This is not an exhaustive review of literature, but a bird’s eye view of a few selected articles which may provide the technical details to the readers.The nucleus of a cell occupies about 10-30% of the cells space, depends on the type of genetic material (DNA -DeoxyriboNucleic Acid. DNA is a long, double-stranded, helical molecule which carries the genetic information. Duplication of the DNA takes place by the phenomena of replication. One copy of double-stranded DNA molecule forms two double-stranded DNA molecules. DNA replication is the fundamental process used in all living organisms as it is the basis for biological inheritance. This process is known also as Mitosis in somatic cells. In Mitosis, the duplication process results in two genetically identical "daughter" cells from a single "parent" cell. The resulting double-stranded DNA molecules are identical; proof reading and error-checking mechanisms exist to ensure near perfect pair. Mitosis is divided into six phases: prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, and cytokinesis.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of the aluminium phosphates modified with ammonium, calcium and molybdenum by hydrothermal method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łuczka Kinga

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis and characterization of the aluminum phosphates modified with ammonium, calcium and molybdenum were conducted. The influence of process parameters (reactive pressure and molar ratios in the reaction mixture were studied. The contents of the individual components in the products were in the range of: 10.97–17.31 wt% Al, 2.65–13.32 wt% Ca, 0.70–3.11 wt% Mo, 4.36–8.38 wt% NH3, and 35.12–50.54 wt% P2O5. The materials obtained in the experiments were characterized by various physicochemical parameters. The absorption oil number was in the range from 67 to 89 of oil/100 g of product, the surface area was within the range of 4–76 m2/g, whereas the average particle size of products reached 282–370 nm. The Tafel tests revealed comparable anticorrosive properties of aluminum phosphates modified with ammonium, calcium, molybdenum in comparison with commercial phosphate.

  19. A Facile Solvothermal Method for Synthesis of CuInS2 Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mousavi-Kamazani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available CuInS2 nanostructures were  synthesized  via  a  simple  surfactant-free solvothermal  route.  In  this  synthesis,  thiosemicarbazide  and thioglycolic acid were used as sulfur sources. The effects of different parameters such as type of precursor and time on the morphology and particle  size  of  the  samples  have  been  investigated.  The nanostructures  were  characterized  by  means  of  X-ray  diffraction (XRD,  scanning  electron microscopy  (SEM,  energy-dispersive X- ray  analysis  (EDX,  Fourier  transform  infrared  (FT-IR  and photoluminescence  (PL  spectroscopy.  The  fill  factor  (FF,  open circuit voltage  (Voc, and  short circuit current  (Isc were obtained by I–V characterization.

  20. Synthesis of Numerical Methods for Modeling Wave Energy Converter-Point Absorbers: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y.; Yu, Y. H.

    2012-05-01

    During the past few decades, wave energy has received significant attention among all ocean energy formats. Industry has proposed hundreds of prototypes such as an oscillating water column, a point absorber, an overtopping system, and a bottom-hinged system. In particular, many researchers have focused on modeling the floating-point absorber as the technology to extract wave energy. Several modeling methods have been used such as the analytical method, the boundary-integral equation method, the Navier-Stokes equations method, and the empirical method. However, no standardized method has been decided. To assist the development of wave energy conversion technologies, this report reviews the methods for modeling the floating-point absorber.

  1. A simple synthesis method of sulfur-free Fe-N-C catalyst witih high ORR activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Zhongfen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Johnston, Christina M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zelenay, Piotr [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    To try to deconvolute which factors affect the activity and durability of metal-nitrogen-carbon (M-N-C) type non-precious catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), M-N-C catalysts based on ion chloride, polyaniline (PANI) and Ketjen Black carbon support were synthesized using different synthetic conditions. The catalysts were characterized electrochemically and tested as cathodes for Hydrogen fuel cells. PANI is usually chemically oxidative polymerized using ammonium persulfate (APS) as oxidant. To eliminate sulfur in the synthesized catalysts, a simple synthesis method using ion chloride as oxidant for aniline polymerization was developed. Two different aniline polymerization conditions led to very different product morphologies. Synthesized at low initial proton concentration, the final product was composed of dense micrometer sized particles. A decomposable salt was found to be able to prohibit PANI cross linking during the drying and annealing process and thus led to porous product. The porous catalyst has much higher ORR activity than the dense product due to more accessible active sites. Synthesized at high proton concentration, the catalyst appeared to be porous. The decomposable salt treatment did not make too much improvement in the porous structure and electrochemical activity. However, fuel cell testing using air as cathode feeder indicates that the salt treatment improves mass transfer in the cathode layer. Catalyst synthesized using this simple method has performance comparable to our state-of-the art catalyst synthesized in a much more complicated procedure. The factor that sulfur sources are completely eliminated in the synthesis suggests that sulfur is not necessary for the ORR catalysis activity.

  2. Virtual interface substructure synthesis method for normal mode analysis of super-large molecular complexes at atomic resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuehui; Sun, Yunxiang; An, Xiongbo; Ming, Dengming

    2011-10-14

    Normal mode analysis of large biomolecular complexes at atomic resolution remains challenging in computational structure biology due to the requirement of large amount of memory space and central processing unit time. In this paper, we present a method called virtual interface substructure synthesis method or VISSM to calculate approximate normal modes of large biomolecular complexes at atomic resolution. VISSM introduces the subunit interfaces as independent substructures that join contacting molecules so as to keep the integrity of the system. Compared with other approximate methods, VISSM delivers atomic modes with no need of a coarse-graining-then-projection procedure. The method was examined for 54 protein-complexes with the conventional all-atom normal mode analysis using CHARMM simulation program and the overlap of the first 100 low-frequency modes is greater than 0.7 for 49 complexes, indicating its accuracy and reliability. We then applied VISSM to the satellite panicum mosaic virus (SPMV, 78,300 atoms) and to F-actin filament structures of up to 39-mer, 228,813 atoms and found that VISSM calculations capture functionally important conformational changes accessible to these structures at atomic resolution. Our results support the idea that the dynamics of a large biomolecular complex might be understood based on the motions of its component subunits and the way in which subunits bind one another. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  3. Development and Validation of a UHPLC UV Method for the In-Process Control of Bosentan Monohydrate Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatczak, Marta; Sidoryk, Katarzyna; Kossykowska, Magdalena; Łuniewski, Wojciech; Zagrodzka, Joanna; Lipiec-Abramska, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    Bosentan monohydrate (4- tert -butyl- N -[6-(2-hydroxyethoxy)-5-(2-methoxyphenoxy)-2-(pyrimidin-2-yl) pyrimidin-4-yl]benzene-1-sulfonamide monohydrate) is a dual endothelin receptor antagonist (ERA) applied in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. To achieve effective process control of the bosentan monohydrate synthesis, it was necessary to develop a selective and not highly time-consuming method for ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). The method is characterized by adequate sensitivity, reproducibility and selectivity for the determination of bosentan monohydrate and related compounds from all synthetic stages. The UHPLC separation was carried out by reversed phase chromatography on the Acquity BEH C18 column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.7 µm) with a mobile phase composed of solvent A (0.1 %, v/v, acetic acid in water) and solvent B (methanol), in the gradient mode at the flow rate of 0.4 mL min -1 . Limits of detection and quantification for the compounds were ≤0.1 µg mL -1 and 0.3 µg mL -1 , respectively. The linearity for all related compounds was investigated as in the range for the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and as in the range for the in-process control. The developed method was validated according to the current guidelines, proving the suitability of the method for its intended purpose.

  4. Synthesis of cerium oxide (CeO2) with high surface area through microwave assisted hydrothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.J.C. de; Neiva, L.S.; Gama, L.; Oliveira, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research is synthesize nanoparticles with high surface area of Ceria (CeO 2 ) catalyst by a microwave hydrothermal method. For that it was used a 5% concentration in weight of [Ce(NO 3 ) 3. 6H 2 O] and 10 mL of [NaOH (5M)] under processing conditions in the equipment: maximum temperature of 150 deg C for 60 min with heating rate of 15 C /min. The resulting sample was characterized by XRD, SEM and BET method. It was observed that the Ceria particles are presented spatially in cubic structure, with crystallite size of 10 nm and surface area of 112 m²/g. Through the pore size distribution it was possible to observe that these were in mesoporous size, ranging from 3 to 30 nm. The possibility of obtaining catalysts with nanometer scale and high surface area by beans of microwave hydrothermal method, which involves low energy (low temperatures) and short synthesis time, makes this method very interesting and promising. (author)

  5. Synthesis and characterization of nanosized MgxMn1-xFe2O4 ferrites by both sol-gel and thermal decomposition methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-León-Prado, Laura Elena; Cortés-Hernández, Dora Alicia; Almanza-Robles, José Manuel; Escobedo-Bocardo, José Concepción; Sánchez, Javier; Reyes-Rdz, Pamela Yajaira; Jasso-Terán, Rosario Argentina; Hurtado-López, Gilberto Francisco

    2017-04-01

    This work reports the synthesis of MgxMn1-xFe2O4 (x=0-1) nanoparticles by both sol-gel and thermal decomposition methods. In order to determine the effect of synthesis conditions on the crystal structure and magnetic properties of the ferrites, the synthesis was carried out varying some parameters, including composition. By both methods it was possible to obtain ferrites having a single crystalline phase with cubic inverse spinel structure and a behavior near to that of superparamagnetic materials. Saturation magnetization values were higher for materials synthesized by sol-gel. Furthermore, in both cases particles have a spherical-like morphology and nanometric sizes (11-15 nm). Therefore, these materials can be used as thermoseeds for the treatment of cancer by magnetic hyperthermia.

  6. Effect of the synthesis method on the microstructure, morphology and electrochemical characteristics of α-Fe2O3 anodes for Lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzunov, I.; Klissurski, D.; Uzunova, S.; Aleksandrova, A.

    2009-01-01

    Effect of the synthesis method and temperature on some structural characteristics and electrochemical behaviour was investigated for samples of α-Fe 2 O 3 prepared from different precursors. The phase composition, morphology and crystallinity of the obtained materials were determined by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The electrochemical behaviour of the synthesized samples was studied within voltage range 0.01-2.5V and various current densities. The electrochemical behaviour of the obtained active anode materials was found to depend mostly on the ratio between mean particle size (MPS) and mean coherent domain size (MCDS). It was found that the ratio depends on the synthesis method and calcination temperature. By optimization of the synthesis processes α-Fe 2 O 3 was prepared with optimal microstructure and particle size, a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries. (authors)

  7. Synthesis of carbon nanotubes by CVD method using iron and molybdenum-based catalysts supported on ceramic matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, Ana Paula de Carvalho

    2010-01-01

    Molybdenum is known for its synergistic effect in the synthesis of carbon nanotubes (CNs) by chemical vapor deposition (CVD method). When added to typical catalysts like iron, nickel, and cobalt, even in small quantities, it is increases the yield of these nanostructures. The presence of Mo also has an influence on the type and number of CN walls formed. Although this effect is widely documented in the literature, there is not yet a consensus about the mechanism of action of molybdenum in catalytic systems. The objective of the present work is to study the influence of molybdenum on the catalytic activity of iron nanoparticle-based catalysts supported on magnesium oxide (Fe/MgO system) in the synthesis of carbon nanotubes by the CVD method. The Mo concentration was systematically varied from null to molar ratio values four times greater than the quantity of Fe, and the obtained material (catalysts and carbon nanotubes) were broadly characterized by different techniques. In order to also study the influence of the preparation method on the final composition of the catalytic system phases, the catalytic systems (Fe/MgO e FeMo x /MgO) were synthesized by two different methods: co-precipitation and impregnation. The greatest CN yields were observed for the catalysts prepared by coprecipitation. The difference was attributed to better dispersion of the Fe and Mo phases in the catalyst ceramic matrix. In the precipitation stage, it was observed the formation of layered double hydroxides whose concentration increased with the Mo content up to the ratio of Mo/Fe equal to 0.2. This phase is related to a better distribution of Fe and Mo in this concentration range. Another important characteristic observed is that the ceramic matrix is not inert. It can react both with Fe and Mo and form the iron solid solution in the magnesium oxide and the phases magnesium-ferrite (MgFe 2 0 4 ) and magnesium molybdate (MgMo0 4 ). The MgFe 2 0 4 phase is observed in all catalytic systems

  8. New Method Development to Streamline the Synthesis of N-Heterocycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Navendu

    Nitrogen-heterocycles are an important class of molecules because of its widespread availability in pharmaceuticals, natural products and organic electronic materials. Significant research efforts have been made to construct complex N-heterocycles starting from simple organic molecules. The research program in the Driver lab is focused on exploiting the reactivity of metal N-arylnitrene intermediates to create heterocycles. Our group has successfully used aryl azides as a nitrogen-atom source to create C-N bonds from sp3-C-H bonds or sp2-C-H bonds. The construction of C-N bonds through domino electrocyclization-migration reactions were discussed in the first chapter. In the second chapter the reactivity of styryl azides was investigated to perform an electrocyclization, selective aminomethylene migration reaction. An efficient synthesis of styryl azides was described in the third chapter and use of these styryl azides were demonstrated by converting them into indole derivatives. In the fourth chapter, the reactivity of metal nitrene intermediates toward C-H bond amination or electrocyclization reactions were examined in order to derive a general trend of reactivity of aryl azides. In the following chapters, we demonstrated that a similar reactivity pattern of aryl azides could also be accessed from nitroarenes. In chapter five, we demonstrated that the reactivity of tetrasubstituted nitroarenes toward a cyclization-migration reaction could be unlocked by a palladium(II)-catalyst and Mo(CO)6. In the final chapter, we showed the potential of nitroarenes to undergo a sp3-C-N bond formation by reductive cyclization reaction to afford indolines.

  9. Synthesis of high saturation magnetic iron oxide nanomaterials via low temperature hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhavani, P.; Rajababu, C.H. [Department of Materials Science & Nanotechnology, Yogivemana University, Vemanapuram 516003, Kadapa (India); Arif, M.D. [Environmental Magnetism Laboratory, Indian Institute of Geomagnetism (IIG), Navi Mumbai 410218, Mumbai (India); Reddy, I. Venkata Subba [Department of Physics, Gitam University, Hyderabad Campus, Rudraram, Medak 502329 (India); Reddy, N. Ramamanohar, E-mail: manoharphd@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science & Nanotechnology, Yogivemana University, Vemanapuram 516003, Kadapa (India)

    2017-03-15

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) were synthesized through a simple low temperature hydrothermal approach to obtain with high saturation magnetization properties. Two series of iron precursors (sulfates and chlorides) were used in synthesis process by varying the reaction temperature at a constant pH. The X-ray diffraction pattern indicates the inverse spinel structure of the synthesized IONPs. The Field emission scanning electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy studies revealed that the particles prepared using iron sulfate were consisting a mixer of spherical (16–40 nm) and rod (diameter ~20–25 nm, length <100 nm) morphologies that synthesized at 130 °C, while the IONPs synthesized by iron chlorides are found to be well distributed spherical shapes with size range 5–20 nm. On other hand, the IONPs synthesized at reaction temperature of 190 °C has spherical (16–46 nm) morphology in both series. The band gap values of IONPs were calculated from the obtained optical absorption spectra of the samples. The IONPs synthesized using iron sulfate at temperature of 130 °C exhibited high saturation magnetization (M{sub S}) of 103.017 emu/g and low remanant magnetization (M{sub r}) of 0.22 emu/g with coercivity (H{sub c}) of 70.9 Oe{sub ,} which may be attributed to the smaller magnetic domains (d{sub m}) and dead magnetic layer thickness (t). - Highlights: • Comparison of iron oxide materials prepared with Fe{sup +2}/Fe{sup +3} sulfates and chlorides at different temperatures. • We prepared super-paramagnetic and soft ferromagnetic magnetite nanoparticles. • We report higher saturation magnetization with lower coercivity.

  10. Applying Taguchi method for optimization of the synthesis condition of nano-porous alumina membrane by slip casting method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barmala, Molood [Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moheb, Ahmad, E-mail: ahmad@cc.iut.ac.i [Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Emadi, Rahmatollah [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-10-19

    In this work thin disc type pure alumina membranes have been prepared by slip casting technique. The colloidal stabilization of micro-sized alumina suspensions with different amount of 1,2-dihydroxy-3,5-benzenedisulfonic acid disodium salt (Tiron) at various suspension concentration were examined and the suspension stability was characterized by measuring sedimentation height. Also the necessary ball milling time (used as a deflocculating process) to prepare defect free membranes was investigated. A statistical experimental design method (Taguchi method with L9 orthogonal array design) was implemented to optimize experimental conditions for the preparation of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nano-porous membrane. Sintering temperature, solid content and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) content were recognized and selected as important effecting parameters. Also structural studies by means of isopropanol adsorption and scanning electron microscopy were carried out on membranes. As the result of Taguchi analysis in this study, sintering temperature was the most influencing parameter on the membrane porosity. Reasonable membrane characteristics were obtained at an optimum temperature of 1400 deg. C, 20% solid content and 20 cc PVA solution per 100 g of alumina powder.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of Gold and Silver nano-particles using different leaf extracts namely Catharanthus roseus, Datura metel and Azadirachta indica and Estimation of antimicrobial activity of silver nano-particles using disc diffusion method

    OpenAIRE

    Sarbjeet Singh Gujral

    2014-01-01

    Objective: synthesis of gold and silver nano-particles using leaf extracts of Catharanthus roseus, Datura metel and Azadirachta indica and Estimation of antimicrobial activity of silver nano-particles using disc diffusion method. Method: Green approach has been utilized for the synthesis of gold and silver nano-particles. Different aqueous plant extracts has been prepared which was then utilized for the biosynthesis of gold and silver nano-particles. Estimation for the synthesis of nano-parti...

  12. Synthesis of nanocrystalline TiO2 by tartarate gel method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    ... on the formation of TiO2 nano- crystallites with well-defined crystalline morphology. Nano- crystalline anatase is generally synthesized as hydrothermal methods and sol–gel methods using titanium alkoxides. (Dhage et al 2003). Vapour phase decomposition of tita- nium alkoxide or TiCl4 in an oxygen atmosphere at.

  13. A novel method for massive synthesis of SnO2 nanowires

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 36; Issue 6 ... This paper reports a simple, inexpensive and fast method to prepare SnO2 nanowires. ... These SnO2 nanowires do not grow in one direction as those synthesized by other methods do, and are perfect single crystals without any dislocation or point defects ...

  14. Synthesis of Nanocrystalline MgO Particles by Combustion Followed by Annealing Method Using Hexamine as a Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Balamurugan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, nanocrystalline MgO particles were prepared through combustion method using magnesium nitrate as oxidizer and hexamine as a fuel. The materials obtained by combustion method were subsequently annealed at 800°C for 3 h to improve the crystallinity and phase purity. The obtained MgO nanomaterials were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD, infrared (IR spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL, near-infrared (NIR spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The cubic crystal structure with lattice parameter, a = 0.4210(4 nm with average crystalline size of 22 nm, is obtained for the nano-MgO particles. The PL emission spectrum of nanocrystalline MgO materials exhibits three emission peaks at 432, 465, and 495 nm which are due to various structural defects. The SEM results expose the fact that the MgO nanomaterials are seemingly porous and highly agglomerated with fine particles. Owing to the higher reflectance of prepared nanocrystalline MgO, it can be used as NIR reflective pigments. The present results prove that the combustion technique using hexamine can produce the materials with high crystallinity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the synthesis of nanocrystalline MgO materials by combustion method using hexamine as a fuel.

  15. Synthesis of nanocrystalline cobalt ferrite through soft chemistry methods: A green chemistry approach using sesame seed extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gingasu, Dana [Ilie Murgulescu Institute of Physical Chemistry, Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021, Bucharest (Romania); Mindru, Ioana, E-mail: imandru@yahoo.com [Ilie Murgulescu Institute of Physical Chemistry, Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021, Bucharest (Romania); Mocioiu, Oana Catalina; Preda, Silviu; Stanica, Nicolae; Patron, Luminita [Ilie Murgulescu Institute of Physical Chemistry, Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021, Bucharest (Romania); Ianculescu, Adelina; Oprea, Ovidiu [Politehnica University of Bucharest, Faculty of Chemistry, 1-7 Polizu Street, 011061, Bucharest (Romania); Nita, Sultana; Paraschiv, Ileana [National Institute for Chemical Pharmaceutical Research and Development, 112 Calea Vitan, 031299, Bucharest (Romania); Popa, Marcela; Saviuc, Crina [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Biology, Microbiology Department, Research Institute of the University of Bucharest-ICUB, Life, Environmental and Earth Sciences Division, 91-95 Splaiul Independentei, Bucharest (Romania); Bleotu, Coralia [Stefan S. Nicolau Institute of Virology, Cellular and Molecular Pathology Department, 285 Mihai Bravu Avenue, Bucharest (Romania); Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Biology, Microbiology Department, Research Institute of the University of Bucharest-ICUB, Life, Environmental and Earth Sciences Division, 91-95 Splaiul Independentei, Bucharest (Romania)

    2016-10-01

    The nanocrystalline cobalt ferrites (CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) were obtained through self-combustion and wet ferritization methods using aqueous extracts of sesame (Sesamum indicum L) seeds. The multimetallic complex compounds were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-VIS spectroscopy and thermal analysis. Phase identification, morphological evolution and magnetic properties of the obtained cobalt ferrites were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), FTIR and magnetic measurements. FE-SEM investigations revealed the particle size of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} obtained by wet ferritization method ranged between 3 and 20.45 nm. Their antimicrobial, anti-biofilm and cytotoxic properties were evaluated. - Highlights: • CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} were obtained by two chemical synthesis methods. • Sesame seed extract was used as gelling or chelating agent. • The morphological features of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were evaluated. • CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} exhibited good microbicidal and anti-biofilm features.

