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Sample records for newcastle disease vaccination

  1. 9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.205 Section 113.205 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.205 Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Newcastle Disease Vaccine...

  2. vaccination with newcastle disease vaccines strain i2 and lasota

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UP Employee

    SUMMARY. Vaccination trials and comparative immunogenicity study using Newcastle disease vaccine strain I2 (NDVI2) and NDV La Sota administered to commercial and local chickens through intraocular (i/o), intramuscular (i/m), drinking water (dw), untreated sorghum, parboiled sorghum, sorghum coated with gum ...

  3. Delivery of thermostable Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-12-03

    Dec 3, 2007 ... deliver the vaccine virus to chickens on food (Ibrahim et al., 1981). Subsequent trials with different types of ... and stored at RT until used for pilot food-based vaccination trials. Residual infectivity titre of coated virus per gram ..... Newcastle in free living and Pet birds. In. Newcastle Disease (Ed. Alexander DJ) ...

  4. Herd immunity to Newcastle disease virus in poultry by vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boven, van M.; Bouma, A.; Fabri, T.H.F.; Katsma, E.; Hartog, L.; Koch, G.

    2008-01-01

    Newcastle disease is an economically important disease of poultry for which vaccination is applied as a preventive measure in many countries. Nevertheless, outbreaks have been reported in vaccinated populations. This suggests that either the vaccination coverage level is too low or that vaccination

  5. Response of chickens to oral vaccination with Newcastle disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thermostable Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine virus strain I2 was investigated for its efficacy as foodborne vaccine, using maize offal as the vehicle. Immune response to vaccination and resistance to challenge were assessed by standard methods. Results showed that following primary vaccination, 40 (64.5%) out of the 62 ...

  6. Herd immunity to Newcastle disease virus in poultry by vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boven, Michiel; Bouma, Annemarie; Fabri, Teun H F; Katsma, Elly; Hartog, Leo; Koch, Guus

    2008-02-01

    Newcastle disease is an economically important disease of poultry for which vaccination is applied as a preventive measure in many countries. Nevertheless, outbreaks have been reported in vaccinated populations. This suggests that either the vaccination coverage level is too low or that vaccination does not provide perfect immunity, allowing the virus to spread in partially vaccinated populations. Here we study the requirements of an epidemiologically effective vaccination program against Newcastle disease in poultry, based on data from experimental transmission studies. The transmission studies indicate that vaccinated birds with low or undetectable antibody titres may be protected against disease and mortality but that infection and transmission may still occur. In fact, our quantitative analyses show that Newcastle disease virus is highly transmissible in poultry with low antibody titres. As a consequence, herd immunity can only be achieved if a high proportion of birds (>85%) have a high antibody titre (log(2) haemagglutination inhibition titre > or =3) after vaccination. We discuss the implications for the control of Newcastle disease in poultry by vaccination.

  7. The effects of Newcastle Disease Vaccine (Komarov) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty out of thirty local breed of hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) that had not been immunologically primed by previous routine vaccination were inoculated with Newcastle disease vaccine (Komarov) intramuscularly while the remaining ten hens acted as uninoculated control. Clinical results show that 30% of the 20 birds ...

  8. Response of Village Chickens to Newcastle Disease (ND) Vaccine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The suitability of sorghum as carrier for Newcastle Disease (ND) V4-UPM virus vaccine for vaccination of freerange chickens was assessed by standard methods. The grain was ground rough or broken, soaked in water for three days, washed, sun-dried, coated with the virus and finally dried at room temperature. The food ...

  9. Effect of industrial product IMBO® on immunosuppressed broilers vaccinated with Newcastle disease vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Mohammadamin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of IMBO was investigated on humoral immune response to Newcastle disease vaccines in broiler chickens. Haemagglutination inhibition test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to assess the immune response. Results showed that although IMBO significantly enhanced humoral immune response to live Newcastle disease vaccine, it did not decrease post virulent NDV challenge mortality.

  10. Newcastle disease virus outbreaks: vaccine mismatch or inadequate application?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dortmans, Jos C F M; Peeters, Ben P H; Koch, Guus

    2012-11-09

    Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most important diseases of poultry, and may cause devastating losses in the poultry industry worldwide. Its causative agent is Newcastle disease virus (NDV), also known as avian paramyxovirus type 1. Many countries maintain a stringent vaccination policy against ND, but there are indications that ND outbreaks can still occur despite intensive vaccination. It has been argued that this may be due to antigenic divergence between the vaccine strains and circulating field strains. Here we present the complete genome sequence of a highly virulent genotype VII virus (NL/93) obtained from vaccinated poultry during an outbreak of ND in the Netherlands in 1992-1993. Using this strain, we investigated whether the identified genetic evolution of NDV is accompanied by antigenic evolution. In this study we show that a live vaccine that is antigenically adapted to match the genotype VII NL/93 outbreak strain does not provide increased protection compared to a classic genotype II live vaccine. When challenged with the NL/93 strain, chickens vaccinated with a classic vaccine were completely protected against clinical disease and mortality and virus shedding was significantly reduced, even with a supposedly suboptimal vaccine dose. These results suggest that it is not antigenic variation but rather poor flock immunity due to inadequate vaccination practices that may be responsible for outbreaks and spreading of virulent NDV field strains. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The adjuvanticity of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide for Newcastle disease vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Ding, Ronglong; Jiang, Shanxiang; Ji, Liwei; Pan, Mingming; Liu, Li; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Xiuge; Huang, Wenjuan; Zhang, Guanjun; Peng, Lin; Ji, Hui

    2014-04-01

    The adjuvant activity of GLP was investigated in vitro and in vivo. In vitro experiment, the effects of GLP on chicken peripheral lymphocytes proliferation were compared by MTT assay. The results showed that GLP could significantly enhance lymphocytes proliferation singly or synergistically with ConA. The interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) mRNA levels of chicken peripheral lymphocytes stimulated by GLP synergistically with ConA were measured using fluorescent quantitative PCR. The results showed that GLP could promote interferon-γ mRNA levels in peripheral lymphocytes. In vivo experiment, 175 14-day-old chickens were randomly divided into 7 groups. The chickens except blank control (BC) group were vaccinated with Newcastle disease vaccine, repeated vaccination at 28 days old. At the same time of the first vaccination, the chickens in experimental groups were orally administrated with 5 different doses of GLP respectively, whereas vaccination control (VC) and BC groups were treated with physiological saline, once a day for three successive days. On Day 7, 14, 21 and 28 after the first vaccination, the peripheral lymphocytes proliferation and serum ND antibody titer were determined. The results showed that GLP could significantly promote lymphocyte proliferation and enhance serum antibody titer. The results indicated that GLP may be a novel immunomodulator. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Newcastle disease vaccines- a solved problem or a continuous challenge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcastle disease (ND) has been defined by the World Organization for Animal Health as infection of poultry with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Lesions affecting the neurological, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive systems are most often observed. The control of ND m...

  13. Biological and phylogenetic characterization of a genotype VII Newcastle disease virus from Venezuela: Efficacy of vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we describe the characterization a virulent genotype VII Newcastle disease virus (NDV) from Venezuela and evaluate the efficacy of heterologous genotype commercial vaccination under field and controlled rearing conditions. Biological pathotyping and molecular analysis were applied. Results sh...

  14. [Associated vaccination of poultry against infectious bronchitis, Newcastle disease and infectious bursitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholakova, R

    1985-01-01

    The effectiveness of immunity was studied following a mixed vaccination with live vaccines against infectious bronchitis (strains H120 and H52), Newcastle disease (strain La Sota), and infectious bursitis (strain Th75Vn82). The three vaccines were applied simultaneously via the drinking water, through the spray method, and nasally. Experiments were carried out with a total of 31,466 birds: broilers, growing layers, broiler parents--all without preliminary treatment with biopreparations. Immunity against Newcastle disease was followed up through the hemagglutination-inhibition test and challenging with a virulent virus; against infectious bursitis--through immunodiffusion in agar gel after Ouchterlony; and against infectious bronchitis--through virus-neutralization with strain Beaudette. The birds were treated with mixed vaccines in the following combinations: infectious bronchitis--Newcastle disease; infectious bursitis--Gumboro; infectious bronchitis, Newcastle disease, Gumboro. The simultaneous application of live vaccines against infectious bronchitis, Newcastle disease, and infectious bursitis was shown to be well tolerated with no harmful aftereffects whatever. The immunity built up with the simultaneous use of the three vaccines was not inferior in effectiveness to that conferred with the use of two vaccines or only one of them.

  15. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT ROUTES OF VACCINATION AGAINST NEW-CASTLE DISEASE ON LYMPHOID ORGANS OF BROILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Salam, A. Aslam. S. A, Khan, K. Saeed1 and G. Saleem

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available This project was designed to compare two routes (intraocular and drinking water of vaccination against Newcastle disease in ten11s of protection against velogenic field isolate of Newcastle disease virus (NOV, The immune response and morphological changes in lymphoid organs (Harderian gland, bursa of fabricius and thymus of broilers were noted. The role of Harderian gland to generate local and humoral immunity in response to eye drop and drinking water vaccination against NOV was also evaluated. This experiment showed that ocular vaccination resulted in significantly high level of circulating antibodies as compared to drinking water vaccination, No histopathological changes were observed in Iymphow organs after Nov challenge in ocularly vaccinated birds. There were significantly (P<0.05 higher number of plasma cells in sections of Harderian gland after eye drop vaccination, It was concluded that ocular vaccination stimulated Harderian gland to produce strong local protective immunity in ocular as well as in oral mucosa

  16. Recombinant Newcastle disease virus-vectored vaccines against human and animal infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhiqiang; Xu, Houqiang; Ji, Xinqin; Zhao, Jiafu

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in recombinant genetic engineering techniques have brought forward a leap in designing new vaccines in modern medicine. One attractive strategy is the application of reverse genetics technology to make recombinant Newcastle disease virus (rNDV) deliver protective antigens of pathogens. In recent years, numerous studies have demonstrated that rNDV-vectored vaccines can induce quicker and better humoral and mucosal immune responses than conventional vaccines and are protective against pathogen challenges. With deeper understanding of NDV molecular biology, it is feasible to develop gene-modified rNDV vaccines accompanied by good safety, high efficacy, low toxicity and better immunogenicity. This review summarizes the development of reverse genetics technology in using NDV as a promising vaccine vector to design new vaccines for human and animal use.

  17. Food-Based Newcastle Disease V 4 Vaccine In Guinea Fowl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficacy trial of the feed-based Newcastle disease V4 (NDV4HR) vaccine was carried out on guinea fowl (Numida meleagris galeata, Pallas) in Maiduguri, Nigeria between December 2000 and March 2001. Eighty-five guinea fowls divided into 17 experimental groups of 5 birds per group were used in the study. The trial ...

  18. Development of Recombinant Newcastle Disease Viruses Expressing the Glycoprotein (G) of Avian Metapneumovirus as Bivalent Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using reverse genetics technology, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota strain-based recombinant viruses were engineered to express the glycoprotein (G) of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), subtype A, B or C, as bivalent vaccines. These recombinant viruses were slightly attenuated in vivo, yet maintaine...

  19. Improved immunogenicity of Newcastle disease virus inactivated vaccine following DNA vaccination using Newcastle disease virus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase and fusion protein genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firouzamandi, Masoumeh; Moeini, Hassan; Hosseini, Davood; Bejo, Mohd Hair; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Mehrbod, Parvaneh; Ideris, Aini

    2016-03-01

    The present study describes the development of DNA vaccines using the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and fusion (F) genes from AF2240 Newcastle disease virus strain, namely pIRES/HN, pIRES/F and pIRES-F/HN. Transient expression analysis of the constructs in Vero cells revealed the successful expression of gene inserts in vitro. Moreover, in vivo experiments showed that single vaccination with the constructed plasmid DNA (pDNA) followed by a boost with inactivated vaccine induced a significant difference in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay antibody levels (p < 0.05) elicited by either pIRES/F, pIRES/F+ pIRES/HN or pIRES-F/HN at one week after the booster in specific pathogen free chickens when compared with the inactivated vaccine alone. Taken together, these results indicated that recombinant pDNA could be used to increase the efficacy of the inactivated vaccine immunization procedure.

  20. Presence of Vaccine-Derived Newcastle Disease Viruses in Wild Birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea J Ayala

    Full Text Available Our study demonstrates the repeated isolation of vaccine-derived Newcastle disease viruses from different species of wild birds across four continents from 1997 through 2014. The data indicate that at least 17 species from ten avian orders occupying different habitats excrete vaccine-derived Newcastle disease viruses. The most frequently reported isolates were detected among individuals in the order Columbiformes (n = 23, followed in frequency by the order Anseriformes (n = 13. Samples were isolated from both free-ranging (n = 47 and wild birds kept in captivity (n = 7. The number of recovered vaccine-derived viruses corresponded with the most widely utilized vaccines, LaSota (n = 28 and Hitchner B1 (n = 19. Other detected vaccine-derived viruses resembled the PHY-LMV2 and V4 vaccines, with five and two cases, respectively. These results and the ubiquitous and synanthropic nature of wild pigeons highlight their potential role as indicator species for the presence of Newcastle disease virus of low virulence in the environment. The reverse spillover of live agents from domestic animals to wildlife as a result of the expansion of livestock industries employing massive amounts of live virus vaccines represent an underappreciated and poorly studied effect of human activity on wildlife.

  1. The Effect of Tsukamurella inchonensis Bacterin on the Immune Response Against Influenza and Newcastle Disease Vaccines in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Talazadeh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In poultry production, improving immunity is very important to prevent infectious diseases. One solution to improve the immunity of animals and to decrease their susceptibility to infectious disease is administration of immunostimulants. Surveys have indicated that some bacteria can work as immunomodulators such as Mycobacterium vaccae and can promote Th1-mediated mechanisms, and switch off pre-existing Th2 preponderance (1. Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of Tsukamurella inchonensis bacterin on the immune response against Influenza and Newcastle disease vaccine in broiler chickens . Materials and Methods: A total of 170 day-old broiler chicks were purchased and divided randomly into 5 equal groups. Chickens of group A received 106 bacterin subcutaneously on two days before vaccination against Newcastle disease and avian influenza. Chickens of group B received 106 bacterin subcutaneously on six days after the first injection of bacterin. Chickens of group C received 106bacterin subcutaneously on six days after the second injection of bacterin. Chickens of group D, vaccinated against Newcastle disease and avian influenza but did not receive bacterin. Chickens of group E, did not vaccinate against Newcastle disease and avian influenza and did not receive bacterin. All groups except group E, were vaccinated with live Newcastle vaccine and AI-ND killed vaccine (subtype H9N2. Blood samples were collected and antibody titer against Newcastle disease vaccine and avian influenza vaccine was determined by HI test. Results: The results of present study showed that receiving of Tsukamurella inchonensis bacterin for 3 times, significantly increased the specific antibody response to avian influenza subtype H9N2 vaccine. Also about Newcastle vaccine, significantly increased the specific antibody response to Newcastle vaccine at 21 and 28 days after vaccination. Conclusions: Receiving of Tsukamurella inchonensis bacterin

  2. Strategies for vaccination of family poultry against Newcastle disease in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alders, R.G.

    2002-01-01

    Criteria for the selection of vaccines against Newcastle disease (ND) appropriate for use in village chickens are discussed. Emphasis is given to the need to ensure that the selected vaccine is used successfully in the field. Those implementing ND control activities are encouraged to collaborate with all stakeholders and to develop comprehensive training and extension programs for field workers and farmers. Issues of cost-recovery and cost-minimisation are also discussed. (author)

  3. Infection and transmission of live recombinant Newcastle disease virus vaccines in Rock Pigeons, European House Sparrows, and Japanese Quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    In China and Mexico, engineered recombinant Newcastle disease virus (rNDV) strains are used as live vaccines for the control of Newcastle disease and as vectors to express the avian influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) gene to control avian influenza in poultry. In this study, non-target species wer...

  4. Inactive vaccine derived from velogenic strain of local Newcastle disease virus .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darminto

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to evaluate an application of an inactive Newcastle disease (ND vaccine derived from velogenic strain of local Newcastle disease virus (NDV. In this research . the Ira strain of velogenic ND virus was grown in specific pathogen free (SPF eggs and then was inactivated by formalin at a final concentration of 1 :1,000 at 4°C. The inactive antigen was then emulsified with an oil adjuvant or aluminium hydroxide gel before being administered for vaccination in layers and compared to a commercial inactive ND vaccine . Results indicated that application of these inactivated ND vaccines for booster vaccination following vaccination with an active lentogenic ND virus in pullets nearly producing eggs, resulted in high antibody titre which persisted for considerable long period of time and capable of protecting layers from sick of ND and from reducing egg production . Hence, it could be concluded that the inactivated vaccine emulsified in either oil-adjuvant (lanolin-paraffin or aluminium hydroxide gel were considered to be highly immunogenic and capable of protecting layers from sick of ND and from reducing egg production

  5. Humoral and Cellular Response of Pheasants Vaccinated against Newcastle Disease and Haemorrhagic Enteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Graczyk

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the experiment was to define whether and to what extent can prophylactic vaccinations against Newcastle disease (ND and haemorrhagic enteritis (HE affect the humoral and cellular response in pheasants. The evaluation of humoral response was performed on a basis of agglutinin titre after administered antigen and the cellular immunity index was the delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH reaction. The pheasants were prophylactically vaccinated against Newcastle Disease (ND on the 1st, 28th and 56th day of life. Moreover, on the 49th day of life, part of the birds was given in the drinking water a vaccine containing the HEV (Haemorrhagic Enteritis Virus. Fourteen days after the HEV vaccination, the birds were intravenously given 0.5 ml of the 10% SRBC (sheep red blood cells suspension. Simultaneously with the SRBC administration the delayed hypersensitivity test was performed by intradermal administration of phytohaemagglutinin (PHA. It was shown that in pheasants vaccinated with NDV and additionally with HEV, the specific agglutinin anti-SRBC titre was significantly (p < 0.05 lower than in birds vaccinated against ND only. It also appeared that, the antibodies resistant to 2-mercaptoethanol were 43% of the total pool of specific anti-SRBC antibodies in the NDV vaccinated birds, whereas in birds vaccinated also with HEV they were 75%. No significant differences were found in the DTH test. Only in the HEV vaccinated pheasants the tendency to increase the wing index value was noted. The results confirm the observations concerning immunosuppressive effects of simultaneous vaccinations. They also indicate that overloading the pheasants with many antigens (ND and HEV vaccination may weaken the humoral response to administered SRBC.

  6. Efficacy of vaccination with La Sota strain vaccine to control Newcastle disease in village chickens in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Sulochana; Dhawan, Mamta; Donadeu, Meritxell; Dungu, Baptiste

    2017-02-01

    The efficacy of vaccination with Newcastle disease (ND) La Sota and R 2 B (Mukteswar) modified live strain vaccines was determined by experimental challenge and with ND La Sota vaccine under field conditions in Nepal. Booster vaccination with ND La Sota vaccine after a primary vaccination with ND La Sota vaccine, induced a geometric mean titre (GMT) of 5.0 log 2 haemagglutination inhibition (HI) units, compared to a GMT of 6.0 log 2 HI units following booster vaccination with R 2 B vaccine 1 month after primary vaccination with ND La Sota vaccine. Both vaccines provided 100% protection against challenge with a local field ND strain. Furthermore, booster vaccination with ND La Sota vaccine induced protective levels of antibody after field use in villages in Jhapa, and no outbreaks of ND occurred during the study period. The ND La Sota modified live vaccine is immunogenic and efficacious and is a suitable vaccine for use in vaccination programmes in village chickens in the rural areas of Nepal.

  7. Preparation and efficacy of a live newcastle disease virus vaccine encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Newcastle disease (ND is a highly contagious viral disease of poultry caused by pathogenic strains of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV. Live NDV vaccines are administered by drinking water, eyedrops or coarse aerosol spray. To further enhance mucosal immune responses, chitosan nanoparticles were developed for the mucosal delivery of a live NDV vaccine. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A lentogenic live-virus vaccine (strain LaSota against NDV encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles were developed using an ionic crosslinking method. Chitosan nanoparticles containing the lentogenic live-virus vaccine against NDV (NDV-CS-NPs were produced with good morphology, high stability, a mean diameter of 371.1 nm, an encapsulation rate of 77% and a zeta potential of +2.84 mV. The Western blotting analysis showed that NDV structural proteins were detected in NDV-CS-NPs. The virus release assay results of NDV-CS-NPs indicated that NDV was released from NDV-CS-NPs. Chickens immunized orally or intranasally with NDV-CS-NPs were fully protected whereas one out of five chickens immunized with the LaSota live NDV vaccine and three out of five chickens immunized with the inactivated NDV vaccine were dead after challenge with the highly virulent NDV strain F48E9. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: NDV-CS-NPs induced better protection of immunized specific pathogen free chickens compared to the live NDV vaccine strain LaSota and the inactivated NDV vaccine. This study lays a foundation for the further development of mucosal vaccines and drugs encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles.

  8. 9 CFR 113.329 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... container samples of completed product shall be tested for virus titer using the titration method used in... or more chickens shall be used as vaccinates for each method of administration recommended on the... receive a predetermined quantity of vaccine virus. Five replicate virus titrations shall be conducted on...

  9. Comparative evaluation on some available Newcastle disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Newcastle disease vaccines from three different countries were compared in terms of the level of protection conferred on domestic chickens against Newcastle disease (ND) following routine vaccinations. One hundred and fifty day old chicks were acquired and divided into three groups, with each group of fifty chickens ...

  10. Heterologous prime-boost immunization of Newcastle disease virus vectored vaccines protected broiler chickens against highly pathogenic avian influenza and Newcastle disease viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin-Hee; Samal, Siba K

    2017-07-24

    Avian Influenza virus (AIV) is an important pathogen for both human and animal health. There is a great need to develop a safe and effective vaccine for AI infections in the field. Live-attenuated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vectored AI vaccines have shown to be effective, but preexisting antibodies to the vaccine vector can affect the protective efficacy of the vaccine in the field. To improve the efficacy of AI vaccine, we generated a novel vectored vaccine by using a chimeric NDV vector that is serologically distant from NDV. In this study, the protective efficacy of our vaccines was evaluated by using H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) strain A/Vietnam/1203/2004, a prototype strain for vaccine development. The vaccine viruses were three chimeric NDVs expressing the hemagglutinin (HA) protein in combination with the neuraminidase (NA) protein, matrix 1 protein, or nonstructural 1 protein. Comparison of their protective efficacy between a single and prime-boost immunizations indicated that prime immunization of 1-day-old SPF chicks with our vaccine viruses followed by boosting with the conventional NDV vector strain LaSota expressing the HA protein provided complete protection of chickens against mortality, clinical signs and virus shedding. Further verification of our heterologous prime-boost immunization using commercial broiler chickens suggested that a sequential immunization of chickens with chimeric NDV vector expressing the HA and NA proteins following the boost with NDV vector expressing the HA protein can be a promising strategy for the field vaccination against HPAIVs and against highly virulent NDVs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ascaridia galli infection influences the development of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity after Newcastle Disease vaccination in chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pleidrup, Janne; Dalgaard, Tina S.; Norup, Liselotte R.

    2014-01-01

    on the immunological response to vaccination against other infectious diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether A. galli infection influences vaccine-induced immunity to Newcastle Disease (ND) in chickens from an MHC-characterized inbred line. Chickens were experimentally infected with A. galli...... at 4 weeks of age or left as non-parasitized controls. At 10 and 13 weeks of age half of the chickens were ND-vaccinated and at 16 weeks of age, all chickens were challenged with a lentogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). A. galli infection influenced both humoral and cell-mediated immune...... vaccinees as compared to non-parasitized vaccinees. However, more work is needed in order to determine if vaccine-induced protective immunity is impaired in A. galli-infected chickens....

  12. Humoral Immune Response Induced by PLGA Micro Particle Coupled Newcastle Disease Virus Vaccine in Chickens

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    Sanganagouda K

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted for evaluating the humoral immune responses induced by Poly Lactide-co-Glycolide Acid (PLGA microspheres coupled inactivated Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV vaccine in comparison to an ‘in-house’ prepared inactivated and a live commercial vaccine. PLG microparticles containing inactivated NDV were prepared by a double emulsion technique based on solvent evaporation method. The size of the NDV coupled PLG microparticles was determined by Electron Microscopy. NDV coupled PLG microparticles were spherical having smooth surface, hollow core inside with no pores on the surface. The experiment was conducted in four groups of chickens (n=15. The encapsulation efficiency of NDV coupled PLG microparticles was determined by protein estimation and HA activity in elute. The mean (± SE size of PLG microspheres was found to be 2.409 ± 0.65 µm. The mean percent of encapsulation efficiency of PLG microspheres coupled to NDV was assessed based on the total protein content and HA activity in elute was found to be 8.03 ± 0.50 and 12.5 ± 0.00, respectively. In conclusion, the results of the experiment showed that PLGA coupled NDV vaccine elicited stronger and prolonged humoral immune response in chickens, in comparison to the other tested vaccines, as assessed by haemagglutination inhibition and enzyme linked immuno sorbent asaay titers.

  13. Field vaccinated chickens with low antibody titres show equally insufficient protection against matching and non-matching genotypesof virulent Newcastle disease virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dortmans, J.C.F.M.; Venema-Kemper, S.; Peeters, B.P.H.; Koch, G.

    2014-01-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is a severe threat to the poultry industry and is caused by virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Many countries maintain a vaccination policy, but NDV is rapidly evolving as shown by the discovery of several new genotypes in the last decades. We tested the

  14. Pathotypic characterization of Newcastle disease virus isolated from vaccinated chicken in West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, Dwi Desmiyeni; Handharyani, Ekowati; Soejoedono, Retno Damajanti; Setiyono, Agus; Mayasari, Ni Luh Putu Ika; Poetri, Okti Nadia

    2017-04-01

    This research was conducted to differentiate and characterize eight Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates collected from vaccinated chicken at commercial flocks in West Java, Indonesia, in 2011, 2014 and 2015 by pathotype specific primers. A total of eight NDV isolates collected from clinical outbreaks among commercial vaccinated flocks in West Java, Indonesia, in 2011, 2014, and 2015 were used in this study. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to detect and differentiate virulence of NDV strains, using three sets of primers targeting their M and F gene. First primers were universal primers to detect NDV targeting matrix (M) gene. Other two sets of primers were specific for the fusion (F) gene cleavage site sequence of virulent and avirulent NDV strains. Our results showed that three isolates belong to NDV virulent strains, and other five isolates belong to NDV avirulent strains. The nucleotide sequence of the F protein cleavage site showed 112 K/R-R-Q/R-K-R/G-F 117 on NDV virulent strains and 112 G-K/R-Q-G-R-L 117 on NDV avirulent strain. Result from the current study suggested that NDV virulent strain were circulating among vaccinated chickens in West Java, Indonesia; this might possess a risk of causing ND outbreaks and causing economic losses within the poultry industry.

  15. Preparation of mucosal nanoparticles and polymer-based inactivated vaccine for Newcastle disease and H9N2 AI viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba M. El Naggar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To develop a mucosal inactivated vaccines for Newcastle disease (ND and H9N2 viruses to protect against these viruses at sites of infections through mucosal immunity. Materials and Methods: In this study, we prepared two new formulations for mucosal bivalent inactivated vaccine formulations for Newcastle and Avian Influenza (H9N2 based on the use of nanoparticles and polymer adjuvants. The prepared vaccines were delivered via intranasal and spray routes of administration in specific pathogen-free chickens. Cell-mediated and humoral immune response was measured as well as challenge trial was carried out. In addition, ISA71 water in oil was also evaluated. Results: Our results showed that the use of spray route as vaccination delivery method of polymer and nanoparticles MontanideTM adjuvants revealed that it enhanced the cell mediated immune response as indicated by phagocytic activity, gamma interferon and interleukin 6 responses and induced protection against challenge with Newcastle and Avian Influenza (H9N2 viruses. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate the potentiality of polymer compared to nanoparticles adjuvantes when used via spray route. Mass application of such vaccines will add value to improve the vaccination strategies against ND virus and Avian influenza viruses.

  16. Quantification and phenotypic characterisation of peripheral IFN-γ producing leucocytes in chickens vaccinated against Newcastle disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stig Henrik; Vervelde, Lonneke; Sutton, Kate

    2017-01-01

    controls, one group was vaccinated intramuscularly twice with a commercial inactivated ND virus (NDV) vaccine, and the last group was vaccinated orally twice with a commercial live attenuated NDV vaccine. PBMC were ex vivo stimulated with ConA or with NDV antigen. The ICS assay was used to determine......-γ responses, with significantly elevated levels of IFN-γ producing cells in the B19 chickens vaccinated orally with live attenuated NDV vaccine. This was not the case in the B21 animals, indicating a haplotype restricted variation. In contrast, the CD3+TCR1γδ−CD4+ (Th) population did not show a significant......The aim of this study was to optimise and evaluate an intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) assay for assessment of T cell IFN-γ responses in chickens vaccinated against Newcastle disease (ND). We aimed to validate currently available antibodies to chicken IFN-γ using transfected CHO cells...

  17. Clinical and immunological effects of Newcastle disease virus vaccine on bovine papillomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avki, Sirri; Turutoglu, Hulya; Simsek, Atilla; Unsal, Ayhan

    2004-03-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has antineoplastic and immunostimulatory properties, and it is currently being clinically tested in anticancer therapy. In order to analyze the immunostimulatory effects of NDV on bovine papillomatosis, we inoculated 14 cows subcutaneously with an attenuated vaccine containing the LaSota strain of NDV (LS-NDV). Four cows with papillomatosis served as controls. Serum samples were collected from each animal 1 h before and, 7 and 21 days after inoculation. In inoculated cows, on days 7 and 21 the mean antibody titers were log2 2.43 +/- 0.92 and log2 5.57 +/- 0.72 by haemagglutination inhibition (HI), and the mean levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were 5.80 +/- 4.19 and 5.39 +/- 2.66 ng/ml by WEHI-164 cytotoxicity assay. Significant differences between inoculated and control animals were evident for antibody titers on day 21 and clinical scores on day 60. A correlation was evident between the TNF-alpha activities and clinical scores on day 21. The clinical observations at day 60 showed that the papillomas in five cows were completely resolved (36%), one animal had no alterations on clinical appearance of the tumor (7%), and papillomas in eight cows were regressed (57%). In conclusion, these results demonstrated that inoculation of LS-NDV vaccine stimulates an antibody response and limited increase in TNF-alpha activity and may enhance clinical recovery in bovine papillomatosis.

  18. Generation of Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) Recombinants Expressing the Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus (ILTV) Glycoprotein gB or gD as Dual Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Spatz, Stephen; Zsak, Laszlo; Yu, Qingzhong

    2016-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease of chickens caused by infection with infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), a member of the family Herpesviridae. The current commercial ILT vaccines are either unsafe or ineffective. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop safer and more efficacious vaccines. Newcastle disease (ND), caused by infection with Newcastle disease virus (NDV), a member of the family Paramyxoviridae, is one of the most serious infectious diseases of poultry. The NDV LaSota strain, a naturally occurring low-virulence NDV strain, has been routinely used as a live vaccine throughout the world. This chapter describes the generation of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota vaccine strain-based recombinant viruses expressing glycoprotein B (gB) or glycoprotein D (gD) of ILTV as dual vaccines against ND and ILT using reverse genetics technology.

  19. Virosome and ISCOM vaccines against Newcastle disease: preparation, characterization and immunogenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homhuan, A.; Prakongpan, S.; Poomvises, P.; Maas, H.A.; Krommelin, D.; Kersten, G.; Jiskoot, W.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to prepare and characterize virosomes and ISCOMs containing envelope proteins of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and to evaluate their immunogenicity in target animals (chickens). Virosomes were prepared by solubilization of virus with either Triton X-100 or octyl

  20. Role of Maternally Derived Antibody in Newcastle Disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Newcastle disease affects different age group of birds despite vaccination from day old. In order to determine the influence of maternally derived antibody (MDA) on chicks in Newcastle disease (ND) vaccination, a total of 100 broiler chicks were divided into four equal groups, A, B, C and D. Different ND vaccination program ...

  1. Preparation, characterization, and in ovo vaccination of dextran-spermine nanoparticle DNA vaccine coexpressing the fusion and hemagglutinin genes against Newcastle disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firouzamandi M

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Masoumeh Firouzamandi,1,2 Hassan Moeini,3 Seyed Davood Hosseini,4 Mohd Hair Bejo,1 Abdul Rahman Omar,1,3 Parvaneh Mehrbod,3 Mohamed E El Zowalaty,5 Thomas J Webster,6 Aini Ideris1,3 1Department of Veterinary Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tabriz, Iran; 3Laboratory of Vaccine and Immunotherapeutics, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 4Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Arak, Iran; 5Biomedical Research Center, Vice President Office for Research, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar; 6Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Plasmid DNA (pDNA-based vaccines have emerged as effective subunit vaccines against viral and bacterial pathogens. In this study, a DNA vaccine, namely plasmid internal ribosome entry site-HN/F, was applied in ovo against Newcastle disease (ND. Vaccination was carried out using the DNA vaccine alone or as a mixture of the pDNA and dextran-spermine (D-SPM, a nanoparticle used for pDNA delivery. The results showed that in ovo vaccination with 40 µg pDNA/egg alone induced high levels of antibody titer (P<0.05 in specific pathogen-free (SPF chickens at 3 and 4 weeks postvaccination compared to 2 weeks postvaccination. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI titer was not significantly different between groups injected with 40 µg pDNA + 64 µg D-SPM and 40 µg pDNA at 4 weeks postvaccination (P>0.05. Higher antibody titer was observed in the group immunized with 40 µg pDNA/egg at 4 weeks postvaccination. The findings also showed that vaccination with 40 µg pDNA/egg alone was able to confer protection against Newcastle disease virus strain NDIBS002 in two out of seven SPF chickens. Although the chickens produced antibody titers 3 weeks after in ovo vaccination, it was not sufficient to provide complete protection

  2. Evaluation of blood monocyte and lymphocyte population in broiler chicken after vaccination and experimental challenge with Newcastle disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taebipour, Mohammad Jafar; Dadras, Habibollah; Nazifi, Saeed; Afsar, Mina; Ansari-Lari, Maryam

    2017-08-01

    In the present study, after vaccination and challenge with Newcastle disease virus, changes in the population of blood monocytes and lymphocytes of broiler chickens were evaluated using flow cytometry. 300 apparently healthy 1-day-old Cobb broiler chicks were divided randomly into four experimental groups (n=75). At 20days of age the chicks in group 1 and 2 were vaccinated with live B1 ND vaccine. Those in group 2 were additionally injected with a killed vaccine simultaneously and group 3 chicks received only the adjuvant of the killed vaccine. The birds in groups 1, 2 and 3 were challenged with a velogenic ND virus and those in group 4 were treated as control. Sampling was done on days 1,2,3,7 after vaccination and also on 1, 2, 3,7,14, 21 post challenge days. In this study percentage of B cell population was increased after vaccination and challenge in vaccinated birds, but CD3+ cells were decreased after vaccination and challenge, which showed B cells have more expansion than T cells. The CD4+ cell percentage in vaccinated birds was always lower than control birds. However, the percentage of CD8+ cells in vaccinated birds was increased. Results indicate increased CMI with the live NDV vaccination. In this study CD4/CD8 ratio in control birds was about 1.5 at 30days of age and it was slightly lower in vaccinated and challenged birds. The percentage of monocytes in vaccinated birds was significantly higher than control birds from 3days post vaccination to the end of the experiment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessing the economic impacts of commercial poultry feeds supplementation and vaccinating against Newcastle disease in local chickens, in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njue, S.W.; Kasiiti, J.L.; Gacheru, S.G.

    2006-01-01

    Despite of the rapid growth in poultry population in the past decade, various constraints continue to adversely affect the productivity of local birds in Kenya. Sustainable cost effective interventions are necessary if full potential is to be realised. The impact of Newcastle disease (ND) control using vaccination and commercial poultry feed supplementation was assessed in 16 farms found in Kiambu district (ECZ II). Information on flock size, flock structure and disease control was gathered from these farms. F strain ND vaccine administration and commercial poultry feed supplementation was also done. Generally there was a notable increase in flock size when birds were supplemented and vaccinated. There was marked increase in numbers of growers and chicks with feed supplementation and vaccination. It was economically profitable to supplement and vaccinate local birds as returns were >1.0. Vaccination gave the highest return on investment (3,36) and feed supplementation the least (1,15). The high cost of commercial poultry feed discourages farmers from supplementing local chicken; therefore farm formulations using locally available materials should be encouraged. There is need to produce thermostable vaccines locally to use in local birds which would bring vaccine costs further down. (author)

  4. Immunogenicity of commercial, formaldehyde and binary ethylenimine inactivated Newcastle disease virus vaccines in specific pathogen free chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razmaraii, N.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease (ND is one of the most important diseases that affect birds; the epizootic nature of the disease has caused severe economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. In this experiment ND virus (NDV was inactivated by two different chemicals binary ethylenimine (BEI and formaldehyde. Formaldehyde was used at 0.1%, while BEI was used at concentrations of 1 to 4 mM. NDV inactivation with BEI was done in various incubation temperatures and periods and the best result (30 °C, 4 mM BEI and 21 hrs treatment used as an experimental vaccine. Prepared inactivated NDV vaccines and a commercial vaccine were tested for their efficiency in generating humoral immune response in different groups of specific pathogen free (SPF chicks. Test groups received 0.2 ml formaldehyde inactivated NDV (NDVF, BEI inactivated NDV (NDVEI and Razi institute produced NDV vaccine (NDVR subcutaneously respectively. HI Log 2 total mean titer of NDVEI group (8.42 ± 0.12 were significantly higher than NDVF (7.64 ± 0.16 and NDVR (7.86 ± 0.11 groups (p<0.05. BEI-inactivated vaccine gave higher antibody titers than formaldehyde-inactivated vaccine and preserves both structural integrity and antigenicity of the virus. Thus, it might be possible to use these compounds as an inactivator agent for commercial NDV inactivated vaccines in future.

  5. P and M gene junction is the optimal insertion site in Newcastle disease virus vaccine vector for foreign gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Zhenyu; Zsak, Laszlo; Yu, Qingzhong

    2015-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has been developed as a vector for vaccine and gene therapy purposes. However, the optimal insertion site for foreign gene expression remained to be determined. In the present study, we inserted the green fluorescence protein (GFP) gene into five different intergenic regions of the enterotropic NDV VG/GA vaccine strain using reverse genetics technology. The rescued recombinant viruses retained lentogenic pathotype and displayed delayed growth dynamics, particularly when the GFP gene was inserted between the NP and P genes of the virus. The GFP mRNA level was most abundant when the gene was inserted closer to the 3' end and gradually decreased as the gene was inserted closer to the 5' end. Measurement of the GFP fluorescence intensity in recombinant virus-infected cells demonstrated that the non-coding region between the P and M genes is the optimal insertion site for foreign gene expression in the VG/GA vaccine vector.

  6. COMPARATIVE IMMUNO PATHOLOGICAL AND IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE EEFECTS OF THREE DIFFERENT GUMBORO VACCINE STRAINS AGAINST NEWCASTLE DISEASE VACCINA TION IN BROILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Ayyub, A. Aslam, S. A. Khan and M. A. Munir1

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This project was carried out to study the comparative immunosuppressive effects of three different Gumboro live vaccine strains on Newcastle disease (NO vaccination. A total of 100 chicks were divided into four equal groups (A, B, C and O. Birds of all the groups were vaccinated against ND on 5th and 21st day of age. Specific Gumboro vaccine strain was given to specific group at 14th and 28th day of age. Group A, Band C were vaccinated with 228-E, D- 78 and Bursine-2, respectively, while group D was kept as control. Immune organs including bursa, thymus and spleen were examined for their gross and, histopathological changes, before and after Infectious Bursal disease (IBO vaccination. For this purpose, these organs were collected at 13th, 17th and 31st days of age. At 13th day (before 1BD vaccination no gross and histopathological lesions were observed in any bird of any group. At 17th and 31st day, severe lesions were noted in group A, moderate lesions in group B, mild lesions in group C and no lesions were observed in immune organs of group D. Haemagglutination inhibition (HI test showed that 228-E vaccine strain, (group A was highly immunosuppressive, D- 78 vaccine strain (group B was less immunosuppressive while Bursine-2 vaccine strain (group C was least immunosuppressive. No humoral immunosuppression was observed in unvaccinated control group D. This study suggests the use of Bursine-2 strain of IBD vaccine in a flock having risk of ND infection, as it has least immunosuppressive effect against ND vaccination.

  7. Have we found an optimal insertion site in a Newcastle disease virus vector to express a foreign gene for vaccine and gene therapy purposes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using reverse genetics technology, many strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) have been developed as vectors to express foreign genes for vaccine and gene therapy purposes. The foreign gene is usually inserted into a non-coding region of the NDV genome as an independent transcription unit. Eval...

  8. Generation of recombinant newcastle disease viruses, expressing the glycoprotein (G) of avian metapneumovirus, subtype A, or B, for use as bivalent vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using reverse genetics technology, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota strain-based recombinant viruses were engineered to express the glycoprotein (G) of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), subtype A, or B, as bivalent vaccines. These recombinant viruses, rLS/aMPV-A G and rLS/aMPV-B G, were slightly att...

  9. Recombinant infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) H120 vaccine strain expressing the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) protects chickens against IBV and NDV challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Zhou, Yingshun; Li, Jianan; Fu, Li; Ji, Gaosheng; Zeng, Fanya; Zhou, Long; Gao, Wenqian; Wang, Hongning

    2016-05-01

    Infectious bronchitis (IB) and Newcastle disease (ND) are common viral diseases of chickens, which are caused by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV), respectively. Vaccination with live attenuated strains of IBV-H120 and NDV-LaSota are important for the control of IB and ND. However, conventional live attenuated vaccines are expensive and result in the inability to differentiate between infected and vaccinated chickens. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new efficacious vaccines. In this study, using a previously established reverse genetics system, we generated a recombinant IBV virus based on the IBV H120 vaccine strain expressing the haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of NDV. The recombinant virus, R-H120-HN/5a, exhibited growth dynamics, pathogenicity and viral titers that were similar to those of the parental IBV H120, but it had acquired hemagglutination activity from NDV. Vaccination of SPF chickens with the R-H120-HN/5a virus induced a humoral response at a level comparable to that of the LaSota/H120 commercial bivalent vaccine and provided significant protection against challenge with virulent IBV and NDV. In summary, the results of this study indicate that the IBV H120 strain could serve as an effective tool for designing vaccines against IB and other infectious diseases, and the generation of IBV R-H120-HN/5a provides a solid foundation for the development of an effective bivalent vaccine against IBV and NDV.

  10. Protection conferred by a live avian metapneumovirus vaccine when co-administered with live La Sota Newcastle disease vaccine in chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannan Ganapathy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects on specific pathogen-free (SPF chicks when avian metapneumovirus (aMPV and Newcastle disease virus (NDV La Sota strain vaccines are co-administered. Day-old SPF chicks were divided into five groups. The first group was inoculated with sterile water (SW and the rest of the groups were inoculated with live NDV vaccine VG/GA by the oculo-oral route. At 21 days-old, the unvaccinated chicks were again inoculated with SW. The four VG/GA-vaccinated groups were further inoculated with (i SW, (ii live aMPV vaccine, (iii live NDV La Sota, or (iv combined live NDV La Sota and live aMPV, respectively. Chicks were monitored for post-vaccination reactions and oropharyngeal swabs were collected for vaccines detection. Blood samples were collected to detect aMPV ELISA and NDV haemagglutination-inhibition antibodies. Twenty-one days following the second vaccination, six chicks from each group were challenged with virulent NDV or aMPV respectively. Chicks were monitored for clinical signs and mortality and oropharyngeal swabs collected for aMPV detection. Results showed that, when challenged with a virulent aMPV, both chicks previously vaccinated with VG/GA and subsequently given aMPV vaccine singly or in combination with La Sota were equally protected against clinical signs. Chicks that were vaccinated against NDV either once with VG/GA or followed by La Sota (singly or in combination with aMPV were fully protected when challenged with velogenic NDV. We concluded that simultaneous administration of live aMPV and NDV La Sota vaccines have no adverse effects on protection conferred by either live vaccine.

  11. Mycoplasma synoviae infection on Newcastle disease vaccination of chickens Infecção por Mycoplasma synoviae na vacinação da doença de Newcastle em galinhas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Figueira Silva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease is characterized by respiratory manifestations in association with nervous and/or digestive symptoms. Its prevention is done by vaccination with live attenuated (lentogenic strains and/or killed vaccines. The lentogenic strains can lead to strong post-vaccination reaction, principally due to the presence of other pathogenic agents. Among them, Mycoplasma synoviae is worldwide important, mainly in Brazil. The dissemination of this agent in poultry flocks has been achieved due to difficulties in diagnosis and disease reproduction, virulence variations among different M.synoviae strains, and attribution of typical M.synoviae disease manifestation to other disease agents. This experimental study in SPF chicks (Gallus gallus, previously infected by M.synoviae and thereafter vaccinated against Newcastle disease, was done with the objective of evaluating M.synoviae pathogenicity through assessment of post-vaccinal respiratory reactions and serologic responses to Newcastle disease virus vaccine in the absence of environmental factors. A total of 86 three days old chicks were used, being 57 infected by eye and nostril drop, with chicken activated M. synoviae strain WVU 1853. Seven days later, 21 mycoplasma infected birds plus 29 not mycoplasma infected ones were vaccinated against Newcastle disease. As results, the not infected and vaccinated birds yielded, significantly, higher and longer lasting serologic responses to Newcastle disease vaccine virus than those infected and vaccinated. Similarly, the infected and vaccinated birds yielded lower serologic reactions to M.synoviae than those only mycoplasma infected. No post-vaccinal respiratory reaction was observed in the vaccinated birds.A doença de Newcastle é caracterizada por manifestações respiratórias associadas a sintomas nervosos e/ou digestivos. Sua prevenção é feita pela vacinação com vacinas vivas atenuadas (cepas lentogênicas e/ou inativadas. As cepas lentog

  12. Attitude of poultry farmers towards vaccination against newcastle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attitude of poultry farmers towards vaccination against newcastle disease and avian influenza in Ibadan, Nigeria. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to ...

  13. Chimeric avian paramyxovirus-based vector immunization against highly pathogenic avian influenza followed by conventional Newcastle disease vaccination eliminates lack of protection from virulent ND virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Steglich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, we described a chimeric, hemagglutinin of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV H5 expressing Newcastle disease virus (NDV-based vector vaccine (chNDVFHNPMV8H5 in which NDV envelope glycoproteins were replaced by those of avian paramyxovirus-8 (APMV-8. This chimeric vaccine induced solid protection against lethal HPAIV H5N1 even in chickens with maternal antibodies against NDV (MDA+. However, due to the absence of the major NDV immunogens it failed to induce protection against Newcastle disease (ND. Here, we report on protection of MDA+ chickens against HPAI H5N1 and ND, by vaccination with chNDVFHNPMV8H5 either on day 1 or day seven after hatch, and subsequent immunization with live attenuated NDV seven days later. Vaccination was well tolerated and three weeks after immunization, challenge infections with highly pathogenic NDV as well as HPAIV H5N1 were carried out. All animals remained healthy without exhibiting any clinical signs, whereas non-vaccinated animals showed morbidity and mortality. Therefore, vaccination with chNDVFHNPMV8H5 can be followed by NDV vaccination to protect chickens from HPAIV as well as NDV, indicating that the antibody response against chNDVFHNPMV8H5 does not interfere with live ND vaccination.

  14. Enhancement of immune responses to Newcastle disease vaccine by a supplement of extract of Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng. seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, C; Bao, G; Hu, S

    2009-11-01

    The study evaluated the immunological effect of extract of Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng. seeds (ECMS) on the immune response against Newcastle disease (ND) in chickens. Forty-eight chickens were divided into 4 groups (n = 12). Each chicken was immunized with ND vaccine mixed with 0, 20, 40, or 80 microg of ECMS on d 35. Blood samples were collected on d 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 postimmunization. Humoral and cellular immune responses were evaluated by indirect ELISA assay and the 3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide method. Results indicated that humoral immune response was enhanced by ECMS 14 d postimmunization. Eighty micrograms of ECMS was the best dose with the ND vaccine and was significantly different from the other groups 21 d after immunization. No significant differences were found in the cellular immune response, whereas the 80 microg of ECMS group had higher values than the other groups 35 d after immunization. No side effect was found on the growth performance during the experiment.

  15. IgA response and protection following nasal vaccination of chickens with Newcastle disease virus DNA vaccine nanoencapsulated with Ag@SiO2 hollow nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kai; Rong, Guangyu; Hao, Yan; Yu, Lu; Kang, Hong; Wang, Xin; Wang, Xiaohua; Jin, Zheng; Ren, Zhiyu; Li, Zejun

    2016-05-01

    Newcastle disease caused by ND virus (NDV) is a highly contagious disease of birds. Vaccine for effective protection of poultry animals from NDV infection is urgently needed. Mucosal immunity plays a very important role in the antiviral immune response. In this study, a NDV F gene-containing DNA vaccine encapsulated in Ag@SiO2 hollow nanoparticles (pFDNA-Ag@SiO2-NPs) with an average diameter of 500 nm were prepared to assess the mucosal immune response. These nanoparticles exhibited low cytotoxicity and did not destroy the bioactivity of plasmid DNA, which could be expressed in vitro. The plasmid DNA was sustainably released after an initial burst release. In vivo immunization showed that the intranasal immunization of chickens with pFDNA-Ag@SiO2-NPs induced high titers of serum antibody, significantly promoted lymphocyte proliferation and induced higher expression levels of IL-2 and IFN-γ in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicated that the Ag@SiO2 hollow nanoparticles could serve as an efficient and safe delivery carrier for NDV DNA vaccine to induce mucosal immunity. This study has provided promising results for the further development of mucosal vaccines encapsulated in inorganic nanoparticles.

  16. Patho-epidemiological study on Genotype-XIII Newcastle disease virus infection in commercial vaccinated layer farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Khorajiya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present research work was carried out to study the patho-epidemiological aspects of Genotype-XIII Newcastle disease virus (NDV infection in commercial layer in and around Anand, Gujarat. As the outbreaks have reported in vaccinated flocks, it was felt necessary to study the disease with respect to its changing pathogenicity and relevant aspects. Materials and Methods: The study comprised of patho-epidemiology of Newcastle disease (ND by information collected from different layer farms suffering from the disease in relation to incidence pattern and mortality, duration of mortality, susceptible age, and loss due to production performance. Clinical signs were recorded based on observations. During postmortem, gross lesions were also recorded. For histopathological examination visceral organs according to lesions were collected in 10% formalin and processed slide stained by hematoxylin and eosin for microscopic examination. Cultivation of virus was done in embryonated specific pathogen-free (SPF eggs of 9-11 days and isolation of virus was done for haemagglutination (HA and haemagglutination inhibition (HI test and to identify pathotype of virus by intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI test to determine the virulence of virus. The Genotype-XIII NDV was confirmed by F gene sequence and whole genome sequence. Results: During the study mortality due to ND was recorded in 13 layer flocks in spite of routine vaccination, which usually contain Genotype-II strain of virus. The mortality was observed as high as above 50% with an average of 21.21%. The susceptible age for disease was found to be 6-14 weeks. The duration of mortality observed was 23 days. The disease resulted in a significant reduction in body weight, feed intake and drop in egg production. Majority of the outbreaks appeared during extremely hot months of April to June. Greenish diarrhoea was frequently seen in birds that survived early in infection. Mortality continued for 2

  17. Quality control assessment of two lentogenic newcastle disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Control of Newcastle Disease is principally by vaccination. Both imported and locally produced vaccines are in use in Nigeria. Comparison was made between two lentogenic vaccines imported from France, India and the Vom-produced Lasota in terms of physical outlook, sterility viral viability, immunogenicity and safety.

  18. The chicken or the egg? Exploring bi-directional associations between Newcastle disease vaccination and village chicken flock size in rural Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia de Bruyn

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease (ND is a viral disease of poultry with global importance, responsible for the loss of a potential source of household nutrition and economic livelihood in many low-income food-deficit countries. Periodic outbreaks of this endemic disease result in high mortality amongst free-ranging chicken flocks and may serve as a disincentive for rural households to invest time or resources in poultry-keeping. Sustainable ND control can be achieved through vaccination using a thermotolerant vaccine administered via eyedrop by trained "community vaccinators". This article evaluates the uptake and outcomes of fee-for-service ND vaccination programs in eight rural villages in the semi-arid central zone of Tanzania. It represents part of an interdisciplinary program seeking to address chronic undernutrition in children through improvements to existing poultry and crop systems. Newcastle disease vaccination uptake was found to vary substantially across communities and seasons, with a significantly higher level of vaccination amongst households participating in a longitudinal study of children's growth compared with non-participating households (p = 0.009. Two multivariable model analyses were used to explore associations between vaccination and chicken numbers, allowing for clustered data and socioeconomic and cultural variation amongst the population. Results demonstrated that both (a households that undertook ND vaccination had a significantly larger chicken flock size in the period between that vaccination campaign and the next compared with those that did not vaccinate (p = 0.018; and (b households with larger chicken flocks at the time of vaccination were significantly more likely to participate in vaccination programs (p < 0.001. Additionally, households vaccinating in all three vaccination campaigns held over 12 months were identified to have significantly larger chicken flocks at the end of this period (p < 0.001. Opportunities to

  19. Retrospective analysis of Newcastle disease diagnosed at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly contagious viral disease of domestic and wild birds with devastating impact on poultry health and production. Many vaccines and vaccination schedules are in use in controlling the disease but prevention and control are still a problem. A ten-year retrospective study (2002-2011) of ...

  20. Detection of immunoglobulins containing plasma cells in the thymus, bursa of Fabricius and spleen of vaccinated broiler chickens with Newcastle disease virus vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abdul Masum

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobilization of immunoglobulins (Igs-containing plasma cells (IgA, IgG and IgM in the spleen, bursa of Fabricius and thymus was investigated in broiler chickens that were vaccinated with Newcastle disease virus (NDV vaccine. In the thymus, the Igs-containing plasma cells were distributed in the cortex and medulla. Their frequency and distribution were higher at D14 and at D28. The number of IgG- and IgM-positive cells was greater than IgA-positive cells in thymus. In the bursa of Fabricius, Igs-containing plasma cells were distributed beneath the capsules; within and around the bursal follicles. Their frequency of occurrence significantly peaked at D14 and at D28 in comparison to day-old chickens, and IgG-positive cells were significantly greater than the IgA- and IgM-positive cells in the bursa of vaccinated chickens. In the spleen, Igs-containing plasma cells were distributed in the white pulp, around the trabeculae, and in the periarterial lymphatic sheath. In this secondary lymphatic tissue, IgG- and IgM-positive cell numbers significantly greater than IgA-positive cells. In conclusion, mobilization of more Igs-positive cells in lymphoid tissues of broiler chickens is due to the effect of NDV vaccine as well as the advancement of age.

  1. Newcastle disease virus-based H5 influenza vaccine protects chickens from lethal challenge with a highly pathogenic H5N2 avian influenza virus

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Jingjiao; Lee, Jinhwa; Liu, Haixia; Mena, Ignacio; Davis, A. Sally; Sunwoo, Sun Young; Lang, Yuekun; Duff, Michael; Morozov, Igor; Li, Yuhao; Yang, Jianmei; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Richt, Juergen A.; Ma, Wenjun

    2017-01-01

    Since December 2014, Eurasian-origin, highly pathogenic avian influenza H5 viruses including H5N1, H5N2, and H5N8 subtypes (called H5Nx viruses), which belong to the H5 clade 2.3.4.4, have been detected in U.S. wild birds. Subsequently, highly pathogenic H5N2 and H5N8 viruses have caused outbreaks in U.S. domestic poultry. Vaccination is one of the most effective ways to control influenza outbreaks and protect animal and public health. Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-based influenza vaccines ha...

  2. Control of Newcastle disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV), also know as avian paramyxovirus serotype 1, is an important poultry pathogen worldwide. In naive poultry, the virulent forms of the virus cause high mortality. Because of this the virus is reportable to the World Organization for Animal Health and can be an important ...

  3. Activation of human T cells by a tumor vaccine infected with recombinant Newcastle disease virus producing IL-2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janke, M.; Peeters, B.; Zhao, H.; Leeuw, O.; Moormann, R.J.M.; Arnold, A.; Ziouta, Y.; Fournier, P.; Schirrmacher, V.

    2008-01-01

    A new recombinant (rec) Newcastle disease virus (NDV) with incorporated human interleukin 2 (IL-2) as foreign therapeutic gene [rec(IL-2)] will be described. The foreign gene in rec(IL-2) did not affect the main features of NDV replication nor its tumor selectivity. Biologically active IL-2 was

  4. Evaluation of a LaSota strain-based recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) expressing the glycoprotein (G) of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) subgroup A or B as a bivalent vaccine in turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    To develop a bivalent vaccine candidate, a LaSota strain-based recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) clone expressing the glycoprotein (G) of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) subgroup A or B was generated using reverse genetics. Vaccination of turkeys with the NDV/aMPV-A G or NDV/aMPV-B G recombinan...

  5. Generation and evaluation of recombinant Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) expressing the F and G proteins of avian metapneumovirus subtype C (aMPV-C) as bivalent vaccine against NDV and aMPV challenges in turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previously we generated a Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota strain-based recombinant virus expressing the glycoprotein (G) of avian metapneumovirus subgroup C (aMPV-C) as a bivalent vaccine, which provided a partial protection against aMPV-C challenge in turkeys. To improve the vaccine efficacy,...

  6. Immune responses and interactions following simultaneous application of live Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis and avian metapneumovirus vaccines in specific-pathogen-free chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Faez; Forrester, Anne; Baylis, Matthew; Lemiere, Stephane; Jones, Richard; Ganapathy, Kannan

    2015-02-01

    Interactions between live Newcastle disease virus (NDV), avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccines following simultaneous vaccination of day old specific pathogen free (SPF) chicks were evaluated. The chicks were divided into eight groups: seven vaccinated against NDV, aMPV and IBV (single, dual or triple) and one unvaccinated as control. Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) NDV antibody titres were similar across all groups but were above protective titres. aMPV vaccine when given with other live vaccines suppressed levels of aMPV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) antibodies. Cellular and local immunity induced by administration of NDV, aMPV or IBV vaccines (individually or together) showed significant increase in CD4+, CD8+ and IgA bearing B-cells in the trachea compared to the unvaccinated group. Differences between the vaccinated groups were insignificant. Simultaneous vaccination with live NDV, aMPV and IBV did not affect the protection conferred against aMPV or IBV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Generation and evaluation of a recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) expressing the F and G proteins of avian metapneumovirus subtype C (aMPV-C) as a bivalent vaccine against NDV and aMPV-C challenges in turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) can cause serious respiratory diseases in poultry. Vaccination combined with strict biosecurity practices has been the recommendation for controlling NDV and aMPV diseases in the field. Previously we generated a NDV r...

  8. Immunoadjuvant activities of a recombinant chicken IL-12 in chickens vaccinated with Newcastle disease virus recombinant HN protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Bor Sheu; Yin, Hsien Sheng; Chiu, Hua Hsien; Hung, Li Hsiang; Huang, Ji Ping; Shien, Jui Hung; Lee, Long Huw

    2011-08-05

    Recombinant fowlpox virus (rFPV/HN) expressing Newcastle disease virus (NDV) HN gene and rFPV/HN/chIL-12 co-expressing chicken IL-12 (chIL-12) and HN (rHN/chIL-12) genes have been characterized. rHN/chIL-12 or rchIL-12, expressed by our previous construct rFPV/chIL-12, co-administered with rHN was assessed for adjuvant activities of chIL-12. Chickens were vaccinated with various amounts of rHN/chIL-12 mixed with mineral oil (MO), intramuscularly. Levels of hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibody production depended on the concentration of the injected rHN or rHN/chIL-12. The lower HI antibody titers were obtained in chicken groups rHN/chIL-12/7-rHN/chIL-12/9, receiving 60ng rHN/8ng chIL-12 with MO, 30ng rHN/4ng chIL-12 with MO or 15ng rHN/2ng chIL-12 with MO, respectively, compared to those in chicken groups rHN/7-rHN/9, receiving rHN with MO alone. However, chickens in group rHN/chIL-12/7 or rHN/chIL-12/8 and rHN with MO alone showed the same effective protection. Chicken group rHN/chIL-12/9 was even more protective than that in group rHN/9. When rchIL-12 was co-injected with 15ng rHN plus MO, chickens produced low levels of HI antibody titers; while higher levels of IFN-γ production and an effective protection rate (83%) were obtained. On the other hand, low levels of IFN-γ production and low protection response (50%) were obtained in chickens injected with rHN with MO alone. Taken together, when the concentration of rHN decreased to certain levels, rchIL-12 reduced HI antibody production. The increase in the induction of IFN-γ production might suggest the enhancement of the cell-mediated immunity which conferred the protection from the NDV challenge. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Immunomodulation of bivalent Newcastle disease DNA vaccine induced immune response by co-delivery of chicken IFN-γ and IL-4 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, P M; Verma, P C; Subudhi, P K; Chaturvedi, U; Singh, M; Kumar, Rajeev; Tiwari, A K

    2011-11-15

    The basic objective of this study was to enumerate whether co-administration of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and/or interleukin-4 (IL-4) gene along with a bivalent Newcastle disease (ND) DNA vaccine construct could modulate the immune response to the DNA vaccine in chickens. pVIVO2 vector carrying Haemaglutinin-Neuraminidase (HN) and Fusion (F) genes of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) at its two cloning sites was used as a DNA vaccine. The same vector was used to clone the chicken IFN-γ and IL-4 genes at the multiple cloning site-1 separately. In vitro expression of IFN-γ and IL-4 gene constructs was assessed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and that of HN and F genes by indirect fluorescent antibody technique (IFAT) in addition to RT-PCR. The chickens were immunized thrice intramuscularly at 21, 36 and 46 days of age with the bivalent DNA vaccine alone, or in combination with IFN-γ/IL-4 or both cytokine gene constructs. The bivalent DNA vaccine led to increase in both NDV specific antibodies as assessed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and haemagglutination inhibition test (HI) and cell mediated immune (CMI) response as assessed by lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) employing MTT assay. Co-administration of the DNA vaccine with IL-4 gene resulted in highest IgY levels while IFN-γ produced highest CMI response. The DNA vaccine alone could afford only 10% protection against challenge infection by velogenic NDV. This protection was increased to 40% when IL-4 gene construct was co-administered with the DNA vaccine. Co-injection of IFN-γ as well as the combination of IFN-γ and IL-4 gene constructs with the DNA vaccine yielded 20% protection. Our study suggests that IL-4 may prove to be more appropriate as a genetic adjuvant than IFN-γ for ND DNA vaccine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Experimental trials with V 4 HR and LaSota Newcastle disease virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experimental trials with V 4 HR and LaSota Newcastle disease virus vaccines administered to chicks via eye drop, drinking water and commercial feed Essais experimentaux avec des vaccins V 4 HR et LaSota contre le virus de la maladie de newcastle administres a l'aide des gouttes pour les yeux, de l'eau potable et des ...

  11. EFFECTING FACTORS ON THE VACCINATION AGAINST NEWCASTLE DISEASE FOR COMMERCIAL BREEDS OF CHICKS: INFLUENCE OF MATERNALLY DERIVED ANTIBODIES FATORES QUE INFLUENCIAM NA VACINAÇÃO DE NEWCASTLE EM PINTOS DE LINHAGEM COMERCIAL: INFLUÊNCIA DE ANTICORPOS MATERNOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auxiliadora Andrade

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    In order to evaluate the protection of passive antibodies of Newcastle disease, chicks of commercial line from three distinct incubators commercialized in the city of Goiânia were submitted to four types of treatment. The first group was vaccinated in the first day of life, the second on the seventh day of life, the third, in the fourteenth and the group not vaccinated (control. The chicks received ocular via 0.03 ml of Lasota against the Newcastle disease. The immunologic answer was evaluated through the Hemagglutination - Inhibition tests and total protection tests, challenging from the first through the forty-second day, with intermission of a week. The sorological results of maternal antibodies showed that the geometric mean HI titres (expressed in log2 decrease strongly from the first to the third week, the same happened with the challenge tests, with 98% of protection on the first days of life, with average percentage of 26% on the third week. It was verified, within the experiment conditions, when it's established a single vaccination, the ideal age is around fourteen days; though the average of mortality in this group during all phases of the experiment was 22.86% was not possible to obtain the percentage level of total protection.

    Para avaliar a proteção conferida de anticorpos passivos na doença de Newcastle, pintinhos de linhagem comercial, oriundos de três incubatórios distintos, comercializados na cidade de Goiânia foram submetidos a quatro tratamentos. Um grupo foi vacinado no primeiro dia de vida, outro no sétimo dia de vida, o terceiro no décimo quarto e o último não vacinado (controle. Os animais receberam, via ocular, 0,03 ml da vacina “Lasota” contra a doença de Newcastle. A resposta imunológica foi avaliada pela reação de inibição da hemoaglutinação e testes de prote

  12. Generation and evaluation of a LaSota strain-based recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) expressing the glycoprotein (G) of avian metapneumovirus subgroup C (aMPV-C) as a bivalent vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    To develop a bivalent vaccine, a recombinant Newcastle disease virus was generated by using the NDV LaSota strain with insertion of the G gene of aMPV-C. The biological assessments of the recombinant virus, rLS/aMPV-CG, by conducting the mean death time, intracerebral pathogenicity index, and growth...

  13. Development, characterization and optimization of a new suspension chicken-induced pluripotent cell line for the production of Newcastle disease vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shittu, Ismaila; Zhu, Ziying; Lu, Yangqing; Hutcheson, Jessica M; Stice, Steven L; West, Franklin D; Donadeu, Meritxell; Dungu, Baptiste; Fadly, Aly M; Zavala, Guillermo; Ferguson-Noel, Naola; Afonso, Claudio L

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, substrates for production of viral poultry vaccines have been embryonated eggs or adherent primary cell cultures. The difficulties and cost involved in scaling up these substrates in cases of increased demand have been a limitation for vaccine production. Here, we assess the ability of a newly developed chicken-induced pluripotent cell line, BA3, to support replication and growth of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota vaccine strain. The characteristics and growth profile of the cells were also investigated. BA3 cells could grow in suspension in different media to a high density of up to 7.0 × 10(6) cells/mL and showed rapid proliferation with doubling time of 21 h. Upon infection, a high virus titer of 1.02 × 10(8) EID50/mL was obtained at 24 h post infection using a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 5. In addition, the cell line was shown to be free of endogenous and exogenous Avian Leukosis viruses, Reticuloendotheliosis virus, Fowl Adenovirus, Marek's disease virus, and several Mycoplasma species. In conclusion, BA3 cell line is potentially an excellent candidate for vaccine production due to its highly desirable industrially friendly characteristics of growing to high cell density and capability of growth in serum free medium. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Generation and evaluation of a recombinant Newcastle disease virus expressing the glycoprotein (G) of avian metapneumovirus subgroup C as a bivalent vaccine in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haixia; Roth, Jason P; Estevez, Carlos N; Zsak, Laszlo; Liu, Bo; Yu, Qingzhong

    2011-11-03

    Virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) can cause serious respiratory diseases in poultry. Vaccination combined with strict biosecurity practices has been the recommendation for controlling both NDV and aMPV diseases in the field. In the present study, an NDV based, LaSota strain recombinant vaccine virus expressing the glycoprotein (G) of aMPV subgroup C (aMPV-C) was generated as a bivalent vaccine using a reverse genetics approach. The recombinant virus, rLS/aMPV-C G was slightly attenuated in vivo, yet maintained similar growth dynamics, cytopathic effects, and virus titers in vitro when compared to the parental LaSota virus. Expression of the aMPV G protein in rLS/aMPV-C G-infected cells was detected by immunofluorescence assay. Vaccination of turkeys with one dose of rLS/aMPV-C G induced moderate aMPV-C-specific immune responses and comparable NDV-specific serum antibody responses to a LaSota vaccination control. Partial protection against pathogenic aMPV-C challenge and complete protection against velogenic NDV challenge was conferred. These results suggest that the LaSota recombinant virus is a safe and effective vaccine vector and that expression of the aMPV-C G protein alone is not sufficient to provide full protection against an aMPV-C infection. Expression of other immunogenic protein(s) of the aMPV-C virus alone or in conjunction with the G protein may be needed to induce a stronger protective immunity against the aMPV-C disease. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Effects of Dietary Supplemental Vitamins and Periods of Administration on Growth Performance and Antibody Titre of Broiler Chickens Vaccinated against Newcastle Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odutayo, O. J.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of supplemental vitamins and varying administration periods on growth performance and antibody titre of broiler chickens vaccinated against Newcastle Disease (ND. A total of 300 unvaccinated against ND Arbor Acre day-old chicks were used for the study for 8 wk. Birds were brooded together on day 1 of age, and 30 chicks were selected randomly for evaluating the maternally derived antibody titre against ND. At 2 days of age, the remaining 270 chicks were divided based on weight equalization into 9 treatment groups and replicated thrice. The 9 treatments consisted of a factorial arrangement of 4 supplemental vitamins (A, C, E and combination of A, C, E and 2 periods of administration (3 days pre- and post-ND vaccinations with a control. The birds were managed intensively throughout the experimental period, ND vaccines were administered on the 5th (i/o and 24th (Lasota day of age, respectively. Supplemental combined vitamins A, C and E at 0.15, 16.67 and 3.03 mg/kg, respectively, resulted in higher (P < 0.05 final body weight of 1785.00 g/bird and better feed conversion ratio (FCR of 2.89. Also, birds fed vitamin A supplemented diet 3 d pre-i/o vaccine had higher (p<0.05 serum antibody titre (75.20 against ND while higher (p<0.05 serum antibody titre (741.33 was also obtained in birds fed diet supplemented with vitamin E 3 d post-Lasota vaccination. Conclusively, broiler chickens diets can be supplemented with combined vitamins A, C, and E for better growth performance measured as final body weight and FCR, in addition, vitamins A (0.45mg/kg and E (9.1mg/kg dietary supplementation at 3 d pre-i/o and 3 d post-Lasota vaccines, respectively, can be adopted for improved antibody production.

  16. Chitosan-coated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles as an efficient delivery system for Newcastle disease virus DNA vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao K

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Kai Zhao,1,* Yang Zhang,1,2,* Xiaoyan Zhang,1,* Ci Shi,1,2 Xin Wang,1 Xiaohua Wang,1 Zheng Jin,3 Shangjin Cui2 1Laboratory of Microbiology, School of Life Science, Heilongjiang University, 2Division of Swine Infectious Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, 3Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering Process and Technology for High-efficiency Conversion, Heilongjiang University, Harbin, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: We determined the efficacy and safety of chitosan (CS-coated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA nanoparticles (NPs as a delivery system for a vaccine to protect chickens against Newcastle disease virus (NDV. The newly constructed vaccine contained DNA (the F gene of NDV. The Newcastle disease virus (NDV F gene deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA plasmid (pFDNA-CS/PLGA-NPs were spherical (diameter =699.1±5.21 nm [mean ± ­standard deviation] and smooth, with an encapsulation efficiency of 98.1% and a Zeta potential of +6.35 mV. An in vitro release assay indicated that CS controlled the burst release of plasmid DNA, such that up to 67.4% of the entire quantity of plasmid DNA was steadily released from the pFDNA-CS/PLGA-NPs. An in vitro expression assay indicated that the expression of nanoparticles (NPs was maintained in the NPs. In an immunization test with specific pathogen-free chickens, the pFDNA-CS/PLGA-NPs induced stronger cellular, humoral, and mucosal immune responses than the plasmid DNA vaccine alone. The pFDNA-CS/PLGA-NPs did not harm 293T cells in an in vitro assay and did not harm chickens in an in vivo assay. Overall, the results indicated that CS-coated PLGA NPs can serve as an efficient and safe mucosal immune delivery system for NDV DNA vaccine.Keywords: mucosal immune delivery system, immune effect

  17. Newcastle disease virus-based H5 influenza vaccine protects chickens from lethal challenge with a highly pathogenic H5N2 avian influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jingjiao; Lee, Jinhwa; Liu, Haixia; Mena, Ignacio; Davis, A Sally; Sunwoo, Sun Young; Lang, Yuekun; Duff, Michael; Morozov, Igor; Li, Yuhao; Yang, Jianmei; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Richt, Juergen A; Ma, Wenjun

    2017-01-01

    Since December 2014, Eurasian-origin, highly pathogenic avian influenza H5 viruses including H5N1, H5N2, and H5N8 subtypes (called H5N x viruses), which belong to the H5 clade 2.3.4.4, have been detected in U.S. wild birds. Subsequently, highly pathogenic H5N2 and H5N8 viruses have caused outbreaks in U.S. domestic poultry. Vaccination is one of the most effective ways to control influenza outbreaks and protect animal and public health. Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-based influenza vaccines have been demonstrated to be efficacious and safe in poultry. Herein, we developed an NDV-based H5 vaccine (NDV-H5) that expresses a codon-optimized ectodomain of the hemagglutinin from the A/chicken/Iowa/04-20/2015 (H5N2) virus and evaluated its efficacy in chickens. Results showed that both live and inactivated NDV-H5 vaccines induced hemagglutinin inhibition antibody titers against the H5N2 virus in immunized chickens after prime and booster, and both NDV-H5 vaccines completely protected chickens from lethal challenge with the highly pathogenic H5N2 A/turkey/Minnesota/9845-4/2015 virus. No clinical signs and only minimal virus shedding was observed in both vaccinated groups. In contrast, all mock-vaccinated, H5N2-infected chickens shed virus and died within 5 days post challenge. Furthermore, one dose of the live NDV-H5 vaccine also provided protection of 90% chickens immunized by coarse spraying; after exposure to H5N2 challenge, sera from vaccinated surviving chickens neutralized both highly pathogenic H5N1 and H5N8 viruses. Taken together, our results suggest that the NDV-based H5 vaccine is able to protect chickens against intercontinental highly pathogenic H5N x viruses and can be used by mass application to protect the poultry industry.

  18. Respons Antibodi terhadap Penyakit Tetelo pada Ayam yang Divaksin Tetelo dan Tetelo-Flu Burung (NEWCASTLE DISEASE/ND ANTIBODY RESPONSE OF CHICKENS VACCINATED WITH ND SINGLE AND COMBINED ND AND AVIAN INFLUENZA VACCINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Ayu Yuniati Kencana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate antibody response of specific pathogen-free (SPF chickens vaccinatedwith single inactivated Newcastle disease (ND vaccine and combined inactive ND and avian influenza(AI vaccines and to known the efficacy of both vaccines. The vaccines used were killed ND vaccine andkilled ND-AI vaccine produced by PT. Sanbio Laboratories Bogor, West Java. SPF chickens were vaccinatedwith 3 different doses. Antibody titer of SPF chickens against ND virus were determined byhaemagglutination inhibition (HI test. As many as 130 two week old SPF chickens were used and theywere divided into 2 groups (A and B consisting of 60 chickens and 10 chickens were used as control withoutvaccine. Group A chickens were vaccinated with ND-K vaccine and group B were vaccinated with combinedkilled ND-AI vaccines. Each group was further divided into 3 subsgroups (1, 2 and 3 consisting 20 chickens.Subgroups 1, 2 and 3 were vaccinated intramuscularly respectively with intramuskular 1, 1/10 and 1/100doses of each vaccines. Antibody response of chickens against ND virus was examined before vaccinationand every three week after vaccination and was expresses as geometric mean titre (GMT HI units. Theresult showed that the titre antibody against ND increased at the second week following the vaccination.The antibody titer against ND virus of chickens vaccinated single killed ND at the second week in eachdose were 6.05 GMT HI unit, 4.05 GMT HI unit, and 0.9 GMT HI unit. The antibody titre at the third week were 7.90 GMT HI unit ,5.40 GMT HI unit and 2.20 GMT HI unit. The antibody titre against ND virus ofchickens vaccinated with combined ND-AI vaccine at the second week were 6.30 GMT HI unit , 4.15 GMTHI unit , and 2.05 GMT HI unit. At the third week, the antibody titre against ND virus of chickensvaccinated with combined ND-AI vaccine in each subgroup were 7.45 GMT HI unit, 5.60 GMT HI unit , and2.40 GMT HI unit . It showed that the antibody titers

  19. Assessment of humoral and cellular-mediated immune response in chickens treated with tilmicosin, florfenicol, or enrofloxacin at the time of Newcastle disease vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifeh, M S; Amawi, M M; Abu-Basha, E A; Yonis, I Bani

    2009-10-01

    The effect of tilmicosin, florfenicol, or enrofloxacin on humoral and cell-mediated immune response induced by Newcastle disease (ND) vaccination was evaluated in 20-wk-old specific-pathogen-free layer chickens. Humoral immunity was measured by detection of ND virus (NDV) antibody titer and anti-NDV IgG response using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and ELISA, respectively, whereas cell-mediated immunity was evaluated by measurement of chicken interferon gamma (ChIFN-gamma) produced in splenocytes cell culture stimulated with concanavalin A, inactivated NDV antigen, or live attenuated La Sota strain using ELISA. Florfenicol hampered the ND antibody production measured by both HI and ELISA. Tilmicosin and enrofloxacin reduced the production of ND antibody in the first 3 wk after the last ND vaccination measured by HI test, which suggests that these antibiotics exert their effect mainly on the IgM isotype. The ND-vaccinated, but not treated group, showed an increase in ChIFN-gamma production after NDV antigen-specific stimulation above the nonstimulated cell culture, whereas this effect was masked in all the antibiotic-treated groups due to the stronger ChIFN-gamma production background value reported in the nonstimulated cell culture. In conclusion, our results showed, for the first time, that tilmicosin, florfenicol, or enrofloxacin reduced the humoral immune response and had beneficial effects on the cell-mediated immune response. In addition, we demonstrated that the combination of both inactivated and attenuated ND vaccine gave a strong immune response at both the humoral and cellular level.

  20. Detection of serum antibody levels against newcastle disease in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poultry diseases are one of the main factors constraining poultry practice in most developing countries. Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly contagious and commonly fatal viral poultry disease caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Detection of antibodies to Newcastle disease virus in 300 blood samples from local ...

  1. Genetic and Biological Changes of Newcastle Disease Virus Due to The Development of Chicken Production System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarisman

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In many countries, Newcastle Disease (ND is one of the most important diseases of poultry. It causes serious economic losses in poultry industry. Newcastle Disease or pseudo-fowl pest is a highly infectious viral disease that causes very high mortality (up to 100% in severe epidemics in poultry and wild birds around the world. Newcastle Disease remains endemic in many regions and continues to severely limit poultry production in some developing countries. The disease is currently being controlled by routine vaccinations in many countries. However, it was reported that outbreaks of ND in vaccinated flocks often occur on the field may not only be due to differences in the antigenicity of the NDV wild field strains and vaccine strains, but could also be as a result of differences in pathogenicity and virulence between different strains used as vaccine seed in NDV vaccine production.

  2. Comparative disease resistance to Newcastle disease in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the genetic resistance of two Nigerian ecotypes chicken and exotic breed cockerel (black Nera) to Newcastle disease by evaluating their clinical, haematological and humoral responses to experimental Newcastle disease virus infection.. The chicks from the three genotypes were ...

  3. Maternally derived antibodies in commercial broiler chickens did not significantly interfere with protection of Newcastle disease virus vectored infectious laryngotracheitis vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) recombinants expressing the infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) glycoproteins B and D have previously been demonstrated to confer complete clinical protection against virulent ILTV and NDV challenges in naive chickens. However, there was a general concern that the...

  4. Derivation of chicken induced pluripotent stem cells tolerant to Newcastle disease virus-induced lysis through multiple rounds of infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Newcastle disease (ND), caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV), is a devastating disease of poultry and wild birds. ND is prevented by rigorous biocontainment and vaccination. One potential approach to prevent spread of the virus is production of birds that show innate resistance to NDV...

  5. [Serological survey on Newcastle and Gumboro diseases, pasteurellosis and pullorosis in local hens in Niger].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtecuisse, C; Japiot, F; Bloch, N; Diallo, I

    1990-01-01

    A serological survey on avian pathology in a village area was carried out in Niger. It allowed to determine the incidence of pullorosis (47%), pasteurellosis (48%), avian bursal disease (47%) and Newcastle disease (14% in non vaccinated and 63% in vaccinated animals).

  6. Flow cytometric assessment of chicken T cell-mediated immune responses after Newcastle disease virus vaccination and challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, T. S.; Norup, L. R.; Pedersen, A.R.

    2010-01-01

    . Despite a delayed NDV-specific antibody response to vaccination, L133 appeared to be better protected than L130 in the subsequent infection challenge as determined by the presence of viral genomes. Peripheral blood was analyzed by flow cytometry and responses in vaccinated/challenged birds were studied...... by 5-color immunophenotyping as well as by measuring the proliferative capacity of NDV-specific T cells after recall stimulation. Immunophenotyping identified L133 as having a significantly lower CD4/CD8 ratio and a lower frequency of γδ T cells than L130 in the peripheral T cell compartment...

  7. PLAQUE ASSAY OF NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS

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    B. Sardjono

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Newcastle disease virus (NDV was isolated from a 3 months-old indigenous chicken (buras or kampung chicken which showed clinical signs of Newcastle disease (ND. For viral isolation a small part of the spleen and lung were inoculated into 10 days-old embryonated chicken eggs. The physical characteristics of the isolate (A/120 were studied. The hemagglutination of chicken red blood cell showed slow elution, thermostability of hemagglutinin at 56°C was 120 minutes. The vims was able to agglutinate horse erythrocytes but not those of sheep. The biological characteristics on mean death time (MDT of embryonated chicken egg and plaque morphology on chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF primary cell cultures were studied. The MDT was 56 hours, the isolate was velogenic NDV. There were three different plaque morphologies on CEF : 2 mm clear plaques, 1 mm clear plaques, and minute clear plaques which were visible only with microscopic examination.

  8. Stability of Newcastle Disease Virus Strain V4-UPM Coated on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protection of village chickens against Newcastle disease (ND) is considered feasible through food-delivered vaccines. Vaccine virus strain V4-UPM coated on cassava granules with or without additive (2% gelatin) was tested for stability at room temperature (RT) for 8 weeks and 40oC for 12 hours at weekly and two hourly ...

  9. Newcastle disease virus--biology of the disease and molecular biology of NDV

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2014, 61 countries reported outbreaks of Newcastle disease (ND) in domestic poultry. While there are four well-documented panzootics of ND, a fifth panzootic involving Indonesia, Israel, Pakistan, and at least two other countries appears to be occurring. Despite worldwide vaccination, ND contin...

  10. Evaluation of the infection and transmission of wild type and recombinant strains of Newcastle disease virus in Japanese Quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) causes a range of clinical disease ranging from asymptomatic infection to severe disease with high mortality. Vaccination for NDV is practiced almost worldwide in commercial chickens. Attenuated live vaccines are most commonly used, with recombinant vaccines becoming ...

  11. Experimental infection with Brazilian Newcastle disease virus strain in pigeons and chickens

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    Adriano de Oliveira Torres Carrasco

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was designed with the goal of adding as much information as possible about the role of pigeons (Columba livia and chickens (Gallus gallus in Newcastle disease virus epidemiology. These species were submitted to direct experimental infection with Newcastle disease virus to evaluate interspecies transmission and virus-host relationships. The results obtained in four experimental models were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection of virus shedding. These techniques revealed that both avian species, when previously immunized with a low pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (LaSota, developed high antibody titers that significantly reduced virus shedding after infection with a highly pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (São Joao do Meriti and that, in chickens, prevent clinical signs. Infected pigeons shed the pathogenic strain, which was not detected in sentinel chickens or control birds. When the presence of Newcastle disease virus was analyzed in tissue samples by RT-PCR, in both species, the virus was most frequently found in the spleen. The vaccination regimen can prevent clinical disease in chickens and reduce viral shedding by chickens or pigeons. Biosecurity measures associated with vaccination programs are crucial to maintain a virulent Newcastle disease virus-free status in industrial poultry in Brazil.

  12. Attitude of poultry farmers towards vaccination against newcastle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP USER

    2Department of Veterinary Pathology,. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine,. University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. *Correspondence: Tel.: +2348035824221, E-mail: bolugasa@yahoo.com, b.olugasa@ui.edu.ng. Abstract. Newcastle disease (ND) and Avian Influenza (AI) are among the important viral diseases of poultry with very ...

  13. Attitude of poultry farmers towards vaccination against newcastle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Newcastle disease (ND) and Avian Influenza (AI) are among the important viral diseases of poultry with very high economic implications. ND is enzootic in most parts of the world while Highly Pathogenic AI (HPAI) is an emerging zoonosis in Nigeria. This study was carried out to assess the perception and attitude of poultry ...

  14. Efficacy of single dose of a bivalent vaccine containing inactivated Newcastle disease virus and reassortant highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus against lethal HPAI and NDV infection in chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hun Lee

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI and Newcastle disease (ND are 2 devastating diseases of poultry, which cause great economic losses to the poultry industry. In the present study, we developed a bivalent vaccine containing antigens of inactivated ND and reassortant HPAI H5N1 viruses as a candidate poultry vaccine, and we evaluated its immunogenicity and protective efficacy in specific pathogen-free chickens. The 6:2 reassortant H5N1 vaccine strain containing the surface genes of the A/Chicken/Korea/ES/2003(H5N1 virus was successfully generated by reverse genetics. A polybasic cleavage site of the hemagglutinin segment was replaced by a monobasic cleavage site. We characterized the reverse genetics-derived reassortant HPAI H5N1 clade 2.5 vaccine strain by evaluating its growth kinetics in eggs, minimum effective dose in chickens, and cross-clade immunogenicity against HPAI clade 1 and 2. The bivalent vaccine was prepared by emulsifying inactivated ND (La Sota strain and reassortant HPAI viruses with Montanide ISA 70 adjuvant. A single immunization with this vaccine induced high levels of hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody titers and protected chickens against a lethal challenge with the wild-type HPAI and ND viruses. Our results demonstrate that the bivalent, inactivated vaccine developed in this study is a promising approach for the control of both HPAI H5N1 and ND viral infections.

  15. La vaccination contre la maladie de Newcastle chez le poulet (Gallus gallus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambrecht B.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination against Newcastle disease in chickens. Newcastle Disease (ND, also termed fowl pest, is a highly contagious and devastating disease in poultry. It is induced by an avian paramyxoviruses serotype 1, named ND virus (NDV. NDV has been shown to be able to infect over 200 different species of birds but the virulence of this virus and clinical signs of ND vary largely with both host and strain of virus. Virulent strains require to be reported to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE and outbreaks result in strict embargoes for the trade of avian products among countries. Control of ND primarily consists of vaccination of flocks and culling of infected or likely infected birds. At the present time, vaccination programs for NDV include the use of either inactivated (killed or attenuated (live vaccines to induce protective immunity while producing minimal adverse reactions in birds. Live viruses of low virulence (apathogenic, lentogenic or of moderate virulence (mesogenic are used depending on the disease situation and the regulations. Nevertheless, vaccination schedules might vary among poultry breeds. Generally, post-vaccination serology is used to confirm successful application of vaccine and an adequate immune response by the bird. However, it is well recognized that many chickens with low or no antibody titer are protected in challenge experiments and that present vaccination schedules do not protect well against viral re-excretion. One of the most important considerations affecting vaccination programs is the level of maternal immunity in young chickens, which may vary considerably from farm to farm and among individual chickens. Additionally, vaccine strains are phylogenetically different from circulating virulent strains. Then, new vaccines candidates are investigated in laboratory to improve the efficacy of conventional commercial vaccines while new tools of immunity measure are developed to increase the understanding of the

  16. Mobilization of immunoglobulin (Ig)-containing plasma cells in Harderian gland, cecal tonsil and trachea of broilers vaccinated with Newcastle Disease Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrin, M; Khan, M Z I; Siddiqi, M N H; Masum, M A

    2013-06-01

    Immunohistochemical studies of Harderian gland, cecal tonsil and trachea of various groups of broiler chickens and the response of Baby Chick Ranikhet Disease Vaccines (BCRDV) on the mobilization of Igs-cells during postnatal development of organs was investigated in the Dept. of Anatomy and Histology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh. In this study twelve chickens were grouped into vaccinated broilers (D14 and D28) which had received vaccines first at D3 of age and a booster dose given at D13; and non-vaccinated broilers (D1) which had not been vaccinated. In this study, it was observed that the frequency and distribution of Igs-positive cells were higher at D14 and at D28 rather than D1. Among Igs-positive cells, the IgG-positive cells were significantly higher than IgM and IgA-positive cells in the Harderian gland of D14 and D28 groups of chickens, however, in day-old chickens, the frequency of IgM-positive cells in this gland were greater. In the cecal tonsil, the frequency and distribution of IgG-positive cells were significantly higher than IgA- and IgM-positive cells both at D14 and D28 ages of chicken. On the other hand, in day-old chickens, the frequency and distribution of IgA-positive cells were insignificantly greater, followed by IgM and IgG-positive cells. In the trachea, few immunoglobulin-containing plasma cells were distributed in the subepithelial layer. IgM-positive cells were higher followed by IgG and IgA-positive cells in the trachea in D14 and D28 groups of chickens. In the same organ, IgG-positive plasma cells were greater than IgA and IgM-positive cells at one-day old. When the data for Harderian gland, cecal tonsil and trachea were compared statistically, it was observed that Igs-positive cells were statistically more common in cecal tonsils in day old chickens, and with the advancement of age, Igs-positive cells were found more in the Harderian gland. In conclusion, with the advancement of age in chickens the Harderian gland

  17. Emprego da microscopia eletrônica na avaliação pós-vacinal de epitélio traqueal de patos (Anas platyrhynchos imunizados contra a doença de Newcastle The use of scanning electron microscopy in post-vaccinal evaluation of tracheal epithelium in ducks (Anas platyrhynchos imunized against Newcastle disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Franzo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o emprego da microscopia eletrônica de varredura no estudo da reação respiratória pós-vacinal em epitélio traqueal de patos (Anas platyrhynchos imunizados contra a doença de Newcastle. Foram utilizadas 48 aves, distribuídas em quatro grupos: T1 - grupo de aves-controle (não vacinadas, T2 - grupo de aves vacinadas com a estirpe Ulster 2C, T3 - grupo de aves vacinadas com a estirpe B1 e T4 - grupo de aves vacinadas com a estirpe LaSota. Independente do grupo experimental, as aves não apresentaram sinais clínicos detectáveis de reação respiratória pós-vacinal. Ao microscópio eletrônico de varredura, observou-se que os animais vacinados com as estirpes B1 e LaSota desenvolveram descamação epitelial da traqueia, enquanto os vacinados com a estirpe Ulster 2C não, mostrando um epitélio traqueal íntegro, semelhante ao do grupo-controle. Os patos vacinados com a estirpe B1 mostraram evidências de regeneração epitelial da traqueia decorridos 21 dias pós-vacinação, o que não ocorreu com os vacinados com a amostra LaSota.Scanning electron microscopy was used in the study of the post-vaccinal respiratory reaction of the tracheal epithelium of ducks (Anas platyrhynchos immunized against Newcastle disease. Forty-eight ducks were distributed into four groups: T1 - control birds (non-vaccinated; T2 - birds vaccinated with Ulster 2C strain; t3 - birds vaccinated with B1 strain; and t4 - birds vaccinated with LaSota strain. Regardless the experimental group, birds did not show detectable clinical signs of post-vaccinal respiratory reaction. Scanning electron microscopy showed that birds vaccinated with B1 and LaSota strains developed epithelial sloughing of the trachea, whereas those vaccinated with Ulster 2C strain did not develop this change, showing intact tracheal epithelium, similar to the control group. However, the birds vaccinated with B1 strain showed evidences of regeneration of tracheal epithelium 21 days post-vaccination

  18. Avian influenza, Newcastle and Gumboro disease antibodies and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on avian influenza and Newcastle disease focus on waterfowls, considered natural reservoirs of these viruses. This study surveyed avian influenza (AI), Gumboro and Newcastle disease antibodies and antigens in birds in live wild bird markets (LWBMs), live poultry markets (LPMs) and free flying in Kaduna State ...

  19. Porinas as an adyuvant of inactivated Newcastle vaccine in broilers

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    Francisco Bustos M.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Three groups of 25 broilers were vaccinated on two opportunities by aerosol using inactivated NC (Newcastle virus and different helper concentrations of porinas (20 ìg, 50 ìg, 125 ìg. A fourth group was injected with live B1 virus (12 and 28 days of age nasally. The NC inactivated virus (La Sota strain was concentrated 10 times with PEG with a final titer of 1:2.056. Twenty serums for each group were taken in order to evaluate NC antibodies using the HI and double immuno-difusion tests for IgA detection at 1, 12, 28 and 42 days of age. During the study the chickens were on a restricted diet in order to control ascites (2.640 mosl. On day 42, two broilers of the fourth group (live virus presented ascites and 1 broiler of group 1 presented lung edema (20 ìg. The geometric mean for NC antibodies titers at 42 days of age was 2 in the groups 1,2,3 and 5.7 in the group 4 (Log 2. For IgA, 180 mg/dl, 135 mg/dl, 120 mg/dl and 176 mg/dl respectively. Three broilers of each group were challenged with a pathogenic strain of NC, at 42 day of age, without signs of disease after 72 hours when the positive control group was dead. Gross and microscopic lesions were not detected in the bursa of Fabricius or thymo. [thymo sounds like short hand for something that should be properly named.] Very good animal weight, conversion and efficiency results were observed in all the groups. New studies using a fixed dose of porinas, larger numbers of broilers and the establishment of protective levels of IgA against NC challenge are recommended.

  20. Virus Pathogenity of Newcastle Disease in Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Hewajuli

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease (ND is one of the highly infectious diseases in poultry industry. Newcastle disease causes high morbidity and mortality in birds, then it causes significant loss for poultry industry. This disease is caused by Avian paramyxovirus-1, included in the genus of Avulavirus and family of Paramyxoviridae. This virus has six prior proteins and two non structural proteins that evolving its genom. Those proteins are Nucleocapsid protein (N, Phosphoprotein (P, Matrix protein (M, Fusion protein (F, Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein (HN and Large polymerase protein (L and two non structural proteins iVe and W protein which are produced during the transcriptation process of P gen on editing process. Each of the protein has a specific role that responsible for the virulence of the virus. The previous result showed that HN and F proteins have significant contribution in the virulence and spreading of ND virus in the hosts. Virulence of ND virus primarily is determined by the cleavage site of F protein, but the recent research showed that the cleavage site motiv of F0 protein is not the only factor to determine the virulence of ND virus. Besides F protein, other proteins also contribute patern to the virulence of ND virus. ND virus can infect more than 200 species of birds, but the severity level of the disease varies depending on the host and strain of ND virus. Chicken has the highest pathogenicity index compared to other birds. Generally, the immunity system in chicken against infection of ND virus is similar to the immunity system of other birds. Cell mediated and humoral immunity responses play an important role in overcome ND virus.

  1. Antimicrobial and antiviral activities against Newcastle disease virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial and antiviral activities against Newcastle disease virus (NDV) from marine algae isolated from Qusier and Marsa-Alam Seashore (Red Sea), Egypt. ... and two filamentous fungi (Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium oxysporum) and against the Newcastle sense Virus (NDV)-(Paramyxoviridae) which is responsible ...

  2. CLINICO-PATHOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS OF PIGEONS (COLUMBA LIVIA SUFFERING FROM NEWCASTLE DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shaheen, A. D. Anjum and F. Rizvi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted to study clinical signs, gross and histopathological lesions in pigeons with naturally occurring Newcastle disease. For this purpose, 30 pigeon lofts were visited. Among these, 14 lofts showed clinical signs of Newcastle disease, including mainly greenish white mucoid diarrhoea and nervous signs with high morbidity and mortality. Postmortem examination of affected birds showed lesions mainly in brain, liver, kidneys and spleen. Amongst various organs, kidneys were more frequently involved. Histopathological changes were also observed in lungs, liver, kidneys, brain and spleen. The results showed that the Newcastle disease virus was widespread in pigeons locally and caused heavy mortality. No preventive measures or vaccination is being adopted by pigeon fanciers to control the disease.

  3. Evaluating the Efficacy of Achillea millefolium and Thymus vulgaris Extracts Against Newcastle Disease Virus in Ovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezatofighi, Seyedeh Elham; Seydabadi, Akram; Seyyed Nejad, Seyyed Mansour

    2014-02-01

    Nowadays natural products such as pure compounds and plant extract scan provide unlimited opportunities for new antiviral drugs. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is one of the most important viral diseases in poultry industry. Vaccination could provide protection against NDV outbreaks, but it is not sufficient because infections by NDVs have remained frequent around the world. The current research aimed to study Achillea millefolium and Thymus vulgaris antiviral activity against Newcastle disease virus (NDV). The antiviral activity of the plants was measured by the reduction assay of viral titer, and explained by inhibition percentage (IP). Inhibition percentage was determined as 10 (1.75), which indicated the ability of the extracts to reduce the viral potency by more than 56 folds. Both plants were found effective against Newcastle disease virus.

  4. Avaliação de diferentes vias vacinais para vacinação contra o vírus da doença de Newcastle em aves de fundo de quintal Assessment of different vaccination approaches against Newcastle disease virus in domestic backyard poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Câmara

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas três vias de aplicação vacinal contra o vírus da doença de Newcastle em aves de criatório de fundo de quintal (AFQ jovens e adultas. Um total de 135 AFQ foram distribuídas em tratamentos distintos de acordo com a via vacinal: via ocular (VO, água de bebida (VAB e alimentar (VA. Cada tratamento foi representado por 40 aves (20 jovens e 20 adultas e utilizou-se um grupo-controle de 15 aves não vacinadas. O programa de vacinação estabelecido constou de uma primovacinação e dois reforços vacinais, utilizando-se a cepa La Sota. Para aves jovens, os títulos obtidos pelas VO e VAB não diferiram aos 15, 45 e 140 dias, mas houve diferenças nos títulos das aves vacinadas pela VA. Nas aves adultas, a vacinação pela VO apresentou resultados mais elevados que as vacinações pelas VAB e VA na primeira resposta, aos 15 dias. Aos 45 dias, os títulos obtidos pela VAB foram mais baixos que os obtidos pela VO, e, aos 140 dias, não houve diferença entre as três vias avaliadas. Concluiu-se que as vacinações pelas VO e VAB constituem alternativas eficazes para vacinação de AFQ jovens e adultas.Three ways of vaccination against Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV were evaluated in young and adults domestic backyard poultry (DBP. A total of 135 DBP was submitted to three different administration routes of ND vaccine: eye-drop, drinking water, and feed. Each treatment consisted of 40 birds (20 young and 20 adult and a control group of 15 unvaccinated birds. The treatment consisted of a first vaccination and two boosters, using La Sota strain. For young birds, the eye-drop and drinking water vaccinations presented no differences at 15, 45, and 140 days, differing from the titers obtained by birds treated by feed vaccination method. In the adult birds, the eye-drop administration presented higher titers than by drinking water and feed approaches in the first response to the vaccination at 15 days. At 45 days, the results obtained by

  5. Herd immunity to Newcastle disease virus in broiler flocks in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Anat; Berman, Elyakum M

    2017-08-01

    Due to the ongoing need to protect poultry from virulent Newcastle disease virus, all commercial poultry flocks in Israel are vaccinated according to a defined programme using a combination of live and inactivated vaccines. The vaccination protocol for broilers during the years of the study comprised a live vaccine administered by spray on the day of hatching, inactivated vaccine by subcutaneous injection at 10-12 days of age, and another live vaccine given by aerosol at 17-21 days of age. A cross-sectional study was designed in order to examine the influence of herd immunity on the risk of Newcastle disease outbreak in broiler flocks. The study was based on the extensive field data kept in the Poultry Health Laboratories database. The results of serology tests employing haemagglutination inhibition for Newcastle disease virus were analysed and crossed with the list of flocks that had been diagnosed with ND in the years 2007-2014. At the peak of induced immunization (fifth week of growth), 87.5% of the tested flocks had achieved herd immunity (≥85% of birds in the flock with an HI titre ≥4). Based on a logistic regression model, the odds ratio for ND in flocks without herd immunity was 3.7 (95% CI 1.8-7.3, P-value herd immunity is an important indicator for the risk of ND outbreak.

  6. Effects of heat stress on peripheral T and B lymphocyte profiles and IgG and IgM serum levels in broiler chickens vaccinated for Newcastle disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Bruno Takashi Bueno; Calefi, Atilio Sersun; Costola-de-Souza, Carolina; Quinteiro-Filho, Wanderley Moreno; da Silva Fonseca, Juliana Garcia; de Paula, Viviane Ferraz; Palermo-Neto, João

    2015-10-01

    Multiple factors, such as environment, nutritional status, and disease, induce stress in animals during livestock production. It has been shown that poultry exposed to stressors for prolonged periods had decreases in their performance parameters, mortality and decreased host resistance to pathogenic agents. It seems that early age stress may have long-lasting impact and could possibly modify the expression of their genetic potential on growth performance and immunity. This study aimed to discuss the effects of early-age heat stress on the blood lymphocyte phenotypes (B and T lymphocytes) and plasma immunoglobulin levels (IgM and IgG) in chickens vaccinated against paramixovirus of the Newcastle (NC) disease (LaSota strain). For this purpose, 96 male chickens (Cobb) were divided into 4 groups: 1) control (C), 2) heat-stressed (HS), 3) control vaccinated (C/V), and 4) heat-stressed and Vaccinated (HS/V). The NC vaccine was administered twice on experimental day (ED) 7 and ED14, and the heat stress (38 ± 1°C) was applied from ED2 to ED6. The data showed that HS increased the corticosterone serum levels in the HS group compared with the control groups (C and C/V groups). At ED7, increased concentrations of IgM were observed in birds in the HS and HS/V groups compared with C and C/V animals; chickens from the HS/V group presented increased IgG levels compared with those in the birds of the C group. The heat stress shifted the immune cell profile from B-lymphocyte to a T-cytotoxic and T-helper lymphocyte profile, and this immune cell pattern persisted until the end of the study period. It was concluded that heat stress immunomodulated the immune function response of the chickens to the NC disease vaccine challenge. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. RNA Sequence of Spleen of Newcastle Disease Infected Chickens

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — At 21 days of age, chickens were infected with Newcastle Disease virus (or a mock injection as controls), and spleens were harvested at 2 and 6 days post infection....

  8. International collaborations to facilitate a better understanding of Newcastle disease epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infections of poultry species with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) cause Newcastle disease (ND), worldwide one of the most economically significant and devastating diseases for poultry producers. Biological engagement programs (BEP) between the Southeast Poultry Research Laborator...

  9. Comparative evaluation on some available Newcastle disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , with each group of fifty chickens vaccinated with a type of ND vaccine from a particular country. Haemagglutination Inhibition titres revealed that the locally produced vaccines gave superior antibody protection against ND than the other two ...

  10. Epizootiology of Newcastle disease in two live bird markets in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Newcastle disease (ND) is a devastating viral disease of poultry worldwide. This study was therefore undertaken to understand the role of live bird markets (LBMs) in the epizootiology of ND in Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was administered to poultry dealers and cloacal swab sampling of live birds in two LBMs in ...

  11. Prevalence of Newcastle disease virus antibodies in sera and eggs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2016-03-07

    Mar 7, 2016 ... The seroprevalence and maternal antibody profiles to Newcastle disease virus infection of guinea fowls were studied using ..... gallisepticum. Avian diseases, 28 (4): 877-883. Sa'idu L, Tekdek LB & Abdu PA (2004). Prevalence of ND antibodies in domestic and semi domestic birds in Zaria, Nigeria.

  12. Epidemiology of Newcastle disease virus among local chickens of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the major constraints to poultry in most developing countries. It is a highly contagious and fatal disease caused by a virus of the family Paramyxoviridae. In other to evaluate the evidence of ND among village chicken, an epidemiological survey was carried out between September and ...

  13. Effects of insertion sites in a Newcastle disease virus vector on foreign gene expression through an internal ribosomal entry site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV), avian paramyxovirus type 1, has been developed as a vector to express foreign genes for vaccine and gene therapy purposes. The foreign genes are usually inserted into a non-coding region of the NDV genome as an independent transcription unit (ITU), which potentially a...

  14. Development of a Newcastle disease virus vector expressing a foreign gene through an internal ribosomal entry site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has been developed as a vector to express foreign genes for vaccine and gene therapy purposes. The foreign genes are usually inserted into a non-coding region of the NDV genome as an independent transcription unit (ITU). Based on the well-accepted “stop-start” transcr...

  15. Concurrent experimental infection of E. coli and Newcastle disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One thousand six hundred day old poults were randomly divided into four pens of 400 poults each . Twenty-five percent of the birds in pens 3 and 4 were inoculated orally, wih Eschericia coli (E. coli) 011 lab. Ten percent of the poults in pen 2 were inoculated, intratracheally with 109 EID50 of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), ...

  16. A Serological Survey for Newcastle Disease Virus Antibobies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Serological Survey for Newcastle Disease Virus Antibobies in Village Poultry in Yobe State, Nigeria. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to print, save, ...

  17. Molecular screening and isolation of Newcastle disease virus from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular screening and isolation of Newcastle disease virus from live poultry markets and chickens from commercial poultry farms in Zaria, Kaduna state, Nigeria. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader).

  18. Serological and Virological Study of Newcastle Disease and Avian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serological survey on the prevalence of Newcastle disease (NCD) virus antibodies using haemagglutination inhibition test (HI) and virological detection by RT-PCR of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1, were carried out in 6 regions of Senegal from June to November 2008. Rural chickens were raised in free ...

  19. A Serological Survey for Newcastle Disease Virus Antibobies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. A serological survey to detect the presence of antibodies to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in village poultry was conducted in 17 villages of Yobe State, Nigeria. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of NDV using haemaggluttination inhibition test. Ten households were sampled from each village.

  20. Phylogenetic analysis of some Newcastle disease virus isolates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S.1 strains were classified into genotype II that comprises non-pathogenic lentogenic NDV strains. The present genetic classification of NDV isolates of the Sudan provides valuable information on genotypes of NDV. Further molecular epidemiological investigations of the recent outbreaks of Newcastle disease in the Sudan ...

  1. Retrospective analysis of Newcastle disease diagnosed at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2015-10-22

    Oct 22, 2015 ... of genetic drift occuring in Newcastle disease virus. (NDV) strains in Nigeria and therefore raises concerns about the efficacy of current NDV control ... poultry populations in Africa and Asia. Serological surveys indicate the presence of the virus in village poultry in countries throughout these continents,.

  2. Impregnation and storage of Newcastle disease virus on to filter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... stored and subsequently detected by RT PCR. This method might be safely used for storage and transportation of NDV samples to the designated laboratories for molecular studies without the need for cooling. Keywords: Allantoic fluid, chicken embryo fibroblast, Newcastle diseases virus, polymerase chain reaction, RNA ...

  3. Vírus da doença de Newcastle em aves não vacinadas no Estado do Rio de Janeiro Serology for the Newcastle disease virus in non vaccinated birds in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Granja de Oliveira Junior

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O vírus da doença de Newcastle (VDN tem sido isolado na maioria das espécies de aves de vida livre e doméstica em todo o mundo. O comércio internacional de aves deve ser considerado como um fator importante na disseminação da doença. Infecções naturais e experimentais já foram demonstradas em, pelo menos, 236 espécies de aves. Portanto, aves silvestres livres ou cativas, e aves domésticas não vacinadas, podem atuar como reservatório para o VDN. Para analisar esta hipótese, aves do Zoológico Municipal do Rio de Janeiro e de propriedades particulares nos municípios de Seropédica, Japeri, Paulo de Frontin, Paracambi, Valença, Barra do Piraí, Rio de Janeiro e Nova Friburgo tiveram sangue coletado para detecção de anticorpos para VDN. Um painel de 837 plasmas foi obtido, no período de agosto de 1998 a julho de 2001, e analisado pelo teste de inibição da hemaglutinação (HI, dos quais 12 foram soropositivas (1,43% para o VDN, indicando prévio contato das aves com o patógeno.The Newcastle disease virus (NDV has been isolated in most of the species of free and domestic life all over the world. The international trade of birds should be considered as an important factor of disease spread. Natural and experimental infections were already demonstrated in, at least, 236 species of birds. Therefore, wild, free or captive, and non vaccinated domestic birds can act as reservoir for VDN. To analyze this hypothesis, birds from the municipal Zoo of Rio de Janeiro and from private properties in the municipal districts of Seropédica, Japeri, Paulo de Frontin, Paracambi, Valença, Barra do Piraí, Rio de Janeiro and Nova Friburgo, RJ, Brazil had their blood collected and plasmas stored for detection of antibodies levels for VDN. A panel of 837 plasmas was obtained, in the period of August of 1998 to July of 2001, and analyzed by the hemaglutination inhibition (HI test, from which 12 were soropositives (1.43% for NDV, indicating the

  4. Concurrent outbreak of Newcastle disease and Trichomoniasis in pigeons of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    nariman sheykhi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease is the most important viral disease that affected pigeons. The disease is characterized by sudden onset of anorexia and neurological symptoms in pigeon. Trichomonas gallinae causes trichomoniasis of pigeons in the upper gastrointestinal tract and the respiratory system. The symptoms of this disease include yellowish green fetid discharge from the mouth, diarrhea, emaciation, severe weakness and death. In the first 6 months of 1392, from a total of 32      suspicious cases from Tehran and its surrounding, swab samples of the mouth, pharynx and larynx of birds were prepared. The samples were studied for trichomonas infection. At necropsy, foci of white to cream color in the oral mucosa, pharynx, larynx and pharyngeal and tracheal mucous congestion associated with the presence of fetid fluid in the crop were observed. Also, general congestion of the carcass, urate deposition in the ureters, and the emptiness gastrointestinal tract was observed. For detection of Newcastle disease virus (NDV, samples of the trachea and spleen were collected and RT-PCR experiments were performed on the samples. Trichomonas was observed in the samples under the microscope. All of the 19 samples studied were considered positive to the presence of high virulence strain of the virus. Metronidazole and supportive therapies were used for treatment. Adherence to the principles of biosecurity, treatment or removal of trichomoniasis infected birds, and annual Newcastle disease vaccine are essential for the prevention of concurrent outbreak of these two diseases.

  5. The role of Nicotiana gluca Graham (paraguayan herbs as an adjuvant in immunomodulation of Newcastle disease vaccine for broilers Estudo da ação de Nicotiana glauca Graham (erva paraguaia como coadjuvante em vacina contra a doença de Newcastle em frangos de corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Pereira Gentilini

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The Nicotiana glauca is a native plant species from Argentina, but found all over South América, being used against headaches, rheumatism, injuries, ulcers, and so on. Researchers have considered it as having immunomodulation effect. This study was conducted to investigate the use of a aqueous extract of Nicotiana glauca Graham as an immunomodulator (adjuvant of a Newcastle disease vaccine.. A total of 56 broilers were distributed into 4 experimental groups. Each one of them received 3 dosages of this vaccine with or without the addition of different concentrations of the extract Using hemmoaglutination inhibition techniques , the results have shown differences (P<0.05 in the third sera collection. An increase in the antibody titer with the inclusion of 5 mg/dosage of the extract (Treatment 3 as compared to 1 mg/dosage (Treatment 2 and 10 mg/dosage of the extract (Treatment 4 was observed, However, birds from Treatment 3 did not differ (P> 0.05 from Treatment 1. These results indicated that further investigations are required, including the use of cytotoxicity tests in vitro, to evaluate the immunomodulation effect of this extract.

     

    KEY WORDS: Immunomodulation effect, Nicotiana glauca Graham, vaccine.

    A Nicotiana glauca Graham é uma espécie nativa da Argentina, bem distribuída na América do Sul, sendo empregada, popularmente, contra dores de cabeça, dores reumáticas, cicatrização de feridas e úlceras, entre outros. Pesquisas têm avaliado a sua ação na potencialização da resposta imune. Assim, com este estudo, buscou-se avaliar a ação de um extrato aquoso de Nicotiana glauca Graham como coadjuvante imunológico em uma vacina contra a doença de Newcastle (DNC. Utilizaram-se 56 frangos de corte, distribuídos em quatro grupos experimentais, que receberam tr

  6. Un vaccin bivalent efficace contre la maladie de Newcastle et la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Un vaccin bivalent efficace contre la maladie de Newcastle et la variole aviaire, produit au Sénégal. Ndeye Fatou Tall Ndiaye, El Hadji Traore, Mariane Aidara, Aminata Cissé Sakho, Fatou Tall Lo, Moustapha Lo, Mariame Diop, Aminata Niang Ndoye, Abdoulaye Dieng ...

  7. Microculture system for detection of Newcastle disease virus antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooley, R E; Brown, J; Gratzek, J B; Kleven, S H; Scott, T A

    1974-05-01

    A microculture system utilizing cytopathic effect (CPE) and hemadsorption (HAd) end points was effective in determining the level of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) antibodies. The microculture system was of comparable sensitivity to the plaque reduction test for the detection of NDV antibodies. The standards by which the CPE and HAd microculture tests would be considered reproducible were defined. The results indicate that the CPE and HAd microculture tests are reproducible within one twofold dilution.

  8. Newcastle disease virus and antibody levels in matched sera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haemagglutination inhibition assay was performed for all sera and egg yolk samples. Protective serum antibody titres of ≥3 (log2) were recorded in 5.3% of the naturally exposed, indigenous village hens. Antibody titers to Newcastle disease virus in the yolks were higher than in their sera (230.08 ± 40.05; 1.56 ± 0.74 for ...

  9. Development of a low-dose fast-dissolving tablet formulation of Newcastle disease vaccine for low-cost backyard poultry immunisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The immunization of backyard poultry in rural and peri-urban areas worldwide is critical for providing adequate nutrition and income for small farmers and for ensuring global food security. A vaccine presentation for flocks of 30 to 50 birds that is stable at ambient temperatures could make it affor...

  10. Evaluation of oral vaccination of village chickens against newcastle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to assess the suitability of soaked parboiled cracked maize as a carrier of I-2 vaccine for oral immunization of village chickens. Chickens were vaccinated once via ocular route and orally with cracked maize at the second and fifth weeks of the experiment. Post vaccination serum was collected 4, 7, ...

  11. Phylogenetic characterization of virulent Newcastle disease viruses isolated during outbreaks in northwestern Iran in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Elham; Pourbakhsh, Seyed Ali; Ahmadi, Malahat; Mardani, Karim; Talebi, Alireza

    2016-11-01

    The northwest of Iran shares long borders with three neighboring countries; therefore, it is considered one of the main entry portals of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) into the country. Ten virulent NDVs were recovered from 19 poultry farms of various prefectures in northwestern Iran during Newcastle disease outbreaks in 2010. The isolates were genotypically analyzed using an F-gene-specific reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. The amplified F gene (nucleotides 189-1666) sequences of the NDV isolates were compared phylogenetically with those of previously published strains in GenBank. All of the NDV isolates belonged to genotype VIIb and were closely related to some isolates from Iran, Russia, and Sweden. Therefore, it can be postulated that these isolates evolved from previously reported strains. The velogenic viruses carried the motif (112)R-R-Q-K-R/F(117) at the F0 cleavage site and a unique substitution of (190)L→F which had never been reported in any NDV genotype VIIb isolate. They shared high sequence similarity with each other but were distinct from current NDV vaccines and NDV strains reported from other countries. This information is fundamental for improving the efficacy of controlling strategies and vaccine development for NDV.

  12. Newcastle disease: An in-depth review including epidemiology and molecular diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infections of birds with strains of avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1), (synonyms: Newcastle disease virus (NDV), pigeon PMV-1 (PPMV-1)) are associated with two clinical outcomes: 1) Newcastle disease (ND) results from infections with virulent APMV-1, and is also called Exotic ND (END) in U. S...

  13. Effect of Newcastle Disease Control and Improved Management on the Performance of Indigenous Poultry in Western Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondwasy, H.O.; Okitoi, L.O.; Obali, M.P.; Mukisira, E.A.; Jong, R.

    1999-01-01

    indigenous poultry farming is an important enterprise for small-scale farmers in the mandate areas of the Regional Research Centre (RRC) Kakamega, A topical Participatory rural appraisal (PRA) study involving 407 farmers identified the main constraints to rural poultry production in the area as Newcastle disease (NCD), predation, and inadequate feeding or supplementation. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the effects of vaccination against Newcastle disease (NCD), daytime housing for chicks and feed supplementation on indigenous poultry production. The trial was implemented in four RRC clusters, each representing a specific agro-ecological zone.The clusters included Sabatia (UM 1 ), Butula (LM 1 ) Malava (LM 2 ), and Uranga (LM 3 ). Each cluster comprised of 22 to 35 experimental farmers in four groups assigned to the various treatments thus: Group 1 vaccination, 2. vaccination and supplementation, 3. vaccination, supplementation and daytime housing of chicks and 4. control group or farmer's practice. Since farmers adopted treatments according to their preference, the composition of each group varied as the experiment progressed. Birds were vaccinated after every three months to prevent NCD attacks,' To' avoid predation, the chicks were housed in movable or permanent structures where supplements such as brewers waste, blood and rumen contents from slaughterhouses were provided. From January 1997, data was collected weekly from individual households by frontline extension staff. Monthly monitoring and data verification on flock composition and dynamics, eggs production and utilisation, feed use and growth rates, was done by researchers and agricultural extensionists. The results demonstrated that Newcastle disease could be controlled by routine vaccination; feed supplementation improved the performance of housed birds in three clusters, but not in Sabatia where scarcity of feed was pronounced. It was further concluded that predation continued to constrain

  14. Genetic characterization and evolutionary analysis of Newcastle disease virus isolated from domestic duck in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, Satish; Kim, Ji-Ye; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Jung, Suk Chan; Choi, Kang-Seuk

    2016-03-15

    Domestic ducks are considered a potential reservoir of Newcastle disease virus. In the study, a Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolated from a domestic duck during surveillance in South Korea was characterized. The complete genome of the NDV isolate was sequenced, and the phylogenetic relationship to reference strains was studied. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the strain clustered in genotype I of Class II ND viruses, has highly phylogenetic similarity to NDV strains isolated from waterfowl in China, but was distant from the viruses isolated in chickens and vaccine strains used in South Korea. Pathogenicity experiment in chickens revealed it to be a lentogenic virus. The deduced amino acid sequence of the cleavage site of the fusion (F) protein confirmed that the isolate contained the avirulent motif (112)GKQGRL(117) at the cleavage site and caused no apparent disease in chickens and ducks. With phylogeographic analysis based on fusion gene, we estimate the origin of an ancestral virus of the isolate and its sister strain located in China around 1998. It highlights the need of continuous surveillance to enhance current understanding of the molecular epidemiology and evolution of the pathogenic strains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Serological investigation of five diseases; Influenza, Newcastle disease, Salmonella, Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae in native hens of Eghlid, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Mokhtari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was conducted to determine seroprevalence of the five diseases influenza, Newcastle, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae and salmonella, among around native hens of Eghlid in Iran, on spring 2011. Materials and Methods: On the basis of native Hens distribution, this region divided into four parts of Eghlid, Doskord, Sedeh and Hasan-abad. Fifty unvaccinated native Hens randomly selected from each part. Blood samples were aseptically collected from the wing veins using 5-ml sterile syringe. Serum from hens was tested for detection and titration for Mycoplasma and Salmonella by the rapid slide agglutination method, and was tested for influenza and Newcastle by the Hemagglutination Inhibition Assay. The data was analyzed completely in randomized design with four treatments, 50 repetitions for each disease. Results: 34 out of 200 samples (17% were positive for influenza. There were significant differences between regions (p<0.01. 38 out of 200 samples (19% were positive for Newcastle. The maximum infectious rate obtained from Eghlid. There were significant differences between regions (p <0.05. 170 out of 200 samples (85% were positive for Mycoplasma gallisepticum. 4 from 200 samples (2% were positive for Mycoplasma synoviae. The results do not show a significant difference for salmonella (p <0.05. Conclusion: Contamination of Influenza, Newcastle and Mycoplasma gallisepticum was high, and the highest contamination rate was related to Mycoplasma gallisepticum. It is usually recommended that preventive strategies, such as appropriate husbandry and hygiene, sanitary handling of chicks and eggs, routine health monitoring and vaccination of Native hens should be emphasized. [Vet World 2013; 6(3.000: 126-130

  16. Phylogenetic analysis of some Newcastle disease virus isolates from the Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Elmardi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was used to amplify 1412 bp of the fusion protein gene (F gene of four Newcastle disease virus (NDV isolates; two velogenic (TY-1/90 and DIK-90 and two lentogenic isolates (Dongla 88/1 and GD.S.1. Following sequencing, nucleotide sequences were annotated and 894 bp were compared phylogenetically with those from strains previously reported in the Sudan and the virus strains published on the GenBank. It could be demonstrated that TY-1/90 and DIK-90 strains belong to the genotype VI of NDV and are in close genetic relationship to sub- genotype VIb. TY-1/90 and DIK-90 strains were observed to be genetically unrelated to the earlier Sudanese isolates of 1970/80s and the late of 2000s suggesting a different origin. The close genetic relationship to the European and African pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (PPMV-1 suggests a common ancestor. Dongola, GD.S.1 strains were classified into genotype II that comprises non-pathogenic lentogenic NDV strains. The present genetic classification of NDV isolates of the Sudan provides valuable information on genotypes of NDV. Further molecular epidemiological investigations of the recent outbreaks of Newcastle disease in the Sudan are needed in order to improve the efficiency of control strategies and vaccine development.

  17. Complete genome sequence of a velogenic Newcastle disease virus isolated in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absalón, Angel E; Mariano-Matías, Andrea; Vásquez-Márquez, Alejandra; Morales-Garzón, Andrés; Cortés-Espinosa, Diana V; Ortega-García, Roberto; Lucio-Decanini, Eduardo

    2012-10-01

    In Mexico, the number of cases of the highly virulent Newcastle disease virus is increasing. In 2005, an outbreak of Newcastle disease occurred on an egg laying hen farm in the state of Puebla despite vaccination with the LaSota strain. Farmers experienced a major drop in egg production as a consequence of a field challenge virus. In this study, we characterize the virus, APMV1/chicken/Mexico/P05/2005, responsible for the outbreak. The virus is categorized as a velogenic virus with an intracranial pathogenicity index of 1.99 and a chicken embryo mean death time of 36 h. The complete genome length of the virus was sequenced as consisting of 15,192 bp. In addition, phylogenetic analysis classified the virus as a member of the class II, genotype V. The highly pathogenic nature of the virus has been linked to the amino acid sequence at the fusion protein cleavage site, which contains multiple basic amino acids (RRQKR↓F).

  18. Defective interfering particles in monolayer-propagated Newcastle disease virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, J.M.; Simon, E.H.

    1976-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) serially passaged in chick embryo fibroblasts (M-NDV) gives rise to defective interfering (NDV-DI) particles, while NDV passaged in embryonated eggs (E-NDV) does not. Co-infection with these particles and infectious virions results in a 99 percent reduction in yield. Interference is not due to interferon or to prevention of absorption of infectious virions and is specific for NDV. The particles mediating interference sediment at the same velocity as infectious virions. The accumulation of NDV-DI particles in monolayers but not in eggs may be a consequence of the fact that M-NDV virions are larger and probably contain more RNA, or it may reflect differences in NDV replicative processes in eggs and monolayers, or both

  19. Hemagglutinating and fusogenic activities of Newcastle disease virus: studies on receptor binding specificity and pH-induced conformational changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. S. Couceiro

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinal and wild strains of Newcastle Disease virus (NDV were analyzed for cell receptor binding and fusogenic biological properties associated with their HN (hemagglutinin-neuraminidase and F (fusion protein surface structures respectively. The evaluation of the biological activities of HN and F was carried out respectively by determination of hemagglutinating titers and hemolysis percentages, using erythrocytes from various animal origins at different pH values. Significant differences in hemagglutination titers for some strains of NDV were detected, when interacting with goose, sheep, guinea-pip and human "O" group erythrocytes at neutral pH. Diversity of hemolysis percentagens was observed between different NDV strains at acid pH. These analysis were developed to evaluate particular aspects of the actual influence of the receptor specifity and pH on the receptor binding and fusogenic processes of Newcastle Disease viruses.

  20. Interference of Infectious Bursal Diseases (IBD) Virus and Vaccine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The interference of Infectious bursal disease (IBD) virus and vaccine with the immune response of the grey brested guinea fowl (Numida meleagridis galeata palas) to Newcastle desease (ND) “LaSota” vaccine was studied using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test for detection of ND virus antibody and agar gel ...

  1. Chimeric rabies glycoprotein with a transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic tail from Newcastle disease virus fusion protein incorporates into the Newcastle disease virion at reduced levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Gui Mei; Zu, Shu Long; Zhou, Wei Wei; Wang, Xi Jun; Shuai, Lei; Wang, Xue Lian; Ge, Jin Ying; Bu, Zhi Gao

    2017-08-31

    Rabies remains an important worldwide health problem. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was developed as a vaccine vector in animals by using a reverse genetics approach. Previously, our group generated a recombinant NDV (LaSota strain) expressing the complete rabies virus G protein (RVG), named rL-RVG. In this study, we constructed the variant rL-RVGTM, which expresses a chimeric rabies virus G protein (RVGTM) containing the ectodomain of RVG and the transmembrane domain (TM) and a cytoplasmic tail (CT) from the NDV fusion glycoprotein to study the function of RVG's TM and CT. The RVGTM did not detectably incorporate into NDV virions, though it was abundantly expressed at the surface of infected BHK-21 cells. Both rL-RVG and rL-RVGTM induced similar levels of NDV virus-neutralizing antibody (VNA) after initial and secondary vaccination in mice, whereas rabies VNA induction by rL-RVGTM was markedly lower than that induced by rL-RVG. Though rL-RVG could spread from cell to cell like that in rabies virus, rL-RVGTM lost this ability and spread in a manner similar to the parental NDV. Our data suggest that the TM and CT of RVG are essential for its incorporation into NDV virions and for spreading of the recombinant virus from the initially infected cells to surrounding cells.

  2. Outbreak of Viscerotropic Velogenic form of Newcastle dis- ease in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Central Research Laboratory

    ease in vaccinated six weeks old pullets. L. Sa‟idu, P.A. Abdu. Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. Abstract. An outbreak of very virulent form of Newcastle disease in 6 week old pullets is reported. The flock was vac- cinated against Newcastle disease with ...

  3. Assessment of Newcastle Disease specific T cell proliferation in different inbred MHC chicken lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Liselotte Rothmann; Dalgaard, Tina Sørensen; Pedersen, Asger Roer

    2011-01-01

    In this study we have described the establishment of an antigen-specific T cell proliferation assay based on recall stimulation with Newcastle disease (ND) antigen; further, we have described the results obtained after recall stimulation of animals containing different Major Histocompatibility...... Complex (MHC) haplotypes, vaccinated against ND. First optimization of the assay was performed to lower unspecific proliferation and to enhance antigen-specific T cell proliferation. These two issues were achieved using ethylene diamine tetra acetic-acid as stabilizing agent in blood samples...... and autologous immune serum in culture medium. The optimized assay was used to screen chickens with different MHC haplotypes for their ability to perform T cell proliferation. Results showed that the antigen-specific response of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from B12 chickens was generally low, whereas B13, B130 and B...

  4. Recombinant Newcastle disease viral vector expressing hemagglutinin or fusion of canine distemper virus is safe and immunogenic in minks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jinying; Wang, Xijun; Tian, Meijie; Gao, Yuwei; Wen, Zhiyuan; Yu, Guimei; Zhou, Weiwei; Zu, Shulong; Bu, Zhigao

    2015-05-15

    Canine Distemper Virus (CDV) infects many carnivores and cause several high-mortality disease outbreaks. The current CDV live vaccine cannot be safely used in some exotic species, such as mink and ferret. Here, we generated recombinant lentogenic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota expressing either envelope glycoproyein, heamagglutinine (H) or fusion protein (F), named as rLa-CDVH and rLa-CDVF, respectively. The feasibility of these recombinant NDVs to serve as live virus-vectored CD vaccine was evaluated in minks. rLa-CDVH induced significant neutralization antibodies (NA) to CDV and provided solid protection against virulent CDV challenge. On the contrast, rLa-CDVF induced much lower NA to CDV and fail to protected mink from virulent CDV challenge. Results suggest that recombinant NDV expressing CDV H is safe and efficient candidate vaccine against CDV in mink, and maybe other host species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Herpesviruses and Newcastle disease viruses in white storks (Ciconia ciconia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, E F; Kummerfeld, N

    1983-01-01

    Three herpesviruses were isolated from white storks (Ciconia ciconia). All isolates reacted in cross-neutralisation tests with homologous antisera and with sera prepared against a herpesvirus from a black stork (Ciconia nigra). These data indicate serologic relatedness of the herpesviruses from both stork species. Antisera prepared against herpesviruses from the domestic chicken (viruses of Marek's disease and infectious laryngotracheitis), turkey, duck and pigeon as well as from the blue-fronted amazon (Amazona aestiva), prairie falcon (Falco mexicanus), eagle owl (Bubo bubo), Lake Victoria cormorant (Phalacrocorax melanoleucos), bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) and desmoiselle crane (Anthropoides virgo) did not react with the stork herpesviruses. Neutralising antibodies against stork herpesvirus were detected in the majority of 72 blood samples from white and black storks. In addition, three Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) could be isolated from white storks. One isolate was highly virulent the two others were avirulent for the chicken. Haemagglutination inhibition tests have shown that some storks have antibodies against Paramyxovirus- (PMV)-1 (NDV), PMV-2 and PMV-3. No antibodies could be detected in stork sera against PMV-4, -6 and -7.