  16. Synthesis of LiCoO2 Nanoparticles by a Sonochemical Method under the Multibubble Sonoluminescence Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Pil; Park, Jea Young; Hwang, Cha Hwan; Choi, Myung Ho; Kim, Jee Eon; Ok, Kang Min; Shim, Il Wun

    2010-01-01

    LiCoO 2 , a cathode material for lithium rechargeable batteries, was prepared in a nanoscale through a simple sonochemistry. First, Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles were prepared by reacting NaOH and CoCl 2 or CoSO 4 with a sonochemical method, operated at 20 kHz and 220 W for 20 min, very powerful multibubble sonoluminescence conditions for chemical reactions. Second, LiOH was coated onto the Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles by the same method as above. Finally, LiCoO 2 nanoparticles of about 10 ∼ 30 nm size in diameter were obtained by the thermal treatment of the resulting LiOH- coated Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles at 500 .deg. C for 3 hr. This synthetic process is relatively quite mild and simple compared to the known method for the synthesis of LiCoO 2 nanoparticles. The materials synthesized were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, inductively coupled plasma spectrometer, and high resolution-transmission electron microscopy analyses

  17. Synthesis of large scale graphene oxide using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method and its application in humidity sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yang; Chen, Yuming, E-mail: yumingchen@fudan.edu.cn [Institute for Electric Light Sources, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); Engineering Research Center of Advanced Lighting Technology, Ministry of Education, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 00433 (China)

    2016-03-14

    Large scale graphene oxide (GO) is directly synthesized on copper (Cu) foil by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method under 500 °C and even lower temperature. Compared to the modified Hummer's method, the obtained GO sheet in this article is large, and it is scalable according to the Cu foil size. The oxygen-contained groups in the GO are introduced through the residual gas of methane (99.9% purity). To prevent the Cu surface from the bombardment of the ions in the plasma, we use low intensity discharge. Our experiment reveals that growth temperature has important influence on the carbon to oxygen ratio (C/O ratio) in the GO; and it also affects the amount of π-π* bonds between carbon atoms. Preliminary experiments on a 6 mm × 12 mm GO based humidity sensor prove that the synthesized GO reacts well to the humidity change. Our GO synthesis method may provide another channel for obtaining large scale GO in gas sensing or other applications.

  18. Reduction of system matrices of planar beam in ANCF by component mode synthesis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Nobuyuki; Wago, Tsubasa; Sugawara, Yoshiki

    2011-01-01

    A method of reducing the system matrices of a planar flexible beam described by an absolute nodal coordinate formulation (ANCF) is presented. In this method, we focus that the bending stiffness matrix expressed by adopting a continuum mechanics approach to the ANCF beam element is constant when the axial strain is not very large. This feature allows to apply the Craig–Bampton method to the equation of motion that is composed of the independent coordinates when the constraint forces are eliminated. Four numerical examples that compare the proposed method and the conventional ANCF are demonstrated to verify the performance and accuracy of the proposed method. From these examples, it is verified that the proposed method can describe the large deformation effects such as dynamic stiffening due to the centrifugal force, as well as the conventional ANCF does. The use of this method also reduces the computing time, while maintaining an acceptable degree of accuracy for the expression characteristics of the conventional ANCF when the modal truncation number is adequately employed. This reduction in CPU time particularly pronounced in the case of a large element number and small modal truncation number; the reduction can be verified not only in the case of small deformation but also in the case of a fair bit large deformation.

  19. Synthesis method for ultrananocrystalline diamond in powder employing a coaxial arc plasma gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naragino, Hiroshi; Tominaga, Aki; Hanada, Kenji; Yoshitake, Tsuyoshi

    2015-07-01

    A new method that enables us to synthesize ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) in powder is proposed. Highly energetic carbon species ejected from a graphite cathode of a coaxial arc plasma gun were provided on a quartz plate at a high density by repeated arc discharge in a compact vacuum chamber, and resultant films automatically peeled from the plate were aggregated and powdered. The grain size was easily controlled from 2.4 to 15.0 nm by changing the arc discharge energy. It was experimentally demonstrated that the proposed method is a new and promising method that enables us to synthesize UNCD in powder easily and controllably.

  20. Synthesis strategy: building a culturally sensitive mid-range theory of risk perception using literary, quantitative, and qualitative methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siaki, Leilani A; Loescher, Lois J; Trego, Lori L

    2013-03-01

    This article presents a discussion of development of a mid-range theory of risk perception. Unhealthy behaviours contribute to the development of health inequalities worldwide. The link between perceived risk and successful health behaviour change is inconclusive, particularly in vulnerable populations. This may be attributed to inattention to culture. The synthesis strategy of theory building guided the process using three methods: (1) a systematic review of literature published between 2000-2011 targeting perceived risk in vulnerable populations; (2) qualitative and (3) quantitative data from a study of Samoan Pacific Islanders at high risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Main concepts of this theory include risk attention, appraisal processes, cognition, and affect. Overarching these concepts is health-world view: cultural ways of knowing, beliefs, values, images, and ideas. This theory proposes the following: (1) risk attention varies based on knowledge of the health risk in the context of health-world views; (2) risk appraisals are influenced by affect, health-world views, cultural customs, and protocols that intersect with the health risk; (3) strength of cultural beliefs, values, and images (cultural identity) mediate risk attention and risk appraisal influencing the likelihood that persons will engage in health-promoting behaviours that may contradict cultural customs/protocols. Interventions guided by a culturally sensitive mid-range theory may improve behaviour-related health inequalities in vulnerable populations. The synthesis strategy is an intensive process for developing a culturally sensitive mid-range theory. Testing of the theory will ascertain its usefulness for reducing health inequalities in vulnerable groups. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Ex-Situ Synthesis of Polyvinyl alcohol(PVA)-coated Fe3O4 Nanoparticles by Coprecipitation-Ultrasonication Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva’i, Imam; Oktavia Wulandari, Ika; Sulistyarti, Hermin; Sabarudin, Akhmad

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the synthesis of Fe3O4 nanoparticles was done with surface modification using PVA with coprecipitation-ultrasonication method. Time variations and PVA concentrations were added to determine the effect on crystallite size and lattice parameters on the synthesis of Fe3O4-PVA nanoparticles. Fe3O4 characterization was done using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) instruments. FTIR was employed to determine PVA coating on the surface of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The crystallite size and lattice parameters were analyzed using XRD. From the FTIR data, it is known that the interaction between PVA and Fe3O4 nanoparticles is characterized by Fe-O-C group at 1100 cm-1 region which is characteristic of Fe3O4-PVA nanoparticles, C-H groups of PVA in the range of 2950 cm-1 wave number, C-C of PVA regions of wave number 1405 cm-1, Fe3O4 and Fe3O4-PVA samples are in the range of 565 cm-1. In addition, the variation of ultrasonication time and the addition of PVA concentration have an effect on the crystallite size change and the lattice parameter observed from the XRD data. The use of ultrasonication time will affect the size of the crystallite become smaller and the grating lattice parameters obtained are wider. The effect of addition of PVA showed that higher concentration of PVA resulted in smaller crystallite size and larger lattice parameters. These results indicated that ultrasonication time and addition of PVA concentration greatly affect the characteristics of nanoparticles.

  2. Methods and intermediates for the synthesis of dipyrrin-substituted porphyrinic macrocycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lianhe; Muthukumaran, Kannan; Sreedharan, Prathapan; Lindsey, Jonathan S.

    2010-05-25

    The present invention provides dipyrrin substituted porphyrinic macrocycles, intermediates useful for making the same, and methods of making the same. Such compounds may be used for purposes including the making of molecular memory devices, solar cells and light harvesting arrays.

  3. Synthesis of H2SO4 doped polyaniline film by potentiometric method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    probe method permits measurements of the resis- tivity in the samples having wide variety of shapes, including the resistivity of small volume within bigger semiconductor. The present work deals with the conductivity measurements.

  4. Influence of synthesis experimental parameters on the formation of magnetite nanoparticles prepared by polyol method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Chacón, Jaime; Picasso, Gino; Avilés-Félix, Luis; Jafelicci, Miguel, Jr.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we present a modified polyol method for synthesizing magnetite nanoparticles using iron (III) nitrate, a low toxic and cheap precursor salt. The influence of the precursor salt nature and initial ferric concentration in the average particle size and magnetic properties of the obtained nanoparticles were investigated. Magnetite nanoparticles have received much attention due to the multiple uses in the biomedical field; for these purposes nanoparticles with monodisperse size distribution, superparamagnetic behavior and a combination between small average size and high saturation magnetization are required. The polyol conventional method allows synthesizing water-dispersible magnetite nanoparticles with these features employing iron (III) acetylacetonate as precursor salt. Although the particle sizes of samples synthesized from the conventional polyol method (denoted CM) are larger than those of samples synthesized from the modified method (denoted MM), they display similar saturation magnetization. The differences in the nanoparticles average sizes of samples CM and samples MM were explained though the known nanoparticle formation mechanism.

  5. Effects of synthesis methods of vanadium oxide nanotubes on the inter layer distances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghabozorg, H. R.; Mousavi, R.; Asckari, S.; Aghabozorg, H.

    2007-01-01

    Vanadium oxide nanotubes were synthesized via two methods: (1) Adding a template to vanadium oxide gels, (2) Grinding mixture of a template and vanadium oxide by using a ball mill. Influence of preparation method on structure of vanadium oxide nanotubes has been investigated. Vanadium oxide nanotubes has been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques

  6. One-pot Synthesis and Surface Modification of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles Using Polyvinyl Alcohol by Coprecipitation and Ultrasonication Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, Aditya D.; Wulandari, Ika O.; Hutami Rahayu, L. B.; Riva’i, Imam; Santojo, D. J. Djoko H.; Sabarudin, Akhmad

    2018-01-01

    Among the various substances developed through nanoparticles, iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticle is one of the substances that have been widely used in various fields such as industry, agriculture, biotechnology and biomedicine. The synthesis of Fe3O4 nanoparticle can be carried out by two methods, consist of chemical and mechanical synthesis methods. Coprecipitation is one of the most commonly used methods for chemical synthesis. Fe3O4 compounds are easily oxidized because they are amphoteric. To avoid the continuous oxidation process, chemical modification process should be carried out with the addition of a solution of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). In this study, PVA-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles were synthesized by in-situ coprecipitation and ultrasonication methods through direct mixing (one-pot synthesis) of the iron (II) chloride tetrahydrate (FeCl2.4H2O), iron (III) chloride hexahydrate (FeCl3.6H2O), and PVA under alkaline condition. The effects of addition amount of NH3solution (by adjusting its flow rate using automated syringe pump) and PVA concentration were gently studied. Interaction of PVA with Fe3O4 nanoparticle was identified by infrared spectroscopy whereas lattice parameters and crystallite sizes of the synthesized Fe3O4 nanoparticles and PVA-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles were assessed by X-ray diffraction (XRD).

  7. Synthesis of Black and Red Mercury Sulfide Nano-Powder by Traditional Indian Method for Biomedical Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padhi, Payodhar; Sahoo, G.; Das, K.; Ghosh, Sudipto; Panigrahi, S. C.

    2008-01-01

    The use of metals and minerals in the traditional Indian system of medicine known as aired is very common and is practiced since seventh century B.C. Metals were reduced to calcined powder form for medicinal purpose. For detoxification, a further step of purification of the metals and minerals with different vegetable extracts was practiced. The people of East India were using mercury and its sulfide as medicine. Gradually this secret was leaked to Arabic physicians who used mercury in skin ointment. Subsequently Italian Physicians adopted Arabic prescriptions of mercurial ointments for skin diseases. In the olden days, metals and minerals were impregnated with decoction and juice of vegetables and animal products like milk and fat for purification. These were then reduced to fine particles by milling with a pestle and mortar. It was known by then that the fineness of the powder had a significant influence on the color, texture, and medicinal properties as is cited by Charak. Nagarjun studied in detail the processing of metals and minerals, particularly mercury and the influence of the processing parameters on the medicinal values. Mercury is unique in many aspects. Indian alchemy developed a wide variety a chemical processes for the ostensible transmutation of metals and preparation of elixir of life, in which mercury occupied a prime position .The present investigation attempts to use the traditional methods as prescribed in the ancient texts to prepare mercury sulfide in both red and black form for medicinal use. XRD, SEM and HRTEM investigations of the sulfides obtained shows that the ancient Indians were able to produce nano-sized powders. Possibly this may be taken as the earliest application of the production and use of nano powder. The study proves that even in ancient time the knowledge of nano particle synthesis was prevalent and used to enhance effectiveness of medicines. Further mercury in the free form is not acceptable in medicines. The ancient

  8. Synthesis of Cu-CNTs nanocomposites via double pressing double sintering method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Darabi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, copper (Cu-carbon nanotubes (CNTs nanocomposites were synthesized with different weight percentages of CNTs by double pressing double sintering (DPDS method as well as conventional sintering method. A planetary ball mill was used to disperse CNTs in Cu matrix. The milled powders were first cold pressed to 450 MPa in a uniaxial stainless-steel die with cylindrical compacts (diameter: 12 mm and height: 5 mm. The effect of CNTs content and the DPDS method on the properties of the nanocomposites were investigated. The microstructure and phase analysis of Cu-CNTs nanocomposite samples were studied by FESEM and X-Ray Diffraction. The electrical conductivity of nanocomposites was measured and compared to both sintering methods. Mechanical properties of Cu-CNTs nanocomposites were characterized using bending strength and micro-hardness measurements. Enhancements of about 32% in bending strength, 31.6% in hardness and 19.5% in electrical conductivity of Cu-1 wt.% CNTs nanocomposite synthesized by DPDS method were observed as compared to Cu-1 wt.% CNTs nanocomposites fabricated under the similar condition by a conventional sintering process.

  9. Synthesis of Nanoscale Lithium-Ion Battery Cathode Materials Using a Porous Polymer Precursor Method

    KAUST Repository

    Deshazer, H.D.

    2011-01-01

    Fine particles of metal oxides with carefully controlled compositions can be easily prepared by the thermal decomposition of porous polymers, such as cellulose, into which solutions containing salts of the desired cations have been dissolved. This is a simple and versatile method that can be used to produce a wide variety of materials with a range of particle sizes and carefully controlled chemical compositions. Examples of the use of this method to produce fine particles of LiCoO2 and Li(NiMnCo)1/3O2, which are used in the positive electrodes of lithium-ion batteries, are shown. Experiments have demonstrated that materials made using this method can have electrochemical properties comparable to those typically produced by more elaborate procedures. © 2011 The Electrochemical Society.

  10. Population size estimation of female sex workers in Iran: Synthesis of methods and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Hamid; Karamouzian, Mohammad; Baneshi, Mohammad Reza; Shokoohi, Mostafa; Haghdoost, AliAkbar; McFarland, Willi; Mirzazadeh, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Estimating the number of key populations at risk of HIV is essential for planning, monitoring, and evaluating prevention, care, and treatment programmes. We conducted this study to estimate the number of female sex workers (FSW) in major cities of Iran. We used three population size estimation methods (i.e., wisdom of the crowds, multiplier method, and network scale-up) to calculate the number of FSW in 13 cities in Iran. The wisdom of the crowds and multiplier methods were integrated into a nationwide bio-behavioural surveillance survey in 2015, and the network scale-up method was included in a national survey of the general population in 2014. The median of the three methods was used to calculate the proportion of the adult female population who practice sex work in the 13 cities. These figures were then extrapolated to provide a national population size estimation of FSW across urban areas. The population size of FSW was 91,500 (95% Uncertainty Intervals [UIs] 61,400-117,700), corresponding to 1.43% (95% UIs 0.96-1.84) of the adult (i.e., 15-49 year-old) female population living in these 13 cities. The projected numbers of FSW for all 31 provincial capital cities were 130,800 (95% UIs 87,800-168,200) and 228,700 (95% UIs 153,500-294,300) for all urban settings in Iran. Using methods of comparable rigor, our study provided a data-driven national estimate of the population size of FSW in urban areas of Iran. Our findings provide vital information for enhancing HIV programme planning and lay a foundation for assessing the impact of harm reduction efforts within this marginalized population.

  11. Synthesis of lithium silicates by the modified method of combustion. XRD and IR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, D.; Bulbulian, S.

    2002-01-01

    The combustion method is fixed in exothermic reactions for producing ceramic compounds. The precursor solutions are mixtures of metal nitrates and the fuels. This method was modified using non-oxidant compounds as lithium hydroxide and silicide acid and urea as fuel. The precursors were heated during 5 minutes at temperatures between 250 C and 550 C allowing so the mixture combustion. The obtained ceramics were characterized by X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy. The sample pollution with carbonates was evaluated and it was found that the presence of these diminish according as increase the calcination temperature. (Author)

  12. Synthesis, structure and magnetic properties of CoFe2O4 nanomaterial by coprecipitation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Anh Tien; Hoang Thi Tuyet

    2015-01-01

    CoFe 2 O 4 spinel nanomaterial has been synthesized by coprecipitation method through the hydrolysis of Co(II) and Fe(III) cations in boiling water. The results of DTA/TGA/DrTGA, XRD, TEM methods showed that CoFe 2 O 4 crystals formed after a calcination at 700 °C exhibited structure of cubic with the particles size of 30-50 nm, H c = 1526.89 Oe, M s = 41.703 emu/g, M r = 19.545 emu/g. (author)

  13. Effect of Synthesis Parameters on the Structure and Magnetic Properties of Magnetic Manganese Ferrite/Silver Composite Nanoparticles Synthesized by Wet Chemistry Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huy, L.T.; Tam, L.T.; Phan, V.N.

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, magnetic manganese ferrite/silver (MnFe2O4-Ag) composite nanoparticles were synthesized by wet chemistry method. This synthesis process consists of two steps: first, the seed of manganese ferrite nanoparticles (MnFe2O4 NPs) was prepared by a coprecipitationmethod; second......, growth of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on the MnFe2O4 seed by modified photochemical reaction. We have conducted systematically the effects of synthesis parameters such as pH value, synthesis time, precursor salts concentration, mass ratio and stabilizing agents on the structure and magnetic properties......-prepared MnFe2O4-Ag magnetic nanocomposites display excellent properties of high crystallinity, long-term aggregation stability in aqueous medium, large saturation magnetization in the range of 15-20 emu/g, and small sizes of Ag-NPs similar to 20 nm. These exhibited properties made the MnFe2O4-Ag...

  14. Synthesis and refinement of ferroelectric ceramic BaBi4Ti4O15 (BBT) using Rietveld Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, P.M.O.; Sales, A.J.M.; Carneiro, J.C.S.; Sancho, E.O.; Sales, J.C.; Sombra, A.S.B.

    2012-01-01

    The lead zirconate titanate (PZT) has potential application in nonvolatile ferroelectric memory and capacitors, however this material is linked to environmental pollution. In order to remedy this problem, we propose the synthesis of the compound, BaBi 4 TI 4 O 15 (BBT) because of similarity to PZT. The phase of the BBT has been prepared by the method of solid state. Reagents (BaCO 3 , Bi 2 O 3 and TiO 2 ) were ground for 6 hours at 360 rpm in a planetary ball mill and suffered high energy heat treatment for 2 hours at temperatures of 850, 900, 950 and 1000 ° C. The calcined powder was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and refined by the program DBWSTools 2.3 Beta based on the Rietveld method. The results obtained confirmed the refinement of the single-phase with tetragonal structure BaBi 4 TI 4 O 15 for all samples. The sample calcined at 950 °C presented the best densification (7.508 g/cm³). (author)

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Anatase Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Using Egg White Solution via Sol-Gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Bagheri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anatase titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TNPs are synthesized by a simple and cost-effective process with and without freshly water-soluble egg white proteins (albumin via sol-gel method. The main advantage of using egg white proteins as a gelling agent is that it can provide long-term stability for nanoparticles by preventing particles agglomeration. The X-ray diffraction and FTIR results indicate that the synthesized nanoparticles have only the anatase structure without the presence of any other phase impurities. Additionally, the TNPs are characterized by a number of techniques such as thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and ultraviolet visible spectra (UV-vis. The sizes of titanium dioxide nanoparticles with and without using egg white solution are 12.55±3.42 nm and 21.45±4.21 nm, respectively. The results indicate that egg white solution is a reliable and cheap green gelling agent that can be used as a matrix in the sol-gel method to synthesis tiny size TNPs.

  16. A novel method for massive synthesis of SnO2 nanowires

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tion, possible growth mechanism of the SnO2 nanowires has been described in detail by the studies of comparative ... other methods. And it is easy to control morphology of the resulting nanowires. In addition, there is high feasibility for a massive production of the nanowires via .... bility of supplying power less than 4 mW.

  17. A Greener Method Towards the Synthesis of 1,3-Diarylimidazolium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Fluorine being the most electronegative halide, it exhibits the highest negative inductive effect on the aniline. Hence, it decreases its susceptibility to nucleophilic attack, and thus the reaction time is relatively longer compared to other para-haloanilines. This new method avoids the problem of decomposition associ- ated with ...

  18. A novel method for massive synthesis of SnO2 nanowires

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper reports a simple, inexpensive and fast method to prepare SnO2 nanowires. A large amount of ultra-long high purity single-crystalline SnO2 nanowires with rutile structure, that is over hundreds of micrometers in length and 20–100 nm in diameter, have been synthesized through a one-step typical thermite ...

  19. Using logic model methods in systematic review synthesis: describing complex pathways in referral management interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Susan K; Blank, Lindsay; Woods, Helen Buckley; Payne, Nick; Rimmer, Melanie; Goyder, Elizabeth

    2014-05-10

    There is increasing interest in innovative methods to carry out systematic reviews of complex interventions. Theory-based approaches, such as logic models, have been suggested as a means of providing additional insights beyond that obtained via conventional review methods. This paper reports the use of an innovative method which combines systematic review processes with logic model techniques to synthesise a broad range of literature. The potential value of the model produced was explored with stakeholders. The review identified 295 papers that met the inclusion criteria. The papers consisted of 141 intervention studies and 154 non-intervention quantitative and qualitative articles. A logic model was systematically built from these studies. The model outlines interventions, short term outcomes, moderating and mediating factors and long term demand management outcomes and impacts. Interventions were grouped into typologies of practitioner education, process change, system change, and patient intervention. Short-term outcomes identified that may result from these interventions were changed physician or patient knowledge, beliefs or attitudes and also interventions related to changed doctor-patient interaction. A range of factors which may influence whether these outcomes lead to long term change were detailed. Demand management outcomes and intended impacts included content of referral, rate of referral, and doctor or patient satisfaction. The logic model details evidence and assumptions underpinning the complex pathway from interventions to demand management impact. The method offers a useful addition to systematic review methodologies. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42013004037.

  20. A direct and efficient synthesis method for dumbell-shaped linear DNA using PCR in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Masumi; Kato, Yoshio; Miyagishi, Makoto; Takagi, Yasuomi; Sano, Masayuki; Taira, Kazunari

    2003-01-01

    A linear, covalently-closed, dumbbell-shaped DNA vector including a transcription unit is known to have both biological stability and safety and is expected to be useful for gene therapy. We established an easy, quick, and large preparative synthetic method of modified- and unmodified-dumbbell DNA using an intramolecular cyclization at the DNA termini.

  1. General method of synthesis by PLIC/FPGA digital devices to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A general method is proposed to synthesize digital devices in order to perform discrete orthogonal transformations (DOT) on programmable logic integrated circuits (PLIC) of FPGA class. The basic and the most "slow" operation during DOT performance is the operation of multiplying by a constant factor (constant) - OMC.

  2. A Bayesian method for the synthesis of evidence from qualitative and quantitative reports: the example of antiretroviral medication adherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voils, Corrine I; Hassselblad, Vic; Crandell, Jamie L; Chang, YunKyung; Lee, EunJeong; Sandelowski, Margarete

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Bayesian meta-analysis is a frequently cited but very little-used method for synthesizing qualitative and quantitative research findings. The only example published to date used qualitative data to generate an informative prior probability and quantitative data to generate the likelihood. We developed a method to incorporate both qualitative and quantitative evidence in the likelihood in a Bayesian synthesis of evidence about the relationship between regimen complexity and medication adherence. Methods Data were from 11 qualitative and six quantitative studies. We updated two different non-informative prior distributions with qualitative and quantitative findings to find the posterior distribution for the probabilities that a more complex regimen was associated with lower adherence and that a less complex regimen was associated with greater adherence. Results The posterior mode for the qualitative findings regarding more complex regimen and lesser adherence (using the uniform prior with Jeffreys' prior yielding highly similar estimates) was 0.588 (95% credible set limits 0.519, 0.663) and for the quantitative findings was 0.224 (0.203, 0.245); due to non-overlapping credible sets, we did not combine them. The posterior mode for the qualitative findings regarding less complex regimen and greater adherence was 0.288 (0.214, 0.441) and for the quantitative findings was 0.272 (0.118, 0.437); the combined estimate was 0.299 (0.267, 0.334). Conclusions The utility of Bayesian methods for synthesizing qualitative and quantitative research findings at the participant level may depend on the nature of the relationship being synthesized and on how well the findings are represented in the individual reports. PMID:19770121

  3. Synthesis and characterization of WO{sub 3} nanostructures prepared by an aged-hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huirache-Acuna, R., E-mail: rafael_huirache@yahoo.it [CFATA-UNAM, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, Juriquilla Queretaro, 76230 (Mexico); Universidad La Salle Morelia, Av. Universidad 500, Mpio. Tarimbaro Mich., 58880 (Mexico); Paraguay-Delgado, F. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, S.C. CIMAV, Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnologia-Chihuahua, Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, Chih., 31109 (Mexico); Albiter, M.A.; Lara-Romero, J. [Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Morelia Mich., 58000 (Mexico); Martinez-Sanchez, R. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, S.C. CIMAV, Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnologia-Chihuahua, Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, Chih., 31109 (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    Nanostructures of tungsten trioxide (WO{sub 3}) have been successfully synthesized by using an aged route at low temperature (60 deg. C) followed by a hydrothermal method at 200 deg. C for 48 h under well controlled conditions. The material was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Specific Surface Area (S{sub BET}) were measured by using the BET method. The lengths of the WO{sub 3} nanostructures obtained are between 30 and 200 nm and their diameters are from 20 to 70 nm. The growth direction of the tungsten oxide nanostructures was determined along [010] axis with an inter-planar distance of 0.38 nm.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of WO3 nanostructures prepared by an aged-hydrothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huirache-Acuna, R.; Paraguay-Delgado, F.; Albiter, M.A.; Lara-Romero, J.; Martinez-Sanchez, R.

    2009-01-01

    Nanostructures of tungsten trioxide (WO 3 ) have been successfully synthesized by using an aged route at low temperature (60 deg. C) followed by a hydrothermal method at 200 deg. C for 48 h under well controlled conditions. The material was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Specific Surface Area (S BET ) were measured by using the BET method. The lengths of the WO 3 nanostructures obtained are between 30 and 200 nm and their diameters are from 20 to 70 nm. The growth direction of the tungsten oxide nanostructures was determined along [010] axis with an inter-planar distance of 0.38 nm.

  5. Synthesis method based on solution regions for planar four bar straight line linkages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Rong, Yin; Cong, Mao; Jian you, Han; Tong, Yang; Juan, Huang

    2012-01-01

    An analytical method for synthesizing and selecting desired four-bar straight line mechanisms based on solution regions is presented. Given two fixed pivots, the point position and direction of the target straight line, an infinite number of mechanism solutions can be produced by employing this method, both in the general case and all three special cases. Unifying the straight line direction and the displacement from the given point to the instant center into the same form with different angles as parameters, infinite mechanism solutions can be expressed with different solution region charts. The mechanism property graphs have been computed to enable the designers to find out the involved mechanism information more intuitively and avoid aimlessness in selecting optimal mechanisms

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of Anatase TiO2 Powder using a Homogeneous Precipitation Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Soon Ok; Cho, Jee Hee; Lim, Sung Hwan; Chung, Eun Young

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the experimental method that uses the homogeneous precipitation method to prepare mica flakes coated with anatase-type titania pearlescent pigment with urea as precipitant. The optimum technology parameters, the chemical composition, the microstructure, and the color property of resulting pigments are discussed. The coating principle of mica coated titania with various coating thickness is analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy(TEM) and tested by spectrophotometer analysis. The colored nanocrystalline pigments with different morphology and coating thickness 45-170 nm were prepared by homogeneous precipitation treatment of TiOSO 4 (titanum oxysulfate) aqueous solutions. Characterizations on the pigments show that the pearlescent effects of the pigments depend mainly on mica size, thickness of the metal oxide deposit, its chemical composition, and crystal structure.

  7. Concise methods for the synthesis of chiral polyoxazolines and their application in asymmetric hydrosilylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jie Li

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Seven polyoxazoline ligands were synthesized in high yield in a one-pot reaction by heating polycarboxylic acids or their esters and chiral β-amino alcohols under reflux with concomitant removal of water or the alcohol produced in the reaction. The method is much simpler and more efficient in comparison to those methods reported in the literature.The compounds were used as chiral ligands in the rhodium-catalyzed asymmetric hydrosilylation of aromatic ketones, and the effects of the linkers and the substituents present on the oxazoline rings on the yield and enantioselectivity investigated. Compound 2 was identified as the best ligand of this family for the hydrosilylation of aromatic ketones.

  8. Plasma in-liquid method for reduction of zinc oxide in zinc nanoparticle synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaliyah, Novriany; Mukasa, Shinobu; Nomura, Shinfuku; Toyota, Hiromichi; Kitamae, Tomohide

    2015-02-01

    Metal air-batteries with high-energy density are expected to be increasingly applied in electric vehicles. This will require a method of recycling air batteries, and reduction of metal oxide by generating plasma in liquid has been proposed as a possible method. Microwave-induced plasma is generated in ethanol as a reducing agent in which zinc oxide is dispersed. Analysis by energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDS) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) reveals the reduction of zinc oxide. According to images by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cubic and hexagonal metallic zinc particles are formed in sizes of 30 to 200 nm. Additionally, spherical fiber flocculates approximately 180 nm in diameter are present.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of nanocomposite polymer blend electrolyte thin films by spin-coating method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapi, Sharanappa; Niranjana, M.; Devendrappa, H., E-mail: dehu2010@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangothri - 574 199 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Solid Polymer blend electrolytes based on Polyethylene oxide (PEO) and poly vinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) complexed with zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs; Synthesized by Co-precipitation method) thin films have prepared at a different weight percent using the spin-coating method. The complexation of the NPs with the polymer blend was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The variation in film morphology was examined by polarized optical micrographs (POMs). The thermal behavior of blends was investigated under non-isothermal conditions by differential thermal analyses (DTA). A single glass transition temperature for each blend was observed, which supports the existence of compatibility of such system. The obtained results represent that the ternary based thin films are prominent materials for battery and optoelectronic device applications.

  10. Synthesis of tungsten oxide nanoparticles using a hydrothermal method at ambient pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmadi, Majid; Younesi, Reza; Guinel, Maxime J-F

    2014-01-01

    ) nanoparticles were synthesized using a simple and inexpensive low temperature and low pressure hydrothermal (HT) method. The precursor solution used for the HT process was prepared by adding hydrochloric acid to diluted sodium tungstate solutions (Na2WO4 center dot 2H(2)O) at temperatures below 5 degrees C....... The products were characterized using powder x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (including electron energy-loss spectroscopy and electron diffraction), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy....

  11. Iron oxide nanoparticles: the Influence of synthesis method and size on composition and magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, M.D., E-mail: mdcarvalho@fc.ul.pt [CCMM/Departamento de Química e Bioquímica, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, C8, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Henriques, F. [CCMM/Departamento de Química e Bioquímica, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, C8, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Ferreira, L.P. [CFMC/Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Godinho, M.; Cruz, M.M. [CFMC/Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2013-05-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles with mean diameter ranging from 7 to 20 nm were synthesized using two routes: the precipitation method in controlled atmosphere and a reduction–precipitation method under air, in some cases followed by a hydrothermal treatment. The smallest nanoparticles were obtained by the reduction–precipitation method. In order to establish the composition of the iron oxide nanoparticles and its relation with size, the morphological, structural and magnetic properties of the prepared samples were investigated using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Mössbauer spectroscopy and SQUID magnetometry. The results allow to conclude that the nanoparticles can be essentially described as Fe3–xO₄, x decreasing with the particle size increase. The composition and magnetic behavior of the synthesized iron oxide nanoparticles are directly related with their size. The overall results are compatible with a core@shell structure model, where a magnetite core is surrounded by an oxidized magnetite layer (labeled as maghemite), the magnetite core dimension depending on the average particle size. - Graphical abstract: TEM images and Mössbauer spectroscopy spectra of Fe3–xO₄ samples with different sizes. Highlights: • Fe3–xO₄ nanoparticles with a mean size between 7 and 20 nm were synthesized. • The smallest nanoparticles were obtained by a reduction precipitation method, under air. • The increase of particles size was succeeded using a hydrothermal treatment at 150 °C. • The magnetic properties of the nanoparticles are directly related with their size.

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of Silver/Clay/Chitosan Bionanocomposites by UV-Irradiation Method

    OpenAIRE

    Mansor B. Ahmad; Kamyar Shameli; Majid Darroudi; Wan M.Z.W. Yunus; Nor A. Ibrahim

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Silver/Montmorillonite/Chitosan Bionanocomposites (Ag/MMT/Cts BNCs) have been synthesized by UV-irradiation reduction method in the absence of any reducing agent or heat treatment which is used to antibacterial application and medical devices. Approach: MMT, Chitosan and AgNO3 were used as a solid support, stabilizer and silver precursor, respectively. The properties of Ag/MMT/Cts BNCs were studied as a function of UV-irradiation times. The crystalline structure, d-spacing ...

  13. Controlled synthesis of α-Al2O3 via the hydrothermal-pyrolysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhao; Wu, Kunyao; Cao, Jing; Wang, Yongfeng

    2017-06-01

    Taking aluminum sulfate and urea as the raw materials produce α-Al2O3 by employing the hydrothermal-pyrolysis method. The study analyzes the characterization of the products by XRD and SEM, The results indicate as follows: after 6 hours’ hydrothermal reaction in the 120°C water, with the aluminum sulfate and urea as the raw materials, spherical α-Al2O3 can be obtained through calcination at 1200°C.

  14. System and method for controlling hydrogen elimination during carbon nanotube synthesis from hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Peter T. A.

    2010-03-23

    A system and method for producing carbon nanotubes by chemical vapor deposition includes a catalyst support having first and second surfaces. The catalyst support is capable of hydrogen transport from the first to the second surface. A catalyst is provided on the first surface of the catalyst support. The catalyst is selected to catalyze the chemical vapor deposition formation of carbon nanotubes. A fuel source is provided for supplying fuel to the catalyst.

  15. Sol-gel methods for synthesis of aluminosilicates for dental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cestari, Alexandre

    2016-12-01

    Amorphous aluminosilicates glasses containing fluorine, phosphorus and calcium are used as a component of the glass ionomer dental cement. This cement is used as a restorative, basis or filling material, but presents lower mechanical resistance than resin-modified materials. The Sol-Gel method is a possible route for preparation of glasses with lower temperature and energy consumption, with higher homogeneity and with uniform and nanometric particles, compared to the industrial methods Glass ionomer cements with uniform, homogeneous and nanometric particles can present higher mechanical resistance than commercial ionomers. The aim of this work was to adapt the Sol-Gel methods to produce new aluminosilicate glass particles by non-hydrolytic, hydrolytic acid and hydrolytic basic routes, to improve glass ionomer cements characteristics. Three materials were synthesized with the same composition, to evaluate the properties of the glasses produced from the different methods, because multicomponent oxides are difficult to prepare with homogeneity. The objective was to develop a new route to produce new glass particles for ionomer cements with possible higher resistance. The particles were characterized by thermal analysis (TG, DTA, DSC), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The glasses were tested with polyacrylic acid to form the glass ionomer cement by the setting reaction. It was possible to produce distinct materials for dental applications and a sample presented superior characteristics (homogeneity, nanometric particles, and homogenous elemental distribution) than commercial glasses for ionomer cements. The new route for glass production can possible improve the mechanical resistance of the ionomer cements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Synthesis of Al-5Ti-1B Refiner by Melt Reaction Method

    OpenAIRE

    LI He; CHAI Li-hua; MA Teng-fei; CHEN Zi-yong

    2017-01-01

    Al-5Ti-1B refiner was successfully prepared by melt reaction method. Through the thermodynamics calculation, the initial reaction temperature was determined. The influence of reaction temperature on microstructure and absorption rate of the alloy was investigated. The phase and microstructure of the alloy were observed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectrometer. The Al-5Ti-1B refiner was extruded at high temperature to wire with the diameter of 9.5mm...

  17. Tribological synthesis method for producing low-friction surface film coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Oyelayo O.; Lorenzo-Martin, Maria De La; Fenske, George R.

    2016-10-25

    An article of method of manufacture of a low friction tribological film on a substrate. The article includes a substrate of a steel or ceramic which has been tribologically processed with a lubricant containing selected additives and the additives, temperature, load and time of processing can be selectively controlled to bias formation of a film on the substrate where the film is an amorphous structure exhibiting highly advantageous low friction properties.

  18. Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles by Chemical Reduction Method and Their Antibacterial Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Maribel G. Guzmán; Jean Dille; Stephan Godet

    2008-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles were prepared by chemical reduction method. Silver nitrate was taken as the metal precursor and hydrazine hydrate as a reducing agent. The formation of the silver nanoparticles was monitored using UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. The UV-Vis spectroscopy revealed the formation of silver nanopart├¡cles by exhibing the typical surface plasmon absorption maxima at 418-420 nm from the UV–Vis spectrum. Comparison of theoretical (Mie light scattering theory) and experimental resu...

  19. A convenient method for synthesis of glyconanoparticles for colorimetric measuring carbohydrate-protein interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Yen-Jun; Zhou, Xichun; Pan, Zhengwei; Turchi, Craig

    2009-01-01

    Carbohydrate functionalized nanoparticles, i.e., the glyconanoparticles, have wide application ranging from studies of carbohydrate-protein interactions, in vivo cell imaging, biolabeling, etc. Currently reported methods for preparation of glyconanoaprticles require multi-step modifications of carbohydrates moieties to conjugate to nanoparticle surface. However, the required synthetic manipulations are difficult and time consuming. We report herewith a simple and versatile method for preparing glyconanoparticles. This method is based on the utilization of clean and convenient microwave irradiation energy for one-step, site-specific conjugation of unmodified carbohydrates onto hydrazide-functionalized Au nanoparticles. A colorimetric assay that utilizes the ensemble of gold glyconanoparticles and Concanavalin A (ConA) was also presented. This feasible assay system was developed to analyze multivalent interactions and to determine the dissociation constant (Kd) for five kind of Au glyconanoparticles with lectin. Surface plasmon changes of the Au glyconanparticles as a function of lectin-carbohydrate interactions were measured and the dissociation constants were determined based on non-linear curve fitting. The strength of the interaction of carbohydrates with ConA was found to be as follows: Maltose > Mannose > Glucose > Lactose > MAN5. PMID:19698698

  20. A convenient method for synthesis of glyconanoparticles for colorimetric measuring carbohydrate-protein interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, Yen-Jun [Faculty of Engineering, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Zhou, Xichun, E-mail: xichunz@adatech.com [ADA Technologies, Inc., 8100 Shaffer Parkway, Ste 130, Littleton, CO 80127-4107 (United States); Pan, Zhengwei [Faculty of Engineering, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Turchi, Craig [ADA Technologies, Inc., 8100 Shaffer Parkway, Ste 130, Littleton, CO 80127-4107 (United States)

    2009-11-06

    Carbohydrate functionalized nanoparticles, i.e., the glyconanoparticles, have wide application ranging from studies of carbohydrate-protein interactions, in vivo cell imaging, biolabeling, etc. Currently reported methods for preparation of glyconanoparticles require multi-step modifications of carbohydrates moieties to conjugate to nanoparticle surface. However, the required synthetic manipulations are difficult and time consuming. We report herewith a simple and versatile method for preparing glyconanoparticles. This method is based on the utilization of clean and convenient microwave irradiation energy for one-step, site-specific conjugation of unmodified carbohydrates onto hydrazide-functionalized Au nanoparticles. A colorimetric assay that utilizes the ensemble of gold glyconanoparticles and Concanavalin A (ConA) was also presented. This feasible assay system was developed to analyze multivalent interactions and to determine the dissociation constant (K{sub d}) for five kind of Au glyconanoparticles with lectin. Surface plasmon changes of the Au glyconanoparticles as a function of lectin-carbohydrate interactions were measured and the dissociation constants were determined based on non-linear curve fitting. The strength of the interaction of carbohydrates with ConA was found to be as follows: maltose > mannose > glucose > lactose > MAN5.

  1. Identification, synthesis and characterization of process related desfluoro impurity of ezetimibe and HPLC method validations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esen Bellur Atici

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ezetimibe, which selectively inhibits cholesterol absorption across the intestinal wall and is used as an antihyperlipidemic agent, is synthesized for commercial use as a drug substance in highly pure form. During the synthetic process development studies of ezetimibe, an impurity was detected in the final product at levels ranging from 0.05% to 0.15% in reverse phase gradient high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method and its molecular weight was determined by LC–MS analysis. The impurity was identified as (3R,4S-3-((S-3-(4-fluorophenyl-3-hydroxypropyl-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl-1-phenylazetidin-2-one which is called desfluoro ezetimibe (lactam-related impurity, synthesized and characterized, the mechanism of its formation was discussed in detail. After all standardization procedures, it was used as a reference standard during validation of HPLC method and routine analyses. In addition, content of Eze-1 desfluoro impurity in Eze-1 intermediates was specified as 0.10% to keep the formation of desfluoro ezetimibe impurity under control and the related substances HPLC method was validated accordingly.

  2. A convenient method for synthesis of glyconanoparticles for colorimetric measuring carbohydrate-protein interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, Yen-Jun; Zhou, Xichun; Pan, Zhengwei; Turchi, Craig

    2009-01-01

    Carbohydrate functionalized nanoparticles, i.e., the glyconanoparticles, have wide application ranging from studies of carbohydrate-protein interactions, in vivo cell imaging, biolabeling, etc. Currently reported methods for preparation of glyconanoparticles require multi-step modifications of carbohydrates moieties to conjugate to nanoparticle surface. However, the required synthetic manipulations are difficult and time consuming. We report herewith a simple and versatile method for preparing glyconanoparticles. This method is based on the utilization of clean and convenient microwave irradiation energy for one-step, site-specific conjugation of unmodified carbohydrates onto hydrazide-functionalized Au nanoparticles. A colorimetric assay that utilizes the ensemble of gold glyconanoparticles and Concanavalin A (ConA) was also presented. This feasible assay system was developed to analyze multivalent interactions and to determine the dissociation constant (K d ) for five kind of Au glyconanoparticles with lectin. Surface plasmon changes of the Au glyconanoparticles as a function of lectin-carbohydrate interactions were measured and the dissociation constants were determined based on non-linear curve fitting. The strength of the interaction of carbohydrates with ConA was found to be as follows: maltose > mannose > glucose > lactose > MAN5.

  3. Investigation of the Optimal Parameters in Hydrothermal Method for the Synthesis of ZnO Nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Chung Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated a two-step method to deposit the ZnO-based nanostructure films, including nanorods and nanoflowers. In the first step, sputtering method was used to deposit the ZnO films on SiO2/Si substrates as the seed layer. In the second step, Zn(NO32–6H2O and C6H12N4 were used as precursors and hydrothermal process was used as the method to synthesize the ZnO films. After that, the ZnO films were measured by an X-ray diffraction pattern and a FESEM to analyze their crystallization and morphology. We had found that the ZnO films had three different morphologies synthesized on ZnO/SiO2/Si substrates, including irregular-plate structure films, nanorod films, and beautiful chrysanthemum-like clusters (nanoflower films. We would prove that the face direction of ZnO/SiO2/Si substrates in the hydrothermal bottle and deposition time were two important factors to influence the synthesized results of the ZnO films.

  4. A spectral synthesis method to suppress aliasing and calibrate for delay errors in Fourier transform correlators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, T.; Grainge, K.