  6. Production of Newcastle Disease Virus by Vero Cells Grown on Cytodex 1 Microcarriers in a 2-Litre Stirred Tank Bioreactor

    OpenAIRE

    Arifin, Mohd Azmir; Mel, Maizirwan; Abdul Karim, Mohamed Ismail; Ideris, Aini

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to prepare a model for the production of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) lentogenic F strain using cell culture in bioreactor for live attenuated vaccine preparation. In this study, firstly we investigated the growth of Vero cells in several culture media. The maximum cell number was yielded by culture of Vero cells in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) which was 1.93 ? 106?cells/ml. Secondly Vero cells were grown in two-litre stirred tank bioreactor by using sever...

  7. Soroepidemiologia da doença de Newcastle em plantéis de avestruzes dos Estados da Bahia e de São Paulo Serologic occurrence of Newcastle disease in ostriches raised in Bahia and São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Muniz Barretto Fernandes

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudos sorológicos em Avestruzes (Struthio camelus são ferramentas úteis para analisar os riscos relacionados à Doença de Newcastle nesses plantéis e à avicultura nacional. No presente estudo, amostras de sangue foram obtidas de avestruzes de ambos os sexos, de diferentes faixas etárias e sem apresentação de sintomatologia clínica, criadas nos Estados da Bahia e de São Paulo com o objetivo de avaliar a presença de anticorpos contra o vírus da Doença de Newcastle por meio de ELISA indireto. Foram testadas 339 amostras provenientes do Estado da Bahia e 105 amostras do Estado de São Paulo. Apesar de os proprietários afirmarem que não foi utilizada vacina em seus animais, foi verificada positividade na Bahia de 17,9% e de 4,7% em São Paulo, em avestruzes, sugerindo contato com vírus vacinal ou de campo.Serological studies in ostriches (Struthio camelus are important tools to assess the risk of Newcastle disease in these herds and to the national poultry industry. In the present study blood samples were obtained from male and female ostriches without symptoms of the disease, raised in Bahia and São Paulo in order to evaluate the presence of antibodies against Newcastle disease virus using an indirect ELISA. There were collected 339 samples in Bahia and 105 samples in São Paulo. Although the owners guarantee that animals were not vaccinated, it was verified the presence 17,9% positives in Bahia and 4,7% in São Paulo, suggesting contact with vaccinal or field strain.

  8. Respons Antibodi Sekunder Terhadap Penyakit Tetelo pada Ayam Petelur Pascavaksinasi Ulangan dengan Vaksin Tetelo Aktif (NEWCASTLE DISEASESECONDARY ANTIBODY RESPONSE AFTER REVACCINATION IN LAYER WITH THE ACTIVE ND VACCINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andika Budi Kurnianto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Revaccination is required in order to preventNewcastle Disease (ND reccurence inlayers chickens. Oneof vaccine for ND revaccination is freeze-died ND active vaccine containing e” 106,5EID50. Revaccinationisdone to trigger a faster secondary antibody responses in layers and can achieve protective antibody titersagainst ND that can be monitored by a hemagglutinationinhibition (HI. The aim of this study was todetermine the ND secondary antibody responses in layers after revaccination with ND active vaccine.Antibody titer of 20 layers chickens of 20 week old were determined before revaccinations (week 0 andafter revaccinations (week 1 until week 9. The first vaccination was conducted using ND-IB (NewcastleDisease-Infectious Bronchitis at the age of 2 days through eye drops and subcutaneous injection at the ageof 5 days using a dose of 1 ampoule.Vaccination is repeated at the age of 20 weeks at a dose of 1 ½ ampoule through drinking water. Blood samples were collected on the wing vein (venous cutane ulnar and left for 5-10 minutes at room temperature.Sera were then collected and stored at -20oC until use. HI antibody titerwas determined by micro titeration system. The HI mean titers were analyzed by Duncan test. The studyresults showed that antibody titer before revaccination was3,47 HI log 2 and the HI titers after revaccinationwere 4,02; 5,22; 6,52; 7,85; 8,4; 8,6; 7,7; 5,92; dan 3,87 HI log 2 respectivelly at weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and9.The NDV revaccination with ND active vaccine significantly (P <0.01 increased in antibody titer inlayers starting from week 1 to week 6, but decreased following week 7 to week-9. It can be concluded thatrevaccinantion with ND active vaccine increases the antibody titers in layer chickens.

  9. Protection by recombinant Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) expressing the glycoprotein (G) of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) subtype A or B against challenge with virulent NDV and aMPV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are threatening avian pathogens that cause sporadic but serious respiratory diseases in poultry worldwide. Although, vaccination, combined with strict biosecurity practices, has been the recommendation for controlling these diseases in t...

  10. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) recombinants expressing infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) glycoproteins gB and gD protect chickens against ILTV and NDV challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Spatz, Stephen; Zhang, Zhenyu; Wen, Guoyuan; Garcia, Maricarmen; Zsak, Laszlo; Yu, Qingzhong

    2014-08-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease of chickens caused by infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). The disease is controlled mainly through biosecurity and vaccination with live attenuated strains of ILTV and vectored vaccines based on turkey herpesvirus (HVT) and fowlpox virus (FPV). The current live attenuated vaccines (chicken embryo origin [CEO] and tissue culture origin [TCO]), although effective, can regain virulence, whereas HVT- and FPV-vectored ILTV vaccines are less efficacious than live attenuated vaccines. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop safer and more efficacious ILTV vaccines. In the present study, we generated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) recombinants, based on the LaSota vaccine strain, expressing glycoproteins B (gB) and D (gD) of ILTV using reverse genetics technology. These recombinant viruses, rLS/ILTV-gB and rLS/ILTV-gD, were slightly attenuated in vivo yet retained growth dynamics, stability, and virus titers in vitro that were similar to those of the parental LaSota virus. Expression of ILTV gB and gD proteins in the recombinant virus-infected cells was detected by immunofluorescence assay. Vaccination of specific-pathogen-free chickens with these recombinant viruses conferred significant protection against virulent ILTV and velogenic NDV challenges. Immunization of commercial broilers with rLS/ILTV-gB provided a level of protection against clinical disease similar to that provided by the live attenuated commercial vaccines, with no decrease in body weight gains. The results of the study suggested that the rLS/ILTV-gB and -gD viruses are safe, stable, and effective bivalent vaccines that can be mass administered via aerosol or drinking water to large chicken populations. This paper describes the development and evaluation of novel bivalent vaccines against chicken infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) and Newcastle disease (ND), two of the most economically important infectious

  11. Dose-dependent Effect of T-2 Toxin on the Immunity against Newcastle Disease Virus in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Weber

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of 2.35 (a and 4.18 (b mg kg-1 feed T-2 toxin dose for 14 days on the haemagglutination inhibition titres against Newcastle disease virus was investigated in broiler chickens. The animals were divided into four groups and two separate experiments were carried out (a, b: (1 intact control group; (2 birds were fed with T-2 toxin contaminated feed and not vaccinated; (3 repeatedly vaccinated (on day 23 of age control group which received uncontaminated feed; (4 birds were both repeatedly vaccinated and fed the T-2 toxin contaminated diet. Blood samples, from which sera titres were measured, were taken on days 7 and 14 of the experiments. It was found that heamagglutination titres were different in the two experiments even in the control (1 group because of the different efficiency of the first immunization at the hatchery. Titres on day 7 showed increases in all groups except for the group fed lower T-2 contaminated diet (a, group 2 but during the second week they increased only in the groups fed the diet with a lower dose of T-2 toxin. On the contrary, a higher dose of T-2 toxin contamination of the diet resulted in a dramatic decrease during the second week (b, groups 2 and 4. The results suggested that contrary to most of the previously published data, feeding of T-2 toxin contaminated feed with an amount of 2.35 mg.kg-1 did not decrease, but increase the antibody formation against attenuated Newcastle disease virus even without a second vaccination on day 1 of the experiment, whereas a higher amount of T-2 toxin (4.18 mg kg-1 decreased to day 14 after the repeated vaccination.

  12. Detection of specific antigens of Newcastle disease virus using an absorbed Western blotting method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmatzadeh, F; Kazemimanesh, M

    2017-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is an economically important poultry pathogen with a worldwide distribution that may infect a wide range of domestic and wild avian species. The identification of different pathotypes of NDVs plays an important role in the diagnosis and development of vaccines to control and eradicate NDV infections. In our previous study, we showed that mono-specific antibodies can differentiate velogenic and lentogenic strains of NDV in Agar Gel Immuno-Diffusion tests. To evaluate the ability of the specific antibodies to detect NDV specific antigens, this study was conducted with a range of NDV isolates. The samples included 9 NDV neuropathogenic/velogenic isolates from diseased chickens collected from poultry farms in central and northern parts of Iran plus La-Sota and B1 vaccine strains. All samples were propagated in embryonated chicken eggs and concentrated and purified by ultra-centrifugation. All samples were subjected to 12.5% SDS-PAGE and Western blotting using the specific antibodies mentioned previously. In SDS-PAGE all velogenic and vaccine strains showed the same electrophoretic pattern. The detected bands included 15, 38, 46, 48, 53, 55, 68, 74 and 220 kDa proteins. In Western blotting analysis, the mono-specific antibodies reacted specifically to the viral proteins with 15, 38, 48, 55, 74 and 220 kDa and non-specifically to the viral protein with 53 kDa. The results suggest that specific anti-NDV antibodies can react specifically to glycoproteins (haemagglutin-neuraminidase and fusion proteins) but not to internal proteins (nucleoprotein or matrix protein) of NDV strains.

  13. Expression of recombinant Newcastle disease virus F protein in Pichia pastoris and its immunogenicity using flagellin as the adjuvant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Xilong; Wang, Jing; Jiao, Yang; Tang, Peipei; Song, Li; Xiong, Dan; Yin, Yuelan; Pan, Zhiming; Jiao, Xinan

    2016-12-01

    Newcastle disease (ND), a highly contagious, acute, and potent infectious disease caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV), has a considerable impact on the global poultry industry. Although both live attenuated and inactivated vaccines are used to prevent and control the spread of ND among chickens, the increasing number of ND outbreaks in commercial poultry flocks worldwide indicates that routine vaccinations are insufficient to control ND. Hence, efforts are being invested into developing alternative and more effective vaccination strategies. In this study, we focus on F protein, the neutralizing and protective antigen of NDV, and flagellin (FliC), a toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) agonist that is an effective inducer of innate immune responses. We amplified F gene from velogenic NDV strain F48E8. The recombinant histidine (His)-tagged F protein was efficiently expressed in a Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris) eukaryotic system and verified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blotting. The conditions for F protein expression in P. pastoris were optimal. The immunogenicity of F protein with FliC as the adjuvant was evaluated in a C3H/HeJ mouse model. FliC was found to enhance both F-specific and NDV-specific IgG responses and F-specific cellular immune responses following intraperitoneal co-administration with F protein. Thus, the recombinant F protein expressed by P. pastoris when used with flagellin as the adjuvant has potential as a subunit vaccine candidate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Newcastle disease virus in Madagascar: identification of an original genotype possibly deriving from a died out ancestor of genotype IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maminiaina, Olivier F; Gil, Patricia; Briand, François-Xavier; Albina, Emmanuel; Keita, Djénéba; Andriamanivo, Harentsoaniaina Rasamoelina; Chevalier, Véronique; Lancelot, Renaud; Martinez, Dominique; Rakotondravao, R; Rajaonarison, Jean-Joseph; Koko, M; Andriantsimahavandy, Abel A; Jestin, Véronique; Servan de Almeida, Renata

    2010-11-15

    In Madagascar, Newcastle disease (ND) has become enzootic after the first documented epizootics in 1946, with recurrent annual outbreaks causing mortality up to 40%. Four ND viruses recently isolated in Madagascar were genotypically and pathotypically characterised. By phylogenetic inference based on the F and HN genes, and also full-genome sequence analyses, the NDV Malagasy isolates form a cluster distant enough to constitute a new genotype hereby proposed as genotype XI. This new genotype is presumably deriving from an ancestor close to genotype IV introduced in the island probably more than 50 years ago. Our data show also that all the previously described neutralising epitopes are conserved between Malagasy and vaccine strains. However, the potential implication in vaccination failures of specific amino acid substitutions predominantly found on surface-exposed epitopes of F and HN proteins is discussed.

  15. Newcastle disease virus in Madagascar: identification of an original genotype possibly deriving from a died out ancestor of genotype IV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier F Maminiaina

    Full Text Available In Madagascar, Newcastle disease (ND has become enzootic after the first documented epizootics in 1946, with recurrent annual outbreaks causing mortality up to 40%. Four ND viruses recently isolated in Madagascar were genotypically and pathotypically characterised. By phylogenetic inference based on the F and HN genes, and also full-genome sequence analyses, the NDV Malagasy isolates form a cluster distant enough to constitute a new genotype hereby proposed as genotype XI. This new genotype is presumably deriving from an ancestor close to genotype IV introduced in the island probably more than 50 years ago. Our data show also that all the previously described neutralising epitopes are conserved between Malagasy and vaccine strains. However, the potential implication in vaccination failures of specific amino acid substitutions predominantly found on surface-exposed epitopes of F and HN proteins is discussed.

  16. Early occurrence of apoptosis in lymphoid tissues from chickens infected with strains of Newcastle disease virus of varying virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV), the causative agent of Newcastle disease, is a prevalent problem in the poultry industry and often the cause of severe economic loss. There are many strains of the virus and these have varying virulence. The most virulent strains cause systemic lesions of lymphoid ti...

  17. Phylogenetic analysis of Newcastle disease viruses isolated from commercial poultry in Mozambique, 2011 to 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mapaco, L.P.; Monjane, I.V.A.; Nhamusso, A.E.; Viljoen, G.J; Dundon, W.G.; Achá, S.J.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The complete sequence of the fusion (F) protein gene from eleven Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) isolated from commercial poultry in Mozambique between 2011 and 2016 has been generated. The F gene cleavage site motif for all eleven isolates was 112RRRKRF117 indicating that the viruses are virulent. A phylogenetic analysis using the full F gene sequence revealed that the viruses clustered within genotype VIIh and showed a higher similarity to NDVs from South Africa, China and Southeast Asia than to viruses previously described in Mozambique in 1994 to 1995 and 2005. The characterization of these new NDVs has important implications for Newcastle disease management and control in Mozambique. (author)

  18. Molecular characterization of velogenic viscerotropic Ranikhet (Newcastle disease virus from different outbreaks in desi chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Dhaygude

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Diagnosis of velogenic viscerotropic Ranikhet disease from six different flocks of desi chicken in and around Mumbai by gross and histopathological examination, isolation of virus and molecular methods. Materials and Methods: A total of 25 carcasses (varying between 2 and 6 carcasses from each flock of six different flocks of adult desi chicken were subjected to necropsy examination for diagnosis of the disease during the span of a year (2014-2015. After thorough gross examination, the tissue samples were collected and processed for virus isolation and histopathological examination. The 20% tissue homogenate was inoculated into 9-day-old specific pathogen free (SPF embryonated eggs. Mean death time (MDT of embryos after inoculation and intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI were used to judge velogenic nature of the virus. Newcastle disease virus (NDV was isolated from six cases and confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR targeting the partial fusion protein gene of the viral genome. Results: A total of 25 carcasses (varying between 2 and 6 carcasses from each flock of six different flocks of desi chicken were presented for postmortem examination to Department of Veterinary Pathology, Bombay Veterinary College, Parel, Mumbai during 2014-2015. The gross and histopathological examination revealed lesions suggestive of viscerotropic velogenic form of the Newcastle disease (ND. The 20% tissue homogenate was inoculated into 9-day-old embryonated eggs from SPF chicken. NDV was isolated from six cases and confirmed by RT-PCR targeting the partial fusion protein gene. MDT of all the isolates was <60 h which indicated velogenic nature of the virus. ICPI of the isolates ranged between the 1.63 and 1.78. In four out of six outbreaks concurrent moderate to heavy infection of Ascardii galli in one flock and Railetina spp. in three flocks was also noted. In this study, viscerotropic velogenic form of ND was confirmed in all

  19. Molecular characterization of velogenic viscerotropic Ranikhet (Newcastle) disease virus from different outbreaks in desi chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaygude, V S; Sawale, G K; Chawak, M M; Bulbule, N R; Moregaonkar, S D; Gavhane, D S

    2017-03-01

    Diagnosis of velogenic viscerotropic Ranikhet disease from six different flocks of desi chicken in and around Mumbai by gross and histopathological examination, isolation of virus and molecular methods. A total of 25 carcasses (varying between 2 and 6 carcasses from each flock) of six different flocks of adult desi chicken were subjected to necropsy examination for diagnosis of the disease during the span of a year (2014-2015). After thorough gross examination, the tissue samples were collected and processed for virus isolation and histopathological examination. The 20% tissue homogenate was inoculated into 9-day-old specific pathogen free (SPF) embryonated eggs. Mean death time (MDT) of embryos after inoculation and intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) were used to judge velogenic nature of the virus. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was isolated from six cases and confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) targeting the partial fusion protein gene of the viral genome. A total of 25 carcasses (varying between 2 and 6 carcasses from each flock) of six different flocks of desi chicken were presented for postmortem examination to Department of Veterinary Pathology, Bombay Veterinary College, Parel, Mumbai during 2014-2015. The gross and histopathological examination revealed lesions suggestive of viscerotropic velogenic form of the Newcastle disease (ND). The 20% tissue homogenate was inoculated into 9-day-old embryonated eggs from SPF chicken. NDV was isolated from six cases and confirmed by RT-PCR targeting the partial fusion protein gene. MDT of all the isolates was <60 h which indicated velogenic nature of the virus. ICPI of the isolates ranged between the 1.63 and 1.78. In four out of six outbreaks concurrent moderate to heavy infection of Ascardii galli in one flock and Railetina spp. in three flocks was also noted. In this study, viscerotropic velogenic form of ND was confirmed in all six outbreaks by gross and microscopic

  20. Protective efficacy of a recombinant Newcastle disease virus expressing glycoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minmin; Ge, Jinying; Li, Xiaofang; Chen, Weiye; Wang, Xijun; Wen, Zhiyuan; Bu, Zhigao

    2016-02-24

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) causes severe losses to the animal husbandry industry. In this study, a recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) expressing the glycoprotein (G) of VSV (rL-VSV-G) was constructed and its pathogenicity and immune protective efficacy in mouse were evaluated. In pathogenicity evaluation test, the analysis of the viral distribution in mouse organs and body weight change showed that rL-VSV-G was safe in mice. In immune protection assay, the recombinant rL-VSV-G triggered a high titer of neutralizing antibodies against VSV. After challenge, the wild-type (wt) VSV viral load in mouse organs was lower in rL-VSV-G group than that in rLaSota groups. wt VSV was not detected in the blood, liver, or kidneys of mice, whereas it was found in these tissues in control groups. The mice body weight had no significant change after challenge in the rL-VSV-G group. Additionally, suckling mice produced from female mice immunized with rL-VSV-G were partially protected from wt VSV challenge. These results demonstrated that rL-VSV-G may be a suitable candidate vaccine against vesicular stomatitis (VS).

  1. Evaluation of Some Fowl Pox, Gumboro and Newcastle Disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the nine vaccines yielded Aspergillus sp., two Salmonella sp. and three Escherichia coli when grown on culture media. All the four ND ... GD vaccines had PAb. All the three GD vaccines caused reduction in body weight gain and atrophy of the bursa of Fabricius when administered at one or 10 times the normal dose.

  2. EFFECT OF PIGEON ORIGIN NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS ON VARIOUS LIVER ENZYMES AND ASSOCIATED PATHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED PIGEONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. MUSHTAQ, F. RIZVI AND M. S. ULLAH

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease virus (NDV was isolated from a field outbreak in pigeons. The virus was characterized by haemagglutination test (HA and confirmed by haemagglutination inhibition test (HAI. The pathotyping was done by mean death time (MDT, intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI and intravenous pathogenicity index (IVPI. The ELD50 of the velogenic strain was 10-4.66/0.1 ml. Thirty-nine pigeons were randomly divided into three equal groups. Pigeons of one group were vaccinated with ND vaccine (LaSota strain intraocularly after 14 days of procurement, while the other two groups served as vaccinated and non-vaccinated controls. Birds of these two groups were challenged with velogenic strain of field isolate of NDV 7 days post-vaccination. Birds were kept under observation for 15 days post-challenge. Haemorrhages and congestion were observed in trachea, lungs, liver, proventriculus and intestine of pigeons infected with NDV. Concentrations of AST, ALT and ALP did not differ among pigeons of the three groups.

  3. Optimization of Newcastle disease virus production in T-flask | Arifin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, the production of lentogenic Asplin F strain of Newcastle disease virus by using cell culture method was studied. Experiments were carried out in T-flasks to investigate the effects of serum concentration in the culture medium during virus replication phase and multiplicity of infection (MOI) on ND virus ...

  4. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic study of Newcastle disease virus isolates from recent outbreaks in eastern Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otim, Maxwell O.; Christensen, Henrik; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik

    2004-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus isolates from chickens in eastern Uganda in 2001 were found to be velogenic by fusion protein cleavage site sequence analysis and biological characterization; the intracerebral pathogenicity index was 1.8. Analysis of their hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein gene sequences...... revealed a novel genotype unrelated to those that caused previous outbreaks....

  5. The Viral Replication Complex Is Associated with the Virulence of Newcastle Disease Virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dortmans, J.C.F.M.; Rottier, P.J.M.; Koch, G.; Peeters, B.P.H.

    2010-01-01

    Virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus ([NDV] also known as avian paramyxovirus type 1) can be discriminated from low-virulence strains by the presence of multiple basic amino acid residues at the proteolytic cleavage site of the fusion (F) protein. However, some NDV variants isolated from

  6. An outbreak of Newcastle disease in free-living pheasants (Phasianus colchicus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Poul Henrik; Handberg, Kurt; Ahrens, Peter

    1999-01-01

    The epidemiology of an outbreak of Newcastle disease in a population of approximately 12 000 free-living pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) on the island of Faeno in Denmark in 1996 is described. The mortality epizootic demonstrated over an observation period of 3 weeks. A total of 70 avian paramyxo...... to the pheasants by feral birds....

  7. The Carrier Rate of Newcastle Disease Virus in Pigeons in Owerri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two positive results were recorded for white pigeons, while only one black pigeon showed evidence of NDV. From this study, the carrier rate of NDV in pigeons in Owerri area of Imo State is estimated at 5% Keywords: Carrier Rate, Newcastle Disease Virus, Pigeons. Journal of Medical Laboratory Sciences Vol. 14 (1) 2005: ...

  8. Newcastle disease and infectious bursal disease among free range village chickens in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yongolo, M.G.S.; Maeda Machangu, A.; Minga, U.M.

    2002-01-01

    Newcastle disease in free-range village chickens was confirmed by retrospective data analysis and epidemiological cross-sectional studies. The combination of serological survey and virus isolation and characterisation established seasonal occurrence of Newcastle disease (ND) in free-range village chickens. The highest sero-prevalence (81.5) and virus isolation frequency (18/27) were found in the period between June and October. The field isolates of Newcastle virus (NDV) were confirmed to be PMV-1 serotype by polyclonal PMV-1 antiserum and monoclonal antibody (mAb) U85. All isolates were not inhibited by mAb 716/161 specific for pigeon panzootic NDV, showing that the current Tanzanian field isolates have antigenic variation and were not involved in the recent pigeon NDV panzootic. Mean death time determination characterised isolates into velogenic, mesogenic and lentogenic pathotypes. Isolation of NDV from apparently healthy ducks revealed the role of ducks in the epidemiology of ND in free-range village chickens in Tanzania. Studies are recommended to determine the similarities of the field isolates from different sources within Tanzania and to panzootic NDV from other countries. Strategic control of ND in free-range village chickens is recommended taking into consideration the presence of different age groups. Infectious bursal disease was histologically diagnosed in free-range village chickens. Therefore, there is a need of carrying out research on the role of other diseases and determine their prevalence and their contribution to the mortalities experienced in the free-range village chickens. (author)

  9. Oncolytic Newcastle Disease Virus as Cutting Edge between Tumor and Host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Fournier

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Oncolytic viruses (OVs replicate selectively in tumor cells and exert anti-tumor cytotoxic activity. Among them, Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV, a bird RNA virus of the paramyxovirus family, appears outstanding. Its anti-tumor effect is based on: (i oncolytic activity and (ii immunostimulation. Together these activities facilitate the induction of post-oncolytic adaptive immunity. We will present milestones during the last 60 years of clinical evaluation of this virus. Two main strategies of clinical application were followed using the virus (i as a virotherapeutic agent, which is applied systemically or (ii as an immunostimulatory agent combined with tumor cells for vaccination of cancer patients. More recently, a third strategy evolved. It combines the strategies (i and (ii and includes also dendritic cells (DCs. The first step involves systemic application of NDV to condition the patient. The second step involves intradermal application of a special DC vaccine pulsed with viral oncolysate. This strategy, called NDV/DC, combines anti-cancer activity (oncolytic virotherapy and immune-stimulatory properties (oncolytic immunotherapy with the high potential of DCs (DC therapy to prime naive T cells. The aim of such treatment is to first prepare the cancer-bearing host for immunocompetence and then to instruct the patient’s immune system with information about tumor-associated antigens (TAAs of its own tumor together with danger signals derived from virus infection. This multimodal concept should optimize the generation of strong polyclonal T cell reactivity targeted against the patient’s TAAs and lead to the establishment of a long-lasting memory T cell repertoire.

  10. Mycofix ameliorative effect on Newcastle disease antibody production in broiler chickens during aflatoxicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Gargees

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were conducted to elucidate the alleviation effects of Mycofix plus 3.0 on Newcastle antibody formation during aflatoxicosis in broiler chickens. Three levels of Mycofix (0.05%, 0.15%, and 0.25% and aflatoxin (2.5ppm, 3.5ppm, and 5ppm were used. Chickens were vaccinated at 8 and 18 days of age. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Haemagglutination inhibition tests were employed for determination Newcastle antibody titers at 28 days. The results showed that, Mycofix , and only at its high level of addition (0.25% was effective in ameliorating the negative effect of aflatoxin at the rates 2.5ppm and 3.5 ppm levels of inclusion on antibody production but not at the high level of 5ppm on antibody production, comparing with titers in control groups.

  11. Production of Newcastle Disease Virus by Vero Cells Grown on Cytodex 1 Microcarriers in a 2-Litre Stirred Tank Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Azmir Arifin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to prepare a model for the production of Newcastle disease virus (NDV lentogenic F strain using cell culture in bioreactor for live attenuated vaccine preparation. In this study, firstly we investigated the growth of Vero cells in several culture media. The maximum cell number was yielded by culture of Vero cells in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM which was 1.93×106 cells/ml. Secondly Vero cells were grown in two-litre stirred tank bioreactor by using several commercial microcarriers. We achieved the maximum cell concentration about 7.95×105 cells/ml when using Cytodex 1. Later we produced Newcastle Disease virus in stirred tank bioreactor based on the design developed using Taguchi L4 method. Results reveal that higher multiplicity of infection (MOI and size of cell inoculums can yield higher virus titer. Finally, virus samples were purified using high-speed centrifugation based on 3∗∗(3-1 Fractional Factorial Design. Statistical analysis showed that the maximum virus titer can be achieved at virus sample concentration of 58.45% (v/v, centrifugation speed of 13729 rpm, and centrifugation time of 4 hours. As a conclusion, high yield of virus titer could be achieved through optimization of cell culture in bioreactor and separation by high-speed centrifugation.

  12. Temporal, geographic, and host distribution of avian paramyxovirus 1 (Newcastle disease virus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Kiril M.; Ramey, Andy M.; Qiu, Xueting; Bahl, Justin; Afonso, Claudio L.

    2016-01-01

    Newcastle disease is caused by virulent forms of avian paramyxovirus of serotype 1 (APMV-1) and has global economic importance. The disease reached panzootic proportions within two decades after first being identified in 1926 in the United Kingdom and Indonesia and still remains endemic in many countries across the world. Here we review information on the host, temporal, and geographic distribution of APMV-1 genetic diversity based on the evolutionary systematics of the complete coding region of the fusion gene. Strains of APMV-1 are phylogenetically separated into two classes (class I and class II) and further classified into genotypes based on genetic differences. Class I viruses are genetically less diverse, generally present in wild waterfowl, and are of low virulence. Class II viruses are genetically and phenotypically more diverse, frequently isolated from poultry with occasional spillovers into wild birds, and exhibit a wider range of virulence. Waterfowl, cormorants, and pigeons are natural reservoirs of all APMV-1 pathotypes, except viscerotropic velogenic viruses for which natural reservoirs have not been identified. Genotypes I and II within class II include isolates of high and low virulence, the latter often being used as vaccines. Viruses of genotypes III and IX that emerged decades ago are now isolated rarely, but may be found in domestic and wild birds in China. Containing only virulent viruses and responsible for the majority of recent outbreaks in poultry and wild birds, viruses from genotypes V, VI, and VII, are highly mobile and have been isolated on different continents. Conversely, virulent viruses of genotypes XI (Madagascar), XIII (mainly Southwest Asia), XVI (North America) and XIV, XVII and XVIII (Africa) appear to have a more limited geographic distribution and have been isolated predominantly from poultry.

  13. Genetic determination of immune responses to Newcastle disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'étude portait sur les poulets locaux de la Tanzanie (LL), les hybrides Rhode Island Red (EE) et leurs croisements réciproques (LE et EL). L'écotype local avait les titres d'anticorps moyens les plus élevés suite à une première vaccination, puis avant et après une deuxième vaccination ; tandis que la race exotique avait les ...

  14. Virus interference between H7N2 low pathogenic avian influenza virus and lentogenic Newcastle disease virus in experimental co-infections in chickens and turkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Costa-Hurtado, Mar; Afonso, Claudio L; Miller, Patti J; Spackman, Erica; Kapczynski, Darrell R; Swayne, David E; Shepherd, Eric; Smith, Diane; Zsak, Aniko; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) and lentogenic Newcastle disease virus (l NDV) are commonly reported causes of respiratory disease in poultry worldwide with similar clinical and pathobiological presentation. Co-infections do occur but are not easily detected, and the impact of co-infections on pathobiology is unknown. In this study chickens and turkeys were infected with a l NDV vaccine strain (LaSota) and a H7N2 LPAIV (A/turkey/VA/SEP-67/2002) simultan...

  15. Lung Transcriptome of Newcastle Disease Virus Infected Chickens--Different Immune Response in Two Types of Chicken

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Males and females from resistant Fayoumi and susceptible Leghorn chicken lines were either challenged with a lentogenic strain of Newcastle Disease virus or given a...

  16. In ovo Technology and newcastle disease resistance in Japanese Quail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezzat, I.E.; Abu-Taleb, A.M.; Ali, I.E.; Shabana, M.K.

    2001-01-01

    A total number of 1600 fertile eggs from japanese quail birds were used in this study. The eggs were divided into eight groups then incubated. NDV and vite were administered to the groups of eggs in Ovo injection at day 14 from incubation. Hatchability, body weight, egg production and mortality were recorded weekly for each group. Five blood samples were collected weekly from each group to measure total serum proteins, albumin, globulin, T3, T4 and HI titre. The results of this work revealed an increase in total serum proteins, globulin, and a decrease in t3, T4 and albumin values of the in ove vaccinating groups. Also HI titre recorded higher values due to ovo vaccination alone or combined with vit. E. It was noticed that the group injected by inactive vaccine plus vit. E registered high increases in hatchability, body weight and egg production beside a decrease in mortality

  17. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Inactivated Oil-Emulsion Newcastle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since the first recognition of Newcastle disease (ND) in Nigeria, it has been observed to be enzootic despite the intensive vaccination policy, leading to significant economic losses in the poultry industry. This study evaluated the ability of inactivated oil-emulsion ND Komarov vaccine to protect laying chickens from challenge ...

  18. In vitro characterization of the antiviral activity of fucoidan from Cladosiphon okamuranus against Newcastle Disease Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizondo-Gonzalez Regina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV causes a serious infectious disease in birds that results in severe losses in the worldwide poultry industry. Despite vaccination, NDV outbreaks have increased the necessity of alternative prevention and control measures. Several recent studies focused on antiviral compounds obtained from natural resources. Many extracts from marine organisms have been isolated and tested for pharmacological purposes, and their antiviral activity has been demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. Fucoidan is a sulfated polysaccharide present in the cell wall matrix of brown algae that has been demonstrated to inhibit certain enveloped viruses with low toxicity. This study evaluated the potential antiviral activity and the mechanism of action of fucoidan from Cladosiphon okamuranus against NDV in the Vero cell line. Methods The cytotoxicity of fucoidan was determined by the MTT assay. To study its antiviral activity, fusion and plaque-forming unit (PFU inhibition assays were conducted. The mechanism of action was determined by time of addition, fusion inhibition, and penetration assays. The NDV vaccine strain (La Sota was used in the fusion inhibition assays. PFU and Western blot experiments were performed using a wild-type lentogenic NDV strain. Results Fucoidan exhibited antiviral activity against NDV La Sota, with an obtained IS50 >2000. In time of addition studies, we observed viral inhibition in the early stages of infection (0–60 min post-infection. The inhibition of viral penetration experiments with a wild-type NDV strain supported this result, as these experiments demonstrated a 48% decrease in viral infection as well as reduced HN protein expression. Ribavirin, which was used as an antiviral control, exhibited lower antiviral activity than fucoidan and high toxicity at active doses. In the fusion assays, the number of syncytia was significantly reduced (70% inhibition when fucoidan was added before cleavage of

  19. Locally available grains as carriers of Newcastle Disease V4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory trials were conducted to evaluate the potential of locally available grains as vehicles for the administration of the Australian Heat Resistant V4 vaccine. Feeds tested included millet, sunflower, crushed maize, rapoko, barley, sorghum and rice. One hundred and fifty four indigenous chickens were randomly divided ...

  20. Pattern of waning of maternal antibodies against newcastle disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sera from 150 unvaccinated cockerels collected from three hatcheries (A, B, C) were screened using standard methods of heamagglutination inhibition technique. Two separate vaccination schedules against ND were employed in advising poultry farmers at the Regional Veterinary Laboratory were compared for their ...

  1. Optimization of Newcastle disease virus production in T-flask

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... cell culture systems such as the bioreactor. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Cell line and virus strain. Established DF-1 cell line (ATCC-CRL-12203™) was purchased from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). Lentogenic. Asplin F strain of NDV was obtained from Malaysia Vaccine. Pharmaceuticals ...

  2. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of virulent Newcastle disease virus isolates from Pakistan during 2009–2013 reveals circulation of new sub genotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddique, Naila; Naeem, Khalid; Abbas, Muhammad Athar; Ali Malik, Akbar; Rashid, Farooq; Rafique, Saba; Ghafar, Abdul; Rehman, Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Despite observing the standard bio-security measures at commercial poultry farms and extensive use of Newcastle disease vaccines, a new genotype VII-f of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) got introduced in Pakistan during 2011. In this regard 300 ND outbreaks recorded so far have resulted into huge losses of approximately USD 200 million during 2011–2013. A total of 33 NDV isolates recovered during 2009–2013 throughout Pakistan were characterized biologically and phylogenetically. The phylogenetic analysis revealed a new velogenic sub genotype VII-f circulating in commercial and domestic poultry along with the earlier reported sub genotype VII-b. Partial sequencing of Fusion gene revealed two types of cleavage site motifs; lentogenic 112 GRQGRL 117 and velogenic 112 RRQKRF 117 along with some point mutations indicative of genetic diversity. We report here a new sub genotype of virulent NDV circulating in commercial and backyard poultry in Pakistan and provide evidence for the possible genetic diversity which may be causing new NDV out breaks. - Highlights: • The first report of isolation of new genotype VII-f of virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in Pakistan. • We report the partial Fusion gene sequences of new genotype VII-f of virulent NDV from Pakistan. • We report the phylogenetic relationship of new NDV strains with reported NDV strains. • Provide outbreak history of new virulent NDV strain in commercial and backyard poultry in Pakistan. • We provide possible evidence for the role of backyard poultry in NDV outbreaks

  3. Protective efficacy of a recombinant Newcastle disease virus expressing glycoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Minmin; Ge, Jinying; Li, Xiaofang; Chen, Weiye; Wang, Xijun; Wen, Zhiyuan; Bu, Zhigao

    2016-01-01

    Background Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) causes severe losses to the animal husbandry industry. In this study, a recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) expressing the glycoprotein (G) of VSV (rL-VSV-G) was constructed and its pathogenicity and immune protective efficacy in mouse were evaluated. Results In pathogenicity evaluation test, the analysis of the viral distribution in mouse organs and body weight change showed that rL-VSV-G was safe in mice. In immune protection assay, the reco...

  4. Pathotyping of a Newcastle disease virus isolated from peacock (Pavo cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayarani, K; Muthusamy, S; Tirumurugaan, K G; Sakthivelan, S M; Kumanan, K

    2010-03-01

    This report describes Newcastle disease in peacock and the isolation and characterization of the virus. The virus had an intracerbral pathogenicity index of 1.71 and mean death time of 47 h. The isolate had multiple basic amino acids at the fusion protein cleavage site sequence ((110)GGRRQRRFIG(119)) with a phenylalanine at residue 117. Biological and molecular characterization revealed that the virus is velogenic. Phylogenetic analysis placed the isolate in genotype II.

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of a Newcastle Disease Virus Isolated from Wild Peacock (Pavo cristatus) in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khulape, Sagar A; Gaikwad, Satish S; Chellappa, Madhan Mohan; Mishra, Bishnu Prasad; Dey, Sohini

    2014-06-05

    We report here the complete genome sequence of a Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolated from a wild peacock. Phylogenetic analysis showed that it belongs to genotype II, class II of NDV strains. This study helps to understand the ecology of NDV strains circulating in a wild avian host of this geographical region during the outbreak of 2012 in northwest India. Copyright © 2014 Khulape et al.

  6. The Role of Non-specific and Specific Immune Systems in Poultry against Newcastle Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Dyah Ayu Hewajuli; NLPI Dharmayanti

    2015-01-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is caused by avian paramyxovirus-1 which belong to Avulavirus genus and Paramyxoviridae family. The birds have abnormalities in humoral (bursa fabricius) and cellular (thymus and spleen) lymphoid organs. Lesions decrease the immune system. Immune system consists of non-specific and specific immune systems. The main components of non-specific immunity are physical and chemical barrier (feather and skin or mucosa), phagocytic cells (macrophages and natural killer), protei...

  7. Vaccines and Kawasaki disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Susanna; Bianchini, Sonia; Dellepiane, Rosa Maria; Principi, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    The distinctive immune system characteristics of children with Kawasaki disease (KD) could suggest that they respond in a particular way to all antigenic stimulations, including those due to vaccines. Moreover, treatment of KD is mainly based on immunomodulatory therapy. These factors suggest that vaccines and KD may interact in several ways. These interactions could be of clinical relevance because KD is a disease of younger children who receive most of the vaccines recommended for infectious disease prevention. This paper shows that available evidence does not support an association between KD development and vaccine administration. Moreover, it highlights that administration of routine vaccines is mandatory even in children with KD and all efforts must be made to ensure the highest degree of protection against vaccine-preventable diseases for these patients. However, studies are needed to clarify currently unsolved issues, especially issues related to immunologic interference induced by intravenous immunoglobulin and biological drugs.

  8. Retrospective Study Of Newcastle Disease Cases In Zaria, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most of the outbreaks of ND (46.7%) were recorded in flocks with 1-80 birds and 23.4% of the outbreaks were recorded in flocks with 51-100 birds. Outbreak of ND was closely associated with age, type and specie of birds, vaccination status, flock size, source of birds and feed. (P<0.05) This study observed that ND outbreak ...

  9. [Does vaccination cause disease?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingg, W

    2005-10-01

    Not many inventions in medical history have influenced our society as much as vaccination. The concept is old and simple. When Edward Jenner published his work on cowpox, "variolation" was quite common. In this procedure, pus of patients with mild smallpox was transferred to healthy individuals. Meanwhile smallpox has been eradicated worldwide. Diseases such as poliomyelitis, diphtheria or tetanus almost disappeared in industrialized countries. The same happened with epiglottitis and meningitis due to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) after vaccination against Hib was introduced in Switzerland in 1990. This success was possible because of routine vaccination. Immunization is a save procedure and adverse events are much lower than complications in the natural course of the prevented diseases. However vaccinations were accused to cause diseases themselves such as asthma, multiple sclerosis, diabetes mellitus, chronic arthritis or autism. Hitherto no large cohort study or case-control-study was able to proof responsibility of vaccines in any of these diseases. Public media are eager to publish early data from surveillance reports or case reports which are descriptive and never a principle of cause and effect. In large controlled trials there was no proof that vaccination causes asthma, hepatitis-B-vaccination causes multiple sclerosis or macrophagic myofasciitis, Hib-vaccination causes diabetes mellitus, rubella-vaccination causes chronic arthritis, measles-mumps-rubella-vaccination causes gait disturbance or thiomersal causes autism. These results are rarely published in newspapers or television. Thus, many caring parents are left with negative ideas about immunization. Looking for the best for their children they withhold vaccination and give way to resurgence of preventable diseases in our communities. This must be prevented. There is more evidence than expected that vaccination is safe and this can and must be told to parents.

  10. Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources for Healthcare Professionals Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... have immunity to this disease Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  11. Renal Disease and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources for Healthcare Professionals Renal Disease and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... have immunity to this disease Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  12. Newcastle disease in Nigeria | Abdu | Nigerian Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The first documented, confirmed outbreak of ND in Nigeria occurred between December 1952 and February 1953 in and around Ibadan (Hill et al.,1953). Subsequently, the disease appeared to be widespread in local and exotic chickens (Fatumbi and Adene, 1979; Ezeokoli et al.,1984; Gomwalk et al., 1985; Nwosu and ...

  13. Wild Birds in Romania Are More Exposed to West Nile Virus Than to Newcastle Disease Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paştiu, Anamaria Ioana; Pap, Péter László; Vágási, Csongor István; Niculae, Mihaela; Páll, Emőke; Domşa, Cristian; Brudaşcă, Florinel Ghe; Spînu, Marina

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of West Nile virus (WNV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in wild and domestic birds from Romania. During 2011-2014, 159 plasma samples from wild birds assigned to 11 orders, 27 families, and 61 species and from 21 domestic birds (Gallus gallus domesticus, Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) were collected. The sera were assayed by two commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) kits for antibodies against WNV and NDV. We found a high prevalence of WNV antibodies in both domestic (19.1%) and wild (32.1%) birds captured after the human epidemic in 2010. Moreover, the presence of anti-NDV antibodies among wild birds from Romania (5.4%) was confirmed serologically for the first time, as far as we are aware. Our findings provide evidence that wild birds, especially resident ones are involved in local West Nile and Newcastle disease enzootic and epizootic cycles. These may allow virus maintenance and spread and also enhance the chance of new outbreaks.

  14. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of virulent Newcastle disease virus isolates from Pakistan during 2009–2013 reveals circulation of new sub genotype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddique, Naila, E-mail: naila.nrlpd@gmail.com [National Reference Laboratory for Poultry Diseases, Animal Sciences Institute, National Agricultural Research Center, Islamabad (Pakistan); Naeem, Khalid; Abbas, Muhammad Athar; Ali Malik, Akbar; Rashid, Farooq; Rafique, Saba; Ghafar, Abdul; Rehman, Abdul [National Reference Laboratory for Poultry Diseases, Animal Sciences Institute, National Agricultural Research Center, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2013-09-15

    Despite observing the standard bio-security measures at commercial poultry farms and extensive use of Newcastle disease vaccines, a new genotype VII-f of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) got introduced in Pakistan during 2011. In this regard 300 ND outbreaks recorded so far have resulted into huge losses of approximately USD 200 million during 2011–2013. A total of 33 NDV isolates recovered during 2009–2013 throughout Pakistan were characterized biologically and phylogenetically. The phylogenetic analysis revealed a new velogenic sub genotype VII-f circulating in commercial and domestic poultry along with the earlier reported sub genotype VII-b. Partial sequencing of Fusion gene revealed two types of cleavage site motifs; lentogenic {sup 112}GRQGRL{sup 117} and velogenic {sup 112}RRQKRF{sup 117} along with some point mutations indicative of genetic diversity. We report here a new sub genotype of virulent NDV circulating in commercial and backyard poultry in Pakistan and provide evidence for the possible genetic diversity which may be causing new NDV out breaks. - Highlights: • The first report of isolation of new genotype VII-f of virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in Pakistan. • We report the partial Fusion gene sequences of new genotype VII-f of virulent NDV from Pakistan. • We report the phylogenetic relationship of new NDV strains with reported NDV strains. • Provide outbreak history of new virulent NDV strain in commercial and backyard poultry in Pakistan. • We provide possible evidence for the role of backyard poultry in NDV outbreaks.

  15. Genetically engineered Newcastle disease virus expressing interleukin-2 and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand for cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recombinant Newcastle disease virus (rNDV) has shown oncolytic therapeutic efficacy in preclinical studies and are currently in clinical trials. In this study, we have evaluated the possibility to enhance the cancer therapeutic potential of NDV by means of inserting both interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tu...

  16. Characterization and Sequencing of a Genotype XII Newcastle Disease Virus Isolated from a Peacock (Pavo cristatus) in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumbe, Ana; Izquierdo-Lara, Ray; Tataje-Lavanda, Luis; Figueroa, Aling; Segovia, Karen; Gonzalez, Rosa; Cribillero, Giovana; Montalvan, Angela; Fernández-Díaz, Manolo; Icochea, Eliana

    2015-07-30

    Here, we report the first complete sequence and biological characterization of a Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolated from a peacock in South America (NDV/peacock/Peru/2011). This isolate, classified as genotype XII in class II, highlights the need for increased surveillance of noncommercial avian species. Copyright © 2015 Chumbe et al.

  17. HN gene c-terminal extension of Newcastle disease virus is not the determinant of the enteric tropism

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) plays an important role in virus pathogenicity and tissue tropism. Sequence analysis revealed that the HN gene of many asymptomatic enteric NDV strains encodes a larger open reading frame (616 amino acids, aa) with additio...

  18. Recombinant Newcastle disease virus expressing the infectious bronchitis virus S1 gene protects chickens against Newcastle disease virus and infectious bronchitis virus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ran; Sun, Junfeng; Qi, Tianming; Zhao, Wen; Han, Zongxi; Yang, Xiaopu; Liu, Shengwang

    2017-04-25

    The recombinant LaSota strain expressing a chimeric IBV S1 gene (rLaSota-S1) was constructed with the S1 gene of the LX4 type IBV ck/CH/LDL/091022. The expression of the S1 protein was detected by an indirect immunofluorescence assay and Western blotting. The rLaSota-S1 strain was slightly attenuated, and its growth dynamics were similar to that of the parental LaSota strain. Vaccination of specific pathogen-free chickens with the rLaSota-S1 strain induced NDV hemagglutination inhibition antibodies, and it protected chickens from challenge with virulent NDV. In addition, vaccination with the rLaSota-S1 strain induced IBV-specific IgG antibodies and cellular immunity; however, a single vaccination provided partial protection with reduced virus shedding. Better protection efficiency was observed after a booster vaccination, which resulted in higher antibody titers, significantly fewer disease symptoms, and reduced virus replication and shedding. Our results suggest that the rLaSota-S1 strain is a bivalent vaccine candidate against both NDV and IBV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Emerging variant of genotype XIII Newcastle disease virus from Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Barnali; Kumar, Sachin

    2017-08-01

    Northeast India with its rich and diverse avifauna acts as a hotbed for emerging virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains. The present work describes the molecular and pathogenic characterization of NDV strain isolated from Pandu, Assam, India. Clinicopathological and genetic analysis showed the virulent nature of NDV strain Pandu. On molecular phylogenetic and evolutionary distance analysis, the NDV strain Pandu formed a distinct clade within the genotype XIII of class II NDV, suggesting a new sub-genotype XIIIc. The accumulation of mutations in the NDV strain Pandu makes it divergent enough to be considered as a new sub-genotype. The proposed NDV sub-genotype XIIIc consists of strains recently reported from eastern and northeastern India. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Avian influenza A virus and Newcastle disease virus mono- and co-infections in birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iv. Zarkov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main features of avian influenza viruses (AIV and Newcastle disease virus (APMV-1, the possibilities for isolation and identification in laboratory conditions, methods of diagnostics, main hosts, clinical signs and virus shedding are reviewed in chronological order. The other part of the review explains the mechanisms and interactions in cases of co-infection of AIV and APMV-1, either between them or with other pathogens in various indicator systems – cell cultures, chick embryos or birds. The emphasis is placed on quantitative data on the virus present mainly in the first ten days following experimental infection of birds, the periods of virus carrier ship and shedding, clinical signs, pathological changes, diagnostic challenges

  1. Rapid Newcastle Disease Virus Detection Based on Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification and Optomagnetic Readout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Bo; Ma, Jing; Zardán Gómez de la Torre, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and sensitive diagnostic methods based on isothermal amplification are ideal substitutes for PCR in out-of-lab settings. However, there are bottlenecks in terms of establishing low-cost and user-friendly readout methods for isothermal amplification schemes. Combining the high amplification...... efficiency of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) with an optomagnetic nanoparticle-based readout system, we demonstrate ultrasensitive and rapid detection of Newcastle disease virus RNA. Biotinylated amplicons of LAMP and reverse transcription LAMP (RT-LAMP) bind to streptavidin-coated magnetic...... nanoparticles (MNPs) resulting in a dramatical increase in the hydrodynamic size of the MNPs. This increase was measured by an optomagnetic readout system and provided quantitative information on the amount of LAMP target sequence. Our assay resulted in a limit of detection of 10 aM of target sequence...

  2. Cleavage site of Newcastle disease virus determines viral fitness in persistent infection cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haijin; Servan de Almeida, Renata; Gil, Patricia; Albina, Emmanuel

    2018-03-01

    Newcastle disease, caused by infection with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), poses a risk for the poultry industry. The virulence of NDV is mainly determined by the cleavage site of F protein. Lentogenic NDV can become velogenic after passages in SPF chicken brain and air sac based on some strains isolated from water birds, because the proportion of virulent-related strains gradually increases. In contrast, this proportion remains unchanged if NDV is passaged via 10-day-old SPF chicken embryos. This information suggests that environmental conditions rather than mutation affect NDV fitness in quasispecies. However, it is unknown how the environment selects virulent-related strains from a viral population. In this study, velogenic and lentogenic NDV marked by green or red fluorescence were used to establish persistent infection (PI) in BHK-21 cells. Monitoring viruses by different methods, we found that, without competition, persistently infected cells harbored lentogenic and velogenic NDV strains similarly in terms of viral release, viral spread and the period of persistent viral infection. In contrast, under competitive co-infection, velogenic NDV became dominant in quasispecies from the fifth passage of PI cells, which resulted in the progressive disappearance of the lentogenic NDV strain. This domination was concomitant with a short-term reduction in the superinfection exclusion and supernatant interference in PI cells resulting in a velogenic virus rebound. We concluded that virulent-related F protein cleavage site facilitates the spread and replication of NDV in conditions under which cells do not secret trypsin-like proteases and do not inhibit free virus infection, resulting in a gradual increase in virulent strains in quasispecies with the number of passages. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [Characterization of a recombinant Listeria monocytogenes strain containing the fusion protein gene of Newcastle disease virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing-Jing; Jiang, Ling-Li; Chen, Ning; Shuai, Jiang-Bing; Fang, Wei-Huan

    2006-06-01

    Homologous recombination was utilized for construction of a recombinant strain of L. monocytogenes carrying a gene from the Newcastle diseases virus by insertional mutation targeting its listeriolysin O gene (hly). The gene encoding fusion protein of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV-F) was used as the model heterologous gene. The F gene was inserted into hly downstream to its promoter and signal sequence by overlapping extension polymerase chain reaction, which was then subcloned into the shuttle plasmid pKSV7 for allelic exchange with L. monocytogenes chromosome. PCR amplification of the target genes indicated insertion of the F gene into the chromosome DNA of L. monocytogenes. RT-PCR showed transcription of F gene from the recombinant L. monocytogenes strain. Comparisons were then made between the recombinant strain and its wild parent strain in terms of the hemolytic activity, adhesion and invasiveness to cultured HeLa cells, virulence to mice and chicken embryos, and growth kinetics in broth medium as well as its stability upon repeated subculturing and serial passages in mice. The recombinant L. monocytogenes lost its hemolytic activity on the blood agar and had no hemolytic titer from its culture supernatants as compared with the titer of 24 in the supernatant from the wild parent strain. The recombinant strain also had lower adhesiveness (P > 0.05) and significantly lower relative invasiveness to the HeLa cells than its wild type strain (P gene NDV-F from its genomic DNA after subculturing in BHI broth or in mice for 5 times.

  4. Molecular epidemiology of Newcastle disease viruses isolated in South Korea using sequencing of the fusion protein cleavage site region and phylogenetic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youn Jeong; Sung, Haan Woo; Choi, Jun Gu; Kim, Jae Hong; Song, Chang Seon

    2004-10-01

    The study, using sequence analysis and the phylogenetic relationship of the fusion protein gene, divided the Korean epizootic isolates of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) into several lineages to determine the molecular epidemiology of the virus. A 695 base pair fragment was amplified by polymerase chain reaction between matrix protein gene and fusion protein gene of 30 Korean NDV isolates, which were isolated from field outbreaks of Newcastle disease between 1949 and 2002. All isolates showed the amino acid sequence 112R-R-Q/R-K-R116 at the C-terminus of the F2 protein and phenylalanine (F) at the N-terminus of the F1 protein, residue 117. These amino acid sequences were identical to a known virulent motif. The region of the F gene between nucleotides 47 and 435 was compared by phylogenetic analysis. Based on nucleotide sequence, the Korean NDV isolates belonged to genotype III, V, VI and VII corresponding to isolates in 1949, 1982 to 1984, 1988 to 1997, and 1995 to 2002, respectively. These data showed that genotypes of five Korean Newcastle disease epizootics had replaced each other serially (III, V, VI and VII) in chronological order. Further, the five Korean Newcastle disease epizootics were closely related with the Newcastle disease panzootics or Newcastle disease epizootics in other countries. Present study showed that the Korean genotype V isolated before 1984 was related with European Newcastle disease epizootics in the 1970s, whereas the Korean genotypes VI and VII isolated after 1988 were more closely related with Far East Newcastle disease epizootics, especially Newcastle disease epizootics in Japan, Taiwan and China. Since 1988, the genotypes VI and VII of Far East origin were dominant in South Korea. That might be due to the increased trade of agricultural products including poultry among Far East Asian countries.

  5. Newcastle disease virus infection in sparrows (Passer domesticus, Linneaus, 1758 captured in poultry farms of the agreste region of the State of Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JSA Silva

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Reservoir competence for the Newcastle Disease virus (NDV was evaluated in sparrows (Passer domesticus, Linnaeus 1758 captured on a commercial poultry farm and a chicken hatchery in the State of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil. A total number of 103 birds collected from a poultry farm (24/103 and a chicken hatchery (79/103 were examined. Hemagglutination inhibition tests, isolation, and viral characterization were performed in all samples collected from each bird. Titers ranging from 1:2 to 1:64 were detectable in 10.68% of sparrows, but positive serology and viral isolation were obtained only from sparrows captured at the hatchery. Hemagglutination activity was inhibited by anti-avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1 serum, and this sample showed an intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICOI of 0.21, which is similar to the B1 stock vaccine (0.20 used for vaccination in those farms. Therefore, it was concluded that the sparrows were infected by stock vaccine virus, and that these birds could be a reservoir for NDV. However, additional studies involving sequencing of the virus genome of stock vaccine must be carried out.

  6. Experimental infection of duck origin virulent Newcastle disease virus strain in ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Newcastle disease (ND) caused by virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is an acute, highly contagious and fatal viral disease affecting most species of birds. Ducks are generally considered to be natural reservoirs or carriers of NDV while being resistant to NDV strains, even those most virulent for chickens; however, natural ND cases in ducks have been gradually increasing in recent years. In the present study, ducks of different breeds and ages were experimentally infected with duck origin virulent NDV strain duck/Jiangsu/JSD0812/2008 (JSD0812) by various routes to investigate the pathogenicity of NDV in ducks. Results Six breeds (mallard, Gaoyou, Shaoxing, Jinding, Shanma, and Pekin ducks) were infected intramuscularly (IM) with JSD0812 strain at the dose of 5 × 108 ELD50. Susceptibility to NDV infection among breeds varied, per morbidity and mortality. Mallard ducks were the most susceptible, and Pekin ducks the most resistant. Fifteen-, 30-, 45-, 60-, and 110-day-old Gaoyou ducks were infected with JSD0812 strain at the dose of 5 × 108 ELD50 either IM or intranasally (IN) and intraocularly (IO), and their disease development, viral shedding, and virus tissue distribution were determined. The susceptibility of ducks to NDV infection decreased with age. Most deaths occurred in 15- and 30-day-old ducklings infected IM. Ducks infected IN and IO sometimes exhibited clinical signs, but seldom died. Clinical signs were primarily neurologic. Infected ducks could excrete infectious virus from the pharynx and/or cloaca for a short period, which varied with bird age or inoculation route; the longest period was about 7 days. The rate of virus isolation in tissues from infected ducks was generally low, even in those from dead birds, and it appeared to be unrelated to bird age and infection route. Conclusions The results confirmed that some of the naturally occurring NDV virulent strains can cause the disease in ducks, and that ducks play an important

  7. MRC Centre Neuromuscular Biobank (Newcastle and London): Supporting and facilitating rare and neuromuscular disease research worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, Mojgan; Cox, Daniel; Phillips, Lauren; Johnson, Diana; Manoharan, Vaishnavi; Grieves, Michael; Davis, Becky; Roos, Andreas; Morgan, Jennifer; Hanna, Michael G; Muntoni, Francesco; Lochmüller, Hanns

    2017-11-01

    Neuromuscular diseases are both genetic and acquired conditions resulting in progressive muscle weakness and wasting which lead to disability and reduced survival. The availability of high-quality human biomaterial is crucial to support biomedical research with potential applications at all stages of development, from molecular pathophysiology to drug discovery, clinical trials and evaluation of biomarkers. Although significant progress has been made over the last few years in the diagnosis of these rare conditions, the genetic defect and underlying pathological abnormality remain unknown in approximately 1/3 of cases. Moreover, to date no definitive cure is available for most neuromuscular disorders, nor are there sufficiently reliable and specific biomarkers to monitor disease progression and response to treatment. This is in part due to the rarity and genetic heterogeneity of neuromuscular diseases and the lack of access to patient samples. The availability of the national MRC Centre Biobank for Neuromuscular Diseases in Newcastle and London has addressed this bottleneck and supported neuromuscular research. Nine years after the establishment of the MRC Centre Biobank, many high profile research publications have highlighted the positive impact of neuromuscular biobanking for translational research and proven this facility to be a unique repository source for diagnostics, basic science research, industry, drug development, and therapy. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Inactivation efficacy of non-thermal plasma activated solutions against Newcastle disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xia; Tian, Ying; Zhou, Hongzhuan; Li, Yinglong; Zhang, Zhenhua; Jiang, Beiyu; Yang, Bing; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2018-02-23

    In recent years, plasma activated solution (PAS) have made a good progress in the disinfection of medical device, tooth whitening, fruit preservation. In this study, we investigated the inactivation efficacy of Newcastle disease virus by PAS. Water, 0.9% NaCl and 0.3% H 2 O 2 were excited by plasma to obtain the corresponding solutions PAS(H 2 O), PAS(NaCl) and PAS(H 2 O 2 ). The complete inactivation of virus after PAS treatment for 30 min was confirmed by the embryo lethality assay (ELA) and hemagglutination (HA) test. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results showed that the morphology of the viral particle changed under PAS treatments. The total protein concentration of virus decreased by bradford protein assay due to PAS treatment. The nucleic acid integrity assay demonstrated that viral RNA degraded into smaller fragments. Moreover, the physicochemical properties of PAS including ORP, electric conductivity, H 2 O 2 concentration and electron spin resonance spectra analysis indicated that reactive oxygen and nitrogen species play a major role in the virus inactivation. Therefore, PAS, as an environmentally friendly method, would be a promising alternative strategy for application in the poultry industries. Importance Newcastle disease (ND) as an infectious viral disease of avian species caused significant economic losses to domestic animal and poultry industry. The traditional chemical sanitizers, such as chlorine-based products, are associated with risks of by-products formation with carcinogenic effect and environmental pollution. Based on these, plasma activated water as a green disinfection product is a promising alternative applied in stock farming and sterilization in hospitals and public places. In this study, we explored the inactivation efficacy of different plasma activated solution (PAS) against NDV and the possible mechanism between PAS and NDV. Our results demonstrated that reactive oxygen and nitrogen species detected in PAS, including short

  9. Determination of the seroprevalence of Newcastle disease virus (avian paramyxovirus type 1 in Zambian backyard chicken flocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chimuka Musako

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted in five provinces and 11 districts of Zambia to determine the seroprevalence of Newcastle disease in Zambian backyard chicken flocks. Of the chickens sampled, 73.9% tested positive for avian paramyxovirus type 1 antibodies by means of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Seroprevalence varied amongst the five provinces sampled, ranging from 82.6% in the Eastern Province to 48.3% in Luapula Province. Seroprevalence also varied amongst the 11 districts sampled, ranging from 91.3% in Monze district of Southern Province to 22.8% in Mufulira district of the Copperbelt province. Overall, the seroprevalence of Newcastle disease in Zambian backyard chicken flocks has increased since the previous study conducted in 1994.

  10. Experimental intraocular infection of exotic cockerels with field strain of velogenic Newcastle disease virus in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaila Jonathan Badau

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Experimental intraocular (conjunctival infection of exotic cockerels with a new field strain of viscerotropic velogenic Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV was conducted to explore the concurrence of some pathological changes with humoral immune responses. After the NDV infection of 4-week-old cockerels, pathologic changes and antibody responses were observed. The clinical signs observed after the artificial inoculation included inappetence, depression, diarrhea, dyspnea, wing and leg paralysis, torticollis and weight loss. Morbidity due to the NDV was 100%, but mortality was 80% by day 18-21 post-infection. Early hyperthermia followed by terminal hypothermia, decreased packed cell volume (PCV, and 231.4 folds peak-antibody response were observed. Necrotic and/or inflammatory lesions were present in the proventriculus, intestine, liver, spleen, kidney and brain. Neurologic and digestive tract perturbations occurred in 10% and 85% of cases, respectively. The disease consistently caused stunted growth, decreased PCV, and necro-inflammatroy lesions concurrent with antibody response, suggesting probable involvement of immune-mediated mechanisms and cell membrane desialylation by viral neuraminidase in the pathogenesis.

  11. Does disease cause vaccination? Disease outbreaks and vaccination response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, Emily

    2017-11-02

    Parental fear of vaccines has limited vaccination rates in the United States. I test whether disease outbreaks increase vaccination using a new dataset of county-level disease and vaccination data. I find that pertussis (whooping cough) outbreaks in a county decrease the share of unvaccinated children entering kindergarten. These responses do not reflect changes in the future disease risk. I argue that these facts are best fit by a model in which individuals are both myopic and irrational. This suggests that better promotion of information about outbreaks could enhance the response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Mutations in the fusion peptide and heptad repeat regions of the Newcastle disease virus fusion protein block fusion.