    2008-10-01

    Context: Fourier transform (or lag) correlators in radio interferometers can serve as an efficient means of synthesising spectral channels. However aliasing corrupts the edge channels so they usually have to be excluded from the data set. In systems with around 10 channels, the loss in sensitivity can be significant. In addition, the low level of residual aliasing in the remaining channels may cause systematic errors. Moreover, delay errors have been widely reported in implementations of broadband analogue correlators and simulations have shown that delay errors exasperate the effects of aliasing. Aims: We describe a software-based approach that suppresses aliasing by oversampling the cross-correlation function. This method can be applied to interferometers with individually-tracking antennas equipped with a discrete path compensator system. It is based on the well-known property of interferometers where the drift scan response is the Fourier transform of the source's band-limited spectrum. Methods: In this paper, we simulate a single baseline interferometer, both for a real and a complex correlator. Fringe-rotation usually compensates for the phase of the fringes to bring the phase centre in line with the tracking centre. Instead, a modified fringe-rotation is applied. This enables an oversampled cross-correlation function to be reconstructed by gathering successive time samples. Results: Simulations show that the oversampling method can synthesise the cross-power spectrum while avoiding aliasing and works robustly in the presence of noise. An important side benefit is that it naturally accounts for delay errors in the correlator and the resulting spectral channels are regularly gridded

  5. Synthesis and characterization of Zn3Ta2O8 nanomaterials by hydrothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bîrdeanu, M.; Bîrdeanu, A.-V.; Gruia, A.S.; Fagadar-Cosma, E.; Avram, C.N.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The results of an experimental program that was focused on obtaining the Zn 3 Ta 2 O 8 nanocrystalline synthesized by hydrothermal method using tantalum (V) oxide and zinc nitrate, the results of the nanomaterial’s structure characterization and the optical spectral properties of such nanomaterials that were thoroughly investigated. Also, the experimental results are compared with ab initio calculations of electronic properties of Zn 3 Ta 2 O 8 . Highlights: •Zn 3 Ta 2 O 8 nanomaterials were synthesized by hydrothermal method and characterized. •The obtained nanomaterials has excellent phosphor, optical and morphological properties. •The material can be used in designing high performance optoelectronical devices. -- Abstract: Zn 3 Ta 2 O 8 has been synthesized by hydrothermal method using tantalum (V) oxide and zinc nitrate. The crystal structure and microstructure, phase composition and the absorption of Zn 3 Ta 2 O 8 nanomaterials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, FT/IR measurements, UV–VIS measurements, PL measurements, SEM and AFM techniques and BET analysis. XRD results show the single phase of Zn 3 Ta 2 O 8 and the average particle size that is 52 nm. This narrow nanometer size was also confirmed by AFM measurements. BET analysis revealed that the nanomaterials are mesoporous. The PL spectra show the blue luminescence of Ta 2 Zn 3 O 8 . Besides, in the present work we report ab initio calculations regarding electronic properties of Zn 3 Ta 2 O 8 ; the theoretical results are compared with the experimental ones

  6. In Situ Coupling of Ultrasound to Electro- and Photo-Deposition Methods for Materials Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Magdziarz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This short review provides the current state-of-the-art of in situ coupling of ultrasound to chemical deposition methods. A synergetic action of the ultrasound and light radiation or electrical fields may result in new powerful methodologies, and these include sonophotodeposition and sonoelectrodeposition processes. The effect of ultrasound is explained on the base of different physical mechanisms emerging from cavitation phenomenon. Some possible mechanisms of the interactions between ultrasound and photochemical and electrochemical processes are discussed here. The application of sonophotodeposition and sonoelectrodeposition as green energy sources in the syntheses of different nanomaterials is also reviewed.

  7. Synthesis and photoluminescence properties of Al-O Ceramics obtained by a sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arita, K; Sawaguchi, N; Sasaki, M [Muroran Institute of Technology (Japan); Inano, H, E-mail: sasaki@mmm.muroran-it.ac.jp [Hokkaido Research Organization / Industrial Research Institute (Japan)

    2011-10-29

    The Al-O phosphor powders were synthesized by the sol - gel method at the lower temperature of 773 K. From the results of the PL (photo luminescence) measurement, the emission intensities around 400 and 450 nm changed with heating temperatures. From the X-ray diffraction and the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements, the Al-O ceramics obtained has a similar structure of boehmite (AlOOH). The structural change caused mainly by the loss of the hydroxyl group related to the increase of emission intensities.

  8. Magnetic agglomeration method for size control in the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Dale L [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-07-05

    A method for controlling the size of chemically synthesized magnetic nanoparticles that employs magnetic interaction between particles to control particle size and does not rely on conventional kinetic control of the reaction to control particle size. The particles are caused to reversibly agglomerate and precipitate from solution; the size at which this occurs can be well controlled to provide a very narrow particle size distribution. The size of particles is controllable by the size of the surfactant employed in the process; controlling the size of the surfactant allows magnetic control of the agglomeration and precipitation processes. Agglomeration is used to effectively stop particle growth to provide a very narrow range of particle sizes.

  9. Apparatus and method for performing microfluidic manipulations for chemical analysis and synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, J. Michael

    2002-01-01

    A microchip laboratory system and method provide fluid manipulations for a variety of applications, including sample injection for microchip chemical separations. The microchip is fabricated using standard photolithographic procedures and chemical wet etching, with the substrate and cover plate joined using direct bonding. Capillary electrophoresis and electrochromatography are performed in channels formed in the substrate. Analytes are loaded into a four-way intersection of channels by electrokinetically pumping the analyte through the intersection, followed by switching of the potentials to force an analyte plug into the separation channel.

  10. Synthesis of Hollow Silica by Stober Method with Double Polymers as Templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Anhthu; Park, Chang Woo; Kim, Sang Hern

    2014-01-01

    The hollow SiO 2 spheres with uniform size were synthesized by a modified stoeber method under the control of polyelectrolytes (PSS and PAA) as templates. This synthetic route includes the formation of spherical colloid micelle in ethanol solution, hydrolysis of TEOS under control of ammonia, and the removal of polyelectrolyte by washing or calcination. Hollow silica spheres with controllable core diameters between 100 and 270 nm and wall thickness between 15 and 50 nm have been synthesized. The influence of template solution concentration and solvent and dispersant on the formation of silica hollow spheres is studied and reported in detail

  11. A modified method for synthesis of [γ-32P] labelled adenosine triphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, W.Y.; Rohadi Awaludin; Endang Sarmini; Herlina; Triyanto; Rien Ritawidya; Abdul Mutalib; Santi Nurbaiti

    2015-01-01

    Production of [γ- 32 P]-ATP using three glycolysis enzymatic reaction i.e. glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, 3-phosphoglyceric phosphokinase and lactate dehydrogenase has been conducted. dl-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, Adenosine Diphosphate and H 3 32 PO 4 was used as precursors for this reaction. Purification of [γ- 32 P]-ATP was performed by using DEAE-Sephadex column chromatography. The result suggested that this simple method could be used for producing [γ- 32 P]-ATP to support the provision of radiolabeled nucleotide for biotechnology research in Indonesia. (author)

  12. Fire Synthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    her PhD degree from. Bangalore University. She is currently working as a Research Associate at the Department of. Inorganic and Physical. Chemistry, Indian. Institute of Science,. Bangalore, on the synthesis of .... This method uses the experiences of propellant chemistry in making the redox mixture. The . stoichiometry or ...

  13. Fire Synthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    special infrastructure which require careful maintenance. In such situation fire synthesis is a simpler method that can be adopted for the bulk production of high purity .... reaction between Ti and B to form titanium boride. The reaction between titanium (fuel- electron donor) and boron (oxidiser-electron acceptor) once initiated ...

  14. Synthesis, Characterization, and Atenolol Delivery Application of Functionalized Mesoporous Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles Prepared by Microwave-Assisted Co-precipitation Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi-Derazkola, Sobhan; Naimi-Jamal, Mohammad Reza; Ghoreishi, Seyedeh Masoumeh

    2016-01-01

    Atenolol has been used to treat angina and hypertension, either alone or with other antihypertensives. Despite its usefulness, it shows some side effects such as diarrhea and nausea in some patients. A method for slow release of atenolol in intestine is helpful to prevent such side effects. A facile co-precipitation microwave-assisted method was used to fabricate mesoporous hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (mHAp). It was then functionalized to have SO3H groups. The synthesized material was used for storage/slow release study of atenolol. Atenolol loaded mHAp shows immediate release of atenolol in pH 8, whileafter functionalizing shows up to ca. 30% release at the beginning. In pH 1, 50% of drug was released after 10 h from AT@mHAp and after 18h the drug was almost completely released.The drug release profiles of functionalized HAp at pH value 1 and 8reveals the complete release of atenolol in intestine pH, while no complete release is observed in stomach environment. The aims of this work were synthesis and characterization of mesoporous HAp through the microwave-assisted co-precipitation method and elucidate the underlying drug release capability of mesoporous HAp nanoparticles. The SO3H group was incorporated into the mesoporous HAp and then used as drug delivery carriers using atenolol as a model drug to investigate their drug storage/release properties in simulated body fluid (SBF). Increasing pH value to 8 causes increase in the drug release.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of manganese ferrite nanoparticles by thermal treatment method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodarz Naseri, M.; Bin Saion, E.; Ahangar, H. Abbastabar; Hashim, M.; Shaari, A.H.

    2011-01-01

    Cubic structured manganese ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by a thermal treatment method followed by calcination at various temperatures from 723 to 873 K. In this investigation, we used polyvinyl pyrrolidon (PVP) as a capping agent to control the agglomeration of the nanoparticles. The characterization studies were conducted by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The average particle sizes of manganese ferrite nanoparticles were determined by TEM, which increased with the calcination temperature from 12 to 22 nm and they had good agreement with XRD results. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the presence of metal oxide bands at all temperatures and the absence of organic bands at 873 K. Magnetic properties were demonstrated by a vibrating sample magnetometer, which showed a super-paramagnetic behavior for all samples and also saturation magnetization (M s ) increases from 3.06 to 15.78 emu/g by increasing the calcination temperature. The magnetic properties were also confirmed by the use of electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, which revealed the existence of unpaired electrons and also measured peak-to-peak line width, resonant magnetic field and the g-factor. - Research highlights: → Cubic structured manganese ferrite nano particles were synthesized by a thermal treatment method. → Polyvinylpyrrolidon (PVP) has been used as a capping agent to control the agglomeration of the nanoparticles. → The average particle sizes of manganese ferrite nano particles were determined by TEM.

  16. Synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles using a hydrothermal method and a study its optical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Dattatraya B; Bharati, A V

    2017-05-01

    ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) with a granular morphology were synthesized using a hydrothermal method. Structural analysis revealed that ZnO NPs had a single crystal wurtzite hexagonal structure. Solvent polarity was responsible for varying and controlling their size and morphology. The process was very trouble free and scalable. In addition, it could be used for fundamental studies on tunable morphology formation. This hydrothermal method showed different morphology with different co-surfactants such as a floral-like or wire-like belt sheet structures etc. Based on their surface morphology, the same material had different applications as a catalyst in various organic reactions and also could be used as a photocatalyst and fuel cell, solar cell or in semiconductors etc. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and photoluminescence of the resulting product was performed to study its purity, morphology and size, plus its optical properties via measurement of band gap energy and light absorbance. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Synthesis of Calcium Phosphate Composite Organogels by Using Emulsion Method for Dentine Occlusion Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nopteeranupharp, C.; Akkarachaneeyakorn, K.; Songsasaen, A.

    2018-03-01

    Dentinal hypersensitivity (DH) is one of the most human’s problems caused by the erosion of enamel. There are many methods and materials to solve this problem. Calcium phosphate is an excellent alternative for curing this symptom because of its osteoconductivity, and biocompatibility properties. The low-cost and low-toxicity calcium phosphate nanogel was fabricated by using emulsion method and characterized by using TEM, EDX, and DLS techniques. The results showed that P123 (poly (ethylene oxide)19-block-Poly (propylene oxide)69-block-poly (ethylene oxide)19) has played a major role as template and gel formation, SDS was used as a surfactant to form water-in-oil emulsion nanodroplets with circle-like shape. Moreover, the ability of synthesised organogel to occlude the exposed dentine tubules was tested on the model of human’s dentine slices. The results showed that calcium phosphate composite organogel can be efficiently occluded on dentine slice, characterized by SEM technique, after 1 day.

  18. Synthesis of ZnO nanopencils using wet chemical method and its investigation as LPG sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimpi, Navinchandra G.; Jain, Shilpa; Karmakar, Narayan; Shah, Akshara; Kothari, D. C.; Mishra, Satyendra

    2016-12-01

    ZnO nanopencils (NPCs) were prepared by a novel wet chemical process, using triethanolamine (TEA) as a mild base, which is relatively simple and cost effective method as compared to hydrothermal method. ZnO NPCs were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy in mid-IR and far-IR regions, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis (UV-vis) absorption spectroscopy, room temperature Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). ZnO NPCs obtained, were highly pure, uniform and monodispersed.XRD pattern indicated hexagonal unit cell structure with preferred orientation along the c-axis. Sensing behaviour of ZnO NPCs was studied towards Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) at different operating temperatures. The study shows that ZnO NPCs were most sensitive and promising candidate for detection of LPG at 250 °C with gas sensitivity > 60%. The high response towards LPG is due to high surface area of ZnO NPCs and their parallel alignment.

  19. Synthesis and Raman analysis of SnS nanoparticles synthesized by PVP assisted polyol method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baby, Benjamin Hudson; Mohan, D. Bharathi, E-mail: d.bharathimohan@gmail.com [Department of Physics, School of Physical, Chemical and Applied Sciences, Pondicherry University, R.V. Nagar, Kalapet, Puducherry-605014 (India)

    2015-06-24

    SnS film was prepared by a simple drop casting method after synthesizing SnS nanoparticles by using PVP assisted polyol method. Confocal Raman study was carried out for the as deposited and annealed (150, 300 and 400 °C) films at two different excitation wavelengths 514 and 785 nm. At the excitation wavelength of 514 nm, the Raman modes showed for a mixed phase of SnS and SnS{sub 2} up to 150 °C and then only a pure SnS phase was observed up to 400 °C due to the dissociation of SnS{sub 2} in to SnS by releasing S. The increase in intensity of Raman (A{sub g} and B{sub 3g}) as well as IR (B{sub 3u}) active modes of SnS are observed with increasing annealing temperature at excitation wavelength 785 nm due to the increased crystallinity and inactiveness of SnS{sub 2} modes. X-ray diffraction confirming the formation of a single phase of SnS while the greater homogeneity in both size and shape of SnS nanoparticles were confirmed through surface morphology from SEM.

  20. Microbially-mediated method for synthesis of non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phelps, Tommy J.; Lauf, Robert J.; Moon, Ji-Won; Rondinone, Adam Justin; Love, Lonnie J.; Duty, Chad Edward; Madden, Andrew Stephen; Li, Yiliang; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Rawn, Claudia Jeanette

    2017-09-19

    The invention is directed to a method for producing non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles, the method comprising: (a) subjecting a combination of reaction components to conditions conducive to microbially-mediated formation of non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles, wherein said combination of reaction components comprises i) anaerobic microbes, ii) a culture medium suitable for sustaining said anaerobic microbes, iii) a metal component comprising at least one type of metal ion, iv) a non-metal component comprising at least one non-metal selected from the group consisting of S, Se, Te, and As, and v) one or more electron donors that provide donatable electrons to said anaerobic microbes during consumption of the electron donor by said anaerobic microbes; and (b) isolating said non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles, which contain at least one of said metal ions and at least one of said non-metals. The invention is also directed to non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticle compositions produced as above and having distinctive properties.

  1. Microbially-mediated method for synthesis of non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phelps, Tommy J.; Lauf, Robert J.; Moon, Ji Won; Rondinone, Adam J.; Love, Lonnie J.; Duty, Chad Edward; Madden, Andrew Stephen; Li, Yiliang; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Rawn, Claudia Jeanette

    2014-06-24

    The invention is directed to a method for producing non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles, the method comprising: (a) subjecting a combination of reaction components to conditions conducive to microbially-mediated formation of non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles, wherein said combination of reaction components comprises i) anaerobic microbes, ii) a culture medium suitable for sustaining said anaerobic microbes, iii) a metal component comprising at least one type of metal ion, iv) a non-metal component containing at least one non-metal selected from the group consisting of S, Se, Te, and As, and v) one or more electron donors that provide donatable electrons to said anaerobic microbes during consumption of the electron donor by said anaerobic microbes; and (b) isolating said non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles, which contain at least one of said metal ions and at least one of said non-metals. The invention is also directed to non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticle compositions produced as above and having distinctive properties.

  2. Synthesis of hybrid chitosan/calcium aluminosilicate using a sol-gel method for optical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elnahrawy, Amany Mohamed [Department of Solid State, Physics Division, National Research Center (NRC), Giza 12622, Cairo (Egypt); Kim, Yong Soo, E-mail: yskim2@ulsan.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Energy Harvest-Storage Research Center (EHSRC), University of Ulsan, Ulsan 44610 (Korea, Republic of); Ali, Ahmed I., E-mail: Ahmed_ali_2010@helwan.edu.eg [Department of Physics and Energy Harvest-Storage Research Center (EHSRC), University of Ulsan, Ulsan 44610 (Korea, Republic of); Basic Science Department, Faculty of Industrial Education & Technology, Helwan University, Cairo 11281 (Egypt)

    2016-08-15

    Hybrid chitosan (CS)/calcium aluminosilicate nanocomposites thin films and membranes were prepared using a sol–gel method with three different concentrations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (5, 7 and 10 mol. %). The prepared nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. The optical properties of the prepared samples were analyzed by UV/Vis spectrophotometry and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The optical parameters revealed an increase in both the refractive index and band gap of the nanocomposites with increasing Al concentration. In addition, the PL spectra revealed a blue shift that was consistent with an increase in the optical band gap. These results suggest that CS/calcium aluminosilicate in two different forms can be a good candidate for optical sensors applications. - Highlights: • We show a large specific surface area of hybrid CS/calcium aluminosilicate thin films and membranes using sol-gel method. • Inorganic SiO{sub 2}-based phase are perfectly embedded onto chitosan matrix has a reliable stability. • CS/calcium aluminosilicate could be usable for optical sensors, planar waveguide, and bio-sensing.

  3. Synthesis of active absorber layer by dip-coating method for perovskite solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rahul; Noor, I. M.; Singh, Pramod K.; Bhattacharya, B.; Arof, A. K.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we develop the hybrid perovskite-based n-i-p solar cell using a simple, fast and low-cost dip-coating method. Hot solution and the pre-annealed substrate are used for coating the perovskite thin film by this method this is further used for studying its structural and electrical properties. UV-vis spectroscopy is carried out for calculating the band gap of the hybrid perovskite layer which is ∼1.6 eV. X-ray spectroscopy confirms that the formation of hybrid perovskite layer. The profilometer is used to study the surface roughness and also for measuring the thickness of the perovskite layer with varying substrate temperature. The optimized sample was further used for cross-sectional SEM image to verify the thickness measured from the profiler. The electrical parameter of JV characteristic with varying temperature is tabulated in the table. Whereas, the perovskite sensitized solar cell exhibits highest short circuit current density, Jsc of 11 mA cm-2, open circuit voltage, Voc of 0.87 V, fill factor of 0.55 and efficiency, η of >5%.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of Bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3) nanoparticles by solution evaporation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzoor, A.; Afzal, A.M.; Umair, M.; Ali, Adnan; Rizwan, M.; Yaqoob, M.Z.

    2015-01-01

    Single phase Bismuth ferrite (BiFeO 3 ) with high magnetization and polarization was synthesized by solution evaporation method (SEM) at room temperature. The influence of temperature and size of nanoparticles on magnetic properties was studied. The prepared Bismuth ferrite (BiFeO 3 ) was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) to investigate the structure and size of crystal. The average crystallite size of nanoparticles (NPs) as calculated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) falls in the range of 22–31 nm. The crystallite size of Bismuth ferrite increased as the temperature varied from 450 °C to 650 °C. Magnetic properties were studied by using physical properties measurement system (PPMS). It was also observed that the magnetic properties were directly related to the size and temperature of Bismuth ferrite nanoparticles. It has been investigated that the magnetization was decreased as the temperature and crystallite size increased. - Highlights: • Bismuth ferrite magnetic material was synthesized by solution evaporation method. • Bismuth ferrite shows ferromagnetic properties at room temperature. • Influence of temperature and crystallite size on magnetic properties was observed. • The magnetization was decreased as the temperature and crystallite size increased. • The magnetic moments were found larger in the smaller crystalline size

  5. Synthesis of Mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, John Michael

    1999-01-01

    These notes describe an automated procedure for analysis and synthesis of mechanisms. The analysis method is based on the body coordinate formulation, and the synthesis is based on applying optimization methods, used to minimize the difference between an actual and a desired behaviour......These notes describe an automated procedure for analysis and synthesis of mechanisms. The analysis method is based on the body coordinate formulation, and the synthesis is based on applying optimization methods, used to minimize the difference between an actual and a desired behaviour...

  6. Systems and methods for the synthesis of high thermoelectric performance doped-SnTe materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Zhifeng; Zhang, Qian; Chen, Gang

    2018-02-27

    A thermoelectric composition comprising tin (Sn), tellurium (Te) and at least one dopant that comprises a peak dimensionless figure of merit (ZT) of 1.1 and a Seebeck coefficient of at least 50 .mu.V/K and a method of manufacturing the thermoelectric composition. A plurality of components are disposed in a ball-milling vessel, wherein the plurality of components comprise tin (Sn), tellurium (Te), and at least one dopant such as indium (In). The components are subsequently mechanically and thermally processed, for example, by hot-pressing. In response to the mechanical-thermally processing, a thermoelectric composition is formed, wherein the thermoelectric composition comprises a dimensionless figure of merit (ZT) of the thermoelectric composition is at least 0.8, and wherein a Seebeck coefficient of the thermoelectric composition is at least 50 .mu.V/K at any temperature.