    OpenAIRE

    Sergel-Germano, T; McQuain, C; Morrison, T

    1994-01-01

    Nonconservative mutations were introduced by site-specific mutagenesis into the fusion peptide and the adjacent heptad repeat region of the fusion protein of Newcastle disease virus in order to determine the role of both regions in the fusion activity of the protein. Mutations in both regions that allowed for proper folding and intracellular transport of the protein blocked the fusion activity of the protein when assayed in the presence of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein.

  13. An Epizootiological Report of the Re-emergence and Spread of a Lineage of Virulent Newcastle Disease Virus into Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, C; Löndt, B; Dimitrov, K M; Lewis, N; van Boheemen, S; Fouchier, R; Coven, F; Goujgoulova, G; Haddas, R; Brown, I

    2017-06-01

    A number of contemporary outbreaks of Newcastle disease (ND) in Israel, Turkey, Georgia and Bulgaria have all been caused by a very similar viruses related to lineage 5a (genotype VIIa). Comparison with published ND virus (NDV) sequences suggests that this virus strain originated in South-East Asia and on introduction has circulated widely in backyard poultry in the Middle East and into Eastern Europe. An intracerebral pathogenicity index of 1.9 was obtained for a representative isolate from Bulgaria. In addition, the International Reference Laboratory for ND has characterized a molecular epidemiologically linked virus that has been reported to have caused disease in well-vaccinated broiler chickens in Pakistan. In the 1990s, another strain from the 5a lineage NDV was introduced into Europe and spread across the continent causing numerous outbreaks up to 1999. Despite improved controls, including good diagnostic tests and widespread vaccination, in commercial poultry, the novel circulating NDV strains described here have been established widely in the region and represent an increased risk for similar disease outbreak events to reoccur within the EU. © 2015 Crown copyright. This article is published with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland.

  14. Comparison of the efficiency of different newcastle disease virus reverse genetics systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haijin; de Almeida, Renata Servan; Gil, Patricia; Albina, Emmanuel

    2017-11-01

    Rescue of negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses ((-)ssRNA virus), generally requires the handling of a large number of plasmids to provide the virus genome and essential components for gene expression and genome replication. This constraint probably renders reverse genetics of (-)ssRNA virus more complex and less efficient. Some authors have shown that the fewer the plasmids, the more efficient reverse genetics is for segmented RNA virus. However, it is not clear if the same applies for (-)ssRNA, such as Newcastle disease virus (NDV). To address this issue, six variants of NDV reverse genetic systems were established by cloning combinations of NP, P and L genes, mini-genome or full-genome in 4, 3, 2 and 1 plasmid. In terms of mini-genome and full-genome rescue, we showed that only the 2-plasmid system, assembling three support plasmids together, was able to improve the rescue efficiency over that of the conventional 4-plasmid system. These results may help establish and/or improve reverse genetics for other mononegaviruses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Epidemiological study of Newcastle disease in backyard poultry and wild bird populations in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelling, E; Thur, B; Griot, C; Audige, L

    1999-06-01

    Blood samples and cloacal swabs from poultry were collected in 107 small chicken flocks and 62 pure-bred poultry flocks to determine their status regarding Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infection. A questionnaire emphasizing potential contacts of poultry with wild birds and management practices associated with NDV infection was completed for each flock. Additionally, 1576 wild bird carcasses of 115 different bird species were collected from hunters and taxidermists. Poultry sera and tissue fluids of wild birds were tested for NDV antibodies using a blocking ELISA. Cloacal swabs were subjected to reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for NDV genome detection. In-herd NDV seroprevalences between 5 and 29% were found in one small chicken flock, as well as in four pure-bred poultry flocks. NDV antibody positive wild birds were found in 10.2% of all wild birds examined. Highest proportions (i.e. 15%) of positive birds per species were found among sparrowhawks, kites, tawny owls, eagle owls, barn owls, cuckoos, swifts, cormorants and grebes. No NDV genome was detected in cloacal swabs. This study suggests that buying eggs or poultry abroad and exchanging poultry within the country were factors, more important than wild birds, to explain the higher NDV seropositivity in pure-bred poultry flocks.

  16. Scutellaria polysaccharide inhibits the infectivity of Newcastle disease virus to chicken embryo fibroblast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaona, Zhao; Jianzhu, Liu

    2014-03-15

    To select the antiviral active site of Scutellaria polysaccharide (SPS), safe concentrations of crude total Scutellaria polysaccharide (SPS(t)) and fractional polysaccharide SPS₅₀, SPS₆₀, SPS₇₀ and SPS₈₀ on chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) were first compared using the MTT method. Then, SPS(t), SPS₅₀, SPS₆₀, SPS₇₀, and SPS₈₀ at five concentrations within the safe concentration, together with Newcastle disease virus (NDV), were added to the cultivating system of CEF in three models: pre-addition of polysaccharide, post-addition of polysaccharide, and simultaneous addition of polysaccharides and NDV after mixing. The effects of SPS on the cellular infectivity of NDV (A₅₇₀ value and the highest viral inhibitory rate) were compared using the MTT method. At appropriate concentrations, the five polysaccharides could significantly inhibit the infectivity of NDV on CEF. Among the five polysaccharide groups, the SPS₈₀ group exhibited the highest viral inhibitory rate in the three sample-addition modes. This finding indicates that SPS₈₀ possesses the best efficacy as a component of antiviral polysaccharide drug. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. The Role of Non-specific and Specific Immune Systems in Poultry against Newcastle Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Hewajuli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease (ND is caused by avian paramyxovirus-1 which belong to Avulavirus genus and Paramyxoviridae family. The birds have abnormalities in humoral (bursa fabricius and cellular (thymus and spleen lymphoid organs. Lesions decrease the immune system. Immune system consists of non-specific and specific immune systems. The main components of non-specific immunity are physical and chemical barrier (feather and skin or mucosa, phagocytic cells (macrophages and natural killer, protein complement and the mediator of inflammation and cytokines. Interferons (IFNs belong to a group of cytokines that play a major role in the nonspecific or innate (natural immunity. The virulent ND virus encodes protein of V gene can be suppressed IFN type I. This leads to non-specific immune system fail to respond to the virulent strains resulting in severe pathogenicity. The defense mechanism of the host is replaced by specific immunity (adaptive immunity when natural immunity fails to overcome the infection. The specific immune system consists of humoral mediated immunity (HMI and cell-mediated immunity (CMI. The cells of immune system that react specifically with the antigen are B lymphocytes producing the antibodies, T lymphocytes that regulate the synthesis of antibodies and T cells as effector or the direct cytotoxic cells. Both non-specific and specific immunities are complementary against the invasion of ND virus in the birds. The objective of this article is to discuss the role of non specific and specific immune system in ND.

  18. Synonymous codon usage of genes in polymerase complex of Newcastle disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Chandra Shekhar; Kumar, Sachin

    2017-06-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is pathogenic to both avian and non-avian species but extensively finds poultry as its primary host and causes heavy economic losses in the poultry industry. In this study, a total of 186 polymerase complex comprising of nucleoprotein (N), phosphoprotein (P), and large polymerase (L) genes of NDV was analyzed for synonymous codon usage. The relative synonymous codon usage and effective number of codons (ENC) values were used to estimate codon usage variation in each gene. Correspondence analysis (COA) was used to study the major trend in codon usage variation. Analyzing the ENC plot values against GC3s (at synonymous third codon position) we concluded that mutational pressure was the main factor determining codon usage bias than translational selection in NDV N, P, and L genes. Moreover, correlation analysis indicated, that aromaticity of N, P, and L genes also influenced the codon usage variation. The varied distribution of pathotypes for N, P, and L gene clearly suggests that change in codon usage for NDV is pathotype specific. The codon usage preference similarity in N, P, and L gene might be detrimental for polymerase complex functioning. The study represents a comprehensive analysis to date of N, P, and L genes codon usage pattern of NDV and provides a basic understanding of the mechanisms for codon usage bias. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Acceptability of Aujeszky's disease vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimman, T G

    1992-01-01

    Vaccines against Aujeszky's disease are not only used to prevent the clinical consequences of a field infection, but also to support eradication of the virus. The current Aujeszky's disease vaccines (ADV) protect against severe clinical signs of disease and they reduce but usually do not prevent virus multiplication and excretion or the establishment of latency after infection. Vaccines also limit virus multiplication after reactivation. The efficacy of vaccination is reduced by passively acquired maternal antibodies. The mechanisms that afford immunity to the virus are only poorly understood. No simple parameters for immunity are therefore available. The European Pharmacopoeia formulates requirements for inactivated and live ADV vaccines for parenteral use. The vaccines must be safe; they must not induce local or systemic reactions; they must not be transmitted to unvaccinated pigs; they must not be transmitted by semen and across the placenta; the attenuation must be irreversible (live vaccines); the inactivation must be complete (inactivated vaccines); they must prevent mortality and limit growth retardation after challenge infection; the vaccine must not contain contaminating micro-organisms and viruses. No requirements have been formulated with regard to reduction of excretion of challenge virus after experimental infection, efficacy in pigs with maternal antibodies, reproducibility of efficacy studies, reduction of virus transmission under field conditions, the presence of a serological marker, safety for other species, and safety and efficacy of intranasally administered vaccines. Future developments should be directed to the development and evaluation of ADV vaccines that are able to limit transmission of the virus.

  20. Serologic occurrence of Newcastle disease in ostriches raised in Bahia and São Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Lia Muniz Barretto; Silva, Priscila Sousa da; Ramos, Izabella; Sales, Tatiane Santana; Herval, Elen Fabiane Guimarães; Batinga, Thaís de Brito; Maia, Paulo César Costa; César, André Eduardo Rocha; Doretto Júnior, Luciano; Meyer, Roberto; Freire, Songeli Menezes

    2009-01-01

    Estudos sorológicos em Avestruzes (Struthio camelus) são ferramentas úteis para analisar os riscos relacionados à Doença de Newcastle nesses plantéis e à avicultura nacional. No presente estudo, amostras de sangue foram obtidas de avestruzes de ambos os sexos, de diferentes faixas etárias e sem apresentação de sintomatologia clínica, criadas nos Estados da Bahia e de São Paulo com o objetivo de avaliar a presença de anticorpos contra o vírus da Doença de Newcastle por meio de ELISA indireto. ...

  1. The Immune Response of Maternally Immune Chicks to Vaccination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Immune Response of Maternally Immune Chicks to Vaccination with Newcastle Disease Virus. ... G A El-Tayeb, M Y El-Ttegani, I E Hajer, M A Mohammed ... This study was conducted to determine the persistence of maternally derived antibodies (MDA) to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in newly hatched chicks and the ...

  2. Ethanol extract and chromatographic fractions of Tamarindus indica stem bark inhibits Newcastle disease virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoh, Omobola O; Obiiyeke, Grace E; Nwodo, Uchechukwu U; Okoh, Anthony I

    2017-12-01

    The plethora of ethnomedicinal applications of Tamarindus indica Linn. (Leguminosae), tamarind, includes treatment of human and livestock ailments; preparations are recognized antipyretics in fevers, laxatives and carminatives. African folklore has various applications of tamarind. However, in Nyasaland, domestic fowl are fed with preparations for prophylactic properties. The objective of this study is to evaluate the antiviral properties of T. indica extract. Tamarindus indica stem bark was extracted through ethanol maceration over 24 h, and the crude extract was fractionated by gravity-propelled column chromatography. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) inhibitory activity of extract and fractions were evaluated in vivo using 10-d-old embryonated chicken egg (ECE) as the medium for virus cultivation and antivirus assay. About 240 ECE were grouped into eight (three controls and five experimental) and, 200 μL of the extract and fractions respectively inoculated into NDV pre-infected eggs and incubated at 37 °C. Allantoic fluid was harvested 5 d post-virus infection and assayed for haemagglutination (HA). Anti-NDV assessment showed 62.5 mg/mL of crude extract and fractions: TiA, TiC and TiD to yield a HA titre of 1:128 each, while TiB showed 1:64 HA titre. At 125 mg/mL, a titre of 1:16 was recorded against TiB and TiD and, 1:8 against TiA. Similarly, crude extract and TiC, each recorded 1:4 HA titre. However, the minimum concentrations of extract and fraction for virus inactivation were 0.24 mg/mL and 0.49 mg/mL, respectively. The antiviral activity shown by T. indica portends novel antiviral drugs and, perhaps, as scaffold for new drugs.

  3. Transcriptional Innate Immune Response of the Developing Chicken Embryo to Newcastle Disease Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan A. Schilling

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditional approaches to assess the immune response of chickens to infection are through animal trials, which are expensive, require enhanced biosecurity, compromise welfare, and are frequently influenced by confounding variables. Since the chicken embryo becomes immunocompetent prior to hatch, we here characterized the transcriptional response of selected innate immune genes to Newcastle disease virus (NDV infection in chicken embryos at days 10, 14, and 18 of embryonic development. The results suggest that the innate immune response 72 h after challenge of 18-day chicken embryo is both consistent and robust. The expression of CCL5, Mx1, and TLR3 in lung tissues of NDV challenged chicken embryos from the outbred Kuroiler and Tanzanian local ecotype lines showed that their expression was several orders of magnitude higher in the Kuroiler than in the local ecotypes. Next, the expression patterns of three additional innate-immunity related genes, IL-8, IRF-1, and STAT1, were examined in the highly congenic Fayoumi (M5.1 and M15.2 and Leghorn (Ghs6 and Ghs13 sublines that differ only at the microchromosome bearing the major histocompatibility locus. The results show that the Ghs13 Leghorn subline had a consistently higher expression of all genes except IL-8 and expression seemed to be subline-dependent rather than breed-dependent, suggesting that the innate immune response of chicken embryos to NDV infection may be genetically controlled by the MHC-locus. Taken together, the results suggest that the chicken embryo may represent a promising model to studying the patterns and sources of variation of the avian innate immune response to infection with NDV and related pathogens.

  4. Newcastle Disease Virus: Potential Therapeutic Application for Human and Canine Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Sánchez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on oncolytic viruses has mostly been directed towards the treatment of solid tumors, which has yielded limited information regarding their activity in hematological cancer. It has also been directed towards the treatment of humans, yet veterinary medicine may also benefit. Several strains of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV have been used as oncolytics in vitro and in a number of in vivo experiments. We studied the cytolytic effect of NDV-MLS, a low virulence attenuated lentogenic strain, on a human large B-cell lymphoma cell line (SU-DHL-4, as well as on primary canine-derived B-cell lymphoma cells, and compared them to healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from both humans and dogs. NDV-MLS reduced cell survival in both human (42% ± 5% and dog (34% ± 12% lymphoma cells as compared to untreated controls. No significant effect on PBMC was seen. Cell death involved apoptosis as documented by flow-cytometry. NDV-MLS infections of malignant lymphoma tumors in vivo in dogs were confirmed by electron microscopy. Early (24 h biodistribution of intravenous injection of 1 × 1012 TCID50 (tissue culture infective dose in a dog with T-cell lymphoma showed viral localization only in the kidney, the salivary gland, the lung and the stomach by immunohistochemistry and/or endpoint PCR. We conclude that NDV-MLS may be a promising agent for the treatment of lymphomas. Future research is needed to elucidate the optimal therapeutic regimen and establish appropriate biosafety measures.

  5. Transcriptional Innate Immune Response of the Developing Chicken Embryo to Newcastle Disease Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Megan A; Katani, Robab; Memari, Sahar; Cavanaugh, Meredith; Buza, Joram; Radzio-Basu, Jessica; Mpenda, Fulgence N; Deist, Melissa S; Lamont, Susan J; Kapur, Vivek

    2018-01-01

    Traditional approaches to assess the immune response of chickens to infection are through animal trials, which are expensive, require enhanced biosecurity, compromise welfare, and are frequently influenced by confounding variables. Since the chicken embryo becomes immunocompetent prior to hatch, we here characterized the transcriptional response of selected innate immune genes to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infection in chicken embryos at days 10, 14, and 18 of embryonic development. The results suggest that the innate immune response 72 h after challenge of 18-day chicken embryo is both consistent and robust. The expression of CCL5, Mx1, and TLR3 in lung tissues of NDV challenged chicken embryos from the outbred Kuroiler and Tanzanian local ecotype lines showed that their expression was several orders of magnitude higher in the Kuroiler than in the local ecotypes. Next, the expression patterns of three additional innate-immunity related genes, IL-8, IRF-1, and STAT1, were examined in the highly congenic Fayoumi (M5.1 and M15.2) and Leghorn (Ghs6 and Ghs13) sublines that differ only at the microchromosome bearing the major histocompatibility locus. The results show that the Ghs13 Leghorn subline had a consistently higher expression of all genes except IL-8 and expression seemed to be subline-dependent rather than breed-dependent, suggesting that the innate immune response of chicken embryos to NDV infection may be genetically controlled by the MHC-locus. Taken together, the results suggest that the chicken embryo may represent a promising model to studying the patterns and sources of variation of the avian innate immune response to infection with NDV and related pathogens.

  6. Detection and molecular characterization of Newcastle disease virus in peafowl (Pavo cristatus) in Haryana State, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Aman; Maan, Sushila; Mahajan, Nand Kishore; Rana, Virender Pratap; Jindal, Naresh; Batra, Kanisht; Ghosh, Arnab; Mishra, Shiv Kumar; Kapoor, Sanjay; Maan, Narender Singh

    2013-12-01

    Present study was undertaken to investigate the cause of deaths of peafowls in Haryana State. In total, 145 birds were sick and 28 birds were reported dead during July to September 2012. Some of the sick birds were showing signs of shaking of heads, torticollis and paresis. Blood and cloacal swab samples from sick birds along with brain and intestinal tissues from dead birds were collected for further investigation. Although post-mortem examination showed no typical lesions of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) yet raised HI tires against NDV in some serum samples and clinical signs indicated the presence of NDV. One of the brain tissues (NDV/IND2012/01) from the field case was processed and adapted to Vero cell line for virus isolation. The fusion (F) gene based nested RT-PCR (RT-nPCR) confirmed the presence of NDV in all field samples and cell culture isolate. Sequencing of the partial F gene amplicons (216 bp) using the PCR primers as sequencing primers confirmed the PCR results. The deduced amino acid sequences of partial F gene were found to have the amino acid motif (111)GRRQKR/F(117) in the fusion protein cleavage site (FPCS). This amino acid motif is indicative of the velogenic nature of these NDVs. Phylogenetic studies have shown that the virus belonged to class II genotype VII very closely related to virus isolates originated from outbreaks in Western Europe, Israel, Indonesia, Taiwan and India. Phylogenetic grouping of the virus and sequence of FPCS is indicative of pathogenic potential of virus strain circulating in peacocks in Haryana.

  7. In ovo delivery of Newcastle disease virus conjugated hybrid calcium phosphate nanoparticle and to study the cytokine profile induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, Kaliyaperumal; Rathish, P.; Gopinath, V.P.; Janice, R.; Dhinakar Raj, G.

    2014-01-01

    In this report, the hybrid calcium phosphate (CaP) nanoparticles were synthesized and functionalized with Newcastle disease virus (NDV). These nanoparticles were synthesized by a combination of co-precipitation and polymerization process and functionalized with amino propyl triethoxy silane before coupling to NDV. The 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay of chicken spleen cells incubated with these nanoparticles indicated that, these particles did not exert any significant cytotoxicity. The effects of hybrid CaP nanoparticles on cell cycle were assayed using a flow cytometer. The results demonstrated that the cell viability and proliferation capacity of spleen cells were not affected by hybrid CaP nanoparticles compared with their control cells. The hybrid CaP nanoparticles were characterized by scanning/transmission electron microscopy (SEM/TEM); Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). These methods revealed that NDV was successfully conjugated on nanoparticles. The ability of the hybrid CaP nanoparticles to induce different cytokine mRNAs in the spleen cells of 18-day old embryonated chicken eggs (ECEs) was studied by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). NDV conjugated particles induced a high expression of Th1 cytokines such as interferon (IFN)-α, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α of and Th2 cytokines, interleukin (IL) 6 and IL-10. Uncoupled NDV induced only Th1 cytokines, IFN-α, INF-γ and TNF-α. The hybrid particles alone did not induce any cytokines. This confirmed that nanoparticle coupling could induce differential cytokine profiles and hence can be used as an alternate strategy to direct favorable immune responses in animals or chickens using appropriate vaccination carrier. - Highlights: • NDV conjugated hybrid CaP NP induced differential cytokine profiles in embryonated chicken eggs.

  8. In ovo delivery of Newcastle disease virus conjugated hybrid calcium phosphate nanoparticle and to study the cytokine profile induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, Kaliyaperumal [Translational Research Platform for Veterinary Biologicals (TRPVB), Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chennai 600 051, Tamil Nadu (India); Rathish, P.; Gopinath, V.P.; Janice, R. [Department of Animal Biotechnology, Madras Veterinary College, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chennai 600 007 (India); Dhinakar Raj, G., E-mail: dhinakarrajg@tanuvas.org.in [Department of Animal Biotechnology, Madras Veterinary College, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chennai 600 007 (India); Translational Research Platform for Veterinary Biologicals (TRPVB), Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chennai 600 051, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2014-12-01

    In this report, the hybrid calcium phosphate (CaP) nanoparticles were synthesized and functionalized with Newcastle disease virus (NDV). These nanoparticles were synthesized by a combination of co-precipitation and polymerization process and functionalized with amino propyl triethoxy silane before coupling to NDV. The 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay of chicken spleen cells incubated with these nanoparticles indicated that, these particles did not exert any significant cytotoxicity. The effects of hybrid CaP nanoparticles on cell cycle were assayed using a flow cytometer. The results demonstrated that the cell viability and proliferation capacity of spleen cells were not affected by hybrid CaP nanoparticles compared with their control cells. The hybrid CaP nanoparticles were characterized by scanning/transmission electron microscopy (SEM/TEM); Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). These methods revealed that NDV was successfully conjugated on nanoparticles. The ability of the hybrid CaP nanoparticles to induce different cytokine mRNAs in the spleen cells of 18-day old embryonated chicken eggs (ECEs) was studied by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). NDV conjugated particles induced a high expression of Th1 cytokines such as interferon (IFN)-α, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α of and Th2 cytokines, interleukin (IL) 6 and IL-10. Uncoupled NDV induced only Th1 cytokines, IFN-α, INF-γ and TNF-α. The hybrid particles alone did not induce any cytokines. This confirmed that nanoparticle coupling could induce differential cytokine profiles and hence can be used as an alternate strategy to direct favorable immune responses in animals or chickens using appropriate vaccination carrier. - Highlights: • NDV conjugated hybrid CaP NP induced differential cytokine profiles in embryonated chicken eggs.

  9. Characterization of hemagglutination activity of emerging Newcastle disease virus in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helal Uddin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Newcastle disease (ND is an important viral disease for poultry caused by avian paramyxovirus which can be identified by its nature of agglutination activity with red blood cell (RBC of different species. The study was aimed to characterize the hemagglutinating (HA activity of ND virus (NDV at three different temperatures using RBC of five avian species, six mammalian species, and eight different human blood groups. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted from January to December 2014 at Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University. Five avian and six different mammalian species were selected for the study. In each species, two blood samples were collected aseptically. Eight different blood groups (A+, A−, B+, B−, AB+, AB−, O+, and O− were studied in human. HA test was performed using two virus strains ND lasota and field isolate of very virulent NDV (VVNDV with mentioned species of RBC at chilling (4°C, incubating (37°C, and room temperature (24°C. Results: Avian RBC requires less time for agglutination than mammalian RBC. Incubation temperature (37°C requires lowest time and chilling temperature requires highest time for agglutination of RBC. Duck RBC requires lowest time (17.81 min while chicken RBC needs highest (57.5 min time for HA at incubation temperature and at chilling temperature, respectively, against ND lasota virus and with field strain. Goat RBC requires significantly higher time for HA (184.68 min at chilling temperature than other mammalian species. Human RBC requires almost similar time but O+ and O− blood group do not show any HA activity. Significant variation (p<0.05 found in quail RBC at incubation temperature. In mammalian species, a significant difference (p<0.05 has been observed in goat and horse RBC at chilling; horse and dog RBC at incubation; goat, horse, buffalo, and dog RBC at room temperature. In human, significant variation (p<0.05 has been found in A+, A− and B− blood group

  10. Vaccines against invasive Salmonella disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLennan, Calman A; Martin, Laura B; Micoli, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Though primarily enteric pathogens, Salmonellae are responsible for a considerable yet under-appreciated global burden of invasive disease. In South and South-East Asia, this manifests as enteric fever caused by serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A. In sub-Saharan Africa, a similar disease burden results from invasive nontyphoidal Salmonellae, principally serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis. The existing Ty21a live-attenuated and Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccines target S. Typhi and are not effective in young children where the burden of invasive Salmonella disease is highest. After years of lack of investment in new Salmonella vaccines, recent times have seen increased interest in the area led by emerging-market manufacturers, global health vaccine institutes and academic partners. New glycoconjugate vaccines against S. Typhi are becoming available with similar vaccines against other invasive serovars in development. With other new vaccines under investigation, including live-attenuated, protein-based and GMMA vaccines, now is an exciting time for the Salmonella vaccine field. PMID:24804797

  11. Complementation between avirulent Newcastle disease virus and a fusion protein gene expressed from a retrovirus vector: requirements for membrane fusion.

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, T; McQuain, C; McGinnes, L

    1991-01-01

    The cDNA derived from the fusion gene of the virulent AV strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was expressed in chicken embryo cells by using a retrovirus vector. The fusion protein expressed in this system was transported to the cell surface and was efficiently cleaved into the disulfide-linked F1-F2 form found in infectious virions. The cells expressing the fusion gene grew normally and could be passaged many times. Monolayers of these cells would plaque, in the absence of trypsin, avirul...

  12. Indirect ELISA for the detection of IgG specific to Newcastle disease virus in quail serum

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, D.D.; Folgueras-Flatschart, A.V.; Flatschart, R.B.; Resende, J.S.; Abreu, J.T.; Martins, N.R.S.

    2007-01-01

    An indirect ELISA for the detection of japanese quail IgG specific to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was developed. The secondary anti-quail IgG was produced in Balb/c mice, by inoculating Freund's complete adjuvant emulsified japanese quail-IgG extract. The purification of IgG was achieved using the caprilic acid method. The ELISA was compared to the haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) test for antibodies to NDV. ELISA cut-off point was established through TG-ROC analysis. Total correlation was...

  13. Role of Untranslated Regions in Regulation of Gene Expression, Replication, and Pathogenicity of Newcastle Disease Virus Expressing Green Fluorescent Protein▿

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Shin-Hee; Samal, Siba K.

    2009-01-01

    To gain insight into the role of untranslated regions (UTRs) in regulation of foreign gene expression, replication, and pathogenicity of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), a green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene flanked by 5′ and 3′ UTRs of each NDV gene was individually expressed by recombinant NDVs. UTRs of each gene modulated GFP expression positively or negatively. In particular, UTRs of the M and F genes enhanced levels of GFP expression at the junction of the P and M genes without altering r...

  14. Role of untranslated regions in regulation of gene expression, replication, and pathogenicity of Newcastle disease virus expressing green fluorescent protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin-Hee; Samal, Siba K

    2010-03-01

    To gain insight into the role of untranslated regions (UTRs) in regulation of foreign gene expression, replication, and pathogenicity of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), a green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene flanked by 5' and 3' UTRs of each NDV gene was individually expressed by recombinant NDVs. UTRs of each gene modulated GFP expression positively or negatively. In particular, UTRs of the M and F genes enhanced levels of GFP expression at the junction of the P and M genes without altering replication of NDV, suggesting that UTRs could be used for enhanced expression of a foreign gene by NDV.

  15. Diseases and vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Blom; Almlund, Pernille

    2016-01-01

    between authorities, politicians, media and citizens. On the contrary, no broad commitment about the offer of a new pandemic vaccine to individuals from e.g. at-risk groups was reached. The vaccine was characterized by considerable uncertainty with regard to effects and side effects and many people...... considered the vaccine as risky and a threat more severe than the influenza. The health authorities? communication was more unclear on this question, confusion increased in the Danish population and more critical voices were raised. This uncertain communication about the vaccines? effects and side effects...... and the critical voices in the population are widespread in communication about vaccines in general and an increasing number of people are expressing skepticism and deselect this product. The communication processes are seen as a typical example of the difficulties of communicating science and risk and show how...

  16. Development and large-scale use of recombinant VP2 vaccine for the prevention of infectious bursal disease of chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcovski, Jacob; Gutter, Bezalel; Gallili, Gilad; Goldway, Martin; Perelman, Beny; Gross, Gideon; Krispel, Simha; Barbakov, Marisa; Michael, Amnon

    2003-12-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is the causative agent of Gumboro disease, an infectious disease of global economic importance in poultry. One of the most effective types of inactivated IBDV vaccine is produced by infecting young chickens with a virulent strain, sacrificing them and extracting the virus from the bursa of Fabricius. The goal of this study was to produce an effective subunit vaccine against IBDV thereby providing an effective means of combating the disease. In areas in which the bursa-derived vaccine is in use, this subunit vaccine would eliminate the use of live birds for the production of inactivated vaccines. The gene for viral protein 2 (VP2) of IBDV was cloned into a Pichia pastoris expression system. This efficient system allowed us to meet the need for inexpensive vaccines required by the poultry industry. Following expression and scale-up, the protein was used to vaccinate chickens, against either Gumboro disease alone or in combination with inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Full protection was conferred against IBDV following vaccination with the subunit recombinant vaccine. No untoward influence on the response to the NDV vaccine was recorded. Over 250 million birds have already been vaccinated with this vaccine. The advantages of a subunit vaccine over an inactivated one are discussed. This approach will enable rapid adjustment to new virulent strains if and when they appear.

  17. Construction and identification of helper plasmids of newcastle disease virus Italien strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen REN

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective Newcastle disease virus (NDV is a naturally oncolytic virus that has been shown to be safe and effective for cancer therapy. NDV virions possess a non-segmented negative-sense single-stranded RNA genome which contains six genes encoding the nucleocapsid protein (NP, phosphoprotein (P, large polymerase protein (L, matrix protein, fusion protein, and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase. The ribonucleoprotein (RNP complex consisting of the genomic RNA and the three proteins NP, P, and L are the active template for transcription and replication of the viral genome. The purpose of this study was to construct the expression plasmids of NP, P and L genes of NDV Italien strain in which phage T7 promoter was a transcription promoter for the aim of generation of recombinant NDV. Methods NP, P and L genes were cloned from the genome RNA of NDV Italien followed by introduction into the downstream of T7 promoter and internal ribosome entry sites to construct the expression plasmids of NP, P and L, respectively. Expression of exogenous gene in BSR-T7/5 cells which constitutively express phage T7 RNA polymerase and transfected with plasmids of NP and P was detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay. The function of NP, P and L proteins expressed by constructed plasmids to facilitate the genomic RNA to form RNP complex was tested using minigenome of NDV Italien carrying firefly luciferase as a reporter gene. Results The expression plasmids of NP, P and L genes were confirmed by DNA sequencing. Using the indirect immunofluorescence assay, we detected the expression of viral NP and P proteins in BSR-T7/5 cells. When the helper plasmids were co-transfected with NDV minigenome plasmid, the expression of firefly luciferase was more significant compared with the control group (P < 0.001. Conclusion The helper plasmids of NDV Italien strain using T7 promoter as a transcription promoter has been constructed successfully, and it provides a basis for the

  18. Partial antiviral activities detection of chicken Mx jointing with neuraminidase gene (NA against Newcastle disease virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yani Zhang

    Full Text Available As an attempt to increase the resistance to Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV and so further reduction of its risk on the poultry industry. This work aimed to build the eukaryotic gene co-expression plasmid of neuraminidase (NA gene and myxo-virus resistance (Mx and detect the gene expression in transfected mouse fibroblasts (NIH-3T3 cells, it is most important to investigate the influence of the recombinant plasmid on the chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEF cells. cDNA fragment of NA and mutant Mx gene were derived from pcDNA3.0-NA and pcDNA3.0-Mx plasmid via PCR, respectively, then NA and Mx cDNA fragment were inserted into the multiple cloning sites of pVITRO2 to generate the eukaryotic co-expression plasmid pVITRO2-Mx-NA. The recombinant plasmid was confirmed by restriction endonuclease treatment and sequencing, and it was transfected into the mouse fibroblasts (NIH-3T3 cells. The expression of genes in pVITRO2-Mx-NA were measured by RT-PCR and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA. The recombinant plasmid was transfected into CEF cells then RT-PCR and the micro-cell inhibition tests were used to test the antiviral activity for NDV. Our results showed that co-expression vector pVITRO2-Mx-NA was constructed successfully; the expression of Mx and NA could be detected in both NIH-3T3 and CEF cells. The recombinant proteins of Mx and NA protect CEF cells from NDV infection until after 72 h of incubation but the individually mutagenic Mx protein or NA protein protects CEF cells from NDV infection till 48 h post-infection, and co-transfection group decreased significantly NDV infection compared with single-gene transfection group (P<0. 05, indicating that Mx-NA jointing contributed to delaying the infection of NDV in single-cell level and the co-transfection of the jointed genes was more powerful than single one due to their synergistic effects.

  19. Diseases and vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Blom; Almlund, Pernille

    between authorities, politicians, media and citizens. On the contrary, no broad commitment about the offer of a new pandemic vaccine to individuals from e.g. at-risk groups was reached. The vaccine was characterized by considerable uncertainty with regard to effects and side effects and many people...... considered the vaccine as risky and a threat more severe than the influenza. The health authorities’ communication was more unclear on this question, confusion increased in the Danish population and more critical voices were raised. This uncertain communication about the vaccines’ effects and side effects...... and the critical voices in the population are widespread in communication about vaccines in general and an increasing number of people are expressing skepticism and deselect this product. The communication processes are seen as a typical example of the difficulties of communicating science and risk and show how...

  20. Six-year surveillance of Newcastle disease virus in wild birds in north-eastern Spain (Catalonia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napp, Sebastian; Alba, Anna; Rocha, Ana Isabel; Sánchez, Azucena; Rivas, Raquel; Majó, Natalia; Perarnau, Mireia; Massot, Cristina; Miguel, Elena San; Soler, Mercé; Busquets, Núria

    2017-02-01

    Given that Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the major threats for the poultry industry, testing of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has been carried out since 2010 in cases of mortality in wild birds (passive surveillance) in Catalonia. The objective is to provide an early warning system to prevent the infection of poultry. Since 2010, 35 episodes of mortality in wild birds were attributed to NDV infection. Throughout this period there was a progressive expansion of NDV to new areas, with an increase in the episodes of mortality, although it is not clear whether they were the result of the spread of the virus, or of the improvement of the surveillance. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that two distinct sublineages of NDV, 4a and 4b, were circulating in Catalonia. Both sublineages seem to be endemic in the wild bird population, affecting mainly Eurasian-collared doves, with a clear pattern in relation to its spatial distribution (coincident with the distribution of this species), and its temporal distribution (with the majority of cases between September and February). So far, endemicity in wild birds has not resulted in ND outbreaks in poultry. However, there are still many uncertainties about, for example, whether NDV may expand to new areas of Catalonia (with higher poultry density), or about the threat that the apparently more novel sublineage 4a may represent. Hence, efforts should be made so that measures to prevent infection of poultry farms (particularly in high-risk areas and periods) are encouraged, and surveillance is maintained.

  1. Construction, expression and immunoassay detection of recombinant plasmid encoding fusion protein of Roman chicken complement C3d and Newcastle disease virus F gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D; Niu, Z-X

    2008-12-01

    The terminal degradation product (C3d) of mammalian complement component C3 plays an important role in modulation of the adaptive immune response through the interaction with complement receptor type 2 (CR2) on B cells. In this study, the gene fragment coding for the complement protein C3d (chC3d) from Roman chicken was cloned and expressed as a fusion protein for its application in the vaccine study of chicken, and for in vitro experiments. The chC3d fragment strengthened B-cell responses when complexed with antigen. Three potential vaccine construct units were engineered to contain two, four and six copies of chC3d coding gene linked to the F gene of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), an economically important pathogen of chicken that is classified as a list A contagious disease of poultry by the Office International des Epizooties. The cloned chC3d protein and different repeats of C3d proteins in addition to the F gene of NDV were generated separately in Escherichia coli and chicken embryo fibroblast cells with the help of expression vectors. All recombinant proteins were analysed by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Analysis of the immunogenicity of different repeats of C3d revealed that chC3d had an enhancing effect on the immunogenicity of antigens, and that six or more repeats of C3d may be necessary for efficient enhancement of antigen-specific immune responses. To date, published research into the adjuvant activities of C3d has been limited to experiments in mice, rabbits and cattle. The adjuvant properties of C3d have not been assessed in poultry using homologous C3d in association with antigens relevant to the target species. The Roman chicken C3d fusion proteins described in this study is the first report and will provide a basis for immunization trials in chicken, studies of receptor binding and cell activation of chicken lymphocytes, and investigations of new types of vaccines, including recombinant vaccines and DNA vaccines for future use against other

  2. Lung Disease Including Asthma and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases Resources Lung Disease including Asthma and Adult Vaccination Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... more about health insurance options. Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Heart Disease, ...

  3. Pelacakan Secara Imunohistokimiawi Antigen Virus pada Ayam yang Diinfeksi dengan Virus Penyakit Tetelo (IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL DETECTION OF VIRAL ANTIGEN IN TISSUE OF CHICKENS EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED WITH NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anak Agung Ayu Mirah Adi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the distribution of Newcastle disease virus (NDV following infection, chickenswere experimentally infected with visceretropic velogenic NDV isolate. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbsagainst the NDV LaSota vaccine strain were then produced to detect viral antigen in the infectedorgans. The mAbs were firstly tested for their specificity by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA using NDV and normal allantoic fluids as antigens. Eight mAbs specific against NDVwere isolated and two mAbs were used for immunodetection of NDV antigen in chicken’s tissues.By immunohistochemistry labeled streptavidin-biotin (LSAB staining NDV–antigen was detectedin paraffin embedded tissues of NDV-infected chickens. NDV antigen was not detected in noninfected chickens. In the infected chickens, high intensity of NDV antigen was detected in thelymphoid tissues, lung and intestine. The NDV antigen with a lesser intensity was detected in thebrain, trachea, liver and myocardium. This study shows that although viscerotropic velogenicNDV isolate can infect almost all organs, the main target of infection are lung, intestine andlymphoids tissues

  4. Antibody titers against Newcastle disease virus in three different poultry management systems located in Feira de Santana – Bahia Títulos de anticorpos contra o vírus da doença de Newcastle em três diferentes sistemas de criação avícola na região de Feira de Santana-Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Sousa da Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Serum samples were collected from poultry bred in integrated, independent and backyard production system, in Feira de Santana – Bahia, for evaluation of antibodies against Newcastle Disease virus. Samples were obtained from day-old chicks, slaughter poultry and backyard chickens ranging from four months to three years of age. Serum was analyzed by a commercial indirect ELISA. Results demonstrated that one day old chicks presented high antibodies titers with coefficient of variation of 33.03%, because their mothers were vaccinated. Poultry from integrated and independent producers presented higher variation coefficient, 99.07% and 97.01%, respectively, demonstrating no uniformity in titers, due to the lack of a good vaccinal response against Newcastle disease virus. The occurrence of high antibody titers was observed in backyard chickens, and coefficient of variation of 146.41%, demonstrating the lack of vaccinal response. This data suggest that the studied commercial poultry is not well immunised by vaccination. Moreover, the presence of backyard chickens with evidence of high antibodies titers, suggests that they can become a threat to industrial poultry.Amostras de soro foram coletadas de aves criadas em sistema de produção integrado, sistema independente e de galinhas de fundo de quintal, na região de Feira de Santana – Bahia, para avaliação dos títulos de anticorpos contra o vírus da Doença de Newcastle. Foram obtidas amostras de pintos de um dia, frangos de corte em idade de abate e galinhas de fundo de quintal com idades variando de quatro meses até três anos. Os soros foram analisados por meio de ELISA indireto, utilizando-se kit comercial. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que os pintos de um dia apresentaram alto título de anticorpos maternos, provenientes das matrizes vacinadas, com coeficiente de variação de 33,03%. Os frangos de corte dos integrados e dos produtores independentes apresentaram um coeficiente de varia

  5. Heart Disease, Stroke, or Other Cardiovascular Disease and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adult Diseases Resources Heart Disease, Stroke, or Other Cardiovascular Disease and Adult Vaccination Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... important step in staying healthy. If you have cardiovascular disease, talk with your doctor about getting your vaccinations ...

  6. Recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) with inserted gene coding for GM-CSF as a new vector for cancer immunogene therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janke, M.; Peeters, B.P.H.; Leeuw, de O.S.; Moormann, R.J.M.; Arnold, A.; Fournier, P.; Schirrmacher, V.

    2007-01-01

    This is the first report describing recombinant (rec) Newcastle disease virus (NDV) as vector for gene therapy of cancer. The gene encoding granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) was inserted as an additional transcription unit at two different positions into the NDV genome. The

  7. Two single mutations in the fusion protein of Newcastle disease virus confer hemagglutinin-neuraminidase independent fusion promotion and attenuate the pathogenicity in chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fusion (F) protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) plays an important role in viral infection and pathogenicity through mediating membrane fusion between the virion and host cells in the presence of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN). Previously, we obtained a velogenic NDV genotype VII muta...

  8. Infection of goose with genotype VIId Newcastle disease virus of goose origin elicits strong immune responses at early stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease (ND, caused by virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV, is a highly contagious disease of birds that is responsible for heavy economic losses for the poultry industry worldwide. However, little is known about host-virus interactions in waterfowl, goose. In this study, we aim to characterize the host immune response in goose, based on the previous reports on the host response to NDV in chickens. Here, we evaluated viral replication and mRNA expression of 27 immune-related genes in 10 tissues of geese challenged with a genotype VIId NDV strain of goose origin (go/CH/LHLJ/1/06. The virus showed early replication, especially in digestive and immune tissues. The expression profiles showed up-regulation of Toll-like receptor (TLR1–3, 5, 7 and 15, avian β-defensin (AvBD 5–7, 10, 12 and 16, cytokines interleukin (IL-8, IL-18, IL-1β and interferon-γ, inducible NO synthase (iNOS, and MHC class I in some tissues of geese in response to NDV. In contrast, NDV infection suppressed expression of AvBD1 in cecal tonsil of geese. Moreover, we observed a highly positive correlation between viral replication and host mRNA expressions of TLR1-5 and 7, AvBD4-6, 10 and 12, all the cytokines measured, MHC class I, FAS ligand, and iNOS, mainly at 72 h post-infection. Taken together, these results demonstrated that NDV infection induces strong innate immune responses and intense inflammatory responses at early stage in goose which may associate with the viral pathogenesis.

  9. Studies on the susceptibility of ostriches (Struthio camelus to the Indonesian velogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darminto

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Susceptibility of ostriches (Struthio camelus to the Indonesian velogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV was evaluated by artificial infection . Twelve - 5 to 6 week old ostriches were divided into 3 groups each containing 4 birds . The first group was inoculated through respiratory system by dropping directly the virus solution into the nostrils, while the second group was inoculated through digestive system by dropping directly the virus solution into the oesophagus, with the dose of infection 106ELDSo (50%-embryo lethal dose per bird . Meanwhile, the third group was treated as uninfected control . All infected birds developed antibody responses, but only two inoculated birds from the first group and two inoculated birds from the second group developed clinical signs of Newcastle disease (ND, with no specific pathological alterations . Infected birds, either sicks or healthy, excreted the challenge viruses through the respiratory system and still be detected up to the end of this experiment, ie . 15 days post-inoculation . The challenge viruses can be re-isolated from the brain, trachea, lungs, heart, liver, spleen, kidneys, small intestine, cecal-tonsil, and proventriculus of the infected birds . This study concludes that: (1 the ostriches are susceptible to the infection of the Indonesian velogenic strain ofNDV; (2 all infected birds developed immune responses, but only half of them develops el jtigi aj i disease ; (3 the infected birds excreted the challenge viruses for a considerable long time which may play role as the Mginiseti.ce ofinfectron the other healthy ostriches ; and (4 the challenge viruses can be re-isolated from various organs of the birds . .

  10. Genetic diversity and mutation of avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (Newcastle disease virus) in wild birds and evidence for intercontinental spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andy M.; Reeves, Andrew B.; Ogawa, Haruko; Ip, Hon S.; Imai, Kunitoshi; Bui, V. N.; Yamaguchi, Emi; Silko, N. Y.; Afonso, C.L.

    2013-01-01

    Avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1), or Newcastle disease virus, is the causative agent of Newcastle disease, one of the most economically important diseases for poultry production worldwide and a cause of periodic epizootics in wild birds in North America. In this study, we examined the genetic diversity of APMV-1 isolated from migratory birds sampled in Alaska, Japan, and Russia and assessed the evidence for intercontinental virus spread using phylogenetic methods. Additionally, we predicted viral virulence using deduced amino acid residues for the fusion protein cleavage site and estimated mutation rates for the fusion gene of class I and class II migratory bird isolates. All 73 isolates sequenced as part of this study were most closely related to virus genotypes previously reported for wild birds; however, five class II genotype I isolates formed a monophyletic clade exhibiting previously unreported genetic diversity, which met criteria for the designation of a new sub-genotype. Phylogenetic analysis of wild-bird isolates provided evidence for intercontinental virus spread, specifically viral lineages of APMV-1 class II genotype I sub-genotypes Ib and Ic. This result supports migratory bird movement as a possible mechanism for the redistribution of APMV-1. None of the predicted deduced amino acid motifs for the fusion protein cleavage site of APMV-1 strains isolated from migratory birds in Alaska, Japan, and Russia were consistent with those of previously identified virulent viruses. These data therefore provide no support for these strains contributing to the emergence of avian pathogens. The estimated mutation rates for fusion genes of class I and class II wild-bird isolates were faster than those reported previously for non-virulent APMV-1 strains. Collectively, these findings provide new insight into the diversity, spread, and evolution of APMV-1 in wild birds.

  11. Protective efficacy of Newcastle disease virus expressing soluble trimeric hemagglutinin against highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza in chickens and mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisette A H M Cornelissen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV causes a highly contagious often fatal disease in poultry, resulting in significant economic losses in the poultry industry. HPAIV H5N1 also poses a major public health threat as it can be transmitted directly from infected poultry to humans. One effective way to combat avian influenza with pandemic potential is through the vaccination of poultry. Several live vaccines based on attenuated Newcastle disease virus (NDV that express influenza hemagglutinin (HA have been developed to protect chickens or mammalian species against HPAIV. However, the zoonotic potential of NDV raises safety concerns regarding the use of live NDV recombinants, as the incorporation of a heterologous attachment protein may result in the generation of NDV with altered tropism and/or pathogenicity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study we generated recombinant NDVs expressing either full length, membrane-anchored HA of the H5 subtype (NDV-H5 or a soluble trimeric form thereof (NDV-sH5(3. A single intramuscular immunization with NDV-sH5(3 or NDV-H5 fully protected chickens against disease after a lethal challenge with H5N1 and reduced levels of virus shedding in tracheal and cloacal swabs. NDV-sH5(3 was less protective than NDV-H5 (50% vs 80% protection when administered via the respiratory tract. The NDV-sH5(3 was ineffective in mice, regardless of whether administered oculonasally or intramuscularly. In this species, NDV-H5 induced protective immunity against HPAIV H5N1, but only after oculonasal administration, despite the poor H5-specific serum antibody response it elicited. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although NDV expressing membrane anchored H5 in general provided better protection than its counterpart expressing soluble H5, chickens could be fully protected against a lethal challenge with H5N1 by using the latter NDV vector. This study thus provides proof of concept for the use of recombinant

  12. Vaccine-preventable diseases and vaccination rates in South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kightlinger, Lon

    2013-01-01

    Vaccine-preventable diseases have historically caused much illness and death in South Dakota. Sixty-seven diphtheria deaths were reported in 1892 and 1,017 polio cases were reported at the peak of the polio epidemic in 1952. As vaccines have been developed, licensed and put into wide use, the rates of diphtheria, polio, measles, smallpox and other diseases have successfully decreased leading to control, statewide elimination or eradication. Other diseases, such as pertussis, have been more difficult to control by vaccination alone. Although current vaccination coverage rates for South Dakota's kindergarten children surpass the Healthy People 2020 targets of 95 percent, the coverage rates for 2-year-old children and teenagers are below the target rates. Until vaccine-preventable diseases are eradicated globally, we must vigilantly maintain high vaccination coverage rates and aggressively apply control measures to limit transmission when diseases do occur in South Dakota.

  13. Newcastle disease virus induces stable formation ofbona fidestress granules to facilitate viral replication through manipulating host protein translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yingjie; Dong, Luna; Yu, Shengqing; Wang, Xiaoxu; Zheng, Hang; Zhang, Pin; Meng, Chunchun; Zhan, Yuan; Tan, Lei; Song, Cuiping; Qiu, Xusheng; Wang, Guijun; Liao, Ying; Ding, Chan

    2017-04-01

    Mammalian cells respond to various environmental stressors to form stress granules (SGs) by arresting cytoplasmic mRNA, protein translation element, and RNA binding proteins. Virus-induced SGs function in different ways, depending on the species of virus; however, the mechanism of SG regulation of virus replication is not well understood. In this study, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) triggered stable formation of bona fide SGs on HeLa cells through activating the protein kinase R (PKR)/eIF2α pathway. NDV-induced SGs contained classic SG markers T-cell internal antigen (TIA)-1, Ras GTPase-activating protein-binding protein (G3BP)-1, eukaryotic initiation factors, and small ribosomal subunit, which could be disassembled in the presence of cycloheximide. Treatment with nocodazole, a microtubule disruption drug, led to the formation of relatively small and circular granules, indicating that NDV infection induces canonical SGs. Furthermore, the role of SGs on NDV replication was investigated by knockdown of TIA-1 and TIA-1-related (TIAR) protein, the 2 critical components involved in SG formation from the HeLa cells, followed by NDV infection. Results showed that depletion of TIA-1 or TIAR inhibited viral protein synthesis, reduced extracellular virus yields, but increased global protein translation. FISH revealed that NDV-induced SGs contained predominantly cellular mRNA rather than viral mRNA. Deletion of TIA-1 or TIAR reduced NP mRNA levels in polysomes. These results demonstrate that NDV triggers stable formation of bona fide SGs, which benefit viral protein translation and virus replication by arresting cellular mRNA.-Sun, Y., Dong, L., Yu, S., Wang, X., Zheng, H., Zhang, P., Meng, C., Zhan, Y., Tan, L., Song, C., Qiu, X., Wang, G., Liao, Y., Ding, C. Newcastle disease virus induces stable formation of bona fide stress granules to facilitate viral replication through manipulating host protein translation. © FASEB.

  14. Structure of the Newcastle disease virus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) ectodomain reveals a four-helix bundle stalk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Ping; Swanson, Kurt A.; Leser, George P.; Paterson, Reay G.; Lamb, Robert A.; Jardetzky, Theodore S. (Stanford-MED); (NWU)

    2014-10-02

    The paramyxovirus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein plays multiple roles in viral entry and egress, including binding to sialic acid receptors, activating the fusion (F) protein to activate membrane fusion and viral entry, and cleaving sialic acid from carbohydrate chains. HN is an oligomeric integral membrane protein consisting of an N-terminal transmembrane domain, a stalk region, and an enzymatically active neuraminidase (NA) domain. Structures of the HN NA domains have been solved previously; however, the structure of the stalk region has remained elusive. The stalk region contains specificity determinants for F interactions and activation, underlying the requirement for homotypic F and HN interactions in viral entry. Mutations of the Newcastle disease virus HN stalk region have been shown to affect both F activation and NA activities, but a structural basis for understanding these dual affects on HN functions has been lacking. Here, we report the structure of the Newcastle disease virus HN ectodomain, revealing dimers of NA domain dimers flanking the N-terminal stalk domain. The stalk forms a parallel tetrameric coiled-coil bundle (4HB) that allows classification of extensive mutational data, providing insight into the functional roles of the stalk region. Mutations that affect both F activation and NA activities map predominantly to the 4HB hydrophobic core, whereas mutations that affect only F-protein activation map primarily to the 4HB surface. Two of four NA domains interact with the 4HB stalk, and residues at this interface in both the stalk and NA domain have been implicated in HN function.

  15. Humoral immune response of chickens following vaccination with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In spite of numerous vaccines and different vaccination schedules used in the control of Newcastle disease (ND), prevention and control remain a challenge. This study evaluated three different ND vaccines. A total of one hundred and twenty, day-old brown pullets obtained from a commercial hatchery in Ibadan, Nigeria ...

  16. Virus interference between H7N2 low pathogenic avian influenza virus and lentogenic Newcastle disease virus in experimental co-infections in chickens and turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Hurtado, Mar; Afonso, Claudio L; Miller, Patti J; Spackman, Erica; Kapczynski, Darrell R; Swayne, David E; Shepherd, Eric; Smith, Diane; Zsak, Aniko; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary

    2014-01-06

    Low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) and lentogenic Newcastle disease virus (lNDV) are commonly reported causes of respiratory disease in poultry worldwide with similar clinical and pathobiological presentation. Co-infections do occur but are not easily detected, and the impact of co-infections on pathobiology is unknown. In this study chickens and turkeys were infected with a lNDV vaccine strain (LaSota) and a H7N2 LPAIV (A/turkey/VA/SEP-67/2002) simultaneously or sequentially three days apart. No clinical signs were observed in chickens co-infected with the lNDV and LPAIV or in chickens infected with the viruses individually. However, the pattern of virus shed was different with co-infected chickens, which excreted lower titers of lNDV and LPAIV at 2 and 3 days post inoculation (dpi) and higher titers at subsequent time points. All turkeys inoculated with the LPAIV, whether or not they were exposed to lNDV, presented mild clinical signs. Co-infection effects were more pronounced in turkeys than in chickens with reduction in the number of birds shedding virus and in virus titers, especially when LPAIV was followed by lNDV. In conclusion, co-infection of chickens or turkeys with lNDV and LPAIV affected the replication dynamics of these viruses but did not affect clinical signs. The effect on virus replication was different depending on the species and on the time of infection. These results suggest that infection with a heterologous virus may result in temporary competition for cell receptors or competent cells for replication, most likely interferon-mediated, which decreases with time.

  17. Cloning of fusion protein gene of Newcastle disease virus into a baculovirus derived bacmid shuttle vector, in order to express it in insect cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemzadeh MS

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Newcastle disease virus (NDV is one of the major pathogens in poultry and vaccination is intended to control the disease, as an effective solution, yet. Fusion protein (F on surface of NDV, has a fundamental role in virus pathogenicity and can induce protective immunity, alone. With this background, here our aim was to construct a baculovirus derived recombinant bacmid shuttle vector (encoding F-protein in order to express it in insect cell line. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, at first complete F gene from avirulent strain La Sota of NDV was amplified by RT-PCR to produce F cDNA. The amplicon was cloned into T/A cloning vector and afterwards into pFastBac Dual donor plasmid. After the verification of cloning process by two methods, PCR and enzymatic digestion analysis, the accuracy of F gene sequence was confirmed by sequencing. Finally, F-containing recombinant bacmid was subsequently generated in DH10Bac cell and the construct production was confirmed by a special PCR panel, using F specific primers and M13 universal primers. Results: Analysis of confirmatory tests showed that the recombinant bacmid, expressing of F-protein gene in correct sequence and framework, has been constructed successfully. Conclusion: The product of this F-containing recombinant bacmid, in addition to its independent application in the induction of protective immunity, can be used with the other individual recombinant baculoviruses, expressing HN and NP genes to produce NDV-VLPs in insect cell line.

  18. Vaccine-Preventable Disease Photos

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BASICS Evaluating Online Health Information FAQs How Vaccines Work Importance of Vaccines Paying for Vaccines State Immunization Programs ... Immunization Action Coalition (IAC), a non-profit organization, works to ... facilitates communication about the safety, efficacy, and use of vaccines ...

  19. Production of vaccines for treatment of infectious diseases by transgenic plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina LEDL

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the first pathogen antigen was expressed in transgenic plants with the aim of producing edible vaccine in early 1990s, transgenic plants have become a well-established expression system for production of alternative vaccines against various human and animal infectious diseases. The main focus of plant expression systems in the last five years has been on improving expression of well-studied antigens such as porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRSV, bovine viral diarrhea disease virus (BVDV, footh and mouth disease virus (FMDV, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, rabies G protein, rotavirus, Newcastle disease virus (NDV, Norwalk virus capsid protein (NVCP, avian influenza virus H5N1, Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin subunit B (LT-B, cholera toxin B (CT-B, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, artherosclerosis, ebola and anthrax. Significant increases in expression have been obtained using improved expression vectors, different plant species and transformation methods.

  20. Newcastle / Raigo Kollom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kollom, Raigo, 1936-

    2009-01-01

    17. sajandi parimast ratsanikust Newcastle'i krahvist ja alates 1665. aastast Newcastle'i hertsogist William Cavendishist, kes rajas Antverpenis oma aja tähtsaima ratsasõidukunsti kooli ning avaldas hobuste õpetamisest raamatu

  1. Seven challenges in modeling vaccine preventable diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J.E. Metcalf

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination has been one of the most successful public health measures since the introduction of basic sanitation. Substantial mortality and morbidity reductions have been achieved via vaccination against many infections, and the list of diseases that are potentially controllable by vaccines is growing steadily. We introduce key challenges for modeling in shaping our understanding and guiding policy decisions related to vaccine preventable diseases.

  2. Development of Recombinant Vaccine Using Herpesvirus of Turkey (Hvt as Vector for Several Viral Diseases in Poultry Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risza Hartawan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Herpesvirus of turkey (HVT has been utilised as live vaccine against Marek’s disease in poultry industry world-wide for many years. However, the potency of HVT is not limited on the Marek’s disease only. Along with rapid development of recombinant technique, the potency of HVT can be broaden for other diseases. As naturally apathogenic virus, HVT is a suitable candidate as vector vaccine to express important antigens of viral pathogens. Several researches have been dedicated to design HVT recombinant vaccine by inserting gene of important virus, such as Marek’s disease virus (MDV, immuno bursal disease virus (IBDV, Newcastle disease virus (NDV and Avian Influenza virus (AIV. Therefore, the future recombinant of HVT has been expected to be better in performance along with the improvement of recombinant technique.

  3. Surveillance for avirulent Newcastle disease viruses in domestic ducks (Anas platyrhynchos and Cairina moschata) at live bird markets in Eastern China and characterization of the viruses isolated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaowen; Wang, Xiaoquan; Wu, Shuang; Hu, Shunlin; Peng, Yi; Xue, Feng; Liu, Xiufan

    2009-10-01

    We isolated and identified 201 Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs) from domestic ducks in a 5-year surveillance study at live bird markets in Eastern China. Seventy-three of these isolates were characterized biologically and genetically. Fusion protein (F) genes of these isolates were amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. Intracerebral pathogenicity index tests in 1-day-old specific-pathogen-free chickens and the mean death time of embryonated fowl eggs in addition to the cleavage site analysis of the F-protein precursor for these viruses showed that they were all avirulent NDVs. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial sequences of the F gene showed that 30 isolates clustered into the class I clade and the other 43 isolates clustered into genotype I of class II, but diverged from the vaccine virus Queensland V4, which is extensively used in China. Most class I viruses (18/30) formed a separate branch closest to the Hong Kong live bird market strains that have been recently designated as genotype 3, while the rest (12/30) were closely related to some European viruses within genotype 2. All of the 43 class II genotype I viruses diverged from viruses originally assigned to genotype Ia and formed a separate sublineage designated as Ib with water bird isolates from the Far East, suggesting the possible transmission between the wild and domestic waterfowl. The results in the present study clearly showed that the domestic duck population carries avirulent NDVs with genetic divergence regularly and may act as one of the important reservoirs.

  4. Genomic selection for the improvement of antibody response to Newcastle disease and avian influenza virus in chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianfei Liu

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease (ND and avian influenza (AI are the most feared diseases in the poultry industry worldwide. They can cause flock mortality up to 100%, resulting in a catastrophic economic loss. This is the first study to investigate the feasibility of genomic selection for antibody response to Newcastle disease virus (Ab-NDV and antibody response to Avian Influenza virus (Ab-AIV in chickens. The data were collected from a crossbred population. Breeding values for Ab-NDV and Ab-AIV were estimated using a pedigree-based best linear unbiased prediction model (BLUP and a genomic best linear unbiased prediction model (GBLUP. Single-trait and multiple-trait analyses were implemented. According to the analysis using the pedigree-based model, the heritability for Ab-NDV estimated from the single-trait and multiple-trait models was 0.478 and 0.487, respectively. The heritability for Ab-AIV estimated from the two models was 0.301 and 0.291, respectively. The estimated genetic correlation between the two traits was 0.438. A four-fold cross-validation was used to assess the accuracy of the estimated breeding values (EBV in the two validation scenarios. In the family sample scenario each half-sib family is randomly allocated to one of four subsets and in the random sample scenario the individuals are randomly divided into four subsets. In the family sample scenario, compared with the pedigree-based model, the accuracy of the genomic prediction increased from 0.086 to 0.237 for Ab-NDV and from 0.080 to 0.347 for Ab-AIV. In the random sample scenario, the accuracy was improved from 0.389 to 0.427 for Ab-NDV and from 0.281 to 0.367 for Ab-AIV. The multiple-trait GBLUP model led to a slightly higher accuracy of genomic prediction for both traits. These results indicate that genomic selection for antibody response to ND and AI in chickens is promising.

  5. Infecção por Mycoplasma synoviae na vacinação da doença de Newcastle em galinhas

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Rita de Cássia Figueira; Nascimento, Elmiro Rosendo do; Pereira, Virgínia Léo de Almeida; Barreto, Maria Lúcia; Nascimento, Maria da Graça Fichel do

    2008-01-01

    Newcastle disease is characterized by respiratory manifestations in association with nervous and/or digestive symptoms. Its prevention is done by vaccination with live attenuated (lentogenic strains) and/or killed vaccines. The lentogenic strains can lead to strong post-vaccination reaction, principally due to the presence of other pathogenic agents. Among them, Mycoplasma synoviae is worldwide important, mainly in Brazil. The dissemination of this agent in poultry flocks has been achieved du...

  6. Survey for Newcastle disease viruses in poultry and wild birds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is the first report of ND viruses in Hirundo spp and Swift (Apus spp) in Kogi state, Nigeria. There is need for sequencing of the F-protein of the ND viruses circulating in Kogi state to compare with already known strains in Nigeria. Vaccination against ND should be stepped up in backyard poultry and instituted in rural ...

  7. Biosurveillance of avian influenza and Newcastle disease viruses in the Barda region of Azerbaijan using real time RT-PCR and hemagglutination inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalala eZeynalova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Azerbaijan State Veterinary Control Service (SVCS has conducted active serological surveillance for avian influenza (AI in poultry since 2006, when the first outbreak of AI H5N1 occurred in Azerbaijan. Samples are collected from September to May annually and tested using a hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay to detect antibodies against H5 AI viruses. HI testing is also performed for Newcastle disease virus (NDV upon request, but since this method cannot distinguish between natural infections and immune responses to vaccination, all positive results require follow-up epidemiological investigations. Furthermore, blood collection for the surveillance program is time-intensive and can be stressful to birds. In order to improve the national surveillance program, alternative sampling and testing methodologies were applied among a population of birds in the Barda region and compared with results of the national surveillance program. Tracheal and cloacal swabs were collected instead of blood. Rather than testing individual samples, RNA was pooled to conserve resources and time, and pools were tested by real-time reverse transcription PCR (rRT-PCR. Environmental sampling at a live bird market was also introduced as another surveillance mechanism. A total of 1,030 swabs were collected, comprising tracheal and cloacal samples from 441 birds and 148 environmental surface samples from farms or the live bird market. During the same time, 3,890 blood samples were collected nationally for the surveillance program; 400 of these samples originated in the Barda region. Birds sampled for rRT-PCR were likely different than those tested as part of national surveillance. All swab samples tested negative by rRT-PCR for both AI and NDV. All blood samples tested negative for H5 by HI, while 6.2% of all samples and 5% of the Barda samples tested positive for exposure to NDV. Follow-up investigations found that positive samples were from birds vaccinated in the

  8. Biosurveillance of avian influenza and Newcastle disease viruses in the Barda region of Azerbaijan using real time RT-PCR and hemagglutination inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeynalova, Shalala; Guliyev, Fizuli; Vatani, Mahira; Abbasov, Bahruz

    2015-01-01

    The Azerbaijan State Veterinary Control Service (SVCS) has conducted active serological surveillance for avian influenza (AI) in poultry since 2006, when the first outbreak of AI H5N1 occurred in Azerbaijan. Samples are collected from September to May annually and tested using a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay to detect antibodies against H5 AI viruses. HI testing is also performed for Newcastle disease virus (NDV) upon request, but since this method cannot distinguish between natural infections and immune responses to vaccination, all positive results require follow-up epidemiological investigations. Furthermore, blood collection for the surveillance program is time-intensive and can be stressful to birds. In order to improve the national surveillance program, alternative sampling and testing methodologies were applied among a population of birds in the Barda region and compared with results of the national surveillance program. Tracheal and cloacal swabs were collected instead of blood. Rather than testing individual samples, RNA was pooled to conserve resources and time, and pools were tested by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). Environmental sampling at a live bird market was also introduced as another surveillance mechanism. A total of 1,030 swabs were collected, comprising tracheal, and cloacal samples from 441 birds and 148 environmental surface samples from farms or the live bird market. During the same time, 3,890 blood samples were collected nationally for the surveillance program; 400 of these samples originated in the Barda region. Birds sampled for rRT-PCR were likely different than those tested as part of national surveillance. All swab samples tested negative by rRT-PCR for both AI and NDV. All blood samples tested negative for H5 by HI, while 6.2% of all samples and 5% of the Barda samples tested positive for exposure to NDV. Follow-up investigations found that positive samples were from birds vaccinated in

  9. Engineered newcastle disease virus expressing the F and G protein of AMPV-C confers protection against challenges in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) infects the respiratory and reproductive tracts of domestic poultry, which may develop into secondary infections that can result in substantial economic losses for producers. Live attenuated vaccines appear to be the most effective in countries where the disease is prev...

  10. The application of gene-based technologies in the study of Newcastle disease virus isolates from Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otim, M.O.; Bisgaard, M.; Christensen, H.; Jorgensen, P.; Handberg, K.

    2005-01-01

    Molecular techniques were used to characterize 16 Newcastle disease (ND) Virus (NDV) isolates from ND outbreaks in chickens in eastern Uganda in 2001, and evaluate ND epidemiology, with emphasis on molecular aspects. F and HN genes, which are the major determinants of virulence, were studied. Strain pathogenicity was derived from genetic analysis of the F gene sequence and intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI). Comparative genetic and phylogenetic tree analyses were performed on the HN genes of the isolates and some strains selected from GenBank. ClustalX 1.81 and Phylip were used for gene alignment analysis and the final phylogeny was produced by the neighbour-joining method. F gene cleavage site sequence analysis, phylogenetic analysis and biological characterization showed that the strains were very virulent and closely related, being of common ancestry. All the Ugandan NDV isolates formed separate clades from the currently known genotypes, suggesting that they are a novel genotype, unrelated to those that have caused previous pandemics. (author)

  11. Two avirulent, lentogenic strains of Newcastle disease virus are cytotoxic for some human pancreatic tumor lines in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Robert J; Attar, Bashar M; Rafiq, Asad; Delimata, Megan; Tejaswi, Sooraj

    2012-09-10

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the U.S. Highly infectious Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains are known to be very cytotoxic for an array of human tumor cell types in vitro and in vivo but the effects of these and avirulent NDV strains on pancreatic neoplasms are little known. Here, the direct cytolytic effects of the avirulent Hitchner-B1 (B1) and Ulster (U) NDV strains on 7 human pancreatic tumor cell lines and 4 normal human cell lines were studied. Cytotoxicity assays used serially diluted NDV to determine minimum cytotoxic plaque forming unit (PFU) doses. For NDV-B1, normal human cells were killed only by relatively high doses (range: 471-3,724 PFU) whereas NDV-U killed these cells at low PFU (range: 0.32-1.60 PFU). Most pancreatic cancer cell types were killed by much lower NDV-B1 doses (range: 0.40-2.60 PFU) while NDV-U killed Capan-1 and SU.86.86 cultures at very low doses (0.00041 PFU and 0.0034 PFU, respectively). On average, 1,555 times more NDV-B1 was needed to kill normal cells than most pancreatic tumor cells and 558 times more NDV-U to kill the two most sensitive pancreatic cancer lines. These innately-targeted lentogenic viruses may have meaningful potential in treating pancreatic cancer.

  12. Application of green fluorescent protein-labeled assay for the study of subcellular localization of Newcastle disease virus matrix protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhiqiang; Li, Qunhui; He, Liang; Zhao, Guo; Chen, Jian; Hu, Shunlin; Liu, Xiufan

    2013-12-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) used as a powerful marker of gene expression in vivo has so far been applied widely in studying the localizations and functions of protein in living cells. In this study, GFP-labeled assay was used to investigate the subcellular localization of matrix (M) protein of different virulence and genotype Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains. The M protein of ten NDV strains fused with GFP (GFP-M) all showed nuclear-and-nucleolar localization throughout transfection, whereas that of the other two strains were observed in the nucleus and nucleolus early in transfection but in the cytoplasm late in transfection. In addition, mutations to the previously defined nuclear localization signal in the GFP-M fusion protein were studied as well. Single changes at positions 262 and 263 did not affect nuclear localization of M, while changing both of these arginine residues to asparagine caused re-localization of M mainly to the cytoplasm. The GFP-M was validated as a suitable system for studying the subcellular localization of M protein and could be used to assist us in further identifying the signal sequences responsible for the nucleolar localization and cytoplasmic localization of M protein. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Newcastle disease virus employs macropinocytosis and Rab5a-dependent intracellular trafficking to infect DF-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lei; Zhang, Yuqiang; Zhan, Yuan; Yuan, Yanmei; Sun, Yingjie; Qiu, Xusheng; Meng, Chunchun; Song, Cuiping; Liao, Ying; Ding, Chan

    2016-12-27

    Oncolytic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) reportedly employs direct fusion of the viral envelope with the plasma membrane and caveolae-dependent endocytosis to enter cells. Here, we show that macropinocytosis and clathrin-mediated endocytosis are involved in NDV entry into a galline embryonic fibroblast cell line. Upon specific inhibition of clathrin assembly, GTPase dynamin, Na+/H+ exchangers, Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1, p21 activated kinase 1 or protein kinase C, entry of NDV and its propagation were suppressed. NDV entry into cells triggers Rac1-Pak1 signaling and elicits actin rearrangement and plasma membrane ruffling. Moreover, NDV internalization within macropinosomes and trafficking involve Rab5a-positive vesicles. This is the first report demonstrating that NDV utilizes clathrin-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis as alternative endocytic pathways to enter cells. These findings shed new light on the molecular mechanisms underlying NDV entry into cells, and provide potential targets for NDV-mediated therapy in cancer.

  14. Relationship between enhanced macrophage phagocytic activity and the induction of interferon by Newcastle disease virus in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamburg, S I; Cassell, G H; Rabinovitch, M

    1980-03-01

    The relationship between phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophages and serum interferon (IF) titers was evaluated in mice challenged with Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Time course studies indicated peak serum IF titers between 6 and 12 hr, whereas Fc receptor-mediated macrophage phagocytosis was maximal 18 hr after viral administration. Both responses decreased in parallel as the inoculated dose of the virus was reduced. Splenectomy, shown by others to decrease the NDV-induced serum IF titers, significantly decreased the stimulation of phagocytosis. The role of T cells in the response to the virus was studied with nude mice raised under germfree conditions. NDV-induced serum IF titers and macrophage phagocytosis were both diminished in BALB/c nudes compared with their heterozygous littermates. Both responses could be partially restored by transfer of thymocytes obtained from heterozygous mice. The results provide further evidence that in vivo macrophage stimulation by NDV is mediated by induced IF. The experiments with nude mice also indicate that the IF response to NDV is regulated by T lymphocytes.

  15. Vaccine preventable disease incidence as a complement to vaccine efficacy for setting vaccine policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessner, Bradford D.; Feikin, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, vaccines have been evaluated in clinical trials that establish vaccine efficacy (VE) against etiology-confirmed disease outcomes, a measure important for licensure. Yet, VE does not reflect a vaccine’s public health impact because it does not account for relative disease incidence. An additional measure that more directly establishes a vaccine’s public health value is the vaccine preventable disease incidence (VPDI), which is the incidence of disease preventable by vaccine in a given context. We describe how VE and VPDI can vary, sometimes in inverse directions, across disease outcomes and vaccinated populations. We provide examples of how VPDI can be used to reveal the relative public health impact of vaccines in developing countries, which can be masked by focus on VE alone. We recommend that VPDI be incorporated along with VE into the analytic plans of vaccine trials, as well as decisions by funders, ministries of health, and regulatory authorities. PMID:24731817

  16. [Evaluation of the safety of live attenuated vaccine viruses against infectious bursal disease (Gumboro disease) in conventional broiler chicks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudaoud, A; Alloui, N

    2008-12-01

    The pathological and immunological effects of two infectious bursal disease (Gumboro disease) vaccines containing attenuated virus were evaluated under experimental conditions. A total of 200 conventional broiler chicks were divided into three batches, two of which were administered an experimental dose of Gumboro disease vaccine via the ocular route, at 14 days of age, using an 'intermediate' strain for one group and an 'intermediate plus' strain for the other. At different post-inoculation intervals, the chicks from the three batches were weighed and slaughtered and their bursa of Fabricius were removed to be weighed and subjected to histological examination. This allowed a lesion score and a ratio between the weight of the bursa of Fabricius and body weight to be calculated for each group of chicks. The immunosuppressive potential of the two vaccines was also estimated by evaluating the chicks' serological response to a Newcastle disease vaccine administered by eye-drop two weeks following vaccination against Gumboro disease. The results showed that the two vaccine strains were not of equal pathogenicity and that one was potentially immunosuppressive. The 'intermediate plus' strain proved to be more virulent than the 'intermediate' strain, as it caused greater atrophy and more severe lesions of the bursa of Fabricius. By exerting a more suppressive effect on the serological response of the chicks, the 'intermediate plus' vaccine also proved to be immunosuppressive. The three weeks of observation were not sufficient to ascertain whether the lesions caused by the two vaccines were temporary or whether the immunosuppressive state induced by the 'intermediate plus' strain was reversible.

  17. Autoimmune connective tissue diseases and vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Więsik-Szewczyk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The idea that infectious agents can induce autoimmune diseases in genetically susceptible subjects has been a matter of discussion for years. Moreover, increased incidence of autoimmune diseases and introduction of prophylactic vaccinations from early childhood suggest that these two trends are linked. In the medical literature and even non-professional media, case reports or events temporally related to vaccination are reported. It raises the issue of vaccination safety. In everyday practice medical professionals, physicians, rheumatologists and other specialists will be asked their opinion of vaccination safety. The decision should be made according to evidence-based medicine and the current state of knowledge. The purpose of this paper is to discuss a potential mechanism which links infections, vaccinations and autoimmunity. We present an overview of published case reports, especially of systemic connective tissue diseases temporally related to vaccination and results from case-nested studies. As yet, no conclusive evidence supports a causal relationship between vaccination and autoimmune diseases. It has to be determined whether the performed studies are sufficiently Epsteinasensitive to detect the link. The debate is ongoing, and new data may be required to explain the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. We would like to underscore the need for prophylactic vaccination in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases and to break down the myth that the vaccines are contraindicated in this target group.

  18. 9 CFR 113.331 - Bursal Disease Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine. 113.331... Virus Vaccines § 113.331 Bursal Disease Vaccine. Bursal Disease Vaccine shall be prepared from virus... this section shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production. All serials...

  19. Isolation and characterization of avian paramyxovirus type 1 (Newcastle disease) viruses from a flock of ostriches (Struthio camelus) and emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae) in Europe with inconsistent serology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Poul Henrik; Herczeg, J.; Lomniczi, B.

    1998-01-01

    During a 95-day study period in 1995 in Denmark, 18 ostriches in a flock of 77 ostriches and four emus held in quarantine died, Clinical and pathological observations did not indicate the presence of transmissible infectious disease in the hock. Management failures and indoor housing were believed...... of Newcastle disease in back yard poultry ire Denmark. Blood samples were taken from all live birds in the flock after 25 and 95 days of quarantine and all were negative for antibodies to APMV-1 in haemagglutination inhibition tests. All samples taken after 95 days of quarantine were also negative...

  20. Lack of detection of host associated differences in Newcastle disease viruses of genotype VIId isolated from chickens and geese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yuyang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goose is usually considered to be resistant even to strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV that are markedly virulent for chickens. However, ND outbreaks have been frequently reported in goose flocks in China since the late 1990s with the concurrent emergence of genotype VIId NDV in chickens. Although the NDVs isolated from both chickens and geese in the past 15 years have been predominantly VIId viruses, published data comparing goose- and chicken-originated ND viruses are scarce and controversial. Results In this paper, we compared genotype VIId NDVs originated from geese and chickens genetically and pathologically. Ten entire genomic sequences and 329 complete coding sequences of individual genes from genotype VIId NDVs of both goose- and chicken-origin were analyzed. We then randomly selected two goose-originated and two chicken-originated VIId NDVs and compared their pathobiology in both geese and chickens in vivo and in vitro with genotype IV virus Herts/33 as a reference. The results showed that all the VIId NDVs either from geese or from chickens shared high sequence homology and characteristic amino acid substitutions and clustered together in phylogenetic trees. In addition, geese and chickens infected by goose or chicken VIId viruses manifested very similar pathological features distinct from those of birds infected with Herts/33. Conclusions There is no genetic or phenotypic difference between genotype VIId NDVs originated from geese and chickens. Therefore, no species-preference exists for either goose or chicken viruses and more attention should be paid to the trans-species transmission of VIId NDVs between geese and chickens for the control and eradication of ND.

  1. UV irradiation analysis of complementation between, and replication of, RNA-negative temperature-sensitivie mutants of Newcastle disease virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeples, M.E.; Bratt, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    Random uv irradiation-induced lesions destroy the infectivity of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) by blocking downstream transcription from the single viral promoter. The nucleocapsid-associated polypeptides most likely to be involved in RNA synthesis are located at the extreme ends of the genome: NP and P are promoter proximal genes, and L is the most distal gene. We attempted to order the two temperature-sensitive (ts) RNA-negative (RNA-) mutant groups of NDV by determining the uv target sizes for the complementing abilities of mutants A1 and E1. After uv irradiation, E1 was unable to complement A1, a result compatible with the A mutation lying in the L gene. In contrast, after uv irradiation A1 was able to complement E1 for both virus production and viral protein synthesis, with a target size most consistent with the E mutation lying in the P gene. UV-irradiated virus was unable to replicate as indicated by its absence in the yields of multiply infected cells, either as infectious virus or as particles with complementing activity. After irradiation, ts mutant B1ΔP, with a non-ts mutation affecting the electrophoretic mobility of the P protein, complemented E1 in a manner similar to A1, but it did not amplify the expression of ΔP in infected cells. This too is consistent with irradiated virus being unable to replicate despite the presence of the components needed for replication of E1. At high uv doses, A1 was able to complement E1 in a different, uv-resistant manner, probably by direct donation of input polypeptides. Multiplicity reactivation has previously been observed at high-multiplicity infection by uv-irradiated paramyxoviruses. In this case, virions which are noninfectious because they lack a protein component may be activated by a protein from irradiated virions

  2. Vaccination against bacterial kidney disease: Chapter 22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Diane G.; Wiens, Gregory D.; Hammell, K. Larry; Rhodes, Linda D.; Edited by Gudding, Roar; Lillehaug, Atle; Evensen, Øystein

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial kidney disease (BKD) of salmonid fishes, caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum, has been recognized as a serious disease in salmonid fishes since the 1930s. This chapter discusses the occurrence and significance, etiology, and pathogenesis of BKD. It then describes the different vaccination procedures and the effects and side-effects of vaccination. Despite years of research, however, only a single vaccine has been licensed for prevention of BKD, and has demonstrated variable efficacy. Therefore, in addition to a presentation of the current status of BKD vaccination, a discussion of potential future directions for BKD vaccine development is included in the chapter. This discussion is focused on the unique characteristics of R. salmoninarum and its biology, as well as aspects of the salmonid immune system that might be explored specifically to develop more effective vaccines for BKD prevention.

  3. Active Vaccines for Alzheimer Disease Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterner, Rosalie M; Takahashi, Paul Y; Yu Ballard, Aimee C

    2016-09-01

    Vaccination against peptides specific to Alzheimer disease may generate an immune response that could help inhibit disease and symptom progression. PubMed and Scopus were searched for clinical trial articles, review articles, and preclinical studies relevant to the field of active Alzheimer disease vaccines and raw searches yielded articles ranging from 2016 to 1973. ClinicalTrials.gov was searched for active Alzheimer disease vaccine trials. Manual research and cross-referencing from reviews and original articles was performed. First generation Aβ42 phase 2a trial in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease resulted in cases of meningoencephalitis in 6% of patients, so next generation vaccines are working to target more specific epitopes to induce a more controlled immune response. Difficulty in developing these vaccines resides in striking a balance between providing a vaccine that induces enough of an immune response to actually clear protein sustainably but not so much of a response that results in excess immune activation and possibly adverse effects such as meningoencephalitis. Although much work still needs to be done in the field to make this a practical possibility, the enticing allure of being able to treat or even prevent the extraordinarily impactful disease that is Alzheimer disease makes the idea of active vaccination for Alzheimer disease very appealing and something worth striving toward. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Molecular characterization of velogenic viscerotropic Ranikhet (Newcastle) disease virus from different outbreaks in desi chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Dhaygude, V. S.; Sawale, G. K.; Chawak, M. M.; Bulbule, N. R.; Moregaonkar, S. D.; Gavhane, D. S.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Diagnosis of velogenic viscerotropic Ranikhet disease from six different flocks of desi chicken in and around Mumbai by gross and histopathological examination, isolation of virus and molecular methods. Materials and Methods: A total of 25 carcasses (varying between 2 and 6 carcasses from each flock) of six different flocks of adult desi chicken were subjected to necropsy examination for diagnosis of the disease during the span of a year (2014-2015). After thorough gross examination,...

  5. PATHOGENIC PROPERTIES OF INFECTIOUS BURSAL DISEASE VACCINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftikhar Hussain, Atif Nisar Ahmad, M. Ashfaque, M.Shahid Mahmood and Masood Akhtar1

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to test the pathogenic effect of six commercially available infectious bursal disease (IBD vaccines claimed to be intermediate in their pathogenicity. Three week old chickens were inoculated with these vaccines. The pathogenic effects of the IBD vaccines were evaluated by hemorrhages on the thigh and breast muscles, bursa weight to body weight ratio and virulence; two of the strain were found to be highly virulent; two others were moderate and two could be classified as mild.

  6. Field Evaluation of Immunogenicity of Five Commercial Vaccines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to evaluate immunogenicity of five commonly used vaccines for prevention of Newcastle disease (ND) in Ibadan, the capital city of Oyo State Nigeria. Two hundred and twenty (220) blood samples were collected from apparently healthy vaccinated chickenin 8 poultry farms in suburbs of the city.

  7. Prioritizing vaccines for developing world diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saul, Allan; O'Brien, Katherine L

    2017-01-20

    A major disparity in the burden of health will need to be addressed to achieve the "Grand Convergence" by 2035. In particular people living in low and middle income countries have a much higher burden of infectious diseases. Although vaccines have been very effective in reducing the global burden of infectious disease, there are no registered vaccines to address 60% of the current burden of infectious disease, especially in developing countries. Thus there is a pressing need for new vaccines and for prioritizing vaccine development given that resources for developing new vaccines are strictly limited. As part of the GLOBAL HEALTH 2035: Mission Grand Convergence meeting one working group assessed the SMART vaccine algorithm as a mechanism for prioritizing vaccine development for diseases of priority in the developing world. In particular, the working group considered which criteria in the standard SMART set were considered "key" criteria and whether other criteria should be considered, when prioritizing vaccines for this important set of countries. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Radiation-attenuated vaccine for lungworm disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, C.M.

    1977-01-01

    The work done at the Indian Veternary Research Institute, Izatnagar, on the development of a vaccine for lungworm diseases is reported. Research work done includes: (1) studies on the epidemiology and the incidence of the lungworm infections, (ii) studies on the radiation-attenuated lungworm Dictyocaulus filaria vaccine, (iii) studies on other parasites using ionizing radiation, (iv) incidence of lungworm infection in sheep in Jammu and Kashmir State, (v) suitable dose of gamma radiation for attenuation, (vi) laboratory studies with radiation-attenuated D. filaria vaccine, (vii) serology of D. filaria infection, (viii) field trials with the radiation-attenuated vaccine, (ix) immune response of previously exposed lambs to vaccination, (x) comparative susceptibility of sheep and goats to infection with D. filaria, (xi) quantitative studies of D. filaria in lambs and (xii) production and supply of lungworm vaccine. (A.K.)

  9. Identification of a phosphorylated non-structural form of the P protein of Newcastle disease virus and analysis of P multimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hightower, L E; Collins, P L; Smith, G W

    1984-09-01

    Two phosphorylated and two non-phosphorylated variants of P protein isolated from Newcastle disease virions are known. Here, a fifth form of P was identified using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and peptide mapping. P form 5 was phosphorylated; however, unlike the four known variants of P, the new form was not a major protein in virions, which suggested an intracellular function. The subunit composition of four electrophoretically distinct, disulphide-linked multimers of P from virions was determined. Each homomultimer was composed of at least three molecules of a different one of the four virion-associated P variants.

  10. Pneumococcal vaccination and chronic respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Froes F

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Filipe Froes,1 Nicolas Roche,2 Francesco Blasi3,4 1Chest Department, Hospital Pulido Valente, North Lisbon Hospital Center, Lisbon, Portugal; 2Department of Respiratory and Intensive Care Medicine, Cochin Hospital, Paris Descartes University, Paris, France; 3Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, University of Milan, 4Internal Medicine Department, Respiratory Unit and Adult Cystic Fibrosis Center, Fondazione IRCCS ca Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy Abstract: Patients with COPD and other chronic respiratory diseases are especially vulnerable to viral and bacterial pulmonary infections, which are major causes of exacerbations, hospitalization, disease progression, and mortality in COPD patients. Effective vaccines could reduce the burden of respiratory infections and acute exacerbations in COPD patients, but what is the evidence for this? This article reviews and discusses the existing evidence for pneumococcal vaccination efficacy and its changing role in patients with chronic respiratory diseases, especially COPD. Specifically, the recent Community-Acquired Pneumonia Immunization Trial in Adults (CAPITA showed the efficacy of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in older adults, many of whom had additional risk factors for pneumococcal disease, including chronic lung diseases. Taken together, the evidence suggests that pneumococcal and influenza vaccinations can prevent community-acquired pneumonia and acute exacerbations in COPD patients, while pneumococcal vaccination early in the course of COPD could help maintain stable health status. Despite the need to prevent pulmonary infections in patients with chronic respiratory diseases and evidence for the efficacy of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, pneumococcal vaccine coverage and awareness are low and need to be improved. Respiratory physicians need to communicate the benefits of vaccination more effectively to their patients who suffer from chronic respiratory diseases

  11. Antiviral activity of bovine uterus and placenta induced by Newcastle disease virus Atividade antiviral do útero e da placenta bovina induzida pelo vírus da doença de Newcastle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B. Barreto Filho

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The antiviral activity profile of the uterus and fetal membranes from bovine placenta, induced by the Newcastle disease virus (NDV throughout gestation, was investigated. Explants of the endometrium and caruncles were collected from the uterus, and amniochorion, allantochorion and cotyledons, from fetal placenta. Tissue cultures were induced with ~6.0 hemagglutinating units (HU of NDV. Supernatants were concentrated 20 fold, filtered in 100kDa cut-off membranes and antiviral activity was titrated in MDBK x VSV system. Tissues of the uterus did not exhibit antiviral activity, while allantochorion and amniochorion produced antiviral factors throughout gestation. Antiviral factors were not related with IFN-alpha, gamma, tau or TNF-alpha. The antiviral activity pattern observed showed to be related with the development of fetal membranes and increased at the end of pregnancy. Such data suggest that IFN genes inducible by virus are present in fetal membranes of the cow placenta and their expression is dependent on the age of gestation.Investigou-se a atividade antiviral do útero e da placenta bovina, ao longo da gestação, induzidos pelo vírus da doença de Newcastle (NDV. Explantes do endométrio e carúnculas foram colhidos do útero. Os tecidos corioamniótico, corioalantóide e cotilédones foram dissecados da placenta fetal. Os cultivos celulares foram induzidos com aproximadamente 6,0 unidades hemaglutinantes do NDV. Os sobrenadantes foram concentrados 20 vezes, filtrados em dispositivos com superfície de separação de 100kDa e a atividade antiviral foi titulada em células MDBK e vírus da estomatite vesicular (VSV. Endométrio, carúnculas e cotilédones não apresentaram atividade antiviral. Corioamniótico e corioalantóide produziram fatores antivirais ao longo da gestação. Estes fatores não foram relacionados aos IFN - alfa, gama ou tau e nem ao TNF - alfa. O padrão de produção de fatores antivirais acompanhou o desenvolvimento

  12. Histopathology of vaccine-preventable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Isaac H; Milner, Danny A

    2017-01-01

    The widespread use of vaccines has been one of the most important medical advances in the last century, saving trillions of dollars and millions of lives. Despite local eradication of some infections, travellers returning from affected areas may cause outbreaks through reintroduction of pathogens to individuals who are unable to receive vaccines for medical reasons or who have declined vaccination for non-medical reasons. Infections that would otherwise be uncommonly encountered by anatomical pathologists should therefore remain in the differential diagnosis for immunocompromised and unvaccinated patients. We review here the histopathological features and ancillary testing required for diagnosis of all illnesses preventable by vaccines that are currently approved for use by the United States Food and Drug Administration, organized into three sections: viral infections preventable by routine vaccination (measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, rotavirus, polio, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, influenza, and human papillomavirus), bacterial infections preventable by routine vaccination (diptheria, tetanus, pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae, pneumococcus, and meningococcus), and infections with specific vaccine indications (anthrax, typhoid, tuberculosis, rabies, Japanese encephalitis, yellow fever, smallpox, and adenovirus). Histopathology for the less common diseases is illustrated in this review. Awareness of a patient's immune and/or vaccine status is a crucial component of the infectious disease work-up, especially for rare diseases that may not otherwise be seen. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. 9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.212 Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bursal Disease Vaccine...

  14. Impact of rotavirus vaccines on rotavirus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepage, Philippe; Vergison, Anne

    2012-05-01

    Rotaviruses are the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in young children worldwide. Both licensed rotavirus vaccines (Rotarix™ [RV1] and RotaTeq™ [RV5]) are effective and safe. Studies from countries that have included RV1 or RV5 in the national immunization programs have demonstrated their safety and sustained efficacy under real-life circumstances. A significant decline in acute gastroenteritis-related deaths among Latin American children was observed after the introduction of RV1 and RV5 vaccines. Both vaccines were able to decrease the number of cases of rotavirus acute gastroenteritis and of severe rotavirus diseases. Vaccination was also associated with a dramatic reduction in hospitalizations and outpatient visits for all-cause acute gastroenteritis. Indirect protection after infant mass vaccination has been strongly suggested. Moreover, postlicensure safety studies assessed rare adverse events (rates <1 in 50,000), such as intussusception.

  15. Depression of Vaccinal Immunity to Marek's Disease by Infection with Chicken Infectious Anemia Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yankun; Cui, Ning; Han, Ni; Wu, Jiayan; Cui, Zhizhong; Su, Shuai

    2017-01-01

    Marek's disease (MD) has been occurring with increasing frequency in chickens in recent years. To our knowledge, however, there has been no report of the very virulent plus (vv+) MD virus (MDV) field isolate in China. Studies have shown that dual infection with immunosuppressive viruses such as chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) occurs frequently in chickens developing MD. In this study, we performed a designed set of in vivo experiments, which comprised five different groups of chickens, including the group of CVI988/Rispens-vaccinated chickens, the groups of CVI988/Rispens-vaccinated chickens infected with MDV or CIAV or both viruses (MDV and CIAV), and the group of MDV-challenged chickens. The effects of CIAV dual infection on the immunization of commercial MDV vaccine CVI988/Rispens were evaluated. The results show that infection of the SD15 strain of CIAV significantly reduced the weight and antibody titers to avian influenza virus (AIV)/Newcastle disease virus (NDV) inactivated vaccines of chickens immunized with the CVI988/Rispens, and resulted in the atrophy of thymus/bursa and the enlargement of spleen. The CVI988/Rispens vaccination conferred good immune protection for chickens challenged with 2000 PFU of the GX0101 strain of MDV. However, dual infection with SD15 significantly reduced the body weight, antibody titers induced by AIV/NDV inactivated vaccines and protective index of CVI988/Rispens, and resulted in the aggravation of the immunosuppression, mortality, and viremia of GX0101 in CVI988/Rispens-immunized/GX0101-challenged chickens. Overall, CIAV infection significantly reduced the protective effects of the CVI988/Rispens vaccine against MDV, implying that concurrent infection with CIAV may be a major contributor in the frequent attacks of MD in China in recent years.

  16. Newcastle Disease Virus (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... integrative medicine—includes a broad range of healing philosophies, approaches, and therapies. A therapy is generally called ... the NLM's PubMed bibliographic database, CAM on PubMed features more than 230,000 references and abstracts for ...

  17. Molecular characterization, isolation, pathology and pathotyping of peafowl (Pavo cristatus) origin Newcastle disease virus isolates recovered from disease outbreaks in three states of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desingu, Perumal Arumugam; Singh, Shambhu Dayal; Dhama, Kuldeep; Vinodhkumar, Obli Rajendran; Barathidasan, Rajamani; Malik, Yashpal Singh; Singh, Rajendra; Singh, Raj Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Disease outbreak investigations were carried out in three states of Northern India namely Haryana (Rewari), Uttar Pradesh (Noida) and Delhi, where a total of 110 Indian peafowls (Pavo cristatus) showed sudden onset of nervous signs and died within a period of two weeks during June, 2012. The F (fusion) gene-based RT-PCR detection of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in affected tissues confirmed the presence of the virus. Three NDV isolates were selected (one from each area under investigation) and further characterized. They were found to be of virulent pathotype (velogenic NDV) based on both pathogenicity assays (MDT, ICPI and IVPI) and partial F gene sequence analysis. Additionally, the phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolates belonged to the genotype VIIi and XIII of class II avian Paramyxovirus serotype1 (APMV-1) and related closely to new emerging sub-genotypes. This is the first report regarding the presence of the fifth panzootic vNDV genotype VIIi from India. In this scenario, extensive epidemiological studies are suggested for surveillance of NDV genotypes in wild birds and poultry flocks of the country along with adopting suitable prevention and control measures.

  18. Newcastle disease B1 vaccine strain in wild rock pigeons in Atlanta, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    From June to October of 2012, samples were collected from wild Rock Pigeons (Columba livia) in urban neighborhoods of Atlanta, Georgia to ascertain the prevalence of pigeon paramyxovirus serotype-1 (PPMV-1). PPMV-1 strains are a subset of avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 (APMV-1) commonly isolated fro...

  19. Description and analysis of the poultry trading network in the Lake Alaotra region, Madagascar: implications for the surveillance and control of Newcastle disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasamoelina-Andriamanivo, H; Duboz, R; Lancelot, R; Maminiaina, O F; Jourdan, M; Rakotondramaro, T M C; Rakotonjanahary, S N; de Almeida, R Servan; Rakotondravao; Durand, B; Chevalier, V

    2014-07-01

    Madagascar's 36.5-million-head poultry industry holds a foremost place in its economy and the livelihood of its people. Unfortunately, regular Newcastle disease outbreaks associated with high mortality causes high losses for smallholders and threatens their livelihood. Therefore, Madagascar is seeking concrete, achievable and sustainable methods for the surveillance and the control of Newcastle disease. In this paper, we present and analyze the results of a field study conducted in Madagascar between December 2009 and December 2010. The study area was the Lac Alaotra region, a landlocked area in the north-eastern part of the country's center. Poultry trading is suspected of playing a major role in the spread of avian diseases, especially in developing countries characterized by many live-bird markets and middlemen. Therefore, the goals of our study were to: (i) describe and analyze smallholders' poultry trading network in the Lake Alaotra region using social network analysis; (ii) assess the role of the network in the spread of Newcastle disease; and (iii) propose the implementation of a targeted disease surveillance based on the characteristics of the poultry trading network. We focused our field study on the harvesting of two data sets. The first is a complete description of the poultry trading network in the landlocked area of Lac Alaotra, including a description of the poultry movements between groups of villages. The second set of data measures the occurrence of outbreaks in the same area by combining a participatory approach with an event-based surveillance method. These data were used to determine the attributes of the network, and to statistically assess the association between the position of nodes and the occurrence of outbreaks. By using social network analysis techniques combined with a classification method and a logistic model, we finally identified 3 nodes (set of villages), of the 387 in the initial network, to focus on for surveillance and control

  20. Vaccines to combat the neglected tropical diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethony, Jeffrey M.; Cole, Rhea N.; Guo, Xiaoti; Kamhawi, Shaden; Lightowlers, Marshall W.; Loukas, Alex; Petri, William; Reed, Steven; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Hotez, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) represent a group of parasitic and related infectious diseases such as amebiasis, Chagas disease, cysticercosis, echinococcosis, hookworm, leishmaniasis, and schistosomiasis. Together, these conditions are considered the most common infections in low- and middle-income countries, where they produce a level of global disability and human suffering equivalent to better known conditions such as human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and malaria. Despite their global public health importance, progress on developing vaccines for NTD pathogens has lagged because of some key technical hurdles and the fact that these infections occur almost exclusively in the world’s poorest people living below the World Bank poverty line. In the absence of financial incentives for new products, the multinational pharmaceutical companies have not embarked on substantive research and development programs for the neglected tropical disease vaccines. Here, we review the current status of scientific and technical progress in the development of new neglected tropical disease vaccines, highlighting the successes that have been achieved (cysticercosis and echinococcosis) and identifying the challenges and opportunities for development of new vaccines for NTDs. Also highlighted are the contributions being made by non-profit product development partnerships that are working to overcome some of the economic challenges in vaccine manufacture, clinical testing, and global access. PMID:21198676

  1. Recombinant viruses as vaccines against viral diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P.D. Souza

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Vaccine approaches to infectious diseases are widely applied and appreciated. Amongst them, vectors based on recombinant viruses have shown great promise and play an important role in the development of new vaccines. Many viruses have been investigated for their ability to express proteins from foreign pathogens and induce specific immunological responses against these antigens in vivo. Generally, gene-based vaccines can stimulate potent humoral and cellular immune responses and viral vectors might be an effective strategy for both the delivery of antigen-encoding genes and the facilitation and enhancement of antigen presentation. In order to be utilized as a vaccine carrier, the ideal viral vector should be safe and enable efficient presentation of required pathogen-specific antigens to the immune system. It should also exhibit low intrinsic immunogenicity to allow for its re-administration in order to boost relevant specific immune responses. Furthermore, the vector system must meet criteria that enable its production on a large-scale basis. Several viral vaccine vectors have thus emerged to date, all of them having relative advantages and limits depending on the proposed application, and thus far none of them have proven to be ideal vaccine carriers. In this review we describe the potential, as well as some of the foreseeable obstacles associated with viral vaccine vectors and their use in preventive medicine.

  2. A cross sectional study of Infectious Bursal Disease and Newcastle Disease in poultry in Narsingdi district of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shariful Islam

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: IBD and ND are highly prevalent in the study area. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct effective control measures to reduce the prevalence of these diseases. This study can help in designing appropriate control measures considering risk factors of these diseases. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(4.000: 406-412

  3. Two-plasmid system to increase the rescue efficiency of paramyxoviruses by reverse genetics: The example of rescuing Newcastle Disease Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haijin; Albina, Emmanuel; Gil, Patricia; Minet, Cécile; de Almeida, Renata Servan

    2017-09-01

    Within paramyxoviruses, conventional reverse genetics require the transfection of a minimum of four plasmids: three to reconstruct the viral polymerase complex that replicates and expresses the virus genome delivered by a fourth plasmid. The successful transfection of four or more plasmids of different sizes into one cell and the subsequent generation of at least one viable and replicable viral particle is a rare event, which explains the low rescue efficiency, especially of low virulent viruses with reduced replication efficiency in cell lines. In this study, we report on an improved reverse genetics system developed for an avian paramyxovirus, Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV), in which the number of plasmids was reduced from four to two. Compared to the conventional method, the 2-plasmid system enables earlier and increased production of rescued viruses and, in addition, makes it possible to rescue viruses that it was not possible to rescue using the 4-plasmid system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Methanolic soluble fractions of lingzhi or reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (higher Basidiomycetes) extract inhibit neuraminidase activity in Newcastle disease virus (LaSota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamaki, Bala U; Sandabe, Umar K; Ogbe, Adamu O; Abdulrahman, Fanna I; El-Yuguda, Abdul-Dahiru

    2014-01-01

    The antineuraminidase activity of different organic soluble fractions of Ganoderma lucidum extract was investigated using inhibition of hemagglutination and elution of chicken erythrocytes by Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Fractions of methanol, ethylacetate, and normal butanol (n-butanol) of the G. lucidum were tested against neuraminidase producing NDV as antigen. Different dilutions of the organic soluble fractions inhibited elution of 1% red blood cells by neuraminidase of NDV While the methanolic and n-butanol extracts inhibited neuraminidase activity even at a dilution of 1:16 and that of ethylacetate fraction inhibited even at 1:32 respectively. This finding indicates that G. lucidum has some antineuraminidase activity against NDV and may be exploited in the management of NDV infection.

  5. Immunogenicity and Safety of La Sota Strain of Newcastle Disease Virus Administered to Newly Hatched Chicks by Nebulization

    OpenAIRE

    Hrvoje Mazija; Stanislav Čajavec; Estella Prukner-Radovčić; Neda Ergotić; Irena Ciglar-Grozdanić; Željko Gottstein; Anita Kokić; William L. Ragland

    2009-01-01

    The objective of four trials performed on specific-pathogen-free and commercial chickens, either of light or heavy hybrids, was to evaluate the new vaccine delivery method to newly hatched chickens using commercial La Sota vaccine. The vaccine was given by means of nebulization using an ultrasonic device producing homologous aerosol of particles ranging 3–5 microns in diameter. Chickens were exposed to the La Sota vaccine for 30, 60 or 300 s in a closed chamber of the device, thus enabling co...

  6. Vaccine development for emerging virulent infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Joel N

    2017-10-04

    The recent outbreak of Zaire Ebola virus in West Africa altered the classical paradigm of vaccine development and that for emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) in general. In this paper, the precepts of vaccine discovery and advancement through pre-clinical and clinical assessment are discussed in the context of the recent Ebola virus, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and Zika virus outbreaks. Clinical trial design for diseases with high mortality rates and/or high morbidity in the face of a global perception of immediate need and the factors that drive design in the face of a changing epidemiology are presented. Vaccines for EIDs thus present a unique paradigm to standard development precepts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Optimal control for Malaria disease through vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munzir, Said; Nasir, Muhammad; Ramli, Marwan

    2018-01-01

    Malaria is a disease caused by an amoeba (single-celled animal) type of plasmodium where anopheles mosquito serves as the carrier. This study examines the optimal control problem of malaria disease spread based on Aron and May (1982) SIR type models and seeks the optimal solution by minimizing the prevention of the spreading of malaria by vaccine. The aim is to investigate optimal control strategies on preventing the spread of malaria by vaccination. The problem in this research is solved using analytical approach. The analytical method uses the Pontryagin Minimum Principle with the symbolic help of MATLAB software to obtain optimal control result and to analyse the spread of malaria with vaccination control.

  8. Mucosal Immunization with Newcastle Disease Virus Vector Coexpressing HIV-1 Env and Gag Proteins Elicits Potent Serum, Mucosal, and Cellular Immune Responses That Protect against Vaccinia Virus Env and Gag Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattar, Sunil K; Manoharan, Vinoth; Bhattarai, Bikash; LaBranche, Celia C; Montefiori, David C; Samal, Siba K

    2015-07-21

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) avirulent strain LaSota was used to coexpress gp160 Env and p55 Gag from a single vector to enhance both Env-specific and Gag-specific immune responses. The optimal transcription position for both Env and Gag genes in the NDV genome was determined by generating recombinant NDV (rNDV)-Env-Gag (gp160 located between the P and M genes and Gag between the HN and L genes), rNDV-Gag-Env (Gag located between the P and M genes and gp160 between the HN and L genes), rNDV-Env/Gag (gp160 followed by Gag located between the P and M genes), and rNDV-Gag/Env (Gag followed by gp160 located between the P and M genes). All the recombinant viruses replicated at levels similar to those seen with parental NDV in embryonated chicken eggs and in chicken fibroblast cells. Both gp160 and Gag proteins were expressed at high levels in cell culture, with gp160 found to be incorporated into the envelope of NDV. The Gag and Env proteins expressed by all the recombinants except rNDV-Env-Gag self-assembled into human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) virus-like particles (VLPs). Immunization of guinea pigs by the intranasal route with these rNDVs produced long-lasting Env- and Gag-specific humoral immune responses. The Env-specific humoral and mucosal immune responses and Gag-specific humoral immune responses were higher in rNDV-Gag/Env and rNDV-Env/Gag than in the other recombinants. rNDV-Gag/Env and rNDV-Env/Gag were also more efficient in inducing cellular as well as protective immune responses to challenge with vaccinia viruses expressing HIV-1 Env and Gag in mice. These results suggest that vaccination with a single rNDV coexpressing Env and Gag represents a promising strategy to enhance immunogenicity and protective efficacy against HIV. A safe and effective vaccine that can induce both systemic and mucosal immune responses is needed to control HIV-1. In this study, we showed that coexpression of Env and Gag proteins of HIV-1 performed using a single

  9. Meningococcal Disease (Bacterial Meningitis) Vaccine and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meningococcal Disease (Bacterial Meningitis) Vaccine In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having a baby with a ... advice from your health care provider. What is meningitis? Meningitis is an infection of the lining around ...

  10. AVALIAÇÃO DO USO DE SANGUE EM PAPEL-FILTRO PARA DETECÇÃO E QUANTIFICAÇÃO DE ANTICORPOS PARA O VÍRUS DA DOENÇA DE NEWCASTLE EVALUATION OF BLOOD ON FILTER PAPER TO DETECTION AND QUANTIFICATION OF THE ANTIBO¬DIES TO NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geferson Fischer

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho descreve a utilização de sangue total em papel-filtro para avaliação dos níveis de anticorpos específicos contra o vírus da doença de Newcastle (NDV através da técnica de inibição da hemaglutinação (HI. Coletaram-se e analisaram-se por HI amostras de sangue de noventa e oito galinhas, com um histórico conhecido de vacinação contra o NDV HI. O sangue foi impregnado em papel-filtro Wathman n° 1 com 3cm2 e também coletado em tubos para a obtenção de soro. Armazenaram-se os papéis à temperatura ambiente e procedeu-se a sua análise num período de até quarenta e cinco dias. A sensibilidade, a es¬pecificidade, o valor preditivo positivo e o valor preditivo negativo do HI mediante o uso de papel-filtro, comparado com o HI em que se utilizou soro, foram de 89%, 73%, 76% e 87 %, respectivamente. Detectaram-se um índice de pre¬cisão de 80% e um coeficiente de correlação r = 0,81%. O título médio geométrico de anticorpos foi 33,1% e 33,6 para eluídos de papel-filtro e os soros, respectivamente. A asso¬ciação entre os dois métodos foi altamente significativa (p< 0.001 quando analisada pelo teste de Fisher. Os resultados indicam o potencial da utilização do sangue em papel-filtro como uma alternativa ao soro para detecção de anticorpos contra o NDV. PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Galinha, inibição da hemaglutinação, sorologia. The present study describes the evaluation of a filter paper blood sampling technique for assessment of the level of antibodies against the Newcastle disease virus (NDV by hemagglutination inhibition (HI test. Blood samples were collected from ninety eigth chickens with a known history of vaccination against NDV and analyzed by HI method. The blood was impregnated onto Whatman no. 1 filter paper with 3cm2 and also collected in tubes for obtaining serum. The papers were stored at room temperature and tested within fourty five days. The resulting sensitivity, specificity, positive

  11. [Vaccine Preventable Diseases: Knowledge, Attitudes and Vaccination Status of Medical Students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, S; Roggendorf, H; Wicker, S

    2017-05-01

    Study Objective: Health-care workers (HCW) have an increased risk of acquiring infectious diseases and constitute a risk of transmission to their patients. Medical students working as HCW should therefore have the same immunity against vaccine preventable diseases as HCW. The aim of the study was to assess medical students' knowledge and attitudes towards occupationally indicated vaccinations as well as their vaccination status. Methods: Questionnaires were anonymously answered by medical students of the fourth preclinical semester at the Goethe-University Frankfurt. Results and Conclusion: Despite a high acceptance among medical students concerning vaccinations in general, the knowledge and vaccination status of the students should be improved. For instance, only 46.4% of the medical students knew that there is a general recommendation for HCW to receive the influenza vaccination and only 76.8% of the students stated to have received 2 measles vaccinations. Overall, 2/3 of the students were "very much in favour of vaccinations" or "completely in favour of vaccinations" and estimated the probability for unvaccinated HCW to acquire an occupationally associated infectious disease to be "quite high" or "very high". Having observed a positive attitude among medical students towards vaccinations, it should be possible to reach high vaccination coverage amongst students by offering them occupationally indicated vaccinations. Further knowledge concerning vaccine preventable diseases and the occupation-related increased risk for infectious diseases should be offered, as well. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. A serological survey for avian infectious bronchitis virus and Newcastle disease virus antibodies in backyard (free-range) village chickens in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Ruiz, E J; Ramirez-Cruz, G T; Camara Gamboa, E I; Alexander, D J; Gough, R E

    2000-12-01

    The commercial flocks in Yucatan, Mexico are free of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in its velogenic viscerotropic form, but little is known about the disease status of backyard poultry. A seroprevalence survey in 30 villages using haemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests for infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and NDV antibodies was carried out from December 1997 to June 1998. The seroprevalences were 56.5% (95% CI 50-63%) for IBV and 2.2% (95% CI 0.5-3.8%) for NDV. All the villages had chickens that were positive for antibodies to IBV and nine of the villages had chickens that were positive for antibodies to NDV. This suggests that IBV may be responsible for a large proportion of the respiratory disease observed in backyard chickens in Yucatan. The implications of these findings are discussed, including the highly susceptible status of the backyard chickens in Yucatan to NDV and the possibility of this virus being one cause of the syndrome known as mortandad by the local people.

  13. Hatchery Vaccination Against Poultry Viral Diseases: Potential Mechanisms and Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Cader, Mohamed Sarjoon; Palomino-Tapia, Victor; Amarasinghe, Aruna; Ahmed-Hassan, Hanaa; De Silva Senapathi, Upasama; Abdul-Careem, Mohamed Faizal

    Commercial broiler and layer chickens are heavily vaccinated against economically important viral diseases with a view of preventing morbidity, mortality, and production impacts encountered during short production cycles. Hatchery vaccination is performed through in ovo embryo vaccination prehatch or spray and subcutaneous vaccinations performed at the day of hatch before the day-old chickens are being placed in barns with potentially contaminated environments. Commercially, multiple vaccines (e.g., live, live attenuated, and viral vectored vaccines) are available to administer through these routes within a short period (embryo day 18 prehatch to day 1 posthatch). Although the ability to mount immune response, especially the adaptive immune response, is not optimal around the hatch, it is possible that the efficacy of these vaccines depends partly on innate host responses elicited in response to replicating vaccine viruses. This review focuses on the current knowledge of hatchery vaccination in poultry and potential mechanisms of hatchery vaccine-mediated protective responses and limitations.

  14. Awareness among adults of vaccine-preventable diseases and recommended vaccinations, United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peng-Jun; O'Halloran, Alissa; Kennedy, Erin D; Williams, Walter W; Kim, David; Fiebelkorn, Amy Parker; Donahue, Sara; Bridges, Carolyn B

    2017-05-25

    Adults are recommended to receive select vaccinations based on their age, underlying medical conditions, lifestyle, and other considerations. Factors associated with awareness of vaccine-preventable diseases and recommended vaccines among adults in the United States have not been explored. Data from a 2015 internet panel survey of a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults aged ≥19years were analyzed to assess awareness of selected vaccine-preventable diseases and recommended vaccines for adults. A multivariable logistic regression model with a predictive marginal approach was used to identify factors independently associated with awareness of selected vaccine-preventable infections/diseases and corresponding vaccines. Among the surveyed population, from 24.6 to 72.1% reported vaccination for recommended vaccines. Awareness of vaccine-preventable diseases among adults aged ≥19years ranged from 63.4% to 94.0% (63.4% reported awareness of HPV, 71.5% reported awareness of tetanus, 72.0% reported awareness of pertussis, 75.4% reported awareness of HZ, 75.8% reported awareness of hepatitis B, 83.1% reported awareness of pneumonia, and 94.0% reported awareness of influenza). Awareness of the corresponding vaccines among adults aged ≥19years ranged from 59.3% to 94.1% (59.3% HZ vaccine, 59.6% HPV vaccine, 64.3% hepatitis B vaccine, 66.2% pneumococcal vaccine, 86.3% tetanus vaccines, and 94.1% influenza vaccine). In multivariable analysis, being female and being a college graduate were significantly associated with a higher level of awareness for majority of vaccine-preventable diseases, and being female, being a college graduate, and working as a health care provider were significantly associated with a higher level of awareness for majority of corresponding vaccines. Although adults in this survey reported high levels of awareness for most vaccines recommended for adults, self-reported vaccination coverage was not optimal. Combining interventions known to

  15. VACCINATION OF PREMATURE INFANTS AND CHILDREN WITH CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE IN IRKUTSK USING CONJUGATED PNEUMOCOCCAL VACCINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Il'ina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: analyzing the results of pneumococcal infection vaccination conducted to reduce infantile morbidity and mortality in 2011-2012 at the expenses of the Irkutsk municipal budget. Patients and methods. Vaccination using the 7- and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine was conducted for more than 700 risk group children: premature infants, children with congenital heart diseases or bronchopulmonary dysplasia from 2 months to 2 years of age. 193 vaccinated children had been observed for 1.5 years. 30% of premature infants and 46% of children with congenital heart diseases were vaccinated using the PCV7/PCV13 vaccine at the age of 2-6 months, 52 and 40% - at the age of 7-11 months, accordingly. The PCV7/PCV13 vaccine was administered together with other vaccines of the national preventive vaccination calendar in 65% of cases. Results. Rate of general post-vaccinal reactions (body temperature increase from 37.6 to 38.0oC – 4%; no local reactions were registered. No other unfavorable phenomena were noted in the post-vaccinal period. No cases of pneumonia, meningitis, acute otitis media and bronchoobstructive syndrome were registered within the observation period. Conclusions: pneumococcal infection vaccination of premature infants with congenital heart diseases and bronchopulmonary dysplasia conducted in Irkutsk proved high efficacy and safety of the used vaccine – PCV7/PCV13. 

  16. Field Evaluation of Immunogenicity of Five Commercial Vaccines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field Evaluation of Immunogenicity of Five Commercial Vaccines Against Newcastle Disease in Poultry Farms in Ibadan, Nigeria. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information ...

  17. The re-emergency and persistence of vaccine preventable diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODRIGO C.N. BORBA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of vaccination worldwide dramatically reduced the incidence of pathogenic bacterial and viral diseases. Despite the highly successful vaccination strategies, the number of cases among vaccine preventable diseases has increased in the last decade and several of those diseases are still endemic in different countries. Here we discuss some epidemiological aspects and possible arguments that may explain why ancient diseases such as, measles, polio, pertussis, diphtheria and tuberculosis are still with us.

  18. [Pneumococcal vaccine recommendations in chronic respiratory diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas Maldonado, F; Alfageme Michavila, I; Barchilón Cohen, V S; Peis Redondo, J I; Vargas Ortega, D A

    2014-09-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia is an acute respiratory infectious disease which has an incidence of 3-8 cases/1,000 inhabitants, and increases with age and comorbidities. The pneumococcus is the organism most frequently involved in community-acquired pneumonia in the adult (30-35%). Around 40% of patients with community-acquired pneumonia require hospital admission, and around 10% need to be admitted to an intensive care unit. The most serious forms of pneumococcal infection include invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), which covers cases of bacteremia (associated or not to pneumonia), meningitis, pleuritis, arthritis, primary peritonitis and pericarditis. Currently, the biggest problem with the pneumococcus is the emergence of resistance to antimicrobial agents, and its high morbimortality, despite the use of appropriate antibiotics and proper medical treatment. Certain underlying medical conditions increase the risk of IPD and its complications, especially, from the respiratory diseases point of view, smoking and chronic respiratory diseases. Pneumococcal disease, according to the WHO, is the first preventable cause of death worldwide in children and adults. Among the strategies to prevent IPD is vaccination. WHO considers that its universal introduction and implementation against pneumococcus is essential and a priority in all countries. There are currently 2 pneumococcal vaccines for adults: the 23 serotypes polysaccharide and conjugate 13 serotypes. The scientific societies represented here have worked to develop some recommendations, based on the current scientific evidence, regarding the pneumococcal vaccination in the immunocompetent adult with chronic respiratory disease and smokers at risk of suffering from IPD. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantification of the risk for introduction of virulent Newcastle disease virus into Spain through legal trade of live poultry from European Union countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Vizcaino, Fernando; Perez, Andres; Lainez, Manuel; Sanchez-Vizcaino, Jose Manuel

    2010-12-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) causes large economic losses in poultry production worldwide. Spain has reported two ND epidemics in poultry farms since 1993, the most recent in 2009. The recent increase in the number of ND epidemics reported in Spain and in other European Union (EU) member countries along with the failure to identify the source of the Spanish epidemics caused concern over the vulnerability that Spain has to the disease. Some of the epidemics recently reported in EU member states were associated with legal introduction of live poultry; the large number of susceptible species annually imported by Spain from the EU suggests that legal imports of poultry may impose a risk for the introduction of virulent ND virus (v-NDV) into the country. This article presents the results of the first quantitative assessment of the risk for v-NDV introduction into an ND-free country via legal trade of live poultry. The geographical variation of the risk and the relative contribution of exporting countries and susceptible poultry species to the risk were also estimated. The model here estimated that if prevailing conditions persist, then it would be expected that ND epidemics caused by legal trade of live poultry will occur, on average, once every 196 years in Spain. These results suggest that the risk for ND epidemics in Spain, and probably the sources of recent epidemics reported in the country, were associated with routes of entry other than legal trade of poultry.

  20. Engineering Enhanced Vaccine Cell Lines To Eradicate Vaccine-Preventable Diseases: the Polio End Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sanden, Sabine M. G.; Wu, Weilin; Dybdahl-Sissoko, Naomi; Weldon, William C.; Brooks, Paula; O'Donnell, Jason; Jones, Les P.; Brown, Cedric; Tompkins, S. Mark; Oberste, M. Steven; Karpilow, Jon; Tripp, Ralph A.

    2016-01-01

    Vaccine manufacturing costs prevent a significant portion of the world's population from accessing protection from vaccine-preventable diseases. To enhance vaccine production at reduced costs, a genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screen was performed to identify gene knockdown events that enhanced

  1. Interacting Effects of Newcastle Disease Transmission and Illegal Trade on a Wild Population of White-Winged Parakeets in Peru: A Modeling Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth F Daut

    Full Text Available Illegal wildlife-pet trade can threaten wildlife populations directly from overharvest, but also indirectly as a pathway for introduction of infectious diseases. This study evaluated consequences of a hypothetical introduction of Newcastle disease (ND into a wild population of Peru's most trafficked psittacine, the white-winged parakeet (Brotogeris versicolurus, through release of infected confiscated individuals. We developed two mathematical models that describe ND transmission and the influence of illegal harvest in a homogeneous (model 1 and age-structured population of parakeets (model 2. Infection transmission dynamics and harvest were consistent for all individuals in model 1, which rendered it mathematically more tractable compared to the more complex, age-structured model 2 that separated the host population into juveniles and adults. We evaluated the interaction of ND transmission and harvest through changes in the basic reproduction number (R0 and short-term host population dynamics. Our findings demonstrated that ND introduction would likely provoke considerable disease-related mortality, up to 24% population decline in two years, but high harvest rates would dampen the magnitude of the outbreak. Model 2 produced moderate differences in disease dynamics compared to model 1 (R0 = 3.63 and 2.66, respectively, but highlighted the importance of adult disease dynamics in diminishing the epidemic potential. Therefore, we suggest that future studies should use a more realistic, age-structured model. Finally, for the presumptive risk that illegal trade of white-winged parakeets could introduce ND into wild populations, our results suggest that while high harvest rates may have a protective effect on the population by reducing virus transmission, the combined effects of high harvest and disease-induced mortality may threaten population survival. These results capture the complexity and consequences of the interaction between ND transmission

  2. Influenza and Pneumonia Vaccination Rates and Factors Affecting Vaccination among Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ülkü Aka Aktürk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations are recommended in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients to decrease associated risks at all stages. Although the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is high in our country, as previously reported, vaccination rates are low. Aims: To assess the vaccination rates of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and factors that may affect these. Study Design: Multi-centre cross-sectional study. Methods: Patients admitted to the chest diseases clinics of six different centres between 1 February 2013 and 1 January 2014 with a pre-diagnosis of Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease according to the Global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease criteria, who were in a stable condition were included in the study. The survey, which included demographic characteristics, socio-economic status, severity of disease and vaccination information, was first tested on a small patient population before the study. The survey was completed by the investigators after obtaining written informed consent. Results: The average age of the 296 included patients was 66.3±9.3 years and 91.9% were male. Of these, 36.5% had the influenza vaccination and 14.1% had the pneumococcal vaccination. The most common reason for not being vaccinated was ‘no recommendation by doctors’: 57.2% in the case of influenza vaccinations, and 46.8% in the case of pneumococcal vaccinations. Both vaccination rates were significantly higher in those patients with comorbidities (influenza vaccination p0.05. Vaccination rates were significantly higher in those with a white-collar occupation and higher education level, and who presented to a university hospital (p<0.001. Conclusion: Medical professionals do not request vaccinations as often as the International Guidelines suggest for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Awareness of the importance of these vaccinations among both doctors and patients

  3. Social contact networks and disease eradicability under voluntary vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Perisic

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Certain theories suggest that it should be difficult or impossible to eradicate a vaccine-preventable disease under voluntary vaccination: Herd immunity implies that the individual incentive to vaccinate disappears at high coverage levels. Historically, there have been examples of declining coverage for vaccines, such as MMR vaccine and whole-cell pertussis vaccine, that are consistent with this theory. On the other hand, smallpox was globally eradicated by 1980 despite voluntary vaccination policies in many jurisdictions. Previous modeling studies of the interplay between disease dynamics and individual vaccinating behavior have assumed that infection is transmitted in a homogeneously mixing population. By comparison, here we simulate transmission of a vaccine-preventable SEIR infection through a random, static contact network. Individuals choose whether to vaccinate based on infection risks from neighbors, and based on vaccine risks. When neighborhood size is small, rational vaccinating behavior results in rapid containment of the infection through voluntary ring vaccination. As neighborhood size increases (while the average force of infection is held constant, a threshold is reached beyond which the infection can break through partially vaccinated rings, percolating through the whole population and resulting in considerable epidemic final sizes and a large number vaccinated. The former outcome represents convergence between individually and socially optimal outcomes, whereas the latter represents their divergence, as observed in most models of individual vaccinating behavior that assume homogeneous mixing. Similar effects are observed in an extended model using smallpox-specific natural history and transmissibility assumptions. This work illustrates the significant qualitative differences between behavior-infection dynamics in discrete contact-structured populations versus continuous unstructured populations. This work also shows how disease

  4. Ebolavirus Vaccines: Progress in the Fight Against Ebola Virus Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-Xin; Yao, Hang-Ping; Wu, Nan-Ping; Gao, Hai-Nv; Wu, Hai-Bo; Jin, Chang-Zhong; Lu, Xiang-Yun; Xie, Tian-Shen; Li, Lan-Juan

    2015-01-01

    Ebolaviruses are highly infectious pathogens that cause lethal Ebola virus disease (EVD) in humans and non-human primates (NHPs). Due to their high pathogenicity and transmissibility, as well as the potential to be misused as a bioterrorism agent, ebolaviruses would threaten the health of global populations if not controlled. In this review, we describe the origin and structure of ebolaviruses and the development of vaccines from the beginning of the 1980s, including conventional ebolavirus vaccines, DNA vaccines, Ebola virus-like particles (VLPs), vaccinia virus-based vaccines, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV)-like replicon particles, Kunjin virus-based vaccine, recombinant Zaire Ebolavirusx2206;VP30, recombinant cytomegalovirus (CMV)-based vaccines, recombinant rabies virus (RABV)-based vaccines, recombinant paramyxovirus-based vaccines, adenovirus-based vaccines and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based vaccines. No licensed vaccine or specific treatment is currently available to counteract ebolavirus infection, although DNA plasmids and several viral vector approaches have been evaluated as promising vaccine platforms. These vaccine candidates have been confirmed to be successful in protecting NHPs against lethal infection. Moreover, these vaccine candidates were successfully advanced to clinical trials. The present review provides an update of the current research on Ebola vaccines, with the aim of providing an overview on current prospects in the fight against EVD. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Engineering Enhanced Vaccine Cell Lines To Eradicate Vaccine-Preventable Diseases: the Polio End Game

    OpenAIRE

    van der Sanden, Sabine M. G.; Wu, Weilin; Dybdahl-Sissoko, Naomi; Weldon, William C.; Brooks, Paula; O'Donnell, Jason; Jones, Les P.; Brown, Cedric; Tompkins, S. Mark; Oberste, M. Steven; Karpilow, Jon; Tripp, Ralph A.

    2016-01-01

    Vaccine manufacturing costs prevent a significant portion of the world's population from accessing protection from vaccine-preventable diseases. To enhance vaccine production at reduced costs, a genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screen was performed to identify gene knockdown events that enhanced poliovirus replication. Primary screen hits were validated in a Vero vaccine manufacturing cell line using attenuated and wild-type poliovirus strains. Multiple single and dual gene silencing event...

  6. Developing therapeutic vaccines against Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, Thomas; Drummond, Eleanor

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia worldwide. It is characterized by an imbalance between the production and clearance of amyloid β (Aβ) and tau proteins. In AD these normal proteins accumulate, leading to aggregation and a conformational change forming oligomeric and fibrillary species with a high β-sheet content. Active and passive immunotherapeutic approaches result in dramatic reduction of Aβ pathology in AD animal models. However, there is much more limited evidence in human studies of significant clinical benefits from these strategies and it is becoming apparent that they may only be effective very early in AD. Vaccination targeting only tau pathology has shown benefits in some mouse studies but human studies are limited. Greater therapeutic efficacy for the next generation of vaccine approaches will likely benefit from specifically targeting the most toxic species of Aβ and tau, ideally simultaneously.

  7. Influenza and Pneumonia Vaccination Rates and Factors Affecting Vaccination among Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aka Aktürk, Ülkü; Görek Dilektaşlı, Aslı; Şengül, Aysun; Musaffa Salepçi, Banu; Oktay, Nuray; Düger, Mustafa; Arık Taşyıkan, Hale; Durmuş Koçak, Nagihan

    2017-05-05

    Influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations are recommended in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients to decrease associated risks at all stages. Although the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is high in our country, as previously reported, vaccination rates are low. To assess the vaccination rates of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and factors that may affect these. Multi-centre cross-sectional study. Patients admitted to the chest diseases clinics of six different centres between 1 February 2013 and 1 January 2014 with a pre-diagnosis of Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease according to the Global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease criteria, who were in a stable condition were included in the study. The survey, which included demographic characteristics, socio-economic status, severity of disease and vaccination information, was first tested on a small patient population before the study. The survey was completed by the investigators after obtaining written informed consent. The average age of the 296 included patients was 66.3±9.3 years and 91.9% were male. Of these, 36.5% had the influenza vaccination and 14.1% had the pneumococcal vaccination. The most common reason for not being vaccinated was 'no recommendation by doctors': 57.2% in the case of influenza vaccinations, and 46.8% in the case of pneumococcal vaccinations. Both vaccination rates were significantly higher in those patients with comorbidities (influenza vaccination pvaccination p=0.06). There was no significant correlation with age, gender, smoking and severity of disease (p>0.05). Vaccination rates were significantly higher in those with a white-collar occupation and higher education level, and who presented to a university hospital (pvaccinations as often as the International Guidelines suggest for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Awareness of the importance of these vaccinations among both doctors and patients needs to be

  8. Seven challenges in modeling vaccine preventable diseasesC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Metcalf, C. Jessica E.; Andreasen, Viggo; Bjørnstad, Ottar N.