  7. Synthesis of palladium dendritic nanostructures on amidoxime modified polyacrylonitrile fibers through a complexing-reducing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Zhichuan; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Bo; Qian, Guixiang; Tao, Tingxian

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We report the assembly of Pd dendritic nanostructures on amidoxime modified polyacrylonitrile fibers. • The supply rate of the metallic Pd plays a critical role in the morphology of Pd nanostructures. • The possible mechanism of Pd dendritic nanostructures on fibers was proposed. -- Abstract: In this paper, three-dimensional fern-leaf-like palladium (Pd) dendritic nanostructures were successfully synthesized on amidoxime modified polyacrylonitrile fibers via a simple and efficient complexing-reducing method. The influence of reaction time, temperature, and concentrations of N 2 H 4 and Fe 3+ on the morphology and structure of Pd nanostructures was investigated. The results indicate that the supply rate of metallic Pd atoms plays a crucial role in the formation of the dendritic nanostructures. The formation mechanism of Pd dendritic nanostructures was proposed

  8. Synthesis of the lithium metatitanate, Li2TiO3, by the modified combustion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, D.; Bulbulian, S.; Pfeiffer, H.

    2005-01-01

    A modified combustion method to obtain Li 2 TiO 3 it was used, a compound to be used in fusion reactors like tritium generator material. To obtain Li 2 TiO 3 were proven different molar ratios of lithium hydroxide (LiOH), titanium oxide (TiO 2 ) and urea (CO(NH 2 ) 2 ), as well as different heating temperatures (550, 650 and 750 C). The characterization of the products it was carried out using X-ray diffraction, Scanning electron microscopy and Thermal gravimetric analysis. The sample prepared with a molar ratio Li: Ti: urea = 2.75: 1: 3 was the one that presented as only product the Li 2 TiO 3 . The particle size and the morphology found in the Li 2 TiO 3 , showed similar particle size and morphology to the TiO 2 used as precursor. (Author)

  9. Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of gold nanobipyramids prepared by a chemical reduction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo, Vo Ke Thanh; Huynh, Trong Phat; Nguyen, Dang Giang; Nguyen, Hoang Phuong Uyen; Lam, Quang Vinh; Huynh, Thanh Dat

    2015-01-01

    Gold nanobipyramids (NBPs) have attracted much attention because they have potential for applications in smart sensing devices, such as medical diagnostic equippments. This is due to the fact that they show more advantageous plasmonic properties than other gold nanostructures. We describe a chemical reduction method for synthesizing NBPs using conventional heating with ascorbic acid reduction and cetyltrimethylamonium bromide (CTAB) + AgNO 3 as capping agents. The product was characterized by ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV–vis), Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The results showed that gold nanoparticles were formed with bipyramid shape (tip-to-tip distance of 88.4 ± 9.4 nm and base length of 29.9 ± 3.2 nm) and face-centered-cubic crystalline structure. Optimum parameters for preparation of NBPs are also found. (paper)

  10. Synthesis of palladium dendritic nanostructures on amidoxime modified polyacrylonitrile fibers through a complexing-reducing method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Zhichuan; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Bo; Qian, Guixiang; Tao, Tingxian, E-mail: tingxiantao@yahoo.cn

    2013-08-20

    Highlights: • We report the assembly of Pd dendritic nanostructures on amidoxime modified polyacrylonitrile fibers. • The supply rate of the metallic Pd plays a critical role in the morphology of Pd nanostructures. • The possible mechanism of Pd dendritic nanostructures on fibers was proposed. -- Abstract: In this paper, three-dimensional fern-leaf-like palladium (Pd) dendritic nanostructures were successfully synthesized on amidoxime modified polyacrylonitrile fibers via a simple and efficient complexing-reducing method. The influence of reaction time, temperature, and concentrations of N{sub 2}H{sub 4} and Fe{sup 3+} on the morphology and structure of Pd nanostructures was investigated. The results indicate that the supply rate of metallic Pd atoms plays a crucial role in the formation of the dendritic nanostructures. The formation mechanism of Pd dendritic nanostructures was proposed.

  11. Recent Advances in Silicon Nanowire Biosensors: Synthesis Methods, Properties, and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namdari, Pooria; Daraee, Hadis; Eatemadi, Ali

    2016-09-01

    The application of silicon nanowire (SiNW) biosensor as a subtle, label-free, and electrical tool has been extensively demonstrated by several researchers over the past few decades. Human ability to delicately fabricate and control its chemical configuration, morphology, and arrangement either separately or in combination with other materials as lead to the development of a nanomaterial with specific and efficient electronic and catalytic properties useful in the fields of biological sciences and renewable energy. This review illuminates on the various synthetic methods of SiNW, with its optical and electrical properties that make them one of the most applicable nanomaterials in the field of biomolecule sensing, photoelectrochemical conversion, and diseases diagnostics.

  12. Bulk synthesis of nanocrystalline urania powders by citrate gel-combustion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjay Kumar, D.; Ananthasivan, K.; Venkata Krishnan, R.; Amirthapandian, S.; Dasgupta, Arup

    2016-01-01

    Bulk quantities (60 g) of nanocrystalline (nc) free flowing urania powders with crystallite size ranging from 38 to 252 nm have been synthesized for the first time by the citrate gel combustion method. A systematic study of the influence of the fuel (citric acid) to oxidant (nitrate) ratio (R) on the characteristics of the urania powders has been carried out for the first time. Mixture with an "R" value of 0.25 exhibited a vigorous auto-ignition reaction. This reaction was investigated with Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and in-situ thermogravimetry coupled with differential thermal analysis and mass spectrometry (TG-DTA-MS). The bulk density, specific surface area, X-ray crystallite size, residual carbon and size distribution of particles of this powder were unique. Microscopic and microstructural investigation of selected samples revealed the presence of nanocrystals with irregular exfoliated morphology; their Electron Energy Loss Spectra testified the covalency of the U-O bond.

  13. A method for controlling the synthesis of stable twisted two-dimensional conjugated molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongjun; Jia, Zhiyu; Xiao, Shengqiang; Liu, Huibiao; Li, Yuliang

    2016-01-01

    Thermodynamic stabilization (π-electron delocalization through effective conjugation) and kinetic stabilization (blocking the most-reactive sites) are important considerations when designing stable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons displaying tunable optoelectronic properties. Here, we demonstrate an efficient method for preparing a series of stable two-dimensional (2D) twisted dibenzoterrylene-acenes. We investigated their electronic structures and geometries in the ground state through various experiments assisted by calculations using density functional theory. We find that the length of the acene has a clear effect on the photophysical, electrochemical, and magnetic properties. These molecules exhibit tunable ground-state structures, in which a stable open-shell quintet tetraradical can be transferred to triplet diradicals. Such compounds are promising candidates for use in nonlinear optics, field effect transistors and organic spintronics; furthermore, they may enable broader applications of 2D small organic molecules in high-performance electronic and optical devices. PMID:27181692

  14. Synthesis of amorphous carbon from bio-products by drying method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamungkas, Diajeng I.; Haikal, Anas; Baqiya, Malik A.; Cahyono, Yoyok; Darminto

    2018-04-01

    Amorphous carbon (a-C) has extensively been studied in the last two decades due to many superior properties. Amorphous carbon was successfully prepared by carbonization of organic compounds exposed up to 200°C. Organic compounds that used in this research were coconut sap, lontar palm sap and their derivatives. The X-ray diffraction pattern shows that carbonization of organic compounds produce amorphous carbon phase at 2θ =20°. The infrared absorption in the region from 500 to 4000 cm-1 were resolved into several peaks, which were assigned to C-H, C=C, C-O, C=O and O-H. Four point probe method was also used to measure the conductivity and band gap of each material, resulting in 1.73 - 29.6 S/m and 0.08 - 0.49 eV respectively.

  15. Surfactant-assisted synthesis of BaTiO3 nanoparticles by micro-emulsion method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Gao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Barium titanate (BaTiO3 nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by using a surfactant-assisted method. The various processing parameters, namely, th e species of surfactant, reaction temperature and micro-emusion concentration had been varied, and the effects on the micrographs and crystal structure of BaTiO3 particles had been analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD. XRD analyses confirming the tetragonal structure of the BaTiO3 nanoparticles using hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium Bromide (CTAB or nonylphenol polyoxyethylene ether (NP-10 as surfactant. The SEM analysis showed that by changing the species of surfactant, grains with different dimensions could be synthesized. TEM analyses indicate that BaTiO3 nanoparticles with 15–20 nm in diameter were successfully synthesized.

  16. Synthesis of high saturation magnetization FeCo nanoparticles by polyol reduction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, F. J.; Yao, J.; Min, J. J.; Li, J. H.; Chen, X. Q.

    2016-03-01

    FeCo nanoparticles with different compositions were prepared by a polyol reduction method and annealed in gas mixtures. All FeCo nanoparticles show large saturation magnetization (over 220 emu/g). The largest saturation magnetization of 273 emu/g was observed in the Fe55Co45 sample. As for Fe48Co52, the impurity phase of CoFe2O4 existed when nanoparticles were annealed at low temperature (200-400 °C). While annealed at above 450 °C, pure Fe48Co52 nanoparticles with large saturation magnetization of 230 emu/g were obtained. These FeCo nanoparticles with large saturation magnetization have great potential in some industry fields.

  17. Solvent engineering and other reaction design methods for favouring enzyme-catalysed synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuner, Birgitte

    important for FAE activity and stability in IL-buffer (15% v/v) systems. The quantum chemistry-based COSMO-RS method was applied for explaining the IL anion effect in terms of hydrogen bonding capacity. Furthermore, the usefulness of COSMO-RS and other thermodynamically based tools in solvent selection...... for FAE-catalysed acylation reactions was reviewed. FAE type A from Aspergillus niger and an FAE from a commercial preparation from Humicola insolens, Depol 740L, could not catalyse the esterification of arabinose or xylose with hydroxycinnamates in IL-buffer systems or in surfactantless microemulsion...... the biocatalytic productivity of 2.5-fold. However, the recyclability of the immobilized enzyme was low. Reusing Tr6 seven times in a membrane reactor increased the trans-sialylation yield on the limiting substrate 1.3-fold, emphasizing the importance of the continuous product removal. Furthermore...

  18. NiTiO3 powders obtained by polymeric precursor method: Synthesis and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, K.P.; Cavalcante, L.S.; Simoes, A.Z.; Varela, J.A.; Longo, E.; Leite, E.R.

    2009-01-01

    Nickel titanate (NiTiO 3 ) powders were synthesized by the polymeric precursor method after thermal treatment at different temperatures for 2 h in air atmosphere. The decomposition of the precursors was monitored by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis. The NiTiO 3 powders presented a reduction in the specific surface area and increase of the average particle size with the evolution of the temperature. The structural evolution of NiTiO 3 phase was accompanied by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy. By scanning electron microscopy was revealed the agglomerated nature of very fine particles of NiTiO 3 powders annealed from 600 to 1000 deg. C

  19. Synthesis of nano sized ZnO by chemical method via refluxing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najidha, S.; Malik, M. M.; Shastri, Lokesh; Koutu, V.

    2017-06-01

    Recently, nanomaterials have attracted attention of researchers as advanced technological materials because of their unique structural, optical and electrical characteristics. In this work, ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical reduction method in an aqueous solution via refluxing using Zinc acetate dehydrate and sodium hydroxide as precursors. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The XRD pattern indicates hexagonal wurtzite structure with average grain size of 0.628nm and 0.491nm at refluxing temperatures 90°C and 100°C respectively. The FESEM images reveal that the as-prepared powder shows cubical structures with hexagonal base with an average size of ˜47 nm for 90°C reflux sample and ˜44nm for 100°C reflux sample.

  20. De-agglomeration of thorium oxalate - a method for the synthesis of sinteractive thoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananthasivan, K.; Anthonysamy, S.; Singh, Alok; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.

    2002-01-01

    Thorium oxalate was obtained by precipitation in water and in non-aqueous solvents and de-agglomerated by ultrasonication in both aqueous as well as non-aqueous media. Sinteractive thoria (crystallite size 6-20 nm) obtained from the de-agglomerated thorium oxalate was characterised for residual carbon, crystallite size, specific surface area, particle size distribution and bulk density. Microstructure of the precursor and the product was studied using TEM and HRTEM. The morphology of the sintered pellets was studied using SEM. The reactivity of the calcined powders was determined by measuring the density of the sintered compacts. The solvent used for de-agglomeration was found to have significant influence on the microstructure of the powders. Thoria derived through aqueous precipitation route could be sintered to a density of 9.7 Mg m -3 at 1673 K. It was demonstrated that ultrasonic de-agglomeration could be a useful method for obtaining sinteractive thoria

  1. The effects of hydrogen proportion on the synthesis of carbon nanomaterials with gaseous detonation (deflagration) method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tiejun; Li, Xiaojie; Lee, John H. S.; Yan, Honghao

    2018-02-01

    Using ferrocene, H2 and O2, Carbon nanomaterials were prepared with gaseous detonation (deflagration) method. The effects of H2 on the phase and morphology of carbon nanomaterials were studied by various proportions of H2 in the reaction. The prepared samples were characterized by x-ray diffractometer, transmission electron microscope and Raman spectrometer. The results show that hydrogen proportion has a great influence on the phase and morphology of carbon nanomaterials. The high hydrogen proportion leads to much unreacted hydrogen, which could protect the iron atom from oxidation of carbon and dilute the reactants contributing to uniform particle size. In addition, the graphitization degree of multi-walled carbon nanotubes, observed in samples with high H2 proportion, is high enough to see the lattice fringes, but the degree of graphitization of whole sample is lower than which fabricated with low H2 proportion, and it may result from the low energy generation.

  2. Matrix based method for synthesis of main intensified and integrated distillation sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalili-Garakani, Amirhossein; Kasiri, Norollah; Ivakpour, Javad

    2016-01-01

    The objective of many studies in this area has involved access to a column-sequencing algorithm enabling designers and researchers alike to generate a wide range of sequences in a broad search space, and be as mathematically and as automated as possible for programing purposes and with good generality. In the present work an algorithm previously developed by the authors, called the matrix method, has been developed much further. The new version of the algorithm includes thermally coupled, thermodynamically equivalent, intensified, simultaneous heat and mass integrated and divided-wall column sequences which are of gross application and provide vast saving potential both on capital investment, operating costs and energy usage in industrial applications. To demonstrate the much wider searchable space now accessible, a three component separation has been thoroughly examined as a case study, always resulting in an integrated sequence being proposed as the optimum.

  3. Synthesis, sintering and dissolution of thorium and uranium (IV) mixed oxide solid solutions: influence of the method of precursor preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hingant, N.

    2008-12-01

    Mixed actinide dioxides are currently considered as potential fuels for the third and fourth generations of nuclear reactors. In this context, thorium-uranium (IV) dioxide solid solutions were studied as model compounds to underline the influence of the method of preparation on their physico-chemical properties. Two methods of synthesis, both based on the initial precipitation of oxalate precursors have been developed. The first consisted in the direct precipitation ('open' system) while the second involved hydrothermal conditions ('closed' system). The second method led to a significant improvement in the crystallization of the samples especially in the field of the increase of the grain size. In these conditions, the formation of a complete solid solution Th 1-x U x (C 2 O 4 ) 2 .2H 2 O was prepared between both end-members. Its crystal structure was also resolved. Whatever the initial method considered, these compounds led to the final dioxides after heating above 400 C. The various steps associated to this transformation, involving the dehydration of precursors then the decomposition of oxalate groups have been clarified. Moreover, the use of wet chemistry methods allowed to reduce the sintering temperature of the final thorium-uranium (IV) dioxide solid solutions. Whatever the method of preparation considered, dense samples (95% to 97% of the calculated value) were obtained after only 3 hours of heating at 1500 C. Additionally, the use of hydrothermal conditions significantly increased the grain size, leading to the reduction of the occurrence of the grain boundaries and of the global residual porosity. The significant improvement in the homogeneity of cations distribution in the samples was also highlighted. Finally, the chemical durability of thorium-uranium (IV) dioxide solid solutions was evaluated through the development of leaching tests in nitric acid. The optimized homogeneity especially in terms of the cations distribution, allowed to limit the

  4. Surfactant free rapid synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanorods by a microwave irradiation method for the treatment of bone infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vani, R; Sridevi, T S; Kalkura, S Narayana; Raja, Subramaniya Bharathi; Savithri, K; Devaraj, S Niranjali; Girija, E K; Thamizhavel, A

    2011-01-01

    Mesoporous nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (nHAp) rods of size 40-75 nm long and 25 nm wide (resembling bone mineral) were synthesized under microwave irradiation without using any surfactants or modifiers. The surface area and average pore size of the nHAp were found to be 32 m 2 g -1 and 4 nm, respectively. Rifampicin (RIF) and ciprofloxacin (CPF) loaded nHAp displayed an initial burst followed by controlled release (zero order kinetics). Combination of CPF and RIF loaded nHAp showed enhanced bacterial growth inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus (S aureus), Staphylococcus epidermidis (S epidermidis) and Escherichia coli (E coli) compared to individual agent loaded nHAp and pure nHAp. In addition, decreased bacterial adhesion (90%) was observed on the surface of CPF plus RIF loaded nHAp. The biocompatibility test toward MG63 cells infected with micro-organisms showed better cell viability and alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) for the combination of CPF and RIF loaded nHAp. The influence on cell viability of infected MG63 cells was attributed to the simultaneous and controlled release of CPF and RIF from nHAp, which prevented the emergence of subpopulations that were resistant to each other. Hence, apart from the issue of the rapid synthesis of nHAp without surfactants or modifiers, the simultaneous and controlled release of dual drugs from nHAp would be a simple, non-toxic and cost-effective method to treat bone infections.

  5. Single step synthesis of rutile TiO2 nanoflower array film by chemical bath deposition method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhandayuthapani, T.; Sivakumar, R.; Ilangovan, R.

    2016-05-01

    Titanium oxide (TiO2) nanostructures such as nanorod arrays, nanotube arrays and nanoflower arrays have been extensively investigated by the researchers. Among them nanoflower arrays has shown superior performance than other nanostructures in Dye sensitized solar cell, photocatalysis and energy storage applications. Herein, a single step synthesis for rutile TiO2 nanoflower array films suitable for device applications has been reported. Rutile TiO2 nanoflower thin film was synthesized by chemical bath deposition method using NaCl as an additive. Bath temperature induced evolution of nanoflower thin film arrays was observed from the morphological study. X-ray diffraction study confirmed the presence of rutile phase polycrystalline TiO2. Micro-Raman study revealed the presence of surface phonon mode at 105 cm-1 due to the phonon confinement effect (finite size effect), in addition with the rutile Raman active modes of B1g (143 cm-1), Eg (442 cm-1) and A1g (607 cm-1). Further, the FTIR spectrum confirmed the presence of Ti-O-Ti bonding vibration. The Tauc plot showed the direct energy band gap nature of the film with the value of 2.9 eV.

  6. Surfactant free rapid synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanorods by a microwave irradiation method for the treatment of bone infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vani, R; Sridevi, T S; Kalkura, S Narayana [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Raja, Subramaniya Bharathi; Savithri, K; Devaraj, S Niranjali [Department of Biochemistry, University of Madras, Chennai 600 025 (India); Girija, E K [Department of Physics, Periyar University, Salem 636 011 (India); Thamizhavel, A, E-mail: kalkurasn@annauniv.edu, E-mail: kalkura@yahoo.com [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India)

    2011-07-15

    Mesoporous nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (nHAp) rods of size 40-75 nm long and 25 nm wide (resembling bone mineral) were synthesized under microwave irradiation without using any surfactants or modifiers. The surface area and average pore size of the nHAp were found to be 32 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} and 4 nm, respectively. Rifampicin (RIF) and ciprofloxacin (CPF) loaded nHAp displayed an initial burst followed by controlled release (zero order kinetics). Combination of CPF and RIF loaded nHAp showed enhanced bacterial growth inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus (S aureus), Staphylococcus epidermidis (S epidermidis) and Escherichia coli (E coli) compared to individual agent loaded nHAp and pure nHAp. In addition, decreased bacterial adhesion (90%) was observed on the surface of CPF plus RIF loaded nHAp. The biocompatibility test toward MG63 cells infected with micro-organisms showed better cell viability and alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) for the combination of CPF and RIF loaded nHAp. The influence on cell viability of infected MG63 cells was attributed to the simultaneous and controlled release of CPF and RIF from nHAp, which prevented the emergence of subpopulations that were resistant to each other. Hence, apart from the issue of the rapid synthesis of nHAp without surfactants or modifiers, the simultaneous and controlled release of dual drugs from nHAp would be a simple, non-toxic and cost-effective method to treat bone infections.

  7. Controlled synthesis of ZnO hollow microspheres via precursor-template method and its gas sensing property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Yu; Li, Jinchai; Xiong, Hui; Dai, Jiangnan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Zn powder as precursor template for synthesis ZnO hollow spheres. ► Different precursor templates result in different ZnO nanostructures. ► Different experimental conditions enable growth of different surface morphologies of ZnO sphere. ► ZnO hollow sphere materials have good gas sensing performance for detecting ethanol gas. - Abstract: Using Zn powder as precursor templates, ZnO hollow microspheres were successfully prepared by thermal evaporation method and characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. It was found that different size and shape of precursor resulted in different ZnO nanostructures. When varying experimental conditions, such as air flow rate and working pressure, ZnO hollow spheres with different surface morphologies could be obtained. The advantages of the present synthetic technology are simple, relatively low cost, and high reproducibility. A gas sensor was fabricated from the as-prepared ZnO hollow microspheres and tested to the ethanol gas at different operating temperatures.

  8. Synthesis and luminescence properties of YVO4:Eu3+ cobblestone - like microcrystalline phosphors obtained from the mixed solvent - thermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Xiuzhen; Lu Guanzhong; Shen Shaodian; Mao Dongsen; Guo Yun; Wang Yanqin

    2011-01-01

    The mixed solvent-thermal method has been developed for the synthesis of YVO 4 :Eu 3+ luminescent materials in the N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF)/ de-ionized water (DIW) solution. The samples have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electronic microscope (TEM), UV/vis absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopies. The results demonstrate that we have obtained the uniform YVO 4 :Eu 3+ cobblestone - like microcrystalline phosphors in the mixed solution of DMF and DIW, which are different to the as-obtained YVO 4 :Eu 3+ nanoparticles in pure DIW. And the as - prepared YVO 4 :Eu 3+ microcrystalline particles are composed of numerous nanoparticles. The assembling phenomenon of the nanoparticles is strongly affected by the pH value of the solution and the volume ratio of DMF/DIW. Under UV excitation, the samples can emit the bright red light. While, the photoluminescence (PL) intensities of YVO 4 :Eu 3+ show some difference for samples obtained under the different reaction conditions. This is because that different microstructures of samples result in different combinative abilities between the surface and the adsorbed species so as to produce the different quenching abilities to the emission from Eu 3+ ions.