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination has been one of the most successful public health measures since the introduction of basic sanitation. Substantial mortality and morbidity reductions have been achieved via vaccination against many infections, and the list of diseases that are potentially controllable by vaccines is g...

  9. Five diseases, one vaccine - a boost for emerging livestock farmers ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South African and Canadian scientists are developing two innovative, 'new generation' livestock vaccines that aim to be affordable, heat-stable and provide long-term protection. • The first vaccine is targeted against five important viral diseases affecting sheep, goats and/or cattle using a single injection. • A second vaccine ...

  10. Two single mutations in the fusion protein of Newcastle disease virus confer hemagglutinin-neuraminidase independent fusion promotion and attenuate the pathogenicity in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yanhong; Liu, Tao; Jia, Yane; Liu, Bin; Yu, Qingzhong; Cui, Xiaole; Guo, Fengfeng; Chang, Huiyun; Zhu, Qiyun

    2017-09-01

    The fusion (F) protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) affects viral infection and pathogenicity through mediating membrane fusion. Previously, we found NDV with increased fusogenic activity in which contained T458D or G459D mutation in the F protein. Here, we investigated the effects of these two mutations on viral infection, fusogenicity and pathogenicity. Syncytium formation assays indicated that T458D or G459D increased the F protein cleavage activity and enhanced cell fusion with or without the presence of HN protein. The T458D- or G459D-mutated NDV resulted in a decrease in virus replication or release from cells. The animal study showed that the pathogenicity of the mutated NDVs was attenuated in chickens. These results indicate that these two single mutations in F altered or diminished the requirement of HN for promoting membrane fusion. The increased fusogenic activity may disrupt the cellular machinery and consequently decrease the virus replication and pathogenicity in chickens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence and risk factors for Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Coxiella burnetii, and Newcastle disease virus in feral pigeons (Columba livia) in public areas of Montreal, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriele-Rivet, Vanessa; Fairbrother, Julie-Hélène; Tremblay, Donald; Harel, Josée; Côté, Nathalie; Arsenault, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Feral pigeons (Columbia livia) can harbor a range of zoonotic pathogens. A transversal study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of feral pigeons infected by various pathogens in public areas in Montreal, Quebec. Cloacal swabs from captured birds were cultured for Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. and tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the detection of Coxiella burnetii. An oropharyngeal swab was also submitted to real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) for the detection of Newcastle disease virus. Among the 187 pigeons tested from 10 public areas, 9.1% (95% CI: 3.0 to 15.2) were positive for Campylobacter spp. with all strains identified as Campylobacter jejuni. The Campylobacter status of birds was not associated with individual characteristics of birds, with the exception of body score. None of the pigeons tested positive for the other pathogens. Direct or indirect contacts with feral pigeons may constitute a potential risk for Campylobacter infection in humans.

  12. High levels of virus replication and an intense inflammatory response contribute to the severe pathology in lymphoid tissues caused by Newcastle disease virus genotype VIId.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zenglei; Hu, Jiao; Hu, Shunlin; Song, Qingqing; Ding, Pingyun; Zhu, Jie; Liu, Xiaowen; Wang, Xiaoquan; Liu, Xiufan

    2015-03-01

    Some strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) genotype VIId cause more-severe tissue damage in lymphoid organs compared to other virulent strains. In this study, we aim to define the mechanism of this distinct pathological manifestation of genotype VII viruses. Pathology, virus replication, and the innate immune response in lymphoid tissues of chickens infected with two genotype VIId NDV strains (JS5/05 and JS3/05), genotype IX NDV F48E8 and genotype IV NDV Herts/33, were compared. Histopathologic examination showed that JS5/05 and JS3/05 produced more-severe lesions in the spleen and thymus, but these four virulent strains caused comparable mild lesions in the bursa. In addition, JS3/05 and JS5/05 replicated at significantly higher levels in the lymphatic organs than F48E8 and Herts/33. A microarray assay performed on the spleens of chickens infected with JS5/05 or Herts/33 revealed that JS5/05 elicited a more potent inflammatory response by increasing the number and expression levels of activated genes. Moreover, cytokine gene expression profiling showed that JS5/05 and JS3/05 induced a stronger cytokine response in lymphoid tissues compared to F48E8 and Herts/33. Taken together, our results indicate that the severe pathology in immune organs caused by genotype VIId NDV strains is associated with high levels of virus replication and an intense inflammatory response.

  13. Comparative study on the pathogenesis of the generated 9a5b Newcastle disease virus mutant isolate between chickens and waterfowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anis, Z; Morita, T; Azuma, K; Ito, H; Ito, T; Shimada, A

    2013-07-01

    Lentogenic Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs), circulating among waterfowl, have the potential to become highly pathogenic by replication in chickens. The pathological studies that compare NDV infections in chickens and waterfowl are rare. The virulent 9a5b mutant NDV isolate was generated by passaging the lentogenic Goose/Alaska/415/91 NDV isolate in chickens. The pathogenesis of the virulent 9a5b mutant isolate is unknown in both chickens and waterfowl. In this study, the virulent 9a5b mutant NDV isolate was inoculated intranasally in 32-day-old specific pathogen-free white Leghorn chickens and Japanese commercial ducks. Unlike ducks, which remained clinically normal throughout the study, chickens had depression, gasping, oral discharges, and greenish-white soft feces. Gross and histologic lesion patterns as well as viral replication supported the differing clinical outcome. Ducks had slight inflammation mainly in respiratory and digestive tracts, whereas slight nonpurulent encephalitis, necrotizing pancreatitis, tubulointerstitial nephritis, and mild inflammation in respiratory and digestive tracts were detected in chickens. In agreement, interferon-beta (IFN-β)-immunopositive signals were more intense in lung tissue of ducks than that of chickens, and NDV replications were detected intensively in chicken tissues. These results suggest that the 9a5b mutant NDV isolate is more virulent in chickens, and slight histological lesions were induced in ducks even with virulent NDVs.

  14. Identification of cellular proteins that interact with Newcastle Disease Virus and human Respiratory Syncytial Virus by a two-dimensional virus overlay protein binding assay (VOPBA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holguera, Javier; Villar, Enrique; Muñoz-Barroso, Isabel

    2014-10-13

    Although it is well documented that the initial attachment receptors for Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) and Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) are sialic acid-containing molecules and glycosaminoglycans respectively, the exact nature of the receptors for both viruses remains to be deciphered. Moreover, additional molecules at the host cell surface might be involved in the entry mechanism. With the aim of identifying the cellular proteins that interact with NDV and RSV at the cell surface, we performed a virus overlay protein binding assay (VOPBA). Cell membrane lysates were separated by two dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis and electrotransferred to PVDF membranes, after which they were probed with high viral concentrations. NDV interacted with a Protein Disulfide Isomerase from chicken fibroblasts. In the case of RSV, we detected 15 reactive spots, which were identified as six different proteins, of which nucleolin was outstanding. We discuss the possible role of PDI and nucleolin in NDV and RSV entry, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluating viral interference between Influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus using real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction in chicken eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Shengqiang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Simultaneous and sequential allantoic cavity inoculations of Specific-pathogen-free (SPF chicken eggs with Influenza virus (AIV and Newcastle disease virus (NDV demonstrated that the interaction of AIV and NDV during co-infection was variable. Our research revisited the replication interference potential of AIV and NDV using real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR for AIV and NDV to specifically detect the viral genomes in mixed infections. Results Data from this survey showed that when different doses of NDV (Lasota or F48E8 and AIV (F98 or H5N1 were simultaneously inoculated into embryonating chicken eggs (ECE, interference with the growth of NDV occurred, while interference with the growth of AIV did not occur. When equal amount of the two viruses were sequentially employed, the degree of interference was dependent upon the time of superinfection and the virulence of virus. Conclusion AIV have a negative impact on NDV growth if they are inoculated simultaneously or sequentially and that the degree of interference depended upon the quantity and relative virulence of the virus strains used; however, interference with AIV was not observed. Only if NDV were inoculated at an earlier time will NDV able to interfere with the growth of AIV.

  16. Evaluation of the efficacy of the crude extracts of Capsicum frutescens, Citrus limon and Opuntia vulgaris against Newcastle disease in domestic fowl in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtambo, M M; Mushi, E J; Kinabo, L D; Maeda-Machang'u, A; Mwamengele, G L; Yongolo, M G; Temu, R P

    1999-12-15

    Prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of a combination of Capsicum frutescens (red pepper), Citrus limon (lemon) and Opuntia vulgaris (prickly pear) against Newcastle disease (ND) in domestic fowl were evaluated. Eighty-eight broiler chickens were divided into five groups. Birds from three groups were inoculated with velogenic ND virus strain, whereas birds from two groups were left as controls. Two groups received a mixture of the plant extract three days prior to inoculation and birds from one group were given the plant extract for two days following development of clinical signs. Blood samples were collected for haemaglutination inhibition tests (HI) for detection of ND virus antibodies. Body weights were monitored during the experiment. Three birds died from the group that was inoculated with ND virus and treated with the plant extract; two died from the group that received the plant extract as a prophylaxis and inoculated with ND virus; and one bird died from the group that was inoculated with ND virus but not given the plant extract. No death was observed in any of the birds in the control groups. Antibody titers for ND virus rose four-fold in the inoculated birds but remained low in the un-inoculated groups. Mean body weights of birds in group B declined markedly compared to the other groups. The results indicated that there was no prophylactic or therapeutic value of the plant extract against ND. The plant extract showed a negative effect on body weights in birds with ND.

  17. Signaling through RIG-I and type I interferon receptor: Immune activation by Newcastle disease virus in man versus immune evasion by Ebola virus (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirrmacher, Volker

    2015-07-01

    In this review, two types of RNA viruses are compared with regard to the type I interferon (IFN) response in order to obtain a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of immune activation or evasion. Upon human infection, both viruses exert either beneficial or detrimental effects. The Newcastle disease virus (NDV), is a type strain for avian paramyxoviruses, while the Ebola virus (EBOV), is a virus affecting primates. During evolution, both viruses specifically adapted to their respective hosts, acquiring sophisticated viral escape mechanisms. Two types of receptors play an important role in the life cycle of these two viruses: cytoplasmic retinoic acid‑inducible gene I (RIG‑I) and membrane expressed type I IFN receptor (IFNAR). In mouse and human cells, NDV is a strong inducer of the type I IFN response. The early phase of this is initiated by signaling through RIG‑I and the late response by signaling through IFNAR. EBOV does not induce type I IFN responses in humans as it has viral proteins that specifically and strongly interfere with RIG‑I and IFNAR signaling, as well as immune activation. In this review, we discuss whether the beneficial effects of one virus can be exploited in the fight against the detrimental effects of the other.

  18. Vaccinations in children on immunosuppressive medications for renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sushmita; Dissanayake, Pathum Vindana; Abeyagunawardena, Asiri Samantha

    2016-09-01

    Renal diseases are often treated with immunosuppressive medications, placing patients at risk of infections, some of which are vaccine-preventable. However, in such patients vaccinations may be delayed or disregarded due to complications of the underlying disease process and challenges in its management. The decision to administer vaccines to immunosuppressed children is a risk-benefit balance as such children may have a qualitatively diminished immunological response or develop diseases caused by the vaccine pathogen. Vaccination may cause a flare-up of disease activity or provocation of graft rejection in renal transplant recipients. Moreover, it cannot be assumed that a given antibody level provides the same protection in immunosupressed children as in healthy ones. We have evaluated the safety and efficacy of licensed vaccines in children on immunosuppressive therapy and in renal transplant recipients. The limited evidence available suggests that vaccines are most effective if given early, ideally before the requirement for immunosuppressive therapy, which may require administration of accelerated vaccine courses. Once treatment with immunosuppressive drugs is started, inactivated vaccines are usually considered to be safe when the disease is quiescent, but supplemental doses may be required. In the majority of cases, live vaccines are to be avoided. All vaccines are generally contraindicated within 3-6 months of a renal transplant.

  19. Current status of vaccines against infectious bursal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Hermann; Mundt, Egbert; Eterradossi, Nicolas; Islam, M Rafiqul

    2012-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is the aetiological agent of the acute and highly contagious infectious bursal disease (IBD) or "Gumboro disease". IBD is one of the economically most important diseases that affects commercially produced chickens worldwide. Along with strict hygiene management of poultry farms, vaccination programmes with inactivated and live attenuated viruses have been used to prevent IBD. Live vaccines show a different degree of attenuation; many of them may cause bursal atrophy and thus immunosuppression with poor immune response to vaccination against other pathogens and an increase in vulnerability to various types of infections as possible consequences. Depending on their intrinsic characteristics or on the vaccination procedures, some of the vaccines may not induce full protection against the very virulent IBDV strains and antigenic variants observed in the last three decades. As chickens are most susceptible to IBDV in their first weeks of life, active immunity to the virus has to be induced early after hatching. However, maternally derived IBDV-specific antibodies may interfere with early vaccination with live vaccines. Thus new technologies and second-generation vaccines including rationally designed and subunit vaccines have been developed. Recently, live viral vector vaccines have been licensed in several countries and are reaching the market. Here, the current status of IBD vaccines is discussed.

  20. Transmission-Blocking Vaccines: Focus on Anti-Vector Vaccines against Tick-Borne Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelakanta, Girish; Sultana, Hameeda

    2015-06-01

    Tick-borne diseases are a potential threat that account for significant morbidity and mortality in human population worldwide. Vaccines are not available to treat several of the tick-borne diseases. With the emergence and resurgence of several tick-borne diseases, emphasis on the development of transmission-blocking vaccines remains increasing. In this review, we provide a snap shot on some of the potential candidates for the development of anti-vector vaccines (a form of transmission-blocking vaccines) against wide range of hard and soft ticks that include Ixodes, Haemaphysalis, Dermacentor, Amblyomma, Rhipicephalus and Ornithodoros species.

  1. Childhood vaccines and Kawasaki disease, Vaccine Safety Datalink, 1996-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Joseph Y; Weintraub, Eric S; Baggs, James M; McCarthy, Natalie L; Schonberger, Lawrence B; Lee, Grace M; Klein, Nicola P; Belongia, Edward A; Jackson, Michael L; Naleway, Allison L; Nordin, James D; Hambidge, Simon J; Belay, Ermias D

    2015-01-03

    Kawasaki disease is a childhood vascular disorder of unknown etiology. Concerns have been raised about vaccinations being a potential risk factor for Kawasaki disease. Data from the Vaccine Safety Datalink were collected on children aged 0-6 years at seven managed care organizations across the United States. Defining exposure as one of several time periods up to 42 days after vaccination, we conducted Poisson regressions controlling for age, sex, season, and managed care organization to determine if rates of physician-diagnosed and verified Kawasaki disease were elevated following vaccination compared to rates during all unexposed periods. We also performed case-crossover analyses to control for unmeasured confounding. A total of 1,721,186 children aged 0-6 years from seven managed care organizations were followed for a combined 4,417,766 person-years. The rate of verified Kawasaki disease was significantly lower during the 1-42 days after vaccination (rate ratio=0.50, 95% CL=0.27-0.92) and 8-42 days after vaccination (rate ratio=0.45, 95% CL=0.22-0.90) compared to rates during unexposed periods. Breaking down the analysis by vaccination category did not identify a subset of vaccines which was solely responsible for this association. The case-crossover analyses revealed that children with Kawasaki disease had lower rates of vaccination in the 42 days prior to symptom onset for both physician-diagnosed Kawasaki disease (rate ratio=0.79, 95% CL=0.64-0.97) and verified Kawasaki disease (rate ratio=0.38, 95% CL=0.20-0.75). Childhood vaccinations' studied did not increase the risk of Kawasaki disease; conversely, vaccination was associated with a transient decrease in Kawasaki disease incidence. Verifying and understanding this potential protective effect could yield clues to the underlying etiology of Kawasaki disease. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Vaccines for prevention of group B meningococcal disease: Not your father's vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Lee H

    2015-11-27

    For decades, there was no licensed vaccine for prevention of endemic capsular group B meningococcal disease, despite the availability of vaccines for prevention of the other most common meningococcal capsular groups. Recently, however, two new vaccines have been licensed for prevention of group B disease. Although immunogenic and considered to have an acceptable safety profile, there are many scientific unknowns about these vaccines, including effectiveness against antigenically diverse endemic meningococcal strains; duration of protection; whether they provide any herd protection; and whether there will be meningococcal antigenic changes that will diminish effectiveness over time. In addition, these vaccines present societal dilemmas that could influence how they are used in the U.S., including high vaccine cost in the face of a historically low incidence of meningococcal disease. These issues are discussed in this review. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Regulation of de novo translation of host cells by manipulation of PERK/PKR and GADD34-PP1 activity during Newcastle disease virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ying; Gu, Feng; Mao, Xiang; Niu, Qiaona; Wang, Huaxia; Sun, Yingjie; Song, Cuiping; Qiu, Xusheng; Tan, Lei; Ding, Chan

    2016-04-01

    Viral infections result in cellular stress responses, which can trigger protein translation shutoff via phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α). Newcastle disease virus (NDV) causes severe disease in poultry and selectively kills human tumour cells. In this report, we determined that infection of HeLa human cervical cancer cells and DF-1 chicken fibroblast cells with NDV maintained protein at early infection times, 0-12 h post-infection (p.i.), and gradually inhibited global protein translation at late infection times, 12-24 h p.i. Mechanistic studies showed that translation inhibition at late infection times was accompanied by phosphorylation of eIF2α, a checkpoint of translation initiation. Meanwhile, the eIF2α kinase, PKR, was upregulated and activated by phosphorylation and another eIF2α kinase, PERK, was phosphorylated and cleaved into two fragments. Pharmacological inhibition experiments revealed that only PKR activity was required for eIF2α phosphorylation, suggesting that recognition of viral dsRNA by PKR was responsible for translation shutoff. High levels of phospho-eIF2α led to preferential translation of the transcription factor ATF4 and an increase in GADD34 expression. Functionally, GADD34, in conjunction with PP1, dephosphorylated eIF2a and restored protein translation, benefiting virus protein synthesis. However, PP1 was degraded at late infection times, functionally counteracting the upregulation of GADD34. Taken together, our data support that NDV-induced translation shutoff at late infection times was attributed to sustaining phosphorylation of eIF2α, which is mediated by continual activation of PKR and degradation of PP1.

  4. Engineering Enhanced Vaccine Cell Lines To Eradicate Vaccine-Preventable Diseases: the Polio End Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sanden, Sabine M G; Wu, Weilin; Dybdahl-Sissoko, Naomi; Weldon, William C; Brooks, Paula; O'Donnell, Jason; Jones, Les P; Brown, Cedric; Tompkins, S Mark; Oberste, M Steven; Karpilow, Jon; Tripp, Ralph A

    2016-02-15

    Vaccine manufacturing costs prevent a significant portion of the world's population from accessing protection from vaccine-preventable diseases. To enhance vaccine production at reduced costs, a genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screen was performed to identify gene knockdown events that enhanced poliovirus replication. Primary screen hits were validated in a Vero vaccine manufacturing cell line using attenuated and wild-type poliovirus strains. Multiple single and dual gene silencing events increased poliovirus titers >20-fold and >50-fold, respectively. Host gene knockdown events did not affect virus antigenicity, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas9-mediated knockout of the top candidates dramatically improved viral vaccine strain production. Interestingly, silencing of several genes that enhanced poliovirus replication also enhanced replication of enterovirus 71, a clinically relevant virus to which vaccines are being targeted. The discovery that host gene modulation can markedly increase virus vaccine production dramatically alters mammalian cell-based vaccine manufacturing possibilities and should facilitate polio eradication using the inactivated poliovirus vaccine. Using a genome-wide RNAi screen, a collection of host virus resistance genes was identified that, upon silencing, increased poliovirus and enterovirus 71 production by from 10-fold to >50-fold in a Vero vaccine manufacturing cell line. This report provides novel insights into enterovirus-host interactions and describes an approach to developing the next generation of vaccine manufacturing through engineered vaccine cell lines. The results show that specific gene silencing and knockout events can enhance viral titers of both attenuated (Sabin strain) and wild-type polioviruses, a finding that should greatly facilitate global implementation of inactivated polio vaccine as well as further reduce costs for live-attenuated oral polio vaccines. This work

  5. Conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines for sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allali, Slimane; Chalumeau, Martin; Launay, Odile; Ballas, Samir K; de Montalembert, Mariane

    2016-02-16

    People affected with sickle cell disease are at high risk of infection from Haemophilus influenzae type b. Before the implementation of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccination in high-income countries, this was responsible for a high mortality rate in children under five years of age. In African countries, where coverage of this vaccination is still extremely low, Haemophilus influenzae type b remains one of the most common cause of bacteraemias in children with sickle cell disease. The increased uptake of this conjugate vaccination may substantially improve the survival of children with sickle cell disease. The primary objective was to determine whether Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines reduce mortality and morbidity in children and adults with sickle cell disease.The secondary objectives were to assess the following in children and adults with sickle cell disease: the immunogenicity of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines; the safety of these vaccines; and any variation in effect according to type of vaccine, mode of administration (separately or in combination with other vaccines), number of doses, and age at first dose. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register, compiled from electronic database searches and handsearching of journals and conference abstract books. We also contacted relevant pharmaceutical companies to identify unpublished trials.Date of last search: 23 November 2015. All randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines with placebo or no treatment, or comparing different types of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines in people with sickle cell disease. No trials of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines in people with sickle cell disease were found. There is an absence of evidence from randomised controlled trials relating to the subject of this review. There has

  6. Economics and financing of vaccines for diarrheal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Sarah M; Lee, Bruce Y

    2014-01-01

    The considerable burden of infectious disease-caused diarrhea around the world has motivated the continuing development of a number of vaccine candidates over the past several decades with some reaching the market. As with all major public health interventions, understanding the economics and financing of vaccines against diarrheal diseases is essential to their development and implementation. This review focuses on each of the major infectious pathogens that commonly cause diarrhea, the current understanding of their economic burden, the status of vaccine development, and existing economic evaluations of the vaccines. While the literature on the economics and financing of vaccines against diarrhea diseases is growing, there is considerable room for more inquiry. Substantial gaps exist for many pathogens, circumstances, and effects. Economics and financing studies are integral to vaccine development and implementation.

  7. Importin α5 negatively regulates importin β1-mediated nuclear import of Newcastle disease virus matrix protein and viral replication and pathogenicity in chicken fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhiqiang; Xu, Haixu; Ji, Xinqin; Zhao, Jiafu; Xu, Houqiang; Hu, Yan; Deng, Shanshan; Hu, Shunlin; Liu, Xiufan

    2018-03-13

    The matrix (M) protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is demonstrated to localize in the nucleus via intrinsic nuclear localization signal (NLS), but cellular proteins involved in the nuclear import of NDV M protein and the role of M's nuclear localization in the replication and pathogenicity of NDV remain unclear. In this study, importin β1 was screened to interact with NDV M protein by yeast two-hybrid screening. This interaction was subsequently confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and pull-down assays. In vitro binding studies indicated that the NLS region of M protein and the amino acids 336-433 of importin β1 that belonged to the RanGTP binding region were important for binding. Importantly, a recombinant virus with M/NLS mutation resulted in a pathotype change of NDV and attenuated viral replication and pathogenicity in chicken fibroblasts and SPF chickens. In agreement with the binding data, nuclear import of NDV M protein in digitonin-permeabilized HeLa cells required both importin β1 and RanGTP. Interestingly, importin α5 was verified to interact with M protein through binding importin β1. However, importin β1 or importin α5 depletion by siRNA resulted in different results, which showed the obviously cytoplasmic or nuclear accumulation of M protein and the remarkably decreased or increased replication ability and pathogenicity of NDV in chicken fibroblasts, respectively. Our findings therefore demonstrate for the first time the nuclear import mechanism of NDV M protein and the negative regulation role of importin α5 in importin β1-mediated nuclear import of M protein and the replication and pathogenicity of a paramyxovirus.

  8. Anti-Tumor Effects of an Oncolytic Adenovirus Expressing Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase of Newcastle Disease Virus in Vitro and in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyun He

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Oncolytic virotherapy has been an attractive drug platform for targeted therapy of cancer over the past few years. Viral vectors can be used to target and lyse cancer cells, but achieving good efficacy and specificity with this treatment approach is a major challenge. Here, we assessed the ability of a novel dual-specific anti-tumor oncolytic adenovirus, expressing the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN gene from the Newcastle disease virus under the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT promoter (Ad-hTERTp-E1a-HN, to inhibit esophageal cancer EC-109 cells in culture and to reduce tumor burden in xenografted BALB/c nude mice. In vitro, infection with Ad-hTERT-E1a-HN could inhibit the growth of EC-109 cells significantly and also protect normal human liver cell line L02 from growth suppression in 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assays. Ad-hTERT-E1a-HN also effectively and selectively decreased the sialic acid level on EC-109 cells, but not on L02 cells. Furthermore, Ad-hTERT-E1a-HN was shown to induce the apoptosis pathway via acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining (AO/EB staining, increase reactive oxygen species (ROS, reduce mitochondrial membrane potential and release cytochrome c. In vivo, xenografted BALB/c nude mice were treated via intratumoral or intravenous injections of Ad-hTERT-E1a-HN. Although both treatments showed an obvious suppression in tumor volume, only Ad-hTERT-E1a-HN delivered via intratumoral injection elicited a complete response to treatment. These results reinforced previous findings and highlighted the potential therapeutic application of Ad-hTERT-E1a-HN for treatment of esophageal cancer in clinical trials.

  9. Isolasi, Identifikasi, Sifat Fisik, dan Biologi Virus Tetelo yang Diisolasi dari Kasus di Lapangan (ISOLATION, IDENTIFICATION, PHISICAL, AND BIOLOGICAL CHARACTER OF NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS ISOLATED FROM FIELD CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Haryadi Wibowo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available native chicken farm suspected to Newcastle disease (ND virus infection. Specimens were taken andcollected from the lung was further processed. Suspected materials were inoculated into allantoic sacc inspecific pathogenic free of 10 days embryonating egg chicken. The growth of the virus was determined withthe ability to agglutinate the chicken red blood cells or hemaglutination test. Positive hemaglutinationwas performed with hemaglutinatin inhibition test using specific antibody against ND virus. Method forND virus isolation, propagation and identification were based on the standard procedure of serologicalidentification for ND virus serological identification. 13 out of 34 samples were identified as ND viruses.Observation on the course and time of the virus to kill the chicken embryo could be differentiated intomoderate virus patho-type were 10 isolates and a virulent strains were 3 isolates. Further characterizationbased on the elution time observation indicated 11 isolates were not pathogenic strain and 2 isolates werenot virulent strain. Hemagglutinin stability study revealed that 11 isolates were sensitive being heated at560C for 30 minutes while 2 isolates were resistant. Biological characteristic of ND virus to hemagglutinateon various mammalian red blood cells indicating that most isolates were HA negative. Two isolates wereHA positive with cattle, horse and sheep red blood cell, and one isolate indicated positive HA test by usingsheep red blood cell. Control virus was lentogenic patho-type of La Sota strain showed HA and HI testpositive, elution time was 29 minutes, stability on the hemagglutinin after heating was 2 minutes and HApositive with cattle, horse and sheep red blood cell.

  10. Reduced Newcastle disease virus-induced oncolysis in a subpopulation of cisplatin-resistant MCF7 cells is associated with survivin stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Mohd-Hafifi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cisplatin resistance is a serious problem in cancer treatment. To overcome it, alternative approaches including virotherapy are being pursued. One of the candidates for anticancer virotherapy is the Newcastle disease virus (NDV. Even though NDV's oncolytic properties in various cancer cells have been widely reported, information regarding its effects on cisplatin resistant cancer cells is still limited. Therefore, we tested the oncolytic efficacy of a strain of NDV, designated as AF2240, in a cisplatin-resistant breast cancer cell line. Methods Cisplatin-resistant cell line (MCF7-CR was developed from the MCF7 human breast adenocarcinoma cell line by performing a seven-cyclic exposure to cisplatin. Following NDV infection, fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS analysis and immunoblotting were used to measure cell viability and viral protein expression, respectively. Production of virus progeny was then assessed by using the plaque assay technique. Results Infection of a mass population of the MCF7-CR with NDV resulted in 50% killing in the first 12 hours post-infection (hpi, comparable to the parental MCF7. From 12 hpi onwards, the remaining MCF7-CR became less susceptible to NDV killing. This reduced susceptibility led to increased viral protein synthesis and virus progeny production. The reduction was also associated with a prolonged cell survival via stabilization of the survivin protein. Conclusions Our findings showed for the first time, the involvement of survivin in the reduction of NDV-induced oncolysis in a subpopulation of cisplatin-resistant cells. This information will be important towards improving the efficacy of NDV as an anticancer agent in drug resistant cancers.

  11. Development of a vaccine for bacterial kidney disease in salmon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaatari, S.; Turaga, P.; Wiens, G.

    1989-08-01

    This document is the executive summary and background review for the final report of ''Development of a Vaccine for Bacterial Kidney Disease in Salmon''. A description of the disease is provided, with microbiological characterization of the infective agent. A brief discussion of attempts to eradicate the disease is included. Recent progress in vaccine development and attempts to control the disease through pharmacological means are described, along with potential ways to break the cycle of infection. 80 refs

  12. Progress and controversy surrounding vaccines against Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Mark S; Edelman, Robert

    2003-10-01

    Less than 20 years elapsed between the 1982 report of the identification and isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi and the licensure and marketing in the USA of a prophylactic vaccine against this pathogen. However, the manufacturer removed the vaccine from the market under 4 years after its release. The low demand undoubtedly was the result of limited efficacy, need for frequent boosters, the high price of the vaccine, exclusion of children, fear of vaccine-induced musculoskeletal symptoms and litigation surrounding the vaccine. Second-generation polyvalent outer surface protein (Osp)C vaccines may overcome some of these concerns but the precise antigenic components required for efficacy are uncertain. The development of the next generation of Lyme disease vaccines is in its infancy.

  13. Kyasanur Forest disease outbreak and vaccination strategy,Shimoga District, India, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, S K; Pasi, Achhelal; Kumar, Satish; Kasabi, Gudadappa S; Gujjarappa, Prabhakara; Shrivastava, Aakash; Mehendale, Sanjay; Chauhan, L S; Laserson, Kayla F; Murhekar, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    We investigated a Kyasanur Forest disease outbreak in Karnataka, India during December 2013-April 2014. Surveillance and retrospective study indicated low vaccine coverage, low vaccine effectiveness, and spread of disease to areas beyond those selected for vaccination and to age groups not targeted for vaccination. To control disease, vaccination strategies need to be reviewed.

  14. Viral respiratory diseases: vaccines and antivirals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennette, E H

    1981-01-01

    Acute respiratory diseases, most of which are generally attributed to viruses, account for about 6% of all deaths and for about 60% of the deaths associated with all respiratory disease. The huge cost attributable to viral respiratory infections as a result of absenteeism and the disruption of business and the burden of medical care makes control of these diseases an important objective. The viruses that infect the respiratory tract fall taxonomically into five viral families. Although immunoprophylaxis would appear to be the logical approach, the development of suitable vaccines has been confronted with numerous obstacles, including antigenic drift and shift in the influenzaviruses, the large number of antigenically distinct immunotypes among rhinoviruses, the occurrence after immunization of rare cases of a severe form of the disease following subsequent natural infection with respiratory syncytial virus, and the risk of oncogenicity of adenoviruses for man. Considerable expenditure on the development of new antiviral drugs has so far resulted in only three compounds that are at present officially approved and licensed for use in the USA. Efforts to improve the tools available for control should continue and imaginative and inventive approaches are called for. However, creativity and ingenuity must operate within the constraints imposed by economic, political, ethical, and legal considerations.

  15. Vaccine administration in children with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Susanna; Mastrolia, Maria Vincenza; Prada, Elisabetta; Pietrasanta, Carlo; Principi, Nicola

    2014-11-20

    Pediatric patients with severe chronic kidney disease (CKD) on conservative treatment, on dialysis, and those with renal transplantation are at a higher risk for infectious diseases as the result of impaired immune responses against infectious agents. Infections in these patients can have drastic consequences for disease morbidity and mortality. Immunization is a crucial preventive strategy for disease management in this pediatric population. However, vaccination coverage among children with CKD remains low due to safety concerns and doubts about vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy. In this study, we reviewed why children with CKD are at higher risk of infections, the importance of vaccinations among these children, barriers to vaccinations, and recommend the best vaccination schedules. Overall, vaccines have acceptable immunogenicity, efficacy, and safety profiles in children with CKD. However, in some cases, the protective antibody levels induced by vaccines and the benefits and risks of booster vaccine doses must be individually managed. Furthermore, close contacts and household members of these children should complete age-appropriate vaccination schedules to increase the child's indirect protection.

  16. Association Between Vaccine Refusal and Vaccine-Preventable Diseases in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadke, Varun K.; Bednarczyk, Robert A.; Salmon, Daniel A.; Omer, Saad B.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Parents hesitant to vaccinate their children may delay routine immunizations or seek exemptions from state vaccine mandates. Recent outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases in the United States have drawn attention to this phenomenon. Improved understanding of the association between vaccine refusal and the epidemiology of these diseases is needed. OBJECTIVE To review the published literature to evaluate the association between vaccine delay, refusal, or exemption and the epidemiology of measles and pertussis, 2 vaccine-preventable diseases with recent US outbreaks. EVIDENCE REVIEW Search of PubMed through November 30, 2015, for reports of US measles outbreaks that have occurred since measles was declared eliminated in the United States (after January 1, 2000), endemic and epidemic pertussis since the lowest point in US pertussis incidence (after January 1, 1977), and for studies that assessed disease risk in the context of vaccine delay or exemption. FINDINGS We identified 18 published measles studies (9 annual summaries and 9 outbreak reports), which described 1416 measles cases (individual age range, 2 weeks-84 years; 178 cases younger than 12 months) and more than half (56.8%) had no history of measles vaccination. Of the 970 measles cases with detailed vaccination data, 574 cases were unvaccinated despite being vaccine eligible and 405 (70.6%) of these had nonmedical exemptions (eg, exemptions for religious or philosophical reasons, as opposed to medical contraindications; 41.8%of total). Among 32 reports of pertussis outbreaks, which included 10 609 individuals for whom vaccination status was reported (age range, 10 days-87 years), the 5 largest statewide epidemics had substantial proportions (range, 24%–45%) of unvaccinated or undervaccinated individuals. However, several pertussis outbreaks also occurred in highly vaccinated populations, indicating waning immunity. Nine reports (describing 12 outbreaks) provided detailed vaccination data on

  17. Role of vaccinations and prophylaxis in rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Despoina; Tsoulas, Christos; Tragiannidis, Athanassios; Sipsas, Nikolaos V

    2015-04-01

    Targeted strategies for reducing the increased risk of infection in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases include vaccinations as well as antibiotic prophylaxis in selected patients. However, there are still issues under debate: Is vaccination in patients with rheumatic diseases immunogenic? Is it safe? What is the impact of immunosuppressive drugs on vaccine immunogenicity and safety? Does vaccination cause disease flares? In which cases is prophylaxis against Pneumocystis jirovecii required? This review addresses these important questions to which clinicians and researchers still do not have definite answers. The first part includes immunization recommendations and reviews current data on vaccine efficacy and safety in patients with rheumatic diseases. The second part discusses prophylaxis for Pneumocystis pneumonia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Vaccination in inflammatory bowel disease patients: attitudes, knowledge, and uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Gurtej; Rumman, Amir; Thanabalan, Reka; Croitoru, Kenneth; Silverberg, Mark S; Hillary Steinhart, A; Nguyen, Geoffrey C

    2015-06-01

    Immunomodulators and biological agents, used to treat inflammatory bowel disease [IBD], are associated with an increased risk of infection, including vaccine-preventable infections. We assessed patient attitudes towards vaccination, knowledge of vaccine recommendations, and uptake of recommended vaccines. Patients attending IBD clinics completed a self-administered, structured, paper-based questionnaire. We collected demographic data, medical and immunisation history, self-reported patient uptake, knowledge, and perceptions of childhood and adult vaccinations. The prevalence of treatment with biologicals, steroids, thiopurines, and methotrexate among the 300 respondents were 37.3%, 16.0%, 16.0%, and 5.7%, respectively. Self-reported vaccine completion was reported by 45.3% of patients. Vaccination uptake rates were 61.3% for influenza, 10.3% for pneumococcus, 61.0% for hepatitis B, 52.0% for hepatitis A, 26.0% for varicella, 20.7% for meningococcus, 5.3% for herpes zoster, and 11.0% for herpes papilloma virus [females only]. Significant predictors of vaccine completion were annual vaccination review by family physician (odds ratio [OR] = 1.82) or gastroenterologist [OR = 1.72], current steroid use [OR = 1.28], and current or prior treatment with biologicals [OR = 1.42]. The majority of patients reported that the primary responsibility to ensure vaccine completion lies with the patient [41.7%] and the family physician [32.3%]. Uncertainty about indications, fears of side effects, and concerns regarding vaccine safety were the most commonly reported reasons for non-uptake [22.0%, 20.7%, and 5.3%, respectively]. Uptake of recommended vaccines among IBD patients is suboptimal. Annual vaccination reviews by both family physician and gastroenterologist may improve vaccine uptake. Interventions targeted at improving vaccination uptake in IBD patients are needed. Copyright © 2015 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All

  19. A review of factors affecting vaccine preventable disease in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, Norimitsu; Ching, Michael S L

    2014-12-01

    Japan is well known as a country with a strong health record. However its incidence rates of vaccine preventable diseases (VPD) such as hepatitis B, measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella remain higher than other developed countries. This article reviews the factors that contribute to the high rates of VPD in Japan. These include historical and political factors that delayed the introduction of several important vaccines until recently. Access has also been affected by vaccines being divided into government-funded "routine" (eg, polio, pertussis) and self-pay "voluntary" groups (eg, hepatitis A and B). Routine vaccines have higher rates of administration than voluntary vaccines. Administration factors include differences in well child care schedules, the approach to simultaneous vaccination, vaccination contraindication due to fever, and vaccination spacing. Parental factors include low intention to fully vaccinate their children and misperceptions about side effects and efficacy. There are also provider knowledge gaps regarding indications, adverse effects, interval, and simultaneous vaccination. These multifactorial issues combine to produce lower population immunization rates and a higher incidence of VPD than other developed countries. This article will provide insight into the current situation of Japanese vaccinations, the issues to be addressed and suggestions for public health promotion.

  20. New South Wales annual vaccine-preventable disease report, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Rosewell; Paula Spokes; Robin Gilmour

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To describe the epidemiology of selected vaccine-preventable diseases in New South Wales, Australia for 2013. Methods: Data from the New South Wales Notifiable Conditions Information Management System were analysed by local health district of residence, age, Aboriginality, vaccination status and organism. Risk factor and vaccination status data were collected by public health units. Results: Pertussis notification rates in infants were low, and no infant pertussis deaths were r...

  1. The African Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Network: a vaccine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Achieving high and equitable childhood immunisation coverage in Africa will not only protect children from disability and premature death, it will also boost productivity, reduce poverty and support the economic growth of the continent. Thus, Africa needs innovative and sustainable vaccine advocacy initiatives. One such ...

  2. Vaccinating in disease-free regions: a vaccine model with application to yellow fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codeço, Claudia T; Luz, Paula M; Coelho, Flavio; Galvani, Alison P; Struchiner, Claudio

    2007-12-22

    Concerns regarding natural or induced emergence of infectious diseases have raised a debate on the pros and cons of pre-emptive vaccination of populations under uncertain risk. In the absence of immediate risk, ethical issues arise because even smaller risks associated with the vaccine are greater than the immediate disease risk (which is zero). The model proposed here seeks to formalize the vaccination decision process looking from the perspective of the susceptible individual, and results are shown in the context of the emergence of urban yellow fever in Brazil. The model decomposes the individual's choice about vaccinating or not into uncertain components. The choice is modelled as a function of (i) the risk of a vaccine adverse event, (ii) the risk of an outbreak and (iii) the probability of receiving the vaccine or escaping serious disease given an outbreak. Additionally, we explore how this decision varies as a function of mass vaccination strategies of varying efficiency. If disease is considered possible but unlikely (risk of outbreak less than 0.1), delay vaccination is a good strategy if a reasonably efficient campaign is expected. The advantage of waiting increases as the rate of transmission is reduced (low R0) suggesting that vector control programmes and emergency vaccination preparedness work together to favour this strategy. The opposing strategy, vaccinating pre-emptively, is favoured if the probability of yellow fever urbanization is high or if expected R0 is high and emergency action is expected to be slow. In summary, our model highlights the nonlinear dependence of an individual's best strategy on the preparedness of a response to a yellow fever outbreak or other emergent infectious disease.

  3. Expansion of Vaccination Services and Strengthening Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Surveillance in Haiti, 2010-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohme, Rania A; Francois, Jeannot; Cavallaro, Kathleen F; Paluku, Gilson; Yalcouye, Idrissa; Jackson, Ernsley; Wright, Tracie; Adrien, Paul; Katz, Mark A; Hyde, Terri B; Faye, Pape; Kimanuka, Francine; Dietz, Vance; Vertefeuille, John; Lowrance, David; Dahl, Benjamin; Patel, Roopal

    2017-10-01

    Following the 2010 earthquake, Haiti was at heightened risk for vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) outbreaks due to the exacerbation of long-standing gaps in the vaccination program and subsequent risk of VPD importation from other countries. Therefore, partners supported the Haitian Ministry of Health and Population to improve vaccination services and VPD surveillance. During 2010-2016, three polio, measles, and rubella vaccination campaigns were implemented, achieving a coverage > 90% among children and maintaining Haiti free of those VPDs. Furthermore, Haiti is on course to eliminate maternal and neonatal tetanus, with 70% of communes achieving tetanus vaccine two-dose coverage > 80% among women of childbearing age. In addition, the vaccine cold chain storage capacity increased by 91% at the central level and 285% at the department level, enabling the introduction of three new vaccines (pentavalent, rotavirus, and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines) that could prevent an estimated 5,227 deaths annually. Haiti moved from the fourth worst performing country in the Americas in 2012 to the sixth best performing country in 2015 for adequate investigation of suspected measles/rubella cases. Sentinel surveillance sites for rotavirus diarrhea and meningococcal meningitis were established to estimate baseline rates of those diseases prior to vaccine introduction and to evaluate the impact of vaccination in the future. In conclusion, Haiti significantly improved vaccination services and VPD surveillance. However, high dependence on external funding and competing vaccination program priorities are potential threats to sustaining the improvements achieved thus far. Political commitment and favorable economic and legal environments are needed to maintain these gains.

  4. ELISA indireto para detecção de IgG antivírus da doença de Newcastle em soro de codorna Indirect ELISA for the detection of IgG specific to Newcastle disease virus in quail serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.D. Oliveira

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available An indirect ELISA for the detection of japanese quail IgG specific to Newcastle disease virus (NDV was developed. The secondary anti-quail IgG was produced in Balb/c mice, by inoculating Freund's complete adjuvant emulsified japanese quail-IgG extract. The purification of IgG was achieved using the caprilic acid method. The ELISA was compared to the haemagglutination-inhibition (HI test for antibodies to NDV. ELISA cut-off point was established through TG-ROC analysis. Total correlation was observed between the ELISA and the HI, being the ELISA efficient in the identification of positive and negative sera, with high sensitivity and specificity (100%. These results validate the use of the indirect ELISA as an alternative for the detection of NDV-specific IgG in japanese quail sera, with the advantage of high sensitivity and automation.

  5. Novel Livestock Vaccines for Viral Diseases in Africa toward ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Novel Livestock Vaccines for Viral Diseases in Africa toward Improved Food Security (CIFSRF Phase 2). Livestock production is a critical industry in Africa, but suffers large losses to preventable viral infections. This project aims to curb the problem. Researchers will fine-tune prototype vaccines, conduct field tests, and take ...

  6. Vaccination coverage of children with rare genetic diseases and attitudes of their parents toward vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Susanna; Cerutti, Marta; Milani, Donatella; Menni, Francesca; Principi, Nicola

    2016-03-03

    Despite the fact that the achievement of appropriate immunization coverage for routine vaccines is a priority for health authorities worldwide, vaccination delays or missed opportunities for immunization are common in children with chronic diseases. The main aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate immunization coverage and the timeliness of vaccination in children suffering from 3 different rare genetic diseases: Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS), Sotos syndrome (SS), and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS). A total of 57 children with genetic diseases (15 with RSTS, 14 children with SS, and 28 with BWS) and 57 healthy controls with similar characteristics were enrolled. The coverage of all the recommended vaccines in children with genetic syndromes was significantly lower than that observed in healthy controls (p vaccinated, all of the patients, independent of the genetic syndrome from which they suffer, were administered the primary series and the booster doses at a similar time to healthy controls. In comparison with parents of healthy controls, parents of children with genetic diseases were found to more frequently have negative attitudes toward vaccination (p vaccination coverage is poor in pediatric patients with RSTS, BWS, and SS and significantly lower than that observed in healthy children. These results highlight the need for educational programs specifically aimed at both parents and pediatricians to increase immunization coverage in children with these rare genetic diseases.

  7. New South Wales annual vaccine-preventable disease report, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosewell, Alexander; Spokes, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Aim To describe the epidemiology of selected vaccine-preventable diseases in New South Wales, Australia for 2013. Methods Data from the New South Wales Notifiable Conditions Information Management System were analysed by local health district of residence, age, Aboriginality, vaccination status and organism. Risk factor and vaccination status data were collected by public health units. Results Pertussis notification rates in infants were low, and no infant pertussis deaths were reported. Despite a high number of imported measles cases, there was limited secondary transmission. The invasive meningococcal disease notification rate declined, and disease due to serogroup C remained low and stable. Conclusion Vaccine-preventable diseases were relatively well controlled in New South Wales in 2013, with declining or stable notification rates in most diseases compared with the previous year. PMID:26306215

  8. Emerging clinical experience with vaccines against group B meningococcal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, A L; Snape, M D

    2017-08-01

    The prevention of paediatric bacterial meningitis and septicaemia has recently entered a new era with the availability of two vaccines against capsular group B meningococcus (MenB). Both of these vaccines are based on sub-capsular proteins of the meningococcus, an approach that overcomes the challenges set by the poorly immunogenic MenB polysaccharide capsule but adds complexity to predicting and measuring the impact of their use. This review describes the development and use of MenB vaccines to date, from the use of outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccines in MenB outbreaks around the world, to emerging evidence on the effectiveness of the newly available vaccines. While recent data from the United Kingdom supports the potential for protein-based vaccines to provide direct protection against MenB disease in immunised children, further research is required to understand the breadth and duration of this protection. A more detailed understanding of the impact of immunisation with these vaccines on nasopharyngeal carriage of the meningococcus is also required, to inform both their potential to induce herd immunity and to preferentially select for carriage of strains not susceptible to vaccine-induced antibodies. Although a full understanding of the potential impact of these vaccines will only be possible with this additional information, the availability of new tools to prevent the devastating effect of invasive MenB disease is a significant breakthrough in the fight against childhood sepsis and meningitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Adenovirus vectored vaccines against influenza a virus do not result in vaccine associated enhanced respiratory disease following heterologous challenge in contrast to whole inactivated virus vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heterologous influenza A virus (IAV) challenge following vaccination with an intramuscular (IM) whole inactivated vaccine (WIV) can result in vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease (VAERD). The objective of this study was to use an adenovirus (Ad5) vector vaccine platform that expressed IAV...

  10. [New vaccines against group B meningococcal diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietalahti, Jukka; Meri, Seppo

    2015-01-01

    There has been no efficient general vaccine against serogroup B meningococcus (MenB), since its polysialic acid capsule is of low immunogenicity and could potentially induce autoimmunity. Reverse vaccinology has revealed new promising protein candidates for vaccine development. One of them is factor H-binding protein (fHbp), which has the potential to curb the alternative pathway of human complement. As fHbp can elicit antibodies that promote complement-mediated lysis, a vaccine partly based on it has been introduced against MenB infections. FHbp has been the milestone protein for structural vaccinology to create optimal chimeric antigens for vaccine use.

  11. Cellular immune response of infectious bursal disease and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-22

    Aug 22, 2011 ... Cellular immune response of infectious bursal disease and Newcastle disease vaccinations in broilers exposed to monochromatic lights. Avesta Sadrzadeh1, Gholamreza Nikbakht Brujeni2, Masoud Livi1, Mohammad Javad Nazari1,. Meysam Tehrani Sharif1, Hossein Hassanpour3* and Nasrin Haghighi3.

  12. Addressing parents' concerns: do vaccines cause allergic or autoimmune diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offit, Paul A; Hackett, Charles J

    2003-03-01

    Anecdotal case reports and uncontrolled observational studies in the medical literature claim that vaccines cause chronic diseases such as asthma, multiple sclerosis, chronic arthritis, and diabetes. Several biological mechanisms have been proposed to explain how vaccines might cause allergic or autoimmune diseases. For example, allergic diseases might be caused by prevention of early childhood infections (the "hygiene hypothesis"), causing a prolongation of immunoglobulin E-promoting T-helper cell type 2-type responses. However, vaccines do not prevent most common childhood infections, and large well-controlled epidemiologic studies do not support the hypothesis that vaccines cause allergies. Autoimmune diseases might occur after immunization because proteins on microbial pathogens are similar to human proteins ("molecular mimicry") and could induce immune responses that damage human cells. However, wild-type viruses and bacteria are much better adapted to growth in humans than vaccines and much more likely to stimulate potentially damaging self-reactive lymphocytes. Consistent with critical differences between natural infection and immunization, well-controlled epidemiologic studies do not support the hypothesis that vaccines cause autoimmunity. Flaws in proposed biological mechanisms that explain how vaccines might cause chronic diseases are consistent with the findings of many well-controlled large epidemiologic studies that fail to show a causal relationship.

  13. Expression of chicken interleukin-2 by a highly virulent strain of Newcastle disease virus leads to decreased systemic viral load but does not significantly affect mortality in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susta, Leonardo; Diel, Diego G; Courtney, Sean; Cardenas-Garcia, Stivalis; Sundick, Roy S; Miller, Patti J; Brown, Corrie C; Afonso, Claudio L

    2015-08-08

    In mammals, interleukin 2 (IL-2) has been shown to decrease replication or attenuate pathogenicity of numerous viral pathogens (herpes simplex virus, vaccinia virus, human respiratory syncytial virus, human immunodeficiency virus) by activating natural killer cells (NK), cytotoxic T lymphocytes and expanding subsets of memory cells. In chickens, IL-2 has been shown to activate T cells, and as such it might have the potential to affect replication and pathogenesis of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). To assess the effect of IL-2 during NDV infection in chickens, we produced a recombinant virulent NDV strain expressing chicken IL-2 (rZJ1-IL2). The effects of IL-2 expression were investigated in vivo using the intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) in day-old chicks and pathogenesis experiments in 4-week-old chickens. In these studies, rZJ1-IL2 was compared to a control virus expressing the green fluorescent protein (rZJ1-GFP). Assessed parameters included survival curves, detailed histological and immunohistochemical grading of lesions in multiple organs, and virus isolation in blood, spleen and mucosal secretions of infected birds. At the site of infection (eyelid), expression of IL-2 was demonstrated in areas of rZJ-IL2 replication, confirming IL-2 production in vivo. Compared to rZJ1-GFP strain, rZJ1-IL2 caused milder lesions and displayed decreased viral load in blood, spleen and mucosal secretions of infected birds. In the rZJ1-IL2-infected group, virus level in the blood peaked at day 4 post-infection (pi) (10(3.46) EID50 /0.1 ml) and drastically decreased at day 5 pi (10(0.9) EID50/0.1 ml), while in the rZJ1-GFP-infected group virus levels in the blood reached 10(5.35) EID50/0.1 ml at day 5. However, rZJ1-IL2-infected groups presented survival curves similar to control birds infected with rZJ1-GFP, with comparable clinical signs and 100 % mortality. Further, expression of IL-2 did not significantly affect the ICPI scores, compared to rZJ1-GFP strain. Increased

  14. Pneumococcal vaccination rates in children with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nero, Alecia C; Akuete, Kwei; Leasure Reeves, Sarah; Dombkowski, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) confers an increased risk of invasive pneumococcal disease, especially among young children. Pneumococcal vaccination decreases this risk, but the completion rate of age-appropriate vaccinations is not well defined in SCD. The goal of this study was to assess whether pneumococcal vaccines are administered to high-risk children with SCD according to recommended vaccine schedules. A case-control design was used to conduct this study. Administrative data were obtained on Michigan Medicaid or Children's Special Health Care Services programs enrollees. In addition, Michigan Newborn Screening and Michigan Care Improvement Registry records were used to confirm diagnosis and vaccine administration. This study compared pneumococcal vaccination rates in a cohort of 179 children with SCD with 537 age-matched non-SCD controls (1:3) enrolled in the Michigan Medicaid Program between 2001 and 2008. Study subjects were born in the state of Michigan between 2001 and 2005. The main outcome measure was the proportion of children defined as up to date for pneumococcal vaccines at defined milestone ages. Children with SCD had significantly higher vaccination rates than controls, yet these values were much lower than state and national immunization survey rates. Barriers to completing age-appropriate recommended pneumococcal immunizations should be identified and addressed to further reduce invasive pneumococcal disease in this high-risk patient population.

  15. Pneumococcal vaccination rates in VHA patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, David J; Copeland, Laurel A; Stock, Eileen M; Herrera, Henry R; Pfanner, Timothy P

    2015-02-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an inflammatory condition of the digestive tract not caused by infectious agents. Symptoms of IBD, such as diarrhea and pain, diminish one's quality of life. Underlying immune dysregulation may put IBD patients at risk for severe infectious disease making preventative vaccination highly recommended. Therefore, this study sought to assess rates of pneumococcal vaccination in patients with IBD.A cross-sectional observational study was employed utilizing administrative data extracts from the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) to identify patients diagnosed with IBD per International Classification of Diseases, Version 9, Clinical Modification codes. Their pneumococcal vaccine histories were determined from Common Procedural Terminology codes. Data were aggregated to the patient level and subjected to multivariable logistic regression to assess factors associated with receipt of the vaccination and 1-year mortality; survival analyses extended follow-up to as much as 4 years following IBD diagnosis.From October 2004 to September 2009, 49,350 patients were diagnosed with IBD in the VHA. Incidence was approximately 6000 cases/y. Patients averaged 62 years (±15, range 19-98) with 45% aged 65 or older. Approximately 6% were women, 21% were highly disabled from a military service-connected condition, 46% had hypertension, 38% dyslipidemia, and 18% diabetes. Only 20% of the cohort received pneumococcal vaccination including 5% vaccinated prior to IBD diagnosis, 2% on the date of diagnosis, and 13% subsequently. Being married, living outside the Northeast, and having more comorbidities were associated with vaccination before IBD diagnosis; models of vaccination at or after diagnosis demonstrated poor fit: little better than chance. Vaccinations before, after, and at diagnosis were protective against 1-year mortality adjusting for clinical and demographic covariates. Living in the South was an independent risk factor for death among IBD

  16. Vaccination against Lyme disease: Are we ready for it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaijk, Patricia; Luytjes, Willem

    2016-03-03

    Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne illness in the Northern hemisphere and is caused by spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. A first sign of Borrelia infection is a circular skin rash, erythema migrans, but it can develop to more serious manifestations affecting skin, nervous system, joints, and/or heart. The marked increase in Lyme disease incidence over the past decades, the severity of the disease, and the associated high medical costs of, in particular, the persistent forms of Lyme disease requires adequate measures for control. Vaccination would be the most effective intervention for prevention, but at present no vaccine is available. In the 1990s, 2 vaccines against Lyme disease based on the OspA protein from the predominant Borrelia species of the US showed to be safe and effective in clinical phase III studies. However, failed public acceptance led to the demise of these monovalent OspA-based vaccines. Nowadays, public seem to be more aware of the serious health problems that Lyme disease can cause and seem more ready for the use of a broadly protective vaccine. This article discusses several aspects that should be considered to enable the development and implementation of a vaccine to prevent Lyme disease successfully.

  17. EV71 vaccines: a first step towards multivalent hand, foot and mouth disease vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Michel H

    2015-03-01

    Enterovirus A infections are the primary cause of hand, foot and mouth disease in infants and young children. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 have emerged as neurotropic viruses responsible for severe neurological complications and a serious public health threat across the Asia-Pacific region. Formalin-inactivated EV71 vaccines have elicited protection against EV71 but not against coxsackievirus A16 infections. The development of a bivalent formalin-inactivated EV71/FI coxsackievirus A16 vaccine should be the next step towards that of multivalent hand, foot and mouth disease vaccines which should ultimately include other prevalent pathogenic coxsackieviruses and echovirus 30. This editorial summarizes the major challenges faced by the development of hand, foot and mouth disease vaccines.

  18. Pneumococcal Vaccination Rates in VHA Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Case, David J.; Copeland, Laurel A.; Stock, Eileen M.; Herrera, Henry R.; Pfanner, Timothy P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an inflammatory condition of the digestive tract not caused by infectious agents. Symptoms of IBD, such as diarrhea and pain, diminish one's quality of life. Underlying immune dysregulation may put IBD patients at risk for severe infectious disease making preventative vaccination highly recommended. Therefore, this study sought to assess rates of pneumococcal vaccination in patients with IBD. A cross-sectional observational study was employed utili...

  19. Protection against California 2002 NDV strain afforded by adenovirus vectored vaccine expressing Fusion or Hemagglutination-neuraminidase genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vectored vaccines expressing the combination of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and fusion (F) genes generally have better clinical protection against Newcastle disease virus (NDV) than when either the F and HN genes are expressed alone. Interestingly, the protection induced by F is usually bet...

  20. Teenagers' understandings of and attitudes towards vaccines and vaccine-preventable diseases: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, S; Patterson, C; Smith, E; Bedford, H; Hunt, K

    2013-05-24

    To examine immunisation information needs of teenagers we explored understandings of vaccination and vaccine-preventable diseases, attitudes towards immunisation and experiences of immunisation. Diseases discussed included nine for which vaccines are currently offered in the UK (human papillomavirus, meningitis, tetanus, diphtheria, polio, whooping cough, measles, mumps and rubella), and two not currently included in the routine UK schedule (hepatitis B and chickenpox). Twelve focus groups conducted between November 2010 and March 2011 with 59 teenagers (29 girls and 30 boys) living in various parts of Scotland. Teenagers exhibited limited knowledge and experience of the diseases, excluding chickenpox. Measles, mumps and rubella were perceived as severe forms of chickenpox-like illness, and rubella was not associated with foetal damage. Boys commonly believed that human papillomavirus only affects girls, and both genders exhibited confusion about its relationship with cancer. Participants considered two key factors when assessing the threat of diseases: their prevalence in the UK, and their potential to cause fatal or long-term harm. Meningitis was seen as a threat, but primarily to babies. Participants explained their limited knowledge as a result of mass immunisation making once-common diseases rare in the UK, and acknowledged immunisation's role in reducing disease prevalence. While it is welcome that fewer teenagers have experienced vaccine-preventable diseases, this presents public health advocates with the challenge of communicating benefits of immunisation when advantages are less visible. The findings are timely in view of the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation's recommendation that a booster of meningitis C vaccine should be offered to teenagers; that teenagers did not perceive meningitis C as a significant threat should be a key concern of promotional information. While teenagers' experiences of immunisation in school were not always positive

  1. Diarrheal Diseases Hospitalization in Yemen before and after Rotavirus Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Amood AL-Kamarany

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to assess the impact of rotavirus vaccine introduction on diarrheal diseases hospitalization and to identify the rotavirus genotypes most prevalent before and after vaccine introduction among children ≤ 5 years of age. Rotarix™ ® rotavirus vaccine is currently licensed for infants in Yemen and was introduced in 2012. The vaccination course consists of two doses. The first dose is administrated at 6 weeks of age and the second dose is completed by 10 weeks. Based on a longitudinal observational study, we assessed the impact of vaccination on rotavirus hospitalization before and after vaccination among children ≤ 5 years of age at the Yemeni-Swedish Hospital (YSH in Taiz, Yemen. Prevaccination covered January 2009–July 2012 during which 2335 fecal samples were collected from children ≤ 5 years old. Postvaccination covered January 2013–December 2014 during which 1114 fecal samples were collected. Rotavirus was detected by Enzyme Linkage Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The incidence of rotavirus hospitalization decreased from 43.79% in 2009 to 10.54% in 2014. Hospitalization due to rotavirus diarrhea was reduced by 75.93%. Vaccine coverage increased from 23% in 2012 to 72% in 2014. Also, the results showed that the most predominant genotypes in prevaccination period were G2P[4] (55.0%, followed by G1P[8] (15.0%, while in postvaccination period G1P[8] (31% was the predominant genotype, followed by G9P[8] (27.5%. In conclusion, rotavirus vaccination in Yemen resulted in sharp reduction in diarrheal hospitalization. A successful rotavirus vaccination program in Yemen will rely upon efficient vaccine delivery systems and sustained vaccine efficacy against diverse and evolving rotavirus strains.

  2. Vaccination: foot-and-mouth disease experience in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, I E; Malirat, V; Neitzert, E; Correa Melo, E

    2004-01-01

    Vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) constitutes an important component of the policy for its control and eradication in South America. Considering that immunization may not impair subclinical infection, it became advisable to ally to vaccination campaigns a surveillance instrument to monitor silent viral circulation. Novel approaches for the evaluation of antibodies to FMD non-capsid proteins (NCPs), developed and validated at PANAFTOSA proved valuable for assessing viral circulation in immunized populations. The extensive and coordinated application in South America of vaccination together with this serosurvey tool indicated the effectiveness of systematic vaccination to prevent FMD spread and to restrain silent viral circulation intra- and inter- herds, and gave input to an old controversy related to the real epidemiological significance, if any, of carrier animals under the vaccination conditions in South America. The fitness of NCP tests to assess viral circulation in a population supported the incorporation into the OIE code of the "free of FMD with vaccination" category as a step prior to the recognition of the "free of FMD without vaccination" category. Likewise it released the path to allow animals, vaccinated for protective purposes during emergencies, to live for the term of their productive lives.

  3. Advances in vaccine research against economically important viral diseases of food animals: Infectious bursal disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackwood, Daral J

    2017-07-01

    Numerous reviews have been published on infectious bursal disease (IBD) and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Many high quality vaccines are commercially available for the control of IBD that, when used correctly, provide solid protection against infection and disease caused by IBDV. Viruses are not static however; they continue to evolve and vaccines need to keep pace with them. The evolution of IBDV has resulted in very virulent strains and new antigenic types of the virus. This review will discuss some of the limitations associated with existing vaccines, potential solutions to these problems and advances in new vaccines for the control of IBD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Delayed vaccine virus replication in chickens vaccinated subcutaneously with an immune complex infectious bursal disease vaccine: Quantification of vaccine virus by real-time polymerase chain reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Iván, Judit; Velhner, Maja; Ursu, Krisztina; Germán, Péter; Mató, Tamás; Drén, Csaba Nick; Mészáros, János

    2005-01-01

    The distribution of the immune complex vaccine virus for infectious bursal disease (IBD) in tissue was examined and the viral loads of the organs were quantitatively compared. One-day-old specific pathogen free (SPF) and maternally immune broiler chickens were injected subcutaneously with the vaccine. Lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues were collected at various time intervals during the experiment to test for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV)-RNA by using reverse transcriptase-polymerase ...