  9. A comparative study of the synthesis of CdO nanoplatelets by an albumen-assisted isothermal evaporation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, T., E-mail: prakash_nano@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, Tamilnadu College of Engineering, Karumathampatti, Coimbatore 641 659, Tamil Nadu (India); Neri, G. [Department of Electronic Engineering, Chemistry and Industrial Engineering, University of Messina, 98166 Messina (Italy); Ranjith Kumar, E. [Sri Ramakrishna Mission Vidyalaya Swami Shivananda Higher Secondary School, Coimbatore 641 020, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2015-03-05

    Highlights: • CdO nanoplatelets prepared by the presence of albumen as a bio-template agent. • Albumen strongly aided the formation of the pure cadmium phase. • This way to synthesize CdO nanoplatelets very promising for optical application. - Abstract: In this paper, the synthesis of CdO nanoplatelets by the isothermal evaporation method in the presence of egg white (albumen) as a bio-template agent is reported for the first time. The morphological and microstructural characteristics of products obtained after drying at 130 °C and annealing at 300 °C have been investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), and compared with corresponding samples obtained in the absence of template. The characterization techniques evidenced remarkable differences between the two sample typologies. Specifically, crystalline CdO in the cubic phase was obtained only in the presence of albumen. The samples were further analyzed by electrical conductivity measurement, ultraviolet spectral studies (UV) and photoluminescence (PL) to ascertain their possible use for optical and electrical applications.

  10. Surfactant free rapid synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanorods by a microwave irradiation method for the treatment of bone infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vani, R.; Bharathi Raja, Subramaniya; Sridevi, T. S.; Savithri, K.; Niranjali Devaraj, S.; Girija, E. K.; Thamizhavel, A.; Narayana Kalkura, S.

    2011-07-01

    Mesoporous nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (nHAp) rods of size 40-75 nm long and 25 nm wide (resembling bone mineral) were synthesized under microwave irradiation without using any surfactants or modifiers. The surface area and average pore size of the nHAp were found to be 32 m2 g - 1 and 4 nm, respectively. Rifampicin (RIF) and ciprofloxacin (CPF) loaded nHAp displayed an initial burst followed by controlled release (zero order kinetics). Combination of CPF and RIF loaded nHAp showed enhanced bacterial growth inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus (S aureus), Staphylococcus epidermidis (S epidermidis) and Escherichia coli (E coli) compared to individual agent loaded nHAp and pure nHAp. In addition, decreased bacterial adhesion (90%) was observed on the surface of CPF plus RIF loaded nHAp. The biocompatibility test toward MG63 cells infected with micro-organisms showed better cell viability and alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) for the combination of CPF and RIF loaded nHAp. The influence on cell viability of infected MG63 cells was attributed to the simultaneous and controlled release of CPF and RIF from nHAp, which prevented the emergence of subpopulations that were resistant to each other. Hence, apart from the issue of the rapid synthesis of nHAp without surfactants or modifiers, the simultaneous and controlled release of dual drugs from nHAp would be a simple, non-toxic and cost-effective method to treat bone infections.

  11. New method for synthesis of N-alkyl and N,N-dialkyl-O-ethyl and O-isopropylthiocarbamates by oxidation of ammonium salt of xhantogenic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milisavljević Smiljka S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A synthesis of N-alkyl and N,N-dialkyl-O-ethyl and O-isopropyl thiocarbamates by oxidation of ammonium salt of ethyl and isopropylxanthogenic acid in a presence of sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide were performed. Ammonium salt of ethyl and isopropylxanthogenic acid was obtained by the reaction of alkylammonium sulfate and sodium ethyl and isopropyl xanthate. Studies on a dependence of N-ethyl-O-isopropylthiocarbamate yield and purity with respect to reaction parameters (reaction time, molar ratio of oxidant and ethylamonium salt of isopropylxanthogenic acid were performed. Optimal reaction conditions for synthesis of N-alkyl and N,N-dialkyl-O-ethyl and O-isopropyl thiocarbamates were established. Synthesized compounds have been fully characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR and MS data, while purity has been determined by GC method. A plausible pathway for the N-alkyl and N,N-dialkyl-O-ethyl and O-isopropyl thiocarbamates synthesis, in the presence of the oxidative agents sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide, was proposed. The presented synthetic methods has been developed at laboratory and applied at semi-industrial level. The developed optimal method provides a powerful and versatile method for the preparation of N-alkyl and N,N-dialkyl-O-ethyl and O-isopropyl thiocarbamates. This new optimized method offer several benefits, namely, simple operation, mild reaction conditions, bypass of hazardous organic solvents, moderately toxic and inexpensive reagents, and also short reaction times and high product yields.

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of New Thiolated Chitosan Nanoparticles Obtained by Ionic Gelation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo Esquivel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We derivatized low molecular weight chitosan (LMWC with 3-mercaptopropanoic acid (3-MPA by a coupling reaction. The chemical modification of LMWC was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and nuclear magnetic resonance, 1HNMR. We researched the influence of 3-MPA on the nanoparticles formation by ionic gelation method using sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP as cross-linker reagent. In order to optimize the nanoparticles formation, we studied the effect of the pH solution and molar ratio on nanoparticles stability. Analyses of particle size, morphology, and surface charge were determined by dynamic light scattering, Atomic Force Microscopy, and zeta potential, respectively. It was found that formation of semispherical and stable nanoparticles was improved due to the chemical modification of chitosan. Optimized semispherical nanoparticles of thiolated chitosan were synthesized with the parameters (pH 4.7, molar ratios 1 : 106. Additionally, we reported the thermodynamic profile of the nanoparticles formation determined by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC. The aggregation process achieved to form nanoparticles of thiolated and nonmodified chitosan consisted of two stages, considering one binding site model. Gibbs free energy (ΔG and binding constant (Ka describe the aggregation process of thiolated chitosan/TPP, which is an initial reaction and followed by an endothermic stage. These results are promising for the possible application of these nanoparticles as nanocarriers and delivery systems.

  13. Synthesis spherical porous hydroxyapatite/graphene oxide composites by ultrasonic-assisted method for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Peizhen; Shen, Juan; Zou, Guohong; Xia, Xu; Jin, Bo; Yu, Jiaxin

    2018-03-05

    Spherical porous hydroxyapatite (SHA)/graphene oxide (GO) composites with different GO (w/w) content of 16%, 40%, and 71% have been fabricated through a facile and controllable ultrasonic-assisted method at room temperature. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), mechanical testing and biomimetic mineralization. Results showed SHA were covered by GO, and SHA/GO composites had an irregular surface with different degrees of wrinkles. The elastic modulus and hardness of SHA/GO-3 composites were up to 12.45 ± 0.33 GPa and 686.67 ± 26.95 MPa, which indicated that the contents of GO had an effect on SHA/GO composites. And the mechanical properties of SHA/GO-2 composites were similar to SHA particles. The biomimetic mineralization in SBF solution showed the bone-like apatite layer on composites surface, which demonstrated that the SHA/GO materials had osseointegration property. Moreover, in vitro cytocompatibility of SHA/GO-2 composites and pure GO were evaluated by cell adhesion and proliferation tests using MC3T3-E1 cells, which demonstrated that the SHA/GO composites can act as a good template for the cells growth and adhesion. These results suggested that the SHA/GO composites will be a promising material for biomedical application. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of CdTe nanostructures grown by RF magnetron sputtering method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarnejad, Elaheh; Ghoranneviss, Mahmood; Hantehzadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we synthesize Cadmium Telluride nanostructures by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering system on soda lime glass at various thicknesses. The effect of CdTe nanostructures thickness on crystalline, optical and morphological properties has been studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometry, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. The XRD parameters of CdTe nanostructures such as microstrain, dislocation density, and crystal size have been examined. From XRD analysis, it could be assumed that increasing deposition time caused the formation of the wurtzite hexagonal structure of the sputtered films. Optical properties of the grown nanostructures as a function of film thickness have been observed. All the films indicate more than 60% transmission over a wide range of wavelengths. The optical band gap values of the films have obtained in the range of 1.62-1.45 eV. The results indicate that an RF sputtering method succeeded in depositing of CdTe nanostructures with high purity and controllable physical properties, which is appropriate for photovoltaic and nuclear detector applications.

  15. Synthesis and Photocatalytic Activity of Iron Doped CdS by Hydrothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Yang-long

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Fe-doped cadmium sulfide was prepared by hydrothermal method in aqueous solution using cadmium nitrate, ferric nitrate and thiourea as raw materials. The samples were characterized by SEM, XRD, EDS and XPS. The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB in aqueous solution was used as a target reaction to evaluate their photocatalytic activity. The experimental results show that the reaction temperature has a great effect on the morphology of cadmium sulfide, and spherical, flowerlike, clustered and rodlike cadmium sulfide are obtained in various reaction temperatures. Among them, the photocatalytic activity of flowerlike CdS is observed to be better than other CdS materials. The XRD indicates that Fe-doped cadmium sulfide is hexagonal crystal structure when the reaction temperature is 160℃. The experimental results also indicate that Fe-doped can obviously improve the photocatalytic activity of cadmium sulfide and when the doping ratio of Fe to Cd is 1:10, the photocatalytic effect is the best of all.

  16. Synthesis of Silver-Strontium Titanate Hybrid Nanoparticles by Sol-Gel-Hydrothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shintaro Ueno

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Silver (Ag nanoparticle-loaded strontium titanate (SrTiO3 nanoparticles were attempted to be synthesized by a sol-gel-hydrothermal method. We prepared the titanium oxide precursor gels incorporated with Ag+ and Sr2+ ions with various molar ratios, and they were successfully converted into the Ag-SrTiO3 hybrid nanoparticles by the hydrothermal treatment at 230 °C in strontium hydroxide aqueous solutions. The morphology of the SrTiO3 nanoparticles is dendritic in the presence and absence of Ag+ ions. The precursor gels, which act as the high reactive precursor, give rise to high nucleation and growth rates under the hydrothermal conditions, and the resultant diffusion-limited aggregation phenomena facilitate the dendritic growth of SrTiO3. From the field-emission transmission electron microscope observation of these Ag-SrTiO3 hybrid nanoparticles, the Ag nanoparticles with a size of a few tens of nanometers are distributed without severe agglomeration, owing to the competitive formation reactions of Ag and SrTiO3.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of graphenated carbon nanotubes on IONPs using acetylene by chemical vapor deposition method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchudan, Raji; Perumal, Suguna; Edison, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel; Pandurangan, Arumugam; Lee, Yong Rok

    2015-11-01

    The graphenated carbon nanotubes (G-CNTs) were synthesized on monodisperse spherical iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) using acetylene as carbon precursor by simple chemical vapor deposition method. The reaction parameters such as temperature and flow of carbon source were optimized in order to achieve G-CNTs with excellent quality and quantity. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) clearly illustrated that the graphene flakes are forming along the whole length on CNTs. The degree of graphitization was revealed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and Raman spectroscopic techniques. The intensity of D to G value was less than one which confirms the obtained G-CNTs have high degree of graphitization. The optimum reaction temperature for the IONPs to form metallic clusters which in turn lead to the formation of G-CNTs with high carbon deposition yield is at 900 °C. The TEM shows the CNTs diameter is 50 nm with foiled graphene flakes of diameter around 70 nm. Our results advocate for IONPs as a promising catalytic template for quantitative and qualitative productivity of nanohybrid G-CNTs. The produced G-CNTs with high degree of graphitization might be an ideal candidate for nanoelectronic application like super capacitors and so on.

  18. Synthesis of assembled ZnO structures by precipitation method in aqueous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepulveda-Guzman, S. [Centro de Innovacion, Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ingenieria y Tecnologia, UANL Km. 10 de la nueva carretera al Aeropuerto Internacional de Monterrey, PIIT Monterrey, Apodaca NL (Mexico); Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica de la UANL, Ciudad Universitaria San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon C.P. 66451 (Mexico)], E-mail: ssepulveda@mail.uanl.mx; Reeja-Jayan, B. [Texas Materials Institute, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C0803 (United States); Rosa, E. de la [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, A.C. Loma del Bosque 115 Col. Lomas del Campestre, Leon Gto. C.P. 37150 (Mexico); Torres-Castro, A.; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, V. [Centro de Innovacion, Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ingenieria y Tecnologia, UANL Km. 10 de la nueva carretera al Aeropuerto Internacional de Monterrey, PIIT Monterrey, Apodaca NL (Mexico); Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica de la UANL, Ciudad Universitaria San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon C.P. 66451 (Mexico); Jose-Yacaman, M. [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Texas at San Antonio, 1604 Campus San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    In this work, arrays of submicron ZnO structures were successfully synthesized using a one-step aqueous precipitation method. Snowflake-like and flower-like morphologies were obtained by changing the reaction temperature. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns indicated that the ZnO arrays have a wurtzite crystal structure. A possible growth mechanism based on the analysis done by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and high-angle annular dark field (HAADF) is proposed. Our findings suggest that the growth mechanism of the ZnO arrays is by self-aggregation, and that such an oriented aggregation is enhanced by increasing the reaction temperature. The results also revealed that the aggregation process introduces several structural defects such as differences in mass distribution and crystalline structure. In order to study the surface chemical composition the samples were also characterized by XPS. The results showed the presence of Zn(OH){sub 2} and absorbed carbon species on the ZnO surface. In addition, the photoluminescence characterization showed that on UV excitation ({lambda} = 360 nm) all samples present the characteristic UV emission centered at 390 nm, and for the sample synthesized at 60 deg. C, a visible emission was also observed.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of silver/talc nanocomposites using the wet chemical reduction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shameli, Kamyar; Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Yunus, Wan Zin Wan; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Darroudi, Majid

    2010-01-01

    In this study, silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) were synthesized using the wet chemical reduction method on the external surface layer of talc mineral as a solid support. Silver nitrate and sodium borohydride were used as the silver precursor and reducing agent in talc. The talc was suspended in aqueous AgNO3 solution. After the absorption of Ag+ on the surface, the ions were reduced with NaBH4. The interlamellar space limits were without many changes (ds = 9.34–9.19 Aº); therefore, Ag-NPs formed on the exterior surface of talc, with dave = 7.60–13.11 nm in diameter. The properties of Ag/talc nanocomposites (Ag/talc-NCs) and the diameters of the Ag-NPs prepared in this way depended on the primary AgNO3 concentration. The prepared Ag-NPs were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared. These Ag/talc-NCs may have potential applications in the chemical and biological industries. PMID:21042420

  20. Highly graphitized laterally interconnected SWCNT network synthesis via a sandwich-grown method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, I-Ju; Chen, Kai-Ling; Wang, Li-Chun; Kuo, Cheng-Tzu; Hsu, Hui-Lin; Jian, Sheng-Rui; Chen, Jung-Hsuan; Wang, Wei-Hsiang

    2011-01-01

    We present a sandwich-grown method for growing laterally interconnected single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) networks with a high degree of graphitization by microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition (MPCVD). An Al 2 O 3 -supported Fe catalyst precursor layer deposited on an oxidized Si substrate with an upper Si cover is first pretreated in pure hydrogen, and then exposed to a gas mixture of methane/hydrogen for growth process at a lower growth temperature and a faster rate. The effects of various parameters, such as catalyst film thickness, gas flow rate, working pressure, growth time and plasma power, on the morphologies and structural characteristics of the SWCNT networks are investigated, and therefore provide the essential conditions for direct growth of laterally interconnected SWCNT networks. Analytical results demonstrate that the SWCNT-based lateral architecture comprises a mixture of graphene-sheet-wrapped catalyst particles and laterally interconnected nanotubes, isolated or branched or assembled into bundles. The results also show that the formation of the laterally interconnected SWCNT networks is related to the sandwich-like stack approach and the addition of an Al 2 O 3 layer in the MPCVD process. The successful growth of lateral SWCNT networks provides new experimental information for simply and efficiently preparing lateral SWCNTs on unpatterned substrates, and opens a pathway to create network-structured nanotube-based devices.

  1. Synthesis of SiCN@TiO2 core-shell ceramic microspheres via PDCs method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongli; Wei, Ning; Li, Jing; Zhang, Haiyuan; Chu, Peng

    2018-02-01

    A facile and effective polymer-derived ceramics (PDCs) emulsification-crosslinking-pyrolysis method was developed to fabricate SiCN@TiO2 core-shell ceramic microspheres with polyvinylsilazane (PVSZ) and tetrabutyl titanate (TBT) as precursors. The TBT: PVSZ mass ratios, emulsifier concentrations and the pyrolysis temperature were examined as control parameters to tune the size and morphology of microspheres. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the synthesized SiCN@TiO2 microspheres to be comprised of SiCN core coated with TiO2 crystals, with an average size of 0.88 μm when pyrolyzed at 1400 °C. The analysis of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) ensured that SiCN@TiO2 core-shell ceramic microspheres composed of rutile TiO2, β-SiC and Si3N4 crystalline phases, The thermal properties were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The obtained SiCN@TiO2 core-shell ceramic microspheres were the promising candidate of the infrared opacifier in silica aerogels and this technique can be extended to other preceramic polymers.

  2. A low cost microwave synthesis method for preparation of gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo Vo Ke Thanh; Lam Quang Vinh; Nguyen Dang Giang; Huynh Thanh Dat

    2014-01-01

    The gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in 15-20 nm size range have attention for fabrication of smart sensing devices in biomedical sciences as diagnostic tools. Citrate capped GNPs are negatively charged, which can be exploited for electrostatic interactions with some positively charged biomolecules like antibody. In this study, we are developing a low-cost technique by using a common microwave system with medium power for synthesizing gold nanoparticles with using sodium citrate (Na 3 Ct) reduction in chloroauric acid (HAuCl 4 .3H 2 O). It was found that the comparing with normal thermal method, the reaction by the microwave irradiation was much faster. Besides, the effects the sodium citrate concentration and optical properties of gold nanoparticles were studied. The optical properties of gold nanoparticles suspension were characterized by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis). Maximum absorbance wavelengths (λ max ) for gold nanoparticles are ∼ 518-524 nm with the size of 12-25 nm. The size of gold nanoparticles decreases with increasing concentration of sodium citrate. Besides, the morphology of gold nanoparticles have a spherical shape with face-centered-cubic (fcc) crystalline structure. (author)

  3. Synthesis of fly-ash cenospheres coated with polypyrrole using a layer-by-layer method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qin; Wang Bing; Li Chuang; Pang Jianfeng; Zhai Jianping

    2011-01-01

    Uniform polypyrrole (PPy) films, of controlled thickness, were successfully synthesized and immobilized on polyelectrolyte (PE) multilayer-assembled fly-ash cenospheres (FACs) using a simple and versatile method. In this approach, FACs were assembled with multilayers of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) and poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) using a layer-by-layer self-assembly procedure. The FACs were used as templates for the subsequent deposition of PPy. The deposition behaviours of PEs on the surfaces of the FACs were examined, and the results could be fitted to a first-order exponential decay model at pH 6. The surfaces of the PE-deposited FACs (FAC-(PDDA-PSS) n , n is the number of PE layers) became more homogeneous as n increased. Their properties were determined mainly by the PE, not by the FAC itself, after n = 4. PPy-coated FACs with PE precursor layers [(PPy/FAC-(PDDA-PSS) n ] had different morphologies for different numbers of PE layers. The PPy loading amount on the FACs and the conductivities of the composites reached plateaus after the PE layer deposition number exceeded six.

  4. A simple method for enzymatic synthesis of unlabeled and radiolabeled Hydroxycinnamate-CoA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautergarten, Carsten; Baidoo, Edward; Keasling, Jay; Vibe Scheller, Henrik

    2011-07-20

    Hydroxycinnamate coenzyme A (CoA) thioesters are substrates for biosynthesis of lignin and hydroxycinna- mate esters of polysaccharides and other polymers. Hence, a supply of these substrates is essential for investigation of cell wall biosynthesis. In this study, three recombinant enzymes, caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase, 4-coumarate- CoA ligase 1, and 4-coumarate-CoA ligase 5, were cloned from wheat, tobacco, and Arabidopsis, respectively, and were used to synthesize {sup 14}C-feruloyl-CoA, caffeoyl-CoA, p-coumaroyl-CoA, feruloyl-CoA, and sinapoyl-CoA. The corresponding hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA thioesters were high-performance liquid chromatography purified, the only extraction/purification step necessary, with total yields between 88-95%. Radiolabeled {sup 14}C-feruloyl-CoA was generated from caffeic acid and S-adenosyl-{sup 14}C-methionine under the combined action of caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase and 4-coumarate-CoA ligase 1. About 70% of {sup 14}C-methyl groups from S-adenosyl methionine were incorporated into the final product. The methods presented are simple, fast, and efficient for the preparation of the hydroxycinnamate thioesters.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of manganese ferrite nanoparticles by thermal treatment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarz Naseri, M.; Saion, E. Bin; Ahangar, H. Abbastabar; Hashim, M.; Shaari, A. H.

    2011-07-01

    Cubic structured manganese ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by a thermal treatment method followed by calcination at various temperatures from 723 to 873 K. In this investigation, we used polyvinyl pyrrolidon (PVP) as a capping agent to control the agglomeration of the nanoparticles. The characterization studies were conducted by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The average particle sizes of manganese ferrite nanoparticles were determined by TEM, which increased with the calcination temperature from 12 to 22 nm and they had good agreement with XRD results. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the presence of metal oxide bands at all temperatures and the absence of organic bands at 873 K. Magnetic properties were demonstrated by a vibrating sample magnetometer, which showed a super-paramagnetic behavior for all samples and also saturation magnetization (Ms) increases from 3.06 to 15.78 emu/g by increasing the calcination temperature. The magnetic properties were also confirmed by the use of electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, which revealed the existence of unpaired electrons and also measured peak-to-peak line width, resonant magnetic field and the g-factor.

  6. Synthesis of nanosilver particles by reverse micelle method and study of their bactericidal properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran Thi Ngoc Dung; Ngo Quoc Buu; Dang Viet Quang; Le Anh Bang; Nguyen Hoai Chau; Nguyen Thi Ly [Institute of Environmental Technology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Cau Giay Distr., Hanoi (Viet Nam); Huynh Thi Ha [Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Cau Giay Distr., Hanoi (Viet Nam); Nguyen Vu Trung [National Institute for Infectious and Tropical Diseases, 1 Ton That Tung, Dong Da Distr., Hanoi (Viet Nam)], E-mail: ttndzung@yahoo.com, E-mail: buu_nq@yahoo.com

    2009-09-01

    Nanosilver particles have been synthesized by the reverse micelle method, where AgNO{sub 3} was used as a silver ions source, NaBH{sub 4} and quercetin - as reducing agents, CTAB, SDOSS and AOT- as surfactants, while the stabilizer was Vietnamese chitosan. Studying the factors influencing the process of nanosilver particle formation, it was shown that the particle size of the nanosilver products depends on the concentration of the reaction components and their stoichiometric ratio. It was also shown that the reaction system using AOT surfactant is capable of producing nanosilver particles with smallest nanoparticles ({phi}{sub av} {approx} 5 nm) and good particle-size distribution. The study on bactericidal activity of the nanosilver products indicated that the disinfecting solution with a nanosilver concentration of 3 ppm was able to inhibit all E.coli and Coliforms, TPC and fungi at 15 ppm, while Vibrio cholerae cells were inactivated completely with 0.5 ppm of nanosilver after 30 minutes exposition.

  7. Synthesis and Electrochemical Performance of LiMnPO4 by Hydrothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daichi Fujimoto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available LiMnPO4 with olivinestructure which is the promising candidate for high voltage cathode material was synthesized by hydrothermal method. In order to synthesize high purity and well-defined LiMnPO4, several precursors for Li, Mn, and P sources and hydrothermal reaction parameters including temperature and [H2O]/[Mn] value are optimized. By analyzing the structure, Mn valence, morphology, and chemical ratio via XRD, XPS, Raman, SEM, and ICP LiMnPO4 synthesized from manganese acetate tetrahydrate have single phase of LiMnPO4 without impurity and showed charge and discharge reaction caused by Mn2+/Mn3+ redox. Specific capacity of synthesized LiMnPO4 grew up during cycling. Moreover, when hydrothermal temperature was set at 150°C and [H2O]/[Mn] value was set at 15, discharge capacity as high as 70 mAh/g was obtained at 1/20  C rate.

  8. One minute synthesis of amino-silane functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles by sonochemical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodipo, Bashiru K; Aziz, Azlan Abdul

    2018-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) are material of interest for biomedical research and related applications. Recently, several works have reported facile sonochemical method of functionalizing nanoparticles with organic coupling agents. Herein, we present the influence of ultrasonic irradiation on the rate of functionalization of 3-amino propyl triethoxyl silane (APTES) on SPION. The effect of sonication on the process is investigated by varying the sonication period between 1 and 20min. Grafting of the organo-metallic molecules on SPION is demonstrated through FTIR and XPS. The results show that in one minute, organo-silane compound can be functionalized onto SPION through unique conditions generated from ultrasonic irradiation. The XPS survey spectra of the as-synthesized APTES-SPION at different sonication periods revealed that absorbed energy due to silanization reactions in all the samples appeared at same peaks. The percentage atomic concentrations of all the elements present in the as-synthesized APTES-SPION are determined by the software CASAXPS. The result demonstrated that highest percentage atomic concentration is observed at the one minute sonication period. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Synthesis and catalytic activity of Birnessite-Type Manganese Oxide synthesized by solvent-free method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, S. S.; Awaluddin, A.

    2018-04-01

    Redox reaction between KMnO4 and glucose usingsolvent-free method produces the octahedral layer birnessite-type manganese oxide. The effects of mole ratios, temperatures, and calcinations time on the structures and crystallinity of the oxides were studied throughthe X-ray powder diffraction analysis. The mole ratio of KMnO4/glucose (1:3) produces the purebirnessite with low crystallinity, whereas the mole ratio of KMnO4/glucose (3:1) yields high crystalline birnessite with minor components of hausmannite-type manganese oxide.The increasing of the temperature and calcinations times (300-700 °C and 3-7 h, respectively) willimprove the crystallinity and the purity of the as-synthesized oxide. Further experiments also showed that the as-syntesized octahedral layer birnessite-type manganese oxides have catalytic activity on the degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye with H2O2 as oxidant. The results revealed that the effective degradation could be achieved only in the presence of both the birnessite and H2O2, whereas without the addition of catalyst (H2O2only) or addition of H2O2 (catalyst only), the 3.5% and 15.5% of MB removal were obtained, respectively.

  10. Synthesis and Characterization of Cobalt Substituted Zinc Ferrite Nanoparticles by Microwave Combustion Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararajan, M; Kennedy, L John; Vijaya, J Judith

    2015-09-01

    Pure and cobalt doped zinc ferrites were prepared by microwave combustion method using L-arginine as a fuel. The prepared samples were characterized by various instrumental techniques such as X-ray powder diffractometry, high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis, Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy and UV-Visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Vibrating sample magnetometry at room temperature was recorded to study the magnetic behavior of the samples. X-ray analysis confirmed the formation of zinc ferrites normal spinel-type structure with an average crystallite sizes in the range, 25.69 nm to 35.68 nm. The lattice parameters decreased as cobalt fraction was increased. The HR-SEM images showed nanoparticles are agglomerated. The estimated band gap energy value was found to decrease with an increase in cobalt content (1.87 to 1.62 eV). Broad visible emissions are observed in the photoluminescence spectra. A gradual increase in the coercivity and saturation magnetization (M(s)) were noted at relatively higher cobalt doping fractions.

  11. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of Co3O4 nanoparticles by hydrothermal method at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Qiuyan; Chen, Haiyan

    2017-06-01

    In this work, Co3O4 nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal method at different temperatures. The synthesized Co3O4 nanoparticles were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS) and nitrogen adsorption-desorption. The Co3O4 nanoparticles prepared at the hydrothermal temperature of 140 °C and at the annealing temperature of 350 °C have a shorter crystal spacing distance associated to the (220) crystal planes, larger BET surface area and more bivalent cobalt on the surface than these of Co3O4 nanoparticles prepared at higher hydrothermal temperature or higher annealing temperature. The supercapacitor performances of synthesized Co3O4 nanoparticles were analysed by cyclic voltammograms (CVs), Galvano static charge/discharge (GCD) and the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 6 M KOH aqueous electrolyte solution. The Co3O4 nanoparticles produced at lower temperatures exhibit good pseudo capacitance behaviour. Also, owning to the low hydrothermal temperature and the annealing temperature of Co3O4 nanoparticles, they can be relatively low cost in favour of a promising candidate for electrochemical supercapacitors.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of silver/talc nanocomposites using the wet chemical reduction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamyar Shameli

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Kamyar Shameli1, Mansor Bin Ahmad1, Wan Zin Wan Yunus1, Nor Azowa Ibrahim1, Majid Darroudi21Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, 2Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, MalaysiaAbstract: In this study, silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs were synthesized using the wet chemical reduction method on the external surface layer of talc mineral as a solid support. Silver nitrate and sodium borohydride were used as the silver precursor and reducing agent in talc. The talc was suspended in aqueous AgNO3 solution. After the absorption of Ag+ on the surface, the ions were reduced with NaBH4. The interlamellar space limits were without many changes (ds = 9.34–9.19 Aº; therefore, Ag-NPs formed on the exterior surface of talc, with dave = 7.60–13.11 nm in diameter. The properties of Ag/talc nanocomposites (Ag/talc-NCs and the diameters of the Ag-NPs prepared in this way depended on the primary AgNO3 concentration. The prepared Ag-NPs were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared. These Ag/talc-NCs may have potential applications in the chemical and biological industries.Keywords: nanocomposites, silver nanoparticles, talc, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy

  13. Synthesis and characterization of Zn2SiO4 ceramic pigments obtained by chemical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangel, J.H.G.; Silva, J.S.; Oliveira, M.M.; Azevedo, E.; Costa, M.G.S.; Longo, E.

    2014-01-01

    The silicates provide a wide field of application, ranging from molecular sieves to catalyst supports, and therefore their morphology resulting from the obtaining method of production has been widely studied. The isomorphous replacement of cation Zn in the structure of willemite by a chromophore metal has been widely studied in the use of silicate as ceramic pigments. In this study the polymeric precursor was used to synthesize zinc silicates of nickel-doped to obtain ceramic pigments. The polymeric precursor was treated at 350 deg C/2h and the material was calcined at temperatures from 700 to 1000 deg C/4h on plates of sintered alumina at a heating rate of 10 deg C/min under ambient atmosphere in a muffle furnace type. The results of the XRD indicated the presence of the rhombohedral phase of the willemite and the presence of ZnO as an secondary phase. The micrographs, obtained by SEM, showed that the increasing in the temperature of calcination of the material from 700 to 1000 deg C caused an increasing in particle size due to the formation of aggregates. The reissue spectra of Kubelka-Munk measured by diffuse reflectance showed signs that suggest the presence of different cations in coordination. Based on the results obtained by means of colorimetric coordinates, it was observed that the material had bluish gray color. (author)

  14. Ammonia-mediated Method for One-step and Surfactant-free Synthesis of Magnetite Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mansournia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Magnetite (Fe3O4 nanoparticles have been successfully prepared by a novel one-step and surfactant-free approach utilizing ferrous ion, as a single iron source. In this manner, the reaction occurs between two aqueous solutions via the spontaneous transfer of ammonia gas from one to another in room temperature. No ferric source or oxidizing specie, oxidation controlling and capping agents are needed and the method is suited for large-scale preparation. The effects of reaction conditions on the formation of Fe3O4 were investigated using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM techniques. The results have demonstrated that the pure and single phase magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized at the final pH values higher than 8. Accordingly, the formation mechanism of these nanostructures is proposed. Moreover, the vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM measurements of the as-synthesized nanoparticles show their room temperature superparamagnetic characteristic with a typical saturation magnetization of 51 emug−1.

  15. Synthesis of nanoparticles of barium strontium titanate using hydrothermal microwave method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, R.A.; Souza, A.E.; Teixeira, S.R.; Moreira, M.L.; Volanti, D.P.; Longo, E.

    2009-01-01

    Nanoparticles of barium strontium titanate Ba x Sr 1 - x TiO 3 (BST) had been prepared, with x = 0.5, using the hydrothermal method attended by microwaves (HTMW). A solution was prepared using deionized water, barium chloride (BaCl 2 .2H 2 O), strontium chloride (SrCl 2 .6H 2 O), titanium (IV) isopropoxide (C 12 H28O 4 Ti) and potassium hydroxide (KOH). Afterward the solution was heated to 140 deg C in a microwave oven, at a heating rate of 140 deg C/min, and maintained at this temperature for 40 min, under a pressure of 3 to 4 bar. X-ray diffraction (DRX) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) had been used in the particles characterization. DRX was used to identify the crystallized phases and the images taken from (FE-SEM) show that the material has a wide particle-size distribution with most of them between 10 and 30 nm. (author)

  16. Synthesis of Al-5Ti-1B Refiner by Melt Reaction Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI He

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Al-5Ti-1B refiner was successfully prepared by melt reaction method. Through the thermodynamics calculation, the initial reaction temperature was determined. The influence of reaction temperature on microstructure and absorption rate of the alloy was investigated. The phase and microstructure of the alloy were observed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectrometer. The Al-5Ti-1B refiner was extruded at high temperature to wire with the diameter of 9.5mm, and then the refinement experiment was carried out on pure aluminium. The results indicate that the refiner consists of TiB2, TiAl3 and α-Al, and the microstructure prepared at 850℃ is the optimum and the absorption rate of Ti and B matches the best. The TiAl3 and TiB2 phases distribute homogeneously in the matrix after extrusion. When adding 0.2%(mass fraction of Al-5Ti-1B refiner, the grain size of pure aluminium reduces from 3.99mm to 0.45mm.

  17. Synthesis of HgS nanocrystals in the Lysozyme aqueous solution through biomimetic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li; Yang Guangrui; He Guoxu; Wang Li; Liu Qiaoru; Zhang Qiuxia; Qin Dezhi

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, it is reported for Lysozyme-conjugated HgS nanocrystals with tunable sizes prepared at Lysozyme (Lyso) aqueous solutions by using biomimetic method. The obtained HgS nanoparticles with good dispersibility have been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission microscopy (HRTEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrum (EDS). The Lysozyme molecules can control nucleation and growth of HgS crystals by binding on the surface of nanocrystals to stabilize protein-capped nanoparticles. Quantum confinement effect of Lyso-conjugated HgS nanocrystals has been confirmed by UV-vis spectra. The nanoparticles exhibit a well-defined emission feature at about 470 nm. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) data are used to envisage the binding of nanoparticles with functional groups of Lysozyme. The results of circular dichroism (CD) spectra indicated that the formation of HgS nanocrystals can lead to conformational change of Lysozyme.

  18. Synthesis of assembled ZnO structures by precipitation method in aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepulveda-Guzman, S.; Reeja-Jayan, B.; Rosa, E. de la; Torres-Castro, A.; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, V.; Jose-Yacaman, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, arrays of submicron ZnO structures were successfully synthesized using a one-step aqueous precipitation method. Snowflake-like and flower-like morphologies were obtained by changing the reaction temperature. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns indicated that the ZnO arrays have a wurtzite crystal structure. A possible growth mechanism based on the analysis done by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and high-angle annular dark field (HAADF) is proposed. Our findings suggest that the growth mechanism of the ZnO arrays is by self-aggregation, and that such an oriented aggregation is enhanced by increasing the reaction temperature. The results also revealed that the aggregation process introduces several structural defects such as differences in mass distribution and crystalline structure. In order to study the surface chemical composition the samples were also characterized by XPS. The results showed the presence of Zn(OH) 2 and absorbed carbon species on the ZnO surface. In addition, the photoluminescence characterization showed that on UV excitation (λ = 360 nm) all samples present the characteristic UV emission centered at 390 nm, and for the sample synthesized at 60 deg. C, a visible emission was also observed

  19. Synthesis and growth mechanism of sponge-like nickel using a hydrothermal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Bin; Yin, Xueguo; Hua, Weidong; Ma, Yilong; Sun, Jianchun; Li, Chunhong; Chen, Dengming; Guo, Donglin; Li, Kejian

    2018-05-01

    Sponge-like nickel composed of micro-chains with a diameter of 1-5 μm was selectively synthesized by the hydrothermal method, using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as the alkaline reagent, aqueous hydrazine as reducing agent and citric acid as a coordination agent. The time-dependent samples prepared at different NaOH concentrations were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR). The results showed that the agglomerates of nickel citrate hydrazine complex nanoplates were first precipitated and then reduced to prickly nickel micro-chains at a lower NaOH concentration, which played a role in the further formation of sponge-like nickel. Also, the probable growth mechanism of the sponge-like nickel was proposed. The magnetic properties of sponge-like nickel were studied using a vibrating sample magnetometer. The sponge-like nickel exhibited a ferromagnetic behavior with a saturation magnetization value of 43.8 emu g-1 and a coercivity value of 120.7 Oe.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of maleic anhydride esterified corn starch by the dry method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Yingfeng; Gu, Jiyou; Yang, Long; Qiao, Zhibang; Tan, Haiyan; Zhang, Yanhua

    2013-11-01

    Maleic anhydride esterified starch was synthesized by a dry method using corn starch as the material and maleic anhydride as the esterifying agent. The esterified starch (ES) was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which confirmed that there was a successful esterification reaction between the maleic anhydride and corn starch. The effects of reaction temperature and time on the degree of substitution of esterified starch were studied, where the results showed that 80 °C of reaction temperature and 3h of reaction time were optimal conditions. The result of XPS testing demonstrated that the esterification reaction led to increase of ester bonds in starch. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser particle size analyzer results showed that esterification led to roughness on the surface of the starch particle, and the particle size and distribution rate of esterification starch became larger. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis demonstrated that esterification reaction did not change the crystalline type of native starch. The differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) confirmed that destruction of the crystal structure resulted in improved thermoplasticity of the starch, decreased the gelatinization temperature and increased the thermogravimetric rate of esterification starch. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Rapid Hydrothermal Synthesis of Zinc Oxide Nanowires by Annealing Methods on Seed Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang Bo Shim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Well-aligned zinc oxide (ZnO nanowire arrays were successfully synthesized on a glass substrate using the rapid microwave heating process. The ZnO seed layers were produced by spinning the precursor solutions onto the substrate. Among coatings, the ZnO seed layers were annealed at 100°C for 5 minutes to ensure particle adhesion to the glass surface in air, nitrogen, and vacuum atmospheres. The annealing treatment of the ZnO seed layer was most important for achieving the high quality of ZnO nanowire arrays as ZnO seed nanoparticles of larger than 30 nm in diameter evolve into ZnO nanowire arrays. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed a single-crystalline lattice of the ZnO nanowires. Because of their low power (140 W, low operating temperatures (90°C, easy fabrication (variable microwave sintering system, and low cost (90% cost reduction compared with gas condensation methods, high quality ZnO nanowires created with the rapid microwave heating process show great promise for use in flexible solar cells and flexible display devices.

  2. Synthesis of ZnWO4 Electrode with tailored facets: Deactivating the Microorganisms through Photoelectrocatalytic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Su; Zhou, Feng; Huang, Naibao; Liu, Yujun; He, Qiuchen; Tian, Yu; Yang, Yifan; Ye, Fei

    2017-01-01

    The exotic invasive species from the ballast water in the ship will bring about serious damages to ecosystem. Photocatalyst films have been widely studied for sterilization. In this study, ZnWO4 with different exposed facets was synthesized by hydrothermal method, and ZnWO4 film electrodes have been applied in ballast water treatment through the electro-assisted photocatalytic system. Then the samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS), Field emission on scanning electron microcopy (FE-SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), BET specific surface area analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS). ZnWO4 with an appropriate exposure of (0 1 1) facets ratio exhibited the best photocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic activities. The microorganisms deactivated completely in 10 min by ZnWO4 films with 3 V bias. The mechanisms of (0 1 1) facets enhanced the photocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic activities which were deduced based on the calculated result from the first principles. Simultaneously, appropriate exposed facets and applied bias could reduce the recombination of the photogenerated electron-hole pairs, and improve the photocatalytic activities of ZnWO4.

  3. Time-dependent methods to evaluate the effects of urban sprawl on groundwater quality: a synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Stevenazzi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater resources are threatened worldwide with unknown and unpredictable fate, due to non-stationarity and change of water cycle dynamics, and increasing demand resulting from population growth and economic expansion. Thus, practical actions, strategies and solutions are necessary to ensure the short-term and long-term provision of adequate, affordable, accessible and safe freshwater supply to meet the needs of the growing human population and ecosystems. Since the mid-1950s, Europe is experiencing the phenomenon of urban sprawl, characterized by an unplanned incremental urban development, no more tied with population growth (EEA 2006. Impacts of urban sprawl threaten both the natural and rural environments and the quality of life for people living in cities, with worsening of air quality, and surface- and groundwater quality and quantity. For the protection of groundwater, the European Union issued a series of Directives (Water Framework Directive, 2000/60/EC; Groundwater Directive, 2006/118/EC that require member states to achieve a good chemical status of their groundwater bodies and the identification of areas where groundwater suffers increasing trends in contaminant concentrations. In order to cope with EU Directives, a time-dependent approach for groundwater vulnerability assessment is developed to account for both the recent status of groundwater contamination and its evolution in the Po Plain area of Lombardy Region (northern Italy. Such approach takes the advantages of a Bayesian spatial statistical method to assess groundwater vulnerability and satellite scatterometer data to delineate urban areas and monitor their evolution. The proposed approach can determine potential impacts of contamination events on groundwater quality, if policies are maintained at the status quo or if new measures are implemented for safeguarding groundwater resources.

  4. Synthesis of metallic nanoparticles by sol-gel protein method and characterization by diffraction of X-ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Y.C.; Utuni, V.H.S.; Sasaki, J.M. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Nogueira, N.A.S. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC/UFERSA), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. Engenharia Metalurgica e Materiais

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Nanoscience has led many scientists to revolutionize the areas of materials and fabrications. An area extensively studied is the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles, noting the importance of these materials, this work proposes a new rote of obtaining nanoparticles of FeNi alloys from edible gelatin. Nanoparticles FeNi alloy is obtained by using the sol-gel proteic method, which consists in preparing a solution of the organic precursor and salts, after preparing it these solutions are mixed, in order to disperse the metals in the organic matrix, the mixture is dried to form a powder which will be submitted to calcination. The salts of iron nitrate (III) and nickel nitrate (II) were dispersed in gelatin solution and dried in an oven at 100 deg C, and calcined at 500 deg C at different times (4, 5, 6 and 7 hours). In order to promote the reduction of metal oxides obtained from the decomposition, the whole solution was calcined under nitrogen atmosphere. This set of samples was prepared in order to reach the lowest temperature for producing the FeNi alloy and follow the TG (thermogravimetry) and DTA (differential thermal analysis) analysis in order to minimize particle size. The samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) technique, and the structural and microstructure parameters were determined after refinement using Rietveld method. For all samples, the desired phase of FeNi were obtained. The particle size, microstrains were obtained by the Scherrer equation and Williamson-Hall plotting. Also, Moessbauer spectroscopy was used in order to analyze the site composition of iron and Ni. (author)

  5. Synthesis, structural characterisation and antibacterial activity of Ag{sup +}-doped fluorapatite nanomaterials prepared by neutralization method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanić, Vojislav, E-mail: voyo@vinca.rs [University of Belgrade, Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Radosavljević-Mihajlović, Ana S. [University of Belgrade, Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Živković-Radovanović, Vukosava [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Chemistry, P.O. Box 51, 11158 Belgrade (Serbia); Nastasijević, Branislav; Marinović-Cincović, Milena; Marković, Jelena P.; Budimir, Milica D. [University of Belgrade, Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2015-05-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The neutralization method has been used for synthesis of silver-doped fluorapatite powders. • Particles of silver-doped fluorapatite samples are of nano size and homogenous in composition. • The Ag{sup +}-doped fluorapatite samples showed antibacterial effect against Kllebsiela pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus. • AFM studies showed that silver-doped sample causes considerable morphological changes of tested bacterial cells. - Abstract: Silver doped fluorapatite nanopowders were synthesised by neutralization method, which consists of dissolving Ag{sub 2}O in solution of HF and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and addition to suspension of Ca(OH){sub 2}. The powder XRD, SEM and FTIR studies indicated the formation of a fluorapatite nanomaterials with average length of the particles is about 80 nm and a width of about 15 nm. The FTIR studies show that carbonate content in samples is very small and carbonte ions substitute both phosphate and hydroxyl groups in the crystal structure of samples, forming AB-type fluorapatite. Antibacterial studies have demonstrated that all Ag{sup +}-doped fluorapatite samples exhibit bactericidal effect against pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus and Kllebsiela pneumoniae. Antibacterial activity increased with the increase of Ag{sup +} in the samples. The atomic force microscopy studies revealed extensive damage to the bacterial cell envelops in the presence of Ag{sup +}-doped fluorapatite particles which may lead to their death. The synthesized Ag{sup +}-doped fluorapatite nanomaterials are promising as antibacterial biomaterials in orthopedics and dentistry.