  5. The immunological underpinnings of vaccinations to prevent cytomegalovirus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, A Louise; Mocarski, Edward S

    2015-03-01

    A universal cytomegalovirus (CMV) vaccination promises to reduce the burden of the developmental damage that afflicts up to 0.5% of live births worldwide. An effective vaccination that prevents transplacental transmission would reduce CMV congenital disease and CMV-associated still births and leave populations less susceptible to opportunistic CMV disease. Thus, a vaccination against this virus has long been recognized for the potential of enormous health-care savings because congenital damage is life-long and existing anti-viral options are limited. Vaccine researchers, industry leaders, and regulatory representatives have discussed the challenges posed by clinical efficacy trials that would lead to a universal CMV vaccine, reviewing the links between infection and disease, and identifying settings where disrupting viral transmission might provide a surrogate endpoint for disease prevention. Reducing the complexity of such trials would facilitate vaccine development. Children and adolescents are the targets for universal vaccination, with the expectation of protecting the offspring of immunized women. Given that a majority of females worldwide experience CMV infection during childhood, a universal vaccine must boost natural immunity and reduce transmission due to reactivation and re-infection as well as primary infection during pregnancy. Although current vaccine strategies recognize the value of humoral and cellular immunity, the precise mechanisms that act at the placental interface remain elusive. Immunity resulting from natural infection appears to limit rather than prevent reactivation of latent viruses and susceptibility to re-infection, leaving a challenge for universal vaccination to improve upon natural immunity levels. Despite these hurdles, early phase clinical trials have achieved primary end points in CMV seronegative subjects. Efficacy studies must be expanded to mixed populations of CMV-naive and naturally infected subjects to understand the overall

  6. NEW PREVENTION OPPORTUNITIES OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES. VACCINATION AGAINST ROTAVIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Grechukha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the problem of the burden of rotavirus disease. Rotavirus infection is the leading cause of mortality among children under 5 years of age and is a major problem for a public healthcare. The world is actively engaged in the prevention of rotavirus infection since 2005. There is a lot of data on the efficacy and safety of this vaccine. Different foreign investigations have shown the herd immunity of the vaccine. The authors present data about the effectiveness and safety of vaccines, established during clinical studies of the foreign scientists.

  7. Comparison of three techniques used to characterize Newcastle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP USER

    Abstract. Despite the efforts made by stake holders towards eradication of pathogens from poultry flocks, Newcastle disease virus infection is still of continuing economic concern in Nigeria. Consequently, adapting prompt, sensitive and inexpensive diagnostic techniques will without doubt clamp down on the menace of the ...

  8. Challenges and constraints to vaccination in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alders, R G; Bagnol, B; Young, M P; Ahlers, C; Brum, E; Rushton, J

    2007-01-01

    The challenges and constraints to vaccinating poultry in areas where adequate infrastructure and human resources are lacking are addressed in both a technical and a socioeconomic framework. The key issues discussed are: (1) selection of an appropriate vaccine and vaccination technique, including the advantages and disadvantages of a combined vaccine against highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and Newcastle disease and addressing the differences between endemic disease and emergency disease control; (2) vaccine conservation and distribution; (3) evaluation of the flocks to be vaccinated in terms of their disease status, immunocompetence and production systems; (4) design of effective information, education and communication materials and methods with and for veterinary and extension staff as well as commercial and smallholder producers and community vaccinators in rural areas; (5) evaluation and monitoring systems for technical and socioeconomic factors that affect vaccination; (6) support and coordination of and by relevant public and private agencies; (7) the role of simultaneous implementation of other control activities in addition to vaccination; (8) the importance of assessing the costs and cost-effectiveness of various approaches to the control of HPAI, including the prevention of other endemic killer diseases and options for cost-sharing; (9) evaluation of the incentives for poultry-holders, vaccinators and vaccine producers to contribute to and participate in effective vaccination campaigns; and (10) policy development and the organizational framework for short- and long-term implementation and communication to decision-makers.

  9. Successful vaccines for naturally occurring protozoal diseases of animals should guide human vaccine research. A review of protozoal vaccines and their designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Milton M

    2014-04-01

    Effective vaccines are available for many protozoal diseases of animals, including vaccines for zoonotic pathogens and for several species of vector-transmitted apicomplexan haemoparasites. In comparison with human diseases, vaccine development for animals has practical advantages such as the ability to perform experiments in the natural host, the option to manufacture some vaccines in vivo, and lower safety requirements. Although it is proper for human vaccines to be held to higher standards, the enduring lack of vaccines for human protozoal diseases is difficult to reconcile with the comparatively immense amount of research funding. Common tactical problems of human protozoal vaccine research include reliance upon adapted rather than natural animal disease models, and an overwhelming emphasis on novel approaches that are usually attempted in replacement of rather than for improvement upon the types of designs used in effective veterinary vaccines. Currently, all effective protozoal vaccines for animals are predicated upon the ability to grow protozoal organisms. Because human protozoal vaccines need to be as effective as animal vaccines, researchers should benefit from a comparison of existing veterinary products and leading experimental vaccine designs. With this in mind, protozoal vaccines are here reviewed.

  10. Vaccination against Lyme disease: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embers, Monica E; Narasimhan, Sukanya

    2013-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato bacteria transmitted to humans and domestic animals by the bite of an Ixodes spp. tick (deer tick). Despite improvements in diagnostic tests and public awareness of Lyme disease, the reported cases have increased over the past decade to approximately 30,000 per year. Limitations and failed public acceptance of a human vaccine, comprised of the outer surface A (OspA) lipoprotein of B. burgdorferi, led to its demise, yet current research has opened doors to new strategies for protection against Lyme disease. In this review we discuss the enzootic cycle of B. burgdorferi, and the unique opportunities it poses to block infection or transmission at different levels. We present the correlates of protection for this infectious disease, the pros and cons of past vaccination strategies, and new paradigms for future vaccine design that would include elements of both the vector and the pathogen.

  11. Prospects for preventing infant invasive GBS disease through maternal vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhi, Shabir A; Dangor, Ziyaad

    2017-08-16

    Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of neonatal sepsis, with the highest incidence (1.3 per 1000 live births) reported from Africa. Although the incidence of invasive GBS disease is reportedly low in South Asia, there is disconnect between prevalence of maternal recto-vaginal colonization and the incidence of early-onset disease (EOD). This is possibly due to case-ascertainment biases that omit investigation of newborns dying on day-0 of life, which accounts for >90% of EOD. Furthermore, GBS is associated with approximately 15% of all infection related stillbirths. Vaccination of pregnant women with a serotype-specific polysaccharide epitope vaccine could possibly protect against EOD and late-onset disease (LOD) in their infants through transplacental transfer of serotype-specific capsular antibody. Furthermore, vaccination of pregnant women might also protect against impaired neurodevelopment following GBS associated neonatal sepsis, and fetal loss/stillbirths. Licensure of a GBS vaccine might be feasible based on safety evaluation and a sero-correlate of protection, with vaccine effectiveness subsequently being demonstrated in phase IV studies. A randomized-controlled trial would, however, be best suited as a vaccine-probe to fully characterize the contribution of GBS to neonatal sepsis associated morbidity and mortality and adverse fetal outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Vaccines against papillomavirus infections and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villa Luisa Lina

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix is the second cause of cancer-related deaths in women, the higher incidence being observed in developing countries. Infection with oncogenic types of human papillomavirus (HPV is considered the major risk factor for the development of malignancies in the uterine cervix. However, HPV is considered to be a necessary but not sufficient cause for cervical cancer and, therefore, other factors contribute to the carcinogenic process, both present in the environment and from the host. Studies performed in animals, and more recently in humans, indicate that vaccination against the capsid proteins of the virus can prevent efficiently from infection. Furthermore, therapeutic vaccines are under investigation aiming the regression of papillomavirus induced tumors. The scientific basis for the development of papillomavirus vaccines and present status of clinical trials will be addressed in this chapter.

  13. Effect of mannanoligosaccharides and/or enzymes on antibody titers against infectious bursal and Newcastle disease viruses Efeito do mananoligossacarídeo e/ou enzimas sobre títulos de anticorpos contra os vírus das doenças de Gumboro e de Newcastle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Oliveira

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of including mannanoligosaccharides (MOS and/or enzymes in broiler diets on antibody titers against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV and Newcastle disease virus (NDV was evaluated. A total of 750 broilers were distributed into a completely randomized experimental design in a factorial arrangement 2 x 2 + 1 with two levels of MOS (0 and 0.1% until 21 days and 0.05% from 22 to 42 days of age, two levels of enzymes (0 and 0.05% and a positive control diet containing antibiotic, totaling five treatments with five replicates each. For antibody analyses, blood samples were weekly collected by jugular vein puncture in the same two birds per replicate. The first and last collections were done at 7 and 42 days of age, respectively. The inclusion of MOS resulted in increased antibody titers against IBDV in the fourth (PO efeito da inclusão de mananoligossacarídeo (MOS e/ou enzimas em dietas de frangos sobre os títulos de anticorpos contra os vírus das doenças de Gumboro (VDG e de Newcastle (VDN. Setecentos e cinqüenta aves foram distribuídas em um delineamento experimental inteiramente ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial 2 x 2 + 1, com dois níveis de MOS (0 e 0,1% até 21 dias e 0,05% de 22 até 42 dias de idade, dois níveis de enzimas (0 e 0,05% e uma dieta-controle-positivo contendo antibióticos, totalizando cinco tratamentos com cinco repetições. Para análise dos anticorpos, amostras de sangue foram colhidas semanalmente por punção da veia jugular em duas aves de cada repetição. A primeira e a última colheita foram realizadas aos sete e 42 dias de idade, respectivamente. A inclusão de MOS resultou em aumento dos títulos contra VDG na quarta (P<0,03 e quinta (P<0,02 semanas, e contra VDN na terceira (P<0,01, quarta (P<0,03 e quinta (P<0,03 semanas de idade. O MOS foi efetivo em estimular a resposta imune humoral contra VDG e VDN vacinais.

  14. Vaccines to Combat Livestock Diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project is applying modern biotechnology to engineer a thermostable, single dose vaccine that protects cattle, sheep, and goats from five main diseases - lumpy skin disease, sheep pox, goat pox, Peste des Petits Ruminants, and Rift Valley fever. The project is also leveraging Canada and South Africa's strengths in ...

  15. Vaccines against traveler's diarrhoea and rotavirus disease - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedermann, Ursula; Kollaritsch, Herwig

    2006-01-01

    Diarrheal diseases constitute one of the most important health problems worldwide, preferentially in developing countries with a morbidity of estimated 5 billion and a mortality of 5 million cases per year. Children less than 5 years are particularly in danger with respect to the incidence and severity of the gastrointestinal symptoms. Travelers to developing countries are also at risk to develop diarrheal disorders; around 30-50% of them acquire so called "travelers's diarrhea" caused by bacteria, viruses or protozoa. It has been estimated that approximately 30-70% of diarrhea are due to bacteria, of which the most frequently detected enteric pathogens are non-invasive, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). Their exotoxins, the heat stabile (ST) and the heat labile (LT) toxins are in large part responsible for the pathogenicity of the bacteria. About 20% of cases of traveler's diarrhea are caused by LT producing ETEC. This heat labile toxin exhibits a 80% sequence homology with cholera toxin. The presently available vaccine against cholera (Dukoral) contains inactivated Vibrio cholerae bacteria and the recombinant non-toxic B subunit of cholera toxin. Consequently, this vaccine displays also some efficacy against traveler's diarrhoea with up to 25% of travelers being protected against this disease. Rotaviruses are the leading recognized cause of diarrhoea-related illness and deaths among infants worldwide in developing and industrialized countries. Based on the high incidence of this disease two oral vaccines have been developed and will be available in Europe in 2006. Due to the impact of rotavirus diseases also in Austria vaccination against this disease has been already suggested in the Austrian vaccination schedules for infants from 6-24 weeks of age. One of the two vaccines, Rotarix, is an attenuated monovalent vaccine with a broad cross-reactivity against the most frequent serotypes. The second one, RotaTeq, is a pentavalent attenuated vaccine containing

  16. Measles vaccination and inflammatory bowel disease: controversy laid to rest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R L; Bohlke, K

    2001-01-01

    The increasing incidence of Crohn's disease has lead to speculation about changes in exposures to environmental or infectious agents. Considerable attention has focused on the role of measles infection and/or vaccination in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Current evidence regarding the association between measles vaccination and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) comprises analytic epidemiological studies, a case-series report and ecological studies. The first of these, a 1995 cohort study, found an association between measles vaccination and Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, but was widely questioned on methodological grounds. This was followed by a 1997 case-control study showing no association between measles vaccination and IBD. In 1998, public concern was rekindled by a report of 12 children with nonspecific colitis, ileal-lymphoid-nodular hyperplasia, and developmental disorders largely attributed to measles-mumps-rubella vaccine, but the nature of the report limited its scientific conclusions. Two additional studies, one case-control and one cohort, then followed and neither found an association with measles vaccination. Of the several ecological studies of measles vaccine coverage or measles schedule changes, none found an association with rates of IBD. The role of measles infection in IBD has been examined more extensively with studies of in utero measles exposure, measles infection early in life, and laboratory based investigations. An initial report of high rates of Crohn's disease among pregnancies affected by measles infection was followed by negative studies. Numerous case-control and ecological studies of children with measles infections early in life have also had discordant findings. Of three recent cohort studies, two showed no relationship between infection with early measles exposure and risk for IBD, while one found an approximate 3-fold elevation in risk. Laboratory investigations into persistent measles

  17. Effectiveness of vaccines and vaccination programs for the control of foot-and-mouth disease in Uganda, 2001-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muleme, Michael; Barigye, Robert; Khaitsa, Margaret L; Berry, Eugene; Wamono, Anthony W; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. In Uganda, FMD outbreaks are mainly controlled by ring vaccination and restriction of animal movements. Vaccination stimulates immunity and prevents animals from developing clinical signs which include lameness, inappetence, and decreased production. Ring vaccination and restriction of animal movements have, however, not successfully controlled FMD in Uganda and outbreaks reoccur annually. The objective of this study was to review the use of FMD virus (FMDV) vaccines and assess the effectiveness of vaccination programs for controlling FMD in Uganda (2001-2010), using retrospective data. FMD vaccine distribution patterns in Uganda (2001-2010) matched occurrence of outbreaks with districts reporting the highest number of outbreaks also receiving the largest quantity of vaccines. This was possibly due to "fire brigade" response of vaccinating animals after outbreaks have been reported. On average, only 10.3 % of cattle within districts that reported outbreaks during the study period were vaccinated. The average minimum time between onset of outbreaks and vaccination was 7.5 weeks, while the annual cost of FMDV vaccines used ranged from US $58,000 to 1,088,820. Between 2001 and 2010, serotyping of FMD virus was done in only 9/121 FMD outbreaks, and there is no evidence that vaccine matching or vaccine potency tests have been done in Uganda. The probability of FMDV vaccine and outbreak mismatch, the delayed response to outbreaks through vaccination, and the high costs associated with importation of FMDV vaccines could be reduced if virus serotyping and subtyping as well as vaccine matching were regularly done, and the results were considered for vaccine manufacture.

  18. Titration of Marek's disease cell-associated vaccine virus (CVI 988) of reconstituted vaccine and vaccine ampoules from dutch hatcheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landman, W.J.M.; Pritz-Verschuren, S.B.E.

    2003-01-01

    SUMMARY. Thirty-one outbreaks of Marek¿s disease (MD) were reported in the Netherlands and retrospectively analyzed. The outbreaks occurred mostly in vaccinated commercial layer and a few breeder flocks of several breeds; however, the cause of the outbreaks could not be stablished. Therefore, in a

  19. Pros and cons of vaccination against serogroup B meningococcal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado Rodríguez, Miguel; Domínguez García, Ángela

    2018-02-09

    A vaccine has recently been approved in the EU against meningococcal serogroup B, the main cause of meningococcal disease. There is a fierce debate about the decision regarding a universal vaccination in infants older than 2 months, as recommended by the majority of scientific societies. In western Europe the only country to have included the universal vaccination is the United Kingdom, with a lower incidence of the disease than Ireland. Other countries have also adopted it, such as the Czech Republic, Cuba and certain regions of Italy. Numerous cost-effectiveness studies have been published regarding the vaccination with different assumptions, which have supported the decision not to implant the universal vaccination because it exceeds the will to pay for a health benefit. We discuss the pros and cons of the universal vaccination against meningococcal B, recommended by the Sociedad Española de Pediatría (Spanish Society of Paediatrics), which as yet has not been implemented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccination in boys and risk of autoimmune diseases, neurological diseases and venous thromboembolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisch, Morten; Besson, Andréa; Clemmensen, Kim Katrine Bjerring

    2018-01-01

    following HPV vaccination in this group. We investigated if quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccination of 10-17-year-old boys is associated with any unusual risk of autoimmune diseases, neurological diseases or venous thromboembolism. Methods: We conducted a national cohort study of 568 410 boys born in Denmark......Background: In recent years, human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of boys has been added to childhood vaccination programmes in several countries but, so far, no systematic population-based assessment with long-term follow-up has been undertaken of the relative incidence of adverse outcomes...... 1988-2006 and followed for 4 million person-years during 2006-16, using nationwide registers to obtain individual-level information about received doses of the qHPV vaccine and hospital records for 39 autoimmune diseases, 12 neurological diseases and venous thromboembolism. For each outcome, we...

  1. Proper quality control of formulated foot-and-mouth disease vaccines in countries with prophylactic vaccination is necessary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, S M; Shah, S I; Ali, Q; Mehmood, A; Afzal, M; Afzal, M; Dekker, A

    2014-12-01

    Vaccination is considered as an important tool to control foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). A good quality vaccine containing relevant serotypes and matching strains is a pre-requisite for vaccination to be effective. The present study investigated the quality of different brands of FMD vaccine available in Pakistan, including three locally produced and two imported products. All the vaccines were found free of bacterial or fungal contamination. No adverse effects were noted in suckling mice and buffalo calves inoculated with the vaccines, showing that the vaccines were sterile and safe. The humoral immune response to the FMD vaccines was determined in buffalo calves for 234 days post-vaccination. Very low humoral immune responses against FMD serotypes O, A and Asia 1 viruses were detected to the locally produced vaccines. The imported vaccines, however, elicited a higher antibody response which persisted for a long period in one of the 2 vaccines. The present study highlights the need of assessing an independent vaccine quality control of finished FMD vaccine products. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. DNA technology for diagnosis and vaccines for infectious diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notani, N.K.

    1992-01-01

    Three or four general strategies are adopted for the control of infectious diseases. Early diagnosis, vaccination and chemotherapy. In the situations where there is transfer through mosquitoes or ticks from alternate hosts, control of the vector and of the infection in the alternate host are additional measures to be taken. This Chapter looks at the problems of disease control from the perspective of genetics, since molecular genetics now provides powerful tools in the form of radiolabelled DNA probes and clones of selected segments, useful for diagnosis as well as for vaccine design

  3. Vaccination and auto-immune rheumatic diseases: lessons learnt from the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus vaccination campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touma, Zahi; Gladman, Dafna D; Urowitz, Murray B

    2013-03-01

    To determine the safety and efficacy of adjuvant and nonadjuvant influenza A/H1NI vaccination in patients with rheumatic diseases. Due to immune abnormalities and the use of steroids and immunosuppressant treatment, patients with rheumatic diseases are susceptible to infections including influenza. Infections continue to be one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in rheumatic diseases, partly due to the disease processes and partly due to medications. Viral infections are particularly an issue, so vaccinations would be advisable. However, because of the abnormalities in immune mechanisms in many rheumatic diseases, it is not clear whether vaccinations are well tolerated and effective. A number of studies confirmed the efficacy and safety of adjuvant and nonadjuvant influenza A/H1NI vaccination in patients with rheumatic diseases. The potential side effects associated with H1N1 vaccines were not different from those observed with seasonal influenza vaccine. The use of steroids and immunosuppressant therapies may alter the efficacy of the vaccines. Adjuvant and nonadjuvant influenza A/H1NI vaccinations have no clinically important effect on production or levels of autoantibodies in patients with rheumatic diseases. H1N1 vaccination should be given to patients with rheumatic diseases.

  4. New and Improved Vaccines Against Meningococcal Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    is generally lowest with group B and highest with groups A and Y f 10,17]. Group B serotype 15, sulfonamide -resistant strains, however, tend to cause...structures and remain antigenic when detoxified [98] or converted to oligosacharides by mild acid hydrolysis [ 11 ]. There are also several problems...associated with the use of the LPS in a vaccine. The most obvious is its toxicity, but the LPS can b@ readily detoxified by mild acid hydrolysis , which

  5. AAV VECTORS VACCINES AGAINST INFECTIOUS DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen eNieto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since their discovery as a tool for gene transfer, vectors derived from the Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV have been used for gene therapy applications and attracted scientist to this field for their exceptional properties of efficiency of in vivo gene transfer and the level and duration of transgene expression. For many years, AAVs have been considered as low immunogenic vectors due to their ability to induce long term expression of non-self-proteins in contrast to what has been observed with other viral vectors, such as adenovirus (Ad, for which strong immune responses against the same transgene products were documented. The perceived low immunogenicity likely explains why the use of AAV vectors for vaccination was not seriously considered before the early 2000s. Indeed, while analyses conducted using a variety of transgenes and animal species slowly changed the vision of the immunological properties of AAVs, an increasing number of studies were also performed in the field of vaccination. Even if the comparison with other modes of vaccination was not systemically performed, the analyses conducted so far in the field of active immunotherapy strongly suggest that AAVs possess some interesting features to be used as tools to produce an efficient and sustained antibody (Ab response. In addition, recent studies also highlighted the potential of AAVs for passive immunotherapy. This review summarizes the main studies conducted to evaluate the potential of AAV vectors for vaccination against infectious agents and discusses their advantages and drawbacks. Altogether, the variety of studies conducted in this field contributes to the understanding of the immunological properties of this versatile virus and to the definition of its possible future applications.

  6. New recombinant vaccines for the prevention of meningococcal B disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha MK

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Muhamed-Kheir Taha, Ala-Eddine DeghmaneInstitut Pasteur, Unit of Invasive Bacterial Infections and National Reference Center for Meningococci, Paris, FranceAbstract: Meningococcal disease is a life-threatening invasive infection (mainly septicemia and meningitis that occurs as epidemic or sporadic cases. The causative agent, Neisseria meningitidis or meningococcus, is a capsulated Gram-negative bacterium. Current vaccines are prepared from the capsular polysaccharides (that also determine serogroups and are available against strains of serogroups A, C, Y, and W-135 that show variable distribution worldwide. Plain polysaccharide vaccines were first used and subsequently conjugate vaccines with enhanced immunogenicity were introduced. The capsular polysaccharide of meningococcal serogroup B is poorly immunogenic due to similarity to the human neural cells adhesion molecule. Tailor-made, strain-specific vaccines have been developed to control localized and clonal outbreaks due to meningococci of serogroup B but no “universal” vaccine is yet available. This unmet medical need was recently overcome using several subcapsular proteins to allow broad range coverage of strains and to reduce the risk of escape variants due to genetic diversity of the meningococcus. Several vaccines are under development that target major or minor surface proteins. One vaccine (Bexsero®; Novartis, under registration, is a multicomponent recombinant vaccine that showed an acceptable safety profile and covers around 80% of the currently circulating serogroup B isolates. However, its reactogenicity in infants seems to be high and the long term persistence of the immune response needs to be determined. Its activity on carriage, and therefore transmission, is under evaluation. Indirect protection is expected through restricting strain circulation and acquisition. This vaccine covers the circulating strains according to the presence of the targeted antigens in the

  7. Alzheimer's disease: is a vaccine possible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, R.P.S.; Yang, M.J.; Batista, M.T.; Ferreira, L.C.S.

    2014-01-01

    The cause of Alzheimer's disease is still unknown, but the disease is distinctively characterized by the accumulation of β-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. These features have become the primary focus of much of the research looking for new treatments for the disease, including immunotherapy and vaccines targeting β-amyloid in the brain. Adverse effects observed in a clinical trial based on the β-amyloid protein were attributed to the presence of the target antigen and emphasized the relevance of finding safer antigen candidates for active immunization. For this kind of approach, different vaccine formulations using DNA, peptide, and heterologous prime-boost immunization regimens have been proposed. Promising results are expected from different vaccine candidates encompassing B-cell epitopes of the β-amyloid protein. In addition, recent results indicate that targeting another protein involved in the etiology of the disease has opened new perspectives for the effective prevention of the illness. Collectively, the evidence indicates that the idea of finding an effective vaccine for the control of Alzheimer's disease, although not without challenges, is a possibility

  8. Alzheimer's disease: is a vaccine possible?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, R.P.S. [Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas II, Departamento de Microbiologia, Laboratório de Desenvolvimento de Vacinas, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Laboratório de Desenvolvimento de Vacinas, Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas II, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Yang, M.J. [Instituto Butantan, Laboratório de Genética, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Laboratório de Genética, Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Batista, M.T.; Ferreira, L.C.S. [Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas II, Departamento de Microbiologia, Laboratório de Desenvolvimento de Vacinas, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Laboratório de Desenvolvimento de Vacinas, Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas II, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-05-09

    The cause of Alzheimer's disease is still unknown, but the disease is distinctively characterized by the accumulation of β-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. These features have become the primary focus of much of the research looking for new treatments for the disease, including immunotherapy and vaccines targeting β-amyloid in the brain. Adverse effects observed in a clinical trial based on the β-amyloid protein were attributed to the presence of the target antigen and emphasized the relevance of finding safer antigen candidates for active immunization. For this kind of approach, different vaccine formulations using DNA, peptide, and heterologous prime-boost immunization regimens have been proposed. Promising results are expected from different vaccine candidates encompassing B-cell epitopes of the β-amyloid protein. In addition, recent results indicate that targeting another protein involved in the etiology of the disease has opened new perspectives for the effective prevention of the illness. Collectively, the evidence indicates that the idea of finding an effective vaccine for the control of Alzheimer's disease, although not without challenges, is a possibility.

  9. Preventive medicines: vaccination, prophylaxis of infectious diseases, disinfectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heininger, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Immunizations belong to the most successful interventions in medicine. Like other drugs, vaccines undergo long periods of pre-clinical development, followed by careful clinical testing through study Phases I, II, and III before they receive licensure. A successful candidate vaccine will move on to be an investigational vaccine to undergo three phases of pre-licensure clinical trials in a stepwise fashion before it can be considered for approval, followed by an optional fourth phase of post-marketing assessment. The overall risk-benefit assessment of a candidate vaccine is very critical in making the licensure decision for regulatory authorities, supported by their scientific committees. It includes analyses of immunogenicity, efficacy, reactogenicity or tolerability, and safety of the vaccine. Public trust in vaccines is a key to the success of immunization programs worldwide. Maintaining this trust requires knowledge of the benefits and scientific understanding of real or perceived risks of immunizations. Under certain circumstances, pre- or post-exposure passive immunization can be achieved by administration of immunoglobulines. In terms of prevention of infectious diseases, disinfection can be applied to reduce the risk of transmission of pathogens from patient to patient, health-care workers to patients, patients to health-care workers, and objects or medical devices to patients.

  10. Capripox disease in Ethiopia: Genetic differences between field isolates and vaccine strain, and implications for vaccination failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelaye, E.; Belay, A.; Melesse, A.G.; Jenberie, S.; Yami, M.; Loitsch, A.; Tuppurainen, E.; Grabherr, R.; Diallo, A.; Lamien, C.E.

    2015-01-01

    Sheeppox virus (SPPV), goatpox virus (GTPV) and lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) of the genus Capripoxvirus (CaPV) cause capripox disease in sheep, goats and cattle, respectively. These viruses are not strictly host-specific and their geographical distribution is complex. In Ethiopia, where sheep, goats and cattle are all affected, a live attenuated vaccine strain (KS1-O180) is used for immunization of both small ruminants and cattle. Although occurrences of the disease in vaccinated cattle are frequently reported, information on the circulating isolates and their relation to the vaccine strain in use are still missing. The present study addressed the parameters associated with vaccination failure in Ethiopia

  11. IMMUNIZATION AND GETTING DISEASED FROM SOME RESPIRATORY, VACCINE-PREVENTABLE DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozidar Jovanovic

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Contagious diseases present the leading causes of getting diseased and mortality in different parts of the world, regardless of improved socio-economic life conditions. The most important among them are the diseases which can be spread by air and water. Immunization against contagious diseases presents the most effective form of prevention, ending, elimination and, where possible, eradication of disease. When there are good programs of immunization properly implemented, and when they greatly cover the population which they refer to, the changes in frequency of vaccinable diseases can be observed, eg. contagious nosological entities that could be prevented by vaccination. Certain vaccines protect from bacterial or viral infections and reduce the possibility of infection, that is, prevent its transmission. The objective of the research is to point to the results of conducting the compulsory systematic immunization and to examine the effect of immunization on spreading of some respiratory vaccine-preventable diseases within Sumadija Region. This study shows the scope of immunization and spreading of some respiratory vaccine-preventable diseases, before all morbilli, parottitis epidemica, rubella and pertussis, in Sumadija Region for the last ten years. By means of great scope of compulsory immunization, the aforementioned respiratory vaccine-preventable diseases could be prevented.

  12. The field effectiveness of routine and emergency vaccination with an inactivated vaccine against foot and mouth disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnekave, E; Li, Y; Zamir, L; Even-Tov, B; Hamblin, P; Gelman, B; Hammond, J; Klement, E

    2013-01-30

    High potency, inactivated foot and mouth disease (FMD) vaccines may be used in non endemic countries for emergency vaccination during outbreaks in order to prevent virus spread. In endemic countries either standard or high potency vaccines are used for routine vaccination. Despite their wide use there is a shortage of data on the field effectiveness of inactivated FMD vaccines. Epidemics of FMD caused by viruses of serotype O occur frequently in Israel, where a high potency (≥6PD(50)) vaccine is used for both routine and emergency vaccination. We investigated an outbreak of FMD caused by a virus of serotype O, which took place during 2011 in a feedlot and an adjacent dairy herd. Post outbreak testing of antibodies against non-structural protein demonstrated that infection occurred in 96% of the calves that received two doses of vaccine at least three months prior to the outbreak and more than 50% showed clinical signs consistent with FMD. Replacement heifers that had been vaccinated 3-5 times with the last vaccination administered 7 months prior to the outbreak were all infected and 18% showed clinical signs. Testing of cattle sera of the same vaccination status as the affected cattle demonstrated low neutralizing antibody (NA) titers against the field virus strain and an r(1) value of 0.37 compared to the vaccine strain. In contrast, cattle vaccinated only once but up to two weeks before the outbreak, were almost all protected from clinical disease and to a lesser extent, protected from FMD virus infection, despite low NA titers. We conclude that emergency vaccination was highly effective due to a mechanism not associated with NA, whereas routine vaccination with the same vaccine formulation provided only limited protection due to poor longevity of the elicited immunity and low matching with the field strain (despite an r(1) higher than 0.3). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. New vaccines for neglected parasitic diseases and dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumier, Coreen M; Gillespie, Portia M; Hotez, Peter J; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2013-09-01

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a significant source of morbidity and socioeconomic burden among the world's poor. Virtually all of the 2.4 billion people who live on less than $2 per d, more than a third of the world's population, are at risk for these debilitating NTDs. Although chemotherapeutic measures exist for many of these pathogens, they are not sustainable countermeasures on their own because of rates of reinfection, risk of drug resistance, and inconsistent maintenance of drug treatment programs. Preventative and therapeutic NTD vaccines are needed as long-term solutions. Because there is no market in the for-profit sector of vaccine development for these pathogens, much of the effort to develop vaccines is driven by nonprofit entities, mostly through product development partnerships. This review describes the progress of vaccines under development for many of the NTDs, with a specific focus on those about to enter or that are currently in human clinical trials. Specifically, we report on the progress on dengue, hookworm, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, Chagas disease, and onchocerciasis vaccines. These products will be some of the first with specific objectives to aid the world's poorest populations. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Immunity against infectious diseases: predictive value of self-reported history of vaccination and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Andrea; Frasson, Clara; Morandin, Marta; Beggio, Michela; Bruno, Alberto; Davanzo, Elisabetta; Di Marco, Livio; Simioni, Livio; Amato, Guglielmo

    2007-05-01

    To determine whether self-reported history of disease and/or vaccination is predictive of immunity against hepatitis B, varicella, rubella, mumps, and measles. The seroprevalence of viral antibodies and the predictive value of a self-report questionnaire were determined for 616 paramedical students who matriculated into Padua Medical School (Padua, Italy) during 2003-2005. The majority of subjects (86.9%) remembered being vaccinated against hepatitis B but had no recollection of disease. Among vaccinees, 1.5% showed markers of previous infection, 6.7% tested negative for anti-hepatitis B virus surface antigen (anti-HBsAg) antibodies, and 91.8% tested positive for anti-HBsAg. Self-reported vaccination history had a positive predictive value of 93.2% for test results positive for immunity against hepatitis B. Immunity against varicella (93.7% of subjects) and rubella (95.5%) was high, compared with immunity against mumps (79.9%) and measles (83.1%). In addition, results of tests for detection of immunity against mumps and measles were equivocal for more than 7% of subjects, probably because their vaccination regimen was not completed. Self-reported histories of varicella disease and rubella disease and vaccination had high positive predictive values (greater than 98% each) for testing positive for antiviral antibodies, compared with self-reported histories of mumps disease and vaccination and measles disease and vaccination; however, high positive predictive values were observed for self-reported histories of mumps only (92.0%) and measles only (94.7%). The self-report questionnaire used in this study did not accurately predict immunity against 5 transmittable but vaccine-preventable diseases. A complete serological evaluation of healthcare workers, followed by vaccination of those with negative or equivocal results of serological tests, is an appropriate measure to decrease the risk of infection in this population.

  15. Prospects for safe and effective vaccines against prion diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabbott, Neil Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Prion diseases are subacute neurodegenerative diseases that affect humans and animals. An abnormally folded isoform (PrP(Sc)) of the host cellular prion protein is considered to constitute the major, if not sole, component of the infectious prion. The occurrence of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans most likely arose due to consumption of food contaminated with bovine spongiform encephalopathy prions. The demonstration that some prion infections may have the capacity to transmit to other species, especially humans, has focused attention on the development of safe and effective vaccines against these invariably fatal and currently incurable diseases. Although much effort has been invested in the development of safe and effective anti-PrP vaccines, many important issues remain to be resolved.

  16. Foot-and-mouth disease vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals. This disease has affected most areas of the world, often causing extensive epizootics in livestock, mostly farmed cattle and swine, although sheep, goats and many wild species are also susceptible...

  17. Vaccine preventable viral diseases and risks associated with waterborne transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Maria Ruggeri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Rotavirus and poliovirus are paradigmatic viruses for causing major diseases affecting the human population. The impact of poliovirus is remarkably diminished because of vaccination during the last half century. Poliomyelitis due to wild polio currently affects a limited number of countries, and since 2000 sporadic outbreaks have been associated to neurovirulent vaccine-derived polioviruses. Conversely, rotavirus is presently very diffuse, accounting for the largest fraction of severe gastroenteritis among children <5 years-old. Vaccination towards rotavirus is still in its dawn, and zoonotic strains contribute to the emergence and evolution of novel strains pathogenic to man. The environment, particularly surface water, is a possible vehicle for large transmission of both viruses, but environmental surveillance of circulating strains can help promptly monitor entry of new virulent strains into a country, their shedding and spread.

  18. Self-disseminating vaccines for emerging infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Aisling A; Redwood, Alec J; Jarvis, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Modern human activity fueled by economic development is profoundly altering our relationship with microorganisms. This altered interaction with microbes is believed to be the major driving force behind the increased rate of emerging infectious diseases from animals. The spate of recent infectious disease outbreaks, including Ebola virus disease and Middle East respiratory syndrome, emphasize the need for development of new innovative tools to manage these emerging diseases. Disseminating vaccines are one such novel approach to potentially interrupt animal to human (zoonotic) transmission of these pathogens.

  19. Virus mutations and their impact on vaccination against infectious bursal disease (Gumboro disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudaoud, A; Mamache, B; Tombari, W; Ghram, A

    2016-12-01

    Infectious bursal disease (also known as Gumboro disease) is an immunosuppressive viral disease specific to chickens. In spite of all the information amassed on the antigenic and immunological characteristics of the virus, the disease has not yet been brought fully under control. It is still prevalent in properly vaccinated flocks carrying specific antibodies at levels normally high enough to prevent the disease. Common causes apart, failure of vaccination against infectious bursal disease is associated mainly with early vaccination in flocks of unknown immune status and with the evolution of viruses circulating in the field, leading to antigenic drift and a sharp rise in pathogenicity. Various highly sensitive molecular techniques have clarified the viral determinants of antigenicity and pathogenicity of the infectious bursal disease virus. However, these markers are not universally recognised and tend to be considered as evolutionary markers. Antigenic variants of the infectious bursal disease virus possess modified neutralising epitopes that allow them to evade the action of maternally-derived or vaccine-induced antibodies. Autogenous or multivalent vaccines are required to control antigenic variants in areas where classical and variant virus strains coexist. Pathotypic variants (very virulent viruses) remain antigenically related to classical viruses. The difficulty in controlling pathotypic variants is linked to the difficulty of eliciting an early immune response, because of the risk of the vaccine virus being neutralised by maternal antibodies. Mathematical calculation of the optimal vaccination time and the use of vaccines resistant to maternally-derived antibodies have improved the control of very virulent viruses. © OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health), 2016.

  20. Is a multivalent hand, foot, and mouth disease vaccine feasible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Michel; Chong, Pele

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus A infections are the primary cause of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in infants and young children. Although enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) are the predominant causes of HFMD epidemics worldwide, EV-A71 has emerged as a major neurovirulent virus responsible for severe neurological complications and fatal outcomes. HFMD is a serious health threat and economic burden across the Asia-Pacific region. Inactivated EV-A71 vaccines have elicited protection against EV-A71 but not against CV-A16 infections in large efficacy trials. The current development of a bivalent inactivated EV-A71/CV-A16 vaccine is the next step toward that of multivalent HFMD vaccines. These vaccines should ultimately include other prevalent pathogenic coxsackieviruses A (CV-A6 and CV-A10), coxsackieviruses B (B3 and B5) and echovirus 30 that often co-circulate during HFMD epidemics and can cause severe HFMD, aseptic meningitis and acute viral myocarditis. The prospect and challenges for the development of such multivalent vaccines are discussed. PMID:26009802

  1. Plant-based vaccines for animals and humans: recent advances in technology and clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeyama, Natsumi; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Yuki, Yoshikazu

    2015-09-01

    It has been about 30 years since the first plant engineering technology was established. Although the concept of plant-based pharmaceuticals or vaccines motivates us to develop practicable commercial products using plant engineering, there are some difficulties in reaching the final goal: to manufacture an approved product. At present, the only plant-made vaccine approved by the United States Department of Agriculture is a Newcastle disease vaccine for poultry that is produced in suspension-cultured tobacco cells. The progress toward commercialization of plant-based vaccines takes much effort and time, but several candidate vaccines for use in humans and animals are in clinical trials. This review discusses plant engineering technologies and regulations relevant to the development of plant-based vaccines and provides an overview of human and animal vaccines currently under clinical trials.

  2. Yellow fever live attenuated vaccine: A very successful live attenuated vaccine but still we have problems controlling the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Alan D T

    2017-10-20

    Yellow fever (YF) is regarded as the original hemorrhagic fever and has been a major public health problem for at least 250years. A very effective live attenuated vaccine, strain 17D, was developed in the 1930s and this has proved critical in the control of the disease. There is little doubt that without the vaccine, YF virus would be considered a biosafety level 4 pathogen. Significantly, YF is currently the only disease where an international vaccination certificate is required under the International Health Regulations. Despite having a very successful vaccine, there are occasional issues of supply and demand, such as that which occurred in Angola and Democratic Republic of Congo in 2016 when there was insufficient vaccine available. For the first time fractional dosing of the vaccine was approved on an emergency basis. Thus, continued vigilance and improvements in supply and demand are needed in the future. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. An evaluation of emerging vaccines for childhood meningococcal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Christopher B

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meningococcal meningitis is a major cause of disease worldwide, with frequent epidemics particularly affecting an area of sub-Saharan Africa known as the “meningitis belt”. Neisseria meningitidis group A (MenA is responsible for major epidemics in Africa. Recently W-135 has emerged as an important pathogen. Currently, the strategy for control of such outbreaks is emergency use of meningococcal (MC polysaccharide vaccines, but these have a limited ability to induce herd immunity and elicit an adequate immune response in infant and young children. In recent times initiatives have been taken to introduce meningococcal conjugate vaccine in these African countries. Currently there are two different types of MC conjugate vaccines at late stages of development covering serogroup A and W-135: a multivalent MC conjugate vaccine against serogroup A,C,Y and W-135; and a monovalent conjugate vaccine against serogroup A. We aimed to perform a structured assessment of these emerging meningococcal vaccines as a means of reducing global meningococal disease burden among children under 5 years of age. Methods We used a modified CHNRI methodology for setting priorities in health research investments. This was done in two stages. In the first stage we systematically reviewed the literature related to emerging MC vaccines relevant to 12 criteria of interest. In Stage II, we conducted an expert opinion exercise by inviting 20 experts (leading basic scientists, international public health researchers, international policy makers and representatives of pharmaceutical companies. They answered questions from CHNRI framework and their “collective optimism” towards each criterion was documented on a scale from 0 to 100%. Results For MenA conjugate vaccine the experts showed very high level of optimism (~ 90% or more for 7 out of the 12 criteria. The experts felt that the likelihood of efficacy on meningitis was very high (~ 90%. Deliverability

  4. An evaluation of emerging vaccines for childhood meningococcal disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Meningococcal meningitis is a major cause of disease worldwide, with frequent epidemics particularly affecting an area of sub-Saharan Africa known as the “meningitis belt”. Neisseria meningitidis group A (MenA) is responsible for major epidemics in Africa. Recently W-135 has emerged as an important pathogen. Currently, the strategy for control of such outbreaks is emergency use of meningococcal (MC) polysaccharide vaccines, but these have a limited ability to induce herd immunity and elicit an adequate immune response in infant and young children. In recent times initiatives have been taken to introduce meningococcal conjugate vaccine in these African countries. Currently there are two different types of MC conjugate vaccines at late stages of development covering serogroup A and W-135: a multivalent MC conjugate vaccine against serogroup A,C,Y and W-135; and a monovalent conjugate vaccine against serogroup A. We aimed to perform a structured assessment of these emerging meningococcal vaccines as a means of reducing global meningococal disease burden among children under 5 years of age. Methods We used a modified CHNRI methodology for setting priorities in health research investments. This was done in two stages. In the first stage we systematically reviewed the literature related to emerging MC vaccines relevant to 12 criteria of interest. In Stage II, we conducted an expert opinion exercise by inviting 20 experts (leading basic scientists, international public health researchers, international policy makers and representatives of pharmaceutical companies). They answered questions from CHNRI framework and their “collective optimism” towards each criterion was documented on a scale from 0 to 100%. Results For MenA conjugate vaccine the experts showed very high level of optimism (~ 90% or more) for 7 out of the 12 criteria. The experts felt that the likelihood of efficacy on meningitis was very high (~ 90%). Deliverability, acceptability to health

  5. Infectious bursal disease: evaluation of pathogenicity of commercial vaccines from Brazil in specific pathogen free chichens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HLS Moraes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD is a chicken disease economically important for the poultry industry in function of the immune depression that it causes. Disease control is made with different vaccines and vaccination programs. In present work, the pathogenicity of 3 intermediate vaccines (I1, I2 and I3, 2 intermediate more pathogenic (IP1 and IP2 and 3 vaccines containing strong virus (F1, F2 and F3 was evaluated. Birds vaccinated with IP1, IP2, F1, F2 and F3 showed significantly lower bursa size in relation to control animals and animals vaccinated with I1, I2 and I3. On the other hand, vaccines I1 and I3 induced antibody titers higher than the control and lower than I2, IP1, IP2, F1, F2 and F3. Histological scores showed that vaccines I1, I2 and I3 induced similar injury degree, although I2 and I3 were not different from the control, whereas I1 was slightly different. Strong vaccines induced more pronounced lesions than the other tested vaccines. These findings suggest that strong vaccines are able to cause severe bursal injuries. However, bursometry and relative weight of the bursa of Fabricius were considered inadequate to evaluate vaccine pathogenicity. Moreover, strong vaccines induced higher antibody titers than the other vaccines, although some intermediate vaccines induced similar titers.

  6. Estimating the public health importance of the CYD-tetravalent dengue vaccine: Vaccine preventable disease incidence and numbers needed to vaccinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessner, Bradford D; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2016-04-29

    To evaluate the potential public health impact of the live attenuated tetravalent Sanofi Pasteur dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV) we analyzed data from the reported clinical trials to calculate vaccine preventable disease incidence (VPDI) and number needed to vaccinate (NNV) based on the licensure indication for persons age 9 years and above. VPDI is defined as incidence in an unvaccinated population X vaccine efficacy (VE), and thus incorporates both VE and the underlying burden of disease. NNV was calculated as 100,000 divided by VPDI divided by 2-year length of study. We compared these values to data for three newer vaccines that are currently integrated into some national immunization programs in Asia and Latin America, namely pneumococcal conjugate, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and rotavirus vaccines. In the Asian-Pacific trial, in the first 25 months after the first dose of the dengue vaccine, CYD-TDV prevented annually 2639 cases of virologically confirmed dengue for every 100,000 persons vaccinated, for an NNV of 18. In the Latin American trial, given the overall lower annual dengue incidence compared to Asia, VPDI was 1707, and NNV 28. For the Asian-Pacific and Latin American studies, the VPDIs for hospitalized virologically confirmed disease at the trials' end were 638 and 239 per 100,000 population per year, respectively, with NNVs of 75 and 201. VPDI for confirmed dengue hospitalization was higher than that for Hib vaccine against Hib meningitis or all cause severe pneumonia while lower than that for rotavirus vaccine against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis. Our analysis found that the CYD-TDV dengue vaccine had favorable VPDI and NNV, also when compared to existing vaccines used in Latin America and Asia. VPDI and NNV varied by serotype distribution, extent of prior dengue exposure (baseline seroprevalence) and country. These findings will help policy-makers decide where and how to introduce this vaccine post-licensure. Copyright © 2016 The Authors

  7. The influence of social norms on the dynamics of vaccinating behaviour for paediatric infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oraby, Tamer; Thampi, Vivek; Bauch, Chris T

    2014-04-07

    Mathematical models that couple disease dynamics and vaccinating behaviour often assume that the incentive to vaccinate disappears if disease prevalence is zero. Hence, they predict that vaccine refusal should be the rule, and elimination should be difficult or impossible. In reality, countries with non-mandatory vaccination policies have usually been able to maintain elimination or very low incidence of paediatric infectious diseases for long periods of time. Here, we show that including injunctive social norms can reconcile such behaviour-incidence models to observations. Adding social norms to a coupled behaviour-incidence model enables the model to better explain pertussis vaccine uptake and disease dynamics in the UK from 1967 to 2010, in both the vaccine-scare years and the years of high vaccine coverage. The model also illustrates how a vaccine scare can perpetuate suboptimal vaccine coverage long after perceived risk has returned to baseline, pre-vaccine-scare levels. However, at other model parameter values, social norms can perpetuate depressed vaccine coverage during a vaccine scare well beyond the time when the population's baseline vaccine risk perception returns to pre-scare levels. Social norms can strongly suppress vaccine uptake despite frequent outbreaks, as observed in some small communities. Significant portions of the parameter space also exhibit bistability, meaning long-term outcomes depend on the initial conditions. Depending on the context, social norms can either support or hinder immunization goals.

  8. Experimental Vaccines against Chagas Disease: A Journey through History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Rodríguez-Morales

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease, or American trypanosomiasis, which is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is primarily a vector disease endemic in 21 Latin American countries, including Mexico. Although many vector control programs have been implemented, T. cruzi has not been eradicated. The development of an anti-T. cruzi vaccine for prophylactic and therapeutic purposes may significantly contribute to the transmission control of Chagas disease. Immune protection against experimental infection with T. cruzi has been studied since the second decade of the last century, and many types of immunogens have been used subsequently, such as killed or attenuated parasites and new DNA vaccines. This primary prevention strategy appears feasible, effective, safe, and inexpensive, although problems remain. The objective of this review is to summarize the research efforts about the development of vaccines against Chagas disease worldwide. A thorough literature review was conducted by searching PubMed with the terms “Chagas disease” and “American trypanosomiasis” together with “vaccines” or “immunization”. In addition, reports and journals not cited in PubMed were identified. Publications in English, Spanish, and Portuguese were reviewed.

  9. Disease Prevention: An Opportunity to Expand Edible Plant-Based Vaccines?

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Concha; Raúl Cañas; Johan Macuer; María José Torres; Andrés A. Herrada; Fabiola Jamett; Cristian Ibáñez

    2017-01-01

    The lethality of infectious diseases has decreased due to the implementation of crucial sanitary procedures such as vaccination. However, the resurgence of pathogenic diseases in different parts of the world has revealed the importance of identifying novel, rapid, and concrete solutions for control and prevention. Edible vaccines pose an interesting alternative that could overcome some of the constraints of traditional vaccines. The term ?edible vaccine? refers to the use of edible parts of a...

  10. Introducing vaccination against serogroup B meningococcal disease: an economic and mathematical modelling study of potential impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Hannah; Hickman, Matthew; Edmunds, W John; Trotter, Caroline L

    2013-05-28

    Meningococcal disease remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The first broadly effective vaccine against group B disease (which causes considerable meningococcal disease in Europe, the Americas and Australasia) was licensed in the EU in January 2013; our objective was to estimate the potential impact of introducing such a vaccine in England. We developed two models to estimate the impact of introducing a new 'MenB' vaccine. The cohort model assumes the vaccine protects against disease only; the transmission dynamic model also allows the vaccine to protect against carriage (accounting for herd effects). We used these, and economic models, to estimate the case reduction and cost-effectiveness of a number of different vaccine strategies. We estimate 27% of meningococcal disease cases could be prevented over the lifetime of an English birth cohort by vaccinating infants at 2,3,4 and 12 months of age with a vaccine that prevents disease only; this strategy could be cost-effective at £9 per vaccine dose. Substantial reductions in disease (71%) can be produced after 10 years by routinely vaccinating infants in combination with a large-scale catch-up campaign, using a vaccine which protects against carriage as well as disease; this could be cost-effective at £17 per vaccine dose. New 'MenB' vaccines could substantially reduce disease in England and be cost-effective if competitively priced, particularly if the vaccines can prevent carriage as well as disease. These results are relevant to other countries, with a similar epidemiology to England, considering the introduction of a new 'MenB' vaccine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Newcastle Disease Virus Establishes Persistent Infection in Tumor CellsIn Vitro: Contribution of the Cleavage Site of Fusion Protein and Second Sialic Acid Binding Site of Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangaswamy, Udaya S; Wang, Weijia; Cheng, Xing; McTamney, Patrick; Carroll, Danielle; Jin, Hong

    2017-08-15

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is an oncolytic virus being developed for the treatment of cancer. Following infection of a human ovarian cancer cell line (OVCAR3) with a recombinant low-pathogenic NDV, persistent infection was established in a subset of tumor cells. Persistently infected (PI) cells exhibited resistance to superinfection with NDV and established an antiviral state, as demonstrated by upregulation of interferon and interferon-induced genes such as myxoma resistance gene 1 (Mx1) and retinoic acid-inducing gene-I (RIG-I). Viruses released from PI cells induced higher cell-to-cell fusion than the parental virus following infection in two tumor cell lines tested, HT1080 and HeLa, and remained attenuated in chickens. Two mutations, one in the fusion (F) protein cleavage site, F117S (F 117S ), and another in hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN), G169R (HN 169R ), located in the second sialic acid binding region, were responsible for the hyperfusogenic phenotype. F 117S improves F protein cleavage efficiency, facilitating cell-to-cell fusion, while HN 169R possesses a multifaceted role in contributing to higher fusion, reduced receptor binding, and lower neuraminidase activity, which together result in increased fusion and reduced viral replication. Thus, establishment of persistent infection in vitro involves viral genetic changes that facilitate efficient viral spread from cell to cell as a potential mechanism to escape host antiviral responses. The results of our study also demonstrate a critical role in the viral life cycle for the second receptor binding region of the HN protein, which is conserved in several paramyxoviruses. IMPORTANCE Oncolytic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) could establish persistent infection in a tumor cell line, resulting in a steady antiviral state reflected by constitutively expressed interferon. Viruses isolated from persistently infected cells are highly fusogenic, and this phenotype has been mapped to two mutations, one each in

  12. [Isolation of influenza virus A (Orthomyxoviridae, Influenza A virus), Dhori virus (Orthomyxoviridae, Thogotovirus), and Newcastle's disease virus (Paromyxoviridae, Avulavirus) on the Malyi Zhemchuzhnyi Island in the north-western area of the Caspian Sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iashkulov, K B; Shchelkanov, M Iu; L'vov, S S; Dzhambinov, S D; Galkina, I V; Fediakina, I T; Bushkieva, B Ts; Morozova, T N; Kireev, D E; Akanina, D S; Litvin, K E; Usachev, E V; Prilipov, A G; Grebennikova, T V; Gromashevskiĭ, V L; Iamnikova, S S; Zaberezhnyĭ, A D; L'vov, D K

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the 2003 and 2006 environmental virological monitoring surveys on the Malyi Zhemchuzhnyi Island where a large breeding colony of sea gull (Laridae) is located. In the past several years, expansion of cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) has enhanced the intensity of populational interactions. The investigators isolated 13 strains of influenza A virus (Orthomyxoviridae, Influenza A virus) subtype H13N1 (from sea gulls (n = 4), cormorants (n = 9) 1 strain of Dhori virus (Orthomyxoviridae, Thogotovirus) from a cormorantwith clinical symptoms of the disease, 3 strains of Newcastle disease virus (Paramyxoviridae, Avulavirus) from cormorants. RT-PCR revealed influenza A virus subtype H5 in 3.1% of the cloacal lavages from cormorants. Neutralization test indicated that sera from cormorants contained specific antibodies against West Nile (Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) (15.0%), Sindbis (Togaviridae, Alphavirus) (5.0%), Dhori (10.0%), and Tahini (Bunyaviridae, Orthobunyavirus) (5.0%); sera from herring gulls had antibodies against Dhori virus (16.7%); there were no specific antibodies to Inco (Bunyaviridae, Orthobunyavirus) and mountain hare (Lepus timidus) (Bunyaviridae, Orthobunyavirus) virus.

  13. Production and utilization of radiation vaccines against helminthic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    Helminthic diseases in man and in animals are various and widespread, but to date the only successful vaccines to be developed against helminths are those based on the radiation treatment of infective larvae. A panel of experts met in Vienna in December 1963 to consider how the IAEA might support and encourage developments in this field. The present report gathers together some of the important contributions of the Panel members together with the general conclusions and recommendations. 77 refs, 19 figs, 16 tabs

  14. Ebola Virus Disease Candidate Vaccines Under Evaluation in Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Karen A.; Jahrling, Peter B.; Bavari, Sina; Kuhn, Jens H.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Filoviruses are the etiological agents of two human illnesses: Ebola virus disease and Marburg virus disease. Until 2013, medical countermeasure development against these afflictions was limited to only a few research institutes worldwide as both infections were considered exotic due to very low case numbers. Together with the high case-fatality rate of both diseases, evaluation of any candidate countermeasure in properly controlled clinical trials seemed impossible. However, in 2013, Ebola virus was identified as the etiological agent of a large disease outbreak in Western Africa including almost 30,000 infections and more than 11,000 deaths, including case exportations to Europe and North America. These large case numbers resulted in medical countermeasure development against Ebola virus disease becoming a global public-health priority. This review summarizes the status quo of candidate vaccines against Ebola virus disease, with a focus on those that are currently under evaluation in clinical trials. PMID:27160784

  15. Influenza Vaccination Rate and Reasons for Nonvaccination in Children With Cardiac Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livni, Gilat; Wainstein, Alina; Birk, Einat; Chodick, Gabriel; Levy, Itzhak

    2017-11-01

    Influenza is a major cause of respiratory morbidity worldwide. It poses a risk of complications in children with cardiac disease. Influenza vaccine is considered the most effective and safe means of preventing the disease. The aims of this study were to determine the rate of influenza vaccination in children with cardiac disease and to identify the reasons for failure to vaccinate in this patient population. The study group included 186 children and their parents who attended the cardiology institute of a tertiary pediatric medical center between September and October 2012. Parents were asked to complete a questionnaire covering demographics, clinical features, influenza vaccination, receipt of advice from medical professionals regarding vaccination and personal knowledge about and attitude toward the influenza vaccine. Median age of the children was 7.6 years. Thirty-six percent had been vaccinated in the previous influenza season. Vaccination was unrelated to the child's age or sex or the parents' education. Factors significantly affecting the decision of the parents to have their child vaccinated were their knowledge, beliefs and conceptions about the vaccine and their receipt of a recommendation to do so from the pediatrician or cardiologist (P vaccination against influenza is low in children with heart disease. Major factors encouraging vaccination are proper parental knowledge and the recommendation of the primary physician or cardiologist. Medical professionals caring for this patient population should be alerted to the need to routinely counsel parents on the importance of influenza vaccination.

  16. Design of therapeutic vaccines as a novel antibody therapy for cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagami, Hironori

    2017-09-01

    Vaccines are primarily used worldwide as a preventive medicine for infectious diseases and have recently been applied to cancer. We and others have developed therapeutic vaccines designed for cardiovascular diseases that are notably different from previous vaccines. In the case of cancer vaccines, a specific protein in cancer cells is a target antigen, and the activation of cytotoxic T cells (CTL) is required to kill and remove the antigen-presenting cancer cells. Our therapeutic vaccines work against hypertension by targeting angiotensin II (Ang II) as the antigen, which is an endogenous hormone. Therapeutic vaccines must avoid CTL activation and induce the blocking antibodies for Ang II. The goal of our therapeutic vaccine for cardiovascular diseases is to induce the specific antibody response toward the target protein without inducing T-cell or antibody-mediated inflammation through the careful selection of the target antigen, carrier protein and adjuvants. The goal of our therapeutic vaccine is similar to that of antibody therapy. Recently, multiple antibody-based drugs have been developed for cancer, immune-related diseases, and dyslipidemia, which are efficient but expensive. If the effect of a therapeutic vaccine is nearly equivalent to antibody therapy as an alternative approach, the lower medical cost and improvement in drug adherence can be advantages of therapeutic vaccines. In this review, we will describe our concept of therapeutic vaccines for cardiovascular diseases and the future directions of therapeutic vaccines as novel antibody therapies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Intentions to receive a potentially available Lyme disease vaccine in an urban sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Joshua; Kusz, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The only human Lyme disease vaccine of LYMErix was voluntarily removed from the market in the United States in 2002 for a number of reasons. A new human Lyme disease vaccine is currently being developed. We would like any future approved human Lyme disease vaccine to be of interest and marketable to consumers. We surveyed 714 participants to determine variables associated with intentions to receive a Lyme disease vaccine. Predictor variables included demographics, protection motivational theory, Lyme disease knowledge, Lyme disease preventive behaviors, beliefs and perceived health. We found in multivariate linear regression analyses that Asian/Asian American race/ethnicity (p marketers need to address and use approaches to interest those from other race/ethnicities. Also, marketers need to address the erroneous belief that vaccines are typically not safe in order to interest those with such beliefs to use a Lyme disease vaccine.

  18. Capripox disease in Ethiopia: Genetic differences between field isolates and vaccine strain, and implications for vaccination failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelaye, Esayas; Belay, Alebachew; Ayelet, Gelagay; Jenberie, Shiferaw; Yami, Martha; Loitsch, Angelika; Tuppurainen, Eeva; Grabherr, Reingard; Diallo, Adama; Lamien, Charles Euloge

    2015-07-01

    Sheeppox virus (SPPV), goatpox virus (GTPV) and lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) of the genus Capripoxvirus (CaPV) cause capripox disease in sheep, goats and cattle, respectively. These viruses are not strictly host-specific and their geographical distribution is complex. In Ethiopia, where sheep, goats and cattle are all affected, a live attenuated vaccine strain (KS1-O180) is used for immunization of both small ruminants and cattle. Although occurrences of the disease in vaccinated cattle are frequently reported, information on the circulating isolates and their relation to the vaccine strain in use are still missing. The present study addressed the parameters associated with vaccination failure in Ethiopia. Retrospective outbreak data were compiled and isolates collected from thirteen outbreaks in small ruminants and cattle at various geographical locations and years were analyzed and compared to the vaccine strain. Isolates of GTPV and LSDV genotypes were responsible for the capripox outbreaks in small ruminants and cattle, respectively, while SPPV was absent. Pathogenic isolates collected from vaccinated cattle were identical to those from the non-vaccinated ones. The vaccine strain, genetically distinct from the outbreak isolates, was not responsible for these outbreaks. This study shows capripox to be highly significant in Ethiopia due to low performance of the local vaccine and insufficient vaccination coverage. The development of new, more efficient vaccine strains, a GTPV strain for small ruminants and a LSDV for cattle, is needed to promote the acceptance by farmers, thus contribute to better control of CaPVs in Ethiopia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics for the Treatment of Malignant Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel F. Aldrich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The employment of the immune system to treat malignant disease represents an active area of biomedical research. The specificity of the immune response and potential for establishing long-term tumor immunity compels researchers to continue investigations into immunotherapeutic approaches for cancer. A number of immunotherapeutic strategies have arisen for the treatment of malignant disease, including various vaccination schemes, cytokine therapy, adoptive cellular therapy, and monoclonal antibody therapy. This paper describes each of these strategies and discusses some of the associated successes and limitations. Emphasis is placed on the integration of techniques to promote optimal scenarios for eliminating cancer.

  20. An emergency department-based vaccination program: overcoming the barriers for adults at high risk for vaccine-preventable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimple, Diane; Weiss, Steven J; Brett, Meghan; Ernst, Amy A

    2006-09-01

    More than 10% of the population visit emergency departments (ED) every year. Many of these patients are not up-to-date on routine vaccinations that could prevent future illnesses. The ED could significantly impact these vaccination trends. This study was a feasibility study to determine whether patients would be amenable to an ED-based program that provided appropriate immunizations when they were at high risk for these diseases. In addition, the authors sought to identify barriers that predict high-risk patients who did not receive immunizations before ED presentation and to identify barriers that predict those high-risk unvaccinated patients who are unwilling to receive vaccinations when offered in the ED. This study was a prospective cross-sectional study of all patients arriving in the ED at one inner-city trauma center between 10 am and 10 pm over the course of a three-week intervention period. The subjects completed a survey that included information about their risk of influenza (flu) and pneumococcal disease, their immunization history, and their perceptions of their need for immunization. Demographic information collected included insurance status, age, gender, and primary language. All high-risk patients who were not current with their immunizations were offered vaccination. The primary outcome was improvement in vaccination coverage based on an ED surveillance and treatment system for vaccinations. The secondary outcomes were barriers to successful vaccination before ED presentation and barriers to acceptance of vaccination in the ED. Results were compared using chi-square test and confidence interval analysis. Characteristics of barriers to immunization were determined using a logistic regression model. A p-value barriers to vaccination before ED presentation were lack of insurance (odds ratio [OR] = 0.31 for flu, 0.22 for pneumococcal disease), age younger than 50 years (OR = 0.18 for flu, 0.24 for pneumococcal disease), and no perceived need for

  1. Immunogenicity of hepatitis A vaccine in children with celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Sinan; Dalgic, Buket; Basturk, Bilkay; Gonen, Sevim; Soylemezoglu, Oguz

    2011-11-01

    The response to hepatitis A vaccine has not been studied in children with celiac disease (CD). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the immunogenicity of an inactivated hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccine and the effect of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) type on immunogenicity in children with CD. Thirty-three patients with CD and 62 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Inactivated HAV vaccine (Havrix; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium) containing 720 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay units of alum-adsorbed hepatitis A antigen was administered intramuscularly in a 2-dose schedule at 0 and 6 months. Seroconversion rates and antibody titers of HAV were measured at 1 and 7 months. At 1 month, seroconversion rates were 78.8% and 77.4% and geometric mean titers were 50.7 and 49.9 mIU/mL in the CD and control groups, respectively (P > 0.05). At 7 months, seroconversion rates were 97% and 98.4% and geometric mean titers were 138.5 and 133 mIU/mL in the CD and control groups, respectively (P > 0.05). The most frequent HLA types were HLA-DQ2, -DR3, and -DR7 alleles in patients with CD and HLA-DQ3, -DQ6, -DR11, and -DR14 in the controls. There was no association between HLA alleles and antibody titers of hepatitis A vaccine. Children with CD have a good immune response to hepatitis A vaccine, similar to healthy controls.