  6. Study of the Reaction Rate of Gold Nanotube Synthesis from Sacrificial Silver Nanorods through the Galvanic Replacement Method

    OpenAIRE

    Sunil Kwon; Hyunbae Dong; Sang-Yup Lee

    2010-01-01

    An investigation was carried out about the gold nanotube synthesis via a galvanic replacement reaction. The progress of the gold nanotube synthesis was investigated using electron microscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. In addition, the reaction rates of gold nanotube formation in the early stage of the reaction were studied. The chlorine ion concentration linearly increased with the gold precursor concentration but deviated from the stoichiometric amounts. This deviation was probably due to AgCl...

  7. Synthesis and characterization of Ni-CeO2 catalysts by the hydrothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazcano O, I.

    2013-01-01

    At the present time the necessity exists to reduce the level of atmospheric pollutants, because these are the main originators of such problems as: the greenhouse effect, acid rain, global heating, among others and that are affecting the human being seriously. In this context, is necessary to look for new solutions that contribute to the improvement of the problems without appealing to limitations in the energy production, because this would imply a non only delay in the economic development, but also in the cultural, technological and of research in our country. An alternative for the energy solution is the use of renewable fuels, because they will decrease the production costs with the time, as well as to diminish the dependence of the fossil fuels, contributing this way to the improvement of the environment quality. The use of the hydrogen as an alternating fuel to the petroleum, is intends as energy solution. The objective of the present work is to develop Ni-CeO 2 catalysts through the hydrothermal method for the hydrogen production starting from the partial oxidation reaction of methanol for the clean fuel generation that does not produce polluting emissions to the environment. As well as, to determine the importance of the metallic load in the catalytic activity for which catalysts to 1 and 2% in weight of Ni were prepared. To achieve these objective different techniques were used to characterize the prepared catalysts, as: Temperature Programmed Reduction to evidence the metal-support interaction, Scanning Electron Microscopy (Sem) to determine the morphology of the catalysts, Surface Area (Bet) with respect to the adsorption-desorption of N 2 and X-Rays Diffraction (XRD) to know the crystalline structure of the catalysts. Also the catalytic properties (activity and selectivity) were studied under the reaction: CH 3 OH + 1/2 O 2 obtaining as products to the CO 2 + 2H 2 , with the help of the multi-tasks equipment Rig-100 that operated to temperatures among

  8. Interfacial Bioorthogonal Chemistry for Biomaterials Synthesis and Patterning and Development of Catalytic Method for "Turning-On" the Tetrazine Ligation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han

    The bioorthogonal trans-cyclooctene-tetrazine ligation has emerged into a powerful tool in the field of biomedical research. The development and the versatile applications of tetrazine ligation was made possible by the advancement of trans-cyclooctene synthesis. Based on the previous art of photoisomerization methods in Fox group, I carried out the first practical photosynthesis of trans-cycloheptene derivatives that were stabilized as silver(I) complexes form, as well as the photoisomerization of silicon-containing hetero- trans-cycloheptene derivatives. The reactivity of both the trans-cycloheptene silver(I) complexes and the hetero-trans-cycloheptene derivatives were investigated. Based on the rapid trans-cyclooctene-tetrazine ligation, first example of interfacial crosslinking will be described in Chapter 2. Bioocompatible hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel microspheres and channels were generated in a diffusion controlled fashion. These hydrogels can be covalently tagged with 3D resolution without the help of any external stimulus or triggers. An in vitro tumor model was achieved by 3D encapsulation and culture of LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Also included in Chapter 2 will be a novel interfacial polymerization strategy developed for the synthesis of hybrid multiblock copolymer. Meter-long copolymer fibers were pulled out of interface of two immiscible solutions. The unique modular approach enables the facile incorporation of functional peptides into the copolymer to fine-tune its biological properties. A fibronectin-derived peptide was successfully introduced onto the fibers during the polymerization and dramatically promoted the attachment and alignment of fibroblasts and myoepithelial-like cells. In Chapter 3, a novel method to activate rapid bioorthogonal reactivity catalytically will be described. This was achieved by catalytic conversion of an unreactive, latent dihydrotetrazine to reaction-ready tetrazine functionality. Series of long wavelength

  9. Positron labeled phorbol ester: synthesis method for ''non-carrier added'' phorbol 13-[1-11C] butyrate using ketene reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imahori, Yoshio; Fujii, Ryou; Nakahashi, Hisamitsu; Ido, Tatsuo; Hirakawa, Kimiyoshi

    1989-01-01

    A new method was developed to synthesize positron labeled phorbol esters for second messenger imaging based on a receptor binding to protein kinase C. [1- 11 C]propyl ketene was produced by the pyrolytic decomposition of [1- 11 C]butyric acid. This new method was made possible by the reaction of [1- 11 C]propyl ketene to the hydroxyl group of phorbol under the non-carrier added conditions. The precursor protected in the 20-hydroxyl group of phorbol was acylated by [1- 11 C]propyl ketene to the 13-hydroxyl group producing phorbol 13-[1- 11 C]butyrate ([ 11 C]P13Bu). Total synthesis time was about 60 minutes and the specific activity was greater than 67 GBq/μmol (1800 mCi/μmol). [ 11 C ]P13Bu will prove to be a useful ligand for PET studies due to the simple procedures required for synthesis. (author)

  10. Identification, synthesis and characterization of process related impurities of benidipine hydrochloride, stress-testing/stability studies and HPLC/UPLC method validations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esen Bellur Atici

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Benidipine hydrochloride, used as an antihypertensive agent and long-acting calcium antagonist, is synthesized for commercial use as a drug substance in highly pure form. During the synthetic process development studies of benidipine, process related impurities were detected. These impurities were identified, synthesized and characterized and mechanisms of their formation were discussed in detail. After all standardization procedures, they were used as reference standards for analytical studies. In addition, a separate HPLC method was developed and validated for detection of residual 1-benzylpiperidin-3-ol (Ben-2, which is used during benidipine synthesis and controlled as a potential process related impurity. As complementary of this work, stress-testing studies of benidipine were carried out under specified conditions and a stability-indicating UPLC assay method was developed, validated and used during stability studies of benidipine. Keywords: Benidipine, Impurities, Synthesis, Characterization, Validation, Stability

  11. Method and electrochemical cell for synthesis and treatment of metal monolayer electrocatalysts metal, carbon, and oxide nanoparticles ion batch, or in continuous fashion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adzic, Radoslav; Zhang, Junliang; Sasaki, Kotaro

    2015-04-28

    An apparatus and method for synthesis and treatment of electrocatalyst particles in batch or continuous fashion is provided. In one embodiment, the apparatus comprises a sonication bath and a two-compartment chamber submerged in the sonication bath. The upper and lower compartments are separated by a microporous material surface. The upper compartment comprises a cover and a working electrode (WE) connected to a Pt foil contact, with the foil contact connected to the microporous material. The upper chamber further comprises reference counter electrodes. The lower compartment comprises an electrochemical cell containing a solution of metal ions. In one embodiment, the method for synthesis of electrocatalysts comprises introducing a plurality of particles into the apparatus and applying sonication and an electrical potential to the microporous material connected to the WE. After the non-noble metal ions are deposited onto the particles, the non-noble metal ions are displaced by noble-metal ions by galvanic displacement.

  12. Synthesis and performance of lithium vanadium phosphate as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries by a sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, X.J.; Liu, Y.X.; Geng, L.M.; Chen, L.B. [College of Chemistry, Central China Normal University, Wuhan, Hubei 430079 (China)

    2008-10-01

    Monoclinic lithium vanadium phosphate, Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}, was synthesized by a sol-gel method under Ar/H{sub 2} (8% H{sub 2}) atmosphere. The influence of sintering temperatures on the synthesis of Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} has been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), SEM and electrochemical methods. XRD patterns show that the Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} crystallinity with monoclinic structure increases with the sintering temperature from 700 to 800 C and then decreases from 800 to 900 C. SEM results indicate that the particle size of as-prepared samples increases with the sintering temperature increase and there is minor carbon particles on the surface of the sample particles, which are very useful to enhance the conductivity of Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}. Charge-discharge tests show the 800 C-sample exhibits the highest initial discharge capacity of 131.2 mAh g{sup -1} at 10 mA g{sup -1} in the voltage range of 3.0-4.2 V with good capacity retention. CV experiment exhibits that there are three anodic peaks at 3.61, 3.70 and 4.11 V on lithium extraction as well as three cathodic peaks at 3.53, 3.61 and 4.00 V on lithium reinsertion at 0.02 mV s{sup -1} between 3.0 and 4.3 V. It is suggested that the optimal sintering temperature is 800 C in order to obtain pure monoclinic Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} with good electrochemical performance by the sol-gel method, and the monoclinic Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} can be used as candidate cathode materials for lithium ion batteries. (author)

  13. Shape-control by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method for the synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles using organic additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzuti, Antonino [Politecnico di Bari, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Ambientale, del Territorio, Edile e di Chimica (Italy); Dassisti, Michele [Politecnico di Bari, Dipartimento di Meccanica, Management e Matematica (Italy); Mastrorilli, Piero, E-mail: p.mastrorilli@poliba.it [Politecnico di Bari, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Ambientale, del Territorio, Edile e di Chimica (Italy); Sportelli, Maria C.; Cioffi, Nicola; Picca, Rosaria A. [Università di Bari, Dipartimento di Chimica (Italy); Agostinelli, Elisabetta; Varvaro, Gaspare [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Struttura della Materia (Italy); Caliandro, Rocco [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Cristallografia (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    A simple and fast microwave-assisted hydrothermal method is proposed for the synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles. The addition of different surfactants (polyvinylpyrrolidone, oleic acid, or trisodium citrate) was studied to investigate the effect on size distribution, morphology, and functionalization of the magnetite nanoparticles. Microwave irradiation at 150 °C for 2 h of aqueous ferrous chloride and hydrazine without additives resulted in hexagonal magnetite nanoplatelets with a facet-to-facet distance of 116 nm and a thickness of 40 nm having a saturation magnetization of ∼65 Am{sup 2} kg{sup −1}. The use of polyvinylpyrrolidone led to hexagonal nanoparticles with a facet-to-facet distance of 120 nm and a thickness of 53 nm with a saturation magnetization of ∼54 Am{sup 2} kg{sup −1}. Additives such as oleic acid and trisodium citrate yielded quasi-spherical nanoparticles of 25 nm in size with a saturation magnetization of ∼70 Am{sup 2} kg{sup −1} and spheroidal nanoparticles of 60 nm in size with a saturation magnetization up to ∼82 Am{sup 2} kg{sup −1}, respectively. A kinetic control of the crystal growth is believed to be responsible for the hexagonal habit of the nanoparticles obtained without additive. Conversely, a thermodynamic control of the crystal growth, leading to spheroidal nanoparticles, seems to occur when additives which strongly interact with the nanoparticle surface are used. A thorough characterization of the materials was performed. Magnetic properties were investigated by Superconducting Quantum Interference Device and Vibrating Sample magnetometers. Based on the observed magnetic properties, the magnetite obtained using citrate appears to be a promising support for magnetically transportable catalysts.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of magnetite-maghemite nanoparticles obtained by the high-energy ball milling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez, A. A.; Marín, C. C.; Urquijo, J. P.

    2018-03-01

    We present the process of synthesis and characterization of magnetite-maghemite nanoparticles by the ball milling method. The particles were synthesized in a planetary ball mill equipped with vials and balls of tempered steel, employing dry and wet conditions. For dry milling, we employed microstructured analytical-grade hematite (α-Fe2O3), while for wet milling, we mixed hematite and deionized water. Milling products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, room temperature Mössbauer spectroscopy, vibrating sample magnetometry, and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The Mössbauer spectrum of the dry milling product was well fitted with two sextets of hematite, while the spectrum of the wet milling product was well fitted with three sextets of spinel phase. X-ray measurements confirmed the phases identified by Mössbauer spectroscopy in both milling conditions and a reduction in the crystallinity of the dry milling product. TEM measurements showed that the products of dry milling for 100 h and wet milling for 24 h consist of aggregates of nanoparticles distributed in size, with mean particle size of 10 and 15 nm, respectively. Magnetization measurements of the wet milling product showed little coercivity and a saturation magnetization around 69 emu g-1, characteristic of a nano-spinel system. Atomic absorption measurements showed that the chromium contamination in the wet milling product is approximately two orders of magnitude greater than that found in the dry milling product for 24 h, indicating that the material of the milling bodies, liberated more widely in wet conditions, plays an important role in the conversion hematite-spinel phase.

  15. Shape-control by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method for the synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles using organic additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzuti, Antonino; Dassisti, Michele; Mastrorilli, Piero; Sportelli, Maria C.; Cioffi, Nicola; Picca, Rosaria A.; Agostinelli, Elisabetta; Varvaro, Gaspare; Caliandro, Rocco

    2015-10-01

    A simple and fast microwave-assisted hydrothermal method is proposed for the synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles. The addition of different surfactants (polyvinylpyrrolidone, oleic acid, or trisodium citrate) was studied to investigate the effect on size distribution, morphology, and functionalization of the magnetite nanoparticles. Microwave irradiation at 150 °C for 2 h of aqueous ferrous chloride and hydrazine without additives resulted in hexagonal magnetite nanoplatelets with a facet-to-facet distance of 116 nm and a thickness of 40 nm having a saturation magnetization of 65 Am2 kg-1. The use of polyvinylpyrrolidone led to hexagonal nanoparticles with a facet-to-facet distance of 120 nm and a thickness of 53 nm with a saturation magnetization of 54 Am2 kg-1. Additives such as oleic acid and trisodium citrate yielded quasi-spherical nanoparticles of 25 nm in size with a saturation magnetization of 70 Am2 kg-1 and spheroidal nanoparticles of 60 nm in size with a saturation magnetization up to 82 Am2 kg-1, respectively. A kinetic control of the crystal growth is believed to be responsible for the hexagonal habit of the nanoparticles obtained without additive. Conversely, a thermodynamic control of the crystal growth, leading to spheroidal nanoparticles, seems to occur when additives which strongly interact with the nanoparticle surface are used. A thorough characterization of the materials was performed. Magnetic properties were investigated by Superconducting Quantum Interference Device and Vibrating Sample magnetometers. Based on the observed magnetic properties, the magnetite obtained using citrate appears to be a promising support for magnetically transportable catalysts.

  16. Synthesis, Properties and Application of Glucose Coated Fe3O4 Nanoparticles Prepared by Co-precipitation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Ayu Y.; Eko, A. S.; Candra, K.; Hasibuan, Denny P.; Ginting, M.; Sebayang, P.; Simamora, P.

    2017-07-01

    Synthesis of glucose coated Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles have been successfully prepared with co-precipitation method. Raw material of natural iron-sand was obtained from Buaya River, Deliserdang, Indonesia. The milled iron-sand was dissolved in HCl (37 mole %), and stirred in 300 rpm at 70°C for 90 minutes. Glucose was added to the filtered powder with varied content of 0.01, 0.02, and 0.03 mole, and precipitated by NH3 (25 mole%). After drying process, the final product subsequently was glucose coated magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles. The characterizations performed were true density measurement, FTIR, VSM, XRD, BET, and adsorbent performance by AAS. The FTIR analysis showed that M-O (bending) with M=Fe (stretching vibration) with υ = 570.92 and 401.19 cm-1. While glucose coated well on nanoparticle Fe3O4, proved by functional groups C=O (stretching), M-O (stretching) and C-H (bending) with υ = 1404.17, 570.92, and 2368.58 cm-1, respectively. Single phase of magnetite (Fe3O4) structure was determined from XRD analysis with cubic spinel structure and lattice parameter of 8.396 Å. The optimum conditions, obtained on the Fe3O4 nanoparticles with 0.01 mole of glucose addition, which has true density value of 4.57 g/cm3, magnetic saturation, M s = 35,41 emu/g, coercivity, H cJ = 83.58 Oe, average particle size = 12.3 nm and surface area = 124.88 m2/g. This type magnetic nanoparticles of glucose-coated Fe3O4 was capable to adsorbed 93.78 % of ion Pb. Therefore, the glucose-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticle is a potential candidate to be used as heavy metal removal from wastewater.

  17. High-pressure synthesis of CuBa2Ca3Cu4O10+δ superconductor from precursors prepared by a polymerized complex method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoba, Tomoya; Bizen, Takeshi; Suzuki, Tsuneo; Nakayama, Tadachika; Suematsu, Hisayuki; Niihara, Koichi; Katsumata, Tetsuhiro; Inaguma, Yoshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    Samples of a CuBa 2 Ca 3 Cu 4 O 10+ δ superconductor were synthesized under a high pressure of 5 GPa at 1100-1200degC for 30 min using precursors produced by solid-state reaction and polymerized complex methods. Compared with the precursors prepared by the solid-state reaction method, the precursors produced by the polymerized complex method have low grain sizes. The superconductive transition temperature of the samples prepared using precursors made by the polymerized complex method was found to be 113 K. The volume fractions of the superconducting phase in the samples prepared using precursors made by the solid-state reaction and polymerized complex methods were 49 and 36%, respectively. From these results, precursors made by the polymerized complex method can be used in the high-pressure synthesis of superconductors similarly to those made by the solid-state reaction method. (author)

  18. Room Temperature Synthesis of Magnetite (Fe{sub 3-{delta}O4}) Nanoparticles by a Simple Reverse Co-Precipitation Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmed, N; Soederberg, O; Hannula, S-P [Aalto University School of Science and Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, PO Box 16200, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Heczko, O, E-mail: norsuria@cc.hut.f [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences, Czech Republic Na Slovance 2, CZ-182 21 Praha 8 (Czech Republic)

    2011-10-29

    Magnetite (Fe{sub 3-{delta}O4}) nanoparticles with the size less than 30 nm have been synthesized by using a simple reverse co-precipitation method at room temperature. During the process, ferrous sulfate (FeSO{sub 4{center_dot}}7H{sub 2}O) powder was used as an iron precursor, and ammonium hydroxide (NH{sub 4}OH) as a precipitating agent. The experiment was carried out in ambient atmosphere without any surfactant added. In this method, the base solution for the precipitation process was adjusted to have a pH value suitable for the formation of the magnetite phase. The iron salt precursor was added into the solution during the synthesis by two different synthesis protocols. The phase, morphology and magnetic characteristic of differently synthesized magnetite particles were characterized by using an X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The morphologies of the particles were spherical or irregular in shape depending on the synthesis protocol used. Magnetic measurement shows that the particles are ferromagnetic at room temperature with relatively high saturation magnetization and low hysteresis. The saturation magnetization and magnetic hysteresis of the particles varied with preparation reaction conditions and the resulting oxidation state of the particles.

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Magnetized Photocatalyst Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 by Heteroagglomeration Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasnah Dewi, Sari; Sutanto; Fisli, A.; Wardiyati, S.

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic photocatalysts Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 have been prepared using heteroagglomeration method. Synthesis of magnetic photocatalyst Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 was carried out through four stages : (1) synthesis of photocatalyst TiO2 nanoparticles by TiCl4 coprecipitation in ammonia solution, (2) synthesis of Fe3O4 nanoparticles through precipitation method using a mixture of Fe (III) / Fe (II) (2: 1 mole ratio) in ammonia solution, (3) coating with SiO2 through hydrolysis of silicate ion, (4) in the final stage, Fe3O4/SiO2 was mixed with TiO2 in hetero-agglomeration manner. Structure and morphology of resultan composites have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were confirmed that composite Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 succefully synthesized. The functionality photocatalyst of the particles was tested by eliminating of methylene blue (MB) under UV light. The result showed the magnetite photocatalyst Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 has phototacalytic and absorbtion properties so that it has good performance at dyes removal in water higher than pure TiO2, and capable to perform repeatition process at least 4 times.

  20. Influence of reaction time and synthesis temperature on the physical properties of ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by the hydrothermal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasly, H. S.; El-Sadek, M. S. Abd; Henini, Mohamed

    2018-01-01

    Influence of synthesis temperature and reaction time on the structural and optical properties of ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by the hydrothermal method was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, and UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy. The XRD pattern and HR-TEM images confirmed the presence of crystalline hexagonal wurtzite ZnO nanoparticles with average crystallite size in the range 30-40 nm. Their energy gap determined by fluorescence was found to depend on the synthesis temperature and reaction time with values in the range 2.90-3.78 eV. Thermal analysis, thermogravimetric and the differential scanning calorimetry were used to study the thermal reactions and weight loss with heat of the prepared ZnO nanoparticles.