  2. Effect of vaccinations on seizure risk and disease course in Dravet syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Nienke E; van der Maas, Nicoline A T; Sonsma, Anja C M; Ippel, Elly; Vermeer-de Bondt, Patricia E; Hagebeuk, Eveline; Jansen, Floor E; Geesink, Huibert H; Braun, Kees P; de Louw, Anton; Augustijn, Paul B; Neuteboom, Rinze F; Schieving, Jolanda H; Stroink, Hans; Vermeulen, R Jeroen; Nicolai, Joost; Brouwer, Oebele F; van Kempen, Marjan; de Kovel, Carolien G F; Kemmeren, Jeanet M; Koeleman, Bobby P C; Knoers, Nine V; Lindhout, Dick; Gunning, W Boudewijn; Brilstra, Eva H

    2015-08-18

    To study the effect of vaccination-associated seizure onset on disease course and estimate the risk of subsequent seizures after infant pertussis combination and measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccinations in Dravet syndrome (DS). We retrospectively analyzed data from hospital medical files, child health clinics, and the vaccination register for children with DS and pathogenic SCN1A mutations. Seizures within 24 hours after infant whole-cell, acellular, or nonpertussis combination vaccination or within 5 to 12 days after MMR vaccination were defined as "vaccination-associated." Risks of vaccination-associated seizures for the different vaccines were analyzed in univariable and in multivariable logistic regression for pertussis combination vaccines and by a self-controlled case series analysis using parental seizure registries for MMR vaccines. Disease courses of children with and without vaccination-associated seizure onset were compared. Children who had DS (n = 77) with and without vaccination-associated seizure onset (21% and 79%, respectively) differed in age at first seizure (median 3.7 vs 6.1 months, p < 0.001) but not in age at first nonvaccination-associated seizure, age at first report of developmental delay, or cognitive outcome. The risk of subsequent vaccination-associated seizures was significantly lower for acellular pertussis (9%; odds ratio 0.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.05-0.71) and nonpertussis (8%; odds ratio 0.11, 95% CI 0.02-0.59) than whole-cell pertussis (37%; reference) vaccines. Self-controlled case series analysis showed an increased incidence rate ratio of seizures of 2.3 (95% CI 1.5-3.4) within the risk period of 5 to 12 days following MMR vaccination. Our results suggest that vaccination-associated earlier seizure onset does not alter disease course in DS, while the risk of subsequent vaccination-associated seizures is probably vaccine-specific. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  3. Pneumococcal Transmission and Disease In Silico: A Microsimulation Model of the Indirect Effects of Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhonen, Markku; Cheng, Allen C.; Auranen, Kari

    2013-01-01

    Background The degree and time frame of indirect effects of vaccination (serotype replacement and herd immunity) are key determinants in assessing the net effectiveness of vaccination with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) in control of pneumococcal disease. Using modelling, we aimed to quantify these effects and their dependence on coverage of vaccination and the vaccine's efficacy against susceptibility to pneumococcal carriage. Methods and Findings We constructed an individual-based simulation model that explores the effects of large-scale PCV programmes and applied it in a developed country setting (Finland). A population structure with transmission of carriage taking place within relevant mixing groups (families, day care groups, schools and neighbourhoods) was considered in order to properly assess the dependency of herd immunity on coverage of vaccination and vaccine efficacy against carriage. Issues regarding potential serotype replacement were addressed by employing a novel competition structure between multiple pneumococcal serotypes. Model parameters were calibrated from pre-vaccination data about the age-specific carriage prevalence and serotype distribution. The model predicts that elimination of vaccine-type carriage and disease among those vaccinated and, due to a substantial herd effect, also among the general population takes place within 5–10 years since the onset of a PCV programme with high (90%) coverage of vaccination and moderate (50%) vaccine efficacy against acquisition of carriage. A near-complete replacement of vaccine-type carriage by non-vaccine-type carriage occurs within the same time frame. Conclusions The changed patterns in pneumococcal carriage after PCV vaccination predicted by the model are unequivocal. The overall effect on disease incidence depends crucially on the magnitude of age- and serotype-specific case-to-carrier ratios of the remaining serotypes relative to those of the vaccine types. Thus the availability of

  4. Pneumococcal transmission and disease in silico: a microsimulation model of the indirect effects of vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markku Nurhonen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The degree and time frame of indirect effects of vaccination (serotype replacement and herd immunity are key determinants in assessing the net effectiveness of vaccination with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV in control of pneumococcal disease. Using modelling, we aimed to quantify these effects and their dependence on coverage of vaccination and the vaccine's efficacy against susceptibility to pneumococcal carriage. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We constructed an individual-based simulation model that explores the effects of large-scale PCV programmes and applied it in a developed country setting (Finland. A population structure with transmission of carriage taking place within relevant mixing groups (families, day care groups, schools and neighbourhoods was considered in order to properly assess the dependency of herd immunity on coverage of vaccination and vaccine efficacy against carriage. Issues regarding potential serotype replacement were addressed by employing a novel competition structure between multiple pneumococcal serotypes. Model parameters were calibrated from pre-vaccination data about the age-specific carriage prevalence and serotype distribution. The model predicts that elimination of vaccine-type carriage and disease among those vaccinated and, due to a substantial herd effect, also among the general population takes place within 5-10 years since the onset of a PCV programme with high (90% coverage of vaccination and moderate (50% vaccine efficacy against acquisition of carriage. A near-complete replacement of vaccine-type carriage by non-vaccine-type carriage occurs within the same time frame. CONCLUSIONS: The changed patterns in pneumococcal carriage after PCV vaccination predicted by the model are unequivocal. The overall effect on disease incidence depends crucially on the magnitude of age- and serotype-specific case-to-carrier ratios of the remaining serotypes relative to those of the vaccine types. Thus the

  5. Amplifikasi Gen Penyandi Protein Fusion Virus Tetelo dari Spesimen Lapangan dengan Metode OneStep RT-PCR. (AMPIFICATION OF FUSION PROTEIN ENCODING GENE OF NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS FROM FIELD SPECIMENS BY ONESTEP RT-PCR METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Haryanto

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Tetelo or Newcastle Disease (ND  virus is belong to the family Paramyxoviridae, which has a singlestranded RNA (ss RNA genome and it has viral envelope.  The viral envelope consists of two majorproteins, namely Haemagglutinin/Neuraminidase (H/N and Fusion (F protein. Molecular diagnosticmethods OneStep RT-PCR is a commonly diagnostic tool that used to diagnose of Tetelo in poultry. In thisstudy the diagnosis of Tetelo is accomplished by amplification of F protein encoding gene of Tetelo virusdirectly from field specimens without inoculation and propagation of Tetelo virus into embryonated chickeneggs. The objective of this study is to conduct rapid diagnosis of Tetelo virus directly from the field specimensbased on the amplification of the F gene by a OneStep RT-PCR method, so that the results of this study canbe used to assist in the identification of Tetelo virus directly from the field specimens. The results showedthat from the 15 samples of virus which isolated from tracheal swabs of clinical poultry showing symptomsof Tetelo virus infection, a total of 12 samples from 15 tested sampels (80% are positive tested for Tetelovirus infection. They were indicated by the amplification product of DNA fragments in size of 362 bp.OneStep RT-PCR is a method for rapid and effective diagnosis which can be used  to diagnose of Tetelovirus directly from field specimens.

  6. Heterologous prime-boost vaccinations for poverty-related diseases: advantages and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosević, Katarina; Rodriguez, Ariane; Lemckert, Angelique; Goudsmit, Jaap

    2009-05-01

    Classical vaccination approaches, based on a single vaccine administered in a homologous prime-boost schedule and optimized to induce primarily neutralizing antibodies, are unlikely to be sufficiently efficacious to prevent TB, malaria or HIV infections. Novel vaccines, capable of inducing a more powerful immune response, in particular T-cell immunity, are desperately needed. Combining different vaccine modalities that are able to complement each other and induce broad and sustainable immunity is a promising approach. This review provides an overview of heterologous prime-boost vaccination modalities currently in development for the 'big three' poverty-related diseases and emphasizes the need for innovative vaccination approaches.

  7. Appraisal of experimental and commercial Marek's disease vaccines to induce bursal and thymic atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, several experimental Marek’s disease (MD) vaccines were developed that appear to protect equally or better than the best commercial vaccines. However, some of the experimental vaccines were reported to induce transient bursal and thymic atrophies. We will report on two promising experiment...

  8. The affect of infectious bursal disease virus on avian influenza virus vaccine efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immunosuppressive viruses are known to affect vaccinal immunity, however the impact of virally induced immunosuppression on avian influenza vaccine efficacy has not been quantified. In order to determine the effect of exposure to infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) on vaccinal immunity to highly ...

  9. Five diseases, one vaccine — a boost for emerging livestock farmers ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    29 oct. 2014 ... The links between vaccine development and economic and social factors are also being studied, to evaluate the economic impacts and ensure the relevance and use of the new vaccines by small-scale farmers. Read the story of change: Five diseases, one vaccine - a boost for emerging livestock farmers in ...

  10. Vaccination of patients with auto-immune inflammatory rheumatic diseases requires careful benefit-risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, M.; Agmon-Levin, N.; Dayer, J. -M.; Israeli, E.; Gatto, M.; Shoenfeld, Y.

    Will vaccination raise the incidence of autoimmune diseases, what is the impact of increasingly crowded vaccination schedules, the vaccination in age groups and the risk of coincidental temporal association? All these issues are still under debate. However, for the time being, to avoid confusion in

  11. Vaccination against foot and mouth disease reduces virus transmission in groups of calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orsel, K.; Dekker, A.; Bouma, A.; Stegeman, J.A.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of vaccination during an epidemic of foot and mouth disease (FMD) is not to induce clinical protection, but to reduce virus transmission. Since no quantitative data were available on the effectiveness of vaccination in cattle, we investigated whether a single vaccination against FMD could

  12. Oral and Anal vaccination against enteric red mouth disease protection against yersiniosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Lukas; Villumsen, Kasper Rømer; Kragelund Strøm, Helene

    fish. The objective for this project is to investigate whether oral and anal vaccination of rainbow trout against Yersinia ruckeri O1 (biotype 1) causing Enteric Red Mouth disease (ERM) can protect rainbow trout against a subsequent experimental bath challenge.The rainbow trout were given oral......The effect of oral vaccines against bacterial fish diseases has been a topic for debate in many years. Recently both M-cells and dendritic cells have been found in fish and it is therefore likely that antigens can be taken up from the intestine and induce immunity in orally and anally vaccinated...... vaccinations with AquaVacTM ERM Oral vet. (MSD animal health) or an experimental vaccine based on formalin killed Yersinia ruckeri O1, (biotype 1) bacteria. Eight groups were studied: 1) Control group (no vaccination, no infection), 2) infected control, 3) experimental vaccine, 4) experimental vaccine w...

  13. Does Oral Vaccination Protect Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Against Enteric Red Mouth Disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Lukas; Villumsen, Kasper Rømer; Kragelund Strøm, Helene

    . The objective for this project is to investigate whether oral vaccination of rainbow trout against Yersinia ruckeri O1 (biotype 1) causing Enteric Red Mouth disease (ERM) can protect rainbow trout against a subsequent experimental bath challenge with Y. ruckeri. The rainbow trout were given oral vaccinations......The effect of oral vaccines against bacterial fish diseases has been a topic for debate in many years. Recently both M-cells and dendritic cells have been found in fish and it is therefore likely that antigens can be taken up from the intestine and induce immunity in orally vaccinated fish...... with AquaVacTM ERM Oral vet. (MSD animal health) or an experimental vaccine based on killed Yersinia ruckeri O1, (biotype 1) bacteria. Seven groups were studied: 1) Control group (no vaccination, no infection), 2) infected control, 3) experimental vaccine, 4) experimental vaccine w/ booster (4 months post...

  14. Oral and anal vaccination confers full protection against enteric redmouth disease (ERM) in rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Kasper Rømer; Neumann, Lukas; Otani, Maki

    2014-01-01

    The effect of oral vaccines against bacterial fish diseases has been a topic for debate for decades. Recently both M-like cells and dendritic cells have been discovered in the intestine of rainbow trout. It is therefore likely that antigens reaching the intestine can be taken up and thereby induce...... immunity in orally vaccinated fish. The objective of this project was to investigate whether oral and anal vaccination of rainbow trout induces protection against an experimental waterborne infection with the pathogenic enterobacteria Yersinia ruckeri O1 biotype 1 the causative agent of enteric redmouth...... disease (ERM). Rainbow trout were orally vaccinated with AquaVac ERM Oral (MERCK Animal Health) or an experimental vaccine bacterin of Y. ruckeri O1. Both vaccines were tested with and without a booster vaccination four months post the primary vaccination. Furthermore, two groups of positive controls were...

  15. Oral and Anal vaccination against enteric red mouth disease protection against yersiniosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Lukas; Villumsen, Kasper Rømer; Kragelund Strøm, Helene

    The effect of oral vaccines against bacterial fish diseases has been a topic for debate in many years. Recently both M-cells and dendritic cells have been found in fish and it is therefore likely that antigens can be taken up from the intestine and induce immunity in orally and anally vaccinated...... fish. The objective for this project is to investigate whether oral and anal vaccination of rainbow trout against Yersinia ruckeri O1 (biotype 1) causing Enteric Red Mouth disease (ERM) can protect rainbow trout against a subsequent experimental bath challenge.The rainbow trout were given oral...... vaccinations with AquaVacTM ERM Oral vet. (MSD animal health) or an experimental vaccine based on formalin killed Yersinia ruckeri O1, (biotype 1) bacteria. Eight groups were studied: 1) Control group (no vaccination, no infection), 2) infected control, 3) experimental vaccine, 4) experimental vaccine w...

  16. Does Oral Vaccination Protect Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Against Enteric Red Mouth Disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Lukas; Villumsen, Kasper Rømer; Kragelund Strøm, Helene

    The effect of oral vaccines against bacterial fish diseases has been a topic for debate in many years. Recently both M-cells and dendritic cells have been found in fish and it is therefore likely that antigens can be taken up from the intestine and induce immunity in orally vaccinated fish....... The objective for this project is to investigate whether oral vaccination of rainbow trout against Yersinia ruckeri O1 (biotype 1) causing Enteric Red Mouth disease (ERM) can protect rainbow trout against a subsequent experimental bath challenge with Y. ruckeri. The rainbow trout were given oral vaccinations...... with AquaVacTM ERM Oral vet. (MSD animal health) or an experimental vaccine based on killed Yersinia ruckeri O1, (biotype 1) bacteria. Seven groups were studied: 1) Control group (no vaccination, no infection), 2) infected control, 3) experimental vaccine, 4) experimental vaccine w/ booster (4 months post...

  17. EV-A71 vaccine licensure: a first step for multivalent enterovirus vaccine to control HFMD and other severe diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qunying; Wang, Yiping; Bian, Lianlian; Xu, Miao; Liang, Zhenglun

    2016-07-20

    Enteroviruses (EVs) are the most common viral agents in humans. Although most infections are mild or asymptomatic, there is a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations that may be caused by EV infections with varying degrees of severity. Among these viruses, EV-A71 and coxsackievirus (CV) CV-A16 from group A EVs attract the most attention because they are responsible for hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Other EV-A viruses such as CV-A6 and CV-A10 were also reported to cause HFMD outbreaks in several countries or regions. Group B EVs such as CV-B3, CV-B5 and echovirus 30 were reported to be the main pathogens responsible for myocarditis and encephalitis epidemics and were also detected in HFMD patients. Vaccines are the best tools to control infectious diseases. In December 2015, China's Food and Drug Administration approved two inactivated EV-A71 vaccines for preventing severe HFMD.The CV-A16 vaccine and the EV-A71-CV-A16 bivalent vaccine showed substantial efficacy against HFMD in pre-clinical animal models. Previously, research on EV-B group vaccines was mainly focused on CV-B3 vaccine development. Because the HFMD pathogen spectrum has changed, and the threat from EV-B virus-associated severe diseases has gradually increased, it is necessary to develop multivalent HFMD vaccines. This study summarizes the clinical symptoms of diseases caused by EVs, such as HFMD, myocarditis and encephalitis, and the related EV vaccine development progress. In conclusion, developing multivalent EV vaccines should be strongly recommended to prevent HFMD, myocarditis, encephalitis and other severe diseases.

  18. Carriage Rate and Effects of Vaccination after Outbreaks of Serogroup C Meningococcal Disease, Brazil, 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Sáfadi, Marco Aurelio Palazzi; Carvalhanas, Telma Regina Marques Pinto; Paula de Lemos, Ana; Gorla, Maria Cecilia Outeiro; Salgado, Maristela; Fukasawa, Lucila O.; Gonçalves, Maria Gisele; Higa, Fabio; Brandileone, Maria Cristina Cunto; Sacchi, Claudio Tavares; Ribeiro, Ana Freitas; Sato, Helena Keico; Bricks, Lucia Ferro; Cassio de Moraes, José

    2014-01-01

    During 2010, outbreaks of serogroup C meningococcal (MenC) disease occurred in 2 oil refineries in São Paulo State, Brazil, leading to mass vaccination of employees at 1 refinery with a meningococcal polysaccharide A/C vaccine. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of meningococci carriage among workers at both refineries and to investigate the effect of vaccination on and the risk factors for pharyngeal carriage of meningococci. Among the vaccinated and nonvaccinated...

  19. Network-based vaccination improves prospects for disease control in wild chimpanzees

    OpenAIRE

    Rushmore, Julie; Caillaud, Damien; Hall, Richard J.; Stumpf, Rebecca M.; Meyers, Lauren Ancel; Altizer, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Many endangered wildlife populations are vulnerable to infectious diseases for which vaccines exist; yet, pragmatic considerations often preclude large-scale vaccination efforts. These barriers could be reduced by focusing on individuals with the highest contact rates. However, the question then becomes whether targeted vaccination is sufficient to prevent large outbreaks. To evaluate the efficacy of targeted wildlife vaccinations, we simulate pathogen transmission and control on monthly asso...

  20. Vaccination of the immune-compromised patients with focus on patients with autoimmune-inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijl, M; Kallenberg, C G M; van Assen, S

    2011-01-01

    Among immunocompromised patients morbidity and mortality due to vaccine-preventable infections is high. Although vaccination seems indicated, controversy exists about which vaccines should be offered, at what moment, and to whom. Guidelines are needed as the number of immunocompromised individuals increases due to the wider use of immunosuppressive drugs and, in particular, because since the introduction of biological agents, the spectrum of immunosuppressive drugs is rapidly expanding. In this review we will highlight controversies about vaccination in immunocompromised patients and will discuss indications for the several vaccines available to prevent infectious diseases with the focus on patients with autoimmune-inflammatory diseases.

  1. Efficacy of vaccines against bacterial diseases in swine: what can we expect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; Chiers, Koen; Maes, Dominiek; Ducatelle, Richard; Decostere, Annemie

    2004-06-03

    This paper discusses what can be expected with regard to efficacy of antibacterial vaccines used in swine, based on the present knowledge of pathogen-host interactions. First, vaccination against bacteria that mainly cause disease by production of exotoxins is considered. Vaccines containing the inactivated toxin or a non-toxic but antigenic recombinant protein derived from the exotoxin can be expected to provide protection against disease. The degree of protection induced by such vaccines varies, however, depending amongst other things on the pathogenesis of the disease. Vaccination against clostridial infections, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infections, progressive atrophic rhinitis and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, is considered. The second part of the article deals with vaccination against extracellular bacteria. Protection against these bacteria is generally mediated by antibodies against their surface antigens and certain secreted antigens, but cellular immunity may also play a role. Efficacy of vaccines against swine erysipelas, Streptococcus suis infections, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections and swine dysentery is discussed. Finally, vaccination against facultatively intracellular bacteria is considered. For protection against these bacteria cell-mediated immunity plays an important role, but antibodies may also be involved. It is generally accepted that live-attenuated vaccines are more suitable for induction of cell-mediated immunity than inactivated vaccines, although this also depends on the adjuvant used in the vaccine. As an example, vaccination against Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium is discussed.

  2. A New Wave of Vaccines for Non-Communicable Diseases: What Are the Regulatory Challenges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, Jonathan J; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines represent one of the greatest achievements of medicine, dramatically reducing the incidence of serious or life-threatening infectious diseases and allowing people to live longer, healthier lives. As life expectancy has increased, however, the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as cancer, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and diabetes has increased. This shifting burden of disease has heightened the already urgent need for therapies that treat or prevent NCDs, a need that is now being met with increased efforts to develop NCD vaccines. Like traditional vaccines, NCD vaccines work by modulating the human immune system, but target cells, proteins or other molecules that are associated with the NCD in question rather than pathogens or pathogen-infected cells. Efforts are underway to develop NCD vaccines to address not only cancer and hypertension, but also addiction, obesity, asthma, arthritis, psoriasis, multiple sclerosis, and Crohn's disease, among others. NCD vaccines present an interesting challenge for the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which is tasked with approving new treatments on the basis of efficacy and safety. Should NCD vaccines be evaluated under the same analytic frame as traditional vaccines, or that of biologic drugs? Despite the borrowed nomenclature, NCD vaccines differ in important ways from infectious disease vaccines. Because infectious disease vaccines are generally administered to healthy individuals, often children, tolerance for adverse events is low and willingness to pay is limited. It is important to have infectious disease vaccines even for rare or eradicated disease (e.g., smallpox), in the event of an outbreak. The efficacy of infectious disease vaccines is generally high, and the vaccines convey population level benefits associated with herd immunity and potential eradication. The combination of substantial population-level benefits, low willingness to pay, and low tolerance for adverse events explains the

  3. Gene-deleted live-attenuated Trypanosoma cruzi parasites as vaccines to protect against Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Valdéz, Fernando J; Pérez Brandán, Cecilia; Ferreira, Arturo; Basombrío, Miguel Ángel

    2015-05-01

    Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. This illness is now becoming global, mainly due to congenital transmission, and so far, there are no prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines available to either prevent or treat Chagas disease. Therefore, different approaches aimed at identifying new protective immunogens are urgently needed. Live vaccines are likely to be more efficient in inducing protection, but safety issues linked with their use have been raised. The development of improved protozoan genetic manipulation tools and genomic and biological information has helped to increase the safety of live vaccines. These advances have generated a renewed interest in the use of genetically attenuated parasites as vaccines against Chagas disease. This review discusses the protective capacity of genetically attenuated parasite vaccines and the challenges and perspectives for the development of an effective whole-parasite Chagas disease vaccine.

  4. Evaluation of humoral, mucosal, and cellular immune responses following co-immunization of HIV-1 Gag and Env proteins expressed by Newcastle disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattar, Sunil K; Palaniyandi, Senthilkumar; Samal, Sweety; LaBranche, Celia C; Montefiori, David C; Zhu, Xiaoping; Samal, Siba K

    2015-01-01

    The combination of multiple HIV antigens in a vaccine can broaden antiviral immune responses. In this study, we used NDV vaccine strain LaSota to generate rNDV (rLaSota/optGag) expressing human codon optimized p55 Gag protein of HIV-1. We examined the effect of co-immunization of rLaSota/optGag with rNDVs expressing different forms of Env protein gp160, gp120, gp140L [a version of gp140 that lacked cytoplasmic tail and contained complete membrane-proximal external region (MPER)] and gp140S (a version of gp140 that lacked cytoplasmic tail and distal half of MPER) on magnitude and breadth of humoral, mucosal and cellular immune responses in guinea pigs and mice. Our results showed that inclusion of rLaSota/optGag with rNDVs expressing different forms of Env HIV Gag did not affect the Env-specific humoral and mucosal immune responses in guinea pigs and that the potent immune responses generated against Env persisted for at least 13 weeks post immunization. The highest Env-specific humoral and mucosal immune responses were observed with gp140S+optGag group. The neutralizing antibody responses against HIV strains BaL.26 and MN.3 induced by gp140S+optGag and gp160+optGag were higher than those elicited by other groups. Inclusion of Gag with gp160, gp140S and gp140L enhanced the level of Env-specific IFN-γ-producing CD8(+) T cells in mice. Inclusion of Gag with gp160 and gp140L also resulted in increased Env-specific CD4(+) T cells. The level of Gag-specific CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells was also enhanced in mice immunized with Gag along with gp140S and gp120. These results indicate lack of antigen interference in a vaccine containing rNDVs expressing Env and Gag proteins.

  5. Superior Protection from Live-Attenuated Vaccines Directed against Johne's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shippy, Daniel C; Lemke, Justin J; Berry, Aubrey; Nelson, Kathryn; Hines, Murray E; Talaat, Adel M

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) is the etiological agent of Johne's disease in ruminants. Johne's disease is an important enteric infection causing large economic losses associated with infected herds. In an attempt to fight this infection, we created two novel live-attenuated vaccine candidates with mutations in sigH and lipN (pgsH and pgsN, respectively). Earlier reports in mice suggested these vaccines are promising candidates to fight Johne's disease in ruminants. In this study, we tested the performances of the two constructs as vaccine candidates using the goat model of Johne's disease. Both vaccines appeared to provide significant immunity to goats against challenge from wild-type M. paratuberculosis The pgsH and pgsN constructs showed a significant reduction in histopathological lesions and tissue colonization compared to nonvaccinated goats and those vaccinated with an inactivated vaccine. Unlike the inactivated vaccine, the pgsN construct was able to eliminate fecal shedding from challenged animals, a feature that is highly desirable to control Johne's disease in infected herds. Furthermore, strong initial cell-mediated immune responses were elicited in goats vaccinated with pgsN that were not demonstrated in other vaccine groups. Overall, the results indicate the potential use of live-attenuated vaccines to control intracellular pathogens, including M. paratuberculosis, and warrant further testing in cattle, the main target for Johne's disease control programs. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  6. Retrospective evaluation of foot-and-mouth disease vaccine effectiveness in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight-Jones, T.J.D.; Bulut, A.N.; Gubbins, S.; Stärk, K.D.C.; Pfeiffer, D.U.; Sumption, K.J.; Paton, D.J.

    2014-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is present in much of Turkey and its control is largely based on vaccination. The arrival of the FMD Asia-1 serotype in Turkey in 2011 caused particular concern, spreading rapidly westwards across the country towards the FMD free European Union. With no prior natural immunity, control of spread would rely heavily on vaccination. Unlike human vaccines, field protection is rarely evaluated directly for FMD vaccines. Between September 2011 and July 2012 we performed four retrospective outbreak investigations to assess the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of FMD Asia-1 vaccines in Turkey. Vaccine effectiveness is defined as the reduction in risk in vaccinated compared to unvaccinated individuals with similar virus exposure in the field. The four investigations included 12 villages and 1230 cattle >4 months of age. One investigation assessed the FMD Asia-1 Shamir vaccine, the other three evaluated the recently introduced FMD Asia-1 TUR 11 vaccine made using a field isolate of the FMD Asia-1 Sindh-08 lineage that had recently entered Turkey. After adjustment for confounding, the TUR 11 vaccine provided moderate protection against both clinical disease VE = 69% [95% CI: 50%–81%] and infection VE = 63% [95% CI: 29%–81%]. However, protection was variable with some herds with high vaccine coverage still experiencing high disease incidence. Some of this variability will be the result of the variation in virus challenge and immunity that occurs under field conditions. In the outbreak investigated there was no evidence that the Asia-1 Shamir vaccine provided adequate protection against clinical FMD with an incidence of 89% in single vaccinated cattle and 69% in those vaccinated two to five times. Based on these effectiveness estimates, vaccination alone is unlikely to produce the high levels of herd immunity needed to control FMD without additional control measures. PMID:24530150

  7. Concerning Preventive Vaccination, Infectious Diseases and the Extent of Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Ilina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the huge and seamingly undisputable success of vaccinal prevention, a critical situation is developing today in the context of immunization-controlled infections control. Increasing antivaccination propahanda leads to a decrease in the collective immunity and the occurance of high-contagenous infectious diseases in various places of the world. It is a disturbing tendency — the usage of antivaccinal ideas for populist purposes. This article contains several examples of how such tactics lead to severe consequences for public health: pertussis and morbilli epidemia in Europe, poliomyelitis epidemia in African and Asian countries.

  8. Effectiveness of different vaccine schedules for heptavalent and 13-valent conjugate vaccines against pneumococcal disease in the Community of Madrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latasa, P; Ordobás, M; Garrido-Estepa, M; Gil de Miguel, A; Sanz, J C; Barranco, M D; Insúa, E; García-Comas, L

    2017-09-25

    The heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) was added to the childhood routine vaccination program in the Community of Madrid in November of 2006 with 3+1 recommended doses and a catch-up for those under 2years old. In June 2010, PCV-7 was replaced by 13-valent vaccine (PCV-13) with 2+1 recommended doses. In July of 2012, the PCV-13 was removed from the funded program and reintroduced again (2+1 recommended doses) in December 2014. In between, children were vaccinated privately with 3+1 recommended doses of PCV-13. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of each vaccination schedule used in the Community of Madrid. We included all cases of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) reported between 2007 and 2015 to the Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System. Vaccination information was obtained from the Immunization Registry. Vaccine effectiveness (VE) was estimated using the indirect cohort design for cases with serotype information. A total 779 cases were included in the study. Among them 47.6% of the cases were primo-vaccinated with booster, 20% primo-vaccinated, 15.9% incompletely primo-vaccinated and 16.5% not vaccinated. The VE for ≥1 doses of any PCV was 82% (CI 95%: 67.8-89.9%): 91.9% (CI 95%: 76.5-97.2%) for PCV-7 and 77.2% (48.6-89.9%) for PCV-13. VE in those receiving the full 2+1 or 3+1 schedules was 100% for both vaccines. A high number of vaccine failures were reported in children before they had the opportunity to receive the booster dose, especially due to PCV-13-non-PCV-7 serotypes. VE was higher for PCV-7 compared to PCV-13, except for those that received the complete schedule with booster that achieved 100% of VE, which shows the relevance of the vaccines and complying with all doses scheduled. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessing the Economic Impact of Vaccine Availability When Controlling Foot and Mouth Disease Outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibaud Porphyre

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Predictive models have been used extensively to assess the likely effectiveness of vaccination policies as part of control measures in the event of a foot and mouth disease (FMD outbreak. However, the availability of vaccine stocks and the impact of vaccine availability on disease control strategies represent a key uncertainty when assessing potential control strategies. Using an epidemiological, spatially explicit, simulation model in combination with a direct cost calculator, we assessed how vaccine availability constraints may affect the economic benefit of a “vaccination-to-live” strategy during a FMD outbreak in Scotland, when implemented alongside culling of infected premises and dangerous contacts. We investigated the impact of vaccine stock size and restocking delays on epidemiological and economic outcomes. We also assessed delays in the initial decision to vaccinate, maximum daily vaccination capacity, and vaccine efficacy. For scenarios with conditions conducive to large outbreaks, all vaccination strategies perform better than the strategy where only culling is implemented. A stock of 200,000 doses, enough to vaccinate 12% of the Scottish cattle population, would be sufficient to maximize the relative benefits of vaccination, both epidemiologically and economically. However, this generates a wider variation in economic cost than if vaccination is not implemented, making outcomes harder to predict. The probability of direct costs exceeding £500 million is reduced when vaccination is used and is steadily reduced further as the size of initial vaccine stock increases. If only a suboptimal quantity of vaccine doses is initially available (100,000 doses, restocking delays of more than 2 weeks rapidly increase the cost of controlling outbreaks. Impacts of low vaccine availability or restocking delays are particularly aggravated by delays in the initial decision to vaccinate, or low vaccine efficacy. Our findings confirm that

  10. Effects of Education and Information on Vaccination Behavior in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coenen, Sofie; Weyts, Ellen; Jorissen, Cedric; De Munter, Paul; Noman, Maja; Ballet, Vera; Vermeire, Séverine; Van Assche, Gert; Ferrante, Marc

    2017-02-01

    Despite the existence of international guidelines, vaccination in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has not been integrated optimally. We developed a thorough education program, and compared its influence on vaccination rates with routine clinical practice in a tertiary IBD center. Between December 2014 and March 2015, we included 505 consecutive patients with IBD visiting our outpatient clinic (53% men, 72% Crohn's disease, median age 44 years). Vaccination data, including hepatitis B, influenza, pneumococcus, tetanus, and varicella zoster virus, as well as demographic data, were collected by a fellow in training or a certified gastroenterologist. Thereafter, patients were randomly assigned to group A receiving routine clinical practice or intervention group B receiving additional education by the IBD nurse with help of an information brochure and vaccination card. Vaccination status was reassessed 8 months later. At baseline, 32% of patients were vaccinated according to the guidelines. The remaining 346 patients were randomized to group A (n = 206) or intervention group B (n = 140). Eight months after randomization, 33% of intervention group B versus 6% of group A followed vaccination recommendations and differences were significant for each vaccine (all P educational level was independently associated with better compliance to pneumococcal vaccination (P = 0.008) and to the guidelines overall (P educational intervention was the only consistent factor independently associated with improved compliance to each individual vaccination recommendation (all P ≤ 0.023). Introduction of thorough vaccination education significantly increased compliance to vaccination guidelines. However, further education of patients and health care providers remains necessary.

  11. Emergency vaccination use in a modelled foot and mouth disease outbreak in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G; Gale, S B; Eshelman, C E; Wells, S J

    2015-12-01

    Epidemiological modelling is an important approach used by the Veterinary Services of the United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service to evaluate the potential effectiveness of different strategies for handling foot and mouth disease (FMD). Identifying the potential spread of FMD by modelling an outbreak, and then considering the impacts of FMD vaccination, is important in helping to inform decision-makers about the potential outcomes of vaccination programmes. The objective of this study was to evaluate emergency vaccination control strategies used in a simulated FMD outbreak in Minnesota. The North American Animal Disease Spread Model (NAADSM, Version 3.2.18) was used to simulate the outbreak. Large-scale (1,500 herds per day) emergency vaccination reduced the size of the modelled outbreak in both swine and dairy production types, but the effect was larger when the outbreak began in a dairy herd. Large-scale vaccination also overcame limitations caused by delays in vaccine delivery. Thus, even if vaccination did not begin until 21 days into the outbreak, large-scale vaccination still reduced the size and duration of the outbreak. The quantity of vaccine used was markedly larger when large-scale vaccination was used, compared with small-scale (50 herds per day) vaccine administration. In addition, the number of animals and herds vaccinated in an outbreak originating in a herd of swine was substantially lower than in an outbreak beginning in a herd of dairy cattle.

  12. Working towards dengue as a vaccine-preventable disease: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Ambuj; Tripathi, Nagesh K; Dash, Paban K; Parida, Manmohan

    2017-10-01

    Dengue is an emerging viral disease that affects the human population around the globe. Recent advancements in dengue virus research have opened new avenues for the development of vaccines against dengue. The development of a vaccine against dengue is a challenging task because any of the four serotypes of dengue viruses can cause disease. The development of a dengue vaccine aims to provide balanced protection against all the serotypes. Several dengue vaccine candidates are in the developmental stages such as inactivated, live attenuated, recombinant subunit, and plasmid DNA vaccines. Area covered: The authors provide an overview of the progress made in the development of much needed dengue vaccines. The authors include their expert opinion and their perspectives for future developments. Expert opinion: Human trials of a live attenuated tetravalent chimeric vaccine have clearly demonstrated its potential as a dengue vaccine. Other vaccine candidate molecules such as DENVax, a recombinant chimeric vaccine andTetraVax, are at different stages of development at this time. The authors believe that the novel strategies for testing and improving the immune response of vaccine candidates in humans will eventually lead to the development of a successful dengue vaccine in future.

  13. Challenges in the rabbit haemorrhagic disease 2 (RHDV2) molecular diagnosis of vaccinated rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, C L; Duarte, E L; Monteiro, M; Botelho, A; Albuquerque, T; Fevereiro, M; Henriques, A M; Barros, S S; Duarte, Margarida Dias

    2017-01-01

    Molecular methods are fundamental tools for the diagnosis of viral infections. While interpretation of results is straightforward for unvaccinated animals, where positivity represents ongoing or past infections, the presence of vaccine virus in the tissues of recently vaccinated animals may mislead diagnosis. In this study, we investigated the interference of RHDV2 vaccination in the results of a RT-qPCR for RHDV2 detection, and possible associations between mean Cq values of five animal groups differing in age, vaccination status and origin (domestic/wild). Viral sequences from vaccinated rabbits that died of RHDV2 infection (n=14) were compared with the sequences from the commercial vaccines used in those animals. Group Cq means were compared through Independent t-test and One-way ANOVA. We proved that RHDV2 vaccine-RNA is not detected by the RT-qPCR as early as 15days post-vaccination, an important fact in assisting results interpretation for diagnosis. Cq values of vaccinated and non-vaccinated infected domestic adults showed a statistically significant difference (pRHDV2-victimised rabbits. Although the reduced number of vaccinated young animals analysed hampered a robust statistical analysis, this occurrence suggests that passively acquired maternal antibodies may inhibit the active immune response to vaccination, delaying protection and favouring disease progression. Our finding emphasises the importance of adapting kitten RHDV2 vaccination schedules to circumvent this interference phenomenon. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Vaccination against ticks and the control of ticks and tick-borne disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willadsen, P.

    2005-01-01

    Economic losses due to ticks and tick-borne disease of livestock fall disproportionately on developing countries. Currently, tick control relies mostly on pesticides and parasite-resistant cattle. Release of a commercial recombinant vaccine against Boophilus microplus in Australia in 1994 showed that anti-tick vaccines are a feasible alternative. For vaccines, it is important to understand the efficacy needed for a beneficial outcome. In this, it is relevant that some tick antigens affect multiple tick species; that existing vaccines could be improved by the inclusion of additional tick antigens; and that vaccination against ticks can have an impact on tick-borne disease. Practically, although recombinant vaccine manufacture involves relatively few steps, issues of intellectual property rights (IPR) and requirements for registration of a product may affect economic viability of manufacture. Hence practical vaccines for the developing world will require both successful science and a creative 'business solution' for delivery in a cost-effective way. (author)

  15. Virus shedding in co-infections of low pathogenic avian influenza virus ( H6N2 and lentogenic newcastle disease virus (La Sota in Numida Meleagris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iv. Zarkov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of a low-pathogenic H6N2 avian influenza A viral strain (LPAIV strain H6N2 on subsequent (after 3 days vaccination with a lentogenic avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 strain La Sota (APMV-1 strain La Sota in guinea fowl. The effects were monitored by detection of the presence of viruses in cloacal and oropharyngeal samples, as well as by the presence of humoral immune response. The obtained results were compared to birds with monoinfections. Replication and virus shedding of LPAIV strain H6N2 from the cloaca and the oropharynx were established, while APMV-1 La Sota was reisolated only from the oropharynx. The reisolation of LPAIV strain H6N2 was similar in both monoinfection and co-infection. The dynamics of virus replication of APMV-1 strain La Sota was affected in the beginning of the co-infection, later occurrence of the peak which matched the period of decline of LPAIV strain H6N2 reisolates. The LPAIV strain H6N2 and APMV-1 strain La Sota co-infection did not exert any influence on humoral immune response to both viruses.

  16. Australian contingency plans for emergency animal disease control: the role of antigen/vaccine banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweddle, N E

    2004-01-01

    Vaccination is an important element of contingency plans for many animal diseases. The decision whether or not to use vaccine is complex, and must consider epidemiological, economic and social issues. Vaccines are rarely available in a country for emergency animal diseases unless a low pathogenicity strain of the agent is present or it is localised in carrier hosts. High quality commercial vaccine from overseas is often the preferred source of vaccine in an emergency, although less reliable sources may be used with additional safeguards. Alternatively, master seeds may be imported or developed for production within the country For contingency planning, diseases may be ranked according to the expected role of vaccine in the disease eradication strategy, with diseases for which vaccine is part of the initial response strategy receiving highest priority for action. A range of preparedness options is available, ranging from identifying producers of vaccine, obtaining permits for import and use from regulatory authorities, to establishing vaccine or antigen banks. Countries need to consider their individual situations and develop strategies to address the diseases of significance to them.

  17. Vaccines and Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs: Practical Implications for the Rheumatologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Marcia A; Winthrop, Kevin L

    2017-02-01

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis are highly vulnerable to infections because of abnormalities in their immune system, and because of immunosuppressive effects of their medications. Vaccinations in this population are complicated by disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, which also modulate or suppress the immune system and potentially decrease the immunogenicity and efficacy of the vaccines. We review the available data regarding the impact of rheumatoid arthritis therapy on the immunogenicity of various common vaccines. We also review rheumatoid arthritis-specific vaccination recommendations, live vaccine safety concerns, and current gaps in our understanding of these issues." Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Optimization of foot-and-mouth disease vaccination protocols by surveillance of neutralization antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, W B; Liao, P C; Chen, S P; Yang, P C; Lin, Y L; Jong, M H; Sheu, T W

    2002-06-21

    An appropriate immunization program for pigs in a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) endemic area was proposed based on data analysis obtained from serological surveillance in Taiwan, after an intensive vaccination program. To provide an adequate passive immunity for piglets, gilts that have completed two basic vaccinations must be boosted once before breeding. To achieve an efficient response to the FMD vaccine for piglets born to well vaccinated sows, vaccination need to be delayed until 10-12 weeks of ages for the first immunization, followed by a boost 4 weeks later.

  19. Global practices of meningococcal vaccine use and impact on invasive disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Asad; Jafri, Rabab Zehra; Messonnier, Nancy; Tevi-Benissan, Carol; Durrheim, David; Eskola, Juhani; Fermon, Florence; Klugman, Keith P; Ramsay, Mary; Sow, Samba; Zhujun, Shao; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Abramson, Jon

    2014-01-01

    A number of countries now include meningococcal vaccines in their routine immunization programs. This review focuses on different approaches to including meningococcal vaccines in country programs across the world and their effect on the burden of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) as reflected by pre and post-vaccine incidence rates in the last 20 years. Mass campaigns using conjugated meningococcal vaccines have lead to control of serogroup C meningococcal disease in the UK, Canada, Australia, Spain, Belgium, Ireland, and Iceland. Serogroup B disease, predominant in New Zealand, has been dramatically decreased, partly due to the introduction of an outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccine. Polysaccharide vaccines were used in high risk people in Saudi Arabia and Syria and in routine immunization in China and Egypt. The highest incidence region of the meningitis belt initiated vaccination with the serogroup A conjugate vaccine in 2010 and catch-up vaccination is ongoing. Overall results of this vaccine introduction are encouraging especially in countries with a moderate to high level of endemic disease. Continued surveillance is required to monitor effectiveness in countries that recently implemented these programs. PMID:24548156

  20. Marek's disease vaccines: a solution for today but a worry for tomorrow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Isabel M

    2008-07-18

    Marek's disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of chickens that, in the absence of control measures, is capable of causing devastating losses in commercial poultry flocks. MD has been successfully controlled by vaccination since 1968. However, vaccine efficacy has decreased concomitantly with the increase in virulence of Marek's disease virus (MDV). The constant evolution of MDV has forced the development of new vaccines or vaccine strategies that control the more virulent emergent strains. However, this race between the introduction of new vaccines and the evolution of MDV represents a major threat for the poultry industry. In addition to vaccination, other factors might have contributed to the evolution of MDV (intensive methods of chicken production, early exposure of the chickens to MDV and administration of vaccines at very low doses). From all the possible factors influencing MDV evolution, the effect of vaccination has received the greatest attention. MD vaccines protect with great efficacy against the development of the disease but they do not prevent infection or transmission. Sterilizing immunity could be a solution to stop the evolution of the virus but it has been proven to be extremely difficult, if at all possible, to obtain with MDV or with other herpesviruses. Other solutions to improve vaccine-induced protection are discussed in this paper.

  1. Effectiveness of the 23-Valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine (PPV23 against Pneumococcal Disease in the Elderly: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Falkenhorst

    Full Text Available Routine vaccination of elderly people against pneumococcal diseases is recommended in many countries. National guidelines differ, recommending either the 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23, the 13-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV13 or both. Considering the ongoing debate on the effectiveness of PPV23, we performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis of the vaccine efficacy/effectiveness (VE of PPV23 against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD and pneumococcal pneumonia in adults aged ≥60 years living in industrialized countries.We searched for pertinent clinical trials and observational studies in databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. We assessed the risk of bias of individual studies using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool for randomized controlled trials and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for observational studies. We rated the overall quality of the evidence by GRADE criteria. We performed meta-analyses of studies grouped by outcome and study design using random-effects models. We applied a sensitivity analysis excluding studies with high risk of bias.We identified 17 eligible studies. Pooled VE against IPD (by any serotype was 73% (95%CI: 10-92% in four clinical trials, 45% (95%CI: 15-65% in three cohort studies, and 59% (95%CI: 35-74% in three case-control studies. After excluding studies with high risk of bias, pooled VE against pneumococcal pneumonia (by any serotype was 64% (95%CI: 35-80% in two clinical trials and 48% (95%CI: 25-63% in two cohort studies. Higher VE estimates in trials (follow-up ~2.5 years than in observational studies (follow-up ~5 years may indicate waning protection. Unlike previous meta-analyses, we excluded two trials with high risk of bias regarding the outcome pneumococcal pneumonia, because diagnosis was based on serologic methods with insufficient specificity.Our meta-analysis revealed significant VE of PPV23 against both

  2. Optimal vaccination scenarios against vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Enøe, Claes; Bødker, Rene

    Using a process oriented semi-agent based model we simulated the spread of Bluetongue virus in Denmark. We evaluated the efficiency and minimum vaccination cover for eight different preventive vaccination strategies in Denmark. The simulation model replicates both passive and active flight...... of Culicoides between hosts on pasture and stables in Denmark. Seasonal abundance of midges and temperature dependence on biological processes were included in the model. The eight vaccination scenarios comprised of: All holdings vaccinated to a given percentage, random holdings selected for vaccination, two...... scenarios based on the size of holdings, mosaic vaccination of nearest neighbor farms, vaccination of hosts on pasture, regional vaccination, and trench vaccination from the border to Germany. These eight scenarios were investigated under normal grazing conditions and under a forced housing scenario...

  3. Optimization of the protocols for double vaccination against Marek's disease by using commercially available vaccines: evaluation of protection, vaccine replication, and activation of T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Isabel M; Cortes, Aneg L; Witter, Richard L; Pandiri, Arun R

    2012-06-01

    Revaccination against Marek's disease is a widespread practice in some countries. The rationale of this practice is unknown, and there is no consensus in the protocols. Recently, we have demonstrated that administration of the first vaccine at 18 days of embryonation followed by a more protective second vaccine at hatch (18ED/1d) reproduced systematically the benefits of revaccination under laboratory conditions. Here, we have used the same model to optimize the revaccination protocols by using currently available vaccines and to determine whether two features associated with Marek's disease vaccine-induced protection (activation of T cells and replication of vaccine virus) are involved in the revaccination protocols. Protection conferred by three revaccination protocols (turkey herpesvirus [HVT] 18ED/HVT+SB-1 1d, HVT 18ED/CVI988 1d, and HVT+SB-1 18ED/ CVI988 1d) was evaluated. Revaccination protocols also were compared with single vaccination protocols (HVT 18ED, HVT+SB-1 18ED, HVT+SB-1 1d, CVI988 18ED, and CVI988 1d). Our results demonstrated that it is possible to improve efficacy of the currently available vaccines by using them in revaccination programs. Administration of HVT 18ED/CVI988 1d and HVT+SB-1 18ED/CVI988 1d were the two protocols that conferred the highest protection against a very early challenge (2 days of age) with very virulent plus Marek's disease virus strain 648A. In a separate experiment, we evaluated vaccine replication and activation of T cells in single and revaccination protocols. Our results demonstrated that replication of the second vaccine, although decreased compared with single vaccination, could be detected at 3 days (HVT, CVI988) or at 6 days (SB-1). Administration of the first vaccine (HVT) at 18ED resulted in a high percentage of activated T cells. Administration of a second vaccine (either HVT-SB-1 or CVI988) at 1d resulted in increased intensity of MHC-II stain in activated T cells.

  4. History of Meningococcal Outbreaks in the United States: Implications for Vaccination and Disease Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Bruce; Gandhi, Ashesh; Balmer, Paul

    2016-08-01

    Invasive meningococcal disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis presents a significant public health concern. Meningococcal disease is rare but potentially fatal within 24 hours of onset of illness, and survivors may experience permanent sequelae. This review presents the epidemiology, incidence, and outbreak data for invasive meningococcal disease in the United States since 1970, and it highlights recent changes in vaccine recommendations to prevent meningococcal disease. Relevant publications were obtained by database searches for articles published between January 1970 and July 2015. The incidence of meningococcal disease has decreased in the United States since 1970, but serogroup B meningococcal disease is responsible for an increasing proportion of disease burden in young adults. Recent serogroup B outbreaks on college campuses warrant broader age-based recommendations for meningococcal group B vaccines, similar to the currently recommended quadrivalent vaccine that protects against serogroups A, C, W, and Y. After the recent approval of two serogroup B vaccines, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices first updated its recommendations for routine meningococcal vaccination to cover at-risk populations, including those at risk during serogroup B outbreaks, and later it issued a recommendation for those aged 16-23 years. Meningococcal disease outbreaks remain challenging to predict, making the optimal disease management strategy one of prevention through vaccination rather than containment. How the epidemiology of serogroup B disease and prevention of outbreaks will be affected by the new category B recommendation for serogroup B vaccines remains to be seen. © 2016 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  5. Disa vaccines for Bluetongue: A novel vaccine approach for insect-borne diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) lacking functional NS3/NS3a protein is named Disabled Infectious Single Animal (DISA) vaccine. The BT DISA vaccine platform is broadly applied by exchange of serotype specific proteins. BT DISA vaccines are produced in standard cell lines in established production facilities, ...

  6. Evaluation of different adjuvants for foot-and-mouth disease vaccine containing all the SAT serotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cloete

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD is an economically important disease of cloven-hoofed animals that is primarily controlled by vaccination of susceptible animals and movement restrictions for animals and animal-derived products in South Africa. Vaccination using aluminium hydroxide gel-saponin (AS adjuvanted vaccines containing the South African Territories (SAT serotypes has been shown to be effective both in ensuring that disease does not spread from the endemic to the free zone and in controlling outbreaks in the free zone. Various vaccine formulations containing antigens derived from the SAT serotypes were tested in cattle that were challenged 1 year later. Both the AS and ISA 206B vaccines adjuvanted with saponin protected cattle against virulent virus challenge. The oilbased ISA 206B-adjuvanted vaccine with and without stimulators was evaluated in a field trial and both elicited antibody responses that lasted for 1 year. Furthermore, the ISA 206 adjuvanted FMD vaccine protected groups of cattle against homologous virus challenge at very low payloads, while pigs vaccinated with an emergency ISA 206B-based FMD vaccine containing the SAT 1 vaccine strains were protected against the heterologous SAT 1 outbreak strain.

  7. Role of herd immunity in determining the effect of vaccines against sexually transmitted disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnett, Geoffrey P

    2005-02-01

    Vaccination programs provide both direct protection to those immunized and herd immunity, which is indirect protection of those who remain susceptible, owing to a reduced prevalence of infections. The well-understood impact of vaccination against ubiquitous childhood infections is compared with that of vaccination against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and theoretical insights are derived from a review of mathematical modeling studies. Typically, a large fraction of cases of STIs are acquired by those with modest risk, and these cases could be prevented by low-efficacy vaccines. If coverage is good, vaccination of only one sex can protect the other sex. Candidate vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) and genital herpes are in the final stages of testing. The former is likely to be highly efficacious for a limited number of disease-causing HPV types, and the latter has provided protection against disease in women who initially were seronegative for both herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 and HSV-2, with 73% efficacy. In models, this vaccine had a substantial impact when infectiousness was assumed to be reduced along with incidence of disease. With such vaccines on the horizon, the requirements for vaccine delivery need to be considered, particularly who should be vaccinated and at what age.

  8. Protective Efficacy of Newcastle Disease Virus Expressing Soluble Trimeric Hemagglutinin against Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Influenza in Chickens and Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, A.H.M.; Leeuw, de O.S.; Tacken, M.G.J.; Klos, H.C.; Vries, de R.P.; Boer-Luijtze, de E.A.; Zoelen-Bos, van D.J.; Rigter, A.; Rottier, P.J.M.; Moormann, R.J.M.; Haan, de C.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) causes a highly contagious often fatal disease in poultry, resulting in significant economic losses in the poultry industry. HPAIV H5N1 also poses a major public health threat as it can be transmitted directly from infected poultry to

  9. Vaccines for tick-borne diseases and cost-effectiveness of vaccination : a public health challenge to reduce the diseases’ burden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Renata; Postma, Maarten J

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and Lyme borreliosis (LB) are tick-borne diseases (TBDs), and both present an increasing burden worldwide. Vaccination as public health intervention could be the most effective way to reduce this burden. TBE vaccines are available, but vaccines against LB are still in

  10. Smallpox vaccination and all-cause infectious disease hospitalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørup, Signe; Villumsen, Marie; Ravn, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    There is growing evidence from observational studies and randomized trials in low-income countries that vaccinations have non-specific effects. Administration of live vaccines reduces overall child morbidity and mortality, presumably due to protection against non-targeted infections. In Denmark......, the live vaccine against smallpox was phased out in the 1970s due to the eradication of smallpox. We used the phasing-out period to investigate the effect of smallpox vaccination on the risk of hospitalization for infections....

  11. The potential economic value of a Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas disease) vaccine in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bruce Y; Bacon, Kristina M; Connor, Diana L; Willig, Alyssa M; Bailey, Rachel R

    2010-12-14

    Chagas disease, caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), is the leading etiology of non-ischemic heart disease worldwide, with Latin America bearing the majority of the burden. This substantial burden and the limitations of current interventions have motivated efforts to develop a vaccine against T. cruzi. We constructed a decision analytic Markov computer simulation model to assess the potential economic value of a T. cruzi vaccine in Latin America from the societal perspective. Each simulation run calculated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), or the cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) avoided, of vaccination. Sensitivity analyses evaluated the impact of varying key model parameters such as vaccine cost (range: $0.50-$200), vaccine efficacy (range: 25%-75%), the cost of acute-phase drug treatment (range: $10-$150 to account for variations in acute-phase treatment regimens), and risk of infection (range: 1%-20%). Additional analyses determined the incremental cost of vaccinating an individual and the cost per averted congestive heart failure case. Vaccination was considered highly cost-effective when the ICER was ≤1 times the GDP/capita, still cost-effective when the ICER was between 1 and 3 times the GDP/capita, and not cost-effective when the ICER was >3 times the GDP/capita. Our results showed vaccination to be very cost-effective and often economically dominant (i.e., saving costs as well providing health benefits) for a wide range of scenarios, e.g., even when risk of infection was as low as 1% and vaccine efficacy was as low as 25%. Vaccinating an individual could likely provide net cost savings that rise substantially as risk of infection or vaccine efficacy increase. Results indicate that a T. cruzi vaccine could provide substantial economic benefit, depending on the cost of the vaccine, and support continued efforts to develop a human vaccine.

  12. Vaccine preventable diseases and vaccination coverage in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, Australia 2006-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Latika; Chiu, Clayton; Habig, Andrew; Lowbridge, Christopher; Jayasinghe, Sanjay; Wang, Han; McIntyre, Peter; Menzies, Robert

    2013-12-31

    This report outlines the major positive impacts of vaccines on the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people from 2007 to 2010, as well as highlighting areas that require further attention. Hepatitis A disease is now less common in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children than in their non-Indigenous counterparts. Hepatitis A vaccination for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children was introduced in 2005 in the high incidence jurisdictions of the Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia. In 2002–2005, there were 20 hospitalisations for hepatitis A in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children agedtypes prior to vaccine introduction, the decline in total IPD notifications has been less marked in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children than in other children. Higher valency vaccines (10vPCV and 13vPCV) which replaced 7vPCV from 2011 are likely to result in a greater impact on IPD and potentially also non-invasive disease, although disease caused by non-vaccine serotypes appears likely to be an ongoing problem. Among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged ≥50 years, there have been recent increases in IPD, which appear related to low vaccination coverage and highlight the need for improved coverage in this high-risk target group. Since routine meningococcal C vaccination for infants and the high-school catch-up program were implemented in 2003, there has been a significant decrease in cases caused by serogroup C. However, the predominant serogroup responsible for disease remains serogroup B, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children have significantly higher incidence of serogroup B disease than other children. A vaccine against meningococcus type B has now been licensed in Australia. The decline in severe rotavirus disease after vaccine introduction in 2007 was less marked in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children than in other children. By far the highest hospitalisation

  13. Multi-stage subunit vaccine development against Mycobacterium paratuberculosis and Johne’s disease in ruminants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersen, Gregers

    paratuberculosis provide only partial protection and interfere with diagnostic tests for JD and surveillance for bovine TB. In contrast, recombinant subunit vaccines can be designed to be used without compromising control of bTB and Map. Taking advantage of data from mouse TB studies, and early Map vaccination......- and field-studies we developed a vaccine with a single recombinant fusion protein comprising four acute-stage antigens (Ags) and one latent-stage Ag formulated in adjuvant (FET-vaccine). In post-exposure vaccination of calves and goats with necropsy 8-12 months post inoculation, we determined...... in macrophages. The disease progression is very slow with neonatal animals being the most susceptible to infection, but without development of detectable IFN-γ responses for months after infection and rarely with clinical disease before the second or third year of life. Available whole cell vaccines against...

  14. [Severe Yellow fever vaccine-associated disease: a case report and current overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slesak, Günther; Gabriel, Martin; Domingo, Cristina; Schäfer, Johannes

    2017-08-01

    History and physical examination  A 56-year-old man developed high fever with severe headaches, fatigue, impaired concentration skills, and an exanthema 5 days after a yellow fever (YF) vaccination. Laboratory tests  Liver enzymes and YF antibody titers were remarkably elevated. YF vaccine virus was detected in urine by PCR. Diagnosis and therapy  Initially, severe YF vaccine-associated visceral disease was suspected and treated symptomatically. Clinical Course  His fever ceased after 10 days in total, no organ failure developed. However, postencephalitic symptoms persisted with fatigue and impaired concentration, memory, and reading skills and partly incapability to work for over 3 months. A diagnosis was made of suspected YF vaccine-associated neurotropic disease. Conclusion  Severe vaccine-derived adverse effects need to be considered in the indication process for YF vaccination. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Determination of the optimal time of vaccination against infectious bursal disease virus (Gumboro) in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besseboua, Omar; Ayad, Abdelhanine; Benbarek, Hama

    2015-04-30

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of maternally derived antibody (MDA) on live vaccine against infectious bursal disease. A total of 140 chicks selected from vaccinated parent stock were used in this investigation. In a preset vaccination schedule, blood samples were collected to check for the actual effect. It was noticed that on day 1 the chicks contained a high level (6400.54 ± 2993.67) of maternally derived antibody that gradually decreased below a positive level within 21 days (365.86 ± 634.46). It was found that a high level of MDA interferes with the vaccine virus, resulting in no immune response. For better immune response, it is suggested that the chickens should be vaccinated at day 21, as the uniformity of MDA is poor (coefficient of the variation [CV] > 30%), and boosted at day 28. Indeed, two vaccinations are necessary to achieve good protection against infectious bursal disease virus of the entire flock.

  16. The Need for Evolutionarily Rational Disease Interventions: Vaccination Can Select for Higher Virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Boots

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available There is little doubt evolution has played a major role in preventing the control of infectious disease through antibiotic and insecticide resistance, but recent theory suggests disease interventions such as vaccination may lead to evolution of more harmful parasites. A new study published in PLOS Biology by Andrew Read and colleagues shows empirically that vaccination against Marek's disease has favored higher virulence; without intervention, the birds die too quickly for any transmission to occur, but vaccinated hosts can both stay alive longer and shed the virus. This is an elegant empirical demonstration of how evolutionary theory can predict potentially dangerous responses of infectious disease to human interventions.

  17. Physicians infrequently adhere to hepatitis vaccination guidelines for chronic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thudi, Kavitha; Yadav, Dhiraj; Sweeney, Kaitlyn; Behari, Jaideep

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis A (HAV) and hepatitis B (HBV) vaccination in patients with chronic liver disease is an accepted standard of care. We determined HAV and HBV vaccination rates in a tertiary care referral hepatology clinic and the impact of electronic health record (EHR)-based reminders on adherence to vaccination guidelines. We reviewed the records of 705 patients with chronic liver disease referred to our liver clinic in 2008 with at least two follow-up visits during the subsequent year. Demographics, referral source, etiology, and hepatitis serology were recorded. We determined whether eligible patients were offered vaccination and whether patients received vaccination. Barriers to vaccination were determined by a follow-up telephone interview. HAV and HBV serologic testing prior to referral and at the liver clinic were performed in 14.5% and 17.7%; and 76.7% and 74% patients, respectively. Hepatologists recommended vaccination for HAV in 63% and for HBV in 59.7% of eligible patients. Patient demographics or disease etiology did not influence recommendation rates. Significant variability was observed in vaccination recommendation amongst individual providers (30-98.6%), which did not correlate with the number of patients seen by each physician. Vaccination recommendation rates were not different for Medicare patients with hepatitis C infection for whom a vaccination reminder was automatically generated by the EHR. Most patients who failed to get vaccination after recommendation offered no specific reason for noncompliance; insurance was a barrier in a minority. Hepatitis vaccination rates were suboptimal even in an academic, sub-speciality setting, with wide-variability in provider adherence to vaccination guidelines.

  18. Comparison of immunity and resistance to diseases in male and female poultry breeders in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, E K; Hamadeh, S K; Hilan, C; Abbas, S S

    1995-05-01

    The immune responses following vaccination and resistance to diseases were compared in male and female meat poultry breeders of the same flock. Female poultry breeders maintained antibody titres to Newcastle disease virus and infectious bronchitis virus up to the fifty-fifth day following vaccination, whereas those of the males declined significantly over the same period of time (P Gumboro disease (60 to 62 days of age), coccidiosis (68 to 74 days of age) and aortic rupture (99 to 112 days of age) produced significantly higher losses in males. Following vaccination against fowl pox by the wing web method, 96.7% of females had a vaccine reaction (vaccine take) compared to none of the males. Immune injuries, following vaccination, were observed in 85% of the males compared to none of the females. The immune injuries included appearance of facial papules, vesicles, and reddish brown to black scabs.

  19. Diagnosis algorithm for leptospirosis in dogs: disease and vaccination effects on the serological results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre-Fontaine, G

    2013-05-11

    Leptospirosis is a common disease in dogs, despite their current vaccination. Vet surgeons may use a serological test to verify their clinical observations. The gold standard is the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). After infection, the dog produces agglutinating antibodies against the lipopolyosidic antigens shared by the infectious strain but also, after vaccination, against the lipopolyosidic antigens shared by the serovars used in the bacterins (Leptospira species serovars Icterohaemorrhagiae and Canicola in most countries). MATs were performed in a group of 102 healthy field dogs and a group of 6 Canicola-challenged dogs. A diagnosis algorithm was constructed based on age, previous vaccinations, kinetics of the agglutinating antibodies after infection or vaccination and the delay after onset of the disease. This algorithm was applied to 169 well-documented sera (clinical and vaccine data) from 272 sick dogs with suspected leptospirosis. Totally, 102 dogs were vaccinated according to the usual vaccination scheme and 30 were not vaccinated. Leptospirosis was confirmed by MAT in 37/102 (36.2 per cent) vaccinated dogs and remained probable in 14 others (13.7 per cent), thus indicating the permanent exposure of dogs and the weakness of the protection offered by the current vaccines to pathogenic Leptospira.

  20. Costs of diarrheal disease and the cost-effectiveness of a rotavirus vaccination program in kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flem, Elmira T; Latipov, Renat; Nurmatov, Zuridin S; Xue, Yiting; Kasymbekova, Kaliya T; Rheingans, Richard D

    2009-11-01

    We examined the cost-effectiveness of a rotavirus immunization program in Kyrgyzstan, a country eligible for vaccine funding from the GAVI Alliance. We estimated the burden of rotavirus disease and its economic consequences by using national and international data. A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted from government and societal perspectives, along with a range of 1-way sensitivity analyses. Rotavirus-related hospitalizations and outpatient visits cost US$580,864 annually, of which $421,658 (73%) is direct medical costs and $159,206 (27%) is nonmedical and indirect costs. With 95% coverage, vaccination could prevent 75% of rotavirus-related hospitalizations and deaths and 56% of outpatient visits and could avert $386,193 (66%) in total costs annually. The medical break-even price at which averted direct medical costs equal vaccination costs is $0.65/dose; the societal break-even price is $1.14/dose for a 2-dose regimen. At the current GAVI Alliance-subsidized vaccine price of $0.60/course, rotavirus vaccination is cost-saving for the government. Vaccination is cost-effective at a vaccine price $9.41/dose, according to the cost-effectiveness standard set by the 2002 World Health Report. Addition of rotavirus vaccines to childhood immunization in Kyrgyzstan could substantially reduce disease burden and associated costs. Vaccination would be cost-effective from the national perspective at a vaccine price $9.41 per dose.